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Title: Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Household Science in Rural Schools
Author: Ontario. Ministry of Education
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Household Science in Rural Schools" ***

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[Illustration: Printer's mark.]



Copyright. Canada. 1918. by
The Minister of Education for Ontario



Preface                                                      vii

Three Short Courses in Home-making                             1
    Introduction                                               1
    A Library on Home Economics for the Rural School           2
Twenty Lessons in the Care of the Home                         4
    Suggestions to the Teacher                                 4
        Equipment                                              5
        Reference Books                                        6
    Lesson I: Arrangement and Care of the Kitchen              7
    Lesson II: Care of Cupboards and Utensils                 10
    Lesson III: Care of Foods                                 12
    Lesson IV: Disposal of Waste                              14
    Lesson V: Making Soap                                     17
    Lesson VI: Setting and Clearing the Table                 18
    Lesson VII: Waiting on Table                              21
    Lessons VIII and IX: General Cleaning of a Room           23
    Lesson X: Care of the Bed-room                            25
    Lesson XI: Care of Lamps                                  27
    Lesson XII: Prevention of Pests                           29
    Lesson XIII: Removing Stains, Bleaching Fabrics,
        and Setting Colours                                   32
    Lesson XIV: Washing Dish-Towels, Aprons, etc.             34
    Lesson XV: Ironing                                        35
    Lessons XVI and XVII: Care of the Baby                    36
    Lesson XVIII: Cost of Food, Clothing, and House           39
    Lesson XIX: How to Keep Accounts                          39
    Lesson XX: Care of the Exterior of the House              41
        Reference Books                                       44

Twenty Lessons in Cooking                                     45
    Suggestions to the Teacher                                45
        Abbreviations and Measurements                        48
        Table of Level Measurements                           48
        Comparisons Between Weights and Measures              48
        Reference Books                                       49
    Lesson I: Discussion of Foods and Cooking                 50
        Recipes                                               52
    Lesson II: Preparing and Serving Vegetables               53
        Recipes                                               55
    Lesson III: The Value of Carbohydrates in the Diet        58
        Recipes                                               59
    Lesson IV: Fruits and Vegetables                          60
        Recipes--Open-kettle Method; Cold-pack Method;
          Single Process Method; Intermittent Method          63
    Lesson V: Fats--Vegetables--Continued                     66
        Recipes                                               68
        Experiments in Using Starch for Thickening            69
        Conclusions Based on the Foregoing Experiments        69
    Lesson VI: Cereals                                        70
        Recipes                                               71
    Lesson VII: Classification of Foods--Reviewed             73
        Black-board Summary                                   76
    Lesson VIII: The Planning and Serving of Meals            76
        Examples of Well-chosen Menus                         77
    Lesson IX: Milk                                           79
        Recipes                                               81
    Lesson X: Soups                                           82
        Recipes                                               83
    Lesson XI: Eggs                                           85
        Recipes                                               86
    Lesson XII: Simple Desserts--Custards                     88
        Recipes                                               89
    Lesson XIII: Batters and Doughs                           90
        Recipes                                               91
    Lesson XIV: Batters and Doughs--Continued                 92
        Recipes                                               93
    Lesson XV: Meats                                          94
        Recipes                                               95
    Lesson XVI: Baked Pork and Beans--Baking-powder Biscuits  98
        Recipes                                               98
    Lesson XVII: Butter Cakes--Plain Yellow Cake--Cocoa
                   Coffee--Tea                                99
        Recipes                                              101
    Lesson XVIII: Yeast Bread                                103
        Recipes                                              104
    Lesson XIX: Serving a Simple Dinner Without Meat--Baked
                  Omelet--Macaroni and Cheese                106
        Recipes                                              106
    Lesson XX: Sugar                                         107
        Recipes                                              108

Twenty Lessons in Sewing                                     110
    Suggestions to the Teacher                               110
        Reference Books                                      112
    Lesson I: Preparation for Sewing                         113
    Lesson II: Hemming Towels                                115
    Lesson III: Hemming Towels--Continued                    116
    Lesson IV: Bags                                          119
    Lesson V: Bags--Continued                                120
    Lesson VI: Bags--Continued                               122
    Lesson VII: Bags--Continued                              123
    Lesson VIII: Bags--Continued                             124
    Lesson IX: Darning Stockings                             127
    Lesson X: Patching                                       128
    Lesson XI: Cutting Out Aprons or Undergarments           130
    Lesson XII: Aprons or Undergarments--Continued           132
    Lesson XIII: Aprons or Undergarments--Continued          134
    Lesson XIV: Aprons or Undergarments--Continued           135
    Lesson XV: Aprons or Undergarments--Continued            136
    Lesson XVI: Aprons or Undergarments--Continued           137
    Lesson XVII: Methods of Fastening Garments               138
    Lesson XVIII: Methods of Fastening Garments--Continued   140
    Lesson XIX: A Padded Holder for Handling Hot Dishes
        Binding                                              142
    Lesson XX: A Cap to Wear with the Cooking Apron          144

Household Science Equipment                                  146
    Household Science Cabinet
        Materials Required, Stock Bill, Tools, Directions
        for Making                                           161
    Equipment for Rural School Household Science
        Cabinet--No. I                                       173
    Equipment for Rural School Household Science
        Cabinet--No. II                                      174
    The Hectograph                                           177

The Rural School Lunch                                       178
    The Box Lunch                                            179
        Contents of the Lunch Box                            181
        Sandwich Making                                      182
        Suggestions for Sandwich Fillings                    182
        Suggestions for Planning                             183
        Suggestions for Desserts                             184
    Packing the Lunch Box                                    184
        Rules for Packing                                    184
        Equipment for Packing                                185

Serving a Hot Dish                                           186
    The Method                                               186
        Suggested Menus                                      189
        Suggestions for Hot Dishes for Four Weeks            189

Recipes Suitable for the Rural School Lunch                  191
    Useful Bulletins                                         200

Household Science Without School Equipment                   201
    First Method                                             201
    Second Method                                            204

The Fireless Cooker                                          208
    Directions for Fireless Cooker--No. I                    210
        The Outside Container                                210
        The Insulating Material                              212
        The Inside Container                                 214
        The Kettle                                           214
        Extra Source of Heat                                 215
        Covering Pad                                         215
    Directions for Fireless Cooker--No. II                   217
        Method of Making                                     217
    Directions for Fireless Cooker--No. III                  217
        Method of Making                                     218

Use of the Fireless Cooker in the Preparation of Lunches     218

Special Grants for Rural and Village Schools                 221


This Manual is issued for the purpose of encouraging the introduction
and furthering the progress of Household Science in the rural schools of
this Province. There are 903 urban and 5,697 rural schools, and 45.87%
of the school population is in attendance at the latter schools. The
value of Household Science as an educational and practical subject has
been recognized, to some extent, in the urban schools of the Province
but, up to the present, little attempt has been made to give the subject
a place among the activities of the rural schools.

There is a wide-spread impression that it is not possible in Household
Science to give any instruction that is of value without the provision
of separate rooms, elaborate equipment, and specially trained teachers.
Where these conditions exist, of course, the best work can be
accomplished; but, even where they cannot be realized, much may be done
toward giving definite, useful instruction in the cardinal principles of
home-making, which should be learned by every girl. There is certainly
not a single rural school where some practical work in sewing and some
valuable lessons in the care of the home may not be given. As for
cookery, it is doubtful if there is a single school so small and so
helpless that it is unable to use the hot noon-day lunch as a method of
approach to this branch of the subject.

Students of the physical welfare of children are rapidly coming to the
conclusion that a warm mid-day meal greatly increases the efficiency of
the pupil and determines to a large extent the results of the
afternoon's study. There are other benefits to be derived from a school
lunch well prepared under proper conditions. In many communities it has
been the means of bringing about a healthy and satisfactory co-operation
between the school and the home, of developing a higher social life in
the neighbourhood, and of introducing into the school a Household
Science course, which has proved as great a benefit to the farmer's wife
as to his children.

This Manual deals entirely with conditions that exist in our rural
schools and outlines only such plans and schemes as can be carried out,
even in adverse circumstances, by alert trustees, sympathetic
inspectors, and resourceful teachers.

Permission has been obtained from the Bureau of Education, Washington,
U.S.A., to make use of a recently issued bulletin--"Three Courses in
Home-making for Rural Schools", and of various bulletins issued by State
Agricultural Colleges. The freest use has been made of this material,
and the permission to do so is hereby gratefully acknowledged.

Only such theory as can be readily assimilated has been given; and the
teacher is advised for further information and help to consult the
Manuals issued by the Department of Education on _Household Management_
and _Sewing_. Those who wish to become thoroughly competent and to earn
the highest Departmental grants should attend the Summer Schools
provided by the Department of Education. Under certain conditions the
expenses of teachers attending these courses are paid by the Department.

Nothing has been included or recommended that cannot be accomplished in
the average rural school; and trustees, teachers, and inspectors are
urged to make a beginning by selecting the lessons that appeal to them
as being most suitable to the districts in which their schools are

By careful planning and a wise use of the time before and after school
and during recess, the regular organization of the school need not be
interfered with; and, in addition to the educational and social
advantages to be derived from undertaking this work, much benefit will
result from the increased interest taken in the school by the parents
and the general public.

It is not essential that the lessons in this Manual should be taken
exactly in the order given. Any other arrangement called for by the
peculiar circumstances of the school is admissible.

The Inspector of Manual Training and Household Science is ready at all
times to visit rural schools for the purpose of conferring with the
Public School Inspectors, the trustees, and the teachers regarding the
introduction of Household Science as a regular subject of the school




The three brief courses in home-making outlined in this Manual have been
especially prepared for use in elementary rural schools. They are in no
sense complete outlines of the subjects with which they deal; rather,
they indicate a few of the important phases of food study, sewing, and
the care of the home with which the pupil in the elementary school
should become familiar. The underlying thought for each problem should
be: "Will this help the pupils to live more useful lives, and will it
lead to better conditions in their homes?"

The lessons are purposely made simple, and the plans are definitely
outlined, so that even the inexperienced teacher may be able to achieve
a certain measure of success. The experienced teacher will find in them
suggestions that may be of value in the further development of the

The teacher who desires to use this course will necessarily have to
adapt it to her own community, and it is hoped that she may be able to
do this with but little alteration. While conditions of living and
choice of foods differ in various parts of the Province, the general
principles of nutrition, the rules of sanitation, and the methods of
cooking and serving are much the same for all.

Owing to the difficulty of securing time on the programme for frequent
lessons in home-making, each of the courses has been limited to twenty
lessons. Some teachers may not be able to have a greater number of
lessons during the school year, and they may find it well to carry the
three courses through three successive years. In other schools, where
more frequent lessons can be given, it may be well to offer all three
courses during one year. The courses in cooking and the care of the home
can be advantageously combined, as many of the problems in both are
related. The lessons in sewing may be given on another day of the week,
or it may be well to give them early in the year, to be followed, later,
by the cooking lessons. Thus an opportunity will be furnished for the
making of the cooking aprons and the hemming of the towels.

It is most desirable that periods of at least forty minutes should be
provided for all the practical lessons. Longer periods will be necessary
for some of them, such as the preparation and the serving of a meal. If
no practical work is undertaken in the lesson, a forty-minute period is


In addition to the text-books recommended as sources of special
reference for the rural teacher, the following books, bearing on home
economics or on methods of teaching, are suggested for the rural school
library. These books have been chosen with the threefold purpose of
providing references for the teachers, reading matter for the pupils,
and a lending library for the parents.

_Laundering._ Balderston, L. Ray. Pub. by the Author.
    Philadelphia                                                $1.25

_Country Life and the Country School._ Carney, M. Row,
    Peterson & Co., Chicago                                      1.25

_How the World is Fed._ Carpenter, F. O. American Book
    Co., New York                                                 .60

_How the World is Clothed._ Carpenter, F. O. American
    Book Co., New York                                            .60

_How the World is Housed._ Carpenter, F. O. American
    Book Co., New York                                            .60

_How We Are Clothed._ Chamberlain, J. F. Macmillan's,
    Toronto                                                       .45

_How We Are Fed._ Chamberlain, J. F. Macmillan's,
    Toronto                                                       .45

_How We Are Sheltered._ Chamberlain, J. F. Macmillan's,
    Toronto                                                       .45

_Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds in the Home._ Conn, H. W.
    Ginn & Co., Boston                                            1.00

_The Boston Cooking-school Cook Book._ Farmer, F. M.
    Little, Brown & Co., Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild
    & Stewart, Toronto)                                           1.80

_The Rural School Lunch._ Farnsworth, N. W. Webb Pub.
    Co., St. Paul, Minn.                                           .25

_Clothing and Shelter._ Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M.
    Macmillan's, Toronto                                          1.10

_Foods and Household Management._ Kinne, H., and Cooley,
    A. M. Macmillan's, Toronto                                    1.10

_Means and Methods of Agricultural Education._ Leake,
    A. H. Houghton, Mifflin Co., New York. (Thos. Allen,
    Toronto)                                                      2.00

_Rural Hygiene._ Ogden, H. N. Saunders, Philadelphia              1.50

_Health and Cleanliness._ O'Shea, M. V., and Kellogg, J. H.
    Macmillan's, Toronto                                           .56

_Rural Education._ Pickard, A. E. Webb Pub. Co., St. Paul,
    Minn.                                                         1.00

_Manual of Personal Hygiene._ Pyle, W. L. Saunders,
    Philadelphia                                                  1.50

_Feeding the Family._ Rose, M. S. Macmillan's, Toronto            2.10

_Food Products._ Sherman, H. C. Macmillan's, Toronto              2.00



The purpose of this course is to give the pupils instruction in various
household tasks, in order that better living conditions may be secured
in the homes. The beauty and sacredness of an ideal home life should
receive emphasis, so that the pupils may be impressed with the
importance of conscientious work in the performance of their daily
household duties. They should have some insight into the sanitary,
economic, and social problems that are involved in housekeeping, so that
they may develop an increased appreciation of the importance of the
home-maker's work.

The two most important things to be taught are "cleanliness and order".
Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the value of fresh air and
sunshine and the necessity for the free use of hot water and soap. The
value of property should also be emphasized. Economy in the purchase and
handling of house furnishings and equipment should be considered.
Instruction should also be given in the care of foods and clothing and
in the care and arrangement of furniture. Simple instruction in the care
of babies should be given, since the older children are often
responsible, to some extent, for the care of the younger members of
their families.

In some of the lessons more subjects may be suggested than the teacher
will have time to take up in a single period. In that case it will be
well for her to choose the subject which seems most vital to the
immediate needs of the community. In many cases she may be able to give
an increased number of lessons. Practice and drill in all of the
processes involved in housewifery are essential to successful training.

If a cupboard and a table have been arranged for the use of the cooking
classes, most of the suggested work can be carried out with the school
equipment. Where there is no equipment in the school and school
conditions do not approximate home conditions, it may be possible to
secure permission to give the lesson after school hours in the home of
one of the pupils who lives nearby.

In each lesson the teacher, while giving the pupils helpful general
information on the subject under discussion, should strive to impress on
them the importance of doing some one simple thing well.

The rural teacher who is eager to make her school-room an attractive
place may devote some time in these lessons to such problems as the
hanging and the care of simple curtains, the care of indoor plants, the
arrangement of pictures, the planning of storage arrangements for
supplies and of cupboards for dishes, and the preparations for the
serving of the school lunch.

In order to teach these lessons effectively, it is desirable to have the
following simple equipment on hand. Additional special equipment may be
borrowed from the homes.


  Broom, 1
  Cloths for cleaning, 6
  Dish-cloths, 2
  Dish-towels, 12
  Dust-brush, 1
  Dust-pan, 1
  Garbage can (covered), 1
  Lamp, 1
  Oil-can, 1


_Rural Hygiene._ Brewer, I. W. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia
_The Healthful Farmhouse._ Dodd, H. Whitcomb & Barrows,
    Boston                                                      .60
_Community Hygiene._ Hutchinson, Woods. Houghton, Mifflin Co.,
    New York. (Thos. Allen, Toronto)                            .65
_Foods and Sanitation._ Forster, G. H., and Weigley, M.
    Row, Peterson &. Co., Chicago                              1.00
_The Home and the Family._ Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M.
    Macmillan's, Toronto                                        .80
_Housekeeping Notes._ Kittredge, M. H. Whitcomb &
    Barrows, Boston                                             .80
_Practical Home-making._ Kittredge, M. H. The Century
    Co., New York                                               .70
_A Second Course in Home-making._ Kittredge, M. H.
    The Century Co., New York                                   .80



In arranging the kitchen, the three things of most importance are the
stove, the sink, and the kitchen table. If there is no sink in the
kitchen, there will be some other place arranged for washing the dishes,
probably the kitchen table, and this must be taken into consideration
when the furniture is placed. As most of the work is done at the stove
and the table, both these must be placed where they will have a good
light, and they should be close to each other, so that but few steps are
necessary for the worker.

In furnishing the kitchen, the housekeeper will find a high stool very
useful, as it will enable her to wash dishes, prepare vegetables, and do
other work while seated.

All the furniture should be kept so clean and free from dust that the
kitchen will have a neat and attractive appearance. A vase of flowers or
a potted plant, and a washable table-cover to be used after the dishes
have been put away, will help to make this room a pleasant place for the
family. Special attention should be given to the ventilation.

The kitchen should be thoroughly cleaned after each meal. If it has
become dusty or disarranged, it should be put in order before the next
meal is to be prepared. While the cooking is under way, everything
should be kept in an orderly condition. As soon as the meal is
completed, the left-over food should be covered and put away; the scraps
and waste material should be gathered and disposed of; and the dishes,
pots, and pans should be scraped, and washed in hot, soapy water, then
rinsed in clear, hot water, dried, and put away. The table should be
scrubbed, the stove cleaned, the floor swept and scrubbed whenever
necessary, and everything put neatly in its place.

_Care of the coal or wood range._--All spots should be removed from the
range by wiping it with old paper. If it is in bad condition, it should
be washed with soap and water. If it is oiled occasionally, blacking
will not be necessary; but if blacking is used, it should be applied
with a cloth and rubbed to a polish with a brush, just as the fire is
being started. The ashes and soot flues back of the oven and underneath
it should be cleaned out once a week.

_Directions for building a fire._--To build and care for a fire in the
coal or wood range, close all the dampers, clean the grate, and remove
the ashes from the pan. Put on the covers and brush the dust off the
stove. Open the creative damper and the oven damper, leaving the check
damper closed. Lay some paper, slightly crumpled into rolls, across the
base of the grate. Place small pieces of kindling wood across one
another, with the large pieces on top. Lay pieces of hardwood or a
shovelful of coal on top of the kindling, building so as to admit of the
free circulation of air. If the stove is to be polished, rub it with
blacking. Light the paper from below. When the fire begins to burn
briskly, add coal or wood: then add more when that kindles. When the
fire is well started and blue flame is no longer seen (about ten
minutes), close the oven damper. Close the creative damper when the fire
is sufficiently hot. Brush the stove and the floor beneath it as soon as
the fire is started. Polish the stove. If the fire becomes too hot, open
the check damper. Fill the tea-kettle with fresh water and set it on the
front of the range.

_Care of the sink, wash-basin, and garbage pail._--A neglected sink or
garbage pail may be a fruitful source of disease, in addition to
attracting water-bugs and other pests. Scraps should never be left in
the sink. After washing the dishes it should be thoroughly cleaned, a
brush and scouring material being used. The nickel part may be washed
with hot soap-suds, wiped dry, and polished. Water should never be left
in the wash-basin. Both the soap-dish and the wash-basin should be
scoured daily. The garbage pail should be emptied and washed every day,
and carefully scalded once or twice a week.


It will be well to have this lesson succeed or follow a cooking lesson,
for then the pupils will have a keener interest in the problems of the
kitchen. (See Twenty Lessons in Cooking, Lesson I.)


Cleanliness and order are the two points to be considered in this
lesson. The doing well of each simple household task and the thoughtful
arrangement and planning of all parts of the house should be emphasized
as being of great importance to the housekeeper's success.

Begin the lesson with a discussion of the purpose of the kitchen; then
discuss its arrangement from the standpoint of convenience for the work
that must be done there. Emphasize the importance of having the
furniture so arranged that the work may be done quickly and easily, and
that the kitchen may be given a comfortable and attractive appearance.
Let the pupils arrange the furniture in the school-room. Discuss and
demonstrate the care of the stove by the use of the school stove. Assign
each pupil a time when she is to look after the stove on succeeding days
and grade her on her work. Let each pupil bring a report from home as to
what she is doing to help in the care of the home kitchen. Make a
specific assignment for home work.

Questions Used to Develop the Lesson

What is the purpose of the kitchen?

What are the principal articles of furniture in the kitchen?

How should we arrange these things?

Can we make any general rules as to arrangements?

Why is it difficult to keep the kitchen clean?

At what times is the kitchen most apt to become disarranged?

Why is it important to keep the kitchen in good order?

In what order should the kitchen be at the time we begin the preparation
  of the meal?

How should the floor be cleaned? The utensils?

What should we do with any left-over food?

How should we take care of the stove after the meal?



It is of the utmost importance that cupboards and other places where
food is stored should be kept free from dirt and scraps of food. Ants,
cockroaches, mice, and other pests infest dirty places where food is
kept, and render a house unfit for human habitation. It requires
constant care and watchfulness on the part of the housewife to keep the
cupboards clean. She must look over the shelves daily, wiping them off
whenever they need it, and giving them a thorough cleaning at least once
a week.

The housekeeper should know how to care for the various utensils used
and understand the simplest and best methods of keeping them clean.
Utensils should never be put in the cupboards until perfectly clean and
dry. Particular attention should be paid to the care of milk vessels.
Pans, pails, pitchers, or bottles in which milk has been kept, should be
rinsed in cold water, washed in strong, clean soap-suds, rinsed in
clean, boiling water, and dried in the sun. If utensils have become
discoloured or badly coated, they should be specially scoured. If
something has been burned in a kettle, the kettle should be cleaned by
filling with cold water, adding washing-soda, and boiling briskly for
half an hour; after that a slight scraping ought to remove the burned
portion. If the kettle is not yet clean, the process should be repeated.
If a kettle has been used directly over a wood fire and becomes
blackened with soot, it should be rubbed off with a newspaper and then
with an old cloth. Kettles should be dried well before being put away.
With proper care they seldom become rusty. If an iron kettle has rusted,
it should be rubbed with kerosene and ashes, then washed in strong, hot,
soda-water, rinsed in clear hot water, and dried on the stove. If a
kettle is very rusty, it should be covered thoroughly with some sort of
grease, sprinkled with lime, and left overnight. In the morning it
should be washed out with hot soda-water and rinsed in clear, hot water.
A new kettle is generally rusty, and should be greased thoroughly inside
and out and allowed to stand for two days; then washed in hot

Bath-brick should be used for scouring iron utensils and steel knives
and forks. If iron pots and frying-pans are scrubbed with a piece of
bath-brick each time they are used and then washed in hot soap-suds,
they can be kept in good condition. Tinware and steel knives and forks
may be cleaned by scouring with ashes, but only fine ashes should be
used on tinware. The brown stains on granite utensils should be scoured
off; and this ware should be carefully handled, in order to avoid
chipping. Coffee-pots and tea-pots should be cleaned daily, the grounds
removed, and the interior of the pots washed out thoroughly. The
tea-kettle should be washed and dried overnight and left uncovered to


If school lunches are served or cooking lessons are given at the school,
it will be well to use this lesson to get the cupboards in readiness. If
it is impossible to do this at school, arrange to have such a lesson in
one of the homes outside of school hours. Be sure that the housekeeper
is in sympathy with the work and is willing to co-operate.


Assign each pupil a task in the cleaning, the scouring of the dishes,
and the arrangement of the cupboard. Set a definite amount to be done
and carry out the plans, leaving a clean and neatly arranged cupboard at
the end of the lesson.



Several important points must be borne in mind if foods are to be kept
in a good condition. Most foods change easily. Vegetables and fruits
lose water, wilt, and become unfit to eat. Flour and corn-meal become
mouldy. Potatoes decay and sprout. Some foods, such as milk, turn sour.
Eggs become tainted, and fat grows rancid. With proper care in handling,
storing, and keeping, this spoiling can be prevented.

The spoiling of foods is due to the presence of micro-organisms; and if
foods are fresh and sound and kept cool and clean in every way, they
will not spoil readily, because such conditions are unfavourable to the
development of the micro-organisms. On the other hand, if foods are
roughly handled and bruised, decomposition will take place readily, for
micro-organisms develop in the bruised portions. Care must, therefore,
be taken to select foods wisely, handle them carefully, wash them if
they are not already clean, put them in clean receptacles, and keep them
in a clean, cool place. All pots, pans, and dishes in which foods are
kept or cooked should be thoroughly cleansed and rinsed well, so that no
fragments stick to them which may decay and cause possible infection to
the next food that is put in. Every part of the kitchen and store-rooms
should be kept clean, dry, and well aired. Light is the best germicide
and purifier known.

Covered receptacles should be secured for all foods. Those that are
mouse-proof and insect-proof are essential to a well-kept pantry. All
bottles and cans should be neatly labelled and so arranged that each one
can be conveniently reached. The outside of the bottle or case should
always be wiped off after it has been opened and food has been removed
from it. The shelves on which the cases are kept should be wiped off
every day. If supplies of fruit or vegetables are kept on hand, they
should be looked over frequently, and whatever shows even the slightest
suggestion of spoiling should be removed. Bread should be kept in a
covered tin box, and the box should be washed out once or twice a week
and frequently scalded and aired.


If cooking lessons are to be given, it will be well to take this lesson
on the care of foods in connection with the first cooking lesson, and to
make it a means of arranging for the materials that are to be kept on
hand and of determining how everything is to be handled.


Devote a large part of the lesson to a discussion of the necessity for
care in the handling, storing, and keeping of foods. If facilities
permit, devote a few minutes to the putting away of foods that are to be
used in the next cooking lesson or in the school lunch, discussing the
reasons for such care.



If the daily disposal of waste is attended to, there will be no
undesirable accumulation of garbage. Scraps of food that cannot be
utilized for the table should be fed to the pigs or the chickens and
should not be allowed to stand and gather flies. A covered pail or pan
should be used for holding the garbage, until final disposal is made of
it. Those portions that are badly spoiled and will be of no value in
feeding the stock should be burned at once. Waste vegetable substances,
if suitable, should be fed to the stock, and if not, should be buried in
a thin layer on the ground at some distance from the house, so that they
may enrich the soil.

Old papers that are badly soiled should be burned, but all others should
be kept for use in cleaning the stove, starting the fires, etc. Empty
cans should be well washed and buried, so that they will not prove a
breeding-place for flies. It is well to pierce them through the bottom
immediately after opening them, so that they will not hold water.
Dish-water should be emptied at some distance from the house, unless
there is a drain nearby. All receptacles that hold water should be
carefully emptied, and all depressions in the soil should be filled, in
order to prevent mosquitoes from breeding. All waste water should be
used on the garden.

_Protection of the water supply._--Only the water from deep wells should
be used for drinking purposes, because all surface water and water in
shallow wells becomes dangerous through seepage from compost, pig-pens,
privies, and other places where decayed organic matter may accumulate.
In order that the water may be kept clean, the well must be supplied
with a tight-fitting top which need not be opened and a metal pump to
bring up the water. A well platform that allows the water spilled on it
to run back into the well is unsafe, for any filth carried on the
platform in any way will be washed directly into it. Rats, mice, and
other animals get into the well if the top is not tight, and these, in
addition to being unpleasant, are liable to introduce disease germs.

_Simple disinfectants._--Sunshine and fresh air are nature's
disinfectants and should be freely admitted to every part of the house.
Windows should be left open whenever possible. The windows in the
sleeping rooms should always be opened at night. The interior of the
house should be kept perfectly dry. Decay does not easily take place in
dry places. A damp cellar should be drained, and the grounds around the
house should not be allowed to drain into the cellar. Coarse coal ashes
should be used to fill in around the house, on the walks, etc., to help
in securing thorough drainage. Wood ashes may be used as a simple
disinfectant to cover decayed organic matter. Whitewash is a good
disinfectant and should be frequently used both inside and outside the
house and on all out-buildings. Kerosene and creosote also make good

_Care of out-of-door closets._--The privy should be so arranged that it
may be cleaned often and all excreta disposed of in a safe way. The
building should be so well constructed that there will be no cracks for
the admission of flies. In a poorly constructed building, old paper can
be pasted over the cracks, to make the structure fly-proof. Dry earth,
street dust, or lime should be frequently sprinkled over the excreta,
and the seat should be closed, to prevent the entrance of flies or
mosquitoes. The seat should be washed frequently, and both the seat and
the floor scrubbed at least once a week.


It will be well to teach this lesson at a time when improvements are
necessary in the care of the school-house. The discussions in regard to
out-of-door closets will, of course, be taken when the girls are alone
with the teacher.


Discuss the disposal of waste, the care of garbage, etc., in the home
and the school. Talk over the care of waste from the school lunch and
discuss methods of keeping the school in a sanitary condition. Follow
this by a general cleaning of the school-house.



_Home-Made Hard Soap_

  6 lb. fat
  1 can lye
  1 pt. cold water
  1 tbsp. borax

Melt the fat slowly. Mix the lye and water in a bowl or kettle (do not
use a tin pan), stirring with a stick until the potash dissolves. Add
the borax and allow the mixture to cool. Cool the fat and, when it is
lukewarm, add the lye, pouring it in a thin stream and stirring
constantly. Stir with a smooth stick until about as thick as honey, and
continue stirring for ten minutes. Pour the mixture into a box and allow
it to harden. Cut into pieces the desired size and leave in a cool, dry
place for ten days, to ripen before using.

When making the soap, be careful not to spill potash or lye on the
hands, as it makes a bad burn. If the hands are burned, rub them with
grease at once. Do not wet them.


Some time before this lesson is given ask the pupils to bring scraps of
fat from home. See that these are in good condition, and weigh them, to
determine the portion of the recipe that can be made. Ask one of the
pupils to bring sufficient borax for the recipe.


Let the pupils look the fat over and put it on to melt, watching it
carefully. While it is heating and cooling, discuss the process of
soap-making, the cost of materials, the care necessary in the making of
soap, and the importance of its use. Get ready the other materials, and
a box for moulding the soap, and let the pupils work together. After the
soap has hardened and been cut, have it put away on a shelf to dry.



The following points must be remembered when a meal is to be served: The
dining-room must be clean, well aired, sufficiently lighted, and in good

The table must be perfectly clean and covered with a clean white cover
(table-cloth, doilies, paper napkins, or oil-cloth).

A vase of flowers or leaves or a small potted plant, in the centre of
the table, will help to make it attractive.

The table should be prepared with everything necessary for serving the
meal, but only those foods should be placed on it that will not be
spoiled by standing. If there is danger of the food attracting flies,
cover it carefully.

Plates for everyone who is to partake of the meal should be arranged at
equal distances from one another, and half an inch from the edge of the

The knife should be placed at the right of the plate with the cutting
edge toward the plate, and one inch from the edge of the table.

The fork should be placed at the left of the plate with the tines turned
up, and one inch from the edge of the table.

The spoon should be placed, bowl upward, at the right of the plate, to
the right of the knife. It should be placed one inch from the edge of
the table. Spoons and forks for serving should be placed at the right
and left of the dish to be served, or in another convenient position. No
one should have to use the personal fork or spoon for serving.

The napkins should be folded simply and placed at the left of the fork.

The tumbler should be placed at the upper end of the knife.

The cups and saucers should be placed at the right of the plate with the
handle of the cup toward the right.

The bread-and-butter plate, if used, should be placed at the upper left
hand of the fork.

The salt-cellars and pepper-shakers should be placed near the centre of
the table or at the sides, where they can be conveniently reached.
Individual salt-cellars, if used, should be placed immediately in front
of the individual plate.

The chairs should be placed at the table after it is set. Care should be
taken not to put them so close to it that it will be necessary to move
them after they are occupied.


If possible, arrange to give this lesson before Lesson VIII in the
series of "Twenty Lessons in Cooking" is given; then the emphasis in
that lesson may be put upon the food to be served, proper combinations,
etc., while this lesson gives the drill in the arrangement and handling
of the dishes.

It is desirable to give the pupils a thorough drill in table setting and
table service, since much of the pleasure derived from eating depends
upon the attention paid to these processes.

Be careful to see that everything necessary is on hand to set the table
simply but daintily. For class practice a small table may be set for
four. This will necessitate a table-cover, four or more dinner plates,
four bread-and-butter plates, four tumblers, four cups and saucers, four
knives, four forks, four teaspoons, four napkins, a salt-cellar, a
pepper-shaker, a platter, one serving spoon, and one serving fork. If
these things are not already in the school, probably they can be brought
from home by the pupils. If linen cloths are not used and cannot be
afforded on the tables in the homes, the pupils should be taught to use
a white oil-cloth.

Have a diagram made on the black-board by one of the pupils of the
arrangement of an individual place at the table.

[Illustration: _Fig. 1._--Arrangement of an individual place at table
1. Knife 2. Spoon 3. Tumbler 4. Fork 5. Napkin
6. Bread-and-butter plate 7. Dinner plate]


The process of table setting should be demonstrated with the materials
at hand, and the work should be adapted to home conditions.

If there is no available table in the school-room, the desk tops may be
used for individual places.

Reasons for the arrangement of the table should be given--the
convenience of placing the knives and the spoons to the right, the forks
to the left, the cup and saucer and the tumbler to the right, the use of
the napkin, etc.



The one who is to wait on table must be careful to see that everything
is in readiness before the meal is announced, so that she can do her
work easily, without subjecting those at the table to unnecessary delay.
She should have water, bread, and butter (if used), hot dishes ready for
the hot foods, and dessert dishes conveniently at hand. She must see
that her hands are perfectly clean and her hair and dress in order. A
clean, neat apron will always improve her appearance. The room should be
clean and neatly arranged.

If the meal is to be a family one and all are to sit at the table
together, plates will be passed from one to another as they are served:
but it will still be well to have one person appointed to wait on the
table. She should be ready to supply more bread, water, etc., when it is
necessary, and to change the plates for the dessert course. She should
rise from the table quickly and quietly, in order not to disturb others,
and should take her place again as soon as the necessary service has
been rendered.

The following rules should be observed: Hold the tumblers near the
bottom, being careful not to touch the upper edge. Fill only
three-quarters full.

Put the butter on the table just before the meal is announced, and serve
in neat, compact pieces.

Cut the bread in even slices, pile them neatly on a serving plate, and
place it on the table, covering it with a clean napkin or towel, if
there are flies about or there is danger of dust. If preferred, the
bread may be cut at the table as required. Place the dessert dishes at
one end of the table or, better still, on a side table, until it is time
to use them. When carrying the dishes to and from the table, be careful
not to let the fingers come in contact with the food. Learn to place the
hand under the dish. In particular service a napkin is used between the
hand and the dish, or a tray, if the dish is a small one. The tray
should be covered with a napkin or doily.

When a dish is being passed, hold it at the left of the person to be
served and at a convenient height and distance. Be sure that each dish
is supplied with a spoon or a fork for serving, and turn the handle of
the spoon or the fork toward the one to be served.

If a plate is to be placed in front of a person, set it down from the
right. Never reach in front of others at the table.

When a course is finished, remove the dishes containing the food first;
then the soiled plates, knives, and forks. Be careful to handle only a
few dishes at a time and not to pile them. If another course is to be
served, remove the crumbs from the table, using for the purpose a napkin
and plate, or a crumb tray and brush, and brushing the crumbs lightly
into the plate. Fill the tumblers, and arrange the dishes and forks or
spoons quickly for the next course.

When the meal is over, the chairs should be moved back from the table,
the dishes neatly piled and carried to the kitchen sink, the table
wiped, the crumbs brushed from the floor, and the room aired.


Let this lesson be a continuation of the previous one, placing emphasis
on the method of waiting on table. The same articles will be required as
were used in the last lesson. In addition to these the pupils must be
careful to have clean aprons for this lesson.


Have the table set, as a review of the work of the last lesson; then
have four or six of the pupils seat themselves and go through the forms
of serving one another to any simple meal upon which the class may
decide. Family meal service should be explained and demonstrated first;
then service where there is one waitress. Have the pupils, in turn, act
as waitresses and serve all the others, offering and placing the food,
removing the soiled dishes, filling the tumblers, etc.



Rooms which are in constant use should be swept and dusted every day. A
thorough cleaning of each room in the house will be necessary every week
or two, even though the room is swept and kept in order daily. First,
all cupboards, drawers, and other receptacles in which articles collect
should be cleaned; then all large movable articles should be dusted and
moved out of the room; those that are not readily movable should be
dusted and covered. The floor should be swept with the windows open; the
ceiling and walls should be brushed with a covered broom, and the dust
allowed to settle. The floor should then be wiped with a damp cloth on
the broom.[A] The woodwork should be cleaned with a damp cloth and a
soap that is not too strong. Soda or sapolio should not be used. The
furniture should be carefully uncovered, and everything arranged in
perfect order.

    [A] If the floor is of unfinished-wood, it will require a
    thorough scrubbing. After sweeping the floor and allowing
    the dust to settle, a small portion at a time should be
    scrubbed with a floor-brush and soap. When scrubbing, the
    grain of the wood should be followed. The scrubbing-water
    should be changed frequently. For rinsing and drying the
    floor, a cloth should be wrung out of clear water.

The things that are highest should be dusted first, and care should be
taken to collect all the dust in the dust-cloth. After collecting the
dust, the cloth should be shaken out-of-doors, washed thoroughly, and
boiled. The dust-cloth should be dampened before using on all surfaces
except the polished furniture and windows.

Sweeping should be done with short strokes and the broom should be kept
close to the floor, so that the dust will not be scattered. The corners
of the room should be swept first, the dust gathered in the centre, and
then swept into the dust-pan. The dust should be burned, for it may
contain disease germs. Loose hairs and fluff should be removed from the
broom after using, and it should also be washed periodically.

Small rugs should be cleaned out-of-doors. They should be swept, beaten,
and re-swept, then rolled until ready to be put on the floor. If the rug
is a large one and cannot be removed, it should be wiped over with a
damp cloth, rolled, and the under side of the rug and the floor beneath
it should be wiped.

After the room has been cleaned, the windows should be arranged so that
a supply of fresh, clean air can come constantly into it. This is
essential to every room in the house, if perfect health is to be


It will be well to have Lesson IX given in one of the homes some day
after school hours, if possible. If that cannot be arranged, the
school-room may be utilized as the place for practice.


Devote Lesson VIII to a discussion of the methods of cleaning and to
various short tasks in connection with the school-room. In Lesson IX
have the pupils go through the entire process of cleaning a room. Assign
some portion of the task to each one of them, so that all may take part
in the work. Supervise the work carefully, assign home practice, and
have each pupil clean a room at home once a week for a month.



As soon as one is dressed in the morning, the windows in the bed-room
should be opened wide to air the room thoroughly, and the bed-clothes
should be removed and put on chairs before the window to air. The night
clothing should also be aired. The slops should be emptied, and the
chamber should be washed with cold water, using a special cloth. The
basin should be washed in warm, soapy water, which should then be poured
into the chamber and used for washing it. The toilet articles should be
washed, then the basin rinsed and wiped dry. The slop jar should be
washed out thoroughly, and both the slop jar and the chamber should be
cleaned frequently with chloride of lime or some other disinfectant. The
pitcher should be filled with fresh water, and all the articles arranged
neatly on the wash-stand. If the towels are soiled, clean ones should be
supplied. The mattress should be turned and the bed made carefully; the
lower sheet being tucked under the mattress all around, and the other
covers tucked in at the bottom and sides of the bed. The bed should be
kept free from wrinkles and smooth in appearance, and the pillows should
be well shaken and arranged at the head of the bed. The floor should be
swept, the furniture dusted, and everything put in place. The windows
should be left partly opened, so that the bed-room may be well aired.
Fresh air is always necessary, but especially during sleep, when the
body is repairing itself, and it is important that the room should be
well aired during the day and the windows left open at night.

When the room is to be thoroughly cleaned, the frame of the bed should
be dusted, the mattress turned, and the bed should be made. The window
shades should be dusted and rolled up. The curtains should be well
shaken and covered, if one has a dust sheet. All the small articles on
the bureau, table, and shelf should be placed on the bed, and the whole
covered with a sheet. The tables, chairs, and any other movable
furniture should be dusted and placed outside the room or covered. The
rugs should be rolled and cleaned out-of-doors. The room should be swept
and dusted. As soon as the dust has settled, the covers should be
removed, and the furniture, rugs, and all the small articles should be
restored to their places. The shades should be adjusted, and the room
left in perfect order. The broom and everything else that has been used
in the work should be cleaned and put back into their places.


It may be possible for the teacher to give this lesson in her own
bed-room or in the bed-room of one of the neighbours. If this is not
feasible, the only way to make it effective is to have the pupils report
each day on the work they do at home.


Illustrate each process and give the reasons for everything that is
done. Emphasize the importance of the sanitary care of the bed-room, a
regular time for doing the work, and the benefit of having each member
of the family care for her own personal belongings and her own portion
of the bed-room.


It is assumed that the teacher is acquainted with the possibilities of
electricity and other methods of better lighting in country homes, and
will instruct her pupils in the economic use of modern lighting


_Directions for cleaning and filling lamps._--A bright light comes from
clean burners that allow a good draught. This means constant care on the
part of the one who looks after the lamps. In the daily cleaning, first
dust the chimney shade and the body of the lamp. Wash the chimney. If
sooty, clean with a newspaper before washing. Next, turn the wick high
enough to show all the charred part; cut this off, making it perfectly
even, then rub with a piece of soft paper. Wipe the burner and any other
part of the lamp that may be oily. Dry with another cloth. Fill the body
of the lamp with oil to within an inch of the top, leaving plenty of
room for the gas that may be generated from the kerosene, as this gas,
in a lamp that has been used many times without refilling, may be a
source of danger.

When lighting the lamp, turn the wick down, allowing the chimney to
become heated gradually. If it is necessary to move the lighted lamp,
turn the wick low. The flaring up of the flame smokes the chimney. Do
not leave a lighted lamp in a room where there is no one to watch it.
When putting out the light, blow across the chimney, never down into it,
as this might send the flame down into the kerosene.

About once a month give the lamp a thorough cleaning. Spread out a
newspaper and take the lamp apart. Wash the chimney and the shade in hot
water, dry with a towel, and polish, using soft paper. Boil every part
of the burner in water to which two tablespoonfuls of soda have been
added. Insert new wicks if the old ones are dirty, and put the parts all
securely together again. Keep an old pan and some cloths exclusively for
this purpose, and be very careful not to allow the dirty hands or a drop
of kerosene to come near any food.

Have a regular time in the day for cleaning the lamps, preferably
immediately after all the morning work has been done after breakfast. Do
not fill the lamps near the kitchen stove. Do not light a match while
the oil-can is near, and never fill a lamp while it is lighted or while
near another one which is lighted. If a fire is caused by kerosene,
smother it with a heavy rug or a woollen garment, and do not attempt to
put it out with water.


It will be well to give this lesson just before some evening
entertainment at the school-house. If there are no lamps at the school
have a few brought in from neighbouring homes. Secure an old pan and
some cloths to use in cleaning.


Discuss with the pupils the cost and properties of kerosene and the
danger of having a light or too great heat near a can of kerosene.
Explain the draught by means of which the kerosene can be made to burn
on the wick and the danger if the burner becomes clogged up and the
draught is cut off. Have the lamps taken apart, the burners boiled, the
chimneys cleaned, and the body of the lamps filled and wiped off. Then
have the lamps lighted, to see that they burn properly.



Household pests are annoying, dangerous to health, and destructive to
property. They carry disease germs from one person to another and from
the lower animals to human beings. Absolute cleanliness is essential, if
the house is to be kept free from pests. As a rule, they flourish in
dark, damp, dirty places. With proper care the housekeeper can keep her
house free from them and, if they are noticed, she should know how to
exterminate them.

A few simple methods of extermination are here given:

_Bedbugs._--Kerosene should be poured into all the cracks, and a brush,
dipped in kerosene, run briskly over all surfaces. Care must be taken to
have no fire in the room while this is being done. The windows should be
open, and the room should be kept free from dust. In four days this
should be repeated, in order to kill any bugs that may have just

_Cockroaches and water-bugs._--A solution of one pound of alum to three
pints of water should be poured into all the cracks. Insect-powder and
borax are also effective. Absolute cleanliness and freedom from dampness
are necessary, if the house is to be kept free from cockroaches.

_Ants._--Oil of cloves or pennyroyal on pieces of cotton-batting
scattered about in the places where ants appear will drive them away.
Saturating the nests with coal-oil will destroy them. Food which
attracts ants should be removed from places which they are able to

_Rats and mice._--These are best exterminated by the use of a trap or
some preparation such as "Rough on Rats". Traps should be set nightly
and should be scalded and aired after a mouse has been caught. Rat holes
may be stopped by sprinkling with chloride of lime and then filling with
mortar or plaster of Paris.

_Mosquitoes._--These breed in swampy places, or in old barrels or kegs
or tin cans which hold stagnant water. Therefore, if the swampy places
are drained and the grounds about the house are kept free from stagnant
water, the housekeeper will, as a rule, not be troubled with mosquitoes.
Empty barrels or kegs should be inverted, and old tin cans should have a
hole punched in the bottom, so that they will not hold water. All high
weeds near the house should be cut down and destroyed, so that they will
not provide a damp place in which to harbour mosquitoes. If it is
impossible to get rid of all standing water, the breeding of mosquitoes
can be checked by pouring kerosene oil on the water. One ounce of oil on
fifteen square feet of water is sufficient, and this will have to be
renewed at least once in ten days. The doors, windows, and ventilators
of the house should be well screened, as a protection against

_Flies._--These are one of the greatest carriers of typhoid and other
germs, as well as filth of all sorts. They can be got rid of only by
destroying the breeding places and killing the flies as rapidly as
possible. Materials that attract them should not be exposed in and about
the house. The house should be well screened with wire mesh or mosquito
netting, in order to keep out the flies. A fly swatter should be kept at
hand. The stables should be cleaned daily. Manure piles should be
screened, and every effort should be made to kill the larvae by frequent
spraying with kerosene, creoline (dilute creosote), or lime.

_Fleas._--These will be troublesome if cats or dogs are kept in the
house. These pets should be given frequent baths, the rugs on which they
lie should be brushed and shaken daily, and the floors should be washed
with soap and water and wiped with kerosene.

_Moths._--These are apt to develop in woollen clothes unless the
garments are thoroughly shaken and absolutely protected by wrapping in
newspapers before being put away. Woollen garments that are used only
occasionally should be kept in a light, dry place, examined frequently,
and hung in the sun occasionally. Moths or carpet beetles can be
exterminated by the use of kerosene.


Give this lesson at a time when the pupils are asking about household
pests or when the school is suffering from them. It would be well to
have it in the spring, just before the school closes, so that the pupils
may immediately put into practice what they learn. It may be desirable
to devote their efforts to the destruction of one particular pest; for
example, a fly crusade may be inaugurated.


If there are pests in the school-room, discuss their habits, what seems
to attract them, where they come from, etc. Have the pupils report any
that they may have at home. Explain why they are dangerous, tell how
they can be exterminated, and assign to each pupil the task of
exterminating one household pest. Have her report, each day, the success
of her efforts. Continue this work for several weeks.



As garments and household linens are apt to become stained and thus lose
their attractiveness, it is well to know the remedies for the most
common stains and the principle upon which their removal depends. All
stains should be removed as soon as possible. Boiling water will loosen
and remove coffee, tea, and fresh fruit stains. The stained spot should
be held over a bowl, and the water should be poured upon it with some
force. Cold water will remove stains made by blood or meat juice.
Soaking will help in the removal of blood stains. Rust stains may be
removed by wetting the stained spot with lemon juice, covering it with
salt, and placing the stained fabric in the sun. Stains from stove
blacking, paint, and grass may be removed by soaking in kerosene and
washing well with soap and water. Ink stains may be removed by soaking
in water, removing as much of the stain as possible, and then soaking in
milk. Stains from cream and other forms of grease may be washed out in
cold water, followed by warm water and soap.

White cotton and white linen materials may be bleached by exposure to
the sunshine while still damp. If they are left out overnight, the
bleaching process is made effective by the moisture furnished by dew or
frost. A stream of steam from the tea-kettle may also help in the
bleaching process.

Some colours are set by the addition of a small amount of acid to the
first water in which they are soaked, while others are set by the use of
salt. It is necessary to try a small amount of the material before
dipping in the entire garment, in order to be sure of satisfactory
results. Vinegar should be used for blues, one-half cup to one gallon of
water. Salt is most effective for browns, blacks, and pinks. In most
cases, two cups of salt to one gallon of cold water will be sufficient.


The towels used for drying dishes or the linen used for some school
entertainment may have become stained with coffee, fruit, or some other
substance. Make this the basis of a lesson, and let the pupils bring
from home other things which are stained. Each pupil should have an
article on which to practise. This lesson should be preliminary to the
lesson on laundry work.


Examine the various articles from which stains are to be removed.
Discuss the method of removal, and let each pupil work at her own stain
until it is as nearly removed as possible.



Dish-towels should be thoroughly washed at least once a day. Wash one
piece at a time (the cleanest first) in warm, soapy water and rinse in
clear water in another pan. Hang in the sun, if possible, so that the
air will pass through. Boil at least once a week in soapy water, to keep
them fresh and white. Sunshine and fresh air are valuable for the
purposes of bleaching and purifying.

Wash the aprons in hot, soapy water; boil, rinse, and blue slightly. A
small amount of thin starch may be desirable. A thin starch may be made
as follows:

_Recipe for Thin Starch_

  2 tbsp. starch
  4 tbsp. cold water
  1/2 tsp. lard, butter, or paraffin
  1 qt. boiling water

Add the cold water to the starch and lard, stir until smooth, then add
the boiling water slowly, stirring constantly. Boil for several minutes
in order to cook the starch thoroughly; then add one pint of cold water
and a small amount of blueing. Dilute if necessary.

Hang the articles in the sun to dry, shaking well before putting on the
line, and folding the edge of each over at least six inches. Be sure to
have the line clean. When dry, fold carefully. A short time before
ironing, sprinkle well.


It may be desirable to give this lesson earlier in the course, if
cooking lessons are being given and dish-towels are in use, or if the
aprons are badly soiled. Other articles may be washed, if time and
facilities permit.


Discuss briefly the need for laundry work and the general principles.
Let the pupils take turns at washing the towels or aprons; examine each
article after it is washed, and give careful directions for the boiling,
blueing, and starching. While these processes are being completed, let
some of the pupils prepare the line. Let two of them be appointed to
bring the towels in, before going home from school.



To do good ironing it is necessary to have a firm, unwarped ironing
board. This should be covered with some thick woollen material and a
white cotton cover that is clean, smooth, and tightly drawn. The thick
cover should be tacked on, while the top cover should be pinned, so that
it may be easily taken off to be washed. A heavy iron-holder should be
provided; and the irons should be clean and smooth. For this purpose
paper should be kept at hand, as well as a piece of beeswax, sandpaper,
or salt. A small cloth should be used to wipe the iron after using the
beeswax. A newspaper should be spread on the floor, to protect any
pieces that may hang down while being ironed. The coarser towels should
be ironed first, as the longer the irons are used, the smoother they
become. Starched pieces should not be ironed until the irons are very
hot. If the article is first laid smooth, it will be easier to iron it
and keep it in shape, and every piece should be ironed until it is
perfectly dry. As soon as the ironing is completed, the articles should
be hung up to air.


Arrange to have the ironing lesson just as soon after the laundry lesson
as possible. It will probably be easy to borrow the necessary equipment
from homes near the school. Each pupil may be directed to bring
something that will contribute toward the equipment, and one may be
instructed to have the fire ready and another to put the irons on to
heat before the lesson hour.


Call the pupils together early in the morning or at some time previous
to the lesson period, and give them directions for sprinkling the
articles to be ironed. When the class hour comes, demonstrate the method
of ironing, folding, and hanging the articles, and let the pupils take
turns in doing the work.



Because young girls are fond of little children and must help their
mothers often with their baby brothers and sisters, they should know how
to care for them. It is essential that they should understand the
following points: The little body needs protection. The head is soft,
and the brain may be injured by hard bumps or pressure. The skin is
tender and is easily irritated by the bites of insects, friction, and so
on. Kicking and wiggling are necessary to the development of the
muscles, but the baby should not be played with all the time; and it is
well for it while awake to lie quiet for part of the time. It should not
be made to sit up until ready to do so. A desire to creep should be
encouraged. Standing or walking should not be taught the baby until it
tries to stand or walk itself, and then it must be helped very

The baby should have plenty of fresh air and should be allowed to spend
much of its time out-of-doors. In cold weather it must be warmly covered
and sheltered from high winds. Its eyes should always be protected from
strong sunlight.

Regular hours should be observed for sleep, and the baby should be put
to bed early in the evening. If the house is not well screened in
summer, a mosquito bar should be put over the crib. The clothing should
be light and loose, so that the body can move freely.

Perfect cleanliness is necessary to keep the baby's skin in good
condition; and a daily bath should be given. A morning hour, midway
between the meals, is usually the best time for this. The baby should be
taught to use the chamber before the bath and after the nap. Everything
should be ready before it is undressed. The room should be very warm.
The water should be only moderately warm, and should be carefully tested
to make sure that it is not too hot. The towels and covers for the baby
should be at hand. The head and the feet should be washed first, and the
body soaped before putting the child into the bath. Little soap should
be used, for even the best soap is strong and is apt to irritate the
delicate skin. The bath should be given quickly, and the body wrapped at
once in a blanket or towel and kept covered as much as possible while it
is being dried.

The baby should be fed in small quantities at regular intervals and
given plenty of cold water to drink. Not until it is eleven or twelve
months of age should it be given solid or semi-solid food. Even then,
milk should continue to form the basis of its diet, and of this a
considerable quantity should be used--about a quart a day from the
twelfth month on. As the child grows older a more varied diet will be
necessary. The most hygienic methods of food preparation should always
be observed.

Certain foods should never be given; for example, fried foods, pastries,
condiments, pickles, preserves, canned meats, fish, pork, sausage, cheap
candies, coarse vegetables, unripe and overripe fruits, stimulants,
foods treated with a preservative or colouring matter, and half-cooked


The teacher should talk with the pupils, in order to see what points in
connection with the care of the baby it is necessary for them to know,
so that they may do their work at home intelligently.


It will probably not be possible to have anything more than a class
discussion of the points in question, but the pupils' home experiences
ought to make this discussion vital. If there is a nurse in the
neighbourhood who can be secured to give one lesson on the care of the
baby, the teacher should supplement her own lessons by an additional
lesson given by the nurse.



It is of great importance that children should learn in an elementary
way the value of property. This will prepare them for the knowledge of
the cost of living that is essential. They should learn that the cost of
food can be decreased by having gardens, and by the proper choice, care,
and handling of foods; that taking care of clothing will reduce another
item of expense; and that the owning of one's own house and lot is
something worth working for, in order to obviate the necessity of paying


The teacher will have to acquaint herself thoroughly with conditions in
the community, so that she can talk intelligently with the pupils,
emphasize the right points, and give constructive help.


Begin with a discussion of the cost of food; how much the pupils earn or
spend during the week; and why it is worth while to cook and sew well
and to look after property. Continue such discussions from time to time,
in connection with other school work.



It is well for every one to keep a written record of all money received
and all money spent. Children should be taught to do this as soon as
they are old enough to have money in their possession. A simple little
note-book in which all expenditures are entered on the right side and
all receipts on the left side, with the balance drawn up each week or
month, will prove an easy and satisfactory method of keeping accounts.
If the little girl learns to do this with her pennies, she will be
better able to take care of the more important household accounts when
she is in charge of a home. However, there will be no real incentive for
her to keep accounts unless she is endeavouring to save for some good
purpose. If she learns to save for the future purchase of a book, a
dress, or some little treat, she will feel that her account-keeping is
worth while. As a housekeeper, she will appreciate the importance of
saving for some future benefit to the family.


In order to make the lesson of vital interest, introduce it at a time
when the pupils are saving for some specific purpose--material for a
dress to be made in the sewing class, refreshments for a party for their
mothers, a school library, or something else that will be a pleasure and
help in the work of the school.


After discussing the sources of income of the pupil and of her family,
and the means of increasing and taking care of that income, discuss
simple methods of keeping accounts, illustrate these on the black-board,
show how to balance the accounts, and see that each pupil has a small
book suitable for the purpose. It may be necessary to make or to rule
this book as a portion of the class exercise.



Closely allied to the housekeeper's work within the home is the care of
the exterior of the house and its surroundings. It is absolutely
necessary that the grounds be kept neat and clean. In addition to this
they should be made attractive by the careful selection of a few trees
and shrubs suitably placed. While the gardens at the rear of the house
may be planned solely for the pleasure and use of the family, in
planning the lawn at the sides and front the neighbours and passers-by
must be considered. The grounds should be a picture of which the house
is the centre, the trees and shrubs being grouped to frame the picture.

In placing shrubs, the effect of the whole landscape should be
considered. As a rule, shrubs should be placed in corners, to hide
outhouses from view, or to screen other places which should be shielded.
The centre of the lawn should be left free, and in no case should a
shrub be placed in the middle of an open space in a lawn or yard. A few
flowers should be planted among the shrubs, to give colour at different

The exterior of the house must be considered, if the picture framed by
the shrubs and vines is to be a pleasing one. The house should be
painted in a soft brown or dark green to blend with the landscape of
oaks and pines. The paint will help to preserve the house, but its
colour must be carefully chosen to give a pleasing effect.

The general plan of the grounds and local conditions in regard to soil
and climate will determine to a large extent the kind of shrubs to be
used. Many beautiful shrubs which have been introduced from foreign
countries do well in Ontario, but our native shrubs serve all decorative
purposes. For damp ground there is no better shrub than the red osier
dogwood. This shrub will do well on almost any kind of soil. The swamp
bush honeysuckle grows quickly and is suitable for clay land; so are the
black elderberry and several species of viburnum. The hazel which may be
obtained from the woods makes a good dense shrub, and the wild rose also
has possibilities. The common barberry is an attractive shrub; but, as
it assists in the formation of wheat rust, it should not be used in
rural sections. The lilac may be used where a high shrub is desirable.
The common arbor vitae or cedar of the swamps makes a good evergreen
shrub. It serves well as a shield for both winter and summer and thrives
with moderate care. The weigela, forsythia, and spiraea are also
excellent shrubs.

The ground at the back of the house should be used for vegetable gardens
with flower borders. For this purpose a deep, rich soil is necessary,
and every square foot of space should be utilized. Every family should
learn to make use of an increased number of vegetables and fruits and to
cook them in a variety of ways. No crops should be allowed to go to
waste. A family of five people could be entirely provided with
vegetables for the summer and autumn from a garden less than fifty by
seventy-five feet.

The attractiveness, as well as the usefulness, of the borders depends
upon the choice and arrangement of flowers. These should be chosen with
due consideration as to height of plants, colour of blooms, and seasons
of blooming. The tallest plants should be placed at the back of the
border; for a border six feet wide none of the plants need be over five
feet in height. There can be a riot of colours, if the flowers are
arranged in clumps of four to six throughout the entire length of the
border. In a well-planned flower border some flowers should be in bloom
each month. Hardy perennial flowers should predominate, with enough
annuals to fill up the spaces and hide the soil. The well-tried,
old-fashioned flowers will give the best satisfaction. Every four years
the flower borders need to be spaded, well manured, and replanted.

The following lists of flowers for borders may be suggestive:

_Perennials._--Bleeding-heart, carnations, chrysanthemums, columbine,
coreopsis, dahlias, gaillardias, golden glow, iris, larkspur, oriental
poppies, peonies, phlox, pinks, platycodon, snapdragon.

_Biennials._--Forget-me-not, foxglove, Canterbury bells, hollyhock,
sweet-william, wallflower.

_Annuals._--African daisy, ageratum, aster, calendula, calliopsis,
balsam, candytuft, cornflower, cosmos, marigold, mignonette, nasturtium,
petunia, poppy, stock, sweet alyssum, sweet-pea, verbena, zinnia, annual
phlox, red sunflower, cut-and-come-again sunflower.

Each home gardener should study garden literature, in order to assist in
solving the garden problems; for the day has passed when one needed only
to scratch the soil with a shell, plant the seeds, and receive an
abundant crop. Today successful gardening depends upon intelligent
management of the soil and crop and upon persistent labour.


The teacher should, if possible, visit the homes of all the pupils, in
order to make herself familiar with the condition in which their grounds
are kept. She may be able to secure permission from one of the
housekeepers to use her grounds as the practice place for the lesson, or
it may be more desirable to give this lesson at the school and to
conduct a school garden as a model home garden.


Discuss the arrangement and care of the home or school grounds. Have the
class tidy the lawn and garden chosen for the lesson, supervising the
work carefully. Assign the tidying up of the home lawns or work in the
home gardens for the coming week. Let this lesson serve as a means of
interesting the pupils in home gardening, if that has not already been
taken up, or of emphasizing the relation of gardening to the
housekeeper's work, if they are already interested in the former.


_Bush Fruits._ Card. Macmillan's, Toronto               $1.75

_When Mother Lets Us Garden._ Duncan. Moffat,
   Yard & Co., New York                                   .75

_A Woman's Hardy Garden._ Ely. Macmillan's, Toronto      1.75

_The Beginner's Garden Book._ French. Macmillan's,
   Toronto                                               1.00

_Productive Vegetable Garden._ Lloyd. Lippincott Co.,
   Philadelphia                                          1.50



The teacher should learn how the pupils live in their own homes, what
food produce is grown for home use, what foods they use, and how they
prepare and serve their foods. The instruction given in the lessons
should be based on this knowledge, and the possibilities for the
improvement of accepted methods of cooking should be considered. Those
foods should be used in the recipes which the pupils can afford to use
at home. They should be encouraged to grow in their gardens a variety of
garden produce, and to keep chickens, pigs, and cows.

Elementary principles of nutrition and sanitation should be taught.
Simple meals, with plain but well-cooked dishes, should be planned.
Variations should be suggested, and the value of a mixed diet
emphasized. Care should be taken not to waste time on points that are
unrelated to the homes of the pupils, except as such points may be
necessary to raise their ideals.

All the work should be done carefully. The sanitary handling of food and
care in the storage of foods should be insisted upon. Careful attention
should be given to the dish-washing, care of the dish-towels, etc.,
emphasizing the points in sanitation involved. The pupils should be
drilled faithfully in all points connected with the handling of anything
that comes in contact with the food.

Proper methods of sweeping and cleaning should be employed, and
thoroughness must be practised in every detail of the work. Constant
drill in these processes should be given.

The order in which the lessons are to be given will be regulated, in
part, by the season of the year in which they occur, the locality, the
foods obtainable, and any special local needs. However, care must be
taken that the lessons are given in proper sequence, so that the pupils
may see the relation of one to another and may appreciate the value of
each. It may be necessary to combine two lessons or to give only part of
a lesson. In some of the lessons more recipes are suggested than can be
prepared in a brief period. In every case the choice of a recipe will
have to be made by the teacher. Wherever it is possible, simple
experiments should be performed to show the composition of, and the
effect of heat on, food.

No attempt has been made to give a complete set of recipes; but those
included here are chosen as illustrating the subjects to be discussed in
the lessons. The teacher who desires to make use of a greater number of
recipes will do well to supply herself with one of the text-books
listed. Level measurements should be used in the preparation of all the
recipes, and all the directions should be carefully followed.

The first few lessons are more fully outlined than the others,
furnishing suggestions for methods of procedure that may be adapted to
later lessons. The teacher should have a detailed plan for every lesson,
outlining her method of work, the leading questions for the discussion,
and the home assignments which she desires to make.

Foods that are in common use are suggested for the lessons outlined.
There will necessarily be exceptions to their use in different
localities. If any foods used in the homes are harmful because of the
manner in which they are prepared, the teacher should do all in her
power to correct the situation, but she must, at the same time, be
careful not to be too radical. If the lessons given are not followed by
home practice, the time devoted to them will be, to all intents and
purposes, wasted. Simple meal service should be introduced wherever it
is possible, and as much instruction on the furnishing and the care of
the kitchen should be included as time permits.

By the time the course is completed, the pupil should be able to keep
her kitchen in a sanitary condition and should have a sufficient
knowledge of food values and of the processes of cooking to enable her
to provide simple, wholesome meals for her family.

For the teaching of food values, it will be helpful to secure the set of
sixteen food charts which may be obtained from the Superintendent of
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., price one

It will be shown later how the school luncheon may be managed with very
little interference with the ordinary organization of the school. Where
definite instruction is given in Household Science, a place must be
provided for it on the school time-table, as is the case with the other
school subjects. In sewing and household management lessons of forty
minutes each are sufficient, and these can be arranged for at the times
found to be most convenient. If each pupil keeps her sewing in a box or
bag, it may often be used as "busy work" when the pupil has finished her
assigned work or while she is waiting for the teacher, who may be
engaged with another class. Lessons in cookery should be, if possible,
at least one hour in length, and should be given at a time when this
period can be exceeded, if the character of the lesson renders it
desirable; for example, in those cases where the cooking is not
completed at the expiration of the time assigned. For this reason the
last hour on Friday afternoon has proved a very suitable time. In some
schools the lesson is commenced at half-past three and runs on until
completed, and in this way only half an hour of the regular school time
is taken. The possibilities of a Saturday morning cooking class should
not be overlooked.


  tbsp. = tablespoonful
   tsp. = teaspoonful
     c. = cupful
    qt. = quart
    pt. = pint
    oz. = ounce
    lb. = pound
   min. = minute
    hr. = hour


  3 tsp. = 1 tbsp.
  16 tbsp. = 1 c. (dry measure)
  12 tbsp. (liquid) = 1 c.
  2 c. = 1 pt.


  2 c. butter, packed solidly = 1 lb.
  2 c. sugar (granulated)     = 1 lb.
  2 c. meat, finely chopped   = 1 lb.
  2-2/3 c. brown sugar        = 1 lb.
  2-2/3 c. oatmeal            = 1 lb.
  4-3/4 c. rolled oats        = 1 lb.
  4 c. flour                  = 1 lb.
  2 tbsp. butter              = 1 oz.
  4 tbsp. flour               = 1 oz.
  9 or 10 eggs                = 1 lb.
  1 lemon (juice)             = 3 tbsp.

    _Note._--The half-pint measuring cup and not the ordinary
    tea cup is the one to be used.


_Household Management._ Ontario Teachers' Manual. The
   Copp, Clark Co., Ltd., Toronto                          $0.19

_Domestic Science._ Austin, B. J. Lyons & Carnahan,
   Chicago. Vol. I                                           .60
            Vol. II                                          .60

_Principles of Cooking._ Conley, G. American Book Co.,
   New York                                                  .52

_Home Economics._ Flagg, G. P. Little, Brown & Co.,
   Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto).       .75

_Lessons in Elementary Cooking._ Jones, M. C. Boston
   Cooking School Magazine Co., Boston                      1.00

_Food and Health._ Kinne, H., and Cooley, A. M. Macmillan's,
   Toronto                                                   .65

_The School Kitchen Text-book._ Lincoln, M. J. Little,
   Brown & Co., Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild &
   Stewart, Toronto)                                         .60

_Food and Cookery._ Metcalf, M. L. Industrial Education
   Co., Indianapolis                                        1.00

_Household Science and Arts._ Morris, J. American Book
   Co., New York                                             .60

_The Science of Home-making._ Pirie, E. E. Scott, Foresman
   & Co., Chicago                                            .90

_Elements of the Theory and Practice of Cookery._ Williams,
   M. E., and Fisher, K. R. Macmillan's, Toronto            1.00


_Management of the kitchen stove. Cooking by dry heat. Baked vegetable
or fruit._


_Foods._--The body uses food to build and repair its tissues, to provide
heat and energy, and to regulate the body processes. Foods differ from
one another in their composition and in their ability to assist the body
in the performance of its varied functions. These differences have led
to the classification of foods into five groups, which are spoken of as
the five food-stuffs or food principles.

_Cooking._--While some foods can be used as they occur in nature, most
of them are made more acceptable by the application of heat. Heat
softens the structure of vegetables and fruits, makes tender the tissues
of meat, prepares starch for digestion, develops the flavour in many
foods, and destroys the parasites and germs that may be present. The
five food-stuffs are differently affected by heat--some require slow
cooking, others require intense heat. Hence, it is necessary to study
cooking, in order that each food may be properly prepared.

_The stove._--A knowledge of the construction of the stove and the
methods whereby heat is obtained is imperative if one is to be a
successful cook. For all stoves three things are necessary--fuel, a
supply of oxygen, and a certain degree of heat, known as the kindling
point, whereby the fire is started. The supply of oxygen is regulated by
dampers and checks so arranged as to admit or cut off the draught of

The creative dampers are doors or slides that come below the fire box.
When open, they admit the entrance of air, increase the draught, and
facilitate combustion.

The oven damper is a flat plate which closes the opening into the
chimney flue, to decrease the drawing of the draught. When the oven
damper is closed, the heat from the fire remains in the stove and passes
around the oven.

Checks are doors or slides higher than the fire-box, which, when open,
allow the cold air to pass over the fire, retarding combustion.

A stove is also provided with means for disposing of the ashes, soot,
and the gases formed. All parts of the stove are so arranged that they
may be kept clean.

(See Twenty Lessons in the Care of the Home. Lesson I)


There should be provided for this lesson (from the homes of the pupils
or the school garden), some fruit or vegetable in season that can be
cooked by dry heat. Each pupil may be able to bring an apple or a
potato. The teacher should be sure to have an oven that can be well
heated for baking and to have the fire well started before the lesson
begins, so that the oven will be ready for use.

Lessons in geography and nature study should be correlated with the
cooking lesson, to give the pupils an opportunity to study the source of
foods and the reasons for cooking them.

One of the pupils should write the recipes on the black-board before the
lesson hour.


_Baked Apples_

Wash the apples, core them, and cut through the skin with a knife, so
that the apple can expand in baking without breaking the skin. Place the
apples in a baking-dish and fill each cavity with sugar. Cover the
bottom of the dish with water one quarter of an inch deep and bake until
the apples are soft (20 to 45 minutes), basting them every 10 minutes.
Place them in a serving dish and pour the juice over them. Serve hot or

_Baked Potatoes_

Select smooth potatoes of medium size, scrub carefully, and place in a
baking-pan. Bake in a hot oven from 45 minutes to one hour. When soft,
break the skin to let the steam escape and serve at once.


Discuss very briefly the food that is to be cooked and the method of
cooking it. Have as many apples or potatoes baked as there are members
of the class or as the baking-dish will hold.

Assign tasks to special members of the class.

As quickly as possible put the vegetable or fruit in the oven to bake.

While the baking is in process, take up a general discussion of foods
and cooking and a special discussion of the food which is being used and
the method of cooking that is being employed.

Give as thorough a lesson on the stove and combustion as time permits.
Examine the baked article and discuss the methods of serving it, the
time for serving, and so on.

Use the finished product for the school lunch or have it served daintily
in the class. Encourage the pupils to bring a dish to school in order to
take the results of their work home for the family meal, if a school
lunch is not served or if they do not need a lunch. Give careful
directions for washing the dishes and supervise the housework carefully.
(See pages 52, 53, _Household Management._)

    _Note._--It may be necessary to go on with some other
    recitation before the baking is completed, in which case
    one member of the class should be appointed to watch the

Questions Used to Develop the Lesson

What food have we on hand for use to-day?

Does this food need cooking? Why?

How shall we prepare it for cooking?

How shall we prepare the oven?

How shall we care for the fire?

How long will it be necessary to cook this food?

(Time the baking carefully and discuss more thoroughly at the
close of the lesson.)

How can we tell when it is cooked?

How shall we serve it?

For what meal shall we serve it?

Of what value is it to the body?

_Home assignment._--The pupils should prepare the baked dish at home and
at the next lesson report the result of their work.

    _Note._--The recipes given in this Manual are prepared for
    normal times; but in every case the Regulations of the
    Canada Food Board should be observed, and substitutes used
    wherever possible.


_Water and mineral matter in vegetables. How to prepare and serve
uncooked vegetables--lettuce, cress, cabbage, etc. Cooking by moist
heat. How to boil, season, and serve beet tops, turnip tops, cabbage,
sprouts, kale, spinach, mustard, or other vegetable greens._


_Water._--All fluids and tissues of the body contain large quantities of
water, therefore water is regarded as one of the most important
food-stuffs required by the body. Practically all foods contain some
water. Fresh vegetables and fruits provide the body with a high
percentage of water.

Water is a valuable medium for cooking. As it heats, small bubbles are
formed, which continually increase in number and size, but gradually
disappear. Some time before the boiling-point is reached, an occasional
large bubble will rise to the surface and disappear. The water has then
reached the simmering-point, 185°, a temperature frequently made use of
in cooking. When many bubbles form and break, causing a commotion on the
surface of the water, the boiling-point, 212°, has been reached.

_Mineral matter._--Mineral matter is a second food-stuff that is needed
by the body, but the amount required is very small. If a variety of food
is used, there is generally sufficient mineral matter in the diet.
Fruits and vegetables, especially fresh green vegetables, are
comparatively rich in mineral matter. Mineral matter builds up the bones
and certain tissues, such as the hair, teeth, and nails, and regulates
the body processes by keeping the blood and digestive fluids in proper

_Green vegetables._--Green vegetables hold an important place in the
diet, because they contain valuable mineral matter. They also contain a
high percentage of water and considerable cellulose. With few exceptions
they should be eaten raw, because the mineral salts, being soluble, are
lost in the water in which they are cooked and because the cellulose
serves its purpose best in the crisp form. Cabbage is rendered much more
difficult of digestion by cooking. Spinach, beet tops, etc., are more
palatable when cooked. The delicately flavoured vegetables should be
boiled in a very small amount of water, so that they need not be
drained. Thus the mineral matter will be retained when the vegetables
are served.


There should be provided for the lesson (from the homes of the pupils or
the school garden), some fresh vegetables in season; one that can be
cooked by boiling and one that can be served uncooked with a simple

One of the pupils should write the recipes on the black-board before the
lesson hour.


_Preparation of Fresh Green Vegetables_[A]

Wash the vegetables thoroughly, leaving them in cold water to crisp, if
wilted. Keep cool until ready to serve, then arrange daintily, and dress
with salt, vinegar, and oil as desired, or prepare a dressing as

_Cooked Dressing_

  1/2 tbsp. salt
  1 tsp. mustard
  1-1/2 tbsp. sugar
  A few grains pepper
  1/2 tbsp. flour
  1 egg or yolks of 2 eggs
  1-1/2 tbsp. melted butter
  3/4 c. milk
  1/4 c. vinegar

Mix the dry ingredients, add the egg slightly beaten and the butter and
the milk. Cook over boiling water until the mixture thickens. Add the
vinegar, stirring constantly. Strain and cool.

    Note.[A]--It may be well to omit from this lesson the
    uncooked vegetable that is served in the form of a salad
    and to give it at some other time. It is not well to
    attempt to teach more than the pupils can master

_Recipe for Boiling and Seasoning Fresh Green Vegetables_

Wash the vegetables carefully and put them on to cook in boiling water.
Delicately flavoured vegetables (spinach, celery, fresh peas, etc.) will
require but little water, and that should be allowed to boil away at the
last. If spinach is stirred constantly, no water need be added. Starchy
vegetables should be completely covered with water, and strongly
flavoured vegetables (as turnips, onions, cabbage, and cauliflower)
should be cooked in water at simmering temperature.

After the vegetables have cooked for a few minutes, salt should be
added, one teaspoonful to each quart of water. Cook the vegetable until
it can be easily pierced with a fork. Let the water boil away at the
last. If it is necessary to drain, do so as soon as the vegetable is
tender. Season with salt, pepper, and butter (1/4 teaspoon salt, 1/8
teaspoon pepper, and 1/2 tablespoon butter to each cup of vegetable).

    _Note._--The water in which the vegetables are cooked
    should be saved for soups and sauces, as it contains most
    of the valuable mineral matter.


Discuss the heating of water and apply the facts to cooking. Have the
pupils observe and describe the heating of water.

If a new tin sauce-pan or other bright tin vessel is at hand in which to
heat the water, the changes which take place as the temperature
increases will be more readily apparent, and the pupils will enjoy
watching the process.

Discuss why one vegetable is to be cooked and another served uncooked.

Emphasize the cleaning of the vegetable, its structure, composition, and
the effect of the boiling water upon it.

After the vegetable has been put on to cook, discuss the method of
seasoning or dressing the vegetable which is to be served uncooked, and
have it prepared attractively to serve on the plates. Especial emphasis
should be placed on the use and importance of fresh, green vegetables.

Continue the discussion of vegetables, letting the members of the class
suggest others that may be prepared as salads or cooked in the manner
being illustrated, and write the list on the black-board for the pupils
to copy in their note-books.

When the cooked vegetable is tender, have it drained, seasoned, and
served, and serve the uncooked vegetable at the same time.

When ready for serving, let the pupils arrange their plates and forks
carefully, then let them all sit down except the two who pass the
vegetables. Be sure that they eat carefully and daintily.

Emphasize the careful washing of the dishes, etc., as on the previous

_Questions Used to Develop the Lesson_

How shall we prepare our vegetables for serving?

Of what value is hot water in cooking food?

How must the vegetable be prepared for boiling?

Does this vegetable contain any water?

Will it be necessary to add any more?

Will it be necessary to cover the sauce-pan?

How hot must the water be kept? How can one tell when
  the water is sufficiently hot?

How can we determine when the food has cooked long enough?

How shall we serve this vegetable?

How does boiling compare with baking--

  In the time needed?

  In the matter of flavour?

  In the amount of fuel used?

  In the amount of work necessary?

_Home assignment._--Practice in the boiling and the serving of


_Potatoes as a source of carbohydrates. The choice, cost, care,
composition, food value, and cooking of potatoes, baked squash, steamed


_Carbohydrates._--A third class of food-stuffs required by the body is
known as the carbohydrates, or sugars and starches. This class of foods
is used as fuel, for the production of heat and energy in the body.
Excess of carbohydrates may be stored in the body as fatty tissue.

_Potatoes._--Potatoes are a cheap source of carbohydrates. They are also
valuable for their mineral matter and for the large quantity of water
which they contain. Three fourths of the potato is water. The framework
of the potato is cellulose, which is an indigestible carbohydrate
material. Potatoes have only a small amount of cellulose, however, and
they are comparatively easy of digestion. When dry and mealy, they are
most digestible. When used for a meal, potatoes should be supplemented
by some muscle-building food, such as milk, cheese, eggs, fish, or meat.


At some previous period the teacher should have discussed with the
pupils the use of potatoes and learned from them the different ways in
which they cook them in their homes. She should determine upon some
recipes for the lesson that will increase the variety of ways in which
potatoes may be served and that will improve the methods used in the

Each pupil should be asked to bring one or two potatoes for the lesson.
The best methods of cooking and the means of securing variety should be


_Mashed Potatoes_

  6 potatoes
  1/4 c. hot milk or cream
  1 tbsp. butter
  1 tsp. salt

Wash and pare the potatoes, boil, drain, dry, and mash (with a potato
masher) in the sauce-pan in which they were cooked. Beat them until very
light and creamy; add hot milk, butter, and salt, and beat again,
re-heat, and serve. Serves six to eight.

_Browned Potatoes_

Wash, scrub, and pare potatoes of a uniform size. Parboil for 10
minutes, then put in a dripping-pan with the meat or on a rack in a

Baste with fat every 10 minutes, when the meat is basted.

Allow about 40 minutes for the potatoes to cook.


Scrub and pare a potato. Examine a thin cross-section.

Grate the potato. Remove the coarse, shredded portion. Examine.

Examine the liquid and note any sediment.

Heat the liquid and stir until boiling. How has it changed?

Examine the portion of the grater. How has the colour changed? Why?

_Baked Squash_

Wipe the shell of the squash, cut it into pieces for serving, remove the
seeds and stringy portion, place in a dripping-pan, and bake in a slow
oven for three quarters of an hour (until tender). Serve at once.

_Steamed Squash_

Prepare the squash as for baking, put in a steamer over boiling water,
and cook for 30 minutes or until soft. Then scrape the squash from the
shell, mash, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.


Discuss the composition and structure of the potato. Read over and
discuss the recipes that are to be used.

Make assignments of work. After the potatoes have been put on to cook,
have the class examine a raw potato, following the directions given.[A]

    [A] Squash is another vegetable containing a high
    percentage of carbohydrate. The recipe for squash can be
    used at this time or in some other lesson.

If one of the recipes requires the use of the oven, be careful to have
the potatoes for it prepared first and as quickly as possible. It may be
necessary to proceed with another class, assigning one pupil to take
charge of the baking. Special attention should be given to the careful
serving of the potatoes.

_Home assignment._--Before the next lesson, each pupil should be able to
report that she has cooked potatoes at home, using the recipes learned
in class.


_Food value and use of fruits. Reasons and rules for canning. How to can
and use such vegetables as beets, beans, tomatoes, and carrots, and such
fruits as figs, grapes, apples, and peaches. The drying of fruits and


Fruits impart palatability and flavour to other foods and exercise a
favourable influence upon the digestive organs, though their food
value is low. They contain a high percentage of water and only a small
percentage of nutrients. Most fruits are eaten raw and are exceedingly
valuable to the body because of the fresh acids they contain. Cooking
softens the cellulose of the fruit and, therefore, renders some fruits
more easy of digestion. The cooking of fruit is of value chiefly for the
purpose of preservation.

_The drying of fruits._--Fruits are dried so that they may be preserved
for use. Bacteria and moulds, which cause the decay of fruits, need
moisture for development and growth. If the moisture is evaporated, the
fruits will keep almost indefinitely. Fruits and vegetables can be
easily and inexpensively dried. When dried fruits are to be used for the
table, they must be washed thoroughly and soaked for several hours, or
overnight, in water, so as to restore to them as much water as possible.
They should be cooked, until soft, in the same water in which they are

_Canning and preserving._--Other methods of preservation are desirable,
in order that vegetables and fruits be made of value for a longer period
of time than through their ripening season. Canning is one of the
methods most commonly employed in the home, being both easy and
satisfactory. Fruit which is to be canned is first sterilized by boiling
or steaming, in order to destroy all germs and spores. This can be
adequately accomplished by boiling for twenty minutes, but a shorter
time is sometimes sufficient. In order to ensure complete success, all
germs must also be destroyed on the cans and on everything which comes
in contact with the food. This will be effected by boiling or steaming
for twenty minutes. The jars, covers, dipper, and funnel should all be
placed in cold water, heated until the water comes to the
boiling-point, boiled five minutes, and left in the water until just
before sealing. As for the rubbers, it will be sufficient to dip them
into the boiling water. After the fruit has been put into the can, it
must be sealed so that it is perfectly air-tight. In order to do this,
it is necessary to have good covers, with new, pliable rubbers, and to
see to it that they fit tightly.

When the jar is to be filled, it should be placed on a board or wooden
table, or on a cloth wrung out of hot water, and should be filled to

Sugar is not essential to sterilization and is used only to improve the
flavour. Both fruits and vegetables can be canned without sugar.
However, fruits canned with a large amount of sugar do not spoil
readily, for germs develop slowly in a thick syrup.

_Methods of canning._--The simplest method of canning is the
"Open-kettle Method" employed for small, watery fruits, such as berries,
grapes, tomatoes, etc. The fruit is boiled in an open kettle (which
permits of the evaporation of some of the water in the fruit) and
transferred at once to a sterilized jar, which is immediately sealed.

Another and safer method, which secures more complete sterilization
without serious change of flavour in the fruit, is that known as the
"Cold-pack Method". After being transferred to the cans, the vegetable
or fruit is subjected to an additional period of heating of considerable
length, or to three periods of briefer length on three successive days.
If the three periods of sterilization are used, the process is known as
the "Intermittent Method".

The Single Process Method is described in the recipe for canned beets.
The Intermittent Process proves more satisfactory for canned beans.


The teacher should ascertain what fruits and vegetables are most
abundant and select for canning those that the class can provide.

Each pupil should be asked to bring some vegetable or fruit, some
granulated sugar, and a jar in which to can her fruit. If the school
does not possess enough kettles or sauce-pans in which to do the
cooking, they may be borrowed from the homes.

Only one fruit or one vegetable should be taken up at a time, for the
preparation necessarily varies slightly, and the different methods will
prove confusing. It is not necessary to confine the choice of fruits and
vegetables to those mentioned in the recipes included here. The teacher
will find it better to base her instruction on the products of the
particular time and place. The principles of canning should be taken up
at some other period, if possible, in order that the cooking lesson may
be devoted entirely to the practical work.


_Canned Tomatoes_

(Open-kettle Method)

Scald and peel the tomatoes. Boil gently for 20 minutes. Sterilize the
jars, covers, and rubbers. Stand the jars on a cloth in a pan of hot
water or on a board or wooden table. Fill the jars with hot tomatoes,
being careful to fill to overflowing and to expel all air bubbles from
the jar. Adjust the rubbers and covers. Seal and allow to cool. Test,
label, and set away in a cool, dry, dark place.

(Cold-pack Method)

Scald in water hot enough to loosen the skins. Plunge quickly in cold
water and remove the skins. Pack whole or in pieces in the jars. Fill
the jars with tomatoes only. Add 1 level teaspoonful of salt to each
quart. Place the rubber and cover in position. Partially seal, but not
tightly. Place the jars on a rack in a boiler. Pour sufficient warm
water into the boiler to come half-way up the jars. Place the filled
jars on the rack so as not to touch one another, and pack the spaces
between them with cotton, to prevent the jars striking when the water
boils. Sterilize for 22 minutes after the water begins to boil. Remove
the jars from the boiler. Tighten the covers. Invert to cool, and test
the joints. Wrap the jars in paper to prevent bleaching and store in a
cool, dry, dark place. This method of cooking is also called "The Hot
Water Bath".

_Canned Grapes_

(Open-kettle Method)

  6 qt. grapes
  1 qt. sugar
  1/2 c. water

Pick over, wash, drain, and remove the stems from the grapes. Separate
the pulp from the skins. Cook the pulp 5 minutes and then rub through a
sieve that is fine enough to hold back the seeds. Put the water, skins,
and pulp into the preserving kettle and heat slowly to the
boiling-point. Skim the fruit and then add the sugar. Boil 15 minutes.
Put into jars as directed.

Sweet grapes may be canned with less sugar; very sour grapes will
require more sugar.

_Canned Peaches_

Choose firm, solid fruit. Scald long enough to loosen the skins. Peel
and cut in halves. If clingstone peaches are used, they may be canned
whole. Pack the fruit into sterilized jars, fill with boiling syrup (1
c. sugar to 1-1/2 c. water). Then put on the covers loosely and place on
wooden racks in the boiler. Sterilize in hot water bath for 20 minutes.
Remove the jars and tighten the covers. Invert to cool, and test the
joints. Wrap the jars in paper to prevent bleaching; then store.

_Canned Beets_

(Single Process)

Wash the beets and boil them until they are nearly tender and the skins
come off easily. Remove the skins and carefully pack the beets in a jar.
Cover with boiling water, to which one tablespoonful of salt is added
for each quart, and put the cover on the jar, but do not fasten it down.
Place the jar on a rack or a folded cloth in a large kettle that can be
closely covered. Pour enough water into the kettle to reach within two
inches of the top of the jar, cover the kettle, bring the water to the
boiling-point, and boil from one and one-half to two hours. As the water
around the jar boils down, replenish with boiling water, never with
cold. Remove the jars and tighten the covers. Invert to cool, and test
the joints. Wrap the jars in paper to prevent bleaching; then store.

    _Note._--In canning beets, if vinegar is added to the
    water in the proportion of one part vinegar to four parts
    water, the natural bright colour will be retained.

_Canned String Beans and Peas_

(Intermittent Method)

Can on the same day that the vegetables are picked. Blanch in boiling
water from 2 to 5 minutes. Remove, and plunge into cold water. Pack in
sterilized jars. Add boiling water to fill the crevices. Add 1 level
teaspoonful of salt to each quart. Place rubbers and covers in position.

Set the jars on the rack in the boiler and bring gradually to boiling
heat. At the end of an hour's boiling, remove the jars from the boiler.
Tighten the clamps or rims and set the jars aside to cool until the
following day. Do not let the vegetables cool off in the boiler, as this
results in over-cooking. On the second day, loosen the clamps or unscrew
the rims, place the jars in warm water, heat again to boiling
temperature, and boil for an hour; then remove them again. On the third
day, repeat the hour's boiling, as on the preceding day.

Corn may be canned successfully in the same way.

_Dried Corn_

Pick the corn early in the morning. Immediately husk, silk, and cut the
corn from the cob. Spread in a very thin layer on a board, cover with
mosquito netting which is kept sufficiently elevated so that it will not
come in contact with the corn, place in the hot sun, and leave all day.
Before the dew begins to fall, take it into the house and place in an
oven that is slightly warm. Leave in the oven overnight and place out in
the sun again the next day. Repeat this process until absolutely dry.

_String Beans_

String beans are hung up to dry and kept for winter use.


If possible, let each pupil can a jar of vegetables or fruit for her own
home. If the class is large, let the pupils work in groups of two or

Begin the lesson with a very brief discussion of how to prepare fruit
for canning.

Let the pupils proceed with the practical work as quickly as possible.
Demonstrate the method of filling and sealing the jars.

Assign the care of the jars and the intermittent canning on succeeding
days to members of the class, and hold them responsible for the
completion of the work.

The drying of some vegetables can be undertaken at school, and carefully
followed from day to day. It will furnish the pupils with an interesting


_Preparation of white sauce to serve with vegetables. How to boil,
season, and serve such vegetables as lima or butter beans, string beans,
onions, cabbage, corn, beets, turnips, or carrots._


_Fats._--Butter belongs to the class of food-stuffs known as fats. It
increases the fuel value of those dishes to which it is added.

Fats supply heat and energy to the body in a concentrated form. For this
reason they should be used in a limited quantity. Fats undergo several
changes during the process of digestion, and the excessive use of them
interferes with the digestion of other foods and throws a large amount
of work upon the digestive organs. Cooked fats are more difficult of
digestion than uncooked fats, and other foods cooked with hot fat are
rendered more difficult to digest.

_Vegetables._--Vegetables should be used when in season, as they are
always best and cheapest then. They are better kept in a cold, dry, and
dark place.

If the vegetables contain starch or tough cellulose, they will require
cooking; as raw starch is indigestible, and the harsh cellulose may be
too irritating to the digestive tract.

In old or exceedingly large vegetables the cellulose may be very tough;
hence a long period of cooking is necessary. They should be cooked only
until they are tender. Longer cooking may destroy the flavour, render
the vegetables difficult of digestion, and cause the colour to change.
In very young vegetables the cellulose is delicate and, if young
vegetables do not contain much starch, they may be eaten raw.

When cooked vegetables are served, they are usually seasoned and dressed
with butter (for one cup of vegetables use 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1/8
teaspoonful of pepper, and 1/2 tablespoonful of fat), or a sauce is
prepared to serve with them.


It may be well to have a preliminary lesson devoted to simple
experiments with flour, liquid, and fat, in order to determine the best
method of combining the ingredients in the white sauce. However, if the
lesson period is of sufficient length, a few of these experiments may be
performed in connection with it.

There should be provided for the lesson some vegetable that is improved
by serving with white sauce, and sufficient milk, butter or other fat,
flour, and salt for the sauce and the experiments. Discuss with the
pupils the fat that is used in their homes, in order to know what is

The recipes should be written on the black-board before the lesson hour.


_Stewed Onions_

  1 qt. onions
  White pepper
  2 tbsp. butter
  1/4 tsp. salt

Peel the onions under cold water. Cover with boiling water, add salt,
and simmer until tender. Drain and serve with one cup of white sauce; or
omit the sauce and serve seasoned with butter and pepper. Serves six.


Cut the cabbage into quarters and soak one-half hour in cold salt water
to draw out any insects. Chop or shred, cover with boiling water, add
salt, and simmer until tender. Drain, and serve with butter, salt, and
pepper, or with a sauce.


Scrape the carrots and cut them into large dice or slices. Add boiling
water and boil until tender (from 30 to 45 minutes). Drain, and season
with butter, salt, and pepper, or serve with white sauce.

_String Beans_

String the beans, if necessary, and cut into pieces. Boil in salted
water until tender. Season with butter, salt, and pepper, and serve hot.

Salt pork may be boiled with the beans, to give them an added flavour.


(Any powdered starch may be used)

1. Boil 1/4 cup of water in a small sauce-pan. While boiling, stir into
it 1/2 tsp. of cornstarch and let it boil one minute. Observe the
result. Break open a lump and examine it.

2. Mix 1 tsp. of cornstarch with 2 tsp. of cold water and stir into 1/4
cup of boiling water. Note the result.

3. Mix 1 tsp. of cornstarch with 2 tsp. of sugar and stir into 1/4 cup
of boiling water. Note the result.

4. Mix 1 tsp. of cornstarch with 2 tsp. of melted fat in a small
sauce-pan and stir into it 1/4 cup of boiling water. Note the result.


1. Starch granules must be separated before being used to thicken a

  (1) By adding a double quantity of cold liquid,
  (2) By adding a double quantity of sugar,
  (3) By adding a double quantity of melted fat.

2. The liquid which is being thickened must be constantly stirred, to
distribute evenly the starch grains until they are cooked.

_White Sauce_

  2 tbsp. butter or other fat
  2 tbsp. flour
  1 c. milk
  1/4 tsp. salt
  1/8 tsp. pepper

(Sufficient for 1 pint vegetables)

Melt the butter, add the flour, and stir over the fire until frothy. Add
the milk and stir constantly until it thickens. Stir in the seasonings.

    _Note._--Vegetable water may be substituted for part of
    the milk.


Review the facts on boiling vegetables learned in the previous lesson.
Let the pupils put water on to boil and prepare a vegetable for cooking.
If experiments are to be made, they can be performed while the vegetable
is cooking. If the experiments have been made previously, they can be
reviewed in discussion at this time. Prepare a white sauce by
demonstration, using the method which seems most practical. Have the
vegetables drained, dried, and added to the white sauce. When
well-heated, serve.

Questions Used to Develop the Lesson

What facts regarding the boiling of vegetables did we learn in the last

Does the vegetable that we are to cook to-day differ in any marked way
from those we cooked before? Should we follow the same rule in cooking

Should we add the flour directly to the cold milk? To the hot milk?

How shall we combine the white sauce?

With what other vegetables can white sauce be used?

_Home assignment._--Each pupil should prepare some vegetable and serve
it with white sauce, before the next lesson.


_Kinds, composition, care, and general rules for cooking cereals.
Oatmeal, cracked wheat, corn-meal porridge, rice. Fruits to serve with
cereals--stewed prunes, stewed apples, or apple sauce._


The term "cereals" is applied to the cultivated grasses--rice, wheat,
corn, rye, oats, and buckwheat. They are widely grown throughout the
temperate zone and are prepared in various forms for use as food.
Cereals contain a high percentage of starch and a low percentage of
water, with varying proportions of mineral matter and fat. In addition
to the four food-stuffs already studied, cereals contain a small amount
of another food-stuff known as protein--a muscle-building material. For
the most part, the cereals contain a large amount of cellulose, which is
broken up during the process of preparation for market and requires long
cooking before being ready for use by the body. The digestibility of the
cereals depends upon the amount of cellulose which they contain and the
thoroughness of the cooking. Cereals are palatable, and they are
valuable, because in cooking they can be blended in various ways with
other substances. They are beneficial also to the body, because their
cellulose acts mechanically on the digestive organs by stimulating them
to action. Cereals are made more attractive by serving with fresh or
cooked fruit.


The cereals should be discussed in a nature study or geography lesson,
and two or three kinds that are in common use should be brought from
home by the pupils. If cereals are not generally used as breakfast
foods, the lesson may be a means of introducing them. Some pupils should
bring a little milk and sugar, to serve with the cooked cereal. Apples
or prunes should be brought, to cook and serve with the cereal.



  3 c. boiling water
  3/4 c. oatmeal
  3/4 tsp. salt

Add the oatmeal slowly to boiling salted water.

Boil for 10 minutes, stirring constantly, then cook slowly, preferably
over water, at least one and one-half hours longer; the flavour is
developed by longer cooking. Serves six.

_Cracked Wheat_

Follow the recipe for oatmeal, using 3/4 c. of cracked wheat.

_Corn-meal Porridge_

  4 c. boiling water
  3/4 c. corn-meal
  1 tsp. salt

Add the corn-meal slowly to boiling salted water.

Boil for 10 minutes, stirring constantly, then cook slowly for three
hours longer, preferably over water. Serves six to eight.

_Boiled Rice_

  3 qt. boiling water
  1 c. rice
  2 tsp. salt

Pick the rice over carefully and wash thoroughly. Add it to the boiling
salted water so gradually that it will not stop boiling. Partly cover
and cook for 20 minutes, or until the grains are soft; turn into a
colander, and pour cold water through it, drain, dry, and re-heat in a
hot oven with door open. Serve hot as a vegetable or as a simple dessert
with cream and sugar. Serves six to eight.

_Stewed Prunes_

  1/2 lb. prunes
  1 qt. cold water

Wash the prunes in two or three waters; then soak them in cold water for
several hours. Heat them in the water in which they are soaked and
simmer until tender (an hour or more). Serves six to eight.

_Stewed Apples_

  10 small apples
  1/2 c. sugar
  3/4 c. water

Cook the sugar and water together until it boils.

Wash, pare, and cut the apples into quarters; core, and slice the
quarters lengthwise into 1/4-inch slices; put the apple slices into
boiling syrup and cook slowly until tender. Remove from the syrup at
once and let the syrup boil down to thicken.

_Apple Sauce_

  10 small apples
  1/2 c. sugar
  3/4 c. water

Wipe, quarter, core, and pare sour apples; add the water and cook until
the apples begin to soften; add the sugar and flavouring, cook until the
apples are very soft, then press through a strainer and beat well.
Serves eight to ten.


As soon as the class meets, discuss the recipes briefly and put the
cereals on to cook at once. Prepare the fruit. While the long cooking of
the cereal is in progress, discuss the composition, food value, and
methods of using cereals. Then go on with another lesson and call the
class together, for serving, later in the day. Serve the fruit and the
cereals together.



Those foods which build up and repair the muscular tissues of the body
are called protein foods, muscle builders, or flesh formers. Meat, fish,
eggs, cheese, milk, cereals, legumes, and nuts are classed as protein

Those foods which serve solely as fuel for the body--providing heat and
energy--are classed under two groups: the carbohydrates (sugar and
starches), which the body is able to use in relatively large quantities;
and the fats, which the body cannot use in such large quantities, but
which yield a large amount of heat and energy. Protein also serves as
fuel, though tissue building is regarded as its special function. Sugars
and starches are abundant in fruits and vegetables. Fats are found in
meats, fish, milk, and in some vegetable foods. Heat-giving food may be
stored in the body as fatty tissue.

Mineral compounds must be present in our food, to help in the regulation
of the body processes and to enter into the composition of the structure
and the fluids of the body. Mineral compounds are best supplied by fresh
green vegetables, fruits, and milk.

Water is absolutely essential to the body, is present in large
quantities in many foods, and is combined with many other foods during
the processes of cooking.

One or more of the food-stuffs sometimes predominate in a single food.
For example, rice is almost entirely carbohydrate, and butter is almost
pure fat. Occasionally, we find a food that contains all the five groups
of food principles. Milk is an example of such a food, containing all
five food principles in such proportions as to supply all the
nourishment which a baby needs during the early months of its life. As
the child grows older, foods rich in both carbohydrates must be added to
the diet. Wheat contains all that the body needs for nourishment except
water, which is easily added in cooking.

  _Protein foods_      _Carbohydrate foods_

  Meats                Sugar
  Fish                 Honey
  Poultry              Syrup
  Eggs                 Vegetables:
  Cheese                 Potatoes
  Milk                   Parsnips
  Cereals:               Peas
    Wheat                Beets
    Oatmeal              Carrots
    Rye                Cereal preparations:
  Legumes:               Meals
    Peas                 Flours, etc.
    Beans              Fruits
    Lentils            Prepared foods:
    Peanuts              Bread
    Nuts                 Crackers
                         Dried fruits

  _Fat foods_          _Mineral foods_

  Cream                Fruits
  Butter               Vegetables:
  Lard                   Spinach
  Suet                   Tomatoes
  Fat meats              Onions
  Fish                   Turnip tops
  Salad oil              Cauliflower
  Nuts                 Cereals:
  Chocolate              Grits and other coarse preparations

_Choice of food._--The diet must be carefully chosen, to give a needed
variety and to combine the foods properly so that one may have a right
proportion of all the food-stuffs. Each meal should contain some protein
food, some fats or carbohydrates, some mineral matter, and water. All
five forms of food-stuffs should have a place in the day's diet. The
greater part of the water which the body needs should be taken between


Review the foods discussed in the previous lessons and sum up the
classification of foods, being sure that the pupils can name common
examples of each. Discuss simple combinations for the different meals,
using dishes already prepared in the course and creating an interest in
other recipes to be prepared in succeeding lessons.


There are five food principles:

1. _Water_--builds and repairs the tissues, regulates the system--

found in all food-stuffs.

2. _Mineral matter_--builds and repairs the tissues, regulates the

found in vegetables, fruits, cereal, and so on.

3. _Carbohydrates_--give heat and energy to the body--

found in sugar and starches.

4. _Fats_--give heat and energy to the body--

found in cream, nuts, pork, and so on.

5. Protein--builds and repairs the tissues--

found in meat, eggs, cheese, seeds.

Always choose a diet carefully:

1. To give variety.

2. To combine the foods properly, so that they will contain adequate
proportions of each food-stuff at every meal.



Experience has shown that some foods are more acceptable at one time of
day than other foods, and that certain combinations are more pleasing
than others. The choice of foods will also depend upon the season of the
year. For example, breakfast is, as a rule, made up of simple foods that
are not highly seasoned nor subjected to elaborate methods of cooking. A
fruit, a cereal, and bread, with, possibly, eggs or meat, are served at
breakfast. A hot beverage is added by most people to this meal.

Fundamentally, dinner consists of a hot meat or other protein dish, with
one or two vegetables. Soup, salad, and a sweet dessert are often
served. The soup is served before the meat course, and the salad and
dessert follow it. The dessert may be a fruit, a cookie or other pastry,
a pudding, or a frozen dish.

Lunch or supper may be a very simple meal, consisting of a soup with
crackers, one protein dish (eggs, milk, or meat) with bread and stewed
fruit, or a salad, with a simple dessert.



No. I   Apple sauce
        Sausage or bacon

No. II  Baked apples
        Eggs in the shell
        Cracked wheat
        Corn muffins

No. III Stewed figs or berries
        Poached eggs
        Corn-meal porridge

    Note.--Eggs should be omitted from the breakfast menu if
    they are not cheap and easily obtainable.


No. I    Pork chops
         Fried apples
         Mashed turnips
         Rice pudding

No. II   Beef or mutton stew
         Spinach or turnip tops
         Cornstarch pudding

No. III  Baked beans
         Grape sauce
         Cabbage salad
         Bread or biscuits


No. I Stewed apricots or other fruit
      Whole wheat bread
      Buttermilk or sweet milk
      Peanut cookies

No. II Omelet
       Creamed potatoes
       Fresh fruit

No. III Cream of carrot soup
        Cottage cheese

The table should always be neatly set, with individual places arranged
for each one who is to partake of the meal. Each place should be wide
enough for a plate, with a knife and spoon at the right and a fork at
the left side. A tumbler should be placed at the point of the knife and
a napkin at the left of the fork. Everything on the table should be
perfectly clean, the napkin should be neatly folded, and all the
articles should be uniformly arranged, in order to give a neat
appearance to the table. A flower or plant in the centre will add to its
attractiveness. Salt, pepper, sugar, vinegar, and anything of the kind
that may be needed with the meal should be arranged where it can be
easily reached. Fresh water should be poured into the tumblers just
before the meal is served. The bread, butter, and so on, may be put on
the table several minutes before the meal is announced, but the hot
dishes should be placed immediately before the family is seated.


If Lesson VI, entitled "Setting and Clearing the Table" as outlined in
the course on the Care of the Home has been given, this lesson may be
devoted to what to serve and how to serve it, or it may precede the
lesson on "Waiting on Table". The manner of serving may be demonstrated
in the next lesson, in connection with the course on the Care of the

Simple equipment for family service will be required, if the form of
serving is to be taken up. For class practice, a table for four may be
arranged. This will necessitate a table-cover, four dinner plates, four
bread-and-butter plates, four tumblers, four cups and saucers, four
knives, four forks, four teaspoons, four napkins, a platter, one serving
spoon, and one serving fork.


Discuss meal service from the standpoint both of choice and combination
of foods and of the method of service. Let the class plan a meal, then
go through the form of serving that meal at table. In the absence of a
table, the top of a desk may be used. Later in the course, the teacher
should plan to combine this lesson with one on cooking and have the food
served. In each cooking lesson, suggestions for serving the food should
be made, and each dish cooked should be carefully served. Interest in
this lesson may be increased by allowing the pupils to make original
menus, and, if they are having some lessons in drawing, simple menu
cards may be planned and executed.


_Care, cost, and food value of milk. Value and use of sour milk--cottage
cheese, curdled milk. Rice or cornstarch pudding (plain, caramel, or


Milk contains all the food-stuffs which the body requires, except
starch, and, therefore, is capable of sustaining life for comparatively
long periods. It is one of the most important protein foods; but it
contains so small a percentage of carbohydrate (milk sugar) that for the
adult it must be supplemented with carbohydrate foods. For the baby,
milk is a perfect food, and it is a valuable adjunct to the diet of all
children. One quart of milk should be allowed for the diet of each child
daily, after the twelfth month; and the diet of the adult should be
supplemented by the use of milk. The greatest care should be exercised
in protecting milk from dust and dirt, for it is easily contaminated and
may be the means of carrying disease germs to the body. The changes
which milk undergoes when souring do not render it harmful. For many
people buttermilk is more easy of digestion than sweet milk, because of
the changes produced by souring, as well as the absence of fat. Sour
milk is of value in cooking, producing a tender bread which can readily
be made light by the addition of soda--one teaspoonful of soda to one
pint of sour milk that has curdled.

In the preparation of cheese, the whey is separated from the curds, thus
extracting most of the water, sugar, and mineral matter, and leaving a
substance rich in protein and fat. Cheese is of value in cooking, for it
increases the food value of those foods to which it is added.


The teacher should make inquiries a few days in advance, to be sure that
one quart of sour milk can be secured, and, when it is brought, she
should examine it to see that it is in proper condition to make cottage
cheese. She should arrange to have about one quart of sweet milk and
such other supplies as are necessary for the pudding, brought by the

An opportunity may be afforded to discuss the use of left-over cereal by
the preparation of a rice pudding, if the teacher provides some cold
cooked rice for the lesson. In the absence of cold rice, the cornstarch
pudding may be prepared.


_Cottage Cheese_

Heat sour milk slowly until the whey rises to the top, pour the whey
off, put the curd in a bag, and let it drip for six hours without
squeezing. Put the curd into a bowl and break into fine pieces with a
wooden spoon; season with salt and mix into a paste with a little cream
or butter. Mould into balls, if desired, and keep in a cold place. (It
is best when fresh.)

_Rice Pudding_

  1/2 c. rice
  2 c. milk
  2 eggs
  1/3 c. sugar
  1/8 tsp. salt
  1/2 tsp. vanilla

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Add the prepared rice and cook until
soft. Beat the egg-yolks, sugar, and salt together until well mixed.
Stir into the rice and cook for 3 minutes. Remove from the heat and
serve cold. Serves eight.

_Cornstarch Pudding_

  1/4 c. sugar
  5 tbsp. cornstarch, or 1/2 c. flour
  1 tsp. vanilla, or other flavouring
  3 c. milk
  1 egg

Mix the sugar and cornstarch thoroughly. Add one cup of cold milk and
stir until smooth. Heat the remainder of the milk in a double boiler;
add the cornstarch mixture slowly, stirring constantly until it begins
to thicken. Continue cooking for 20 minutes. Beat the egg well, add the
hot pudding slowly, strain, and cool. Serve with milk or cream and
sugar. (The egg may be omitted, if desired.) Serves eight.

For chocolate cornstarch pudding, use 1/4 cup of sugar additional
and two squares of chocolate. Melt the chocolate carefully,
add the sugar, and add to the cornstarch mixture.

For caramel cornstarch pudding, use 1 cup of brown sugar
and 1/2 cup of boiling water. Heat the sugar until it becomes a
light-brown liquid, add the boiling water, and stir until the
sugar is all dissolved. Let it cool; then add to the cornstarch


As soon as the class meets, demonstrate the method of making cottage
cheese. Show the separation of curd and whey, by adding vinegar or lemon
juice to sweet milk. While the cheese is draining, make assignments of
work and have the rice or cornstarch pudding made.

In this lesson and in those following emphasize the use of protein

Discuss also the food value of skimmed milk and sour milk and the
purposes for which these may be used in cooking.

Use the cottage cheese and the pudding for the school lunch.


_Cream soups. Cream of carrot, potato, or onion soup, green pea soup.
Toast, croutons, or crisp crackers to serve with soup._


_Cream soups._--The strained pulp of cooked vegetables or legumes, with
an equal portion of thin white sauce, is the basis for cream soups. The
liquid for the soup may be all milk, part vegetable water and part milk,
or all vegetable water.

A binding of flour is used to prevent a separation of the thicker and
the thinner parts of the soup. This is combined as for white sauce and
is stirred into the hot liquid just before the soup is to be served. The
soup should be made in a double boiler and kept in this utensil until it
is served.

Four tablespoons of flour to each quart of soup is a good proportion to
use for thickening all vegetable soups that are not of a starchy nature;
half that amount will be sufficient for soup prepared from a very
starchy vegetable.

The value of the vegetable water should be impressed upon the pupils,
and it should be pointed out that these soups are an excellent way of
using the cooking water and any left-over vegetables. From these,
attractive cream soups may be prepared, and a combination of flavours
often gives good results.

_Accompaniments._--Crisp crackers, croutons, soup sticks, or bread
sticks are served with cream soups, and are valuable because they
necessitate thorough mastication, thus inducing the flow of saliva and
aiding in the digestion of the starchy ingredients of the soups.


As a basis for the soup, the teacher should secure a vegetable that the
pupils use in their own homes, and crackers or bread to serve with the

If dried peas are used, they should be allowed to soak overnight and be
put on to cook early in the morning.

It will be well to have the cooking of the carrots begun before the
lesson period. If the carrots are cut up in small pieces, they will cook
more quickly.


_Cream of Carrot Soup_

  1 c. cooked carrots
  2 c. vegetable water
  2 c. milk
  4 tbsp. flour
  2 tbsp. butter
  Salt and pepper to taste

Press the vegetables through a sieve or chop finely; put the vegetable
water on to heat. Mix the flour smoothly with an equal measure of milk
and thin it with a little more of the milk. Stir into the steaming
liquid, stirring constantly until it thickens. Stir in the butter,
vegetable pulp, and remaining milk. Season to taste and serve hot.
Serves six.

_Cream of Potato Soup_

  1 pt. milk or milk and water
  2 tsp. chopped onions
  3 potatoes
  1 tbsp. butter
  1 tbsp. flour
  1 tsp. salt
  1/8 tsp. pepper
  2 tsp. chopped parsley

Put the milk to heat in a double boiler. Boil the potatoes and onion
together until soft, then rub the liquid and pulp through a strainer
into the hot milk. Bind with the flour, add the seasonings, and serve
hot. Serves four.

_Pea Soup_

  1 c. split peas
  2-1/2 qt. water
  2 tbsp. chopped onion
  3 tbsp. butter
  3 tbsp. flour
  1-1/2 tsp. salt
  1/8 tsp. pepper
  1 pt. milk

Wash the peas and soak them overnight in cold water, drain and rinse
thoroughly, add 2-1/2 quarts of cold water and the onion, cook slowly
until soft, rub the liquid and pulp through a strainer, and bind with
the flour. Add the milk and the seasonings and serve hot. Serves six to


Cut stale bread into slices one quarter of an inch thick; put on the
toaster or fork, move gently over the heat until dry, then brown by
placing near the heat, turning constantly. Bread may be dried in the
oven before toasting. Hot milk may be poured over dry toast.


Cut stale bread into one-half-inch cubes and brown in the oven.

_Crisp Crackers_

Put the crackers into the oven for a few minutes, or split and butter
thick crackers, and brown in a hot oven; serve with soup.


Devote a few minutes to a discussion of cream soups and a review of the
cooking of vegetables and white sauce.

Divide the work among the members of the class, assigning enough to each
pupil to keep her busy, arranging the work so that the soup and its
accompaniments will be ready for serving at the same time.


_Food value and general rules for cooking eggs. Cooked in shell,
poached, scrambled, and omelet._


Eggs are a very valuable food, because of the large amount of protein
and fat they contain. Though lacking in carbohydrates, they furnish
material for building up the muscles and provide heat and energy to the
body. If cooked at a low temperature, eggs are very easily and very
completely digested. Combined with other foods, they serve as a
thickening agent (for sauces and soups) and as a means of making batters
light (popovers and sponge cake). They add flavour and colour and
increase the nutritive value of other foods.


The lesson on eggs furnishes one of the best opportunities to teach the
muscle-building foods. If eggs are scarce, it may be well to give this
lesson at some other time. Each pupil should be asked to bring an egg;
one or two should bring a little milk; and sufficient bread should be
provided to toast for the poached eggs. The teacher should not undertake
to give too many recipes in this lesson, but should try to make the
pupils familiar with a sufficient variety of ways of using eggs to make
egg cookery interesting. The necessity of having a moderate temperature
for the cooking of eggs should be emphasized.


_Soft-cooked Eggs_

Put the eggs in boiling water sufficient to cover them, remove from the
fire, cover, and allow them to stand from 5 to 8 minutes.

_Hard-cooked Eggs_

Put the eggs in cold water, heat, and, when the water boils, reduce the
heat, and let them stand for 20 minutes with water just below the
boiling-point, then put them into cold water.

_Poached Eggs_

Break each egg into a saucer carefully, slip the egg into boiling water,
decrease the heat, and cook for 5 minutes, or until the white is firm
and a film has formed over the yolk. Take up with a skimmer, drain, trim
off the rough edges, and serve on slices of toast. Season.

Poached eggs are attractive when covered with white sauce to which
chopped parsley has been added.

_Baked Eggs_

Line a buttered baking-dish with buttered bread crumbs or with cold
mashed potatoes. Break the eggs in the dish without separating and add
one tablespoon of milk or cream for each egg. Season with salt and
pepper and sprinkle with grated cheese, if desired. Bake in a moderate
oven until the eggs are set.

_Creamed Eggs_

  3 hard-boiled eggs
  6 slices toast
  1 c. medium white sauce

Prepare a white sauce. Add hard-boiled eggs cut in halves, sliced, or
chopped and, when hot, serve on toast.

Or separate the whites and yolks, chop the whites fine, add to the white
sauce and, when hot, serve on toast and garnish with yolks run through a
sieve or ricer. Season with salt and pepper. Serves four to six.

_Creamy Omelet_

  1 egg
  1/4 tsp. salt
  1/2 tsp. butter
  1 tbsp. milk

Beat the egg slightly, add the milk and seasonings, put the butter in
the hot omelet pan and, when melted, turn in the mixture. As it cooks,
draw the edges toward the centre until the whole is of a creamy
consistency, brown quickly underneath, fold, and turn on a hot platter.
Serve at once. Serves one.

_Scrambled Eggs_

Double the quantity of milk given for Creamy Omelet and stir all the
time while cooking.

_Foamy Omelet_[A]

  1 egg
  1/8 tsp. salt
  1 tbsp. milk or water
  1/2 tsp. butter
  Cayenne or white pepper

Beat the yolk of the egg until creamy, add seasoning and milk. Beat the
white until stiff, but not dry, cut and fold into the yolk carefully.
Heat an omelet pan, rub the bottom and sides with the butter, and turn
in the omelet, spreading it evenly on the pan. Cook gently over the heat
until the omelet is set and evenly browned underneath. Put it into a hot
oven for a few minutes, to dry slightly on top, fold, and serve
immediately. Serves one.


Devote one half of the class period to a discussion of the structure of
the egg and the effect of heat upon it. Use simple experiments or watch
the poached egg, to make a study of the changes produced in the egg by
the application of heat. If the pupils are sufficiently experienced, let
them work together in small groups, first scrambling an egg, then making
an omelet. Demonstrate the cooking of the omelet before the entire
class. Serve the egg dishes carefully while hot.

    [A] The omelet recipes given are for individual portions.
    To make a large omelet, multiply the quantity of each
    ingredient by the number of eggs used. The best results
    will be obtained by making an omelet of not more than four
    eggs, as larger omelets are difficult to cook thoroughly
    and to handle well. A two-egg omelet will serve three
    people. A four-egg omelet will serve six people.



A custard is a combination of eggs and milk, usually sweetened and
flavoured, and either steamed, or baked as cup custard, or cooked in a
double boiler as soft custard. The whole egg may be used or the yolks
alone. The yolks make a smoother, richer custard.

The eggs must be thoroughly mixed, but not beaten light, the sugar and
salt added, and the milk scalded and stirred in slowly. The custard must
be strained through a fine sieve and cooked at a moderate temperature.
It is desirable to strain a custard, in order to remove the cords and
pieces of the membrane which inclosed the yolk. The cup custard should
be strained before cooking, the soft custard may be strained afterwards.

A soft custard is cooked over water and is stirred constantly until
done. When done, the froth disappears from the surface, the custard is
thickened and coats the spoon and sides of the pan, and there is no sign
of curdling. If the custard is cooked too long, it becomes curdled. If
it becomes curdled, put it into a pan of cold water and beat until

A steamed or baked custard is done when it becomes set and when a silver
knife will come out clean after cutting it.


This lesson will furnish an opportunity for a review of milk and eggs.
The pupils should arrange to bring the necessary materials from their


_Steamed Custards_

  1 qt. milk (heated)
  4 eggs or 8 egg yolks
  1/2 c. sugar
  1/4 tsp. salt
  2 tbsp. caramel or 1/2 tsp. nutmeg

Beat the eggs sufficiently to mix them thoroughly; add the sugar, salt,
and hot milk slowly.

Strain into cups, flavour with caramel, or sprinkle nutmeg on top, and
steam until firm over gently boiling water--from 20 to 30 minutes.

_Baked Custards_

Prepare as for Steamed Custards, set in a pan of hot water, and bake in
a slow oven until firm--from 20 to 40 minutes.

_Chocolate Custards_

Use the recipe for Steamed Custards, adding 1 ounce of chocolate
(melted) to the hot milk. Steam or bake as desired.

_Soft Custard_

  1 pt. milk (heated)
  4 egg yolks
  1/16 tsp. salt
  1/2 tsp. vanilla extract
  4 tbsp. sugar

Beat the egg yolks sufficiently to mix them thoroughly, add the sugar,
salt, and hot milk slowly. Cook over water that is boiling gently. Stir
constantly until the custard thickens. Strain. Flavour when cool.

For soft Chocolate Custard add 1/2 ounce chocolate (melted) to the hot
milk. Serves six.

_Floating Island_

Use recipe for Soft Custard and, when cold, garnish with a meringue made
according to the following recipe:


  4 egg whites
  1/4 c. powdered sugar

Beat the egg whites very light, add powdered sugar, and continue
beating. Drop in large spoonfuls on the cold custard. Serves eight to


It may be possible to teach two or three recipes in this lesson. The
baked custard may be put into the oven while the soft custard or
floating island is being made. Serve at the school lunch.


_Griddle Cakes_


_Batters._--Batters are mixtures of flour or meal and a liquid, with
salt or sugar to give flavour, butter to make tender, and steam, air, or
gas to make light.

One scant measure of liquid is used with one measure of flour for thin,
or pour, batter. One measure of liquid is used with two measures of
flour for a thick, or drop, batter. One measure of liquid is used with
three measures of flour for a soft, or bread, dough. One measure of
liquid is used with four measures of flour for a stiff, or pastry,

Before mixing a batter, the oven or griddle should be at the proper
temperature, with the fire well regulated and in good condition. The
oven should be tested by putting in a piece of white paper or two
tablespoonfuls of flour, which should brown in three minutes. The pans
should be prepared by greasing with lard, salt pork, or beef dripping.
All the materials should be measured and ready before beginning to
combine the ingredients. When the batter has been mixed and beaten until
smooth, it should be baked at once.


The teacher will be better prepared to give the lesson on batters if she
first makes herself familiar with the kinds of breads that are used in
the homes of the pupils and the methods followed in their preparation.
The simple, general methods of preparing batters should be taught. The
teacher should not attempt the preparation of more than one or two
batters in this lesson.


_Sour-milk Griddle Cakes_

  2-1/2 c. flour
  1/2 tsp. salt
  1-1/4 tsp. soda
  1 egg
  2 c. sour milk

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and soda; add the sour milk and egg well
beaten. Drop, by spoonfuls, on a greased hot griddle; cook on one side.
When puffed full of bubbles and cooked on the edges, turn, and cook on
the other side. Serve with butter and maple syrup.

_Sweet-milk Griddle Cakes_

  3 c. flour
  1-1/2 tbsp. baking-powder
  1 tsp. salt
  1/4 c. sugar
  2 c. milk
  1 egg
  2 tbsp. melted butter

Mix and sift the dry ingredients, beat the egg, add the milk, and pour
on the first mixture. Beat thoroughly and add the butter. Cook the same
as Sour-milk Griddle Cakes.


Discuss batters briefly. Have all measurements made, the fire regulated,
the pans prepared, and so on. Demonstrate the mixing and cooking of
Griddle Cakes. Serve the cakes daintily after they are cooked.


_Muffins--Baking-powder Biscuits_


_Methods of making batters light._--Batters are made light by beating
air into them, by adding eggs into which air has been beaten, or by
entangling gas in the batter. Gas is secured by using soda and sour milk
in a batter (one teaspoon of soda to one pint of sour milk), or soda
with molasses (one teaspoon of soda to one cup of molasses), or soda
with cream of tartar (one teaspoon of soda with two slightly rounding
teaspoons of cream of tartar). The soda should be mixed well with the
other dry ingredients, then the sour milk or molasses added, the whole
beaten up quickly, and baked at once.

Baking-powder is a preparation containing soda and cream of tartar, and
may be used in place of soda if sweet milk is used. Two level
teaspoonfuls of baking-powder should be used with one cup of flour.


This lesson is a continuation of the lesson on batters. Care should be
taken not to undertake more than can be done well in the time available.


_Graham Muffins_

  1 c. graham flour
  1 c. flour
  1/4 c. sugar
  1 tsp. salt
  1 c. milk
  1 egg
  1 tbsp. melted butter
  4 tsp. baking-powder

Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Gradually add the milk, the egg
well-beaten, and the melted butter. Bake in a hot oven in greased gem
pans for 25 minutes.

_Plain Muffins_

  1/4 c. butter
  1/4 c. sugar
  1 egg
  3/4 c. milk
  2 c. flour
  3 tsp. baking-powder

Cream the butter, add the sugar and egg well beaten, sift the
baking-powder with the flour, and add to the first mixture, alternating
with the milk. Bake in greased gem pans for 25 minutes.

_Baking-powder Biscuits_

  2 c. flour
  4 tsp. baking-powder
  1 tsp. salt
  2 tbsp. fat
  3/4 to 1 c. milk or water

Sift the dry ingredients together, chop the fat into the flour with a
knife, slowly add sufficient milk to make a dough not too soft to be
handled. Toss and roll the dough gently on a slightly-floured board and
cut into small biscuits. Moisten the tops with a little milk. Handle the
dough quickly, lightly, and as little as possible. Place on a buttered
sheet. Bake in a hot oven till brown--from 12 to 15 minutes. Either
white or whole wheat flour may be used for the biscuits. Serves six to
eight. Oven test--the oven should be hot enough to colour a piece of
unglazed white paper to a golden brown in one minute.

_Soda Biscuits_

  2 c. flour
  1/2 tsp. soda (scant)
  1/2 tsp. salt
  1 c. sour milk (scant)
  2 tbsp. shortening (lard or other fat)

Proceed as for Baking-powder Biscuits.

If the sour milk is not thick enough to curdle, it will not contain
sufficient acid to neutralize the soda, and the biscuits will be yellow
and bitter. To avoid this, cream of tartar may be mixed with the soda (1
teaspoonful). If there is no cream of tartar at hand, it will be wise to
use the recipe for Baking-powder Biscuits.


Have the oven and pans prepared and all the measurements made.
Demonstrate the mixing of the muffins and, while these are baking, the
mixing of the biscuits. Have one pupil take charge of the baking of the
muffins and another of the baking of the biscuits. When the breads are
done, have the class sit down and serve them to one another, or to all
the pupils at the school lunch hour.


_Composition and food value. How to make tough cuts of meat palatable.
Pork chops with fried apples. Beef or mutton stew with vegetables and
dumplings. Rabbit stew. Bacon._


Meats are rich in protein and usually in fats, but are lacking in the
carbohydrates. They build up the muscular tissue, furnish heat and
energy, are more stimulating and strengthening than any other food, and
satisfy hunger for a greater length of time. For the most part, meats
are a very expensive food. One cannot perform more labour by the use of
a meat diet than on a diet of vegetable foods. Those who use large
quantities of meat suffer from many disturbances of the system. Hence it
should form a very small part of the diet. The cuts of meat that come
from those portions of the animal's body that are much exercised are
tough, owing to the development of the connective tissues, but they
contain a high percentage of nutrition. For the same reason, the meat
from older animals is apt to be tough. The flesh of chickens, turkeys,
and other fowls is very nutritious and is easily digested if not too

The flavour of meats is developed by cooking. Dry heat develops the best
flavour, hence the tender cuts are cooked by the processes known as
broiling and roasting. Tough cuts of meat require long, slow cooking in
moist heat, hence they are prepared in the form of stews and pot roasts
or are used in meat soups.


After the teacher has found out what meats are used in the homes or what
the school can afford to use, she should determine upon a method of
cooking that will make the meat palatable, digestible, and attractive.
If it can be prepared as a stew, she should use a recipe in which
vegetables are also used and, if possible, have dumplings prepared to
serve with the meat, as a review of the lesson on batters.


_Beef or Mutton Stew_

  2 lb. beef or mutton
  1 qt. water
  Salt, pepper, flour to dredge
  1 onion, cut in slices
  1/2 c. turnip cut in dice
  3/4 c. carrot cut in dice
  4 potatoes cut in 1/2-inch slices
  1 tsp. salt
  1/4 tsp. pepper
  1/2 c. flour
  1/4 c. cold water

Remove the fat and cut the meat into 1-inch pieces. Reserve half of the
best pieces of meat, put the rest of the meat and the bone into cold
water, soak for one hour, then heat until it bubbles. Season half the
raw meat and roll it in the flour, melt the fat in a frying-pan, remove
the scraps, brown the sliced onion and then the floured meat in the hot
fat, add both to the stew, and cook for 2 hours at a low temperature. To
this add the vegetables and cook 1/2 hour; then add the flour and
seasonings, which have been mixed with one-half cup of cold water, and
cook for 1/2 hour longer, until the meat and vegetables are tender.
Remove the bone from the stew and serve. Serves six to eight.


If beef and mutton are not commonly used and are not readily obtainable,
but rabbit can be secured, substitute rabbit for beef in the stew. After
the rabbit has been thoroughly cleaned, cut up in eight pieces (four leg
and four body pieces), season, and dredge with flour, brown in the fat,
and proceed as with Beef Stew.


  2 c. flour
  4 tsp. baking-powder
  1/2 tsp. salt
  2 tbsp. fat (lard or butter)
  3/4 c. milk or water (about)

Sift the dry ingredients together, cut in the butter, and add the milk
gradually, to make a soft dough. Roll out on a floured board, cut with a
biscuit cutter, lay on top of meat in a stew pan (they should not sink
into the liquid), cover the kettle closely, keep the stew boiling, and
cook the dumplings for 10 minutes without removing the lid. (Do not put
the dumplings in to cook until the meat is tender.)

    _Note._--If desired, the rolling may be eliminated and,
    after mixing, the dough may be dropped by spoonfuls into
    the stew.

_To Cook Bacon_

Place thin slices of bacon from which the rind has been removed in a hot
frying-pan, and pour off the fat as fast as it melts. Cook until the
bacon is crisp and brown, turning frequently. Another method of cooking
is to lay the bacon on a rack in a baking-pan and bake in a hot oven
until crisp and brown.

_Pork Chops_

Wipe the chops with a damp cloth, and place in a hot frying-pan. Turn
frequently at first and cook slowly until well browned on each side.
Sprinkle with salt and pepper.

_Fried Apples_

Wash and core the apples and slice to the centre. Roll in flour if very

After the chops have been removed from the pan, lay the apples in and
cook till tender. Serve around the chops.


If the meat is to require two or three hours' cooking, arrange to have
the lesson divided and given at two periods through the day. Half an
hour before opening the morning session or a portion of the morning or
noon recess may be sufficient time to put the meat on to cook and to
prepare the vegetables. When the second class period is called, the
vegetables should be added to the partially cooked meat and the
dumplings should be made. It would be well to serve the completed dish
at the lunch period. There should be as much discussion regarding the
kinds of meat, their food value, and the methods of cooking as time
permits; but it may be necessary to complete this discussion at some
other class period.

Should it be possible for the teacher to give additional lessons on
meat, it might be well to devote one lesson to the preparation and
cooking of poultry, directions for which may be secured from any
reliable cook-book.



Peas, beans, and lentils which are dried for market contain a high
percentage of protein, carbohydrate, and mineral matter. They form an
excellent substitute for meat and are much cheaper in price. The
digestion of leguminous foods proceeds slowly, involving a large amount
of work: on this account they are not desirable for invalids, but they
are satisfactory for those who are well and active. The dried legumes
must be soaked overnight in water and then cooked for a long time, in
order to soften the cellulose and develop the flavour.


It will be necessary to plan this lesson several days in advance, if the
beans are to be baked. As they will be prepared and put on to bake
before the lesson period, the Baking-powder Biscuits may be made during
the lesson, to serve with them.


_Boston Baked Beans_

  1 qt. navy beans
  1 tbsp. salt
  1/2 tbsp. mustard
  3 tbsp. sugar
  2 tbsp. molasses
  1 c. boiling water
  1/2 lb. fat salt pork
  Boiling water to cover

Look over the beans and soak them in cold water overnight.

In the morning drain, cover with fresh water, and simmer them until the
skins will burst, but do not let the beans become broken.

Scald one-half pound of fat salt pork. Scrape the pork. Put a slice in
the bottom of the bean pot. Cut the remaining pork across the top in
strips just through the rind, and bury the pork in beans, leaving the
rind exposed.

Add one cup of boiling water to seasonings and pour over the beans.
Cover with boiling water. Bake slowly, adding more water as necessary.
Bake from 6 to 8 hours, uncover at the last, so that the water will
evaporate and the beans brown on top. Serves twelve.


Have the beans washed and put to soak the night before the lesson is to
be given. Assign to one of the pupils the task of putting them on to
simmer early the next morning. Call the class together for a few moments
when the beans are ready to bake. Assign one of the pupils to attend to
the fire and the oven. Let the beans bake all day. If the lesson is to
be given late in the afternoon, the beans may be ready to serve, or the
cooking may be continued on the second day and the lesson completed
then. It would be well to serve the dish at the lunch period. Have the
biscuits prepared to serve with the baked beans.



_Cakes._--Cakes made with fat resemble other batters, except that the
fat, sugar, and eggs are usually larger in amount and the texture of the
baked batter is finer and more tender.

When preparing cake, first get the pans ready. Grease them or line them
with greased paper. Make sure that the oven is at the proper
temperature. For a small cake, the oven should be hot enough to brown a
piece of unglazed paper or a tablespoonful of flour in three minutes.
Bake a small cake from twenty to thirty minutes. When done, the cake
will shrink from the sides of the pan; the crust will spring back when
touched with the finger; the loud ticking sound will cease; a fine
knitting-needle will come out clean if the cake is pierced; and the
crust will be nicely browned. When the cake is removed from the oven,
let it stand in the pan for about three minutes, then loosen, and turn
out gently. Do not handle while hot. Keep in a clean, ventilated tin box
in a cool, dry place.

_Cocoa._--Chocolate and cocoa are prepared from the bean of a tropical
tree. This bean is rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral matter,
and a stimulant called theobromine. In the preparation of chocolate the
seeds are cleaned, milled, and crushed into a paste. In the preparation
of cocoa much of the fat is removed, and the cocoa is packed for market
in the form of a fine powder. Cocoa is more easily digested than
chocolate, because it contains less fat. Though the amount of cocoa used
in a cup of this beverage is not large, when prepared with milk it
serves as a nutritious food. It is slightly stimulating as well, because
of the theobromine present and because it is served hot.

_Coffee and Tea._--Coffee and tea have no food value when prepared as
beverages. They contain stimulating properties that are harmful to the
body if taken in large quantities and, on this account, they should be
used with discretion. They should never be given to children or to those
troubled with indigestion. If carelessly prepared, both coffee and tea
may be decidedly harmful to the body. Coffee should not be boiled for
more than eight minutes. Tea should never be permitted to boil. Fresh,
boiling water should be poured on the leaves and left for three minutes.
It should then be strained off and kept hot until used.


It may be wise to give this lesson on some special occasion, as it is
well adapted to serve for the refreshments for a mother's club or a
little class party.


_Plain Yellow Cake_

  1/2 c. butter
  1 c. sugar
  2 eggs
  1/2 c. milk
  2 tsp. baking-powder
  1-1/2 c. flour
  1 tsp. spice or 1-1/2 tsp. flavouring

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and mix well. Add the
well-beaten yolks of eggs, then the flour and baking-powder alternately
with the milk. Then add the flavouring and cut and fold in the whites of
the eggs carefully. Turn into buttered pans and bake at once in a
moderately hot oven.

For chocolate cake, 2 ounces of melted chocolate may be added after the
yolks of the eggs. Serves sixteen to twenty.


  1/4 c. butter
  1/2 c. brown sugar
  1 egg
  1/2 c. molasses
  1/2 c. milk (sour if possible)
  1/2 tsp. soda
  1-3/4 c. flour
  1 tsp. ginger
  1/2 tsp. cinnamon

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, then a well-beaten egg. Add
the molasses. Sift all the dry ingredients together and add alternately
with the milk. Bake in a buttered tin or in gem pans in a moderate oven
for 25 or 35 minutes. Serves eight to ten.


  1/4 c. cocoa
  1/4 c. sugar
  1 c. water
  3 c. milk

Mix the cocoa and sugar with the water and boil from 3 to 5 minutes.
Stir into the hot milk and serve at once. If a scum forms, beat with a
Dover egg-beater. Serves eight to ten.


  1 tsp. green or 2 tsp. black tea
  2 c. boiling water (freshly boiling)

Scald the tea-pot, put the tea in the tea-pot, and pour boiling water
over it; steep 3 minutes, strain, and serve. Serves four.


Take two tablespoonfuls of ground coffee for each cup of boiling water
that is to be used. Put the coffee in the coffee-pot and add enough cold
water to moisten the coffee and make it stick together--about one
teaspoonful of water to each tablespoonful of coffee. Pour the boiling
water over the coffee and boil it for 3 minutes. Place it where it will
keep hot, but not boil, for 5 minutes or more, and then serve. If a
small amount of egg white and shell is mixed with the coffee grounds and
cold water, it will aid in clarifying and settling the coffee.

    _Note._--The recipes for coffee and tea are given, so that
    the teacher can discuss their preparation with the pupils
    and compare their value with that of cocoa. If coffee and
    tea are both commonly used in the homes, it may be well to
    have the pupils prepare both in the class, to be sure that
    they understand how to make them properly.


Begin the lesson period with a discussion of the methods of preparing
cakes, and put the cake in the oven as soon as possible. While it is
baking, prepare the cocoa. If the cocoa is not to be served for some
time, it can be kept hot or re-heated over hot water.



Yeast bread is made light by the presence of a gas produced by the
action of yeast in the sponge or dough. Yeast is a microscopic plant
which grows in a moist, warm temperature and feeds on starchy materials
such as are present in wheat. A portion of the starch is converted into
sugar (thus developing new and pleasant flavours), and some is still
further changed, giving off the gas upon which the lightness of the
bread depends. If the yeast is allowed to work for too long a time or
the temperature is very hot, a souring of the dough may result. This
souring can be prevented by kneading the dough thoroughly, as soon as it
has risen well or doubled in bulk, or by putting it in a very hot oven
to bake, when it has reached this stage. The yeast plant thrives in a
heat of about the same temperature as our bodies. A little extra heat
will only make it more active, but boiling temperature will kill it.
Cold makes yeast inactive, though it does not kill the plants.

Yeast develops in a natural state on hops and other plants. It is
prepared for market in the form of dry or moist cakes. The latter must
be kept very cold. For home use, a liquid yeast is often prepared from
the dry cakes. This has the advantage of being more active.

When the yeast has been added to a batter, it is spoken of as a sponge.
When the batter has had enough flour added, so that it may be handled,
it is called a dough. If the bread is to be made in a few hours, the
yeast is made up at once into a dough. If it is to stand overnight, a
sponge is often made first. More yeast is required for quick rising. In
ordinary circumstances, one yeast cake is sufficient for one quart of
liquid. Thorough kneading and baking are both essential to the success
of the bread.


Arrange to have the class meet the afternoon before, in order to begin
the process by making the sponge, and to come early in the morning to
care for the dough. Begin the study of flour, yeast, and bread in a
previous class period, correlating the work with geography, nature
study, or some other subject. Either white or whole-wheat flour may be
used for the breads.



(Prepared with dry yeast)

  1 dry yeast cake
  1 c. warm water
  1 c. flour
  1 qt. water or milk (scalded)
  Flour enough to make a soft dough
  2 tsp. salt
  2 tbsp. sugar
  2 tbsp. lard or butter

At noon put a dry yeast cake to soak in a cup of warm water. When it is
soft, add a cup of flour, cover, and put in a warm place to grow light.
This will require several hours.

In the evening, when ready to begin the dough, mix the salt, sugar, fat,
and hot liquid in a large bowl; when lukewarm, add the cup of light
yeast and enough flour to knead (about three quarts). Mix thoroughly and
knead it into a smooth dough, and continue this process until it is soft
and elastic. Return the dough to the bowl, moisten, cover, and set in a
moderately warm place for the night. Be sure that the place is free from
draughts. In the morning knead slightly; divide into loaves or shape in
rolls; put into pans for baking; cover, and let it rise until double in
bulk. Bake large loaves from 50 to 60 minutes. Rolls will bake in from
25 to 35 minutes, for they require a hotter oven. It is of the utmost
importance that all yeast breads be thoroughly cooked. (Makes 4 loaves.)

(Time required for making bread with dry yeast, from 16 to 20 hours.)


(Prepared with compressed yeast)

  2 c. milk or water (scalded)
  2 tsp. salt
  2 tsp. sugar
  1 tbsp. lard or butter
  1/4 cake compressed yeast (1 cake if set in morning)
  1/4 c. water (lukewarm)
  Flour, white or whole wheat

Put the hot water or milk, salt, sugar, and fat in a bowl; when
lukewarm, and the yeast softened in the lukewarm water, then the flour
gradually and, when stiff enough to handle, turn the dough out on a
floured board and knead until soft and elastic (20 minutes). Return the
dough to the bowl, moisten, cover, and let it rise in a warm place until
double in bulk; then knead slightly, divide into loaves or shape into
rolls, cover, and let rise in the pan in which they are to be baked
until double in bulk, and bake from 50 to 60 minutes. (Makes 2 loaves.)

(Time required for making bread, if one cake of compressed yeast is
used, 6 hours.)


If the class is large, prepare two or three bowls of sponge, so that all
can have some practice in stirring and kneading. Do not make too large a
quantity of bread to bake in the oven, unless arrangements can be made
to do some of the baking at the home of one of the pupils. Use the bread
for the school lunch or divide it among the class to take home.

Plan a bread contest, so that each pupil will be interested in making
bread at home.



At some previous time the teacher should discuss with the pupils the
plans for the dinner. It may be well to let them invite the members of
the school board or others interested in their work to partake of the
dinner. They should decide on the menu, with the help and suggestions of
the teacher, and should choose foods that they can bring from their
homes. The main course should consist of such a vegetable dish as baked
beans, an omelet, or macaroni with white sauce and grated cheese. To
accompany this there should be potatoes and a fresh green vegetable,
such as spinach or cabbage, and a hot bread.

A simple dessert which the pupils know how to make should be chosen. One
duty should be assigned to each pupil, and she should be entirely
responsible for that portion of the dinner. The teacher should supervise
all the work carefully.

Instructions for making the menu cards may be given in a drawing lesson.


_Baked Omelet_

  2 tbsp. butter
  2 tbsp. flour
  1/2 tsp. salt
  1 c. milk, heated
  4 eggs
  2 tsp. fat

Melt the butter, add the flour and seasonings, mix thoroughly, then add
the hot milk slowly. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and add the
white sauce to them. Beat the whites until stiff and cut and fold them
carefully into the yolk mixture, so that the lightness is all retained.
Turn into a greased baking-dish and bake in a moderate oven from 20 to
30 minutes. Serve hot. Serves six.

_Macaroni and Cheese_

  1 c. macaroni, noodles, or rice
  2 tbsp. fat
  3 tbsp. flour
  1/2 tsp. salt
  1-1/2 c. milk
  1 c. grated cheese
  2 c. buttered bread crumbs (two tbsp. butter or other fat)

Break the macaroni into 1-inch pieces and cook it in a large amount of
salted boiling water from 30 to 45 minutes. Drain it well when tender
and pour cold water through it.

Break up the bread crumbs and add two tablespoonfuls of melted butter to
them. Grate the cheese and make a white sauce of the fat, flour,
seasonings, and milk. Mix the cheese with the sauce, add the macaroni,
and pour it into a buttered baking-dish. Cover with the bread crumbs and
bake 15 or 20 minutes, to brown the crumbs. Serves eight.


_Food value and cooking. The use of peanuts in candy. Peanut cookies, or
peanut, molasses, or fudge candies, to be made for a special


Sugar is valuable to the body as a source of heat and energy. While it
is easy of digestion, it is very irritating to the body if taken in
large quantities and, on this account, it should be taken in small
quantities and preferably at meal time or with other food. Two or three
pieces of candy taken at the end of the meal will not be hurtful, but
when eaten habitually between meals, it is sure to produce harmful

Sugar is present in many fruits and in most vegetables. Milk contains a
large percentage of sugar. In preparing foods to which the addition of
sugar seems desirable, care should be taken not to add it in large


As it is desirable to have a discussion regarding sugar and its value to
the body, the preparation of cookies or candy for some school function
or Christmas party may be undertaken in conjunction with this lesson,
which should be given at a time when it will mean most to the pupils.
The work should be so planned that they will learn something of the
principles of sugar cookery, as well as the specific recipes they are



  1 c. fat
  1 c. sugar
  2 eggs
  1/4 c. milk
  3 c. flour
  3 tsp. baking-powder
  1 tbsp. cinnamon
  1/2 c. sugar

Cream the butter and add the sugar and well-beaten eggs. Then add the
milk alternately with the sifted dry flour (sifted with baking-powder).
Mix to the consistency of a soft dough, adding more milk if necessary.
Roll lightly, cut in shapes, and dip in the one-half cup of sugar and
cinnamon that have been sifted together. Place on buttered sheets and
bake in a hot oven for about 10 minutes. Slip from the pan and lay on
the cake cooler. To make a softer cookie, use only one-half cup of
butter. (Three to four dozen.)

_Peanut Cookies_

  2 tbsp. butter
  1/4 c. sugar
  1 egg
  1 tsp. baking-powder
  1/8 tsp. salt
  1/2 c. flour
  2 tsp. milk
  1/2 c. finely chopped peanuts
  1/2 tsp. lemon juice
  2 doz. whole peanuts shelled

Cream the butter and add the sugar and the egg well beaten. Add the milk
and sifted dry ingredients, alternately, to the first mixture, then the
peanuts and lemon juice. Drop from a teaspoon on a baking sheet an inch
apart and place 1/2 peanut on top of each. Bake from 12 to 15 minutes in
a moderate oven. (Two and a half to three dozen.)

_Peanut Brittle_

  1 c. sugar
  1 c. peanuts in the shell

Stir the sugar over the heat, constantly, until it becomes a clear
liquid. Take at once from the heat, add the prepared peanuts, and pour
on a warm, buttered tin. Mark in squares and cool. Serves ten.

_Molasses Candy_

  2 c. molasses
  2/3 c. sugar
  1 tbsp. vinegar
  1/4 tsp. soda
  2 tbsp. butter

Put the molasses, sugar, and butter into a thick sauce-pan or kettle and
stir until the sugar is dissolved. Boil until the mixture becomes
brittle when tried in cold water. Stir constantly at the last to prevent
burning. Add vinegar and soda just before removing from the fire. Pour
into a well-greased pan and let it stand until cool enough to handle.
Then pull until light and porous and cut in small pieces with scissors,
arranging on buttered plates. Serves sixteen to twenty.


  2 c. sugar
  1 c. milk
  1 tbsp. butter
  1/2 c. nuts, broken up

Put the sugar and the milk in a sauce-pan and stir over the heat until
the sugar is dissolved. Add the butter and boil to the "soft ball"
stage. Take from the heat and beat until creamy. Add the nuts and pour
on buttered pans. When cool, cut in squares. Serves sixteen to eighteen.


Devote, if possible, a separate period to the discussion of the food
value and cooking of sugar; then assign two recipes for the practical
work, allowing the pupils to work in groups. Assign only as much work as
can be carefully supervised. Do not undertake both the cookies and the



The teacher should be familiar with the conditions in which the pupils
live, should know how much money they can afford to pay for materials,
what materials are available, what previous experience in hand work they
have had, whether they can afford to have sewing-machines in their own
homes, and to what extent they make their own clothes or buy them

The lessons should be planned to furnish hand training, to give pupils
practical instruction in the care of their own clothes, and to provide
an opportunity for preparing the apron for the cooking lessons. The
lesson course should tend to develop habits of thrift, industry, and
neatness. The pupils should be encouraged to learn to sew, both to
improve their own home conditions and to give them suggestions as to a
possible means of livelihood. If sewing-machines are available and are
in use in the homes, it is well to have lessons given in machine sewing
and to have the long seams run by machine. If the pupils cannot have
sewing-machines in their own homes, the lessons given should be limited
to sewing by hand. In some schools, it may be necessary to simplify the
lessons; in others, an increased number of articles may be prepared in
the time allotted. Should the apron and cap not be needed for the
cooking class, an undergarment (corset cover) may well be

    [A] Should the teacher feel that an apron or corset-cover
    is too large a piece for her pupils to undertake, and
    should she desire to have more time spent on the first ten
    lessons. Lessons XI to XVIII may be omitted, two periods
    each devoted to both Lessons XIX and XX, and three lessons
    used for the making of a simple needle-book or other small

For each lesson the teacher should have in mind a definite plan of
procedure. The lesson should be opened with a brief and concrete class
discussion of the new work that is to be taken up or the special stage
that has been reached in work that is already under way. Though
individual instruction is necessary, it should not take the place of
this general presentation of the subject-matter, which economizes time
and develops the real thought content of the work. Whenever possible,
the teacher should endeavour to correlate this work with the other
subjects on the curriculum.

New stitches may be demonstrated on large pieces of scrim, with long
darning-needles and coarse red or black yarn. The scrim should be pinned
to the black-board with thumb tacks, and the stitches made large enough
for all to see without difficulty. A variety of completed articles
should be kept on hand, in order to show additional application of
points brought out in the lesson. Each class may be given the privilege
of preparing one article to add to this collection, and a spirit of
class pride and valuable team work may be thereby developed.

During the lesson, posture, neatness, and order should be emphasized.
Application can be secured by making the problems of interest. Care must
be taken that none of the work demands unnecessary eye strain. Each
lesson should be closed in time to have one of the members of the class
give a brief summary of the steps that have been covered.

Since the class period for sewing in the rural school will necessarily
be brief, the pupils should be encouraged to continue their work at some
other period. However, no work outside of the class period should be
permitted until the pupil has mastered the stitch and can be trusted to
do the work in the right way. The privilege of sewing may be made the
reward for lessons quickly learned, home practice may be assigned, or
the class may meet out of school hours. All outside practice must be
carefully supervised, the pupil bringing her work to the teacher for
frequent inspection.

If it is possible to keep on hand a permanent equipment for sewing, the
following should be provided for a class of twelve:

                              Approximate cost
  Scissors, 1 dozen                      $3.00
  Thimbles, 1 dozen                        .50
  Tape-measures, 1 dozen                   .60
  Emery, 1 dozen                           .50
  Boxes for work, 1 dozen                 1.00

    _Note._--Shoe or candy boxes may be used, but an effort
    should be made to have them uniform.

The teacher who is to give lessons in sewing should secure a helpful
elementary text-book or some bulletin that deals with the teaching of


_School Sewing, Based on Home Problems._ Burton, I. R.
   and M. G. Vocational Supply Co., Indianapolis           $1.00

_Handbook of Elementary Sewing._ Flagg, E. P. Little,
   Brown & Co., Boston. (McClelland, Goodchild &
   Stewart, Toronto)                                         .50

_Constructive Sewing, Book I._ (paper) Industrial Book &
   Equipment Co., Indianapolis                               .60

_School Needlework._ Hapgood, O. C. Ginn & Co., Boston       .50

_Clothing and Health._ Kinne, H., and Cooley,
   A. M. Macmillan's, Toronto                                .65

_Handicraft for Girls._ McGlauflin, I. Manual Arts Press,
   Peoria. Ill.                                             1.00

_Home and School Sewing._ Patton, F. Newson & Co.,
   New York                                                  .60

_A Sewing Course._ Woolman, M. S. Frederick A. Fernald,
   Washington                                               1.50

_Sewing._ Department of Education of Ontario                 .20


_Preparation and use of working equipment: Needles, pins, thread,
tape-measure, thimble, scissors, box for work. Talk on cleanliness and
neatness (care of hands, etc.). Discussion of hemming. Hems folded on
sheets of paper._


A hem is made by twice turning over the edge of a piece of cloth toward
the worker, and then sewing it down. It is used to finish a narrow edge.
In turning a narrow hem the first fold must not be so deep as the
second, in order that the hem may lie smoothly. If the hem is a wide
one, the first fold can be much narrower than the second.


The teacher should have interested the pupils in the sewing lessons
before the first meeting of the class, and each pupil should be asked to
bring with her the box in which to keep her materials and such other
equipment as is required. If the school is to furnish the equipment, the
teacher should be sure that there is an adequate supply on hand.

It will probably be necessary to have the towels to be used in the
cooking classes hemmed, and the pupils should be interested in doing
this work. If some of them wish to hem towels for use in their own
homes, it may be desirable to allow them to do so. Flour or meal sacks
will answer. It may be well to have each pupil hem a towel for home use,
as well as for school use, in order to impress upon her the desirability
of having hemmed dish-towels for daily use. The towels may be planned
during this lesson, and the pupils may arrange to bring the material
from home, if they are to provide it; but it will be well for the
teacher to have on hand material for one or two towels. Plain paper will
answer for the practice folding of the hem in the first lesson.


The teacher should devote a few minutes to a talk on cleanliness,
emphasizing its importance, and the necessity for exercising care in
handling the sewing materials. This should be followed by a discussion
regarding the care of the hands and the condition in which they should
be for the sewing lesson. Each pupil should inspect her own hands and
show them to the teacher.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 2.--Gauge]

When all the pupils have their hands in a proper condition for sewing,
the teacher should look over their supplies with them, give them
suggestions as to how they are to keep these, and let them arrange their

Next, she should tell them what their first work is to be, show them the
material for the towels, and discuss with them the best method of
finishing the ends. (See Lesson II.)

Before turning the hem, the pupils should make a gauge from heavy paper,
notched to indicate the depth of the hem. A few minutes should be
devoted to practice in measuring and turning a hem of the desired depth
on a sheet of paper. This should give practice in the double turning
necessary--first, the narrow turn to dispose of the cut edge; second,
the fold to finish the edge.

When the lesson is finished, the boxes should be put away in systematic
order, and all scraps should be carefully picked up from the desks and
the floor.


_Turning and basting hems. Hemming towels of crash, sacking, or other
material, for use in washing and drying dishes at home or in school._

[Illustration: _Fig._ 3.--Even basting]


Basting is used to hold two pieces of material together until a
permanent stitch can be put in. It is done by taking long stitches
(one-fourth inch) from right to left and parallel to the edges that are
to be basted together. In starting, the thread is fastened with a knot;
when completed, it is fastened by taking two or three stitches one over
the other.


The teacher should have the necessary materials on hand or should see
that they are supplied by the pupils. The articles needed will include
material for the towels, white thread for basting and hemming, and
gauges for measuring.

The teacher should also have a large square of unbleached cotton or
canvas, 18 by 18 inches, and a large darning-needle and coloured worsted
thread, to use for demonstration purposes. The canvas should be fastened
to the black-board, where the class can see it easily.


As soon as the class is called, the supplies are at hand, and the hands
are in a proper condition, the teacher should demonstrate the
basting-stitch, with a large needle and thread, on the square of canvas
that has been fastened on the wall. Materials for work should be passed.
Each pupil should straighten the ends of her towel by drawing a thread.
Then she should turn and baste a hem three eighths of an inch in depth.

At the close of the lesson, the pupils should fold their work carefully
and put it neatly in their boxes.


_The overhanding stitch and the hemming stitch._


_Overhanding_ (also called overseaming or top sewing).--The edges to be
overhanded are held between the first finger and the thumb of the left
hand, with the edge parallel to the first finger. The needle is inserted
just below and perpendicular to the edge. The needle is pointed straight
toward the worker. The stitches proceed from right to left, each stitch
being taken a little to the left of the preceding stitch. The stitches
should all be straight on the right side, but they will slant a little
on the wrong side. They should not be deep. It may be desirable to use
this overhanding stitch at the ends of hems, to hold the edges of the
material together. The overhanding stitch is also used for seams, for
patching, and for sewing on lace.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 4.--Overhanding]

The overhanding of narrow hems is not always necessary, but the ends may
be made stronger thereby, and the stitch is a valuable one for the
pupils to know.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 5.--Hemming]

_Hemming._--The hemming-stitch is placed on the inside of the hem. The
end of the basted hem is laid over the first and under the second finger
of the left hand, with the folded edge outside and the material toward
the worker. It is held in place with the thumb. The stitch is begun at
the end of the hem. The fastening of the thread is concealed by slipping
it underneath the hem in the inside fold of the material. The needle is
pointed over the left shoulder, a small stitch is taken by inserting the
needle through the material just below the hem, then through the folded
edge. This is repeated, making the next stitch nearer the worker and
moving the goods away from the worker as necessary. Uniformity of slant,
size, and spacing of the stitches is important.


Before this lesson is given, all the pupils should report to the
teacher, having both ends of their towels basted, so that they will all
be ready to proceed at once with the new stitches.


The teacher should begin by demonstrating on the large square of canvas
with the large needle and heavy thread the stitches to be used. After
overhanding the end of the hem, the hemming-stitch should follow with
the same thread. The pupils will probably not be able to finish the
hemming in this first lesson, so provision should be made for additional
time. This can be required as an outside assignment, if the pupils have
mastered the method during the class period. The teacher may also be
able to give them some supervision while she is looking after other


_A school bag. Bag (made of material obtainable) to hold sewing
materials. Measuring and straightening the material for the bag. Basting
the seams._


The basting-stitch will be used as a review of work in the second


Some time before the lesson, the teacher should discuss with the pupils
the kind of material they will be able to provide for their bags and, if
the material has to be purchased, she should suggest something that is
suitable, washable, and inexpensive. The bag should cost only a few
cents. The dimensions of the finished bag should be about 12 by 18


The pupils should get out the materials they have brought and determine
upon the size and shape of their bags. It will not be necessary to make
them uniform. The teacher should help the pupils to use their material
to the best advantage. It should be straightened, pulled in place, and
measured carefully. When the bags have been cut out, the sides should be

LESSON V: BAGS--Continued

_Sewing up the seams with a running-stitch and a back-stitch._


Running is done by passing the needle in and out of the material at
regular intervals. Small, even stitches and spaces should follow
consecutively on both sides of the material. The stitches should be much
shorter than those used for basting, the length being determined largely
by the kind of cloth used.

When running is combined with a back-stitch, two or more
running-stitches and one back-stitch are taken alternately. The
back-stitch is a stitch taken backward on the upper side of the cloth,
the needle being put back each time into the end of the last stitch and
brought out the same distance beyond the last stitch.


The teacher should be sure that all the pupils are ready to report,
having the sides of their bags basted ready for stitching.


The teacher should first demonstrate the running-stitch with the
back-stitch, and the pupils should begin to sew the sides of the bag,
using this stitch. They should commence sewing three quarters of an inch
from the top of the bag, so that there will be a space left for slits in
the hem through which to run the cord.[A] The seams will doubtless have
to be finished outside of the class hour, and may be assigned for
completion before the next lesson.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 6.--Running-stitch with a back-stitch]

    [A] The draw-string, or cord, is to be run through the hem
    from the inside of the bag, and it will be necessary to
    leave three quarters of an inch of space at the ends of
    the seams, to provide slits as outlets for the cord.

LESSON VI: BAGS--Continued

_Overcasting the seams and turning the hem at the top of the bag._


Overcasting is done by taking loose stitches over the raw edge of the
cloth, to keep it from ravelling or fraying.


The teacher should be sure that all the pupils are ready to report,
having the sides of their bags neatly sewed with the running-stitch.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 7.--Overcasting]


The teacher should demonstrate the method of overcasting and explain its
use. She should have the pupils trim the edges of their seams neatly and
overcast them carefully. After the seams have been overcast, she should
discuss the depth of the hem that the pupils expect to use and the
method of turning and basting it. They should then measure, turn, pin,
and baste the hems, using the gauge for determining the depth of the
hem. If the bags are deep enough to admit of a heading at the top, a
deep hem (about 2-1/2 inches) can be made, and a running-stitch put in
one-half inch (or more) above the edge of the hem, to provide a casing,
or space, for the cord. If it is necessary to take a narrow hem, the hem
itself can be made to answer as space for the cord; in this case the hem
should be made about one-half inch deep.


_Hemming the top of the bag and putting in a running-stitch to provide a
space for the cord._


Review of the hemming-stitch and the running-stitch.


The pupils, having the hems basted, should report to the teacher.


The teacher should review briefly the method of making the
hemming-stitch and the running-stitch, asking the pupils to describe
these stitches and to demonstrate them on the large square of canvas
before the class. The basted hems should then be sewed with the

After the hem is finished, the pupils should run a basting thread around
the bag, to mark the location of the running-stitch, which is to be half
an inch above the hem. They should measure for this carefully. If there
is not time to do all the hemming in the class period, the
hemming-stitch and the running-stitch (which is to provide space for the
draw-string) should be assigned for outside work, and each pupil should
bring in her finished hem at a designated time before the next class


_Preparing a cord or other draw-string for the bag. Putting a double
draw-string in the bag, so that it can easily be drawn up. Use of the

[Illustration: _Fig._ 8.--Bag nearly completed]


To make a cord, it is necessary to take more than four times as much
cotton as the final length of the cord will require, for some of the
length will be taken up in the twisting of the cord. It will be easier
for two to work together in making a cord. The cord should be doubled,
the two lengths twisted together firmly, and the ends brought together
again and held in one hand, while the middle is taken in the other hand,
and the lengths are allowed to twist firmly together. The ends should be
tied, and the cord run into the bag with a bodkin or tape-needle. If one
cord is run in from one side and another is run in from the other side,
each cord running all the way around, the bag can be drawn up easily.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 9.--Bodkin]

In place of the cord, narrow tape may be used. Take two pieces of tape,
each piece being twice as long as the width of the bag plus two inches.
Run one tape in from one side and a second from the other side, each
tape running all the way around. Join the tape ends in the following

1. Turn a narrow fold on one end of the tape to the _wrong_ side, and on
the other end of the tape to the _right_ side.

2. Slip one fold under the other and hem down the folded edges.


If the pupils are not able to supply cords for their own bags, the
teacher should have a sufficient supply of cord on hand. She should be
sure the bags are in readiness for the cord before the class period.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 10.--- Completed bag]


The teacher should begin the lesson by describing the method of making
the cord, estimating the amount necessary, and demonstrating the process
with the assistance of one of the pupils. The pupils should be numbered,
so that they may work in groups of two. After they have completed the
cord and run it into the bag, methods of finishing the ends neatly
should be suggested to them.


_Use of a darning-ball or gourd as a substitute for a ball. Talk on the
care of the feet and the care of the stockings._

[Illustration: _Fig._ 11.--Darning]


This lesson will involve running and weaving. Darning is used to fill in
a hole with thread, so as to supply the part that has been destroyed or
to strengthen a place which shows signs of weakness. A darning-ball, a
gourd, or a firm piece of cardboard should be placed under the hole. The
darn should extend one quarter of an inch beyond the edge of the
material, beginning with fine stitches in the material, making rows
running close together in one direction, then crossing these threads
with rows that run at a right angle to them. Care should be taken
alternately to pick up and drop the edge of the material around the
hole, so that no raw edges will be visible, and to weave evenly in and
out of the material and the cross threads.


Each pupil should provide a pair of stockings with a few small holes and
a gourd or ball of some sort that she can use as a darning ball.


When the class meets, the teacher should discuss briefly the care of the
feet and of the stockings, and demonstrate the method of darning, on a
large piece of coarse material, with heavy yarn and a needle. If the
pupils finish one darn during the lesson period, more darning should be
assigned for practice out of class.


_Hemmed patches on cotton garments. Talk on the care of the clothes._


This lesson will involve measuring, trimming, basting, and hemming. A
patch is a piece of cloth sewed on to a garment to restore the worn
part. The material used for the patch should be as nearly like the
original fabric in colour and quality as possible. In placing the patch,
the condition of the material about the hole must be taken into
consideration, as well as the size of the hole. The worn parts around
the hole should be removed, and the hole cut square or oblong. The patch
should be, on all four sides, an inch larger than the trimmed hole. The
corners of the hole should be cut back diagonally, so that the edges may
be turned under. The patch should be matched and pinned to the wrong
side of the garment, leaving the edges to project evenly on all four
sides. The edges of the material around the hole should be turned in and
basted to the patch. The edges of the patch should be turned in so that
they extend, when finished, one-half inch from the edge of the hole. The
patch and the cloth should be basted together and hemmed.

    [A] Used when special problem comes up.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 12.--Patching]


The lesson on patching should be given at any time in the course when it
can be applied to an immediate need. If a pupil tears her dress while
playing at school, or if she wears a torn apron, the teacher can
announce a patching lesson for the next sewing class, and request each
pupil to bring a torn garment and the material for the patch from home.
It may be desirable to use two or three periods for this lesson.


The teacher should demonstrate the process of patching on a large piece
of cotton. The pupils should practise placing a patch on a piece of
paper with a hole in it. Each step should be assigned in
succession--examination of the article to determine its condition,
calculation of the size and preparation of the patch, placing the patch,
trimming the article around the hole, basting the patch and material
together, and hemming the patch.



When cutting out an apron, the length of the skirt should first be
measured, and to this measure 6 inches should be added for the hem and
the seams. One length of the material corresponding to this length
should be cut. This should be folded lengthwise through the middle.
Three quarters of an inch should be measured on this fold, and the
material cut from the end of the selvage to this point, in order to
slope the front of the apron. When the waist measure is taken, 3 inches
should be added to it (1 for the lap and 1 at each end, for finishing).
This makes a strong piece at each end for the button and button-hole. Two
pieces of this length and 2-1/2 inches wide should be cut lengthwise of
the material for the belt. A measure should be made from the middle of
the back of the waist line, over the shoulder, to a point 5 inches to
the right to the centre front and on the waist line. Two pieces of the
length of this measure and 4-1/2 inches wide should be cut lengthwise of
the material for the shoulder straps. A piece 9 by 12 inches should be
cut for the bib, the longer distance lengthwise of the material. These
measurements allow one quarter of an inch for seams.


Before the lesson the teacher should see if arrangements can be made to
secure the use of one or two sewing-machines, so that the pupils may sew
all the long seams by machine.

At a previous lesson she should discuss the kinds of material suitable
for the aprons. The pupils should consider whether their aprons shall be
white or coloured, and whether they shall be of muslin, cambric, or
gingham. Each pupil will need from 1-1/2 to 2 yards of material,
according to her size. The taller ones will need 2 yards.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 13.--Cutting out skirt of apron]

There should be on hand a sufficient number of tape-measures, pins, and
scissors, so that the pupils may proceed with the cutting of their
aprons without unnecessary delay.

The apron to be made is to have a skirt, with a bib and shoulder straps,
in order to be a protection to the dress, the skirt, and the waist.[A]

    [A] If the pupils are very inexperienced and find the
    sewing difficult, it may be advisable to omit the bib and
    straps and to make the simple full-skirted apron. If a
    machine is not at hand to use for the long seams, the
    limited time may make the simpler apron necessary. This
    will give more time for the various steps. Lessons XIV and
    XV may then be omitted, Lesson XVI made more simple, and
    less outside work may be required.


As soon as the class meets, the pupils should take the measurements for
their aprons. One measurement should be assigned at a time, and the
reason for each measurement should be given. The pupils should have
explicit directions as to the measurements, as they are apt to become
confused if the directions are not clear. They should work carefully, so
that the material does not become crumpled or soiled and, at the
conclusion of the lesson, they should fold it carefully and put it away
neatly. All threads and scraps of material should be carefully picked
off the floor and the desks, and the room left in order.


_Basting the hem for hemming on the machine or by hand. Uneven basting._


An uneven basting forms the better guide for stitching. In uneven
basting, the spaces are made about three times as long as the stitches.
The stitch should be about one eighth of an inch and the space three
eighths of an inch.


In addition to the apron material which has been cut out in the previous
lesson, each pupil should provide her own spool of thread (number sixty
white thread will probably answer for all the work), a piece of
cardboard 5 inches wide for a gauge, and pins to use in fastening the

[Illustration: _Fig._ 14.--Uneven basting]


As soon as the class meets, the pupils should prepare a 5-inch gauge, to
guide them in turning the hems of the skirts of their aprons. They
should make a half-inch notch in the measure for the first turn in the
material. A half-inch edge should be turned up from the bottom of the
skirt, then a 5-inch hem should be turned, pinned, and basted carefully
with uneven basting. The gauge should be used for both measurements.


_Gathering the skirt and stitching to the belt._


In gathering, a stitch much like running is employed. Small stitches are
taken up on the needle, with spaces twice as great between them. The top
of the skirt should be divided into halves, and each half gathered with
a long thread, fine stitches one quarter of an inch from the edge being
used. The middle of the belt and the middle of the top of the skirt of
the apron should be determined upon. The belt should be pinned to the
wrong side of the apron at these points, and the fulness drawn up to fit
(approximately one half of the waist measure). The skirt and the belt
should be pinned, basted, and sewn together.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 15.--Gathering]


If the hems have been completed in the skirts, the pupils are ready to
gather the skirts and attach them to the belt. It will be well to have a
supply of pins on hand, to use in fastening the skirt and belt together.


The teacher should first demonstrate the method of gathering and assign
that portion of the lesson. When the skirts have all been gathered, she
should show the pupils how to measure, pin, and baste the skirt to the

[Illustration: _Fig._ 16.--Sewing on the belt of the apron]


_Making the bib._


A 2-inch hem should be turned across one short end of the bib. This
should be basted and hemmed. The bottom of the bib should be gathered,
the method employed for the top of the skirt being used, and sufficient
thread being left to adjust the gathers easily.


If the pupils have completed the skirts and attached them to the belts,
they are ready to make the bibs. They should be provided with a 2-inch
marker, for use in making the hems in the top of the bibs.


The teacher should guide the pupils carefully in the making of the bibs,
reviewing their knowledge of basting, hemming, and gathering.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 17.--Bib and straps of apron]


_Making the straps._


One end of one of the straps should be placed at the bottom of the bib.
The edge of the strap should be pinned, basted, and sewed to the right
side of the bib with a running-stitch. The other long edge of the strap
should then be turned in one quarter of an inch and the side turned in
one inch. The strap should then be folded through the middle for its
entire length and the free side basted to the wrong side of the bib and
hemmed. The remaining edges of the strap should be overhanded together.
The other strap should be sewn to the other side of the bib in the same


The bibs should have been completed before the pupils report for this


As soon as the pupils report for the lesson, the teacher should explain
the method of attaching the straps to the bib and tell them how to
finish the former. As they proceed with their work, she should supervise
them carefully and assign the unfinished portion to be done out of


_Putting the bib and the skirt on the belt._


The middle of the bottom of the bib should be determined, and pinned to
the middle of the upper edge of the belt, to which the skirt has already
been attached. The belt should be fastened to the wrong side of the bib.
The gathering string of the bib should be drawn up, leaving 2 inches of
fulness on each side of the middle. The bib should be pinned, basted,
and sewn to the belt. The remaining long edges of the belt should be
turned in one quarter of an inch, and the ends one inch. The edges of
the other belt piece should be turned in in the same way, and should be
pinned over the belt to which the skirt and the bib have been attached
(with all the edges turned in), and basted carefully, to keep the edges
even. The skirt and the bib should be hemmed to this upper belt, and all
the remaining edges should be overhanded.


The bib and the straps of the apron should be completed before the
pupils report for this lesson.


The teacher should guide the pupils carefully in the various steps
necessary in fastening the bib to the belt and in completing the belt.
If the hemming and overhanding is not completed during the class hour,
they may be assigned as home work.


_Sewing buttons on the aprons, corset-cover, or other garment._


This lesson should teach neatness in dress, through a consideration of
the best methods of fastening garments. The position of the button is
measured by drawing the right end of the band one inch over the left
end. The place for the button should be marked with a pin on the left
end of the band. A double thread is fastened on the right side of the
band, drawn through one hole of the button, and back through the other,
and then taken through the band close to the first stitch. A pin should
be inserted on top of the button under the first stitch, left there
until the button is firmly fastened in place, and then removed. Before
the thread is fastened, it should be wrapped two or three times around
the threads holding the button, between the button and the cloth, then
fastened neatly on the wrong side with a few small stitches one on top
of another.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 18.--Sewing on buttons]


Each pupil should come to the class with her apron as nearly completed
as possible, and with three buttons to sew on it, for fastening the belt
and straps.


The teacher should discuss the best methods of fastening garments and
should demonstrate the method of sewing on buttons. The pupils should
sew one button on the left end of the apron band in the middle of the
width about 1 inch from the end, and another button 4 inches from each
end of the band, to hold the shoulder straps.


_Button-holes on practice piece and on apron._


Directions for making the button-hole.--Measure carefully the position
for the button-hole, lengthwise of the band, so that the end will come
one quarter of an inch from the edge of the garment. Mark the length of
the button-hole on the material by putting in two lines of
running-stitches at the ends. To cut the button-hole, insert the point
of the scissors at the point marked by the running-stitches nearest the
edge of the garment, and cut carefully along the thread of the material
to the row of stitches marking the length at the other end.

  (_a_) Starting the button-hole
  (_b_) The button-hole stitch
  (_c_) The finished button-hole
  _Fig._ 19.--Working button-holes]

To make the button-hole, use a thread of sufficient length to do both
the overcasting and the button-holing. Beginning at the lower right
corner, overcast the raw edges with stitches one sixteenth of an inch
deep. Do not overcast around the ends of the hole. As soon as the
overcasting is done, proceed with the button-holing without breaking the
thread. Hold the button-hole horizontally over the first finger of the
left hand and work from right to left. Insert the point of the needle
through the button-hole (at the back end), bringing the point through,
toward you, four or five threads below the edge of the button-hole.
Bring the doubled thread from the eye of the needle from right to left
under and around the point of the needle, draw the needle through, and
pull the thread firmly, so that the purl is on the edge. At the end of
the button-hole, near the end of the band, make a fan, by placing from
five to seven stitches. The other end of the button-hole should be
finished with a bar made by taking three stitches across the end of the
button-hole, then button-hole over the bar, taking in the cloth
underneath and pulling the purl toward the slit. The thread should be
fastened carefully on the under side of the button-hole.


For this lesson it is desirable to have small pieces of cotton on hand,
to use as practice pieces for the button-holes.


The teacher should demonstrate the making of a button-hole, illustrating
each step of the process on a large piece of canvas. The pupils should
sew two small strips of cotton together and cut a button-hole one
quarter of an inch from the edge, and lengthwise of the material, to
work for practice. When the button-hole has been sufficiently perfected
on the practice piece, the pupils should make three in the apron--one in
the right end of the band and one in the end of each shoulder strap.



A holder 6 inches square will be satisfactory for handling hot dishes.
It can be made of quilted padding bound with tape, or of two thicknesses
of outing flannel covered with percale or denim and bound with tape or
braid. If made of the outing flannel and covered, it should be quilted,
by stitching from the middle of one side to the middle of the opposite
side in both directions, in order to hold the outing flannel and the
outside covering together. The tape that is to be used for the binding
should be folded through the middle lengthwise; then, a beginning being
made at one corner of the padding, the edge should be basted, half on
one side and half on the other. Right-angled corners should be formed.
When basted all around, the tape should be sewn on each side with a

If the holder is to be suspended from the apron band, a tape of from 27
inches to 36 inches in length should be attached to one corner. The raw
edge at one end of the tape should be turned in. The end should be so
placed that it overlaps the corner of the holder about half an inch and
it should be basted to the holder. The tape should then be secured
firmly to the holder, hemmed down on one edge, across the bottom, and up
the other edge. The other end of the tape should be finished with a
2-inch loop. The raw edge should be folded over, the tape turned 2
inches down for the loop, and basted in place. This should be hemmed
across the end. One quarter of an inch up from the end, the double
thickness of tape should be back-stitched together, and the edges of the
tape should be overhanded from there to the hemmed end.


Each pupil should provide sufficient denim, percale, huckaback, or other
washable material to cover the two sides of a holder 7 inches square,
and enough outing or canton flannel for a double lining. About 1-1/2
yards of straight tape one-half inch wide will be needed for the binding
and for suspending the holder from the apron.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 20.--The holder]


The pupils should first carefully measure and turn the material for the
covering of the holder and then prepare the lining, basting it all
together. They should then put in the running-stitch and finish with the
binding. If it is not possible to complete the holder in one period, a
second lesson period should be provided, or arrangements may be made to
have supervised work done outside of the lesson hours.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 21.--Cap]



The simplest cap to make will be the circular one. A pattern should be
made by drawing with a pencil and string on a piece of wrapping-paper a
circle 21 inches in diameter. The material for the cap should be cut
carefully around the circle and finished with a narrow hem. A tape to
hold the draw-string should be placed 1-1/4 inches inside the edge of
the hem. A small piece of cardboard cut about one-half inch wide should
be used for measuring the position of the tape. Bias strips three
quarters of an inch wide should be prepared for the tape, or a
commercial tape three eighths of an inch wide may be purchased. The
outer edge of the tape should be basted first and the edges joined; then
the inner edges should be basted, the edge being kept smooth. Both edges
should be neatly sewn with the hemming-stitch by hand or on the machine.
An elastic should be inserted in the band, carefully fitted to the head,
and the ends fastened neatly.


This lesson will give a good opportunity to make a cap that will answer
for a dust cap or serve as a part of the cooking uniform. If such a cap
does not seem desirable and the former lesson has not been completed,
the cap may be omitted and the work on the holder continued.


The pupils should first make the pattern for the cap and then cut out
their material. The hem should be basted and stitched with the
hemming-stitch. The bias strip should be basted on and sewn with a
running-stitch. It will probably not be possible for the pupils to
complete the cap in one class period; but, if the material has been cut
out and the work started, they may be able to complete it at some other
time. The stitches are not new, and the work will serve as an excellent
test of the skill they have acquired in the course.


The introduction of Household Science into rural schools has been
hindered by the prevalent impression that the subject requires equipment
similar to that in the Household Science centres of towns and cities,
where provision is made for the instruction of twenty-four pupils at one
time and for from ten to fifteen different classes each week. Owing to
the expense and the lack of accommodation, it is not possible to install
such equipment in rural schools. For this and other reasons it has been
concluded that the subject is beyond the possibilities of the rural
school. That this is not the case is shown by the fact that many rural
schools in the United States, and some in Saskatchewan, as well as a
number in our own Province, are teaching the subject successfully, with
equipment specially designed to meet existing conditions.

The accommodations and equipment required may be classified as follows:

  1. Working tables
  2. Cupboards and cabinets for storing the utensils
  3. Stoves
  4. Cooking and serving utensils

1. The provision for working tables is conditioned by the space
available, and every effort must be made to economize this space. The
equipment may be placed in the basement or in a small ante-room. In one
school in the Province very successful work is being done in a large
corridor. When a new school-house is being erected, provision should be
made by building a small work-room off the class-room. The possibilities
of a small, portable building, in close proximity to the school, should
not be overlooked.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 22.--Working drawing of folding table]

Where the school is provided with a large table, this may be made of
service. When used as a working table it should be covered with a sheet
of white oil-cloth. When used as a dining-table a white table-cloth may
be substituted for the oil-cloth. If the school does not possess a
table, two or three boards may be placed on trestles, if the space at
the front or the back of the room permits, and these may be stored away
when not required. A table with folding legs, such as is shown in
Figures 22 and 23, may also be used. The top of the cabinet containing
the utensils or an ordinary kitchen table closed in as a cupboard
underneath, may be made to serve. Long boards, about eighteen inches
wide, placed across the tops of six or eight desks, provide good
accommodation. These should be blocked up level and should be provided
with cleats at each end, in order to prevent movement. When not in use
they may stand flat against the wall and occupy very little space.
Separate boards, resting on a desk at each end, may also be placed
across the aisles. Each of these will provide working space for one
pupil. Tables which drop down flat when not in use may be fixed to the
walls of the school-room. As schools vary in many respects, it is not
possible to outline a plan which will suit all; but that plan should be
chosen which will best meet the requirements of the particular school.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 23: Folding Table]

[Illustration: _Fig._ 24--Household Science Cabinet for Rural Schools]

2. The cupboards and cabinets to contain the utensils may take various
forms. A kitchen cabinet costing from twenty-five to thirty-five dollars
may be obtained from a furniture store, or one may be made by a local
carpenter. A large packing-case painted brown outside and white inside
(for cleanliness) is satisfactorily used in some schools. If covered
with oil-cloth, the top of this may be used as an additional table. A
few shelves placed across a corner of the room and covered with a door
or curtain may be used, or it may be possible to devote one shelf of the
school cupboard to the storing of the utensils. It is desirable to have
a combination cupboard and table, which will contain most of the
equipment, including the stove. Figure 24 is a working drawing of such a
cabinet, which may be made by a local carpenter or by the older boys of
the school.

The directions for making this cabinet are as follows:

Obtain two boxes and cut or re-make them so that each is 30 inches high
when standing on end, 12-1/4 inches across the front inside, and 18
inches from front to back. These will form the two end Sections, A and
B. Inside the sides of these boxes nail 1 inch × 7/8 inch strips, to
form the slides for the drawer. The slides come within 7/8 of an inch of
the front edge. Rails may be nailed across the front. Guide pieces
should be nailed to the slides, in order to keep the drawers straight.
Divide Section A for one drawer and cupboard. The drawers may be made
out of raisin boxes cut down to the required size. To the front of each
drawer, nail a piece of beaver board or pine a little larger than the
drawer front. Use any handles that may be conveniently obtained. Cut two
pieces 4' 9-1/2" × 1-1/2" × 7/8". Space the Sections as shown, and nail
these pieces firmly to the fronts of the larger boxes, _A_ and _B_, top
and bottom. Four end pieces 18" × 1-1/2" will be required. Fill in
Section _C_, in this case, 2' 7-1/2", with the pieces from the box lids
or with ordinary flooring. Make a door for the cupboard from similar
material. The top is best made from good, clear, white pine. Screw
battens across, and screw the whole firmly to the box top from the
inside. If more table space is required, make a similar bench top, which
can rest on top of the cabinet when not in use. When required, it may be
placed over the desks. Steel or glass shoes or wooden skids or battens
should be fixed under the cabinet, so that it can be pulled away from
the stove and replaced easily. The dimensions given are for a
two-flame-burner oil-stove which is 30 inches high, 31 inches across the
front, and 16 inches from front to back. The middle Section, _C_, and
the total height of the cabinet may be enlarged or reduced to fit other
sizes of stoves.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 25.--Cabinet, showing stove in position for use]

[Illustration: _Fig._ 26.--Cabinet, with stove behind centre partition
when not in use]

The material required for, and the approximate cost of, such a cabinet,
labour not included, are as follows:

  2 boxes @ 25                              $0.50
  5 raisin boxes @ 5                          .25
  5 handles at 45c per doz.                   .20
  1 cupboard latch                            .15
    or 1 turn button                          .02
  About 9 sq. ft. flooring                    .25
  About 8 sq. ft. pine for top                .50
    Pieces for battens, etc.                  .25
    Steel shoes                               .10

[Illustration: _Fig._ 27.--Space taken by equipment in class-room]

Figure 27 shows another type of equipment and the space it occupies in
the class-room when not in use. The cupboard and the back of the cabinet
contain the equipment necessary for teaching twelve pupils at one time
and also for serving one hot dish at the noon lunch to twenty-four
pupils. One drawer contains linen, etc., and the other, knives, forks,
and spoons. The dimensions of the cupboard and the cabinet are shown in
Figures 28 and 29, and the construction of each is such that it can be
made easily by any carpenter.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 28.--Working drawings of cupboard]

[Illustration: _Fig._ 29.--Working drawing of cabinet]

[Illustration: _Fig._ 30.--Cupboard with drawers and doors open, showing

Figure 30 shows the cupboard and drawers open and the method of storing
the equipment. The shelves may be covered with white oil-cloth or brown
paper, in order to obviate the necessity for frequent scrubbing. The
cupboard may be fixed to the wall with mirror plates or small iron
brackets, or it may be screwed through the back.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 31.--Back of cabinet with equipment in place]

[Illustration: _Fig._ 32.--Back of cabinet with stove removed]

Figure 31 shows the back of the cabinet, with the three-flame-burner
stove-oven, the one-flame-burner stove, and other utensils in place. The
folding table, previously described, rests on the top of the cabinet.
Figure 32 shows the back of the cabinet with the stove and oven removed.
The method of storing utensils and the construction of the cabinet are
clearly shown.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 33.--Three-flame-burner oil-stove, with kettles
and one-flame-burner oil-stove on shelf]

[Illustration: _Fig._ 34.--Household Science equipment with drop-leaf

Figure 33 shows the three-flame-burner oil-stove with the shelf
underneath containing three kettles and the one-flame-burner oil-stove.

Another type of equipment is shown in Figure 34. Each end of the top of
this cabinet drops down when the cupboard doors are closed, space being
thus economized. The top of the table may be covered with oil-cloth or
zinc carefully tacked down on the edges.

The directions for making this cabinet are as follows:



  7 pieces   3/4" × 4" × 14'     yellow pine ceiling
  6 pieces   1" × 4" × 12'       yellow pine flooring
  1 piece    1" × 12" × 12'   }
  1 piece    1" × 8" ×  12'   }  No. 1 common white pine
  1 piece    1/2" × 6" ×  14' }
  4 white pine laths


  7 pairs 1-1/2" × 3" butt hinges
  3 cupboard catches
  1 piece zinc (27" × 39")
  2 pieces zinc (21" × 27")
  1 drawer pull
  1 lb. 8d finishing nails
  1 lb. 6d finishing nails
  1/4 lb. box  1" brads
  1/4 lb. box 1-1/4" brads
  1 box tacks
  2 ft. stopper chain


|Lumber              |Cut into |Finished Dimensions    |Use            |
|                    |   the   |                       |               |
|                    |following|                       |               |
|                    | pieces: |                       |               |
| 1" × 8" × 12'      |    2    |13-16" × 2" × 32-1/2"  |Top side rails |
|                    |    2    |13-16" × 2" × 18-1/2"  |Top end rail   |
|                    |    4    |13-16" × 2" × 29-3/4"  |Frame posts    |
|                    |    1    |13-16" × 2" × 30-7/8"  |Bottom side    |
|                    |         |                       |rail           |
|                    |    2    |13-16" × 2" × 18-1/2"  |Bottom end     |
|                    |         |                       |rails          |
|                    |    1    |13-16" × 5" × 14-3/8"  |Drop door      |
+-------------  -----+---------+-----------------------+---------------+
|2 pieces, 1" × 4" × |         |                       |Flooring       |
|12' flooring        |    7    |3/4" × 3-1/4" × 32-1/2"|(bottom)       |
|5 pieces, 1" × 4" × |         |                       |Ceiling (ends  |
|14' yellow pine     |         |                       |and side)      |
|ceiling             |   24    |1/4" × 3-1/4" × 31-1/4"|               |
|1" × 12" × 12'      |    3    |13-16" × 10-1/4" ×     |               |
|                    |         | 32-1/2"               |Shelf          |
|                    |    1    |13-16" × 8" × 32-1/2"  |Shelf          |
|                    |    3    |13-16" × 1-3/4" ×      |               |
|                    |         | 31-1/4                |Casing         |
|                    |    2    |13-16" × 1-3/4" ×      |               |
|                    |         | 14-3/8"               |Casing         |
|                    |    1    |13-16" × 5" × 14-3/8"  |Drawer front   |
|2 pieces, 1" × 4" × |         |                       |Top            |
|12' flooring        |    8    |3/4" × 3-1/4" × 36"    |               |
|2 pieces, 1" × 4" × |         |                       |Doors          |
|14' yellow pine     |         |                       |               |
|ceiling             |   10    |3/4" × 3-1/4" × 22-7/8"|               |
|2 pieces, 1" × 4" × |         |                       |Swing tops     |
|12' flooring        |   12    |3/4" × 3-1/4" × 24"    |               |
|1/2" × 6" × 12'     |    2    |7-16" × 5" × 19-5/8"   |Drawer slides  |
|                    |    1    |7-16" × 5" × 13-1/2"   |Drawer back    |
|                    |    4    |7-16" × 4-3/4" ×       |               |
|                    |         | 13-1/2"               |Drawer bottom  |
|1/2" × 6" × 12'     |    1    |7-16" × 4-1/2" ×       |               |
|                    |         | 13-1/2"               |Partitions     |
|                    |    3    |7-16" × 4-1/2" × 10"   |Partitions     |


  Steel square
  1/2" Chisel and


I Cutting and Squaring Stock--

Cut the stock only as needed, in the following order, and square up
according to the directions previously given.

  1. Frame; rip the 1" × 8" × 12' piece for the frame material
  2. Bottom
  3. Ends and sides
  4. Shelves
  5. Top
  6. Casing
  7. Doors
  8. Swing tops
  9. Miscellaneous pieces

II Assembling--


1. Check up the dimensions of the pieces squared up for the frame.

2. Lay out and cut the lap joints in the top side rails and frame posts,
as shown in the drawing.

3. Nail the frame together.

4. Test the corners of the frame with a steel try-square and brace it by
nailing, temporarily, several strips diagonally across the corners.


1. Cut seven pieces of flooring 32-1/2" long for the bottom and plane
off the groove of one piece.

2. Turn the frame upside down and nail this piece with the smooth edge
projecting 7/8" over the front side of the frame. Nail the rest of the
flooring so that each piece matches tightly.


1. For the back, cut eleven pieces of ceiling 31-1/4" long.

2. Plane off the groove edge of one piece of ceiling and nail it on the
back of the frame even with the end. 3. Nail the rest of the ceiling on
the back. Be sure that each joint matches tightly.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 35.--Frame of cabinet nailed together]


1. Make four strips (3/4" × 3/4" × 16-1/2") and nail two of them inside,
across each end, 15" and 24" from the bottom. These strips hold the

2. From a 1" × 12" piece cut two pieces 32-1/2" long; fit and
nail them in for the upper shelf.

3. Make the bottom shelf of two pieces, one 10-1/4" wide and the other
8" wide. When these boards are nailed in place, the shelf is narrow
enough to allow the doors, with pockets on, to close.

4. Make two strips; one 13-16" × 1" × 16-1/2" and the other 13-16" ×
1-3/4" × 20-1/2", and nail them to the top shelf for drawer guides.


1. Cut eight pieces of flooring 36" long for the top.

2. Plane off the groove of one piece and nail it on the top of the
frame, so that the smooth edge and the ends project 1" over the front
side and ends of the cabinet.

3. Nail the rest of the flooring on for the top, being sure that each
joint matches tightly. The last piece must also project 1" over the back


1. Nail the casing, which is 1-3/4" wide, on the front of the cabinet.


1. Make each door 3/4" × 14-3/8" × 22-7/8" from five pieces of ceiling
22-7/8" long, held together by cleats at the top and bottom.

2. Fit each door carefully, then hang them with butt hinges. Fasten a
cupboard catch on each door.

Drop Door:

1. Make the drop door 13-16" × 14-3/8" and hinge it with a pair of butt
hinges. Put on the stopper chain and catch. Swing Tops:

The swing tops are each made from six pieces of flooring 24" long
cleated together.

[Illustration: _Fig_. 36.--Working details]

1. Plane off the groove edge of one piece and match them all together.

2. Make the cleats 3/4" × 2" × 15" and nail the top to them. (See the
drawing for the position of the cleats.)

3. Rip off the tongue edge and plane it so that the top is exactly 18"

4. Turn the cabinet upside down on the floor and fit the swing tops.
Hang them with a pair of butt hinges opposite the ends of the cleats.

5. Make a T-brace with a nailed cross lap joint from two pieces, one
being 13-16" × 2" × 14", the other 13-16" × 2" × 16-1/2". The long edge
of the T and the leg must be bevelled 13-16" on one side. Fit and hang a
T-brace with a pair of butt hinges on each side of the swing tops.

6. Make two brace cleats and fasten them to the ends of the cabinet, so
that the swing tops are held level and even with the top of the cabinet.

Putting Zinc on the Top:

1. Unscrew the swing tops from the cabinet to put the zinc on.

2. Place the piece of zinc, 27" × 39", on top, extending 1-1/2" over the
edges all around.

3. Hold the zinc firmly in place and make a square bend along the front
edge with a hammer or mallet, bending the edge of the zinc up under the

4. Punch a straight row of holes 1" apart through the zinc and tack it

5. Bend the back edge, punch and tack in the same manner as the front
edge, but be sure the zinc fits snugly on the top.

6. Bend the ends of the zinc the same as before, but be very careful to
fold the corners neatly.

7. Put the zinc on the swing tops in the same manner.

8. Fasten the swing tops again to the top of the cabinet.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 37.--Working details]


The drawer front, 13-16" × 5" × 14-3/8", with lap 3/8" × 1/2" cut out on
the ends.

1. Nail the sides, 1/2" × 5" × 19-5/8", to the lap of the front and to
the ends of the back.

2. Nail the bottom in between the sides 1/8" from the lower edge. This
allows the drawer to slide on the edges of the sides.

3. Put the partitions in the drawer as called for by this plan.

The racks for covers and pie tins shown in the drawings are made from
two pieces, 13-16" × 2" × 4", one piece 13-16" × 2" × 10-1/2" for the
bottom, and two pieces of lath 12" long for the sides. These racks may
be placed on the doors as shown, or may be changed to suit the

III Finishing--

1. Set all the nails and putty the holes.

2. Sandpaper the cabinet carefully.

3. Paint or stain and wax the outside of the cabinet, to harmonize with
the surroundings where it is to be used.

4. Paint the inside with two coats of white enamel.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 38.--Cabinet completed]

Before putting on the enamel, apply a coat of ordinary white-lead paint
and allow it to dry thoroughly. If desired, the outside of the cabinet
may be finished in white enamel, though this is somewhat more expensive
than the paint or stain recommended above.

All the Household Science Cabinets shown have a two-fold purpose. In the
first place, they furnish storage space for the utensils and working
space for the pupils. In the second place, they offer a most interesting
manual training project for a boys' club. The members can make any one
of them, thus correlating their practical woodwork and the domestic
science of the girls and, in this way, exhibiting the co-operative
spirit of the home and the school.

3. In some cases it may be possible to use the school stove for cooking
purposes. Some schools use natural gas for heating and, where this is
the case, provision for cooking may readily be made. Other schools
situated on a hydro-electric line, may, as has been done in one case,
use electricity as a source of heat. At present, however, the majority
of schools may find it best to use one of the many oil-stoves now on the
market. One-, two-, or three-flame-burner stoves may be obtained for
general use. The two-, or three-flame-burner stoves are recommended, as
they are less likely to be overturned. The one-flame-burner stove,
however, is often useful as an additional provision. A good grade of oil
should be used, and the stove should be kept scrupulously clean,
constant attention being paid to the condition of the wick. Any oil
spilt on the stove when it is being filled should be carefully wiped off
before lighting. If attention is paid to these details, the stove will
burn without any perceptible odour.

4. The number of the utensils and the amount of equipment depend upon
the community and the number of pupils to be considered. By careful
planning few utensils are needed. They should be as good as the people
of the neighbourhood can afford and, in general, should be of the same
character as those used in the homes of the district. All the
table-cloths, towels, dish-cloths, etc., required should be hemmed by
the pupils. Articles for storing supplies may be bought or donated.
Glass canisters with close lids are best, but as substitutes, fruit
jars, jelly glasses, or tin cans will serve the purpose. It is an easy
matter to secure an empty lard-bucket or a syrup-can for flour or meal,
empty coffee-cans for sugar or starch, etc., and baking-powder or
cocoa-tins for spices. Each should be plainly labelled.

Several typical lists of equipment in Household Science are given here.
These may be modified to suit particular circumstances. Considerable
expense may be saved if the pupils bring their own individual
equipment--soup-bowl, cup and saucer, plate, spoon, knife, fork, and
paper napkins. This plan is not advised unless it is absolutely
necessary, but, if followed, an effort should be made to have the
articles as uniform as possible.

The following equipment is that contained in the cabinet illustrated on
page 152 and is sufficient for giving organized instruction to six
pupils. If a noon lunch is provided, additional individual equipment
will be required.


   1 Perfection blue-flame stove (two-flame)           $15.00
   1 Two-burner oven                                     4.50
   1 Coal-oil can                                         .50
   1 Dish-pan                                            1.15
   1 Tea-kettle                                          1.50
   1 Large sauce-pan and cover                            .75
   2 Medium sauce-pans and covers, 30c each               .60
   2 Small sauce-pans and covers, 25c each                .50
   2 Frying-pans, 20c ea.                                 .40
   2 Pudding bake-dishes, 50c ea.                        1.00
   2 Muffin pans (12 rings, each 30c)                     .60
   1 Soap-dish                                            .25
   4 Small mixing bowls, 16c ea.                          .64
   2 Pitchers, 55c ea.                                   1.10
   3 Casseroles, 20c, 25c, 30c                            .75
   6 Measuring cups, 90c ea.                              .60
   6 Custard cups, 90c doz.                               .45
   6 White plates, $1.45 doz.                             .73
   6 Supply jars, 90c doz.                                .45
   2 Vegetable brushes, 5c ea.                            .10
   1 Grater                                               .20
   2 Egg-beaters, 10c ea.                                 .20
  12 Forks                                               2.25
  12 Teaspoons                                           1.20
   6 Tablespoons, $2.85 doz.                             1.43
   6 Vegetable knives, 25c ea.                           1.50
   6 Case knives, $3.00 doz.                             1.50
   2 Strainers, 20c ea.                                   .40
   1 Spatula                                              .40
   1 Bread knife                                          .50
   1 Can-opener                                           .10
   1 French knife                                         .45
   2 Water pails, $1.15 ea.                              2.30
   6 Dish-towels, 25c ea.                                1.50
   3 Dish-cloths, 10c ea.                                 .30
   3 Rinsing cloths, 10c ea.                              .30
   1 yd. oil-cloth                                        .45
   5 yards cheesecloth                                    .35


The equipment included in the Cabinet and Cupboard shown in Figure 27,
page 154, is as follows:

For Six Pupils

   1 Cupboard                    $15.00
   1 Cabinet table                10.00
   1 Three-burner oil-stove       21.00
   1 Portable oven                 2.20
   1 Storage tin                   1.35
   2 Dish-pans                     1.30
   2 Draining pans                  .90
   2 Scrub basins                   .80
   2 Soap-dishes                    .40
   1 Pail                           .55
   2 Pails                         1.80
   2 Dippers                        .70
   2 Tea-kettles                   2.00
   3 Kneading boards                .90
   3 Rolling-pins                   .45
   1 Oil-can                       1.10
   1 Stove mitt                     .20
   1 Dust-pan                       .10
   1 Whisk                          .15
   2 Scrub-brushes                  .30
   3 Vegetable brushes              .15
   3 Stew pans                     1.05
   2 Sauce-pans                     .50
   3 Frying-pans                    .75
   3 Strainers                      .39
   3 Pie plates                     .15
   3 Measuring cups (tin)           .30
   1 Measuring cup (glass)          .15
   1 Double boiler                  .85
   3 Baking-dishes                  .38
   2 Cake tins                      .30
   3 Toasters                       .30
   1 Tea-pot                        .25
   1 Coffee-pot                     .35
   1 Pitcher (2 quarts)             .18
   1   "     (1 pint)               .10
   5 Bowls                          .60
   6 Custard cups                   .60
   1 Butter crock                   .30
   1 Covered pail (1 pint)          .15
   2 Trays                          .20
   1 Grater                         .10
   1 Potato masher                  .10
   1 Can-opener                     .10
   1 French knife                   .35
   1 Bread  "                       .35
   3 Egg-beaters                    .15
   1 Dover egg-beater               .10
   3 Wooden spoons                  .15
   6 Paring knives                  .90

For Eight Pupils

   1 Cupboard                   $15.00
   1 Cabinet table               10.00
   1 Collapsible table            5.00
   1 Three-burner oil-stove      21.00
   1 One-burner oil-stove         6.50
   1 Portable oven                2.20
   1 Storage tin                  1.35
   2 Dish-pans                    1.30
   2 Draining pans                 .90
   4 Scrub basins                 1.60
   2 Soap-dishes                   .40
   1 Pail                          .55
   2 Pails                        1.80
   2 Dippers                       .70
   3 Tea-kettles                  3.00
   4 Kneading boards              1.20
   4 Rolling-pins                  .60
   1 Oil-can                      1.10
   1 Stove mitt                    .20
   1 Dust-pan                      .10
   1 Whisk                         .15
   4 Scrub brushes                 .60
   4 Vegetable brushes             .20
   4 Stew-pans                    1.40
   2 Sauce-pans                    .50
   4 Frying-pans                  1.00
   4 Strainers                     .52
   4 Pie plates                    .20
   4 Measuring cups (tin)          .40
   1 Measuring cup (glass)         .15
   1 Double boiler                 .85
   4 Baking-dishes                 .50
   2 Cake tins                     .30
   4 Toasters                      .40
   1 Tea-pot                       .25
   1 Coffee-pot                    .35
   2 Pitchers (2 quarts)           .35
   1 Pitcher (1 quart)             .10
   6 Bowls                         .72
   6 Custard cups                  .60
   1 Butter crock                  .30
   1 Covered pail (1 pint)         .15
   2 Trays                         .20
   1 Grater                        .10
   1 Potato masher                 .10
   1 Can-opener                    .10
   1 French knife                  .35
   1 Bread    "                    .35
   4 Egg-beaters                   .20
   1 Dover egg-beater              .10
   4 Wooden spoons                 .20
   6 Paring knives                 .90

For Twelve Pupils

   1 Cupboard                   $15.00
   1 Cabinet table               10.00
   1 Collapsible table            5.00
   2 Three-burner oil-stoves     42.00
   1 Portable oven                2.20
   1 storage tin                  1.35
   3 Dish-pans                    1.95
   3 Draining-pans                1.35
   6 Scrub basins                 2.40
   3 Soap-dishes                   .60
   1 Pail                          .55
   2 Pails                        1.80
   2 Dippers                       .70
   3 Tea-kettles                  3.00
   6 Kneading boards              1.80
   6 Rolling-pins                  .90
   1 Oil-can                      1.10
   2 Stove mitts                   .40
   1 Dust-pan                      .10
   1 Whisk                         .15
   6 Scrub brushes                 .90
   6 Vegetable brushes             .30
   6 Stew pans                    2.10
   3 Sauce-pans                    .75
   6 Frying-pans                  1.50
   6 Strainers                     .78
   6 Pie plates                    .30
   6 Measuring cups (tin)          .60
   1 Measuring cup (glass)         .15
   1 Double boiler                 .85
   6 Baking-dishes                 .75
   3 Cake tins                     .45
   6 Toasters                      .60
   1 Tea-pot                       .25
   1 Coffee-pot                    .35
   2 Pitchers (2 qt.)              .35
   2    "     (1 qt.)              .20
   8 Bowls                         .96
   6 Custard cups                  .60
   1 Butter crock                  .30
   1 Covered pail (1 pt.)          .15
   2 Trays                         .20
   1 Grater                        .10
   1 Potato masher                 .10
   1 Can-opener                    .10
   1 French knife                  .35
   1 Bread  "                      .35
   6 Egg-beaters                   .30
   3 Dover egg-beaters             .30
   6 Wooden spoons                 .30
  12 Paring knives                1.80

In the equipment for twelve pupils, three one-burner oil-stoves at $6.50
each might be used in place of the second large stove. In this case
extra provision must be made for storing the stoves when not in use, as
the cabinet shown does not provide space for more than one large stove.
Care should be taken in using the one-burner stove to avoid upsetting it
while it is in use. The equipment given above is generous, and
reductions may be made if necessary. In any case it is not advisable
that the whole equipment should be purchased at once; only sufficient to
make a beginning should be secured, and further utensils may be added as
the necessity for their use arises.

If a hot dish is served at the noon lunch, as is most desirable, the
following will be needed in addition, in order to serve twenty-four

  24 Knives                              $2.40
  24 Forks                                1.20
  24 Teaspoons                             .40
  12 Tablespoons                           .60
  6 Salt and pepper shakers               1.50
  24 Glasses                              1.50
  24 Plates                               2.20
  4 Plates (large)                         .50
  24 Cups and saucers                     4.20
  24 Fruit and vegetable dishes           1.50


The hectograph is a device for making copies of written work. Teachers
whose schools have limited black-board space will find it of great
service. Recipes and other rules for work may be copied and distributed
to the pupils, and thus kept in a permanent form. Many other uses in
connection with the general work of the school will suggest themselves.

The following are the directions for making:

Soak 1-1/2 ounces of white glue in three ounces of water until it is
well softened. Cook in a double boiler until the whole mass is smooth.
Remove from the fire and add six ounces of glycerine. Mix well, re-heat,
skim, and pour into a shallow pan or on a slate. Prick the bubbles as
soon as they show. Allow the mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, and
it is then ready for use.

Write the material to be copied, in hectograph ink, on a sheet of the
same size as that on which the copy is to be made. Write clearly and
space carefully. Wipe the hectograph with a damp cloth. Lay a sheet of
unglazed paper on the hectograph, rub it carefully, and take off at
once. This removes any drops of water, but leaves the surface moist. Lay
the written side of the sheet on the hectograph and rub it carefully
over its whole surface with a soft cloth, so that every particle of the
writing comes in contact with the surface of the hectograph. Leave it
there for four or five minutes. Lift one corner and peel off carefully.
Lay a plain sheet on the hectograph and rub as before. Take off as
before. If the copy is not clear, leave the next sheet on a little
longer. When sufficient copies have been made, wash the hectograph with
a wet cloth before putting it away. Keep in a cool, dry place.


The best method of approach to Household Science in the rural school is
through the medium of the hot noon-day lunch or the preparation of one
or two hot dishes to supplement the lunch brought from home. Owing to
the fact that many pupils live far from the school, it is impossible for
them to go home for the mid-day meal, and they are thus dependent upon
lunches which they bring with them. Very frequently the pupils are
allowed to eat their lunches where and how they please, and the method
chosen is conducive neither to comfort nor to health. In fine weather
they do not wish to lose any time from their games, and so they eat
their food while playing, or they bolt it, in order that they may get to
their play more quickly. In severe weather they crowd round the steps or
the stove and do not hesitate to scatter crumbs and crusts. In one case
even a teacher has been seen holding a sandwich in one hand and writing
on the black-board with the other.

In many cases the lunch does not attract the pupil. It is often carried,
without proper wrapping, in a tin pail, and it then absorbs the taste of
the tin; again, it is often wrapped in a newspaper and is flavoured with
printer's ink; occasionally, it is wrapped in cloth not too clean.
Conditions such as these are not fair to the pupils. They come a long
way to school, often over poor roads; and it is necessary, for both
their physical and their mental development, that they should receive
adequate nourishment served as attractively as possible. Many of the
defects found among school children can be traced, to a greater or less
extent, to lack of nutrition. The United States military draft shows
that the number of those physically defective is from seven to twenty
per cent. higher in rural districts than in towns and cities, and this
difference is not peculiar to that country. May we not reasonably
suppose that many of these defects are caused by mal-nutrition, and that
this mal-nutrition is in part due to the poor noon-day lunch? As these
defects hinder mental as well as physical development, the question of
proper nutrition through the medium of the school lunch becomes an
educational one.


With proper care in the selection of food, the packing of the lunch box,
and rational methods of consumption, there is no reason why the box
lunch should not be nourishing, attractive, and possess an educational

It may be laid down as an axiom that every school lunch should be
supervised by the teacher and hap-hazard methods of eating the lunch
should be prohibited. Those schools that are fortunate enough to possess
a large table can approximate somewhat to the best home conditions, and
have the table set in the proper manner, as shown in Lesson VI, page 18.
The pupils should sit round the table, at the head of which is the
teacher, and the lunch may be made to partake of the nature of a family
party. If rightly managed, the meal, even under the unusual difficulties
presented in the rural school, may offer the most favourable
opportunities to inculcate habits of cleanliness and neatness and to
cultivate good manners. The pupils will learn something about the proper
selection of food and the importance of thorough mastication. Clean
hands and faces and tidy hair should be insisted upon, and individual
drinking cups should be encouraged. As a manual training exercise, each
pupil may be taught to make his own drinking cup from heavy waxed paper.
Grace may be said by the older pupils in turn.

The table should be made to look as attractive as possible. The pupils,
in turn, might undertake to have the table-cloth washed at home or, in
place of a linen cloth, a covering of white oil-cloth may be used. In
some cases the school garden will be able to supply flowers or a growing
plant for a centrepiece. Three or four of the larger pupils, either boys
or girls, may set the table in ten minutes, while the others are washing
their hands and faces and tidying their hair. Some such plan as this
will add palatability and cheer to the monotony of the everyday cold and
often unattractive lunch and will create a spirit of true and healthy
sociability among the pupils.

In schools that do not possess tables large enough to be used as
suggested above, each pupil should be required to set one place at his
own desk, as shown in the illustration on page 20. A paper napkin may be
used for a table-cloth, if a small piece of white oil-cloth is not
procurable. Each pupil retains his place until all have finished; he
should then dispose of the crumbs and leave his desk tidy. From twenty
minutes to half an hour is generally found sufficient for the meal.
There should be cheerful conversation and restrained laughter throughout
the meal, and acts of courtesy and generosity should be encouraged. At
seasons when there are no flies, and on days when the weather is
favourable, it is a pleasant change to serve lunch out-of-doors.

The lunch is provided by the home, but the teacher may give some useful
lessons in Household Science by talks on the contents of the lunch box
and the proper methods of packing the same, so that the food will keep
in good condition until the time for its consumption arrives. It is the
duty of the school authorities to provide a suitable storage place for
the lunch boxes. These boxes should be kept free from dust or flies and
in a place where the food will not freeze in winter. Open shelves, so
often seen, are not suitable and a properly ventilated cupboard in the
school-room should be provided.


The whole question of the box lunch presents a serious problem, when we
consider the large number of children who must depend upon it for their
noon-day meal. This meal should be so constituted as to make it a real
meal and not a makeshift. The same principles which govern the
preparation of the meal should govern the preparation of the lunch box.
It is said that the school lunch should consist of "something starchy
and something meaty, something fat and something fibrous, something
sweet and something savoury".

With so many varieties of breads, meats, cheese, jams, etc., innumerable
kinds of sandwiches may be made. For example, there are brown, graham,
rye, raisin, nut, and date breads, and equally many kinds of meat. Such
variety makes it quite unnecessary to have an egg sandwich or
hard-boiled eggs in the lunch box each day. While eggs are very valuable
in the diet, a lunch with hard-boiled eggs five times each week becomes
monotonous, and the appetite of the consumer flags. With skill and
thought one can make little scraps of meat or other "left-overs" into
attractive sandwiches. Ends of meat, ground and mixed with salad
dressing or cream, make delicious sandwich fillings.


The bread should be cut evenly.

The thickness of the slice should vary with the appetite of the

The crust should not be removed.

The butter should be creamed for spreading.

Both slices should be buttered, in order to prevent the absorption of
  the filling.

The filling should be carefully placed between the slices.

The sandwiches should be wrapped in waxed paper, to prevent drying.


1. Egg and ham:

    Three eggs hard boiled and chopped fine or ground
    An equal amount of chopped or boiled ham
    Salad dressing
    Mix and spread.

2. Raisin filling:

    One cup of raisins ground or chopped
    One half-cup of water
    One half-cup of sugar
    One tablespoonful of flour into the same quantity of vinegar
    Juice and grated rind of one lemon
    Cook in a double boiler until thick.

3. Fig filling:

    Remove the stems and chop the figs fine.
    Add a small quantity of water.
    Cook in a double boiler until a paste is formed.
    Add a few drops of lemon juice.
    Chopped peanuts may be added.

4. Egg:

    Chop a hard-cooked egg.
    Mix with salad dressing or melted butter, to a
      spreading consistency.

5. Equal parts of finely-cut nuts and grated cheese,
      with salad dressing

6. Equal parts of grated cheese and chopped olives

7. Sardines with lemon juice or a little dressing

8. Chopped dates with a little cream. Nuts may be added.

9. Thinly sliced tomatoes (seasonal)

10. Sliced cucumbers

11. Marmalade. Chopped nuts may be added.


In selecting the food the following suggestions may prove helpful:

_Protein_--Sandwiches of fish, meat, egg, cheese, nuts, dish of cottage

  For the older pupils, baked beans

_Carbohydrates_--Bread, cake, cookies, jam, honey, dates, figs, raisins,
  prunes, candy

_Fats_--Butter, cream, peanut-butter

_Mineral matter_--Celery, lettuce, radish, tomatoes; fresh fruits

    _Note._--When possible, a bottle of clean sweet milk
    should form part of every lunch.


Cup custards of various flavours

Cookies with nuts and fruits

Cakes--not too rich

Pies well made and with good filling

Candy--plain home-made


Canned fruits

Fresh fruits

As often as possible, a surprise should be included, generally in the
form of a dessert of which the pupil is fond. A surprise adds to the
pupil's pleasure in eating and, indirectly, aids digestion.


Much of the attractiveness of a lunch depends upon the manner of
packing. We must consider the fact that the foods must be packed
together closely and must remain so packed for several hours. This makes
careful packing a necessity.


1. Be sure that the box is absolutely clean.
2. Line it with fresh paper every time it is used.
3. Wrap each article of food in wax paper.
4. Place in the box neatly, the food that is to be used last in the
     bottom of the box, unless it is easily crushed.
5. Lay a neatly folded napkin on the top.


  Lunch box
  Waxed paper
  Paper napkin
  Cup or container with screw top
  Drinking cup
  Knife, fork, and spoon
  Thermos bottle or jar for milk or other liquid

The box itself should be of odourless material, permanent, and light in
weight, admitting of safe means of ventilation. Paper bags should never
be used for food containers, as it is impossible to pack the lunch in
them firmly and well and there is danger of their being torn or of
insects or flies creeping into them. Boxes of fibre, tin, basket weave,
or other material, may be used. The box will require scrubbing, and
should be frequently dried and aired well. Many types of lunch boxes
have compartments provided for the various kinds of food.

Waxed paper and paper napkins, or the somewhat heavier paper towels of
much the same size, are very useful for packing lunches, and may be
obtained at a low price, particularly if bought in large quantities. An
extra napkin, either of paper or cloth, should be put in the basket, to
be spread over the school desk when the lunch is eaten. Napkins can be
made out of cotton crepe at a cost of a very few cents each. The crepe
may be bought by the yard and should be cut into squares and fringed.
Such napkins have the advantage of not needing to be ironed.

Paper cups, jelly tumblers with covers which can now be bought in
several sizes, and bottles with screw tops, such as those in which candy
and other foods are sold, may all be used for packing jellies, jams,
honey, etc. The thermos bottle may be used for carrying milk, or, if
this is too expensive, a glass jar with a tight cover may be
substituted. If the thermos bottle is used, hot drinks may also be


The serving of a hot lunch or of one hot dish need be neither an
elaborate nor an expensive matter. Many rural schools in the United
States, some of them working under conditions worse than any of ours,
are serving at least one hot dish to supplement the lunch brought from
home. The advantages of this plan are:

1. It enables the pupils to do better work in the afternoon.

2. It adds interest to the school work and makes the pupils more ready
     to go to school in bad weather.

3. It gives some practical training and paves the way toward definite
     instruction in Household Science.

4. It gives a better balance to meals, and as compared with a cold lunch
     it aids digestion.

5. It teaches neatness.

6. It gives opportunity to teach table manners.

7. It strengthens the relationship between the home and the school.


The teacher should have a meeting of the school trustees and of the
mothers of the pupils and outline the method of procedure. It is only in
this way that the co-operation of all can be secured, and without this
co-operation there can be no success. This meeting should be addressed
by the Public School Inspector; and after the consent of the parents and
the trustees has been secured, the scheme may be put into operation.
Some thought will have to be given to the organization, in order that
the plan may work smoothly. If properly organized, there need be little
or no interruption to the ordinary routine of the school.

The pupils, both boys and girls, should be arranged in groups, each
group taking the work in turn. Even the smallest pupils should be
allowed to take part, as there are many duties which they can perform
successfully. If each group is composed of five or six pupils, the work
may be arranged as follows: two will prepare the dish, two will get the
table or the desks ready (or each pupil may prepare his own desk), and
the others will wash the dishes.

The furnishing of supplies is a problem which each teacher will have to
solve for herself, according to the conditions which exist in the
community. Supplies which can be stored are best purchased by the school
trustees; while the mothers of the pupils should furnish the perishable
articles, such as milk and butter. As often as possible, the pupils may
be asked to bring various articles, such as a potato, an apple, a
carrot, an egg, etc. These may be combined and prepared in quantities.
The school garden should be relied upon to supply many vegetables in
season, thus adding interest and life to both the garden work and the
lunch. In some districts the neighbourhood is canvassed for
subscriptions in order to provide funds to purchase supplies for the
term lunches. Some schools give a concert or entertainment in order to
raise funds for this purpose, and in others all the supplies have been
purchased by the school trustees.

The pupils who are to prepare the hot dish may make the necessary
preparations before school or at recess, and they must so time the
cooking that the dish will be ready when required. They should be
allowed to leave their desks during school hours to give it attention if
necessary. In schools where this method is adopted, it has been found
that the privilege has never been abused, nor have the other pupils been
less attentive on account of it. However, most of the recipes suggested
later require little or no attention while cooking.

At twelve o'clock the assigned pupils get the dish ready for serving and
set the table. The others wash their hands, tidy their hair, and get
their lunch boxes. All pass to their places. The pupils who have
prepared the dish may serve it, using trays to carry each pupil's
supply, or the pupils may pass in line before the serving table and to
their places, time being thus saved. When the meal is finished, the
pupils rise and bring their dishes to the serving table and stack them
with the other dishes. Two remain behind to clear up and wash the
dishes, while the others go to play. If the desks are used, each pupil
is responsible for leaving his own desk clean.

The pupils may be required to keep an account of the cost of the food
and to calculate the cost per head per day or per week. A schedule of
the market prices of food should be posted in a conspicuous place, and
the pupils may take turns in keeping these prices up to date. A separate
black-board may be used for this purpose.

The dish chosen should be as simple as possible--a vegetable or cream
soup, cocoa, baked potatoes, baked apples, white sauce with potatoes or
other vegetables, apple sauce, rice pudding, etc. It may be well, in
some cases, to have plans made on Friday for the following week. As a
rule, each day a little before or after four o'clock, the recipe for the
following day should be discussed, the quantities worked out to suit the
number of pupils, and the supplies arranged for. The element of surprise
should be made use of occasionally, the pupils not being allowed to know
the dish until they take their places.


The following are some suggested menus in which the food brought from
home is supplemented by one hot dish. (The name of the hot dish is
printed in italics.)

1. _Potato soup_, meat sandwiches, orange, sponge cake

2. _Cream of tomato soup_, bread and butter sandwiches, stuffed egg,
      pear, oatmeal cookies

3. _Apple cooked with bacon_, bread and butter sandwiches, gingerbread,

4. _Cocoa_, date sandwiches, celery, graham crackers, apple

5. _Stewed apples_, egg sandwiches, plain cake, prunes stuffed with
      cottage cheese

6. _Custard_, brown bread sandwiches, apple, raisins, sauce, molasses

7. _Baked beans_, bread and butter sandwiches, fruit, sauce, molasses


               _First week_           _Second week_

  Monday       Potato soup            Rice and milk
  Tuesday      Cocoa                  Tomato soup
  Wednesday    Coddled eggs           Egg broth
  Thursday     Creamed potatoes       Chocolate custard
  Friday       Soft custard           Rice and tomato

               _Third week_           _Fourth week_

  Monday       Macaroni and cheese    Rice soup
  Tuesday      Creamed eggs           Cocoa
  Wednesday    Cheese soup            Boiled rice and milk
  Thursday     Apple sauce            Soft-cooked eggs
  Friday       Cheese                 Wheat pudding

               _First week_           _Second week_

  Monday       Rice soup              Macaroni and cheese
  Tuesday      Cocoa                  Apple sauce
  Wednesday    Baked apples           Shirred eggs
  Thursday     Custard                Cheese soup
  Friday       Baked eggs             Apple custard

              _Third week_            _Fourth week_

  Monday      Potato soup             Rice and tomato
  Tuesday     Tapioca cream           Apple custard
  Wednesday   Cocoa                   Tomato soup
  Thursday    Creamed potatoes        Cracker pudding
  Friday      Soft custard            Cocoa


All the recipes given have been used with success in preparing rural
school lunches. The number that the recipe will serve is generally
stated and, where this number does not coincide with the number of
pupils in any particular school, the quantities required may be obtained
by division or multiplication. The recipes given in the lessons on
cooking may also be used in preparing the school lunch, as each recipe
states the number it will serve.

_White Sauce_

  1 c. milk
  2 tbsp. flour
  1/2 tbsp. butter
  1/4 tsp. salt
  1/8 tsp. white pepper

Reserve one quarter of the milk and scald the remainder in a double
boiler. Mix the flour to a smooth paste with an equal quantity of the
cold milk and thin it with the remainder. Stir this gradually into the
hot milk and keep stirring until it thickens. Add the butter, salt, and
pepper, and cover closely until required, stirring occasionally. This
recipe makes a sauce of medium consistency. To make a thick white sauce,
use 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of flour to one cup of milk.


  6 tbsp. (18 tsp.) cocoa
  6 tbsp. (18 tsp.) sugar
  6 c. milk
  6 c. boiling water
  1/2 tsp. salt

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt, then
stir in the boiling water and boil for 3 minutes. Add this mixture to
the scalded milk. If a scum forms, beat with a Dover egg-beater for one
minute. The preparation should begin at half-past eleven, to have the
cocoa ready at twelve o'clock. (Will serve eighteen.)

_Potato Soup_

  1 qt. peeled potatoes cut
  in thin slices
  3 qt. milk
  2 tsp. salt
  4 tsp. butter
  4 tbsp. flour
  1/8 tsp. black pepper
  1 small onion
  1/2 tsp. celery seed or a stock of celery

Before the opening of school, the potatoes should be pared and put into
cold water; and the butter, flour, salt, and pepper should be thoroughly
mixed. At eleven o'clock, the potatoes, onion, and celery should be put
on to boil gently and the milk put into a double boiler to heat. When
the vegetables are tender, they should be strained with the cooking
liquid into the hot milk and the mixture bound with the flour. The soup
should be closely covered until required. (Will serve ten.)

_Cream of Pea Soup_

  1 can peas or 1 qt. fresh peas
  1 pt. milk
  2 tbsp. butter
  2 tbsp. flour
  1 tsp. salt
  1/4 tsp. pepper

Heat the peas in their own water, or cook them in boiling salted water
until tender. Put the milk to heat in a double boiler. When the peas are
tender, rub them, with the cooking liquid, through a strainer into the
scalded milk. Add the butter and flour rubbed to a smooth paste and stir
until thickened. Season and cover until required. (Will serve six pupils

_Cream of Tomato Soup_

  1 pt. or 1 can tomatoes
  2 tbsp. butter
  3 tbsp. flour
  1 tsp. sugar
  1 qt. milk
  Sprig of parsley
  1/4 tsp. white pepper
  1/2 tsp. soda
  1 tsp. salt

Cook the tomatoes slowly with the seasonings for ten minutes and rub
through a strainer. Scald the milk, thicken with the flour and butter
rubbed to a paste, re-heat the tomatoes, and add the soda, mix with the
milk, and serve at once. (Will serve six pupils generously.)

_Cream of Corn Soup_

  2 pt. cans corn
  1 pt. cold water
  2 slices onion
  2 qt. of thin white sauce Seasonings

The process is that used in making Cream of Pea Soup. When making the
thin white sauce, place the onion in the milk and leave it until the
milk is scalded. Then remove the onion to the other mixture and make the
sauce. This gives sufficient onion flavour. (Will serve eighteen.)

_Lima-bean Soup_

  1 c. Lima beans
  2 qt. water
  2 whole cloves
  1 bay leaf
  1 tsp. salt
  3 tbsp. butter
  2 tbsp. flour
  3 tbsp. minced onion
  1 tbsp.   "    carrot
  1 tbsp.   "    celery
  1/4 tsp. pepper

Soak the beans overnight in soft water or in hard water which has been
boiled and cooled. If cold, hard water is used, add 1/4 tsp. baking-soda
to 1 qt. of water. In the morning, drain and put on to cook in 2 qt. of
water. Simmer until tender. It takes 2 hours. Cook the minced vegetables
in the butter for 20 minutes, being careful not to brown them. Drain out
the vegetables and put them into the soup. Put the flour and butter into
a pan and stir until smooth. Add this mixture to the soup. Add the
cloves, bay leaf, and seasonings, and simmer for 1 hour. Rub through a
sieve. One cup of milk may be added. Bring to the simmering point and
serve. (Will serve eighteen.)

    _Note._--If desired, the vegetables may be used without
    browning and the cloves and bay leaf omitted.

_Milk and Cheese Soup_

  4 c. milk
  2 tbsp. flour
  1-1/3 c. grated cheese
  Salt and pepper to taste

Thicken the milk with flour, cooking thoroughly. This is best done in a
double boiler, stirring occasionally. When ready to serve, add cheese
and seasoning. (Will serve six.)

_Cream of Rice Soup_

  4 tbsp. rice
  4 c. milk
  3 tbsp. butter
  1/2 small onion
  4 stalks celery
  1/2 bay leaf
  Salt and pepper to taste

Scald the milk, add the well-washed rice, and cook for 30 minutes in a
closely covered double boiler. Melt the butter and cook the sliced onion
and celery in it until tender, but not brown. Add these, with the bay
leaf, to the contents of the double boiler, cover, and let it stand on
the back of the stove for 15 minutes. Strain, season with salt and
pepper, re-heat, and serve. Note that the bay leaf is added and allowed
to stand, to increase the flavour, and may be omitted if desired. (Will
serve six.)

_Rice Pudding_

  3 c. rice
  6 c. water
  6 c. milk
  2 c. sugar
  4 eggs
  2 tsp. salt
  3 c. fruit (chopped raisins) if desired

Wash the rice in a strainer placed over a bowl of cold water, by rubbing
the rice between the fingers. Lift the strainer from the bowl and change
the water. Repeat until the water is clear. Put the water in the upper
part of a double boiler directly over the fire, and when it boils
rapidly, gradually add the rice to it. Boil rapidly for 5 minutes, then
add the milk, to which has been added the sugar, salt, and eggs slightly
beaten. Cover, place in the lower part of the double boiler, and cook
until kernels are tender--from 45 minutes to 1 hour. If raisins are
used, add them before putting the rice in the double boiler. Serve with
milk and sugar as desired. (Will serve eighteen.)

_Rice Pudding_

  2 c. rice
  1 c. raisins
  1 tsp. salt
  4 qt. milk
  1 c. sugar
  1 tsp. cinnamon

Prepare the rice and raisins and put them, with the other ingredients,
in a buttered pan. Bake all forenoon, stirring occasionally during the
first hour. Serve with milk or cream. (Will serve ten.)

_Cream of Wheat_

  1-1/2 c. cream of wheat
  10 c. boiling water
  1-1/2 tsp. salt
  1-1/2 c. dates (chopped)

Put the boiling water and salt in the upper part of the double boiler
directly over the heat. When boiling, add the cereal slowly. Stir
constantly until the mixture thickens. Add the dates and cook for 5
minutes. Place in the lower part of the double boiler and cook at least
1 hour. Serve with milk and sugar. (Will serve eighteen.)

_Scrambled Eggs_

  9 eggs
  1 c. milk
  2 tbsp. butter
  1 tsp. salt

Beat the eggs until the yolks and whites are well mixed. Add the
seasonings and milk. Heat the frying-pan, melt the butter in it, and
turn in the egg mixture. Cook slowly, scraping the mixture from the
bottom of the pan as it cooks. As soon as a jelly-like consistency is
formed, remove at once to a hot dish or serve on toast. (Will serve

_Creamed Eggs_

  6 hard-cooked eggs
  4 tbsp. butter
  2 c. milk
  4 tbsp. flour
  Salt and pepper

Melt the butter, add the flour, and stir in the milk gradually. Cook
well and season with salt and pepper. Cut hard-cooked eggs in small
pieces and add them to the white sauce. It may be served on toast. (Will
serve six.)

_Egg Broth_

  6 eggs
  6 tbsp. sugar
  1 c. hot milk
  Few grains salt
  Vanilla or nutmeg

Beat the eggs and add the sugar and salt. Stir in the hot milk
gradually, so that the eggs will cook smoothly. Flavour as desired.
(Will serve six.)

_Soft-cooked Eggs_

Wash the eggs and put in a sauce-pan, cover with boiling water, remove
to the back of the stove or where the water will keep hot, but not boil.
Let them stand, covered, from 7 to 10 minutes, according to the
consistency desired.

_Baked Shirred Eggs_

Butter small earthen cups. Break an egg in each and sprinkle with a few
grains of salt and pepper and bits of butter. Bake in a moderate oven
until the white is set. For Shirred Eggs proceed as above, but to cook,
place in a pan of hot water on the back of the stove, until the white is

_Creamed Potatoes_

  White sauce (medium consistency)
  3 tbsp. flour
  3 tbsp. butter
  1-1/2 c. milk
  Salt and pepper

Make a white sauce of the butter, flour, milk, and seasonings. Cut cold
potatoes (about eight) into cubes or slices and heat in the sauce. Serve
hot. (Will serve nine.)

_Mashed Potatoes_

Boil the potatoes, drain, and mash in the kettle in which they were
boiled. When free from lumps, add to each cup of mashed potatoes:

  1 tsp. butter
  1 or more tbsp. hot milk
  1/4 tsp. salt

Beat all together until light and creamy. Re-heat, and pile lightly,
without smoothing, in a hot dish.

_Baked Potatoes_

Use potatoes of medium size.

Scrub thoroughly in water with a brush. Place in a pan in a hot oven.
Bake from 45 to 60 minutes. When done, roll in a clean napkin and twist
until the skin is broken. Serve immediately. (If no oven is available,
place a wire rack on the top of the stove. Put the potatoes on this rack
and cover them with a large pan. When half cooked, turn.)

_Macaroni and Cheese_

  3 c. macaroni (2 pieces)
  3 tsp. salt
  3 qt. boiling water
  6 c. white sauce (medium)

Cook the macaroni in boiling salted water until tender. Drain, pour cold
water over it, and drain it once more. Put the macaroni into a baking
dish, sprinkling a layer of grated cheese upon each layer of macaroni.
Pour in the sauce and sprinkle the top with cheese. Cook until the sauce
bubbles up through the cheese and the top is brown. To give variety,
finely-minced ham, boiled codfish, or any cold meat may be used instead
of the cheese. (Will serve ten.)

_Cornstarch Pudding_

  1 qt. milk
  3/4 c. cornstarch
  1/2 tsp. salt
  3/4 c. sugar

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the sugar, cornstarch, and salt
together. Gradually add to the hot milk and stir constantly until it
thickens. Cover, cook for 30 minutes, add vanilla, and pour into cold,
wet moulds. When set, turn out, and serve with milk and sugar. (Will
serve nine.)

_Apple Sauce_

  9 tart apples
  3/4 c. water
  6 whole cloves (if desired)
  3/4 c. sugar
  Piece of lemon rind (if desired)

Wipe, pare, quarter, and core the apples. Put the water, apples, lemon
rind, and cloves into a sauce-pan. Cook covered until the apples are
tender, but not broken. Remove the lemon peel and cloves. Add the sugar
a few minutes before taking from the fire. The apples may be mashed or
put through a strainer. (Will serve nine.)

    _Note._--The lemon and the cloves may be used when the
    apples have lost their flavour.

_Stewed Prunes or Other Dried Fruit--Apricots, Apples, Pears_

  3/4 lb. fruit (about)
  1-1/2 pt. of water
  1/3 c. sugar
  1 or 2 slices lemon or a few cloves
    and a piece of cinnamon stick

Wash the fruit thoroughly and soak overnight. Cook in the water in which
it was soaked. Cover, and simmer until tender. When nearly cooked, add
sugar and lemon juice. The cloves and cinnamon should cook with the
fruit. All flavourings may be omitted, if desired. (Will serve nine.)

_Soft Custard_

  2 c. milk
  6 tbsp. sugar
  2 eggs
  1/2 tsp. vanilla
  A few grains of salt

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Add the sugar and salt to the eggs
and beat until well mixed. Stir the hot milk slowly into the egg mixture
and return to the double boiler. Cook, stirring constantly, until the
spoon, when lifted from the mixture, is coated. Remove immediately from
the heat, add vanilla, and pour into a cold bowl. To avoid too rapid
cooking, lift the upper from the lower portion of the boiler
occasionally. (Will serve six.)

_Tapioca Custard Pudding_

  3 c. scalded milk
  2 eggs slightly beaten
  2 tbsp. butter
  4 tbsp. pearl, or minute, tapioca
  6 tbsp. sugar
  A few grains of salt

Minute tapioca requires no soaking. Soak the pearl tapioca one hour in
enough cold water to cover it. Drain, add to the milk, and cook in a
double boiler for 30 minutes. Add to remaining ingredients, pour into
buttered baking-dish, and bake for about 25 minutes in a slow oven.
(Will serve eight.)

_Rice and Tomato_

  2 c. cooked rice
  2 tbsp. butter
  2 tbsp. flour
  2 c. unstrained or 1 c. strained tomato
  1 slice of onion minced
  Salt and pepper

Cook the onion with the tomato until soft. Melt the butter, and add the
flour, salt, and pepper. Strain the tomato, stir the liquid into the
butter and flour mixture, and cook until thick and smooth. Add the rice,
heat, and serve. (Will serve six.)

_Cracker Pudding_

  6 soda crackers
  3 c. milk
  3 eggs
  6 tbsp. sugar
  1/2 tsp. salt

Roll the crackers and soak them in milk. Beat the yolks and sugar well
together and add to the first mixture, with some salt. Make a meringue
with white of eggs, pile lightly on top, and put in the oven till it is
a golden brown. Serve hot. (Will serve six.)

    _Note._--Dried bread crumbs may be used in place of the

_Candied Fruit Peel_

The candied peel of oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and other fruits makes
a good sweet which is economical, because it utilizes materials which
might otherwise be thrown away. Its preparation makes an interesting
school exercise. The skins can be kept in good condition for a long time
in salt water, which makes it possible to wait until a large supply is
on hand before candying them. They should be washed in clear water,
after removing from the salt water, boiled until tender, cut into small
pieces, and then boiled in a thick sugar syrup until they are
transparent. They should then be lifted from the syrup and allowed to
cool in such a way that the superfluous syrup will run off. Finally,
they should be rolled in pulverized or granulated sugar.

A large number of recipes have been given, in order that a selection may
be made according to season, community conditions, and market prices,
and so that sufficient variety may be secured from day to day.

Attention given to this matter will be well repaid by the improved
health of the pupils, the greater interest taken in the school by the
parents, and the better afternoon work accomplished. It has been well
said: "The school lunch is not a departure from the principle of the
obligation assumed by educational authorities toward the child, but an
intensive application of the measures adopted for the physical nurture
of the child, to the end of securing in adult years the highest
efficiency of the citizen".


_The Rural School Luncheon_: Department of Education, Saskatchewan

_The Box Luncheon_: New York State College of Agriculture,
   Cornell University

_Hints to Housewives_: Issued by Mayor Mitchell's Food Supply
   Committee, New York City

_Home Economics in Village and Rural Schools_: Kansas State
   Agricultural College

_Home-made Fireless Cookers and Their Use_: Farmers' Bulletin,
   United States Department of Agriculture

_Hot Lunches for Rural Schools_: Parts I and II, Iowa State
   College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts

_Rural School Lunches_: University of Idaho, Agricultural Extension

_The Rural School Lunch_: University of Illinois College of Agriculture

_The School Luncheon_: Oregon Agricultural College


There is no school so unhappily situated or so poorly equipped that it
is unable to teach effectively the lessons previously outlined in the
"Care of the Home" and "Sewing". Now that a grant in aid is provided by
the Department of Education any rural school may procure one of the sets
of equipment for cooking suggested or some modification thereof. As a
stepping-stone to the provision of that equipment and as a means of
educating the people of the district in regard to the advantages of
teaching this branch of Household Science, it may be advisable or even
necessary, in some cases, to attempt practical work, even where no
equipment is installed by the school authorities.

It should be remembered that the present position of Manual Training and
Household Science in urban schools is entirely owing to private
initiative and demonstration, by which the people were shown how and why
these subjects should be included in the curriculum of the schools. It
is reasonable to suppose that the same results will follow if somewhat
the same methods are tried in the case of the rural schools, which form
such a large part of our educational system. Two methods of giving
instruction of this character have, in the United States, been followed
by successful results.


In the first of these, the teacher spends the last thirty or forty
minutes, generally on Friday afternoons, in the description and
discussion of some practical cooking problem which may be performed in
the homes of the pupils. Before this plan is adopted, it should be
discussed with the pupils who are to take the work. They should be
required to promise that they will practise at home; and the consent and
co-operation of the parents should be secured, as the success of this
home work depends, in the first place, on the willingness of the pupil
to accept responsibility, and, in the second place, on the honest and
hearty co-operation of the parents.

A meeting of the mothers should be called, in order that the plan may be
laid before them and their suggestions received. At this meeting
afternoon tea might be served. The teacher should plan the lessons, but
occasionally, particularly at festive seasons, the pupils themselves
should be allowed to decide what shall be made. When it is possible, the
food prepared at home should be brought by the pupil to the school, in
order that it may be compared with that made by other pupils and be
judged by the teacher. In other cases, the mother might be asked to fill
up a previously prepared form, certifying to the amount and character of
the work done at home by the pupil each week.

The instructions placed on the black-board should be clear and concise
and give adequate information concerning materials, quantities, and
methods. They should be arranged in such a way as to appeal to the eye
and thus assist the memory. Connected composition should not be
attempted, but the matter should be arranged in a series of numbered
steps, somewhat as follows:

_Recipe: Boiled Carrots_

  Boiling water
  Salt and pepper

1. Scrub, scrape, and rinse the carrots.

2. Cut them into pieces by dicing them.

3. Place the pieces in a sauce-pan.

4. Set over the fire and cover with boiling water.

5. Cook until the pieces are soft at the centre when pierced with a

6. Serve in a hot vegetable dish.

After being thoroughly explained, these directions are placed in a
note-book, for the guidance of the pupil in her home practice. In some
cases, the directions are placed on properly punched cards, so that at
the end of the year every pupil will have a collection of useful recipes
and plans, each one of which she understands and has worked out. In many
lessons of this type demonstrations may be given by the teacher and, if
the food cannot be cooked on the school stove, it may be taken home to
be cooked by one of the pupils.

Lessons given according to this method, by which the theory is given in
school and the practice acquired at home, need not be restricted to
cookery. Any of the lessons prescribed in the curriculum for Form III,
Junior, may be treated in the same way. Lessons on the daily care of a
bed-room, weekly sweeping, care and cleaning of metals, washing dishes,
washing clothes, ironing a blouse and, in fact, on all subjects
pertaining to the general care and management of the home, may be given
in this way.

Each lesson should conclude with a carefully prepared black-board
summary, which should be neatly copied into the note-books, to be
periodically examined by the teacher. The black-board work of many
teachers leaves much to be desired, and time spent in improving this
will be well repaid. Examples of summaries of the kind referred to are
to be found in the Ontario Teachers' Manual on _Household Management_.
These instructions may be type-written or hectographed by the teacher
and given to the pupils, thus saving the time spent in note-taking.


The second of the plans referred to is a modification of what is known
as the "Crete" plan of Household Science, so called from the name of the
place in Nebraska, U.S.A., where it was first put into operation. By
this plan, definite instruction is given in the home kitchens of certain
women in the district, under the supervision of the educational
authorities. It was adopted, at first, in connection with the high
schools of the small towns in that State but, with certain
modifications, it is suitable to our rural school conditions.

In every community there are women who are known to be skilful in
certain lines of cookery, and the plan makes use of such women for
giving the required instruction. They become actually a part of the
staff of the school, giving instruction in Household Science, and using
the resources of their households as an integral part of the school

In order to put this plan into operation, a meeting of women interested
in the school should be called and if, after the plan has been laid
before them and fully discussed, enough women are willing to open their
homes and act as instructors, then it is safe to proceed. The subjects
should be divided, and a scheme somewhat as follows may be arranged:

  Mrs. A. bread and biscuits
  Mrs. B. pies and cakes
  Mrs. C. canning and preserving
  Mrs. D. gems and corn bread
  Mrs. E. desserts and salads
  Mrs. F. cookies and doughnuts
  Mrs. G. vegetables.

Six has been found a convenient number for a class, though ten is
better, if the homes can accommodate that number. Half-past three is a
good time for the classes to meet, as they then may be concluded by five
o'clock, thus leaving the housewife free to prepare her evening meal.
The day of the week should be chosen to suit the convenience of the
instructor. The classes may meet once a week.

Arriving at the home of the instructor at half-past three, the pupils
are seated in the most convenient room, and the lesson is given. During
this talk the pupils are given not only the recipe, but details as to
materials, the preparation thereof, the degree of heat required, the
common causes of failure and, in fact, everything that in the mind of a
practical cook would be helpful to the class. Notes are taken, and
afterwards properly written out and examined by the teacher of the

The instructors prepare the food for cooking, and sometimes, as in the
case of rolls and so on, they cook the food in the presence of the
pupils. When white bread is to be baked, the pupils are asked to call, a
few minutes after school, at the home of the instructor, to watch the
first step--setting the sponge--and again the next morning before school
to see the next step--mixing the bread--and again, about half-past
eleven or twelve, to see the bread ready for the oven and, finally, on
the way back to school, to see the result--a fine loaf of well-cooked
bread. The pupils try the recipe carefully in their own homes, not
varying its terms until they are able to make the dish successfully.
When they can do this, they are free to experiment with modifications,
and there should be no objection to receiving help from any source; in
fact, it is a good thing for the daughter to get her mother to criticize
her and offer suggestions in the many little details familiar to every
housekeeper, but which cannot always be given by an instructor in one

By this method the pupils learn in their own homes and handle real
cooking utensils on a real stove heated by the usual fire of that home.
If it is a good thing--and no one doubts it--to learn Household Science
in a school where everything that invention and skill can provide for
the pupils is readily at hand, is it not worth while to enter the field
of actual life and, with cruder implements, win a fair degree of

At the end of five or six months, after the pupils have had an
opportunity to become skilful in making some of the dishes which have
been taught, it may be well to have an exhibition of their work. Each
pupil may, on Saturday afternoon, bring one or more of the dishes she
has learned to prepare to the school-house, where they may be arranged
on tables for the inspection of the judges. The dishes exhibited should
be certified to as being the work of the pupil with no help or
suggestion from anybody. Of course, work of this kind cannot be
undertaken by the "suit case" teacher. The teacher who packs her bag on
Friday at noon, carries it to school with her, and rushes to catch a
train or car at four o'clock, not returning to the district until Monday
morning, has no time for this kind of service.

Occasionally the entire class may meet with their instructors in the
school-room. An oil-stove and the necessary equipment may be obtained,
and a demonstration may be given by one of the instructors. By this
means much valuable instruction will be given that is not included in
the regular course. At this time also many things may be discussed that
pertain to the growth of the movement and the general well-being of the

The plan is flexible and may be modified easily to suit different
localities. It calls for no outlay on the part of the school trustees;
nor are the instructors necessarily put to any expense, as the articles
prepared in giving the lessons may be used in their own homes.

By the adoption of one of the plans outlined, or such modifications of
them as the peculiar requirements of the district may demand, every
rural school may do something, not only toward giving a real knowledge
of some phases of Household Science, but also toward developing the
community spirit and arousing an interest in the school, which will
benefit all concerned.


At the present time there is urgent need for thrift and economy in all
that pertains to the management of the household--particularly in food
and fuel. In the average home much fuel could be saved by the proper use
of what is known as the fireless cooker. The scientific principle
applied has long been known and is, briefly, as follows: If a hot body
is protected by a suitable covering, the heat in it will be retained for
a long time, instead of being lost by radiation or conduction. This is
why a cosy is placed over a tea-pot.

In using a fireless cooker, the food is first heated on the stove until
the cooking has begun, and then it is placed in the fireless cooker--a
tight receptacle in which the food is completely surrounded by some
insulating substance to prevent the rapid escape of the heat, which in
this way is retained in the food in sufficient quantity to complete the
cooking. Sometimes, when a higher cooking temperature is desired, an
additional source of heat, in the form of a hot soapstone or brick or an
iron plate such as a stove lid, is put into the cooker with the food.

The same principle is also employed in cookery in other ways. For
example, in camp life beans are often baked by burying the pots
overnight in hot stones and ashes, the whole being covered with earth;
and in the "clam bakes" on the Atlantic Coast, the damp seaweed spread
over the embers on the clams prevents the escape of the heat during
cooking. The peasants in some parts of Europe are said to begin the
cooking of their dinners and then to put them into hay boxes or between
feather beds, so that the cooking may be completed while the family is
absent in the fields.

The chief advantages in the use of the fireless
cooker are these:

1. It saves fuel, especially where gas, oil, or electric stoves are
used. Where coal or wood is the fuel, the fire in the range is often
kept up most of the day, and the saving of fuel is not so great. In
summer, or when the kitchen fire is not needed for heating purposes, the
dinner can be started in the stove early in the morning, and then placed
in the fireless cooker, the fire in the range being allowed to go out.
During the hot weather, the use of a kerosene or other liquid-fuel stove
and a fireless cooker is a great convenience, since it not only
accomplishes a saving in fuel, but helps to keep the kitchen cooler. The
saving in fuel resulting from the use of a fireless cooker is greatest
in the preparation of foods such as stews, which require long and slow

2. It saves time. Foods cooked in this way do not require watching, and
may be left, without danger from fires or of over-cooking, while other
duties are being performed or the family is away from home.

3. It conserves the flavour of the food and makes it easier to utilize
the cheaper cuts of meat which, although not having so fine a texture or
flavour, are fully as nutritious, pound for pound, as the more expensive
cuts. Long cooking at a relatively low temperature, such as is given to
foods in the fireless cooker, improves the flavour and texture of these
tougher cuts of meat. Most people do not cook cereals long enough. By
this method, the cereal may be prepared at night, cooked on the stove
for about fifteen minutes, and then put in the fireless cooker. In the
morning it will be cooked and ready to be served.

The fireless cooker may be used to advantage in preparing the following:
soups; pot roasts; beef stew; Irish stew; lamb stew; corned beef and
cabbage; boiled ham; baked beans; chicken fricassee; vegetables, such as
turnips, carrots, parsnips, beets; dried vegetables, such as peas and
beans; and dried fruits, such as peaches, apples, apricots, and prunes;
cereals; and puddings.

The fireless cookers described in the following pages are not
experiments. They have all been tested and found to be most practical.


While there are many good fireless cookers on the market which cost from
five to twenty-two dollars, according to size and make, it is possible
to construct a home-made cooker which will give very satisfactory
results and will be considerably cheaper than one which is purchased in
the shops.

Materials required: A box or some other outside container; some good
insulating or packing material; an inside container for the kettle, or a
lining for the nest in which the kettle is placed; a kettle for holding
the food; and a cushion, or pad, of insulating material, to cover the
top of the kettle.


For the outside container a tightly built wooden box, such as that shown
in Figure 39, is satisfactory. The walls should be thick and of some
non-conducting material. An old trunk, a small barrel, or a large butter
or lard firkin or tin will serve the purpose. Another possibility is a
galvanized iron bucket with a closely fitting cover (this has the
advantage of being fire-proof). A shoe box 15 by 15 by 28 inches is
convenient in size, since it may be divided into two compartments. It
should have a hinged cover and, at the front, a hook and staple, or
some other device to hold down the cover tightly; an ordinary clamp
window fastener answers this purpose very well. The size of the
container, which depends upon the size of the kettle used, should be
large enough to allow for at least four inches of packing material all
round the nest in which the kettle is placed.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 39.--Completed fireless cooker]


For packing or insulating material a variety of substances may be used.
Asbestos and mineral wool are the best, and have the additional
advantage that they cannot burn. Ground cork (used in packing Malaga
grapes), hay, excelsior, Spanish moss, wool, and crumpled paper may also
be used satisfactorily. Of these materials crumpled paper is probably
the best, as it is clean and odourless and, if properly packed, will
hold the heat better than the others. It is wise to line the box with
one thickness of heavy paper or with several thicknesses of newspaper,
to make it as air-tight as possible. Asbestos sheeting may be used
instead. To pack the container with paper, crush single sheets of
newspaper between the hands and pack a layer at least four inches deep
over the bottom of the outside container, pounding it in with a heavy
stick of wood.

Place the inside container for the cooking kettle or the lining for the
inside of the nest in the centre of this layer, and pack more crushed
paper about it as solidly as possible. The method of packing with paper
is shown in Figure 40. If other material is used it should be packed in
a similar way.

Where an extra source of heat is to be used, it is much safer to use
some non-inflammable material such as asbestos or mineral wool. A cheap
substitute and one which is easily obtained are the small cinders sifted
from coal ashes, preferably those from soft coal. However, the cinders
from hard coal burned in the kitchen range will do. If a fire-proof
packing material is not used, a heavy pad of asbestos should be placed
at the bottom of the metal lining, and a sheet or two of this paper
should be placed between the lining of the nest and the packing
material. Whatever is used should come to the top of the inside
container, and the box should be filled to within about four inches of
the top.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 40.--Fireless cooker, showing method of packing
with paper]


The inside container for the cooking kettle or the lining for the nest
in which it is to be placed should be cylindrical in shape, should be
deep enough to hold the cooking kettle and stone, if one is used, and
should fit as snugly as possible to the cooking kettle, but at the same
time should allow the latter to be moved in and out freely. For this
purpose a galvanized iron or other metal bucket may be used, or, better
still, a tinsmith may make a lining of galvanized iron or zinc which can
be provided with a rim to cover the packing material, as shown in Figure
41. In case no hot stone or plate is to be used, the lining may be made
of strong cardboard.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 41.--Metal lining with rim]


The kettle to be used for cooking should be durable and free from seams
or crevices which are hard to clean. It should have perpendicular sides,
and the cover should be as flat as possible and be provided with a deep
lid fitting well down into the kettle, in order to retain the steam. A
kettle holding about six quarts is a convenient size for general use.
Tinned iron kettles should not be used in a fireless cooker, for,
although cheap, they are very apt to rust from the confined moisture.
Enamelware kettles are satisfactory.


Fireless cookers are adapted to a much wider range of cooking if they
are provided with an extra source of heat in the form of a soapstone,
brick, or an iron plate which is heated and placed underneath the
cooking kettle. This introduces a possible danger from fire, in case the
hot stove plate should come into direct contact with inflammable packing
material such as excelsior or paper. To avoid this danger, a metal
lining must be provided for the nest in which the cooking vessels and
stone are to be placed.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 42.--Tightly fitting lid]


A cushion, or pad, must be provided, to fill completely the space
between the top of the packing material and the cover of the box after
the kettle is in place. This should be made of some heavy goods, such as
denim, and stuffed with cotton, crumpled paper, or excelsior. Hay may be
used, but it will be found more or less odorous. Figure 43 shows the
vertical cross-section of a home-made fireless cooker.

[Illustration: _Fig._ 43.--Vertical cross-section of fireless cooker. A.
Outside container; B. packing or insulating material; C. metal lining of
nest; D. cooking kettle; E. soapstone plate, or other source of heat; F.
pad of excelsior for covering top; G. hinged cover of outside


(Single Cooker)

Materials required: Galvanized iron can, No. 3, with a cover; some
sawdust; a covered agate pail (to be used as a cooking pail); and two
yards of denim; any old linen, cotton, or woollen material may be used
instead of denim.


Place loose sawdust in the bottom of the can to a depth of about three
inches. Measure the depth of the cooking pail. Turn a fold two inches
greater than this depth the entire length of the denim or other material
and make a long bag. Lay the bag flat on the table and fill it with an
even layer of sawdust, so that when completed it will still be half an
inch wider than the depth of the pail. Roll the bag around the cooking
pail, so that a smooth, firm nest is formed when the bag is placed
upright in the can on the top of the sawdust. From the remaining denim
or other material make a round, flat bag (the material will have to be
pieced for this). Fill this bag with sawdust and use it on top of the
cooking pail. The bags must be made and fitted into the can in such a
way that there will be no open spaces whatever between the sides of the
cooking pail and the can, or between the top of the cooking pail and the
cover of the can, through which the heat might escape.


(Double Cooker)

Materials required: One long box and two square boxes; the long box must
be large enough to hold the other two and still leave two inches of
space all around them; five and one-quarter yards of sheet asbestos one
yard wide; two covered agate pails to be used as cooking pails; and
about one yard of denim or other material.


Line the bottoms and sides of all three boxes with sheet asbestos. In
the bottom of the long box lay newspapers flat to a depth of about half
an inch. Put two inches of sawdust on top of this layer of newspapers.
Place the two square boxes inside the long one, leaving at least two
inches of space between them. Fill all the spaces between the boxes with
sawdust. Tack strips of denim or other material so that they will cover
all the spaces that are filled with sawdust.

The outside box must have a hinged lid, which must be fastened down with
a clasp. Line the lid with the sheet asbestos to within half an inch of
the edge. Put a layer of sawdust one inch deep on top of the asbestos.
Tack a piece of denim or other material over the sawdust, still leaving
the edge free and clear so that the cover may fit tightly; or the lid
may be lined with asbestos and a denim pillow filled with sawdust made
to fit tightly into the top of the box.


The fireless cooker should prove very useful in the lunch equipment of
rural schools, as its use should mean economy of fuel, utensils, time,
and effort. It might be made by the pupils and would afford an excellent
manual training exercise.

Many of the dishes in the recipes given may be cooked in this way, but
more time must be allowed for cooking, as there is a fall of temperature
in placing the food in the cooker. When the vessel is being transferred
from the stove to the cooker, the latter should be in a convenient
position, and the transfer should be made, and the cushion placed in
position, very quickly, so that the food will continue boiling. If the
quantity of food is small, it should be placed in a smaller tightly
covered pail, set on an inverted pan in the larger pail, and surrounded
with boiling water. When there is an air space above the food in the
cooking dish, there is greater loss of heat, as air gives off heat more
readily than water.

The following are examples of the foods that may be cooked in a Fireless

Apple sauce--Bring to boiling temperature and place in the cooker, leave
  two hours.

Apple compote--Cut the apples in halves or quarters so that they need
  not be turned. Leave them in the cooker about three hours.

Dried fruits--Soak overnight, bring to the boiling-point, and leave in
  the cooker at least three hours.

Cream of wheat--Boil until thick, place in the cooker, leave overnight
  and, if necessary, re-heat in double boiler before using.

Rolled oats--Boil five minutes, then place in the cooker. Leave at least
  three hours and longer if possible.

Macaroni--Boil, then place in the cooker for two hours.

Rice--Boil, then place in the cooker for one hour.

All vegetables may be cooked in the cooker. They must be given time
according to their age. A safe rule for all green vegetables is to allow
two and a half times as long as if boiled on the stove.

In the home, where the cooking is much greater in amount than it can be
in the school, the saving in fuel, by the judicious use of the properly
made fireless cooker, is correspondingly much larger. For example: in
soups, from 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 hours use of fuel is made unnecessary; pot
roast 2-1/2 hours; beef stew 2-1/2 hours; lamb stew 1-1/2 hours; corn
beef and cabbage 2-1/2 hours; baked beans 5-1/2 to 7-1/2 hours; chicken
fricassee 2 hours; dried peas, beans, and lentils 3 hours; dried fruits
3 hours; rice pudding 1-1/2 hours.


(From the Revised Regulations of the Department of Education, 1918)

(1) The Board of a rural or a village school which is unable to comply
with the provisions of the General Regulations, but which maintains
classes in Manual Training as applied to the work of the Farm or in
Household Science suitable to the requirements of the rural districts,
which employs a teacher qualified as below, and which provides
accommodations and equipment and a course of study approved by the
Minister before the classes are established, will be paid by the
Minister the sums provided in the scheme below, out of the grants
appropriated therefor: said grants to be expended on the accommodations,
equipment, and supplies for Manual Training and Household Science. In no
year, however, will the Departmental grants exceed the total expenditure
of the Board for these classes.

(2) On the report of the Inspector of Manual Training and Household
Science that the organization and the teaching of the classes in Manual
Training or Household Science maintained as provided above are
satisfactory, an annual grant will be paid by the Minister out of the
Grant appropriated according to the following scheme:

(_a_) (i) When the teacher holds a Second Class certificate but is not
specially certificated in Manual Training or Household Science--

Initial Grant to board, $40; to teacher, $15. Subsequent Grant: to
board, $20; to teacher, $15.

(ii) When the teacher holds a Second Class certificate and has
satisfactorily completed the work of one Summer Course in Manual
Training or Household Science, provided by the Department, and
undertakes to complete Part II the following year, or receives
permission from the Minister to postpone said part--

Initial Grant: to board, $40: to teacher, $20. Subsequent Grant: to
board, $20: to teacher, $20.

(_b_) (i) When the teacher holds a Second Class certificate and in
addition the Elementary certificate in Manual Training or Household

Initial Grant: to board, $75; to teacher, $40. Subsequent Grant: to
board, $30; to teacher, $40.

(ii) When the teacher holds a Second Class certificate and in addition
the Ordinary certificate in Manual Training or Household Science--

Initial Grant: to board, $75; to teacher, $50. Subsequent Grant: to
board, $30; to teacher, $50.

(_c_) When a school taking up Household Science provides at least one
hot dish for the pupils staying to lunch from November 1st to March
31st, the above grants to the teacher of Household Science will be
increased $10.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Household Science in Rural Schools" ***

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