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Title: Northern Nut Growers Association, Report Of The Proceedings At The Tenth Annual Meeting. - Battle Creek, Michigan, December 9 and 10, 1919
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Blenkinship, Jeannie Howse and the Online Distributed


+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|DISCLAIMER                                                              |
|                                                                        |
|The articles published in the Annual Reports of the Northern Nut Growers|
|Association are the findings and thoughts solely of the authors and are |
|not to be construed as an endorsement by the Northern Nut Growers       |
|Association, its board of directors, or its members. No endorsement is  |
|intended for products mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not|
|mentioned. The laws and recommendations for pesticide application may   |
|have changed since the articles were written. It is always the pesticide|
|applicator's responsibility, by law, to read and follow all current     |
|label directions for the specific pesticide being used. The discussion  |
|of specific nut tree cultivars and of specific techniques to grow nut   |
|trees that might have been successful in one area and at a particular   |
|time is not a guarantee that similar results will occur elsewhere.      |
|                                                                        |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+



  NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION

  REPORT

  OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE

  TENTH ANNUAL MEETING

  BATTLE CREEK, MICHIGAN

  DECEMBER 9 AND 10, 1919



  CONTENTS
                                                                  Page

  Officers and Committees of the Association                         4

  Members of the Association                                         5

  Constitution and By-Laws                                           9

  Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Convention                        11

  President's Address, Mr W. C. Reed, Indiana                       11

  Report of the Secretary-Treasurer                                 14

  Business Sessions                                            15, 133

  The Farms by the Side of the Road,
  Matthew Henry Hoover, New York                                    23

  Native Nut Tree Plantations in Michigan,
  Prof. A. K. Chittenden, Michigan                                  33

  Pecans Other Than Those of the Well Known Sections,
  J. F. Jones, Pennsylvania                                         44

  Hazel Nuts and Filberts,
  Conrad Vollertsen, New York                                       53

  Disease Resistance in the American Chestnut,
  Arthur H. Graves, Connecticut                                     60

  Notes on the Hickories,
  Dr. Robert T. Morris, New York                                    68

  The Nutritive Value of Nuts,
  F. A. Cajorie, Connecticut                                        80

  Nut Trees and Bushes in Landscape Work,
  O. C. Simonds, Illinois                                           88

  Nut Culture in Michigan,
  C. A. Reed, U. S. Department of Agriculture,                      98

  Nut Trees for Highways and Public Places,
  Hon. William S. Linton, Michigan                                 108

  Legislation Regarding the Planting of Nut and Other Food
    Producing Trees, Senator Harvey A. Penney, Michigan            112

  Michigan Law Regarding Roadside Planting of Nut Trees            116

  The Soy Bean, Dr. J. H. Kellogg, Michigan                        118

  Judging Nuts, Willard G. Bixby, New York                         122

  The 1919 Nut Contest, Willard G. Bixby, New York                 146



  OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION


  _President_                W. S. LINTON        Saginaw, Michigan

  _Vice-President_           JAMES S. MCGLENNON  Rochester, New York

  _Secretary and Treasurer_  WILLARD G. BIXBY    Baldwin, Nassau Co.,
                                                           New York

  _Acting Secretary_         W. C. DEMING        Wilton, Connecticut


  COMMITTEES

  _Auditing_--C. P. CLOSE, C. A. REED

  _Executive_--J. RUSSELL SMITH, W. C. REED AND THE OFFICERS

  _Federal Aid_--J. M. PATTERSON, R. T. MORRIS, J. H. KELLOGG, T. P.
    LITTLEPAGE, WILLARD G. BIXBY, J. F. JONES, J. S. MCGLENNON

  _Finance_--T. P. LITTLEPAGE, WILLARD G. BIXBY, W. C. DEMING

  _Hybrids_--R. T. MORRIS, C. P. CLOSE, W. C. DEMING, J. G. RUSH

  Membership--HARRY R. WEBER, R. T. OLCOTT, F. N. FAGAN. W. O.
    POTTER, W. C. DEMING, J. RUSSELL SMITH

  _Nomenclature_--C. A. REED, R. T. MORRIS, J. F. JONES

  _Press and Publication_--RALPH T. OLCOTT, J. RUSSELL SMITH, W. C.
    DEMING

  _Programme_--W. C. DEMING, J. RUSSELL SMITH, C. A. REED, R. T.
    MORRIS

  _Promising Seedlings_--C. A. REED, J. F. JONES


  STATE VICE-PRESIDENTS

  California     T. C. Tucker         311 California St., San Francisco

  Canada         G. H. Corsan         17 Rusholme Park Crescent, Toronto

  Connecticut    Henry Leroy Lewis    Stratford

  Georgia        J. B. Wight          Cairo

  Illinois       E. A. Riehl          Godfrey

  Indiana        M. P. Reed           Vincennes

  Maryland       C. P. Close          College Park

  Massachusetts  James H. Bowditch    903 Tremont Building, Boston

  Michigan       Dr. J. H. Kellogg    Battle Creek

  Missouri       P. C. Stark          Louisiana

  New Jersey     C. S. Ridgway        Lumberton

  New York       M. E. Wile           37 Calumet St., Rochester

  Ohio           Harry R. Weber       601 Gerke Building, Cincinnati

  Pennsylvania   J. G. Rush           West Willow

  Texas          R. S. Trumbull       M. S. R. R. Co., El Paso

  West Virginia  B. F. Hartzell       Shepherdstown



  MEMBERS OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION


  ARKANSAS

  * Drake, Prof. N. F., University of Arkansas, Fayetteville


  CALIFORNIA

  Cress, B. E., Tehachapi

  Tucker, T. C, Manager California Almond Growers Exchange, 311
    California St., San Francisco


  CANADA

  Corsan, G. H., 17 Rusholme Park Crescent, Toronto
  Sager, Dr. D. S., Brantford


  CONNECTICUT

  Barrows, Paul M., May Apple Farm, High Ridge, Stamford
  Bartlett, Francis A., Stamford
  Deming, Dr. W. C, Wilton
  Filley, W. O., State Forester, Drawer 1, New Haven
  Glover, James L., Shelton, R. F. D. 7
  Hungerford, Newman, Torrington, R. F. D. 2, Box 76
  Ives, Ernest M., Sterling Orchards, Meriden
  Lewis, Henry Leroy, Stratford
  McGlashan, Archibald, Kent
  * Morris, Dr. Robert T., Cos Cob, Route 28, Box 95
  Pomeroy, Eleazer, 120 Bloomfield Ave., Windsor
  Sessions, Albert L., 25 Bellevue Ave., Bristol
  Southworth, George E., Milford, Box 172
  Staunton, Gray, 98 Park St., New Haven
  White, Gerrard, North Granby


  DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

  Close, Prof. C. P., Pomologist, Department of Agriculture, Washington
  Foster, B. G., 902 G Street, N. W. Washington
  * Littlepage, T. P., Union Trust Building, Washington
  Reed, C. A., Nut Culturist, Department of Agriculture, Washington
  Taylor, Dr. Lewis H., The Cecil, Washington
  ** Van Fleet, Walter, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington


  ENGLAND

  Spence, Howard, Eskdale, Knutsford, Cheshire


  GEORGIA

  Bullard, William P., Albany
  Van Duzee, C. A., Judson Orchard Farm, Cairo
  Wight, J. B., Cairo


  ILLINOIS

  Casper, O. H., Anna
  Librarian, University of Illinois, Urbana
  Poll, Carl J., 1009 Maple St., Danville
  Potter, Hon. W. O., Marion
  Riehl, E. A., Godfrey, Route 2
  Uran, B. F., Mattoon

  INDIANA

  Crain, Donald J., 1313 North St., Logansport
  Reed, M. P., Vincennes
  Reed, W. C., Vincennes
  Simpson, H. D., Vincennes
  Staderman, A. L., 120 S. Seventh St., Terre Haute
  Wilkinson, J. F., Rockport

  IOWA

  Snyder, D. C., Center Point (Linn Co. Nurseries)

  KANSAS

  Sharpe, James, Council Grove, (Morris Co. Nurseries)

  KENTUCKY

  Baker, Sam C., Beaver Dam, R. D. 2
  Livengood, Frank M., Berea

  MARYLAND

  Hoopes, Wilmer P., Forest Hill
  Keenan, Dr. John F., Brentwood
  Littlepage, Miss Louise, Bowie

  MASSACHUSETTS

  * Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont Building, Boston
  Cleaver, C. Leroy, 496 Commonwealth Ave., Boston

  MICHIGAN

  House, George W., Ford Building, Detroit
  Kellogg, Dr. J. H., 202 Manchester St., Battle Creek
  Linton, W. S., President Board of Trade Saginaw
  McKale, H. B., Lansing, Route 6
  Schram, Mrs. O. E., Galesburg, Box 662

  MISSOURI

  Mosnat, H. R., 3883 East 62 St., Kansas City
  Stark, P. C., Louisiana
  Ward, Miss Daisy, 2019 Allen Ave., St. Louis

  NEBRASKA

  Caha, Wm., Wahoo

  NEVADA

  Swingle, C. G., Hazen

  NEW JERSEY

  * Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly St., Jersey City Heights
  Landmann, Miss M. V., Cranbury, R. D. 2
  Marston, Edwin S., Florham Park, Box 72
  Price, John R., 36 Ridgedale Ave., Madison
  Ridgeway, C. S., Floralia, Lumberton

  NEW YORK

  Abbott, Frederick B., 419 Ninth Street, Brooklyn
  Ashworth, Fred L., Heuvelton
  Atwater, C. G., The Barrett Co., 17 Battery Place, New York City
  Bixby, Willard G., 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin, Nassau Co.
  Brown, Ronald J., 320 Broadway, New York City
  Buist, Dr. George J., 2 Hancock St., Brooklyn
  Crane, Alfred J., Monroe, Box 342
  Ellwanger, Mrs. W. D., 510 East Ave., Rochester
  Goeltz, Mrs. M. H., 2524 Creston Ave., New York City
  Harper, G. W., Jr., 115 Broadway, New York City
  Hicks, Henry, Westbury, Long Island
  Hodgson, Casper W., World Book Co., Yonkers
  * Huntington, A. M., 15 West 81st St., New York City
  McGlennon, James S., 528 Cutler Building, Rochester
  Olcott, Ralph T., Editor American Nut Journal, Ellwanger and
    Barry Building, Rochester
  Pomeroy, A. C., Lockport
  Stephen, John W., New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse
  Tallinger, J. F., Barnard
  Teele, A. W., 120 Broadway, New York City
  Ulman, Dr. Ira, 213 W. 147th St., New York City
  Vollertsen, Conrad, 375 Gregory St., Rochester
  Wile, M. E., 955 Harvard St., Rochester
  Williams, Dr. Charles Mallory, 48 E. 49th St., New York City
  * Wissman, Mrs. F. deR., Westchester, New York City

  NORTH CAROLINA

  Barrett, Dr. Harvey P., 211 Vail Ave., Charlotte
  Hutchings, Miss Lida G., Pine Bluff
  North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh
  Van Lindley, J., J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona

  OHIO

  Burton, J. Howard, Casstown
  Dayton, J. H., Storrs & Harrison Co., Painesville
  Ketchum, C. S., Middlefield
  Truman, G. G., Perrysville, Box 167
  Weber, Harry R., 123 East 6th St., Cincinnati
  Yunck, E. G., 706 Central Ave., Sandusky

  OREGON

  Pearcy, Knight, Salem, R. F. D. 3, Box 187

  PENNSYLVANIA

  Druckemiller, W. H., Sunbury
  Fagan, Prof. F. N., Department of Horticulture, State College
  Heffner, H., Highland Chestnut Grove, Leeper
  Hile, Anthony, Curwensville National Bank, Curwensville
  Jenkins, Charles Francis, Farm Journal, Philadelphia
  * Jones, J. F., Lancaster, Box 527
  Kaufman, M. M., Clarion
  Leas, F. C., Merion Station
  Murphy, P. J., Vice President L. & W. R. R. Co., Scranton
  O'Neill, William C., 328 Walnut St., Philadelphia
  Patterson, J. E., 77 N. Franklin St., Wilkes-Barre
  * Rick, John, 438 Pennsylvania Square, Reading
  Rife, Jacob A., Camp Hill
  Rush, J. G., West Willow
  Smedley, Samuel L., Newtown Square, R. F. D. 1
  * Sober, Col. C. K., Lewisburg
  Weaver, William S., McCungie
  Wilhelm, Dr. Edward A., Clarion
  * Wister, John C., Wister St. & Clarkson Ave., Germantown

  SOUTH CAROLINA

  Shanklin, Prof. A. G., Clemson College

  TEXAS

  Burkett, J. H., Nut Specialist, State Department of Agriculture, Clyde.
  Trumbull, R. S., Agricultural Agent, El Paso & S. W., System Morenci
    Southern R. R. Co., El Paso

  VIRGINIA

  Parish, John S., University
  Smith, Dr. J. Russell, Roundhill

  WEST VIRGINIA

  Brooks, Fred E., French Creek
  Cannaday, Dr. John Egerton, Charleston, Box 693
  Hartzell, B. F., Shepherdstown
  Jenkins, Miss, The Green Bottom Homestead, Glenwood P. O.

  * Life member.

  ** Honorary member.



CONSTITUTION


ARTICLE I

_Name._ This society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS'
ASSOCIATION.


ARTICLE II

_Object._ Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing
plants, their products and their culture.


ARTICLE III

_Membership._ Membership in the society shall be open to all persons who
desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence
or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on
membership.


ARTICLE IV

_Officers._ There shall be a president, a vice-president and a
secretary-treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual
meeting; and an executive committee of five persons, of which the
president, two last retiring presidents, vice-president and
secretary-treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state
vice-president from each state, dependency, or country represented in
the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the
president.

ARTICLE V

_Election of Officers._ A committee of five members shall be elected at
the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the
following year.

ARTICLE VI

_Meetings._--The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected
by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made
at this time, the executive committee shall choose the place and time
for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may
seem desirable may be called by the president and executive committee.


ARTICLE VII

_Quorum._ Ten members of the association shall constitute a quorum, but
must include a majority of the executive committee or two of the three
elected officers.


ARTICLE VIII

_Amendments._ This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of
the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment
having been read at the previous annual meeting, or a copy of the
proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member
thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



BY-LAWS


ARTICLE I

_Committees._ The association shall appoint standing committees as
follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and
publication, on nomenclature, on promising seedlings, on hybrids, and an
auditing committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations
to the association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.


ARTICLE II

_Fees._ The fees shall be of two kinds, annual and life. The former
shall be two dollars, the latter twenty dollars.


ARTICLE III

_Membership._ All annual memberships shall begin with the first day of
the calendar quarter following the date of joining the association.

ARTICLE IV

_Amendments._ By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members
present at any annual meeting.



  Northern Nut Growers Association

  TENTH ANNUAL MEETING
  DECEMBER 9 AND 10, 1919
  BATTLE CREEK, MICHIGAN


The tenth annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers' Association was
called to order at 11:00 A. M., Tuesday, December 9, 1919, in the Annex
Parlor of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Michigan, with the
President, W. C. Reed, presiding.

The meeting was opened with a short business session beginning with the
President's report as follows:



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS

W. C. REED, VINCENNES, IND.


FELLOW MEMBERS, NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION, LADIES AND
GENTLEMEN:

Our Association meets today under the most favorable surroundings. We
have this splendid building in which to hold our meetings, furnished
gratuitously also have with us in this wonderful Institution several
thousand guests, men and women of ability and prominence in their
respective communities, from all parts of the United States.

Dr. Kellogg has been very kind and generous in extending an invitation
several times to this association, and your speaker has thought there
was no place quite so well suited for a winter meeting. It gives me
great pleasure to be able to be with you and preside over a meeting as
the guests of Dr. Kellogg. There is probably no man in America who has
done so much to further the use of nuts, to show their benefits, and to
explain their uses, as a food for mankind.

Conditions have changed greatly since our last meeting, September 1917,
at Stamford, Connecticut. At that time the greater part of the world was
at war, and owing to conditions prevailing during 1918, it was
impossible for this association to hold its annual meeting. Your speaker
is still holding the office of President because you have had no meeting
at which new officers could be elected. It is to be regretted that the
past three years have been crowded so full of events, that it was
impossible to give the association matters the attention they deserved,
and devote the time to them I would have liked to have done.

With the armistice came a cessation of war, and we are all happy that
the terrible struggle is over, but with it have come conditions that
are almost as terrible as war. Famine and want stare millions of people
in the face on the continent of Europe. Our own country is at present in
the grip of strikes for higher wages, the like of which has never been
known. Yet we are prosperous beyond the greatest dreams of any nation on
earth, but with this prosperity comes many duties. Our yields of food
crops have been great, but to us has fallen the lot of feeding the
world, and this will continue until industrial and agricultural
conditions of Europe, have been reestablished on a pre-war condition.

There never was a time when meats of all kinds were so expensive, and to
many almost prohibitive. Many have learned the use of nut meats in
varied ways until all kinds of edible nuts are quoted on the markets
today at prices undreamed of in former years. These conditions will not
always last; crop failures will come; and production will be curtailed.
Land values are advancing so rapidly that the production of cheap meats
will be impossible. To help supply this deficiency, there will be an
increased demand for nuts of all kinds.

To help meet this demand, much can be done by road side planting. On our
main market highways, such trees as the grafted black walnuts could be
planted profitably, in many sections of the country; the English walnut
in some parts where they succeed the best; and the pecan and chestnut in
other parts of the country where they are specially adapted.

While commercial planting of nut trees may not be attractive to the
average man, home planting of a few nut trees can be recommended for
every where space is available. They will make beautiful shade trees,
and produce crops that will eventually be of great value. To land owners
who are planting private parks, avenues and pastures, we would recommend
nut trees.

The production of nut trees is very difficult, and the development and
testing of new varieties, a slow and expensive process. We need the
Government's helping hand, and are very glad that there has been set
aside by Congress an appropriation to help develop this industry. We
have with us, the Nut Culturist from the Department of Agriculture, who
is devoting his entire time along these lines.

On the programme that is to be presented here, today and tomorrow, are
men of national reputation in their respective lines, who stand at the
head of their profession. To our friends and visitors here, we extend an
urgent invitation, that you attend all the meetings possible, and we
trust that you may learn much that will be of interest, and that this
information may be taken home to your different communities.

Our sincere thanks should be extended to the Programme Committee and our
very efficient Secretary who have given so much time to this work.

For an association to stand still, is usually to go backward. Owing to
war conditions, and missing one meeting, we have had little chance to
increase our membership. I sincerely trust that the Membership Committee
will be active while here, and extend an invitation to all to become
members, and to help advance an industry that will be for the good of
posterity, and should give us much pleasure during our own lifetime.

We are told, the good we do unto others lives after us. May the Nut
Trees planted and fostered by the members of this association, live long
to wave their leafy branches under Heaven's purple dome, and may weary
pilgrims of future generations rest beneath their shade, and enjoy their
fruits, thanking us with a silent prayer that these trees were planted
for their benefit.

PRESIDENT REED: I believe the next thing in order will be the
reading of the secretary's and treasurer's reports. Does any one have
anything to present while we are waiting for the secretary, who is busy?

DR. MORRIS: How many members have we, Mr. President?

PRESIDENT REED: I don't know. Several have written me asking
about members, and Mr. Olcott probably knows something about it.

MR. OLCOTT: I don't know how many there are now; but I think
there were 150 or 200 at the time of the Stamford meeting. I think there
were that many enrolled. I presume that two-thirds of those
renewed--probably something over 100 members.

PRESIDENT REED: There were 138 paid members.

DR. MORRIS: Dr. Kellogg says there may be a thousand men in the
audience this evening, and if there are we ought to do some propaganda
work.

PRESIDENT REED: I don't remember who the membership committee
was. Mr. Weber was chairman, I believe, and he is not here. Olcott is
next on the committee.

MR. OLCOTT: I didn't know I was on that committee.

PRESIDENT REED: Fagan was on that committee, Potter, Deming,
Williams, J. Russell Smith. I guess you are the only member of the
committee who is here. We are ready for the report of the secretary and
treasurer, Mr. Bixby.


       *       *       *       *       *


                        REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER
                  SEPT. 1, 1917-NOV. 30, 1919

Key:
A: Sep. 1. '17 to Dec. 31, '17
B: Jan. 1, '18 to May 20, '18
C: May 21, '18 to Dec. 31, '18
D: Jan. 1, '19 to Nov. 30, '19

                                     RECEIPTS

                               A       B       C       D     Total  Balance

Balance on hand date of
  last report, August 31,
  1917.                                                    $ 15.93
Received from annual
  members including joint
  subscriptions to
  American Nut Journal      $69.50 $123.54 $ 73.75 $247.35 $514.14
Received in payment of
  life membership            20.00                   25.00   45.00
Sale of reports, brochures
  and leaflets                2.25    4.00    9.95    4.85   21.05
Advertising in report of
  Stamford meetings 8th,
  1917                       21.00                           21.00
Sales of sundry material.             1.58                    1.58
Contributions for 1917
  Contest                    25.00  125.00  150.00
Contribution for special
  hickory prizes                                     25.00   25.00
                           ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------
                           $112.75 $145.12 $108.70 $427.20 $793.77 $793.77
                                                                   -------
                                                                   $809.70

                                      EXPENDITURES

American Nut Journal,
  their portion of joint
  subscriptions             $ 6.75         $ 14.00 $ 59.00 $ 79.75
Stationary, printing and
  Supplies                     .69           44.05   49.50   94.24
Postage, Express, etc.        4.82   13.95    9.66    9.24   37.67
Prizes 1917 Nut Contest                      15.00           15.00
Prize 1918 Nut Contest                              107.00  107.00
Advertising 1917 Nut
  Contest $10.21; expenses
  1917 contest $2.90                 13.11                   13.11
Advertising 1918 Nut
  Contest                                            51.50   51.50
Stamford Meeting 1917
  expenses                   65.55                           65.55
Printing Report of
  Stamford Meeting                          162.00          162.00
Errors in remittance
  corrected                   3.85            3.50    7.35
Litchfield Savings Bank.
  Life membership of John
  Rick Balance on hand
  Dec. 1, 1919.               20.00                           20.00
                             ------  ------ ------- ------- ------- -------
                             $97.81  $30.91 $244.71 $279.74 $653.17
                                                                    $653.17

Balance on hand Dec. 1, 1919.
  Special hickory prize                                               25.00
  Life membership Lee W.
    Jaques                                                            25.00
  For regular expenses.                                              106.53

                                                                    -------
                                                                    $809.70

I have carefully been over the above statement and found it to be correct.
C. A. REED, for Auditing Committee.

     The above are records of receipts and expenditures for two years
     and three months and are approximately double those noted in the
     report of of the Stamford meeting. The activities of the
     Association were necessarily at a low ebb in war time, and,
     although a joint meeting with the National Association was planned
     for the fall of 1918, it was never held.

     The list of members printed in this report numbers 128 while that
     in the last one shows 166, apparently a very large decrease. The
     last report showed 138 paid up members. Following the methods of
     Secretary Deming, members who have not responded to notices and
     letters have been dropped. In no case has a member been dropped
     until a letter with return postage has been sent. In a number of
     instances members thus written to have resigned giving various
     reasons, the most common of which are change of occupation or
     residence, which prevented their doing anything in the line of nut
     growing or lack of success in their attempts to grow nuts. Two
     members have died since the last meeting, Mr. Wendell P. Williams
     and Mr. Mahlon Hutchinson; the former was in the U. S. Service at
     the time of his death. 57 new members have been added to our rolls
     since 1917 making a total of 410 joining since organization of whom
     we now have 128, 282 having dropped out. Of the 52 who have joined
     since last meeting, 21 joined before Oct. 1, 1919 the date of the
     proposed meeting in Albany, Ga., which was never held, and 31 since
     that date.

     The holding of members is a difficult problem and one that has not
     been worked out at all satisfactorily. Most members join in the
     hope of thereby learning how to successfully grow nut trees. They
     find out that so much is still experimental that most do not
     remain. This is bound to continue till we can show grafted or
     budded nut trees bearing satisfactory crops, and, until that time,
     there seems nothing to do but to keep on going after new members
     and by means of bulletins, reports, letters and otherwise making
     the membership more valuable than ever. There has been a greater
     interest in nut growing during the past fall than at any time since
     your Secretary-Treasurer has held office.

     Respectfully submitted,

  WILLARD G. BIXBY,
  Secretary-Treasurer.


       *       *       *       *       *


PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the report. What is your
pleasure? I believe that is usually referred to an auditing committee.
C. A. Reed was chairman of that committee.

MR. BIXBY: Mr. Reed spoke to me about this yesterday. He said
he would be glad to audit it, but there has not been time to give it to
him. It was ready for him this morning, but he was busy on other things.

PRESIDENT REED: What is the next thing on the program, Mr.
Secretary?

MR. BIXBY: The reports of committees. I do not know how much
report the standing committees have.

PRESIDENT REED: There is the executive committee, the finance
committee, the hybrids committee--maybe Dr. Morris has something on
that.

DR. MORRIS: No, I have no report to make on that. I shall talk
on the subject this afternoon or in the course of my paper incidentally.
I didn't see any occasion for action in that direction since the last
meeting, so I have not acted except incidentally in the course of my
work.

PRESIDENT REED: The committee on nomenclature--of course they
wouldn't have any report until after this meeting.

MR. BIXBY: Who is on that committee?--C. A. Reed, Dr. Morris,
and J. F. Jones. Two members of the committee are here. There is one
matter which perhaps I better bring up to the committee first,--one
matter I think they should take some action on.

PRESIDENT REED: I think it would be best to have that come up
at a later time.

DR. MORRIS: I would like to bring in something incidentally in
relation to nomenclature in my paper. Perhaps we could have the question
discussed after I have brought up that point.

PRESIDENT REED: There is a committee on promising seedlings C.
A. Reed, and J. F. Jones. I think that covers all the standing
committees. Wasn't there a committee on nominations for officers to be
elected, this morning?

MR. BIXBY: That nominating committee has to be elected.

PRESIDENT REED: How many members?

MR. BIXBY: There were four or five last time, I think.

PRESIDENT REED: (Reading by-laws calling for five members).

MR. BIXBY: I move Mr. Olcott be on the committee.

VOICE: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: It has been moved and seconded that Mr. Olcott
be elected as a member of the nominating committee. All in favor say,
Aye. It is so ordered. Who else shall we have, for a second member?

MR. LINTON: I move Mr. Bixby be a member of the committee.

MR. BIXBY: There is a precedent that the secretary has never
been a member of the nominating committee. He has sometimes given them
information. I move Dr. Morris, Mr. Jones, and Mr. Linton be members of
the nominating committee, and Mr. McGlennon.

MR. MCGLENNON: I second the motion.

MR. OLCOTT: The committee as you suggested it is Dr. Morris,
Mr. J. F. Jones, Mr. Linton, Mr. McGlennon and myself?

PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the motion. All in favor say
Aye. The committee stands elected as named. They report at tomorrow
morning's meeting. I think there is one matter it would be well to bring
up, and that is the membership committee.

MR. OLCOTT: I was going to suggest that is an important matter,
and I think that committee should be filled out with those who are
present, inasmuch as the regular members are not here. It looks as
though a comparatively small membership would have to double up on
membership committee.

PRESIDENT REED: Have you any suggestions as to whom you want on
that committee?

MR. BIXBY: Those committees, with the exception of the
nominating committee, are appointed by the president. I think myself
that the new president appoints them.

PRESIDENT REED: My idea was to appoint for this meeting and
help Mr. Olcott out.

MR. OLCOTT: I suggest Mr. McGlennon and Mr. Jones as two of the
members.

PRESIDENT REED: Let it stand as it is with the three and give
the chairman power to appoint two more later.

MR. MCGLENNON: Can the secretary tell us how many members there
are?

MR. BIXBY: One hundred sixty-four notices of this meeting were
sent out. There are 128 paid up members.

MR. OLCOTT: On the matter of membership, I wonder if the
association could suggest some inducement for membership, or summarize
the inducements. As you know, the American Association of Nurserymen has
been desirous of more members, and they found it very advisable to
outline definitely the benefits of membership in that association. I am
wondering if that has been done recently and could not be emphasized in
some way to the advantage of larger membership. You have got to do
something more than say that there is in existence an association
devoted to these purposes and everybody is invited to come in. Maybe the
secretary has something on that line.

MR. BIXBY: I have no suggestion. It is very evident that there
is a greatly increased interest in nut growing over what there was when
I first took up the office. That is very clearly brought out by the
amount of mail received. You may know that Capt. Deming, when in the
service, took the position of editing the nut department of the American
Fruit Grower. I saw him recently and it looks to me as if, as editor of
that department, he is answering about as many correspondents on nuts
and trying to boost the association in that way as he did when he was
secretary before. And that would appear to be in addition to the
communications that are coming to me now.

MR. OLCOTT: There is interest. We get at the Journal office a
great quantity of inquiries but only a small per cent of them result in
memberships and subscriptions, and while this interest is so strong,
ought not this association to study that which is something of a
problem--perhaps something that ought to be taken up in view of the
interests and the benefits of the association shown.

PRESIDENT REED: I think that is a good suggestion. I think they
need something along that line. Is there anything else we want to bring
up at this morning session?

MR. MCGLENNON: Is this not a very good field to open up
operations along that line, right here at Battle Creek? A large number
of people who come here are people who eat nuts, and I believe that
condition would resolve itself into a material advance of membership. I
think we ought to get busy right here and see if we can not enlist the
membership of a great number of the patrons of this institution.

MR. OLCOTT: That was the principal object of the membership
committee I suppose. My idea was to get the ideas of the individual
members, put them together and present a broadside of benefits in this
organization rather than have one man attempt to outline them.

DR. MORRIS: There is an immense amount of interest. The
question is how to get it together and formulate it in such a way that
men will join. There is an enormous, large loose majority, and we must
have a small compact minority to swing it as the Senators do down at
Washington, you know. Prof. Murrill of the New York Botanical Garden
told me that wherever he went (he is interested in mushrooms, that is
his special subject) he had had no idea in the world there was so much
interest of the public in mushrooms; yet when it comes to getting
together members to form the base of an association to study the
subject, he finds very few members. It is simply because men haven't got
the habit, and we have got in some way to give direction to that in such
a way that it will be focused and concentrated on some one objective
point. How to do it, I don't know.

MR. BIXBY: Dr. Kellogg suggested that at the meeting this
evening there will be the largest number of people, not members, that
there has been at any meeting; and he said he had had requests from
people that they wanted to hear Dr. Morris, and they wanted to hear
Prof. Cajori who used to be here, and he asked me to change those from
this afternoon to this evening in order to accomplish that, and I said
we would switch the program. That was for that very purpose.

MR. OLCOTT: Mr. President, it just occurred to me that in view
of the number of inquiries we get, and I am sure the secretary gets, and
I am also sure Dr. Deming gets from his articles, there is no doubt of
the interest, yet the joining of this Northern Association, and the
attendance of its single annual meeting, does not appeal to many. They
do not find it convenient to attend the convention; they do not see any
great amount of benefit in the membership. It occurs to me that if we
had a list of state vice-presidents and each of those could provide for
some local gathering of people interested in nut culture in the various
communities; rather, I would say that if our members, as fast as we can
increase our membership, wherever they are located, would form a nucleus
of a little circle in their neighborhood, and have them affiliated with
the Northern Association; it would accomplish this result. And afterward
it occurred to me that perhaps that could be done through state
vice-presidents. But what is really needed is to get them together in
meetings. They won't come yet. They will when you get a larger
membership, but they won't come to the annual meeting of this
association where I think they would go to a community affair and talk
over matters and refer difficult problems to the Northern Association of
which they were affiliated members. In some way, a wheel within a wheel
could work at it that way, and we could increase membership in that way.

DR. MORRIS: It is a rule in psychology that you have got to
have personal interest first. If Mr. Olcott's idea of having a local
vice-president offer prizes, no matter how small, for nuts in the
vicinity, and would also state that any one finding some remarkable nut
would have that nut named after him to go down to all time, you would
have two points there in self-interest. First, a five dollar prize to
the best nut; next the name going rattling down through time in
association with it. There are two points of personal interest. We may
as well take it back to the basic principles and begin with the
psychology of the situation.

MR. KETCHUM: Mr. President, in regard to these vice-presidents,
that point looks to me very good for this reason. I saw it work out in
the Minnesota State Horticultural Society. They had a vice-president in
each congressional district. I was vice-president in the third district
one year myself From them reports were sent from their district by
people who were interested. They were asked to fill out blanks about
conditions as they found them in their neighborhood and we got great
good from it. Then this vice-president was to make a general district
report from the reports sent him, and hand it in at the annual meeting.
It was quite a success.

DR. MORRIS: There you have civic pride brought into your psychology.

MR. KETCHUM: That was in the third district which included the
northeast part of the state. It was quite a large district
geographically, and I sent out something like seventy of these blank
reports, and while the interest was very slight, I think I got 23 field
reports in return, and out of those 23 were some nine or ten that were
of some considerable importance; but it was a great big help to me in
making out my report together with what I knew in my own location. The
percentage of reports that came back showed that there was great
interest taken by those persons.

DR. MORRIS: You can arouse local pride in any locality.

PRESIDENT REED: I have tried that in our own state in the last
two or three years, at county fairs and local district horticultural
meetings. Several times I have offered prizes out of my own pocket
individually; then I have gotten other parties to help in some cases,
and some exhibits even at county farmers' institutes, even very
creditable exhibits and they seemed to attract as much interest even as
the school exhibits. I know of one case at Martinsville two years ago
this winter where the nut exhibit was almost as large as the fruit
exhibit, and I think it attracted more attention; and I think there was
only something like ten dollars spent in order to get it out. I think
that work along that line, missionary work of that kind, is going to do
us more good than almost any other endeavor.

MR. OLCOTT: I do not think that the industry is old enough or
strong enough yet, perhaps, to operate that state vice-president plan as
it would be perhaps later on, for this reason, that if you have a state
vice-president, you narrow the activity in that state to that immediate
locality. But it would probably be much better, instead of that, to
endeavor to get each member to form the nucleus of a local circle, and
so have ten or a dozen in a state, instead of one.

PRESIDENT REED: I think that suggestion is better.

MR. OLCOTT: That was my original idea, and the state
vice-president idea came in afterwards.

MR. MCGLENNON: How many states are included in the northern association
territory?

MR. BIXBY: There is no limit.

DR. MORRIS: Northern is a relative term.

PRESIDENT REED: I don't think there is any clearly defined line
where the Northern Association is.

MR. OLCOTT: For the reason that men live in the North are
interested in lands in the South, and _vice versa_.

PRESIDENT REED: There are twenty-three vice-presidents on the
list here, in the last published report. Is there anything else that
should come up at the morning session? Mr. Secretary, do you know of
anything else?

MR. BIXBY: I would really like to see something definite on
this line of increasing the membership. I can think of several things
that will help; but to get something that is going to have action right
away is not so clear. Recently I have had a good many people come down
to my place to look at the small orchard I have there. I aim to have
varieties of every nut tree that is being propagated, and I think if I
keep at it a few years longer I will pretty nearly have them; and in
most cases, when people have come down that way, they have become
members afterwards. Two or three of them have. I am only twenty miles
from New York City, and it is not difficult, if I find someone
interested, to invite them down to look over the trees growing there,
and usually when they come they join afterwards.

MR. OLCOTT: Pardon me for speaking again, but I am on the
membership committee and I am anxious to draw out anything that may be
of use. Why could not some plan be devised by the secretary or by this
committee and sent out tentatively in the way of suggestion and perhaps
some other suggestions will be made to add to it. Perhaps also in
addition to this local community plan that I suggested, there might be
formed, all of it within the Northern Association, a subsidiary
thereto--the walnut society--people particularly interested in the
walnut, but do not care for the hickory, pecan or any other nut. You
will find people particularly interested in the black walnut, some in
the Persian walnut, some in the filbert--form a filbert society as the
American Nut Journal has suggested, and let all the enthusiasts of the
filbert get together, and if they are scattered, let them keep together
by correspondence and increased activity in that way. The same for the
butternut. Get at it from that way.

MR. KETCHUM: Another thing to further our society here today,
we can make those small organizations auxiliary thereto.

DR. MORRIS: Any one who is interested in one nut becomes
interested in all eventually.

MR. BIXBY: I received more inquiries regarding the Persian
walnut and the pecan than any other nuts--probably more regarding the
Persian walnut. Nearly everybody who writes wants to grow Persian
walnuts; and in the great majority of instances, I have to try to switch
them onto black walnuts with the suggestion that they plant a few
Persian walnuts because we have no experimental data of the Persian
walnut succeeding in their section. In some instances they will turn to
the black walnuts; in other instances I hear nothing further from them.
The Persian walnut is the most popular with people who have not tried to
grow any nuts. Mr. Jones perhaps can tell us how his inquiries run.
Don't they run very largely for Persian walnuts?

MR. JONES: Yes, they do. I was thinking possibly you could make
a combination--take, for instance, the membership, the nut journal, and
some nut trees. The nurserymen could make considerable concession.

DR. MORRIS: That combination is right well.

MR. JONES: You could give a coupon good for so much on an order
for trees or something of that sort.

MR. BIXBY: That suggestion was made and I referred it to the
executive committee. I have not had any reply.

PRESIDENT REED: I didn't have time to answer the communication
and get it back to you before I came here; so I thought we would decide
on that here. If there is nothing further to come up this morning, a
motion to adjourn will be in order until the afternoon session.

MR. BIXBY: I might repeat that at the request of Dr. Kellogg,
in order to get the papers which he had been particularly requested to
have given so that people could hear them, Dr. Morris and Prof. Cajori
who were scheduled this afternoon, will come this evening, and Mr.
Hoover's and Mr. Graves' papers, which were scheduled for this evening,
will have to come this afternoon. Neither of the writers are present,
but the papers are here. Mr. Graves expected to be here but I had a
telegram yesterday that he could not get away. I have the paper, though
and the photographs.

MR. MCGLENNON: Has there been provision made for a paper on
filberts by Mr. Vollertsen? If not, I should like to have it.

MR. BIXBY: Certainly, there can be. It ought to come in this
afternoon. I wrote Mr. Vollertsen asking if he could deliver it.

MR. MCGLENNON: He has the paper prepared, and I want to hear
it. I have been closely associated with Mr. Vollertsen for some ten
years, and I know that his whole heart and soul are in the development
of the filbert; and I know what he has done and that he is a rare
character in the nut world today, that he possesses a fund of
information. I am sure you will find intensely interesting; and
furthermore I would suggest, and I believe I speak for him when I say I
hope you will feel free to ask him questions. As I said before, he has a
fund of information that I think we nut people ought to have, and the
general public as well. We have a very good exhibit of the nuts. Mr.
Vollertsen is the practical man in the enterprise we are interested in.
I look after the business end of it. We are equally interested in it and
feel that we have made some progress.

DR. MORRIS: Put Mr. McGlennon on too.

MR. MCGLENNON: I have said all I can say.

MR. VOLLERTSEN: You have said too much.

PRESIDENT REED: If there is nothing else, we will stand
adjourned until 2:30 p. m.


       *       *       *       *       *


  TUESDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER 9, 1919, 2:30 P. M.
  PRESIDENT W. C. REED, IN THE CHAIR

PRESIDENT REED: The first paper is by Mr. Hoover, Matthew Henry
Hoover, of Lockport, N. Y., president of the New York State Conservation
Association. Mr. Hoover is not here, and the Secretary will read his
paper.



THE FARMS BY THE SIDE OF THE ROAD

  BY MATTHEW HENRY HOOVER, LOCKPORT, N. Y.
  FORMERLY NEW YORK CONSERVATION COMMISSIONER
  PRESIDENT NEW YORK STATE CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION

Horace Greeley is best known for his contribution to the abolition of
human slavery in the United States. Yet his service to mankind is not
fully appraised by the average American, because many of the younger
generation are unaware of his aid to agriculture. His maxim about
farmers' failing to till the most valuable part of their farms
underneath, opening the eyes of agriculturists to the efficacy of
sub-soil plowing, was the preamble to freeing American husbandry from
the slavery of antiquated and unscientific methods.

Following the application of science to the cultivation of the soil,
came the students of Conservation. They were teaching the farmer the
relation of conservation of natural resources to agriculture, the
effects of forests on rainfall, moisture, erosion of soil, minimization
of floods that annually bury thousands of acres of arable lands in the
valleys, under rocky debris and so on.

Greeley discovered the Farm Below. The Conservationists are saving the
Farm Above.

Now, in these days of reclamation and reconstruction, it is high time to
pay more attention to the Farm by the Side of the Road.

The Northern Nut Growers' Association is to be congratulated upon the
fact that it is blazing the trail through the forest of popular
ignorance on this vitally important conservation question; leading
public thought in the right direction; and providing both the seed and
the stock for practical efforts in behalf of the Farm by the Side of the
Road. I am going to claim a bond of brotherhood with you in this great
work, basing my claim not upon my small activities in nut cultivation,
but rather upon the fact that I was one of the conservation pioneers in
New York State in the advocacy of planting profitable trees--nut trees
and fruit trees--along the public highways.

That eminent conservationist, Gifford Pinchot, addressing the National
Council of Farmers' Co-operative Associations in 1915, defined
"Conservation" as "the wise use of the earth for the benefit of the
people who live on it." That would be a perfect definition, if it did
not invite the query: Should it not be enjoined upon the people who live
upon the earth today, while enjoying its benefits, to keep faithful
stewardship of the interests of the inhabitants of tomorrow?

About the time Mr. Pinchot enunciated this famous definition, the New
York State Conservation Department summed up the purposes of practical
Conservation as: "The correction of past indiscretion, the perfection of
present utilization, and the formation of future accumulation with
respect to natural resources."

Conservation activities must repair errors of the past which have left
denuded forest lands and empty game covers and waters; they must afford
and direct the present use of the forests and the streams; they must
safeguard the future supply, if they would meet the requirements of a
conservation which shall raise the standards of life and lower the cost
of living. That is a conservation embracing both the aesthetic and the
economic, the only kind worth while. It is a conservation wherein the
arable areas and the so-called waste lands and waters have a very
intimate interrelation of interests. And, I submit, Gentlemen, that the
American people too long have failed to recognize and to account as in
the class of waste lands, "The Farms by the Side of the Road."

The reclamation of waste lands is a compromise between the activities of
the Conservationists, who claim that in the more thickly inhabited
portions of the United States the cultivated or semi-cultivated areas
are out of sane and safe proportion to the wild forest sections, and the
advocates of intensive and extensive agriculture. It is not the purpose
of this article to take sides in that controversy, but rather to invite
attention of both sides to a safe and practical field for their
endeavors, namely, the reclamation of the "wasted lands" along the
roadsides, the farms along the highways.

During the War Garden campaigns of the past two years, these heretofore
largely unused strips of tillable land, forming in the aggregate
thousands of along-the-road acres in every state, received considerable
attention from the thrifty plow and hoe. But in the main, the results
were not encouraging. The public will trespass, unintentionally or
otherwise, upon the land cropped along the highway. Then, if the farms
by the side of the road are to be conserved--used by present as well as
future generations--there remains but one practical recourse: productive
trees.

The American people love beautiful trees, possibly the expression of a
reaction from the sentiment of the pioneers who regarded trees as their
enemies, handicaps to agriculture to be removed as thoroughly and
expeditiously as possible. But with virgin soil producing enormous
crops, they naturally centered their interest on ornamental trees
without reference to their fruits. Hence the horse-chestnut, buck-eye,
maple, locust, oak, poplar, along the highways and byways of America,
instead of the native nut trees and the Persian or English walnut.

And, speaking of highways, this is the age of concrete. Taking the hint,
I am selecting one concrete example of which I have intimate and
personal knowledge, well aware that there are numerous others that I
might cite were my acquaintance with practical nut culture more
extensive than it is. The one that I know about of my own personal
knowledge is, a very good example of the plain common sense of
productive trees which combine the useful with the ornamental.


IT READS LIKE A FAIRY TALE

In 1876 two Niagara County farmers, Norman Pomeroy and Matthew O'Connor,
neighbors, decided to go to the Centennial. They packed one carpet-bag
in common for their baggage and boarded the train for Philadelphia.
Although well to do farmers, their economic instincts warned them to
beware the profiteering hotel keepers. So they sought a humble boarding
house in the suburbs of the city. Returning one evening from
sight-seeing at the exposition, the travelers were so weary that they
retired immediately after supper. During the night Pomeroy was awakened
by a tapping on the window. Assuring himself that the wallet under his
pillow was still there, he investigated the cause of the disturbance of
his slumbers. The noise had ceased and he decided that the overstrain of
the day had worked an hallucination. Pomeroy dropped off to sleep, but
presently was aroused by sounds which were unmistakably caused by a
gentle tapping on the window pane. Exasperated, the man arose, picked up
a boot, slipped to the window and raised it gently ready to give the
joker or would-be burglar a rousing whack on the head if within reach.
He stuck his head out of the window for a better view of the exterior
world, and his curiosity was rewarded with a stinging blow on the cheek.
The pain aroused all the Pomeroy French Huguenot fighting blood in his
veins. Viciously he swung the boot at the unseen foe, only to hear it
crash through tree branches. Laughing softly, in his enlightenment, he
reached out into the night, grasped a branch, broke it off and turned on
the gas and lit it. On the twig were two curious nuts.

Pomeroy was a lover of nature, as I learned by many an interesting talk
with him. He found time in his regular farming pursuits to study native
trees and shrubs, and had forbidden his hired men to cut down any of the
native nut trees on his 500 acre farm. But the nuts on the branch
retrieved from darkness were specimens new to him and he could hardly
wait for daylight to come to enable him to get acquainted with the tree
which had invited his attention so rudely. Next morning Pomeroy learned
that his new found arboreal friend was a Persian walnut. It was loaded
and the wind storm of the night had covered the ground with shucked and
unshucked nuts. By permission of the landlord, he gathered a peck of the
Persian walnuts, wrapped O'Connor's and his own belongings in a
newspaper and filled the carpet-bag with the nut treasures. Arriving
home, the tourists stopped first at O'Connor's house. There they had to
relate the experience of their great trip to an assemblage of the two
families. The recounting of the Centennial wonders took until midnight.
When Pomeroy picked up his carpet-bag to go home, it was empty! The
children had made a discrete retirement after having consumed the entire
peck of English walnuts, as the shells in the kitchen disclosed.
Luckily for the youngsters, they were safe in bed and asleep.

The next day, according to the elder Pomeroy, little Albert who had not
been at the O'Connor home the night before, heard the dolorous tale of
the wonderful tree in Philadelphia, the gift of nuts and their weird
disappearance. To confirm the sad story he picked up the carpet-bag,
turned it inside out. Within a torn lining, he triumphantly extracted
ten nuts. Child-like, he proceeded to sample them and had eaten three
when his father rescued the remainder. Seven Philadelphia walnuts were
planted in the yard, and, in due time there were seven slender,
silver-grayish seedling trees. These were carefully staked, guarded and
cultivated by Norman Pomeroy. Despite the caviling of the neighbors, who
declared that a Persian walnut tree would not thrive and bear so far
north, twelve years after planting the "lucky seven" reproduced their
kind--from a dozen to two dozen large, handsome Persian or English
walnuts. Today the seven Centennial trees are about two feet in diameter
and about 60 feet high. And as to the value of the crop, one tree alone
produced nuts which sold four years ago for $142.50.

Now as to the application of this romance in real life. I must return to
the more prosaic generalizations of conservation and its relation to the
products of cultivation with which this article began.

In 1913 Governor Martin H. Glynn invited me to outline for him a program
of "Practical and Progressive Conservation", applicable to the needs of
New York State. In the effort to meet the request, I drew a little from
my personal experience and observations as a sportsman, a farmer and a
newspaper man, and a great deal from what I had learned from others
among the organized sportsmen, agricultural societies, hydro-electric
engineers, forest products men, foresters, and nature lovers in general.
We then set forth the following as necessary to the realization of the
purposes of a Conservation which should meet all conditions imposed by
the past, the present and the future, as hereinbefore stated:


"PRACTICAL AND PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATION"

1. Protect the birds and save the crops.

2. Develop the unutilized water powers, now going to waste with
destructive effects in freshet periods to arable lands and thickly
populated communities, through public ownership and distribution;
thereby use "The People's White Coal," save coal and cussin' the
ash-sifter, giving the public cheaper light and power for the homes, the
farms, the factories, and public highways.

3. Amend the constitution to permit the use of dead and down timber in
the state forest preserves, worth at least $10,000,000 annually.

4. Provide free forest trees furnished by the state for all who will
plant them. (Note--The present N. Y. Conservation Commission in a
special report to be made to the Legislature of 1920 has at last adopted
that progressive policy).

5. Plant productive trees along the highways--nut and fruit trees.

6. Restock waters and covers more extensively and intelligently.

7. Stop pollution of private and public waters.

8. Harmonize the interrelated interests of farmers and sportsmen.

9. Establish game and bird refuges in every county in the state.

10. Sane and practical game laws, eliminating prosecutions on petty
technicalities, educate the public to co-operate in fish and game
protection, enact legislation to encourage rather than handicap the
propagation of fish and game by private enterprise.

It will be noted that plank 5 in our progressive conservation platform
is urging the planting of producing trees along the highways. By that we
meant not only the native nut trees, all of which are beautiful and
ornamental, but also fruit trees, according to the wishes of the
abutting owners.

In the State of New York, taking into account only improved roads coming
under the head of State or County Improved Highways, disregarding the
mileage of the rural roads several times as large, there are about 8,000
miles of "Good Roads". There are many stretches of the highways which
nature has generously adorned with trees. Some portions of the roads
have witnessed the spoliation of the contractor's indiscriminating ax,
but in the main the workmen were as careful as possible to retain
natural shade trees along the routes. A few miles comparatively, were
planted by state agencies. Farmers, especially in the Lake Ontario Fruit
Belt of New York State, have worked wonders in ornamentation and economy
by planting cherry, apple, plum and other beautiful and productive trees
on the strip of land, "The Farms by the Side of the Road."

At a very small additional expense, the State could have planted every
rod of improved highway with productive trees, putting that
forethoughtful specification into the contracts.

Get out your pencil for a moment. Suppose the state had English walnuts
on the 8,000 miles, placing the trees 40 feet apart. We should have
growing then over one million productive trees and some of them would be
old enough to be bearing today. Within ten years from now, their
product would be worth at a conservative estimate $25 per tree,
representing a sum sufficient to carry one-third of the State's entire
cost of government.

The war just won for the cause of World Democracy has opened the eyes of
the American people to many things they had not before apprehended or
realized. One is the value of productive land space. Another is the
importance of our forests, and especially the value of the native
nut-bearing trees. It was discovered, when Uncle Sam scurried around to
procure a supply of black walnut for gun stocks, that the German agents
had been ahead of him. Although thickly settled, Germany finds it
profitable to employ one-fourth of its entire area in growing forest
trees. Yet it seems the Kaiser's forests were short on this valuable
timber, so they picked up all the procurable black walnut in the United
States.

This set the New York State Conservation Commissioner thinking and last
year he advised farmers to propagate and cultivate the black walnut--a
little late for the emergency; but better late than never, especially in
this case.

On my little farm near Lockport, N. Y., there is a large black walnut
tree, perhaps 90 to 100 years old. It bears a nut of unusual size, of
excellent taste and good keeping qualities. This tree has produced as
high as ten bushels of shucked nuts in a season. Twenty-two years ago,
when the importance of growing native nut trees had impressed but few
people, I did have the good sense to plant several dozen nuts from the
"Niagara King Walnut." I must confess I gave the trees little attention,
and a farm hand zealously cut down all but one of the black walnuts,
mistaking them for sumac. The survivor last year bore about three
bushels of nuts. Most interesting of all is the result of observations
as to the product, and its bearing on the question of whether or not nut
trees will reproduce "true to variety." The walnuts from the young tree
differ in shape, being almost round, while the fruit of the parent tree
is almost chestnut in form. But the flavor, thickness of shell and the
keeping qualities seem identical.

Six years ago I started a small black walnut and butternut tree nursery
for home use and from it have set out about four hundred trees along the
ditches and fences on the farm. The early plantings have attained a
height of from 12 to 15 feet. If every farmer would do likewise, he
would make a considerable addition to the country's food supply, to say
nothing of the value of the timber for coming generations when the
frees approach maturity. It has afforded me pleasure to send nut trees
to friends in various counties of the state and we shall watch with
interest, the reports on their growth and development under the many
variations of soil and climate. The butternut in many parts of the
country is rapidly disappearing. To save this beautiful tree with its
delicately flavored nuts, it will undoubtedly be necessary to take it
into extensive cultivation.

Although apart from the subject perhaps, it may be interesting to refer
to the application of forestry to a woodlot containing native nut trees.
Like many farmers who regard every tree as just a tree, useful for
timber or fire wood, I found several years ago that indiscriminate
cutting on my woodlot was destroying walnuts, along with the commoner
species of the stand. My first step was to halt the cutting of all black
walnuts, hickories, butternuts, oaks and beeches on the seven-acre
woodlot. I took an inventory of these trees and found there were 160
shagbark hickories from 10 to 25 years old, five butternuts about 20
years old, and four black walnuts about 25 years old. These, of course,
were not "tolerant trees" like the evergreens, and most of them were
rapidly deteriorating from being overcrowded by more rapidly growing and
less desirable neighbors. All _of_ them had been retarded in growth by
the crowded condition of the stand. Inaugurating a process of judicious
thinning with a view to giving the nut trees the advantage, the result
in a single season was surprising. Under the beneficent influence of
ample sun, air and root sustenance, the butternuts and black walnuts
bore fine crops for the first time, in the season following the winter
thinning process. The young hickories contented themselves with making
their first annual growth in years. And, Oh joy of realized hopes, in
this the third season since letting the sun into the native nut grove,
nearly all of the older shagbark hickories bore their first crops! And
now I have a nut plantation, that might have been ere this, burned up as
fire-wood, at no expense whatever, since the thinning out process
produced a very welcome supply of fire wood in these days of high-priced
coal.

In a recent bulletin of the United States Department of Agriculture,
"Value to Farm Families of Food, Fuel and use of House," there are some
illuminating statistics on "The Farmer's Income" and "The Farmer's
Living." It is stated that "the total average of the three items of
food, fuel and use of the house for the 950 families (selected from all
parts of the United States) is $642, and 66% of $424 of this is
furnished by the farm." The Seven Pomeroy Centennial. Trees in one year
produced a food product worth and actually sold for about $800 in one
year! The average annual production of those seven trees has been over
$600 for the last ten years. And what about the labor involved in
raising and harvesting the English walnut crop in question? Picking the
nuts from the ground, children gladly doing it and earning five cents
per basket.

Horace Greeley's undiscovered farm under the first twelve inches was a
gold mine when turned up finally; Mr. Pinchot's farm on top rescued from
flood and other devastations is worth more money than before. But how
about the strip of land along the roadside, an aggregate waste of at
least one per cent of the acreages of eastern farms? Well worth
reclaiming, and no expensive ditching, irrigation and lumbering involved
in the process either. In addition, credit must be given also to this
enterprise for the value of ornamentation of the highways and their
protection from the elements all seasons of the year.

And strange to relate, in the long list of items under the head of
"Classes of Food," given in the Federal Bulletin referred to, no mention
is made of nut foods, either native or imported nut trees. Fruits,
vegetables, meats, store groceries, everything is there but nuts.

"Nutty," do we hear someone suggest? Probably not in this audience of
enlightened nut growers, but speaking to the general public we shall
say, "Well, mebbe," like Uncle Lige of Niagara. Two bad years on the
farm, four acres of tomatoes that didn't pay for the plants, nothing but
soft corn and no potatoes compelled Uncle and Aunt Tompkins to open an
account at the corner grocery. The first month the bill came in, Aunt
Sally was all in a flutter when she audited the items: Sugar, 60;
coffee, 40; oatmeal, 50; sugar, 75; ditto, 80. "Lige, you go right back
to the store and tell that cunnin' clerk that he's charged us fer what
we never got. We ain't had no 'ditto' in this house." Lige went to the
store and returned, apparently a sadder but a wiser man. "Well, Lige,"
inquired the thrifty spouse, "Did you find out 'bout that 'ditto' we
didn't get? What did you find?" Lige picked up his pipe, remarking,
"Well Sally, I found I was a durned fool, and you _ditto_."

We are all waking up to the fact that we did not become "nutty" soon
enough. We have found that our public agencies of conservation have been
"durn fools" and farmers and other land owners "ditto", for not having
inaugurated the systematic planting of productive trees along the
highways and farm hedgerows and ditches, many years ago.

Norman Pomeroy used to say with becoming modesty that he took no credit
for planting the trees that have made such a substantial income for his
family, because "I had to be slapped in the face in the dark before I
became wise, and then the natural improvidence of mankind came near
spoiling Nature's tip when the children gratified their little stomachs
in preference to planting for the future. Men are but children of an
older growth, a wise man said. That is a true but sad doctrine. We all
live too much in the present and for the present, forgetting that the
future will soon be the present, if not for ourselves, for our children
and our children's children. It takes time to realize on trees, for the
stomach or the pocketbook. It requires sacrifice to get anything worth
while and, waiting is the hardest kind of sacrifice, especially for
people of small means. But it pays in the end."

The Northern Nut Growers' Association, is doing valuable work not only
in the study and planting of nut trees, but in its propaganda. But I
have discovered that the results of practical work and the worth of
propaganda, are hard to bring home to public agencies, like Governors
and Legislatures. The construction and maintenance _of_ public highways
are a state function. But that duty must be incomplete in our opinion
until the state finishes its job by planting productive trees along the
highways and public roads. How shall we bring this about? Adopt
resolutions? Very good.

But did the Anti-Saloon League, for example, content itself with
resolutions when it wanted real results in the halls of legislation? Not
much. Our prohibition friends were very practical. They employed trained
agents to present their cause everywhere and in every way calculated to
do the most good.

Let me repeat to you tree planters the late Norman Pomeroy's favorite
lines, as I recall them:

    "_The dead are eternized in stone,_
    _The living, by living shafts are known._
    _Plant thou a tree and each recurring spring_
    _The stirring leaves thy lasting praise shall sing._"

PRESIDENT REED: Prof. Chittenden, of Michigan Agricultural
College will address you on "Native Nut Tree Plantations for Michigan."



NATIVE NUT TREE PLANTATIONS IN MICHIGAN


PROFESSOR A. K. CHITTENDEN, MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE EAST
LANSING, MICHIGAN

I am very glad of this opportunity to tell you what the Michigan
Agricultural College is doing, and what it thinks, about nut tree
plantations in this State. I want to say first, that there is a very
general interest in nut trees among the farmers and land owners of the
State. A considerable number of the letters that the Forestry Department
of the College receives from farmers are about nut culture. They seem to
be particularly interested in pecans, English walnuts, and chestnuts. A
few years ago the State was flooded with literature urging people to
plant these trees and we are still feeling the aftermath of this
campaign. Much of this state is too far north for the successful growth
of these particular trees and we therefore have advised waiting before
investing heavily in young trees, until experiments have shown where
they would succeed and what kinds it would be safe to plant. At the same
time, we suggested the planting of one or two trees of certain varieties
as an experiment. We have for the most part recommended only our native
nut trees for planting on a large scale.

We have tried many varieties of nut trees, grafted on hardy stock, at
the College, and only a few of them are alive today. All of the pecan
trees have been lost and nearly all of the English walnuts. About two
years ago, we got some of Burbank's Royal walnuts from California. All
of these trees except one, were killed back of the graft the first
winter. One of them, however, is doing well although growing very
slowly. It will doubtless succeed now, as it has pulled through two
winters, one an exceptionally cold one.

About three years ago, we bought some Sober Paragon chestnuts from an
eastern nursery which had been advertising them widely in this State.
They were all infected with the Chestnut Blight disease. Now this
disease has at the present time not appeared in Michigan, except on
imported nursery stock. We have a considerable number of chestnut
plantations in the State, and if the disease can be kept out, there is
no reason why chestnuts cannot be raised more profitably. But our
experience has shown that the trees must be raised in this State and not
brought in from outside. We have some very nice chestnut trees in our
nursery at the College which are now thirteen years old and which have
been bearing nuts for four years. This fall we are planting them all
along the drives so as to open up the crowns and induce a greater
production of nuts.

We also have some Japanese walnuts that are doing well indeed. One of
these trees on the campus is 35 years old and produces a large quantity
of nuts.

There are a number of English walnuts at various places along Lake
Michigan in the fruit belt. Individual trees will often succeed, but the
chances for success are not great enough to warrant a man putting very
much money into a plantation. There are two Sober Paragon chestnuts near
Niles which are now 12 years old and are growing and bearing well. At
the College farm, near Grand Rapids, there are some pecan trees, but
their history shows that they have been repeatedly frosted back.

I could mention a great many cases of success with individual imported
trees, but I do not know of any extensive plantations that have so far
succeeded.

There is, however, a different story to tell of our native nut trees of
which there are many successful plantations. Our native edible nuts are
black walnut, hickories and chestnut. They will grow anywhere in the
southern part of the State and along Lake Michigan. Using these trees as
a basis, I believe we can develop, if it has not already been done, a
tree that will bear an improved quality of nuts and that will be
perfectly hardy.

The black walnut is the tree that did perhaps more than any other tree
to help win the war, and, while timber raising and nut culture do not
perhaps go hand in hand, probably more black walnuts are being planted
as individual trees than any other tree in the State. The black walnut
was an invaluable tree for gun stocks and airplane propellers. The War
Department scoured the country to find trees for these purposes and
every black walnut that is now planted, may be of service to the country
in the future. The College raises thousands of black walnuts and
Japanese walnuts each year, and the demand for them is very great. When
we have in planting, a choice between two trees, one choice being a tree
suitable for shade only and the other a nut producing tree, I would say
plant the nut tree. Our trees will have a double appeal if they furnish
not only shade, but edible nuts as well. At the last session of the
State Legislature, an act was passed providing for the planting of nut
and shade trees along our highways. As a result of this act, we hope
sometime to see the highways in the southern part of the State lined
with walnut and other nut bearing trees. A tree that will serve a
double purpose should be planted wherever possible.

Tree planting is a thing in which we are all interested. Those of you
who have been abroad remember the long rows of trees, often fruit trees,
that lined the roads. In this country we cannot plant fruit trees along
our roads as there is nobody to care for them and disease would quickly
start and spread to our orchards. But nut trees can be safely planted.

We have, on certain soils in the southern part of the State, recommended
planting black walnuts for fence posts. The heart wood is very durable
and the tree grows quite rapidly under favorable conditions. Then,
perhaps when the trees are large enough for posts, the owner will decide
to keep them for the nuts and for timber production.

During the past summer the College made a study of native nut tree
plantations in the State with a view to determining the profitableness
of such plantations.

Among the older plantations studied was one in Berrien County. It was
planted 45 years ago and covers four acres. The soil is clay and loam
with a clay sub-soil. Three year old seedlings were used with an average
spacing of about 28 by 32 feet. The grove was cultivated for about 8
years after planting. The trees are now in fairly good condition but
many are affected with heart-rot. They are quite spreading and bushy in
form and are not suitable for lumber. There is now about 30 cords of
wood per acre. The average diameter is 20 inches with an average height
of 60 feet. The ground is sodded over and the grove is used for grazing
sheep. The owner says that about half the trees bear and that the June
bugs are the principal source of trouble, eating the blossoms. The yield
in nuts varies from practically nothing to 25 or 30 bushels for the
entire plantation. About six years ago, the owner reports a crop of 36
bushels, and two years ago a crop of 27 bushels. From these figures I
should say the plantation is a success.

A chestnut plantation in Van Buren County was set 37 years ago and
covers one acre of sandy soil. The plantation was cultivated for about
ten years and corn was grown between the trees. The average tree is 14
inches in diameter and 65 feet tall. The returns have been small because
the trees were planted too close together, but some years the plantation
has yielded 15 bushels of nuts. There are 67 trees on the acre, which is
too many for good nut production. The grove will produce about 20 cords
of wood or about 550 split fence posts per acre.

One of the oldest plantations in the State is 56 years old and covers
1-1/2 acres in Montcalm County. It consists of black walnuts and
chestnuts mixed together. The average black walnut is 14 inches in
diameter and 67 feet tall. The average chestnut is 20 inches in diameter
and 60 feet tall. The spacing is about 40 by 30 feet and the soil is a
gravelly sand. The yield in nuts has been quite small, six to eight
bushels a year.

There are a number of such mixed plantations in the State and it would
seem that the two trees do not do very well together. In this case, I
should say that the soil is not well suited for either tree.

There is a plantation of Japanese walnuts in Oakland County. It is five
years old and on sandy soil. About 500 trees were planted at the cost of
60 cents per tree. The stock came from Pennsylvania and was budded to
English walnut. The scions died back, however, and the plantation stock
came along so it is now a Japanese walnut grove. The average tree is
about 2 inches in diameter and 10 feet tall. The trees are very healthy
and vigorous and are beginning to bear a few nuts.

A chestnut plantation in Van Buren County is 12 years old. Two foot
transplants were used and the trees were planted at the rate of 100 to
the acre. They were cultivated for two years. The average tree is 4
inches in diameter and 20 feet high. The trees are healthy and in good
condition. The grove is yielding from one to two bushels of nuts a year
and should be thinned so as to open it up and encourage nut production.

A black walnut plantation in Ingham County, planted about 20 years ago
for timber purposes and underplanted with white cedar to force the trees
to grow straight and tall, is in excellent condition. The average tree
is 5 inches in diameter and 34 feet tall. The plantation has not yet
borne nuts but if it were opened up, would doubtless produce a large
number in a few years.

I could give more instances of nut tree plantations in the State, but I
think I have mentioned enough to show that our native nut trees can be
profitably raised. During the last few years, a great many black walnut
plantations have been established but most of them are yet too young to
be in a bearing condition. If it were not for the difficulty of getting
healthy chestnut stock, I believe Michigan would be a large producer of
these nuts.

A study has been made of the volume of the wood that could be obtained
from these chestnut plantations. Owing to the open nature of the
groves, the trees are mostly not suitable for lumber and the yield of
cordwood and posts is less than in a forest plantation where the trees
are closer together and force each other to grow straight and tall. It
was found, however, that a chestnut grove planted for nuts, would yield
on the average 13 standard cords of wood per acre at 20 years of age, 20
cords at 30 years, and 25 cords at 40 years of age. Placing the value of
this wood at present prices of $7 per cord, would give a value of $91
per acre at 20 years and $140 per acre at 30 years for the wood alone.

Probably most of the chestnut plantations have been planted for the nut
and the black walnuts for timber with the nuts as a side issue.

Black walnuts should be planted on fairly fertile, moist soil. We do not
recommend planting the nuts as squirrels are liable to dig them out. It
is better to use small trees.

The cost of establishing black walnut plantations is quite small. Native
trees can be bought for $15 per thousand one year old seedlings. We
prefer to plant these small trees as the black walnut develops a strong
tap root early in life, making it difficult to transplant large trees.

Only a comparatively small number of hickories have been planted in this
state. This is a tree that, while it grows slowly, is very valuable for
its wood and it is becoming very scarce. It should be planted more
extensively. It may well be planted in openings in the woodlot. Every
farmer knows the value of hickory and the trees can be utilized when
quite small.

It is needless to say anything about the value of black walnut wood.
High prices have been paid for standing trees and for saw logs. Many
individual trees have sold for $500 apiece and even more. Prices as high
as $120 per M board feet have been paid for standing timber.

At the present rate of cutting, it is only a question of a few years
before all of the merchantable black walnut will have been removed, and,
unless trees are planted, the black walnut will be a thing of the past.
It cannot be depended upon to reproduce itself in our forests as do the
maples, the ash, and many other trees with nonedible seed. For every
black walnut tree in our woods and along the roads, there are
innumerable small boys and squirrels who are after the nuts and the seed
have little chance of germinating even if they do get into the soil. If
there are to be black walnuts in our future forests, the trees must be
planted or the nuts planted and properly safeguarded. From a forestry
viewpoint, the black walnut is a good tree to plant. It has a high
value and the demand for the wood is very great. And, for planting,
trees should be chosen that will give a good quality nut as far as
possible.

For ornamental planting, too, nut trees may often be chosen to
advantage. For the farm yard they are often the best choice. Hickories
or black walnut are long lived trees and the hickory is very ornamental.
A great many trees have been planted by the school children of the
State; and right here is a good field for planting, around our school
houses. The average country school ground is a forlorn place, usually
barren of both grass and shade. While we perhaps cannot have a lawn, we
can certainly have shade trees, and the children will take care of them
and watch their development with interest, particularly if they have a
part in planting them. A few years ago the College distributed about
6000 trees to the schools of the state for Arbor Day and many of these
trees were black walnuts. During the last few years, the Collage has not
raised enough of these trees to meet the demand.

As memorial trees, also, nut trees are being quite extensively planted.
A great many black walnuts have been planted in the honor of our
soldiers who gave their lives in the war and it is a very suitable tree
to plant for this purpose.

Now that our forests are becoming more scarce, we are beginning to
appreciate more fully the value of their products. Nuts, extracts, maple
syrup and many minor products are obtained from our native trees. If man
could be surrounded with the right assortment of trees, he would need
little else. He would have food in the nuts and fruit; fire wood and
building material in the stems, as well as paper and clothing from the
wood pulp. He would have sugar from the sap, medicine from the bark, and
he would have wood distillates, turpentine and resin. He could live long
and well on the products of our forests.

Our forests are, however, disappearing. Our native nut trees are being
cut off. Our sugar maple orchards are being put into farm land, and
forest products are increasing rapidly in price. We have got to keep a
certain part of the country in forests in order to have the country
prosperous, and to do this we must either plant trees or so manage the
existing forests that they will renew themselves naturally. In planting
trees, we should not overlook the by-products of the trees, nuts and
syrup and bark. These products are often the main crop in themselves
and in any case, they will increase the receipts and make our forestry
work more profitable.

There are many acres in southern Michigan and along the Lake, that will
give larger returns from nut tree plantations than from any other
source. We want first to be sure that the trees are hardy to the
locality before we recommend them. I believe there is a very big future
for such plantations. The history of southern plantations has been one
of remarkable success.

We must be particularly careful in advising the establishment of nut
tree plantations. We ought to be particularly careful in not encouraging
people to buy trees that we are not sure will succeed. For every
plantation that fails means a loss of money and an obstacle to future
progress. But every tree that succeeds means an advertisement for years
to come.

I do not see any reason why southern Michigan cannot raise many improved
varieties of black walnut and perhaps some other nut trees as well. Our
study of native nut tree plantations this summer, shows that with proper
care they may be very profitable and we hope to see a great extension of
such plantations in this State.

PROF. CHITTENDEN: I would like to say that the College has been
very favorably impressed with the work that this Association has been
doing and the care that is used in recommending nut trees. It is a thing
the people need a lot of advice about. I thank you. (Applause).

MR. J. F. JONES: I would like to ask if the pecans that were
tender were northern or southern pecans.

PROF. CHITTENDEN: We got them from a nursery in New York State
and I could not say as to the source of the stock beyond that.

MR. JONES: Naturally the southern source is the cheapest tree.

PROF. CHITTENDEN: We got the trees from a nursery that had been
advertising them very extensively in Michigan. It was about five years
ago, at a time when this State had been flooded with literature from
this nursery and other nurseries about particularly pecans and
chestnuts. We were doubtful about the trees they were recommending, and
we got a considerable number and planted them out, but we took pretty
good care of them; but they all died in winter.

DR. MORRIS: It is a pity that people who do the most
advertising have to. Certain firms are not allowed to advertise in nut
journals at all. I think the public ought to be made aware of that fact.
It is a pity too, because the ones who spend the largest amount of money
in advertising are the ones of whom we ask the most questions.

In regard to Prof. Chittenden's paper, it is a very important matter to
impress upon children and others who are setting out trees the idea that
a tree is not able to care for itself as a rule. It is quite the
exception for a tree set out by itself to thrive and enter into
competition with other trees and bushes and shade, in the early years,
and insects later. I suppose the number of ordinary trees including
maples that make their way to a successful old age would not represent
one in many hundred thousands that make a start in the sprouting seed.
That fact ought to be impressed on every school child who is setting out
a tree--he really should adopt that tree and make that its own child.
And if you can inculcate the maternal and the paternal instinct along
with the setting out of from one to six children of these other
children, you will then get trees on your roadsides and your waste
lands, and without a great amount of difficulty. But you have got to go
back to first principles there and realize that very few trees are able
to succeed after they have been set out unless they receive a great deal
of care subsequently. Those of us who give a great deal of attention to
trees, who pretend to care for our trees, will lose a percentage so
large that I would hardly dare state what it probably is. Among the
hundreds and thousands of trees I have set out, all from reputable
nurserymen or raised by myself; I doubt if 25% are alive today, and I
have pretty good success too. This is not to discourage anyone; it is to
encourage people, and they are to be encouraged by knowing the facts;
and when all the final facts are known about the values of trees that
are given proper attention, then people will be willing to give them
that degree of attention. Not until then are we to have success in
filling our waste lands with nut trees.

Prof. Chittenden brought up one point of a great deal of consequence. In
any locality plant the species which belong to that locality. The
species which, by natural selection and adaptation have fitted
themselves to the environment are, as a rule, the trees which will do
best in that locality. That is a principle I think which ought to be
thoroughly well fixed in mind. One may experiment with any number of
trees from a distance, but the trees which naturally have adapted
themselves to a locality, the species which have done that are the
species upon which we can expend our efforts to the best advantage.

In the matter of chestnut blight, we assume that the chestnut blight
will act like measles blight, scarlet fever blight, or any other
epidemic. In other words, it is due to a microbe, it is due to a
peculiar microbic group, a peculiar family group which happened to
start out in northern China on its invasion and got to this country
where it found trees which were not resistant. The American and European
trees are not resistant. Wherever it has gone from northern China, from
the place where blight, the tree host and enemy grew up side by side,
and represented the survival of the fittest; wherever it has gone away
from the place where we have the survival of the fittest, at any rate as
a result of struggle, there it has found susceptible individuals that it
has destroyed. When a blight of any sort sets out, chestnut blight,
measles, scarlet fever--any blight you please, you are talking natural
history, you are taking biology, about an animal or a plant, about a
microbe, a living thing. All of these living things run out of their
vital energy in time. Each microbe runs out of its energy just as a
breed of horses or of strawberries runs out of its energy. All
varieties, varietal types, run out of their natural energy, so that it
is simply a question of length of time before this family microbe or
family group of this microbe will lose its energy. We do not know how
many years that will be. It may be a great many years, and by that time,
our chestnuts may practically have disappeared. We can find here and
there a tree which resists better than others do, and we may find some
with enough resistance to be worthy of propagation as of that resistant
kind. We know that several species resist the blight very well. I found
four species that resist the blight very well among six kinds I have
tried out on my place. But some chestnuts bear so early and heavily that
we may afford to set them out, even in the presence of blight, trimming
them back and looking after them carefully: For instance, a number of
Sober Paragon chestnuts that I planted all died but one that is near the
house. It bears so heavily that it is well worth while, and it simply
means that one must give a great deal of attention to it. Some people
can afford even to set out the Paragon because of its high bearing
power. I have a number of hybrids which resist the blight very well. The
cross between the American chestnut and the Japanese, or between the
common American chestnut and the chinquapins showed the resistance very
largely of the resistant parent. But curiously enough, the ones which
look most like the American chestnut also carry that parent's weakness
in regard to blight, so that all of my hybrids between the American
chestnut and the resistant kinds which look like the American chestnut
and act like it also catch the same microbe for the most part. But one
of the hybrids does not. No. 2 which I have given Mr. Jones, is very
much like the American chestnut. It grows vigorously, acts like it, and
looks like it, and it has not blighted up to the ninth year of age,
beginning to bear about the fourth year. Most of those that are like the
chinquapin or like the Chinese chestnut resist blight very well.

About Japanese walnuts. If Prof. Chittenden has a large number of
Japanese walnuts about the state, he may very well select one or two of
the very best and advise the owners to top work the others with the one
or two which happen to be particularly good. Most of the Japanese
walnuts are small. Most of them are Siebold type instead of the heart
nut variety, but a few very large ones will be found here and there and
of high quality, and they graft almost as easily as peaches.

In regard to Persian walnuts. If there are a few trees here and there
about the state, we need not fear the question of introducing others
because it is too far north. If you simply have one tree that is a good
one, that is enough, because you can graft over all sorts of black
walnuts, Japanese walnut and Persian walnut stocks with the one or two
trees which are known to be good in Michigan. One good tree in the state
which is bearing good nuts of desirable qualities is enough. Graft all
of your other walnuts back from it. And in setting out the native black
walnuts, chestnuts and the hickories of different species, it is
important always to distinguish in regard to intention--whether they are
to be for forest purposes or for nut purposes. That is not always clear
in the minds of a number of people whom I have seen setting out groves
of these trees. They talk about getting timber and nuts. You can not get
both profitably. I think people ought to be impressed with the fact that
if they are setting out apple trees for timber they would set them five
or six feet apart. If they are setting them out for apples, they would
set them sixty feet apart. Precisely the same thing is true of nut
trees. (Applause).

MR. JONES: I would like to ask Dr. Morris how he protects
grafts the first year. Grafts growing the first year are very tender,
put in late, and they will often winter kill in the tree that is
perfectly hardy otherwise.

DR. MORRIS: Mr. Jones is quite right about that, and that is a
matter requiring more experience than I have at the present time. What I
have done in the way of protection fairly well is this: For instance, if
I graft Persian walnut on black walnut and it makes a late start and
then in September has a very sappy growth, or in October has a sappy
growth of three or four or five feet (they grow tremendously fast, like
weeds) if the bark at the base of the graft is brown or has two or
three buds that are brown or partially ripened, I cut off four or five
of the first leaves and let them harden. Then in the fall I cut off all
but those four or five buds and put wax over the end. That is the way I
avoid the winter killing of the sappy growth. As soon as the part
nearest the grafted place begins to turn brown, looks like hardening up
and two or three buds are pretty hard, I cut off four or five of those
leaves right there and let the buds ripen, and those buds will ripen
very well. I will sacrifice five or six buds for the sake of saving
three or four buds. The next year they grow all right. That is not a
nice way, but when you see you are going to lose a thing on account of
sappiness, that will sometimes work.

MR. JONES: I generally wrap the base of the limb in burlap.

DR. MORRIS: If the sappy tip dies, it poisons the rest. There
are poisonous enzymes that poison the rest of it.

MR. BIXBY: I was going to ask Prof. Chittenden if he could give
any experience with the named varieties of black walnuts.

PROF. CHITTENDEN: I don't think I could distinguish between the
varieties of black walnut that have been planted in this state. That is
not a thing that I feel able to discuss. I know that a number of
different varieties of black walnut have been planted. At the College we
have done a good deal of grafting on the black walnuts, and we have not
had very good success.

MR. BIXBY: I had in mind improved varieties of black walnut
grafted on the black walnut stock.

PROF. CHITTENDEN: I don't think we have had any experience of
that. We always get a good deal of wood from Pennsylvania in the spring
and do the grafting in class. We can not expect a very high grade of
work when the students do it as a part of their work of instruction.
There are some black walnuts in the state that have very good nuts, and
some that have not. I have tried to get for our nursery good nuts from
trees that had a good native nut. We have had so much difficulty getting
black walnuts at all the last few years that we have taken just what we
could get. We get nuts from all over the central part of the state and
plant in the nursery to get our seedling trees.

MR. BIXBY: I have found some of the named varieties of black
walnuts bearing in quite a number of sections of this state and other
states. They seem to bear quite young.

PRESIDENT REED: Mr. Jones has partly prepared a paper on
"Pecans other than those of the well known sections," but as it has
been impossible to complete it, it will be handed to the secretary
later, and inserted in the proceedings.



PECANS OTHER THAN THOSE OF THE WELL KNOWN SECTIONS


J. F. JONES, LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA

Pecans have been grown in the South for a good many years, and, with the
advent of budded and grafted trees of superior varieties in more recent
years, the industry made great strides and now that the product of some
of these grafted orchards is coming on the market and selling readily at
high prices, the economic value and importance of the pecan is becoming
to be more fully appreciated.

The success of the pecan in the South, led some planters in the northern
states to make experimental plantings of these southern varieties but
they have proven disappointing, as might be expected, since our seasons
are too short for the nuts to mature, even where the trees are hardy. I
have seen the Stuart, one of the largest southern pecans, when grown in
Lancaster and Adams Counties, Pa., not half as large as the Indiana
sorts and with little or no kernel. The Schley, one of the finest
southern pecans, when grown in Adams Co., Pa., is so small that no one
would recognize it and it has no kernel at all.

In very recent years, largely through the efforts of a few progressive
men in Indiana, fine varieties of the pecan have been discovered in
Indiana and Kentucky, and these varieties are being propagated and
planted over the northern states generally. While the discovery of these
varieties and their propagation marked a big step forward in extending
the cultural range of the pecan and making it possible to grow this nut
several hundred miles north of the southern pecan belt, not unlike the
southern varieties, the Indiana and Kentucky varieties are necessarily
limited in their range of adaptability, and it is perhaps not safe to
recommend them for planting, except possibly in the more favored
localities, north of the 40th parallel and south thereof and possibly in
the elevated or mountain sections they should not be recommended for
planting north of latitude 38 degrees. The advantages of securing
varieties for propagation therefore from as far north as possible is
obvious.

I have examined a good many sample pecans from Missouri and Kansas, some
of which are excellent, but, aside from possibly being a little hardier
in tree, they have no advantage over the fine Indiana and Kentucky
varieties that we already have, unless of course, they should be better
adapted to planting in the western states.

In its natural range, the pecan is found growing farther north along the
Mississippi River, in Iowa and Illinois, than anywhere else in the
country, and naturally we turned to these pecan forests hoping to find a
variety bearing nuts of a size and quality to merit propagation and
dissemination north of the belt where it is safe to recommend the
planting of the Indiana varieties. As a result of correspondence with an
Iowa nurseryman in the fall of 1914, I engaged the services of a
competent man to gather pecans for me at Muscatine, Iowa. Following my
instructions, this man searched the woods in that locality to find what
I wanted for propagation and as a result, nuts were sent me from several
trees which were carefully marked so that in case scions were wanted
from any of the trees, they would be readily identified. This man seemed
to be very enthusiastic about the nuts he sent me, and, as he had made a
business of gathering pecans, and he knew the pecans in that section
well, I felt that he had sent me the best that he had there. None of the
pecans sent had sufficient size and merit to propagate however, and I
gave the matter up. Fortunately, Mr. G. H. Corsan, Toronto, Canada, was
endeavoring the same fall or winter to get pecans to grow trees that
would succeed in Canada and he bought pecans from a dealer in
Burlington, Iowa. Upon receiving this lot of nuts, Mr. Corsan was
astonished at their large size, as he expected that pecans from the
northern limit of the pecan to be of small size. Thinking that this
party had sent him southern pecans, Mr. Corsan wrote him at once that he
did not want southern pecans, explaining that he wanted them for
planting. This party replied that the nuts sent him were genuine Iowa
pecans. Knowing my interest in the matter, Mr. Corsan wrote me during
the spring of 1915, giving me the facts in the case and urged that I go
to Burlington the next fall and look up a variety for propagation. Fall
came on, but with it, so much to do and with short help, due to war
conditions, that I had to give up the trip, but, at Mr. Corsan's
suggestion, I took the matter up with Mr. Ed. G. Marquardt, Burlington,
Iowa, with the result that the matter was placed in his hands, with the
assurance from Mr. Marquardt that he would do the very best he could for
us. Mr. Marquardt employed a man who had made a business of gathering
pecans there and who knew the trees bearing the largest nuts, and with
the help of this man, finally located a tree 20 miles north of
Burlington bearing very large pecans of thin shell and splendid quality.
Although most of the nuts had been gathered, the husks on the ground
indicated it had been bearing good crops. This tree was marked and some
of the nuts sent to me. These pecans I considered remarkably fine for so
far north. They were fully as large as the Indiana, with even a thinner
shell and a full kernel of excellent quality. With the help of Mr.
Marquardt, scions were secured from this tree the following spring, and
grafting proved very successful, which we consider very fortunate, as
this land was cleared during the war and this tree met the fate of
others, being turned into lumber and it is no more.

This variety has been given Mr. Marquardt's name. Coming from 20 miles
north of Burlington, Iowa, in north latitude 41 degrees, I shall expect
the Marquardt to succeed any where south of the Great Lakes. The Indiana
and Busseron pecans originated farther north than any others of the
Indiana group, the original trees of which are growing in the Wabash
River bottom, west of Oaktown, Ind., about 10 miles south of latitude
39. Most of the Indiana and Kentucky varieties are from latitude 38
degrees, or approximately 200 miles south of where the Marquardt
originated. The climate of Iowa is also considerably colder than is the
same latitude farther east, due to the more open character of the
country west and to the influence of the Great Lakes farther east. The
pecans there are not only necessarily hardier, but have to mature their
fruit in a shorter season, which is all important in a variety for
northern planting, as it has been shown that the pecan is hardy in tree
considerably north of where it will mature its fruit properly. Realizing
the importance of the Iowa pecans for northern planting and realizing
the building of the big power dam on the Mississippi River at Keokuk,
Iowa, and the consequent raising of the water level for considerable
distance up the river together with building of levees and clearing of
the forests, threatened the destruction of many of the pecan trees and
pecan forests, Mr. Bixby spent nearly a week during the past fall in the
pecan forests and groves along the Mississippi River around Clinton,
Ia., and Burlington, Ia. The facts of the following paragraphs (except
the last two) I have taken from his notes:

These pecan trees at Clinton, Iowa, are the most northerly growing of
the native pecans so far discovered. They are on the islands in the
river and on the bottom lands, where the land at low water is only a few
feet above the water level, and at high water, several feet under water.
The trees certainly are not suffering from lack of moisture. The soil is
alluvial, seemingly of unknown depths and must be very fertile,
enriched as it is by the deposits left by the high waters each year, or
sometimes, several times a year. No pecan trees under six inches in
diameter were seen here, and they ranged from that size up to 24 inches
in trunk diameter 85 feet tall. No trees bearing large pecan nuts were
seen, although the flavor of the kernels of practically all of the trees
was good. Crops of nuts were irregular and seemingly not so good as they
were some years. None of the trees near Clinton were deemed worthy of
propagation.

The pecans at Burlington are growing under similar conditions to those
at Clinton, but they are much more numerous, there being thousands of
them, some being larger than any seen at Clinton. Four trees, including
the Marquardt, have been discovered and brought to the attention of the
association by Mr. Ed. G. Marquardt and Mr. John H. Witte of Burlington.
Cuts of these nuts, natural size, are shown opposite page 48. The
Marquardt is being propagated by me and the other three varieties by
Snyder Bros., Center Point, Iowa.

From the appearance of the leaves, buds and habit of growth of the
Marquardt pecan, it seemed to me that the tree had hickory blood in it,
although the nut did not suggest it; and I intended to look into this
matter fully, on a trip to Iowa the past fall, but finding I could not
go, I gave Mr. Bixby samples of the nuts, leaves and twigs and told him
what I expected, and he had this in mind during his trip. He never found
young pecan trees growing in the woods but did find them growing in
large numbers on the levees and on the edges of cultivated fields. A
careful examination showed a very considerable variation in leaf, bud
and habit of growth and there seemed little question but that there were
among them many hybrids between the pecan and the big bottom shellbark,
_Carya laciniosa_, which is found growing on the bottom lands and the
islands along with the pecan. As a matter of fact, two of the four Iowa
pecans selected for propagation, the Burlington and the Greenbay, show
unmistakable evidence of hybrid parentage in the nut, in the leaves and
buds. The Marquardt gives no hint of such parentage in the nut, but the
leaves and buds do suggest that it has hickory blood in its make up, and
it is believed that this is so. The Witte is seemingly a pure pecan.

There has recently been much done near Burlington in reclaiming
valuable, cultivatable lands from the river which formerly overflowed
them each year so that people were afraid to plant crops and they were
therefore abandoned to the forests. Levees have recently been built to
keep the water off these lands in time of high water. Drainage ditches
have been made behind them and pumping plants put in to pump the water
out of them. The cost of these improvements, which has given to
cultivation much very fertile land, has been assessed on the owners of
the lands benefited, as is also the upkeep expense. Many owners had not
the money to pay the assessments and have sold the land to those who are
clearing off the timber. This means the clearing of thousands of acres
of bottom land and the pecan is one of the principle trees on these
bottom lands. This condition makes it necessary to locate and propagate
at once, the best and most promising of these Iowa pecans and hybrids
and observe their behavior afterwards in the young trees, instead of
depending on the watching of the behavior of the original trees as has
been the case in Indiana.

I feel reluctant to close this address without mentioning the good work
done by Secretaries Deming and Bixby and other members of this
Association in searching for varieties of nuts that may be superior to
what we already have. Those of us who are propagating these trees, while
we may feel the inspiration that comes from doing a work that benefits
mankind, nevertheless, we hope and expect to make dollars and cents out
of growing these trees, while this is not the case with some of the
members of this Association who are not nurserymen and who do not expect
to enter this field.

Dr. Deming, former Secretary of this Association, did much good work and
secured some fine nuts worthy of propagation, through advertising and
the offering of premiums, and Mr. Bixby, who very kindly took up this
work when Dr. Deming was called to the colors, has been active and is
doing a great work for northern nut culture.

PRESIDENT REED: We will now have a grafting demonstration by
Mr. Jones.

Mr. Jones had brought with him specimens of stock, scions and all the
materials and tools needed for the demonstration, and performed the
various operations of grafting and budding before the audience.

MR. JONES: We often use scions half or three-fourths of an inch
in diameter, for grafting, but they are rather hard to get. In top
working, we generally take limbs two to four inches in diameter, cut
them off, and split the bark. The nut grafting must all be done late
when the sap is up in the trees. Cut the scions all on one side. Split
the bark, slip in the scion, tie up and wax the whole scion over with
grafting wax, put it on hot and seal it up tight. Sometimes for winter
protection of the English walnut as far north as Michigan your tip might
kill back because it grows so very fast and is sappy. I have never

[Illustration: PECANS FROM BURLINGTON, IA]

had trees kill in that way, but I do have many people write me that they
have trees killed in that way. In nursery grafting, we usually use just
the cleft method. You should cut the cleft on one side and don't split
it, but keep it smooth all the way through.

PRESIDENT REED: You get better results, Mr. Jones, from waxing
the entire scion?

MR. JONES: Yes, we get better results that way. In the South we
have no success at all that way; we have to cover them with sacks.

VOICE: About what degree of heat is best for the wax?

MR. JONES: Don't have it too hot and it can't burn. You can
tell that by the wax smoking.

PRESIDENT REED: As long as the wax does not smoke, it is pretty
safe.

MR. JONES: This illustrates what we call a side graft. Put the
scion in the side and leave the top on. You can also do it in bark
grafting. Cut your bark, split it, and stick your scion straight down as
it is here.

VOICE: How do you apply the hot wax?

MR. JONES: With a swab or brush. We use a carbon heater and
that makes it about the right temperature.

VOICE: How large black walnut trees could be top worked to
English walnuts?

MR. JONES: You can work almost any sized tree, but it is quite
a job in the large tree. Take a tree larger than six inches in diameter,
or eight, and it would not be very satisfactory. In cutting the scions
be careful to make a straight surface on the cut bevel. To do that the
knife should be held at an angle lengthwise to the scion. In our
grafting in the South we leave the scion dry and cover it with a bag.
That was in Florida.

DR. MORRIS: That is a very interesting question about the
limits of our using the method of covering the scion and all with the
wax. I shall speak of that in my own grafting demonstration which is
short. I got the point from Mr. Jones, and Mr. Jones tells me he got it
from Mr. Riehl. They use black wax and hard, strong wax.

MR. JONES: Mr. Riehl uses a liquid wax, resin and beeswax
without the coloring matter. We use the coloring matter to toughen the
wax.

DR. MORRIS: Still, that is amber. Amber will cut out light, and
it seems to me that it is a matter of a good deal of consequence, the
black or amber wax covering the graft completely, buds and all, wound,
scion, stock. It succeeds in the North, succeeds better than any other
method in grafting, and yet in the South it does not succeed. It is
possible that as you get further south the longer sun, the hotter sun
scalds the cambium layer of bark beneath when it would not do so in the
North. That is at least worth thinking about. In my own work during the
past year I have used transparent paraffin alone, nothing else. I have
tried different kinds of paraffin, the Parowax, the common one that the
women put up preserves with is the one that will stay on best, will not
crack and is perfectly transparent, allowing the light of the sun to act
upon the chlorophyl, in the bark and the bud and intensify the activity
of that part of the plant that depends upon light transformation by
means of chlorophyl. I am very much interested to know if this will not
succeed in the South. Paraffin would not attract the heat of the sun,
and it is possible that this will allow us to carry the method of Mr.
Jones, the best method to date, still farther south.

MR. JONES: I think, Doctor, it is a matter of heat, because in
the shade you can graft them almost any way. Do you cover the scion with
paraffin or only the union?

DR. MORRIS: I cover the entire thing with paraffin, scions,
buds and all including the wrapping. I don't leave anything exposed to
the air. There are several principles involved there. In the first place
you have the effect of light upon chlorophyl which is important; in the
second place, the melted paraffin fills all interstices in which sap
would collect and ferment. If those interstices are filled with melted
paraffin, sap will not collect there and ferment. The microbes of
bacterial and fungus origin, that prevent union and break down the
products of repair that are thrown out for the purpose of repair, can
not do it if they can not collect in quantity, and the paraffin fills
the space in which they would collect in quantity; so that does away
with another one of the dangers. In the third place, you have the same
sap tension maintained in the scion as in the stock. The difference
between the negative and positive pressures, day and night, is very
great in spring time, and as the sap responds between day and night in
the stock, it puts a strain upon the scion. The scion can not follow the
stock with its sap movement ordinarily. But if scion and stock are
covered completely with paraffin, the tension remains the same, so that
you do away with the shock of varying negative and positive pressures.
That is an important point, it seems to me, in principle in the matter
of using the paraffin. Another point is this. You prevent evaporation
from scion that goes on ordinarily through the little breathing
lenticels, the little apertures between the cells of the bark which
allow moisture to escape as well as to enter. One would naturally
believe the paraffin would fill these and smother the scion, and I
presume it is that fear which has prevented the world from trying this
for the past ten thousand years, because they were skilful grafters in
Egypt, both in the tree world and the financial world, in the days of
Hammurabi there were skilful grafters in both worlds two or three
thousand years before Christ. I suppose that fear of closing the
breathing apertures in the stock has prevented people from adopting this
method; but it is not justified, because those bold, brave nurserymen
who are not afraid to smother a scion find that all the scions live. It
is a venture into the unknown, that dramatic book, in the way of
dramatically constructive progress. Another point: When you protect your
graft in the ordinary way with ordinary wrapping, ordinary wax, the
scion becomes timid, the stock becomes timid. It is not quite sure of
itself in many cases, and when it is not sure of itself, when it has a
fear, what does it do? It resorts to the protection method. What is the
first? Suberization, cork layer formation. So the frightened stock
throws cork cells over its cut surface between that and the graft, and
the suberization goes on as a result of fear on the part of the timid
stock. When you have taken away the fear by covering the whole area with
melted paraffin and it feels safe, then suberization does not go on in
this way, your stock is not frightened, you have not a scared tree at
all, and it will go on kindly and gently as a Jersey heifer to do its
work.

PRESIDENT REED: I would like to ask Dr. Morris about that
myself. I am very much interested in the line of grafting, as we graft
50,000 to 100,000 every spring, using this same method. I feel as Mr.
Jones does, that the losses from grafting are largely due to heat and
the fermentation of sap. We find perhaps, that the first week of
grafting in cherry, we can almost invariably secure a fairly good stand.
Following that it tapers as the warmth and air increase, although the
scions are kept in cold storage, perfectly dormant, the sap is coming
up, and the increased rays of the sun--we get a very small percentage,
and it seems to become less every day, and we have always used the dark
wax. While I have been using paraffin wax a good deal of the time, I put
lampblack in it for coloring.

DR. MORRIS: I have until this year. In order to get Mr. Jones'
points, I tried to work out the philosophy of the subject and see what
values there are, what meanings in the methods which led to his success.
Then following that line of investigation, I stopped into another line
of observation, and arrived at the transparent paraffin method, so that
this is the first year in which I have tried it, but the results are
perfectly remarkable. I have only done it for a year, but you will see
100% of catches on almost everything, hickories, walnuts, hazels. I must
tell you of one very remarkable incident. Mrs. Morris had some dwarf
trees set out on the slope of the lawn, dwarf pear trees. One of my men
cut one of them off with a lawn mower the latter part of August. The top
kicked around under foot for three or four days, wilted in the sun. We
were walking past it along in August. I think Mr. Bixby said, "Why don't
you try grafting on that kind of material?" I said, "I will, blessed if
I don't." So I cut three pear scions from this wilted top that had been
cut by the lawnmower in August, and I put them on a scrub pear tree
under the fence near the house. And I tried this paraffin method, and in
about six days one of them started out a shoot, and I said to one of my
men, "We will transplant this. This is no place for it." I meant in the
spring, or in a year or so. He transplanted it the next day. And it grew
I think about half an inch after that, made good wood to last through
the winter. So I don't know what the limitations of this paraffin method
are. But that is a thing I would hardly dare tell about unless there
were men here in this room who had seen it. That little pear top, cut
off by mistake, kicked about under foot a few days in August, no sort of
scion that any one would ever think of using as a graft, put it in as a
joke, and with the further abuse of being transplanted; but it started
growth, and now it is going to be a good pear tree.

MR. JONES: The kicking around only made it good for grafting.

PRESIDENT REED: Perhaps it ripened up to a certain extent by
that drying out, like it would in the fall.

DR. MORRIS: Maybe, but I have never heard of horticulturists
propagating trees in that way and transplanting them in the same year,
and having the new wood from the graft harden for the winter.

MR. JONES: Mr. Reed spoke of grafting a cherry. You cut the top
off didn't you?

PRESIDENT REED: Yes.

MR. JONES: We graft filberts by leaving the top on and cut the
graft in on the side and wax it over. We leave it there two weeks,
maybe, and cut it off, and we get perfect stands that way, and you would
on the cherry.

PRESIDENT REED: We use the side grafting, but we cut the top
off.

MR. VOLLERTSEN: I would like to ask Dr. Morris with regard to
the stock. Don't you think the fact that that tree was moved at the time
it was, so soon after grafting, had something to do with the retarding
of the sap and causing the tree to mature the wood it did in place of
making more growth?

DR. MORRIS: That might be. All of the expert horticultural
opinions brought to bear on this are valuable. Every suggestion that has
been made has had a meaning. It requires explanation.

PRESIDENT REED: If there is nothing further along that line, we
have with us Mr. Conrad Vollertsen, of Rochester, who has been asked to
prepare a paper; and we would like to hear from him. He is an expert in
the filbert, and I believe can give us some valuable information.
(Applause).



HAZEL NUTS AND FILBERTS


CONRAD VOLLERTSEN, ROCHESTER, N. Y.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen of this Convention: I have been
approached by a member of the Northern Nut Growers' Association to
prepare a paper to be read at this convention on the growing,
cultivating, and propagating of the European hazel, together with such
other topics on the subject, as would be of interest to the members of
this association, particularly my experience and observations during the
last three or four seasons in my hazel orchard and nursery.

Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am not a public speaker nor a public
writer; my business is nursery and garden work; I can use spade and pick
more freely than pen and ink, and, therefore, fear that I am not the
right party called upon, knowing as I do, that we have members in this
association far more capable and experienced, and who possess more
knowledge about the European hazel than ever I had. Nevertheless as the
growing and planting of the European hazel in the eastern and middle
states of our country so far, both for ornamental or commercial
purposes, has been more or less experimental, I think all practical
information on the subject should be welcomed, and therefore I have
consented to prepare this paper and hope it will be accepted for what it
stands.

A number of years ago, after leaving school, I entered a large nursery
and garden establishment in Germany, as an apprentice boy, to learn the
garden business, to become a gardener and horticulturist, to learn how
to raise trees and other plants, to learn how to graft, to prune and
cultivate, and, in general, to take care of all kinds of growing plants.
One of the first duties bestowed upon me in my new place was the charge
of a large plot of young hazel or filbert plants. To prune or graft
them? Not at all. At that time I did not know anything about such
skilled labor. I was merely told to weed and hoe them and to keep them
clean. It was not just very elegant work, but, ladies and gentlemen, I
enjoyed very much indeed, every minute so employed among those young
filbert bushes. I became really attached to them and knew practically
every plant in the plot, and almost believe they knew me, too.

Now what was the reason for this immense pleasure I found in working
among those plants? Was it perhaps from the commercial or financial
point of view, the future income from them for fruit or when the plants
reached a saleable age? Not at all. I was then too much of a boy and did
not comprehend such a thing as that. It was merely the fond and pleasant
recollection of my childhood, of my boyhood, when, together with other
children, in the proper season, we went hunting for the common hazel
nuts, the _Corylus avellana_, as the gathering of these nuts is one of
the greatest pleasures of the German country child, and to roam through
fields and woods in late summer in those beautiful September days, when
the foliage of trees and bushes begin to color, when the birds of the
garden, field and forest begin to assemble for future migration, when
goldenrod, asters and other field flowers are reaching their greatest
beauty, then, ladies and gentlemen, the hazelnut has reached maturity.
The nut itself is a very beautiful brown color, the outer bark a golden
yellow, the leaves of the plants slightly colored with bronze, pink or
yellow, a most beautiful combination, a pleasure to look upon, and a
sight never to be forgotten. Whoever has had an opportunity to see and
admire a well fruited hazel plant, at the time of maturity, will agree
with me that it is a thing of beauty, not only during the fruit bearing
season, but in fact throughout the whole winter, with the handsome
staminate flowers or catkins appearing very abundantly in early fall,
and remaining throughout the winter, until late spring. Of all these
pleasures, these beautiful sights, etc., of which a vivid and fond
recollection caused all the pleasures in cultivating the above mentioned
hazel lot, we need not be deprived in our otherwise so richly blest
country. It is true that, at the present time, we have no American
native hazel, that can fully compete with the better European varieties,
but we hope that in time not far off, through scientific hybridization,
such will be produced. For the time being, we have some very fine
European varieties as a substitute, which for years have stood the test
very well, and should be planted wherever a place can be spared for a
few of them, and great pleasure and enjoyment will be the result. So
much for the pleasure of raising hazel nuts. I have related the
foregoing merely to show the lasting pleasure and enjoyments derived
from the planting, cultivating and gathering of a few European hazel
nuts.

But to raise hazel nuts for the pleasure of it only, would be a very
poor business proposition, and certainly not a paying one. What we
should do is to raise them in large quantities, for commercial purposes,
but here it seems to me the question should be asked: Have we had
experience enough as to recommend the planting of them in the middle and
eastern states for commercial purposes? In other words, is it worth
while to plant them with that point in view? Now, gentlemen, I do not
suppose that any one of us, at the present time, would be fully capable
or prepared to answer this question intelligently or positively, as the
planting of the hazel, for commercial purposes, has not been tried long
enough, at least not in the eastern or middle states, to warrant a
positive opinion on the subject. A great deal depends upon the variety
planted, also the location where the planting is done. Much observation
and experimenting is still required.

I have growing on my ground in western New York, near Rochester, several
hundred trees or bushes, 6 to 8 years old, about 20 varieties, most of
them German varieties, a few from France, and a few from England. They
have been bearing nuts the last four seasons, and all have reached
maturity perfectly. The smaller and medium sized nuts appeared to bear a
little better than the larger varieties. The varieties received from
France have, so far, not done well with me, as the German varieties.
They are poor bearers. In the fall of 1917, I gathered from each 5 to 6
year old tree, of the German variety, about a pound and a quarter of the
medium sized nuts, while hardly a pound from the larger fruited
varieties (same sized plants) ripened well. I was then under the
impression that the hazel not only could but should be planted in large
numbers for commercial purpose. In the fall of 1918 my crop of nuts was
very much less, and I had expected even a better harvest than in 1917,
which certainly was discouraging to me. The plants themselves were
growing beautifully, but most of the staminate blossoms or catkins were
frozen, and, consequently, very little pollenizing was accomplished, and
very little fruit the result. Such and possibly other occurrences, from
time to time we may expect and look for, and should be ready to
investigate thoroughly, before we can advocate or recommend the planting
of the hazel extensively.

It really seems strange that while the hazel generally is at home in the
northern latitudes, it should partly freeze when the thermometer reaches
say about 12 to 18 degrees below zero, and, as I had never noticed that
before, it then occurred to me that possibly another reason could be
found, why so many of the catkins were frozen.

Through my investigation in the spring of 1918, I have come to the
conclusion that the unusually wet season in our vicinity of western New
York throughout 1917 caused the hazel plants to grow until the real cold
weather was upon them, which gave the wood a very poor chance to ripen,
particularly the terminal buds, where a great many of the catkins had
formed, and caused not only them to freeze but also a certain part of
the wood. Only the lower and more protected catkins came through the
winter alright and caused what little pollenizing was done, hence the
very light harvest in the fall of 1918.

Should the results of my investigation prove true, and the continuance
of the wet weather prove the main cause of freezing so many catkins,
then it seems to me there is nothing to be alarmed about, and the
planting of the European hazel, at least in this vicinity, for
commercial purposes could be conscientiously recommended, and should be
done, the sooner the better. We do not expect our apple or pear orchards
to bear an abundant crop every year, and we should not expect it of our
hazel orchards. Something will occasionally happen to them as well as to
other crops, otherwise we run no risk whatever.

My trees or bushes, several hundred in number, planted in 1912 and
later, have stood all kinds of weather, extreme cold, very hot,
continuous wet, and still are growing most beautifully at the present
time. They gave a very satisfactory crop of nuts this last fall, 1919,
in spite of severe freezing weather on April 25th and 26th when the
mercury dropped to 12 to 15 degrees, and all hazel bushes in full bloom.
At the present time the prospect for a good crop of nuts next season is
certainly very bright.

Neither fungus, blight, or other diseases of any kind, or troublesome
insects have so far been detected. In planting the hazel for commercial
purposes, I should recommend 12 feet distance between the plants each
way, as they require abundant sun and air. At the same time, there is an
opportunity to use the land between the rows for several years to come,
as low growing crops like potatoes, strawberries, beans, beets, carrots,
etc., could be grown there to great advantage, and the cultivation of
these crops would be amply sufficient for the hazel plants.

Now the selection of varieties to be planted for the commercial hazel
orchard is a very important part of the undertaking, and should be well
considered. To plant several varieties is absolutely necessary on
account of pollenizing, as staminate and pistillate flowers, though on
the same plant, do not always appear together in proper condition on all
plants; in fact it has been proven in my orchard that sometimes plants
bring forth a great many pistillate blossoms and not a single staminate
one on them, and still a good crop of nuts were grown on them. Here the
pollination must have taken place with the pollen from other nearby
plants conveyed to them by wind or insects. One particular plant of the
zellernut type grown in one of my city lots during the last season was
very well filled with pistillate blossoms and not one catkin on it, and
still it ripened a fairly good crop of perfect nuts, where the nearest
plants filled with staminate blossoms was at least 30 feet from it. Here
it is shown and proven that a number of varieties is a necessity.

But what varieties we shall choose, will undoubtedly be an open question
for some time to come, and, no doubt, a great deal of experimental work
will have to be done to finally select the right varieties for the
different localities, the variation of temperature and location has very
much to do with the proper selection of varieties. I have among my
varieties some I could recommend and again others that are not at all
satisfactory, at least not so far, and it requires more close
observation before the very best of them can be picked out or selected.

Our next operation in the hazel will be the pruning. Here I should say
above all things: "_Keep the suckers away._" Hazel bushes are naturally
inclined to produce a great many suckers, which should be thoroughly
removed as soon as they appear; it will stop when the plants grow older.
Besides the suckers, all weak and unnecessary wood should be removed
entirely, not cut back. Our aim should be to try and get as near as
possible low standard trees, with trunk say 10 to 15 inches high and the
tree itself not to exceed 15 to 18 feet in height with the center kept
open all the time. To accomplish this, I should suggest the removing of
all crowding limbs from the center, regardless of their being
fruit-bearing limbs, which to determine is mostly guess-work at the
best. In order to keep the plants within 15 to 18 feet in height, the
terminal shoots also should be removed or reduced as the case may be,
beginning at the time of planting until the desired height is reached.
After that, one or more of the old limbs may from time to time be
removed, as there always will be enough young branches to take their
places. Such pruning in my orchard, so far, has proved sufficient, as
blight has never made its appearance in my nursery.

I will not be able to say much about blight. I have known trees in our
city, 4 or 5 varieties, for more than 30 years, bearing more or less
fruit year after year, and have never noticed any blight or anything
wrong with them. Should blight appear, I should remove all affected
limbs to the sound and healthy wood, as we would do to our pear and
quince trees when blight appears among them. I do not believe that
properly treated hazel bushes will ever suffer much from blight, at
least not in our vicinity. Neither do I believe that any more pruning
than I have outlined is required or necessary to our hazel plants.

The next subject about which I wish to say a few words is the
propagation of hazel plants. There seems to be quite a difference of
opinion as to the mode of propagating them; some advocate grafting,
others layering, again others from suckers only. Grafting I believe
myself, will produce a finer plant and the operation of doing so seems
quite successful, but a great many varieties produce so many suckers
that the graft is liable to be choked or crowded out if not constantly
watched, and it should not be expected of the average person to know the
difference between the graft and the wild shoot, and consequently, in a
comparative short time, he would have a wild or common hazel. For that
reason grafted plants should not be used for the trade until our people
get better acquainted with hazel plants. I, therefore, should recommend
layering, thereby having the plants on their own roots, which would
prove more satisfactory everywhere. That grafted plants bear fruit
sooner than layers, does not always hold good; it may be so with some
varieties, but not with all of them. I have some three year old grafted
plants and no fruit as yet, where I had plenty of layers in the nursery
rows two years old well fruited.

It is true that plants grafted on seedlings of the _Corylus avellana_
will not produce as many suckers, as plants grafted on layers of the
avellana type, but they will produce enough to confuse the average
person, as the foliage of some varieties are so nearly alike, that it
actually requires an expert to tell the difference. I, therefore, under
the existing circumstances, should advise the propagating of hazel
plants by layers only, until our people get better acquainted with the
hazel proposition in general. Why propagation by suckers only should be
preferred by some people, I fail to see, as they are practically the
same as layers, plants on their own roots from a parent plant, only that
layers are produced a little more scientifically and suckers more
naturally; otherwise they are identically the same thing.

When I referred to propagating, I should perhaps have mentioned the
growing of hazel plants from seeds, that is from the nut, but I did not
think it necessary. I will, however, say that plants raised from seed
should never be planted for fruit bearing unless they are grafted or
budded, as it has been fully and positively proven that plants raised
from seed, even if the very finest nuts of our European hybrids are
planted, will not produce nuts as good as those planted, but will almost
invariably go back to the original type, the _Corylus avellana_. It is
alright to raise plants from seeds for the sake of getting stock to
graft or bud on, but, as to variety, the seedlings are unreliable.

Before coming to a close, I would like to say a few words about the
fertilizing of the ground for hazel orchards and what experience I have
had in this matter, as I believe this would be of interest to all. It is
a well-known fact that hazel plants grow well and will thrive in almost
any kind of soil, as long as it is not too wet or too heavy, but from
time to time a little manure worked in is very beneficial both to old
and young plants, but care and judgment should be exercised, so as not
to overdo it. I have growing in one of my city lots with very fertile
soil, several bearing hazel plants, 7 to 8 years old, different
varieties. These plants grow so immensely that it plainly shows, they
are growing at the expense of the fruit, not only that the quantity of
nuts gathered from a plant there is considerably less than of same sized
plants grown on ordinary farmland, but the quality also is very much
below. My best nuts are all grown on ordinary farmland and the greatest
quantity has always been obtained from the farm where only very little
fertilizing or manuring had been done. For the growing of young plants
for commercial purposes, for the trade, I should recommend liberal
manuring at all times. (Applause.)

QUESTION: Is the hazel a long lived tree?

MR. VOLLERTSEN: I have known trees for almost forty years that
are bearing good fruit year after year, although not always a good crop.
They don't seem to grow so rapidly at that age as when younger.

DR. MORRIS: Hazels seem to graft pretty well on each other. I
think the tree hazel is going to be our most successful stock for
grafting. However, I have grafted on the _Corylus avellana_. The tree
hazel does not put out any suckers.

QUESTION: Does the hazel find its way into the market
commercially?

MR. VOLLERTSEN: I would almost think so. I have had lots of
inquiries for them from storekeepers. It seems to me there are a great
many imported around here. Our American hazels are not so very good.
There may be here and there a fairly good one, but I have not found any
really good ones worth propagating. I think if we would do more
scientific work we could get very good nuts. There is no question that
they are perfectly hardy and will stand almost any climate.

MR. JONES: Some of your varieties are hybrids aren't they?

MR. VOLLERTSEN: They are all hybrids. I have a few of the real,
original _avellana_ type I think got there by accident.

PRESIDENT REED: I believe the next paper is one the secretary
has from Mr. A. H. Graves.



DISEASE RESISTANCE IN THE AMERICAN CHESTNUT[1]


ARTHUR H. GRAVES

(Read by the Secretary)

Your secretary, Mr. Bixby, has asked me to tell you about the native
chestnut trees in the vicinity of New York City which I have found to be
resistant to the destructive bark disease. I commenced the search for
such trees in the summer of 1918, at the suggestion of Dr. Haven
Metcalf, of the laboratory of Forest Pathology, Bureau of Plant
Industry. During the campaign in Pennsylvania against the bark disease,
scouts had been on the lookout for immune or resistant trees, but
without result. As far as I am aware, no systematic organized search had
been made for such individuals.

It was our plan to commence the search in the region of New York City,
because this area is probably the oldest center of infection in the
United States. Apparently this is the port of entry where the
undesirable immigrants (Japanese or Chinese chestnuts) passed through
quarantine and were allowed to disembark carrying their terrible scourge
with them unnoticed. According to Metcalf and Collins,[2] this was
probably as early as 1893. This was why we selected this area to begin
on, for here the disease has had a longer opportunity to run its course
than anywhere else, and, consequently, has had ample time (more than a
quarter of a century) to call out the non-resistant trees. Those
remaining, if any could be found, might be suspected, _a priori_, of
being resistant.

As the work progressed, I soon realized that it would be most difficult,
or perhaps impossible, to locate resistant or immune trees in a region
not so long exposed to infection; for, in such a region, one would have
to inoculate all individuals suspected of possessing resistant
qualities, in order to ascertain whether their healthy condition was
actually due to resistant qualities or simply the result of a chance
escape of infection. We therefore decided to restrict the work, for the
present at least, entirely to a definite area about New York City. This
area includes all of the territory within a radius of about 16 miles
from New York City Hall, and therefore comprised in a general way,
Greater New York and the adjacent parts of New Jersey.


RESULTS OF THE SURVEY

First I made a thorough canvas of Staten Island, doing the work on foot,
aided by the trolley and the Staten Island R. R., and often guided by
that genial naturalist and lover of Staten Island, Dr. Arthur Hollick of
the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, I made a careful
survey of the whole 64 square miles of which the island is composed.
After two weeks of this kind of work, I began to get fairly well
discouraged, not so much because of lack of results which, it is true,
were entirely negative, but more on account of the appearance of the
dead chestnuts. For where it was not entirely cut out, the bare,
weathered poles showed that they had been dead for many years. The only
encouraging feature was the finding of large quantities of healthy
seedlings, from 7 years of age upward, to which I will refer later.

The Palisade region along the Hudson has been notable in the past for
its chestnut forests. I next attacked this, making as thorough a search
as possible from Hoboken to a little north of Alpine, N. J., which is a
small place on the Hudson opposite Yonkers. Here also the vast forests
of dead poles weathered gray with time, bore silent witness to the
completeness of the destruction.

About the middle of July while ferrying across the Hudson, I noticed
north of the landing at Dyckman St., what appeared to be chestnut trees
in bloom. On investigation, I found these to be living native chestnuts,
of the peculiar strip type I shall describe later, and proceeding
further north from this, where the Harlem enters the Hudson. I was led
into a forest where I found at least 40 living chestnuts, some of which
were in good condition, and one particularly was leafy nearly to the
top. (Fig. 1) Naturally, one would immediately suspect that somehow
these trees had escaped infection, but this could not possibly be the
case, for mixed in with them on all sides were bare, weathered trunks
showing signs of old worn cankers, proving incontestibly that the fungus
had been present here also for a long period. Shortly afterward, Dr.
Olive, of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, informed me that he had seen
living chestnuts near Hollis, L. I., and at Valley Stream, L. I., and at
each of these places I found a group similar to that near the Harlem.

These, in brief, are the high spots of the survey from the point of view
of the scientist. In addition, I covered adjacent region of New Jersey
to the west, including the Watchung Mt. range about Plainfield and the
Oranges; the Bronx and Van Cortland Park and the country to Yonkers and
the north, and to the northeast of New Rochelle. Long Island, as far as
Hempstead, was also included. Altogether I travelled about 1200 miles on
foot, not counting the distance traversed on trolleys and railroads.
Always armed with opera glasses, I was careful not to use them when
anyone was looking, for on the second day of the survey I had been
arrested on the charge of being a German spy! I was also arrested on
board a train in New Jersey for looking earnestly at a topographic map,
then sharply out of the car window and noting what I had seen (dead
chestnut trees) on said map. The carrying of a botanist's tin can
(containing fungi, not bombs) was also an additional implicating
circumstance on the latter occasion.

What then were the results of the survey? They may be stated briefly as
follows:

1. No immune trees were found.

2. For the most part the older trees (from 20 years upward) were
entirely dead, and had been so for a long period, as attested by the
bare trunks, weathered a characteristic gray color which only time can
produce.

3. However, large numbers of seedlings and young saplings were located,
both healthy and diseased.

4. _The most important result was the finding of three well defined
colonies of living mature trees; all of which, by virtue of characters
to be presently described, are offering more or less resistance to the
disease._


SEEDLING TREES

It is well known that seedlings and young saplings are naturally immune
for a certain period, which varies in extent from 8 to 15 years beyond
germination of the seed beginning, of course with the first formation of
the seedling. Such immunity depends, however, not on any inherent
characteristic, but on the fact that at this period the bark is usually
smooth, sound, and free from wounds of any sort where Endothia spores
and mycelium might enter. Of course, when wounded from any cause
whatever during this period of youth, this immunity ends, so that the
condition might perhaps be termed physical, in contrast to physiological
immunity.

As I have already said, large numbers of seedlings, for the most part
still unattacked, were found in many places in the area surveyed. There
are of course no grounds for believing that such seedlings, descended as
they are from non-resistant trees, are physiologically immune. Where
they are free from disease, this exemption is due merely to the physical
immunity I have just mentioned. Since they therefore represent
non-resistant stock, they were used for comparative inoculation work,
which will be referred to later.

I may as well say here as anywhere, that by resistance, I do not mean
total resistance, for that would be immunity. There are, of course,
degrees of resistance, in the plant world just as in the animal world.
One person may resist a cold germ or the influenza bacillus better than
another, that is, it will cause him only a little discomfort. Another
person may not be affected at all, that is, he is totally resistant or
immune. I say this because I have misunderstood when I have used the
term resistance. The trees in the New York region show all grades of
resistance, from individuals where the fungus makes very little headway
in the bark, to cases where it grows almost as fast as in the average
non-resistant tree.


CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESISTANT TREES

What now are the characteristics of these resistant trees? How are we
going to know one when we see it? I have outlined the leading features
as follows:

1. BARK. In the case of this particular disease, it is obvious
that the character of the bark is the most important feature since this
fungus is primarily parasitic in the living cortex. In other words, the
character of resistance must necessarily depend on the living cells of
the cortex. Now, careful observation of the resistant trees reveals a
most striking feature of the bark, namely its tendency to heal, by means
of a callus growth around the margins of the lesions, whether large or
small; and it is very apparent that this callus growth wards off the
advance of the fungus for a time at least. When the callus growth is
once formed, the fungus of the original canker encroaches on it very
slowly, or often not at all. Inoculations in the callused margins of
cankers showed usually only slight growth of the fungus after two
months' time in the summer, or in some cases no growth at all. Several
layers of wood could be counted underneath these callused margins--often
6 or 7--before reaching the annual ring exposed at the surface of the
canker. This of course, shows unquestionably that the callus had
remained healthy at that location for that period of time.

2. EXTENSION OF THE CALLUS TISSUE.--In many cases the callus
tissue is of considerably greater extent than the normal area one would
expect around a wound. It may even occur that the whole inner bark
around the trunk is of a callused nature, without any open cankers
showing at all. For example in a tree of which I have a photograph here
(Figs. 2 and 4), the outer bark is sloughing off, revealing callused
bark underneath of entirely different appearance, which no one would
recognize as chestnut bark. This particular tree photographed represents
an extreme in this respect. It seemed as if the whole tree was getting a
new kind of bark, and yet this same character appears in all of the
highly resistant trees. On cutting into this new callused inner bark it
was found plentifully dotted with tiny _Endothia_ lesions, which
however, never penetrated deeply. (Fig 4). Close to the cambium the
white inner bark is quite healthy, generally for a thickness of 5-7 mm.
That the mycelium in the small lesions was unquestionably the _Endothia_
mycelium, was shown by the appearance of the mycelium, and the presence
of the _Endothia_ pustules in many of the spots. That these were not
late infections, but only slowly growing small lesions, was shown by
inoculations in such bark, which revealed scarcely any growth after two
months.

[Illustration: FIG. 1

One of the most resistant trees, the smaller tree near the center of the
photograph, near the Harlem River, Boro of Manhattan, New York City.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2

A very strikingly resistant tree at Valley Stream, Long Island, showing
peculiar inner bark. The outer bark is sloughing off.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3

One of the "strip" trees in the forest in the Boro of Manhattan, New
York City.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4

Showing the character of the inner bark of the Valley Stream tree (Fig.
2). At one place, near the center of the photograph, the bark has been
shaved showing the small lesions caused by the fungus.]

3. THE WHITE SECRETION.--The most striking peculiarity of the
callus tissue, is its abundant content of a thickish, milky, white
substance. This came to light immediately when I cut into the callus,
and it showed up very clearly when I shaved off the outer layers of dead
cork tissue. The white material is not evenly distributed through the
irregular grain of the wound tissue, but is particularly abundant in
small spots or pockets which are especially conspicuous in the callused
margin of the lesion. Soon after exposure to the air the cut bark, and
particularly the white substance, redden rapidly, indicating oxidation.
This peculiarity is of course true of all chestnut bark, yet here the
reddening seems to be deeper and more rapid than the normal. No chemical
analysis has yet been made of this substance, but there is
sufficient other evidence at hand to warrant a tentative statement
that it is very rich in tannin or tannin compounds, and that possibly
the quality of resistance is bound up with the nature of this material.

4. THE STRIP CONDITION.--Some of the trees showed the living
bark restricted to a narrow, flattened, rope-like strip running up the
trunk to one or a very few branches (Plate 1, Fig. 3). In these cases
all of the bark was of the callus nature, rich in the resistant
substance, and plentifully besprinkled with small Endothia lesions,
while underneath were a number of layers of functioning wood. The rest
of the trunk was bare, weathered gray, with traces on its surface of old
cankers, and evidently dead for a long period. This type of tree was so
commonly found that I have called it the strip tree.


INOCULATIONS

The very fact that these trees are now alive in this New York region is
pretty good proof of their resistance. But of course the most conclusive
test is by inoculation with the fungus in question. If the fungus grows
slowly in these trees as compared with its growth on non-resistant
stock, then no one can deny that they are resistant. I will not bore you
with figures of tables, I will only give you the results. The average
growth of the fungus in 289 inoculations on the resistant trees was
about 1/3 as fast as on non-resistant stock, and taking the rate of
growth on those trees which are especially resistant it is about 1/4 as
fast as on the non-resistant stock. For non-resistant stock the
seedlings on Staten Island were inoculated, and the growth on these
tallied very closely with growth in non-resistant trees inoculated by
Anderson and Rankin.[3]

Another very striking result brought out by the inoculation work was
that of the 158 inoculations on branches and basal shoots of the
resistant trees, only nine had been girdled after one month's growth,
while in the same time 16 out of the 32 non-resistant Staten Island
trees were girdled. At the end of the second month, the results were
still more striking. Then, in the Staten Island trees, 22 out of 32 were
girdled, while in the inoculations on the basal shoots and branches of
resistant stock only 22 out of the 153 resulted in girdling. This
striking difference was not due to smaller diameters of the Staten
Island trees, for particular pains were taken to have them approximately
equal to the branches and shoots inoculated in the resistant trees.

SUMMARY OF EVIDENCES OF RESISTANCE

We may summarize the evidences of resistance as follows:

1. The results of the inoculation tests show that the fungus grows in
these trees on the average from 1/4 to 1/3 as fast as in ordinary
chestnut.

2. The occurrence of the trees in a neighborhood long subjected to the
disease, and their presence among the trees of individuals long since
dead.

3. Indications of the long period the disease has been present in the
trees themselves; such as bare weathered tops, and healed cankers.

4. Peculiarities of the bark; such as extensive development of the
callus tissue, and the presence of a peculiar substance or white
secretion which is particularly conspicuous in cases of marked
resistance.


IS THE DISEASE RESISTANCE HERE AN HEREDITARY CHARACTER?

As to whether this disease resistance is an inherent character and will
be transmitted from generation to generation, or is only the result of
particularly favorable environmental conditions such as soil, light or
moisture, is a point of great practical importance. I believe that
further work will prove that the resistance is heritable, for the
following reasons:

1. The resistance is not due to a particularly favorable environment of
the trees, for the three groups grow in very different soils and under
varying conditions of light and moisture.

2. The finding of the trees in colonies points to a genetic variation.
At first I was unable to account for the grouping of the trees, for I
had expected to find immune or resistant trees singly, here and there.
But if we adopt the hypothesis of a heritable protoplasmic
variation--something in their "blood," so to speak, the explanation is
easy. We know that chestnut fruits or nuts do not travel far, like the
seeds of willow, poplar, maple or ash, and therefore, in any given stand
of chestnut, if we could go back from generation to generation into
earlier time, most probably the majority of the trees would be found to
have arisen from a common ancestor, although of course a few outsiders
would have found their way into the group, carried by squirrels or other
animals.

3. In a considerable number of cases all the members of the same group
of coppice trunks from an old stump show a similar degree of resistance.
To attribute such a condition as due merely to chance, occurring as
often as it does, would be placing a pretty large burden on chance; and
since the coppice trunks are all off-shoots of the same plant, the
condition is what one would expect were the resistant quality in
inherent character. A correspondence of degree of resistance was also
noted, in the inoculations made on branches, trunk, and basal shoots of
the same individual tree.

Experimental work is being carried on at Washington to test out the
truth of this hypothesis, i. e. to see whether or not the disease
resistance is really heritable. The work is being carried on in
connection with the propagation of other resistant stock, Chinese,
Japanese, etc.; and, as soon as the department is sure of the product,
the results will be distributed to nut growers and others who are
interested.

In the meantime we can all help by being on the lookout for resistant
native trees. I believe they will be found in many places besides the
New York region.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Illustration for this paper will be found opposite page 64.

[2] Metcalf, Haven & Collins, J. Franklin. The Control of the Chestnut
Bark Disease. Farmer's Bulletin--467, 1911, P. 5.

[3] Anderson, P. J. & Rankin, W. H., Endothia canker of chestnut.
Cornell Univ. Agri. Expt. Sta. Bulletin 347, 1914.



EVENING SESSION

SANITARIUM GYMNASIUM, at 8:00 P.M.

President Reed in Chair

DR. J. H. KELLOGG: Ladies and Gentlemen: Battle Creek has the
honor today and tomorrow to entertain the Northern Nut Growers'
Association. This association with other associations having similar
purposes, is undertaking to do, it seems to me, one of the most
important things that can be done for the American people--to show us
how we can get our nitrogen, our protein, and our fats without the
livestock industry which is wasting at least nine-tenths of the grain,
or in fact at least nineteen-twentieths of all our foodstuffs. The great
cause of the high cost of living at the present time is that the pigs
and the cattle are eating up our corn and other good things that we
ought to eat ourselves. If we had a sufficient area of land, perhaps
even the sides of our roadways and railways planted out to black walnuts
and other good nut trees, we would have all the protein and fat we
needed, perhaps as much as we are getting now, and more, and the cattle
industry might be entirely dismissed from consideration, and a great
deal of labor would be saved. I am sure that there is no place in the
whole United States where this Association could have a heartier welcome
than here in Battle Creek, or where people could be found who would
appreciate its labors any more. You are going to have a very interesting
program tonight. We are favored with visits from very distinguished
gentlemen from all over the United States, among others Dr. Robert T.
Morris, the nestor of American surgeons has come all the way from New
York to tell us about some wonderful discoveries he has made, and a
fatherless walnut tree he is cultivating, and other things that will be
of great interest to us all I am sure. I take pleasure in introducing to
you the president of this Association, Mr. W. C. Reed, of Vincennes,
Indiana. Mr. Reed.

PRESIDENT REED: We are simply continuing our program. This
afternoon we were in session at the Annex and moved over here this
evening so as to be able to present what we have here so we could
entertain more of you than we could over there to advantage. You know
that most all men have a hobby along some line or other, and those who
constitute our leaders, whom we have to look to, and along the line of
nut trees of different species and so on, we have learned to look to Dr.
Morris as one of the leaders. I have great pleasure in introducing to
you Dr. Robert T. Morris, of New York, who will address you on the
hickory.



NOTES ON THE HICKORIES


ROBERT T. MORRIS, M. D., NEW YORK CITY, N. Y.

When people speak of the "hickory" without qualification, they are apt
to have in mind some one kind of hickory which belonged to their boyhood
environment. All other kinds which they happened to know, were qualified
in some way, very much as the word "fish" in Boston stands for the
codfish only, other kinds of fish in the world being described by
qualifying names. In the northeast the hickory means the shagbark. In
Missouri it means the shellbark. Elsewhere the pignut and the mockernut
are called "hickory." Interest in the subject has increased so rapidly
of late years that we must all of us be more particular in our
descriptions and add qualifying names, speaking always of the shagbark
hickory, pecan hickory, or bitternut hickory as the case may be. Sargent
describes fifteen species of hickory and in addition a large number of
varieties by environment and by hybridization. There is a Mexican
hickory, making sixteen species for the North American continent, and
the late Mr. F. N. Meyer, Agricultural Explorer from Washington, has
found a hickory in China. Previous to this discovery, it was believed
that the hickories belonged to the North American continent only.

Botanists divide the hickories into two groups, Apocarya and Eucarya.
For convenience in every day conversation, it might be well for us to
speak of the "open-bud" group and the "closed bud" group. _Apocarya_ or
the "open bud" group, includes the pecan hickory, _Carya pecan_, the
bitternut hickory, _Carya cordiformis_, the bitter pecan, _Carya
texana_, the water hickory, _Carya aquatica_, the nutmeg hickory, _Carya
myristicaeformis_, and the Chinese hickory, _Carya cathayensis_. The
winter buds of this group will be seen on examination to show the
minute, snugly curled-up leaves which are ready to burst forth when the
springtime sun opens the fronds of the ferns which have forced their way
through the hard ground with clenched fists. The scale buds in the
open-bud group do not cover the tiny leaf forms completely.

In _Eucarya_, or the "closed-bud" group, stout scales close the bud
completely against the snow and ice of wintry days, so that we see
scales only when looking at the bud. The closed-bud hickories include
the shagbark, _Carya ovata_, the Carolina hickory, _Carya
Carolinae-septentrionalis_, the shellbark, _Carya laciniosa_, the
mockernut, _Carya alba_, the smooth-bark hickory, _Carya leiodermis_,
the pallid hickory, _Carya pallida_, the close-bark pignut, _Carya
glabra_, the loose-bark pignut, _Carya ovalis_, the Florida hickory,
_Carya Floridana_, the Buckley hickory, _Carya Buckleyi_, and the
Mexican hickory, _Carya Mexicana_.

Hickories which have nuts with a bitter pellicle, all belong to the
open-bud group. These are the bitternut, Texas hickory, and water
hickory. Hickories with scaly bark are found in both groups. In the
open-bud group, the trunk of the water hickory carries long loose bark
strips attached by one end, and in the closed-bud group, we find this
characteristic belonging to the shagbark, shellbark, Carolina hickory,
and to one of the pignuts, Carya ovalis. That takes us to another
occasion for a note. What do we mean by "pignut?" In the North, this
term is applied to Carya glabra and Carya ovalis. In the South, it is
applied to Carya cordiformis. A name so well established, will have to
be retained, but in our Association it will perhaps be best to have an
understanding about which one of the hickories the common name pignut
should belong. So long as it already covers two species in the North as
opposed to one in the South, there are already two votes to one in favor
of retaining the name pignut for Carya glabra and Carya ovalis. We may
describe these in plain language as the smooth-bark pignut and the
loose-bark pignut. The reason for choosing the name "loose" instead of
"scaly" is because we are pretty well agreed upon applying the name
"scalybark" to the Carolina hickory, the name "shagbark" to Carya ovata,
and the name shellbark to Carya laciniosa. The name bitternut may
safely be allowed to remain with Carya cordiformis because the other two
nuts with bitter pellicle already have distinctive names, Carya aquatica
being called water hickory and Carya texana being called bitter pecan.
By making fixed points in nomenclature in this way we may head off the
confusion which will become worse confounded as the interest in
hickories becomes rapidly enlarged, if our committee on nomenclature
does not take some decisive step.

Concerning Latin nomenclature, we have further troubles for settlement.
Hicoria is the oldest generic name and naturally should have priority
but the Vienna Congress of Botanists adopted Carya. So far so good (or
bad). Now comes our trouble in giving specific and varietal names. The
binomial is clearly applicable enough for species, Carya pecan, for
example, but when we come to varieties of the pecan there are two kinds
of varieties to be considered, those by environment and those by
hybridization. In cases of natural variation we are still within
accepted resources in nomenclature by saying for example, Carya pecan,
var, Stuartii. When naming hybrid varieties, however, I would suggest
that in advance of the abbreviation "var", we place the abbreviation
"hyb." thus reading for Brown's pecan, "Carya pecan, hyb. var. Brownii,"
instead of "Carya Brownii," which latter binomial would throw it among
the species. In view of the fact that we are to have in the future
hundreds of named hybrids, it seems to me that we must adopt some such
definite method for convenience promptly. This method of naming, relates
to convenience and is applied to the most evident parent. As a matter of
fact, in horticultural circles we are doing precisely that sort of
thing, speaking, for example, of "Brown's pecan" meaning a nut which we
recognize as being a hybrid, brought to attention by Brown but with the
pecan as parent most strongly in evidence.

When I was a boy, the only hickory nuts of any sort available, were
those collected from wild trees. The popular boy was one who knew of
some trees which furnished the best nuts and who did not keep the news
to himself. The squirrels knew the best nuts as well as the boys did and
they would go past many hickory trees along fences and groves in order
to congregate in the ones which had the nuts with the thinnest shells
and plumpest meats of best quality. In the early morning hours I have
seen several squirrels in one particularly good hickory nut tree and not
a single squirrel in a tree completely filled with nuts, though its
branches touches those of the first one. Men are quite as intelligent
as squirrels in some respects. Here and there attempts were made at
propagating fine hickory trees of various species by planting nuts. It
was not generally known at that time that the hickories were so
thoroughly crossed like the apples, that they would not reproduce true
to type from seed. Attempts were then made at grafting which were mostly
failures for many years. We are now on the verge of a great development
in hybridization or crossing of choice kinds of hickories and in
determining upon which stocks the different kinds of selected hickories
may be grown to best advantage. Hybrids between varieties of hickories
occur frequently in nature and hybrids between species of hickories
occur occasionally. A number of these accidental hybrids have been
discovered and some of them are now being propagated. For the most part
they do not represent the best quality of the best parent but it is a
notable fact that the bitterness of kinds with the bitter pellicle
appears to be a recessive character and disappears usually from hybrids
between species in which one parent has a bitter nut. Unfortunately, the
finer extractive which give character to the nut of the better parent
are prone to disappear also. This is in line with our experience in
mixing of characters along Mendelian lines. Given a sufficient number of
hybrids and we shall have here and there one with spectacular
characteristics of special value.

Now that horticulturists at the present moment are turning so freely
toward the idea of producing quantities of hybrids artificially, the
next generation will see hickory nuts which were not dreamed of in the
days when I was a boy. The crossing of hickories is not difficult work.
We simply remove the male flowers from branches carrying female flowers
before the male flowers have begun to shed their pollen. The female
flowers are then covered with oiled paper bags tied over them for
protection and when the danger from self pollination has passed, we take
off the bags and add a little pollen which we have kept for the
purpose--pollen from some trees bearing remarkably valuable nuts.

Nuts resulting from this cross pollination when planted, give us new
varieties of trees which never have been seen before by anybody and that
is so interesting that very many people will probably take up
hybridization as an incident in recreation. Some of the hybrids will
bear very early in their history and others very late. If one is
impatient to determine at once which ones are to be valuable, he can
hurry the process by grafting a number of cuttings from young seedling
trees into the tops of larger trees which are already bearing--labeling
each graft, so that he may keep track of the seedling stock from which
it came. It is possible to put one hundred or more seedlings in the top
of some stock tree at one time.

One reason for delay in propagation by grafting is because the hickories
like many other trees are slow in making repair of wounds. Grafts
usually perished before being accepted by the stock under grafting
methods that were in common use. The best step forward in grafting
method for hickories is one that I obtained from Mr. J. F. Jones,
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He tells me that he obtained the method from
its originator, Mr. E. A. Riehl, Godfrey, Illinois. This consisted in
covering the entire graft, buds and all, with melted grafting wax and
including also all of the wound and wrapping of the stock. The buds make
their way through this grafting wax without any difficulty, but the
grafting wax used by Mr. Jones contained lamp black and that used by Mr.
Riehl consisted of a beeswax and rosin mixture. It was found that these
seemed to be applicable in the North but not farther south in the hotter
sun. Examining into the reasons for this, it seemed to me that in all
probability the black grafting wax used by Mr. Jones and the brown or
amber grafting wax used by Mr. Riehl, would naturally allow the heat
rays of the sun to pass through to the graft while halting the actinic
ray of light. The latter is extremely valuable for promoting the
activity of chlorophyl, which acts only in the presence of light and in
the best way in the best light. The heat rays might have certain
destructive qualities. With this theoretical idea of the situation in
mind, I employed melted paraffin in place of the grafting wax, covering
the scions completely as well as the wound in the stock and the
wrappings. This immediately proved to be a success. In fact, it appears
to have changed the entire subject of grafting nut trees in such a way
that any intelligent boy employing this method can now do better hickory
nut grafting than would have been possible at the hands of an expert two
years ago. The melted paraffin fills the interstices in which sap might
collect and ferment, but at the same time, hardening so quickly that it
does not introduce the danger of extension between points of contact
with scion and stock. The second point of value consists in allowing the
actinic ray in the sunlight to act upon the chlorophyl in bud and bark
of the scion and it does not attract the destructive heat ray. This is
perhaps the most important single point of value and due to the
transparency of the paraffin. Third, the paraffin coating, impervious to
air, maintains the sap tension equally in the course of fluctuation
between negative and positive pressures occurring between night and
day, and under varying conditions of light and temperature. This
maintenance of equalised sap tension, I believe to be important. The
paraffin is waterproof and prevents evaporation from the scion, which
otherwise is prone to dry out before granulation of the wound has taken
place in the hickories, as in other species which callus slowly. Fifth,
under the paraffin coating of stock and scion, the plant apparently does
not have that anxiety which would otherwise lead it to introduce the
protective feature of superization, the spreading of a corky layer over
the wound surface between stock and scion, thus introducing a mechanical
obstacle to union.

This method of grafting has extended the grafting season for nearly two
months, apparently. Formerly, I hurried to get all of the grafts in
while buds were bursting, in early May. During the season of 1919 I
grafted hickories up to August sixth experimentally. The last grafts
which caught well in a practical way were put in on July twenty-first.
After that the proportion of catches was small and the growth feeble.
Incidentally, it may be remarked that filberts grafted as late as August
sixth, did perfectly well. The scions employed were cut in late winter
and kept in the sawdust of my icehouse. I formerly supposed that ice
beneath the sawdust was important, but this year I could not get ice and
the scions kept just as well. In July, experiments were tried with
grafting directly from one tree to another, using wood of the season's
growth. This worked well with hazels, but not with hickories or walnuts,
only one out of many hickory grafts catching. That one, however, is
significant and I hope to work out principles which will allow of direct
grafting of hickories as readily as may be done with the hazels.

When a hickory graft is to be inserted into a small stock or branch, the
ordinary cleft graft does well. In stock recipients much larger than the
graft a side cleft of the width of the scion only is desirable, or
better yet the "split bark" method devised by Mr. E. A. Riehl. A
straight split is made in the bark of the end of the stock, and the
graft crowded down into this split so that it remains between bark and
wood finally. My own method for large stocks, is what I have called "the
slot bark method." This consists in turning down a width of stock bark
measuring the same as the scion in width. When the scion has been
inserted into this slot so made, the bark is turned up over it again and
fastened there. By this method I have put scions in the trunks of trees
nearly a foot in diameter and at any chosen point, sometimes several
feet below the ends of cut branches. One may cut off the top of a large
hickory tree and then peg the trunk full of scions by means of bark
slots.

Another important point in hickory propagation work consists in the
employment of the Spanish windlass for fastening graft and stock
together. The old time wrapping of twine or of raffia had to be released
in order to allow growth at the point of union of scion and stock. When
cord is used it cuts deeply into the new growth, and raffia, which is
placed on flat, will be burst open. In either case new wrapping is
required at a precarious time, according to old methods. The Spanish
windlass, which is used in surgery for controlling haemorrage, seemed to
me to be applicable for fastening scions in place. It consists in a
paraffined cord with ends tied in a firm knot but hanging loosely about
the graft and wound. A wooden skewer or any small lever, is then
inserted into the loose loop of cord and twisted about until the part of
the cord about the graft wound is so snug that it holds the scion in
place more firmly than it can be held by any other sort of wrapping. In
order to prevent the cord from cutting into the bark, two shields of
wood or metal an inch in length, are interposed between cord and bark.
The lever of the Spanish windlass is fastened with a cord or with a
galvanized nail in order to prevent the windlass from unwinding and the
whole covered with melted paraffin. This may remain in place for two
seasons without change, holding the scion firmly in place all of that
time and requiring no attention. The growing stock separates the two
shields very much as it might separate two stones in the field and
automatically unwinds the Spanish windlass by sheer force, just enough
to allow growth without any unloosening of its holding apparatus.

In hickory grafting, much experimental work remains to be done in the
choice of stocks for grafts of different species. Almost all of the
hickories that have been grafted upon the pecan hickory stock, seem to
do pretty well upon that stock, but the converse is not true. The pecan
apparently does not do well as a rule when grafted upon other hickory
stocks, even upon those of its cousins in the open-bud group. The
shagbark hickory, in my experience, has done best upon stocks of the
shagbark or mockernut or pignut. A number of years, however, are
required in some cases for determining that point. Shagbarks which I
have grafted upon bitternuts have sometimes made a remarkably good
start. Then at the end of three or four years they begin to slow up,
while shagbarks on shagbark stock, starting slowly at first, surpassed
the ones on bitternut stock finally.

In the spring of 1919, I topworked two trees standing near together and
of about the same size (thirty feet) with Beaver hybrid (a cross between
the bitternut and the shagbark). One of the trees was a bitternut and
the other a pignut. Almost everyone of the grafts of the Beaver grew
thriftily on the bitternut. Those on the pignut stock practically all
caught and made short growth and then began to wilt back. Finally, only
one shoot remained alive. This very striking object lesson will have
bearing in varying degrees in all of our hickory grafting. According to
my experience to date, hybrid hickories are grafted more readily than
are straight species or varieties. They seem to have lost family pride
and seem to take up with any friend offering economic support. In the
case just quoted, however, caprice was shown by the Beaver hybrid which
took eagerly to a host of the species of one of its parents. It refused
to thrive on the pignut which did not represent either one of its
parents although that same pignut stock would have been accepted by
shagbark scions--the shagbark representing the other parent of the
Beaver. This sort of experience throws open the entire subject in such a
large way as to show what possibilities of success and failure lie
before us in experimental work. The same method of grafting, the
paraffin windlass method, was employed for these two trees which were
neighbors.

Interesting experimental work is to be done in finding the extent to
which different species and varieties of hickories may be grown out of
their indigenous range. At Stamford, the bitter pecan from Texas,
appears to be perfectly hardy but it makes very slow growth--sometimes
less than an inch in a year. The Buckley hickory also from Texas, grows
thriftly at Stamford and so does the Carolina hickory Pecans from the
northern belt thrive at Merribrooke, but those from the southern belt
have such a long growing season, that their new wood is not yet
sufficiently well lignified to stand the winter well. Some of them pull
through a mild winter in fairly good order, but on the whole they do not
thrive.

The commercial side of hickory raising, is being worked out for the
pecan only at the present time. We may assume that several of the other
species of hickory adapted to growing in the north, will equal pecans in
importance, eventually. The reason for that is because some of the other
hickories stand quite as high as the pecan in food value and general
excellence. At the time of writing, low grade seedling shellbark nuts
from the West are selling in the retail market in New York for forty
cents a pound. I have seen better nuts of this species being loaded on
the cars in Ohio at fifty cents a bushel. The present New York price, to
be sure, represents a profiteering war price. Fine grades of shagbark
hickories and some of the hybrids will command prices equally high with
prices for best pecans in the market of to-morrow.

VOICE: Will it be practical to plant nuts, get young plants,
and then bud or graft them?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, that is what we do. It is practical to plant
nuts for the purpose of getting a stock, but not for the purpose of
getting nuts. But we plant them in the nursery rows, and then when they
are two years old, preferably (some like three-year-old trees), we graft
them over to good kinds in the nursery row; then they remain there for a
year or two, and are transferred or sold. We now have members of this
association who are experts in grafting nut trees who make that a
business. It is not generally known that we have in this country three
journals devoted wholly to the subject of nut culture. We have
nurserymen who make a specialty of grafted nut trees of the very best
sorts, so that one may perhaps take up this mode of farming more
profitably today than almost any other sort of farming. One gentleman in
Pennsylvania told me he made thirty thousand dollars on one crop of
chestnuts two years ago, cultivated chestnuts. He had thirty acres, and
no tree was yet fourteen years of age. His net profit beyond all
expenses was thirty thousand dollars that year. There are probably very
few professional men who make more than that a year. Many men are making
good, comfortable incomes out of their nut orchards. It is the best
insurance against the needs of old age, the best sort of life insurance.

VOICE: Do you use anything besides the hickory as stock for
grafting on?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, we have some experimenting to do in order to
learn which stock will best serve for a certain variety. We find that
one species or variety of hickory will accept other varieties of that
species well, but perhaps it will not accept another species. We do know
that certain kinds do remarkably well on certain stocks; but the entire
range of that subject has not as yet been worked out.

QUESTION: Does the stock you graft on have any effect on the
quality of the fruit?

DR. MORRIS: The stock on which you graft is supposed to have no
effect at all on the quality of the fruit. But there are some
exceptions. We learned that in orange grafting. A naval orange grafted
on the wild orange stock might be raggy, not full of juice; while when
grafted on the trifoliate orange stock might be heavy and full of juice.
So in that case the stock did have some influence upon the graft; and
there are other instances. But as a rule we assume that the stock has no
influence upon the graft in regard to the validity of character.

QUESTION: Are pecans a variety of hickory?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, pecans are hickories. The Indians gave it the
name of pekan. The French spelled it pecanne, so that has been spelled
as the pecan, without the necessary other part of its name, hickory. We
should always say pecan hickory--always.

DR. KELLOGG: Dr. Morris, how old hickories may be used for
grafting?

DR. MORRIS: I have experimented with trees up to fifty years of
age; but the most satisfactory work, perhaps, is done with trees that
are not more than fifteen or twenty years of age and three or four or
five inches in diameter. Those are the best trees to work with. If we
cut off the limbs of a very old tree and try to top work it, it means an
enormous amount of work on the part of the orchardist, more work than my
employees like to give it. But one may topwork a tree of almost any age,
preferably a tree less than twenty-five years of age; and by choice I
should say trees not more than ten years of age. We have experts in the
audience better qualified to speak on that subject than I am.

QUESTION: Do you prefer the melted paraffin to the
old-fashioned way of using bees wax?

DR. MORRIS: The old-fashioned beeswax had a certain color, and
the black wax with charcoal, with lampblack, both turned the light ray
and allowed the heat ray to enter so that the amber of the old resin
wax, and the black of the black wax both allowed damage to occur to the
tree, in the South particularly, in a hot climate early in the summer,
prevented our grafting in the summer because of the turning away of the
light ray that was wanted and the absorption of the heat ray that was
not wanted. The melted paraffin being perfectly transparent, allows the
light ray to set the chlorophyl into activity. All the life processes of
the tree are carried on under the influence of the green chlorophyl
grains, and these work only in the presence of light.

QUESTION: Can you successfully graft a pecan on the pignut?

QUESTION: What is the best stock to graft pecan on?

DR.MORRIS: Pecan stock, I think. I do not think we have
anything better. Mr. Reed and Mr. Jones are both experts in that field.
They have grafted hundreds of thousands of trees.

PRESIDENT REED: I think the pecan is the best. The hickory will
grow on the pecan very well, the shagbark hickory, but it will not do to
change it with any degree of success.

DR. MORRIS: The shagbarks will grow fairly well on pecans, but
the pecan not well on the shagbark. It is best I think to put shagbarks
on shagbark or shellbark. But they do well on pignut. I have got some
very good shagbarks on mockernut. On bitternut they grow fast, but at
the end of eight or ten years are inclined to slow up. Shagbark can be
put on, I suppose, ten other kinds of hickory, but the pecan can not.

QUESTION: How many grafts would be necessary on a nut tree
twelve inches in diameter?

DR. MORRIS: I should say you would probably have to put in
fifty. I would cut off the branches down to about two inches or an inch
and a half in diameter, and that might leave fifty stubs to graft. Graft
all of them, is one way to do it. Having done one that way, you will
then become familiar with the entire subject.

QUESTION: What is the best time of year?

DR. MORRIS: I don't know. Some time ago the American
Agriculturist said to its readers that there is disagreement about the
best time for pruning peach trees. Let us hear from all our readers. So
all of the readers wrote expressing their opinions, and the editor
said, "Summing up all of the opinions, the entire testimony in the case,
we have decided that the time to prune your peach tree is when your
knife is sharp." I had always supposed that the best time for grafting
was when the buds were first bursting in the spring, always held rigidly
to that, and at that time of the year was in a great hurry. I dropped
professional work and lost hundreds and even thousands of dollars in
order to see this work go ahead; it is more interesting than
professional work. And now this year, with this new method, I have
grafted right straight on up to the first of August, and everything
growing--deliberately, all through the summer. So that now, at the
present moment I do not know. A year ago I could have told you. When I
first graduated in medicine, I could answer any question in medicine.
After forty years of surgery, I am puzzled over a great many questions.
It is the same way regarding grafting.

QUESTION: In summer grafting do you remove the leaves from
scions?

DR. MORRIS: In summer grafting I have used for the most part
scions I have kept in the icebox in sawdust. I have formerly put in
twenty or thirty tons in my icehouse for my family to use during the
summer. Last winter we could not get any ice, and my scions were just as
good kept in the sawdust as if we had had ice; and I grafted those
scions in August and the grafts are living. I have also cut off the
leaves in grafting, but that is new and you can not depend on it,--stop
at one tree, cut off a piece of it, and put it on another tree and have
it grow. I have never done that until this year, and it does not succeed
in a very large percentage. It is not practical. It can be done--I have
proven that; but it is not practical. The best way is to use your scions
from last year that have been kept in cold storage in sawdust or leaves.

DR. KELLOGG: When should the scions be cut?

DR. MORRIS: There is some disagreement about that. Almost all
scions may suffer a little winter injury. Some men prefer to cut in the
early part of December before we have had any hard winter, then keep
them in cold storage during the entire year, moderately moist, or
protected in sand, leaves, or stratification. But I have always
preferred February myself, cutting them the last of February before the
buds begin to start, then put them in sawdust in the icehouse or cold
storage, or bury them under a thick layer of leaves. For budding you
transfer immediately. In fact, budding technically comes under the same
physiologic principles as grafting. In budding I do that work in my
place at Stamford, Conn., about the latter part of July or early August.

DR. KELLOGG: Do you use the same method in transferring buds?

DR. MORRIS: Yes, I fix them the same way as I do the graft and
cover everything with paraffin. I have even had a little short side
graft grow using this paraffin method, a graft two or three inches long.

DR. KELLOGG: Tell us about those fatherless walnuts.

DR. MORRIS: In the course of crossing the nut trees, we
supposed, as a matter of course, that we must always have the pollen
from one tree, or from a tree which bore the staminate or fertilizing
flowers, in order to develop nuts or fruit of any sort; but on one
occasion I covered a lot of Chinkapin female flowers with paper bags; I
didn't have pollen enough to go around and left the bags on because I
happened to be too lazy or too busy to pull them off. About a month
later when I did take them off I found a full set of chinkapin nuts
under those bags. They had received no pollen. That was an observation
of a good deal of interest. It may have been that they had gone on by
what we call parthenogenesis, and we had the children without the
father, had the female parent only, the fatherless chinkapin. It sounds
sad. I followed up the experiment with other nut trees, and found that
not infrequently we may develop fatherless nuts. The effect will be,
according to natural law, to intensify the characteristics of one
parent. The female which bears this fruit, this child, without a father,
will give to that child an intensification of her own characteristics.
That will be the effect of parthenogenesis. That may be continued
through several generations perhaps; we do not know. It is new, quite
new. (Applause).

PRESIDENT REED: The next topic is the Digestibility of Nuts, by
Mr. Cajorie, of Yale University.



THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NUTS

F. A. CAJORIE, YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN, CONN.


Mr. President and members of the Northern Nut Growers' Association: It
was with great pleasure that I accepted the invitation of your
Association to be present at this convention and give a discussion of
nuts and nut production, from the point of view of their nutritive or
food value. During the last few years our knowledge of nutrition and the
parts that individual foods may play in the diet has been greatly
increased and in the light of the new discoveries, it is interesting and
valuable to view the place that nuts hold.

As you are well aware, nuts have been used as foods by the peoples of
the world. In many places nut products have made up a very appreciable
part of the diet. Chestnut flour is extensively used in Southern Europe.
Among the peasants of Tuscany, chestnut flour forms a considerable part
of the total diet. In this region, also ground acorns are made into
bread with cereal flours and in this form is a common food. The hazel or
filbert nut is also seen in the form of flour on the shores of the Black
Sea. Races living in the tropics have utilized the many varieties of
nuts indigenous to tropical climes such as the coconut, Brazil nuts,
Java almond, Paradise nut, candle nut and African cream nut. In the
Orient, the lichi, ginko and water chestnut, and in Italy and India the
varieties of the pine nut are used to considerable extent.

In America, with the exception of a few localities and among a limited
class of people, nuts have never made up a staple part of our dietaries,
rather they have been used as tasty supplements to otherwise complete
menus. That they are prized as adjuncts and are sought after is
strikingly shown when we see in our markets not only the products of our
native American nut trees, the hickory, walnut, butternut, chestnut,
pecan, beechnut and pinion, but the Brazil nut, filbert, English walnut,
peanut, coconut, all of which are derived from foreign countries or from
trees originally imported to America from other lands.

Analysis of nuts have shown them to be of two types, one rich in fats
and protein, the nitrogen containing component of our foods and the
other relatively rich in carbohydrates, or starches. With the exception
of the chestnut, and the coconut, most of our more common nuts belong to
this first class, and chemists have pointed out that in these nuts we
have a concentration of protein and fat seen in no other class of
foodstuffs. For example, the protein-fat rich nuts have a percentage of
protein varying between 15 and 30% and a fat content of 50-70%; compare
this with other foods that we think of as being concentrated; eggs, 12%
protein and 10% fat; cheese 28% protein, 37% fat; round steak, 20%
protein, 14% fat; and bread, 10% protein. This nutritive concentration
in nuts places them in a unique position among our natural food
products. Our cereals, meats, fruit and vegetables all contain more or
less water or refuse that reduces their concentration, while in nuts we
find a compact form of almost pure food.

We are dependent on foods for the source of energy that is necessary to
perform our work and maintain our body temperature much in the same way
that a steam engine is dependent on the fuel supplied it to perform the
mechanical tasks assigned to it, and this fuel value of foods in turn,
depends on the amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat, particularly the
latter, that are present in the foods. At once we see, in our
concentrated nuts, a tremendous source of energy, provided that we can
digest these nuts and make this energy available.

Despite the fact, as revealed by chemical analysis, that in nuts we have
a source of protein and fat in a concentration rarely seen in foods,
there have been relatively few experiments to actually determine the
digestibility. Prof Jaffa at the California Experiment Station was the
first to make a comprehensive investigation along these lines. He made
extensive digestion tests on men using most of the more common American
nuts. His results, as reported in a bulletin of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, indicated that nuts when they made up a substantial portion
of the diet, were well digested by those who ate them and gave no
intestinal disturbance or discomfort.

Nuts have had a reputation for indigestibility that was wide spread, not
only among people in general, but also among physicians and dieticians,
and even Prof Jaffa's clear cut experiments failed to dispell this idea
of indigestibility that had been empirically assigned to nuts. A few
years ago, a rather extensive series of digestion experiments were
inaugurated at Yale University in an effort to settle this question of
the indigestibility of nuts and also to test out some of the commercial
nut products to find what effect roasting, boiling, and other processes
that nuts are subjected to, had to do with the digestibility. Through
the courtesy of Dr Kellogg of Battle Creek, it was possible to follow up
these experiments with a series here at Battle Creek. It is the result
of these tests that I wish to speak of today. One word regarding the
method which is the conventional one for such experiments. The amount of
food eaten by the individual or animal is weighed at each meal and the
composition determined by chemical analysis. The intestinal output is
collected, weighed and analysed. From the difference in any substance
such as protein in the food and the protein which appears in the body
refuse, the amount digested and absorbed or utilized by the body is
easily determined. For example; if 10gms. of nitrogen were eaten in the
food and one gm appears in the feces, we say that the coefficient of
digestibility of that nitrogen is 90%, that is 9 of the 10 gms. eaten
were absorbed by the body. The average of a great many such tests on
mixed diets has the following standard coefficient: protein 93%, fat
95%, and carbohydrates 98%.

Our digestion experiments show the following results: for protein
digestion of nuts, almond 89%, peanut 84%, pine nut 89%, Eng. walnut,
83%, Brazil 88%, and coconut 88%. In all cases the carbohydrate
coefficients are 98 or 99%, and in the case of the carbohydrate rich
chestnut, normal digestion took place after the nut was heated so as to
rupture the starch granules. In all of these cases the nut made up a
substantial part of each meal and was eaten in large amounts. The
experimental subject, experienced no digestive troubles or discomforture
whatsoever except in the case of the English walnut, which evidently
contains some irritating substance that causes diarrhea. Except for the
pecan which gave rather low utilization, the protein of nuts was
digested to a high degree that compares most favorably with our ordinary
foodstuffs.

How then explain the undoubted discomforture that many people experience
after eating nuts? I believe that the explanation rests on the fact that
our common American way of eating nuts, is not the rational way. We
would not consider topping off a heavy meal with eggs, meats or cereals
or to eat these in large quantities between meals realizing that we are
exposing ourselves to possible digestive discomfort. No more then, can
we expect to so eat nuts which are even more concentrated or "heavy"
than meat or eggs without occasional discomfort. Unpleasant results from
so eating does not condemn the nuts as indigestible, rather it condemns
our mode of using that nut. Further, we must recognize that the nut is a
hard, compact substance and that unless completely masticated, is not
readily penetrated by the digestive juices of the alimentary canal. This
was very well brought out in our experiment with dogs. The dog bolts his
food and where there were large fragments of the nut in the food, they
appeared almost unchanged in the feces, while if the nut is ground fine
before feeding, it was readily digested. Comparisons of nut butters and
nut pastes with the whole nut also brought out this point. The
completely commuted nut butters showed consistently higher degrees of
digestion than the whole nut.

With the exception of the starch rich chestnut, the heating of the nut
did not seem to effect the digestibility whether this heat was boiling,
steaming or roasting. The raw nut apparently is as well digested as the
heated products. No differences were found between nut butters whether
the process involved steaming or roasting of the nut. I am not speaking
of the enhancing of the flavor that heating may bring about, but only of
the digestibility.

Dr. Longworthy and his co-workers in the Dept. of Agriculture have
investigated in recent years the digestibility of many vegetable oils,
among them nut oils, and have found as high a percent of utilization
with these as with butter and our other common animal food fats.

I believe that we are fully justified in the conclusion that nuts and
nut products, if rationally used in our diets, are as digestible and
fully as valuable from a nutritional point of view as our other
foodstuffs.

While we can now definitely speak of the high digestibility of nuts, it
is necessary to consider other phases of the part played by foods in
nutrition. The fact that a food after being taken into the body can be
broken up by the digestive juices of the alimentary tract, and the
products absorbed, as we have found, to be the case with the nuts, is
not the end of the story of the function of that food.

About fifteen years ago, it was discovered that during the progress of
digestion, the protein materials are reduced by the digestive juices of
our stomachs and intestines to smaller chemical compounds, and that it
is these smaller fragments of the protein molecule that are absorbed
into the blood and are used to build up our muscles and tissues. These
fragments or "building stones" as they have been fancifully called, are
all of a distant class of chemical compounds known to chemists as amino
acids. Eighteen of these acids have been found as the products of
protein digestion.

We may conceive of our bodies as being continually supplied with a mass
of these 18 building stones from which it selects the kind and number
that it needs to repair the everyday wear and tear of the tissues and in
the case of the growing child builds new structures.

Since the date of this important discovery regarding the fate of
indigested protein, it has been found that with few exceptions, the body
is not able to manufacture these amino acids or to change one kind into
another, and must depend on the protein eaten, for a supply of the
various kinds that go to make up the body protein. Further it has been
found, that many of our commonly used food proteins do not contain all
18 of these amino acids components. In some foods one, two, and
sometimes more are lacking, or if present are in very small amounts. If
our diet contained only proteins of an inferior grade, we can picture
our body requiring building stones of various kinds to maintain the
structure of the body and unable to obtain them due to the poor quality
of the food, protein. Nutritional failure would be the result. The
proteins then must be of the right quality as well as present in the
proper quantities, to prevent mal-nutrition. Bearing in mind these
facts, it is necessary in studying a food such as our nuts, to determine
the kind of protein the individual nut contains as well as to know
whether or not it can be digested by the body.

During the past few years, it has been found that we must have in our
foods a certain amount of substances whose chemical nature is at present
unknown and to which the name of vitamines has been given. It is not my
purpose to discuss with you the many phases of vitamines and their
relation to nutrition, but I only wish to impress upon you the fact that
it is of the utmost importance for a dietary to contain these
substances; fully as important as that the protein, fat, carbohydrate,
and inorganic salt content shall be satisfactory. Lack of these
vitamines brings on various evidences of mal-nutrition. One vitamine
which is found in animal fats and the leaves of plants and is soluble
in, and associated with fats, is, for that reason, called fat soluble
vitamine. Another called the water soluble vitamine is widely
distributed in cereal seeds, vegetables, and legumes. The third, the
so-called antiscorbutic vitamine because of its action as preventative
and cure for scurvy, is found in certain fruits and vegetables.

We then ask the next question: Are nuts adequate as far as their
proteins contain these essential amino acids, and do nuts contain
vitamines? That is, is their biological value as satisfactory as their
digestibility?

Dr. Hoobler of Detroit, in a study of the diets of lactating mothers and
wet nurses, a year or so ago, compared the value of proteins from animal
and vegetable sources for the elaboration of milk. He found that a
mixture of the almond, English walnut, peanut and pecan, furnished
proteins that were equal to the animal food tried, and far superior to
other vegetable proteins. Here then is evidence that nuts provide the
necessary building stones to form milk that food par excellence for the
newly born individual. Drs. Mendel and Osborn, experimenting on white
rats have shown that the principle proteins of the Brazil nut will
maintain animals through the growing period. Bureau of Chemistry workers
and others have found similar results with the coconut and the peanut. I
have now, experiments underway at New Haven, on the biological value of
the filbert, English walnut, pine nut, almond, and pecan. While these
tests are yet incompleted, it can at least be said that to date there is
no evidence that the proteins of these nuts are in any way less
satisfactory than those of the peanut or Brazil nut that have been
thoroughly tested out.

As to the vitamine content, abundant quantities of water soluble
vitamine have been found in the peanut and the coconut. Experiments that
we have in progress as well as a series conducted here at Battle Creek
under Dr. Kellogg's direction give promise to increase this list of
vitamine containing nuts to include at least many of our common nuts.
Along with our vegetable oils in general, coconut oil and peanut oil
contain insufficient quantities of the fat soluble vitamine to maintain
growth in young animals. Whether the other nut oils will prove more
efficacious in this respect, is now under investigation. As far as I am
aware, the antiscorbutic properties of nuts have not been studied.

With the population of the world on a steady increase, it continually
becomes necessary for mankind to seek out new sources of food, and
utilize products that formerly had received little attention as possible
foods. Conditions that disturb normal food production and distribution,
such for example as were brought about by the world war, produce serious
food shortages in the world, and emphasize how close is the margin that
determines whether the peoples of the world have adequate quantities of
food or whether they are faced by shortages, and, in many cases, by
starvation. In this continual development of our food resources, nuts
stand out prominently as offering possibilities which are very great.
Not only do they represent a very concentrated form of food which is
highly digestible, but they possess a number of characteristic and
highly pleasing flavors that recommends them for use in all manner of
culinary procedures. The variety of uses to which nuts can be put in the
kitchen is amply demonstrated right here in Dr. Kellogg's sanitarium and
I feel sure that even he has not exhausted the possibilities of nuts in
the dietary. The forms of nut products on the market are steadily
increasing. The nut butters, nut pastes, nut margarines, meat
substitutes, and so forth, all point to the variety of ways that nuts
can be handled as foods.

The tremendous increase in the use of nut oils in the form of the oil
itself and as nut margarines within the last few years is a striking
example of the utilization on a large scale of relatively new food
products. The press cake which remains as a by-product of this oil
industry finds ready use as concentrates for cattle feeds. Many of our
ideas in the feeding of our domestic animals are undergoing development
along with the idea of human nutrition. Just recently, investigators at
the Wisconsin Experiment Station, reported that the well known "home
grown ration" for dairy cows that consist of cereals, silage and hay, is
not a large milk producing diet. Their recommendation is to supplement
this ration with protein concentrates. Nut meals recommend themselves
most highly as protein concentrates. It certainly is safe to say that
the day when the fruits of our nut bearing trees will be allowed to fall
ungathered from the trees, is at an end.

There are many problems that still call for an answer by the chemist and
dietitian. The nutritive value of the individual nuts should be firmly
established in all its phases. The causes that have made the use of
certain nuts unprofitable commercially, should be studied with the view
of correcting these stumbling blocks. For example, the freeing of the
horse-chestnut from its poisonous saponins and enable us to use this
starch rich nut as food is well within the range of possibility as
indicated by experiments conducted in Austria during the war. Why do nut
oils tend to become rancid easily and can this tendency be remedied? Is
the freeing of the acorn and its tannin and other objectionable
substances a practical consideration? What is the irritating principle
of the English walnut?

All these problems and many others wait solution. Research on nuts is in
progress in many places. It involves time consuming experiments that are
often times expensive. As a result, progress is slow, the amount of
research being limited by the financial factor. The value of the pecan
nut crop alone of the year 1918, was over 91 million dollars and the
value of the imports and exports of nuts and nut products during the
same year amounted to over 51 million dollars. If one one-hundredth of
one per cent of this sum should be devoted by those interested in the
development of our nut industry in this country for the study of the
nutritional and chemical properties of nuts, I feel sure that they would
be amply repaid for their investment.

PRESIDENT REED: I believe this will complete our program for
tonight. We have quite a full program for tomorrow morning. Mr. C. A.
Reed, nut culturist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, is with us
and was to have been on the program tonight, but he has been busy all
day and was hardly ready for tonight's program, as he has been busy
getting the exhibit in order, and he will be on the program tomorrow
morning, and three or four others, among them Dr Kellogg, I believe, so
that there will be quite a full morning's program, and we will be glad
to have all of you come who can. We meet in the parlor of the Annex at
ten o'clock tomorrow morning. If any one desires to join the Association
and will speak to the secretary, he will give yow the necessary
information.

END OF TUESDAY EVENING SESSION


       *       *       *       *       *


WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1919, 10:00 A.M.

PRESIDENT W. C. REED IN THE CHAIR

PRESIDENT REED: Mr. O. C. Simonds of Chicago will talk to you
on "Nut Trees in Landscape work."



NUT TREES AND BUSHES IN LANDSCAPE WORK

O. C. SIMONDS, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS


In considering material for landscape work the places that come to mind
where such work would be required are home grounds, highways, parks,
cemeteries, school grounds, city squares and woods. The highways would
include city streets, parkways, usually called boulevards, and country
roads.

All trees are beautiful and should serve in some place in landscape
work. Some_are more beautiful than others and where but few trees can be
used the more beautiful would naturally be chosen.


BLACK WALNUTS

Not long ago, a lawyer was talking to me about the beauty of black
walnuts. To his mind there is no tree more beautiful and from what he
said, he would use it almost to the exclusion of other trees. My own
judgment does not fully coincide with his although I consider a black
walnut a very attractive tree. It grows to a large size and is generally
healthy. Its shape is good and the foliage attractive in summer. The
leaves drop early and they are not especially attractive in autumn
coloring. Black walnuts are strong in appearance. They lack the
gracefulness of the elm and if I were making a list of trees in the
order of their appearance, placing the most beautiful first and the
least attractive last, I should place several trees ahead of the black
walnut, among them sugar maples, elms and several of the oaks. Perhaps
the black walnut would come about in the center of the list for most
locations. The list itself would vary for different situations and
climates. I should advise using black walnuts plentifully along the
highways, especially country roads, and somewhat sparingly in home
grounds and the other locations which I have named. By plentifully, I
do not mean to the exclusion of other trees, for, in some places, there
should be more elms and maples than black walnuts, but highways are so
extensive that many kinds of trees could be used in abundance to give
shade. In woods there are places where black walnuts could be used in
profusion.

The objections that one might raise to the use of black walnuts would
be, first, the comparatively short season of the leaves. These come out
rather late in the spring and drop early, probably these trees can not
be improved very much in this respect. Second, boys will sometimes throw
sticks at the trees to bring down the nuts. If a boy comes in home
grounds to do this, he will be considered a nuisance. Branches are
sometimes broken and the trees disfigured from this cause. Along
highways this objection might perhaps be lessened somewhat by planting
enough trees so that there would be more nuts than the boy would want,
or by improving the manner of the boy. Third, the trees are often
attacked by caterpillars. This objection can usually be obviated by
spraying or destroying the pests in other ways.


BUTTERNUTS

The remarks made about the black walnut would apply in many ways to the
butternut, its nearest relative. Butternuts have a range extending
further north and they are more subject to disease than the black
walnuts. Like the walnut, their leaves come out late and drop early.
They are subject to the attacks of boys. When healthy, they are
attractive in appearance and they deserve to be planted in most places
where trees are used for landscape effect, but in the list I suggested,
they would come below the black walnut.


HICKORIES

There is a time of the year when the shagbark, which produces such sweet
nuts, would be more attractive than any neighboring tree. It is when the
big buds swell and send out yellowish green leaves surrounded by large,
red bracts. At this time they are as showy and as beautiful as any
flowers. The bracts soon fall, but the leaves turn a rich green and are
attractive until early fall, when they are sometimes yellow, and
sometimes drop without any marked coloring. The trunk of the hickory is
unique in appearance as the bark separates from the tree in long
platelike strips which hang on at one end and give the scraggly
appearance from which the tree derives its name. All of the hickories
are attractive in appearance, but some of them drop their leaves early.
The hickories are difficult to transplant but this is nothing against
the beauty of the tree. An established tree is more valuable on this
account. In some places hickories are quite subject to disease or to the
attacks of borers. Like the walnuts, hickories which produce edible nuts
are subject to the attacks of boys, but, on account of the toughness of
the wood and the roughness of the bark, they are usually quite able to
withstand these attacks. Hickories are suitable for use in all landscape
work so far as their appearance is concerned. The fact that they are not
so used is due to the difficulty of transplanting them. In the fall when
a maple tree has colored up beautifully and a hickory near it has
dropped its leaves, we are apt to compare the two unfavorably to the
latter, but we should remember the appearance in summer and especially
when the leaves first unfold. Hickory trees are beautiful also when the
leaves are off, their branches making beautiful etchings against the sky
in winter. The pecan, which is the largest of all hickories, is an
exception to the general rule because it is planted quite extensively,
especially in the South. It is a beautiful tree and where it is hardy
there is no reason why it should not be used as a street tree, a tree in
home grounds, in parks, or any other place where deciduous trees are
needed. It is raised extensively in some nurseries, while the other
hickories are raised very sparingly, and some not at all.


THE BEECH

Some would consider the beech the most beautiful of all nut trees. Its
comparatively smooth, bluish-gray bark makes it a distinctive tree at
all seasons. Its branches, spreading straight out from the trunk, give
it an appearance of strength. Its fine branches form a specially
pleasing skyline, its sharp buds are trim and neat in appearance, its
leaves are beautiful in shape and texture. Their fall coloring, while
not as brilliant as that of the maples, is really beautiful, being
either yellow or a rich brown. The leaves are apt to hang on all winter,
especially on the younger growth, and then they often turn a straw
color. If a list of beautiful trees for February were to be made, I am
rather inclined to think that the beech would stand at the head of the
list. A young beech with its bluish-gray bark, its straw colored leaves,
and flecks of snow here and there, seems to me the most beautiful of all
deciduous trees in winter. The young leaves also are especially
attractive when they first appear and the blossoms are sometimes objects
of interest, although not showy in color.


HAZELNUTS

Often in old pastures one finds forlorn, scraggly looking bushes and is
told they are hazelnut bushes. One would not pick out bushes like these
to plant in his front yard, and yet, when given a chance, there is
scarcely a more attractive shrub than the hazel. It is one of the first
shrubs to blossom, the staminate flowers hanging in slender, graceful
yellowish-brown catkins, while the pistillate flowers are little points
of purplish-red protruding from the buds. These blossoms appear long
before the leaves. The latter, when fully developed, are beautiful in
outline and soft in texture and they have a rich coloring in the fall
including various shades of yellow and red. The hazel should certainly
be used extensively in landscape work. The nuts, with their leaflike
involucres, are attractive in appearance in August and September. In
connection with our own hazel one would naturally think of the filbert,
which is a European relative. The filbert is often planted for ornament.
There is a variety with purple leaves which some people admire.


THE OAKS

Of all our native trees, I think the oak excels in beauty of foliage. By
many oaks might not be considered nut trees, but nearly all of the
acorns are eaten by squirrels or other wild animals and so I think it
would be proper to mention oaks when speaking of nut trees in the
landscape. In the northern states we have two groups known as the white
oak group and the red oak group. The trees of the former have soft, dull
green leaves with rounded lobes, while those of the latter have shiny
leaves with lobes ending in points of filaments. The former mature their
acorns in one year, while the latter require two years to bring them to
maturity. The acorns of the white group are sweet, while those of the
red group are more or less bitter. The foliage of all oaks is attractive
when it first appears, the small leaves varying in color from almost
white through pink, yellow, and red to the deepest purple. Perhaps the
red oak excels all other trees in the beauty of its summer foliage and
its leaves are also richly colored in autumn. The Bur Oak, in addition
to having attractive foliage, has a rough, dark bark that gives it an
attractive appearance in winter. The white oak, especially when young,
holds many of its leaves in spring and these with their brown color,
give a warmth to the snowy landscape. One could make a most beautiful
park by planting nothing but oaks and they should rank with maples and
elms as street trees.


CHESTNUTS

There is a tree which a few years ago would have been considered along
with the oak in landscape work, but which now would not be thought of in
certain regions on account of a disease which has practically destroyed
it. This tree is the American chestnut. It grows to a large size, and if
it were not for this disease, would be worthy of a place in any park.
Hundreds of thousands of dollars have been spent without success in
endeavoring to exterminate the disease. Some of the introduced varieties
are apparently exempt from this disease, but only the future can tell
whether the chestnut will again become valuable in landscape work as
well as in the raising of food and lumber.

In designing landscapes, we think first of open spaces and then bound
these spaces with trees and shrubs having pleasing shapes and foliage.
The tops of these trees form the skyline and the lower growth a margin
of lawns, or perhaps of walks and drives. For these purposes the
beeches, hickories, hazels, walnuts and butternuts are all valuable,
their value being approximately in the order named.


HORSE CHESTNUTS AND BUCKEYES

There may be some question about including these in a list of nut trees.
I understand, however, that the seeds of all of these trees have been
used for feeding stock and perhaps some way may be found for making them
available as food for men and women. There is no question about their
usefulness for ornamental trees. In Europe, the horse chestnut has been
used extensively for park and boulevard planting and it is also largely
used in the United States. There are several varieties. The leaves
appear early, the blossoms coming out later. Our own buckeyes are
handsome in appearance and all are adapted for use in landscape work.

The arguments for and against the use of nut trees in landscape work
would be somewhat similar to such arguments regarding fruit trees. A
luscious fruit tree like the snow apple, would be omitted from the list
of trees for the park, not because it lacks beauty, but because its
fruit would lead to its destruction. Apple trees might, however, be very
appropriate for private grounds. They have sometimes given a name to a
home, as "The Orchard". The same is true of certain nut trees, "Walnut
Hill," and "Hickory Grove" being not uncommon. The hazel, too, is
frequently used in naming home grounds, streets or localities. A name
would not be used in this way unless the object bearing it was held in
esteem. I am glad there is an association to encourage the raising of
nut trees and I hope to see such trees used in this way extensively, for
the purpose of developing attractive scenery as well as for food
production.

MR SIMONDS: When Mr. Bixby asked me to prepare a paper and come
here and read it, I wrote back I would prepare a paper and send to him
to read; and afterwards Mr. Reed came to see me, and knowing that he
would be here, I concluded I would come. I dictated a paper and
afterwards I found I had left out a few nut trees, and I want to speak
just a word regarding those before I read my paper. One of those is the
coconut palm. I was thinking more particularly of trees in this locality
when I dictated the paper; but the coconut tree aside from raising the
coconuts, I think is the most magnificent palm that we have. There are
other trees that some like better, but I think the coconut palm is the
most picturesque, the finest tree to plant. I prefer it to the other
large palms. It has great spreading leaves, sometimes fifteen or twenty
feet long, a feathery top, and the trunk is not quite straight, and I
like it a little better because it is not. Then here is the English
walnut. I did not speak in my paper about the English walnut, but there
is a tree that is a beautiful tree, and where it is hardy it should of
course be planted for ornament as well as for the nuts. And then there
is the almond which we do not have here as a nut tree, but which they
have in California, which has some attractions, and might be planted,
although it is really not so ornamental as some of the nut trees; still
it is worth planting. (Applause).

PRESIDENT REED: Are there any questions you would like to ask
Mr. Simonds while he is with us, or is there any discussion?

DR. MORRIS: There are two or three points for discussion. Mr.
Simonds does not think highly of the almond. I do for decorative
purposes. When I drive in my driveway at Stamford and face that
magnificent blaze of blazing clouds of almonds in the springtime, I
think it is something worth while; it is the hard shelled almond. It
will grow as far north as the peach does. The only trouble is they are a
little more subject to leaf blight and need a little more attention. But
where the peach will grow you can raise the almond profitably. Among the
hazel nuts the most beautiful of the entire series is the tree hazel
that grows about as large as the smaller oaks, and that is said to bear
twenty-five or thirty bushels of hazelnuts a year,--enormous crops. That
is perfectly hardy here, and the beauty of the tree is such that I
believe it to be a very important addition. I would like to hear Mr.
Jones' opinion on that point. I use it for grafting purposes for other
hazels. The Japanese walnuts, almost tropical in their rapid growth,
sometimes grow six feet in a year in rich ground, and with their great
sprays of leaves sometimes a yard in length, and the seedballs of the
heart nut variety give really a tropical appearance to the grounds where
the ground is rich enough. They will grow almost any place, but in rich
ground they are certainly very wonderful. Among the chestnuts, of
course, we have a number of hybrids now that resist blight very well;
and the little chinkapins for lawn bushes are very attractive. One of
our most beautiful chestnuts is splendid for a lawn specimen and is
evergreen in the South. When I was a boy I never had plums enough; so
one of my ambitions was to have plums enough so I could see some of them
rot on the ground. We can do the same thing with nut trees--have nuts
enough so the boys will be full and have nuts enough. It seems to me it
ought to be one of our ambitions to have so many nut trees along the
roadsides in the parks, etc., that the boys and the squirrels can not
use them all up.

MR. SIMONDS: I think the Doctor is right in some of his
criticisms. In fact, the almond is something like a peach, and I had not
prized it for use in landscape work so very much on account of certain
diseases which would be apt to affect it here if it were not taken care
of as we would take care of trees in an orchard. The hazel tree, of
course, would be attractive if it is hardy here. I have had doubts about
its being hardy because of its coming from southern Europe.

DR. MORRIS: It is hardy in all Canada. They have fine tree
hazels in the park at Rochester. They have there probably the largest
tree hazels in the country.

MR. C. A. REED: I would like to have more questions asked. I
feel as though I had accomplished a real achievement in getting Mr.
Simonds here. I was under him a short time a number of years ago and
learned something of his skill as a landscape gardener and the
reputation that he has; and I felt that we could not hope to have a
better authority on these points that he has discussed than we could in
Mr. Simonds; and it is something that is constantly coming up. The
Department of Agriculture have to consider that people want to know what
trees they can plant in the landscape; and I feel particularly glad to
have Mr. Simonds here.

DR. MORRIS: It seems to me we ought to talk more about the
nut-bearing pines in the landscape, because where you are planting pine
trees, you might as well plant the nut-bearing kind as the others; they
are just as beautiful, and you combine the Greek idea of beauty and
utility.

MR. SIMONDS: Certainly, that is a tree I have omitted, because
in this region we have not had any nuts.

DR. MORRIS: There are four pines that will bear nuts here--the
Korean pine, the pignolia or stone pine, the Italian stone pine and the
Swiss both. There are five nut bearing pine trees that are all market
trees for nuts, that I know will grow and bear here, including the lace
bark pine.

MR. SIMONDS: Are they raising nuts in Michigan on pines?

DR. MORRIS: No, but they might. Those five kinds would grow
here and bear nuts here, so they have a double value.

MR. SIMONDS: I think we ought to raise them. Of course they are
beautiful in the landscape.

DR. MORRIS: The whole idea of your paper is to approach the
Greek ideal--add utility to beauty.

MR. SIMONDS: That is what nature does. It makes beautiful
leaves, then uses the leaves for plant food.

MR. C. A. REED: I wonder, Dr. Morris, if you can tell where
these pines can be had.

DR. MORRIS: The Korean pine is from northeast Asia, and you can
get those from the original pine seed; the lace bark pine is from
northeastern Asia where the climate is like ours. The Swiss stone pine
and the Italian stone pine are from Switzerland and Italy and closely
related--both excellent trees. The fruit now you buy as the pignolia in
the markets. Both those are sold as pignolia nuts. It is a commercial
nut of Europe. The white barked pine you would get from the West. It has
a beautiful fine large nut, and you would get that from any Pacific
coast dealers in nut trees.

MR. SIMMONDS: Has that another name?

DR. MORRIS: I do not know of any other name for it. Wait: The
single leaved pine is one. That grows so far north on the Pacific, but
we do not know whether it will ripen its nuts here or not. It is
perfectly hardy here and would be a beautiful nut tree, grows well. The
single-leaved pine--that is _monophylla_. There are four or five pinons
that will live, but they do not grow fast enough to make it worth while
to raise them in Michigan. The Jeffrey bull pine is another one that
will grow here and bear fruit, with a beautiful blue-green foliage. The
Jeffrey bull pine is one of the most beautiful and thrifty pines. That
is the Jeffrey variety of ponderosa. The nut is very much larger than
the nut of the ordinary ponderosa. The nut of the ponderosa is small,
but the Indians use them and eat them, shell and all. When we come to
using the pines more freely for food purposes, we are going to do what
they do in Europe with some of the small seeded pines--crush them and
make a mass, squeeze the cream out from the nuts, dry it a little, and
that makes very fine rich cream; then the residue is given to the
chickens and pigs. There are in all about thirty pine trees now that are
used for market purposes where they fruit, and we will undoubtedly
increase that number. I do not doubt that fifty species of pine trees
will be planted for their fruit by two generations from now when we feel
the need more.

PRESIDENT REED: We will be glad to have questions from any one.
I think we get more from the discussions than we do from the papers.

VOICE: In regard to the hickory nut, the shagbark, back in
northeastern Ohio, four years ago we had quite serious trouble with
our hickories there along in the month of June, about the time we get
the common June bug, there was a large bug that looked like the June bug
that seemed to work at night mostly. We did not see them active in the
day time, but they ate the foliage entirely off the lower branches and
those limbs from which they ate the foliage died. In some cases, the
tree died. I would like to know if anyone knows anything about those.
That was new to me. I have had opportunity to answer all sorts of
questions about that. I have been asked I guess by a thousand different
people about that insect, and I have not been able to learn anything
about it.

MR. SIMONDS: I can not tell you.

SAME VOICE: One man told me when he knew I was coming here,
"For goodness sakes find out something about that if you can."

DR. MORRIS: It probably is the June bug, and turkeys and ducks
would solve the problem.

MR. C. A. REED: The only suggestion I would make is that in
Ohio you have one of the best posted authorities on nut insects there is
in the country. That is Prof. H. A. Gossard, at Wooster. If he can not
tell you about it, no one can.

MR. J. F. JONES: I think it is no doubt it is the ordinary May
beetle that is doing the mischief.

PRESIDENT REED: I might say we had quite a deluge of beetles
along that line in the nursery a year ago this last June, the first time
we have ever been bothered with them. They finally became so thick we
had to go through and shake the trees and shake them off. They looked
something like the May beetle, only smaller, hard shelled, and seemed to
come by the millions; but they only lasted a few days, and it was all
over, and we have never seen them since.

MR. C. A. REED: There is one more question I would like to ask
Mr. Simonds, and that is in regard to the proper distance for spacing
nut trees along avenues and in parks.

MR. SIMONDS: I think that in both of those situations it is
well to give the trees a natural appearance by grouping, and sometimes
they can be far apart, and sometimes I think there might be a group of
two or three close together, so that they would grow in one group. That
will give a more natural arrangement in parks, and we have room enough
along the sides of most of our highways to have the same effect there.
The policy to be pursued with regard to spacing nut trees along highways
would be the same that we would follow in planting any other trees, and
one of the most attractive streets I know is now in the city of Grand
Rapids; it used to be in the country when I lived there years ago; but
along the sides of that street there are native trees, mostly burr oaks,
and they have grown just as nature planted them. There will be a group
of two or three, then a space, may be a single tree, then there may be a
group of five or six; and that natural arrangement is really beautiful,
to me far more beautiful than a straight row of trees, uniform spaced.
On that same street sixty or seventy years ago my uncle planted where
there were no trees--it is a continuation of this street--rows of sugar
maples, and they grew and finally made splendid trees, and a great storm
came along and broke down two or three, and that was a source of great
regret to my uncle; but his son thinks, perhaps, it was a good thing,
because it opened a beautiful view out into the country. Now by grouping
trees we can save beautiful views. If we plant uniformly, we get
monotony. With this belt of burr oaks spaced as I have described, you
have variety on your sky line. Some trees are a little farther up than
others and catch the sunlight, and we get shade and light. That is the
way I should plant nut trees. If I were planting black walnuts or
butternuts I would group them, but see that the tree has in some
directions space enough to develop as far as it wishes.

MR. C. A. REED: Mr. Simonds is about to go. That is the reason
I precipitated this question at this point. It was asked with reference
to the law which these gentlemen, sitting at my right here, were
responsible in putting through in the legislature of this
State--provision for planting food trees along the highways; and it may
be before Mr. Simonds goes, they have something further to ask.

PRESIDENT REED: These questions are very important to draw out
information. Is there anything else you wish to ask before we leave this
topic? If not, we will call on C. A. Reed to present his paper next. It
was carried over from last night, I believe.



NUT CULTURE IN MICHIGAN

C. A. REED, WASHINGTON, D. C.


There is evidence on all sides that the people of Michigan are deeply
interested in nut culture. Some have invested in pecan lands in the Far
South; no doubt some own Persian (English) walnut, almond or filbert
orchards on the Pacific Coast; and others are at the point of planting
nut trees in Michigan. Everybody would go nutting in fall if he could.
Michigan leads all other northern states in what its institutions and
some of its people have done toward developing the nut industry.

Some thirty years ago the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad
Company showed its interest in nut production, when it planted many
miles of chestnut trees along its tracks running north from Adrian.
Between 1888 and 1892 there were planted on the grounds of the
sub-experiment station at South Haven, a number of pecan trees of Iowa
and Missouri seed, Japanese walnuts, a number of filbert plants and a
collection of almond varieties. At about the same time, Prof L. H.
Bailey set out half dozen pecans and Japanese walnut trees on the campus
of the Michigan Agricultural College. Later, Professor L. R. Taft added
several seedling Persian (English) walnut trees to the group.

In traveling over the southern part of Michigan, one cannot go far
without seeing signs of interest in nut trees. Everywhere the black
walnut has been spared or planted. In certain sections it is to be found
about practically every farm house or at least near enough by to furnish
the winter supply of the family nuts. The chestnut is less common in any
part of the state than is the black walnut, not appearing to any
considerable extent except in the lower southeastern corner. It has not
fared well in the state either as a native or planted tree. The Persian
or so-called English walnut has attracted considerable attention from
time to time, and under especially favorable surroundings one
occasionally finds thrifty specimen trees. The pecan, the Japanese
walnut, European hazel or more popularly called the "filbert" have all
been given limited trials at various times. Even the almond has had a
day in Michigan. Quite possibly the pistache has been through the same
experience; but if so, the fact is not generally known. That species is
from arid Asia and wholly unlikely to succeed in the latitude of
Michigan although a young tree of a Chinese species ornamental because
of its fine feathery foliage, green in summer but which takes on a
brilliant hue in fall is, or was the last we know, doing well on the
private grounds of Dr. Robert T. Morris, near Stamford, Conn.

Among the kinds of nut trees from which we can select varieties for
planting in Michigan, there are eleven or more distinct species. With
such a range as this, one might ask, why not go into nut growing in
Michigan on the same scale as in the growing of apples and peaches.
There are probably better reasons why this is not being done, but two
very good ones are that there are not enough available trees of good
varieties to plant more than a single orchard of respectable size in the
state; and the other; it would not pay to put good Michigan land to nut
trees of such varieties as are now available even though they could be
had.

If nut trees can't be had and wouldn't pay if they could then why
publish an article on "Nuts for Michigan Planting," is probably what
will run through the minds of most readers of these lines. It is
certainly a logical question, but there are at least ten reasons why nut
trees should be planted in Michigan.

1. The forests of Michigan have reached the point of depletion such that
for the sake of future generations, trees of some kind other than fruit
must be planted.

2. While planting, we may as well select those capable of performing
more than a single service; in other words, trees of maximum possible
use. Oaks, poplars, ashes, pines, elms, etc., all have their places, but
not one in the group can produce anything of food value to humankind.

3. Nut trees of most kinds, rightly used, are valuable for timber
purposes and are very effective in the landscape.

4. Members of the walnut family including the hickories are especially
appropriate along the highways and city streets. They are sturdy,
long-lived and not easily damaged by storms or neighbor's boys.

5. Nuts are among the very best of the meat substitutes. They contain
much of the same food elements as do meats, although in different
proportions. Some contain starch and to that extent can be used as are
the cereals and Irish potatoes. Nuts are the only vegetable product
grown in Michigan, which in raw condition afford a complete and fairly
well balanced food for human beings. Every pound of nut food that can be
raised from a tree along the street or in the fence corner on the farm
is clear gain, and that much added to our national food supply.

6. Nuts are rapidly assuming importance as factors in the lists of
American foods.

7. Many species of nut trees are adapted to some parts of Michigan. By
planting the best that are now available, and by constantly being on the
lookout for better sorts, superior varieties will be certain to develop
in a short while, the same as has been the case with all older orchard
fruits and farm crops.

8. Whoever intelligently plants nut trees performs a distinct public
service. He will receive the gratitude of more than the present
generation.

9. Among all kinds of trees, none are more appropriate for memorial
purposes to the men who did not come back from France, than is the black
walnut. That species itself took a valiant part in warfare. It furnished
material for gunstocks the same as in previous wars, but in the World
War it rendered what was considered by eminent authority, a greater
service in supplying propellors for aeroplanes. The shells of the nuts
contributed their part toward the making of carbon for gas masks, and no
one knows the extent to which walnut kernels made up the delicacies sent
from home to the boys in the trenches. With such a service record as
this, the black walnut is entitled to a memorial of its own. Its value
as a timber tree, as an ornamental, and as a food producer, together
with its great range of adaptability from North to South and East to
West, should justly entitle it to recognition as a National tree.

10. Michigan has a law providing for the planting of nut trees along its
highways. Thus, the state has officially put its approval on the idea
and has become a leader in the encouragement of this great kind of
economy and thrift. It has taken a step toward conservation in a
direction which is highly developed in certain parts of Europe. The
product is sold to the highest bidder and the income used in the upkeep
of the road system. In that manner the roadways of those sections take
care of themselves. In this country millions of dollars of state and
federal moneys are being used this year, (ending June 30, 1921), in the
construction and upkeep of public roads.

Desirable as it would be to accomplish these ends, it could not all be
done at once. Even though there were an abundance of available trees of
tried kinds, it would take a long time to plant them and to care for
them until they might become of profitable bearing age, also public
opinion would need to be remolded in order to insure their care and
protection. Still it can and will be done. The movement is already on;
the Michigan law began to operate soon after being passed, and the
Division of Forestry at the Agricultural College is raising the trees
for planting. Public opinion regarding the care of the trees and their
product will take care of itself when the value of the trees and their
products becomes apparent. Both in California and in Oregon not only nut
but fruit orchards and vineyards, grow beside the roadways with no
protection other than that of public opinion; and what has been done in
one part of the country can be done in others as well.

The eleven species referred to as being available for Michigan use are
as follows: The almond, beechnut, butternut, chestnut, filbert, (hazel),
pecan, shagbark hickory, shellbark hickory, black walnut, Japanese
walnut, and the Persian or so-called English walnut.

Taking these up in order we will consider first the


ALMOND

Except as an ornamental, the almond does not offer a great deal for use
in Michigan. It is sometimes said to be as hardy as the peach, but only
as this refers to the tree and not to the fruit, is it true. Certain
hardshell almonds edible, yet so inferior to the improved varieties as
to have practically no market value, do sometimes succeed in lower
Michigan but their value is limited to their beauty when in bloom and to
the production of a low grade product. In form and general appearance
these almonds are much like peach pits. Very often they contain much of
the same bitter taste of Prussic acid common to the kernel of the
ordinary peach. They are interesting to observe while growing especially
as they begin to ripen. The covering outside the seed is thin and
leathery and while ripening, splits and peels outward in curious
fashion.

Perhaps the only recognized variety of almond of this class which is
known to have fruited in the East is the Ridenhower from southern
Illinois. Trees can be had from some of the nurserymen.


THE BEECH

One of Michigan's noblest, hardiest, and most often abused trees is the
American beech. It is common from north to south. No tree is more
handsome and none, unless possibly it be the white birch, is so often
defaced. Dr. Robt. T. Morris, of New York City, reminds us that
according to the scriptures, man, genus _Homo_, is a finished product
made by and in the image of the Creator. A safe assumption is that the
scriptural reference is not to the creature whose initials appear on the
trunk of a beech or whose knife has removed bark from white birch. His
genus is not _Homo_, and he is not scripturally recorded.

The beech is not directly important as a nut bearing tree, but
indirectly it is as the nuts are rarely harvested. Indirectly it is of
great value. No food is better for turkeys and hogs than are beechnuts.
A bushel of beechnuts that can be used in this way replace at least a
bushel of corn. The difference in cost of production should make
beechnuts worth several times as much as corn.

In Europe a valuable oil used as a drug and for salads is expressed from
beechnuts. Possibly individual trees could be found somewhere in
Michigan which produce nuts large enough, good enough, and in quantity
enough to justify their recognition and propagation as named varieties.

No matter whether distinct varieties appear or not, the beech is well
worthy of planting in many places about both the farm and the city lot.


BUTTERNUT

A member of the walnut family known also as "long walnut" and as "white
walnut" is the true butternut. It has a smaller range of adaptability
than does the black walnut but is found considerably farther north. On
the Atlantic coast, its native range extends into Nova Scotia. In parts
of New York State and New England, it is one of the most common species.
It is well known in Michigan where, to many people it is the favorite of
all nuts. The tree is less durable and long-lived than is the black
walnut. It is less well suited for use in the landscape and its timber
value is probably the least of any native walnut.

Within very recent years one or two promising varieties have been
introduced by the nurserymen. The first and only one now available is
the Aiken from New Hampshire. The nut cracks well and the kernels are of
pleasant flavor, but as a variety it has not been tested long enough to
determine its adaptability to conditions in other states nor the extent
to which budded trees will be productive.


CHESTNUT

Perhaps the greatest, of all tree tragedies is represented by the
chestnut. Once a dominant species in many parts of the East, it is now
merely a wreck of its former self. In whole states along the Atlantic
Seaboard, it has been wiped out by a fungus disease introduced from
Japan some 25 years ago. Pennsylvania allows no chestnut trees to be
shipped outside its limits for fear of further spreading this disease.
So far as known chestnut trees from west of the Wabash River are free
from infection. From Illinois, there have recently been introduced
several varieties of chestnut supposedly of pure American parentage
which are quite the equal in size of the European sorts but which have
the sweet flavor of true American strains. In protected places in the
southern part of the Lower Peninsula these chestnuts should be well
worthy of trial. They are, indeed, splendid chestnuts. The principal
varieties are the Rochester, Progress, Fuller and Boone. The last is not
related to the others; but is the result of an artificial cross between
the American sweet chestnut and the Japan Giant.


HICKORY

Next to, or perhaps equal to the black walnut, the hickories are among
the best known of Michigan's nut trees. Belonging to the same family as
do the walnuts, they require much the same soil for their best
development. They are slower of growth and even harder to bud and graft
or to successfully transplant. Nevertheless, some of hickories bear
splendid nuts in liberal quantities. Quite a number of good varieties
have been named and a few propagated. They are mainly of the shagbark
species although some are shellbarks, some pignuts, and a few hybrids.
The true shellbark is not found in Michigan and would probably not
succeed there as well as do others. In character of growth, the
shellbark is much like the shagbark but the nuts are much larger, and
the shells extremely thick. Among the good shagbarks there are the
Swaim, Weiker, Kentucky, Manahan, Taylor and Vest.

True hickories ordinarily do not attain important habits of bearing
until from 15 to 25 years of age.


PECAN

The pecan is easily the favorite and most important nut of American
origin. Contrary to current ideas, it is not an introduced species nor
are the best pecans grown in California. The pecan has become one of the
leading nuts of this country by rapid but natural processes. In the
forests, it is indigenous as far north as the southern part of Indiana,
and in western Illinois it is found at the latitude of Chicago. Seedling
trees at South Haven and on the campus of Michigan Agricultural College
have borne occasional crops but the climate of Michigan is too severe
for pecans to bear regularly. The trees of northern origin should do
well enough over much of lower Michigan to be worthy of planting. Good
varieties are the Major, Greenriver, Niblack, Indiana, Busseron and
Posey.


BLACK WALNUT

Already the black walnut had been referred to in this article. In its
further behalf may be said that like the pecan it is one of America's
most rapid growing valuable trees. It does not grow with the speed of a
poplar, a willow, or a linden. Neither does any other tree of value or
longevity. Two 6-year-old trees of the eastern black walnut grown in the
Wiliamette Valley of Western Oregon, bore approximately a peck of nuts
apiece, in 1919, when they were photographed by the writer. In good soil
and under favorable conditions of growth, it will be seen that the black
walnut is not always slow in developing but that it is sometimes a rapid
grower.

Three varieties of black walnut are now available from the nurserymen.
They are the Thomas from Pennsylvania, the Ohio from some 20 miles south
of Toledo, and the Stabler from Howard County, Maryland 15 or 20 miles
outside the District of Columbia. All are prolific, precocious and of
superior cracking quality. The Thomas was discovered and first
propagated some 30 years ago. The young grafted trees show a tendency to
begin bearing in the nursery rows.

At the present time, the black walnut is regarded as being of greater
promise for planting in the northern states than is any other species
either native or introduced.


THE JAPANESE WALNUT

To a considerable extent this species has been confused with the Persian
walnut, although the two are quite unlike. This is a dwarfish species
with dull green rough leaflets often as many as 15 or 17 per leaf, which
often bears nuts in clusters of a dozen or more. While green the outer
hulls of the nuts are rough, and somewhat sticky.

The Persian walnut is a standard-sized upright growing tree with bright
green leaflets, usually 5 to 7 per leaf, and smooth, round nut hulls
which split open and shed the nuts automatically.

The Japanese walnuts hybridize freely with other species of walnuts and
produce nuts of all types; not infrequently crosses of this kind
resemble butternuts so closely as to be practically indistinguishable
from them.

True Japanese walnuts have a range in form of two distinct types. The
better known is of guinea egg shape; the other, often known as the
heartnut, is of distinct heart shape. Neither is large; the former is of
about the size of a guinea egg or smaller; the latter is still smaller.
Both are like the black walnut in being encased in a rough outer husk,
which upon maturing shrivels and adheres to the surface of the nut. The
shells are thinner than are those of the black walnut, but thicker than
are those of the Persian walnut. When well matured, the shell of the
heartnut tends to open slightly at the apex, after which it can be
readily split in half with a knife blade. The flavor of the kernel is
much like that of the American butternut.

The Japanese walnut is ordinarily hardy wherever the black succeeds. It
is by no means uncommon in Michigan where it is especially appropriate
for family planting. For the present, seedling trees will have to be
relied upon almost wholly, as very few varieties have been propagated.
So far as the writer is informed, the only named variety available from
a northern nursery is the Lancaster introduced by J. F. Jones, a
nurseryman at Lancaster, Pa.


PERSIAN WALNUT

Perhaps no species of nut tree has attracted as great attention in
Michigan as has the Persian walnut. Under some conditions it does well
for a time in the eastern or northeastern states, but on the whole its
performance is distinctly erratic. Commercially speaking, it is of
importance in this country only on the Pacific coast. Trees on the
campus at Michigan Agricultural College and at many private places in
the central part of the state, have come to little. Usually they grow
well in summer only to freeze back nearly as much in winter. In Saranac
County, eastern Michigan, close to Lake Huron there are a few young
orchards that are in good condition, but a half mile back from the lake
the results are discouraging. The same is true next to Lake Michigan
from Grand Rapids south to the Indiana line.

The only recommendations that can be made relative to planting the
Persian walnut in Michigan are, that it be planted very cautiously in
any part of the state and except under very favored circumstances it be
not at all in the middle of the state.

Do not undertake to grow the trees by planting the nuts or by buying
seedlings. The most desirable trees are those of hardy varieties, budded
on the black walnut as a stock a foot or more above ground.


THE FILBERT

The filbert has been one of our tantalizing species of nut trees. In
England, trees grow to ages of from one to two hundred years, bearing
profusely meanwhile. There, for many years, they are grown under apple
trees with currants below them. In Germany, we are told that
strawberries are grown below the currants and gooseberries. We are
waiting for the Yankee who will be first to grow peanuts or potatoes
below strawberries. In the eastern part of this country, plants of the
European kinds are disappointing in two ways. First, they are uncertain
as to their ability to bear; and second, they are highly susceptible to
a fungus disease found everywhere that the native hazels abound. The
native species is quite able to resist this disease, but the
introductions ordinarily succumb to it quickly.

In the Pacific Northwest, where by many filbert culture is believed
destined to become a successful and paying industry within the next few
years, not infrequently some varieties begin to blossom as early as in
December. The blooming is largely responsible for the failure of eastern
trees to set and mature crops of nuts.

Several nurserymen are now endeavoring to find varieties of commercial
value in the eastern part of the country. Apparently they are meeting
with some success as far as their work has gone. Many of the varieties
they are testing are proving inferior, but a few have borne good nuts in
gratifying quantity for several years. During the past winter, a good
many froze severely, although they are commonly hardy under severe
weather.

Wherever they are planted, they should have fertile soil, from 20 to 25
feet of space each way and should be trained to tree form. After 10
years or so, they should be headed back severely, unless regular pruning
has been practiced in the meantime. Filberts fruit only on new wood.

To those who have read this article to this point, it is now apparent
that the nut industry of Michigan lies almost wholly in the future. The
native varieties form an excellent ground work for that future, but to
properly take advantage of that base, it will be necessary for
practically every nut lover in the state to lend a helping hand. The
first great movement necessary is to examine the nuts in the fall as
ripen in order to find the best of the walnuts, hickories, native
hazels, beeches and introduced chestnuts, walnuts and filberts. In this
everyone can help. Whoever finds a tree of any kind bearing superior
nuts will render a great service by sending specimens, together with his
or her address and that of the owner of the tree to the Federal
Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C., or to Willard G. Bixby,
Treasurer of the Association, Baldwin, Nassau County, N. Y. Be sure to
carefully note the exact tree, from which the nuts were obtained and if
specimens are sent from more than one tree, they should be kept separate
and each carefully labeled. Such nuts will be examined and if found to
be the equal or superior to the varieties already being grown, they will
be named and arrangements made for this propagation and test.

No prizes are given by the Government but good nuts sent the Government
will be eligible to entry in the contest of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association. If enough specimens are sent the Department, some will be
forwarded to the Treasurer of that Association who has charge of awards.

According to very recent reports, the outlook for a nut crop during the
coming year was never better. This should, therefore, be an excellent
year for finding the trees bearing the best nuts.

PRESIDENT REED: I believe Mr. Reed expects to give an
additional talk tonight with lantern slides.

MR. C. A. REED: There will be an informal talk, a question box
this evening for the benefit of any interested in the general discussion
of nut culture in the United States. I notice the guests of the
institution are deeply interested in nut growing in their particular
states; so the arrangement for this evening is to give those persons an
opportunity to come out and ask questions.

MR. OLCOTT: While Mr. Reed is on that subject, I would like to
ask if there is a chestnut as large as the Boone or other chestnuts
grown by Mr. Riehl of as good flavor as the American Sweet chestnut. A
good many people are asking me from time to time what the merit is in
those large chestnuts. Invariably they have found that the quality is
not as good as in the American sweet chestnut. I have been assured and
Mr. Reed says that the kernel of these is very good. I wonder if there,
are some of them better than others--of the very large chestnuts.

MR. C. A. REED: There is a difference. The Boone that Mr.
Olcott refers to is a cross between the American species and the
Japanese. The Japanese has not a good flavor; it is considerably below
that of the American; but the Boone is quite good; but there are some of
Mr. Riehl's chestnuts that are better. Mr. Riehl's are believed to be
the pure American sweet chestnuts and some of them are very good,
perhaps not quite as sweet as our American sweet, but they are
exceedingly satisfactory and very popular in the Chicago markets where
Mr. Riehl's chestnuts are going.

MR. BIXBY: This fall I received a chestnut which I am satisfied
was Japanese, which is very large, and seemingly about as sweet as the
American. I did not have the American there to test it by, but it was
very interesting to me, and I am planning to get scions in the spring to
follow it up further. It was seemingly a Japanese chestnut, and pretty
nearly as large as the Boone.

MR. J. F. JONES: I might say that so far as I have tested them,
some of the Japanese are quite sweet, but the meat is generally tough,
not brittle and sweet like the American.

PRESIDENT REED: I believe Mr. Linton is with us, and we shall
be glad to hear from him.



NUT TREES FOR HIGHWAYS AND PUBLIC PLACES

WILLIAM S. LINTON, SAGINAW, MICHIGAN


For a number of years it has been a source of gratification and pleasure
to me to be identified with the membership of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association. True, "a long distance membership only," but nevertheless a
connection that all must admit has borne fruit, or nuts, as you may
prefer to state it.

To this association and its official journal must be given full credit
for the pioneer work in a great and good movement that will sweep, not
only over the United States, but over every clime and county in the
world's Western hemisphere as well. Your seed sown in the peninsular
state of Michigan, was the first to sprout in a substantial way in so
far as public planting of nut trees by a sovereign state is concerned,
and it was our good fortune to have as staunch supporters for the plan
such able and persistent workers as my good friend, Senator Harvey A.
Penney of Saginaw, Professor A. K. Chittenden of the Michigan
Agricultural College, and last, but not least, Honorable Frank F.
Rogers, Michigan's excellent State Highway Commissioner. Upon the latter
will largely devolve the duty of carrying out the law's provisions, as
provided in Senator Penney's bill passed at the last session of the
Legislature, and that it will be well and practically done, goes without
saying.

And now to my theme, "Should the Country Roadsides be Planted and Why."
The present high cost of living, and in fact the cost of living at any
time is a fruitful and serious problem. Our vast natural resources
during the century gone, of forests, of game, and of grazing lands, have
almost to the point of extinction been rapidly passing away, and it
behooves us, who have profited thereby and now owe a duty to our race to
artificially provide wherever and whenever we can for the future of
humankind. In what better way can this be done than in utilizing the
immense acreage of America's vast system of highways, (now absolutely
wasted except for the sole purpose of travel), to reproduce the very
finest of our country's magnificent trees, to again afford beauty,
grateful shade, valuable timber and the choicest of food in great
abundance for the generations to come.

Were this not a convention devoted to the advancement of nut growing
alone, I would be glad to extol also for road planting fruit trees of
every kind of adequate size and character, and free or nearly so, from
the ravages of disease or insect pest, would be glad to praise the
stately, hard maple, with its clear, sweet sap, producing the syrup and
sugar that are the delight of childhood and age, and would be glad to
recommend the useful basswood with its valuable lumber and its fragrant
yellow flowers, producing that nectar from which our most delicious
honey is made, and would be glad to recommend for our highways, certain
other majestic trees needed by man and beautiful in the landscape.

But the object of this association and convention is a specialized one,
as undoubtedly it should be, owing to the important field it covers, and
therefore the nut trees and it alone for planting on highways and in
public places should be the subject of this paper.

If we were to confine ourselves to one native variety or species for our
Northern territory, the great majority of people would unhesitatingly
say, let it be the Black Walnut (_Juglans nigra_). Attaining as it does
a height of 100 feet and more, and a trunk of four feet and over in
diameter, with a symmetrical top of splendid foliage, bearing the
richest of nuts and its timber the most valuable in the country, with a
natural range extending from Michigan to Mississippi and from Delaware
to the Dakotas, it should be universally planted throughout the United
States along thousands of miles of our great trunk line roads.

Its nearest American relative, the butternut (_Juglans cinerea_)
preferring lower lands along river bottoms, attaining an average height
of 60 feet with a trunk of 3 feet, its wood suitable for cabinet work,
its bark with medicinal properties, and its nuts of splendid flavor,
should be planted where soil conditions call for it.

For their rich, delicious nuts, alone, saying nothing about their clean,
handsome foliage, their rough, strong wood--the best of any grown for
many purposes--the hickories, among which are the Shagbark (_Carya
ovata_) and the big shellbark (_Carya laciniosa_), should be planted in
many places. They both frequently attain 100 feet in height with
straight sturdy trunks averaging from three to four feet in diameter.

The other nut trees suitable for roadside planting, are not specially
attractive to mankind for their fruits, as heretofore used or utilized,
but may eventually become so under modern methods of cooking or proper
treatment. In their raw state, however, all are edible and also
palatable to most people, but their chief food value today, is to
provide rich provender to domestic animals and birds, or the desirable
wild life of the woodlands, all of which devour them eagerly, adding
quickly to their weight and greatly to their quality and flavor of their
flesh. I refer to the three magnificent oaks producing sweet acorns,
viz., the White Oak (_Quercus albaq_), the Bur Oak (_Quercus
macrocarpa_) and the Swamp White Oak (_Quercus plantanoides_). They are
all emblematic of great strength and grandeur, reaching the majestic
height of 100 feet, with trunks four or five feet in diameter; the leaf
coloring at times is indescribably beautiful and the timber owing to its
great solidity and strength is of the utmost value.

Last, but not least, the American beech, with a three or four foot trunk
and almost 100 feet in height, distinct and beautiful, will demand the
attention of those who plant our highways. Its nuts, feasted upon by
many forest denizens, may be classed with the sweet acorns heretofore
referred to, but the tree has a grace and charm all its own and it
thrives from the warm waters of the Gulf to the icy shores of Lake
Superior.

At this time we cannot recommend what has been a noble, almost
fascinating tree, 100 feet its usual height and sometimes spreading 100
feet almost in extent, with a trunk that in some cases reached a
diameter of 10 feet, with clusters of golden catkins fragrant in
midsummer, resulting in great quantities of delicious nuts in autumn.
Such was the chestnut, _Castanea dentata_, of the past, the fate of
which, and almost extinction, has been a tragedy in the ranks of our
native trees that has brought bitter regrets to all lovers of this
partician of the forest. Good news comes from the far East, however, to
the effect that some specimens of this famous tree have escaped or
proven immune to the blight, and if the latter, it means the saving of
the species and its replanting in soil and territory where it may thrive
as of yore.

Having now enumerated the varieties of trees that should be selected in
the main for the planting of highways and in public places, the question
now arises as to the best method of carrying on the work in a practical
way throughout the country.

Individuals or small communities certainly can not be depended upon to
do it, as the result would be of a patchwork character that would not be
pleasing to the eye or beneficial in its results.

Only federal, state and municipal governments can take charge of this
great work and carry it forward to completion.

The State of Michigan, now as you know, by legal enactment, causes state
authorities to plant the trunk line, highways, the county to plant the
roads of the county systems, and the cities and villages and townships
those minor roads that are within their borders.

In case of individual effort, where an owner of land plants
food-producing trees along the highways in front of his property, he is
reimbursed by stated amounts covering each tree so planted, the returns
coming to him by a reduction in the amount of his own taxation.

This so-called Michigan plan carried on throughout the entire country,
would call for a supply of trees of the character named far beyond the
ability of the commercial growers to supply, and in my opinion can be
worked out only by seed or seedlings of the various varieties. And why
not? The cost would be much less than of any other method, and only a
few years would pass before substantial returns would commence to come.
It has been stated and it is true, that the seeds of the trees named do
not always produce superior nuts, but in a great majority only those of
a common or inferior kind. However, choice specimens will appear also,
and from these of the better class grafting may be done to enrich all.

Then again, it is a question as to whether the important tap roots of
the important nut species should be disturbed or destroyed in
transplanting. It would seem to be the proper plan, therefore, in order
to avoid too great an expense, that the nuts or seed should be used in a
great majority of highway planting, the trees to remain where first
placed on approved roadside lines, and the proper distance apart.

It may be said that too great a time would elapse between the planting
of the seed and the maturity of the tree, but as time goes nowadays, it
would not be an unreasonable period, and there are those within the
sound of my voice now, who will witness in their maturity the
magnificent trees producing their valuable products and adding to the
beauty of the landscape and to the welfare of mankind.

This Association has been the pioneer in this great movement, and it
will be the credit to those connected therewith in the generations to
come, in that they have all contributed in a very marked degree to the
everlasting benefit of mankind.

PRESIDENT REED: Is there any discussion?

MR. C. A. REED: I believe Senator Penney is to discuss a topic
very closely affiliated with this one and perhaps it would be well to
defer the discussion until we hear his address.

PRESIDENT REED: We will be glad to have Senator Penney present
his paper next, then. It is along the same lines--legislation in regard
to tree planting.

SENATOR PENNEY: When my friend, Mr. Linton, started off to
discuss his paper, he said he was a long distance member, and you can
see the effect in the fruits he has borne or the nuts he has borne. Ever
since I was taken sick up north, he has been trying to tell me I was a
nut. I was taken sick up there in the deer hunting camp, and my friend,
Mr. Linton, assisted in getting me out and rushing me to the nearest
hospital, and it happened to be an insane asylum in northern Michigan.



LEGISLATION REGARDING THE PLANTING OF NUT AND OTHER FOOD PRODUCING TREES

SENATOR HARVEY A. PENNEY, SAGINAW, MICHIGAN


I wish to express my hearty appreciation to your Association for the
distinct honor of being invited to address your meeting upon the subject
of "Legislation Regarding the Planting of Nut and Other Food Trees." I
believe that my invitation came as a result of having been responsible
for introducing a tree-planting bill in the Senate of the 1919 session
of the Michigan State Legislature, and later in securing its passage.

This bill purported "to regulate the planting of ornamental,
nut-bearing and other food-producing trees along the highways of the
State of Michigan, or in public places, and for the maintenance,
protection and care of such trees, and to provide a penalty for injury
thereof, or for stealing the products thereof."

For several sessions of the Michigan Legislature prior to 1919, bills
had been introduced intending to accomplish this result, but each time
heretofore they have regularly failed to pass. This fate included one
introduced by the writer during the session of 1917. I am now fully
convinced that none of these bills, although a step in the right
direction, seemed to provide the proper working machinery or necessary
features to put them into practical operation, and hence did not appeal
to the legislative committees, nor to the members of the several
legislatures.

During the regular session of 1919, with the valuable assistance of Hon.
W. S. Linton of Saginaw, a new bill was prepared providing an entirely
new method of supplying and planting such trees, and for putting such a
law into effective operation under the jurisdiction of the state. It was
made to work in harmony with the rights of the property owner adjoining
the highway, and with the duties of those state officials whose
departments were perfectly adapted and equipped for putting the law into
active operation.

I am going to attach an enrolled copy of the tree planting bill at the
end of this paper, so that it may be made a part of the permanent
records of the Association. It will therefore be unnecessary to give a
detailed account of all the provisions contained therein.

I will, however, mention a few of the principal points so that you may
understand its purpose. It provides that the Public Domain Commission
which has charge of the state forest reserve lands and parks, together
with the Michigan Agricultural College, are given authority to grow and
acquire suitable seeds, scions or trees for planting under the
provisions of this act. A department of the Agricultural College
determines the kind of trees which are adapted or suitable for planting
in different soils or places. In order to insure a uniform system of
planting, this duty is left to the State Highway Commission and the
State Board of Agriculture, acting jointly. The trees belong to the
state, but the nuts or other products belong to the owner of the land
adjoining the highway. A penalty is imposed if these trees are defaced
with advertisements or signs, and neither can they be cut down or
destroyed.

But just as you find legislatures differing in their opinions upon
public matters, so you must expect them to differ more or less upon the
feasibility of most any bill that is presented for their consideration.
All kinds of arguments are made for and against any bill. I remember
that one Senator in the committee thought that trees planted along the
highways bearing nuts or fruit would constantly be subject to a lot of
tampering and molestation by the traveling public. But another Senator
came back with a reply that seemed to be very convincing, when he stated
that he had a fine row of cherry trees growing along the front of his
farm, and had never experienced any trouble of that kind from such a
source.

I have always felt that if the merits of a good bill were properly
explained to a legislature committee, there will be no hesitancy in
having it favorably reported out and finally passed. I believe the
legislature of 1919 took this view of the tree planting bill introduced
by myself, as it was passed by both the Senate and the House, and later
received the signature of Governor Sleeper, thus making it an
established law of Michigan.

I must not forget to mention the fact that after this bill had been
passed by the legislature and still needed the signature of the Governor
to make it a law, a number of Michigan's representative and influential
citizens wrote to Governor Sleeper, urging him to affix his signature
thereto. Among those was Dr. J. H. Kellogg of Battle Creek, who has more
than a nation-wide reputation in his profession and is at present a
strong factor in the success of this association.

This law is intended not only to ornament the public highways of
Michigan, but also to furnish nut bearing and other food-producing trees
that should assist materially in the problems incident to the high cost
of living. It would seem that such a law should be duplicated in every
state where practicable, and also be promoted by the National Government
upon National Highways.

The people of Michigan recently voted to amend the State Constitution so
as to permit the issuance of $50,000,000.00 worth of bonds for the
improvement of public highways. By the time that this large sum has been
apportioned over a period of say ten years, and the road moneys
furnished and expended during this time, as federal aid by the federal
government, local counties and townships are added thereto, it has been
estimated that the vast sum of nearly $200,000,000.00 will have been
used solely for the improvement of our state highways.

With a wonderful highway system thus established, beautifully adorned by
the state with nut-bearing and other trees, the roads of Michigan should
become a great attraction in which our citizens would not only have a
just pride, but serve as a model of excellence for the whole nation to
imitate.

MR. C. A. REED: Mr. President, I would like to ask the Senator
what danger there is likely to be in the protection of these trees when
they are once planted. Is the tree going to have right of way, or is the
telephone company going to have right of way in cutting out the top; or
is a new bred consciousness going to have authority. If it is possible
that the trees will be destroyed as many have been, perhaps the
legislation may be changed in some way. Suppose we want to give them
good care, what are we going to do?

SENATOR PENNEY: The law has a section in it providing for
defacing and damaging the trees or cutting them down. I have a copy of
the bill there. As my throat is in bad shape perhaps it might be well to
have the secretary read the bill. It is not very long.

MR. LINTON: In this connection I would also ask for the reading
of the bill by the secretary. This is a bill that may be copied by other
states throughout the Union, and if there is any criticism that is just,
in reason, for changing any of the features in the bill, they should be
decided upon at this meeting or by a committee. Because a uniform bill
throughout the country is really something desirable, I think, in
connection with this legislation. And I would add further: Michigan does
not have an entire monopoly of Highway legislation at the present time,
but is in a prominent position in connection therewith. The chairman of
the committee on post offices and post roads of the United States Senate
is Senator Townsend, of this State. It is his bill that will cause the
national highways to be constructed from ocean to ocean. Senator
Townsend is one of our best beloved citizens; his heart is in this work;
and I am sure from what I know of him (and he is a close friend of mine)
that he will enter heartily into the spirit of embodying in national
legislation something of the character that we have in state legislation
in Michigan so that it may apply to the whole country as well. And for
that reason I would like to have the bill read. It is a short one, and
any additions or any amendments thereto I know will be gladly received
by Senator Penny or myself.

MR. OLCOTT: Mr. President, I think that is one of the most
important subjects that can come before this Association; not only
that, but the interest of every member should be enlisted particularly
in this subject. The possibilities of the extension of that work are
almost unlimited and directly in line with the objects of this
organization.

PRESIDENT REED: I am just wondering whether we would have time
to have it read now, or postpone it to a little later. Dr. Kellogg is
with us now.

MR. BIXBY: This bill is very short. (Read bill.)


  Senate Bill No. 59           Introduced by Senator Penney
  (File No. 150)

  STATE OF MICHIGAN
  50th Legislature
  Regular Session of 1919
  SENATE ENROLLED ACT NO. 18

     An act to regulate the planting of ornamental, nut bearing or other
     food producing trees along the highways of the State of Michigan,
     or in public places, and for the maintenance, protection and care
     of such trees and to provide a penalty for injury thereof, or for
     stealing the products thereof.

     The People of the State of Michigan enact

     Section 1. The State Highway Commissioner and the State Board of
     Agriculture, acting jointly hereunder, shall have authority and it
     shall be their duty to select and plant by seed, scions or
     otherwise, ornamental, nut bearing, or other food producing trees,
     (to be supplied by the Public Domain Commission, or the Michigan
     Agricultural College, as may be recommended or approved by the
     Division of Agriculture of said college,) suitable for shade trees,
     along the State trunk line highways and all other highways of the
     State of Michigan, upon which State reward has been paid or earned:

     Provided, that in no case shall such trees be planted except by and
     with the consent of the owner of the property adjoining such
     highway. The State Highway Commissioner shall establish rules and
     regulations for uniform planting or proper placing of all trees
     under the provisions of this act, and all such trees shall belong
     to the State, but the products thereof shall belong to the owners
     of the adjacent land. Nothing herein contained shall authorize the
     State Highway Commissioner, or the State Board of Agriculture to
     cut down or interfere with shade trees now growing along any such
     highway, without permission in writing from the owner of the
     adjoining property. All expenses incurred in carrying out the
     provisions of this section shall be paid out of any moneys in the
     State highway fund that may be available therefor.

     Section 2. Counties, townships, cities and villages may annually
     appropriate money to be used in planting, pruning and protecting,
     and whenever necessary in acquiring shade, nut bearing and
     ornamental trees to be placed along and within the respective
     limits of said municipalities. The expenditure of any such fund
     shall be vested in the highway commissioner in the case of county
     roads, and in the proper highway authorities of the city or village
     as the case may be.

     Section 3. The owner of any real estate in the State of Michigan
     that borders upon a legal highway upon which State reward has not
     been paid, shall have the right to plant said approved ornamental,
     nut bearing, or other food producing trees along the line of said
     highway adjoining said land, and shall receive annually a credit of
     five cents upon his highway repair tax for each tree so planted by
     him and growing in good order, not less than six feet in height
     when planted and not less than twenty and not more than forty feet
     apart. All of said trees and their products shall belong to the
     owner of said land: Provided, that no bounty shall be paid or
     deduction allowed under the provision of this section upon any one
     tree or row of trees for a longer period than five years. The owner
     of such trees shall have the care thereof and shall have the duty
     and responsibility for the trimming, spraying and cultivation
     thereof.

     Section 4. The Michigan Agricultural College and Public Domain
     Commission are hereby authorized to grow and acquire suitable
     seeds, scions or trees for planting under the provisions of this
     act, and to establish proper rules and regulations for distributing
     the same at nominal cost, or otherwise, to counties, townships,
     cities, villages, and citizens of the State for the aforesaid
     purpose, and also for State parks or other public places.

     Section 5. It shall be unlawful to cut, destroy, injure, deface or
     break any ornamental, nut bearing, food producing or shade tree
     upon any public highway or place, except where such trees shall
     interfere with the proper construction or maintenance of such
     highways. It shall be unlawful to affix to any such tree any
     picture, announcement, play-bill, notice or advertisement, or to
     paint or mark such tree, except for the purpose of protecting it,
     or to negligently permit any animal to break down, injure or
     destroy any such tree within the limits of any public highway. Any
     person violating any of the provisions of this act shall be guilty
     of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a
     fine of not less than one dollar or more than twenty-five dollars,
     and in default of payment of any such fine may be imprisoned in the
     county jail for a period not exceeding thirty days. Such person
     shall be liable to the owner of the trees for treble the amount of
     damages sustained.

  LUREN D. DICKINSON,
  Lieutenant Governor, President of the Senate.

  TOM REED,
  Speaker of the House of Representatives.

  Approved, March 28, 1919.

  ALBERT E. SLEEPER,
  Governor.


MR. C. A. REED: Mr. Chairman, I _move_ that before adjournment
the chairman appoint a committee of three members of this association to
carefully review this bill and either report in favor of any suggestions
that they may wish to make in regard to its amendment or give approval
of the bill as it stands.

MR. LINTON: I support the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: It is moved and seconded that the chairman
appoint a committee of three to carry out the recommendations. All in
favor say Aye; contrary, No. It is CARRIED.

SENATOR PENNEY: That law is adjusted to the laws of Michigan
and any other state proposed would have to adjust it to fit their laws.

PRESIDENT REED: I would like to have Mr. C. A. Reed on that
committee, Mr. Olcott and Dr. Morris.

C. A. REED: Then, Mr. President, in addition to that we are
going to take the liberty of adding an _ex officio_ member, Mr.
Littlepage, an ex-president and also a good thoroughgoing nut.

MR. JONES: My understanding is the provision for six-ft. trees.
Six foot nut trees unless they have been transplanted several times will
hardly succeed. I would say use small trees along the highway.

PRESIDENT REED: I think that would need to be worked out. I
think a six foot tree is a little dangerous in some varieties. The
committee might find it wise to offer some suggestions in that line.

VOICE: If you plant a tree six feet high, you are sure of
having a tree there.

PRESIDENT REED: I believe Dr. Kellogg is about ready now, and
we will hear from Dr. Kellogg whom you are all acquainted with.



THE SOY BEAN

DR. J. H. KELLOGG, BATTLE CREEK, MICHIGAN


It is evident that the live stock industry is shriveling up. The
livestock inhabitants of the country--the pigs, sheep and cattle--are
much smaller in population at the present time than they were
twenty-five or thirty years ago, and are getting smaller all the time.
The price of meat is high and is going to continue to climb. It is away
out of reach of the average laboring man even at the present time. I
heard Dr. Charley Mayo say at a clinic not long ago that meat is so high
he could not afford to eat it and he didn't see how anybody could; and
as a matter of fact, he didn't need it anyhow, and so we could easily
get along without it. As a matter of fact, as Mr. Bill said some years
ago it is not really so much the high cost of living as it is the cost
of high living; and the use of meat is such an extravagant and expensive
thing it is very important that people should know how to get along
without meat.

The experimenters of the agricultural experiment stations have shown us
that it takes thirty-three pounds of dry digestible food substance to
make one pound of beef--31 or 32 pounds to make a pound of beef, and 33
or 34 pounds to make a pound of mutton. Seven pounds of digestible food
substance will make a pound of dry milk. So we can readily see that
there is an enormous waste of foodstuff. Only about ten per cent of the
corn raised is used for feeding human beings. The rest is fed to animals
and a large part of it is wasted.

So it is exceedingly important, it seems to me, that this nut industry
should be encouraged in every way. A half million acres of nut trees
well advanced and producing would produce all of the fat and more
digestible fat, and all the protein and more digestible protein, than we
are now using in the entire country. We are producing more than enough
food in corn and other foodstuffs to feed nearly three times our present
population, and most of it is wasted in the energy which the hog, the
steer and other animals use up in running around and keeping warm. That
is where the great loss comes. In nuts we have a choice foodstuff as
digestible as any other foodstuff, and Prof. Torrey and Prof. Mendel and
others who have recently made experiments have shown that the protein of
the nut and the protein of vegetables in general is not so putrescible
as the protein of meats. There are good reasons for it. It does not
undergo putrefaction so readily any way, and besides meat carries along
with it the bacteria which produce putrefaction.

Meat is the filthiest thing that goes upon our tables. If the number of
bacteria in milk was as great as the number of bacteria in meat, nobody
would think of eating it. If the bacteria in water were as numerous as
in milk, no one would be willing to drink the water. It is a very
curious thing that we permit in milk and in meat a condition of things
we would not tolerate in air or water for a moment. Every morsel of meat
a person eats contains some billions of the bacteria of the very worst
sort. Bacteria found in meat are those which produce colitis,
appendicitis, abscesses of the teeth and diseased conditions of the
tonsils. They predispose to a good many infectious diseases of the
intestine, and no doubt predispose to cancer. It is pretty well
established at the present time that cancer is a disease of meat eating
men and animals. About one cow in fifty has cancer, whereas every
seventh dog taken to a hospital sick is found to have cancer. Dr. Mayo
recently gathered some statistics on this matter, and he told me and
some other doctors that dogs under eight years of age, every fourth one
has cancer; every third one of dogs ten years of age has cancer, and
half of all the dogs over twelve years of age have cancer and would die
of it if left to themselves. These statements were based on laboratory
animals that were killed when they were well and not sick, so the
observation ought to be fairly reliable.

I was to say particularly a few words about the soy bean. I am not going
to try to tell you very much about it, because I do not know very much
about it. If you want to learn all about it, you can easily do so by
writing to Mr. W. J. Morse, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Farmers' Bulletin 973, one
of the very best on this subject, tells all about the culture of this
exceedingly useful legume. The soy bean is really the beefsteak of China
and Japan. In those oriental countries, soy beans have been used for
centuries. It is more nearly like a nut than a bean. Perhaps I better
show you the pictures first, and then have the curtains raised so we can
get a better inspection of the beans.

The composition of the soy bean is very remarkably different from that
of the ordinary bean. It contains forty per cent of fat, on the average
and about forty per cent of protein--sometimes more than forty per cent.
The protein is sixty per cent more than in our best ordinary foods; and
the fat is five or six times as much as that found in the ordinary bean.

A thousand different varieties of the soy bean have been gathered by the
Bureau of Plant Industry of the Department of Agriculture at Washington.
Five hundred of these varieties have been tested, and thirty or forty of
them have been found to be adapted to this country, and very useful. You
can see in this picture the great mass of pods to be found growing on
the plant. This slide shows how unusually well they grow in the field.
You can see the pods scattered all through the plant. A large part of
the foliage is made up of pods. This is one of our own fields of the
beans that we raised this year. It is rather difficult to raise the bean
in this latitude, because it requires a long time to mature. It requires
about 110 days for some varieties. We have, however, a variety we raised
here that we got from the agricultural department of Ontario. We found
it matured very well indeed in 120 days. We planted the bean here the
first week in May and harvested it the first week in September; so its
season was about 120 days. I found this particular bean was new to the
agricultural department at Washington, and have sent them some of the
seed, and I think they are going to make some trial of it.

This is a view of a field of the Hahto variety which is a particularly
fine variety for use as a shelled bean. In China the soy bean is very
little used as we use beans. They do not cook the bean and eat it as we
do; but instead they make it into a cheese which they call tofu, and
this cheese is made by soaking the beans, grinding them into a pulp,
then boiling for ten or fifteen minutes with about five volumes of
water; then the milky mass is precipitated with sulphate of magnesia or
citric acid, a very small amount because they use it as a curd. I have
here a sample of the curd which I will pass around in a moment for you
to see. This picture shows this curd pressed in large cakes. The soy
bean curd is stored on wooden trays in a dark room. It is also stored in
large earthen jars. They cure it and make cheese out of it which very
closely resembles our American milk cheese. They also use the beans for
sprouting.

The bean lacks only two things. It lacks lime and the fat-soluble
vitamines. It contains a considerable amount of the fat-soluble
vitamines. It is one of the very few seeds that is found to contain a
sufficient amount of the fat-soluble vitamine to promote growth, so that
animals will grow and develop normally on the bean alone without any
other sort of fat-soluble vitamine. If the bean is sprouted, a large
amount of this fat-soluble vitamine is produced by the plant itself.
This is also found to be a valuable means of preventing scurvy--by
sprouting the beans in this way and using the sprouts as a salad. The
sprouts are used as a green vegetable. It is an easy way of getting
green vegetables at any season of the year. It takes the place of
ordinary greens.

Here is a courtyard full of pots in which the fermented soy beans are
placed. This is a very interesting scheme they have for making a
substitute for meat extract. By this means they prepare an extract which
closely resembles extract of beef. In fact, it is rather a finer
flavored product than meat extracts. It is made by first cooking the
beans, spreading them out in the yard on trays and allowing a fungus to
grow, and after two or three weeks the whole mass is put into pots of
brine in the yard and allowed to remain there for a year or more, and at
the end of that time the brine has become soy sauce.

This shows a mass of soy roots. It has been suggested it might be very
useful to nut growers as a means of fertilizing the soil, a crop which
will fertilize the soil for the trees and at the same time give a
valuable return for the labor and expense. The little nodules on the
roots are very numerous and show well here. They produce nitrogen,
concentrated nitrogen from the air as do the nodules on the roots of
alfalfa. The _Scientific American_ recently stated that the soy bean is
one of the most promising of vegetables. It provides food for man and
beast. Given enough soy beans and granted the art of preparing them so
that they might be served as food having sufficient diversity and
palatableness, neither meat nor fish nor fat would be needed. In this
respect the Germans did not prepare for war. If they had had the soy
bean industry well developed it might have helped them through, and the
map of the world might have been seriously changed from what it now is.

I think one of the finest of the soy beans is the Hahto variety. They
grow one or two in a pod. I saw some of these beans in the market in
Jerusalem forty years ago. When about three quarters grown and used as
shelled beans they are exceedingly palatable. If at the dinner table
today you will call for a soy bean omelet, you will be quite surprised.
Dr. Morris tried it this morning and was kind enough to say it was the
finest he ever ate.

The soy bean is the best of a large part of the cookery of the orient.
We have been introducing it here the last few months, and it is very
palatable, very digestible, and our patients like it very much. If you
are interested in the soy bean, write, to W. J. Morse, or to the
Agricultural Department, Bureau of Plant Industry, and they will give
you a lot of interesting information about it. In starting the planting
of the bean, it is necessary to inoculate the soil as in the starting of
a planting of alfalfa.

PRESIDENT REED: Mr. Bixby has prepared a paper on "Judging
Nuts" which there is not now time for him to read. It will be inserted
in the proceedings at this point.



JUDGING NUTS

WILLARD G. BIXBY, BALDWIN, NASSAU CO., N. Y.


That there are differences in nuts is apparent to everybody. The
selecting of the best nuts out of a lot of two or three usually presents
no difficulty, and, when the number of nuts to be judged amounts to a
dozen or so, it is generally possible to pick out the best, but, when
one has before him nuts from several hundred trees, the problem becomes
a very different one, and the person who tries to pick out the best from
such a lot soon becomes aware of his own limitations. If, in addition,
he has sufficient respect for consistency to try to be so exact in his
judgment as to be able to go over a large lot of nuts today, we will
say, and several months hence go over the same lot again and render the
same verdict on each one of them, he will doubtless give the matter up
as an impossibility, and yet that is just what is wanted and expected of
those who judge the nuts which are sent in to the annual contests, which
contests have resulted in bringing to the attention of the nut growing
world the nuts of so many fine trees.

The experience of the last two or three years in being one of the judges
who passed on the nuts which were sent in to the contests convinced me,
almost at the start, of the desirability of getting methods where it
would be possible to go over a large lot of nuts now and several months
hence, and render the same verdict on each one of them, but now how to
do it was not at first apparent, and the methods for doing it which will
be outlined are the results of much work, many attempts, and the
discarding of many of the methods tried.

Considering the methods used in judging fruit, animals and fowl has
helped to some extent, but this assistance did not go far. The beginning
of improved methods of judging any of the above, is the establishment of
a score card, as it is called, which is nothing more than an enumeration
of the characteristics and a decision as to the relative value of each
one. Usually the values assigned to each characteristic are such that
when added up the total will be 100 points. Score cards of this
character are in general use.

The first attempt to make a score card for use in judging the nuts to
which the Northern Nut Growers' Association gives its attention, so so
far as I am aware, was that of a committee of the Northern Nut Growers'
Association, which reported at the Fifth Annual Meeting at Evansville,
Ind., 1914, and which report will be found on page 20 of the report of
that meeting. Prof. E. R. Lake was chairman of the committee. The score
card for butternuts, black walnuts and hickories which it recommended is
noted below:

  General Values    Points
    Size              10
    Form               5
    Color              5

  Shell Values
    Thinness          15
    Cracking          20

  Kernel Values
    Color             10
    Plumpness          5
    Flavor            10
    Quality           20
                     ___

      Total          100

This score card has served as a basis for all the work that has been
done in judging nuts since that work has largely fallen to me. It was
early found desirable, however, to change the score card in one or two
respects, and it has since been changed two or three times as the
experience gained in judging nuts saw it was desirable. The score card
now in use is noted below:

  General Values
    Weight               10
    Form                  5
    Color                 5

  Shell Values
    Husking Quality       5
    Thinness             10
    Cracking Quality     20

  Kernel Values
    Color                 5
    Proportion of kernel 20
    Quality and Flavor   20
                        ___

      Total             100

The first time one attempts to judge a large number of nuts whether with
the aid of such a score card as that proposed by Prof. Lake's Committee
or without it, he gets into practical difficulties at once. These
difficulties are not with the score card but in its use. Take for
example the characteristic, size, the first one on Prof. Lake's score
card. How can a person tell from the nuts of a hundred hickory trees
which is the largest and which is the smallest and which are
intermediate; in short how can he arrange them in order of size, the
largest at one end of the line and the smallest at the other with a
uniform graduation in between. Anyone who tries to do such a thing
quickly finds that it is impossible to do this correctly if one has only
his eye to aid him in determining size. The inability to do so quickly
becomes apparent if a person tries to arrange such a lot of nuts in
order of size at one time and then several days later tries to arrange
the same lot of nuts in order of size again. It is almost certain that
they will not get arranged the same both times. The differences between
the nuts are usually so minute, and, what is more important, the
difficulties of correctly estimating size by the eye alone are so great
that it is practically impossible to do it. An expert on this point can
do it of course much better than one who is not, but even the expert is
only too well aware of his limitations and of the impossibility of
properly doing the above. The same difficulty is apparent with every
characteristic on the list and while judging by experts with the aid of
a score card, is, so far as I am aware, the method used in judging
fruit, farm animals, poultry, etc., the crudeness of this method is only
too evident to the experts themselves. Two or three years ago it seemed
very far inferior to what actually measuring these characteristics would
be, although such measurement at first seemed difficult, not to say
almost impossible. Much work has been done on this, and it is very
gratifying to say that this measurement has been found possible to an
extent that was not dreamed of before the work was started. Before
outlining the methods worked out to do this a little discussion will be
given on Prof. Lake's score card, the characteristics which it pointed
out, and the reason shown for changing some of them.

Size is a characteristic which is apparent to everyone, yet the actual
measurement of size in the case of a large lot of nuts presents
difficulties which seem practically insurmountable. A serious attempt
was made to measure the length, breadth and height of the nuts examined
and gauges were made which should do this exactly and quickly. These
were finely discarded and the characteristic "weight" adopted in place
of size. This has to quite an extent replaced size in considering farm
products. When we used to buy potatoes by the bushel we used to get a
bushel basket full, now we get the legal weight of a bushel of potatoes
and instances of this kind might be multiplied almost indefinitely.
While weight and size are not exactly the same thing, yet they are so to
a large extent in the case of a given commodity, such as nuts of one
species, and weight can be accurately and rapidly determined.

Plumpness is another characteristic which we all understand as far as
the difference between a nut with a plump well filled kernel is
concerned, and one with a shriveled up kernel, but when it comes to
arranging the kernels of a lot of nuts in order of their plumpness, the
one who tries to do it becomes ready to give up before he really gets
started. It was found that the ratio of the weight of kernel to the
weight of the entire nut which is termed "proportion of kernel" was
never large in the case of a nut with shriveled kernel. It was small in
the case of a nut with a thick shell and a plump well filled kernel,
but, as stated above it was never large in the case of a nut with a
shriveled kernel and a good deal of work on the subject convinced me
that the characteristic "proportion of kernel" could be very well
substituted for plumpness.

There seemed at the present time little use for separating flavor and
quality as there seemed to be some question as to what was intended by
the terms separately and so they were considered together. I would like
to state here that little consideration has so far been given as to
whether the number of points awarded for each characteristic are such as
to cause the nut that will ultimately be considered of most value
commercially to get the first prize or not. The score card of Prof.
Lake's seemed so good that it was thought far more important at present
to develop methods of measuring these characteristics. A careful study
of the nuts sent in to the contests, it was thought, would point out
most parts of the score card where improvement could be made, and this
has already proved to be so to a considerable extent. The methods of
quantitatively measuring the different characteristics and determining
the number of points to be awarded for each will be outlined one at a
time.

WEIGHT: This is determined by an accurate scale, one weighing
to 1/10 gram was used, and the same scale was used directly or
indirectly for determining six out of the nine characteristics
considered. In determining weight, five average nuts (as far as could be
determined by appearance) were weighed and the average weight
determined. Having at hand the weights of the largest and smallest nuts
of the species under examination, the largest nut was awarded 10 points
and the smallest 0 and the nuts of intermediate weight were awarded
intermediate figures. The method of doing this will best be seen by
taking a specific instance e. g. the Lutz black walnut, the average
weight of which is 26.4g. The Alley black walnut, the average weight of
which is 10.0g is the smallest good black walnut which has come to our
attention, while the Armknecht black walnut which weighs 28.9g is the
largest one of which we know. The Armknecht black walnut would be
awarded 10 points for weight and the Alley 0 points and a table would be
made up for use in determining the number of points to be awarded for
intermediate weights as noted below:


  BLACK WALNUTS--WEIGHT

  Heaviest Armknecht 28.9 grams; Lightest Alley 10.0 grams.

  Weight of nut.                    Points.

  28 grams and less than 30 grams    10
  26   "    "    "    "  28   "       9
  24   "    "    "    "  26   "       8
  22   "    "    "    "  24   "       6
  20   "    "    "    "  22   "       5
  18   "    "    "    "  20   "       4
  16   "    "    "    "  18   "       3
  14   "    "    "    "  16   "       2
  12   "    "    "    "  14   "       1
  10   "    "    "    "  12   "       0

After the average weight of five nuts of a given variety has been
determined, an inspection of the table shows at a glance the number of
points to be awarded for weight, which, in the case of the Lutz Black
walnut, is 9. In case a nut should be entered which was very much larger
or smaller than provided for, the table can be extended for use
temporarily. The table, however, should be revised before being used the
next year. For example, had a nut come in weighing 30.5 grams this might
have been awarded 11 points, and had one weighing 8.5 grams come in this
would have been awarded-1 point in order to give each nut full credit,
for excellence in size or to penalize it for lack of it. It will be
noticed that by the method outlined the size of a nut is determined
exactly and the same number of points for size (or weight) would be
awarded today, next week, next month, or next year, barring of course
real changes, e. g. those caused by actual loss of moisture, etc.

FORM: It was only recently that a method of measuring this
characteristic has been suggested and this has been tried out only
experimentally. By form is meant attractive appearing shape which has
been held to be absence of hollows, ridges, angles, etc. A round, smooth
nut would be held to have perfect form in distinction from nuts that are
rough and full of ridges or edges. The only method of measuring that
has been suggested and which it is believed will work out satisfactorily
is to first select an average nut and weigh, then fill up the hollows in
the surface of the nut with wax just covering the ridges till the
surface is smooth, and weigh. This will give the weight of the nut plus
the weight of the wax needed to fill up the hollows on the surface. As
the specific gravity of the wax is 4/5 that of the nut the figure
actually used is weight of nut plus 5/4 weight of the wax, which gives
the weight of a nut of the size of the sample with the hollows in the
shell filled up or the weight of a nut of perfect form of the size of
the sample. The measurement of form is then the weight of the average
nut divided by the weight of a nut of the same size of perfect shape,
that is without hollows or ridges.

A measurement of form of a black walnut gave the following:


  Weight of nut              22.5  grams
  Weight of nut and wax      24.6    "
  Weight of wax               2.1    "
  Weight of 5-4 wax           2.6    "
  Weight of nut and 5-4 wax  25.1    "
  Form                22.5÷25.1=89.7%

When a nut has perfect form there will be no hollows to fill and no wax
will be needed and the weight of nut and 5/4 of the wax will be the same
as the weight of the nut and therefore its form figure will be 100%. The
number of points to be awarded for any measurement of form would be
determined by making up a table as was made up for awarding points for
weight, but such a table cannot be made up till after an examination of
form values for a large number of nuts. This will be done later.

COLOR: The color of shell was measured by making up samples of
water colors of all gradations of color between the lightest shell and
the darkest. From these, five were selected as showing in five steps the
differences noted, the lightest being marked 5, the next 4 and so on
down to the darkest which was marked 0. With these color standards in
front of the one judging, it was only necessary to take the nut to be
judged and lay it on the standards of color and the figure on the shade
which the nut most nearly matched was the figure awarded for color.

HUSKING QUALITY: This represents the ease with which the husk
can be removed. In view of the well known fact that husks of all nuts do
not come off with equal facility the need of such is apparent. Its
measurement will be the proportion of husk removed by a standard husking
operation.

THINNESS OF SHELL: This was measured by providing a means for
bringing two metal surfaces together, keeping them always parallel. The
nut to be cracked was placed between these surfaces and an arrangement
of scale levers provided so that the pressure exerted on the nut could
be weighed. The surfaces were brought together till the nut was cracked
and the pressure required was noted. This measures the thinness of the
shell or more properly the strength of the shell, the weakest shell of
course being the one that takes the least pressure to crack. This
pressure was measured in kilograms for by doing so it was possible to
utilize some stock apparatus. After the pressure required to crack has
been noted a reference to the table below will tell the number of points
to be awarded. We will take for an example the the same nut as taken to
illustrate weight e. g. the Lutz black walnut whose average cracking
pressure is 312kg and which therefore would be awarded 2 points for
thinness of shell. In this connection it should be stated that this
table would seem not to be made out on the plan followed heretofore by
taking the thinnest shelled nut of which we know, the Alley, as the low
limit of the table. While the Alley black walnut takes the least
cracking pressure of any we know which we can identify as from a
particular tree, one black walnut was cracked which I believe came from
the Ten Eyck tree which had a cracking pressure below 80kg and hence the
table was made of sufficient extent to include this. It is my intention
to get additional Ten Eyck nuts this year and check the matter up.


  BLACK WALNUTS--THINNESS OF SHELL

  Weight required to crack: Thinnest, Alley 110kg; thickest, Triplett
  348kg.

  Weight in kg.         Points

   50 and less than 80      10
   80 and less than 110      9
  110 and less than 140      8

  170 and less than 200      6
  200 and less than 230      5
  230 and less than 260      4
  260 and less than 290      3
  290 and less than 320      2
  320 and less than 350      1
  350 and less than 380      0

+-------------------------------------------------------+
|Transcribers note: point 7 was missing in the original.|
+-------------------------------------------------------+

CRACKING QUALITY: This characteristic is perhaps the one which
seems to most people the most difficult to measure, but, while it was
some time before methods of measuring it did occur to anyone, its
measurement is effected very easily. In cracking nuts a part of the
kernel will usually drop right out, some times it is a large part,
occasionally all, and sometimes it is but a small portion. A perfect
cracker is one where the entire kernel drops out after cracking. This
would have 100% cracking quality. When 4/5 of the kernel drops out after
cracking and the remaining 1/5 can be extracted only by recracking or
by picking out, the nut is said to have 80% cracking quality. In other
words, the cracking quality is the ratio of the weight of the kernel
which drops out after cracking to the entire kernel. The operations of
determining cracking quality in practice are first, selecting five
average nuts; second, cracking them and weighing the part of the kernels
which drop out after cracking; third, extracting the balance of the
kernels and getting the weight of all the kernels; fourth, dividing the
weight of the part of the kernels which drop out after cracking by the
total weight of the kernels, and the result is the cracking quality.
After an examination of the figures of a large number of nuts, the table
below was made up from which the number of points to be awarded for any
given cracking quality is readily obtained. Taking the Lutz black walnut
as an example again we find that the weight of the kernels which dropped
out after cracking was 24 grams while the total weight of kernels was
32.5 grams which gives a cracking quality of 73.8% which would be
awarded 13 points for cracking quality.


BLACK WALNUTS--CRACKING QUALITY

  Percentage of kernel that drops out after cracking.
  Highest, Alley[4], 100%; Lowest, Butler, 22.9%.

  Cracking Quality.                     Points.
  100%                                        20
   96% and all higher percentages under 100%  19
   92% and all higher percentages under  96%  18
   88% and all higher percentages under  92%  17
   84% and all higher percentages under  88%  16
   80% and all higher percentages under  84%  15
   76% and all higher percentages under  80%  14
   72% and all higher percentages under  76%  13
   68% and all higher percentages under  72%  12
   64% and all higher percentages under  68%  11
   60% and all higher percentages under  64%  10
   56% and all higher percentages under  60%   9
   52% and all higher percentages under  56%   8
   48% and all higher percentages under  52%   7
   44% and all higher percentages under  48%   6
   40% and all higher percentages under  44%   5
   36% and all higher percentages under  40%   4
   32% and all higher percentages under  36%   3
   28% and all higher percentages under  32%   2
   24% and all higher percentages under  28%   1
   20% and all higher percentages under  24%   0

COLOR OF KERNEL: This is determined in the same way as the
color of the shell by comparing with a standard color scale, and the
step of the scale whose color most nearly matches the color of the
kernel being examined gives the figure to be awarded.

PROPORTION OF KERNEL: This is the ratio of the weight of the
kernels of five average nuts to the entire weight of such average nuts.
After this has been determined a comparison with the table below which
was made up after an examination of the proportion of kernel of a large
number of nuts, the number of points to be awarded is readily
determined. If we take for example the Lutz black walnuts again we find
the weight of five average nuts 132.0 grams and the weight of the
kernels of these nuts 32.5 grams which gives for the proportion of
kernel 24.0% which would be awarded 8 points.


BLACK WALNUTS--PROPORTION OF KERNEL

  Ratio of weight of kernel to weight of entire nut (without husk)
  Highest, Ten Eyck 36.4%; Lowest, Seefeldt, 16%.

  Percent of Kernel.      Points

  36% and less than 37%       20
  35% and less than 36%       19
  34% and less than 35%       18
  33% and less than 34%       17
  32% and less than 33%       16
  31% and less than 32%       15
  30% and less than 31%       14
  29% and less than 30%       13
  28% and less than 29%       12
  27% and less than 28%       11
  26% and less than 27%       10
  25% and less than 26%        9
  24% and less than 25%        8
  23% and less than 24%        7
  22% and less than 23%        6
  21% and less than 22%        5
  20% and less than 21%        4
  19% and less than 20%        3
  18% and less than 19%        2
  17% and less than 18%        1
  16% and less than 17%        0

QUALITY AND FLAVOR: Absolutely no progress has so far been made
in measuring this characteristic or more correctly these characteristics
for, strictly speaking, there are a number of them instead of one and
the only method available at present is tasting by experts. It is very
much to be desired that methods for measuring this be worked out and
several lines on which to work in order to accomplish it have been
thought of but as yet no definite progress has been made.

While the characteristic as yet unmeasured is one of the most important
and most difficult even for experts to estimate correctly when there are
large numbers of nuts to be examined, the fact that it is possible to
measure the other eight is a matter of a good deal of satisfaction and
this satisfaction is the greater because with the methods that have been
worked out it is possible for any ordinarily careful person to do the
work about as well as it is for an expert and, as the work of judging a
large number of nuts is very considerable, the elimination of a large
part of the need for expert services is very gratifying. The services
for example of such experts as Dr. Morris and Capt. Deming are
obtainable only occasionally and for a short period. Now that the nuts
sent in are rapidly increasing, it would have been impossible to have
handled the contests without some improvements in the methods used.

While the same score card has been used for butternuts, black walnuts,
and hickories it seemingly can be used quite well for English walnuts,
Japan walnuts and pecans also, in short, for all nuts belonging to the
botanical family Juglandaceae and perhaps for hazels. Separate ones will
evidently be required for beechnuts, and chestnuts. The tables for
determining the number of points to be awarded for a given value of any
characteristic are likely to vary for each species. Inasmuch as there
are fourteen species of hickories exclusive of the pecan that have to be
considered and apparently even more species of walnuts not to mention
beechnuts, chestnuts and hazels, one might think that nearly 100 tables
would be required. A study of the matter, however, has shown that the
number really needed is very much less, and the more that nuts are
examined the more it seems possible to make one table answer for a
number of species and have the number of points a nut receives indicate
to a certain extent its value as a nut to grow, and not simply the value
of a given variety of a certain species.

The hickories and the walnuts require a word in passing. There are at
least nine species of hickory either native in the northeastern United
States or that will grow there and it is quite possible that further
study of the hickories will add to this number. Seven of these
belong to the scale bud class, _Eucarya_, the shagbark, _Carya ovata_,
the shellbark, _Carya laciniosa_, the scaly bark, _Carya
Carolinae-septentrionalis_, the mockernut, _Carya alba_, and the
close-bark pignut, _Carya glabra_, the loose-bark pignut,
_Carya-ovalis_, and the pallid hickory, _Carya pallida_; while two
belong to the open bud class, _Apocarya_, the pecan, _Carya pecan_, and
the bitternut, _Carya cordiformis_. Hybrids between many of these
species are found occurring naturally and seemingly hybrids between any
two are possible, and the fact of many of them being hybrids is not
evident on an inspection of the nuts. It is a noteworthy fact that quite
a proportion of fine hickories that are being propagated are evidently
hybrids and the number of our fine hickories which are evidently hybrids
increases as they are studied more carefully. In many ways it would be
desirable in the contest to offer prizes for the best nuts of each
species of hickories, but the difficulty of determining the species from
the nut alone, and the fact of such a proportion of our finest nuts
being hybrids is sufficient to discourage the attempt. What was done in
the 1918 contest, and what would seem to be the best thing that can be
done is to offer the prizes for hickory nuts simply. Most of the prizes
are taken by shagbarks but when a nut not a shagbark gets into the prize
winning class, we make a class that would include it. For example, in
the 1918 Contest, three shellbarks and one mockernut came into the prize
winning class, whereupon a special lot of prizes for shellbarks and
mockernuts were given. This enables us to do what would be accomplished
in offering prizes for best nuts of each species of hickories. The same
score card and tables therefore are used for each of these species. It
is convenient, in judging nuts, to differentiate between the pecan on
the one hand and the other hickories on the other, although study
recently put on the matter would seem to show that this distinction is
not exact and that some nuts, for example, which apparently are pure
pecans are really pecan hickory hybrids.

The differences between the structure of the shell of the nuts of
certain of the walnuts is greater than between the shell structure of
the hickories and the walnuts may be divided into three classes. Hybrids
between a number of species are found which have been formed naturally,
and seemingly hybrids between all species are possible. It is convenient
in judging nuts to differentiate between English walnuts, black walnuts,
and butternuts, which nuts are representative of the three walnut
classes and to include with the butternuts, the Japan walnuts. This will
strike many people as a strange classification, i. e. to include the
butternut and Japan walnut, but I feel sure that no one who has given
the matter much study will so consider it. Whenever the two grow in
proximity they hybridize so freely that one may be almost certain of not
getting pure species if he plants nuts and raises seedlings. Indeed I
have received many such hybrids which have been called either butternuts
or Japan walnuts. As a matter of fact the same difficulty exists in
distinguishing butternuts and Japan walnuts that exists in
distinguishing hickories. There is no name which includes the butternut
and Japan walnut as there is to include the various species of
hickories, and, as such a name is urgently needed, I have used the word
"butterjaps." This includes butternuts, Japan walnuts and hybrids
between them. While it doubtless will be convenient to continue the
names butternut and Japan walnut it should be understood that usually
they will mean simply nuts which, as far as appearance is concerned,
would seem to be one or the other, but very likely may be hybrids
between the two species and might be more properly called by some name
e. g. "butterjaps," which would include the two species and hybrids
between them.

At this point the Convention took a recess to enable a photograph to be
taken and immediately after reassembled for a business session.


FOOTNOTE:

[4] An additional lot of Alley Black Walnuts received several months
after the one entered in the 1918 contest did not show 100% cracking
quality.



BUSINESS SESSION

PRESIDENT W. C. REED IN THE CHAIR

PRESIDENT REED: If Mr. Patterson is in the room, we will be
glad to hear from him at this time. He has a matter he wants to bring
before us.

MR. PATTERSON: Mr. President and Gentlemen: The National Nut
Growers Association for some three years have had a standing committee
on federal aid for the nut industry. Two years ago through the
instrumentality of that committee, the appropriation for investigational
work was increased by some fifteen thousand dollars from the previous
appropriation. The total appropriation along this line now is thirty
thousand to thirty-five thousand dollars. During the past year the
almond growers felt the need of some encouragement and help from the
Department of Agriculture, and the last appropriation was increased but
was not made specific for the pecan industry, but for the nut industry
in general in the United States which was entirely agreeable to the
pecan people. And now I appear before you especially to call your
attention to this movement and to suggest that this association should
appoint a committee to co-operate with a committee from the National Nut
Growers' Association and the Almond Growers' Association, and the nut
growers of Washington and Oregon in an effort to secure an appropriation
from the Department of Agriculture which would commensurate with the
needs of the great nut industry in the United States. As we all know, it
is entirely in its infancy as a commercial proposition and I doubt not
we all agree as to its wonderful possibilities. The recommendation from
the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture has gone to the House
committee this year without any increase over the appropriation of last
year; so that it will be necessary if any increased allowance is made,
that pressure shall be brought to bear upon the House committee of
agriculture, or the Senate committee (the bill is before the House
committee at present), to get them to appreciate the importance of this
appropriation. I might say I am on my way to Washington now to see if I
can do anything in co-operation with the California Almond Growers
Association and such other co-operation as we can get to see if we can
get an increase in the appropriation over and above the appropriation
recommended by the Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary is not
opposed to a higher appropriation, but he has had orders from higher up
not to recommend any increase. I thank you for the privilege of bringing
this matter to the attention of the Association with the suggestion
that, if it meets with your approval you appoint a committee to
co-operate with the other committees already appointed by these other
associations.

PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the suggestion by Mr. Patterson.
Are there any remarks?

MR. BIXBY: I move, Mr President, that a committee on Federal
Aid be appointed for that purpose, to co-operate with the other
associations for the purpose of securing for the nut industry an
appropriation sufficient or at least somewhere near sufficient for the
work in hand. There is much work to be done that should be done now.

MR. OLCOTT: I second the motion, Mr. President.

PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the motion. It is moved that a
committee be appointed for this work, as suggested. All in favor of the
motion say Aye. Contrary same sign. It is CARRIED. I think it
would be well to leave that committee to the incoming president. That
was your idea, Mr. Bixby, was it?

MR. BIXBY: I didn't think that far.

PRESIDENT REED: That won't be far off, and I think it would be
well to leave the appointment of that committee to the incoming
president. I think also, it would be well, before appointing that
committee, to confer a little bit to see who could possibly attend,
could go to Washington, and would have the time to give to it.

PRESIDENT REED: We will now have the report of the nominating
committee.


REPORT OF THE NOMINATING COMMITTEE

Your committee on Nominations, having in mind the rapidly expanding
interest in Nut Culture and the need of the Northern Nut Growers
Association for a board of officers especially equipped for extending
development on broad lines, respectfully submit the following
nominations:

  _For President_--WILLIAM S. LINTON, Saginaw, Michigan.
  _For Vice-President_--JAMES S. MCGLENNON, Rochester, New York.
  _For Secretary-Treasurer_--WILLARD G. BIXBY, Baldwin, New York.
  _For Acting Secretary_--DR. W. C. DEMING, Wilton, Connecticut.
  _For Executive Committee_--MESSRS. LINTON, MCGLENNON, BIXBY,
                                  W. C. REED, AND J. RUSSELL SMITH.

  (Signed)   Ralph T Olcott
             James S. McGlennon
             Robert T Morris
             William S. Linton
             J. F. Jones

MR. OLCOTT: Secretary-Treasurer Bixby has suggested that the
work of his office be divided, he to look after the financial affairs
and the nut contests, Dr. Deming to assume the work of the Secretary
proper. The constitution provides that the three principal officers and
the last two retiring presidents be the executive committee. As the
constitution specifically provides regarding this matter, the committee
suggests the position of acting secretary for Dr. Deming until such
action may be taken as will conform to the constitution.

PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the report of the committee.
What is your pleasure?

MR. C. A. REED: I move that this report of the committee be
unanimously adopted and the officers be elected, and the secretary so
cast the ballot.

MR. SMEDLEY: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: All in favor of that vote say Aye. Opposed, No.
CARRIED. I hereby instruct the secretary to cast the unanimous
ballot of the Association for the list of officers as read.

The Secretary then cast a ballot for the persons on the report of the
Nominating Committee, and declared the following elected:

  _President_--WILLIAM S. LINTON, Saginaw, Mich.
  _Vice-President_--JAMES S. MCGLENNON, Rochester, N. Y.
  _Secretary-Treasurer_--WILLARD G. BIXBY, Baldwin, New York.
  _Executive Committee_--The above three and W. C. REED, Vincennes,
                              Ind., and J. RUSSELL SMITH, Swarthmore, Penn.
  _Acting Secretary_--DR. W. C. DEMING, Wilton, Conn.

PRESIDENT REED: In regard to the change in the constitution,
that will have to go over until next year.

MR. OLCOTT: The constitution provides that notice be given to
this convention for action to be taken a year from now; or that thirty
days before action is taken, the notice be sent to the members. It seems
to me that inasmuch as the action proposed is fully understood, that
Dr. Deming is available, and Mr. Bixby kindly consented while Dr. Deming
was tied up in the war work to look after this work, that there really
is enough for two, and as both are agreeable, this is the time to take
that action to become effective a year from now unless you can bring it
about quicker.

PRESIDENT REED: I should think it is only necessary to take the
action on that. If there is some one better posted on parliamentary law,
who thinks entire action better be taken at this time, I will entertain
a motion. If not, we will let it stand as it is at present.

MR. OLCOTT: I move that it is the sentiment of this convention,
and that the members should be notified through the annual report and
the regular proceedings, that that action is contemplated--to divide the
office of Secretary-Treasurer at the next annual meeting, and that the
constitution be changed as follows:

That Article IV, _Officers_, be changed as follows: There shall be a
president, a vice-president, a treasurer and a secretary, who shall be
elected at the annual meeting; and an executive committee of six persons
of which the president, two last retiring presidents, vice-president,
treasurer and secretary shall be members. There shall be a state
vice-president from each state, dependency, or county represented in the
membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the president.

That Article VII, _Quorum_, be changed as follows: Ten members of the
association shall constitution a quorum, but must include a majority of
the executive committee, or two of the four elected officers.

VOICE: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: It is moved and seconded that this matter come
up at the next annual meeting to be voted on as presented by Mr. Olcott.
All in favor say Aye; opposed, No. CARRIED. I believe we have a
report of the auditing committee that should come up.

MR. C. A. REED: Mr. Chairman, I believe I am the sole member of
the Auditing Committee who is present. I have to report that the
committee has not acted, but I think we can do this if agreeable: If you
will leave it to the committee to audit the account, and if the
committee finds the account is not accurate, to report to that effect
next year and bring Mr. Bixby to time, then; otherwise say nothing about
it.

PRESIDENT REED: I think we are willing to do it on that basis.
Mr. Secretary, are there any other things that ought to come up that you
think of?

MR. BIXBY: I have a resolution here if this is in order now.
This resolution is sent from Mr. Littlepage.

"Whereas this Association is justly jealous of its character and
standing among the nut-growing public of this western continent and
especially among the northern nut culturists, amateur or professional;
and

"Whereas this Association views with distrust and some alarm the growing
and questionable practice of selling seedling pecan trees to the general
public; and

"Whereas it developed at a recent meeting of the Southern Nurserymen's
Association held at Atlanta, Georgia, that seedling pecan trees from the
gulf states were being distributed in the territory north of the Ohio
River; and

"Whereas this practice, if continued, will work a distinct disadvantage
to the industry in general as well as to the planters in particular;

"Therefore be it RESOLVED, That this Association now and here
vigorously record its view on this question as follows: That we protest
against the above named practice and urge upon the nurserymen of the
United States the importance of discouraging the practice of planting
seedling pecan trees for orchard purposes in particular; and further
that especially shall extreme caution be used to prevent the shipment of
southern seedling pecan trees for planting in the territory north of the
Ohio and Potomac Rivers, and further be it

"RESOLVED, That the secretary communicate a _copy_ of these
resolutions to the President of the American Association of Nurserymen
with the request that his organization take cognizance of this condition
and take such steps as are compatible with its authority and sentiment
to repress such reprehensible practice on the part of the American
nursery trade."

I will introduce this as a resolution.

VOICE: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the resolution which has been
seconded. Are there any remarks?

MR. C. A. REED: I would like to add a word of explanation.
There are only two or three nurserymen in the South engaged in that
practice. There are several northern men who are in the nursery business
in the South who have raised the question as to the propriety of that
practice, and the question has been discussed at the meetings of this
southern association with a good deal of heat and vigor. The southern
people will not plant seedling pecan trees at all, but these few
nurserymen do a few hundred dollars' worth of business every year by
sending their product to big nurseries here in the North, general
fruit-tree nurseries and they in turn distribute these trees through the
North. These northern friends of ours who are now in the South, put
through a resolution asking that the matter be discussed at their
meeting this year at Atlanta, the meeting held in August, by myself
representing the Department of Agriculture. I was unable to be present,
but I sent down a paper which was read by my associate in the office,
and he tells us that ninety per cent of the southern nurserymen were
with us in opposing that practice; that it is only those two or three
and their associates who practice it. And it is as a result of that
situation that this resolution has been proposed. Prof. Lake, secretary
of the American Pomological Society, has been in the South working on
pecans and is quite familiar with the situation, and he drew up this
resolution. It is something that by all means should be stopped if
possible. The southern pecan does not succeed in the North anyhow, and
even it did, we do not want the kind of pecan tree up here that the
southerners would not plant themselves.

PRESIDENT REED: Are you ready for the question? All in favor of
adopting the resolution as read, say Aye. Contrary, same sign. It is so
CARRIED.

MR. C. A. REED: I would like to suggest that a copy of these
resolutions be sent to the secretary of the Southern Nurserymen's
Association, Mr. O. Joe Howard, Hickory, N. C.

MR. BIXBY: I have a telegram from Mr. Littlepage which I will
read. "I regret exceedingly it is impossible to attend the meeting this
year. Signed, T. P. Littlepage."

MR. J. F. JONES: I make a motion that Dr. Walter Van Fleet be
made an honorary member of this Association for his valuable work in nut
culture and hybridizing.

MR. OLCOTT: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: It has been moved and seconded that Dr. Walter
Van Fleet be made an honorary member of this Association for his
valuable work in nut culture. All in favor say Aye. Contrary, No. It is
CARRIED.

MR. BIXBY: The place of the next meeting is decided before the
meeting adjourns, I think, or else provision made for it.

PRESIDENT REED: As I understand it, it is either decided or you
vote to put it in the hands of the executive committee.

MR. BIXBY: Provision in some way is made for it. On that
subject I would like to say a word. We have an invitation from Mr.
Littlepage, and in considering the place of the 1919 meeting there were
really three different locations spoken of--one Washington, D. C., one
New York City or some point near there, and one Lancaster, Pa.
Heretofore we have practically decided the place of the meeting on
consideration of being able to see near there nut trees of interest. I
think every meeting has been decided with that idea in mind. This year
each of the three places offered promise of being very attractive in a
year or two, but not in 1919. In the case of the meeting at Washington,
we could see Mr. Littlepage's orchard of pecans, thirty acres in extent,
which year before last put out a few flowers, and this year quite a
number, and he expects nuts next year. There are also the many things to
be seen around Washington,--the Department of Agriculture, and Dr. Van
Fleet's work besides a number of other things. And at Lancaster, Pa.,
there has been a chance the past year to see some remarkable work on top
worked hickories, that is, the early bearing of crops of fine nuts. Then
again very soon on Capt. Deming's place at Georgetown, Conn., is going
to be the greatest opportunity for topworked hickories anywhere to be
seen. He has more young seedling hickories top worked to fine varieties
than any one else that I know of. As a matter of suggestion it would
seem to me well--this is only a suggestion, of course--that the matter
be left with the executive committee, and next spring or summer when it
is possible to get an idea as to which of these three places offers the
most to see in the line of nut trees, then they could decide where it is
best to go. That would be the suggestion that I would make.

MR. MCGLENNON: One of the suggestions was Rochester, N. Y. I
think there are things worth while there in nut culture to be seen, and
I know that we who are interested in nut culture would like to have the
convention there; and I know also our Chamber of Commerce in the city
would be very happy to have it there. So that in considering the place
for the next meeting, I hope Rochester, N Y., will be incorporated in
the thought.

MR. POMEROY: Mr. President, I would also suggest you might come
to Lockport, N. Y. Out northeast of Buffalo there were shipped eighteen
hundred pounds of walnuts to the Buffalo market this fall. North of
Lockport is a man who supplies the country stores with English walnuts.
As long as there are any of these walnuts in the baskets exposed for
sale, those which were purchased from the wholesalers from California
are left unsold. I went into one store and the store-keeper had some
home grown English walnuts out in the back room. I said, "Why do you
keep them out here?" He said, "I have three bushels of California
walnuts, and I keep these here until the others are sold. If I put these
out in front, I would not sell the others at all."

MR. BIXBY: I would be glad to include Rochester, or Lockport,
or any other place suggested, and leave it to the executive committee
with the power to act.

MR. C. A. REED: Mr. President, we know pretty nearly what could
be seen at most of these places next year. There is not going to be a
great change in what there has been this year, and it seems to me the
sooner we can definitely decide upon this thing and get it a matter of
record, and plan for it, the better it will be. We can go around from
one place to another. We want to go to all these places during the next
three or four years, and we have a definite invitation from Mr.
Littlepage; and while he didn't so state in his telegram, in
conversation with him on Friday by telephone, he said he would like to
have them come there the latter part of August or first of September;
and to make the matter definite and know where we stand early in the
game, I move we accept Mr. Littlepage's invitation for a meeting about
the first of September.

MR. OLCOTT: I second that motion, and add that at the Stamford
convention, that is the very argument I made. Before that meeting it had
always been left to the executive committee. It had been the custom of
Dr. Deming, the secretary, to defer the matter of the place of meeting
until a few weeks before the date for it. Nobody knew, and the committee
decided, and the time was too short to get anything like the attendance
we should have. If we should publish in the American Nut Journal for a
year where the meeting is to be, you would get a year's advertising of
that matter, and could plan better thereby.

PRESIDENT REED: You have heard the motion.

MR. BIXBY: The only reason I had in making the suggestion I
did, was the possibility of one place or the other showing more
importance but as Mr. Reed said, we want to do all these places
mentioned at some time. It does not make much difference which we do
first. We should like to take first the place where there is most to be
seen, of course.

PRESIDENT REED: If there is no further discussion, all in favor
of accepting Mr. Littlepage's invitation for Washington for the next
meeting say Aye. Contrary, No. It is CARRIED.

J. F. JONES: The reason I did not push Lancaster is that some
experiments on spraying are being conducted there and it will be a year
before that will show up. The nut growers could see that better the year
following.

PRESIDENT REED: If there is nothing else, I believe we are
ready to turn over the gavel to our new president.

MR. C. A. REED: Mr. President, there is an important committee
you have not appointed. I was out of the room when Mr. Patterson
suggested this morning that a committee be appointed. Has that been
attended to?

PRESIDENT REED: I expected to let the incoming president
appoint that committee before we adjourn.

MR. SMEDLEY: I will make a motion that Mr. Patterson represent
us and have the endorsement of this Association as to demanding more
appropriations for the work in hand.

J. F. JONES: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT REED: It is moved and seconded that Mr. Patterson be
appointed to represent us before congress in connection with the
appropriation.

MR. PATTERSON: If everyone on the committee could go to
Washington as soon as we can get at the House committee for a hearing,
that would be the way to get action on the matter. Of course, the
endorsement of the Association is good, and if you could get a committee
of some one who could go down and help re-enforce it, there, we would
appreciate it very much.

PRESIDENT REED: I think the incoming president will be one who
will be going down. If he will come forward, I am ready to turn over the
gavel.

At this point, Mr. Linton, the newly elected president, took the chair.

PRESIDENT LINTON: Ladies and Gentlemen I am sure that you will
all concede that I have not sought official position, and no one could
have been more surprised than I, when I was presented with the report of
your committee. I have been much interested in the work that is being
carried on by this association; and of course if I can be of any value
to the association or to the cause in the position of president during
this particular year, why I accept that duty. But I would like to impose
one or two conditions. I know that your hearty co-operation will be
given. That would be one condition. But I am sure that each and every
one of you can assist in adding greatly to the membership of this
organization. We should at least have fifty members in each state within
our jurisdiction. That would mean, perhaps one-half of the states in the
Union. That would mean one thousand members. Now, in accepting this
position, I am going to ask each and every active member through his
friends and acquaintances to solicit and secure twenty-five members.
Now, I will double that amount, and agree during the year, to add fifty
good members to the association. That means over one thousand during the
year, and that is one goal that I hope we can reach during this
particular year, 1920. So far as the growing of nuts is concerned, so
far as the details connected with the work that you have been engaged in
is concerned, I propose leaving those things to those whom I consider
experts, Dr. Morris, our friend Reed from Washington, and others that I
might name; but the particular lines that I would like to follow this
year, gentlemen, and what I hope to receive your earnest support in is
an addition to your membership so that it may exceed a thousand; and
assistance in legislation throughout the country along the line that we
have worked out in our peninsular state of Michigan. I am glad that you
decided upon Washington as the place of the next meeting, and as I have
intimated in my remarks heretofore, I believe we have there a Michigan
Senator who will assist in national legislation along the lines that we
desire, because they are right ones; and in his position as chairman of
the committee on post offices and post roads of the country, being at
the head of the highway legislation, there is no man in the United
States as competent to help us along that line, and I feel sure that we
will get that assistance and support. With these few lines I will close,
and I sincerely hope you have not made any mistake at this session; and
when we have rounded up our year's work, that we can all say it has been
a successful one. I thank you. (Applause). The committee on Federal Aid
that the incoming president was to appoint, I will name as follows: J.
M. Patterson, Dr. Morris, Dr. Kellogg, Mr. Littlepage, Mr. Bixby, Mr.
Jones and Mr. McGlennon.

MR. BIXBY: Senator Penney would like to say a word.

SENATOR PENNEY: I hadn't any intention of saying a word. But I
am particularly pleased that you elected my friend, Mr. Linton, as
president of the organization. I have known him a good many years, and I
know he is an industrious worker. In anything that he undertakes to do,
you will always see results. I am sure that in the lines which he has
expressed himself as being anxious to cover, your membership, the
matter of legislation, I am sure that you will see some results that
will be very gratifying to the Association. I do not know as there is
anything further I wish to say. But I have been very interested in these
meetings. I am not a nut grower, and I hardly know one nut from another,
excepting that I am like the squirrel, if I get hold of a good nut I
like to eat it; but I have certainly learned a lot of things from this
association, and I am very pleased to be present.

PRESIDENT LINTON: I am going to ask Senator Penney to become a
member of this association.

MR. BIXBY: He is a member.

SENATOR PENNEY: I have gotten two since I have been here, so I
am going to pledge myself for two or three more for the next year.

MR. OLCOTT: I think one subject should not be overlooked, and
that is the matter of resolutions. There is Dr. Kellogg's very courteous
offer and treatment to be remembered, and perhaps some other things. If
there is not such a committee, I think some one ought to be appointed on
it to report very soon before we close. I move that a committee on
resolutions be appointed.

C. A. REED: I second the motion.

PRESIDENT LINTON: Gentlemen, you have heard the motion made by
Mr. Olcott. Are you ready for the question? Those who favor the motion
say Aye; opposed, No. The resolution is ADOPTED. I appoint Mr.
Olcott, Mr. Bixby, Senator Penney, Mr. Jones and Mr. Patterson.

C. A. REED: There is a little bit of news I would like to tell
the members of the association. Yesterday afternoon, a gentleman who is
a patient across the street at the sanitarium, came down to the nut
exhibit in a wheelchair and looked on with interest at what was shown
there, and presently he called Mrs. Reed over to talk with her a little
and ask something about who was connected with that exhibit; and the
next thing he asked me to sit down by him. He was not able to get
around, to stand, and he told me this: that four years ago he met a Mr.
Page from Tulsa, Oklahoma, a man who is evidently a man of a good deal
of means in the oil business there, who is very philanthropic in his
activities, a man who has adopted two hundred children, I believe it is;
and he proposed to this gentleman, who was Mr. Dow of Jamestown, N. Y.,
that he go to Oklahoma to establish a nut arboretum. He was willing to
set aside two hundred acres of land and to endow it with $200,000 if
this Mr. Dow would go and take charge of it. He also offered to build a
$23,000 house on the place. But Mr. Dow is director of the Leadsworth
Forest Arboretum, some sixty miles up the Genesee River from Rochester,
and of course he did not feel that he could leave the work he was doing
there and devote his energies to a new work. I thought that was
something that we northerners would be very much interested in, and I
think we ought to see if that offer could not be taken advantage of.

MR. BIXBY: Can any one here tell me where seedlings of the big
western shellback, Carya laciniosa, can be obtained? I would like to get
100 of them.

C. A. REED: Probably the best place to get that information
would be from the U. S. Forest Service. That bureau keeps in touch with
such information. They have catalogs and they have lists of nurserymen
having various trees including nut trees; the U. S. Forest Service,
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

PRESIDENT LINTON: Mr. Reed informs me that it is the intention
to close this session at this time.

J. F. JONES: I don't think we ought to close without passing a
resolution of thanks to Dr. Kellogg for the nice entertainment here, the
free service, the rooms, etc.

VOICE: I support the motion.

PRESIDENT LINTON: You have heard the motion offered by Mr.
Jones. We can take a recess and adjourn after we take the trip through
the buildings.

C. A. REED: If there is no one there but the president,
officers and the committee, they would still have the authority to adopt
these resolutions, and then properly adjourn.

PRESIDENT LINTON: If that is the consensus of opinion, we will
take a recess until called to order again by the chair following the
trip through the buildings.

C. A. REED: The idea was to take a recess until after our trip
this afternoon and adjourn then. At that time this committee will be
prepared with its resolutions.

PRESIDENT LINTON: We can not fix a definite time. It will be
following the afternoon session with Dr. Kellogg. If there is nothing
more to come before us at this time, a recess will be taken until after
that time.

The convention then took a recess and reassembled at 2 p. m. at which
time an old fashioned straw sleigh ride was taken to the buildings of
the Kellogg Pure Food Company. Here Dr. Kellogg met the party and
conducted them through, explaining the various products made and the
processes by which they were made, and also that the large plant of the
company was a growth from a very humble beginning, started originally
for the purpose of providing food for the Sanitarium that was impossible
to procure any other way. Persons who had been guests of the Sanitarium,
after leaving it, have wished to get some of the food products they had
had when there, and in that way, a demand was made which had grown, till
many of them were supplied to the jobbing trade. A most enjoyable lunch
enabled the party to sample many of the products.

From the Kellogg Pure Food Company, the sleigh took the party back to
the Sanitarium through which they were conducted and shown the
remarkable facilities for providing the guests with every kind of
medical treatment that had proved valuable. It would be difficult to
find a place where apparatus for treating every form of disease is equal
to that of the Battle Creek Sanitarium or where such facilities exist
for providing patients with all means for their comfort and for the
recovery of their health. A most interesting talk illustrated with
lantern slides, showed the growth of this institution from a modest
beginning in a dwelling house, 54 years ago. After this the convention
reassembled and adjourned at 5 p. m.



THE 1919 NUT CONTEST

WILLARD G. BIXBY, BALDWIN, NASSAU CO., N. Y.


The nuts sent in to the 1919 contest have been finished at last but the
date is only a few days ahead of the date last year when the 1918
contest was finished, which is to me a matter of a good deal of chagrin
as it was last year. No attempt was made to examine the nuts received
till after the first of the year as the experience of last year showed
this to be a waste of time. Several things seemed, this year, to
conspire to prevent getting started on the examination. The number of
nuts received was large and the time taken for examination quite
considerable for no attempt as yet has been made to have but one person
work on it. But the thing that has caused the greater part of the delay
was the wide variation between the results in the tests of those nuts
which were sent into both the 1918 and 1919 contests, and my
unwillingness to have these results appear in print until the reasons
for these discrepancies could be stated with certainty.

Had the methods used been those in use for some time and whose
correctness had been proven, these differences would have caused little
concern, but inasmuch as the methods for measuring most of the nut
characteristics were used for the first time in 1918, and their had been
devised by me, I could not help feeling that there was a possibility of
the discrepancies being due to imperfections in methods for, at first,
it would seem likely that nuts borne by a given tree one year would be
like those borne the next year. I considered therefore that it was for
me to prove beyond question that the methods used were sound and that
the differences noted were real. The amount of time needed to do this at
a period when my time was well occupied with other things has been more
than I wish it had been. While many efforts were made to see if there
were imperfections in the methods used for measuring the various
characteristics, no such imperfections were found, and, for a
considerable period, all efforts made to explain the differences in
tests made on nuts borne by the same trees in different years were
unproductive of results. Finally the matter was settled to my
satisfaction as is noted in the next paragraph.

The Clark hickory received 79 points last year when it took the first
prize. It tested out 11 points less this year when first tested which
put it entirely out of the prize winning class. Repetition of this
year's tests gave results agreeing fairly well with the first ones made
but still not all comparable to those of last year. This was decidedly
disconcerting when one of the principal results expected of the adoption
of methods of measuring nut characteristics was the possibility of
testing a given nut now and several months hence and obtaining the same
verdict. After much work designed to see if the methods of measuring nut
characteristics were faulty and nothing wrong had been found with them,
a visit was made to the tree. Mr. Clark said that it bore a good crop
every other year and but few nuts in the intervening years, and that the
nuts were much better the years when a good crop was borne than they
were in the other years. This was interesting information but I could
not help realizing the difficulty of carrying in one's mind, from one
year to the next, the merits of hickory nuts, and felt that, unless the
matter could be proven, I had not as yet done very much to solve the
problem at hand. Mr. Clark, however, gave me practically all the nuts of
the 1919 crop which he had and I returned feeling that this trip had not
done much to solve the problem as to why the tests on the 1918 nuts and
1919 nuts should be so different. Very careful examination was made of
the few Clark hickory nuts remaining in my possession of the 1918 crop
and they were compared with those of the 1919 crop. Slight differences
in shape were noted and finally one nut was found seemingly just like
the nuts that won the prize in 1918. When this nut was tested it gave
substantially the same results as those tested in 1918. Another like it
was afterward found where the result was repeated. This proved
definitely that the trouble was not with the methods, and that, in off
years, with the Clark hickory at least, some few nuts were borne that
would test out as well as those borne in good years. The results of the
tests on these good nuts borne in 1919 were substituted for those on the
inferior nuts previously tested for in contests it is always the
intention of those sending in nuts to send in the best.

It will be noted that the number of points finally awarded the Clark
hickory for example this year is less than awarded last year. This
difference is due to the method of scoring. In a matter as new as
methods for measuring nut characteristics, the constants which have to
be determined by experience must change somewhat at first. The method
used this year in testing nuts sent in to the contest was to judge them
on the basis used in 1918, redetermine the constants that required it,
and work out the results again. An example will help to make this
clear.

Take the matter of proportion of kernel, the highest award for which was
15 points in 1918 and also in 1919. Up to the time the 1918 contest was
decided the hickory with the largest proportion of kernel was the Beam,
Nut No. 3, of the 1918 contest with over 50% of kernel and the lowest
was the Brown mockernut of the 1918 contest with 18% of kernel. On the
basis of the difference between the highest and lowest the number of
points to be awarded each was worked out. On this basis the Clark
hickory was awarded, in 1918, 10 points for a proportion of kernel of
40.8%. In the case of the 1919 contest nuts with larger proportion of
kernel were found, the Hatch bitternut with 65%, and the Halesite
bitternuts with 69% kernel. A mockernut from Sliding Hill, Jackson, S.
C. with only 14% kernel was also found and the figures for awarding
points for proportion of kernel were recalculated as follows:

                              Points                                Points
  69% and over                  15      65.3% to 68.9% inclusive      14
  61.7% to 65.2% inclusive      13      58.0% to 61.6% inclusive      12
  54.3% to 57.9% inclusive      11      50.7% to 54.2% inclusive      10
  47.0% to 50.6% inclusive       9      43.3% to 46.9% inclusive       8
  39.7% to 43.2% inclusive       7      36.0% to 39.6% inclusive       6
  32.3% to 35.9% inclusive       5      28.7% to 32.2% inclusive       4
  25.0% to 28.6% inclusive       3      21.3% to 24.9% inclusive       2
  17.7% to 21.2% inclusive       1      14.0% to 17.6% inclusive       0

On this basis the Clark hickory was awarded but 7 points for the same
proportion of kernel in 1919 instead of 10 as in 1918. This accounts for
3 out of the 5 points difference between the 79 points awarded in 1918
and the 74% in 1919. The other two points can be similarly explained.
There are bound to be similar changes in the tables for awarding points
from year to year, but they will be less and less as time goes on. For
example, the Wasson butternut of the 1915 contest which weighed 18.8g
was the largest butternut received until 1919 when two larger came in,
one weighing 19.5g and the other weighing 22.6g. The Mott shellbark
hickory which weighs 29.6g which was discovered by Dr. Morris before the
founding of the Association is still the largest hickory of which we
know. On the other hand the black walnut record for size was exceeded in
1918 and also in 1919.

The nuts received were gone over carefully and all characteristics
measured where this was possible, then the other characteristics were
passed on by me. Then the best nuts were brought to the attention of Dr.
Morris and Dr. Deming and the three of us passed on those
characteristics where methods of measurement had not been worked out.

The results of this contest are noted in considerable detail as it is
believed that they may have value as matters of record. While an attempt
has been made to give the species of each nut tested as such information
is useful, it must be understood that the notations of species are
tentative and subject to change should further knowledge require it. It
is, frequently, difficult to positively identify a nut as to species
without having leaves, buds, bark and husk for examination and in most
instances the judges did not have these. No nut is noted as a hybrid
unless it has been proven so by evidence which it is believed is beyond
question, yet there are a number of nuts noted as pure species which
later may be proved to be hybrids. This is particularly so in the case
of the hickories.

In explanation of the tables it should be noted that weights of nuts and
kernels are expressed in grams, while cracking pressures are expressed
in kilograms. The methods used for measuring the various characteristics
are noted in detail in the article "Judging Nuts" on pages 122 to 132
inclusive.

The two items cracking quality need a little explanation. Last year 20
points were awarded for cracking quality and 5 points for plumpness of
kernel. Plumpness was very difficult of estimation. It means the reverse
of shrivelled. To assign values for this can only be done by appearance
and it seemed impossible of measurement. A study of the nuts of the 1918
contest which were awarded high values for plumpness and those which
were awarded low values showed that in no case was a nut which had a
shrivelled kernel awarded a high value for proportion of kernel.
Sometimes a nut with a plump kernel had a very thick shell and a low
proportion of kernel but in no instance did a nut with a shrivelled
kernel have a high proportion of kernel, so it was thought that for
practical purposes the figure for proportion of kernel would answer very
well to represent excellence in both characteristics. It was also
evident that the ratio of the weight of the portion of the kernel which,
after cracking, could be easily picked out with the fingers to the total
weight of the kernel, which was taken to represent cracking quality last
year, was capable of more refinement for it was noticed that of those
nuts where the entire kernel could be easily picked out with the fingers
after cracking that some were better crackers than others, for, in some
instances, the entire kernel fell out. As the proportion of the kernel
which could be picked out easily with the fingers is seemingly the most
important this was still given 20 points and called "cracking quality
commercial," and the figure representing the proportion of kernel which
dropped out after cracking was called "cracking quality absolute," and
awarded the 5 points formerly awarded to plumpness.

In the case of the hazel which generally has a cracking quality both
absolute and commercial of 100% the item "freedom from fibre" was
substituted for "cracking quality absolute." The hazel seems to be the
only nut where this characteristic must be considered.

It is too bad that while practically all characteristics are determined
with exactness to a single point and could be even more precisely
determined, that the item quality and flavor of kernel to which 20
points are justly awarded has to be determined in so crude a manner as
it is at present. It is true that formerly all characteristics were
determined in equally crude manner and we should be glad that all others
can be determined with precision but still having one quality not
precisely determined, to a certain extent prevents exact determination
of the others having the value it otherwise would. We can make only
about five graduations in quality which would be differences of five
points except at the top of the scale where it is 2 and an error in one
gradation would make a difference of 5 points generally. When it is seen
how close some of the nuts run, particularly the hickories, where the
differences in total points awarded are generally only 1 point, with
several of the same score, this crudeness of determination of one of the
most important characteristics is the more regrettable.

The results of the 1919 contest on nuts of the various species are as
noted below:


HICKORIES--128 ENTRIES

The results of the tests on the prize winning hickories are shown in the
table on page 151.

What is said of the difficulty of identification as to species is
particularly applicable to the hickory where it is known that many of
the fine nuts that we have are hybrids. While no nut is noted as a
hybrid unless it has been so proven by evidence which it is believed is
beyond question, there is considerable question as to whether a number
of the nuts noted as shagbarks are really pure shagbarks. It will take
more observation and study than it has as yet been possible to give them
to determine this point. It is to be noted, however, that the more study
we put on the hickories notable for the excellence of the nuts they
bear, the more we find that give suggestion of hybrid parentage.

Beside the hickories noted above which received a sufficient number of
points to entitle them to one of the eight prizes awarded the
measurements are given of the Hatch and Halesite bitternuts because
they have the thinnest shell and highest proportion of kernel of any
hickories yet discovered and of the Stanley hickory because it is the
best shellbark of which we yet know.



HICKORIES

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with fingers
   after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESIGNATION        | A | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I   |
====================================================================
|Luther W. Vest     |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Blacksburg, Va.    | G | 1 | 5.0g|2.5g|0.0g|2.5g| 46kg| 49.6|  0.0|
|Vest hickory       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. W. Manahan      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Sabillasville. Md. | G | 1 | 7.8g|3.8g|2.3g|3.4g| 99kg| 48.5| 61.2|
|Manahan hickory    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Eugene J. Clark    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Ludlow, Mass.      | G | 2 | 6.5g|2.6g|0.0g|2.6g| 83kg| 40.8|  0.0|
|----               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Ralph T. Olcott    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Rochester, N. Y.   |GxB| 2 | 6.9g|4.0g| .7g|3.6g| 46kg| 57.5| 17.6|
|Laney hickory      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Snyder Bros.       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Center Point, Ia.  |GxB| 2 | 7.6g|3.6g|1.8g|3.6g| 64kg| 48.1| 49.5|
|Fairbanks hickory  |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mort Sturts        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Hazel Dell, Ill.   | G | 3 | 4.7g|2.2g|1.2g|2.2g| 49kg| 46.1| 55.6|
|Hickory No. 1      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Howard G. Barnes   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Fayetteville, O.   | G | 4 | 5.0g|2.6g|2.6g|2.6g| 79kg| 51.4|100.0|
|Hickory No. 1      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       | G | 4 | 3.7g|1.9g| .6g|1.9g| 43kg| 50.0| 33.3|
|Hickory No. 2      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Charles Swaim      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|South Bend, Ind.   | G | 4 | 5.1g|2.4g|2.3g|2.4g| 42kg| 47.5| 97.2|
|Swaim hickory      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
G. E. Beaver        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Millerstown, Pa.   |GxB| 5 | 6.7g|3.4g|0.0g|3.4g| 29kg| 50.3|  0.0|
|Beaver hickory     |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Augusta Patton|   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Walnut Hill. Ill.  | G | 5 | 6.5g|2.7g|2.2g|2.5g| 77kg| 40.5| 81.6|
|----               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       | G | 6 | 4.6g|1.9g|1.2g|1.7g| 33kg| 41.9| 61.8|
|Hickory No. 1      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       | G | 6 | 4.8g|1.6g| .8g|1.6g| 68kg| 33.4| 46.9|
|Hickory No. 7      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|James L. Glover    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Shelton, Conn.     | G | 6 | 5.0g|1.9g|1.8g|1.9g|106kg| 38.6| 94.7|
|Hickory No. 1      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|James L. Glover    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Shelton, Conn.     | G | 6 | 4.7g|1.9g| .9g|1.9g| 68kg| 40.0| 50.0|
|Hickory No. 2      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Lancaster, Pa.     |GxL| C | 8.8g|3.1g|1.5g|3.1g|102kg| 35.3| 48.1|
|Weiker hickory     |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Sarah Kronk        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Minford. O.        | G | 6 | 4.2g|1.6g|1.3g|1.6g|140kg| 37.6| 83.6|
|Hickory No. 3      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mort Sturts        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Hazel Dell, Ill.   | G | 6 | 5.6g|2.3g|1.4g|2.3g| 52kg| 41.0| 61.4|
|Hickory No. 3      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|W. C. Deming       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Wilton. Conn.      | G | 7 | 5.5g|2.9g|1.4g|2.9g| 63kg| 52.8| 48.3|
|Terpenny hickory   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|William Gobble     |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Holston, Va.       | G | 7 | 9.7g|3.9g| .2g|3.9g|142kg| 40.6|  5.1|
|----               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|W. P. Griffin      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Creal Spring, Ill. | G | 7 | 5.2g|2.0g|1.5g|2.0g|113kg| 38.5| 75.0|
|----               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Kate Yawger        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Port Byron, N. Y.  | G | 7 | 4.9g|1.9g| .2g|1.9g| 95kg| 39.0| 11.4|
|Hickory No. 2      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Kate Yawger        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Port Byron, N. Y.  | G | 7 | 6.0g|2.4g|1.8g|2.0g|121kg| 39.1| 76.3|
|Hickory No. 4      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       | G | 8 | 3.6g|1.5g| .5g|1.5g| 45kg| 43.2| 34.4|
|Hickory No. 4      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Sarah Kronk        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Minford, O.        | G | 8 | 3.1g|1.3g| .6g|1.3g| 82kg| 41.3|  4.7|
|Hickory No. 2      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Reuben J. Kurtz    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Holly, Mich.       | G | 8 | 4.4g|1.7g|1.1g|1.6g|111kg| 39.4| 64.0|
|Hickory No. 2      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. Pomeroy         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Windsor, Conn.     | G | 8 | 6.8g|2.4g|1.2g|2.2g| 78kg| 35.9| 50.0|
|Hickory  No. 2     |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. C. Hatch        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Central City, Ia.  | B |   | 4.7g|3.1g| .2g|3.1g| 19kg| 65.0|  6.5|
|----               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|Willard G. Bixby   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Baldwin, N. Y.     | B |   | 2.3g|1.6g| .0g|1.3g| 13kg| 69.0|  0.0|
|Halesite bitternut |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. A. Sipe         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Carthage, Ind.     | L |   |19.2g|5.9g|1.2g|2.9g|138kg| 30.7| 20.5|
|Stanley hickory    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESIGNATION        | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
=======================================================================
|Luther W. Vest     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Blacksburg, Va.    |100.0| 3 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 20| 0 | 4 | 9 | 20| 75|
|Vest hickory       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. W. Manahan      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Sabillasville. Md. | 90.5| 5 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 17| 3 | 4 | 9 | 20| 75|
|Manahan hickory    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Eugene J. Clark    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Ludlow, Mass.      |100.0| 4 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 4 | 20| 0 | 4 | 7 | 20| 74|
|----               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Ralph T. Olcott    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.   | 90.4| 5 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 17| 0 | 3 | 11| 18| 74|
|Laney hickory      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Snyder Bros.       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Center Point, Ia.  |100.0| 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 20| 2 | 3 | 9 | 15| 74|
|Fairbanks hickory  |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mort Sturts        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Hazel Dell, Ill.   |100.0| 3 | 3 | 5 | 5 | 6 | 20| 2 | 3 | 8 | 18| 73|
|Hickory No. 1      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Howard G. Barnes   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Fayetteville, O.   |100.0| 3 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 20| 5 | 2 | 10| 15| 72|
|Hickory No. 1      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       |100.0| 2 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 20| 1 | 2 | 9 | 20| 72|
|Hickory No. 2      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Charles Swaim      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|South Bend, Ind.   |100.0| 4 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 6 | 20| 4 | 3 | 9 | 15| 72|
|Swaim hickory      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
G. E. Beaver        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Millerstown, Pa.   |100.0| 4 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 2 | 9 | 15| 71|
|Beaver hickory     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Augusta Patton|     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Walnut Hill. Ill.  | 92.8| 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 18| 4 | 2 | 7 | 18| 71|
|----               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       | 87.8| 3 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 16| 3 | 2 | 7 | 20| 70|
|Hickory No. 1      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       |100.0| 3 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 5 | 20| 2 | 3 | 5 | 20| 70|
|Hickory No. 7      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|James L. Glover    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Shelton, Conn.     |100.0| 3 | 1 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 20| 4 | 3 | 6 | 20| 70|
|Hickory No. 1      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|James L. Glover    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Shelton, Conn.     |100.0| 3 | 2 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 20| 2 | 2 | 7 | 20| 70|
|Hickory No. 2      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.     |100.0| 5 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 20| 2 | 3 | 5 | 18| 70|
|Weiker hickory     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Sarah Kronk        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Minford. O.        |100.0| 3 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 3 | 20| 4 | 3 | 6 | 18| 70|
|Hickory No. 3      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mort Sturts        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Hazel Dell, Ill.   |100.0| 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 20| 3 | 2 | 7 | 15| 70|
|Hickory No. 3      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|W. C. Deming       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Wilton. Conn.      |100.0| 4 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 20| 2 | 1 | 10| 15| 69|
|Terpenny hickory   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|William Gobble     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Holston, Va.       |100.0| 6 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 3 | 20| 0 | 2 | 7 | 20| 69|
|----               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
W. P. Griffin       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Creal Spring, Ill. |100.0| 4 | 1 | 4 | 5 | 3 | 20| 3 | 3 | 6 | 20| 69|
|----               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Kate Yawger        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Port Byron, N. Y.  |100.0| 3 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 20| 0 | 3 | 6 | 20| 69|
|Hickory No. 2      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Kate Yawger        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Port Byron, N. Y.  | 82.6| 4 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 3 | 15| 3 | 4 | 6 | 20| 69|
|Hickory No. 4      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. C. Beam         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Mt. Oreb, O.       |100.0| 2 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 20| 1 | 1 | 7 | 20| 68|
|Hickory No. 4      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Sarah Kronk        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Minford, O.        |100.0| 2 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 20| 0 | 4 | 7 | 18| 68|
|Hickory No. 2      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Reuben J. Kurtz    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Holly, Mich.       | 93.0| 2 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 3 | 18| 3 | 3 | 6 | 18| 68|
|Hickory No. 2      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. Pomeroy         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Windsor, Conn.     | 88.6| 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 17| 2 | 3 | 5 | 20| 68|
|Hickory  No. 2     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. C. Hatch        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Central City, Ia.  |100.0| 3 | 5 | 3 | 3 | 9 | 20| 0 | 2 | 13|  0| 58|
|----               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|Willard G. Bixby   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Baldwin, N. Y.     | 80.1| 1 | 5 | 3 | 3 | 10| 15| 0 | 2 | 15|  0| 54|
|Halesite bitternut |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. A. Sipe         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Carthage, Ind.     | 49.5| 8 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 3 |  7| 1 | 3 | 4 | 15| 54|
|Stanley hickory    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

The abbreviations used under the species column are G for shagbark
(Carya ovata), L for shellbark (Carya laciniosa), and B for bitternut
(Carya cordiformis). Where two letters appear with an x between it
means that the nut in question is a hybrid between the two species.


Following out the plan adopted last year (when no prizes were offered
for specific species of hickories) when a nut other than a shagbark sent
judged by the hickory standard received sufficient points to put it
among the prize winners, a special class was made for that. Some of the
nuts in the above list are disqualified for receiving prizes as they are
being "propagated." This term has been somewhat difficult of definition
and in default of action of the Association or of some committee
appointed for the purpose I have held it to mean those nuts which are
listed in the catalog of any nurseryman. That is to say, a nut is
eligible for prizes more than one year, and the mere growing a few
grafted or budded trees of a variety and distributing them privately
does not constitute "propagation" in the sense that the word is used in
the nut contests. As soon, however, as any nurseryman considers a
variety of sufficient merit so that he lists it is his catalog or in any
printed supplement to a catalog and states that he can furnish grafted
or budded trees of this variety, from that time on it is debarred from
receiving the prizes offered annually.

Other hickories were received from:

  D. S. Bassett, Fisherville, Mass.
  E. C. Beam, Mt. Orab, Ohio. (Nuts No. 5, No. 6).
  W. F. Cook, Moscow, Ky.
  W. E. Cornell, 302 Stewart Ave., Ithaca, N. Y.
  F. N. Decker, Syracuse, N. Y. (Nuts No. 1, No. 2).
  Joan Deming, Danbury, Conn., Route 2.
  F. Earland Gilson, Groton, Mass.
  Wm. H. Kuhne, Woodbury, Conn.
  Reuben J. Kurtz, Holly, Mich., R. No. 3, Box 32.
  Harvey Losee, Upper Red Hook, N. Y.
  Mrs. F. A. Patch, West Townsend, Mass, Box 77.
  E. Pomeroy, Windsor, Conn. (Nut No. 1).
  Ruth A. Reeves, Newark, N. Y.
  Snyder Bros., Center Point, Ia. (Nut No. 1, seedling).
  Mort Stuarts, Hazel Dell, Ill. (Nuts No. 4, No. 5, No. 6).
  Walter K. Wilson, Watertown, Conn., Lock Box 2.
  Kate Yawger, Port Bryon, N. Y. (Nut No. 1).
  Grant Yeagley, Jamestown, Penn., R. R. No. I.


BLACK WALNUTS--51 ENTRIES

The prize winning black walnuts exhibited and the prizes awarded are
noted in the table of page 154. There is but one species of walnuts of
the black walnut class native in the north eastern United States, the
eastern black walnut, _Juglans nigra_. In this contest specimens of the
Texas black walnut, _Juglans rupestris_, and of the California black
walnut, _Juglans hindsii_ were entered. Tests on these two black walnuts
are noted for the purpose of record although no characteristics of value
were noted. The California black walnut has a smoother shell than the
eastern black walnut. The Texas black walnut has beautiful willowy
foliage and grows very late in the fall and holds its leaves much longer
than the other walnuts and it is of dwarf habit of growth. Tests on the
Werner black walnut are noted because it is the largest black walnut we
have. The black walnuts sent in this year were much poorer on the whole
than those exhibited in some years. Some well known trees bore scarcely
a nut. Some well known propagated black walnuts were tested but only two
of them tested out high enough to get into the prize winning class, the
Thomas and Ten Eyck. From what we know of the variation of nuts
particularly of black walnuts, it is evident that we must test black
walnuts more than one year to get a good idea of their value.

The nut sent in by John S. Bomberges is particularly noticeable on
account of the unusually fine flavor of the kernel and would seem to be
a standard of excellence for black walnut kernels.

Other black walnuts received from:

  William A. Agner, Rockport, Ind., R. F. D. No. 1.
  George A. Ede, Cobden, Ill.
  M. H. Hoover, Lockport, N. Y.
  C. S. Ketchum, Middlefield, Ohio. (Nuts No. 1, 3, 5, 11, 12).
  A. H. Lang, 1628 Collingwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio, (Nut No. 1).
  James E. Ripley, Tippecanoe, O., R. F. D. No. 2. (Nut No. 2).
  S. A. Toy, Freeman, W. Va. (Nut No. 1).
  G. G. Truman, Perrysville, Ohio. Box 167.
  U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Peanut
  black walnut.
  Ira C. Wilson, New Truxton, Mo.


BLACK WALNUTS

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with
   fingers after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | A | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I   |
========================================================================
|C. S. Ketchum          |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Middlefield, O.        | B | 1 |14.1g|3.6g|2.9g|3.6g|185kg| 25.5| 80.5|
|Nut No. 10             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|John S. Bomberges      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Lebanon, Pa.           | B | 2 |16.4g|3.9g|2.5g|3.4g|208kg| 23.8| 64.1|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Henry Hicks            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Westbury, N. Y.        | B | 3 |13.6g|3.1g|1.6g|3.1g|222kg| 22.8| 51.6|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Amy A. Alley           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Lagrangeville, N.Y.    | B | 4 |15.8g|3.3g|2.1g|3.3g|177kg| 20.9| 53.7|
|Not the 1918 prize nut |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|James E. Ripley        |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Tippecanoe, O.         | B | 4 |26.7g|6.3g|3.7g|6.3g|247kg| 23.6| 58.8|
|Nut No. 1              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Snyder Bros.           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Center Point, Ia.      | B |   |19.7g|4.7g|3.6g|3.9g|247kg| 23.9| 76.6|
|Thomas black walnut    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|A. H. Lang             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Toledo, O.             | B | 5 |20.5g|4.6g|2.9g|4.1g|313kg| 22.4| 63.1|
|Nut No. 2              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Kate Yawger            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Port Byron, N. Y.      | B | 5 |20.3g|4.5g|2.4g|3.8g|291kg| 22.2| 53.4|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. M. Ten Eyck         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|So. Plainfield, N. J.  | B |   |16.7g|3.5g|1.8g|3.1g|154kg| 21.0| 51.5|
|Ten Eyck black walnut  |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. S. Ketchum          |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Middlefield, O.        | B | 6 |20.1g|4.7g|2.4g|3.5g|297kg| 23.4| 51.2|
|Nut No. 9              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. A. Toy              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Freeman, W. Va.        | B | 7 |21.9g|5.5g|1.6g|3.9g|225kg| 20.5| 29.1|
|Nut No. 2              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Arnold Arboretum       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Jamaica Pl'n., Mass.   | R |   | 6.1g|0.9g|0.7g|0.8g|357kg| 14.8| 67.8|
|From Rochester, N. Y.  |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. Hunger              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Tolhouse, Calif.       | C |   |22.3g|5.0g|1.9g|3.1g|407kg| 22.4| 38.0|
|California black walnut|   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Edward A. Werner       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Marion, Ia. R5         | B |   |30.4g|6.5g|1.4g|2.5g|353kg| 21.4| 21.5|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------


|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
===========================================================================
|C. S. Ketchum          |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Middlefield, O.        |100.0| 2 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 7 | 20| 4 | 4 | 7 | 18| 71|
|Nut No. 10             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|John S. Bomberges      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lebanon, Pa.           | 87.1| 3 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 6 | 16| 3 | 4 | 5 | 23| 69|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Henry Hicks            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Westbury, N. Y.        |100.0| 1 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 6 | 20| 2 | 4 | 5 | 20| 68|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Amy A. Alley           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lagrangeville, N.Y.    |100.0| 2 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 7 | 20| 3 | 4 | 3 | 18| 67|
|Not the 1918 prize nut |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|James E. Ripley        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Tippecanoe, O.         |100.0| 8 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 20| 2 | 3 | 5 | 15| 67|
|Nut No. 1              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Snyder Bros.           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Center Point, Ia.      | 83.0| 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 15| 3 | 3 | 5 | 20| 67|
|Thomas black walnut    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|A. H. Lang             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Toledo, O.             | 89.2| 5 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 17| 3 | 2 | 4 | 20| 64|
|Nut No. 2              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Kate Yawger            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Port Byron, N. Y.      | 84.5| 5 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 16| 2 | 4 | 4 | 20| 64|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. M. Ten Eyck         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|So. Plainfield, N. J.  | 88.6| 3 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 8 | 17| 2 | 2 | 4 | 15| 62|
|Ten Eyck black walnut  |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. S. Ketchum          |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Middlefield, O.        | 74.5| 5 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 6 | 13| 2 | 3 | 5 | 18| 61|
|Nut No. 9              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. A. Toy              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Freeman, W. Va.        | 71.0| 5 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 6 | 12| 1 | 2 | 3 | 20| 60|
|Nut No. 2              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Arnold Arboretum       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Jamaica Pl'n., Mass.   | 89.0| 1 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 1 | 17| 3 | 1 | 0 | 15| 51|
|From Rochester, N. Y.  |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. Hunger              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Tolhouse, Calif.       | 62.0| 6 | 5 | 5 | 4 | 0 | 10| 1 | 2 | 4 | 20| 57|
|California black walnut|     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Edward A. Werner       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Marion, Ia. R5         | 38.4|10 | 2 | 2 | 3 | 1 |  4| 1 | 4 | 4 | 20| 51|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

The abbreviations used under the species column are: B for Black walnut
(Juglans nigra), C for California black walnut (Juglans hindsii), R for
(Juglans rupestris).

[TN: last column in row 11 corrected to 51 from 49]



BUTTERJAPS--BUTTERNUTS, JAPAN WALNUTS, AND HYBRIDS--33 ENTRIES


The butternut and Japan walnuts and hybrids between them are grouped
together as they were last year although but one hybrid appeared this
year. The need of a name to include these is apparent and the name
butterjaps to include butternuts, Japan walnuts, and hybrids between
them is used this year following out last year's suggestion. It was a
very poor year for these nuts, many well known trees bearing no crop at
all. The one hybrid exhibited which was sent in as a curiosity not for
the purpose of being entered in the contest but it is interesting to
note that it took a prize, although not a high one.

The prize winning nuts and prizes awarded are noted in the table on page
156.

  Other butternuts received from:

  C. Delp, Morrison, Ohio. (Nut No. 4).

  Snyder Bros., Center Point, Ia. (Fairbanks butternut).

  G. G. Truman, Perrysville, Ohio. (Nuts No. 2, 3).

  Other Japan walnuts received from:

  L. H. & P. J. Jr. Berckmans, 1213 Lamar Bldg., Augusta, Ga.


BUTTERNUTS

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with
   fingers after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)


|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | A | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I   |
========================================================================
|G. G. Truman           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Perrysville, O.        | B | 1 | 9.6g|1.6g|1.1g|1.6g|280kg| 16.8| 67.8|
|Nut No. 5              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Morrison, O.           | B | 2 |17.2g|2.7g|2.7g|2.7g|320kg| 15.7|100.0|
|Nut No. 1              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. W. Snyder           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Center Point, Ia.      | B | 2 |19.5g|3.4g|2.6g|3.4g|348kg| 17.4| 76.5|
|Pumfrey 2nd            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Morrison, O.           | B | 3 |13.3g|2.4g|2.4g|2.4g|326kg| 18.0|100.0|
|Nut No. 3              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Morrison, O.           | B | 4 |12.6g|2.1g|2.1g|2.1g|308kg| 16.7|100.0|
|Nut No. 5              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Joe P. Wilson          |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Landon, Miss.          |SxB| 5 |12.4g|2.4g|0.7g|1.8g|244kg| 19.4| 28.1|
|Butterjap              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Wm. H. Kuhne           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Woodbury, Conn.        | B | 6 | 8.7g|1.7g|1.0g|1.6g|232kg| 19.0| 59.0|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Morrison, O.           | B | 7 |10.7g|2.1g| .0g|1.5g|250kg| 19.6|  0.0|
|Nut No. 2              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. W. Snyder           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Center Point, Ia.      | B | 7 |17.5g|3.1g|1.3g|1.8g|300kg| 17.7| 42.0|
|Pumfrey 1st            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Postmaster             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Balsam, N. C.          | B | 8 |13.9g|2.2g|0.6g|1.6g|249kg| 16.0| 27.2|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. G. Truman           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Perrysville, O.        | B |   |22.6g|3.3g|0.2g|1.9g|320kg| 14.6|  6.0|
|Nut No. 4              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. G. Truman           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Perrysville, O.        | B |   |14.4g|2.3g|0.5g|1.1g|293kg| 15.7| 22.1|
|Nut No. 1, Round shape |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
===========================================================================
|G. G. Truman           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Perrysville, O.        |100.0|  4| 1 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 20| 3 | 4 | 3 | 20| 67|
|Nut No. 5              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Morrison, O.           |100.0|  8| 0 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 20| 5 | 3 | 3 | 18| 63|
|Nut No. 1              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. W. Snyder           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Center Point, Ia.      |100.0| 10| 0 | 2 | 3 | 0 | 20| 3 | 2 | 3 | 20| 63|
|Pumfrey 2nd            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Morrison, O.           |100.0|  6| 1 | 2 | 4 | 1 | 20| 5 | 3 | 4 | 15| 61|
|Nut No. 3              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Morrison, O.           |100.0|  5| 0 | 2 | 4 | 1 | 20| 5 | 2 | 3 | 18| 60|
|Nut No. 5              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Joe P. Wilson          |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Landon, Miss.          | 72.7|  6| 1 | 3 | 4 | 4 |  9| 1 | 4 | 5 | 20| 57|
|Butterjap              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Wm. H. Kuhne           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Woodbury, Conn.        | 94.3|  3| 1 | 1 | 4 | 4 | 18| 2 | 2 | 5 | 15| 55|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|C. Delp                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Morrison, O.           | 71.5|  4| 1 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 11| 0 | 3 | 5 | 18| 52|
|Nut No. 2              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. W. Snyder           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Center Point, Ia.      | 58.0|  9| 0 | 2 | 4 | 1 |  8| 2 | 2 | 4 | 20| 52|
|Pumfrey 1st            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Postmaster             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Balsam, N. C.          | 73.9|  7| 1 | 2 | 2 | 4 |  9| 1 | 3 | 3 | 18| 50|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. G. Truman           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Perrysville, O.        | 57.5| 12| 0 | 1 | 3 | 1 |  7| 0 | 3 | 2 | 18| 47|
|Nut No. 4              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|G. G. Truman           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Perrysville, O.        | 47.7|  7| 1 | 3 | 3 | 2 |  0| 1 | 2 | 3 | 15| 37|
|Nut No. 1, Round shape |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

The abbreviations used under the species column are: B for butternut
(Juglans cinerea), SxB for Siebold walnut, x butternut hybrid (Juglans
Sieboldiana x cinerea).


JAPAN WALNUTS

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with
   fingers after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | A | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I   |
========================================================================
|R. Bates               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Jackson, S. C.         | H | 1 | 7.6g|2.2g|1.8g|2.2g| 79kg| 28.3| 83.8|
|Stranger Heartnut      |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Jackson, S. C.         | H | 2 | 4.8g|1.4g|0.8g|1.4g| 79kg| 29.7| 52.7|
|Tokio Heartnut         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. F. Witte            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Amherst, O.            | H | 3 | 5.1g|1.5g|1.5g|1.5g|178kg| 29.6|100.0|
|Heartnut               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Jackson, S. C.         | H | 4 | 7.2g|1.8g|1.5g|1.8g|172kg| 25.2| 80.2|
|Heartnut near Mobile   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
| pecan                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. F. Witte            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Amherst, O.            | S | 4 | 8.5g|2.2g|1.8g|2.2g|260kg| 25.9| 81.9|
|Siebold walnut No. 2   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Joe P. Wilson          |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Landon, Miss.          | ? | 4 | 9.8g|2.7g|0.9g|1.9g| 75kg| 27.6| 31.1|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. F. Witte            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Amherst, O.            | S | 5 | 5.7g|1.5g|1.1g|1.5g|215kg| 26.3| 73.3|
|Siebold walnut No. 1   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. D. Faust            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Bamberg, S. C.         | H | 6 | 9.0g|2.8g|0.5g|2.4g|234kg| 31.1| 17.8|
|Heartnut               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|L. J. Bryant & Son     |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Newark, N. Y.          | S | 7 | 6.8g|1.7g|0.9g|1.1g|138kg| 26.1| 55.8|
|Siebold walnut         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. D. Faust            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Bamberg, S. C.         | S | 8 | 8.7g|1.9g|0.0g|1.7g|142kg| 22.5|  0.0|
|Siebold walnut         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Jackson, S. C.         |HxP|   |12.2g|2.8g|1.3g|2.2g|419kg| 22.6| 46.4|
|Cording walnut         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Jackson, S. C.         |PxS|   |13.0g|2.2g|0.0g|0.5g|370kg| 16.9|  0.0|
|Siebosian walnut       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
===========================================================================
|R. Bates               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Jackson, S. C.         |100.0| 2 | 4 | 2 | 5 |  9| 20| 4 | 3 | 11| 18| 78|
|Stranger Heartnut      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Jackson, S. C.         | 97.2| 0 | 4 | 3 | 4 |  9| 19| 4 | 3 | 12| 18| 76|
|Tokio Heartnut         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. F. Witte            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Amherst, O.            |100.0| 1 | 3 | 4 | 4 |  6| 20| 5 | 4 | 12| 15| 74|
|Heartnut               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Jackson, S. C.         |100.0| 2 | 3 | 3 | 5 |  8| 20| 4 | 3 |  9| 15| 72|
|Heartnut near Mobile   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
| pecan                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. F. Witte            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Amherst, O.            |100.0| 3 | 3 | 3 | 4 |  3| 20| 4 | 4 | 10| 18| 72|
|Siebold walnut No. 2   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Joe P. Wilson          |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Landon, Miss.          | 72.6| 4 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 10| 12| 1 | 3 | 11| 20| 72|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. F. Witte            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Amherst, O.            |100.0| 1 | 4 | 3 | 4 |  5| 20| 3 | 4 | 10| 15| 69|
|Siebold walnut No. 1   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. D. Faust            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Bamberg, S. C.         | 85.6| 3 | 5 | 3 | 4 |  4| 15| 0 | 3 | 13| 18| 68|
|Heartnut               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|L. J. Bryant & Son     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Newark, N. Y.          | 66.3| 2 | 4 | 4 | 4 |  7| 10| 2 | 3 | 10| 18| 64|
|Siebold walnut         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|O. D. Faust            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Bamberg, S. C.         | 88.8| 3 | 3 | 4 | 4 |  7| 16| 0 | 1 |  7| 18| 63|
|Siebold walnut         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Jackson, S. C.         | 78.2| 5 | 3 | 3 | 4 |  0| 13| 2 | 2 |  8| 20| 60|
|Cording walnut         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|R. Bates               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Jackson, S. C.         | 22.7| 1 | 0 | 3 | 4 |  0|  0| 0 | 1 |  3| 15| 27|
|Siebosian walnut       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

The abbreviations under the species column are: H for heartnut (Juglans
cordifornis), S for Siebold walnut (Juglans Sieboldiana), HxP for
heartnut x Persian walnut hybrid (Juglans cordifornis x regia), PxS for
Persian walnut x Siebold walnut hybrid (Juglans regia x Sieboldiana). In
the case of hybrids the species first named is the pistillate parent.


PECANS--13 VARIETIES

Some very good northern pecans were sent in to the 1918 contest and two
of them are deemed worthy of experimental propagation. One of these Dunn
No. 1, had a particularly delicious flavor and the other the Koontz, was
also a desirable nut. They are not large but are almost exactly the size
of the Moore pecan, a southern variety now attracting a good deal of
attention.

Specimens of three nuts of larger size were received, the Norton,
McCallister and Kline, but not in sufficient quantity to test. The
weights are given for reference. Tests of nine standard southern pecans
are also shown. It will be noticed that the best pecans sent to the 1919
contest compare very favorably with these fine southern pecans, only the
Schley being shown superior. The northern pecans are generally smaller
than the southern, have lighter colored shell and lighter colored
kernel, flavor every bit as good, and shell just as thin. The prize
winning nuts and the prizes awarded are shown in the table on page 158.

The results of tests of southern pecans is inserted with some
hesitation. These pecans are judged by the same score cards as are the
northern pecans which is the one used for hickories. Inasmuch as the
pecans, both northern and southern, are judged by the same standards, it
is hoped that the figures may be of some value. The writer makes no
claim to being an expert on the southern pecan and does not wish these
figures taken as his opinion on the relative merits of southern pecans,
which have been grown in orchard form long enough so that regularity of
bearing, size of crops, resistance to disease, etc., have been
determined to a considerable extent. These are of such importance to the
practical pecan grower as to overbalance to quite an extent the merits
of the nut itself which are the only qualities that can be considered in
a nut contest.

  Other pecans received from:

  G. M. Brown, Van Buren, Ark.

  J. H. Burkett, Clyde, Texas. (Young grafted tree).

  Mrs. W. W. Evans, Blackwell, Okla.

  Mr. J. B. Shultz, Fulton, Ark.

  Snyder Bros., Center Point, Ia. (Pumfrey 1st, 2nd).


PECANS

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with fingers
   after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | A | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I   |
========================================================================
|D. K. Dunn             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Wynne, Ark.            | P | 1 | 5.8g|3.2g|0.0g|3.2g| 34kg| 55.1|  0.0|
|Pecan No. 1            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. J. Koontz           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Richards, Mo.          | P | 2 | 5.6g|3.1g|0.0g|3.1g| 35Kg| 55.4|  0.0|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Clifford         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Crossville, Ill.       | P | 3 | 5.0g|2.4g|1.1g|1.7g| 53kg| 48.0| 45.8|
|Prolific               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Clifford         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Crossville, Ill.       | P | 4 | 4.4g|2.6g|1.3g|2.6g| 61kg| 59.1| 50.0|
|Sweetmeat              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|D. K. Dunn             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Wynne, Ark.            | P | 5 | 6.3g|3.1g|0.0g|3.1g| 38kg| 49.3|  0.0|
|Pecan No. 3            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Maida R. Wears    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Rich Hill, Mo.         | P | 5 | 3.1g|1.5g|1.4g|1.4g| 21kg| 45.3| 93.2|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. W. Snyder           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Center Point, Ia.      | P | 5 | 3.6g|2.0g|0.0g|2.0g| 34kg| 55.5|  0.0|
|Oberman                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|D. K. Dunn             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Wynne, Ark.            | P | 6 | 5.4g|2.7g|0.0g|2.7g| 31kg| 50.0|  0.0|
|Pecan No. 2            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|A. G. Shanklin         |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Clemson College, S. C. | P | 7 | 5.1g|2.6g|0.4g|2.6g| 64kg| 51.0| 15.4|
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Addie G. Evans    |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Blackwell, Okla.       | P | 8 | 5.0g|2.0g|0.0g|2.0g| 35kg| 40.0|  0.0|
|                       |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                   | P |   | 8.1g|    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Norton                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                   |PxL|   |17.7g|    |    |    |     |     |     |
|McCallister            |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                   |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                   |PxL|   |22.0g|    |    |    |     |     |     |
|Klein                  |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------


|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
===========================================================================
|D. K. Dunn             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Wynne, Ark.            |100.0| 4 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 4 | 11| 20| 79|
|Pecan No. 1            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|E. J. Koontz           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Richards, Mo.          |100.0| 4 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 5 | 11| 17| 78|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Clifford         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Crossville, Ill.       | 70.8| 4 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 12| 2 | 5 |  9| 17| 77|
|Prolific               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Clifford         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Crossville, Ill.       |100.0| 3 | 5 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 20| 2 | 4 | 12| 17| 75|
|Sweetmeat              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|D. K. Dunn             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Wynne, Ark.            |100.0| 4 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 4 |  9| 18| 74|
|Pecan No. 3            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Maida R. Wears    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rich Hill, Mo.         | 93.2| 2 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 8 | 18| 4 | 5 |  8| 17| 74|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|S. W. Snyder           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Center Point, Ia.      |100.0| 2 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 5 | 11| 15| 74|
|Oberman                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|D. K. Dunn             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Wynne, Ark.            |100.0| 4 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 4 |  9| 15| 72|
|Pecan No. 2            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|A. G. Shanklin         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Clemson College, S. C. |100.0| 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 20| 0 | 4 | 10| 15| 71|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Addie G. Evans    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Blackwell, Okla.       |100.0| 4 | 4 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 5 |  7| 15| 70|
|                       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Norton                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|McCallister            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Klein                  |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


Standard Southern Varieties

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with fingers
   after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION          | A | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I   |
======================================================================
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 9.5g|5.9g|0.0g|5.9g| 29kg| 62.1| 0.0 |
|Schley               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 8.6g|4.8g|0.0g|4.8g| 28kg| 55.8| 0.0 |
|Burkett              |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 5.8g|2.9g|0.0g|2.9g| 25kg| 50.0| 0.0 |
|Moore                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 8.3g|5.4g|0.0g|5.4g| 39kg| 54.3| 0.0 |
|Alley                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   |10.1g|4.9g|0.0g|4.9g| 98kg| 48.5| 0.0 |
|Delmas               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 7.8g|3.5g|0.0g|3.5g| 20kg| 44.9| 0.0 |
|Moneymaker           |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 8.7g|3.9g|0.0g|3.9g| 59kg| 44.8| 0.0 |
|Pabst                |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 8.8g|4.1g|0.0g|4.1g| 56kg| 46.6| 0.0 |
|Stuart               |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
|----                 | P |   | 8.1g|3.9g|0.0g|8.9g| 96kg| 48.2| 0.0 |
|Vandeman             |   |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION          | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
=========================================================================
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 6 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 3 | 13| 20| 82|
|Schley               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 5 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 7 | 20| 0 | 4 | 11| 18| 78|
|Burkett              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 4 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 8 | 20| 0 | 4 |  9| 18| 78|
|Moore                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 5 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 20| 0 | 3 | 11| 19| 77|
|Alley                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 6 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 4 | 20| 0 | 4 |  9| 20| 76|
|Delmas               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 5 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 8 | 20| 0 | 3 |  8| 18| 76|
|Moneymaker           |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 5 | 5 | 4 | 5 | 5 | 20| 0 | 3 |  8| 19| 74|
|Pabst                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 5 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 5 | 20| 0 | 3 |  8| 18| 72|
|Stuart               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
|----                 |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|----                 |100.0| 5 | 5 | 3 | 5 | 4 | 20| 0 | 3 |  9| 18| 72|
|Vandeman             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------


The abbreviations used under the species column are: P for pecan (Carya
pecan), PxL for pecan x shellbark hybrid (Carya pecan x laciniosa).


HAZELS--6 ENTRIES

This is the first time I have had opportunity of testing Rush hazel
which was found by Mr. Rush 35 years ago, but which, so far as I know,
has never been propagated in the sense in which the word is used in the
contests where it means listed in the catalog of some nurseryman who is
prepared to furnish grafted or budded or layered plants. The value of
this hazel is now being recognized and doubtless it will not be long
that this will be the case for it is by far the best American hazel now
known. The prize winning nuts and the prizes awarded are shown in the
table on page 160.

Following the list of American hazels are 9 varieties of Mr. Conrad
Vollertsen's, Rochester, N. Y., most of them of German origin. These are
given with their German names. These names are given here for
convenience for readers and only for that, for they violate one of the
rules followed in naming nuts. They will be referred to the nomenclature
committee at its next session. Following Mr. Vollertsen's hazels are
five standard market hazels grown on the Pacific coast which are noted
as matters of record.

It will be noted that the White Aveline hazel has been placed higher
than the Barcelona when judged by the score card used. Inasmuch as
orchards of White Aveline hazels in the Pacific northwest are being
replaced by Barcelona and Duchilly because White Aveline nuts are too
small to be saleable commercially, it was questioned as to whether the
score card was not at fault and whether much more emphasis should not be
put on size and less on quality than is the case with the score card
used. Inasmuch as the same score card has been used for all nuts except
where it seemed entirely unadapted (because when this was done the
figures have a value they otherwise would not in expressing the relative
value of each species) it seems very desirable this common score card be
retained for as many nuts as possible. There are some notable instances
where fruits commercially important do not rank highest in quality, e. g.,
the Elberta peach, Ben Davis apple, and Kiefer pear, therefore it is
thought better not to emphasize size too strongly in the case of hazels.
It is only fair to state, however, that much less work has been put on
judging hazels than on some other nuts and perhaps our ideas will have
to be revised later.


HAZELS

KEY:
A: Species
B: Prize awarded
C: Average weight of nut
D: Average weight of kernel
E: Average weight of kernel that dropped out after cracking
F: Average weight of kernel that could be easily picked out with fingers
   after cracking
G: Average cracking pressure
H: Proportion of kernel
I: Cracking quality absolute
J: Cracking quality commercial
K: Size (10)
K: Form (5)
M: Color of shell (5)
N: Husking quality (5)
O: Thinness of shell (10)
P: Cracking quality commercial (20)
Q: Cracking quality absolute (5)
R: Color of kernel (5)
S: Proportion of kernel (15)
T: Quality of kernel (20)
U: Total points awarded (100)

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | A  | B |  C  | D  | E  | F  |  G  |  H  | I    |
==========================================================================
|J. F. Jones            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Lancaster, Pa.         | Am | 1 | 2.1g|1.0g|1.0g|1.0g| 39kg| 45.7| 100.0|
|Rush hazel             |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Miss Louise Littlepage |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Bowie, Md              | Am | 2 | 2.7g| .8g| .8g| .8g| 59kg| 28.3| 100.0|
|----                   |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. W. Strassel         |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rockport, Ind          | Am | 2 | 1.9g| .7g| .7g| .7g| 36kg| 36.5| 100.0|
|----                   |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Priscilla Randall |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Freeport, O.           | Am | 3 | 1.8g| .4g| .4g| .4g| 51kg| 22.7| 100.0|
|----                   |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Luther W. Vest         |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Blacksburg, Va.        | Am | 4 | 1.8g| .6g| .6g| .6g| 49kg| 31.8| 100.0|
|----                   |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|William H. Kuhne       |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Woodbury, Conn.        | Am | 5 | 1.4g| .4g| .4g| .4g| 50kg| 27.9| 100.0|
|----                   |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  ? |   | 2.2g| .9g| .9g| .9g| 46kg| 41.4| 100.0|
|Medium Long            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  P |   | 2.8g|1.1g|1.1g|1.1g| 57kg| 40.4| 100.0|
|Italienische Rothe     |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
| Zeller                |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  M |   | 2.3g| .8g| .8g| .8g| 42kg| 35.6| 100.0|
|Lambertnuss Rothe      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  M |   | 2.5g| .9g| .9g| .9g| 49kg| 37.4| 100.0|
|Merveille de Bollwiller|    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  M |   | 2.2g| .9g| .9g| .9g| 60kg| 40.5| 100.0|
|Lambertnuss Weisse     |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  P |   | 1.7g| .8g| .8g| .8g| 58kg| 20.4| 100.0|
|Gunzelebener Zeller    |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       | Av |   | 1.8g| .7g| .7g| .7g| 63kg| 37.7| 100.0|
|Althaldensleben        |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       | Av |   | 1.9g| .8g| .8g| .8g| 70kg| 41.6| 100.0|
|Grosse Kugelnuss       |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |  P |   | 2.1g| .7g| .7g| .7g| 49kg| 32.6| 100.0|
|Minna's Zeller         |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |    |   | 3.1g|1.6g|1.6g|1.6g| 33kg| 51.0| 100.0|
|Daviana                |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |    |   | 2.1g|1.1g|1.1g|1.1g| 26kg| 49.3| 100.0|
|White Aveline          |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |    |   | 4.8g|2.1g|2.1g|2.1g| 79kg| 42.5| 100.0|
|Noce Lunghe            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |    |   | 3.5g|1.2g|1.2g|1.2g| 51kg| 33.1| 100.0|
|Imperial               |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |    |   | 4.8g|1.8g|1.8g|1.8g| 42kg| 41.8| 100.0|
|Barcelona              |    |   |     |    |    |    |     |     |      |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

|NAME
|ADDRESS
|DESCRIPTION            | J   | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U |
===========================================================================
|J. F. Jones            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |100.0|  3| 4 | 3 | 5 |  7| 20| 2 | 4 | 12| 18| 78|
|Rush hazel             |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Miss Louise Littlepage |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Bowie, Md              |100.0|  4| 3 | 2 | 5 |  3| 20| 4 | 4 |  2| 15| 62|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. W. Strassel         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rockport, Ind          |100.0|  2| 3 | 1 | 5 |  8| 20| 3 | 1 |  7| 12| 62|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Mrs. Priscilla Randall |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Freeport, O.           |100.0|  2| 3 | 2 | 5 |  5| 20| 4 | 5 |  0| 15| 61|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Luther W. Vest         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Blacksburg, Va.        |100.0|  2| 3 | 0 | 5 |  5| 20| 2 | 2 |  4| 15| 58|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|William H. Kuhne       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Woodbury, Conn.        |100.0|  1| 3 | 3 | 5 |  5| 20| 1 | 3 |  2| 10| 53|
|----                   |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  3| 5 | 5 | 5 |  6| 20| 3 | 5 |  9| 20| 81|
|Medium Long            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  4| 5 | 5 | 5 |  4| 20| 3 | 4 |  9| 20| 79|
|Italienische Rothe     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
| Zeller                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  3| 5 | 5 | 5 |  7| 20| 4 | 4 |  6| 18| 77|
|Lambertnuss Rothe      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  3| 5 | 4 | 5 |  5| 20| 4 | 4 |  7| 18| 75|
|Merveille de Bollwiller|     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  3| 5 | 5 | 5 |  3| 20| 3 | 3 |  9| 18| 74|
|Lambertnuss Weisse     |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  1| 5 | 4 | 5 |  4| 20| 1 | 3 |  9| 20| 72|
|Gunzelebener Zeller    |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  2| 5 | 5 | 5 |  3| 20| 4 | 5 |  7| 15| 71|
|Althaldensleben        |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  2| 5 | 4 | 5 |  1| 20| 2 | 3 | 10| 15| 67|
|Grosse Kugelnuss       |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Conrad Vollertsen      |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Rochester, N. Y.       |100.0|  3| 5 | 5 | 5 |  5| 20| 1 | 3 |  5| 15| 67|
|Minna's Zeller         |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |100.0|  5| 5 | 4 | 5 |  8| 20| 4 | 3 | 15| 20| 89|
|Daviana                |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |100.0|  3| 5 | 3 | 5 | 10| 20| 5 | 3 | 14| 20| 88|
|White Aveline          |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |100.0| 10| 5 | 4 | 5 |  0| 20| 4 | 3 | 10| 18| 79|
|Noce Lunghe            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |100.0|  6| 5 | 4 | 5 |  5| 20| 2 | 3 |  5| 18| 78|
|Imperial               |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|J. F. Jones            |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
|Lancaster, Pa.         |100.0|  8| 5 | 3 | 5 |  7| 20| 2 | 0 | 10| 20| 70|
|Barcelona              |     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

The abbreviations used under the species column are: Am for American
hazel (Corylus Americana), Av for Corylus Avellana, a European, species,
M for Corylus maxima, a European species, P for Corylus pontica, a
European species. It seems quite probable that many of the European
varieties noted above are hybrids and not pure species. The species
identification of the European varieties are those of Mr. Conrad
Vollertsen.


PERSIAN WALNUTS--5 ENTRIES

The prize winning nuts and the prizes awarded are shown in the table on
page 154.

This is the first time that I have had opportunity to test some of the
propagated Persian walnuts. The results shown are given for what they
are worth. A sufficient number of Persian walnuts have not as yet been
examined to enable us to determine the constants so that they are as
valuable as they will be later, and as they are on the hickories, black
walnuts, and butternuts where hundreds of nuts have been examined.
Consequently, conclusions based on the figures in the table should be
conservatively drawn. The position of the Franquette at the bottom of
the list of the propagated nuts it is believed will be materially
changed with the redetermination of the constants that an examination of
a large number of nuts would require.


OBSERVATIONS

The number of entries in the 1919 contest was about 50% greater than in
1918. No hickories, no black walnuts or butternuts deemed worthy of
experimental propagation appeared as was the case in 1918, but on the
other hand, two pecans, the Dunn No. 1 and Koontz, it is believed, are
well worth while propagating experimentally even though the Dunn nut
comes from a somewhat more southern section than the other northern
pecans now being propagated. The need for additional heartnuts makes it
seem advisable to propagate experimentally the Stranger heartnut, even
though it comes from Jackson, S. C., a section so far south that the
southern pecan grows and bears well. The contest has helped to bring out
the value of the Rush hazel, which has been propagated experimentally
for a long time but which, so far as I know, has never been offered to
the public by nurserymen.

The following standards for hickories have been established: The largest
nut found so far is still the Mott shellbark, which Dr. Morris found a
number of years ago and which weighs 29.6g. The Vest hickory, which
among the seemingly pure shagbarks, had the record of the thinnest
shell up to the 1918 contest, has been surpassed by the Beam No. 1 of
the 1919 contest, which takes but 33kg to crack the shell. The figure is
surpassed by one bitternut hybrid the Beaver 29kg, and by the Hatch
bitternut 19kg, and the Halesite bitternut 13kg. The Vest of the 1914
crop is still the seemingly pure shagbark with the largest percentage of
kernel 57.7%. This is surpassed by the Hatch bitternut 65.0%, and the
Halesite bitternut 69.0%. No hickory has been found to surpass the Vest
in the excellence of flavor of the kernel. One hickory, the Barnes, 1919
contest, showed 100% cracking quality.

The following standards for black walnuts have been established. The
Armknecht No. 2 which held the record last year has been surpassed by
the Werner with a weight of 30.4g. The thinnest shelled one is still the
Alley of the 1918 contest, with a cracking pressure of 110kg, although
the Ten Eyck of the 1918 contest was only slightly higher, 120kg. The
record for the greatest proportion of kernel is still with the Ten Eyck
of the 1918 contest 36.4%. The Ten Eyck black walnut exhibited in 1919
had no such records of thinness of shell or proportion of kernel. The
Stabler is believed to be the best cracker but the Alley of the 1918
contest showed 100%. The Bomberges black walnut of the 1919 contest
showed unusually fine quality of kernel and is believed to hold the
record for quality of kernel so far.

The following standards for butterjaps (i. e., butternuts, Japan walnuts
and their hybrids) have been established. The Wasson butternut which
held the record for size heretofore 18.8g has been surpassed by two nuts
Pumfrey No. 2, 19.5g and Truman No. 4, 22.6g. The same high cracking
quality among the pure butternuts noted last year still continues. The
Ritchie heartnut of the 1918 contest still holds the record for
percentage of kernel, 32.7%. One pure butternut, the Kuhne of the 1919
contest, with 19% kernel has been found. The Aiken butternut 200kg
cracking pressure is the thinnest shelled pure butternut yet found. The
thinnest shelled Japan walnut yet found is the Wilson Seibold walnut of
the 1919 contest, 75kg cracking pressure.

The following standards for pecans have been established (including the
pecan x shellbark hybrids which generally resemble pecans in flavor and
appearance and would be classed with them). Largest, the Klein, 22.0g in
weight. Of the pure northern pecans the Norton, 8.1g in weight is the
largest. Of the pure southern pecans tested the Delmas 10.1g in weight
is the largest. Of the northern pecans the greatest percentage of kernel
yet found is the Clifford "Sweetmeat" of the 1919 contest, 57.6% of
kernel, followed closely by the Koontz, 56.1% and the Dunn, 55.5%. Of
the southern pecans the Schley, 62%, leads.

The thinnest shelled northern pecan yet tested is the Wears of the 1919
contest, 21kg cracking pressure; the thinnest southern pecan is the
Burkett, 27kg followed closely by the Schley 29kg. The finest flavored
among the northern pecans is Dunn No. 1, which has a kernel which is
exceptionally delicious. The finest flavored among the southern pecans
is the Schley.

The following standards for hazels have been established. The largest
American hazel yet found is the Littlepage 2.7g but the Rush, although a
smaller nut has a larger kernel 1.0g against .8g for the Littlepage. The
Rush also has a greater proportion of kernel, 45.7%, than any other
native hazel yet tested or any foreign one excepting the White Aveline
which has 49.3%. The thinnest shelled American hazel is the Rush 39kg
and the thinnest shelled foreign one, the White Aveline 26kg.

Those who have given the matter consideration are thoroughly convinced
of the great possibilities of systematic hybridization of nut trees.
Work of this kind will have to be carried on according to carefully
thought out plans, the details of which are not yet quite clear in all
particulars. The facts brought out by this contest have added to our
knowledge of what may be expected from our work. Take the hickory for
example; we have shellbark hickory nuts nearly three times the size of
the best southern pecans; we have bitternut hickory nuts with a
proportion of kernel greater than that of any pecan and with shell so
thin, that they can be cracked with less pressure than any pecans I have
ever seen; we have in the best shagbarks, flavor of kernel unsurpassed
in any nut. Theoretically, it should be possible to produce nuts in
which these qualities are combined to a large degree. Similar
possibilities exist with the butternut and the Japan walnut where it is
seemingly possible to produce nuts in which the qualities of both will
be combined and get smooth, thin-shelled butternuts or well flavored
Japan walnuts or desirable butterjaps, as I am inclined to call them.

An inspection of the table of hickories show that 4 out of the 28
receiving 68 points or over, are certainly hybrids. There are a number
of others where it seems very probable that they are hybrids. There are
a number of facts to suggest that some of our very thin shelled
hickories, which at first sight seem to be shagbarks, are hybrids of
which the shellbark or mockernut is one parent. Why the offspring of
such thick shelled nuts as the shellbark or the mockernut and the
shagbark should be thin shelled, is more than I can imagine. We have two
occurrences however which are significant. On the list of Japan walnuts
two hybrids of the Persian and Japan walnut, Cording and Siebosian are
noted. I have never tested a Persian walnut where the cracking pressure
runs much over 40kg and it is rather unusual for a Japan walnut to run
much over 200kg, yet Cording is 419kg, a strength of shell greater than
that of any other nut sent into the contest this year and which is only
found among black walnuts and shellbark hickories. Siebosian is not very
much less. If two comparatively thin shelled nuts will produce an
offspring with a shell so much thicker than either parent, it does not
seem more impossible for two thick shelled nuts to produce thin shelled
offsprings.





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