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Title: Northern Nut Growers Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-First Annual Meeting - Cedar Rapids, Iowa, September 17, 18, and 19, 1930
Author: Northern Nut Growers Association [Editor]
Language: English
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  NORTHERN
  NUT GROWERS
  ASSOCIATION
  INCORPORATED

  REPORT
  _OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE_
  Twenty-first Annual Meeting

  [Illustration]

  CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA.

  SEPTEMBER 17, 18, 19, 1930



  NORTHERN
  NUT GROWERS
  ASSOCIATION
  _INCORPORATED_

  REPORT
  OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE
  Twenty-first Annual Meeting

  CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA.

  _SEPTEMBER 17, 18, 19, 1930_



  CONTENTS


  Officers, Directors and Committees                                   3

  State Vice-Presidents                                                4

  List of Members                                                      5

  Constitution                                                         9

  By-Laws                                                             11

  Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Convention                   13

  Nuts and Nut Growers of the Middle West--S. W. Snyder               14

  Address of Professor T. J. Maney                                    20

  Methods in Scoring the Black Walnut--Prof. N. F. Drake              23

  Nuts in North Dakota--Prof. A. F. Yeager                            27

  Report on the 1929 Nut Contest--Dr. W. C. Deming                    28

  New Members' Experience and Questions                               31

  Discussion on Chestnut Growing                                      33

  The Paraffin Method in Transplanting Nursery Stock--Prof. J. A.
  Neilson                                                             37

  Some Notes on the Japanese Walnut in North America--Prof. J. A.
  Neilson                                                             39

  Thirty Years Experience in the Care of Scionwood--F. O. Harrington  46

  Experiments and Observations in Searching for Best Seedling Nut
  Trees--J. F. Wilkinson                                              51

  More Nuts--Less Meat--Dr. J. H. Kellogg                             57

  Induced Immunity to Chestnut Blight--Dr. G. A. Zimmerman            68

  Plant Patent Act--Thomas P. Littlepage                              73

  Banquet                                                             77

  President's Address                                                 81

  Report of the Secretary                                             87

  Business Session                                                    89

  Treasurer's Report                                                  91

  Harvesting and Marketing the Native Nut Crop of the North--C. A.
  Reed                                                                92

  Beechnuts--Willard G. Bixby                                        100

  The 1929 Contest--Willard G. Bixby                                 104

  Attendance Record                                                  117



OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION

_President_ J. A. NEILSON, HORT. DEPT. M. S. C., EAST LANSING,
MICH.

_Vice-President_ C. F. WALKER, 2851 E OVERLOOK ROAD, CLEVELAND
HEIGHTS, OHIO

_Secretary_ W. G. BIXBY, 32 GRAND AVE., BALDWIN, N. Y.

_Treasurer_ KARL W. GREENE, RIDGE ROAD, N. W., WASHINGTON, D.
C.


_DIRECTORS_

J. A. NEILSON, C. F. WALKER, DR. W. C. DEMING, K. W. GREENE, W. G.
BIXBY, S. W. SNYDER


_COMMITTEES_

_Auditing_--Z. H. ELLIS, L. H. MITCHELL

_Executive_--J. A. NEILSON, C. F. WALKER, A. S. COLBY, K. W. GREENE,
W. G. BIXBY, S. W. SNYDER

_Finance_--T. P. LITTLEPAGE, W. G. BIXBY, W. C. DEMING

_Press and Publication_--J. RUSSELL SMITH, R. T. OLCOTT, W. C.
DEMING, K. W. GREENE, Z. H. ELLIS, A. S. COLBY

_Membership_--F. H. FREY, R. T. OLCOTT, J. W. HERSHEY, Z. H. ELLIS,
K. W. GREENE, F. O. HARRINGTON

_Program_--W. C. DEMING, A. S. COLBY, S. W. SNYDER, C. A. REED, C.
F. WALKER, R. T. OLCOTT

_Hybrids and Promising Seedlings_--C. A. REED, W. G. BIXBY, HOWARD
SPENCE, J. A. NEILSON, S. W. SNYDER, R. T. MORRIS

_Nomenclature_--C. A. REED, R. T. MORRIS, W. G. BIXBY, J. A.
NEILSON

_Survey_--C. F. WALKER, W. G. BIXBY, F. H. FREY


_DEAN OF THE ASSOCIATION_

DR. ROBERT T. MORRIS, OF NEW YORK AND CONNECTICUT


_FIELD SECRETARY_

ZENAS H. ELLIS, FAIR HAVEN, VERMONT



  STATE VICE-PRESIDENTS

  Arkansas  Prof. N. F. Drake  Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville

  California  Will J. Thorpe  1545 Divisadero St., San Francisco

  Canada  J. U. Gellatly  West Bank, P. O. Gellatly, B. C.

  China  P. W. Wang  Sec'y Kinsan Arboretum, 147 N. Sechuan
  Road, Shanghai

  Connecticut  Dr. W. C. Deming  983 Main St., Hartford, Conn.

  Dist. of Columbia  Karl W. Greene  Ridge Road, N. W., Washington

  England  Howard Spence  The Red House, Ainsdale, Southport

  Illinois  Prof. A. S. Colby  University of Illinois, Urbana

  Indiana  J. F. Wilkinson  Rockport

  Iowa  S. W. Snyder  Center Point

  Kansas  W. P. Orth  Route 2, Box 20, Mount Hope

  Maryland  T. P. Littlepage  Bowie

  Massachusetts  James H. Bowditch  903 Tremont Building, Boston

  Michigan  Harry Burgardt  Union City Michigan

  Minnesota  Carl Weschcke  98 South Wabasha St., St. Paul

  Missouri  P. C. Stark  Louisiana

  Nebraska  William Caha  Wahoo

  New Jersey  Miss M. V. Landman  Cranbury, R. F. D. No. 2

  New York  Prof. L. H. MacDaniels  Cornell University, Ithaca

  Ohio  Harry R. Weber  123 East 6th St., Cincinnati

  Oregon  Stanley C. Walters  Mount Hood

  Pennsylvania  John Rick  438 Penn Square, Reading

  Rhode Island  Phillip Allen  178 Dorrance St., Providence

  Vermont  Zenas H. Ellis  Fair Haven

  Virginia  Dr. J. Russell  Smith Round Hill

  Washington  D. H. Berg  Nooksack

  West Virginia  Dr. J. E. Cannaday  Box 693, Charleston



  MEMBERS OF THE NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION


  ARKANSAS

  * Drake, Prof. N. F., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville


  CALIFORNIA

  Crafts, Dr. J. G., Martinez
  Thorpe, Will J., 1545 Divisadero St., San Francisco
  University of California, Berkeley


  CANADA

  Gage, J. H., 107 Flatt Ave., Hamilton, Ontario
  Gellatly, J. U., West Bank, B. C.
  Ryerse, Arthur C., Simcoe, Ont.
  Watson, Dr. W. V., 170 St. George St., Toronto


  CHINA

  * Kinsan Arboretum, 147 N. Szechuan Road, Shanghai


  CONNECTICUT

  Bartlett, Francis A., Stamford
  Deming, Dr. W. C., 31 Owen St., Hartford
  Hilliard, H. J., Sound View
  * Montgomery, Robt. H., Cos Cob
  * Morris, Dr. Robert T., Route 28, Box No. 95, Cos Cob
  Pratt, George D., Jr., Bridgewater
  Williams, Dr. Chas. Mallory, Stonington


  DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

  Foster, B. G., 805 G St., N. W., Washington
  Greene, Karl W., Ridge Road, N. W., Washington
  * Littlepage, T. P., Union Trust Bldg., Washington
  Mitchell, Lennard H., 2219 California St. N. W., Washington
  Reed, C. A., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington
  Stiebling, Mrs. Anna E., 1458 Monroe St. N. W., Washington
  Taylor, D. W., The Highlands, Washington
  Von Ammon, S., Bureau of Standards, Washington


  ENGLAND

  Spence, Howard, The Red House, Ainsdale, Southport

  ILLINOIS

  Anthony, A. B., Sterling
  Armstrong, Mrs. Julian, Witchwood Lane and Moffet Rd., Lake Forest
  Bontz, Mrs. George I., Route 2, Peoria
  Brown, Roy W., Spring Valley
  Colby, Arthur S., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana
  Frey, Frank H., Room 930 Lasalle St., Station, Chicago
  Gibbens, Geo. W., Route 2, Godfrey
  Knox, Loy J., First Nat'l Bank, Morrison
  Morton, Joy, Lisle
  Meyer, Dr. R. C. J., Hillsdale
  Riehl, Miss Amelia, Godfrey, Ill.
  Spencer, Mrs. May R., 275 W. Decatur St., Decatur
  University of Illinois, Urbana


  INDIANA

  Betz, Frank S., (Personal) Betz Bldg., Hammond
  Isakson, Walter R., Route 1, Hobart
  Tichenor, P. E., 414 Merchants Bank Bldg., Evansville
  Wilkinson, J. F., Rockport


  IOWA

  Adams, Gerald W., Route 4, Moorehead
  Boyce, Daniel, Route 4, Winterset
  Harrington, F. O., Williamsburg
  Iowa State Horticultural Society, Des Moines
  Luckenbill, Ben W., Wapello
  Snyder, D. C., Center Point
  Snyder, S. W., Center Point
  Schlagenbusch Bros., Route 3, Fort Madison
  Van Meter, W. L., Adel
  Williams, Hugh E., Ladora


  KANSAS

  Orth, W. P., Route 2, Mount Hope


  MARYLAND

  Close, C. P., College Park
  Lancaster, S. S., Jr., Rock Point
  Mehring, Upton F., Keymar
  Porter, John H., 1199 The Terrace, Hagerstown
  Purnell, J. Edgar, Salisbury


  MASSACHUSETTS

  Allen, Edward E., Perkins Institute for the Blind, Watertown
  * Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont Bldg., Boston
  Brown, Daniel L., 60 State St., Boston
  Bryant, Dr. Ward C., Greenfield
  Hale, Richard W., 60 State St., Boston
  Russell, Newton H., 12 Burnette Ave., So. Hadley Center
  Wellman, Sargeant H., Windridge, Topsfield
  Williams, Moses, 18 Tremont St., Boston

  MICHIGAN

  Bradley, Homer, Care Kellogg Farms, Route 1, Augusta
  Burgardt, H., Route 2, Union City
  Graves, Henry B., 73 Forest Ave., West, Detroit
  Healy, Oliver T., Care Mich. Nut Nursery, Route 2, Union City
  Kellogg, Dr. J. H., 202 Manchester St., Battle Creek
  Neilson, Prof. James A., Care Mich. State College, East Lansing
  Stocking Frederick N., 3456 Cadillac Ave., Detroit


  MINNESOTA

  Andrews, Miss Frances E., 245 Clifton Ave., Minneapolis
  Weschcke, Carl, 1048 Lincoln Ave., St. Paul


  MISSOURI

  Stark Bros. Nursery, Louisiana
  Windhorst, Dr. M. R., Univ. Club Bldg., St. Louis


  NEBRASKA

  Caha, William, Wahoo


  NEW JERSEY

  * Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly St., Jersey City
  Norton, W. J., 104 Scotland Road, South Orange


  NEW YORK

  Abbott, Frederick B., 1211 63rd St., Brooklyn
  Bixby, Mrs. Willard G., Baldwin
  Bixby, Willard G., Baldwin
  Ellwanger, Mrs. W. D., 510 East Ave., Rochester
  Gager, Dr. C. Stuart, Care Brooklyn Botanic Gardens, Brooklyn
  Garber, Hugh G., 75 Fulton St., New York
  Graves, Dr. Arthur H., 1000 Washington Ave., Brooklyn
  Harman-Brown, Miss Helen, Croton Falls
  Hodgson, Casper W., Care World Book Co., Yonkers
  Holden, Frank H., Care R. H. Macy & Co., New York
  * Huntington, A. M., 1 E. 89th St., New York
  Lester, Henry, 650 Main St., New Rochelle
  MacDaniels, L. H., Care Cornell Univ., Ithaca
  * Olcott, Ralph T., Box 124, Rochester
  Pickhardt, Dr. O. C., 117 E. 80th St., New York
  Schlemmer, Claire D., Islip
  Solley, Dr. John B., 108 E. 66th St., New York
  State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva
  Steffee, John G., 317 Sixth Ave., Brooklyn
  Tice, David, 55-56 Saving Bank Bldg., Lockport
  Vanderbilt, George V., Greenville
  * Wissman, Mrs. F. de R., 9 W. 54th St., New York

  OHIO

  Fickes, W. R., Route 7, Wooster
  Gerber, E. P., Apple Creek
  Park, J. B., Care Ohio State Univ., Columbus
  Walker, C. F., 2851 E. Overlook Rd., Cleveland Heights
  * Weber, Harry R., 123 East 6th St., Cincinnati


  OREGON

  Walters, Stanley C., Mount Hood


  PENNSYLVANIA

  Abbott, Mrs. Laura Woodward, Route 2, Bristol
  Baum, Dr. F. L., Boyertown
  Deeben, Fred, Trevorton
  Gable, Jos. B., Stewartstown
  Gribbel, Mrs. John, Wyncote, P. O., Box 31
  Hershey, John W., Downingtown
  Hostetter, C. F., Bird-in-Hand
  Hostetter, L. K., Route 5, Lancaster
  Kaufmann, M. M., Clarion
  Leach, Will, Cornell Bldg., Scranton
  Mathews, George A., Route 1, Cambridge Springs
  Miller, Herbert Pinecrest Poultry Farm, Richfield
  Paden, Riley W., Route 2, Enon Valley
  * Rick, John, 438 Penn. Square, Reading
  Sauchelli, V., 1628 Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh
  Schmidt, A. G., Nazareth
  Smith, Dr. J. Russell, Swarthmore
  Theiss, Lewis Edwin, Muncy
  Wright, Ross Pier, 235 West 1st St., Erie
  * Wister, John C., Clarkson Ave. and Wister Street, Germantown
  Zimmerman, Dr. G. A., 32 So. 13th St., Harrisburg


  RHODE ISLAND

  Allen, Phillip, 178 Dorrance St., Providence


  VERMONT

  Aldrich, A. W., Route 3, Springfield
  Ellis, Zenas H., Fair Haven


  VIRGINIA

  Stoke, H. F., 1421 Watts Ave., Roanoke
  Trout, Dr. Hugh H., Care Jefferson Hospital, Roanoke


  WASHINGTON

  Berg, D. H., Nooksack
  Richardson, J. B., Lakeside


  WEST VIRGINIA

  Cannaday, Dr. J. E., Care General Hospital, Charleston
  Hartzell, B. F., Shepherdstown

* Life Member



CONSTITUTION


ARTICLE I

_Name._ This society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS
ASSOCIATION, INCORPORATED.


ARTICLE II

_Object._ Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing
plants, their products and their culture.


ARTICLE III

_Membership._ Membership in the society shall be open to all persons who
desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence
or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on
membership.


ARTICLE IV

_Officers._ There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary
and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting;
and an executive committee of six persons, of which the president, the
two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the
treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from
each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the
association, who shall be appointed by the president.


ARTICLE V

_Election of Officers._ A committee of five members shall be elected at
the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the
following year.


ARTICLE VI

_Meetings._ The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected
by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made
at this time, the executive committee shall choose the place and time
for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may
seem desirable may be called by the president and executive committee.


ARTICLE VII

_Quorum._ Ten members of the association shall constitute a quorum, but
must include two of the four elected officers.


ARTICLE VIII

_Amendments._ This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of
the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment
having been read at the previous annual meeting, or a copy of the
proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member
thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.



BY-LAWS


ARTICLE I

_Committees._ The association shall appoint standing committees as
follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and
publication, on nomenclature, on promising seedlings, on hybrids, on
survey, and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make
recommendations to the association as to the discipline or expulsion of
any member.


ARTICLE II

_Fees._ Annual members shall pay five dollars annually, to include one
year's subscription to the American Nut Journal, or three dollars and
fifty cents not including subscription to the Nut Journal. Contributing
members shall pay ten dollars annually, this membership including a
year's subscription to the American Nut Journal. Life members shall make
one payment of fifty dollars, and shall be exempt from further dues.
Honorary members shall be exempt from dues.

There shall be an annual, non-voting, membership, with privilege of the
annual report, for all County Agents, Agricultural College and
Experiment Station Officials and Employes, State Foresters, U. S.
Department of Agriculture Officials, Editors of Agricultural
Periodicals, College and High School Students, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts
or Camp Fire Girls and similar organizations, on payment of one dollar
as annual dues.


ARTICLE III

_Membership._ All annual memberships shall begin either with the first
day of the calendar quarter following the date of joining the
association, or with the first day of the calendar quarter preceding
that date as may be arranged between the new member and the Treasurer.


ARTICLE IV

_Amendments._ By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members
present at any annual meeting.


ARTICLE V

Members shall be sent a notification of annual dues at the time they are
due, and if not paid within two months, they shall be sent a _second
notice_, telling them that they are not in good standing on account of
non-payment of dues, and are not entitled to receive the annual report.

At the end of thirty days from the sending of the second notice, _a
third notice_ shall be sent notifying such members that unless dues are
paid within ten days from receipt of this notice, their names will be
dropped from the rolls for non-payment of dues.



REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS

of the

TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL CONVENTION

of the

NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION

(Incorporated)

September 17, 18 and 19, 1930

CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA


The first session convened at 10 o'clock at the Hotel Montrose,
President Neilson in the chair.

THE PRESIDENT: We have a long and varied program to present,
and inasmuch as we have only one day for the discussions it will be
necessary to make the best use of our time. First we will read letters
and telegrams from members who are not able to come.

THE SECRETARY: This letter is from Dr. Morris.

"I was counting on getting out to the Nut Growers' Association meeting
this year and having the pleasure of seeing all of my old friends once
more and getting the inspiration that fills the air at our meetings. I
find it absolutely necessary, however, to cut off all distractions until
I can get two books finished. Work upon them has been delayed and the
line of thought changed so often that it becomes a duty to confine
myself to literary work, but I hope to be with you during our next
twenty meetings."

This telegram is from Mr. Bixby.

"Have mailed Mr. Snyder abstract of report on nut contest and paper on
beechnuts. Regret I cannot be at convention. Crop of nuts here is better
than ever before. Best wishes for success of convention. Willard G.
Bixby."

THE PRESIDENT: I am going to name two committees. The
resolutions committee: Mr. Weber, Mr. Frey, Dr. Deming. The nominating
committee: Mr. Frey, Mr. Snyder, Dr. Smith, Dr. Zimmerman, Mr. Hershey.
Professor Herrick, Secretary of the Iowa State Horticultural Society,
would like to make a few remarks.

PROF. HERRICK: I want to extend to you greetings from the Iowa
State Horticultural Society. Mr. Snyder knows that at our state fair we
had a wonderful exhibit of edible nuts. It has just closed. We had six
tables of good length, 16 feet, well filled, in fact crowded. We never
in the history of the society have provided enough room for the edible
nuts. We hope this year at the Midwest Horticultural Exhibit at
Shenandoah it may be possible for you to send your exhibits. There will
be $7,000 in cash premiums. Every one of you will receive an official
premium list the first of next week. We have in Southern Iowa a great
deal of land well adapted for this industry, and I assure you that the
Iowa Horticultural Society is very much interested in the spreading of
the gospel.

THE PRESIDENT: We appreciate the invitation that Professor
Herrick has given us. One of the inspiring factors in my interest in nut
culture came to me some years ago when I came to the Iowa State College
to take graduate work. I went to Des Moines with Professor Maney to see
the exhibit staged by Mr. Snyder. Our first paper this morning is by Mr.
Snyder, "Nuts and Nut Growers of the Middle West."

MR. SNYDER: I will confine my remarks to the newer things that
you haven't heard of. I will first note a shagbark hickory that stands
in my own neighborhood, an outstanding variety we call Hand. This is
very much like the Vest in shape and size and cracking quality.
According to my tests, this variety cracks out 50% meat, and since it is
a local variety and I know it is hardy and fruitful, I am placing it
ahead of the Vest for the Middle West. It is certainly equal to it in
every way and hardy and fruitful. While the Vest hasn't yet matured nuts
I am rather doubtful whether it will prove of any value here.

There is one nut that I have been drawing attention to in the past few
years, called Hagen, that I have frequently said was the best nut
growing in Iowa. I have found one we call the Elliott that appears to be
just as good, so nearly like it that it is hard to separate them when
they are mixed up. The Elliott stands near Oxford, a little south of
here.

The best cracker I have found in Iowa is one called Sande. This stands
in Story County, about 20 miles north of Ames. I found this on the
tables at our state fair and the superintendent of the nut exhibit
called my attention to it in particular. Said it had been appearing
there for a couple of years back, and that he thought it was very well
worth our attention. I took up correspondence with the parties who were
bringing it to the fair and they agreed to give me such information as I
wanted about it, so I drove up there. When I got there I found they
didn't own the tree. They had been stealing the nuts, putting them on
exhibit and getting the premiums. They wouldn't take me to the tree
because they didn't own it. They did tell me who owned it and I went to
see him. I told him the circumstances. He just got red-headed at once.
The idea of someone stealing the nuts and getting the premiums! We got
right into it. The up-shot of it was I got some scions and some nuts.
Just a lick of the hammer and two halves drop out, don't have to pick
them out, just roll out. It is an excellent nut. It was a rather young
tree and very fruitful. Very good quality with a little thicker shell
than other varieties.

We have another one, the Ward. This is another 50% cracker, very
excellent flavor. While it appears to be a small nut, after you have
cracked it the meats look almost as large it has such a very thin shell.
As you might say almost all meat.

DR. DEMING: What do you mean by 50% cracker?

MR. SNYDER: The shells and the meats when separated and weighed
just balance each other.

I have looked up another one. At present I haven't any authority for
naming this variety. I am just calling it Independence because of the
community in which it is found. I will take this up with the parties
that own the tree and get authority for naming it if they will consent.
This is just a temporary name for a very excellent variety. It is owned
by a party named Geisel. They have a well-known nut that has been taking
premiums in our midwest. This is another in the same grove that is just
as good as the Geisel. It is a very good nut, very fine flavor, good
cracker and more than ordinary size.

We have another one that stands in sight of my home, that is called
DeWees. This is a large tree that possibly is somewhat over a hundred
years old, and its common crop is about five bushels of hulled nuts. It
is a free cracker, excellent quality and very prominent in the locality
in which the tree stands.

There is another one that appeared in the midwest exhibition here in
Cedar Rapids a few years ago, called the Lynch. It was brought out by
the Boys and Girls Club and received a good deal of publicity at that
time on that account. It is a thin-shelled nut and very good cracker but
not of the highest eating quality. I hunted up the tree and got some
scions from it and distributed them. I didn't use any of them myself,
didn't think it good enough, the eating quality not good enough to suit
me. It is an excellent variety however.

DR. SMITH: Something like the Ben Davis?

MR. SNYDER: Yes.

DR. COLBY: The Ben Davis makes the profit though, Dr. Smith.

MR. SNYDER: We have found another one that came out at the
Cedar Rapids exposition. I am calling it the Cline. I have no authority
to call it that. The tree stands here in Cedar Rapids. I haven't had
time to see it since two years ago when it was brought to my attention.
If I am any judge of quality this is the finest hickory nut I have ever
found. Its eating quality is just ahead of anything I know of in the
hickory line, and it's of fair size, a little above medium and a good
cracker and a long keeper. I have frequently tested them. I only got a
handful to start with. I have tested these time after time to see how
long it was going to keep. The last time I tested it was this last
spring and it was in excellent condition. There are a good many of our
hickory nuts that turn rancid in six months. But a nut that keeps two
years, and I don't know but what they are good yet, is going to be a
very big item in hickory nut culture.

DR. DRAKE: Have you kept these eighteen months in good order?

MR. SNYDER: Yes.

MR. HERSHEY: Would soil conditions have anything to do with it?

MR. SNYDER: Possibly but I don't think so. The Fairbanks, for
instance, from different soils; I can see no difference in their
keeping.

MR. HERSHEY: I know that is true of grapes that are grown in
different sections.

MR. SNYDER: I can see no difference in the Fairbanks. In a few
weeks' time it loses its edible qualities. I wouldn't care for it after
it is a few weeks old. After it is thoroughly cured and dried, I don't
think the Fairbanks fit to eat.

MEMBER: How about the Stratford?

MR. SNYDER: The original Stratford was cut for fire wood in
1926. Just before it was cut it bore a heavy crop of nuts. Yesterday I
cracked one. I was right hungry and needed something to eat. I could eat
them yet. It is a great keeper. I know it was four years old or over.

MEMBER: How does it crack?

MR. SNYDER: It is a good cracker and very thin shelled. The
Stratford is, I think, a hybrid of the shagbark and bitternut. It is
very evident that it is a hybrid by the appearance of the nuts. But it
doesn't have that property of the Fairbanks of spoiling as it dries. The
two nuts are very different in that. You will find a great range of
quality in these hybrids.

I believe that puts me through the list of hickories of which I have
made a list. I have a number of others under observation that may in the
future be of importance.

I have several black walnuts that have made their appearance since our
contest was completed. We now have one called the Finney. This stands in
Marshall County right beside the Northwestern Railroad track. I sent
this to Professor Drake of Arkansas for testing and he reported it was a
little better than Thomas, so I think we have a variety there that is
worth taking care of. I received the sample of nuts through a friend, I
believe it was three years ago. I didn't see anything particularly
attractive in the outside appearance of the nuts, so threw them aside
and didn't test them until some months later. I passed it up at that
time as not being better than the Thomas, anyway, and some months later
I cracked another one of them. I went on that way for the last year
until this last fall. I had quite a quantity of them and every time I
came across them I would sample them. Finally I sent some of them to
Professor Drake, with the results that I have mentioned. So now I have
concluded that it is a very worthwhile variety and I have begun
propagating them.

DR. DRAKE: Did you call it by another name before?

MR. SNYDER: Well, I believe I called it Brenton.

DR. DRAKE: That is the name I remember.

MR. SNYDER: From the extreme north line of our state, a place
called Cresco, I received samples of a walnut. This I considered on its
first appearance as being a worthwhile variety and I took it up with the
party who sent it to me and we agreed to call it Cresco. It is a very
thin-shelled walnut, above medium size, excellent eating quality, and
coming from so far north, and ripening and being of such excellent
quality, I thought it was worth looking after and we began propagating
it under that name.

We have another one that made its appearance in the Cedar Rapids
exposition, that has been named Safely. This is of the Ohio type of
walnut and I believe will prove to be just as good, possibly better. The
first samples received of this were ripened under unfavorable conditions
and were not fully up to their best. I think this will be worth looking
after, although I have not yet made an effort to propagate it or get
scions. It is owned by a cousin of mine so I could get them.

The best thing I have found in the state of Iowa I have authority to
call Burrows. This is the finest cracking black walnut I have ever
found. Just a crack of the hammer--four quarters. You don't have to pick
them out. It stands near the county line of Marshall County, near a
little town called Gillman.

THE PRESIDENT: Have you specimens of all of these?

MR. SNYDER: Yes, specimens on the tables. I believe this puts
me through the list of nuts as far as anything new is concerned. I am
quite an enthusiast about the black walnut. There is a double purpose in
the black walnut here in Iowa because our saw mill men tell me, and we
have the largest manufacturing walnut mills here in Iowa, they tell me
the Iowa grown walnut is the most valuable black walnut and they will
pay the best price for it. This alone makes it valuable to plant black
walnuts here in Iowa. Another thing, they are easily and quickly grown.
Our millers tell us that anyone who cuts down a walnut tree ought to be
compelled to plant two. If we all followed this rule the supply would
never be exhausted. We know the demand will not be.

MR. HERSHEY: Couldn't we pass a law here, as they have in
Germany, that every man has to plant thirty trees before he can get
married?

THE PRESIDENT: Have you found a first class butternut?

MR. SNYDER: None, except those that have been listed for a
couple of years. The Buckley is the best in the state. Sherwood is next.
Those two are the best.

THE PRESIDENT: In Michigan we are interested in getting a good
butternut.

MR. SNYDER: By the way, we have on the table a hybrid. This
hybrid is a cross between the sieboldiana and the American butternut. We
call it the Helmick hybrid. We have propagated it for our own use at
home. We have it under restrictions. I have six seedlings that I have
produced from seed of this Helmick hybrid that are crossed with the
Stabler black walnut. In these seedlings are wrapped up three distinct
species, the Stabler (Juglans nigra), Japanese heartnut (Juglans
sieboldiana cordiformis) and the American butternut (Juglans cinerea). I
know this is the result because when the Helmick hybrid bloomed its
cluster containing eighteen nutlets would have perished for want of
pollen to fertilize them because it had produced no staminate blossoms
of its own. There being nothing on the place with ripe catkins shedding
pollen, I was watching them very closely for fear there would nothing
else bloom in time to fertilize the nutlets, and the first thing to
offer ripe pollen that could be used was the Stabler walnut, from which
I gathered a handful of catkins and carried to the Helmick hybrid and
dusted pollen over the cluster of nutlets and succeeded in saving six
out of the cluster of eighteen. These matured into full grown nuts which
were saved and each of them grew into a nice young seedling. I know
beyond question that these seedlings represent the three distinct
species mentioned because there was nothing furnishing pollen with which
to fertilize them except the Stabler walnut.

THE PRESIDENT: The work that Mr. Snyder and Dr. Drake and Dr.
Deming are doing in locating good varieties of nuts is certainly very
valuable. If we had the whole country hunting for good nut trees we
could tell what the country is producing. We have a great many valuable
varieties throughout the United States and Canada.

Our next speaker is Professor T. J. Maney of the Iowa Agricultural
College at Ames. I am very much pleased that the experiment stations in
some of the states are actively interested in the propagating of nut
trees. New York, Iowa and Ohio are doing work along this line and no
doubt other experiment stations are interested. In quite a number of
them there is a great lack of interest, and perhaps I should say of
knowledge, about nut culture in general.

PROF. MANEY: During the past six or seven years, during our
regular annual short course, we have been having a week for a nut short
course and we have been very fortunate in having Mr. Harrington and Mr.
Snyder there. That work has already resulted in the establishment of a
nut project that will continue to grow during the coming year.

You recall that Mr. Neilson revived the subject of paraffin. I notice
that he always wound up with a plea that someone invent an apparatus to
apply the paraffin. What I have here is an answer to the plea. This
apparatus consists of a two and one-half inch pipe with a spray nozzle
attached. The idea is to put into the tube hot paraffin and apply
pressure here, and then with a plumber's blowtorch keep the paraffin
heated. The handle is covered with asbestos. I didn't spend much time in
working this up but I think it works fairly well. There is one
difficulty in perfecting your apparatus to apply hot paraffin, and that
is the fact that when it comes out it immediately congeals into a sort
of snow. You just can't atomize hot paraffin. The only way is through
air pressure. I used this on some dahlia roots quite successfully. This
did the work very well in that case and I think for applying it to rose
roots and plants of that kind it may work quite successfully. Another
thing I thought might be of interest to you is some work in grafting by
the use of paraffin. Last year I was interested in grafting some apples.
On July 12th I made some regular cleft grafts, using the green wood as
the scion after removing the leaves.

DR. SMITH: Wood of that year or previous?

PROF. MANEY: That year. The entire graft was covered with
paraffin. This picture was taken on September 5th, a period of 55 days
later, and during that time growth was 25 inches. I am sure it can be
worked very successfully with different fruit trees. It is especially
valuable in replacing dead grafts. These grafts went through the very
severe winter very successfully. I am sure I appreciate this opportunity
to appear on the program, and I hope to continue with the work at Ames
and perhaps appear at future dates.

MR. WEBER: May I ask how hot it got that summer?

PROF. MANEY: Oh, the temperature was up to 100, 103 and 104.

MR. WEBER: What kind of paraffin did you use?

PROF. MANEY: Just ordinary paraffin.

MR. WEBER: Did you notice any bad results?

PROF. MANEY: No, apparently no ill effects.

MR. WEBER: Paraffin has a tendency when it gets extremely hot
to run down and kill the graft.

DR. SMITH: What would be the effect of putting in some beeswax?

PROF. MANEY: I think that would be all right.

MR. WEBER: Paraffin this summer killed two nut grafts for me.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Are you sure it was the paraffin? I have finally
come to the conclusion that when the sun gets hot enough to melt the wax
it will kill the graft anyway.

MR. WEBER: I noticed the heat did not kill another one that I
did not use the paraffin on. Previous years it simply scorched the tree.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: The heavy coating of wax protects a little from
the heat, I thought.

MR. HARRINGTON: In very hot weather I put heavy paper around
the graft and a handful of dirt. That protects it from the sun.

MR. WEBER: I have tried that.

THE PRESIDENT: I am very much interested in seeing Professor
Maney's spraying apparatus. We also tried to spray and got something
like snow. We also found that the wax congealed in the nozzle. Last
spring I almost blew my head off. I am now experimenting with a material
which acts as an emulsifying agent on waxes and resin. I have developed
a formula, paraffin 5 pounds and Pick Up Gum one pound. I dissolve the
emulsifying agent and heat the wax. This solution can be sprayed on
trees without difficulty when it is warm. When it gets cool, however, we
have to heat it again. I hope to have some definite reports to make as
to the feasibility of this later on, and possibly on conifers as well.
We have been up a tree when it came to spraying wax and we have been at
a disadvantage in transplanting conifers. Regarding the comments as to
paraffin wax melting, I do have a little difficulty on the south side
and sloping to the northeast. The sun's rays would be rather direct. I
think the suggestion Mr. Weber made was very good. Two-thirds paraffin
and one-third beeswax. Possibly we would have to increase the beeswax
where trees are growing on a southern slope.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I found the hottest place 2 inches above the
soil. I shade grafts with a piece of shingle.

THE PRESIDENT: The principle in grafting trees is to regulate
the moisture and the temperature factors. As a means of regulating the
moisture I use German peat around the graft.

MR. HERSHEY: Have any of you had experience in grafting on the
north side of the stock? I found that quite a good scheme, so that the
heat doesn't kill the grafts. We grafted on the 15th of June this year.

THE PRESIDENT: Professor Drake has done a good deal of work in
locating good varieties of black walnuts in the southwest and I am sure
he will be glad to tell you what he has found. Let me repeat what I said
about Mr. Snyder's work, that the most valuable work that is being done
is the discovering of new varieties of nuts.

PROF. DRAKE: I shall talk about the methods I use in scoring
the black walnut in Arkansas. Color of kernel. The way I have determined
that is to first make a measuring scale. Get walnuts whose kernels show
different color. The lightest I call number one. It is quite easy to
divide them into five different groups. I feel that this grading can be
pretty well done, except possibly for the flavor, all the way through.
Applying this method to different nuts, here is the result that I have
obtained with the best ones:

I find the Stabler to rank first, with total grade points of 71.66. For
making the test with the Stabler I have had Stabler nuts from a number
of different places, Snyder, Reed, University of Missouri and nuts I
have grown myself.

The next two will be a surprise to you and I feel quite sure that after
further tests they may grade differently. The next highest is the Ogden.
I believe it was found in Kentucky in 1926 or 1927. Score of 70.90. The
Ogden nuts that I tested were thoroughly dry and gave an excellent
cracking quality, and I expect the test would go down a little bit had
they not been dried so long. I am sure, however, the Ogden is an
excellent cracker. I don't know just how the flavor of the Ogden will
be. I have some feeling that the flavor will not be as good as some.

The third is the Adams. This one comes from West Park in the northern
part of Iowa. It is one that runs very high in kernel per cent. This
gives a total score of 70.87.

While I think of it, there is one point about the method that I use for
scoring that is better, I think, than some other methods that have been
used, that it gives credit for even a part of a per cent. You will
notice that I run these out to the third point.

I can't say about the Adams color. That nut also had been thoroughly
dried and I think the cracking quality shows better than it ordinarily
would. I think that is a variety that we should keep in mind and
especially that it should be used for crossing because of high
percentage of kernel.

The fourth comes from Arkansas, that I have called the "Walker." Scored
70. I suppose we can't claim it entirely from Arkansas, although it was
planted there about 50 years ago. The owner moved there from Illinois.
There are five or six trees, two of them with excellent nuts. The
chances are that the score of this would be lowered somewhat if it were
more thoroughly tested. Last year when I tested I only got four. He told
me that was almost the most complete failure he had ever known for that
tree. Of those four only two were good. One of them I tested before it
was thoroughly dry and I felt that I couldn't test it properly. The
other nut I tested was larger. It weighed about 36 grams. I am sure that
size will be cut down when we can get the nuts from a normal crop. This
year the tree has a good crop and it can be tested more thoroughly.

The next on the list is the Burrows. I think I only had two nuts for
testing this variety. So this score may be somewhat altered. I always
try to test at least ten nuts, and another year if I can get a sample I
will test them again. The score was 69.79.

Following that is another one of Mr. Snyder's, the Finney, from Iowa.
That scored 68.82. After that comes our old standard variety, the Ohio,
68.30. Thomas 67.93. Following the Thomas is a variety, the Bohanan,
with a score of 66.89. After that the Asbury, 66.65; and the Iowa
variety from Iowa that John Rohwer sent me, 66.36. The Iowa is a little
bit better cracker than the Rohwer. Not quite as high percentage of
kernel. Slightly larger nut I believe. The Iowa nut is a little rougher
on the outside than the Rohwer. Following the Iowa is the Edgewood from
Arkansas. This is another of those trees, the parent tree coming from
Illinois, score 66. Ten Eyck, score 65.75. Knapke, score 63.73. Very
good producer. Following that is the Arkansas variety from my home with
a score of 63.11. The next variety comes from British Columbia, the
Attick, 62.02. As I have said, of some of these I have not had
sufficient nuts, and some of them are more thoroughly dry than others. I
am sure there will be some shifting in place. However, for the better
walnuts that I have and the ones I have plenty to test with I feel that
there will be little change from where I have placed them. I have made
another grouping. For large size the Walker scores the highest with
36.20 points. Now as to cracking quality, the Throp 100%, Ogden 94.43%.

MEMBER: What did you crack them with?

PROF. DRAKE: With a hammer.

DR. COLBY: Do you use any fertilizer in your orchard?

PROF. DRAKE: I have some. At first I didn't but afterwards I
used some barn yard manure and some nitrate. Of late years I put some
bone meal around the roots when I plant them.

THE PRESIDENT: Any further discussion of this interesting
paper?

DR. DEMING: Do you use the hammer in cracking entirely?

PROF. DRAKE: Yes, sir.

DR. DEMING: Why do you not use the mechanical cracker? Do you
not think the commercial value of the black walnut is best tested by
using a mechanical cracker? It will never be cracked with a hammer.

PROF. DRAKE: That point is well taken. In the first place I
didn't have a commercial cracker but plenty of hammers. Another thing,
the commercial crackers are being developed. Unless we all try them out
in the same way there would be no value in it. I thought it would be
more accurate to use a hammer.

THE PRESIDENT: Professor A. F. Yeager is unable to be with us.
Therefore, Dr. Colby will read his paper.



NUTS IN NORTH DAKOTA

_By Prof. A. F. Yeager_


The growing of nuts in North Dakota has hardly been considered as a
possibility even by the average amateur up to the present time.
Nevertheless, evidence is gradually accumulating that some varieties of
nuts can be grown as an addition to the home orchard in nearly all parts
of the state.

We have no native nut plants except the hazel and our native hazel
seldom produces nuts in any quantity in the wild state, hence the
possibility of growing them for profit undoubtedly lies some distance in
the future.

Nut bearing plants which have been introduced with success are the
butternut and the black walnut. Trees of these two species are to be
found in small numbers at various points in the state and have in
practically every case been grown from nuts planted where the trees are
now standing. In the past many failures have been reported with trees
grown from nuts sent up from the South. Such trees as are now standing
are the hardy remnants of considerable numbers of seedlings started,
most of which have fallen by the wayside because of the rigors of our
climate. Black walnut trees raised from seed produced on trees which
have reached fruiting age in North Dakota seem to possess the necessary
hardiness. As to whether the named varieties of walnuts would be a
success in this territory remains a question. Their culture has not been
attempted.

Butternuts are naturally a more northerly species than black walnuts but
have not been so widely planted in North Dakota. Nevertheless there is a
sprinkling of bearing butternut trees in some of the pioneer groves.
Seed from these was planted at the experiment station in the fall of
1920. The seedlings prospered and some of them bore nuts in 1925, one
tree producing 114 nuts that year. Since then there has been a crop each
year and the trees have been making a growth of a foot or more per
year. This would seem to indicate that the butternut has possibilities,
at least as a producer of nuts for home consumption.

Both the black walnut and butternut are subject to damage by late spring
frosts which kill off the opening blossoms. While it is not likely that
North Dakota will be a commercial nut growing state, we can look forward
with confidence to the time when a group of nut trees will be included
in the grove which will surround each North Dakota home.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PRESIDENT: Butternuts and walnuts grow in Manitoba. I know
of 47 trees.

MEMBER: Mr. Gall reports that heartnuts have endured the winter
in northwestern Manitoba. The black walnut has grown quite well in Swift
Current. That part of Canada is much colder.

THE PRESIDENT: Our next paper is a report on the nut contest.
Mr. Bixby had planned to be here, but was unable to come. Has Dr. Deming
anything to offer?

DR. DEMING: I have no very definite report to make on the nut
contest, because it wasn't finished until about two weeks ago and I
haven't had time to work on the results. The important part of the
report is the result of Mr. Bixby's scientific calculations on the
properties of the nuts, and this will be published in the report. The
contest this year cannot rank in extent and value with the contest of
1926. One reason for that is that the nut crop last fall seems to have
been everywhere very deficient, and in fact many contestants sent in
nuts from the year before. The second reason is that we didn't get good
advertising. I don't know exactly why we didn't. At first I didn't think
we were going to get any nuts at all. But belated notices in the Fruit
Grower, and especially in the Farm Journal, finally waked up a lot of
contestants. Possibly a third reason why the contest was not as
successful as in 1926 was that there were so many kinds of nuts for
which prizes were offered. I think that is rather confusing. I think we
had better do as in 1926 and offer a prize for a single nut each year,
rather than prizes for all the nuts each year. Take one nut one year
and another nut the next year, and so on, and then begin over again. At
the same time I think we ought to have a standing prize for nuts of each
species, that is for any better than those we already have. We have such
a prize for the hickory, the Bowditch. At different times other members
have offered prizes for other species. I would be glad to offer another
standing prize of $25 for some other nut in addition to Mr. Bowditch's
for the hickory. Three hundred eighty-eight people sent in nuts. That
was many fewer than in 1926. 138 people wrote letters but never sent any
nuts. There were 243 different black walnut specimens this year and 1229
in 1926. We had some very valuable black walnuts. Some fully equal to,
if not better than, those we already have. Very few came from the South.
More came from the northern states. Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan
were well represented. We got 94 different specimens of butternuts. Some
of these were very good. Most of them were from the North, Vermont and
Wisconsin leading. We got 134 specimens of shagbark hickory, 40
shellbarks and 10 others, perhaps hybrids or other species. There was
one California black walnut and only 4 beechnuts, very small indeed. Not
worthy of propagation at all. There were a few odd nuts. Only 40
chestnuts were sent. I think that was because we did not get our
publicity out soon enough. The chestnut crop matures earlier and in many
instances the crops were out of the way. Of these chestnuts, 20 were
Japanese. When you first tasted them they tasted like potato but later
developed a large amount of sweetness. There were 20 American chestnuts.
Dr. Zimmerman would call them small because his standards for the
American chestnut are larger than my New England ideas. When the
chestnuts first came in they were quite green. In a few days they
hardened. If I dried them a little and then put them in boxes they began
to mold and soon would be a mass of mold. It always seemed to begin at
the butt end and would gradually spread over the whole nut and then get
inside and spoil it. I washed some in boric acid, others in
formaldehyde, and that hardened them. Then I tried packing them in
pulverized sugar and in salt. That extracted all the water so that in a
few hours you could pour out half a glass of water. I packed them in
peat moss and sand and treated them in various ways, and finally packed
them in fresh hardwood sawdust. In this they kept in good condition.

DR. SMITH: Did you try sphagnum moss?

DR. DEMING: No. Another writer says an excellent thing is
ground limestone.

THE PRESIDENT: Did you get any Japanese walnuts?

DR. DEMING: We got only three, of no merit.

MEMBER: The value of the nut tree is going to be determined by
its vigor and its bearing qualities. If it doesn't produce any nuts it
isn't going to be any good. Mr. Bixby and Dr. Deming have allowed
nothing for the bearing qualities.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I am wondering whether it might be possible in
some way to get these different factors together and judge the nuts from
all angles.

DR. DEMING: That, I think, is absolutely necessary. That is, to
combine these two scales of judging, the tree characteristics and those
of the nuts. Ultimately we have got to allow a large factor for
adaptation and productiveness.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: A nut may crack well at one time and not so well
later on. The moisture of the nuts is a factor.

DR. DEMING: I don't agree with Dr. Smith that we should not use
the mechanical cracker.

DR. SMITH: We also want the hammer. We must crack them in the
most favorable way.

DR. DEMING: I think the hammer is of very little value. I think
we should crack them all with a mechanical cracker. If you crack with a
mechanical cracker, the two plungers come together by compression, which
crushes the ends in and makes the sides burst out, thereby releasing the
kernel.

MR. HERSHEY: With the mechanical cracker the shells burst away
from the kernel.

MR. FREY: My experience is that the mechanical cracker
outclasses the hammer. The walls of the nut shatter outwards and save
the kernel, whereas with a hammer you mash the nut. I can't see the
value of the contest in 1929 when the scion wood for those nuts can't be
secured until 1931. There is too much delay. I think if we would
establish a permanent award for a better nut of any variety that is sent
in we will make better progress. One nut that I know was put in the
contest last year. The tree was cut down before they could even write
for the scion wood.

MEMBER: I got a shipment of chestnuts at one time. I took a
ten-gallon milk can and put two inches of sawdust in it. I originally
had 50 pounds of nuts but sold some of them. I had 8 or 10 pounds left.
I sealed them up tight, put the lid on, and a year from the next April I
opened the can. The ones on the bottom had started to grow, they had
tops of 4 or 5 inches long and they had a network of roots. But on top
of those the nuts were in perfect condition. I shipped some of them to
Washington. I planted some of them. Perhaps 9 out of 10 were in perfect
condition and they grew.

DR. SMITH: I would like to suggest another method of keeping
chestnuts. Pack them in sphagnum moss, put them in cold storage and
freeze them solid.

MR. HERSHEY: Mr. Bixby digs a trench, plants the nuts in it,
covers them with leaves and then with an inch or two of soil.

THE PRESIDENT: One of the officers of the Bureau of Plant
Industry, traveling in Asia, took some seeds and dipped them in paraffin
wax. I know it is an excellent method of keeping dahlia roots.

We have another item on our program, "New Members' Experience and
Questions." Possibly we have some new members here who have had
experiences and would like to tell us of them.

MEMBER: My first experience was with Mr. Snyder at Ames. I saw
on the program a nut lecture, so I went. For the past two years I have
been attending the short course and heard Mr. Snyder lecture. A year ago
this spring I got some scions from Mr. Snyder. Four scions out of 7
grew. It was the first time I had ever done any grafting at all. I used
paraffin for grafting.

THE PRESIDENT: You got very good results indeed. This year I
made a miserable failure. I believe I only got about 12% to grow. I hope
you always have the same good luck.

DR. SMITH: If he wants to keep his record he better not do any
more grafting.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Pretty near everybody this year reports a
miserable failure. There must be some reason.

DR. SMITH: It may be the drought.

PROF. DRAKE: I only got three to grow. We had enough rain in
the spring.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: My opinion is that last winter was hard on wood.
There was an early freeze in the central states. My observation is that
the wood was injured through the winter. I think any scion wood was not
very good.

PROF. DRAKE: In our part of the country the temperature ran
from 24 to 26 below zero.

MR. HERSHEY: If you notice in making the graft little pin
points of black on the scions, you can almost bet on a failure.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Some of the worst looking scions at times grow
the best. You put them on and they all grow. Another time you have
beautiful scions and they all die.

MR. HARRINGTON: There is injury you can't see with the naked
eye. The wood was unripened when our winter set in. We had a very severe
winter in our section here. My practice has been to store my scion wood
in November.

MR. FREY: The cold weather in January wouldn't affect that. I
am inclined to think the scion wood injury was done before winter set
in.

MEMBER: When is the best time to gather scion wood? Mr.
Harrington says in the fall. I have been getting mine in February. Is it
better to cut the wood when entirely dormant, or would it grow better
if cut when the sap starts in the spring?

MR. HARRINGTON: I want my scions cut early.

DR. SMITH: How early can you cut them?

MR. HARRINGTON: When the scars from the leaves have dried up
thoroughly. I have known them even in December to be still sappy. They
didn't grow well that year. I often cut them the last week in November.

MR. HERSHEY: I would advise Dr. Smith not to cut too early in
the fall.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: From my papaws I cut scions in the fall.

THE PRESIDENT: From the comments made here this morning I have
an opinion that the question certainly needs looking into. We could cut
our scions earlier.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I wouldn't cut them at that time if I didn't
have to.

MR. HERSHEY: I think that is a good admission. Another thing,
if you paraffin your scions you need cat's paws to hang on to them. Dr.
Morris said last year, "Melt your paraffin off with hot water." We tried
it, got paraffin all over ourselves and cooked the wood. So then we
scraped the paraffin off.

DR. DEMING: Dr. Neilson has said if there are any new members
we would like to hear from them. If there are no new members there
should be some. Our secretary sits at the table, ready and anxious to
receive the dues and names of new members. I have always felt that we
never treat new members with sufficient deference. I think we should ask
them to talk about their experiences, to tell us what they have done, to
tell us what they would like to do, to ask us questions, and that we
should make them feel more at home.

THE PRESIDENT: That is very much to the point.

DR. DEMING: Why isn't the chestnut more appreciated in this
country? Why aren't the farmers acquainted with the possibilities of
growing chestnuts here in the middle west? Yesterday Dr. Zimmerman and I
were at Mr. Harrington's and there we saw chestnut trees that would make
your heart warm to look at. Why can't the people of the middle west,
where the chestnut is not native, be awakened to the great possibilities
of growing the chestnut commercially? It is easy to grow. It bears
early, and abundantly. What can we do to make it better known? I would
like to ask Dr. Zimmerman.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Chestnut growers say "We can't keep them."
Several years ago I got a hundred pounds of chestnuts down in Illinois.
I sold them out to friends of mine. In a few weeks those chestnuts were
dry enough to use for roller bearings. That is the reason they don't
like the chestnut. I think that hurts the chestnut business more than
anything else.

MR. HERSHEY: I would like to ask why insist on introducing the
chestnut when we have the black walnut? I would just as soon eat bran as
a chestnut. Now the black walnut you can keep for two years.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: In the last few years I have been in intimate
contact with chestnuts. I don't see why the people here don't take them
up. If you don't do it the people on the west coast are going to plant
chestnuts and ship them to the eastern market. You people can raise
chestnuts. The eastern markets are full of chestnuts from Europe. What
we need is chestnuts like the Riehl's. The large European chestnuts are
of poor flavor. Take the varieties you can grow around here and send
them to the East and you will get 50 cents a pound for them. Authorities
tell us the trees will die off. I tell you you will all die off after a
while. You aren't going to quit working because you are going to die
off. Within three years you will have trees that will bear. You may get
from twelve to fifteen crops off of them before they die. So far as the
food quality of the chestnut is concerned it is not a balanced diet,
mostly sugar, but it is a splendid food. The difficulty is in keeping it
soft. But it is not a difficult thing. Cold storage will keep the
chestnut in splendid shape for eating purposes. I would plant chestnuts
and plant them now. Sooner or later, if they die off, we in the East
will be prepared to replace them, but for the present you will have the
whole field east of the Rocky Mountains. I do not know of another
opportunity as great as the chestnut. I just wish I could take 20 acres
of this land with me back to my rocky Pennsylvania farm.

DR. COLBY: In Illinois the chestnut is not native and people
don't realize that it can be grown. Some of the speakers have mentioned
the Riehls. I want to mention the Endicott place. Mr. Endicott tells me
that it is increasingly difficult to supply the demand for his
chestnuts. He sells his nuts sometimes a year in advance. Developing of
cleaning machinery and sorting machinery is going on apace. Mr. Endicott
is interested in a sorting machine such as we use for apples. It is true
we are going to get the blight out here sooner or later. Meantime we are
going to try to anticipate it by securing hybrids which are resistant
and of good quality at the same time.

MR. SNYDER: I would like to say a word as to planting chestnuts
here in Iowa, and especially here north. What has been said is true of
the southern part of the state. We may grow varieties there that it
would not do to plant in the northern part of the state. I think I can
show you tomorrow if you visit my place that I have had considerable
experience in planting chestnuts just as an experiment. The first
planting mostly has gone out because of our climatic conditions. We have
severe winters. We must be careful what varieties we plant and what
stocks they are worked on when we do plant them. A few years ago a
nurseryman wrote me he would like to go out of business and he had
chestnut seedlings for sale. I bought his seedlings. I lost them all the
next winter. Why? Because of their mixed parentage, European and
Japanese. They were not hardy, that was all there was to it. If the
nurserymen here and farther north will be careful in the selection of
the varieties they use, we can grow them. There are two factors, the
stocks you graft on and the varieties you want to grow.

MR. FREY: In my old home place there are native chestnuts over
60 years old.

MR. SNYDER: If we had time I could take you to visit a grove of
chestnut trees, planted by one of the oldtimers, possibly seventy years
ago. I haven't been able to learn where the seed came from, evidently
from some northeastern country. That is where I get my seeds. Any trees
that I have grown from seedlings are dependable trees.

MR. HERRICK: One point should be carried in mind. While we
think of Des Moines as located in central Iowa, as far as temperature is
concerned it is really southern Iowa. The weather at Ames, which is 30
miles north of Des Moines, is far more severe. At Des Moines we can
raise Grimes Golden apples. At Ames it is almost impossible. I think
that the reason more people are not planting more of these good
varieties of walnuts and other species is that they cannot get the
trees. And then they are very high priced. Mr. Snyder says that it takes
a long time to propagate these trees. People don't like to pay $5.00 or
$6.00 for a tree and then maybe not have it grow. As I understand, Mr.
Snyder is about the only nurseryman in the state that furnishes nut
trees, I mean new varieties.

MR. BOYCE: Would it be a good plan to plant black walnuts and
grow the seedlings right where you want your orchard?

MR. SNYDER: I think that is a very good plan.

DR. COLBY: An excellent way if you can get a man to do the
grafting.

MR. BOYCE: What would be a reasonable price for grafting?

DR. COLBY: Mr. Wilkinson has done considerable of that kind of
work.

PROF. DRAKE: I have been more successful in budding.

MR. HERSHEY: We can't in Pennsylvania. In the winter the buds
kill off.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Hershey's experience is like mine, about
$7.00 a graft. I will say that if I give grafting demonstrations, as I
have in Michigan, I always tell my audience a little story. Once upon a
time there was a wild west show. An old Indian chief on the outside
proclaimed the merits of the show. He always finished by saying, "And
now, ladies and gentlemen, if you go into this show I positively will
not give you your money back." I generally tell my audience I
positively will not guarantee anything. If none of the scions grow they
can't come back and say, "I told you so."

DR. DEMING: I would like to have our president talk about
methods of making the transplanting of nursery grafted trees safer for
the purchaser. Dr. Neilson has had a good deal of experience in setting
out nursery stock.

THE PRESIDENT: Quite naturally in the progress of time we gain
some knowledge by experience. Sometimes that experience is very costly.
We remember it more clearly. During the past year I made a few
observations on transplanting nut trees. Some of you who were at Ontario
in 1928 and New York last year, heard me speak of doing it by means of
paraffin coating which has been successful in quite a wide area of this
country and in Canada. The difficulty was that during very hot weather
the wax melted and ran down and did some injury on the south side of the
tree. I did notice that if you inclined the tree to the southwest just a
little there was very little injury, whereas if they leaned to the
northeast there was injury. I would suggest this, that if you are
planting on southern slopes and happen to be in localities where there
are very high temperatures, you use 1-3 beeswax and 2-3 paraffin.
Beeswax has been proven to be quite safe over wounds and trees in
general. This treatment has been used over a very wide area, in 18
states and 5 Canadian Provinces. We have information at hand on 130,000
roses, 15,000 pecans, 2,000 apples. We have had very few complaints from
the people who have used this treatment. Because of that, I firmly
believe that the principle of applying a protective coating to the upper
part of the tree and branches is correct. I have made another
observation in protecting roots against devitalizing. Certain kinds of
trees, hickory, walnut, are very susceptible to injury to the roots. I
tried paraffin on the cut roots and got very good healing. I found that
wherever I packed moist peat around the roots there was very good
response. Last spring I took about 100 seedling black walnuts and put
half in good loamy soil, the other half in moist peat. I got very good
results from those packed in peat. In the loam in 7 weeks not one scion
had grown. I took those pots and took out the dirt. I later planted them
in a cold frame in peat and practically every one of those walnut trees
grew. I believe that the peat had some beneficial effect.

MR. FREY: From the time the nut tree is dug until it is planted
the nursery should pack it so it will keep moist. The purchaser should
not let the wind or sun strike it. I had some trees sent from Texas to
Oklahoma. The fellow who did the work heeled them in improperly. Every
tree died. Keeping the roots moist is half the problem.

THE PRESIDENT: Very important indeed. Mr. Gellatly shipped
heartnut trees to Augusta. These trees were packed in moss and
paraffined. They arrived in excellent condition. The trip took six weeks
and they travelled 3,000 miles.

DR. SMITH: What season?

THE PRESIDENT: About the first of April, and arrived about the
middle of May.

DR. DEMING: Could you make an artificial ball in which the
roots of a plant could be packed? Say peat moss, which is light, and
send that to the customer and tell him to plant it just as it is.

THE PRESIDENT: I think possibly that can be done. The Wedge
Nursery of Albert Lea, Minnesota, have a method of packing roses in
sphagnum moss. They soak this material very thoroughly, embed the roots
in it, and outside this material they apply some water-proof covering.



AFTERNOON SESSION, SEPTEMBER 17TH, 1930


THE PRESIDENT: At our last meeting in New York, Dr. Deming
suggested that it might be well worth while to make a study of the
Japanese walnut. His suggestion appealed to me, for I have been
interested in the occurrence and distribution of this species. I have
not had an opportunity to travel very widely on this continent, so I
have had to depend partly on the observation of other people. I sent out
a questionnaire to members of our association and horticultural
experiment stations throughout the United States and got a good
response.



SOME NOTES ON THE JAPANESE WALNUT IN NORTH AMERICA

_Dr. J. A. Neilson, Michigan_


The Japanese walnut, Juglans sieboldiana, and its varietal form
cordiformis, were said to have been introduced into America from Japan
about 1870 by a nurseryman at San Jose, California. From this and other
subsequent introductions a considerable number have been grown and
distributed in the United States and Canada.

A recent inquiry by the writer brought forth some interesting data
relative to the occurrence and distribution of this species in North
America. This inquiry shows that it has been widely distributed and is
reported in the following states: Arkansas, Arizona, Alabama,
Connecticut, California, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Kentucky,
Massachusetts, Missouri, Minnesota, Maryland, Maine, Mississippi,
Michigan, New Jersey, New York, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia,
Washington, and Wisconsin. No reports were received from South Carolina,
Louisiana, Montana, North Carolina, North and South Dakota, Idaho,
Georgia, Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Wyoming, and negative reports were
received from Florida, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.

In none of these states is the Japanese walnut abundant in the same
degree as other kinds of nut trees, but in some states it was reported
more frequently than in others. It occurs more abundantly in
Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, New Jersey and Delaware than in
other states.

In Canada it has been reported from Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia.
In Ontario it is found occasionally from Windsor to the Quebec boundary
and from Lake Erie to North Bay. There are several fine large trees in
southern Ontario, some of which are worthy of propagation. Many of the
trees in Ontario and other eastern provinces grew from nuts distributed
by the writer several years ago. For five years in succession the writer
bought the crop from a large heartnut tree near Jordan Station, Ontario,
and distributed the nuts all over Canada to those who were interested.
More than twelve thousand nuts were thus distributed and I know from
observation and reports that seedling trees are now growing from the
Atlantic to the Pacific. I am going to tax your credulity to the utmost
and tell you that one of my correspondents reports heartnut trees
growing in the Peace River area of northern Alberta. I have no recent
report from my friend but I know that the trees came through two winters
in that far northland.

Possibly in the days to come a superior seedling or a hybrid may be
found in these numerous seedlings which will be worth propagating. Some
of these trees have already borne nuts and many have made very good
growth.

The Japanese walnut has also been reported from New Zealand and several
states in Australia, England, France, Germany and other European
countries.


_Climatic Adaptation_

From the foregoing it can be seen that this species of walnut has been
widely distributed and is now growing in countries with a wide
temperature range. Reports are on hand which show that the trees have
endured temperatures of 40 below zero F. to 110° above zero. From this
it need not be assumed that all Japanese walnut trees will stand great
extremes of heat and cold, for experience shows that they will not. It
does show, however, that some individuals at least have marked hardiness
to cold and heat and have endured temperatures much greater than the
English walnut. The best results in growth and fruitfulness have been
obtained in those regions of moderate rainfall where the apple and
sweet cherry grow successfully.


_Soil Requirements_

The Japanese walnut seems to thrive on many soil types ranging from a
heavy clay to a light sand, but does best on what is popularly known as
a well drained fertile sandy loam with a friable clay subsoil. It will
not do well on strongly acid soils and those who have planted trees on
such soils should apply lime in liberal quantities. Poorly drained soils
or very light soils deficient in humus are also not suitable.


_Tree and Nut Characteristics_

The Japanese walnut has several characteristics which make it desirable
as an ornamental and as a nut-bearing tree. It grows rapidly, has large
numerous luxuriant leaves which give it a tropical effect, and usually
has a symmetrical outline. It bears early, sometimes in the second year
from the graft, yields heavily and is often reported to yield regularly.

A heartnut tree owned by Mr. Sylvestor Kratz of Jordan Station, Ontario,
produced nearly seven bushels of husked nuts one season and Mr. J. W.
Hershey reports a yield of ten bushels of heartnuts from a tree near
Olney, Pennsylvania. He also reports a cash return of $50.00 from one
tree grown by Mr. Killen of Felton, Delaware. These were heartnuts and
sold for 50 to 75 cents a pound. Mr. J. V. Gellatly, Westbank, B. C.,
obtained a yield of ten bushels of unhusked nuts from a heartnut tree of
medium size. The yields from the common type, J. sieboldiana, have also
been heavy, but since no figures are available no definite statements
can be made.

In the Japanese walnut as in other species of nuts there is marked
variation in nut characteristics, such as size, thickness of shell,
cracking quality, extraction quality and flavor of kernel. Heartnuts
have been found ranging from 1/2 in. to 1-3/4 in. in length. The largest
heartnut I have ever seen came from Gellatly Brothers of Westbank, B. C.
This nut was 1-3/4 in. long by 1-1/4 in. wide and was fully 1 in. thick.
I also located a fine Sieboldiana type which is said to be the largest
found up to date. (See specimens in jars).

Some of these good kinds possess excellent cracking and extraction
quality. Mr. John Hershey of Downingtown, Pa., reports several good
easy-cracking strains not yet introduced and Mr. Gellatly has one called
O. K. that can easily be cracked with a hand nut cracker. I have also
found one that I believe is a hybrid and which has excellent cracking
and extraction quality. These specimens came from a seedling heartnut
grown by Mr. Claude Mitchell, Scotland, Ontario. The nuts are longer
than any heartnut found so far. The kernels in many cases fall out whole
or in halves. This strain received the O. K. of Prof. Reed and Dr.
Deming and as you know when a nut gets by either of those gentlemen it
has to possess some merit. The good result produced by nature without
any assistance from man suggests the possibility of getting even better
results from parents of superior characters. I believe the Japanese
walnut offers interesting possibilities in breeding with the butternut
and possibly the black and English walnut. Definite plant breeding work
should be done with these species as well as with all other species of
nuts.

The Japanese walnuts generally grow fast but usually do not attain a
large size. In most cases the trees rarely grow more than 35 feet tall
with a spread of 30 to 50 feet, but occasionally specimens attain much
larger size. The writer saw a heartnut tree on Mr. Kratz's farm near
Jordan Station, Ontario, which had a trunk diameter of 2 ft., a height
of 35 ft., and a spread of 64 ft. Near St. Thomas, Ontario, there is a
large sieboldiana tree which is 75 ft. across the top and is about 45
ft. tall. Mr. Ricks reports a huge tree near Olney, Pennsylvania, that
is 80 ft. across the top and 60 ft. tall and Dr. Deming reports a tree
with a spread of 100 ft.


_Varieties_

Through the efforts of the Northern Nut Growers Association members
several good varieties have been found and propagated. These varieties
have been widely distributed but have not been extensively planted. The
results are variable as might be expected, but generally the reports are
satisfactory. In the eastern states the following varieties seem to do
reasonably well: Faust, Bates, Ritchie and Stranger. In British
Columbia, Messrs. J. U. and David Gellatly have located several very
good strains such as Gellatly, O. K., Calendar, Walters and Rosefield.
These newer varieties from the West have several good characters and are
worthy of a wider trial in the East.


_Diseases and Insect Pests_

In common with most other forms of plant life the trees are susceptible
to some insects and diseases.

Reports of injury by the walnut weevil, Conotrachelus juglandis, and
also by codling moth larvae have been received. In some cases the
foliage is attacked by rust fungi and some injury is also done by leaf
spot. Prof. Reed reports witches broom attacking some trees in the South
and one case of this disease was observed by the writer in Ontario on a
Siebold-butternut hybrid. Notwithstanding these defects it is believed
that the Japanese walnut is less attacked by disease and insects than
most other species of nut trees.


_Opinion of Observers_

The opinion of a group of people on the merits or defects of a tree
species or project is worthy of consideration. In order to get an
expression of opinion as to the merits of the Japanese walnut the
following question was asked: Do you consider the better strains of
Japanese walnut worthy of more extended planting? The answers to this
inquiry were numerous and varied. The great majority were in favor of
increased plantings but a few were somewhat dubious. Nearly every one
agreed that the species possessed marked beauty and was worthy of more
extended planting as an ornamental. Some gave preference to the nuts
over the black and English but the majority thought the quality was not
quite up to the standard of these two species. Some observers reported
favorably on the heartnut for culinary purposes and as an ingredient of
ice cream and candy. With these latter comments I have had personal
experience and can heartily agree.


_Summary_

From the evidence furnished by correspondents and from personal
observation the good qualities of the Japanese walnut may be summed up
as follows:

Rapid growth, marked beauty of form and foliage, early bearing,
productiveness, and more than average hardiness to winter cold. The nuts
from superior trees are easier to crack than the butternut, hickory and
black walnut, but not so easy as the pecan and Persian walnut. These
superior varieties yield nuts with a mild flavor which appeals to the
taste of many people, but others think the flavor is not quite
pronounced enough.

This species crosses readily with the butternut and offers interesting
possibilities for the plant breeder.

The trees appear to be somewhat less susceptible to insects and diseases
than other walnuts, but this may not always hold good.

The defects of the Japanese walnut most frequently mentioned are lack of
flavor and pollination deficiencies. Some trees produce staminate
flowers too early for proper pollination and thus do not yield a crop
unless another good pollinator grows nearby.

Susceptibility to sun-scald and to San Jose scale are some other
weaknesses. Many of the trees commonly grown are undesirable because of
small size of nuts, poor cracking quality and too mild a flavor.

A careful consideration of the good and bad characters of Japanese
walnuts suggests the following program before the culture of this
species can be placed on a sound basis.

1. A systematic and thorough search of the United States and Canada for
productive trees yielding nuts of large size, of good cracking and
extraction quality and pleasing flavor.

2. The propagation and wide dissemination of these superior strains to
members of the Northern Nut Growers Association and particularly to
experiment stations where there seems to be a striking lack of
information on this and other species of nuts.

3. Systematic improvement by means of hybridization with the butternut
and other suitable species.

A program such as this would yield information of great value and would
probably establish the culture of this species on a sounder basis than
it now is. Until this has been done the logical course to follow is to
plant the best varieties in limited numbers in areas where the black
walnut thrives and even in areas too cold for the black walnut.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PRESIDENT: I have been connected with experiment stations
and colleges for the past number of years but I was quite surprised to
find such a general lack of knowledge of nut trees, and especially of
this species. The members of the experiment stations who are here do not
need to feel badly. My remarks wouldn't apply to them.

MEMBER: Any varieties of this that bloom late?

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, Mr. Gellatly of West Bank, British
Columbia, has a variety that blooms rather late. J. U. Gellatly and his
brother David have the best collection of Japanese walnuts in Canada, of
heartnuts especially.

Professor Reed was to give us a paper on harvesting and marketing. We
have just heard that his paper will be here tomorrow. The next paper is
by Mr. F. O. Harrington.



THIRTY YEARS' EXPERIENCE IN THE CARE OF SCIONWOOD

_F. O. Harrington, Williamsburg, Iowa_


Prof. Colby wrote me some months ago asking if I would not write a paper
for this meeting on "Fifty Years' Experience in Nut Growing." I answered
that I had not been particularly interested in nut culture until within
a few years, and that I believed I could be of more use to our members
by telling them something of the care of scionwood.

I am going to tell you of my method used for thirty years constantly
with only slight changes from the beginning. Any man who has had any
experience knows that it is important that scionwood should be carefully
kept, that it should not be kept in air so dry that the bark would
shrivel to any appreciable extent, or, on the other hand, a still worse
condition, where it is so damp that the bark will loosen and the buds
start.

It is difficult enough in nut tree grafting to obtain reasonably fair
success with the scions in perfect condition, where used in late spring,
and it is something of a heart breaking proposition to try it with poor
scionwood. To the nurseryman, with his winter grafting of fruit trees,
the keeping of the scionwood long enough for his purpose in the cold of
the winter season is no problem at all. It can be stacked in a pile in
any cool cellar (not too wet) and covered over with leaves and blankets,
or what not, and it is all O. K. for that period. It is a far different
matter to hold small amounts of wood absolutely dormant through the
changing conditions from winter to summer, and perhaps as greatly
changed conditions of moisture through several months. And how shall
this best be accomplished?

Ice house conditions are not, I think, generally very satisfactory. The
right cold storage facilities might be satisfactory, but not readily
accessible to most of us. I used to use boxes in the cellar, with
careful packing with forest leaves and somewhat careful attention to
moisture conditions, with penalties for lax attention always enforced.

I know one nurseryman who, beside the regular nursery fruit tree
grafting scion wood, kept many scions of nut trees. He had a deep
outdoor cellar, or cave, which was always cool and not too dry. In this,
in large boxes of sawdust, he kept his scions for spring use. Just how
much attention as regards moisture conditions he had to give this I do
not know, but through his knowledge and experience with it I think his
scions were usually in good condition.

Now I will quote to you on the care of scions from J. F. Jones' paper on
"The Propagation of Nut Trees" in the 1927 Report of the Annual Meeting
of the Northern Nut Growers Association, page 104:

     "It is not in the selection of scions that the beginner usually
     fails to make his grafting a success, but in handling the scions.
     Scions for grafting need not to be put in cold storage. In fact
     cold storage at the usual temperatures seems to be injurious to
     scions. Cool storage, that is temperature maintained below the
     freezing point, is O. K., but in my experience this is not
     necessary. We store them in a cellar with a ground floor. This is
     damp and cool and the cases the scions are stored in are without
     bottoms and set on the damp cellar floor. The cases are lined with
     tar paper or light roofing, both the sides and the lid. The latter
     is hinged for ease of getting out scions as needed. No packing is
     used around the scions and they draw enough moisture from the damp
     ground below to hold them plump and in good condition. Good scions
     stored in this way can be kept for weeks, or even months if need
     be, in excellent condition. Nut scions for grafting are soon
     spoiled if packed too damp, even if kept at temperatures
     considerably below that required to cause the sap to flow in trees
     outside."

Again I quote from Dr. W. C. Deming (1925 Report, page 48), "Top Working
Hickory Trees for the Beginner":

     "Scions packed away for any length of time are apt to go wrong,
     either by drying too much, by being too moist and starting to grow,
     or by heating, molding or rotting. A simple way to keep them is to
     dig a hole about three feet deep in the ground outdoors in a dry
     and sheltered place where water can never reach them, as under the
     back porch. Have the scions in convenient lengths of one to two
     feet. Wrap them in a bundle, or bundles, in a light tar paper,
     which helps to prevent mold. Leave the ends open for ventilation.
     Lay the bundles in the bottom of the hole and cover the top of the
     hole with an old carpet, or several newspapers. This description
     gives a general idea of the conditions under which scions should be
     kept. A man may vary it according to his own conditions, bearing in
     mind the principles. It is of vital importance to the success of
     grafting that the scions should be in good condition. The usual
     mistakes are in keeping them too wet and too much wrapped up. They
     should be examined frequently to see that they are keeping well."

I have brought to your attention what have been considered the very best
methods of keeping scionwood dormant and in best possible condition, and
all agree that this is of vital importance for successful grafting. I
will now call your attention to a better method than any of these,
equally simple and inexpensive, and so much better in its action that
scions may be kept by it two and three years in about the same condition
as when severed from the parent tree; and to prove this statement I have
here with me for your examination scionwood of several kinds of nut and
fruit trees that have been kept in the Harrington graft box one year and
two years. At the present time I have no older wood in my graft box, for
the simple reason that in the summer of 1928 the cover of the box, which
had been in several years, rotted so that the top caved in, leaving it
open to too much air, thus in time spoiling what wood was in it; and
before putting in new wood in November I had to dig out the old box and
replace with a new one. For wood will rot in time in the ground. I have
had, at different times in the past, scionwood in my box three years
old, much of it seemingly still good. I have not used any of it for
grafting at three years, but I have with good success the second year
old from cutting. I started experimentally with this method and box
thirty years ago and there has not been a year since in which I have not
used it, so you may readily understand that it is not an untried theory
I am giving you. A much valued member of our society, J. F. Jones of
Lancaster, Pa., now deceased, wrote me at one time, "You undoubtedly
have the best method of keeping scionwood known at the present day," and
Prof. Close, head of the Pomology Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D. C., made the same statement to me.

My own box is located in an evergreen grove on dry land, but a shady
position to the north of a building might answer fairly well. Until the
last eight years my box was for a long period, under and between two
large butternut trees growing out in the open, except at the northward.
In my opinion it is highly desirable to cut and store all scionwood
before severe temperatures of the winter occur, preferably between
Thanksgiving and Christmas because very severe freezing is liable to
produce some little injury to the cambium layer, at least in some years,
and if that injury be even very slight it will usually spell failure
when used.

The graft box, as I am using it, is about thirty inches long by eighteen
inches deep and fifteen inches wide. It has a solid cover but has a six
inch square hand hole through on top in front, covered by a loose board
lying flat and about ten inches square and butting back against a cross
bar nailed across the box two inches back of the doorway opening. No
bottom in the box but it has three cross bars nailed across inside to
hold all scionwood up two inches from the earth floor. Any scion that
touches the earth floor will either begin to grow or begin to rot. The
box is entirely buried two to three inches under the ground except over
the trap door. The spot must be perfectly drained. Over the box a space
about six feet wide by seven feet long is insulated from temperature
changes with straw packing to height, in center, of three feet and
protected from rain by a wood roof of boards, shingles, or prepared
roofing resembling, a little, the old wedge tent. To get into the box
burrow in under by pulling out the straw in front, but not too large a
tunnel, and far enough back to get at the trap door cover where it can
be slipped off and scions put in, the door replaced and all the straw
crowded back into place. Thereafter it is easy to slip the straw out and
back to get at the box. In any case the packing is always carefully
replaced, as the insulation of the earth near the box is of first
importance.


_Graft Box Air Conditions_

The small amount of moisture coming into the box from sides and earth
bottom, in ordinary conditions, seems to be very exactly balanced by the
very small amount of dry air that finds ingress to the box from outside
through the straw packing and the trap door, although after very long
wet spells, at whatever season of the year, it has been my practice to
bring all the scions out into the open air and allow both the scions
and the interior of box to dry out for as long as seems needful. The
reverse condition, that of too little moisture, I have never had to take
notice of. Occasionally a little white mold in box and on scions may
require a little open air treatment. No other condition seems to require
any special care. I do not know how much larger a box than I have used
would give equal satisfaction, for I have not demonstrated that feature,
but obviously there must be at some point a limiting factor between the
desired casualty of moisture and its opposite in the box. I am inclined
to think that a box of double that capacity could safely be used, but
advise that, where large amounts of scionwood are needed, more than one
box be used until a test has been made with less valuable wood to find
the size limit.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. SMITH: You speak of airing the scions. How long do you do
that?

MR. HARRINGTON: It depends on the conditions that require the
airing. For instance a thaw in the winter, or a rainy spell. Again in
the summer a long rainy spell. In these cases I open up the box, maybe
leave it a couple of hours.

DR. SMITH: That kills the mold, two hours' exposure? You never
sterilize the inside in any way?

MR. HARRINGTON: I never have. It might be a good idea. The mold
doesn't seem to affect the scions.



EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS IN SEARCHING FOR BEST SEEDLING NUT TREES

_J. F. Wilkinson, Indiana_


Searching for the best seedling began long before the coming of the
white man to America, by Indians and animals and the birds which store
nuts for their winter food. This search has always been continued
through the nut growing territory by the crows, squirrels and other
birds and animals.

Go to a pecan grove early in the fall when pecans are ripening and there
is no better evidence that a tree is an early ripener and produces a
thin shelled nut than to see a bunch of crows feeding from it.

The children living near a pecan grove in early fall will go where crows
and birds are feeding to gather nuts that are dropped by them, and
later, when all trees have ripened their nuts, these children have their
favorite trees to gather from. I have seen the little ones around
Enterprise, of before school age, that would have a preference and could
select from a basket of pecans the ones from their favorite tree. It is
surprising how good their judgment is.

The hunter also watches this in the early hunting season, going to the
earlier ripening hickory and walnut trees, for it is there he will find
the squirrels feeding.

My own experience in gathering pecans dates back to my first school
days, for there were scores of pecans trees near the school building,
and as soon as I was large enough to climb a tree I spent many days each
fall gathering nuts and soon had a fair knowledge of all trees for a
radius of several miles around.

The first trees of the now named varieties, the Indiana and Busseron,
were located and brought to notice by the late Mason J. Niblack.

In the summer of 1910 my life-long friend, Mr. T. P. Littlepage, while
on a vacation, was camping on the Ohio river near my home and was then
very much interested in superior seedling nut trees. It was at that
time, in a talk with him, that I became interested in the propagation of
nut trees.

At this time he took me with him to locate the "Warrick" tree which
stands on Pigeon Creek in Warrick County, Indiana. The next day he, R.
L. McCoy and myself went to the Greenriver grove where the Major and
Greenriver trees were located. These are now being propagated and are
considered outstanding varieties. Also a trip was made to Posey County,
Indiana, where the Hoosier tree was located. This variety was soon
dropped.

From that time on R. L. McCoy and myself kept up a constant search until
he left Indiana in 1918. Since then I have done a lot of work along this
line myself.

This work is carried on by arranging with nut buyers and gatherers in
the nut growing localities to be on the watch for any unusually good nut
and to send in a sample, with the name of the owner of the tree, or the
party gathering the nuts, so the tree may be located later. Hundreds of
samples have been received, the most of which were eliminated on
examination of the nut itself. In the case of any that seem promising a
trip is made to the tree for further information. Each fall I receive
word of trees producing a superior quality nut and in most cases from
the description given, whether it be by letter or a personal talk with
the informer, one would believe that a really worthy tree had been
found. But generally on investigation it proves to be only just above a
good average tree.

A variety to be worthy of propagation must pass a rigid test. First, the
nut must be of desirable size, thin shell, plump kernel, good flavor and
good cracking quality, and last but not least the tree must be a good
and regular bearer.

Accurate records on the bearing of these trees are very hard to obtain
as they often grow in isolated places and their product is known to all
in that neighborhood, and at least a part of the crop is often taken by
some one who makes no report on the amount, so the best information to
be had on this is often incorrect. When a promising tree is located the
surest way is to visit it each fall for several years just before
gathering time and see the crop on the tree.

In almost every instance the size of a nut is exaggerated by the owner
or informer unintentionally. They are honest but their imagination gets
the better of their judgment. Then their knowledge is often limited to
their own trees and those of their neighbors, and the nut they prize may
be the best they know of, but when compared with nuts from a greater
territory is found to be of only fair size.

The usual way one will describe the size of a pecan is to say it is as
large as his thumb and about two thirds the length of his forefinger,
and so thin shelled that two of them can easily be cracked in the hand
with only a light pressure.

I usually carry some sample nuts of the named varieties on these trips
for comparison and it is seldom that the owner or informer of a tree
believes any of these to be larger than those produced by his favorite
tree until a comparison is made, and then he will often declare they are
not as large this season as usual.

This brings to mind many incidents which are very clear in my memory,
one especially, when Mr. McCoy and myself had heard of the Kentucky
pecan tree which is opposite Grandview, Ind. We went to Grandview to get
first hand information on this tree from one who had gathered the nuts
from it and while talking to the party he was trying to tell us how
large the nut was. I first took a Busseron pecan from my pocket and he
said it was much larger than that. I then resorted to some large
southern ones none of which he thought were as large as his favorite. At
last I produced a McAllister. After some hesitation he admitted it was
larger than the Kentucky. At this Mr. McCoy gave a hearty laugh and told
him his imagination had the better of his judgment. Almost every one who
owns any number of nut trees has one that is better than the rest, and
naturally he prizes this one highly and wishes it propagated. I have
traveled many hundreds of miles going to trees on reports of others,
only to be disappointed. Where the tree is found to be promising and no
bearing record is obtainable, then an annual trip for several years is
necessary to determine the bearing record. These trips require time,
expense and labor for very often a part of the trip has to be made on
foot.

Several years ago Claude Luckado, a professional pecan gatherer of
Rockport, spent several weeks one fall in a large pecan grove on the
Wabash river and brought back several samples of very promising pecans,
one especially that I considered very worthy of further consideration. I
reported this one to Mr. C. A. Reed, and a year or two later, when on a
trip through this section in the fall, he suggested a trip to this tree.
I arranged with Mr. Luckado to go with us to show us this tree, which is
about seventy miles from Rockport. We left there on the first traction
car for Mt. Vernon, Ind. From there we went in a Ford touring car
without any top and only one rear fender and drove over nine miles of
the worst roads I ever motored over to the Wabash river where we hired a
motor driven mussel boat to take us four miles down the river. The
remaining three miles we made on foot, reaching this grove about ten a.
m., and searched until late in the afternoon without locating the tree.
This day and trip I am sure Mr. C. A. Reed well remembers.

Two years later when roads and weather were more favorable, Mr. Luckado
and myself left Rockport one morning at four a. m. and drove all the way
to the grove, arriving there early in the morning and searching until
late in the afternoon and again without results. But when one takes into
consideration that this tree is standing somewhere near the center of an
unbroken forest of hundreds of acres in which it has been estimated
there are near 20,000 bearing-size pecan trees, it is some task to
locate a certain tree, though the search for this tree will be made
again.

It is very often that two or more trips are necessary to locate a tree
and about nine times out of ten when the tree is found it is not
considered worthy of propagation. Many amusing incidents and not a few
hardships are remembered in these past experiences. During the past
three years I have made four trips into southwestern Missouri and
southeast Kansas where there are thousands of native pecan trees
growing. Some trees in this section have been brought to notice which
seem promising. I now have several promising new varieties under test
and observation.

The search for new and better varieties must be kept up, for no doubt
there are yet unknown as good and possibly better trees than we have yet
located.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Have you ever known anything about the Marmaton,
owned by J. E. Tipke at Rockwell, Missouri?

MR. WILKINSON: I have a sample of it.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Mr. Tipke sent that to me. He told me it wasn't
as good as others but he said it never missed a crop.

THE PRESIDENT: For the benefit of those who have not been down
to Mr. Wilkinson's I would like to say you will find it very worth while
to go there. In 1925 Mr. Wilkinson invited me to go with him through
southern Indiana, to see some of the large pecan trees he had there.
When I got there I really had to take two looks to see the top of some
of those trees. I found one tree that I would have to make three spans,
in this manner, to get around. One tree is said to be 125 feet tall and
16-1/2 feet around. After visiting that section and seeing the very many
interesting trees I concluded that Mr. Wilkinson really hadn't told all
that was to be told. Mr. Wilkinson is a very modest person. When he
tells you a certain thing you can make up your mind he is not
exaggerating in the least.

MR. WILKINSON: Many times in determining the crop we have to
climb the tree. For instance, the Major is 65 feet to the first limb. It
is very often necessary to climb the tree to make an estimate of the
crop.

THE PRESIDENT: Wasn't there one tree there with a spread of 125
feet?

MR. WILKINSON: This was in Greenview. That was the largest
pecan tree known in Indiana, 70 feet to the first limb, just a straight
column. The spread of the top was 140 to 150 feet. The wind blew the
tree down.

MR. HERSHEY: That tree according to Mr. Wilkinson never missed
a crop. While I was there they took me to a tree that had 600 pounds one
year. It was on a cheap piece of land that was bought for $425.00. The
year we were there it produced 250 pounds, a light crop. Another lady
told us of a family that bought a piece of land that had about 50 pecans
scattered over it. That kept them in ample supply of money and they
didn't have to do much more to make a living.

THE PRESIDENT: The next is a report by Dr. J. H. Kellogg. Mr.
Kellogg is not able to be with us and Dr. Colby will now read it.



MORE NUTS--LESS MEAT

_Dr. J. H. Kellogg, Michigan_


The oft reiterated appeals to the American public to "Eat more meat to
save the livestock industry" and exploitation of a so-called "all-meat
diet experiment" by Stefansson and Anderson, justify the presentation of
the special claims of other foodstuffs, so that those who desire to
regulate their eating in accordance with their bodily needs, rather than
to meet the exigencies of business, even to aid a declining industry,
may have a fair opportunity to judge comparative merits and draw sound
conclusions based upon scientific facts, rather than misleading
statements or the biased dictates of custom.

If the American people are really suffering for lack of meat the efforts
of the Meat Board of Chicago should be regarded as a noble philanthropic
effort to correct a national fault and to avert the dire consequences of
the physical collapse which must necessarily result from a deficiency
diet. But if it is not true that the average American eats less
beefsteaks, chops, sausage, etc., than he needs, but as a matter of fact
is actually suffering notable injury because of the great consumption of
flesh foods of all sorts, then this persistent appeal to the American
stomach to render economic service as well as to do its work of
digestion, is not only a most extraordinary business anomaly but a grave
menace to the health and welfare of the American people.

The discussion of this question is germane to the objects of this
convention, since nuts are the vegetable analogues of meats, and hence
we cannot reasonably ask nor expect that more nuts will be eaten
simultaneously with an increased consumption of meat. And so I shall
undertake to give in this paper some of the reasons why we may properly
urge the people of this country to eat more nuts and less meat.

Nut meats are the real and original meat. Says Prof. Henry C. Sherman,
of Columbia University in his admirable textbook, "Food Products":

     "To speak of nuts as 'meat substitute' is natural under the present
     conditions and reflects the prominence which has been given to meat
     and the casual way in which nuts have been regarded for some
     generations. Looking at the matter in evolutionary perspective, it
     might be more logical to speak of meats as 'nut substitute'
     instead."

Evidently Professor Sherman believes, as do many other eminent
scientists, that nuts were a staple in the diet of primitive man.
Professor Elliot, of Oxford University, in his work, "Prehistoric Man,"
calls attention to the fact that in the early ages of his long career,
man was not a flesh eater; and the famous Professor Ami, editor of the
Ethnological History of North America, and other paleontologists, hold
that man began the use of meat only after the glacial period had
destroyed the great forests of nut trees on which he had formerly
feasted.

This, however, likewise agrees with Holy Writ. We read in Genesis 1:29:
"And God said, behold I have given you every herb yielding seed, which
is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the
fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat." So the real
meat grew on trees and herbs. Beefsteak and chops are poor substitutes
for the real meat, which still constitutes the food of the human race,
for with the exception of the Anglo-Saxon race and a few savage tribes,
meat forms no substantial part of the human diet. The teeming millions
of India and China, which constitute nearly half of the whole human
race, eat practically no meat. The thronging millions of Central Africa
thrive on corn, nuts, bananas, peanuts, manioc, sweet potatoes and
melons. The same is true at the present time of the natives of Mexico,
Central and South America, who find in maize, beans, potatoes and
various tropical fruits ample and satisfying sustenance.

The average American consumes 165 pounds of meat a year; the Japanese,
four pounds; the people of South China less--practically none at all.
Taking the human race as a whole, meat fills only a very insignificant
place in the world's bill of fare. Bread is the staff of life, and nuts,
the real meat, are gradually recovering their old prestige. It is only
in comparatively recent years that meat has entered so largely into the
bill of fare of civilized nations. Major J. B. Paget, a writer in the
_English Review_, calls attention to the fact that there has been in
England a deterioration in stature and otherwise since the Peninsular
War, the reason for which he thinks "is not difficult to discover. We
are the same race with the same climate and the same water. The only
difference is our diet."

According to Wellington's Quartermaster General's Report, the rations of
the men who fought the Peninsular War under the Iron Duke, was one pound
of wheat per day and a quarter of a pound of goat's flesh. But they had
to catch the goats who ran wild in the mountains and so they seldom got
that part of their ration.

According to General Sir William Butler these soldiers were "splendid
men with figures and faces like Greek gods." And he adds with regret,
"Such men have passed away."

Major Paget tells us that the Spaniards were greatly impressed by the
fine teeth of these English soldiers and especially of their wives who
accompanied them. Of their diet the Major says:

"These men before they enlisted were nearly all agricultural laborers
who were brought up on a hard, wholemeal bread, garden produce, and
apparently very little meat, as the consumption of meat was then _three
pounds per head per annum_."

It is to be remembered also that nuts form a substantial part of the
diet of that large and interesting family of vertebrates, the primates,
represented by the gorilla, the chimpanzee, the orang-utan and the
gibbon, animals that do not eat meat, and that man is also a primate. No
authority has ever offered any reason why man's diet should differ from
that of other primates.

Man is not naturally a flesh-eater. Infants usually evince a dislike for
flesh when it is first given them.

Adults who use flesh foods are attracted by their flavors rather than by
the nutritive elements which they supply. As a matter of fact, more and
better food material is supplied by plant foods and at a far less cost.

Meats are notably deficient in vitamins, while nuts are rich in vitamin
B, some, as the hazel nut, containing one-fifth as much as dry yeast.
The precious vitamin A, found in only very meager amounts in meats, is
found in the almond, the pine nut, coconuts and peanuts.

The minerals, too, are found in better proportions and in larger amounts
in nuts than in meats.

The deficiencies in essential elements in a lean meat diet are so
pronounced that when Chalmers Watson fed rats on meat they became
deformed and sterile, their mammary and other sex glands degenerated and
in three generations they ran out completely. Watson attributes the
steady and very pronounced lowering of the birth-rate in Great Britain
to the increased consumption of meat in that country, which has risen in
a little more than a century from 3 pounds to more than 100 pounds per
capita, while the birth-rate has fallen until it closely approximates
the mortality rate. The same thing has happened in the older sections of
this country, especially the New England states.

According to Newburgh, of the University of Michigan, the large
consumption of meat in this country may be responsible for the high
death rate from Bright's disease, which is mounting higher every year.
And the same is true of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, which
now claim more lives annually than any other cause. He finds that when
rabbits are fed meat meal mixed with flour in bread, they soon become
diseased through changes in the bloodvessels and die of old age before
they are a year old.

Hindhede, of Copenhagen, a physiologist of world-wide renown, and food
commissioner for Denmark, in a notable paper read before the Race
Betterment Conference at Battle Creek, January, 1928, remarked as
follows:

     "One notices the terrible death toll in America due to Bright's
     disease. I can no longer doubt that the high meat diet ruins the
     kidneys, especially in view of Dr. Newburgh's experiments, proving
     as they do that we may, with mathematical certainty, produce
     Bright's disease even in rats by placing them on a high meat diet.

     "I feared that you might doubt my statistics, and might consider me
     merely another 'crank,' so I placed my figures before Dr.
     Sundwall, Professor of Hygiene of the University of Michigan, and
     asked him to check their correctness. Dr. Sundwall and Dr. Newburgh
     recalculated the data, and authorized the publication."

Hindhede found the number of deaths per 100,000 from six
causes--alcoholism, apoplexy, disorders of digestion, cirrhosis or
hardening of the liver, nephritis (Bright's disease), and diabetes--to
be in this country 255 and in Denmark on a low meat diet, 112. He
calculates that the adoption in this country of the Danish diet, which
would eliminate more than half our meats, would save the lives of not
less than 200,000 of our citizens annually. And yet there are vested
interests which continually clamor for the increased consumption of
meats. Fortunately the American people are becoming enlightened on the
subject of diet and are using less meat and more green vegetables, with
less bread and cereal breakfast foods and more milk and potatoes.

Nutrition researches are daily teaching us new lessons in dietetics,
some of which are of commanding importance. One of the most significant
of these is the necessity for taking account of the nature of the ash
left by a foodstuff in the body. There are basic or alkali-ash foods and
acid-ash foods. Foods of the latter class when freely used cause
acidosis. Meats are high up in the list of acid-ash foods. It is for
this reason that such animals as the lion and flesh-eating men have
little endurance. The American team made a poor showing at the last
International Olympic meet, in the writer's opinion because of their
excessive meat-eating. According to Roosevelt, a vegetarian horse, with
a heavy man on his back (Teddy), was able to run down a lion in a mile
and a half.

Thousands of short-winded, asthmatic people who are tired all the time
and take cold at every change of the wind and think they are overworked
because they find it so hard to work, are victims of acidosis from a
heavy meat diet. If such persons will eliminate meat from their diet and
add a pint of milk or buttermilk, they will experience an immediate
physical uplift which, in some cases, will seem almost incredible.

Meat contains poisons, the natural wastes of the body. By its use, the
labor of the kidneys is more than doubled.

Besides, fresh meats are always swarming with bacteria, and not the
harmless sort that are found in buttermilk but the pernicious germs
which have their headquarters in the colons of animals. Meats always
become infected with these filthy colon germs in the process of
slaughtering and the longer it is kept the more numerous the colon germs
become, for they multiply amazingly fast, and this is the reason the
meat becomes more tender when "hung" for a long time.

I was consulted not long ago by the manager of a large popular hotel who
wanted suggestions about feeding his guests. I recommended special care
in the selection of meats and the choosing of that which had been most
recently killed.

"Oh!" said the manager, "my chef is on to that. He is very particular.
You know our hotel meat usually has a beard of green mold on it an inch
long. My chef is very careful. He never allows the beard to be more than
a quarter of an inch long."

Another hotel manager told me they often had to cut away nearly half of
the meat because it was so green and rotten.

This is not pleasant information but it is simply commonplace, every-day
fact. Sausage, hamburger steak and "game" with a high flavor, are little
if any better than carrion, and the poisons which such foods introduce
into the body must all be detoxicated by the liver and eliminated by the
kidneys, and thus they are worn out prematurely by overwork.

"As sweet as a nut," is an old bon mot which hides no such repulsive
picture. The nut, inside its germ-proof shell, is solid nutriment of the
purest sort, the very quintessence of nutrient value, sunlight in cold
storage. The nut represents food energy in its most delectable and
concentrated form.

From an economic standpoint, the nut leaves flesh foods so far behind
that they are almost out of sight.

Experiments to determine the digestibility and nutritive value of nuts
were conducted several years ago by the eminent Professor Jaffa of the
University of California. His researches conducted over many months,
using human volunteers as subjects, showed that nuts were well digested
and created no intestinal disturbances. Later experiments confirmed and
extended the observations of Professor Jaffa. These experiments,
conducted by Professor Cajori of Yale University in the Yale laboratory
and in the laboratory of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, have finally
definitely settled the question.

Says Professor Cajori, with reference to his results: "A few years ago a
rather extensive series of digestion experiments were inaugurated at
Yale University in an effort to settle the question of the
indigestibility of nuts and also to test out some of the commercial nut
products to find what effect roasting, boiling, and other processes that
nuts are subjected to had on their digestibility. Through the courtesy
of Dr. Kellogg of Battle Creek, it was possible to follow up these
experiments with a series at Battle Creek. It is of the result of these
tests that I wish to speak."

       *       *       *       *       *

"Our digestion experiments show the following results: For protein
digestion of nuts--almond 89%, pecan 84%, pine nut 89%, English walnut
83%, Brazil nut 88%, and coconut 88%."

"How, then, explain the undoubted discomfort that many people experience
after eating nuts? I believe the explanation rests on the fact that our
common American way of eating nuts is not the rational way. We would not
consider topping off a heavy meal with eggs, meat, or cereals, or eating
these in large quantities between meals without realizing that we were
exposing ourselves to possible digestive discomfort. No more, then, can
we expect to eat nuts, which are even more concentrated or "heavy" than
meats or eggs, merely as an adjunct, without occasional discomfort.
Unpleasant results from so eating does not condemn the nut as
indigestible; rather it condemns our mode of using that nut. Further, we
must recognize that a nut is a hard compact substance, and that unless
completely masticated is not readily penetrated by the digestive juices
of the alimentary canal. This was very well brought out in our
experiments with dogs. The dog bolts his food and where there were large
fragments of the nuts in the food they appear unchanged in the feces,
while if the nut was ground fine before feeding it was readily digested.
Comparisons of nut butters and nut pastes with the whole nut also
brought out this point. The completely comminuted nut butters showed
consistently higher degrees of digestion than the whole nut."

Nuts should be used as a food staple, a major element in the bill of
fare, rather than as a dessert, and special care must be taken as to
thorough mastication, which is almost equally true of apples, bananas
and numerous other fruits which possess a firm flesh.

To overcome the objection that some people are unable to masticate nuts
properly on account of defective teeth, and to insure the proper
assimilation even if not properly chewed, the writer some forty years
ago conceived the idea of converting the nuts by crushing and grinding
into a paste, in other words, chewing the nuts by machinery. The peanut
was first utilized in this way and rapidly won its way to public favor.
Now, many scores of carloads of that nut are eaten under the name of
"peanut butter."

Almonds were next used, and were found to make a delicious nut paste, or
butter, which by the addition of water and a little salt, became a most
delicious cream. In the form of almond cream or milk nothing could be
conceived in the way of nourishment which the body can more easily
appropriate and more fully utilize.

As regards the necessity for eating meat, this question was definitely
settled by the Inter-allied Scientific Food Commission which met during
the war, without doubt the most authoritative body on the subject of
food and nutrition that was ever brought together.

The question of a minimum meat ration was discussed by the Commission,
and it was decided to be unnecessary to fix a minimum meat ration,
since, in the words of the commissioners in their report, "no absolute
physiological need exists for meat, since the proteins of meat can be
replaced by other proteins, such as those contained in milk, cheese and
eggs, as well as those of vegetable origin."

Quite in line with this official action was an editorial in the _Journal
of the American Medical Association_, which states that "man's health
and strength are not dependent on the assumed superior virtues of animal
flesh as a dietary constituent."

A supreme advantage of nuts over meats is that they are absolutely free
from any possible taint of disease. Those delectable foods, the walnut,
the pecan, the hickory nut and the almond, are never the vehicle for
parasites or other infections. Nuts are not subject to tuberculosis or
any other disease which may be communicated to human beings.

Speaking of his childhood diet, Professor Stephen Mizwa says: "We had
chicken, too, but I rarely tasted one unless I was sick and the chicken
was sick." The voluntary eating of sick animals may be less common in
this country than in Poland, but the eating of the flesh of diseased
animals may nevertheless be much more extensive.

Within the year 1918 there were slaughtered in the United States a
hundred million beeves, sheep, pigs and goats, one whole beast for every
man, woman and child in the United States. Of this vast multitude of
animals the Federal inspectors examined nearly two-thirds (60,000,000)
and found one and a half per cent so badly diseased that the whole or
part of the carcass was condemned. In other words, nearly a million
(900,000) carcasses were found seriously diseased. But there were
40,000,000 other beasts killed and eaten which were not inspected; and
they were without doubt much more badly diseased, a fact which was in
many cases, most likely, the reason why no inspection was made. Allowing
that three per cent of these were diseased, which is a low estimate, the
total number of diseased animals found in the 100,000,000 slaughtered
was not less than 2,000,000, or one in fifty of the total number. And
most of these were eaten by human beings either wholly or in part.

If we should abandon meat eating in favor of nuts we would not have to
worry about what our victuals died of.

By the substitution of nuts for meats all dangers associated with flesh
eating may be avoided; hence their use should be encouraged in every
practical way. National and state legislators should make liberal
appropriations for the study of the soil and climatic conditions best
suited to nut culture, and otherwise encourage this infant but most
important industry.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. BRICKER: Have any of you come in contact with a black
walnut, seemingly deformed, in which there is only one lobe in the
shell?

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Deming, what is your observation of the
Stabler with one lobe?

DR. DEMING: 50% are one lobe.

MR. HERSHEY: Mr. Bixby found, I think, 60%. We don't know why
there should be nuts with one lobe.

DR. SMITH: In my observation of the Stabler, the percentage of
one lobe nuts is very small, not more than 5%.

MR. BRICKER: Also there is a large black walnut at Atalissa,
with a very thin shell. I have seen some of them, however, that were not
very well filled last year.

THE PRESIDENT: Is that a little town in Iowa?

MR. BRICKER: Yes. Below Iowa City, east of West Liberty.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Wilkinson has something interesting to tell
us about the discovery of a black walnut valued for its lumber.

MR. WILKINSON: Possibly Professor Smith knows more about that
than I do. The first I knew of it Mr. Lamb wrote that he had found an
unusual figured walnut. He had already sent scions to Dr. Morris and Mr.
Bixby, and Dr. Morris suggested he send me some. When the log came Mr.
Lamb found it unusually highly figured. He traced it to where it was
loaded. They went to the fields and chopped into the tops until they
found the tree by the figure of the wood. It had been cut two months and
the wood was entirely dry. Mr. Bixby sent me two very tiny grafts. The
tree sawed out something over 60,000 feet of veneer that sold from 16 to
18 cents per square foot; quite a large tree. It sawed out five logs and
the stump sawed out 500 feet. Several thousand dollars for the tree. I
saw several pieces of the tree last year. The most beautiful thing I
ever saw. Most highly figured log that ever came into the mill at
Chicago.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Prof. Lake sent me scions named the Lion.

DR. DEMING: The figure is not in the scion wood.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: The scion wood I put on was quite curly.

DR. SMITH: Does the curly character show in the sap wood or the
heart?

THE PRESIDENT: You have to go away from home to know what is
going on there. It is the first I have known about that very interesting
tree. I would like to get some trees of that curly type. Mr. W. K.
Kellogg is very much interested in having us propagate that type.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Mr. Link told me Mr. Linton had some.

MR. HARRINGTON: It seems to me very strange that the stump
didn't sprout.

MR. WILKINSON: The stump was used.

DR. DEMING: There must have been roots.

THE PRESIDENT: Sometimes it is difficult to get them to grow.

MR. WEBER: Three miles northwest of Blufftown there is a
natural hybrid between the white and chinquapin oaks. There are some
samples out on the table. We picked up some of the nuts and found them
edible. No trace of any bitterness whatever. You come out of Blufftown
on No. 30. About a half mile above the town you turn to the left and go
about a mile or more. It is at the intersection of the Erie Quarry road.
It has a wire fence around it.

DR. SMITH: How do you know it is a hybrid?

MR. WEBER: From Richard Leber. It was discovered by a man by
the name of Williamson, and he suggested that the state acquire the land
in order to preserve the tree.

DR. SMITH: It will be another source of carbo-hydrate food.

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Zimmerman is a specialist on chestnut
blight, and particularly on inducing immunity.



INDUCED IMMUNITY TO CHESTNUT BLIGHT

_Dr. G. A. Zimmerman, Piketown, Pa._


Several years ago I started out to get rid of the chestnut blight. On
several occasions before this notable body I told of the successes and
failures I had encountered, still believing that I was on the right road
and insisting that an antigen would be absorbed in sufficient amount to
stimulate immunity. Science has since vindicated that assertion and men
are now injecting all sorts of chemicals, and even dyes to stain the
grain of the wood.

I have been very cautious in the past and perhaps should be more so now,
in view of the fact that only a comparatively few years have elapsed
since I began my work on plants. Still, after having used vaccines on
human beings and animals for twenty-one years, and observing that plant
life reacts to an antigen in a similar manner, I am at least entitled to
the same conclusions. This gives me an opportunity of knowing years in
advance just what to expect.

While my work is still going on as an experiment I have no hesitancy in
saying that I can and have put as much active immunity to the blight
into the chestnut in five years as nature has been able to place in
perhaps four or five thousand years by her usual method. However it is
only fair to state that such results cannot be accomplished by mere
oratory. Injections must be made and the antigen must go into the
plants, not in single doses, if you please, but by the thousands.

In recent years there has been considerable discussion relative to the
chestnut coming back. This simply means further delay. The chestnut will
come back but not before from 25 to 150 years yet. There are few roots
that will stand mutilation for that period, and the few plants that do
survive will have taken the shrub form like the chinquapin, and the nuts
will likely be as insignificant. I have plants from a tree that holds as
much immunity in the natural way as any I know, being rated at 2X, and
these plants have inherited an immunity equal to the parent, no more and
no less. I have, however, a lot of seedlings from Paragon and Champion
trees rated at from 6X to 7X. These seedlings may confidently be
expected to perform as their parents and produce many plants of equal
resistance.

I shall not discuss the antigen or its method of administration. That
has been covered rather carefully in former papers. I do want to say a
word, however, about root stock. In a blight region it is preferable to
have chestnuts on their own roots. The nearest to own-rooted plants is a
graft on their own seedlings. The Chinese and Japanese chestnut in my
hands has made a very poor root stock for the American chestnut or its
hybrids. The European chestnut is only fair, with the chinquapin
somewhat better, but having the disadvantage of being troublesome to get
from the seed. The American chestnut, or its American hybrids, is by far
the best, providing we can get one with immunity. I think the Rochester
will shortly fill this need.

The chestnut oak has made a rather interesting stock for a few
varieties, notably a Chinese and 20 No. 3, a native American chestnut
sent to me from Bloomsburg, Pa. I now have a few of these double grafted
with other varieties.

I might say that I am no longer interested in any chestnut, no matter
how resistant it may be, unless the nut is of large size and fine
quality, because I can immunize a plant bearing a good size, fine
quality chestnut much easier and in a shorter time than one can be
developed through hybridization from an inferior nut. I am usually, like
most folks, looking for the path of least resistance.

My work has been a good deal divided during the past few years because,
while I started out with the chestnut alone, now I am carrying a dozen
other fruits, nuts and berries.

In closing let me state that my principle of induced immunity is sound
and the procedure feasible and practical.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PRESIDENT: About the result of grafting the chestnut on a
species of oak. How long have these scions been growing?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: About three years.

MR. HERSHEY: How long?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: This is not the oak that I had reference to
when you were up there. These are about three years old. I think they
grow a little better than on the chestnut. Many of them died. I have
another scheme now; that is grafting the scions as high as I can. Get
them united and then bend them over and get them to root. Some are doing
nicely, others have died.

DR. SMITH. I think you complimented us by thinking we could
follow you. Do you intend to vaccinate the chestnut and make it immune
and then expect it to transmit that immunity in its seed? Have you
checked up in the second generation?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I haven't had time yet.

DR. SMITH: Thus far you have established immunity in the living
tree?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Yes, and I have a bunch of seedlings now from
nuts from immunized trees that I planted last spring. I have 200 of
those. I expect them to inherit immunization from their parents.

DR. SMITH: We vaccinate each generation of youngsters.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I was speaking of the experiments with guinea
pigs.

DR. SMITH: Isn't smallpox vaccination against your theory?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I don't think so. They are doing it with other
things. I found a human being giving the reaction for typhoid for
seventeen years after he had been immunized.

DR. SMITH: Have you any evidence for or against the decline of
immunity in the tree?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I think it will decline.

DR. SMITH: Then we have got to keep on immunizing like
spraying. I didn't mean necessarily annually. I mean perhaps it is not a
permanent achievement.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I imagine that the tree will be sufficiently
attacked by blight to keep the immunity up. It is wise to have it
attacked once in a while.

MR. HERSHEY: Isn't this only carried on until you get natural
resistance?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I know that it will be a long time before I can
have chestnut trees to produce like Mr. Harrington's. But I am going
ahead. I can't wait 17 years. All I need is some time and I will produce
chestnuts of the finest varieties, as Mr. Harrington has.

DR. SMITH: How long will it take?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: They will hold their immunity as well as the
Chinese. The ones I have are worth planting right now. I have trees that
are standing up better than any Chinese chestnuts are. It takes a long
time before the immunizing principle is so disseminated that every part
of the tree will have an equal resistance. I can easily see that by
cutting off a scion and grafting it I may get hold of one that has not
had its immunization distributed as it should be.

DR. SMITH: A fairly ignorant man can take machinery and spray
an orchard. Can he do the same with immunizing?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: No sir, he can not.

DR. SMITH: Perhaps I should not have used the word ignorant. A
farm hand can spray and make a pretty good crop of apples.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: No, he can't do it. It hasn't been easy. I have
run into all kinds of obstacles. As soon as I injure the stock a little
bit the blight takes it. As soon as I can raise them on their own roots
it will be all right. That will come.

DR. SMITH: Have you seen chestnut grafts root as the apple
does?

DR. ZIMMERMAN: Yes, right below the surface. A couple of them
were that long. They will send out roots. Then I have noticed on some,
that at the place where I grafted the callus got quite large. It got too
dry and died off. I have never rooted American chestnut cuttings. I have
rooted some Chinese chestnuts.

THE PRESIDENT: Some of the Chinese chestnuts root quite readily
from those small shoots that come up from the ground. I conducted a
little experiment in trying to propagate the Chinese chestnuts by
cuttings. I made 144 cuttings. They all dutifully and beautifully died.
I don't mean to say that the Chinese chestnut cannot be rooted by
cuttings.

DR. ZIMMERMAN: I noticed one chestnut that was toppling over
and the leaves were withering. The rats had taken it off just below the
ground. I couldn't find a root anywhere, but it was callused. I cut it
back and planted it again. It must have roots now for it is still green.
Otherwise it wouldn't live this long.

THE PRESIDENT: Your experiments are of very great interest. If
you are successful you will deserve the gratitude of this and future
generations.

MR. HARRINGTON: Do you remember when we were down at the Riehl
nursery that we ran into a chestnut that produces 7 to 9 in a burr?

THE PRESIDENT: I remember one tree that had a great many nuts.

MR. HARRINGTON: I had one with 7 nuts and they said there were
some with 9. Was that the one named Gibbons?

DR. COLBY: That has three nuts to the burr.

DR. DEMING: Dr. Colby, there have been two instances of blight
infection in Illinois. Could you tell us how the eradication was done?

DR. COLBY: In each case the tree was burned and the disease
entirely eradicated by fire on the spot.

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Colby has a paper from Mr. Littlepage on the
plant patent law.



"PLANT PATENT ACT"

_By Thomas P. Littlepage, District of Columbia Bar, Washington, D. C._


The plant patent act is an effort by Congress, as stated in the
Committee reports on this bill, "to afford agriculture, so far as
practicable, the same opportunity to participate in the benefits of the
patent system as has been given industry, and thus assist in placing
agriculture on a basis of economic equality with industry." The act is
rather short and is set forth below:


[PUBLIC--NO. 245--71ST CONGRESS]

[S. 4015]

An Act To provide for plant patents.

_Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled._ That sections 4884 and 4886 of
the Revised Statutes, as amended. (U. S. C., title 35, secs. 40 and 31),
are amended to read as follows:

"SEC. 4884. Every patent shall contain a short title or
description of the invention or discovery, correctly indicating its
nature and design, and a grant to the patentee, his heirs or assigns,
for the term of seventeen years, of the exclusive right to make, use,
and vend the invention or discovery (including in the case of a plant
patent the exclusive right to asexually reproduce the plant) throughout
the United States and the Territories thereof, referring to the
specification for the particulars thereof. A copy of the specification
and drawings shall be annexed to the patent and be a part thereof.

"SEC. 4886. Any person who has invented or discovered any new
and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any
new and useful improvements thereof, or who has invented or discovered
and asexually reproduced any distinct and new variety of plant, other
than a tuber-propagated plant, not known or used by others in this
country, before his invention or discovery thereof, and not patented or
described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country,
before his invention or discovery thereof, or more than two years prior
to his application, and not in public use or on sale in this country for
more than two years prior to his application, unless the same is proved
to have been abandoned, may, upon payment of the fees required by law,
and other due proceeding had, obtain a patent therefor."

SEC. 2, Section 4888 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (U. S.
C., title 35, sec. 33), is amended by adding at the end thereof the
following sentence: "No plant patent shall be declared invalid on the
ground of noncompliance with this section if the description is made as
complete as is reasonably possible."

SEC. 3. The first sentence of section 4892 of the Revised
Statutes, as amended (U. S. C., title 35, sec. 35), is amended to read
as follows:

"SEC. 4892. The applicant shall make oath that he does verily
believe himself to be the original and first inventor or discoverer of
the art, machine, manufacture, composition, or improvement, or of the
variety of plant, for which he solicits a patent; that he does not know
and does not believe that the same was ever before known or used; and
shall state of what country he is a citizen."

SEC. 4. The President may by Executive order direct the
Secretary of Agriculture (1) to furnish the Commissioner of Patents such
available information of the Department of Agriculture, or (2) to
conduct through the appropriate bureau or division of the department
such research upon special problems, or (3) to detail to the
Commissioner of Patents such officers and employees of the department,
as the commissioner may request for the purposes of carrying this Act
into effect.

SEC. 5. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Act,
no variety of plant which has been introduced to the public prior to the
approval of this Act shall be subject to patent.

SEC. 6. If any provision of this Act is declared
unconstitutional or the application thereof to any person or
circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act
and the application thereof to other persons or circumstances shall not
be affected thereby.

Approved, May 23, 1930.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is admitted by all who understand anything about horticulture that
this act is intended to meet a long-felt want. The world owes much to
many hard working scientists who have developed many valuable plants,
both ornamental and edible, and up to the date of this act such producer
had no way of reaping any very material financial benefit from his
labors. The man who might invent some new and useful gadget for an
automobile or other machinery was protected under the patent law, if he
availed himself of it, but the man who developed a beautiful flower, a
fine apple or a fine nut was wholly without protection.

The term "asexually" as used in the act, is generally understood by
horticulturists to mean any method of producing a plant except from
seed. It will be observed, in referring again to the act, that the man
who discovers some new plant and propagates it by any of the methods
covered by the term "asexually" can have such plant patented under the
terms of this law, but the patent law is one that is always construed
strictly and obviously the application for patent would have to be made
in the name of the man who actually discovered the plant. Of course,
after securing such patent, he could assign it the same as any other
patent is assigned, but the question would constantly arise in this
connection as to who actually was the first discoverer. Most of the
sporadic fine plants, especially fruit and nut bearing trees, were
matters of neighborhood knowledge many years before they actually
attracted the attention of some one who recognized their full value and
knew how to propagate them, and the question would arise immediately as
to who was the real discoverer. Undoubtedly the man who tramped
constantly around in the neighborhood of a fine nut or fruit tree and
actually saw the tree but did not recognize its value, is like the man
the poet describes when he said:

  "A primrose by the river's brim,
  A primrose only was to him,
  And nothing more."

This man could not be said to be a discoverer under the terms of this
law; but on the other hand the plowman who might be plodding his weary
way homeward and see a fruit or nut tree bearing something unusual and
who would recognize its unusual and distinct differences would be the
real discoverer, but unless he could prove the fact that he had called
it to the attention of others in some manner he would have difficulty in
complying with the patent law and making a proper showing of originality
as required by that law. But he would also, in addition to being the
discoverer, have to asexually reproduce it and this he might not be able
to do on account of his lack of knowledge of propagating methods.

The language of the law presents some very interesting problems to those
of us who have tramped the fields and valleys in search of nut trees
producing better nuts than those already propagated, and it incidently
brings into the patent practice a brand new requirement. The ablest
patent lawyer in America might not know the difference between a bud and
a graft, a layer or cross-pollination. I have frequently had some very
able lawyers who visited my farm and had their attention called to a
pecan tree grafted onto a hickory, ask what kind of nuts it would bear.
Of course when they ask such questions as that I promptly change the
subject and begin to talk about the weather or something else; I
certainly do not try to educate them in the fundamentals of tree
propagation. It will also require specialists in the patent office who
likewise know something of horticulture and reproduction methods of
plants.

It will also be noted that the law excludes tuber-propagated plants. The
Committee report states that:

     "The bill excepts from the right to a patent the invention or
     discovery of a distinct and new variety of a tuber-propagated
     plant. The term "tuber" is used in its narrow horticultural sense
     as meaning a short, thickened portion of an underground branch. It
     does not cover, for instance, bulbs, corms, stolons, and rhizomes.
     Substantially, the only plants covered by the term
     "tuber-propagated" would be the Irish potato and the Jerusalem
     artichoke. This exception is made because this group alone, among
     asexually reproduced plants, is propagated by the same part of the
     plant that is sold as food."

It will be noted that there is quite a spread, however, between the
exact language of the law and the Committee report, for example: under
the law it would appear that a dahlia might be excluded, and it also
raises the question, under the language of the law, as to many of the
root plants, such as peonies and others. Obviously, Congress did not
intend to exclude plants such as the dahlia, peony and others, as
evidenced from the excerpt in the Committee report above quoted, and
whether the matter of the production of a new dahlia by
cross-pollination and tested out through the growth of the bulbs, can be
made to harmonize with the language of the law is the question. The
Committee report says that tubers mean only "Irish potatoes and
Jerusalem artichokes." It always occurred to me that the sweet-potato
is also a tuber, but the Committee report apparently attempts to exclude
it.

There are any number of interesting questions that occur to those of us
who are fortunate enough to have some knowledge of the law as well as a
few fundamental principles of horticulture, but in spite of whatever
weakness the law may or may not have, it is undoubtedly a step in the
right direction, and meets a long-felt want.

The Secretary of Agriculture said in his letter to the Committee:

     "The proposed legislation would appear to be desirable and to lend
     far-reaching encouragement to agriculture and benefit to the
     general public."

Thomas A. Edison, who is also quoted in the Committee report, said:

     "Nothing that Congress could do to help farming would be of greater
     value and permanence than to give to the plant breeder the same
     status as the mechanical and chemical inventors now have through
     the patent law. There are but few plant breeders. This (the bill)
     will, I feel sure, give us many Burbanks."

It is certainly to be hoped that many of those interested in northern
nut culture, as well as in fruits and ornamentals, will avail themselves
of the privileges of this bill to give us something better. We are not
satisfied with our varieties today and should not be. The greatest
problem in nut culture, as well as fruit and ornamentals, is the
question of variety. It will also be the most important question a
hundred years from now, but the man who produces these better varieties
should do so with the knowledge that under this law the fruits of his
labor will be protected and he will at least have the same opportunity
to receive remuneration therefrom as the inventor of a gadget.

       *       *       *       *       *

DR. COLBY: I have talked with a number of men interested in the
law. While they agree that it is a step in the right direction they feel
that it will be a rather difficult thing to administer it. Plants differ
from other objects or things or "gadgets" and considerable experience
will be necessary on the part of the administration before the law will
be made workable.

       *       *       *       *       *

A banquet was held at the Hotel Montrose on the evening of September 17
at which about forty members and guests were present. The menu follows,
and it will be noted that nuts were featured:

  Canape, Montrose
  (Dates stuffed with Nuts)
  Iced Celery
  Mixed Nuts
  Queen Olives
  Soup, Rothschild
  (Garnished with Chestnuts)
  Roast Young Capon Stuffed, Hickory Nut Dressing, Jelly
  Au Gratin Potatoes
  Puree of Chestnuts, Baked
  Frozen Fruit & Nut Salad, Cream Nut Dressing
  Wafers
  Hot Parkerhouse Rolls
  Black Walnut Ice Cream
  Nut Layer Cake
  Coffee

After the banquet the President spoke as follows:

Once upon a time I read a poem, which unfortunately I do not have here
but in effect it was this: In our progress through life a great deal of
injury is wrought by not showing our appreciation of people while they
are with us. Let us give them our flowers now. We do want now to say a
few things about the founder of our organization. In my history of this
association Dr. Deming was the person who first proposed an association
of this kind. I believe this was about 21 or 22 years ago, perhaps
longer than that. At any rate the association has been going for some
time and it was brought into existence through the thought of Dr.
Deming. We should be very glad to hear from Dr. Deming.

DR. DEMING: Thank you. It is very gratifying indeed but I wish
you hadn't. It is very difficult to express gratitude properly. I cannot
make a speech like our friend Dr. Smith here, who I hope will make one.
I can't tell a good story like our President. In fact, I feel like that
man who said, "How happy is the moron, he does not give a damn. I wish I
were a moron. My God! perhaps I am."

David Fairchild says that it takes the energies, the fortunes and the
lives of pioneers, the best people of our country, to build up a new
plant industry. I congratulate you all in being included in that class
of pioneers, the best people of this country. But we haven't yet built
up the great nut industry that we would like to build.

I might tell you how the idea of the nut growers association arose. In
1907 I got a little farm of forty acres in Connecticut. In 1908 I read
an article by Dr. Morris, "Nut Culture as a Side Line for Physicians." I
immediately wrote the doctor and he said in fifteen years I could have
an income of $100.00 an acre from nuts alone. That seemed to me exactly
what I wanted, $4,000 a year and live very comfortably. So I bought all
the nut trees I could find. I bought nut trees from every nursery in
this country that offered them in the North. I got pecans from the
South. I sent to California and got filberts and English walnuts. I sent
to Europe for English walnut seeds. I bought twenty acres of chestnut
sprout land and grafted the sprouts. Just as the chestnuts were
beginning to bear the blight came along. That ended them. The English
walnuts I set around in fence corners and they grew a little smaller
every year and, finally disappeared. That was the end of the English
walnuts. At that time I couldn't graft hickories. With great labor I
collected hickory scions and sent them to nurseries in the South and had
them grafted. They arrived in the North after the ground had frozen. I
told the hired man to heel them in. He heeled them in but left the top
of the roots out. In the spring they were all dead. By that time my
dander was up a little. I thought there must be other men who were
having the same trouble. If we could have a little organization we could
tell each other our troubles and perhaps work them out together. I wrote
Dr. Morris, John Craig, Professor Close, Mr. Hales, and one or two
others, and we met together in the Botanical Museum in Bronx Park and
organized the Northern Nut Growers Association. That is all I had to do
with it. Whether we will ever come to the place where they will have
bands out and ticker tape flying, when we come to town--that is the
thing I used to dream about a little when we first started. But I don't
think we are destined to burst wide the gates of fame yet. We may after
we have achieved our objects. As Dr. Fairchild has said, all our money,
lives and energies must be devoted to them. We then may achieve
post-mortem fame.

I want to say one thing, however, before I stop. We can't advocate the
planting of nut trees if there are no nut trees to be had. Therefore, I
think the Northern Nut Growers Association should do all that is
possible to encourage the nursery men who are propagating nut trees. We
should consider the propagating nursery men as a vital and essential
part of the work we are trying to do.

THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Deming made some reference to stories. Once
in a while a story does flit across my mental horizon. I want to tell
you how the word "nut" may have a very humorous interpretation. Once
upon a time in Michigan a man died. After he died the local minister
went around to console the widow. When he came of course the lady was
grieving. This clergyman was a very young man and he attempted to
console her thus: "Now, my dear Mrs. Smith; that which you see is just
the husk, the nut has gone to heaven." Another time I addressed the
Women's Canadian Club. I was invited to address this group on nut
culture and the President in introducing me told a story about a
minister too. In this case the minister got up in his pulpit and made an
announcement: "My dear friends, my sermon is on liars. I am glad to see
so many present." This lady said, "Of course, Mr. Neilson cannot say 'I
am going to talk today on nuts, I am glad to see so many present'." I
would like to give you an outline of the progress made during the past
year. In writing this I had to inject into it a great deal of my own
activities. I simply couldn't get out of it. I ask you to overlook the
frequent references of a personal nature.



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS

_Prof. J. A. Neilson, East Lansing, Mich._


This is our twenty-first meeting and the first one to be held in the
state of Iowa where tall corn grows, where good nuts thrive and good
people live. We are glad to come to the midwest and meet some of its
people, and see what our friends the Snyder Brothers and others are
doing to extend the culture of nut trees in Iowa and other midwest
states.

In looking over the records of the past year we find the usual
experiences common to the lot of man. We find loss and gain, sorrow and
joy. Our sense of loss and sorrow is heightened when we think of the
passing of our good friend and efficient secretary Mr. Henry D. Spencer
of Decatur, Ill. His sudden death was a shock to us all and we feel that
his passing is a distinct loss not only to our association but to his
city and state. It is also a loss to us as individuals in the severance
of those helpful friendships which do so much to cheer us on our way and
make life worth while.

In association matters, Mr. Spencer was most active and efficient. He
was zealous, original and energetic, and did a lot to create interest in
nut culture in his state and other midwest areas. Of him, as of others
who have labored faithfully for an ideal and passed to their reward, may
it be truly said, "The just die in their turn, but falling as the
flowers, they leave on earth their fruit that outlives them."

While we have lost a capable secretary and good friend we have been
fortunate in securing the services of Dr. A. S. Colby as a successor to
Mr. Spencer. The news of Mr. Spencer's passing came just before your
president left Lansing to address the Illinois State Horticulture
Society on nut culture. In casting about for a new secretary, it
occurred to me that Dr. Colby was the logical man for the position.
While at Urbana where the Horticultural Society met I broached the
matter to Dr. Colby. At first he was unwilling but after some discussion
he finally consented to take the position provided the university
authorities at Urbana would agree to his taking on new duties. Dr.
Blair, head of the Horticultural Department at Urbana, was then
approached on the matter and graciously consented to allow Dr. Colby to
assume the secretaryship for the balance of the year. Dr. Colby has
fulfilled his position in a very capable manner and I am sure the other
executives and members are grateful to Dr. Colby and Dr. Blair for their
cordial cooperation and help in our time of need.

As president I am also deeply grateful to our good and faithful friend
Dr. W. C. Deming for taking over the duties of secretary while Dr. Colby
was in England attending the World's Horticultural Congress in London,
and enjoying a well deserved holiday. I trust Dr. Colby has returned to
his duties with renewed zeal and increased knowledge and I hope he will
be able to share some of that knowledge with those of us who were not
fortunate enough to attend that great congress of horticulturists.

At our last meeting our late Secretary, Mr. Spencer, outlined the worthy
scheme of staging a nut exhibit at the Chicago Garden and Flower Show,
held in the stadium at Chicago. Considerable work was done by Mr.
Spencer before he died, and afterward by Dr. Colby when he took over the
secretaryship. Your president was able to assist Dr. Colby in various
ways, such as staging the exhibit, in helping financially, and in
personally attending the exhibit for five days. This exhibit of nuts was
made up of entries from Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, Michigan, Ontario
and British Columbia. It attracted a great deal of attention and I am
sure was the means of creating interest and disseminating a lot of
useful information on nut culture. We were ably assisted in this project
by Mr. J. W. Wilkinson of Rockport, Indiana, and Mr. Frank Frey of the
Rock Island Railway, Chicago. Both of these gentlemen contributed
valuable exhibits and gave generously of their time during the progress
of the exhibition. Our past president, Mr. Snyder, also sent very useful
exhibits.

In the carrying out of his duties as Specialist in Nut Culture for the
Michigan State College, your President feels that some progress has been
made since April, 1929. During that period arrangements have been
definitely made, or are about to be made, by that princely public
benefactor, Mr. W. K. Kellogg, which will set aside several hundred
acres for nut culture. About thirty acres of this area have already been
planted to seedlings and grafted walnuts, chestnuts, hickories,
heartnuts, hazels, and filberts. These trees have done as well as could
be expected under the hot, dry weather of these past two summers.
Arrangements are actively under way for planting 55 acres next spring
and a much larger area in the following spring. We expect to assemble a
first class collection of the best hardy varieties of native and
introduced nut trees and hope as the years roll on that definite
progress will be made.

In September 1929, a nut contest was drawn up and announced to the
public of Michigan and adjoining states. This contest created a great
deal of interest and many entries were received. Cash prizes of $50.00
each were offered for walnuts and hickories and awards of merit were
given for other species. There were 451 plates composed as follows:
black walnuts 313, English walnuts 11, butternuts 7, heartnuts 7,
Japanese walnuts 13, hybrid walnuts 4, hickories 85, chestnuts 10,
hazels 1.

These entries were used in staging what is said to be the largest
exhibit of nuts ever displayed in the northern United States. From these
numerous entries several selections of value were made. From these
selections, six black walnuts, two heartnuts, three hickories and four
chestnuts were chosen for propagation. Some of these have been
propagated and plans are made to propagate a greater number next year.

The writer spent one week in Ontario during March for the purpose of
introducing scionwood and trees of promising varieties of English
walnuts, heartnuts and hybrid walnuts. Thirty trees of the Carpathian
strain of the Persian walnut were introduced and all are now alive on
our grounds at Lansing. These Carpathian walnuts have endured several
winters at Toronto and Montreal and so far have not shown any winter
injury. If further trials show that this strain is hardy it will be a
decided improvement over any other Persian strain in the northern states
or Canada.

Good varieties of heartnuts and filberts were brought in from British
Columbia and are now growing nicely at the Kellogg Farm.

Grafting demonstrations were given at nine different places throughout
the state during the month of May. These demonstrations were attended by
fair sized audiences and much interest was shown in the operation.

In addition to the address before the Illinois Horticultural Society,
your president gave an address on nut culture to the Michigan State
Horticultural Society at Grand Rapids in December last, and also had on
display a large collection of Michigan nuts. The address on nut culture
and the display of nuts created considerable interest. He was also
invited to address the Iowa State Horticultural Society on nut culture
and the Iowa State Nurserymen's Association on the paraffin treatment of
nursery stock, but could not do so because of a previous engagement.
Arrangements have been made however to give these addresses at the
meeting of the above associations at Shenandoah, Iowa, in November next.

The ancient parable of the sower who went forth to sow and who scattered
seed on stony ground, by the wayside and on good soil, had a successful
manifestation in the president's experience this last year. In March,
1929, I gave an address on nut culture to a small but influential
audience in St. Thomas, Ontario. This meeting was due to the enterprise
of Dr. C. C. Lumley, the capable secretary of the Chamber of Commerce in
St. Thomas and one of our valued members. At this meeting I displayed a
collection of Canadian grown nuts and suggested the use of nut trees for
roadside and ornamental planting as well as for other purposes. These
suggestions fell on rich soil, figuratively speaking, and bore fruit in
an astonishing manner. In a short time an Elgin County Nut Tree Growers'
Association was organized and a definite plan of operations outlined.
One of the projects consisted in planting the Kings Highway, No. 3 in
Elgin county, with walnut trees. With the cooperation of horticultural
societies, service clubs, schools, etc., over 7000 nut trees were
planted in one day last spring, and besides that more than 4000 other
nut trees were planted on the home grounds of the people in this county.
The encouraging feature of this project was the statement by Dr. Lumley
that your president was the inspiration of all this planting. Without a
sympathetic and energetic audience I could not possibly have done much
by myself, and I am sure Dr. Lumley and his associates deserve great
credit for their vision and energy. May their numbers be multiplied and
their shadow never grow less. "And some seed fell on rich soil and
brought forth a hundred fold."

You will very likely be pleased to learn that your president is
interested in an advisory capacity in a project having for its object
the gift of a good nut tree to every member of the Women's Institute of
Ontario. This organization is composed almost entirely of rural women
and is one of the most active and helpful societies in the country. The
institute gave me hearty support in my efforts to promote the culture of
nut trees in Ontario, and on several occasions passed resolutions asking
the government to adequately support my work. There are over 40,000
women in this organization and it will take time and money to accomplish
the objective, but no worthwhile movement ever progressed without a
vision and a plan.

In conclusion I would like to read a beautiful little selection entitled
"Save the Trees in Portugal." In reading this I am going to ask you to
transpose the title to "Save the Trees in the Mid-West," and to think in
terms of nut trees.


SAVE THE TREES IN PORTUGAL

Travellers in Portugal report that in many places where timber trees are
to be found, in woods, parks and gardens, one sees the following
inscription headed, "To the Wayfarer":

"Ye who pass by and would raise your hand against me, hearken ere you
harm me.

"I am the heat of your hearth on the cold winter night, the friendly
shade screening you from the summer sun, and my fruits are refreshing
draughts, quenching your thirst as you journey on.

"I am the beam that holds your house, the board of your table, the bed on
which you lie, and the timber that builds your boat.

"I am the handle of your hoe, the door of your homestead, the wood of
your cradle, and the shell of your coffin.

"I am the bread of kindness and the flower of beauty.

"Ye who pass by, listen to my prayer; harm me not."

A practical application of this beautiful message would add to the
beauty and productive capacity of this country and would give pleasure
and profit to its people.

Dr. J. Russell Smith was here called upon and gave entertaining and
amusing accounts of his early struggles with nut culture and of some of
his travels in foreign lands.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PRESIDENT: I would just like to add to what I have said
that the Rev. Paul Krath of the United Church of Canada is now about to
leave for a five year absence in central Europe. He tells me he would
like to sell the balance of those hardy Carpathian walnuts. I have faith
in them. I think they are worth the price he asks for them for an
experimental purpose alone.

DR. SMITH: Do you know where the seed was procured?

THE PRESIDENT: On the high slopes of the Carpathian mountains.
The winter temperatures go down rather low. In fact lower than in
Toronto.

MR. HERSHEY: Juglan regia?

THE PRESIDENT: Yes. In early September the buds were quite
matured, wood was ripened up and favorable for enduring the winter
temperatures of Toronto. I have an impression that it gets 15 to 18
below zero. The trees have come through the winter at Montreal where
they have even lower temperatures.

MEMBER: How would we get them in? Get a permit from Washington?

THE PRESIDENT: It can be done.

DR. SMITH: An application for the lot can be made.

The President then asked for the report of the Secretary.



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY


The year 1929-30 has been one of growing interest on the part of the
public, laying the foundation for a more rapidly increasing membership
and wider influence on the part of the association.

Following the untimely death of Secretary H. D. Spencer, of Decatur,
Illinois, we were asked by your president, Professor Neilson, to carry
on the work of the office for the remainder of the year, in view of our
previous experience. This we were glad to do because of our interest in
the work. The great loss of the association in the death of Mr. Spencer
should be here recorded. Mr. Spencer was keenly interested in nut
growing in the North. He believed in its future and because of his
retirement from active professional work could give his attention to the
many details connected with the development of our program. His loss is
keenly felt among the membership.

Your secretary has attempted to make the public, only more or less awake
to the possibilities of our work so far, more nut culture minded. The
burden of correspondence has become increasingly heavy. Hundreds of
inquiries have been received, many from those mildly curious, but a
large share from people anxious to learn of the possibilities of
northern nut culture both for pleasure and profit. We have noted an
increasing interest among those able to take up our new enterprise and
have done what we could to make it an intelligent interest through
radio, newspaper, and magazine publicity, speaking engagements at
horticultural society and farmers' institute meetings and classroom
instruction. The enthusiastic support of officials of these and similar
organizations should be noted here. Space has been freely offered for
use in fruit growing magazines and state horticultural society
publications to supplement the columns of our official organ to spread
the information regarding our activities, thus reaching a wider circle
of potential members. We are glad to report some membership gains the
past season.

In these activities we are handicapped by lack of funds. We have been
particularly fortunate these past few months in having the co-operation
of the University of Illinois in that your secretary has been able to
handle hundreds of letters through the Department of Horticulture
channels free of cost to the association except for the stationery and
postage.

One outstanding event of the season in the line of publicity sponsored
by the association was the exhibit at the Central States Garden and
Flower Show held in the Chicago Stadium April 5-13, 1930. Preliminary
arrangements had been made by Mr. Spencer with the manager, Mr. John
Servas, insuring us free space. Mr. Servas cooperated with us to the
fullest extent and the appreciation of the association was expressed to
him by your secretary at the close of the show. We spent considerable
time both in the preliminary arrangements and on the ground, being in
attendance throughout the week except when President Neilson, Mr.
Wilkinson, and Mr. Frey were in charge. To these gentlemen, as well as
to Dr. Robert T. Morris, Dr. J. R. Smith, and Mr. S. W. Snyder, who with
President Neilson contributed the $30.00 necessary for rental of the
glass show case, and to many of our members in the Middle West who sent
samples of nuts, we owe a debt of gratitude. Our exhibit also included
books and magazines on nut culture, nut-cracking machinery, grafting
tools and waxes, and other material of interest to the prospective
grower, all contributed by members or others interested in our work. The
exhibit attracted much interest as a part of the magnificent show. We
were busy from morning until night answering questions, most of them
intelligent, and made many friends among a group of people whose
intelligence level is high. Two hundred people asked for further
information relative to some particular subject and a mimeographed sheet
was prepared in the secretary's office after our return which went out
to them.

We have had the cooperation of the Illinois State Department of
Agriculture more than ever this past year, as evidenced by their support
of our exhibit at Chicago, through providing funds for the preparation
of a case of nut varieties suitable for planting in Illinois and,
secondly, through the cooperation of the State Forestry Department. An
immense tract of land has been acquired for reforestation in southern
Illinois and money was available this past spring for the purchase of
nut trees for planting there. Your secretary has been working with R. B.
Miller, of the state department, in the selection and planting of the
better named varieties of nuts. Additional plantings will be made there
and it is believed that a fine beginning has been made toward the
establishment of a nut arboretum in that section.

There are many new things of interest developing in our field and those
relating to it which need further study as a means of developing our
usefulness.

The plant patent law, new methods of propagation, the variety question,
the disease factor, new methods of harvesting, grading and marketing, to
mention a few problems, are bringing about a new era in northern nut
growing and need our combined efforts in their solution. We believe that
the time is fast approaching for the appointment of a paid secretary who
can devote more time to the development of our work. We will leave to
you the working out of the details.

Dr. Colby supplemented his report with a talk about his trip to Europe
during the summer where he went primarily to attend the World
Horticultural conference in London. After some further informal
discussion the meeting adjourned.


FIELD TRIPS

The second day, September 18, 1930, was given over to a visit to the
Snyder Fruit and Nut Orchards at Center Point in the morning, where the
group inspected the varieties being grown with great interest, an
excellent lunch at noon under the trees, prepared and served by the
Snyder brothers and Miss Snyder, their sister, and an afternoon spent in
the Snyder nursery where the various nut trees which can be grown in
Iowa were observed.


BUSINESS SESSION AT SNYDER FARM

Meeting called to order by President Neilson. A vote of thanks was
extended to Miss Snyder and the Snyder brothers for their hospitality.
S. W. Snyder responded briefly.

The meeting place for next year was then discussed. Invitations were
extended from Rochester, New York, Downingtown, Pennsylvania, Geneva,
New York, and other places. It was finally voted to meet in Geneva, New
York, in September 1931 during the week of the annual meeting of the
New York Fruit Testing Association. The selection of the date was left
in the hands of the executive committee.

The report of the nominating committee was then called for. The
association re-elected Professor J. A. Neilson as president, C. F.
Walker as vice-president, and Karl Green as treasurer for the ensuing
year. Professor A. S. Colby was unable to continue as secretary and that
office was held open. The president and board of directors were
instructed to appoint a new secretary.[A]

The financial status of the association was next discussed at length. It
was voted that a letter be prepared and sent to the membership asking
for contributions.

The report of the nut survey was then briefly presented by C. F. Walker,
chairman of the committee, as a progress report. He stated that 1600 nut
trees of various varieties had been recorded and data concerning tree
performance and adaptation were being collected.

Frank H. Frey reported that he did not feel it advisable at this time to
affiliate with the American Fruit & Vegetable Shippers' Association
because of the expense to be incurred.

The secretary extended greetings of Mr. Ellis of Vermont whom he met at
the meetings of the International Horticultural Congress in England last
summer, and of Mr. Howard Spence of England to the association. It was a
pleasure to report that Mr. Spence had been instrumental in having
experimental work with nuts initiated in England.

The third day was devoted to a tour of the country round about
Burlington where Mr. Snyder and Mr. John Witte showed us many of the
most valuable parent trees found in that section. Some of these trees
included the Witte and Elmer pecans, the two varieties recommended by
Mr. Snyder for planting in that section; the Hill and Iowa shellbark
hickories, the two best so far found in Iowa; the Burlington, Tama
Queen, and Eureka hickories, the Oberman and Campbell pecans, and the
Swartz black walnut.

[Footnote A: NOTE: Mr. W. G. Bixby was appointed and accepted the
office.]



TREASURER'S REPORT

RECEIPTS

  Balance, Sept. 1st, 1929:
           In bank in Washington, D. C.      $194.41
           Litchfield Savings Society          15.94
                                             _______    $  210.35
  84 paid in advance memberships @ $3.50                   294.00
  9 back memberships @ $3.00                                27.00
  Sub. to American Nut Journal                             100.50
  Contributions and sale of Annual Reports                  70.92
  Loan, Merchants Bank and Trust Co., Washington, D. C.    325.00
                                                        _________
  Total to be accounted for                             $1,027.77


DISBURSEMENTS

  American Nut Journal, subscriptions                    $ 101.75
  Hotel Pennsylvania, N. Y., rent for projector             30.00
  Reporting New York meeting                               122.18
  Mimeographing                                             11.45
  Stenographer, Secretary's office                          42.85
  Printing, Secretary's office                              51.38
  Expenses, Secretary's office                              24.78
  Printing, Treasurer's office, two years                   98.00
  Printing Annual Report                                   428.88
  H. D. Spencer, expenses to New York meeting              122.48
  Stamps                                                     3.00
  Expressage                                                 3.75
  Exchange, Canadian check                                    .15
  Curtailment on loan                                       50.00
  Interest on loan                                          10.40
                                                        _________
  Total expenses                                        $1,101.05
  Deficit                                                   73.28
  Balance due on loan                                      275.00

NOTE--Although the expenses exceeded the receipts, no actual overdraft
occurred because certain bills were not paid until funds from the next
year came in. However, both overdraft and loan have been taken care of
through contributions made during November and December, 1930.

  Respectfully submitted,
  KARL W. GREENE,
  Treasurer.



HARVESTING AND MARKETING THE NATIVE NUT CROPS OF THE NORTH

_By C. A. Reed, Associate Pomologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture_


The native nut crops in the northern portion of the country, east of the
Rocky Mountains, offer a possible source of considerable income, if
gathered while in prime condition and properly prepared for market.
Thousands of bushels of highly edible nuts annually go to waste in that
portion of the country covered by the great Mississippi Valley, the
Appalachian region and the Middle Atlantic seaboard. These are chiefly
black walnuts, hickory nuts, and butternuts, although it is probable
that several hundred tons of beechnuts which annually go ungathered
should be included. These last are too small for human consumption in
this country, under the existing relations between human labor and the
quality of available food. Nevertheless, there are ways by which they
can be put to profitable use.

The kernels of black walnuts and butternuts are in great demand. The
potential supply of the former is usually abundant but the small number
of butternut trees in the country automatically makes the possible
supply of nuts of that kind very limited. The kernels of both these,
walnuts and butternuts, and also of the best northern hickories,
particularly the shagbarks and shellbarks, are highly palatable and
nutritious. In these respects they compare favorably with any other
kinds of nuts on the market. These northern species are singularly free
from an impregnation of tannin in the pellicles which leaves a bitter
after taste so familiar with certain of their chief competitors in the
nut market.

Black walnut kernels in particular appear to be firmly entrenched in the
markets of this country. They are in keen demand with many classes of
manufacturers. This demand is on the increase with no apparent
possibility of foreign competition, as the eastern black walnut,
_Juglans nigra_, the finest of the American blacks, is grown nowhere
outside of the United States except in certain districts of a narrow
adjoining fringe of neighboring Canada.

The present year may be one of the best likely to occur soon in which to
harvest and prepare these nuts for the market or home consumption on the
farm. The drought has undoubtedly reduced the crop as a whole, although
at this writing the yield appears considerably greater than that of
1929. At harvest time it will probably be found that many of the nuts
are below normal size and that the kernels are imperfectly developed.
The quantity of the finished product which it would be possible to place
on the market would therefore appear likely to be small.

On its face, with a light crop of poor grade in prospect, it may be
difficult to understand why this should be a propitious year to
inaugurate a systematic harvesting and marketing campaign. However, in
explanation of this, _first_, there are no carry-overs from last year.
So short was the crop of 1929 that manufacturers found the supply
exhausted before the end of last January. Many sent out urgent appeals
hoping to find some source of supply. They offered the inviting price of
65 cents a pound for good grade kernels, f. o. b. the farmers' shipping
point. Yet it was all in vain as the kernels were not forthcoming.

_Second_, as a result of the recent extreme drought and the consequent
shortage of some of the more staple crops, there will likely be
considerable slack time on many farms. Where this is the case and there
are nut crops in the field it will likely be found in many cases that
they may be gathered and sold to good financial advantage, assuming that
right methods are employed in harvesting and preparing for market.

_Third_, where there are nuts in quantity too limited to justify
gathering and preparing for market, they should still be gathered and as
carefully prepared as though for the market and used on the home table.
They will be found to be most excellent and pleasing food.

To obtain the highest prices for black walnuts or butternuts, certain
fundamentals should be kept in mind.

1. They should be sold only in the shelled condition.

2. The kernels must be delivered early.

3. They should present an attractive appearance.

4. They should be in thoroughly sanitary condition.

The explanation as to why they should be sold in the shelled condition
is simple. The weight of shell is too great to justify shipment in that
condition. In the shell, walnuts and butternuts seldom bring more than
$1.50 or $2.00 per bushel and the demand is exceedingly limited,
especially after the earliest part of the season. Again, the shells are
of no value except for fuel. Fuel of this kind by freight or express is
exceedingly costly. Again, the nuts must be cracked somewhere and the
kernels removed before they can be used, and farm labor is much cheaper
than that of the city. Regardless of where the labor is from, the cost
of cracking the nuts and picking out the kernels, or "shelling" as the
operation is called in the trade, is charged back to the farmer. The
shelling of these nuts is something in which the whole family on the
farm can join.

Delivery should be early as it is then that prices are best. The use of
shelled nuts is practically an all-year affair, yet, just as soon as the
supply begins to bulk up in the hands of the wholesalers, prices
promptly go lower.

The condition in which black walnut kernels reach the market is
ordinarily very poor. Little attention appears to be paid to the matter
of sanitation, and practically no thought is given to their appearance.
As a rule, shipment is made in burlap bags of double thickness. Little
thought is ever paid to separating the kernels according to shade of
color and it is rare that the kernels are properly cured after being
removed from the shells. Oil and moisture given off by the kernels are
taken up by the burlap bags, and by the time delivery is made to the
wholesaler, the kernels are in no sense attractive and are often
unsanitary. Fortunately, the kernels are carefully gone over by
employees of the wholesaler by whom all spoiled pieces are removed and,
in the process of manufacture, the kernels are usually so heated as to
dispel any danger from ill effects due to the unsanitary condition.

The successive steps essential to harvesting and preparing for market
may be grouped as follows:

1. Harvest the nuts as soon as mature.

2. Remove the hulls promptly.

3. Cure the nuts somewhat.

4. Crack the shells and remove the kernels very soon.

5. In cracking, the kernels should be separated into five
grades--Lights, darks, intermediates as to color, small pieces and
crumbs.

6. Before packing for shipment the kernels must be artificially cured
until they no longer feel moist to the hand when it is run through the
container.

7. Barrels or boxes of wood, or strawboard lined with water-proof paper,
should be used in packing for shipment. These should not be closed until
immediately before shipment.

8. As soon as received by the buyer the containers should be opened and
the kernels spread out in clean bins where they may receive frequent
inspection.


_Harvesting_

The nuts should be picked from the ground within three or four days from
the time they fall. If possible the limbs should be jarred so as to
shake the nuts from the tree. Good nuts will usually be found to mature
within a very few days and may readily be shaken down.

At this time the hulls will be perfectly sound and not objectionable, in
so far as staining the hands is concerned. But if the hulls be broken
open the juice which they emit will leave a lasting stain on the hands
or garments. But the hulls need not be broken to any great extent.


_Hulling_

The ordinary corn sheller on the farm is undoubtedly the most
practicable instrument for removing the hulls, generally available at
this time. If the hulls are still green enough to be firm, the nuts may
be placed in the machine by hand. Otherwise, some arrangement may be
worked out by which the nuts may automatically be fed into the machine.
After hulling by this method the nuts should be put into a tub or tank
of water and thoroughly washed with a broom or stiff brush. When the
nuts are hulled promptly and well washed it will be discovered that the
natural color of walnuts is light or whitish and not black. The dark
color is wholly due to stain from the green hulls. This stain, by the
way, loses its effectiveness as soon as the hulls turn dark. Stains from
nut hulls which have lost all trace of green color, so that the hulls
are black, are readily washed from the hands.

After the nuts have come from the sheller they may be handled by shovels
or by forks with tines close together. They should then be cured for a
few days. For this purpose they should never be placed in piles or deep
layers. Preferably they should be spread out in trays with bottoms of
wire mesh or narrow cleats so as to be open. These should be put where
there will be a free circulation of air all about. Where trays are not
available the nuts may be spread on a barn floor and the doors left open
during the day. If the weather is bright they may be spread on boards
laid on the ground directly in the sun, although it is probable that
they should be given partial shade during extremely hot days.

Various methods of hulling other than by the corn sheller are in use.
Some involve merely stepping on the nuts with a forward movement of the
foot, just as the hulls are softening. This is not particularly
satisfactory as the nuts must still be picked out of the mashed hulls by
hand. Besides leaving a very persistent stain on the hands this method
is unsatisfactory for two reasons; it is not at all rapid and very far
from perfect in the degree to which it removes the hulls.

Other methods involve the use of automobile wheels. Sometimes machines
are driven over the nuts as they are thinly spread on the ground. Again
a wheel is jacked up and set in motion in a tub of water in which the
nuts have been placed. Both methods have their advocates. The writer has
had experience with the former only, yet he can conceive of little to
commend either method.

Still another method is that of pounding off the hulls by hand. Of all
common methods this has the fewest conceivable advantages. It is slow,
thoroughly inefficient, and extremely objectionable from the standpoint
of the stain.

What is perhaps far the most satisfactory method of any yet used for
removing the hulls, from every standpoint except that of expense, is one
evolved by the Department of Agriculture in 1926. It consists merely of
running the nuts through large-sized vegetable paring machines. These
machines consist of metal containers, circular in form and having a
capacity of approximately 1-1/2 bushels. The inner walls are lined with
hard abrasive surfaces. A bushel of nuts is placed inside, the lid
closed, a stream of water turned into the container, and the machine set
in operation. By means of gears attached to the bottom of the container
which is separate from the walls, plated and perforated, the bottom
spins around several hundred times per minute. The nuts are made to beat
violently against the rough walls with the result that, in from 2-1/2 to
5 minutes, depending upon the firmness of the hulls, the nuts are ready
to be taken out. They are then perfectly hulled, thoroughly washed and
light or whitish in color.

With a few days of drying, the nuts should be ready for cracking.


_Cracking_

As soon as fit for cracking, and before becoming so dry that the kernels
break badly, the nuts should be shelled. The hammer and a solid block of
wood, or a piece of metal with a shallow cupped depression in which to
place the nuts while held for hitting, is the most common outfit in use.
Various handpower machines are appearing on the market, and already
designers are at work attempting to devise power machines. The former
have been in use for several years. The latter are mostly quite new and
untried. About all that can be said regarding such machines is that they
are much needed and that it is not improbable that there will soon be
several makes of efficient machines in the field.


_Grading the Kernels_

As soon as the shells have been cracked, the kernels should be
extracted. All large pieces, including chiefly quarters and whatever
halves there are, should be separated into three shades: lights, darks
and intermediates, as previously mentioned. All sound, small pieces,
regardless of shade, should be put into a fourth grade and all unsound
kernels and particles too small to separate from minute particles of
shell, should be put into a fifth grade and fed to poultry in moderate
quantity at one time.

Unless given artificial heat before packing for shipment, the kernels
are fairly certain to become moldy and even to cake together in a solid
mass while in transit. To do this they should be placed in trays or pans
and put above or back of a kitchen stove where they will not get hot
enough to be injured. The hand should be run through the kernels not
infrequently so as to detect any excessive heat and also to determine by
experience the proper degree of dryness.

After being kept warm and being frequently stirred until the kernels
seem properly dry they may be removed and allowed to become cool. They
should then be re-examined with the hand so as to determine the apparent
dryness. If they feel at all moist, they should be returned to the
drying position and the operation repeated. The writer has had no
personal experience in this matter and so cannot give precise
directions. However, the farm wife can probably work out a very
satisfactory system in her kitchen.


_Packing and Shipping_

Although previously discussed, the importance of clean, sanitary and
attractive containers for shipment can scarcely be overstressed. Without
such precaution no one need hope to work up a permanent business, for,
regardless of how secure he may feel with the trade he will eventually
find his customers turning to others who are willing to go to this
trouble.

When the time comes for shipping the boxes may be closed up and
delivered promptly to the transporting agency. The containers should
again be opened as soon as the destination is reached and an examination
made as to the moisture condition of the kernels.


_Handling Other Nuts_

So far as harvesting and hulling hickory nuts is concerned, the matter
is not at all complicated. Good nuts drop with the first sharp frost.
Those with good kernels inside become automatically separated from the
hulls. Those which do not easily become separated from the hulls should
be discarded as they are rarely of any value and should not become mixed
with the good nuts. With a moderate amount of curing these nuts should
be ready for market. They usually bring better prices in the shell than
do walnuts; but on the other hand they are in less demand after being
shelled. Perhaps this is because the trade has not been built up but it
is a recognized fact that black walnut kernels are practically in a
class by themselves among the nuts of the world, in the extent to which
they retain an agreeable flavor in cooking. Hickory nut kernels should
be given a much greater place than they now occupy in the cooking and
baking for the farm table. A few finely chopped kernels mixed with
breads, cakes, or cereals will be found highly acceptable to most
palates.

Butternuts are generally too scarce to justify much attention. They
could probably be hulled by vegetable paring machines quite as
efficiently as are walnuts but, so far as known to the writer, this has
not been tried.

Beechnuts make excellent food for poultry and certain kinds of
livestock. To convert the crop into cash is largely a matter of using
the land under the trees for the right sort of grazing. In European
countries beechnuts are highly valued as a source of salad oil. Mr.
Bixby of this association is taking steps to procure trees bearing as
large sized nuts as possible with a view to subsequent breeding. So far
as known to the writer beechnuts in this country are not gathered in
quantity.



BEECHNUTS

_By Willard G. Bixby, Baldwin, N. Y._


Although the association has now been in existence 20 years there has so
far been little progress, we might almost say no progress, made in
getting an improved beechnut.

All have agreed that the flavor of the beechnut was excellent, that it
had a shell so thin that it could be opened with a pocket knife, that it
was an oily nut and would keep, like the thin shelled hickories,
walnuts, etc., and not a starchy one, which would dry out like chestnuts
and acorns, that it would grow and bear well in northern sections where
the best nuts we have do not grow well, but also that it was so small as
to practically nullify the above mentioned excellent qualities. If we
ever get a beechnut the size of a chestnut we shall have a most needed
addition to our nut bearing trees, but there has been so little hope of
finding such that no one has paid much attention to the beech. As a
matter of fact not within the last ten years have there been any prizes
offered for beechnuts except those provided by the writer at his own
expense, neither have there been at any time during the writer's
recollection any varieties suggested excepting one or two by Omer R.
Abraham, Martinsville, Ind., which nobody has growing, so far as known
to the writer.

It was thought that there might be a large fruited species of beech
growing in some part of the world as is the case with the chestnut,
walnut, hickory and hazel, and that it would only be necessary to import
it to get what was needed, or at least to make a good start in getting
what was needed. Rehder in his wonderfully helpful "Manual of Cultivated
Trees and Shrubs" gives seven species of beech, one in America, Fagus
grandiflora, one in Europe, F. sylvatica, two in Japan, F. sieboldii and
F. japonica, two in China, F. longipetiolata and F. engleriana and one
in Asia Minor, F. orientalis. These are growing in the Arnold Arboretum
and leaves, buds and fruits are to be seen in the herbarium there. A day
spent there, however, half in the arboretum and half in the herbarium,
convinced the writer that there is at present no large fruited species
of beech known to botanists. There is an incompletely known species of
Chinese beech, F. lucida, whose fruit is not in the Arnold Arboretum.
While it is of course possible that there may yet be a large fruited
species somewhere in the world, still the relatively slight differences
in the leaf, bud and fruit of the seven species already known makes this
seem improbable and leads us to conclude that the genus "Fagus" is the
most uniform in the species that make it up of any genus of nut bearing
trees. This seemingly reduces us to the necessity of seeking variation
in species already known.

Fagus sylvatica has been by all odds longest in cultivation and many
varieties are known. Rehder lists 17 principal varieties with many other
sub varieties. These have leaves varying in color, purple, copper color,
pinkish, yellow and whitish spotted with green, beside the usual green,
also in shapes of leaves, some very narrow almost linear, some very
small and deeply toothed, others large and roundish up to 3 in. broad
and 5 in. long. The varieties vary in bark from the smooth bark typical
of the beech to bark like that of the oak. They also vary in habit of
growth, being mostly erect but some pendulous and some dwarf with
twisted contorted branches. But no one seems to have ever heard of a
large fruited beech.

It is inconceivable however, that a tree can vary in every particular
except in the fruit and it is believed that it only requires sufficient
searching to find large fruited varieties. There are difficulties,
however, in the way of finding unusual beeches which do not occur with
walnuts, chestnuts and hickories, which are trees where the nuts have
such merit that they are usually spared even if in the middle of a
cultivated field, while the beech is usually a forest tree. A nut
contest brings hundreds and thousands of walnuts and hickories but only
very few beechnuts. Correspondence with the forestry departments of
every state having such departments generally evinced interest in the
search for a large fruited beech, but those replying universally
disclaimed any knowledge of such.

While it is believed that there are such in America, perhaps as many or
more than in Europe, and efforts should be made here to find such, there
are many reasons for believing that a search in Europe will be more
immediately productive of results than will the search here. The beech
is much more esteemed in Europe than here and has been extensively
planted in forests that for centuries have been operated for constant
production of timber. It is believed that the contents of those forests
are as a class better known to their keepers, at least the beeches there
are better known than in the forests in the United States. The number of
propagated ornamental varieties noted in the second paragraph gives
evidence of this. The history of one or two of these varieties will make
this clearer.

Three beeches with red or copper colored leaves as far back as 1680 were
recorded as growing in a wood near Zurich, Switzerland. Most of the
purple beeches now growing are believed to have been derived from a
single tree discovered in the last century in a forest in Thuringia in
Germany. There may be or may have been many such in America but they
would not have appeared valuable to the woodmen who probably would be
the only ones who would see them and then the leaves would not have been
visible in the winter when trees are most frequently cut. That the
Deming purple black walnut is in existence is due solely to the
observation and action of Dr. Deming who gathered scions and got them
growing before the original tree had been cut for the purpose of getting
space for improving a road. That this tree could be seen from the road
was how it came to the attention of Dr. Deming. Had it been in the midst
of a large forest it might have been cut in winter for timber without
the cutter knowing it was unusual.

That we have such a wealth of varieties of the beech valuable as
ornamental trees and none valuable for the large nuts they bear,
certainly suggests that the tree varies in every way except in the size
of the nuts it bears, but this is not believed to be so. The growing of
ornamental trees is an old industry. There are hundreds of nurserymen
today growing ornamentals and only few in comparison growing nut trees.
It is not so many years ago that there were none growing nut trees. A
beech with purple leaves appeared valuable 100 years ago and was
disseminated by nurserymen while one with nuts 10 times normal size
would probably not have been propagated for there would not have been
sale for it. It would have only been known locally as unusual and
probably the tree would have been cut for timber when it reached the
proper size.

The search for a large fruited beech is not going to be easy but it is
believed that persistent work will eventually triumph, much as the 1929
contest brought more shellbark hickories of value to the attention of
the association than all previous contests put together. The shellbark
is a tree the best varieties of which it is difficult to learn about.
Unlike the shagbark hickory it is not generally found growing near
buildings or in fields or pastures. Its natural habitat is the bottom
lands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, lands that are
overflowed part of the year. There will have to be a campaign, perhaps
for several years, till people begin to look for large fruited beeches;
then will come a harvest of them.

The relatively few beeches that have come in to the contests suggests
that methods used heretofore should be somewhat modified in beechnut
search. Probably a campaign of education among foresters might be more
productive of results than among farmers, at least it should supplement
it. The search for improved beechnuts evidently has more different kinds
of difficulties than the search for any other nut and considerable
thought on the matter leads me to suggest that a committee be appointed
to study the nut and to seek large fruited specimens especially to look
into methods for getting them and report to the association a year
hence, said committee to finance itself.

This suggestion is made because it is believed that efforts made in
Europe to find a large fruited beech will be more immediately productive
of results than in America for the reasons noted above. Even if the
committee consists of but one man correspondence abroad would be better
carried on in the name of a committee of the association than in the
name of an individual and it is believed would be more productive of
results.



THE 1929 CONTEST

_By Willard G. Bixby, Baldwin, New York_


This has at last been finished. It is a memorable achievement in many
ways. It has taken much longer to award the prizes than at any previous
contest, which is a matter of deep regret to me. But, if we except the
shagbark hickories and the beechnuts, the value of the nuts is so far
ahead of those received in any other contest as to make the results of
all previous contests commonplace in comparison.

The highest award for black walnuts in the 1926 contest was for the
Stambaugh 63 points, which recalculated using the present constants
would be 62 points, while all the 10 prize winners in the 1929 contest
were awarded more points than 62, the nut taking the tenth prize being
awarded two points more or 64 and the nut taking first prize being
awarded 19 points more or 81, the difference being largely in generally
superior cracking quality of the 1929 nuts.

The highest awards for butternuts, in print and readily referred to, are
in the 1919 report where the butternut taking first prize was awarded 67
points, which after recalculation with present constants would be 65
points, and there were nine prizes awarded this year where the score was
higher than 65.

The shagbark hickories were disappointing, none equalling several of the
best ones reported in the 1919 contest. This is laid to the general poor
quality of the shagbark hickory nuts in 1929. One observing contestant
sent in nuts from the 1928 crop, as well as nuts of the 1929 crop, to
show us how much better they were normally than were those of the 1929
crop, and as a matter of fact the 1928 nuts sent in by him tested out
several points higher than those of the 1929 crop. On the other hand,
other hickories, Carya laciniosa and Carya ovalis, which never before
were awarded prizes in a nut contest, this year came up into the winning
class and we had some large laciniosas of real merit this year, a matter
which is likely to be of great importance, as it is noted in
considerable detail later on.

The chestnuts were few in number, yet some very good nuts were received,
and as most were from trees which had been growing in sections where the
blight has been present for many years, it is believed that they will be
of value in getting a blight resistant chestnut of horticultural merit.
This work now is really under way.

The beechnuts received were but 4 in number and were pretty good
although too small to be of horticultural value. Considerable is noted
later on the likelihood of getting larger beechnuts and a way is
suggested to get them.

Under the headings black walnuts, hickories, chestnuts, butternuts and
beechnuts will be found an abstract of the awards of prizes awarded
each. It is believed that this will be all that there will be time to
present to the convention. The results of each test in detail will be
typed out for printing in the report for it is believed these are of
permanent value. Results of tests on many of the well known nut
varieties will also be given. Some of these appeared in the 1919 report
but owing to the change in the constants necessitated by the discovery
of new and better nuts these figures are somewhat out of date. Some of
these also appeared in the 1927 report but there are serious
typographical errors there and it is believed that it will be of value
to have results of the tests on nuts of the 1929 contest appear in the
1930 report, in connection with tests on well known varieties.

The prizes to be awarded are as follows:

  Black Walnuts--10 Prizes--Amount $100.00
  Hickories--25 Prizes--Amount     $120.00
  Butternuts--12 Prizes--Amount    $106.00
  Chestnuts--11 Prizes--Amount     $103.00
  Beechnuts--4 Prizes--Amount      $ 21.00
                                  ________

  Total                            $451.00

That there are more than ten prizes, when there were prizes offered but
for ten, is due to our custom, when two or more nuts receive the same
score and win a prize, to provide an additional prize of equal amount
for each one.

There have yet to be awarded prizes for those chestnuts of the 1929
contest which show high resistance after being inoculated with blight
spores. This cannot be done for two years at least for scions must be
gotten growing and have reached a diameter of 3/8" to 1/2" before this
can be properly done.

The writer intended, when the contest reached the stage just now reached
to endeavor to get a meeting of those members best qualified to pass on
characteristic "quality and flavor of kernel" of those nuts put down by
him as prize winners. This is the only characteristic where personal
opinion has not been replaced by the precise methods, but time did not
permit.

The delay in completing the 1929 contest has been very unsatisfactory.
It has been caused by a combination of circumstances which it is not
believed will occur again. Instead of a contest limited to one nut, as
the 1926 contest was, we had here, as well, butternuts and hickories in
large numbers, the hickories in particular being more numerous than the
black walnuts, and the nuts came in very late, all of which largely
increased the nuts to be gone over and delayed Dr. Deming in the
preliminary examination. The nuts did not reach me till the last of
April, a time when spring work outside was pressing. It takes a person
of some experience before even the weighing methods in force for
measuring quantitatively nut characteristics can be properly done and
while some work was done on the contest practically every day from April
24th on, only about an hour a day could be put on it, and it went so
slowly that after about a month, I set about hiring someone who should
devote his or her time to it. It took about six weeks before someone was
obtained and properly trained, which brought us into July, since which
time the work went on well but the number of nuts was large and I had to
personally pass on the final award, which must be carefully done and
necessarily a good deal of time was taken, far more than anticipated.

The experience of this year's contest has shown me how to better handle
another if it falls to my lot to do so. I would get Dr. Deming to send
in the nuts, which after the preliminary examination, he thought worthy
of carefully testing, instead of waiting till the preliminary
examination of all received had been completed. This would get them
here in the winter when work is light for the man I have here, who is
thoroughly trained for making these tests. Those rejected at first by
Dr. Deming he could go over again later, as is his custom, and possibly
pick out some good ones which did not show up well when first received.



BLACK WALNUTS


The black walnuts sent into the 1926 contest were the best that had been
seen up to that time, yet those received in the 1929 contest are so far
ahead of those as to make us wonder if we shall again find a contest
where the black walnuts received equal those received in 1929.

Most remarkable was the case of Mrs. E. W. Freel of Pleasantville, Iowa,
who sent in black walnuts from four different trees, each one of which
took a prize, No. 1 the first, No. 2 the second, No. 3 the eighth, and
No. 4 the tenth, the first time in the history of the nut contests that
anything approaching this record has occurred. This is also the first
contest where a nut of any other black walnut species than Juglans nigra
has come anywhere near the prize winners.

The score card used in the 1929 contest was the same as that used in the
1926 contest but with the constants recalculated as required because of
nuts received in the meantime which made this necessary.

The prizes awarded are noted below:

  Name and Address                               Species Score Prize Amount
  Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., Nut. No. 1 nigra   81    1  $ 50.00
  Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., Nut No. 2  nigra   74    2    15.00
  Mrs. J. A. Stillman, Mackeys, N. C.              nigra   73    3    10.00
  Annie M. Wetzel, New Berlin, Pa.                 nigra   72    4     5.00
  John Rohwer, Grundy Center, Ia., The Iowa        nigra   71    5     5.00
  Mrs. Irwin Haag, New Castle, Ind.                nigra   70    6     3.00
  Dane Learn, % Harley Learn, Aylmer, Ont.,
       R. R. No. 6                                 nigra   69    7     3.00
  Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., Nut No. 3  nigra   68    8     3.00
  A. F. Weltner, Point Marion, Pa., R. F. D. 1     nigra   67    9     3.00
  Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., Nut No. 4  nigra   64   10     3.00
                                                                    _______
                                                                    $100.00

There are some 32 other black walnuts worthy of honorable mention which
were awarded from 55 points to 63 and which it is believed are worthy
of experimental propagation. One of these is from A. E. Grobe, Chico,
Cal., species, hindsii, total award 61 points, which is the only
California black walnut of value sent in to the contests up to this
time.

Nut notable for size were received from:

Mrs. R. F. Frye, Carthage, N. C., R. No. 1, Box 22, Wt, 38.0g, nigra,
score 57.

C. T. Baker, Grandview, Ind., Wt. 31.8g, nigra, score 57.

A. P. Stockman, Lecompte, La., Wt. 36.7g, nigra, score 56.

Nuts notable for cracking quality were received from:

Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., CQC 100%, CQA 67.3%, total 38
points, nigra, 81 points total.

Mrs. J. A. Stillman, Mackeys, N. C., CQC 100%, CQA 65.3%, total 38
points, nigra, 81 points total.

J. U. Gellatly, Gellatly, B. C., Cold Stream No. 14, CQC 100%, CQA
40.0%, total 33 points, nigra, 55 points total.

Annie W. Wetzel, New Berlin, Pa., CQC 100%, CQA 37.8%, total 32 points,
nigra, 72 points total.

A. F. Weltner, Point Marion, Pa., R. F. No. 1, CQC 100%, CQA 38.0%,
total 32 points, nigra, 67 points total.

Mrs. A. Sim, Rodney, Ont., CQC 100%, CQA 39.3%, total 32 points, nigra,
55 points total.

Nut notable for high percentage of kernel:

Ferdinand Huber, Cochrane, Wis., 32.8% 12 points, species nigra, total
award 49 points.

Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., Nut. No. 1, 31.6% 11 points,
species nigra, total award 81 points.

Attractive color of kernel:

While a number were awarded four points out of a possible 5, none of the
black walnuts sent in were especially notable in this respect.



HICKORIES


This is the first lot of hickories that has come in for a contest
conducted by the Association in a number of years. The last contest,
that of 1926, was for black walnuts only. It is true that at the meeting
of the judges who passed on the black walnuts entered in the 1926
contest there were a number of fine hickories shown which had been
received in the contest conducted by the Philadelphia Society for the
Promotion of Agriculture, but so far as the writer is aware we have to
go back to 1919 to reach the last contest at which prizes were awarded
for hickories.

The 1926 contest marked a notable change in the method of awarding
prizes. As noted at some length under black walnuts, that score card was
made simpler, by the judges who passed on the nuts received in the 1926
contest, by awarding points previously given for characteristics that
seemed of less importance to others, so the hickory score card was
carefully gone over to see if a similar change could not be made to
advantage.

As it is believed that hickory nuts will be sold in the shell, as are
pecans, it was not possible to do this to the same extent as with black
walnuts. However, the characteristic "form," which is difficult if not
almost impossible to estimate with any kind of precision, it was thought
for the present at least might be disregarded. Husking quality is
important but it was impossible to properly award points for this
characteristic in a nut contest, because the nuts are husked before
being sent in. The points allowed for excellence in these qualities were
added to others, which gave 10 points to Cracking Quality Absolute
instead of 5, and 25 points to Quality and Flavor of Kernel instead of
20.

It has been generally considered that a nut which is awarded 55 points,
even though it took no prize, was worthy of experimental propagation.
There were 40 hickories in the 1929 contest which were awarded 55 points
or more. Of those actually awarded prizes for a combination of good
qualities, twenty-one in number, thirteen were thought to be shagbarks,
or it might be more exact to state that we had not sufficient evidence
to think them to be otherwise, although some are suspected not to be
pure Carya ovata, four were thought to be Carya Dunbarii (Carya ovata x
laciniosa), two were thought to be Carya ovalis, and two Carya
laciniosa. In this contest the shagbarks showed up poorly, 68 being the
highest score awarded, when from the number of entries one would have
expected the highest to have been awarded 71 points or over. On the
other hand this is the first contest where a prize has been awarded to a
shellbark, Carya laciniosa. Among hickories awarded 54 points or over
were five shellbarks, two of them large ones, one weighing 24.3g, 20 per
lb. and one weighing 27.6g, 17 per lb.

The importance of this will be realized when we consider that, in the
1929 contest, out of 21 prize winning nuts four prizes were awarded to
nuts believed to be Carya Dunbarii (Carya ovata x laciniosa) and there
were two or three others that may prove to be. While natural hickory
hybrids are not particularly rare yet they are far from common. At one
time, while on the levees north of Burlington, Iowa, the number of pecan
x shellbark hybrids seen impressed the writer, yet a careful count
showed these hybrids to be only about 1 hybrid in 100 pure pecans.
Considerable experience in making or attempting to make hickory hybrids
leads the writer to believe that the proportion of hickory hybrids will
be much less than this. If, however, we assume it to be 1 in 100 and the
fact that among this years meritorious nuts hybrids are 4 out of 21 or 1
out of 5, we would calculate that the chances of getting meritorious
nuts out of hybrids is about 20 times as great as out of pure species.
We really have not sufficient data at present to attempt to make such
calculations yet the glimpse they give us of the promise of wonderful
results from the systematic production of hybrid varieties between
selected parents is most alluring.

The number of prizes awarded to Carya Dunbarii (Carya ovata x laciniosa)
shows a line of work of particular promise. We have plenty of good
shagbarks, Carya ovata, and now that he have really good shellbarks,
Carya laciniosa, of large size, fair cracking quality and good flavor
which we never had before, we have selected material for the production
of shagbark x shellbark hybrids, a class which has produced the Weiker
hickory, four of the 1929 contest prize hickories and some other
hickories of merit which have come to the attention of the writer during
the past two or three years. As we have a number of good northern
pecans we have also selected material for the production of pecan x
shellbark hybrids, a class which has produced the McAllister pecan. If
the 1929 contest does nothing more than to bring to light these fine
shellbarks it is worth all it cost.

The contest also has shown some mockernuts of large size and better
quality than ordinary but still not good enough to be in a class with
the shellbarks noted above. The number of years that we have been
testing hickories without getting good shellbarks leads us to hope that
we will eventually get good mockernuts.

The prize winning hickories are noted below:

  Name and Address                              Species Points Prize Amount

  Mrs. C. Lake, New Haven, Ind.                   ovata    68    1   $25.00
  Ferdinand Huber, Cochrane, Wis.                 ovata    67    2    15.00
  John D. Bontrager, Middlebury, Ind.             ovata    65    3    10.00
  John Roddy, Napoleon, Ohio                  Dunbarii ?   64    4     5.00
  Steve Green, Battle Creek, Mich.              ovalis ?   63    5     5.00
  [A]Mrs. Hamill Goheen, Pennsylvania
         Furnace, Pa.                           Dunbarii ? 62    6     3.00
  Menno Zurcher Nut No. 1, Apple Creek, Ohio      ovata    62    6     3.00
  Edgar Fluhr, Kiel, Wis.                         ovata    61    7     3.00
  [A]Elmer T. Sande, Story City, Ia.           Dunbarii ?  61    7     3.00
  N. E. Comings, Amherst, Mass.                   ovata    60    8     3.00
  Edward Renggenberg, Madison, Wis.               ovata    60    8     3.00
  C. D. Wright, Nut No. 1, Sumner, Mo.        laciniosa    60    8     3.00
  Mrs. John Brooks, Ottumwa, Ia.                  ovata    59    9     3.00
  Arlie W. Froman, Bacon, Ind.                    ovata    59    9     3.00
  [A]Mrs. C. E. Hagen, GuttenBerg, Clay
         Co., Ia.                              Dunbarii ?  59    9     3.00
  L. S. Huff, White Pigeon, Mich.                ovalis ?  59    9     3.00
  J. K. Seaver, Harvard, Ill.                     ovata    59    9     3.00
  Joseph Sobelewski, Norwich, Conn.               ovata    59    9     3.00
  Caleb Sprunger, Berne, Ind.                 laciniosa    59    9     3.00
  Grace Peschke, Ripon, Wis.                      ovata    58   10     3.00
  John Muriel Thomas, Henryville, Ind.            ovata    58   10     3.00

  [A] Means that these varieties were known to the Association before
  the 1929 contest.

There are nearly as many others which came within two or three points of
being prize winners and which it is believed should be propagated
experimentally. These will be noted on the complete report. There are
also the following which are notable for unusual excellence in one
characteristic and which it is believed should be propagated
experimentally and are here given honorable mention.

  George S. Homan, Easton, Mo., laciniosa large, Wt. 24.3g, 56 H. M.   3.00
  Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Ia., Shellbark, No. 1, laciniosa
  large, Wt. 27.6g, 54 H. M.                                           3.00
  W. P. Ritchey, Marietta, Tex., alba large, Wt. 25.7g, 44 H. M.       3.00
  J. Droska, Pierce City, Mo., alba large, Wt. 23.7g, 39 H. M.         3.00
                                                                    _______

                                                                    $120.00



BUTTERNUTS


The last contest where prizes were offered for butternuts was that of
1919 and no nuts of value were entered. The 1929 contest has a number of
unusually good ones.

The score card for butternuts was revised for this contest on the basis
of the one adopted for the black walnut in the 1926 contest and the
constants recalculated.

The prizes awarded are noted below:

  L. K. Irvine, Menominee, Wis.                 cinerea    83    1  $ 50.00
  H. J. Thill, Bloomer, Wis., Box 109           cinerea    78    2    15.00
  C. F. Hostetter, Bird-In-Hand, Pa.            cinerea    75    3    10.00
  John F. Kenworthy, Rockton, Wis.              cinerea    74    4     5.00
  F. E. Devan, Rock Creek, Ohio                 cinerea    73    5     5.00
  E. J. Lingle, Pittsfield, Pa.                 cinerea    70    6     3.00
  John Hergert, St. Peter, Minn., Nut No. 1     cinerea    69    7     3.00
  Evert E. Van Der Poppen, Hamilton, Mich.      cinerea    66    8     3.00
  Mrs. A. B. Simonson, Mondove, Wis.            cinerea    66    8     3.00
  Mrs. E. Sherman, Montague City, Mass.         cinerea    64    9     3.00
  W. A. Creitz, Cambridge City, Ind.             Bixbyi ?  64    9     3.00
  Mrs. Abbie C. Bliss, Bradford, Vt. Nut No. 1  cinerea    61   10     3.00

At first it might be thought that but one species of nuts would be sent
in as butternuts, and this was true up to 15 or 20 years ago. The chance
hybrids of the Japan walnut and the butternut, named Juglans Bixbyi by
Prof. C. S. Sargent of the Arnold Arboretum, resemble the butternut so
much that as time grows on it is increasingly probable that these will
be sent in as butternuts. One came in to the 1919 contest and it is
thought that the Creitz of this contest may possibly be such.



CHESTNUTS


The chestnuts received were relatively few in number but most of them
were from sections where the blight had been present many years. Those
that were from sections where this condition did not prevail were not
allowed to enter. There were a few American chestnuts, some very good
ones, from sections where the blight had not destroyed the native
chestnut but these were not entered. As it happened all entered were of
Japanese or Chinese species, which was somewhat of a disappointment to
those who hope that a blight resistant American chestnut will yet be
found. It certainly looks so far as if varieties of chestnuts for the
blight area, of horticultural value, would be Japanese, Castanea
crenata, or Chinese, Castanea mollissima.

The chestnuts were judged early and scions sent for in order to get a
start on the second part of the chestnut problem, that of testing the
resistance of these seemingly resistant varieties to the chestnut
blight. The scions received were disappointing in quality and
disappointing in the extent to which they were gotten started this year.
The writer set scions on Chinese (mollissima) stock, Mr. Hershey set
them on American (dentata) stock and the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture set
them on Japanese (crenata) stock, but owing to the poor scions only part
of them are growing. The writer got eight varieties out of twelve to
start but it is questionable how they will do, for mollissima stock is
thought to be good only for mollissima varieties and the varieties were
all crenata, and so, while a start has been made on the problem of
getting blight resistant chestnuts of horticultural value it is only a
start and much work remains to be done.

The prizes awarded were as follows:

  Name and Address                              Species Points Prize Amount

  Frank B. Austin, Milford, Del.                crenata    70     1  $50.00
  C. Warren Swayne, West Grove, Pa.             crenata    66     2   15.00
  Charles V. Stein, Manheim, Pa.,
      R. F. D. No. 1, Nut No. 1                 crenata    61     3   10.00
  Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford, Conn.          Mollissima    61    [A]  -----
  Charles V. Stein, Manheim, Pa.,
      R. F. D. No. 1, Nut No. 2                 crenata    59     4    5.00
  Helen W. Smith, Linden Lodge, Stamford, Conn. crenata    54     5    5.00
  May Cline, Route 2, Belvidere Rd.,
      Phillipsburg, N. J., Nut No. 2            crenata    53     6    3.00
  May Cline, Route 2, Belvidere Rd.,
      Phillipsburg, N. J., Nut No. 1            crenata    51     7    3.00
  Howard A. Folk, Brielle, N. J.                crenata    51     7    3.00
  W. Russell Parker, Box No. 2, Little
      Silver, N. J.                             crenata    47     8    3.00
  Ralph P. Atkinson, Setauket, N. Y.            crenata    46     9    3.00
  Victor Page, Elmsford, N. Y.                  crenata    41    10    3.00
  Frank Atler, Edison, Pa.                      crenata    40    11    3.00

  [A] Not entered in contest.



BEECHNUTS


Never before, so far as the writer is aware, has there been a score card
proposed for beechnuts, but the need of one is apparent and the
following is suggested till a better one is found. It is not doubted
that one will appear, for our present score cards for hickories,
walnuts, etc., are the result of changes made as nuts received in the
contests have shown such to be advisable, and work on the beechnut is 10
years or so behind that on other nuts.

Size is the most important characteristic in the beechnut, for all are
thin shelled and practically all are well flavored. If we had a beechnut
the size of a chestnut we should have a most valuable addition to our
nuts. The points awarded for size have therefore been on the basis that
eventually we would get a beechnut the size of a chestnut, although we
are very far from that now. Forty points are allowed for size and it is
figured that eventually we will get a beechnut 4 grams in weight which
is the weight of a medium size chestnut. The constants used in figuring
the number to be awarded for other characteristics require little
comment for they are figured on the basis of existing nuts as constants
have hitherto been calculated. The suggested score card is as follows:

  Weight                           40 points
  Color of shell                    5 points
  Percent of kernel                15 points
  Ease of removing pellicle        15 points
  Quality and flavor of kernel     25 points
  Total                           100 points

The details and methods used in judging beechnuts this year, also the
calculations of the constants and the details of the awards, will be
typed for the report.

The prizes awarded were as follows:

  Mrs. John M. Pepaw, Johnson, Vt.            grandiflora   40   1   $10.00
  Mrs. George Marshey, Johnson Vt.            grandiflora   39   2     5.00
  James Radle, Harbor Springs, Mich.          grandiflora   38   3     3.00
  Anthony Andreson, Burke, N. Y.              grandiflora   35   4     3.00
  Fagus sylvatica                               sylvatica   44  [A]   -----
  Fagus sylvatica purpurea                      sylvatica   41  [A]   -----
                                                                     ______
                                                                  $21.00
  [A] Not entered in the contest

It is not believed that nuts of Fagus sylvatica (European beech) will
test out better, generally, than nuts of Fagus grandiflora (American
beech) but the beechnuts were not tested till late, and the European
beechnuts had been kept in a refrigerator, while the American beechnuts
had not, which very likely may have been the cause for better retaining
both the flavor and pellicle-removing quality, which made these nuts
receive more points for these characteristics and so be awarded more
points than the first four.

The meager results in getting beechnuts large enough to be of
horticultural value in this contest, as well as in previous contests,
and the failures of considerable effort on the part of the writer
independently to locate large beechnuts, have caused him to put much
thought on the matter and to have come to the conclusion that the search
should be conducted in Europe as well as here, for the following
reasons:

The beech in Europe is much more esteemed as a valuable tree than here,
largely because of its value for fuel.

It has for many years, if not for centuries, been a tree that has been
largely planted in those forests, state and private, which have been
managed on the basis of sustained production, and it is not doubted that
the men in charge are more familiar with the beech trees in the forests
under their jurisdiction than is the case in America.

The European beech has shown the most amazing variation in color, size
and shape of leaves, color of bark, and habits of growth, which have
been perpetuated by grafting as ornamental varieties, and it seems
likely that there are equal variations in the nuts which only remain to
be discovered.

In short, while there may be no more large fruited beeches in Europe
than here, it is believed that the chances of finding them are better.



ATTENDANCE RECORD


  James A. Neilson, East Lansing, Michigan.
  C. F. Walker, Cleveland Heights, Ohio.
  Mr. and Mrs. John W. Hershey, Downingtown, Pennsylvania.
  Mr. and Mrs. Harry R. Weber, Cincinnati, Ohio.
  Dr. and Mrs. G. A. Zimmerman, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
  Mr. and Mrs. M. A. Yant, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  Mr. and Mrs. Newton H. Russell, Hadley Center, Massachusetts.
  Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Freel, Pleasantville, Iowa.
  Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Crissman, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Bingham, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  Mr. and Mrs. F. O. Harrington, Williamsburg, Iowa.
  Frank H. Frey, Chicago, Illinois.
  R. S. Herrick, Des Moines, Iowa.
  Arthur Huston, Cropsey, Illinois.
  Dr. W. C. Deming, Hartford, Connecticut.
  J. K. Hershey, Ronk, Pennsylvania.
  Hugh E. Williams, Ladora, Iowa.
  C. W. Bricker, Ladora, Iowa.
  Millard Harrington, Williamsburg, Iowa.
  Dr. J. Russell Smith, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania.
  Daniel Boyce, Winterset, Iowa.
  T. J. Maney, Ames, Iowa.
  J. F. Wilkinson, Rockport, Indiana.
  Snyder Brothers, Center Point, Iowa.
  Dr. R. J. Meyers, Moline, Illinois.
  Rev. L. D. Stubbs, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  Vance McCray, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  Ray Anderson, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  A. B. Anthony, Sterling, Illinois.
  George F. Stoltenberg, Moline, Illinois.
  John H. Witte, Murlington, Iowa.
  W. L. Van Meter, Adel, Iowa.
  Miss Elva Becker, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
  N. F. Drake, Fayetteville, Arkansas.
  Prof. A. S. Colby, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.





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