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Title: The Medicinal Plants of the Philippines
Author: Pardo de Tavera, T. H. (Trinidad Hermenegildo), 1857-1925
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Medicinal Plants of the Philippines" ***

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+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                             NOTICE                                  |
|                                                                     |
| The medical knowledge  represented in  this book  is over a century |
| old. The publication of this  book is for historical interest only, |
| or its  volunteers.  Medicinal plants  should  not be used  without |
| consulting a trained medical professional. Medical science has made |
| considerable progress since this book was written.  Recommendations |
| or prescriptions  may have been superseded  by better alternatives, |
| or invalidated altogether.                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+



                            Medicinal Plants

                                 of the

                         Philippine Archipelago



                The Medicinal Plants of the Philippines


                                   By


                         T. H. Pardo De Tavera


   Doctor en Medicina de la Facultad de Paris, Comisionado Cientifico
    de S. M. en las Islas Filipinas y Delegado General en las Mismas
  de la Société Académique Indo-Chinoise de Francia, Miembro Fundador
        Correspondiente de la Sociedad Española de Higiene, Etc.


                       Translated and Revised by


                   Jerome B. Thomas, Jr., A.B., M.D.

                Captain and Assistant Surgeon, U. S. V.


                             Philadelphia:

                        P. Blakiston's Son & Co.

                          1012 Walnut Street.

                                  1901



                          Copyright, 1901, by

                        P. Blakiston's Son & Co.



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.


This translation was undertaken with the especial object of
facilitating the study of the native medicinal plants by the
numerous medical officers stationed at small posts throughout the
Philippines. In order to aid in the recognition of these plants,
the botanical descriptions have been revised to the extent of adding,
where possible, the size and shape of the plant, English name, length
of leaves, color of flowers, etc., in many instances supplying the
entire botanical description where it had been omitted on account of
general familiarity with the plant. Comparing the few analyses that I
have had an opportunity to make with corresponding ones in the native
works from which Dr. Tavera has taken his botanical descriptions,
I am impressed with the necessity for a revision of the Botany of the
Philippines. However, as the therapeutic properties of the flora are
of foremost interest to the medical profession I have not hesitated
to publish the book in its present form as an entering wedge, leaving
to those better fitted the great work of classifying the flora of
these islands in accordance with modern botanical science.

Dr. Tavera has faithfully described the Malay and Hindu therapeutics
of the present day, enriching his description by observations founded
on a long practice in Paris and in his own native Luzon. From this
potpourri of scientific therapeutics and ignorant, superstitious
drugging the interested physician will elicit not a few useful data
concerning the treatment of disease in the tropics, and at the same
time gain a more intimate knowledge of both the people and plants of
our new Asiatic possessions.

I take this occasion to gratefully acknowledge my obligations to
Mr. A. P. Tonielli, stenographer and translator of the Supreme Court
of the Philippines, for typewriting the manuscript of this translation.


Jerome B. Thomas, Jr.

Manila, P. I.



PREFACE.


Commissioned by His Majesty's Government to study the medicinal
plants of my native country, I returned there and spent two years in
collecting data regarding the use that the Filipinos make of their
plants in the treatment of disease. At the same time I collected and
carefully preserved some with the purpose of taking them to Europe, to
study their chemical composition in the laboratories of Paris under the
direction of the eminent men who had been my instructors in medicine.

The work I did in the Philippines was preliminary, a preparation
for the more extended study of the subject which I wished to make
in Paris, where I went with my notes and collection. Unfortunately,
upon leaving Manila, I confided the mounting and pressing of my
plants to an inexperienced person who stupidly placed in the midst
of them several succulent tubers which decomposed during the voyage
and spoiled the other plants. At the same time I received in Paris
an important collection of the vegetable drugs of the Philippines,
sent by my friend the pharmacist, M. Rosedo Garcia, and destined for
the World's Fair of 1889. I opened with great pleasure the wood and
zinc box in which the collection came, anticipating that I should be
able to carry out my plan of study and at the same time win for my
friend, Garcia, a well-deserved premium. Imagine my disappointment
upon finding that, by an unfortunate coincidence, his plants had
arrived in the same condition as mine, having also been packed with
tubers of ubi, gabi, etc., and several cocoanuts which had decomposed.

Many times since then I have tried to obtain from Manila, through
exchange or payment of money, a similar collection, but have been
unable to secure a single leaf of the plants I so desired. If in the
future I have the good fortune to procure any, I shall make a study
of those at hand and publish the results.

I herewith publish the results of my investigations and experiments
in Manila, where, especially in the neighboring towns of San Mateo
and San Miguel, I often had opportunities for using, with good
results, the plants of which this volume treats. I may add that in
spite of the limited means at my disposal in Manila and the short
time left me by my regular occupations I was able to conduct a few
laboratory experiments owing to which this work contains some personal
observations reinforcing those quoted from medical literature.

The flora of the Archipelago is known to-day through the works of
Fathers Blanco, Llanos, Fernandez del Villar and Naves, and of the
engineers Jordano, the brothers Vidal and Soler and others who have
brought such honor to Spanish science, preparing the way for the study
of the therapeutic and industrial applications of that wonderfully rich
plant life with which our islands have been endowed. Their works help
us to recognize the plants whose medicinal virtues are herein described
and it is to them I owe the botanical descriptions in this treatise.

Father Blanco, in describing certain plants, mentions their medicinal
uses in the Philippines, but his descriptions are few and very
deficient as one would expect in a work of the scope of his Flora. A
Jesuit of some reputation, Father Clain, published in Manila in 1712
a book entitled "Remedios fáciles para diferentes enfermedades?" in
which he speaks of the medicinal virtues of some of the indigenous
plants, almost the same ones that appear in another work, a frank
and pleasing little treatise written by Father Santa Maria. Father
Mercado is the only one who has written a special treatise on the
subject and his manuscript remained unedited until the Augustinian
Fathers of Manila published it in the last edition of Father Blanco's
"Flora"; but neither this work nor those of Clain or Santa Maria are
useful to a physician, nor are they as accurately written as works
of a scientific character should be. From time to time superficial
articles have appeared in the Manila papers regarding the virtues of
some plant or other and these books and articles comprise the whole
literature on the subject up to this time.

Some physicians regard with small favor the therapeutic application of
plants by the Filipino "herb-doctors" (curanderos) as being entirely
empirical. This disparagement is unjustified because in all the
most rational and scientific remedies that we make use of, the first
step towards the final development of their relative position among
remedies is due to empiricism which is founded on daily experience,
on observation of results obtained in specific cases, facts that
are handed down from father to son for generations. The scientific
explanation is lacking, but those first ideas frequently owing their
origin to chance, or, perhaps, to superstition, have often been based
upon the observation of facts which, although fortuitous, are none
the less positive.

Many of the plants mentioned in this book are official in the
Pharmacopoeia of India and we see no reason why their use should be
proscribed in the Philippines. Filipino physicians not only can but
should employ many indigenous plants in their therapeutics; in many
instances they would find them more useful than the exotics, which
are not always fresh and are commonly reduced in strength by long
keeping or damaged by some circumstance of voyage or climate. The
price is another argument in favor of the use of native drugs. If
the pharmacists would prepare extracts and keep on hand the crude
drugs most in demand the public would gain a great advantage and the
druggists be well repaid for their labor. Physicians and pharmacists
will surely understand these advantages and when finally one considers
that the patients generally prefer to be treated with native plants,
I feel justified in the hope that their use will spread rapidly in
the Philippines.

To employ therapeutically the drugs described in this work is not
to experiment "in anima vilis," as some would have us believe. To
experiment is to employ unknown remedies of unknown virtues and
properties.

In this treatise I am not attempting to fix the indications for this
or that product, but simply make known the diseases in which the
Filipinos and the natives of other countries employ the products. Any
physician has a perfect right to prescribe these drugs, as have also
the "curanderos" and even the laity, with this difference, however,
that the physician is capable of observing results and guiding
himself by the physiologic action of the drugs. His knowledge of
the physiologic and anatomo-pathologic problems of the human body,
will enable the physician to make scientific inferences that would
be hidden from the common "curandero."

As neither the Manila nor the provincial physicians keep these
medicinal plants in stock, with the exception of those that are
official in the European and American pharmacopoeias, it will be
necessary for the physician who wishes to use them, to busy himself
with seeking them and laying in a sufficient stock to serve him when
the opportunity presents itself. It is necessary to preserve them by
drying and this is best done by exposing them several days to the fresh
air in a dry place--for example, the corridors of the house--being
careful not to expose them to the rays of the sun, in which latter
event the fleshy and juicy plants which do not desiccate rapidly,
putrefy or ferment.

A convenient way to get them is to visit the Binondo Square where there
has been market for native drugs from time immemorial. The gardeners
from the neighboring towns, especially those from Pasay and Singalon,
regularly offer the plants for sale and will undertake to supply you
with any that may not be on hand. Inasmuch as the common names of the
plants lead to many mistakes and much confusion, it is indispensable to
acquaint one's self with the description of the plant and be sure that
the actual product conforms in all respects to the description. For
this purpose it is well to obtain flowering specimens, and bearing
this fact in mind I have been careful to indicate the flowering
season of each plant. By making excursions to the towns of San Mateo
and Angono I have obtained an abundance of whatever I sought and
at the same time have learned by talking with the mountaineers and
"curanderos," what uses they make of their plants. The "curanderos"
know a great deal concerning these uses, but become very reticent
as soon as they are questioned about them. Whether it is dread of
ridicule or selfishness or fear that silences them, the fact remains
that it is no easy matter to glean any useful facts from them. And
yet by tact and friendliness one may elicit much more information
from them than first impressions would lead one to hope.

Leaves should be gathered when fully developed, rejecting the old,
dried and worm-eaten ones.

The best time to gather bark is one month before the period of
inflorescence, when it is rich in sap. The flowers are best gathered
when about half expanded. The fruit is gathered green or ripe according
to the active principle sought. The seeds should always be mature.

Not all parts of the plant are equally provided with the active
principle which may be localized in the root or the flower; or distinct
principles may exist in different parts of the same plant. Therefore
the part indicated, and only that part, should be employed.

In the root the active substance usually resides in the bark, sometimes
in the parenchyma that envelopes the woody tissue and rarely in the
woody tissue itself, as, for example, in "rhubarb" and "pareira brava."

The stem bark is also a frequent seat of the active principle, of
which the outer portion contains the greater amount, according to
the valuable experiments of Howard.

Some plants owe their therapeutic importance to their wood, others to
their leaves or flowers, and regarding the localization of the active
principle in these parts we have nothing especial to indicate. The
fruit, however, may have a pericarp consisting of mucilage, starch,
sugar and gum, etc., while the seeds contain fatty matter, fixed or
essential oils or alkaloids, as is the case with coffee and cacao. In
view of these facts, we repeat that it is indispensable to use that
part of each plant which I have indicated as applicable to a determined
case or condition.

I earnestly hope that the physicians and pharmacists practising in
the Philippines may undertake investigations and experiments regarding
the therapeutic properties of the plants of my native land, and that
my endeavors may have acted as a stimulus or inspiration to the loyal
and earnest study of the subjects that are now awakening such interest,
not only in Europe and America, but in India and Japan.

I should be pleased to receive notes, plants or reports of researches
from any one interested in the subject matter of this book, and I
shall consider it a pleasure, as well as a duty, to devote my forces,
small as they may be, to aiding any one who may do me the honor to
claim my assistance.


T. H. P. de Tavera.

Paris, April, 1892.



CONTENTS.


Dicotyledonous, Polypetalous.

    Dilleniaceæ--Tetracera macrophylla  17-18
    Magnoliaceæ--Illicium anisatum, Michelia Champaca
    18-20
    Anonaceæ--Artabotrys odoratissimus, Anona squamosa,
    A. reticulata, A. muricata  20-22
    Menispermaceæ--Tinospora crispa, Anamirta Cocculus,
    Cissampelos Pareira  22-27
    Nymphæaceæ--Nymphæa Lotus, Nelumbium nucifera
    27-28
    Papaveraceæ--Argemone Mexicana      29-30
    Cruciferæ--Brassica juncea, Raphanus sativus      30-31
    Capparidaceæ--Cleome viscosa, Cratæva religiosa
    31-32
    Bixineæ--Bixa Orellana, Pangium edule      32-34
    Portulacaceæ--Portulaca oleracea      34
    Guttiferæ--Garcinia mangostana, G. venulosa,
    G. Cambogia, G. morella, Ochrocarpus pentapetalus,
    Calophyllum Inophyllum, Mesua ferrea      35-40
    Dipterocarpeæ--Dipterocarpus turbinatus      40-42
    Malvaceæ--Sida carpinifolia, Abutilon Indicum,
    Urena sinuata, Hibiscus Abelmoschus, H. tiliaceus,
    H. Rosa-Sinensis, Thespesia populnea, Gossypium
    herbaceum, Bombax malabaricum, Eriodendron anfractuosum
    42-51
    Sterculiaceæ--Sterculia foetida, S. urens, Kleinhovia
    hospitata, Helicteres Isora, Abroma fastuosa, Theobroma
    Cacao      51-57
    Geraniaceæ--Oxalis corniculata, Biophytum sensitivum,
    Averrhoa Bilimbi, A. Carambola      58-61
    Rutaceæ--Ruta graveolens, Xanthoxylum oxyphyllum,
    Murraya exotica, M. Koenigi, Citrus acida, Bigaradia
    decumana, Ægle decandra, Feronia elephantum  61-70
    Simarubaceæ--Samadera Indica      71-72
    Burseraceæ--Garuga pinnata, Canarium commune      72-75
    Meliaceæ--Melia Azedarach, Dysoxylum Blancoi,
    Sandoricum Indicum, Carapa Moluccensis, Cedrela
    Toona      75-80
    Celastraceæ--Celastrus paniculata      80-81
    Rhamnaceæ--Zizyphus Jujuba, Rhamnus Wightii  81-82
    Anacardiaceæ--Mangifera Indica, Anacardium occidentale,
    Odina Wodier      82-86
    Moringeæ--Moringa pterygosperma      86-88
    Leguminosæ (Papilionaceæ)--Agati grandiflora, Abrus
    precatorius, Mucuna pruriens, Erythrina Indica,
    Clitoria ternatea, Pterocarpus santalinus, P. Indicus,
    P. erinaceus, Pongamia glabra      88-95
    Leguminosæ (Cæsalpineæ)--Cæsalpinia Bonducella,
    C. Sappan, C. pulcherrima, Cassia fistula,
    C. occidentalis, C. alata, Tamarindus Indica, Bauhinia
    malabarica  96-106
    Leguminosæ (Mimoseæ)--Entada scandens, Parkia
    Roxburghii, Acacia Farnesiana      106-109
    Crassulaceæ--Kalanchoe laciniata      109-110
    Combretaceæ--Terminalia Catappa, T. Chebula, Quisqualis
    Indica      110-113
    Myrtaceæ--Psidium pomiferum, Eugenia Jambolana
    113-116
    Melastomaceæ--Melastoma malabatrichum      116-117
    Lythraceæ--Ammannia vesicatoria, Lawsonia alba,
    Punica Granatum      117-122
    Onagraceæ--Jussiæa suffruticosa      122-123
    Passifloraceæ--Carica Papaya      123-127
    Cucurbitaceæ--Trichosanthes palmata, T. anguina,
    T. cucumerina, Lagenaria vulgaris, var. Gourda,
    var. courgourda, var. clavata, Luffa Ægyptiaca,
    Momordica balsamina, M. charanta, Citrullus Colocynthis
    127-134
    Ficoideæ--Trianthema monogyna      134
    Umbelliferæ--Hydrocotyle Asiatica, Carum copticum,
    Foeniculum vulgare, Coriandrum sativum      134-138
    Cornaceæ--Alangium Lamarkii  138-139

Dicotyledonous, Gamopetalous.

    Rubiaceæ--Hymenodictyon excelsum, Oldenlandia
    corymbosa, Randia dumetorum, Ixora coccinea, Coffea
    Arabica, Morinda citrifolia bracteata, M. tinctoria,
    Pæderia foetida.     140-149
    Compositæ--Eupatorium Ayapana, Blumea balsamifera,
    Sphoeranthus Indicus, Spilanthes Acmella, Artemisia
    vulgaris, Carthamus tinctorius      149-155
    Plumbagineæ--Plumbago Zeylanica      155-156
    Sapotaceæ--Achras Sapota, Mimusops Elengi      156-158
    Oleaceæ--Jasminum Sambac      158-159
    Apocynaceæ--Allamanda cathartica, Thevetia nerifolia,
    Cerbera Odallam, Plumeria acutifolia, Alstonia
    scholaris, Nerium odorum      159-167
    Asclepiadaceæ--Calotrops gigantea, Tylophora asthmatica
    167-170
    Loganiaceæ--Strychnos Ignatii      171-173
    Boraginaceæ--Ehretia buxifolia      173
    Convolvulaceæ--Ipomoea hederacea, I. pes-capræ,
    I. Turpethum      174-176
    Solanaceæ--Solanum nigrum, Capsicum fastigiatum,
    Datura alba, Nicotiana Tabacum      176-182
    Scrophulariaceæ--Limnophila menthastrum      182-183
    Bignoniaceæ--Oroxylum Indicum      183-184
    Pedaliaceæ--Sesamum Indicum  184-185
    Acanthaceæ--Acanthus ilicifolius, Barleria Prionitis,
    Justicia Gendarussa, Adhatoda vasica, Rhinacanthus
    communis      185-190
    Verbenaceæ--Lippia nodiflora, Tectona grandis, Vitex
    trifolia, V. Negundo, Clerodendron infortunatum
    190-194
    Labiatæ--Ocimum basilicum, O. gratissimum, O. sanctum,
    Coleus aromaticus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Anisomeles
    ovata, Leucas aspera      195-199
    Plantaginaceæ--Plantago erosa       199
    Nyctaginaceæ--Mirabilis Jalapa      199-200
    Amaranthaceæ--Amaranthus spinosus, Achyranthes
    obtusifolia  200-202
    Chenopodiaceæ--Chenopodium ambrosioides      202-203
    Aristolochiaceæ--Aristolochia Indica      203-204
    Piperaceæ--Piper Betle, P. nigrum      204-207
    Chloranthaceæ--Chloranthus officinalis      207-208
    Lauraceæ--Cinnamomum pauciflorum, C. tamala, Cassytha
    filiformis  208-210
    Euphorbiaceæ--Euphorbia pilulifera, E. neriifolia,
    E. Tirucalli, Phyllanthus reticulatus, P. Niruri,
    P. urinaria, Jatropha Curcas, Aleurites Moluccana,
    Croton Tiglium, Acalypha Indica, Echinus Philippensis,
    Ricinus communis      210-223
    Urticaceæ--Artocarpus integrifolia, Laportea
    gaudichaudiana      223-225
    Casuarineæ--Casuarina Sumatrana      225-226

Monocotyledons.

    Musaceæ--Musa paradisiaca, M. sapientum      227-228
    Zingiberaceæ--Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa,
    Elettaria Cardamomum      228-231
    Amaryllidaceæ--Crinum Asiaticum      231-232
    Liliaceæ--Aloes Barbadensis, Allium sativum, A. Cepa
    232-234
    Palmæ--Areca Catechu, Cocos nucifera, Nipa fruticans
    234-238
    Cyperaceæ--Cyperus rotundus   239
    Gramineæ--Zea Mays, Andropogon Schoenanthes, Saccharum
    officinarum, Oriza  240-243
    Bambuseæ      243-244



EXPLANATION.


For the common words of the different Filipino dialects I have adopted
the orthography which in my various treatises on those dialects I have
demonstrated to be the easiest, most rational and convenient. I should
be inconsistent as to my own theories and convictions if I continued
to follow the old form of spelling. For the benefit of those who are
not familiar with the matter I will state that the consonants are
pronounced as follows:


            g always as in get.
            h gutturalized aspirate.
            k as in English.
            w always as initial w in English, win, wan.
            ng as ng in sing, hung, etc.



ABBREVIATIONS.


            Bic.--Bicol.
            Eng.--English.
            Iloc.--Ilocan.
            Indo-Eng.--Indo-English.
            Pam.--Pampango.
            Pan.--Pangasinan.
            Sp.--Spanish.
            Sp.-Fil.--Spanish-Filipino.
            Tag.--Tagalog.
            Vis.--Viscayan.



MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE PHILIPPINES


DICOTYLEDONOUS, POLYPETALOUS.



DILLENIACEÆ.



_Tetracera macrophylla, Vall._ (_T. monocarpa_, _T. sarmentosa_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Malakatmón_, Tag.

Uses.--The wood of _malakatmón_ is one of the best known and popular
drugs of the Binondo [1] market place. It is used as an infusion
internally in the hæmoptysis of consumptives, and externally in the
treatment of sore throat, its action being due to the large amount
of tannin it contains. It is also employed in Malabar in the form of
an infusion of the leaves of the species, _T. Rheedi_, to treat sore
throat, mixing it with a decoction of rice called _cange_.

The Filipinos do not distinguish this species from the _T. Assa_.

Both are called _malakatmón_, and are employed indiscriminately to
accomplish the same results. The silicious concretion obtained from
the leaves is used as a polish in the form of polish paper.

Dose.--In infusion for internal use, 4 grams of wood to 1 liter of
water; as a gargle, 10 to 15 grams to the liter.

Botanical Description.--A shrub with leaves alternate, oval, serrate,
finely dentate with very short and stiff hairs. Flowers of a strong,
rather agreeable odor, axillary, in panicles. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla,
4 petals. Stamens indefinite, expanding at the upper end and bearing
2 anthers. Carpels 3, with ovules indefinite in two series. Seeds
with red arils.

Habitat.--In the vicinity of Manila. Blooms in July.



MAGNOLIACEÆ

Magnolia Family.



_Illicium anisatum, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Anis estrellado_, _Badiana_, Sp.; _Sangki_, Tag.; _Star
Anise_, Eng.

Uses.--Although this plant does not grow in the Philippines, the
use of its fruit is so common there that it demands a place in this
work. It is employed chiefly as a condiment in the preparation of food,
and its essential oil is used to prepare the native "anise cordial"
by mixing it with alcohol obtained from the palm or from sugar cane.

The decoction of the fruit is given after meals as a tea-like beverage,
to aid digestion or for its carminative effect in flatulent colic.

Star anise has an aromatic taste, slightly bitter and acrid, and
a very marked perfume of anise which with its star-like form gives
the plant one of its names. It is a very useful stimulant, tonic,
stomachic and carminative.

It is official in all Pharmacopoeias and the pericarp is the part
employed.

The dose is from 1 to 2 grams to 100 of water in infusion, to be
taken in one draught.

According to Schlegel it contains the following substances: An
essential oil 4.675; a green waxy material which melts at 51°, a resin,
a gum and saponin. The essential oil is (almost) identical with that
of anise from which it is impossible to distinguish it chemically. The
only difference is that the former has a blander odor and solidifies
at 1°.25 instead of 10°, as does the oil of anise.

Botanical Description.--The plant grows in the mountains of Yunnan,
China, and in Tonquin. The part used in the Philippines is the fruit,
being indeed the only part known here. This is composed of 8 woody
follicles arranged about a central column in the form of a star. These
follicles open at maturity and reveal the seeds, which are shining,
smooth, ovoid, hard, of a pretty chestnut-red color. In the Philippines
they are sold even in the smallest food-vending shops.



_Michelia Champaca, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Tsampaka_, _Sampaka_, Tag.; _Champaca_, Fil.-Span.

Uses.--The bark of the trunk is well known as a febrifuge
and emmenagogue in India. It is slightly bitter and
aromatic. Dr. H. Folliat has used it with success in the Island
of Mauritius in the treatment of the common intermittent fevers;
he administered the infusion (bark 30 grams, water 600 cc.)--or the
decoction (bark 30 grams, water 1,200 cc.); boil till reduced to
600 cc.--giving a wine-glassful every hour just before and after
the paroxysm.

An astringent decoction made from the leaves is used as a gargle in
sore throat. The root is emmenagogue and the seeds are used in the
treatment of anal fissure.

Dr. Hooper has found the following substances in the bark of the
_Champana_: a volatile oil with a pine-like odor; a fixed oil,
insoluble in alcohol, melting at 15° and forming soap with soda;
a resin extremely bitter, acrid, brown in color; tannin; sugar;
a bitter principle, albuminoids, coloring matters, mucilage and starch.

Botanical Description.--A tree 15-18° high; leaves alternate, 6 × 2',
stipulate, simple. Flowers fragrant, saffron-colored, hermaphrodite,
solitary and axillary. The receptacle, conical at its base, becomes
narrow, lengthens and then enlarges, forming a column which is bare
at its narrow part. At its base is inserted the perianth composed of
6 overlapping leaflets arranged in two series. Stamens indefinite,
fixed in the base of the column of the receptacle on the superior
portion of which are inserted the ovaries which contain many ovules
arranged in two vertical series.

Habitat.--Common in all parts (of the islands).



ANONACEÆ.

Custard-Apple Family.



_Artabotrys odoratissimus_, R. Br. (_A. hamatus_, Bl.; _Uvaria
Sinensis_ and _Unona uncinata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Ilang-ilang de China_, Sp.-Fil.; _Alang-ilang Son-son_,
Tag.

Uses.--A decoction of the leaves of this species is used to treat
cholera in some of the islands of the Malay group; in the island of
Java they use for the same purpose a decoction of the leaves of the
species _A. suaveolens_, Bl., which is commonly called _Susong Damulog_
in the Pampanga dialect. The active principles of these plants are so
powerful that one must beware of giving a large dose, as hemorrhages,
nervous phenomena and abortion may follow.

Botanical Description.--A tree 15-18° high with leaves alternate,
lanceolate, glabrous, and petioles very short. Flowers very sweet,
axillary, solitary. Petals 6, fleshy, concave at the base. Stamens
indefinite, closely packed, overlapping. Peduncle curved like a crook.

Habitat.--Cultivated in gardens.



_Anona squamosa_, L. (_A. tuberosa_, Rumph.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Ates_, Tag.; _Custard Apple_, Eng.

Uses.--The fruit of the mature ates is edible and is one of the most
delicious that grows in the Philippines; its white and delicately
perfumed pulp has a delicious flavor. The unripe fruit is exceedingly
astringent. The fermented juice of the ripe pulp is used in certain
parts of America to prepare a popular drink. The powdered seeds make
a useful parasiticide especially when used on the scalp, but it is
necessary to avoid getting any of the drug in the eyes on account of
its irritant effect.

Botanical Description.--Tree 8 or 9° high with leaves alternate,
oblong, the edges pubescent. Flowers greenish-yellow, axillary,
solitary; peduncle not curved. Petals 6, convergent. Stamens crowded,
indefinite. Fruit fleshy, covered with scales or rather rounded
tubercles; beneath is the white and fragment pulp, covering the
long-oval seeds.



_A. reticulate, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Anonas_, Sp.-Fil.

Uses.--The fruit of this species is neither as much prized nor as
abundant in the Philippines as that of the ates. When unripe it
possesses the same properties as the latter. The large proportion of
tannin which both species contain in their unripe state, makes them
very useful in treating diarrhoea and dysentery. They are administered
in the form of a decoction, by enema. The sap of the trunk is very
irritating. The roots are used by the American Indians to treat
epilepsy. Lemon juice is the antidote for the sap of this species.

I wish to call attention to the similarity of the common name of this
plant to another entirely distinct species commonly used in the Tagalo
therapeutics; namely, the _anonang_ (Cordia), with which it must not
be confused.

Botanical Description.--Tree 10° high with leaves lanceolate,
pubescent. Flowers in a sort of umbel. Corolla like that of
_A. squamosa_. Fruit without the plainly visible tubercles of the
foregoing species, their presence being merely suggested by a sort
of net traced on the surface.



_A. muricata_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Guanábano_, _Goyabano_, Sp.-Fil.

Uses.--The ripe fruit possesses antiscorbutic properties; the unripe
fruit is used in treating dysentery. It is said that the ripe fruit
is used in diseases of the liver.

Botanical Description.--Tree with leaves oval, alternate and
glabrous. Flower solitary, terminal, whitish. The fruit is much larger
than that of the other species, is covered with scales that end in
a soft point or thorn and has a very pronounced acid taste.

Habitat.--All three species are common in all parts of the Archipelago.



MENISPERMACEÆ.

Moonseed Family.



_Tinospora crispa_, Miers. (_Menispermum crispum_, L.; _M. rimosum_,
Blanco; _Cocculus crispus_, DC.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Makabuhay_, Tag.

Uses.--Makabuhay is one of the most widely known and used plants in the
Philippines; a sort of panacea applied to all bodily afflictions. Its
Tagalo name means literally "you may live." A shoot deprived of roots
and dropped in some moist place is soon covered with bright green
leaves and adventitious roots. This peculiarity of the plant made
it possible for me to take a large number of sprouts from Manila to
Paris where they arrived perfectly fresh after a voyage of forty days,
during which they lay almost forgotten in the ship and the cars.

The stem is the part employed in medicine. A decoction is
given internally in the various forms of malarial fever and of
dyspepsia. Externally it is most useful as a wash for ulcers of all
kinds, rapidly improving their appearance.

In India the species _T. cordifolia_ is used; it differs but little
from _T. crispa_. It is official in the Pharmacopoeia and has been
introduced into Europe. _T. cordifolia_ has given excellent results in
the mild forms of intermittent fever; in general debility following
long and severe cases of illness; in chronic rheumatism, and in the
second stage of syphilis. As the two species are so much alike we
shall add the preparations and dose of _T. cordifolia_ which we have
used on several occasions with good results.

Tincture of T. cordifolia.--Stems of the dried plant, 100
grams. Alcohol 21° (Cartier), 500 cc. Macerate seven days in a closed
vessel stirring from time to time. After decanting add enough alcohol
(21°) to bring the quantity up to 500 cc., and filter.

Dose.--4-8 grams.

Maceration.--Fresh stems cut in small pieces, 30 grams, water 300
grams. Macerate for two hours and filter.

Dose.--30-90 cc. a day.

Extract.--Dry makabuhay in small pieces 500 grams. Water 2 1/2
liters. Macerate for twelve hours, filter the liquid and express the
macerated drug which is then macerated a second time in 2 1/2 liters
of water. Express again, unite the two liquids and filter. Evaporate
in a water-bath to the consistency of a pill mass.

Dose.--1/2-1 1/2 grams a day in fractional doses.

Botanical Description.--A vine whose runners entwine themselves among
the tops of the highest trees, giving off many adventitious roots which
seek the earth. The stem is covered with projecting tubercles. Leaves
heart-shaped, pointed, entire with five well-marked nerves. Flowers
yellowish-green, dioecious, growing in axillary racemes. The male
flowers have a corolla of six petals, the three smaller ones arranged
alternately. In the female flower the stamens are represented by three
glands situated at the base of the petals. Fruit, an elliptical drupe.



_Anamirta Cocculus_, Wight & Arn. (_Menispermum Cocculus_, (L.) Blanco;
_M. lacunosum_, Famk; _Cocculus lacunosus_, _C. suberosus_, DC.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Laktang_, _Liktang_, _Suma_, _Lanta_, _Lintang bagin_,
_Tuba_, _Balasin_, _Bayati_, Tag., Vis., Pam.

Uses.--One of the uses to which the India berries (_Cocas de Levante_)
are put in the Philippines, is to throw them into small sluggish
streams or into lakes with the object of intoxicating the fish which
soon come to the surface and float there as if dead. This custom
is very extensive in Malaysia, in India and even in Europe, where,
in order to avoid the cases of poisoning which this practice has
occasioned in the consumers of fish taken in this way, it has been
found necessary to forbid the sale of the berries except in the
pharmacies. These restrictions are practiced in France.

In the Binondo market in Manila the root of this plant may be found in
abundance; it is yellow and very bitter. The natives use the infusion
(5-10 grams to 300 cc. of water) in fevers, dyspepsia and menstrual
derangements. In India also the root is used in the same complaints.

The fruit contains the highly toxic principle _picrotoxin_, and others
as follows:

_Menispermin_ (C_18_H_24_N_2_O_2_) is an alkaloid which crystallizes
in pyramidal prisms, is soluble in alcohol and ether and insoluble
in water. Hot nitric acid converts it into oxalic acid and a yellow
substance of a resinous appearance.

_Picrotoxin_ (C_30_H_24_O_13_) is not an alkaloid as may be seen from
its formula. Its properties are not well known at the present time. It
crystallizes in small quadrilateral prisms, white and transparent,
or in needles grouped in stars. No odor, taste bitter, insoluble
in water, partly soluble in alcohol and in ether, freely soluble in
acids and alkalies. A solution in concentrated sulphuric acid has a
saffron-yellow color. Nitric acid transforms it into oxalic acid.

_Picrotoxinin_ exists in picrotoxin in the proportion of 32 to 100,
and may be separated by boiling in benzine. It is bitter, poisonous,
reduced by Fehling's solution and nitrate of silver. Sixty-six
per cent. of _picrotoxin_ consists of another bitter substance,
non-poisonous--_picrotin_, which is insoluble in benzine and is reduced
by Fehling's solution and nitrate of silver. Lastly, _anamirtin_
is found in the mother water of picrotoxin; it is not bitter, not
poisonous, and not reducible by the aforementioned reagents.

The fruit of the _anamirta_, the "coca de Levante" is an acrid,
narcotic poison, which may not be employed internally; its uses are
limited to external medication. In the Pharmacopoeia of India is
given the formula for a parasiticide ointment, highly recommended in
the treatment of pediculi:


_Unguentum anamirtæ_:

               4 grams Cocculus berries, powdered,
              30 grams Vaseline.
            M.  Fiat unguentum.


In applying this ointment it is necessary to make sure that there
is no wound or abrasion of the skin through which absorption might
take place.

Botanical Description.--A vine with leaves alternate, entire, glabrous,
broadly oval, pointed, with 5 nerves which unite at the base, long
petioles. Flowers dioecious, in compound racemes. Male flowers consist
of a perianth without corolla, the sepals arranged by threes in two or
three whorls. The end of the receptacle expanded like a bead, bears
a large number of stamens in 6 vertical series, with anthers sessile
and 4-lobed. Female flowers analogous as regards the perianth, with
6-9 sterile stamens. Carpels formed of 5 ovaries, free, unilocular,
containing one ovule each. Fruit, a drupe of a purple color, the size
of a filbert, kidney-shaped, the albumen horny.



_Cissampelos Pareira_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Sansawsansawan_, Tag.; _Chinchaochinchauan_, Sp.-Fil.

Uses.--Although this plant formerly bore the Portuguese name of
_Pareira brava_, the U. S. P. and B. P. recognize now under this
title only the root of _Chondrodendron tomentosum_. It is diuretic
and tonic and apparently exercises an astringent and sedative action
upon the mucous membrane of the genito-urinary organs. The root is
used in acute and chronic cystitis.

In Brazil it is used as a diaphoretic and as such is employed in cases
of venomous snake bites. It is also used there as an emmenagogue and
diuretic, in intermittent fevers, dropsy and suppression of the lochia
in women recently confined.

It is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India.

Decoction.--Root of cissampelos, small pieces,   50 grams.
            Water                               600 grams.

Dose.--30-100 grams.

Boil 15 minutes; filter and add enough water to bring the total bulk
up to 600 cc.

Extract.--Root of cissampelos in powder     500 grams.
          Water                               5 liters.

Dose.--.5-1 gram.

Digest the powder for 24 hours in 500 cc. water, pour the mixture
into a filter and add water gradually until the percolate amounts to
5 liters. Evaporate the percolate in a water-bath to the consistency
of a pill mass.

Fluid Extract.--This is prepared in the same manner as the extract
and is allowed to remain in the bath until reduced in bulk to 400
grams. It is then removed and 100 grams of alcohol (36°) are added.

Dose.--1.75-7 cc.

Chemical Composition.--Flückiger has isolated a bitter principle
analogous to berberin; also _buxine_ and _paracine_, which latter
received the name _pelosine_ from Wiggers in 1839. The former chemist
proposed the name buxine for all these analogous principles. Pelosine
or buxine is precipitated by a concentrated solution of HCl, by
sal ammoniac, by potassium nitrate and potassium iodide. He also
discovered a neutral substance, _deyamitin_, which crystallizes in
microscopic tablets; sulphuric acid added to these gives a pretty
dark blue color which changes to green.

Botanical Description.--A climbing shrub with cylindrical woody
stem, with leaves simple, alternate, entire, petiolate, ovoid,
broad at the base. The inferior surface of the leaf is pubescent,
especially in the intervals between the ribs. Flowers dioecious, small,
racemose. Calyx of 12 sepals arranged in 3 whorls, the inner ones
broad and petaloid. Corolla of 6 petals arranged in 2 whorls. Stamens
sterile or rudimentary in the pistillate flower, the staminate flower
bearing 6; anthers innate, 2-celled. Drupes oval, 2 or 3 cm. long,
black, closely resembling a grape seed.



NYMPHÆACEÆ.

Water-Lily Family.



_Nymphæa Lotus_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Lawas_, _Talaylo_, _Tunas_, _Gaway-gaway_, Tag., Vis.,
Pam.; _Water Lily_, Eng.

Uses.--The anaphrodisiac virtues attributed to this plant and to
all the water-lily family are purely imaginary. Its juice being
slightly bitter and astringent is used in decoction as an injection
in gonorrhoea. It possesses mild narcotic properties, for which some
use the juice of the whole plant, rubbing the forehead and temples
with it to produce sleep.

Botanical Description.--An aquatic plant, with leaves solitary,
terminal, floating on the water, dentate, glabrous, broad, deeply cleft
at the base, with a very long petiole. Flowers solitary, persistent in
the ripe fruit, oval. Stamens indefinite in fine whorls or verticils.

Habitat.--Common on the shores of the Laguna de Bay.



_Nelumbium nucifera_, Gaertn. (_N. speciosum_, Willd.; _N. Asiaticum_,
Rich.; _Cyamus Nelumbo_, Sm.; _C. mysticus_, Salis.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bayno_, Tag.; _Sukaw_, Iloc.; _Sacred Lotus_, Eng.

Uses.--An infusion of the flowers is used internally in dysentery. In
India they use, for diarrhoea and vomiting, the viscid juice obtained
from the petioles and the peduncles of the flowers. The rootstock
contains a large quantity of starch which has been utilized for food
in the periods of famine which have desolated India and Egypt. This
flower was the Sacred Lotus of the Egyptians and the people of India
have dedicated it to Lakshmi, the goddess of health and prosperity.

Infusion.--Petals, dried        5 grams.
           Water              250 grams.

Sig. To be taken during 24 hours.

Botanical Description.--An aquatic plant with fleshy rootstock which
creeps along the muddy bottoms; from its nodes spring the stalks of
the leaves and flowers. Its leaves are alternate, polymorphous, some
above and some below the surface of the water, concave in the center
whence ribs separate, shield-shaped. Petioles very long, bearing soft,
short spines. The flowers white or pink, solitary; peduncle long
and, like the petioles, covered with soft, short spines. Calyx of
4-5 unequal sepals, imbricated. Corolla with an indefinite number of
unequal petals, the inner ones shorter. Stamens indefinite, inserted in
the base of the receptacle. Receptacle expanded above the androecium,
in the form of an inverted cone, containing a large number of alveoli
with circular openings.



PAPAVERACEÆ.

Poppy Family.



_Argemone Mexicana_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Kasubhang-aso_, Iloc.

Uses.--Padre Blanco says that the yellow juice of this plant "is
used by the natives (Filipinos) to treat fissures of the corners of
the eyes."

The negros of Senegal use the decoction of the root to cure
gonorrhoea. The milky juice to which Blanco refers is used in
different countries to treat various skin diseases, including the
cutaneous manifestations of syphilis and leprosy; to remove warts,
and as an eye wash in catarrhal conjunctivitis.

The English physicians of India state that it is dangerous to use
the milky juice as an application to the eye, although Dymock claims
the contrary.

The flowers are narcotic by virtue of a principle resembling morphine,
perhaps identical with that alkaloid.

The seeds yield a fixed oil on expression, which is laxative and
relieves the pains of colic, probably by virtue of its narcotic
properties. Physicians in India praise this oil highly; not only is
it a sure and painless purgative, but it is free from the viscidity
and disgusting taste of castor-oil; besides it has the advantage of
operating in small doses, 2-4 grams. Its activity is proportionate to
its freshness. Dr. W. O'Shaughnessy does not value this oil highly,
but the experience of many distinguished physicians of India has
proved the purgative and other properties that have just been
mentioned. Possibly the differences of opinion may arise from the
fact that oils from different plants were used in the trials.

The seeds yield a fixed oil, yellow, clear, of sweet taste, density
0.919 at 15°; it remains liquid at -5°; is soluble in an equal volume
of alcohol at 90°; characterized by an orange-red color on adding
nitric acid. From its soap Frolicher has obtained acetic, valerianic,
butyric and benzoic acids. Charbonnier claims to have found morphine
in its leaves and capsules. Dragendorf has isolated from the seeds
an alkaloid which presents the principal characters of morphine. It
is, then, probable that morphine is the narcotic principle possessed
by this plant, which is not hard to believe when one considers the
family to which it belongs.

Botanical Description.--A plant of American origin nowadays
acclimated in almost all warm countries. Its stem is green,
pubescent, 30-40 centimeters high. Leaves alternate, thin, sessile,
lanceolate, covered with rigid green thorns. Flowers hermaphrodite,
terminal, yellow. Calyx, 3 sepals with conical points. Corolla, 6
rounded petals. Stamens indefinite, free, hypogynous. Ovary free,
triangular. Capsule expanded, oblong, angular, thickly set with
prickles: it opens inferiorly by 5 valves.



CRUCIFERÆ.

Mustard Family.



_Brassica juncea_, Hook. & Thom. (_Sinapis juncea_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Mostaza_, Sp.; _Mustard_, Eng.

Uses.--The seeds are used in the same way as those of white or black
mustard (_Sinapis alba_ and _S. nigra_, L.).

Botanical Description.--Plant with a glabrous stem, leaves sessile,
glabrous, lanceolate, the upper ones serrate, the lower ones almost
entire. Flowers in racemes. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla, 4 rounded,
unguiculate petals. Stamens 6, two of them short and the other four
longer and united in pairs. Ovary flattened. Seed vessel quadrangular,
nodular, glabrous, containing many oval seeds.



_Raphanus sativus, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Rábano_, Sp.; _Radish_, Eng.

Uses.--Used principally as food; it possesses the antiscorbutic
properties common to the greater part of the Cruciferæ.

It is an herbaceous plant, the root of which is so commonly known
that its description would be useless.



CAPPARIDACEÆ.

Caper Family.



_Cleome viscosa_, L. (_C. icosandra_, L.; _Polanisia viscosa_, DC.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Balabalanoyan_, _Apoyapoyan_, Tag.; _Wild Mustard_, Eng.

Uses.--The seeds possess the same properties as those of mustard and
are used in place of the latter in Manila. In America the leaves are
used as a poultice in otitis, their action being rubefacient. In India
the seeds are given internally for their anthelmintic and carminative
effect; the dose is one teaspoonful twice a day. The juice of the
leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is used in the form of eardrops in
suppurative otitis.

The natives give the same common name to the _Gynandropsis
pentaphylla_, DC. (_Cleome pentaphylla_, L.; _C. altiacea_ or
_C. alliodora_, Blanco), which is distinguished from the former
by its six stamens inserted on the pistil and its violet-colored
stem. Its therapeutic properties are identical with those of
the _Cleome viscosa_. Dr. Sir W. Jones believes that the plant
possesses antispasmodic properties, basing his belief on its odor,
which resembles _asafetida_, though not so disagreeable. In India the
juice of the leaves is a popular remedy for earache. It is also used
there as a rubefacient.

Botanical Description.--An annual, the stem channeled and bearing
glandular hairs. Leaves compound, alternate; leaflets lanceolate with
glandular hairs. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla, 4 petals, yellow. Stamens
14-16, encircling the pistil. Seed vessels cylindrical, with channels
and glandular hairs. The whole plant is sticky and emits a garlicky
odor.


_Cratæva religiosa_, Forst.

Nom. Vulg.--_Salingbobog_, Tag.; _Balay-namuk_, Iloc.

Uses.--It is in common use in India as a tonic and stomachic. It
seems also to possess laxative and diuretic properties. In Concan
the juice of the leaves mixed with cocoanut oil is used as a liniment
in rheumatism.

Infusion.--Leaves, fresh            50 grams.
           Water                   500 grams.

Dose.--50-100 grams a day as a tonic or stomachic.

Botanical Description.--A shrub 15-20° high with compound trifoliate
leaves with long petioles; leaflets lanceolate, acuminate, smooth,
dark green. Calyx of 4 imbricated sepals. Corolla of 4 unguiculate
petals, between white and straw color, 1' long. Stamens indefinite,
violet-colored. Ovary unilocular, many-ovuled. Berry spherical with
many seeds buried in pulp.

Habitat.--Blanco has seen the plant growing in Ilocos and Imus.



BIXINEÆ.



_Bixa Orellana_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Atsuiti_, _Achuiti_, Tag.; _Achiote_, _Achuete_, Sp.-Fil.;
_Annatto_, Eng.

Uses.--The principal use of the seeds is in cookery and everybody
knows the yellow color which Filipino cooks impart to almost all
their dishes. In medicine the fine powder that covers the seeds is
used as a hæmostatic and internally as a stomachic. On account of
the astringent qualities of the coloring matter it is used in some
countries to treat dysentery, a fact which suggests its possible
therapeutic or rather hygienic usefulness as a condiment. It seems
to effect a cure in dysentery in the same manner as ipecac.

In India, Brazil and the Antilles the natives make a sort of paste
of achuete known under the name of _rocu_. There is a hard, odorless
form of rocu and another soft, unctuous, of a delicate red color and
an odor rendered highly disagreeable by the urine added to it to keep
it soft. Rocu is the preparation of achuete that has been subjected
to chemical analysis. Its composition is as follows: Two coloring
matters, _bixin_ (C_28_H_34_O_5_), of a red color, resinous, soluble
in alcohol, ether, alkaline solutions and benzine, crystallizing in
microscopic laminæ, quadrangular, red, of a metallic violet lustre;
_orellin_, yellow in color, soluble in alcohol and in water.

Botanical Description.--A well-known tree growing to a height
of 5-7 meters, with leaves alternate, simple, oval, heart-shaped
at the base, sharply pointed, glabrous, short petioles. Flowers in
panicles. Calyx, 5 rounded sepals, tuberculate at the base, imbricated,
caducous. Corolla of 5 rose-colored petals. Stamens very numerous,
free, inserted on the receptacle. Capsule round, dark red, bristling
with stout hairs of the same color. The seeds are covered with a fine,
yellowish-red powder.



_Pangium edule_, Reinw. (_Hydonocarpus polyandra_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Pangi_, Tag.

Uses.--All parts of this tree are anthelmintic. The seeds, fruit,
leaves and bark all possess narcotic properties dangerous to man and
the symptoms following an excessive dose are sleepiness, headache,
a sort of intoxication or an attack of delirium that may end in
death. These narcotic properties have been utilized in Java to
stupefy the fish in the rivers by throwing the bark in the pools
and quiet portions of the stream. The juice of the leaves is used in
the treatment of chronic skin diseases. In Amboina the natives eat
the seeds, the toxic quality of which is removed by brushing and
macerating in pure water for a certain time. After such treatment
they may be eaten with impunity and an oil may be extracted from them
which is useful as a food.

Botanical Description.--A tree with leaves 5' long, alternate,
ovate, broad, entire, glabrous, palmately nerved. Petiole long with
2 persistent lateral stipules. Flowers dioecious, the male ones in
panicles, the female solitary. Calyx gamosepalous, dividing unequally
when the flower opens. The male flower has a corolla of 5-7 petals,
violet-colored, concave, half oval, with pubescent borders; at its
base a flat scale. Stamens free, numerous, thick filaments, anthers
bilocular. In the female flower the perianth is the same as in the
former, the stamens sterile. Ovary unilocular, with 2-4 parietal
placentæ with many ovules. Fruit as large as a man's head, with thin
woody pericarp and many seeds embedded within its pulp.



PORTULACACEÆ.

Purslane Family.



_Portulaca oleracea_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Verdolagas_, Sp.; _Olasiman_, _Kolasiman_, Tag.;
_Purslane_, Eng.

Uses.--The entire plant is edible, in the form of a salad or as
a condiment with meat or fish. The leaves are succulent and acid,
and the juice expressed from them is used as an eyewash to remove
corneal opacities; it is also used in superficial erysipelas and
other skin affections. The bruised leaves are used as a poultice for
abscesses, contusions and on the temples for headache. The juice is
given internally to check hæmoptysis and in diseases of the lungs
and bladder; the seeds also are used in these complaints.

Botanical Description.--A plant with prostrate stem. Leaves fleshy,
wedge-shaped. Flowers small, sessile, terminal, pale yellow. Calyx
of 2 large teeth, deciduous. Corolla, 4-5 petals with a notch at the
end. Stamens 9-14. Style of equal length with the stamens. Stigma in
4-6 divisions. The seed vessel, which dehisces horizontally, contains
many small, heart-shaped seeds.

Habitat.--It grows in all parts of the islands.



GUTTIFERÆ.

Gamboge Family.



_Garcinia mangostana_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Mangostán_, Sp.; _Mangosteen_, Eng.

Uses.--The seed of the fruit is astringent and is given internally
as an infusion in dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. The decoction is
very useful as an injection in leucorrhoea.

The following potion has given excellent results to Dr. Ed. J. Waring
in chronic dysentery and the diarrhoeas of tropical countries:


        Dried peel of mangosteen       60 grams.
        Cumin seed                      5 grams.
        Coriander                       5 grams.
        Water                       1,200 grams.


Boil till reduced to 600 grams. Take 120 grams twice a day. Tincture
of opium may be added.

An analysis of mangosteen peel by W. Schmidt demonstrated a large
quantity of tannin, a resin and a crystallizable principle named
_mangostin_ (C_20_H_23_O_5_) which exists in the form of fine,
golden yellow laminæ, tasteless, soluble in alcohol, ether and the
alkalies, insoluble in water. With the perchloride of iron it gives
a blackish-green color, and sulphuric acid colors it red.

Botanical Description.--The mangosteen grows only in the southern
islands of the Archipelago and its delicious fruit is the part of
the plant known in Manila. The peel is at the present time almost
universally employed in medicine. The fruit is about the size of
a small Manila orange, the pericarp a dark red or chocolate color,
tough and thick, crowned with the remains of the calyx. On breaking
it open the edible portion of the fruit is seen, consisting of 6-18
seeds covered by a white, sweet pulp, cottony in appearance, of a
delicious slightly acrid flavor.



1. _Garcinia venulosa_, Choisy. (_Cambogia venulosa_, Blanco.)
2. _G. Cambogia_, Desrouss. (_Cambogia binucao_, Blanco.)


Nom. Vulg.--_Binukaw_, Tag., applied to both trees, though the first
is also called _Gatasan pulá_ in Tagalo and _Taklang-anak_ in Pampango.

Uses.--The fruit of the second species, the true name of which is
_binucaw_, is acid and edible. The fruit and the trunk of both species,
when cut, exude a gum-resin very much like gamboge which is obtained
from the _G. morella_ or _G. pedicellata_, Desr. These gum-resins,
however, seem to be much inferior to gamboge; they contain an essential
oil which does not exist in the latter and their color is paler.

Botanical Description.--The _G. venulosa_ is a tree with leaves
opposite, lanceolate, acute, entire and glabrous, the inferior surface
covered with nervelets which converge at the apex. Petioles short and
flattened. Flowers tetramerous. Calyx, 4 persistent sepals. Corolla,
4 petals, overlapping, fleshy, ovate, of the same color as the
calyx. Stamens numerous; no filaments; anthers round and very
small. Style very short and thick, stigma peltate, divided into 10
parts. Fruit globose, depressed, no well-marked ridges when ripe.

_G. Cambogia_ differs from the foregoing in the leaves which present
no nervelets on the lower surface and the fruit which presents 8
angles or rounded ridges.

Habitat.--Very common throughout the islands, abounding in the
mountains of San Mateo and Morong. Blooms in August.



_Garcinia morella_, Desr.

Nom. Vulg.--I do not know the name given by the Filipinos to this
tree, which Vidal and Soler have seen in Montalván, Tiwi (Albay)
and San Mateo (Province of Manila); but it is highly important in
medicine as the true gamboge is obtained from it. _Gamboge Tree_, Eng.

The Gamboge of the U. S. P. and B. P. is obtained from _G. Hanburii_
which differs somewhat botanically from _G. morella_.

Uses.--All parts of the plant contain a thick, yellow, milky juice
which constitutes the gamboge. In Malabar, Ceylon, Canara and Singapore
the following method of extraction is followed: At the beginning of the
rainy season a spiral incision is made around the bark of about half
the tree trunk, and a piece of bamboo is fixed in place to collect
the juice which slowly exudes from the cut for several months, soon
becoming viscid and then solid after contact with the air. One tree,
as a rule, yields enough sap to fill three internodal segments of
bamboo, each 50 cm. long by 3-5 cm. in diameter.

Gamboge is a laxative in doses of 10-15 cgm., produces abundant
evacuations with violent colicky pains in doses of 30-50 cgm., and
is an irritant poison in large doses. In other words it is a highly
energetic hydragogue cathartic, especially indicated when we wish
to drain off the fluid element of the blood, as in dropsy, asthma,
pulmonary and cerebral congestion. It is also used as a vermifuge.

It is rarely given alone, but is combined with calomel, aloes, jalap,
rhubarb, etc.

It is official in all pharmacopoeias.

Botanical Description.--A tree 10-20 meters high, with leaves opposite,
elliptical, lanceolate, narrowed at both extremities, acuminate,
entire, coriaceous, glabrous, 10-12 cm. long by 3-4 cm. broad, with
short petioles. Flowers dioecious. Male flower axillary, solitary or in
groups of 3-6, pedunculate with small bracts. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla,
4 petals, orbicular, thick, fleshy. Stamens 30-40, sessile, adherent
at the base. Anthers unilocular. Female flower sessile, solitary,
axillary, larger than the male; calyx and corolla equal; staminodia
20-30, jointed at the base, forming a membranous corolla from the
upper edge of which spring a few short filaments which support each
a suboval sterile anther. The ovary is superior and almost spherical,
with 4 cells each containing 1 ovule. The fruit, almost spherical, is
2 1/2 cm. in diameter, corticate, bearing at its base the persistent
calyx; each of its 4 cells contains a seed.



_Ochrocarpus pentapetalous_, Blanco. (_Tovomita pentapetala_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Namakpakan_, _Tagudin_, Iloc. (?).

Uses.--An oil expressed from the fruit is used in Ilocos for
illuminating purposes. The flowers are astringent and are used in
infusion in cases of diarrhoea. The oil of the fruit is also used
locally in rheumatism, tumefactions and other painful conditions. In
some countries of Malaysia the oil is used in the same way especially
in beriberi and the periarticular inflammations incident to puerperium.

Botanical Description.--Straight trunk about 8' in diameter, with
milky sap. Leaves 1 1/2' long, sessile, opposite, ovate, expanded,
minutely notched and glabrous, with a small downy swelling at
the base, superior and glued to the branch. Flowers terminal,
in racemes, with opposite pedicels. Calyx white, of 2 rounded
leaflets bent downwards. Corolla white, 5 petals (not 4), oval,
concave, twice as long as the calyx. Stamens numerous, joined to the
receptacle. Filaments slightly longer than the corolla. Anthers oval,
2-celled. Ovary superior, oval. Style longer than the stamens. Stigma
peltate, sometimes bilobed, sometimes 4-lobed. Fruit about the size
of an acorn, oval, fleshy, containing a milky juice; it is 2-celled
and each cell contains a solitary, hard seed; of these one aborts.

Habitat.--It grows near the sea. Blooms in December.



_Calophyllum Inophyllum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Palo Maria_, Sp.-Fil.; _Bitanhol_, _Tamawian_, _Dankalan_,
_Dinkalin_, Tag.; _Dankalan Bitaog_, Vis., Pam., Bik.

Uses.--From the seeds of the fruit there exudes a yellowish-green oil,
bitter and aromatic. It is used in some districts for illuminating
purposes. Its density is 0.942 and its point of solidification 5°
above zero. In India it is used by inunction in rheumatism and in the
Philippines locally over the stomach in indigestion and colic. The
bark of the tree when incised exudes a green resin of a very agreeable
odor, which is used as an application to wounds and old sores. In
India it is used in the same way. This resin is fusible and dissolves
completely in alcohol. It has been mistaken for the _tacamahaca_
of India, which, however, is a product of the _C. calaba_, L. Mixed
with equal parts of pitch and wax it is applied to the chest as a
plaster in bronchitis. A decoction of the leaves is used for purulent
ophthalmia in some parts of India and Mauritius. The pounded bark is
applied locally in orchitis and epididymitis. We have had occasion to
use a mixture of equal parts of the resin with white vaseline spread
on linen and applied between the shoulder blades; in the persistent
cough of senile bronchitis the relief was marked.

Botanical Description.--A large tree with beautiful, dark green
leaves 4-5' long, opposite, entire, large, oval with nerves numerous,
fine and perpendicular to the midrib. Petioles very short. Flowers
large, white, sweet-scented, axillary, in racemes of 7-9. Calyx
white, of 4 sepals. Corolla white, of 4 petals. Stamens numerous,
polyadelphous. Ovary rudimentary in the male flower; unilocular and
uniovulate in the female. Style single and large. Drupe superior,
with a hard, bony pit, containing a thicker, softer substance which
envelopes a seed of like consistency.

Habitat.--It is found in central Luzon and in the Provinces of Tayabas,
La Union and Ilocos. Blooms in November.



_Mesua ferrea_, L. (_Calophyllum apetalum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Malabukbuk_ (?), Tag.

Uses.--We do not know to what use the Filipinos put this plant, but
in India the sweet flowers are dried and sold in the bazars under the
name of _Nag-Kasar_ or _Nagesur_, which is used as a mild stimulant,
but especially as a perfume.

A dark oil is expressed from the seeds, its density 0.954 and its
solidifying point 5° above zero. In northern Canara it is used locally
in rheumatism. The incised root bark exudes a resinous sap which is
a good bitter tonic. The infusion of the wood is equally good. The
dried flowers, finely powdered and mixed with oil or lard make a useful
ointment for acute hemorrhoids. The fruit is acrid and purgative.

Botanical Description.--A tree with leaves long-petioled, oblong,
lanceolate, acuminate, rounded at the base, thick, coriaceous,
upper surface lustrous, lower surface greenish or covered with a
waxy, ash-colored powder. Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary,
yellowish. Calyx 4 imbricated sepals, orbiculate, slightly
pubescent. Corolla 4 persistent petals, wedge-shaped, short, with
rounded points. Stamens indefinite, free, in 5-6 series. Ovary free,
2-celled, each cell containing 2 ovules. Style bilobed. Fruit nearly
unilocular, ovate, acuminate, encompassed at its base by the sepals,
the lower part of the petals, and crowned by the style. Pericarp
woody, dehiscent at the tip by 2-4 valves; contains 1-4 seeds,
slightly orbiculate, coriaceous.

Habitat.--Common in the forests.



DIPTEROCARPEÆ.



_Dipterocarpus turbinatus_, Gaertn. (_D. Indicus_, Bedd.; _D. Mayapis_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Mayapis_, Tag.; _Gurjun_, _Kanyin_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--This tree yields an oleo resin, used in medicine and known
under the name of _bálsamo de gurjun_. Other species of _Dipterocarpus_
(_D. alatus_, Roxb.; _D. incanus_, Roxb.; _D. trinervis_, Bl., etc.,
etc.) produce the same substance. Balsam of Gurjun is a stimulant
of the mucous membranes, especially those of the genito-urinary
tract, and is diuretic. It is also indicated in bronchial catarrh
and as a local application in ulcer. The first to recommend the use
of gurjun as a substitute for copaiba was Sir W. O'Shaughnessy in
1838, and in 1852 this property was confirmed by Waring with highly
satisfactory results. Dr. Enderson of Glasgow employed it in cases
that received no benefit from copaiba, giving a teaspoonful t. i. d. in
emulsion. Dr. Rean also classed it as equal to copaiba in efficiency.

The daily dose ranges from 5-20 grams, in liquid or pill.

The following is an excellent formula for an emulsion:


        Cinnamon water                  125 grams.
        Sodium carbonate, crystals        2 grams.
        Balsam of gurjun                 25 grams.
        Syrup of gum                     25 grams.
        Sulphuric ether                   2 grams.

        Mix and shake.


Dose.--6-12 large spoonfuls each day, for the declining stage of
gonorrhoea.

In Burmah they extract the balsam by the following method: A large
hole is cut in the trunk of the tree and a fire is built in this
cavity and kept up till the wood of the trunk begins to burn, by
which time the oleo resin has collected in abundance in the segments
of bamboo placed to receive it. When the exudate diminishes, fire is
again placed in the cavity and one tree may tolerate 2, 3 or even 4
of these cavities. The exudate on standing separates into 2 parts;
a solid called "guad" which forms the lower layer, and a supernatant
liquid which is the balsam. It is dense, viscid and very fluorescent;
opaque and gray-green by reflected light. It has an odor similar to
that of copaiba, is bitter and aromatic. Its density is 0.964. It
is soluble in benzine, in bisulphuret of carbon, chloroform, the
essential oils and less so in ether and acetic acid. It becomes turbid
and coagulates if it be kept at 100° for some time and it solidifies
at 200°, while copaiba remains liquid at this temperature.

A specimen of the balsam examined by Flückiger consisted of 54.44
parts semifluid resin and 45.56 volatile material. Upon distillation
it yields an essential oil, of slight odor, straw-colored; formula
C_20_H_32_ (Werner). If purified its density is 0.915. It is soluble
in amylic alcohol, scarcely so in absolute alcohol. Hydrochloric acid
colors it a beautiful blue. The resin remaining after distillation,
dissolved in alcohol 0.838 with the addition of ammonia, yields as a
precipitate a crystalline acid (gurjunic acid), C_44_H_64_O_8_, soluble
in alcohol 0.838, in ether, in benzol and bisulphide of carbon. It
melts at 220° (Werner), solidifies at 180° and is decomposed at 260°.

Botanical Description.--A very large, handsome tree with leaves
about 5' in length, alternate, ovate, broad and lanceolate, entire,
glabrous and membranaceous. Petioles very short. Flowers terminal,
paniculate, handsome, fragrant. Calyx free, 5 lanceolate sepals, of
which 2 are slightly longer than the others. Corolla, 5 yellow oblong
petals longer than the sepals. Stamens numerous, attached to the
receptacle. Filaments very short. Anthers of 2 divisions each ending
in a long beard. Ovary half buried in the receptacle. A single thick
style. Three simple stigmas. Seed vessel of 3 cells, seeds in pairs.

Habitat.--In Luzon in the mountains of Tala, Angat and San Mateo;
in Mindanao, Paragua, Balabac and Negros. Blooms in June.



MALVACEÆ.

Mallow Family.



_Sida carpinifolia_, L. (_S. acuta_, Burm.; _S. stipulata_, Cav.;
_S. frutescens_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Wawalisan_, _Eskobanghaba_, _Pamalis_, _Higot-balato_,
_Mamalis_, Tag., Vis., Pam.

Uses.--The root is emollient and bitter. The decoction is
used as a lotion for ulcers, and internally as a sudorific and
tonic-astringent. The physicians of India prescribe the powdered root
with milk for fevers and for nervous and urinary diseases. The leaves
are used locally in ophthalmia.

The juice of the root is employed as a wash for all kinds of
sores and ulcers and the juice of the entire plant is given for
spermatorrhoea. After experimenting with the root, the compilers of
the Bengal Dispensatory announced their uncertainty as to whether
or not it possessed antipyretic properties; however, they pronounce
it diaphoretic, an exciter of the appetite and an excellent bitter
tonic. In Goa the Portuguese consider it diuretic and use it especially
in rheumatic affections.

The root of _S. carpinifolia_ gives a blue color with the salts of
iron. It does not precipitate gelatin and contains asparagin.

Botanical Description.--A plant 2-4° high with woody, branching stem,
leaves alternate, oblong, pointed, serrate, under surface neither
hoary nor tomentose as in some other species of _Sida_. Petioles
very short, curved near the leaf, 2 stipules near the base. Flowers
axillary, solitary. Calyx simple, in 5 parts. Corolla, 5 petals notched
obliquely. Stamens numerous, inserted on the end of a column. Anthers
globose. Styles 5, mingled with the stamens. Stigmas globose. Cells
of the same number as the styles, verticillate, with solitary seeds.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon, Panay, Mindanao, Paragua, Cebú and Balabac.



_Abutilon Indicum_, Don. (_Sida Indica_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kuakuakohan_, _Giling-gilingan_, Tag.; _Tabing_, _Malis_,
_Dulupag_, _Pilis_, Vis.; _Malvas de Castilla_, Sp.-Fil.

Uses.--The trunk bark is slightly bitter, and in decoction is used
as a diuretic. An infusion of the leaves and flowers is used as an
emollient in place of mallows. The infusion of the root is used for
the same effect, as a lotion or injection. I have often had occasion
to employ this plant and would never use the _Philippine mallow_
in place of it.

Botanical Description.--A plant 3-4° high, all its parts covered with
hairs, simple and tomentose. Leaves heart-shaped, angular, obtuse,
unequally serrate, smooth, soft, the lower surface hoary and bearing
9 well-marked nerves. Petioles longer than the leaves, with 2 stipules
at the base. Flowers yellow, axillary, solitary. Peduncles long, with
a node near the end. Calyx, 5 sepals, as in all the Malvaceæ. Corolla,
5 petals with a small notch at the end. Stamens very numerous as well
as the styles. Both arise from the summit of a very short column and
twist in all directions forming a tassel or tuft. Fruit much higher
than the calyx, of 10-20 cells or carpels which are broad, compressed,
hairy, the walls united toward the center, each containing 2-3 seeds.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon, Panay, Mindanao and other islands. Blooms
in September.



_Urena sinuata_, L. (_U. morifolia_ and _muricata_, DC.;
_U. multifida_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kulutan_, _Kulutkulutan_, _Molopolo_, Tag., Vis., Pam.

Uses.--The infusion of the root is used internally as an emollient
and refrigerant; externally in skin diseases accompanied by smarting
and inflammation. The boiled and pounded leaves are used as a poultice
in inflammation of the intestines and bladder.

Botanical Description.--A spreading plant 4-6° high, with straight
stem, leaves cleft at the base, serrate and hairy; the larger ones
have 5-6 lobules which subdivide into smaller ones and bear a small
gland in the inferior surface of the midrib. Petioles short. Flowers
terminal and racemose. Calyx double, composed of 5 narrow sepals
externally, and 5 colored sepals internally alternating with the
outer ones. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens numerous, inserted about a
small column. Styles 10, on the end of the column. Stigmas thick,
covered with little spheres. Five united carpels, kidney-shaped,
bristling with short stiff hairs, containing solitary seeds.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the Archipelago.



_Hibiscus Abelmoschus, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Kastuli_, _Kastio_, _Kastiogan_, _Dalupan_, Tag.;
_Marikum_, _Dukum_, _Marukum_, _Marapoto_, Vis.; [2] _Marsh Mallow_,
Eng.

Uses.--The bruised seeds emit an odor of musk, and for this reason
the plant has received the name _Kastuli_, signifying musk in
Sanscrit. They possess antispasmodic and stimulant properties, and the
infusion is diuretic. Bonastre [3] analyzed Kastuli seeds as follows:


        Water and parenchyma                    52.00
        Gum                                     36.00
        Albumin                                  5.60
        Fixed oil, resin, crystals and
        odorous principles                       6.40
                                               ------
            Total                              100.00


The fixed oil is greenish-yellow, fluid, but gradually solidifying
in the air. The crystalline material is white, of an agreeable odor,
soluble in ether, where it crystallizes in rays, fusible at 35°. The
odorous principle is a bright green, non-volatile liquid of the odor
of musk.

Botanical Description.--A plant 5-6° high, the stem hairy and with
few branches. Leaves heart-shaped, cleft at the base, with 5 large
pointed lobes, serrate, pubescent. Petioles long with two awl-shaped
stipules at the base, and a large violet spot in the axil. Calyx
double; the outer sepals 8-9 in number, awl-shaped; the inner ones
are larger and separate unequally when the flower expands. Both sets
are deciduous. Corolla very large, yellow. Stamens very numerous,
inserted around a column. One pistil. Five stigmas. Ovary very large,
downy, ovoid, 5-angled, with 5 compartments, each containing many
kidney-shaped seeds with numerous grooves concentric at the hilum.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the islands.



_Hibiscus tiliaceus, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Balibago_, Tag., Pam.; _Malabago_, Vis.

Uses.--An infusion of the leaves is used as a wash for ulcers and
indolent sores. The flowers boiled in milk are used to relieve the
pain of earache (Blanco), the warm milk being dropped into the external
canal. The powdered bark in dose of 3 grams is emetic(?) (Blanco).

Botanical Description.--A small tree 6-12° high with leaves 4-6' long,
alternate, 7-nerved, cleft at the base, abruptly acute, scalloped,
pubescent. Petioles long. Flowers axillary, in panicles of very small
flowerets. Calyx double, the outer portion divided into 8-9 teeth,
the inner into 5 longer parts. Stamens numerous, inserted about a
column. Style 1. Stigmas 5. Ovary of 5 cells, each containing 2 seeds.

Habitat.--Abounds in all parts of the islands.



_Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Takurangan_, _Aronganan_, _Kayanga_, _Tapulanga_,
_Gumamila_, Tag., Vis., Pam.; _Rose of China_, Eng.

Uses.--The flowers are emollient and are widely used by the Filipinos
as a domestic remedy; they are bruised and applied to boils, tumors
and all sorts of inflammations. The decoction is much used internally
in bronchial catarrh for its sudorific effect.

The Chinese use the trunk bark as an emmenagogue, calling it
Fu-yong-pi.

Botanical Description.--A small tree about 7° high commonly called
_Gumamela_ in Manila; the leaves are ovate, acute, with about 5 nerves,
serrate from the middle to the apex, hairs growing sparsely on both
surfaces, with a small group of dark-colored, deciduous hairs growing
on the lower part of the midrib. Petioles short with 2 stipules at
the base. Calyx double, the outer part divided almost to the base
into 6-8 parts; the inner cylindrical, divided in 5. Corolla large,
splendid scarlet-red, often double, on slender peduncles. Styles
numerous. Fruit identical with that of the _Hibiscus tiliaceus_.

Habitat.--Universally common in the Philippines.



_Thespesia populnea_, Corr.

Nom. Vulg.--_Babuy_ or _Bobuy gubat_, Tag.; _Bulakan_, Vis.

Uses.--The fruit yields a yellow juice which is used locally in
the itch and other cutaneous troubles, after first washing the
affected part with a decoction of the roots and leaves. The bark is
astringent and is used as a decoction in the treatment of dysentery
and hemorrhoids.

Botanical Description.--A tree of the second order with leaves 4-5'
long, sparse, 5-nerved, heart-shaped, broad, acute, entire, glabrous,
6 small glands on the lower face of the base. Petioles of equal length
with the leaves. Flowers large, axillary, solitary. Calyx double,
the outer portion deciduous, consisting of 3 small, acute leaflets
inserted on the base of the inner calyx; the inner is bell-shaped,
larger than the outer, with 5 inconspicuous, persistent teeth. Corolla
four times longer than the calyx, of 5 fleshy, fluted petals, their
borders overlapping, much broader above. Stamens very numerous,
arranged around and along a column. Filaments long. Anthers of
half-moon shape. Style 1, very thick. Stigma cleft in 5 parts, which
are twisted in spiral form. Seed vessels about the size of a filbert,
5-sided, with 5 apartments each containing 5 ovoid seeds attached
by separate seed stalks to the central axis of the ovary. Seeds
not woolly.

Habitat.--Mandaloya Tayabas, Iloilo.



_Gossypium herbaceum_, L. (_G. Indicum_, Lam.; _G. Capas_, Rumph.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Algodón_, Sp.; _Bulak_, Tag.; _Cotton_, Eng.

Uses.--The root bark is antiasthmatic, emmenagogue, and according
to Daruty [4] is a substitute for ergot in uterine hemorrhage. The
leaves are used in bronchial troubles and the seeds are sudorific. The
negroes in the United States use the root bark in large doses as an
abortifacient; but a dose of 60 grams to 1,200 of water in decoction
is proper and useful in treating dysmenorrhoea.

For a long time the seeds went to waste but industry has learned to
obtain from them a brownish-red oil which is used as a substitute for
olive oil, from which it is hard to distinguish it, if the latter
is adulterated by mixing the two; for both have the same density
and a very similar odor and taste. For this reason the production
of cottonseed oil is very considerable nowadays. It is cheap and
excellent for domestic, industrial and pharmaceutic use.

The seeds are used in North America in dysentery and as a galactagogue,
and the juice of the leaves as an emollient in diarrhoea and mild
dysentery. The pulp of the seeds, after the oil is extracted, yields
a sweet material called _gossypose_, which is dextrogyrous and has
the formula C_18_H_32_O_16_ + 5H_2_O.

The cotton itself, the part used in commerce as a textile, is also the
portion of the plant most widely employed in therapeutics; not only
the fiber from this species is used, but also that of others that grow
in the Philippines, the _G. Barbadense_, L. (nom. vulg. _Pernambuko_,
Tag.), and the _G. arboreum_, L. (_Bulak na bundok_, _Bulak na totoo_,
Tag.).

Cotton is used extensively in bacteriological laboratories as a
filter of liquids and gases. This property possessed by cotton,
of retaining in its fibers the germs of the air was utilized by
the famous French surgeon Guérin in the treatment that bears his
name. The denuded surfaces exposed to infection by airborne bacteria
are completely protected against them when, according to the Guérin
treatment, they are enveloped in large masses of fresh, raw cotton,
presumably free from microörganisms. To avoid the possibility of
infection by the cotton itself, it is now the practice to sterilize
it either by means of chemicals such as carbolic acid, iodoform,
etc., or by physical means such as high temperatures.

Raw cotton is used in compounding gun cotton or explosive cotton, also
named _pyroxylin_, and this is used to make collodion, so extensively
employed in medicine.

Pyroxylin is made by treating cotton with equal parts of nitric and
sulphuric acids, then washing with water till the latter ceases to
give a precipitate with chloride of baryta; then dry in the air.

Collodion is made by dissolving 5 grams of pyroxylin in the following
mixture:


        Sulphuric ether, rectified          75 grams.
        Alcohol at 95°                      20 grams.

Filter.

Elastic collodion:


        Canada Balsam                    1.50 grams.
        Castor oil                        .50 grams.
        Collodion                       30.00 grams.

Mix.


Botanical Description.--A plant 2-3° high, of herbaceous stem, branches
sparsely covered with small, black points; leaves cleft at their base,
with 5 lobules and a small gland on the midrib. Petiole long with
2 stipules at the base. Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx double;
the outer portion divided in 3 parts, heart-shaped, and each with
5-9 long, acute teeth. Corolla bell-shaped, of 5 petals, pale yellow
or turning rose color, purple at the base. Stamens many, inserted
on a column. Stigma in 4-5 parts. Ovary of 3-5 compartments. Seeds
enveloped in the fiber.

Habitat.--Batangas, Ilocos.



_Bombax malabaricum_, DC. (_B. Ceiba_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Taglinaw_, _Bobuy gubat_, Tag.; _Talutu_, Vis.

Uses.--In India the roots are used to obtain an astringent and
alterative effect and form part of a well-known aphrodisiac mixture
called _Musla-Samul_. If the trunk is incised, an astringent gum exudes
and this they use in diarrhoea, dysentery and menorrhagia. Dose of
the gum 2 1/2-3 grams.

Botanical Description.--A large tree covered with sharp, conical
and tough spines. Leaves alternate, compound, digitate, caducous;
leaflets 5-7 with long common petiole. Flowers solitary or in axillary
cymes, hermaphrodite, regular. Calyx gamosepalous, cup-shaped, with
5 acute lobules. Corolla violet, with 5 deep clefts; æstivation
convolute. Stamens numerous, united at the base in 5 bundles,
free above, bearing unilocular anthers. Ovary of 5 many-ovulate
compartments, with a style ending in 5 short branches. Capsule woody,
ovoid, loculicidal, with 5 valves. Seeds numerous, black, covered
with cottony fibers.

Habitat.--Angat, Iloilo. Blooms in February.



_Eriodendron anfractuosum_, DC. (_Bombax pentandrum_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Boboy_, Tag.; _Doldol_, Vis.; _Bulak kastila_, Pam.

Uses.--The principal use made of this plant in the Philippines is to
stuff the pillows with the cotton that it yields. The leaves, pounded
with a little water, yield a mucilaginous juice highly prized by the
natives as a wash for the hair, mixing it with _gogo_. The root bark
is emetic in dose of 1.25 grm. The cotton yielded by this tree should
be used for the same therapeutic purposes as that of gossypium, and
being of an exceedingly fine fiber it would give better results. The
Filipinos use it to treat burns and sores. I have often used it,
being careful always to impregnate it thoroughly with some antiseptic
solution. In the treatment of burns it has been my custom to envelope
the part in a thick layer of this cotton, after bathing it with a
tepid 1-2,000 solution of corrosive sublimate and dusting with a very
fine powder of boracic acid.

Botanical Description.--A tree 40-50° high. Trunk somewhat thorny, the
branches horizontal, arranged in stars of 3-4. Leaves compound with
7 leaflets, lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers in umbels of 8 or
more flowerets. No common peduncle, the individual ones long. Calyx,
5 obtuse sepals, slightly notched. Corolla, 5 fleshy petals, obtusely
lanceolate and bent downwards. Stamens 5. Anthers of irregular shape,
peltate, with the borders deeply undulate. Stigma in 5 parts. Pod 4-6'
long, spindle-shaped. Seeds enveloped in very fine cotton fiber.

Habitat.--Exceedingly common in all parts of the islands. Blooms
in December.



STERCULIACEÆ.

Sterculia Family.



_Sterculia foetida_, L. (_S. polyphilla_, R. Br.; _Clompanus major_,
Rumph.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kalumpang_, Tag.; _Bangar_, Iloc.

Uses.--A decoction of the leaves is used as a wash in suppurative
cutaneous eruptions. The fruit is astringent and is used in Java as
an injection for gonorrhoea. In western India and in the Philippines
it is an article of diet. The seeds yield an oil that is used for
illumination and as a comestible.

Botanical Description.--A large tree of the first order with digitate
leaves of 6-8 leaflets, broad, oval, very acute, tough, glabrous,
growing on a long common petiole. No petiole proper. Flowers of a
foetid or feculent odor, hermaphrodite, in compound racemes. Calyx
fleshy, soft pubescent internally, bell-shaped, in 5 parts. Corolla
none. Nectary 5-toothed, on the end of a small column. Stamens
15, inserted on the border of the nectary by threes, forming a
triangle. Filament almost entirely wanting. In the midst of the stamens
is visible a small, hairy body of 5 lobules which are the rudiments of
the ovaries. The style protrudes and twists downwards. Stigma thick,
compressed, of 5 lobules. Fruit, five woody pods, semicircular,
joined to a common center, each enclosing many oval seeds inserted
in the superior suture.

Habitat.--Luzon, Mindanao, Cebú, Iloilo. Blooms in March.



_Sterculia urens_, Roxb. (_S. cordifolia_, Blanco; _Cavallium urens_,
Schott. & Endl.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Banilad_, Tag.

Uses.--The root bark is pounded up and applied locally in orchitis
and in severe contusions with supposed fracture of the bones; native
charlatans pretend to cure the latter condition by this treatment.

The trunk exudes a sort of gum, which with water forms a sort of
colorless, odorless gelatin which dissolves at the boiling point. I
do not know to what use this gum is applied in therapeutics, but it
is often found mixed with the Senegambian gum acacia.

Botanical Description.--A tree with leaves bunched, 7-9-veined,
heart-shaped, ovate, broad and entire, glabrous upper surface,
short white down on lower surface. Petioles of same length as the
leaves. Flowers small, yellow, numerous, polygamous, growing in
large, terminal panicles covered with a fine, sticky down. Calyx
bell-shaped, 5 acute papyraceous divisions, each bearing a small
gland near its base. No corolla. Stamens 10, united in a column, the
upper ends free. Five pods joined at one point, half-moon shaped,
with woody shell, glabrous within and with a short down on the
outer surface. Three or four kidney-shaped seeds, the testa thin
and crustaceous.

Habitat.--Cebú, Iloilo.



_Kleinhovia hospitata_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Tanag_, Tag., Vis.; _Hamitanago_, Vis.; _Panampat_,
Pam.; _Bitnong_, Iloc.

Uses.--The decoction of the leaves is used, according to P. Blanco,
to cure the itch. It is also used locally in all forms of dermatitis,
and the tender leaves and sprouts are cooked and eaten.

Botanical Description.--Tree 25° high or more, with leaves alternate,
heart-shaped, pubescent, almost entire. Petioles long with 2 stipules
at the base. Flowers red, axillary, in large panicles. Calyx, 5 sepals,
almost linear. Corolla the same size as the calyx, 5 linear petals,
the lower shorter and curved. Nectary bell-shaped, of 5 parts, each
3-toothed; set on a column; at its base a wavy fringe with dentate
edge. Stamens 15. No filaments. Anthers seated on the 15 teeth of
the nectary. Ovary within the nectary, 5-angled, 5 apartments each
containing an almost spherical seed.

Habitat.--Luzon, Mindanao, Panay, Cebú, Joló. Flowers in March and
September.



_Helicteres Isora_, L. (_H. chrysocalyx_, Miq.; _H. Roxburghii_,
G. Don.)

Nom. Vulg.--(?); _Indian Screw Tree_, Eng.

Uses.--I am ignorant of the use that the Filipinos make of this
plant, though it is very possible that they do not employ it at all
in medicine, which is usually the case with those plants to which they
have given no name. In India the peculiar spiral form of the fruit has
suggested its application, according to the theories of the doctrine
of symbolism. Ainslie says that the Hindoos use it to treat diseases
of the external auditory canal. On account of its emollient properties
and probably on account of its twisted form, it is used internally as
a decoction, in flatulence and the intestinal colic of children. It
is indispensable in the marriage ceremonies of the caste of Vaisya,
among whom it is customary for the groom to wear on his wrists in
the form of bracelets, strings of this fruit combined with that of
_Randia dumetorum_.

The root yields a juice which is employed in skin diseases, in abscess,
acid in cardialgia. In Jamaica the juice of the leaves is sometimes
used for constipation.

Botanical Description.--A small tree with leaves alternate, simple,
entire, irregularly nerved or veined at the base, petiolate. Flowers
of a handsome red color, hermaphrodite, regular, axillary. Calyx
gamosepalous, tubular, of 5 parts. Corolla, 5 free petals slightly
dentate at the point. Stamens numerous, united on a free column on the
cusp. Compound nectary of 5 unilocular, many-ovuled ovaries. Styles 5,
joined at the base. Fruit of 5 carpels, thin, twisted on themselves
in spirals, forming a cone, pubescent, of a greenish-brown color,
each containing a single row of angular seeds.

Habitat.--Luzon, Panay.



_Abroma fastuosa_, R. Br. (_A. angulata_, Lam.; _A. communis_, Blanco;
_A. augusta_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Anibong_, Tag.; _Anabo_, Vis.; _Perennial Indian Hemp_,
Eng.

Uses.--The root bark is used in India as an emmenagogue in the
congestive and neuralgic forms of amenorrhoea. It seems to act as
a uterine tonic. The dose is 2 grams of the juice of the fresh root
mixed with pepper which also acts as a carminative and stomachic.

Botanical Description.--A shrub 3-4 meters high with hairy
branches. Leaves opposite, oval, oblong, serrate, tomentose. Flowers
purple, solitary, terminal. Calyx, 5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens
5, united in the form of a tube. Ovary sessile, with 5 many-ovuled
compartments. Styles 5, united in the form of a tube which divides
into 5 stigma-bearing branches. Capsule membranous, 5-angled, truncate,
dehiscent at apex. Seeds albuminous, covered with filaments of cotton.

Habitat.--San Mateo, La Laguna, Batangas, Iloilo.



_Theobroma Cacao_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Cacao._

Uses.--The roasted bean ground with sugar constitutes chocolate,
one of the most generally used foods of the Philippines.

It is very nutritious by virtue of the fat and sugar it contains,
but all stomachs do not bear it well and its use is the unsuspected
cause of much dyspepsia. The custom of drinking it very hot and
following with a large quantity of cold water is a very common
cause of dilatation of the stomach in the Philippines. The seed
of the cacao contains several substances: cacao butter, albumin,
theobromine, starch, glucose, gum, tartaric acid, free or combined,
tannin, and mineral substances. Of these the butter and theobromine
are the most important.

Theobromine (C_7_H_8_N_4_O_2_) is a weak alkaloid, crystalline,
slightly bitter, slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in hot
water, less soluble in alcohol and ether; stable in the air up to
100°; sublimes without decomposition at 290° in microscopic crystals
of the form of rhomboid prisms ending in an octohedric point (Keller).

This alkaloid is very little used in therapeutics and its physiological
action is said to be analogous to that of caffeine but weaker. It
is better to use the salt of the alkaloid, and that most frequently
employed is the salicylate of soda and theobromine in doses of from
2 to 6 grams daily in solution or pill. Lately, however, Dr. Gram
has maintained that theobromine is a powerful diuretic operating when
other diuretics fail and further that this effect is produced without
injuring the heart. The double salt is non-toxic, though sometimes in
exceedingly weak patients it produces vertigo. Dr. Gram administers
6 grams a day in one-gram doses.

Cacao butter is a white substance, slightly yellowish, unctuous to
the touch, brittle; with the agreeable odor peculiar to cacao, and a
sweet and pleasant taste. Its density is 0.961, it melts at 30°-33°,
and solidifies at 25°. It dissolves in 20 parts of boiling alcohol,
in 100 parts of cold alcohol and in twice its weight of benzin. Cacao
butter is obtained by grinding or mashing the roasted seeds in a hot
apparatus and mixing the mass with a fifth or tenth of its weight of
boiling water. It is then pressed between two hot iron plates and
the butter thus obtained is refined by boiling water. It is then
put aside in earthen pans, or still better, in moulds, where it
solidifies. It does not easily become rancid and, for this reason,
enters into the composition of many ointments and pomades, or is
used alone. It serves as the base for suppositories and is, finally,
a highly valued cosmetic. A common substitute is made by mixing oil
of almonds, wax and animal fat.

Before going further let us describe the composition of Spanish
chocolate according to the French chemist Boussingault:


        Cane sugar                  41.40  grams.
        Cacao butter                29.24  grams.
        Starch, glucose              1.48  grams.
        Theobromine                  1.93  grams.
        Asparagin                    a trace
        Albumin                      6.25  grams.
        Gum                          1.42  grams.
        Tartaric acid                1.98  grams.
        Tannin and coloring matter   0.022 grams.
        Soluble cellulose            6.21  grams.
        Ash                          2.34  grams.
        Water                        4.36  grams.
        Undetermined material        3.27  grams.
                                   ------
                                   100.00


Botanical Description.--A small tree about 10° high, with leaves broad,
6-12' long, hanging or drooping, lanceolate, entire, and somewhat
pubescent on both surfaces. Petioles very short with 2 deciduous
stipules at the base. Flowers in clusters on the roots, trunk and
branches. Peduncle very long. Nectary divided in 5 parts, straight,
awl-shaped and 2-nerved. Calyx, 5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals curved
upward in the form of a bow as far as the middle, where they form a
hollow with two little horns; then curving downwards, then upwards,
widening at the end, the edge finely dentate. Stamens 5, inserted on
the nectary, and alternating with the lobes of the latter. Anthers
2 on each filament, concealed in the hollows of the petals. Ovary
globose. Style awl-shaped. Stigma cleft almost to the middle,
5-parted. Fruit broad, spindle-shaped, 4' or more long, dark reddish,
warty, 10-ribbed, with 5 compartments each containing many compressed,
ovoid seeds.

Habitat.--Common in orchards and gardens throughout the islands.



GERANIACEÆ.

Geranium Family.



_Oxalis corniculata_, L. (_O. Acetosella_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Taingan dogá, Susokayoli_, Tag.; _Darasig_, Vis.;
_Malabalugbug dagis_, _Ayo_, _Kongi_, _Yayo_, Pam.; _Indian Sorrel_,
Eng.

Uses.--The part of the plant used in medicine is the leaf which is acid
by virtue of the potassium oxalate which it contains. The decoction is
used internally as an antipyretic in fevers and in dysentery. Mistaking
the properties of the plant it is given for vesical calculus which,
if composed of oxalates, would be increased instead of diminished by
the treatment. In fact the salt of sorrel in the leaves contains a
large quantity of oxalic acid mixed with potassium oxalate. In China,
India and the Philippines the entire plant is used as an antiscorbutic.

The cold infusion of the leaves is given internally in doses of from
30 to 60 grams, but it is not a medicine to be given indiscriminately,
because in addition to its power of adding to the bulk of calculi of
the oxalates, the contained potassium oxalate is poisonous in doses
of 25 to 30 grams. If a concentrated solution is taken, it operates as
a corrosive poison, producing violent pains in the stomach, vomiting,
faintness and great weakness. If the solution is dilute its absorption
is rapid and it operates very energetically. When a patient is poisoned
by a concentrated solution, the stomach-pump is contraindicated,
because the mucous membrane of the organ is corroded and ulcerated;
if by a dilute solution, use the pump to remove as much of the poison
as possible. The best antidote is a watery solution of a soluble salt
of lime, _i. e._, the saccharate, which forms an insoluble salt with
oxalic acid.

The juice of the leaves is an antidote for the _Datura_
(Stramonium). In India they make a decoction of the plant, mix it with
onion juice and apply it to the head as a fomentation in hemicrania.

Botanical Description.--A plant 1° high, with a creeping, glabrous
stem, leaves horizontal, ternate with common long petiole. Leaflets
sessile, obcordate, with downy borders. Flowers axillary or terminal,
from 1 to 3 in number on a common long peduncle. The pedicel is
also long. Calyx common to the family. Corolla, 5 petals ending in
small claws. Stamens 10, monadelphous, the 5 shorter ones bearing
each a small gland on the outer surface of the base. Ovary large,
fluted. Styles 5, short. Stigmas hemispherical. Seed vessel pyramidal,
containing many seeds enveloped in an elastic aril by which they are
ejected when the fruit opens.

Habitat.--Abundant in Luzon, Panay and Cebú.



_Biophytum sensitivum_, DC. (_B. cumiagianum_, Turez.; _Oxalis
sensitivum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Makahiya_, _Damonghiya_, Tag.; _Mahihiin_, Iloc.

Uses.--A decoction of the leaves is used internally as an
expectorant. The bruised leaves are used as an application to wounds
and contusions. In Java the decoction is used internally in asthma,
phthisis and snake bites.

The peculiar property which this plant possesses of closing its
leaves when touched, has caused the natives of India to attribute
to it mysterious virtues. Symbolism has determined its therapeutic
application and the Hindoos pretend that it endows with delicacy and
modesty women who lack these virtues and that it restores virginity.

Botanical Description.--A plant about 7' high. Stem straight, nodose
and without branches. Leaves abruptly pinnate, the place of the odd
leaflet taken by a stylet. The leaflets nearly linear with a small
point at the apex, 11-13 pairs, 2 stipules to each pair. Common
petioles long, cleft at the base and disposed in whorls around and
on the end of the stem. Flowers sessile, verticillate, on the ends
of several very long peduncles which rise from the midst of the
petioles. Calyx, 5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals, clawed, rounded at the
end and slightly notched, forming a tube. Stamens 10, free. A small
gland on the outer surface of the base of each short stamen. Styles
5. Seed vessels ovate, 5-angled, containing many seeds.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the islands.



_Averrhoa Bilimbi_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Kamias_, _Kalamias_, Tag.; _Kilingiwa_, Vis.; _Pias_,
Iloc.

Uses.--The small fruit of the camia springing from the branches
and trunks of the trees is widely known in the Philippines, where
they eat it green, pickled, and in salad; and when ripe fresh and
preserved. Its qualities and therapeutic applications are the same
as those of the following species.

Botanical Description.--A tree 4-5 meters high with
odd-pinnate leaves. Leaflets 12 pairs, ovate, linear, acute,
soft and downy. Flowers small, pinkish or purplish, on trunk and
branches. Stamens 10, five alternately longer. Pistils divergent. Fruit
oblong, obtuse at the end, with five broad ribs.

Habitat.--Very common throughout the islands.



_Averrhoa Carambola_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Bilimbin_, _Balimbin_, Tag.

Uses.--The common name of this tree, whose fruit is so common, causes
it to be confused with the name which Linnæus gives to the former
species. Balimbin is a fruit of an acid taste, agreeable when ripe,
serving the same uses for food as the camia. Its acidity is due to
the presence of oxalic acid, which makes the green fruit useful for
removing ink and rust stains from clothes. The juice of the fruit is
refreshing and is given internally mixed with water and sugar as a
refreshing drink in fevers and as an antiscorbutic. For the latter
the ripe fruit is eaten uncooked.

In Mauritius the juice is used to treat dysentery and hepatitis. Padre
Blanco says that the natives use a decoction of camias and unthreshed
rice in diarrhoea and bilious colic. In connection with the subject
of camias and balimbins we should mention the fruit treatment of the
bilious diarrhoea of the tropics, spoken of by the French physicians
of Cochin China. Dr. Van der Burg of the Dutch Indies also strongly
recommends the treatment of diarrhoea by fruits; in temperate regions
using fruits like peaches, pears, etc., and in the tropics, lychies,
mangosteens, etc. In regard to the mangosteens we must not forget that,
while the bark is given because of the amount of tannin it contains,
the composition of the pulp is very different. The fruit acids seem
to exercise great influence in the cure of this obstinate disease
and I do not hesitate to recommend for this purpose the camia and
the ripe balimbin.

Botanical Description.--A tree much like the former. Leaves
odd-pinnate. Leaflets, 3-4 pairs, obliquely ovate, acute, the terminal
leaflet nearly lanceolate. Flowers on the trunk, branches and in the
axils of the leaves. Fruit oblong, with 5 very prominent acute-angled
ribs.

Habitat.--It grows, like the former plant, in all parts of the islands.



RUTACEÆ.

Rue Family.



_Ruta graveolens, L._ (_L. angustifolia_, Pers.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Rudu_, Sp.; _Rue_, Eng.

Uses.--The rue of the European, American and Indian pharmacopoeias
is emmenagogue, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, excitant, diaphoretic,
antiseptic and abortive. It contains an essential oil, and rutinic
acid (C_25_H_28_O_15_, Borntrager), starch, gum, etc. The essential
oil is greenish-yellow, thick, acrid and bitter; specific gravity
0.911. It boils at 228°, is slightly soluble in water, and soluble
in absolute alcohol. It is promptly oxidized by nitric acid, and is
converted into pelargonic acid and other fatty acids.

Rutin (or rutinic acid), according to Weiss, is a glucoside which
exists in the form of fine needles, bright yellow in color. It is
slightly soluble in cold water and more so in boiling water. It melts
at 190°, and solidifies at freezing point, forming a resinous mass. Its
physiological properties are as yet unknown. The part of the plant
employed is the leaves, which owe their property, apparently, to the
essential oil they contain, from which they also derive their strong
and disagreeable odor and their bitter, acrid and nauseous taste.

It is used principally as a uterine stimulant or emmenagogue, for which
purpose it is given in doses of 0.10-0.15 centigrams of the freshly
powdered leaf and 0.05-0.10 centigrams of the fresh leaves infused in a
liter of water. The dry powder of the leaf should not be used because
the essential oil volatilizes and a large proportion of it is lost,
which is the most active principle of the drug. It is an agent which
should be prescribed with the greatest prudence for large doses are
poisonous even to the point of causing death. The symptoms following
such doses are colic, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea and tenesmus.

It is also used as an antihemorrhagic after childbirth, but its action
is slow, not being felt for several hours after the administration of
the drug; for this reason it cannot take the place of ergot, though
it seems to be superior to the latter in passive hemorrhages. The
essential oil is given internally in doses of 2-6 drops on a piece
of sugar. It is sometimes used as an antispasmodic in hysteria,
epilepsy and chorea.

The Chinese make extensive use of this drug and it is one of their
principal abortives. In Hindostan the dried leaves are burnt and the
smoke inhaled as a cure for catarrh in children. They are careful
not to administer it to pregnant women.

Botanical Description.--A plant, 1 meter high, with leaves alternate,
compound, the inferior ones 2-3-cleft; leaflets narrow, oblong,
slightly fleshy. Flowers greenish-yellow, hermaphrodite, arranged in
corymbose terminal cymes. Corolla, 4-5 free, concave petals. Calyx
deeply divided, persistent. Stamens 8-10, free, in two whorls, inserted
beneath a thick disc. Ovaries 5, unilocular, many-ovuled. Styles 5,
first free, then united, forming a column terminating in a small
stigma. Follicles 5, united at the base, 1 centimeter long, free
superiorly, hard, rounded, rugose, opening on top. Seeds ovoid,
angular, blackish, albuminous.

Habitat.--Common everywhere in the Philippines.



_Xanthoxylum oxyphyllum_, Edgew. (_X. violaceum_, Wall.; _Fagara
piperita_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kayutana_, Tag.; _Salay_, _Saladay_, Vis.

Uses.--The trunk bark is stimulant and is used as a sudorific in the
treatment of fevers. The fresh bark is quite irritating, for which
reason it is best to use bark taken from the more mature parts of
the trunk, powdered and desiccated. The dose is 1/2-2 grams 2-3
times a day. Its stimulating properties render it useful in colic
and in India it is used as a stomachic and digestive. Is seems also
to possess diuretic properties.

Botanical Description.--A tree 30-35° high, with trunk thickly set
with large spines. Leaves odd-pinnate. Leaflets ovate, acute, obtusely
serrate, small transparent vesicles on the surface, spines on the
midrib and common petiole. Calyx very small, monophyllous. Corolla
twice as large as the calyx, 4 petals. Stamens 4, inserted on the
receptacle, the same length as the petals. Ovary superior, 4-angled. No
style. Stigmas 2.

Habitat.--Batangas, Morong, Manila.



_Murraya exotica_, L. (_M. paniculata_, Jack.; _Connarus foetens_,
and _C. santaloides_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kamuning_, Tag.

Uses.--The leaves are stimulant and astringent, and are used
in infusion (15 grams, to water one liter) to treat diarrhea and
dysentery. The root and trunk barks are used for the same treatment
and they as well as the leaves owe their properties to an essential
oil and a bitter principle present in all parts of the plant. Vry has
demonstrated the presence of a glucoside which he has named _murrayin_
(C_18_H_22_O_10_); it crystallizes in small, white needles, is slightly
bitter, soluble in hot water and alcohol, insoluble in ether, slightly
soluble in cold water. It melts at 170°, and dissolves in alkaline
solutions coloring them green. Boiled in dilute acids it splits into
_murrayetin_ and glucose. _Murrayetin_ (C_12_H_12_O_10_) crystallizes
in white needles, inodorous, tasteless, slightly soluble in cold water
and in ether, soluble in hot water and alcohol. Heat destroys its
green color in solutions; alkalies, in the presence of cold, increase
it. The leaves and the bark of the plant contain an essential oil.

The foregoing description of this species applies equally well to
the following species.

Botanical Description.--A small tree 12° high with leaves alternate,
odd-pinnate. Leaflets lanceolate, almost entire, rigid with small
dots on each surface. Flowers in axillary, very short, compound
racemes. Calyx very small, monophyllous, 5 lanceolate lobules. Corolla
much longer than the calyx, 5 lanceolate petals. Stamens 10, joined,
but not entirely united at the base; 5 alternate stamens longer than
the others. Anthers sessile, regular. Ovary superior, compressed and
borne on a disc. Style 1, same length as the stamens. Stigma thick,
depressed, apparently 4-angled. Fruit fleshy, ovoid, acute and somewhat
curved at the end enclosing a seed with coriaceous, downy testa.



_Murraya Koenigi_, Spreng. (_Bergera Koenigi_, L.; _Connarus_ sp.,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--(?)

Botanical Description.--Leaves alternate, odd-pinnate. Leaflets
obliquely ovate, acute, entire and glabrous. The testa of the seed
bears no down, and may be divided into two parts. The decoction of
the leaves of this species as well as the former is used to allay
toothache.



_Citrus acida_, F. (_C. notissima_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Limón_, Sp.; _Dayap_, Tag.; _Lemon_, Eng.

Uses.--The essence (essential oil) and juice of the fruit are the parts
of the plant used in therapeutics. The essence extracted from the rind
is yellow, fragrant, slightly bitter; density, 0.856; boiling point
165°. The juice which is turbid and pale yellow in color contains 9%
citric acid, 3-5% gum and sugar and 2-8/10% inorganic salts. The
essence is used to flavor certain pharmaceutical preparations, and
is a diffusible stimulant which may be given internally in doses of
3-6 drops on a little sugar. The bitter rind is occasionally used in
infusion as a stomachic and stimulant. The juice is most commonly
used in lemonade, a cooling drink which, used intemperately in the
Philippines, is apt to cause gastro-intestinal trouble, so commonly
attributed to "irritation," but really the result of a general atony
of the digestive organs. Lemon juice is also used with very good
results as a local cleansing application for sore throat, as well as
externally on fetid ulcers. In some forms of malarial fever it seems
to have given satisfactory results, administered internally.

In many navies lemon juice forms a part of the sea ration as a
preventive of scurvy, upon which it exercises a real and noteworthy
action. The Danish navy adopted it for this purpose in 1770, the
English navy followed, then the French and possibly others. The English
call it lime-juice, and its preventive dose is 30-40 grams a day. Its
curative dose is 100-150 grams a day. To preserve the lime-juice it
was bottled with a layer of oil, which, floating on the surface kept it
from contact with the air; but this process gave it a bad taste as did
also the addition of sulphate of calcium, and at present the English
add, to each liter of juice, 60 grams of alcohol, which preserves it
perfectly. Fonssagrives says that the antiscorbutic action of lemon
juice is due rather to the vegetable juice itself than to the citric
acid which it contains.

Botanical Description.--A most familiar tree 11° or more high,
trunk with solitary thorns. Leaves ovate, obtuse, acute-toothed, the
petiole bearing serrate wings. Calyx 4-6-toothed. Corolla, 4 thick
petals. Filaments 10-25 on the receptacle, some joined and bearing
2-3 anthers. Fruit thin-skinned, globular, about 1' in diameter;
the rind adheres closely to the pulp.

(This fruit closely resembles, if it is not identical with the lime
fruit, _C. Limetta_, or _C. Bergamia_, Risso, though Gray states that
the leaf of the latter has a wingless petiole.--J. B. T.)

Habitat.--Common to all parts of the islands.



_Citrus Bigaradia_, Hook. f. (_C. vulgaris_, Risso; _C. aurantium_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Naranjas del país_, Sp.; _Kahel_, _Kahil_, Tag.; _Native
Orange_, Eng.

Uses.--The rind of the _cagel_ is the so-called bitter orange peel,
the best of which comes from Curaçao and Barbadoes. It is tonic and is
used in decoction and in syrup. The infusion of the leaves, 5-10 grams
to the liter, is useful as a sedative and diaphoretic in hysterical and
nervous attacks; the infusion of the flowers is similarly used. When
distilled the flowers yield a very sweet essential oil called _neroli_,
which is used as a perfume only.

Botanical Description.--A tree 15-20° high, trunk bearing solitary
spines. Leaves medium lanceolate, serrate, the apex notched, petioles
winged. Flowers usually solitary. Calyx 4-5-toothed. Corolla 4-5
petals. Filaments joined or separate. Anthers about 20. The fruit,
a small orange 2' or more in diameter, the peel closely adherent.

The _C. aurantium verum_ or _C. reticulata_ (Blanco) has a yellow
pulp and the rind is readily separated from it, a thin net of fibers
intervening.



_Citrus decumana_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Suha_, _Lukban_, Tag.; _Toronjas_ Penins.; _Naranjas_,
Sp.-Fil.

Uses.--The fruit, which is handsome and large, and the leaves and
flowers, are used for the same purposes as those of _C. bigaradia_.

Habitat.--The above species are cultivated in all parts of the islands,
and, like the variety _C. aurantium verum_, H. f. (_C. reticulata_,
Blanco), commonly called _naranjita_, are among the most abundant of
native fruits.



_Ægle decandra_, Naves. (_Feronia ternata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Malakabuyaw_, Tag.; _Tabog_, Pam., Tag. (A species of
Bael-Fruit Tree.)

Uses.--We do not know the medicinal use of this plant in the
Philippines. Probably it has none, but we may give those of the
species. _R. marmelos_, Cor., the fruit of which is almost identical
with that of our species and is called _Bela_ or _Bael_ in India. The
fruit of the Malakabuyaw is ovoid and full of a mucilaginous pulp,
aromatic and acid, the same as that of the Bael. The uses of the latter
are the following: The pulp acts as an astringent, but it would be
more correctly called a tonic of the intestinal mucosa, for it has
been experimentally proved that, although it checks diarrhoea, it also
acts as a laxative in chronic constipation. In both conditions it seems
to operate by toning and regulating the functions of the intestine.

Martin, an English physician, was the first to call attention to the
properties of Bael, and according to Dr. Green one dose of the pulp
of the ripe fruit, prepared with sugar and given every morning, is
an efficient remedy in the treatment of the dyspepsia of Europeans
in India, especially in the form characterized by constipation and
flatulence. The green fruit is a powerful astringent used by the
Hindoos for diarrhoea. In cholera epidemics Dr. Bose advises the daily
use of an ice made from the pulp of the ripe fruit, the object being
the regulation of the functions of the intestine.

The Pharmacopoeia of India contains the following preparations:


        _Mixture._--Pulp of the ripe fruit       60 grams.
                    Water                       120 grams.
                    Sugar                        60 grams.


Mix, and if desired add chopped ice. This forms a very agreeable
drink which has the aroma of the fruit itself, and may be repeated
2-3 times a day. When the fruit is ripe, this preparation is not only
astringent in cases of diarrhoea, but possesses the additional property
of increasing the appetite.  If the patient's stomach is very weak,
the preparation may produce vomiting in which event it is necessary
to give it in small doses or to employ the extract.

_Extract of Bael._--Pulp of the ripe fruit is placed in a vessel and
sufficient water added to cover it. It is then heated and evaporated
to the consistency of a soft extract. The dose is 2-4 grams, 2,
3 or 4 times a day.

_Fluid Extract of Bael._--


        Pulp of Bael          500 grams.
        Water                   3 liters.
        Rectified alcohol      60 grams.


The Bael is macerated in a third of the water and at the end of 12
hours the liquid is decanted and another third of water is added;
the maceration is repeated and the same process followed till the
last third of water is used. Express the residuum, put all the liquid
into one vessel, filter and evaporate till reduced to 800 grams,
then cool and add the alcohol. Dose, 4-8 grams.

The fluid extract is less active than the freshly prepared solid
extract.

According to Dr. G. Bidie, the fruit of the _Feronia elephantum_,
Correa (the species that grows in the Philippines), possesses the
same properties as Bael. Its leaves are astringent, aromatic and
carminative, and the gum with which the trunk of the tree is covered
is a good substitute for gum arabic.

Botanical Description.--A tree 7-8 meters high, the trunk covered with
large, solitary spines. Leaves alternate, ternate. Leaflets lanceolate,
scalloped and glabrous, the middle one larger than the others. Calyx
5-toothed. Corolla, 5 thick petals, linear, much longer than the
calyx. Stamens 10. Ovary cylindrical. Style and stigma thick. Fruit
oblong, more than 3' long and 2' thick, with a surface irregular with
prominences and grooves; 10 or more compartments, each containing
several ovoid, compressed seeds, ending with a woolly tuft.

Habitat.--San Mateo, Montalbán (Manila); Arayat (La Pampanga).



_Feronia elephantum_, Correa. (_Murraya adorata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Panoan_, _Pamunoan_, Vis.; _Wood-apple_, Eng.

Uses.--The pulp of the ripe fruit has an agreeable odor and
is edible. In India the green fruit is used as an astringent in
diarrhoea and dysentery; the ripe fruit is given in diseases of the
gums and as a gargle. Mir Muhammad Husain states that the ripe fruit
is a refrigerant, astringent, cardiac and general tonic, and is very
efficacious in the treatment of salivation and ulcers of the throat,
strengthening the gums and operating as an astringent. A sorbet made
of the ripe fruit whets the appetite and the pulp is used locally
for bites of venomous animals. In the latter case the pulverized bark
may be used if the fruit cannot be obtained.

The fruit of Ferona is a substitute for Bael (_Ægle Marmelos_), and is
used as such by the English physicians in the hospitals of India. The
tender leaves have an agreeable aroma similar to that of anise and
are used internally in decoction as a stomachic and carminative.

The incised trunk exudes a gum which is used in India as a substitute
for gum arabic and there is an active trade in this gum in the bazars
of Bombay and Calcutta. According to Pereira, it was at one time
imported into England from the east of India under the name of gum
arabic. It exists in the form of irregular, semitransparent pieces, of
a brownish-red color. With water it forms a mucilage as adhesive as gum
arabic, and this solution reddens litmus paper. It is dextrogyrous and
is precipitated by the neutral acetate of lead and by caustic baryta.

Botanical Description.--Tree 3-4 meters high. Leaves fragrant,
opposite, odd-pinnate. Leaflets, 2 pairs, lanceolate, entire,
and glabrous. Common petiole flattened above. Flowers terminal,
white, racemose, with 2 flattened peduncles. Calyx inferior, with
5-6 divisions. Corolla, 5-6 petals. Anthers oval. Ovary oblong,
5-lobuled. Style short, caducous. Stigma spindle-shaped. Ovules
numerous, compressed, in several series. Fruit pulpy, globose, with
woody rind, one compartment and many compressed, oblong seeds.

Habitat.--Mountains of Angat. Woods of Catugán (Iloilo).



SIMARUBACEÆ.

Quassia Family.



_Samadera Indica_, Gaertn. (_Niota tetrapela_, DC. & Blanco; _Manungala
pendula_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Manungal_, Tag., Pam., Bicol.; _Manunagl_, _Linatoganak_,
_Palagarium_, _Daraput_, Vis.

Uses.--The wood and seeds contain an intensely bitter principle. The
Filipinos make cups and vases of the wood and allow water to stand
in them 6-12 hours, thus preparing a solution of the bitter principle
of the plant which they use in various stomach disorders.

Vrij has extracted from the seeds a 33% oil of a bright yellow color,
composed, according to Oudermans, of 84 parts olein to 16 of palmitin
and stearin.

The bitter principle contained in the root, wood and bark was
discovered by Blunse who named it _samaderin_; it is a white,
crystalline, foliaceous substance, more soluble in water than
in alcohol, fusible. Nitric and hydrochloric acids color
it yellow. Sulphuric acid immediately forms a violet red
color which disappears as iridescent, feathery crystals are
precipitated. (D. Beaumentz et Egasse.)

The Filipino "herb-doctors" concoct an oil of manungal that in reality
contains none of the ingredients of the seeds; it is simply cocoanut
oil in which chips of the wood have been soaked. They use it in doses
of 30-60 grams as a purgative, externally as an application to the
abdomen in colic or indigestion and with friction in rheumatism or
contusions. In India the oil extracted from the seeds is used locally
with friction in rheumatism.

The decoction of the wood and the powdered wood are given in fevers,
in dyspepsia and as a general tonic.


        Infusion.--Chips of the wood      20 grams.
                   Water                 500 grams.


A wineglassful several times a day in cholera, fevers, diarrhoea, etc.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, trunk straight, the wood
white and very light in weight. Leaves 4-5' long, alternate, acute,
oval, entire, glabrous, coriaceous, veined. Petioles very short, no
stipules. Flowers in terminal umbels, each composed of 4-6 flowerets
with moderately long pedicels. Common peduncle, very slender, very
long, drooping. Calyx of same color as corolla, inferior, very
small, 4-lobuled. Corolla purplish, very long, 4 straight, linear
petals. Stamens 8, inserted on the receptacle. Filaments of equal
length with the petals, with 1-2 appendices at the base. Anthers
spiral. Ovary 5-lobuled, borne on small stalk. One style of equal
length with the stamens, situated above the center of the 5 lobules
of the ovary which develop into 5 future pods. Stigma simple. Fruit
5 woody pods, short, united centrally above a small base, semi-lunar
in form, medianly expanded, venate, containing a small wrinkled,
kidney-shaped seed attached by a seed-stalk to the superior suture.

Habitat.--Very common and well known everywhere in the
Philippines. Blooms in February.



BURSERACEÆ.

Myrrh Family.



_Garuga pinnata_, Roxb. (_G. Madagascarensis_, DC.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bugo_, Tag.

Uses.--The fruit is slightly acid and edible. The trunk exudes an
abundant gum, of the odor of turpentine, translucent, greenish-yellow,
forming small masses slightly soluble in alcohol, soluble in water,
with which a mucilage is formed. The juice of the leaves is used
for asthma. The sap is used in Bombay to remove opacities of the
cornea. There is another species in the Philippines, _G. floribunda_,
Decsne (_Icica Abilo_, Blanco), _abilo_, Tag., the root of which
furnishes a decoction used for phthisis. This species also produces
a gum-resin similar to that of the _bugo_.

Botanical Description.--A tree, with leaves alternate, odd-pinnate,
without stipules, bunched on the ends of the branches, with opposite,
serrate leaflets. Flowers yellowish-white in panicles, compound,
polygamous. Calyx bell-shaped, 5-toothed. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens
10, free, in 2 series. Ovary inferior, 5-lobuled. Fruit, a globose,
greenish-yellow drupe with numerous bony seeds.

Habitat.--Everywhere in Luzon, Panay and Balabac.



_Canarium commune_, L. (_C. album_ and _C. Luzonicum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Pili_, Tag.; _Java Almond Tree_, _East Indian Elemi_, Eng.

Uses.--The ripe pili nut is edible and sold in confectioneries. It
yields a fixed oil, an excellent sample of which was sent by the
Manila pharmacist D. A. del Rosario to the Paris Exposition of
1889. "It is an oil very similar to oil of almond and owing to its
physical properties may be used as a substitute for the latter for
all the requirements of pharmacy. The only inconvenience connected
with its use is the slight one that it solidifies at 3° C. It could
furthermore be very advantageously used in the manufacture of fine
grades of soap." (D. A. del Rosario.)

The incised trunk exudes a gum-resin called _brea blanca_ (white
pitch) in the Philippines and _elemi_ in Europe. Until recently it
was not known in Europe what tree yielded the gum elemi, some authors
stating that according to Blanco it was the resin of the _Icica abilo_,
Blanco (_Garuga floribunda_, Decsne); it is not true, however, that
Padre Blanco ever attributed such origin to that product or named his
Icica the "pitch-tree." On the contrary in speaking of the Canarium,
Blanco states that it yields a resin called "pili-pitch." I do not
know the reason for this confusion of terms, but presume it to be
due to imperfect knowledge of Spanish on the part of those who thus
quote Blanco.

Pili-pitch, or elemi, as they call it in Manila, is a substance
existing in soft masses, slightly yellowish or gray, resembling old
honey in appearance. Its odor is strong and agreeable, somewhat like
that of lemon and turpentine. Its taste is acrid and bitter.

The French pharmacist Meaujean demonstrated in 1820 that elemi contains
two resins, one soluble in the cold, and the other in hot spirits of
wine. Other chemists, among them Baup, Flückiger and Hanbury, have
found elemi to be composed of a resinous substance and a colorless
essential oil; the proportion of the latter Flückiger gives as 10%
and further states that it is dextrogyrous. Sainte-Claire Deville found
the essential oil levogyrous, a fact that emphasizes the probability of
there being different products in the market bearing the name of elemi.

Baup obtained several principles from it: (1) A resin, _brein_,
fusible at 187°, soluble in cold alcohol, crystallizable in oblique
rhombic prisms; (2) another crystalline substance, _bryoidin_, soluble
in 360 parts water at 10°, and melting at 13°; (3) a small amount of
_breidin_, a body soluble in 260 parts water and melting at 100°+;
(4) another resin soluble in boiling alcohol, called _amyrin_.

White pitch is used in the Philippines to make plasters which they
apply to the back and breast of patients suffering from bronchial
or pulmonary complaints; it is also applied to indolent ulcers. We
believe that elemi possesses the same properties as copaiba, and that
its indications for internal use are the same.

Botanical Description.--A tree 30-40 meters high, with leaves
alternate, odd-pinnate; leaflets opposite, coriaceous. Flowers
yellowish-white in axillary, compound panicles, hermaphrodite. Calyx
3-toothed. Corolla, 3 oblong, concave petals. Stamens 6, inserted
on the base of the disc. Ovary free, of 3 lobules each containing 2
ovules. Style simple. Stigma, 3 lobules. Drupe oblong, size of large
prune, fleshy, containing a hard, 3-sided pit.

Habitat.--Very common in all Philippine woods especially in Camarines.



MELIACEÆ.

Melia Family.



_Melia Azedarach_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Paraiso_ (_Paradise_), Sp.-Fil.; _Pride of India_,
_China Tree_, Eng.

Uses.--The root was official in the U. S. P., 1880, as an anthelmintic;
it is administered in the following form:


        Fresh root bark      120 grams.
        Water                  1 liter.


Boil till reduced one half.

Dose.--For a child 1 soup-spoonful every 15 minutes till nausea
is produced.

In view of the narcotic effects produced by this drug, the foregoing
method of administration seems to us imprudent; we prefer to give 30-70
grams of the decoction and follow with a purgative such as castor oil.

This drug is also tonic, febrifuge and astringent, and a decoction
of its leaves and flowers is used as a wash for ulcers. Some believe
that the leaves and fruit contain toxic principles, which may well be
true considering the effects of large doses of their preparations. It
has also been observed that the bark collected in March and April may
cause dilatation of the pupil, stupor, etc.; this may be explained
by the fact that at this season the sap is rising in the tree and
the bark contains an increased amount of active ingredients.

The fruit yields a fixed oil, and by fermentation and distillation
produces alcohol.

The root bark referred to is bitter and nauseous, if taken from the
superficial roots--the part usually employed; the bark of the deeper
parts is astringent by virtue of the contained tannin.

Jacobs analyzed the bark and isolated an amorphous resin of yellowish
color and very bitter taste. It is soluble in alcohol, ether and
chloroform, slightly soluble in sulphuret of carbon, insoluble in
turpentine or benzin. He believes that it is the active principle of
the root, and produces the anthelmintic action already mentioned:
the proper dose is 0.20 centigrams to a child of 4 years, followed
by a purge of calomel.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 30-40° high, with leaves alternate,
compound, odd-pinnate; leaflets opposite, ovate, pointed,
dentate. Flowers in large axillary compound panicles. Calyx,
5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals, rose-colored within, lilac-colored
without. Stamens 10, united into a cylindrical tube, expanded at both
ends, the mouth 15-toothed. Anthers inserted near the apex of the
tube, short, fleshy, bilocular. Ovary free, of 5 biovuled cells. Style
of equal length with the tube. Stigma button-shaped. Fruit a drupe,
about the size of a small olive, yellow when ripe, with a dark brown
pit of 5 one-seeded cells.

Habitat.--Native of China; is cultivated in most gardens in the
Philippines.



_Dysoxylum Blancoi_, Vidal. (_D. salutare_, F. Villar; _Turroca
virens_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Igiw_, _Agiw_, _Taliatan_, Tag.; _Ananangtang_, _Bakugan_,
_Makasili_, Vis.; _Malabangaw_, Pam.; _Basiloag_, Iloc.

Uses.--The bark of the trunk, dry and finely powdered, is used in
doses of 1 1/2-2 1/2 grams as an emetic, and, according to Padre
Blanco, its effect is very certain.

It is also a febrifuge, and Padre Mercado states that it cures "all
forms of asthma, suffocative affections of the chest, and griping
pains of the belly." He also states that it yields marvelous results
in malarial fevers, given during the cold stage in doses of 4-8
grams in water or wine in which it has macerated 12 hours. He also
recommends its use before breakfast as an anthelmintic in lumbricoids,
and finally attributes to it virtues as an emmenagogue.

Padre Blanco calls attention to the species _D. schizochitoides_,
Turcz. (_Turroea octandra_, Blanco), _Himamaw_, Tag., as a substitute
for _D. Blancoi_.

The Tagalo "herb-doctors" pretend that the part of the bark near the
earth is doubly efficacious, for which reason they administer only
that portion which is within one meter of the ground, giving it in
the doses already mentioned.

Botanical Description.--Tree 16-20 meters high. Leaves
glabrous, odd-pinnate, petioles very long; leaflets entire,
opposite, short-petiolate, acute, oblique at the base. Flowers in
axillary panicles. Calyx, 5 imbricated sepals. Corolla, 5 linear,
lanceolate petals united at the base. Staminal tube, 10-toothed and
10-anthered. Ovary 5-celled, each cell containing two ovules. Style
somewhat longer than the stamens. Stigma thick and depressed. Seed
vessel globose, depressed, somewhat downy, 5-angled; with 5
compartments each containing 2 seeds.

Habitat.--Batangas and Laguna.



_Sandoricum Indicum_, Cav.

Nom. Vulg.--_Santol_, Tag.

Uses.--The santol is doubtless one of the best known fruits in
Manila. The most savory portion is the center, which consists of seeds
covered with a white pulp of a delicious flavor in the ripe fruit
of good quality. The fleshy covering is edible only in the center
of the fruit and only a very thin layer of that, the rest having
very little flavor. The whole fruit is used in making a confection
often prescribed as an astringent. Padre Mercado compares it very
appropriately to the quince. The root of the santol is aromatic,
stomachic and astringent, by virtue of which latter property it is
used in Java in the treatment of leucorrhoea.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 30-40° high, well known in the
islands. Leaves ternate; leaflets 4-5' long, half-ovate, obtuse,
entire, stiff and downy, the middle one elliptical. Flowers in
panicles. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla much longer than the calyx, 5
greenish petals, linear and curved downwards. Nectary a cylindrical
tube attached to the corolla for half its length, mouth 10-toothed,
containing 10 sessile anthers. Style somewhat longer than the
stamens. Stigma 5-parted. Fruit about size and form of a small apple,
thick, brown, pericarp indehiscent, 5 or more one-seeded compartments.

Habitat.--Grows in all parts of the islands, commonly along the roads.



_Carapa Moluccensis_, Lam. (_Xylocarpus granatum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tabigi_, _Nigi_, _Kalumpang sa lati_, Tag.; _Migi_, Pam.

Uses.--The seeds contain a yellow oil, bitter and astringent, with a
characteristic odor, having a taste somewhat resembling the odor. In
decoction they are used for diarrhoea and dysentery, on account,
doubtless, of the tannin they contain. The dose is 1-2 seeds dried,
pounded and infused with 200 grams of sweetened water.

The bark, also bitter, is said to be useful in fevers.

In America they extract an oil from the species of the _C. Guianensis_,
Aubl., with which the negroes anoint themselves to keep away stinging
insects. Wood soaked in this oil is also proof against insects.

Botanical Description.--This tree, 20° high, grows in swampy
districts. Leaves opposite, abruptly pinnate. Two pairs of wedge-shaped
leaflets, entire and glabrous. Petiole very short. Calyx inferior,
4-5-toothed. Corolla, 4-5 concave petals, slightly notched at the
end. Nectary notched, ovate, 8-9-toothed. No filaments. Anthers
equal in number to the teeth of the nectary and inserted between
them. Ovary very thick, globose. Stigma shield-shaped. Drupe globose,
resembling a very large orange, 5 chambers, each containing 1, 2 or
more seeds, convex on one side and concave on the other, angular and
much crowded. Testa hard and porous.

Habitat.--Common throughout the Archipelago.



_Cedrela Toona_, Roxb. (_C. odorata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kalantas_, Tag., Pam.; _Lanigpa_, Vis.

Uses.--The infusion of the flowers is antispasmodic. The trunk bark
is an excellent astringent, and Dr. Waitz recommends it in extract
as a treatment for infantile diarrhoea, for which I also have found
it very useful. Blume says that it contains marked antispasmodic
virtues, and Dr. G. Kennedy confirms it. Other physicians of India,
among them Ros and Newton, have recommended the bark as a substitute
for cinchona, given dry in doses of 30 grams.

Infusion.--


        Bark dry, pounded           30 grams.
        Water                      150 grams.

Filter and add:

        Syrup of cinnamon           20 grams.


Dose.--Several dessert-spoonfuls a day.

The powdered bark is very useful as an application to indolent ulcers
which it instantly deodorizes; like powdered quinine it is used in
the treatment of superficial gangrene.

Botanical Description.--A large tree. Leaves odd-pinnate. Leaflets
oval, lanceolate, acuminate, entire, glabrous, 5-6 pairs. Flowers
yellow, in terminal panicles. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla, 5 oblong
petals. Stamens 5, free, inserted on the apex of a disk. Ovaries
sessile, 5 many-ovuled cells. Style short. Stigma on a disk. Seed
vessel coriaceous, 5 compartments, septicidal, 5-valved. Seeds
compressed, pendulous, prolonged in a membranous wing.

Habitat.--Very common in the islands.



CELASTRACEÆ.

Staff-Tree Family.



_Celastrus paniculata_, Willd. (_C. alnifolia_, DC.; _C. Rothiana_,
Roem.; _Diosma serrata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bilogo_, Tag.

Uses.--I am not acquainted with the medicinal uses of this plant
in the Philippines. In India, by means of a primitive system of
distillation, they extract from the seeds a dark-colored oil of
empyreumatic odor, which under the name of Oleum nigrum was once
proclaimed by Dr. Herklots as the sovereign remedy for beriberi.

This oil in doses of 10-15 drops a day is a very powerful stimulant,
the action of which is manifested by profuse perspiration several
hours after its administration. Malcolmson reports that it has
given him good results in several cases of beriberi, particularly
in recent cases and those in which nervous and paralytic symptoms
predominated. In Concan, the juice of the leaves is given in doses
of 30 grams as an antidote for opium. The bruised seeds made into a
paste with cow urine are used locally in treatment of itch. They are
also used in the treatment of leprosy, gout, rheumatism, and other
diseases which according to their medical theories, are derived from
"cold humors." For these purposes they give the seeds internally,
beginning with one and increasing daily until 50 are taken. At the
same time they make external applications of the oil or of another
compound prepared in the following way:

Place in an open pot with one opening, seeds of _C. paniculata_,
cloves, benzoin, nutmeg and mace. The pot having been previously
heated, is covered with another, inverted over the opening. On the
sides of the latter a thick black oil condenses which Herklots very
appropriately named _Oleum nigrum_.

Botanical Description.--A climbing shrub, 6-9° high, without
spines. Leaves 6-7' long by 5' broad, alternate, petiolate,
entire, glabrous, half-ovate. Flowers small and paniculate. Calyx, 5
divisions. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 5, inserted in a disc. Anthers
oblong. Ovary 3-celled. Stigma 3-lobulate. Style short. Seed vessel
the size of a pea, globose, 3-celled, loculicidal, with pulpy seeds.

Habitat.--Tayabas, Laguna, Ilocos North, San Mateo, Albay. Flowers
in April.



RHAMNACEÆ.

Buckthorn Family.



_Zizyphus Jujuba, Lam._ (_Rhamnus Jujuba_, L. & Blanco;
_Z. Mauritania_, Wall.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Manzanitas_, Sp.-Fil.; _Jujube Fruit_, Eng.

Uses.--The small fruit known commonly as _manzanitas_ has an agreeable
taste, although ordinarily offered for sale before they are quite
ripe. They are among the most popular dainties at the fairs and
festivals in the provinces of Manila and are the only part of the plant
used in medicine. They possess emollient qualities and are official
in the codex. They enter in the composition of the so-called pectoral
remedies (composed of equal parts of figs, dates, Corinthian raisins
and manzanitas).

Botanical Description.--A shrub, with hooked thorns, leaves alternate,
petiolate, coriaceous, entire, 3-nerved, 2 thorny stipules, one
of them crooked. Flowers small, greenish, axillary. Calyx, 5 oval
divisions. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 5, free. Ovary bilocular,
situated on the disc. Styles 2-3, divergent; small papillary
stigmas. Drupe pulpy, globose, resembling a crab-apple in size and
taste, enclosing a hard, 2-celled seed.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the islands.



_Rhamnus Wightii_, W. & Arn. (_Ceanothus Wightiana_, Wall.;
_R. Carolianus_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kabatiti_, Tag.

Uses.--The dried trunk bark is the part employed in medicine. Hooper
analyzed it in 1888 and found a crystalline principle (0.47%), a
brown resin (0.85), a red resin (1.15), a bitter principle (1.23),
sugar, starch, calcium, oxalate, etc.

As the active principles exist in the resins, an alcoholic tincture
of the latter is the best preparation for administration. In India
it is used as a tonic and an astringent.

Botanical Description.--A small tree that grows near the sea
coast. Trunk 9-12° high, straight, many-branched, devoid of
thorns. Leaves alternate, ovate, acutely serrate, glabrous,
short-petioled. Flowers greenish-white, axillary, perfect. Calyx
5-toothed, inversely conical. Corolla, 5 petals, smaller than the
teeth of the calyx, oval, without claws, notched at the apex. Disc
fleshy, smooth, slightly concave. Stamens 5, hidden within
the petals. Filaments flattened. Anthers rounded. Ovary fleshy,
inserted at the bottom of the calyx tube. Style short. Stigmas 3,
divergent. Fruit oval, its base adherent to the calyx, 3 seeds.

Habitat.--Batangas. Blooms in July and October.



ANACARDIACEÆ.

Cashew Family.



_Mangifera Indica_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Manga._

Uses.--The dried and pulverized kernel of the seed is used as an
anthelmintic in doses of 1 1/2-2 grams both in India and Brazil. The
same preparation is used in the Philippines in the treatment of
dysentery and diarrhoea and its effect is doubtless due to the large
quantity of tannin it contains. It is administered as follows: The
pounded kernels of 20-25 seeds are brought to a boil in 2 bottles
(sic) of water. When the liquid has evaporated a third, it is
removed from the fire, cooled, decanted, and again placed on the
fire after adding three to four hundred grams of sugar. This time
it is allowed to boil till reduced to one bottle. The dose is 50-60
grams 2-3 times a day. Incisions in the trunk exude a brownish resin
which solidifies in the air, is slightly acrid, bitter, dissolves in
alcohol and partially in water. In Malabar it is given internally
in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, mixing it with white
of egg and opium. But the curative value of the combination is more
likely due to the albumen and opium than to the resin. Dissolved in
lemon juice it is a useful application in the itch. The trunk bark
is astringent and is employed in decoction as a wash for ulcers and
eczema and as an injection in leucorrhoea.

The fruit is one of the most highly prized in the Philippines, and
resident Europeans are able to eat large quantities of it without ill
effects unless the fruit is over-ripe, in which case it often causes
transient diarrhoea, which should be treated with a mild purge.

In Mauritius the following compound powder is used in dysentery:


        Dried slices of manga fruit             30 grams.
        Dried manga kernels                     60 grams.
        Plantain seeds                          15 grams.
        Dried ginger                             8 grams.
        Gum arabic                              15 grams.
        Pulverize each ingredient separately;
        add powdered candy sugar                30 grams.


Mix.

Dose.--For an adult one dessert-spoonful every 4 hours; may be given
in cauge or arrowroot.

The flowers, testa and bark are, in Hindoo therapeutics, considered
"cold," and "astringent," and are used especially in diarrhoea. In
certain throat affections the Hindoos employ the burning leaves for
inhalation. They also use the gum made by evaporating the juice of
the ripe fruit, as a confection and an antiscorbutic. Dr. Linguist
recommends the bark as a local astringent in uterine, intestinal and
pulmonary hemorrhage and employs the following:

_Fluid Extract_.--


        Fluid extract of manga bark         10 grams.
        Water                              120 grams.


Mix. Dose, 1 teaspoonful every 1 or 2 hours.


Botanical Description.--A noble tree, 30° to 40° high, dome-like
or rotund in outline. Leaves dark green, lustrous, alternate,
lanceolate, entire; short petioles. Flowers racemose, in verticillate
panicles. Calyx, 4, 5 or 6 sepals. Corolla white, fragrant, 4, 5 or
6 petals. Stamens 5, of which perhaps 1, 2 or 3 are fertile. Style on
one side of the ovary. Stigma simple. Fruit large, reniform, fleshy,
yellow when ripe; contains a large, flattened, reniform pit. Blooms
from January even till June. The natives force the fruit by building
fires under the trees when but little air is stirring.

Habitat.--Common throughout the islands.



_Anacardium occidentale_, L. (_Cassuvium reniforme_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kasuy_, Tag.; _Caskew Nut_, Eng.

Uses.--The pericarp of the nut contains an essential oil which is very
irritant and used by the Hindoos as a vesicant; it severely blisters
the lips and tongues of imprudent persons who break the nut without
taking the precaution of cleansing it of the oil before opening it. In
addition to the oil called _cardol_, the pericarp contains an especial
acid _anacardic_, a little tannin and ammonia. Cardol (C_21_H_31_O_2_)
is an oleaginous, yellow liquid very unstable, neutral, soluble
in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water, volatile, and vesicant if
applied to the skin. "Anacardic" acid is white, crystalline, odorless,
with a burning, aromatic taste. It melts at 26° and decomposes at 200°
forming a colorless oil; it is not vesicant, burns with a dark flame,
and has the odor of rancid oil. A tincture of the pericarp has been
made (1 part to 10 of alcohol) and given internally as a vermifuge
in doses of 2-10 drops. Cardol, according to some authors, does not
exercise a vesicant action in the gastro-intestinal canal, because it
is not dissolved by the gastro-intestinal juices; I am sure, however,
that I have seen a choleraic diarrhoea brought on by swallowing,
in fun, the pericarp of one nut and a half. Cardol is eliminated by
the urine.

The kernel is edible and has a very agreeable taste when roasted. By
expression it yields a sweet, yellowish oil, density 0.916.

The trunk exudes a gum resin in masses varying in color from red
to yellow.

The fleshy part, called the fruit, is edible but contains a certain
quantity of cardol not only evidenced by the odor but by the
smarting of the mouth and throat after eating. It is very juicy and
the expressed liquid is fermented in Bombay and distilled to make a
very weak alcohol which sells for the very low price of 4 annas (5
cents gold) a gallon. This alcohol is again distilled and a stronger
obtained which sells for 1 1/2 rupees a gallon. The Portuguese of
India make a sort of wine from the fermented juice of the fruit,
which, like the weak alcohol we have mentioned, is a well-known
diuretic and is used as a liniment.

The gum resin of the trunk contains 90% of anacardic acid and 10%
cardol. Wood soaked in it is preserved from the ravages of insects,
especially of white ants, for which purpose it is used by bookbinders
also. Therapeutically it is used externally in leprosy, old ulcers
and to destroy corns, but on account of its rubefacient and vesicant
qualities it is necessary to use it cautiously.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 18° high, with leaves cuneiform,
glabrous, stiff, short-petioled. Flowers polygamous in terminal
panicles. Calyx with 5 erect segments, imbricated, caducous. Corolla,
5 linear, lanceolate petals, curved and imbricated. Stamens 8-10,
all fertile. Filaments united to one another and to the disc. Ovary
heart-shaped. Style filiform and eccentric. Stigma defective. Ovule
solitary. Fruit a reniform nut enclosed in a pulpy pyriform body,
formed by the matured disc and extremity of the peduncle. Seed
reniform, testa membranous.

Habitat.--Common throughout the Archipelago. Blooms in February.



_Odina Wodier_, Roxb.

Nom. Vulg.--_Amugis_, Tag. and Vis.

Uses.--The bark is very astringent and in decoction is used for
chronic ulcers. In India Dr. Kirkpatrick has used it as a lotion in
impetigo. It has also given good results as a gargle in affections
of the pharynx and buccal cavity.

The trunk exudes a gum called in India "kanni ki gond," an article
of commerce. It is almost odorless and has a disagreeable taste. It
is only partially soluble in water, forming a viscid mucilage. It is
used in the treatment of contusions and sprains and is edible when
mixed with cocoanut milk.

Botanical Description.--A tree, with leaves bunched at the extremities
of the branches, oblong, oval, acuminate, odd-pinnate, 3-4 pairs of
opposite leaflets. Flowers greenish-white, polygamous, in terminal
panicles. Calyx gamosepalous, 4 rounded lobules. Corolla, 4 imbricated
petals. Stamens 8, free. Ovary 4-parted. Pistillate flowers; ovary
sessile, oblong, unilocular. Style 4-parted, thick. Drupe oblong,
compressed, unicellular. Testa hard, with 1 non-albuminous kernel.

Habitat.--San Mateo.



MORINGEÆ.



_Moringa pterygosperma_, Gaertn. (_M. oleifera_, Lamk.; _M. poligona_,
DC.; _Guilandina Moringa_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Malungay_, _Kamalungay_, _Kalungay_, Tag.; _Dool_,
_Malungit_, Vis. and Pam.; _Horse Radish Tree_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The root is vesicant and the Filipinos bruise it and use it for
sinapisms. I have often observed, however, that it is quite painful
used in this way. Dr. Waitz states that it is a good plan to add a few
drops of the root juice to mustard sinapisms, a proceeding which seems
to me superfluous, especially in the case of children as he advises it.

The Bengal pharmacopoeia contains the following official preparations:

_Compound Spirit_.--


        Small pieces of moringa root    }
        Orange peel                     }   aa 600 grams.
        Nutmeg                                  20 grams.
        Spirit of wine                           4 1/2 liters.
        Water                                    1 liter.


Mix and distil 4 liters.

Dose.--8-30 cc. as a stimulant and diuretic.

_Compound Infusion_.--


        Moringa root, small pieces, bruised }
        Mustard seed                        }   aa 30 grams.
        Boiling water                              1/2 liter.
        Let stand 2 hours, filter and add
        compound spirit.                           30 grams.


Dose.--30-60 grams a day, as a strong stimulant.

The expressed seeds yield a fixed oil, which is irritating and in my
opinion should not be used internally.

The green pods, the flowers and the tender shoots of the leaves are
eaten stewed. The juice of the leaves is given internally in India,
as an emetic, in doses of 30 grams.

Botanical Description.--A well-known tree, 5-6 meters high. Leaves
3-pinnate, their terminal divisions odd-pinnate. Leaflets oval,
glabrous, entire. Calyx, 5 unequal petaloid segments, imbricated,
caducous. Corolla white, 5 unequal petals. Stamens inserted on the
border of a disc, unequal, 5 opposite the petals bearing anthers,
5 alternate without anthers. Anthers dorsal, unilocular. Ovary
pedunculate, lanceolate, unilocular, with many ovules in 2 series,
inserted on the parietal placentæ. Fruit a pod terminating in a beak,
3-valved. Seeds numerous, very large, winged, embedded in a spongy
substance.

Habitat.--Common throughout the islands. Blooms in November.



LEGUMINOSÆ. (PAPILIONACEÆ.)

Pulse Family.



_Agati grandiflora_, Desv. (_Sesbania grandiflora_, Pers.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Katuray_, Tag.

Uses.--The flowers are edible. They and the leaves are purgative
and are given in decoction for this purpose, 30-40 grams to 200 of
water. The juice of the flowers is a popular remedy in India, for
migraine and coryza. The trunk bark is bitter and tonic.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 4-6 meters high, with drooping
limbs; leaves long, very narrow, abruptly pinnate; many caducous
leaflets, linear, elliptical. Flowers large, white, fragrant, in
axillary racemes. Calyx bell-shaped with two indistinct lips. Corolla
papilionaceous, white. Standard oval, a slight notch at the apex. Wings
almost as large as the keel which is strongly arched. Stamens 10,
diadelphous. Anthers uniform. Style and stamens equally long. Stigma
a small head. Pod 1-2° long, linear, 4-sided, containing many oval
seeds, separated by filamentous partitions.

Habitat.--Grows in all sections of Luzon and Panay.



_Abrus precatorius_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Saga_, _Sagamamin_, _Bangati_, Tag.; _Bangati Gikosgikos_,
Vis.; _Kanaasaga_, Pam.; _Bugayon_, Iloc.; _Jequiriti_, _Prayerbeads_,
Eng.

Uses.--The part of the plant most important in therapeutics is the
seed, the size of a small pea, bright red with a black spot, hard and
shining. The Filipino children use them to make rosaries and other
decorations. In the distant past the Filipinos used these seeds to
weigh gold, a practice followed even to-day by the Hindoos. The famous
Susrutas, author of the "Ayur Veda," recommends them internally for
nervous diseases; modern therapeutics, however, limits their use
to one disease, though that is frequent and stubborn enough, namely
chronic granular conjunctivitis.

Some physicians state that these seeds are poisonous and others the
contrary, but the fact that they are used as food among the poor
classes of Egypt, demonstrates their harmlessness in the digestive
tract at least; when introduced into the circulation they undoubtedly
exercise a toxic effect. We have already mentioned that their use
is limited nowadays to the therapeutics of the eye; the decoction of
the seeds known in Europe under the name of "Jaqueriti"--so named in
Brazil--produces a purulent inflammation of the healthy conjunctiva and
it is precisely this counter-irritant effect which makes it useful in
chronic granular conjunctivitis, the persistence of which has defied
the most heroic measures of therapeutics. The French oculist, Dr. de
Wecker, was the first to employ jequirity for this purpose, in the
form of a 24 hours' maceration of the seeds, 10 grams to 500 grams of
water. It is necessary to use a product recently prepared and with
this several applications a day are made. It is now known that the
inflammation of the healthy conjunctiva is not caused by germ-life
contained in the solution but by an inorganic ferment discovered
by Bruylans and Venneman and named jequiritin; they state that it
is produced during the germination of the seeds or of the cells in
the powdered seeds. Warden and Waddell, of Calcutta, have isolated
an essential oil, an acid named "ábric" and an amorphous substance
called abrin, obtained by precipitation with alcohol from a watery
infusion of the pulverized seeds. Its action is identical with that of
"jequiritin."

The infusion appears to possess considerable value as a stimulating
application to indolent ulcers.

The root is a good substitute for licorice, is emollient and has an
agreeable taste. The extract is useful in catarrhal diseases of the
bronchi and in dysuria. The leaves contain the same properties as
the root and an extract prepared from them is used as a substitute
for licorice.

Botanical Description.--A vine, with leaves opposite, abruptly pinnate,
a stylet taking the place of the terminal leaflet. Leaflets linear,
entire, glabrous, tipped with a small point. Common petiole with
2 awl-shaped stipules at the base. Flowers in small racemes. Calyx
gamosepalous, caducous, 4-5 short teeth. Corolla papilionaceous, wings
horizontal. Stamens 9, monadelphous with bilocular anthers. Style
very short. Stigma globose. Pod 4-5 cm. long, truncate at the ends,
with 5-6 red seeds, each with a black spot.

Habitat.--Common in all mountainous regions of the islands. Grows
near houses and roads.



_Mucuna pruriens_, DC. (_M. prurita_, Hook.; _M. utilis_, Wall.;
_Dolichos pruriens_, L.; _Carpopogon pruriens_, Roxb.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Nipay_, _Lipay_, Vis.

Uses.--The pods are official as an anthelmintic in the Pharmacopoeia
of India. They are used in the form of an electuary triturated to the
proper consistency with honey or syrup. The dose for adults is one
soupspoonful, and for children a teaspoonful, given every morning
for 3-4 consecutive days. The last day a purge is given to expel
the lumbricoids.

Botanical Description.--A vine with ternate leaves. Flowers red,
keel larger than the standard and wings. Pods about as thick as the
little finger, lacking transverse grooves, curved in the form of the
letter f, covered with bright red down, which causes an unendurable
itching. They are divided into 3 or 4 oblique cells each containing
a brown, shiny seed.

Habitat.--Luzon and Panay.



_Erythrina Indica_, Lam. (_E. corallodendron_, L.; _E. carnea_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Dapdap_, _Kasindik_, Tag.; _Dapdap_, _Kabrab_, Vis.;
_Dapdap_, _Sulbang_, Pam.; _Indian Coral Tree_, Eng.

Uses.--This tree is well known on account of the beauty of its
crimson flowers. The decoction of the leaves is a useful cleansing
and deodorizing application for ulcers. The bruised leaves are used
locally in painful affections of the joints and to abort syphilitic
buboes and abscesses of all kinds. The juice of the tender leaves
is used in Concan to destroy maggots in ulcers, and the powder has
a similar use. A decoction is used locally in ophthalmia.

The root and the leaves are used as a febrifuge in the Philippines and
in India, according to Wight. In Brazil the bark is given in small
repeated doses as a hypnotic and in the Philippines as a diuretic
and purgative; a decoction of the leaves is similarly used. The
bark contains an alkaloid discovered by Rochefontaine and Rey, called
_erythrin_, which acts upon the central nervous system, diminishing its
normal functions even to the point of abolishment, without modifying
motor excitability or muscular contractility. W. Young isolated
a glucoside, _migarrhin_, similar to saponin, but possessing the
additional property of dilating the pupil.

In bronchitis with dyspnoea the following infusion of bark is very
useful:


        Fresh bark,                 }
        Freshly bruised leaves,     } aa  2 grams.
        Water                         1,500 grams.

Boil till reduced one-half, filter and add:

        Simple syrup                    200 grams.


Dose: Wineglassful every two hours.

Botanical Description.--A large tree, 20° high, thorny, with ternate
leaves. Leaflets rhomboid, broad, entire, glabrous. Secondary petioles:
that of the middle leaflet long, bearing 2 glands, those of the others
short, bearing 1 gland each. The leaves fall at the end of the rainy
season and the flowers bloom. They are a handsome scarlet color,
large, in terminal racemes. Calyx half-cylindrical, oblique, truncate,
entire. Corolla papilionaceous; standard elongated, lanceolate. Wings
short. Keel very short, 2-lobuled. Stamens diadelphous. Anthers
large. Ovary woolly. Stigma thick. Pod curved, rounded, furrowed in
parts corresponding to the seeds which are numerous, oval, pointed
at the ends.

Habitat.--Common throughout the islands. Blooms in February.



_Clitoria ternatea,_ L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Kolokanting_, _Pakingang_, Tag.; _Kolokating_, Vis.;
_Butterfly-pea_, Eng.

Uses.--The pounded seeds mixed with oil are used locally for painful
joints. They possess purgative and emetic properties and Dr. J. Shartt
has employed a mixture of the powdered roasted seeds, 8 grams, with
double the quantity of acid tartrate of potassium. Its action is
gentle, but sure. The alcoholic extract of the root, a soft, brown,
resinous substance with an odor recalling that of jalap, is a very
active cathartic, producing sharp effects in doses of 30-60 centigrams;
in fact it produces such severe tenesmus that its use in such doses
should not be recommended.

The root bark is used internally in an infusion (4-8 grams to 1 liter
of water) as an emollient in irritability of the bladder and urethra
and has been recommended for such a purpose by Mooden Sheriff. It
is a diuretic which frequently acts as a purgative, a fact that
is not surprising in view of the above-mentioned properties of the
alcoholic extract.

The roasted seeds used as a purgative are so trustworthy that they
deserve the further attention of physicians.

Botanical Description.--A vine very well known by its blue
flowers. Leaves alternate with 3 pairs of oval leaflets. Stipules
persistent. Flowers axillary, solitary, 1-1 1/2' in long
diameter. Calyx in 5 acute divisions, the two upper ones
smaller. Corolla papilionaceous. Standard open, notched at the
end. Keel shorter than the wings and covered by them. Stamens 10,
9 united and 1 free. Stigma downy, thick. Pod full of short hairs,
with more than 6 surrounded with a tow-like substance, reniform,
with black spots.

Habitat.--Common along the roads and in gardens. Flowers in July
and November.



_1. Pterocarpus santalinus_, L. [5]

Nom. Vulg.--_Narra_, _Naga_, Tag.; _Apalit_, _Daytanag_, Pam.; _Red
Saunders_ or _Red Sandalwood Tree_, Eng.

_2. P. Indicus,_ Willd. (_P. pallidus_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Asana_, Tag.; _Naga_, Vis.

_3. P. erinaceus_, Poir. (_P. echinatus_, Pers. & DC.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Asana_, _Narra_, Tag.

Uses.--The wood of the first is the so-called "red sandalwood." It
is used for building purposes and, in medicine, as an astringent. In
decoction it is used as a gargle for sore throat. The second is
also an excellent building material and is used medicinally for its
astringent properties. A decoction of sufficient strength to color
the water a light blue is used as a mouth wash in toothache and has
some reputation as a solvent of vesical calculi. All three species
yield a resin known in pharmacy under the name of "kino." The true
gum kino is really produced by the _P. marsupium_, Roxb., but the
Philippine product, especially that of the second and third species,
has for a long time been exported to Europe under the name of "red
astringent gum" or "kino." This name is given to the sap of these
trees dried without the aid of artificial heat. The bark is the part
which produces it and the following extractive process is employed in
Madras: a vertical incision is made in the trunk and lateral incisions
perpendicular to it and a receptacle is placed at the foot of the
tree. This soon fills and when the gum is sufficiently dried by air
and sun it is packed in boxes and exported.

In respect to appearance, solubility and chemical composition,
Flückiger and Hanbury were unable to discover any difference between
the kino of _P. marsupium_, Roxb., and that of _P. erinaceus_, Poir. It
is therefore interesting to consider a product that is identical with
that described in the pharmacopoeias as produced by the _P. marsupium_,
Roxb., though the latter does not grow in the Philippines.

Kino is at present used but little in therapeutics and its action is
analogous to that of tannin and catechu. It is given internally for
its astringent effect in chronic diarrhoea, leucorrhoea, blenorrhoea
and hemorrhages. The dose of the powder is 1-4 grams, and of the
alcoholic tincture, containing 20 parts kino to 100 of alcohol,
5-10 grams. In prolapse of the rectum and anal fissure the following
solution is used by enema:


                Kino            3 grams.
                Water         500 grams.


For vaginal injections a solution of 20 to 250 water.

Botanical Description.--The "pterocarpus," L., is a tree of
the first order with odd-pinnate leaves. Leaflets alternate and
coriaceous. Flowers yellow, in racemes, with caducous bracts and
bractlets. Calyx turbinate, with short teeth. Petals exserted,
markedly unguiculate. Standard and wings curled. Keel obtuse with
its petals slightly or not at all coherent. The staminal tube,
cleft above and below or above only. Stamens superior, often almost,
and at times entirely, free. Anthers versatile. Ovary pedunculate,
with 2 ovules. Style curved. Stigma terminal. Pod orbicular, smooth or
spiny, usually containing one seed, encircled by a broad, rigid wing,
the point curved downward.

Habitat.--In the mountains of Luzon, Panay and Mindoro. Blooms
in March.



_Pongamia glabra_, Vent. (_Robinia mitis_, L.; _Gadelupa maculata_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Balikbalik_, Tag.; _Butong_, Vis.

Uses.--The oil expressed from the seeds is used in India for lighting
purposes, and in addition is of notable therapeutic value. It is an
excellent local remedy for the itch, for herpes and especially for
pityriasis versicolor, used alone or emulsified with lemon juice. In
stubborn cases Dymock recommends the addition of oil of _hydrocarpus_,
camphor and powdered sulphur. Dr. Gibson states that he knows of
no plant in the vegetable kingdom possessing more notable curative
properties in itch, herpes and other cutaneous diseases than the
plant under consideration. It is also used as an embrocation in
articular rheumatism.

The powdered leaves mixed with common salt and pepper are given
internally with a little milk, as a remedy for leprosy.

The juice of the root makes a useful wash for gangrenous ulcers and
a good injection for fistula.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 18° high, with leaves opposite,
odd-pinnate. Leaflets in 3 pairs, ovate, lanceolate, entire,
glabrous and membranaceous. Flowers slightly spotted, racemose. Calyx
bell-shaped, with 5 scarcely visible toothlets. Corolla papilionaceous,
petals equal, clawed. Standard with 2 callosities athwart the
base. Stamens 10, diadelphous. Pod with one seed, which is flat,
smooth, veined, bright red.

Habitat.--Luzon and Panay. Blooms in October.



LEGUMINOSÆ.

Brasiletto Family.



_Cæsalpinia Bonducella_, Flem. (_Guilandina Bonducella_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bayag-Kambing_, _Kalambibit_, Tag.; _Dalugdug_, Vis.;
_Fever Nut_, _Physic Nut_, _Bonduc Seeds_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The seed is the part of the plant employed and is official in
the Pharmacopoeia of India. It is used as a tonic and antiperiodic
in intermittent fevers and in general where tonic treatment is
indicated. It has given good results in the malarial fevers of India,
according to English physicians. The Pharmacopoeia of India contains
the following preparation under the name of "Compound Powder of Bonduc"
(Pulvis bonducellæ compositus).


        Seeds of Bonduc, powdered     30 grams.
        Pepper                        30 grams.


Mix and keep in a well-corked flask.

Dose.--1-2 grams 3 times a day.

In the Philippines the powdered seed is given in affections of the
digestive tract, especially in diarrhoea and feeble digestion. The same
name of Bonduc is given to the seeds of another species that grows in
the Philippines, _C. Bonduc_, Roxb.; _Kamot-Kabag_, _Bayan-Kambing_,
Tag. The seeds are identical in chemical composition and therapeutic
indication.

The two principal substances contained in the seeds are an oil, 24%
and a resin, 1.88%. The former is straw-colored and slightly bitter
by virtue of the presence of a resin that may be precipitated by
alcohol. The resin or bitter principle exists as an amorphous powder,
white, bitter, not acrid, soluble in chloroform, alcohol, acetone,
crystallizable acetic acid, fixed and essential oils; slightly soluble
in ether and bisulphide of carbon, insoluble in water and petroleum
ether. The alkalies do not affect it. It melts at 140°, decomposing and
leaving only a carbon. Its discoverers, Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen,
have given it the name _bonducin_ (C_14_H_15_O_5_). Hydrochloric acid
colors it red; sulphuric acid, a maranthin red in half an hour.

Bonducin seems to be the active principle of the seeds and is given
internally in doses of 10-20 centigrams; according to Dr. Isnard,
of Marseilles, this dose has given as good results in fevers as the
same quantity of quinine.

Botanical Description.--A shrub with prostrate stem bristling with
thorns. Leaves twice abruptly pinnate, a thorn taking the place
of the terminal leaflet. Leaflets in 10-14 pairs, ovate, expanded,
with a spine at the apex. Common petioles thorny, with 4 leaf-like
stipules at the base. Flowers yellow, in racemes. Calyx 5-parted,
curved downward. Corolla inserted on the calyx, 5 petals, 4 nearly
equal, the uppermost broader and shorter. Stamens 10. Filaments
very unequal in height, inserted on the calyx, united and woolly
at the base. Pistil very short. Stigma thick. Pod rhomboidal before
maturity, prickly, containing 2 semi-globose seeds with testa hard,
mottled and tough.

The other species, _C. Bonduc_, Roxb., is distinguished by leaflets
unequal at the base, by the absence of stipules, and by the bright
orange yellow seeds.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon, Panay and Joló. Blooms in December.



_Cæsalpinia Sappan_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Sibukao_, _Sapag_, Tag.; _Palo del Brasil_, Sp.; _Sappan
Wood_, Eng.

Uses.--The decoction of Sibukao is given in hemorrhages, especially
of the lungs. It is probably the red color of this decoction which
originated the idea of giving it to check bleeding, and this is the
practice of the native Filipino doctors, as well as of the Arabs
and Hindoos. The natives of Cochin China, reasoning in an opposite
manner, prescribe it as emmenagogue. Some authors recommend Sibukao
as a substitute for logwood. The decoction is administered in chronic
diarrhoea, especially that of children. A few cases of phlebitis have
been reported as occasioned by its use. The extract is made as follows:


        Sibukao in small pieces      500 grams.
        Boiling water                  4 1/2 liters.


Macerate for 24 hours, boil until reduced by half, filter and evaporate
the filtrate to a syrupy consistency. Do not use iron vessels.

Sibukao contains much tannin and gallic acid, and a peculiar substance
which distinguishes it from logwood, _brasilin_ (C_22_H_20_O_7_),
which gives a red color to alkaline solutions instead of blue or
purple. It is a crystalline pigment which may be considered a compound
of hematoxylon and fenol.

Botanical Description.--A very common tree, 12-15° high, with spiny
trunk, leaves twice abruptly pinnate. Leaflets linear, notched at
the apex. Flowers racemose. Calyx boat-shaped. Corolla, 5 petals,
the uppermost broad, short, spotted red. Stigma bifid. Pod sabre-like,
woody, with 3-4 seeds separated by partitions. The wood is well known
everywhere in the Philippines, being a very important article of
commerce, and there is no fear of logwood being substituted for it,
as the latter is more expensive, and substitutions are not ordinarily
made under such circumstances. In commerce it occurs in large pieces of
all shapes and forms, since the branches and trunks are cut into pieces
which vary from 1/2-2 meters in length. Its color is reddish-yellow
or white with more or less red grain. Blooms in September.



_Cæsalpinia pulcherrima_, Swartz. (_Poinciana pulcherrima_, L. &
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Flores y Rosas Caballero_, _Caballero_, Sp.-Fil.;
_Barbadoes Flower-Fence_, Eng.

Uses.--The leaves are emmenagogue, purgative like those of senna,
and excitant. The bark especially is a powerful emmenagogue, used in
some countries for criminal purposes. The decoction of the flowers is
pectoral and febrifuge and is given in bronchitis, asthma and malarial
fever. The flowers contain a bitter principle. The roots are acrid
and poisonous. The seeds of the green fruit are eaten frequently by
children; when ripe they contain gallic and tannic acids, by virtue
of which they are used in tanning hides and to dye yellow combined
with alum, and black combined with salts of iron. They also contain
a pigment and a resin.

Infusion of the Flowers.--


        Flowers of the caballero, dry          20 grams.
        Water                                 500 grams.
        Sugar                                  70 grams.


Mix. Dose, a wineglassful several times a day.

Botanical Description.--A shrub, with prickly trunk. Leaves
twice abruptly pinnate. Leaflets 5-8 pairs, glabrous, ovate and
elliptical, bearing a spine at the extremity, 3 stipules to each
pair of leaflets. Flowers yellow and red, in racemes on the ends
of the branches. Calyx divided almost to the base, with 5 concave
parts. Corolla, 5 petals 1' long with short claws, one petal very small
and straight, the others larger, with wavy edges. Stamens 10, crimson,
3' long, free, woolly, united at the lower end. Pistil the same length
as the stamens. Stigma somewhat concave. Ovary sessile, unilocular,
many-ovuled. Pod compressed, with 7 or more seeds inserted on the
superior suture and separated from each other by fleshy divisions.

Habitat.--Very common in gardens where it is cultivated for its
beautiful flowers. Blooms throughout the entire year.



_Cassia fistula_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Cañafistula_, Sp.; _Lombayong_, _Ibabaw_, _Baloyong_,
Vis.; _Purging Cassia_, Eng.

Uses.--The pod known in pharmacy under the name of "Cañafistula"
contains a blackish, sweet pulp, which is a mild purgative if combined
with carminatives, but it produces severe colic if given alone. The
urine sometimes takes on a dark color after taking it. The laxative
dose is 4-8 grams, the purgative 30-60.

Extract of Cassia.--


        Pulp and seeds of ripe pods       1 kilo.
        Water                             1 liter.


After mixing the pulp with water the liquid is strained through a
woolen cloth; the material which remains in the strainer is washed
with a little more cold water which is added to the other liquid and
the two are evaporated to the consistency of the extract.

Dose.--15-30 grams.

Dr. Irving states that the root is a very energetic purgative. In
Concan the juice of the tender leaves is used in the treatment of
impetigo.

Botanical Description.--A tree with trunk about as thick as the
human body, with leaves opposite and abruptly pinnate. Leaflets,
the lower ones smaller, 5 pairs, ovate, lanceolate, glabrous
and rather tough. Common petiole, cleft at the base, lacking
glandule. Flowers bright yellow, in long, pendulous racemes. Calyx,
5 ovate sepals. Corolla, 5 unequal petals. Stamens 10, free, 3
longer than the rest. Ovary unilocular, many-ovuled. Pod cylindrical,
pointed at the end, woody, black, 1-2° long, with many circular seeds,
surrounded by a blackish pulp and separated by partitions.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon and Panay. Blooms in March.



_Cassia occidentalis_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Tighiman_, _Balotangaso_, Tag.; _Tambalisa_, Vis.;
_Western Senna_, _Styptic Weed_, Eng.; _Negro Coffee_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--In Brazil they use an infusion of the root as a tonic and
diuretic, 4 grams of the root bark and 180 of boiling water to be taken
in one day. In Dahomey the leaves are used as a febrifuge. Thirty
grams of fresh leaves are boiled in 300 grams of water till the
liquid is reduced to 250 grams. The patient takes this decoction
hot the first day of the fever and a profuse perspiration promptly
breaks out. As a rule the effect is immediate and the fever does not
recur. This treatment of fevers is more common in that country than
that by quinine and they claim that it has the advantage over the
latter of acting as a stomachic tonic. By adding a small quantity
of the roots to the decoction it is rendered diuretic. The seeds
possess the same properties and are used in decoctions of 30 grams
to 300 of water. According to De Lanesan the roasted seeds are used
in La Réunion in infusion similar to coffee in the treatment of
gastralgia and asthma. In some countries they mix them with coffee
just as chicory is used in Europe.

Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen have made a very complete study of the
plant and we quote the following from their works:

Chemical composition of the seeds.--


        Water                                           8.850
        Fats and pigments soluble in petroleum ether    1.600
        Fats and pigments soluble in chloroform         1.150
        Odorous material and traces of tannin           5.022
        Glucose                                         0.738
        Gummy, mucilaginous and pectic matter          15.734
        Soluble albuminoids and aleuron                 6.536
        Cellulose                                       7.434
        Insoluble albuminose                            2.216
        Lignose                                        32.727
        Fixed salts                                    17.976
        Lost material                                    .017
                                                      -------
                                                      100.000


Previous to the studies of the above authors the seeds had been
therapeutically tested by Delioux de Savignac and Professor
Clouet. Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen have confirmed the febrifuge
virtues of the seeds and are uncertain as to the active principle
since they found no glucoside or alkaloid in their analysis. The
antiperiodic properties are comparable with those of quinine and have
even proved effective in some cases in which quinine failed. It seems
quite clear that the tannin is the active principle which is the
more probable because its anti-periodic virtues are now recognized
by all therapeutists.

It is given in maceration or infusion, 2-15 grams of the seeds to 3
or 400 of water to be taken several times a day. The treatment causes
no very marked physiological effects. It seems to act as a sedative
to the nervous system.

Botanical Description.--An annual plant, .60-1 meter high. Root
central with lateral rootlets. Stem straight, ramose. Leaves opposite,
abruptly pinnate with a stylet in place of the odd leaflet. Leaflets,
5-6 pairs, the lower ones smaller, ovate, oblong, margins and lower
face downy. Common petiole swollen at the base, 2 stipules and 1
glandule. Calyx, 5 unequal sepals. Corolla, 5 nearly equal petals,
sulphur yellow, concave, the posterior one further developed. Two
verticils of 5 stamens each. Of the 5 stamens superior to the sepals,
2 are fertile, larger and arched; of the other 5 stamens 4 are fertile
and small. Pod compressed, linear, smooth, 5' long, containing many
compressed, heart-shaped seeds, separated by thin partitions.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon. Blooms in October.



_Cassia alata_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Acapulco_, Sp.-Fil.; _Katandá_, _Gamut sa Buni_,
_Sonting_, Tag.; _Sunting, Kansitás_, Vis.; _Pakayomkom-kastila_, Pam.

Uses.--This is one of the most popular Philippine remedies and its
usefulness is vouched for by many physicians practicing in many
different lands. Its antiherpetic properties are notable and the
Tagalo name of the plant, "Gamut sa Buni," means literally "medicine
for herpes." The natives use the juice of the leaf applied locally
to the affected part. These properties have long been familiar to
the Malays and to the Hindoos who in their medical works give the
plant the Sanscrit name of "Dadrughna," meaning "to cure herpes." The
Pharmacopoeia of Bengal recommends cassia in the form of an ointment
made by mixing the crushed tender leaves with simple ointment. This
preparation is, in our opinion, undesirable on account of its liability
to become rancid and vaseline should be the excipient used. Another
application for herpetic eruptions is the juice of the leaves mixed
with an equal quantity of lemon juice. The Malays use the leaves dried
in the sun, adding to them a little water and rubbing them briskly
on the affected parts, the vigorous treatment being an important part
of the cure.

The decoction of the leaves is a laxative and according to Mr. J. Wood
the tincture has an action similar to that of senna. Dr. Pulney Andy
of India states that the extract prepared from the tender leaves is
a good substitute for extract of colocynth.

Mr. A. Porte claims to have obtained the best results with an acetic
extract of the fresh leaves. The following is his formula:


        Fresh leaves of _C. alata_          100 grams.
        Acetic acid diluted in 2/3 water    450 grams.


Macerate 10 or 12 days, filter and express, then filter again and
evaporate to the consistency of an extract.

The seeds contain vermifuge principles.

The activity of this plant in herpes is due to the chrysophanic acid
contained in it. The more recent the eruption the more certain is
the effect.

The following species, all of which grow in the Philippines, contain
principles analogous to those of the _C. alata_, viz.: _C. sophera_,
L. and _C. tora_, L., called in Tagalo _manimanihan_.

Botanical Description.--A shrub, 7-9° high, with a straight, ramose
trunk 3-4' in diameter. Leaves 1 1/2-2° long, opposite, abruptly
pinnate, a thick stylet taking the place of the odd leaflet. Leaflets
10-13 pairs, the smaller ones 1-2' long. Common petiole with 2
horizontal stipules at the base. Flowers in conspicuous, erect
racemes. Calyx, 5 free concave, unequal sepals. Corolla, 5 petals of
a beautiful yellow color. Stamens perigynous, 10 in number, 3 upper
ones very small and frequently sterile, 3 lower very large. The
bilocular anthers open by 2 pores. Ovary many-ovuled with filiform
style. Pod long with 2 prominent wings on the sides and many seeds
which slightly resemble a cross with blunt ends.

The _C. sophera_, L., is characterized by 10 stamens, all fertile
and a smooth, linear, bivalved pod full of seeds separated by false
partitions. The _C. tora_, L., bears a quadrangular pod about 15
centimeters long by 2 in diameter.

Habitat.--Grows in all parts of the islands and is universally known
by the natives. Blooms in May.



_Tamarindus Indica_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Tamarindo_, Sp.; _Sampalok_, Tag., Pam., Bik.; _Sambak_,
_Sumalagi_, _Kamalagi_, Vis.; _Tamarind_, Eng.

Uses.--The pulp of the fruit is used to make a sort of sweet preserve
and is very popular among the Filipinos. They prepare a refreshing
drink from the pulp mixed with sweetened water and believing it to
be beneficial to the liver, stomach and blood, they use too much
of it. Its excessive use is rather prejudicial to the health, but
given in moderation it is very efficient in allaying the thirst of
fever patients. The pulp contains weak laxative properties and it
is customary to administer it in solution with cream of tartar. Its
chemical composition is as follows:


                Citric acid             9.40
                Tartaric acid           1.55
                Malic acid              0.45
                Potassium bitartrate    3.25
                Sugar                  12.50
                Gum                     4.70
                Vegetable gelatin       6.25
                Parenchyma             34.35
                Water                  27.55

                                            (Vauquelin.)


At the end of any sickness, especially after labor, the first bath
given to the convalescent is with a decoction of the leaves of the
"sampaloc," to prevent convulsions, the native herb-doctors say.

Botanical Description.--A large tree, somewhat resembling the elm in
contour, with leaves opposite, abruptly pinnate. Leaflets 12 or more
pairs, linear, with a notch at the apex, entire, glabrous. Flowers
yellow-white, spattered dark red, racemose. Calyx, 4 sepals. Corolla,
5 lanceolate petals with crispate borders. Stamens monadelphous,
dividing into 7 filaments above. The ripe pod is chocolate color,
oblong, slightly compressed, straight or curved, 6-15 centimeters
long, full of a light-brown pulp in which rest the seeds enveloped in
a cellular membrane. These seeds are flattened, almost quadrangular;
testa hard, of a chestnut color, shiny and without albumen.

Habitat.--Very common everywhere in the islands. Blooms in May.



_Bauhinia malabarica_, Roxb. (_B. tomentosa_, Wall. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Alibangbang_, Tag., Vis., Pam.

Uses.--The leaves of this tree and of the species _B. tomentosa_,
L., are quite acid and the Filipinos use them as an ingredient of
many dishes. The fresh flowers possess anti-dysenteric virtues for
which purpose they are given internally in infusion of 10-20 grams
of the flowers to one-half liter of water. The decoction of the root
bark is a common remedy for liver troubles along the coast of Malabar
according to Rheede.

Botanical Description.--A tree 20° high, with leaves alternate,
peltate, slightly cordate, orbicular, the apex divided into two large
lobules with a stylet between them, glabrous above, somewhat downy
beneath; 2 large, flat glandules are situated at the base. Petioles
short. Flowers cymose. Peduncle long. Calyx inferior, funnelform,
with 4-5 sepals as long as the corolla. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens
10, 5 alternate ones longer than the others. Stigma thick, peltate,
2 lobules. Pod 1° long, with linear stalk, containing many seeds
separated by filamentous isthmuses.

Habitat.--Common everywhere. Blooms in November.



LEGUMINOSÆ.

Mimosa Division.



_Entada scandens_, Benth. (_E. Pursoetha_, DC. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Gogo_, Tag.; _Bayogo_, _Balogo_, _Gohong bakay_, Vis. and
Pam.; _Gilla Nuts_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The use made of the mashed bark of this tree is well known
throughout the Philippines. Cut in strips and beaten thoroughly between
stones it is sold under the name of "gogo"; it is macerated in water,
to which it imparts a reddish color, and forms a substitute for
soap. The Filipinos use this preparation for bathing, especially
the hair, for which purpose there is no more useful or simple
preparation. It cures pityriasis, and renders the hair very soft,
without drying it too much as is usually the case with soap. The
natives use it in treating the itch, washing the affected parts with
the maceration and at the same time briskly rubbing them with the
bark; in this way they remove the crusts that shield the acari. The
treatment is successful in direct proportion to the energy of rubbing.

The seeds of "gogo" are very large, lenticular, flattened, 3-4
centimeters in diameter. Their chemical composition has been studied by
Pettit. Alcohol dissolves the active principle, perhaps a glucoside,
the study of which the author has not completed. Five centigrams of
this substance administered to a guinea-pig causes paralysis of the
hind quarters without any apparent inflammation. He also found saponin
in the seeds, but it exists in much greater quantity in the trunk. In
the Sunda Islands they eat the seeds roasted and also extract from
them an illuminating oil.

The maceration of gogo is emetic and purgative; it is used in the
treatment of asthma; it is exceedingly irritating, the slightest
quantity that enters the eye causing severe smarting and a slight
conjunctivitis for one or two days.

Botanical Description.--A high climbing shrub with stem as much as
7-8' in diameter. Leaves opposite, twice abruptly pinnate, a stylet
replacing the terminal leaflet; 5 pairs of elliptical leaflets, entire,
glabrous and notched at the apex. Common petiole with 2 stipules
at the base. Flowers in delicate spikes. Calyx obliquely truncate,
5-toothed. Corolla, 5 oval petals much larger than the calyx. Stamens
10-13. Filaments longer than the corolla. Anther with 1-2 white,
globose glandules. Pod woody, 4-6° long by "4 fingers" broad, with
large notches on the borders, many compartments containing many large,
compressed, circular seeds with dark-colored testa, 3-4 centimeters
in diameter.

Habitat.--Mountains of Luzon and Panay. Blooms in May.



_Parkia Roxburghii_, G. Don. (_P. brunonis_, Grah.; _P. biglobosa_,
Benth.; _Mimosa peregrina_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kopang_, Tag.

Uses.--The fruit is edible. Its pulp is golden yellow with a sweetish
taste and an odor like that of violets.

The roasted seeds are used in certain parts of Africa to make
an infusion like coffee, for which reason they have been called
"Soudan Coffee."

The pulp was analyzed by Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen in 1887;
it contains 60% of its weight of sugar (a mixture of dextrose and
levulose), 0.98% of free tartaric and citric acids, fats, albuminoids,
etc.

Botanical Description.--A large tree of the first order. Leaves
opposite, twice abruptly pinnate. Leaflets small, linear, more
than 40 pairs. Principal petiole with one glandule at the base
and often another higher up. Calyx long, tubular, with 5 unequal
lobules. Corolla, 5 equal petals. Stamens 10, monadelphous. Ovary
free, unilocular, multi-ovulate. Pod, 1° × 1', woody, much compressed,
brown, with many seeds embedded in a yellow pulp.

Habitat.--Abounds in the provinces of central Luzon. Blooms in
December.



_Acacia Farnesiana_, Willd. (_A. Indica_, Desv.; _Mimosa Farnesiana_,
L. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--Aroma, Sp.; Cassie Flower, Eng.

Uses.--The trunk bark is astringent and in decoction is of use in the
treatment of prolapsed rectum and as an injection for leucorrhoea. A
poultice of the tender leaves is applied to ulcers and sores previously
washed with the decoction.

The tree exudes an abundant gum very similar to gum arabic which
latter is the product of another species of acacia (_A. Arabica_,
Willd.). The Manila pharmacist, D. Anacleto del Rosario, sent to
the Paris Exposition of 1899 a specimen of this gum obtained on the
plantation of D. P. P. Roxas, in Batangas. This specimen differed in
no respect from gum arabic and it will surely sooner or later take
the place of the latter in the Philippines, both for pharmaceutical
and industrial purposes. It would be superfluous to describe here
the properties of gum arabic.

Botanical Description.--A small tree 9-12° high, very well known, trunk
bristling with long thorns. Leaves twice abruptly pinnate. One or more
pairs of leaflets, very small, linear. Common petiole with two thorns
united at its base and a small glandule on the upper part. Flowers
yellow, aromatic, axillary, joined in a globose head 1/2-3/4' in
diameter, consisting of more than 50 minute flowerets. In each axil
are 2 peduncles. In some heads all the flowerets are staminate, in
others hermaphrodite. The hermaphrodite flowers have a calyx with
5 small teeth. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 40 or more. Pistil same
length as the stamens. Staminate flowers: calyx, corolla, stamens
and anthers as in the hermaphrodite flowers. Pistil none. Pod round,
curved, with 8 or more elliptical, compressed seeds.

Habitat.--Grows everywhere, but forms dense thickets in the provinces
of La Laguna and Batangas. Blooms in January.



CRASSULACEÆ.

Orpine Family.



_Kalanchoe laciniata_, DC. (_Cotyledon laciniata_, Roxb.; _Bryophyllum
serratum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Siempreviva_ (_Live-for-ever_), Sp.-Fil.; _Katakataka_,
Tag.

Uses.--The fleshy leaves are beaten up and applied to chronic ulcers
and sores on which they exert a stimulant action. Applied to the
temples they relieve headache. Ainslie testifies to the good effect
of its local use in inflammations and as a wash for ulcers. The juice
of the leaves is used in Concan in the treatment of bilious diarrhoea
and gall stones.

Botanical Description.--A well-known plant, about 2° high, with leaves
sessile, opposite, oval, serrately toothed, fleshy. Flowers yellow,
in umbels, the stalks reaching a height of 3°. Calyx very short,
with 4 lanceolate, acuminate sepals, united at the base. Corolla
salver-shaped, persistent, with border having 4 small lobules. Stamens
8, fertile. Ovaries 4, free, each with 1 many-ovuled cell. Styles
same length as the stamens. Stigmas awl-shaped. Four seed vessels,
each with 1 compartment containing many oblong seeds.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the islands.



COMBRETACEÆ.



_Terminalia Catappa_, L. (_T. molucana_, Lam.; _T. mauriciana_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Talisay_, Tag.; _Almendro_, Sp.-Fil.; _Talisay_,
_Banilak_, _Nato_, _Hitam_, Vis.; _Kalisay_, Pam.; _Lugo_, _Pandan_,
Iloc.; _Indian Almond_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The kernel is edible and has a very agreeable taste. It yields
about 50% of a fixed oil, sweet and savory. If left for some time,
it deposits an abundance of stearin. It closely resembles oil of sweet
almonds for which it, as well as the oil of Pili (_Canarium commune_,
L.), which we have already described, makes a good substitute.

The trunk bark is astringent and in decoction is used for atonic
diarrhoea and as a lotion for ulcers.

Decoction.--


        Bark (ground and pounded)    12 grams.
        Water                       150 grams.
        Simple syrup                 40 grams.


To be given by the tablespoonful in 24 hours.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 6-8 m. high. Branches horizontal
and radiating from the trunk. Leaves purplish, bunched, cleft at
the base, sometimes transversely ovate, sometimes oval, notched,
glabrous. Petiole very short. Flowers axillary, racemose, with a scale
at the base of the peduncle, some hermaphrodite and others lacking
pistils. Staminate flowers: calyx downy within, with 5 lobes. Corolla
wanting. Stamens 10, inserted on the calyx. Hermaphrodite flowers:
pistil same length as stamens. Drupe, fleshy, inferior, oval with
the borders turned upward containing a very hard and fibrous nut;
seed long and sharp-pointed.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon. In Manila it is cultivated extensively as
an ornamental tree, especially along the Sabana Walk, General Solano
Ave. and in Sampaloc and Malacañan.



_Terminalia Chebula_, Retz. (_T. reticulata_, Toth.; _Bucida cuminata_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Dinglas_, _Diglas_, Tag.; _Black Myrobalan Tree_,
Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The ripe fruit, called _myrobalans_ in India, is purgative
and six of them pounded up and given in decoction operate with
certainty, producing 4 or 5 copious evacuations without nausea or
other disagreeable symptoms. Dr. Waring has experimented with them
and recommends them highly. The taste may be made more agreeable
by adding a little cinnamon to the decoction. Dymock states that
three fruits are sufficient, and Dr. Hove gives one as the effective
dose. This lack of agreement may be explained by the fact that the
fruits are of different sizes, and probably Waring refers to those
of medium size. Contrary to what one would imagine, judging from
its purgative action, the fruit contains astringent principles, and
makes an effective injection for leucorrhoea as a substitute for nut
galls. It is also of some merit in the treatment of piles.

The green fruit is highly esteemed by Radja Kalikesen as a carminative,
tonic and purgative. Dr. Twining also mentions these same properties,
recommends it as a tonic and aperient of great benefit in atony of
the digestive organs and expresses surprise that the Europeans make
no use of it. According to the same author a dose in the treatment
of diarrhoea and dysentery is 4 grams twice a day. He quotes a case
of hypertrophy of the spleen which he cured with this fruit.

Some of the leaves bear horn-shaped galls, flattened, narrow and
hollow. They are caused by an insect which stings the leaves and
deposits its eggs in them. These leaves with galls are astringent and
very useful and effective in dysentery and diarrhoea, especially that
of children. The dose for a child of more than one year is 0.40 to 0.50
gram a day, administered in fractional doses every two or three hours.

Fridolin has obtained from its fruit an acid, which he calls
_chebulinic_ (C_28_H_25_O_10_) and presumes to be a mixture of tannic
and gallic acids. As Stenhouse had formerly indicated, no principle has
been discovered to which the purgative properties can be attributed,
unless it be a green oleo-resin turned red by nitric acid, obtained
from the fruit by Apery.

Botanical Description.--A tree of the second order, with leaves
3' long, alternate, lanceolate, entire and glabrous. Petioles
short. Flowers terminal, in spiked panicles. Calyx superior,
bell-shaped, colored, downy within, 5-toothed. Corolla wanting. Stamens
10, longer than the calyx. Anthers roundish. Ovary cylindrical. Style
curved and longer than the stamens. Stigma simple. Fruit ovoid, 2-4
centimeters long, 5-10 acute angles, wrinkled, with blackish, hard,
compact mesocarp; contains 1 seed.

Habitat.--Batangas, San Mateo. Blooms in May.



_Quisqualis Indica_, L. (_Q. villosa_, Roxb.; _Q. spinosa_, Nares.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tagaraw_, _Niogniogan_, Tag.; _Tangolon_, Vis.;
_Babebabe_, Pam.; _Tartaraw_, Iloc.

Uses.--The fruit contains a kernel that tastes much like cacao, for
which reason the Tagalogs call it "niogniogan" (like cacao). This
kernel is a powerful anthelmintic, used also in India, the dose for
a child of 4 years being 2-4, pulverized and mixed with a little
molasses or sugar. A large dose produces hiccough, a fact well known
to the natives. Dr. Bouton states that they may cause convulsions
and other similar nervous disorders.

They yield a light green, fixed oil, probably the active principle
of the plant.

Botanical Description.--A climbing shrub, 6-9° high, whose stem is
thickly set with long, opposite thorns. Leaves in stars of 3, oblong,
acute, entire, glabrous. Petioles very short. Flowers white, veined
with red, in axillary spikes. Calyx very long, nearly cylindrical,
5-toothed. Corolla, 5 petals, inserted between the teeth of the
calyx. Stamens 10, inserted on the calyx-tube, shorter than the
corolla, arranged in 2 series, 5 higher than the rest. Style the same
length as the stamens, united throughout nearly its entire length
with the wall of the calyx-tube from which it separates near the
stigma. Stigma rather bulky. Fruit 1' long, ovoid, 5 sharp ridges
in the woody, fragile, mahogany-colored pericarp, which contains a
pointed kernel at one end.

Habitat.--San Mateo, and along the shores of Luzon. Blooms in May.



MYRTACEÆ.

Myrtle Family.



_Psidium pomiferum_, L. (_P. aromaticum_ and _P. pyriferum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Guayabas_, Sp.; _Bayabas_, _Guayabas_, _Tayabas_, Tag.,
and other dialects; _Guava_, Eng.

Uses.--The green fruit is acid and very astringent. The stage of
development when it is best eaten raw, is just before it ripens, for
then its acidity has lessened, it is not astringent and does not emit
the strong odor, so disagreeable to many, that characterizes the ripe
fruit. When fully ripe it is sweet, non-astringent and very bland,
and this is the stage when it is best for making the jellies and
preserves so popular in the Philippines.

The bark, especially that of the root, is highly astringent
and a decoction of it is used for diarrhoea and as a wash for
ulcers. Dr. Waitz has successfully used the following formula in
treating the chronic diarrhoea of children:


            Root bark of guava      15 grams.
            Water                  180 grams.


Boil till reduced one half. Dose, a tablespoonful every 2 or 3 hours
according to age.

A decoction of the shoots is very useful in stomatitis, cutaneous
eruptions and ulcers. Dr. Waitz advises his formula in prolapsus
recti of children. It is also of value as an injection in diarrhoea
and dysentery.

Botanical Description.--A tree, about 10° high, branches square and
somewhat winged towards the ends. Leaves opposite, oblong, obtuse,
downy, aromatic in odor. Petiole very short. Flowers axillary,
solitary, white and fragrant. Calyx adherent, the border breaking in 3,
4 or more unequal parts when the flower expands. Corolla, 5-6 petals,
inserted on the calyx, curved downward. Stamens numerous, inserted
in the calyx, as long as the corolla. Style same length as stamens,
awl-shaped. Fruit somewhat pear-shaped, with 4 or 5 ribs that disappear
at maturity, 4 or more cells each with many small, hard, irregular
seeds. In the Philippines the fruit grows to the size of a small pear.



_Eugenia Jambolana_, Lam. (_Calyptranthes Jambolana_, Willd. and
Blanco; _Syzygium Jambolanum_, DC. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lomboy_, _Duhat_, _Duat_, Tag., Pam., Vis.; _Jambul_
or _Black Plum_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The ripe fruit, so dark a purple in color that it seems black,
is edible and very popular in the Philippines, though not considered
choice. Some suppose it to be harmful, but it is in reality very easy
of digestion.

The syrup of the fruit juice, and the decoction of the trunk bark
are both very efficacious in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery.

Syrup of Jambul.--


        Juice of ripe fruit             500 grams.
        White sugar                     950 grams.


Dissolve in a covered water-bath, strain through woolen cloth and
put aside.

Dose.--60-200 grams a day.

The juice of the leaves is also used to treat diarrhoea. A Hindoo
physician, Bhavaprakasa, advises the following receipt:


        Juice of leaves of lomboy       }
        Juice of leaves of manga        }   aa 4 grams.
        Pulp of _Terminalia chebula_    }


Give in one dose in a little goat's milk and honey.

A sort of wine of very agreeable taste is made from the fruit
juice. Lately the powdered seed has been recommended in the treatment
of glycosuria or at least it has been stated that its internal use
lessens and finally abolishes the glucose from the urine of the
patient. It has even been affirmed that while under this treatment
the patient may eat glucose-forming foods without fear of glycosuria
supervening.

The chemical composition of the seeds are as follows:


        Essential oil                       Traces.
        Chlorophyl and fatty matters        0.37
        Resin soluble in alcohol and ether  0.30
        Gallic acid                         1.65
        Albumin                             1.25
        Pigment soluble in water            2.70
        Water                              10.00
        Insoluble residuum                 83.73
                                          ------
                                          100.00


Dujardin-Beaumetz has tested the therapeutic value of these seeds in
diabetes but with negative results. Scott has maintained that by adding
the powdered seed to a mixture of malt and starch, fermentation is
impeded; but Dr. Villy in the laboratory of Dujardin-Beaumetz has
demonstrated that such is not the case. Contrary to the opinions
of those physicians who stated that "jambul" was capable of causing
the glucose to disappear from the urine of diabetic patients without
concurrent diabetic regimen, Dujardin-Beaumetz observed in his trials
of the drug that the slightest relaxation of the regimen was followed
by an increase of glucose. Under the influence of the medicine in doses
of 2-10 grams daily, at the same time maintaining a strict diabetic
diet, the Parisian therapeutist noted that the glucose disappears
from the third to the fifth day; but this occurred only in cases of
medium intensity, whereas in severe cases the medication produced no
effect. Upon stopping the treatment the sugar reappeared.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 15-20° high, with leaves opposite,
acute, entire, ovate, lustrous, very smooth. Flowers in racemose
panicles with peduncles opposite. Calyx superior, with 5 small
teeth and a deciduous cover composed of many orbicular pieces joined
below. Corolla none. Stamens numerous, inserted on the edge of the
calyx. Stigma pointed. Fruit black, oval, crowned with the calyx;
one long cylindrical seed with membranaceous epidermis.

Habitat.--Common all over the Archipelago. Blooms in February.



MELASTOMACEÆ.



_Melastoma malabatrichum_, L. (_M. obvolutum_,  Jack.; _M. aspera_
and _obvoluta_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Granatis_, Tag.

Uses.--A decoction of the leaves is of use as an astringent in
diarrhoea and dysentery. A decoction of the bark is used as a gargle
for aphthæ and catarrhal sore throat, and as a wash for ulcers and
the itch.

The fruit is edible, resembling slightly the currant; it has doubtless
received the name "granatis" on account of its many seeds.

Botanical Description.--Small tree, with opposite branches, their ends
covered with hairs. Leaves opposite, 3-nerved, 1' long, very rough
with short hairs. Flowers carmine, in terminal panicles. Stamens
10. Filaments alternating violet and straw-color.

Habitat.--Mountains of Angat and San Mateo.



LYTHRACEÆ.

Loosestrife Family.



_Ammannia vesicatoria,_ Roxb. (_A. baccifera_, L.; _A. Indica_, Lam.;
_A. debilis_ and _Celosia mana_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bias pogo_, Tag.; _Blistering Ammannia_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The leaves contain an irritant and acrid principle that
renders them vesicant when applied to the skin. The Pharmacopoeia of
India quotes Sir W. O'Shaughnessy to the effect that plasters made
of the bruised leaves even when renewed every half hour require 24
hours to raise a blister and at the same time cause severe pain. He
found it much more painful than cantharides and much less prompt to
act. Dr. Dymock has prepared an ethereal tincture of the leaves and
obtained with it results very different from those just mentioned;
this is not surprising in view of the fact that the tincture holds
in solution in a small quantity of ether, a considerable amount
of the vesicant principle. This tincture has the same color as the
"epispastic" of the English Pharmacopoeia, causes less pain and rapidly
raises a good blister, facts of which I have convinced myself by the
use of a small quantity sent me from Bombay in 1891.

Dr. Bholanauth Bose recommends the internal use of the juice of the
leaves as a remedy for chronic diseases of the spleen; this treatment,
however, has caused severe pain and is absolutely uncertain in effect.

In Concan the juice of the leaves is given mixed with food to animals
in heat, for its anaphrodisiac action. The fresh or dried plant is
given in decoction mixed with ginger in intermittent fevers.

If the ethereal tincture be evaporated a resinous residue remains that
has not been studied, but appears to be the vesicant principle. This
tincture should be made from the dried leaves to avoid hydration of
the ether.

Botanical Description.--A small plant with stem red, straight,
quadrate, ramose. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, and fringed with
hairs. Flowers axillary, small, red, solitary. Peduncles short. Calyx
inferior, bell-shaped, with 8-toothed border, the 4 alternate teeth
larger. Corolla none. Nectary bell-shaped, surrounding the ovary,
shorter than the calyx, with 4 toothlets which lengthening form the
filaments of as many stamens. Anthers 4-celled. Ovary of 4 pluriovulate
locules. Style almost wanting. Stigma fluted. Seed vessel glabrous,
horizontally dehiscent, containing 15 or more angular seeds joined
to a common axis.

Habitat.--It grows in the marshes of Mandaloyon.



_Lawsonia alba_, Lam. (_L. spinosa_, L.; _L. inermis_, Roxb.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Cinamomo del país_ (_native cinnamon_), Sp.-Fil.; _Henna_,
_Camphire_, _Samphire_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--This is a very popular plant in the Orient, for many races use
its leaves to impart a reddish-yellow stain to the nails, finger tips
and palms of the hands. There is a tradition among the Mohammedans
that the Prophet once called this plant "the best of all herbs." The
leaf in form of a dry powder is sold in the bazars of India under
the name of "henna"; mixed with water it gives it a yellow color,
and when boiled the tone of the liquid becomes darker; the addition of
an alkali turns it brown. In Persia they add indigo to this solution
and use it as a hair dye.

The Hindoos apply the bruised leaves to the soles of the feet of
small-pox patients, their purpose being to prevent the spread of the
eruption to the eyes. They also use it locally in a disease known
among them as "burning of the feet." Grierson and Waring obtained
good results in this disease by making a paste of the bruised leaves
and vinegar; cases that resisted such treatment yielded completely
to a brisk rubbing of the feet with a simple paste of the leaf. The
decoction and the bruised leaves are also used locally for contusions.

The bark has been given in jaundice, hypertrophy of the spleen,
calculi of various sorts, leprosy and stubborn skin diseases, as an
alterative. In decoction it is applied to burns.

An English physician, Dr. Newton, made an extract of the leaves and
flowers with which he pretended to cure leprosy; it was but one more
useless drug in the long list used to combat that terrible disease. The
dose of the extract is a teaspoonful daily, given in 2 doses.

The juice of the leaves is given in sweetened water in some countries
as a remedy for spermatorrhoea.

The flowers are given in decoction for headache and the fruit is
emmenagogue.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, about 12° high. Leaves opposite,
lanceolate, broad, entire, glabrous and tough, the edges turned
downwards. Flowers yellowish-white, terminal in racemose panicles
with opposite peduncles. Calyx inferior, bell-shaped, 4 acute
sepals. Corolla, 4 petals, longer than the calyx. Stamens 8, inserted
by pairs on the segments of the calyx, alternating with and longer
than the petals. Anther kidney-shaped. Ovary at the bottom of the
calyx. Styles of the same length as the stamens. Stigma obtuse. Seed
vessel a little larger than a pea, globose, 4 chambers, many seeds.

Habitat.--Common all over the Archipelago. Blooms in July.



_Punica Granatum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Granada_, Sp. and Fil. dialects; _Pomegranate_, Eng.

Uses.--The decoction of the tender leaves is used as a gargle and
wash in angina, aphthæ, and wounds within the buccal cavity.

The peel of the fruit is highly astringent and in decoction is a
useful agent in treating chronic diarrhoea, and locally in injections
of lotions for leucorrhoea and inflamed hæmorrhoids. It should not
be given when rectal tenesmus exists. The Pharmacopoeia of India
contains the following formula for preparing the decoction of the peel:


        Pulp of the fruit, mashed        60 grams.
        Water                           600 grams.


Boil for 15 minutes in a covered vessel, cool, filter and add water
enough to make a liter. Dose, 30-50 grams per diem.

This preparation is also used in astringent gargles and injections. For
internal use the decoction is rendered more active by adding a small
quantity of cloves or cinnamon. This mixture with the addition of
opium gives excellent results in the treatment of diarrhoea among
the natives of India and is highly recommended by Dr. Kirkpatrick.

The most important part of the pomegranate, however, is its root,
the bark of which is a very efficient tænifuge and the most astringent
portion of the plant. It should be used fresh, as drying destroys its
activity and gives negative results. Many failures to expel the tænia
are probably due to this fact. According to Béranger-Féraud the root
gives 25% to 40% of cures, whereas pumpkin seeds give but 5% to 10%.

Decoction.--(French Codex.)


        Fresh bark of pomegranate root      60 grams.
        Water                              750 grams.


Macerate 6 hours, boil over slow fire till reduced to 500
grams. Strain. Administer fasting, in 3 doses half an hour apart. The
evening before the patient should eat a light meal and take a cathartic
in order that the intestinal canal may contain the smallest possible
quantity of fæcal matter. After taking the third dose of the decoction
the patient should take a mild purgative such as 30 grams of castor oil
to expel the tænia. This preparation has a most disagreeable taste. It
is better to give the "tannate of pelletierine," a compound of tannin
and one of the alkaloids that Tanret discovered in pomegranate root. A
sufficient dose of tannate of pelletierine is 30-40 centigrams in
wafer form, followed by a purge and with the other precautions and
preparatory measures mentioned above. It causes toxic symptoms similar
to those produced by curare, according to the experimental studies
of Dujardin-Beaumetz and Rochenière. Its action is upon the ends
of the motor nerves. A dose of 40 centigrams may cause in man such
symptoms of intoxication as vertigo, inverted vision and muscular
paralysis. Pelletierine should not be administered to children, but
Béranger-Féraud states that the tannate may be safely given them,
as follows:


        Tannate of pelletierine         0.30 grams.
        Sweetened water                40.00 grams.


A coffee-spoonful of this solution contains 0.03 gram of the tannate,
and this quantity may be given to a child, in a little milk. If no
symptoms supervene within one-half hour give another similar dose and
so on up to 3 or 4 doses or .12 gm. in all. After the last dose give
the purgative as a routine. It is certainly imprudent to trust the
administration of such a drug to any one incapable of recognizing the
symptoms of intoxication, and as no one but a physician can judge the
effects of the alkaloid he himself should remain with the patient until
the efficient dose has been absorbed. This is manifestly impractical
and we therefore maintain that the alkaloid is not suited for the
treatment of children.

An analysis of the root bark made by the French chemist Tanret
revealed the presence of four alkaloids: pelletierine, isopelletierine
(C_8_H_15_NO), pseudo-pelletierine (C_9_H_15_NO), and methylpeletierine
(C_9_H_17_NO).

Botanical Description.--A shrub 6-9° high with branches terminating
in thorns; some of the branches abort and form thorns. Leaves simple,
oval, oblong, without stipules, with short petioles. Flowers axillary,
solitary or in pauciflorous cymes. Calyx, 4-8 sepals, persistent,
fleshy, yellow or red. Corolla, 4-8 petals, imbricated. Stamens
numerous, free. Style 1. Stigma thick. Fruit with leathery rind,
about size of small apple, packed with seeds, each imbedded in a
small amount of crisp, juicy pulp.



ONAGRACEÆ.

Evening Primrose Family.



_Jussiæa suffruticosa_, L. (_J. villosa_, Lam.; _J. erecta_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Malapoko_, Tag.

Uses.--The entire plant reduced to a pulp and mixed with milk is
used in India to treat dysentery. Ainslie states that the decoction
is employed as a vermifuge and purgative.

Botanical Description.--An herb with square stem, leaves alternate,
lanceolate, nearly entire, glabrous. Flowers axillary, yellow,
solitary. Calyx of 4-5 lobules. Corolla, 4 lanceolate petals
inserted between the divisions of the calyx. Stamens 8, of these 4
alternate being shorter. Ovary very long, inferior, with 4 many-ovuled
locules. Style the same length as the stamens. Stigma 4-lobuled. Seed
vessels very long, with faint longitudinal ridges, crowned by the
remains of the calyx, 4 pluriovulate locules.

Habitat.--In the arable fields and along the banks of rivers. Blooms
in January and March.



PASSIFLORACEÆ.

Passion Flower Family.



_Carica Papaya_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Papaya_, in many Phil. dialects; _Papaya_, _Papaw_, Eng.

Uses.--The decoction of the leaves is used locally in sores and atonic
ulcers, followed by a poultice of the boiled and mashed leaves. The
natives use the cold infusion of the leaves to wash clothes spotted
with blood and the spots disappear rapidly by virtue of the ferment
papain which digests the fibrin. The infusion is also very useful as
a wash for sores and gangrenous ulcers, modifying their appearance
very rapidly.

Before proceeding further it is desirable to give a description of
papain, a digestive ferment which exists throughout the whole plant,
fruit, trunk, leaves and petioles; it is contained in the milky juice
which exudes from all these parts when cut. This juice was studied
simultaneously by Wurtz in France and Peckolt in Brazil. The best
method of collecting it is to make several superficial, longitudinal
incisions in the green fruit without removing it from the tree;
immediately an abundance of juice appears in the incisions and
coagulates rapidly. The best time to do this is the early morning. The
fruit does not suffer by this process but continues developing and
ripens perhaps more rapidly, at the same time improving in flavor,
becoming sweeter; the seeds, however, atrophy and lose their power
of germination. Peckolt gives the following as the composition of
the juice:


        A substance analogous to caoutchouc     4.525
        Awa                                     2.424
        Soft resin                              0.110
        Brown resin                             2.776
        Albuminoids                             0.006
        Papayotin (Papain of Wurtz)             1.059
        Extractive matter                       5.303
        Malic acid                              0.443
        Peptic material and salts               7.100
        Water                                  74.971


The milky juice is neutral and coagulates rapidly, separating in
two parts: a kind of insoluble pulp and a limpid colorless serum. If
combined with fibrin, raw meat, white of egg or gluten it gradually
softens them and completely dissolves them in 3 or 4 hours _in vitro_
at 40° C. Combined with milk it coagulates it and soon precipitates
the casein which is also dissolved a little later. It digests
lumbricoids and tape-worms and the false membrane of croup, in a few
hours. According to Wurtz and Bouchut papain is prepared as follows:

The fluid juice or the aqueous solution of the milky exudate is
precipitated by the addition of ten times the volume of alcohol. The
precipitate, after treating again with concentrated alcohol, is
dissolved in water and the addition of sub-acetate of lead eliminates
the albuminoids and peptones but does not precipitate the papain. The
liquid is filtered and the lead salts separated by means of a current
of hydrogen sulphide. It is filtered again and alcohol added gradually,
which process first precipitates whatever sulphate of lead may have
passed through the filter, and then the papain.

Papain is an amorphous substance, perfectly white, soluble in water,
insipid, odorless. An aqueous solution, if shaken violently, foams like
a solution of soap. Boiling makes it turbid and when concentrated it
has a slightly astringent taste. It is precipitated by hydrochloric,
nitric, picric and the metaphosphoric acids. Trommer's test gives it a
beautiful blue violet color which, on boiling, changes to a red violet.

It is an extremely active digestive ferment, comparable with pepsin,
but superior to the latter because it does not require an acid medium,
as its digestive action takes place even in the presence of an alkaline
medium and of antiseptic substances such as boric acid, phenol, etc. It
is given in doses of 10-40 centigrams in different vehicles such as
water, wine, etc. It should be given after meals carefully and properly
diluted, in order that its action may not be exerted upon the gastric
mucous membrane itself. Its use is contraindicated in gastric ulcer.

A watery solution prepared by macerating the green fruit has been
used effectively to remove blemishes from the face, leaving the skin
clean and smooth. The natives use little pieces of the green fruit to
remove freckles (which they call _pecas_). The ripe fruit is edible
and its taste quite agreeable; in some of the Malay Islands it is
given for dysentery, but it must be remembered that the ripe fruit
does not contain papain.

The pure exudate is given to children as an anthelmintic in doses of
2-6 grams with a little molasses, but it is not so harmless that it
may be used with impunity in this form, Moncorvo and others having
reported cases of peritonitis with symptoms suggestive of cholera
following its use. It is drastic and digestive in addition to its
anthelmintic action, but according to Rabuteau, boiling destroys the
first property without affecting the others. Dr. Lemarchand of the
island of Mauritius gives the following anthelmintic prescription:


        Juice of papaya and molasses    aa 1 tablespoon.


Add gradually while shaking the mixture.


        Boiling water                      4 tablespoons.


Cool and administer in one dose followed immediately by 30 grams of
castor oil. For a child, one-half dose.

This treatment frequently causes colic, for the relief of which the
author advises an injection of sweetened water. Sir O'Shaughnessy's
prescription is preferable:


    20-60 drops of the exudate in a little sweetened water.


This dose cannot cause any untoward symptoms and is efficient in
expelling both lumbricoids and tæniæ.

The triturated seeds may be given internally in doses of 1-2 grams
with milk or molasses to expel lumbricoids. Analysis has revealed
in the seeds the presence of a resinous oil, an oleaginous material
of disagreeable odor and taste called by Peckolt _caricin_, a fatty
acid, papayic acid and a resin. In India the seeds are considered
emmenagogue. In some countries they wrap meat in papaya leaves
for several hours before eating in order to soften it. For the same
purpose they sometimes boil the meat in water containing a few leaves
or pieces of the green fruit; some even go to the length of saying
that it is only necessary to hang a piece of meat in a papaya tree
for a time in order to soften it.

The decoction of the green fruit is given internally for indigestion,
a treatment common in the provinces of Bulacan and Pampanga. The milky
juice is used to remove corns and Dr. Daruty offers the following
prescription for eczema and psoriasis:


        Exudate of papaya           1.00 grams.
        Borax (powdered)            0.60 grams.
        Water                      16.00 grams.


Mix.

Paint the affected part with feather or brush, 2-3 times a day. The
same solution may be used for softening corns.

Botanical Description.--Trees 15° in height, trunk covered with large
leaf scars, wood soft and brittle, the long-petioled, palmately-lobed
leaves growing in a crown and giving the tree the general appearance of
a palm. Flowers dioecious. Staminate tree: Flowers loosely clustered on
long, hanging stems. Calyx, 5-6 teeth. Corolla tubular, 1' long, limb
divided into 5 oval parts. Stamens 10, inserted in the throat. Style
short, awl-shaped. Pistillate tree: Flowers much larger, sessile,
in axils of leaves. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla large, 5 lanceolate
petals curved outward, fleshy. Stigmas 5, fringed. Fruit about size of
child's head or smaller, somewhat pear-shaped, juicy, pulp melon-like,
1 compartment with numerous seeds, each in a mucilaginous aril.



CUCURBITACEÆ.

Gourd Family.



_Trichosanthes palmata_, Roxb. (_T. tricuspis_, Mig.; _T. lucioniana_,
Bares.)

Nom. Vulg.--(?).

Uses.--Roxburgh states that the fruit is toxic and sometimes used
to kill crows. Dymock states that the leaf is smoked in Bombay as a
remedy for asthma.

The extremely bitter taste of the fruit and rind induced Sir
W. O'Shaughnessy to examine it for tonic and purgative properties;
doses as high as 0.20 gram 3 times a day failed to exert a purgative
effect. The root is used in veterinary medicine particularly for
pneumonia. Mixed with equal parts of colocynth it is applied to
carbuncles. In combination with equal parts of _Terminalia chebula_
and ginger it is made into a sweetened infusion for internal use
in gonorrhoea.

Botanical Description.--A climber with broad, heart-shaped,
serrate, 7-lobulate leaves. Flowers monoecious; staminate white and
racemose; pistillate solitary, growing at the base of the staminate
racemes. Staminate receptacle tubular, calyx inserted on the border
of the receptacle, 5 sepals. Corolla, 5 petals. Stamens 5, of which
4 are in pairs. Pistillate: the receptacle dilates in its lower part
in form of a globose vase and encloses the unilocular pluriovulate
ovary. Fruit ovoid or pyriform, scarlet when fresh, orange-yellow
when dry. Seeds of irregular form, somewhat triangular. Kernel oily.

Habitat.--Luzon.



_T. anguina_, L. (_T. amara_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Salagsalag_, _Pakupis_, _Salimpokot_, _Kukubitan_,
_Halahala_, _Buyokbuyok_, Tag.; _Tabobog_, _Kukubitan_, _Pukopukot_,
_Kuragda_, Vis., Pam.

_T. cucumerina_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--Probably the same as _T. anguina_.

Uses.--The fruit of _T. anguina_ is purgative, emetic and
anthelmintic. The natives use an infusion of the filamentous,
reticulate portion surrounding the seeds, in doses of 0.50-0.60 gm.,
according to P. Blanco.

The second species, _T. cucumerina_, has a wider use. In India it is
regarded as a febrifuge and laxative and is commonly given with some
aromatic. Ainslie notes that the leaves, as well as the fruit, are
bitter and purgative and that the Tamuls use them for their laxative
and stomachic effect. Drury states that on the Malabar coast the seeds
have a considerable reputation as a remedy for functional disorders
of the stomach. Although the green fruit is very bitter the natives
of that region use it as a condiment. The tender stems and the dry
capsules, both bitter and purgative, are given in infusion and in a
sweetened solution, as an aid to digestion. The seeds are febrifuge
and anthelmintic. The juice of the leaves is emetic and that of the
roots purgative. The decoction of the stem is expectorant.

In Bombay the plant is considered febrifuge, and is given in decoction
with ginger, _Swertia chirata_, and sugar. The Mohammedan authors
say that the _T. cucumerina_ is effective in expelling lumbricoids
and one of them mentions the following as a cure for stubborn fevers:


        Seeds of _T. cucumerina_        No. 180.
        Seeds of coriander or cumin     No. 180.
        Boiling water                       200 grams.


Let stand over night, filter, add a little sugar, administer in
2 doses morning and evening.

In Concan they use the juice of the leaves as a liniment in remittent
fevers, rubbing the hepatic region and in fact the entire body.

Botanical Description.--_T. anguina_, L., is a vine with 5-angled stem,
bearing tendrils and spattered with white dots. Leaves heart-shaped,
with 5 acute lobules, spiny-toothed. Petioles with a bifid swelling
at their bases. Flowers white, monoecious. Staminate: calyx 5-toothed
with dotted borders; corolla, 5 fringed petals; stamens 3; anthers
3, entirely united and forming a cylinder. Pistillate: 3 glandules
in the corolla tube; style long; stigmas 3. Fruit ribbed, long, the
compartments formed by reticular partitions; contains many irregular
seeds, one border sharp, the other obtuse, covered by a very thin aril.

The _T. cucumerina_, L., is less common, bears a spindle-shaped or
obovate fruit, is hairy and lacks ribs. Its seeds are ovoid, very
smooth, encircled by a narrow wing. The reticulum within the fruit
is similar to that of the foregoing species.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the islands. Blooms in October.



_Lagenaria vulgaris_, Ser.

Nom. Vulg.--_Common Gourd_, _Bottle Gourd_, _Calabash_, Eng.


Var. _Lagenaria Gourda_, Ser. (_Cucurbita lagenaria oblonga_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Calabaza de peregrino_, Sp.; _Pilgrim's Gourd_, Eng.


Var. _L. courgourda_, Ser.

Nom. Vulg.--_Tabayag_, Tag.


Var. _L. clavata_, Ser. (_C. lagenaria villosa_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Calabaza blanca_, Sp.; _Opo_, Tag.; _White Gourd_, Eng.

Uses.--The three above-mentioned varieties of _L. vulgaris_, Ser.,
are commonly grouped under the name calabaza (gourd). All have the same
action and hence the same therapeutic application. The green portion of
the rind is bitter and possesses purgative and emetic properties. The
decoction of the tender shoots is expectorant; in addition it appears
to possess purgative properties and in India is used in jaundice.

The part of the plant most generally used is the seeds, the tænifuge
properties of which are well known. Its action, however, is not always
certain, which may be as truly said of all other known tænifuges. The
seeds have the advantage of lacking the disgusting taste characteristic
of other remedies of the same class; the taste is almost neutral and
a little sugar conceals it completely. The dose is unlimited; some
take 15 grams, others as high as 100, and no unpleasant symptoms of
any kind have been reported. The only precaution to be observed is
to give the patient a purgative 1-2 hours after his dose.

Heckel has analyzed the seeds and found a resin which he calls
_pepo-resina_; it exists in the greenish pellicle that envelopes
the embryo and appears to be the active principle of the seeds. Its
dose is 0.80-1.00 gram (Dujardin-Beaumetz), the product of 250 grams
of the seeds. The dose of 100 grams of the seeds mentioned above is
very small, if the pepo-resin represents the entire active principle,
for 100 grams of the seeds would only contain about 40 centigrams.

Botanical Description.--A very familiar vine, clammy, pubescent
and musk-scented; large leaves, long-stalked flowers, white petals,
greenish veiny fruit usually club-shaped or enlarged at the apex, the
hard rind used for vessels, dippers, and so forth. It is noteworthy
that none of the tænifuge varieties mentioned bears yellow fruit.



_Luffa Ægyptiaca_, Mill. (_L. pentandra_, Roxb.; _L. petola_, Ser.;
_Momordica operculata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--Probably bears the same names as the _Trichosanthes_.

Uses.--The root is a hydragogue cathartic even in minute doses. The
fruit is emollient by virtue of the large quantity of mucilage it
contains, but it is more interesting for other properties. When cut
in two, deprived of epidermis and seeds, and washed until none of the
mucilage remains, there is left a fibrous skeleton, a sort of skein of
interwoven nets that constitutes the so-called vegetable sponge. It
serves the same purpose as a sponge and has the advantages that its
fibers do not rot and that they are easily kept clean. In view of its
cheapness and plentifulness in the Philippines the above advantages
should suffice to bring it into universal use for the toilet, for
surgical purposes and for cleaning in general.

Botanical Description.--A vine with square, glabrous stem. Leaves
alternate, cordate, 3-5-lobulate, dentate, rough, 5-7-nerved. Petioles
short. Flowers monoecious. Staminate in axillary panicles; calyx
bell-shaped; corolla yellow, 5 oval petals, borders entire; stamens
3; filaments short; two thick ones divide high up in 2 parts, thus
giving the appearance of 5 stamens in all. Pistillate axillary,
calyx adherent, 5 pointed sepals; corolla, 5 nearly triangular petals,
finely dentate; style thick, short, the base encircled by 3 glandules;
stigma cordate. Ovary, 3 pseudo-locules formed by the central union
of the placentas; pluriovulate. Fruit oblong, terminating at the apex
in a deciduous lid or cover, marked with 8 or 10 black longitudinal
lines; the interior reticulate, 3 compartments with many seeds, oval,
black, flat with thin borders. The natives do not distinguish between
this specimen and the _Trichosanthes_, but it is to be noted that
the corolla of the former is not ravelled or fringed.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon and Panay. Blooms in January.



_Momordica balsamina_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Ampalaya_, _Ampalea_, Tag.; _Amargoso_, Sp.-Fil.; _Paria_,
Iloc.; _Apalia_, Pam.; _Balsamina_, Sp.; _Balsam Apple_, Eng.

_M. charanta_, L. (_M. muricata_, Willd.; _M. cylindrica_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--The same as of _M. balsamina_.

Uses.--The fruit of both varieties is edible, though a bitter principle
gives it such an intensely bitter taste that it is intolerable to
the unaccustomed palate. It is eaten raw as a salad, or cooked with
meat or fish. The juice of the leaves is prescribed internally as a
purgative and anthelmintic. In Concan it is given alone or combined
with aromatics, in bilious disorders as an emetic and purgative;
externally they use it as an ointment for the itch and other skin
diseases; in India it is mixed with cinnamon, pepper, rice and oil
of _Hydnocarpus inebrians_, Vahl.

The fruit and leaves are used internally for worms and externally
for leprosy. Some Hindoo writers state that the fruit is tonic and
stomachic, and that it is useful in rheumatism, gout, diseases of
the liver and spleen.

Botanical Description.--The first variety, _M. balsamina_, more
common than the second, is a vine with angular stem and simple
tendrils. Leaves, many serrate lobules with white dots on the
ends. Flowers yellow, monoecious. Staminate solitary, peduncles very
long, involucre cordate; calyx 5-lobed; corolla 5 petals; filaments
simple, one separate, 2 approximated; anthers joined at their
bases. Pistillate solitary; ovary, 3 locules and numerous ovules;
stigma, 3 bifid divisions; fruit globose, narrowing at the ends,
covered with tubercles; seeds numerous, lacking albumen, having
red aril.

The second variety, _M. cylindrica_, has a downy stem, 5-angled with
simple tendrils. The leaves are 5-lobuled, cordate, serrate, with
short hairs on under surface. Melon hollow, glabrous, very long,
cylindrical, tapering at the ends, covered with tubercles, some
elevated in longitudinal lines, others depressed; seeds in 3 rows,
enveloped in pulpy arils, white, long quadrangular, truncate above,
encircled by 2 rows of obtuse toothlets.

Habitat.--Both grow in all parts and are well known.



_Citrullus Colocynthis_, Schard. (_Cucumis Colocynthis_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Coloquíntida_, Sp.; _Colocynth_, _Bitter Apple_, Eng.

Uses.--The part employed is the fruit pulp, official in all the
pharmacopoeias as a very energetic hydragogue cathartic. It is seldom
given alone, but in combination with other drugs to modify its energy
and its action.

In large doses it causes vomiting, bloody diarrhoea and a series of
nervous phenomena that may end in death. Six to ten grams constitute
a toxic dose. It operates with most force upon the large intestines
and sympathetically upon the uterus.

Dose.--Extract, 0.10-0.30 gram; powder, 0.30-1.00 gram.

The pulp contains a yellow, intensely bitter substance, quite soluble
in water and in alcohol, discovered by Hubschmann and named by him
_coloquintina_. The seeds contain 17% of an insipid oil.

Botanical Description.--An herb with long, prostrate stems covered with
stiff hairs. Leaves alternate, triangular, deeply cleft in 3 lobules
that subdivide. Petioles long. The color of the leaves is pale green
above, whitish or gray and covered with white hairs underneath. Flowers
yellow, monoecious, solitary, axillary, with long peduncles. Staminate:
receptacle cup-formed, 5 sepals and 5 free, yellow petals; 5 stamens in
pairs, one free. Pistillate: the receptacle globose, covering the lower
part of the ovary; 3 staminodes take the place of the stamens. Ovary
unilocular, uniovulate, with a short style bearing 3 lobules at its
apex. Fruit globose, 6-8 centimeters in diameter, smooth, greenish,
later yellow with white spots; it is full of a whitish pulp that
becomes dry and pithy and that contains the obovate seeds, smooth,
flattened, brown, lacking albumen.

Habitat.--Manila.



FICOIDEÆ.



_Trianthema monogyna_, L. (_T. obcordata_, Roxb.; _Portulaca toston_
and _axiflora_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Toston_, Tag.; _Alusiman_, _Ayam_, Vis.

Uses.--This plant is edible, the natives eating it boiled, fried or
in salad. The root is cathartic and is used powdered.

_Botanical Description._--A plant with prostrate stems, radiating
branches. Leaves ensheathing the stem, opposite, oval, red-bordered,
glabrous. Petioles with 2 stipules at the base and 2 small teeth near
the middle. Flowers axillary, solitary, sessile. Calyx, 2 pointed
sepals. Corolla, 5 oval petals. Stamens 15-20. Style simple. Seed
vessels inversely pyramidal, dehiscence horizontal. Seeds numerous.

Habitat.--Very common in the rice fields. Blooms in January.



UMBELLIFERÆ.

Parsley Family.



_Hydrocotyle Asiatica_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Takip kohol_, _Takip suso_, Tag.; _Rabasa_, Sp.; _Indian
Pennywort_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--Dr. Daruty, of Mauritius, has published a study of this plant,
giving a résumé of its composition, therapeutic uses and physiological
action. The writers of antiquity recognized the plant as a powerful
alterative, tonic, diuretic, stimulant and vermifuge, especially
effective in secondary syphilis and in ulcerative diseases of the skin.

Lépine and Boileau used it experimentally to treat leprosy and
reported favorably; but later experience demonstrated that it did
not exercise any specific effect, but benefited anæsthetic leprosy
simply by improving the general condition of the patient.

The plant is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India, as alterative,
tonic and stimulant. It states that the drug has been found very
useful in the treatment of secondary and constitutional syphilis,
when the disease attacks the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

In Bombay it is a popular remedy for the mild dysentery of children,
given as a decoction of 3 or 4 leaves with a little cumin seed and
sugar; the bruised leaves are then applied to the umbilical region. In
the Philippines the decoction of the leaves is given as a purge.

Dr. Dervegie reports good results in the treatment of eczema,
administering the powdered leaf in dozes of 0.10 gram and applying
locally the powder or an ointment of the same. The most marked and
constant effects of the drug are a considerable increase of the
urinary secretion, elevation of the temperature of the skin and
profuse diaphoresis.

Dr. Boileau, quoted above, himself contracted leprosy of which he died;
he experimented on himself with "hydrocotyle" and on one occasion
a dose of 3 grams nearly proved fatal; tetanic symptoms supervened
with suffocation, palpitation, epistaxis and rectal hemorrhage,
abating finally with profuse sweating and diuresis.

Dr. Lépine, a pharmacist of Pondicherry, has analyzed the plant
and isolated a substance that seems to be the active principle;
he has named it _vallarin_, from "vallarai," the Tamul name of
the plant. "Vallarin" is a thick, pale yellow oil of a piquant and
persistent taste and an odor peculiar to the plant. It changes under
the influence of air, moisture or heat and volatilizes at 120°. It
is soluble in alcohol. The plant contains 8/10 to 1% of this oil,
a dark resin and a green resin.

The Pharmacopoeia of India gives 2 official formulæ, a powder and a
cataplasm. The powdered leaf is given internally in doses of 0.30 to
1.50 grams and is applied locally to superficial ulcers.

Botanical Description.--Plant herbaceous with reniform or heart-shaped
leaves, forming a sort of funnel, dotted with little hairs, dentate
with white tips. Petioles very long, ensheathing each other by 2 wings
at their bases. Flowers 3-4, sessile, springing directly from the root,
greenish-white, growing in horizontal rows on either side of a short,
common peduncle. Common involucre of 2-3 leaflets. Calyx adherent,
flattened, faintly toothed. Corolla, 5 small petals, ovate. Stamens
5, equal in height, inserted on the receptacle, alternating with
the petals. Filaments short. Anthers globose, cleft at the base in 2
diverging parts. Ovary inferior, cordate, much flattened. Styles 2,
short. Stigmas simple. Fruit truncate, oval, downy, indehiscent,
marked with furrows, with 2 compartments each containing a seed
inserted on the wall.

Habitat.--Grows in shady and moist places. Blooms in July.



_Carum copticum_, Benth. (_C. ajowan_, DC.; _Ammi copticum_, L.;
_A. glaucifolium_, Blanco; _Daucus opticus_, Pers.; _D. anisodorus_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lamudio_, _Damoro_, Tag.; _Lamudio_, Vis.; _Caraway_, Eng.

Uses.--The fruit, of which both form and taste remind one of anise,
is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India as a carminative, stimulant
and antispasmodic. It is indicated in flatulent colic, atonic dyspepsia
and diarrhoea and gives very good results. It has been used in cholera,
but is of little value in that disease. In moderate doses it increases
salivary and gastric secretion.

The P. of India contains the 2 following official formulæ:
_Oleum_--obtained from the fruit by distillation; is colorless when
fresh but soon turns yellow; possesses the odor of the fruit and an
acrid, burning taste. _Aqua_--600 grams of the fruit ground and mixed
with 9 liters of water; this is distilled till 4 1/2 liters have gone
over, these constituting the "aqua cari."

Dose.--1-2 drops of the essential oil in emulsion or on a piece of
sugar. Of the "aqua," 30-60 grams as a carminative or to disguise the
taste of other drugs (such as castor oil), thus frequently preventing
nausea or vomiting.

Botanical Description.--Leaves finely pinnately compound. Common
petiole clasps the stem at the base. Flowers white, in flat
compound umbels. The secondary peduncles 12. Flowerets of each
partial umbel about 16. Calyx of flowerets superior, 5 globose
sepals. Corolla, 5 equal petals, with rounded lobules. Stamens 5. Ovary
tuberculate. Styles 2, very short. Seeds 2, united, furrowed and
nearly glabrous at maturity.

Habitat.--Cultivated in gardens. Blooms in October.



_Foeniculum vulgare_, Gaertn. (_F. officinale_, Allion; _F. panmorium_,
DC.; _Anethum foeniculum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Anis_, Sp.; _Fennel_, Eng.

Coriandrum sativum, L. (_Cuminum cynimum_, Wall.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Cominos_, _Calantro_, Sp.; _Coriander_, Eng.

Uses.--The fruit of both species has the same therapeutical application
being stomachic and carminative par excellence. It yields an aromatic
essential oil with stimulant properties, popular because of its
agreeable odor and taste.

As a rule the infusion is given in doses of one liter a day (15-30
grams of the seeds to one liter of water). The essence and the
alcoholate are also employed, the former obtained by distillation,
the latter by macerating the fresh seeds in alcohol. The dose of the
essence, 4-8 drops on a piece of sugar or in potion; the alcoholate,
2-10 grams in sweetened water or infusion of aromatic herbs.

Both plants are official in the Spanish Pharmacopoeia and they and
their preparations are common in all drug stores.

Habitat.--Common, cultivated in the gardens and well known.

Botanical Description.--_F. vulgare_: Aromatic, stout, smooth herb,
4-6° high. Leaves with many slender thread-like divisions. Large umbel
of yellow flowers, no involucre and no involucels. _C. sativum_: Low
aromatic herb, leaves pinnately compound, small umbels with few rays,
flowers white.



CORNACEÆ.

Dogwood Family.



_Alangium Lamarkii_, Thwaites. (_A. decapetalum_, _hexapetalum_
and _tomentosum_, Lam.)

Nom. Vulg.--(?)

Uses.--According to Mooden Sheriff, the root bark is an efficient
emetic in doses of 3 grams. In smaller doses it is febrifuge and
produces nausea. The bark is extremely bitter; its reputation in the
treatment of skin diseases is undeserved. It is a good substitute
for ipecac, having given good results in all conditions in which the
latter is indicated, with the exception of dysentery.

The febrifuge dose is 0.35-0.60 gram; alterative, 0.15-0.30 gram.

It is furthermore prescribed in India for syphilis and leprosy and
is one of the many remedies used for the bites of rabid animals. The
bruised leaves are applied to the joints of rheumatic patients.

Botanical Description.--A tree 20-30 meters high, leaves alternate,
persistent, petiolate, no stipules, oblong, dentate, acuminate,
pinnately nerved. Flowers whitish, regular, hermaphrodite, in
terminal cymes. Receptacle concave. Calyx short, 10-toothed. Corolla,
10 narrow, elongated ribbon-like petals. Stamens 30-40, filaments
free and glabrous. Ovary inferior, held in the concavity of the
receptacle, one-celled, with 1 seed, crowned by an epigynous disc,
above which rises a simple style with dilated stigma. Fruit a globose
drupe, crowned by the calyx, with 10 inconspicuous ribs. The putamen
encloses an albuminous kernel.

Habitat.--The mountains of San Mateo.



DICOTYLEDONOUS, GAMOPETALOUS.



RUBIACEÆ.

Madder Family.



_Hymenodictyon excelsum_, Wall. (_H. Horsfieldii_, Miq.; _Chinchona
excelsa_, Roxb.; _Exostema Philippicum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Huligaga_, Tag.

Uses.--The bark of this tree has a wide reputation in India as a tonic
and febrifuge. The inner layer of the bark possesses astringent and
bitter properties much like quinine. Ainslie states that it is used
in India to tan hides and therapeutically where an astringent is
required. O'Shaughnessy experimented with it in the hospital of the
Medical College of Calcutta and reported good tonic and antipyretic
effects.

In 1870, according to Dymock, Broughton analyzed the fresh bark and
reported that the bitter taste was due to _esculin_, which after drying
and coming in contact with decomposing organic matter is transformed
into the almost tasteless _esculetin_. Naylor studied the bark at
a later period, and attributed the bitterness to an alkaloid that
he named _hymenodictyonine_. This substance exists in the form of a
gelatinous mass, cream-colored, very hygroscopic. An ethereal solution,
carefully evaporated, deposits it in the form of crystals. Its
empirical form is C_23_H_40_N_2_; it is probably volatile and is
notable for its lack of oxygen. It differs from _quinoidine_ in that
it is inactive (?) and that in combination with platinum it retains
less of this metal than does quinoidine. It differs from _paricine_
in its proportion of hydrogen, and from _berberine_ in containing more
carbon. In the presence of sulphuric acid its solution assumes a yellow
color, changing to wine-red and then to dark red. Naylor extracted
another principle which he found combined with the alkaloid in a soda
precipitate of the latter; it is a product of the decomposition of a
glucose, the formula of which is C_25_H_49_O_7_. This compound remains
insoluble when the alkaloid is treated with ether. Repeated boiling
in alcohol renders it colorless. It is bitter, soluble in alcohol
and dilute acids; insoluble in ether and chloroform. Reaction, neutral.

Botanical Description.--A large tree, with leaves opposite,
oval, entire, acute, downy. Petioles long, flat above, with 2
stipules. Flowers axillary, in compound verticillate racemes. Calyx
adherent, with 5 promptly deciduous teeth which leave a scar that also
disappears. Corolla much longer than the calyx, funnel-form, the limb
5-cleft. Stamens 5, inserted near the middle of the tube. Filaments
rudimentary. Anthers 2-celled. Style longer than the corolla. Stigma
globose. Seed-vessel rather rough, ovoid, flattened, of 2 compartments,
where are inserted numerous seeds, imbricated, circular, encircled
by an entire wing.

Habitat.--Angat and the woods of San Mateo. Blooms in
August. (P. Blanco states further that this tree grows to a height of
about 3 yards in Angat and that it exhales a strong odor resembling
that of vinegar at times, and again like that of tobacco.)



_Oldenlandia corymbosa_, L. (_O. biflora_, Lam.; _O. ramosa_, Roxb.;
_O. herbacea_ and _serabrida_, DC.; _O. burmaniana_, Mig.)

Nom. Vulg.--Doubtful.

_Uses._--The Sanscrit writers often mention this plant as an important
remedy for the fevers due, according to their theories, to disordered
bile, _i. e._, remittent fevers, accompanied by gastric irritability
and nervous depression. The entire plant is used to make a decoction,
often combined with aromatics. Dymock observed in Goa that this plant
could be gotten in all the shops of the herb-venders, and that it
was widely used as an alterative in mild fevers in combination with
_"Hydrocotyle Asiatica_ and _Adiantum lunulatum_."

In Concan they apply the juice to the hands and feet in fevers,
giving at the same time a dose of one "tola" (6.80 grams) in sweetened
water or milk. This juice is obtained by soaking the bruised plant
in water. In remittent fever the decoction is also used as a liniment
for the whole body. It is given internally for skin eruptions due to
excessive heat, especially "lichen tropicus."

Botanical Description.--A small herb, stem straight, about 30
centimeters high, glabrous, dichotomous. Leaves opposite, linear,
green, lanceolate, stipulate. Flowers small, hermaphrodite, axillary,
solitary, or in pairs, alternate or opposite. Calyx gamosepalous with
5 short teeth. Corolla gamopetalous, funnel-shaped. Stamens 5, free,
inserted in the tube of the corolla. Ovary inserted in the hollow
of the receptacle, 2 many-ovuled locules. Style simple, ending in
a bifid stigma. Capsule rounded-oval, membranous. Seeds numerous,
polyhedrous, albuminous, surface granular.

Habitat.--In the rice fields.



_Randia dumetorum_, Lam. (_R. longispina_, DC.; _R. aculata_, Blanco;
_R. stipulosa_, Miq.; _Gardenia spinosa_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sinampaga_, Tag.

Uses.--The fruit is used in some parts of India to kill the fish in
ponds and sluggish rivers, the same use to which they sometimes put the
"Cocculus Indicus." It is prescribed as an emetic by the Sanscrit and
Arabic medical authors of India. Mooden Sheriff ascribes its emetic
properties to the pulp alone, the epicarp and seeds being inactive
according to his authority. It is a substitute for ipecac even in the
treatment of dysentery in which case the decoction of the trunk bark
is also used.

The dried and powdered pulp is given in dose of 2.50 grams as an
emetic and 1-2 grams as an antidysenteric. To prepare the fresh fruit
for administration as an emetic, mash 2-3, macerate 15 minutes in
150-200 grams of water and filter. It acts in a few minutes and its
effect may be hastened by giving tepid water or tickling the fauces.

Botanical Description.--A shrub with straight, thorny stem, leaves
sessile, springing from the buds, occurring in threes, obtusely
lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers solitary or in pairs, very
fragrant. Calyx gamosepalous with 10 toothlets. Corolla twisted,
arched, cleft in the middle, throat nude, limb slashed in 5 large
glabrous parts. Stamens 5. Filaments short, inserted on corolla. Style
1. Stigma bifid. Fruit inferior, about the size of a crab apple,
crowned by the remains of the calyx, smooth, yellow, fleshy, 1-celled
with many seeds.

Habitat.--On the coast of Luzon. Blooms in May.



_Ixora coccinea_, L. (_I. bandhuca_, Roxb.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Santan_, Tag.

Uses.--The handsome red flowers are used in decoction for hæmoptysis
and catarrhal bronchitis. Both root and flower are astringent and
are given for dysentery. In Concan they cook 2 "tolas" (13.60 grams)
of the flowers in lard, together with coriander and "mesua ferrea,"
add a little candied sugar and divide the mass into large pills to
be given twice a day.

The fresh root in the form of an alcoholic tincture has been
recommended by Deb for dysentery, the dose 2-4 grams in an appropriate
potion. The tincture of the fresh plant is prepared by macerating
126 grams of the fresh root 15 days in 473 grams alcohol. The plant
has been used in intermittent fevers and various skin diseases.

Botanical Description.--A shrub cultivated in all gardens, 6-8°
high. Leaves oval, entire, glabrous. Flowers in terminal umbels, white,
pink or red. Corolla tubular with limb cleft in 4 rounded lobes. The
plant is so well known that further description would be superfluous.



_Coffea Arabica_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Cafe_, Sp.; _Coffee_, Eng.

Uses.--The infusion of roasted and ground coffee seeds constitutes
a beverage of Arabic origin, but now common all over the world. In
the Philippines, where a few years ago the coffee plant was only
cultivated in gardens, the harvest has assumed such proportions
that it now constitutes one of the greatest sources of agricultural
wealth. Its use is becoming more general every day and the discovery
of its alkaloid "caffeine" the therapeutical use of which is also
steadily increasing, has given new importance to the seed on account
of its increasing demand in the drug trade. When newly harvested its
taste is not very agreeable, for it needs considerable time--2 or 3
years--in which to dry completely, before it acquires the aromatic
properties and the savor of which it is susceptible. General Morin
relates an incident of having drunk a delicious infusion of coffee
made from authentic Moka that had been kept for fifty years, of course
under ideal conditions of preservation.

In civilized countries coffee is an article of prime necessity as a
food; here we shall consider it therapeutically under two heads, as
a tonic-stimulant and as an antiseptic. As caffeine is the principle
that acts upon the heart we shall consider the cardiac properties of
coffee under the head of that alkaloid, so important that it may best
be studied separately.

There are two preparations of coffee, the decoction used by the Arabs
and the infusion, used in Europe and adopted in the Philippines. The
decoction forms a tonic and aromatic drink devoid of any excitant
properties, but the infusion is highly excitant and should not be
taken in such large amounts as the decoction, for its action may be
powerful enough to cause headache, nausea, trembling of the extremities
and disorders of vision and hearing. These phenomena however are not
dangerous and rapidly subside as soon as the urine eliminates the
substances that cause them.

Infusion of coffee stimulates especially the cerebral functions and
the circulation; as to its digestive properties, opinion is divided
but it is more probable that it lacks them and that coffee taken
after meals owes its reputation as a digestive aid to two distinct
factors--the temperature and the sugar. Without doubt it exerts an
anaphrodisiac action, on account of which the illustrious Linnæus
called it the "drink of eunuchs." This action seems incompatible with
the fact that the Arabs, who are so much given to the abuse of the
pleasures forbidden to eunuchs are most addicted to the use and abuse
of coffee. The explanation rests in the form in which they consume
their coffee, namely the decoction, which is free from the sedative
principle of the seed, that undoubtedly resides in the aromatic
ingredient "cafeol."

Coffee is contraindicated in hysterical and nervous persons, in
children and in those who suffer with insomnia or palpitation. It
counteracts sleep and coma, being very useful in poisoning by opium or
its alkaloids. Its stimulant action is as rapid as that of alcohol. On
several occasions it has yielded me marked results when given by
stomach or by enema in cases of nervous and cardiac depression. Indeed
it is a remedy that I cannot recommend too highly and each day leaves
me more convinced of its therapeutic activity and certainty.

Attention has only lately been directed to the antiseptic property of
coffee though we have long been availing ourselves of that property
without knowing it; this is true of many other medicinal agents,
indeed of all that the modern studies of bacteriology have presented
to us as antifermentives and microbicides. Roasted coffee in powder
form gives good results if dusted over ulcers and gangrenous sores,
rapidly improving their appearance and destroying the foetid odor. It
corrects the unhygienic properties of non-potable water and therefore
enters into the army and navy ration of nearly all the nations of
Europe. In epidemics of disease every physician should advise its
use in mild infusion as a regular beverage.

Dr. Luderitz, experimenting in the Hygienic Institute of Berlin,
reported that no bacteria could resist the action of coffee in
infusion. He attributed this action not only to the tannin, which
is present in high percentage, but principally to the empyreumatic
substances formed by the roasting. The caffeine takes no part in this
action. Dr. Luderitz exposed the coffee to the open air for six days
and found it free from bacteria at the end of that time. Whatever may
be the explanation of its activity the fact remains that coffee is
highly antiseptic, and this should be kept in mind by physicians not
only because it is everywhere easily obtained and an infusion easily
prepared, but because it in addition possesses the great advantage
of being nontoxic.

The chemical analysis of the seed is as follows:


    Cellulose                                       34.000
    Water                                           12.000
    Fatty matters                             10 to 13.000
    Glucose, dextrin, undetermined acid             15.500
    Legumin, caffeine                               10.000
    Chlorogenate of caffeine and potassa    3.500 to 5.000
    Albuminoids                                      3.000
    Caffeine, free                                    .800
    Essential oil, solid                              .001
    Essential oil,  liquid                            .002
    Mineral substances                               6.697


Caffeine, the only one of the ingredients that interests us, was
discovered by Hunge in 1821 and recognized as an alkaloid by Herzog. It
also exists in tea, formerly known as "theine" which is now known
to be identical with caffeine; both are expressed by the formula
C_8_H_10_N_2_O_2_+H_2_O. It crystallizes in fine, silky needles,
is colorless, odorless and slightly bitter.

It is considered a substitute for digitalis, especially valuable as
a diuretic and where cerebral anemia exists. Germain See values it
as a preventive medicine, acting principally upon the heart and thus
preventing fatigue; with this end in view he advises its use before
long marches, violent exercise and all conditions where the heart will
be called upon to do a greatly increased amount of work. Dose 0.25
gram to 1 or 2 grams a day given by stomach or hypodermic injection.

Caffeine is also useful in headache, neuralgia, and asthma and as a
general tonic. For the latter action it is best given in pill form,
0.02-0.04 gram a day, with the extract of cinchona or other bitter
tonic.

"Etoxy-caffeine," which is caffeine in which an atom of H has been
replaced by the C_2_H_5_O, exists as white, needle-like crystals,
slightly soluble in water; it is narcotic and sedative to the
cerebro-spinal system. In doses of 0.24 gram it is useful in headache.

Botanical Description.--"A small tree that reaches a height of 8-9°. It
grows readily in the province of Batangas without cultivation," Blanco.

A small tree or shrub with leaves opposite, smooth, glossy, rich green,
oval, edges fluted. Flowers fragrant, white, growing in small clusters
in the axils of the leaves. Calyx 4-5-toothed. Corolla short-tubed with
4-5 spreading lobes of about the same length. Berry red, containing
two plano-convex seeds enveloped in arils.

The plant is widely cultivated in gardens. It finds ideal conditions
for growth in some of the hilly and mountainous regions of Luzon,
notably in Benguet and Batangas.



_Morinda citrifolia_, L.; variety: _bracteata_, Hoock, Jr.
(_M. ligulata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bankundo_, _Pankundo_, _Bangkuro_, _Nino_, _Kulit_,
_Tumbongaso_, _Lino_, _Mambog_, _Takpus_, Tag. and Vis.; _Taliantar_,
Pam.; _Apalot_, Iloc.; _Indian Mulberry_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--In the Philippines, as well as in India, the root of the
plant is widely used as a red dye. As a medicine the Tamul physicians
use it in decoction to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruit is
emmenagogue and perhaps aperient. In Bombay the mashed leaves are
applied to wounds and ulcers to hasten cicatrization; they also use
the decoction internally as a febrifuge and tonic, 10 grams to 500
of water, a wineglassful twice a day.

The root bark contains a crystalline substance called by Anderson
_morindin_, C_28_H_30_O_15_. It is a glucoside and exists in the form
of yellow needles, soluble in alcohol and in cold water, insoluble
in ether; dissolves in alkalies producing an orange-red color.

There is another species, _M. tinctoria_, Roxb.; _M. Royoc_, Blanco,
called in Tagalog _Tumboung aso kapay_, the roots of which are used
by the Filipinos for the same purposes as the leaves of the former
species; the dose, 8 grams a day. The powder is also applied to ulcers
and sores, especially those of gangrenous aspect.

Botanical Description.--A small tree 11 or more feet high, branches
opposite, quadrate at the extremities. Leaves opposite, oval, oblong,
smooth, entire, glabrous. Petioles very short, with 2 broad, lanceolate
stipules curved outward. Flowers white, opposite the leaves, fixed on
globose, solitary receptacles from which spring the flowerets. Calyx
proper, very short, monophyllous, a lanceolate leaflet springing from
the border. Corolla tubular, woolly inside about the middle, with 5
lobules. Stamens 5, inserted on the walls of the corolla. Anthers thin,
incumbent. Pistil somewhat longer than the corolla. Stigma cleft in
2 laminæ. Fruit: the receptacle of the flowerets ripens to a globe
bristling with the remains of the calyces, like a berry covered with
many smaller ones, each containing 2 monospermous, quadrangular seeds.



_M. tinctoria_, Roxb., is a climbing shrub with leaves opposite,
ovate, keeled; petioles very short; flower and fruit like the
foregoing species.

Habitat.--In Luzon and, especially the M. tinctoria, in Malinta,
Calauan and Tanauan.



_Pæderia foetida_, L. (_P. sessiflora_, DC.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kantutan_, _Kantutæ_, Tag.; _Lilitan_, _Tæ-tæ_, Vis.

Uses.--The foetid odor of this plant has suggested both the
technical and common names for it. The natives regard it as a cure
for rheumatism. The root is emetic. The leaves, boiled and mashed,
are applied to the abdomen in retention of urine; the decoction of
the leaves is used for the same purpose and also has some reputation
as a solvent for vesical calculus. For fever, cloths soaked in the
decoction are applied to the head, the same preparation being given
internally at the same time.

Botanical Description.--A slender, twining plant with leaves 3'
by 1', opposite, oval, acute, entire, long petioles and caducous
stipules. Flowers dark rose color, in compound axillary and terminal
cymes. Calyx of 5 persistent lobules. Corolla tubular, pubescent,
5 lobules. Stamens 5, free. Ovary inferior, flattened, 2 uniovulate
locules. Style with 2 stigma-bearing branches.

Habitat.--Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Panay.



COMPOSITÆ.



_Eupatorium Ayapana_, Vent.

Nom. Vulg.--_Aya-pana_, Sp.; _Ayapana_, _Apana_, Tag.; _Ayapan_,
Indo-Eng.

Uses.--A native plant of Brazil now naturalized and well known in the
Philippines and many other tropical countries; it is called by its
Brazilian name, Aya-pana, more or less modified. The entire plant is
aromatic and its infusion has an agreeable, bitter taste. Its virtues
have been much exaggerated, but it is certainly a good stimulant,
diaphoretic and tonic. An infusion, 30 grams of the leaves to 1 liter
of water, is given in dyspepsia, a small cup after each meal. In the
island of Mauritius this infusion was widely used as a stimulant and
aromatic in the cholera epidemics of 1854 and 1856.

It is used internally and locally for the bites of venomous snakes
and insects. The leaf-juice is a good application for foul ulcers,
as is also the decoction of the entire plant. "It appears probable
that this plant has fallen into unmerited neglect."--Pharm. of India.

Botanical Description.--An aromatic plant 3° high, leaves opposite,
sessile, coherent at the base, lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers
in racemose panicles. Common calyx cylindrical, of many imbricated,
awl-shaped scales, the lower ones smaller; within are 20 or more
hermaphrodite disk-flowers. Corollas are funnel-form, 5-lobed. Style a
little longer than the stamens. Stigmas 2, long. Seed 1, quadrangular,
with simple, downy, sessile pappus. Receptacle nude.

Habitat.--Common in fields and gardens. Blooms in January.



_Blumea balsamifera_, DC. (_Conyza balsamifera_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sambon_, Tag.; _Lakbandulan_, _Hamlibon_, _Lalakdan_,
_Lakadbulan_, _Gintingintin_, _Gabuen_, _Ayoban_, _Alibun_, Vis.;
_Sobsob_, Iloc.

Uses.--Sambon is a panacea among the Filipinos; its virtues are
prodigious according to the ignorant natives who wear the leaves in
the hat or the "salakod" (rain hat), to prevent "tabardillo" ("burning
fever"; tabardillo pintado = spotted fever). They use the decoction
to bathe convalescents, and for rheumatism they vaporize it in an
improvised bath-cabinet consisting of a chair in which the patient sits
enveloped in blankets that reach to the floor and retain the steam.

The hot infusion of the leaves is a good diaphoretic taken by the
mouth, especially useful in catarrhal bronchitis, and prized as an
expectorant by the Chinese and Javanese. Furthermore it is stomachic,
antispasmodic and emmenagogue.

The camphorous odor of the plant suggested to me its application as
an antiseptic lotion for varicose ulcers and my results have been
very satisfactory. The infusion for internal use is 30 grams to the
liter of water.

Botanical Description.--A woody plant 6-9° high. Leaves 1° long,
3' wide, oblong, lanceolate, acutely serrate, rugose, soft, downy,
whitish. Flowers yellow in panicles. Involucre conical, of many
linear scales, enclosing 15 or more hermaphrodite disk-flowers and
several pistillate ray-flowers. Hermaphrodite: corolla infundibuliform,
5-toothed. Pistillate: corolla very minute, infundibuliform, obscurely
4-toothed. One seed crowned with a simple hairy pappus.

Habitat.--Grows universally in the islands and is well known. Blooms
in January.



_Sphoeranthus Indicus_, L. (_S. hirtus_, Willd.; _S. mollis_, Roxb.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sambong-gala_, Tag.

Uses.--This plant seems to possess anthelmintic properties and for this
purpose it is administered in powder, 2-4 grams with a little molasses
or syrup. It is bitter and aromatic and is given in diseases of the
stomach and intestines for its tonic and stimulant effect. The odor
of the drug is transmitted to both urine and sweat. In India it is
used in "bilious diseases" and to dissipate all sorts of tumors. The
Hindoos cook it with flour, lard and sugar and eat the mixture as
a tonic and to prevent gray hair and baldness. They also give the
seed, fried in oil, as an aphrodisiac. The aqueous distillate is a
good preparation as it contains the active principle of the plant,
a yellow, viscid, essential oil.

Botanical Description.--A plant about 1° high, stem and branches
bearing 3 serrate wings. Leaves premorse, lanceolate, decurrent,
downy. Flowers white, in a globose head, divided into 50 or more
groups each with its own calyx of 9 or 10 leaflets surrounding 2 or 3
hermaphrodite, 5-toothed, campanulate flowers. Anthers 5, united. Style
1, thick at extremity. Stigma none. Corolla of pistillate flowers very
minute, with 3 obscure teeth. Stigma of 2 down-curved divisions. One
seed, 4-angled, imbricated.

Habitat.--The rice fields. Blooms in January.



_Spilanthes Acmella_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Hagonog_, Tag.; _Agonoy_, Sp.-Fil., Vis.(?); _Palunay_,
Pam.

Uses.--Some native herb-doctors use the root as a purgative, giving a
decoction of 4-8 grams to a cup of water. The infusion is used locally
for itch and psoriasis. Internally it has a diuretic effect and is
reputed to be a solvent of vesical calculi. The leaf juice and the
bruised leaves are applied to wounds and atonic ulcers. These leaves
with those of "sambon" and "sampaloc" (tamarind) are used to prepare
aromatic baths for convalescents, rheumatics and pregnant women.

Botanical Description.--A plant with stem drooping, square,
grooved, covered with drops of gum resin. Leaves opposite, cordate,
oval, lanceolate, serrate, 3 prominent nerves covered with short
down. Petioles short, grooved. Flowers yellow, in a sort of umbel,
with 3 or more flowerets on long peduncles. Common calyx, 9-11 narrow
sepals, concave, fleshy, in 2 rows. Hermaphrodite disk-flowers 40 or
more. Corolla tubular, 5-toothed. Anthers longer than corolla. Pistil
longer than stamens. Style bifid. Pistillate flowers, 15 or more,
forming the rays. Corolla monopetalous, 3-toothed. Style and stigma as
in hermaphrodite flowers. Seeds of hermaphrodite flowers quadrangular,
crowned by one long awn, and the rudiment of another. Seeds of ray
flowers small and sometimes flattened, 2 awns, of which one alone
lengthens and becomes conspicuous. Receptacle covered with concave
scales.

Habitat.--Grows along the shores of the sea and of rivers. It is very
well known.



_Artemisia vulgaris_, L. (_A. Indica_, Willd.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Ka-María_, _Santa María_, _Tinisas_, Tag.; _Indian
Wormwood_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The native women use the infusion of its aromatic leaves to
induce menstruation. It is also used as an abortifacient, but is too
mild a uterine stimulant to be reliable for that purpose. Its stomachic
and tonic properties are common knowledge in the Philippines. The
Hindoos use it for those effects and as an antispasmodic in amenorrhoea
and hysteria. Dr. Wight states that the leaves and tops are useful
in nervous troubles resulting from debility and that a decoction of
them makes a good fomentation for phagedenic ulcers.

The infusion is prepared in the proportion of 10-30 grams of leaves
to 1 liter of water and the powdered leaves are given in doses of
4-8 grams; the aqueous extract 30-40 grams a day. For amenorrhoea
the drug is given daily for a week preceding the menstrual date.

Botanical Description.--A plant 3° high, stem straight, woody, square
toward ends of branches. Leaves alternate, tomentose, decurrent,
divided in several places, medium lanceolate. Flowers straw-colored,
in axillary and terminal, 1-ranked spikes. Common calyx cylindrical, 2
circles of oval, scarious leaflets around its border, 11 hermaphrodite
disk-flowers and about 5 pistillate ray-flowers. Hermaphrodite: Corolla
bell-shaped, 5 obtuse teeth; stigmas 2, bent to the sides. Pistillate:
Corolla diminutive, 5 toothlets; anther none; stigmas 2. Seeds of
both small and quadrate, smaller in the latter. Receptacle nude.

Habitat.--Grows throughout the islands and is well known.



_Carthamus tinctorius_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Azafrán de la tierra_, Sp.; _Biri_, _Kasubha_, _Katsumba_,
_Lago_, Tag.; _Kasabba_, Vis.; _Kasubha_, _Kastumba_, Pam.; _Bastard
Saffron_, _Dyer's Safflower_, Eng.

Uses.--This plant must not be confounded with _Curcuma longa_, L.,
whose tuber is also frequently called saffron (azafrán), and is used
to color food.

The flower is the part employed as a condiment coloring the
food yellow. Some use them internally in doses of 4 grams to cure
icterus. The leaves coagulate milk. The seeds are purgative in dose of
8-16 grams, bruised and taken in emulsion, or 15-30 grams in decoction.

The following is the chemical analysis of the plant:


        Yellow coloring matter, soluble                26.1-36.0
        Carthamic acid                                  0.3- 0.6
        Extractive matter                               3.6- 6.5
        Albumin                                         1.5- 8.0
        Wax                                             0.6- 1.5
        Cellulose, pectin                              38.4-56.0
        Silica                                          1.0- 8.4
        Oxide of iron, aluminum, oxide of manganese     0.4- 4.6

                                                            (Salvetat.)


Botanical Description.--A plant 3° high, root gray and
spindle-shaped. Stem straight, few branches. Leaves scattered,
sessile, partially embracing the stem, lanceolate, serrate with
hooked teeth. Flowers yellow, terminal in a sort of corymb. Common
calyx semiglobose, with imbricated scales, the border often bearing
thorns; numerous hermaphrodite disk flowers, with corolla very
long, funnel-form, 5-toothed. Style longer than the stamens. Stigma
bifid. Seed large, lacking pappus.

Habitat.--Cultivated in the gardens.



PLUMBAGINEÆ.

Leadwort Family.



_Plumbago Zeylanica_, L. (_P. viscosa_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sagdikit_, Tag.; _Bagbag_, _Talankaw_, Iloc.;
_White-flowered Leadwort_, Eng.

Uses.--The root is vesicant and is used by the natives for this
purpose. (_P. rosea_, L., common in India, is more powerful. The
Pharmacopoeia of India states that both species are worthy of further
investigation.) According to the Sanscrit authors it increases the
appetite and is useful in dyspepsia, piles, dropsy, diarrhoea and
skin diseases. The Filipinos use the infusion locally for itch with
good results. A favorite medicine of the Hindoos for flatulence is
the old recipe of Susrutas, composed of equal parts of the following
substances in powder:

Leadwort root, root of _Cissampelos Pareira_, _Picrorrhiza kurroa_,
[6] _Aconitum heterophyllum_,1 and _Terminalia Chebula_ in dose of
4 grams a day.

Dr. Oswald has employed the alcoholic tincture of leadwort in the
intermittents, with satisfactory results, and claims that it is a
powerful diaphoretic. [7] The mashed root is mixed with rice flour
and made into a caustic paste to apply to buboes, destroy warts,
etc. Women also use the scraped root to induce abortion, introducing
it through the vagina into the _os uteri_. This practice should be
strongly condemned on account of its dangerous consequences--metritis,
peritonitis and often death.

The chemical composition of the root has been studied by Dulong. [8]
It includes a non-nitrogenous principle, plumbagin, existing in the
form of orange-yellow needles, bitter, acrid, volatile, neutral,
slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in ether, alcohol and
hot water. The aqueous solution becomes cherry-red on the addition of
an alkali, which color is changed to yellow by acids. Basic acetate
of lead causes the same color change.

Botanical Description.--Plant with stem declined, angular. Leaves
lanceolate, entire, rather downy. Petioles at their base embrace
the stem. Flowers white, in axillary spikes. Individual involucres,
3 oval leaflets, the lower larger. Calyx long, cleft almost to
the base in 5 lineal parts thickly set with small glands, exuding
a sticky gum. Corolla salver-shaped, the tube long, square, throat
bare, limb divided into 5 obovate parts, ending in stylets. Stamens
5, inserted near the base of the corolla, almost as long as the
tube. Style a little shorter than the stamens. Stigma, 5 parts. One
long seed enclosed within the calyx, pentangular, covered with a
membranaceous skin.

Habitat.--In Tanauan (Batangas).



SAPOTACEÆ.

Sapodilla Family.



_Achras Sapota_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Chico_, Sp.-Fil.; _Tsiku_, Tag.

Uses.--The _chico_ is one of the popular fruits of the Philippines,
much appreciated by Europeans as well as the natives. When not entirely
ripe it yields a resinous juice that sticks to the lips and affords a
disagreeable taste; but when once thoroughly ripe it has a slightly
vinous, sweetish taste and is easily digested. Therapeutically its
seeds are used as a diuretic, but large doses should be avoided as
they contain a small proportion of hydrocyanic acid. The proper dose
is 5-6 mashed seeds in sweetened water. They contain, in addition to
the above, a fatty substance of the consistency of butter.

The trunk bark is tonic and febrifuge; Mr. Bernon [9] has isolated from
it a crystalline alkaloid, _sapotine_, soluble in ether, chloroform
or alcohol, but not in water; a large per cent. of _sapotanic acid_
and two resins.

The trunk exudes, when incised, a milky resin, closely resembling
guttapercha and possibly susceptible of the same uses.

Botanical Description.--Trees, about 11° high, with leaves lanceolate,
keeled, entire, glabrous. Flowers pure white, solitary or by twos,
terminal, very long peduncles. Calyx, 6 sepals, 3 within the others,
inferior persistent. Corolla jug-shaped, the border divided into 12
parts, the 6 smaller ones alternating and within the others. Stamens
6, inserted near the border of the inner petals and opposite the outer
circle. Filaments very short. Style long. Stigma obtuse, fruit globose,
resembling a small pear, russet brown, crowned with the hardened
style, more than 10 compartments, each containing a seed. Seed oval,
flattened, joined to a central fleshy axis.

Habitat.--Common all over the Archipelago. Blooms in April.



_Mimusops Elengi_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Kabiki_, Tag.

Uses.--Its flowers are fragrant and generally well known. The trunk
bark is astringent, and in decoction is given by mouth for fevers
and diarrhoea. Locally is used as an injection for blenorrhoea,
as a gargle for sore throat or relaxed uvula, and a mouth wash to
harden the gums. Horsfield states that the Javanese use it as a tonic
and antiperiodic. In India an aqueous distillate is employed as a
perfume and therapeutically as a stimulant. In Concan they chew the
green fruit for toothache and to harden relaxed gums. The decoction
of the green fruit serves the same purpose and besides is used to
wash wounds and ulcers.

Botanical Description.--A large ornamental tree with leaves alternate,
oblong, coriaceous, green. Flowers small, straw-colored, star-shaped,
very fragrant. Calyx, 8 sepals. Corolla gamopetalous, 16 oblong,
lanceolate divisions. Stamens 8, free, short, alternating with 8
petaloid, conical, pubescent staminodia. Ovary free, many ovules. Fruit
fleshy, oval, smooth, yellow when ripe, with one or several locules
according to the number of matured seeds. Seeds solitary, oblong,
flattened.

Habitat.--Cultivated in the gardens.



OLEACEÆ.

Olive Family.



_Jasminum Sambac_, Aiton. (_Nyctanthes Sambac_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sampaga_, Tag.; _Sampaguitas_, Sp.-Fil.; _Arabian
Jasmin_, Eng.

Uses.--The flower is the most popular and beloved of any in the
Philippines (and is commonly referred to as the national flower). In
decoction it is used as an eye-wash in catarrhal conjunctivitis. In
India the flowers and the leaves have a merited reputation as
a lactifuge; 2 handfuls of flowers bruised and applied without
moistening, once or twice a day, sometimes checks the secretion of
the milk within 24 hours, but generally 2 or 3 days are required for
a complete effect.

Botanical Description.--Stems scarcely climbing, flattened,
pubescent. Leaves opposite, cordate base, lanceolate-ovate,
entire, glabrous. Flowers in small, close clusters, white,
fragrant. Calyx-teeth 8-9, long and awl-shaped. Corolla, long tube,
7-8 rounded lobes. Stamens 2. Style 1. Stigma cleft in 2 laminæ.



APOCYNACEÆ.

Dogbane Family.



_Allamanda cathartica_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--Not known.

Uses.--As this plant has no common name in the Philippines it is most
probable that the natives do not use it. The Portuguese introduced
it into India from Brazil. A decoction of the leaves is purgative
and is used in lead colic. The milky juice of the plant is emetic and
cathartic in large doses, but simply laxative when given in doses of
8 or 10 drops. On account of its possible violent cathartic action
great prudence should be exercised in prescribing it.

Botanical Description.--A twining shrub with leaves in fours, bright
green, oblong, covered with rough hairs. Flowers in compound spikes,
yellow. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla 5-lobed, funnel-form. Stamens 5,
inserted in throat of corolla, which above them is closed by a crown of
hairs. Ovary 1-celled with 2 many-ovuled placentæ. Style cylindrical,
terminating in a bilobulate cone. Capsule globular, about the size
of a pea, black, coriaceous, thorny, bivalvate. Seeds numerous,
each encircled by a broad membranous wing.

Habitat.--In Calauang and other parts of Luzon and Panay.



_Thevetia nerifolia_, Suss. (_Cerbera Thevetia_, L. and Blanco)

Nom. Vulg.--_Campanelo_, Sp.-Fil.; _Exile or Yellow Oleander_, Eng.

Uses.--This shrub is very common in gardens, well known by its pretty
yellow, bell-shaped flowers. The trunk bark possesses antiperiodic
properties first described by Descourtilz and confirmed later by
Dr. G. Bidie and Dr. J. Short. Both the latter used the tincture
in 10-15-drop doses 3 times a day. This tincture was prepared by
macerating for one week in 150 grams of alcohol 30 grams of fresh bark
finely divided. This preparation operates as an emetic and purgative
in doses of 30-60 drops. It is evident that the plant possesses very
active, even poisonous properties and should be employed with great
caution. The decoction of the bark is given as an emetic and cathartic,
but very imprudently because there is no means of determining the
quantity of active principle, shown by chemical analysis to be a
dangerous product.

The fruit is very bitter and acrid. The seeds yield by expression
35 to 41% oil (De Vry) and 57% when treated with benzol. It has
an agreeable odor resembling that of sweet almonds, its density
is 0.9148 at 25° and it is perfectly clear and transparent at that
temperature. At 15° it thickens and at 13° solidifies. According to
Oudemans it consists of 63% triolein and 37% tripalmin and tristearin;
it is not poisonous. After expression De Vry obtained from the caked
residue 4% of a crystalline glucoside called by him _thevetin_. Blas,
of the Academy of Medicine of Belgium, studied it later and described
it as a white powder of small colorless scales, odorless, very bitter,
soluble at 14° in 122 parts of water, in alcohol, in crystallizable
acetic acid, insoluble in ether; formula C_54_H_34_O_24_. Concentrated
sulphuric acid dissolves it, producing a dark red color that changes to
cherry red and then after several hours to violet. The color disappears
if water be added. Boiled in acid solution the glucoside changes to
a new substance, _theveresin_ (C_48_H_70_O_17_), white, amorphous,
slightly soluble in boiling water and in alcohol, insoluble in benzine
or chloroform, soluble in alkalies, very bitter. Both substances are
energetic narcotic poisons; but the plant contains another even more
powerful poison isolated by Warden, of Calcutta; it does not form
crystals, it is very bitter, freely soluble in water, and is turned
yellow by sulphuric and nitric acids.

Thevetin and theveresin exercise a marked toxic effect on the
heart. The former induces emetic and cathartic phenomena, trembling and
progressive weakness. The latter does not cause vomiting or diarrhoea,
but anæsthesia and rigidity of the limbs. Both poisons arrest the
heart in systole. Injected hypodermically they are irritant, are
eliminated by the liver, but are not found in the urine.

Botanical Description.--A shrub, about 10° high, with leaves
nearly sessile, somewhat bunched at the ends of the branches and
overlapping, lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers about 2' long. Calyx
5-toothed. Corolla straw-colored, cylindrical, very narrow below,
but the limb very large, spreading into 5 lobes with greenish,
superimposed borders. Stamens 5, inserted in the throat, anthers
lanceolate. Ovaries 2, united at base, free above, unilocular. Style
simple, enlarging at the base in a bilobed stigma. Fruit a fleshy
drupe resembling somewhat a small apple, the pit very hard, semilunar,
flattened, with 4 compartments and as many solitary seeds.

Habitat.--Common in all gardens and on the seashore.



_Cerbera Odallam_, Gaertn. (_C. manghas_, Bl. & Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Toktok-kaló_, Tag.

Uses.--The milky juice of the plant is emetic and purgative. The
chemist De Vry has isolated from it a poisonous alkaloid analogous to
"thevetin," which has just been considered. The seeds are likewise
emetic and toxic. The Javanese call the fruit "bimaro" and affirm
that it possesses the same properties as "datura." The bruised leaves
are used locally for hepatic eruptions; the bark is used for the same
purpose and is purgative.

The use of the plant is dangerous and is condemned by the Pharmacopoeia
of India.

Botanical Description.--A small shrub with forked branches. Leaves
(overlapping) at ends of branches, lanceolate, entire,
glabrous. Flowers in umbellate spikes. Calyx, 5 caducous
lobules. Corolla white, twisted, cylindrical, with salver-shaped limb
divided in 5 rhomboid lobes, throat stellate and woolly. Stamens
5. Filaments joined to the corolla, their ends thickened. Anthers
arrow-shaped. Ovary, 2 uniovulate locules. Style, same length as
stamens. Stigma thick, conical, lobulate. Two drupes joined at the
base (one usually aborted), brown, large, oval, fleshy, with woody
fibrous nut of a single flattened seed.

Habitat.--Luzon. Blooms in July.



_Plumeria acutifolia_, Poir. (_P. alba_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Calachuche_, Sp.-Fil.; _Kalatsutsi_, _Kalasusi_, Tag.

Uses.--This tree, beloved for its fragrant flowers, has a wide
therapeutic use in India and the Philippines. The bark is a bitter
hydragogue cathartic and is given in decoction (5-10 grams to
200 water) principally for dropsy; however the milky juice of the
trunk is preferable for this purpose, given in emulsion in doses of
0.50-0.80 grams. The bark and the tips of the branches are given as
an emmenagogue.

The bark of the root and of the trunk is an excellent remedy for
blenorrhagia. The fresh bark is thoroughly comminuted and mixed
with sweetened water in the proportion of 60 grams to 4 liters;
this mixture is put in the sun for 4 days, and shaken from time to
time. It is then strained and given in doses of 4-5 glassfuls a day,
at the same time with refreshing and emollient drinks, and prolonged
tepid baths. At first this preparation exerts a purgative action, but
later acts upon the urinary organs, rapidly lessening the suppurative
process in urethritis. The bark may also be associated with wine or
beer, in the proportion of 30 grains to the liter, the dose being
2-4 small cupfuls a day and Dr. Grosourdy employs the extract of the
bark in doses aggregating 0.20-0.25 gram a day, gradually increased
till at the end of a week 6 grams are taken daily (Dr. J. Amadeo).

The bruised leaves are applied locally to contusions to reduce the
swelling. The juice is used externally as a rubefacient in rheumatic
affections of the joints. In Concan they use a decoction of the root
for diarrhoea. The flower buds are chewed with _buyo_, for intermittent
fever and the juice is applied locally for itch.

Peckolt and Geuther isolated from the bark the glucoside, _agoniadin_
(C_10_H_14_O_6_), which crystallizes in silky crystals fusible at
155°, slightly soluble in water, alcohol, bisulphuret of carbon,
ether and benzine; soluble in nitric or sulphuric acids. In solution
it is a golden yellow soon changing to green. Boiled in a dilute acid
it splits into glucose and an undetermined substance. Oudeman obtained
_plumieric_ acid (C_10_H_10_O_5_) from the milky juice deprived of its
resin; the acid exists as microscopic, needle-like crystals, soluble
in boiling water, alcohol and ether. It melts and decomposes at 130°.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 12-18° high, commonly cultivated
for ornament, well known in the islands, almost constantly bearing
fragrant flowers, but rarely bearing fruit. Branches forked and
peculiarly stumpy at the ends. Leaves alternate, broad lanceolate,
entire, glabrous, the apices curved downward. Petioles short. Flowers
creamy white, light yellow in the throat. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla
twisted, funnel-form, 5-lobed. Stamens 5, hidden in depths of the
tube. Anthers dart- or arrow-formed. Style very short, thickened
above. Stigma 2-parted. Two horizontal, cylindrical and long follicles
joined at their bases, with numerous seeds in hollow receptacles,
each seed encircled by a wing.



_Alstonia scholaris_, Br. (_Echites scholaris_, L. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Dita_, Tag.; _Dallopawen_, Iloc.; _Dita_ or _Alstonia
Tree_, Eng.

Uses.--The trunk bark is a febrifuge of great importance; it is
official in the Pharmacopoeia of India and is widely used in the
Philippines. Personally I have had occasion to use it in several
cases of malarial fever in the town of San Mateo near Manila. It is
astringent, anthelmintic and antiperiodic, highly useful in chronic
diarrhoea and dysentery, not only for its astringent effects but for
its tonic and restorative action. As a tonic it gives as good results
as quinine. The dry powdered bark is given internally in wafers of
20-30 centigrams. The infusion is prepared from 15 grams of the dry
comminuted bark to 300 of water. The dose is 30-60 grams 2 or 3 times
a day.

Another convenient preparation is the tincture, 75 grams of the
powdered bark macerated 7 days in 500 grams of alcohol, shaking from
time to time. It is then filtered and enough alcohol added to make
up the 500 cc. The dose is 4-8 grams a day.

I have often used the following wine as a tonic for convalescents
and patients suffering from general debility: Finely powdered bark,
25 grams, muscatel or dry sherry one bottle; macerate a week, shaking
every day, and filter; dose 1/2 wineglass with equal parts water a
few minutes before each meal; children or very weak patients should
take it after eating; it should always be diluted.

G. Grupe, a Manila pharmacist, treating the bark in 1883 by the
same process as that used in the preparation of quinine, obtained a
bitter substance which he named _Ditaine_. According to Grupe Dr. Pina
used this substance with great success in the treatment of malarial
fevers, but neither Grupe's report nor Pina's experiment are of any
scientific value, inasmuch as they have neglected to mention the doses
in which the so-called alkaloid was employed. Later analyses by Hesse
and Jobst revealed several principles: two alkaloids _ditamine_
(C_16_H_19_NO_2_), soluble in ether; _Ditaine_ or _Echitamine_
(C_22_H_28_NO_4_ + H_2_O) insoluble in ether, soluble in water;
acetic acid and two amorphous substances dextrogyrous in ethereal
solution, one of them a resin, _Echicauchina_ (C_25_H_40_O_2_),
the other neutral, _Echiretin_ (C_35_H_56_O_2_); two crystallizable
principles, dextrogyrous: _Echicerin_ (C_30_H_48_O_2_), _Echitein_
(C_42_H_70_O_2_) and _Echitin_ (C_32_H_52_O_2_).

_Ditaine_ is employed under the same circumstances and in the same
dose as quinine. (The Hindoo writer, K. L. Dey, states that the plant
yields an inferior quality of gutta-percha.)

Botanical Description.--A tree, 50 or more feet high, the trunk
covered with small eminences resembling the scars of thorns. Branches
radiating. Leaves radiating, 5, 6 or more, somewhat elliptical in form,
pointed at the apex. Petioles very short, with a pointed glandule on
the inner surface of the base. Flowers white, terminal, in umbellate
racemes. Calyx very short, 5-toothed. Corolla twisted, tubular,
the limb 5-lobuled; throat open, encircled with down. Stamens 5,
hidden within the throat and inserted on the tube. Filaments almost
wanting. Anthers arrow-shaped. Style as long as the stamens, somewhat
flattened, a scarcely visible line throughout its length. Stigma
bifid, placed above a cylindrical zone, two follicles, 1° long and 1''
thick, twisted like a string, containing the seeds in a row. Seeds
cylindrical with a hairy awn at both ends.

Habitat.--In the forests of Luzon, especially in Batangas. Blooms
in April.



_Nerium odorum_, Aiton. (_N. oleander_, L. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Adelfa_, Sp.; _Baladri_, Tag.; _Sweet-scented Oleander_,
Eng.

Uses.--In the Philippines and in Spain this plant is well known to
be poisonous. The bark and the leaves of both the red-flowered and
white-flowered varieties are boiled in cocoanut oil and the product
is used for inunction in itch and other skin diseases. The bruised
root is a useful application for chancroids.

We have stated that the plant is poisonous, and indeed it is actively
so in the tropics. It is now recognized as an energetic cardiac poison,
comparable with strophanthus, destined to play an important part in
therapeutics. Dr. Pouloux has made a study of the hydro-alcoholic
extract of oleander and reports that it exerts a marked effect on the
heart of frogs and rabbits, arresting them in systole. Where there
is asystolia, such as we encounter in Bright's disease, without
compensation, it stimulates the heart and increases the urine in
the same manner as digitalis. No contraindications to its use are
as yet known. It occasions no disagreeable symptoms and may be used
many days consecutively provided that the daily dose does not exceed
10-15 centigrams.

The poisonous properties of the plant reside in two alkaloids
isolated by Lukowsky from the leaves: _oleandrine_, extremely toxic
and _pseudo-curarine_, as its name indicates, resembling curare in
its action. Oleandrin is yellow, semicrystalline, soluble in water,
alcohol, ether, chloroform and olive oil; fusible at 70-75° and
changing to a greenish oil. With HCl it forms a crystalline salt. It
is a violent irritant of the mucous membranes and given internally it
causes emesis, diarrhoea, tetanic convulsions and death. It arrests
the cardiac movements in doses of 25 milligrams.

Loiseleur-Deslongchamps experimented with the drug on his own person,
using a solution of 30 grams of the extract in 120 grams of wine. He
began by taking three drops of this preparation four times a day,
adding a drop to each dose every day, so that at the end of 12 days he
was taking 48 drops between 6 a. m. and 9 p. m. He reached a maximum
of 64 drops a day but was forced to abandon his experiment at that
point on account of the unpleasant symptoms induced--loss of appetite,
great weakness and muscular pains. His deduction was that the plant
contained a "destructive and irritant principle." The experiment is
of interest as demonstrating the maximum dose of the drug.

The active principles of the plant reside principally in the leaves
and bark, but that they are abundantly present in other parts is
proved by the death of several soldiers in Corsica from having eaten
meat roasted on a spit of oleander wood.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, about 6° high. Leaves coriaceous,
lanceolate, entire, glabrous. Flowers in terminal cymes, rose-color
or white, single or double. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla 15 petals, the
inner ones larger, disposed in 3 groups of 5. Stamens 10, fixed on
receptacle; filaments short. Style shorter than stamens. Two follicles,
sharp-pointed, channeled, containing many imbricated seeds each with
an awn.



ASCLEPIADACEÆ.

Milkweed Family.



_Calotrops gigantea_, R. Br. (_Asclepias gigantea_, Willd. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kapal-kapal_, Tag.; _Swallow-Wort_, Eng.; _Mudar_,
Indo-Eng.

Uses.--This plant is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India as
an alterative, tonic, diaphoretic and emetic. J. J. Durant, having
observed that the natives used it for dysentery, experimented with it
quite successfully in that disease. For adults he gradually raised
the dose from 1.10 to 4 grams, preferring smaller doses, however,
for mild cases. To children he prescribed 5-10 centigrams for each
year of age, 3 or 4 times a day. He remarked that the effects produced
were identical with those of ipecac administered in Brazilian fashion.

The part of the plant used is the dry root powdered. The usual dose
is 15-50 centigrams 3 times a day, gradually increased; as an emetic
2-4 grams.

The milky juice that escapes from the stem on the slightest abrasion
is a drastic purgative, given commonly in dropsy, lumbricoids,
etc. Pledgets of cotton impregnated with the juice and packed in
the cavities of carious teeth, relieve toothache. It is applied
locally for various skin diseases, including syphilitic ulcers,
and as a depilatory.

Some races of India, such as the Rajputs of the districts of Allahab
and of Khangor, use this milk-juice to poison their female infants whom
they are accustomed to regard as a vexatious burden. Therapeutically
they use it with honey, locally for sore throat.

The dry and powdered juice has been used in small doses as an
alterative in the treatment of tuberculous leprosy, but it has not
given results any better than many other drugs. In syphilis and
mercurial cachexia its results are less doubtful.

In 1881 Dr. Riddell obtained a sort of gutta-percha from the juice,
previously observed by Professor Redwood.

Mooden Sheriff states that the most active parts of the plant are the
root bark and the dried juice. He adds that the action of the juice is
irregular and even dangerous, and that the bark is active in direct
proportion to its age. He recommends that the inert tuberous layer
of the bark be removed; prepared thus and powdered it is emetic in
doses of 2.50-3 grams.

Duncan claims to have isolated from the bark an active principle
which he called _mudarin_ from "mudar," the Indian name of the
plant. Following the same process Flückiger was unable to obtain
the substance, but did isolate 1 1/2% of an acrid resin, soluble in
ether and in alcohol; a mucilage and a bitter principle decolorized by
chloroform and ether. It is probable that this is the active principle
of the "Calotropis gigantea."

Warden and Waddell in 1881 isolated a substance crystallizable in
nodular masses, with the formula C_17_H_28_O, analogous to the _albana_
of gutta-percha.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, 7-8° high, with straight stem,
branched and woody. Leaves sessile, opposite, cleft at the base,
oval, fleshy and woolly. Flowers lateral in simple umbels of 3 or
more flowerets. Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla monopetalous, 5 acute lobes,
white, of rare and beautiful form. Nectaries 5, united throughout
their length with the receptacle, their bases curved like the sides
of the fleur de lis.

Above the nectaries is a 5-angled crown, the extremity of the
receptacle; in each angle a black anther. Two large follicles narrowed
at the ends, woolly, the apex somewhat curved to one side, containing
many imbricated seeds, each with a tuft of long hairs.

Habitat.--Bauang, Taal and the volcanic island of Taal. Blossoms
in April.



_Tylophora asthmatica_, Wight. (_Asclepias asthmatica_, Roxb.)

Nom. Vulg.--(?)

Uses.--We are ignorant of the uses the Filipinos make of this plant. It
is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India, the dry powdered leaf
being the part employed, and its emetic, diaphoretic and expectorant
properties are well known in that country. Roxburgh has used the
root as an emetic and Anderson has employed it in the same manner as
ipecac in dysentery. Later the experience of Anderson was confirmed
by O'Shaughnessy; though in place of the root he used the leaf,
the properties of which he regards as more certain and uniform.

Dr. J. Kirkpatrick has noted that the juice of the root and its
powder are used by the natives of Mysore as an emetic, and adds that
he himself has used it for that purpose in a thousand cases with good
results. In its effect on dysentery as well as in its emetic effect it
resembles ipecacuanha. He used the powder in doses of 1.20-1.80 gr.,
to which he added 3-6 centigrams of tartar emetic when he desired
to obtain an energetic emetic action. Like O'Shaughnessy he prefers
the powdered leaves. He considers it a good substitute for ipecac,
not only as an emetic, but as a remedy in asthma, dysentery and
catarrhal affections; Drs. Oswald and Mooden Sheriff have made the
same observations. The latter advises the administration of the juice
of the plant for snake bites till vomiting is produced; then follow
with diffusible stimulants.

The emetic dose of the powdered leaves is 1.20-1.80 grams, the
expectorant and diaphoretic dose 10-30 centigrams. The concentrated
infusion of the leaves has an acrid taste. Tannic acid, the neutral
acetate of lead and caustic potash produce with it an abundant
precipitate; the perchloride of iron colors it a dark green. Broughton,
of Ootaemund (India), informed Hanbury and Flückiger, from whom we
quote, that in 1872 he obtained a very small quantity of crystals from
a large quantity of leaves. He had not enough to make an analysis,
but injected a solution of the crystals into a dog with resulting
vomiting and diarrhoea.

Botanical Description.--A vigorous plant with scandent stem 2-4 meters
long, the more recent growth woolly. Leaves opposite, entire, 5-12
centimeters long and 2-6 broad, oval or rounded. Petiole striated and
short. Flowers in umbelliferous cymes, compound, axillary, solitary and
alternate, with woolly peduncles; hermaphrodite, regular, small, of a
pale green color inside and a light purple outside. Calyx gamosepalous,
with 5 lobules. Corolla gamopetalous, 5 oval, twisted lobules. Staminal
crown composed of 5 fleshy scales, joined to the staminal tube. Stamens
5, inserted on the throat of the corolla, filaments joined to form
a very short tube with anthers straight, short and crowned by a
membranous bilocular appendix. The gynoecium consists of 2 unilocular
ovaries each containing an indefinite number of ovules. Style with a
pentagonal stigma which bears in each angle a glandular body. Fruits
compound with two separate follicles, large, lanceolate, smooth,
8-10 centimeters long and 5 in circumference. Each encloses a seed,
hairy, albuminous with straight embryo and flattened cotyledons.

Habitat.--Mountains of San Mateo.



LOGANIACEÆ.

Logania Family.



_Strychnos Ignatii_, Berg. (_S. Philippensis_, Blanco; _Ignatia amara_,
L.; _Ignatia Philippinea_, Lour.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Pepita Fruta_, Sp.-Fil.; _Pepita sa katbalongan_,
_Kabalongan_, Tag., Pam.; _Pangaguason_, _Aguason_, _Kanlara_,
_Mananaog_, _Dankagi_, _Katalonga_, _Igasud_, Vis.; _St. Ignatius
Bean_, Eng.

Uses.--The part of the plant employed is the seed, known in addition
to the above common names as Pepita de San Ignacio and Pepita de
Cabalonga (for _katbolongan_). The natives handle it with the greatest
imprudence, selling everywhere in the markets and in the Chinese
shops, called _tindang-bayang_. It is not only a remedy among them,
but a sort of panacea, to which they attribute, among other virtues,
that of expelling evil spirits, simply worn about the neck. They grate
it with a piece of earthen pot, mix with a little "tuba" vinegar and
apply it to the temples for headache. In bites of poisonous animals
they advise the application of the powdered seed over the wound, a
treatment which instead of being beneficent might easily be harmful
to the patient. Before proceeding further, let us give the chemical
composition of the seeds in order that their uses may be the better
understood.

_Strychnine_ is found in them in the proportion of 1/2-1 1/2 and
_brucine_ 1/2%-1.4%. Flückiger and Hanbury by drying it over sulphuric
acid and burning it with "cal sòdica" obtained 1.78% of nitrogen which
represents 10% of albuminoid material. Strychnine and brucine exist
in combination with igasuric acid discovered by Ludwig in 1873. The
proportion of both the alkaloids is greater than in the seeds of nux
vomica which contain only .25-.50% strychnine and .12-.05% brucin,
although some authors give it as high as 1.01%. Strychnine can be
obtained more readily and in larger proportions from St. Ignatius bean,
but it is generally obtained from nux vomica seeds on account of the
cheapness of the latter.

It is more energetic than nux vomica and its use in medicine should
be condemned, preference, however, being given to the official
preparations among which the best known is that commonly called
"Bitter Drops of Beaumé," of which the following is the composition:


        Grated St. Ignatius' beans      500  grams.
        Potassium carbonate               5 grams.
        Soot (?)                          1 gram.
        60% alcohol                   1,000 grams.


Macerate for 10 days, strain, express and filter. Dose, 1-16 drops
in a little water or wine before each meal, for dyspepsia, anæmia,
convalescence from fevers, and other conditions in which a tonic is
indicated. The indications for the use of this drug are the same as
those for nux vomica, keeping in mind the difference in dose.

Botanical Description.--This plant grows in the deep forests of Samar
and Masbate. That industrious and distinguished botanist, D. Regino
García, found it growing abundantly in Paranas, Island of Samar. It is
a robust vine, the trunk sometimes as thick as a man's thigh, climbing
to the tops of the highest trees, apparently without preference as
to its host, inasmuch as he saw it growing indifferently on _Ficus_,
_Dipterocarpus_, _Litsaca_, etc. The seed which most interests us and
is very common, is about the size of an olive, round and convex on one
side, angulose and flattened on the other by being compressed with
many others within the fruit which contains 50 of them. Its surface
is blackish with a gray-blue tinge. It is hard and corneous. Its
taste is extremely bitter.

Branches opposite, smooth, the ends square. Leaves opposite,
oval, much pointed at the apex, entire, glabrous, with 3
prominent nerves. Petioles very short. Flowers in panicles of many
flowerets. Calyx inferior, 5-cleft, very short. Corolla 6-7 times
longer than the calyx, funnel-form, 5-lobed. Anthers 5, sessile, fixed
in the throat of the corolla. Ovary very small. Style filiform, same
length as the stamens. Stigma truncate and thick. Drupe globose, often
oval, large, smooth, with thick, woody shell of a single compartment
containing seeds as described above.



BORAGINACEÆ.

Borage Family.



_Ehretia buxifolia_, Roxb. (_Carmonea heterophylla_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Mangit_, _Alangitngit_, Tag., Vis.

Uses.--The leaves dried in the shade are used in some Visayan
towns, in infusion to take the place of tea. The root is used by
the Hindoo physicians as an alterative. Dr. R. Ross has employed
it for that purpose in a decoction of 60 grams to 500 cc. of water;
60 cc. a day of this preparation gave him good results in secondary
and constitutional syphilis. The Mohammedans of India consider the
root an antidote for vegetable poisons.

Botanical Description.--Small tree, 5-6° high, trunk straight. Leaves
alternate or bunched in 3's or 4's at the nodes, lanceolate or
spatulate, 3-toothed at apex, sometimes serrate toward the apex,
set with short, stiff hairs. Petioles very short. Flowers axillary,
in racemose panicles of a few flowers each. Common peduncle long,
pedicel short. Calyx free, bell-shaped, persistent, divided almost
to base into 5 narrow, downy parts. Corolla bell-shaped, 5 oval
lobules. Stamens 5. Ovary oval, within the flower. Style bifid. Stigmas
simple, truncate. Drupe globose, with hard, slightly furrowed putamen
of 6 locules and solitary seeds.

Habitat.--Malinta and many other parts of the Visayas. Blooms in
January.



CONVOLVULACEÆ.

Convolvulus Family.



_Ipomoea hederacea_, Jacq. (_I. nil_, Roth.; _Convolvulus nil_,
L. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bulakan_, Tag.; _Kala-Danah_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--This plant is not used as a medicine by the Filipinos, but
is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India from which we copy its
indications and official preparations.

The seed is the part employed, its cathartic properties being much
like those of jalap, though less energetic. An excellent substitute
for the latter is 2 or 3 grams of _kala-danah_ seeds in powder form,
and no unpleasant effects attend its operation.

The official preparations are:

Extract of Kaladana.--Dose, 30-60 centigrams in pill.


        Powdered seeds              500 grams.
        Alcohol                       2 liters.
        Water                         4 1/2 liters.


Tincture of Kaladana.--Dose, 8-12 grams.


        Seeds                        75 grams.
        Alcohol                     500 grams.


Compound Powder of Kaladana.--Dose, 3-3 1/2 grams.


        Powdered seeds              150 grams.
        Acid tartrate of potassium  270 grams.
        Powdered ginger              30 grams.


The last is an excellent substitute for the corresponding preparation
of jalap.

Resin of Kaladana.--Dose, 30-50 centigrams. It is prepared like resin
of jalap and is a safe and sure purgative. In mass it has a dark color,
but is gray when powdered. The odor is rather unpleasant, the taste
sweetish and then acrid, nauseous, persistent, exciting the saliva and
irritating the fauces. It was introduced into practice by Dr. G. Vidie.

Botanical Description.--A twiner with round, downy stem. Leaves
heart-shaped, 3-lobed, the middle one broad-lanceolate, the lateral
ones rather rectangular with petioles of equal length with the
leaves. Flowers large, rose color or pale blue, in axillary cymes of
2 or 3 flowers each. Calyx, 5 long, downy parts. Corolla bell-shaped,
5 faint lobes. Stamens 5, free, inserted in the corolla. Ovary free,
3 biovulate locules. Style simple. Stigma trilobed. Seed vessels
globose with 3 locules each containing 2 seeds. Seeds convex on dorsum,
1/2 cm. broad by 1 cm. long, testa black.

Habitat.--Manila. Blooms in August.



_Ipomoea pes-capræ_, Roth. (_Convolvulus pes-capræ_ L. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Katagkatag_, _Lagayray_, _Lampayog_, _Bagasoa_, _Kamigag_,
_Daripay_, _Tagaray_, _Arodayday_, _Lambayog_, Tag., Vis.; _Lambayog_,
Iloc.

Uses.--The dry, powdered leaves are dusted over bruises and ulcers. The
entire plant is very mucilaginous and the bruised fresh leaves are
applied like poultices to cancers and ulcerating tumors. In India
the boiled leaves are applied locally in colic and in rheumatism;
the juice is given internally in dropsy as a diuretic, the pounded
leaves at the same time serving as a poultice to the oedematous parts.

Botanical Description.--A plant that creeps extensively, the stem
taking root. Leaves with 2 well-marked lobules. Flowers rose-lilac
color, in axillary panicles with long pedicels. Corolla very large,
bell-shaped, the limb 5-angled and 5-nerved. Stamens 5, unequal in
height. Stigma globose, marked by a line; later it divides in two. Seed
vessel ovate, 2-celled, in each cell 2 downy seeds convex on one side,
angular on the other.

Habitat.--Very common on the seashore. Blooms in January.



_Ipomoea Turpethum_, R. Br. (_Convolvulus Turpethum_, L.;
_C. maximus_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Albohol_, Sp.; _Turpeth Root_, _Indian Jalap_, Eng.

Uses.--The root, known in the Philippines as "turbita," is a purgative
and is a component part of the tincture of jalap, one of the most
positive and active of known cathartics. But turpeth root is seldom
used alone, for its action is so uncertain that Sir W. O'Shaughnessy
pronounced the plant unworthy of a place in the Pharmacopoeia of
India. The dose of the powder is 1-4 grams, the resin 40-50 cgms.,
the decoction of the root 4-12 grams. The active principle is a resin
soluble in ether and a glucoside, _turpethin_, C_34_H_56_O_16_.

In the east of India they make offerings of the flowers to the god
Shiva, and also put them to more practical use by applying them to
the head for neuralgic headache.

Botanical Description.--A vine with quadrangular stem. Leaves
heart-shaped. Flowers axillary, numerous, in umbels. Calyx deeply
cleft in 5 imbricated, ovate, fleshy parts. Corolla bell-shaped,
folded. Stamens 5, unequal in height. Ovary inserted on an
hypogynous disk, with 2 biovulate compartments. Style same length as
stamens. Stigma bilobulate, globose. Seed vessel square, encircled
by calyx, 2 locules each with 2 seeds.

Habitat.--Common in Bauang and Pasig. Blooms in November.



SOLANACEÆ.

Nightshade Family.



_Solanum nigrum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Hierba mora_, Sp.; _Konty_, _Onty_, _Gamagamatisan_,
Tag.; _Lagpakon_, _Bolagtob_, _Lubilubi_, Vis.; _Kuty_, _Lubilubi_,
Bic.; _Black_ or _Common Nightshade_, Eng.

Uses.--In the Philippines the entire plant is boiled and used for
food, with the precaution of pouring off the first 2 or 3 waters
in which it is cooked, which contain an active principle capable of
causing such disagreeable symptoms as vertigo and nausea. A decoction
of the leaves serves to cleanse chronic sores and in fact improves
their condition; it is also used as a lotion for various forms of
dermatitis, for erysipelas and old burns.

The plant is narcotic, antispasmodic and like belladonna it dilates
the pupil.

In India the decoction is given internally, 200-250 grams, for
hypertrophy of the liver, and it is considered a good diuretic and
alterative. For such uses they heat the above dose in a clay vessel
till the color changes from green to brown, when it is cooled and given
next day. Its action is diuretic and hydragogue-cathartic. Mooden
Sheriff recommends this treatment highly, and for dropsy further
advises the aqueous extract, 12 grams during the day divided into 3 or
4 doses. Small doses of 30-60 grams of the decoction prepared as above
described, are of use in some chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis.

In 1821 Defosses, of Besançon, obtained _solanine_ from the fruit,
previously isolated from the _S. Dulcamara_.

Botanical Description.--A plant about 2° high, stem straight,
3-4-angled, with white dots. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers white,
in 2-ranked racemes. Calyx inferior, 5 persistent teeth. Corolla,
5 petals somewhat down-curved. Berry small, black when ripe.

Habitat.--Universally common. Blooms in January.



_Capsicum fastigiatum_, Bl. (_C. minimum_, Roxb.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Chili picante_, Sp.-Fil.; _Sili_, Tag.; _Capsicum_,
_Red Pepper_, etc., Eng.

Uses.--The fruit of this species of pepper plant is called _agí_
in Cuba and Porto Rico; it is in common use as a condiment in the
Philippines. As a tonic and stimulant it is a useful article of food
in hot countries where the digestive functions become sluggish. Used
in moderation it prevents dyspepsia and consequent diarrhoea. It is
used as a gargle for hoarseness, decreasing the congestion of the
larynx and vocal cords.

Gargle.--


        Tincture of capsicum      8 grams.
        Water                   160 grams.


Mix.


Recently capsicum in powder, extract, or tincture, has been recommended
internally in the treatment of incipient hemorrhoids. The dose is
.50 to 3 grams of the powder in pills or capsules; watery extract,
0.30-0.60; tincture, 10-30 drops.

The _C. annuum_, L., and other varieties of red pepper serve the same
uses as the above.

Botanical Description.--Stem 4-angled. Leaves opposite,
ovate-lanceolate, entire. Petioles short. Flowers greenish-white
in little clusters, drooping. Corolla wheel-shaped. Fruit straight,
conical, slender, scarcely 1' long.

Habitat.--Universally common in the islands. Blooms at all times.



_Datura alba_, Nees. (_D. Metel_, Roxb. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Talamponay_, Tag., Pam.; _Takbibung_, Vis.; _Dhatura_,
Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The applications of this species are identical with those of
_D. Stramonium_ and it is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India. It
is antispasmodic, narcotic and toxic, and is used quite commonly with
criminal intent in India and Indo-China. The cooked and bruised leaves
make an efficient poultice in articular rheumatism.

The symptoms of poisoning by "dhatura" are: dilatation of the pupil,
general malaise, dryness of the fauces and skin, hallucinations,
rapid pulse, coma and death or permanent mania.

The dry leaf is smoked to abort asthma, and though its action is
uncertain, it is one of the many remedies that should be tried,
which though ineffective in one case may in another afford positive
relief in this distressing disease. Not more than 1.50 grams should
be smoked in one day and their use should be discontinued if any
symptom of intoxication supervenes. The Pharmacopoeia of India
contains a tincture made from 75 grams of the ground seeds and 500
grams of alcohol. Dr. Waring states that 20 drops of this tincture
are equivalent to 6 centigrams of opium and that in some cases it has
given him better narcotic results than the opium. The extract is made
from 500 grams of the powdered seeds, 500 cc. ether, 500 cc. alcohol
and 500 cc. water. Dose, 5-20 centigrams a day in 4 doses.

The _D. fastuosa_, L., known in Manila by the common name of
_Talamponay na itim_, Tag., possesses the same properties as the
above. The Filipino physician, Sr. Zamora, successfully employed
a poultice of bruised leaves cooked in vinegar and applied to the
forehead and backs of the hands to reduce the fever of tuberculous
patients.

Neither the leaves nor seeds of these two varieties of _Datura_ have
been studied from a chemical standpoint, but there is little doubt
that the active principle is the _daturine_ (atropine and hyoscyamine)
that exists so abundantly in _D. Stramonium_.

Botanical Description.--Plant 5-6° high, with nodose branches,
forked. Leaves ovate, angled, somewhat downy. Flowers large,
white, axillary, solitary. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed. Corolla
funnel-shaped, the limb 5-angled and 5-folded. Stamens 5, same length
as calyx. Anthers long, flattened. Stigma thick, oblong, divisible in
2 leaves. Seed vessel globose, thorny, 4-valved over the base of the
calyx. Seeds numerous, flattened, kidney-shaped. (Resembles closely
the common Jamestown Weed of America, though much taller with much
larger flowers.)

Habitat.--Common on the shores of the sea. The _D. fastuosa_ is
differentiated by its violet flowers and double corolla.



_Nicotiana Tabacum, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Tabaco_, Sp.; _Tobacco_, Eng.

Uses.--Tobacco is a powerful sedative and antispasmodic, but owing
to the accidents it may give rise to, its use in therapeutics
is very limited. Like all the active Solanaceæ it is effective
against neuralgia and spasm of the muscular tissues and is therefore
indicated in strangulated hernia and in intestinal obstruction. In
these conditions the infusion of 1-5 grams of the dried leaf to
250 grams of water is given by enema. Trousseau advises non-smokers
who suffer from chronic constipation to smoke a cigarette fasting,
a practice which, according to him, stimulates defecation. For the
same condition the people of southern India are accustomed to apply
a poultice of the bruised leaves to the anal region.

Tobacco has been used by enema to combat tetanus; Dr. Lesth, of
the General Hospital for Europeans, Bombay, claims to have obtained
excellent results by applying a poultice over the entire length of
the spinal column. Dr. Dymock has confirmed this practice.

A decoction of the leaves is used as a lotion to destroy "pediculi
capitis and pubis," and to wash gangrenous ulcers.

The daily increasing practice of smoking, like all other subjects,
divides mankind into two camps, one for and one against the habit. Both
parties exaggerate their arguments. The abuse of the plant without
doubt sets up disturbances of the digestion, the heart and the
nervous system. It is furthermore positive that persons of a certain
disposition and with certain ailments are injured by even a moderate
use of tobacco. The above facts serve as arms for the opponents of
the habit; the robust who smoke and drink to excess and meet with
an accidental death on a railroad or from an acute disease that
overtakes them in the midst of perfect health, serve as arguments for
the defenders, to prove the innocence of the custom. The antiseptic
qualities of the smoke and of the entire plant also lend the smoker
a defensive argument, as he may uphold the habit as hygienic and
highly useful in preventing microbic infection. The antiseptic power
of tobacco smoke is undoubted, but it is intolerable that a physician
under the pretext of avoiding self infection should enter the house
of his patient and continue smoking at the bedside.

Chronic nicotine poisoning is the result of a gradual intoxication
by the absorption of the active principle of tobacco, the alkaloid
nicotine. Excessive smoking conduces to nicotism, more common in
Europe than in the tropics, because the natives of Europe smoke the
pipe and being confined in closed dwellings, breathe continuously an
atmosphere of smoke; in the Philippines, on the contrary, the pipe is
almost unknown and owing to the nature of the dwellings the smoking
is carried on practically in the open air. An injurious practice of
the Filipino smokers is that of "swallowing the smoke," and this is a
fitting point to call attention to an error of Dujardin-Beaumetz, who
states that "in those who habitually swallow the smoke the nicotine
acts directly upon the stomach." The expression "swallow smoke"
(tragar el humo) does not mean to force it into the stomach by an
act of deglutition, and I am sure no one attempts to dispose of it
in that way; but to inspire or breath it into the air passages. It
is evident that this latter habit does not involve the stomach, but
those who practice it expose themselves more to nicotism than those
who keep the smoke in the mouth or expel it through the nose.

The first cigar causes symptoms familiar to nearly everybody;
dizziness, malaise, cold sweat, vomiting, diarrhoea, dilatation of
the pupils and rapid heart action--an acute intoxication. Chronic
intoxication or nicotism manifests itself by disturbances of digestion,
vision and especially circulation. It has been assigned as one of the
causes of early atheroma and of angina pectoris. It should therefore
be proscribed in persons who present symptoms of gastro-intestinal
or of heart disease, and in every patient who complains of slight
precordial pains, commonly attributed to flatus, but in reality
cardiac neuralgia, a fugitive symptom announcing the possibility of
that grave accident, angina pectoris, capable of ending the life of
the patient with one stroke.

Nicotine (C_10_H_14_N_2_) is an oleaginous liquid heavier than
water, colorless, changing to dark yellow on contact with the
air. _Nicotianin_ or "camphor of tobacco" is another substance
found in the leaves, crystalline, tasteless, with an odor resembling
tobacco. Nicotinic acid is a product of the combustion of nicotine.

Botanical Description.--The tobacco plant is so familiar to all
Americans that its description here would be superfluous. It grows
in all parts of the islands, the best qualities being cultivated in
the northern provinces of Luzon, especially Cagayan and La Isabela.



SCROPHULARIACEÆ.

Figwort Family.



_Limnophila menthastrum,_ Benth. (_Tala odorata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tala_, _Taramhampam_, Tag.; _Talatala_, Pam.; _Taratara_,
Iloc.

Uses.--An infusion of the leaves is given as a diuretic and digestive
tonic. The plant is aromatic. It is seldom used, but is given for
the same troubles and in the same doses as chamomile and _Eupatorium
Ayapana_.

Botanical Description.--A plant 1° high, with leaves opposite,
lanceolate, ovate, serrate, hairy, many small pits on the
lower face. Flowers rose color, solitary, sessile. Calyx, 5 sharp
teeth. Corolla tubular, curved, compressed, downy within, limb cleft in
4 unequal lobes. Stamens didynamous. Ovary conical. Style shorter than
the stamens. Stigma 3-lobuled. Seed vessel, 2 multiovulate chambers.

Habitat.--Known universally. Blooms in June.



BIGNONIACEÆ.

Bignonia Family.



_Oroxylum Indicum_, Vent. (_Bignonia Indica_, L.; _B. quadripinnata_,
Blanco; _Colosanthes Indica_, Bl.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Pinkapinkahan_, _Pinkapinka_, _Taghilaw_, _Abangabang_,
Tag.; _Abangabang_, Vis.

Uses.--The Hindoos consider the trunk bark an astringent and tonic
and use it commonly in diarrhoea and dysentery. In Bombay it has a
wide use in veterinary practice as an application for the sore backs
of the domestic cattle. Sarangadhara recommends for diarrhoea and
dysentery the infusion of the roasted bark mixed with infusion of
_Bombax malabaricum_.

Dr. Evers experimented with the powder and an infusion of the bark
obtaining a strong diaphoretic action. He obtained the same effect
with baths containing the bark and reported successful results in thus
treating 24 cases of rheumatism. The dose of the powder was 0.30-1 gram
a day in 3 doses; the infusion (30 grams bark to 300 boiling water),
90 grams a day in 3 doses. Combined with opium it had more pronounced
diaphoretic effects than the compounds of opium and ipecac. The plant
possesses no febrifuge properties.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 5-6 meters high, trunk straight,
hollow, the hollow space containing many thin partitions covered with
small points; branches opposite. Leaves 4 times odd pinnate. Leaflets
obliquely ovate, acute, entire, glabrous. Flowers in racemes with
long, primary peduncles, large, fleshy, lurid, violet color, odor
mawkish. Calyx inferior, cylindrical, monophyllous, entire. Corolla
much longer than calyx, fleshy, bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Stamens 5, all
fertile, fixed on the corolla, nearly equal in height. Style longer
than stamens, flattened. Stigma cleft in 2 flat leaves. Silique or
pod about 3° long and 2' wide, flattened, borders grooved and curved
downward, containing a great number of seeds encircled by a broad,
flat, imbricated wing.

Habitat.--Common in many parts of Luzon, in Mindanao, Cebú and Paragua.



PEDALIACEÆ.

Pedalium Family.



_Sesamum Indicum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Ajonjoli_, Sp.; _Lingá_, Tag.; _Longá_, Vis.; _Langis_,
Pam.; _Sesamé_, Indo-Eng. (_Benné Oil_, _Til Oil_, _Jinjili Oil_.)

Uses.--The leaves are emollient and in the Philippines, India and
the Southern States of North America they are commonly used to make
poultices, as a substitute for linseed.

The decoction is prescribed internally as an emmenagogue and demulcent
and externally as a lotion. It has the reputation of stimulating the
growth of the hair and is used for this purpose quite commonly by
the women of India.

The seeds are emollient, laxative, diuretic and emmenagogue; they
contain an oil to which we shall refer presently. In some countries
they form an article of diet; in the Philippines they are much
used as a condiment. Waring reports good results in amenorrhoea,
adding a handful of the bruised seeds to a hot sitz-bath. Two or
3 dessert-spoonfuls of the seeds eaten fasting and washed down
with a glass of water, are very efficient in chronic constipation,
both by their mechanical effect and the oil they contain; being
non-irritant they are especially indicated in cases of constipation
with hemorrhoids.

The seeds contain up to 45% of oil known in the Philippines under the
name of _lana_, an Ilocano word meaning "oil." It is bright yellow,
viscid, does not easily become rancid and is used for illuminating
purposes in some Philippine provinces. In Japan and among the poor
of India it serves as a food; in the latter country it is also very
commonly used as a cosmetic, perfumed with various essences and used
to anoint the hair and the body after the bath. In America it is given
in place of castor oil in doses of 30-60 grams. In pharmacy it may be
properly substituted for olive oil, especially in Linimentum Calcis
prepared for burns.

Botanical Description.--A plant 2-4° high, stem straight, square,
grooved. Leaves trifoliate. Leaflets lanceolate, serrate, slightly
downy. Common petiole long; secondary petiole very short. Flowers
pinkish white, in spikes, each flower bearing 2 small glands. Calyx
with 2 bracts at the base, top-shaped, monophyllous, 5 lanceolate
teeth. Corolla large, 5-lobed, bell-shaped, expanded in the middle
where it is spattered with small spots. Stamens didynamous. Anthers
long. Ovary downy, quadrangular. Style same length as stamens. Stigma
bifid. Seed vessel quadrangular, elongated, 4 opposite grooves,
4 chambers each containing many small ovoid seeds.

Habitat.--Universal. Blooms in October.



ACANTHACEÆ.

Acanthus Family.



_Acanthus ilicifolius, L._

Nom. Vulg.--_Diliwariw_, _Dolo-ariw_, _Tinglog_, _Lagiwlagiw_, Tag.;
_Titiw_, Vis.; _Dulawari_, Pam.

Uses.--We are not familiar with the medicinal uses of this plant in
the Philippines, but believe that its sole use is in the soap-making
industry; the ash of the plant is rich in soda and potash salts and
lye is prepared from it.

In Goa the leaves, rich in mucilage, are used locally in fomentations
for rheumatism and neuralgia. Rheede mentions as useful the application
of the bruised sprouts to snake bites. Bontius attributes expectorant
properties to the plant. The natives of Siam and Cochin China use it
as a cordial and as a medicine for paralysis and asthma.

In Concan the sweetened decoction of the plant with a little cumin
seed is given for dyspepsia with pyrosis.

Botanical Description.--A plant about 3° high, stem straight, beset
with sharp eminences. Leaves opposite, membranaceous, lanceolate,
pinnatifid, large teeth ending in prickles. Petioles very short, 2
thorns at the base. Flowers purplish white in spikes. Calyx double;
the outer one of 2 parts, the inner 4. Corolla bell-shaped, lower
lip broad, keeled, fleshy, notched above. Upper lip wanting, a notch
in its place. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary superior, conical. Style
of equal length with stamens. Stigma bifid. Seed vessels 2-celled,
each cell with 2 heart-shaped, flattened, rough seeds.

Habitat.--Very common in regions inundated by salt water.



_Barleria Prionitis, L._ (_Barreliera Prionitis_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kokongmanok_, _Kulanta_, Tag.

Uses.--This plant is not used medicinally in the Philippines. The
natives of Bombay are accustomed to use its juice to anoint the soles
of their feet during the rainy season in order to toughen the skin
and prevent fissures due to prolonged maceration.

The leaf juice is bitter and acid; it is a favorite with the natives
of India in the treatment of the catarrhal fevers common among their
children, administered in doses of 2 tablespoonfuls a day mixed with
sweetened water.

In Concan the dry bark is given for whooping-cough and the juice of the
fresh bark in doses of 2 "tolas" (7.60 grams) for anasarca. Dr. Bidie
states that the action is diaphoretic and expectorant.

Botanical Description.--A plant 2-3° high, stem creeping, the ends
rising; enlarged at the joints, glabrous. Leaves smooth, opposite,
lanceolate, finely serrate, fringed, somewhat downy below, glabrous
above. Petioles short, 4 axillary spines. Flowers straw-color,
axillary, sessile, solitary. Calyx deeply cleft in 4 parts, ovate,
ending in spines. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube short, throat nude,
limb 5-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous. Ovary 2-celled. Style same length
as stamens. Seed-vessel ovate, flattened and sharp-pointed, 2-celled,
each cell with a flat, heart-shaped seed.

Habitat.--In Guadalupe, Mandaloyon and San Juan del Monte. Blooms
in April.



_Justicia Gendarussa_, L. (_Gandarussa vulgaris_, Nees.; _Dianthera
subserrata_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kapanitulot_, Tag.; _Bunlaw_, Vis.

Uses.--In the Philippines this plant has the same applications as
the _Lagundi_ or _Vitex_, soon to be described. In India they give a
decoction of the leaves for chronic rheumatism, the action probably
being diaphoretic. The juice is employed for the coughs of childhood
and externally as a resolvent for enlarged cervical glands. The bark
of the young branches has a purplish color; in Java it is considered
a good emetic.

Botanical Description.--A shrub 5-6° high, stem straight, branches
smooth, obscurely 4-angled. Stems and leaves violet color, emitting
a disagreeable odor (Blanco). Leaves opposite, lanceolate, acute,
glabrous, obtusely serrate. Flowers terminal, white-green, in
racemes of 3 sessile flowers with lanceolate bracts. Calyx, 5 long
teeth. Corolla, short tube, 2-lipped, upper lip notched, lower lip
broad with palate, ending in 3 lobules. Seed vessel with 4 seeds in
its lower part.

Habitat.--Luzon, Mindanao, Panay.



_Adhatoda vasica_, Nees. (_Justicia Adhatoda_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--(?)

Uses.--The Filipinos are but slightly familiar with this plant and it
has no place in their therapeutical armamentarium. In India, however,
it is very common and enjoys much reputation in the treatment of
catarrhs, the grip, asthma and non-febrile, especially chronic,
bronchial affections. The flowers, leaves and roots, but especially
the flowers, possess antispasmodic properties and are prescribed
in certain forms of asthma; they are bitter and slightly aromatic,
and are given in infusion or electuary.

Drs. Jackson and Dott have testified from their own experience to
the usefulness of the drug in chronic bronchitis, asthma and afebrile
catarrh. Dr. Watt states that the natives of Bengal find relief for
asthma in smoking the leaves. In Bombay its expectorant action is
commonly known and its juice is used, mixed with borax and honey.

The dose of the aqueous extract made by evaporating the juice of the
leaves, is .25-1 gram. The tincture is preferable, made by dissolving
this extract in alcohol; dose 2-4 grams. Its efficiency is increased
by the addition of pepper seeds (Waring). The Sanscrit writers
recommend for cough, 3.80 grams of the leaf juice with honey. "It is
very desirable that further trials be made to test the value of this
remedy."--Pharmacopoeia of India.

Botanical Description.--A shrub with straight, smooth, ashy-gray
trunk. Branches of same color but smoother. Leaves opposite,
lanceolate, acute, smooth on both faces, 12-15 cm. long by 3-4 broad,
petioles short. Flowers irregular and hermaphrodite in axillary spikes
with long peduncles, opposite, large, white, covered with rusty spots,
the lower part of the 2 lips purple. Calyx gamosepalous, regular,
five deep clefts. Corolla gamopetalous, irregular, short tube, limb
2-lipped, the lower lip ending in a spur. Ovary free, 2-celled, each
cell containing 2 ovules. Style filiform, long, inserted in a sort of
canal formed by the upper lip of the corolla. Stigma bilobulate. Seed
vessel depressed, 4 flattened, lenticular seeds.

Habitat.--Luzon and Panay.



_Rhinacanthus communis_, Nees. (_Justicia nasuta_, L.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tagaktagak_, Tag.; _Nagamulli_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The plant has much reputation in India in the treatment of skin
diseases, and indeed its efficiency is great in the stubborn _Tinea
circinata tropica_, known throughout the Orient as "dhobie-itch." In
this disease it is applied for several days to the affected part
in the form of a paste composed of the bruised leaves, the juice of
the leaves and lemon juice. The fresh root also may be employed. The
Hindoo physicians state that the root decoction in milk is aphrodisiac;
the root is also regarded as an antidote for the bite of the "cobra
da cabelho," but its virtue is purely imaginary. Of late years the
plant has been used in Europe under the name of "tong-pang-chong,"
to treat chronic eczema.

Liborius made an analysis of the root in the laboratory of Dorpat,
separating 13.51% ash and 1.87% _rhinocanthin_, as well as other
ingredients. Rhinocanthin (C_14_H_18_O_4_) is supposed to be the active
principle of the root. It is analogous to quinon and resembles in many
particulars chrysophanic and frangulic acids. It forms a resinous,
amorphous mass, cherry red, odorless and tasteless, slightly soluble in
water, forming a mildly alkaline solution in alcohol. It does not yield
glucose when boiled with dilute hydrochloric acid. Liborius believes
that it exists only in the intercellular spaces of the "root bark."

Botanical Description.--A shrub, about 4° high, stem ash-colored,
no spines. Leaves lanceolate, undulate, downy. Flowers white in
spikes. Calyx gamosepalous, 5-toothed. Corolla long, filiform, limb
4-lobed, the 3 lower lobes ovate, the upper pointed. Stamens 2. Ovary
free, 2 biovulate locules. Style simple. Stigma bifid. Seed vessel
club-shaped, 4 seeds in the upper part.

Habitat.--Common in the gardens of Manila.



VERBENACEÆ.

Vervain Family.



_Lippia nodiflora_, Rich. (_Verbena nodiflora_, L.; _V. capitata_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tsatsatsatsahan_, _Chachachachahan_, Tag.

Uses.--The Filipinos drink an infusion of the leaves in place of tea,
the long Tagalog name meaning "resembling tea." In India they drink
the hot infusion to aid digestion. In some places the decoction of the
leaves is given internally as an emollient and diuretic for gonorrhoea.

Botanical Description.--A small plant with creeping stem taking root
where it touches the ground, obscurely angular, covered with short
down. Leaves opposite, smooth, clasping the stem, inversely ovate,
serrate only above, slightly downy. Flowers white, slightly purplish,
axillary on a common peduncle, in a rough conical head. Corolla
somewhat bowed, funnel-form, gaping, throat narrow, limb 4-lobed,
one lobe shorter than the rest. Stamens 4, 2 longer. Filament almost
wanting. Anthers 4, fertile. Ovary superior, style very short. Stigma
semi-globose. Fruit, 2 seeds covered by the pellicle of the ovary.

Habitat.--Very common in the rice fields.



_Tectona grandis_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Teca_, Sp.; _Tikla_, Tag.; _Dalondón_, _Yate_, _Kalayati_,
Vis.; _Teak Tree_, Eng.

Uses.--The powdered wood made into a paste with water is undoubtedly a
useful application in acute dermatitis, especially that due to contact
with the caustic oleo-resin of the cashew nut (_Anacardium_). A
decoction of the powder gives good results as a gargle for aphthæ,
gingivitis, and other inflammations within the buccal cavity. In India
they give internally 6-12 grams as a vermifuge, and for dyspepsia with
"heartburn."

The flowers are diuretic according to Endlicher; the bark is
astringent; the leaves and the seeds are purgative, the latter
yielding an oil which they use in India to stimulate the growth of
the hair. Gibson considers the seeds diuretic and quotes two cases
where abundant diuresis immediately followed by the application of a
poultice of the bruised seeds over the pubis. In Concan they make a
sort of extract from the wood and apply it to the yoke sores of the
cattle to prevent the growth of maggots. This disinfectant action
marks the plant as worthy of further experiment.

Rumphius is authority for the statement that the infusion of the leaves
is used in cholera. The Chinese make vessels of the wood to preserve
their drinking water at sea; the first and second waters are bitter
and are thrown away, but after that the water has no disagreeable
taste and is said to aid digestion.

It has been said that the wood was poisonous because at one time
several workmen died from the effects of wounds caused by splinters of
the wood, but the statement has not been confirmed by later cases and
the deaths were most probably due to a septic infection independent
of the chemical composition of the splinters.

R. Romanis has extracted a resin from the wood by alcohol; it is soft,
and on distillation yields a crystalline body called by the author
_tectoquinon_ (C_18_H_10_O_2_), on account of its resemblance to
the quinons. It melts at 171° and volatilizes slightly at ordinary
temperature.

Botanical Description.--A tree with leaves almost round, oval,
entire, 30-60 centimeters by 20-40, the under surface covered
with hoary down. Petioles very short, flattened. Flowers in
panicles. Primary peduncle square. Calyx inferior, bell-shaped,
very large when ripe, 5-cleft. Corolla white, longer than calyx,
covered with a mealy substance, bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Stamens 5 or 6,
inserted in the corolla. Filaments flattened, somewhat longer than the
corolla. Anthers semi-globose, a yellow zone below and a black circle
above. Ovary free, rounded, 4 locules each with 1 seed. Style same
length as stamens. Stigma bilobulate. Drupe globose, woolly, spongy,
depressed, covered by the membranous inflated calyx; contains one nut,
very hard, 4 apartments each containing one seed.

Habitat.--The mountains of Morong and Tanay (of La Laguna Province)
bear some specimens. Very common in the island of Negros and in
Mindanao. It also grows in the Visayas, Mindora and Paragua. Blooms
in September.



_Vitex trifolia_, L. (_V. repens_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lagundi_, Tag.; _Gapasgapas_, Vis.; _Dangla_, Iloc.

_Vitex Negundo_, L. (_V. Leucoxylon_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lagundi_, _Malawin_, Tag.

Uses.--Both species are used medicinally in the Philippines and both
enjoy high repute. A variety of the first that seems to possess the
same virtues is the _V. repens_, Blanco, called _lagunding gapang_
by the Tagalos.

_V. trifolia_ is regarded in India as the most powerful species and
Bontius has extolled it highly, calling attention to the anodyne,
diuretic and emmenagogue properties of the leaves. These are very
effective applied in fomentation to rheumatic joints and their use
is extensive both in India and the Malay Archipelago. A decoction
of the leaves is used locally and as a vapor-bath in the treatment
of beriberi. A large earthen pot is filled with leaves and water and
brought to a boil; the pot is then placed under a chair in which the
patient sits enveloped in a sheet or blanket. If necessary the pot may
be removed 2 or 3 times, heated and replaced until abundant sweating
is induced. An apparatus to conduct the steam under the chair would
be much handier, but it is unsafe to place a small stove or lamp
under the chair for fear of setting fire to the cloth.

In India and the Philippines there is a peculiar inflammation localized
in the soles of the feet and characterized by an intense burning
rather than pain, not described in the textbooks, but called by the
natives "burning of the feet" ("quemadura del pié" or "ignipedites");
in our own experience and according to the consensus of the physicians
of India, the application of these leaves 3 or 4 times a day to the
soles of the feet has afforded marked relief. The leaves are heated
in an earthen pot without the addition of water, and when sufficiently
hot are applied and held in place by a bandage.

Dr. W. Ingledew states that the natives of Mysore (south of
India) treat rheumatism and febrile catarrhs by steam baths of the
decoction of vitex. A decoction of the leaves is in common use in
the Philippines, Malay Islands and India as a bath for women in the
puerperal state.

The dry leaves are smoked for headache and catarrh. According to
creditable authority the application of the heated leaves in orchitis
produces good results. The root is tonic, febrifuge and expectorant
and the fruit nervine and emmenagogue according to the Sanscrit writer.

Botanical Description.--_V. trifolia_ is a small tree, 3-4
meters high. The fruit and leaves are said to emit the odor of
rosemary. Leaves ternate. Leaflets oval, entire, hoary below, no
secondary petioles. Flowers purplish in forked panicle. Corolla
bell-shaped with palate. The lower lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe
larger; upper lip smaller, 2-lobed. Stamens 4, free, didynamous. Ovary
free. Style simple, with stigma-bearing lobules. Berry-like drupe,
with 4-celled nut, one seed in each cell.

Habitat.--Common on the seashore. Blooms in June.

The _V. Negundo_ is a small tree like the preceding, but when
it grows in the forest it develops to a tree of the first order,
yielding a valuable building wood called _molave_ (Sp.) or more
properly _molawin_. Leaves compound with 5 leaflets. Secondary
petioles short. Flowers in dichotomous panicle. Fruit like that of
the foregoing species.



_Clerodendron infortunatum_, L. (_C. fortunatum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Kasupangit_, _Gubat_, Tag.; _Saling-wak_, Vis.

Uses.--The fresh juice of the leaves is used in India as a vermifuge,
according to K. L. Dey; it is also used as a bitter tonic in malarial
fever, especially of children. As a tonic and antipyretic it is
certainly worthy of recommendation.

Dr. Bholanauth Bose calls attention to this plant as a good substitute
for _Ophelia chirata_, DC. as a tonic and antipyretic.

The infusion of the bruised leaves (10 grams to water 300 cc.) is given
up to 200 cc. a day in 3 or 4 doses; the tincture (leaves 60 grams,
alcohol 90 %, 500 cc.) is given up to 10 grams a day in 5 or 6 doses.

Botanical Description.--A shrub with nearly round stem; leaves
opposite, ovate, oblong; acute, entire, slightly downy. Flowers
terminal in umbellate panicles, the umbellets opposite and each bearing
3 flowerets. Calyx bluish, long, tubular, somewhat expanded in the
middle, divided in 5 parts. Corolla twice as long as the calyx, tube
filiform, limb 5-lobed. Stamens didynamous, their lower parts grown
to the tube of the corolla. Filaments longer than the corolla. Ovary
conical. Style of same length as the stamens. Stigma bifid. Berry
dry, quadrate, depressed, the shell hard, 4 grooves, 4 cells, each
containing a seed.

Habitat.--Very common in Manila and in the forests.



LABIATÆ.

Mint Family.



_Ocimum basilicum_, L. (_O. Americanum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Solasi_, Tag., Pam.; _Bonak_, Vis.; _Sweet Basil_, Eng.

_Ocimum gratissimum_, L. (_O. virgatum_ Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lokoloko_, Tag., Pam.; _Kolonkogon_, Vis.

_Ocimum sanctum_, L. (_O. flexuosum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Balanay_, Tag.; _Sacred Basil_, Eng.

Uses.--All three species possess a characteristic camphoraceous
odor and are commonly grouped under the one name, _albahacas_
(sweet basil). Some natives call them _solasi_ and others _balanay_,
but many are able to distinguish the various species correctly. All
three have analogous properties, but the most widely used is the
_O. basilicum_. These properties are stimulant, diaphoretic, and
expectorant, and the infusion is used commonly for flatulent colic
and painful dyspepsia. The dry powdered leaves of the _O. sanctum_ are
taken as snuff by the natives of India in the treatment of a curious
endemic disease characterized by the presence of small maggots in the
nasal secretion; this disease is called peenash, and possibly exists
in the Philippines though I have never encountered it.

Martins states that in Brazil they use a decoction of the mucilaginous
leaves of the _O. gratissimum_ in the treatment of gonorrhoea and
Dr. Waitz highly recommends a strong decoction of these leaves for the
aphthæ of children, which he claims to have cured by this means after
all European drugs had failed. This fact and the action of the snuff
above mentioned, demonstrate the antiseptic properties of the plant,
due doubtless to its abundant aromatic principles.

_O. basilicum_ contains a green essential oil, very aromatic,
becoming solid; it is a sort of camphor (C_20_H_16_6HO, Raybaud)
and crystallizes in 4-faced prisms.

All the plants are used to prepare aromatic baths for cases of atrophy
and debility in children (Waitz) and for the treatment of rheumatism
and paralysis.

Botanical Description.--_O. gratissimum_ is a plant 2-3° high, stem
straight, downy. Leaves medium lanceolate, finely serrate from the
middle upwards, with short hairs and transparent dots. Flowers in
long terminal racemes. Calyx, upper lip horizontal, round; lower lip
3 pointed parts, the middle one subdivided in two. Corolla yellowish,
inverted, one lip cleft in 4 obtuse lobes; the other longer, narrow,
serrate. Stamens didynamous, 2 shorter. Anthers semilunar. Stigma
bifid. Seeds 4.

The _O. Americanum_ has leaves lanceolate, ovate, acute, full of
pores, somewhat downy. It is more fragrant than the other species
and its flowers are bluish-white in racemes.

The _O. sanctum_ is the most sacred plant of the Hindoos, dedicated
to Vishnu; its branches are wavy or cauliflexuous, leaves obliquely
ovate, obtuse, serrate, nearly glabrous.

Habitat.--All species are very common and universally known.



_Coleus aromaticus_, Benth. (_C. suganda_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Orégano_, Sp.-Fil.; _Suganda_, Tag.; _Marjoram_, Eng. (The
Sp. and Eng. names are incorrect.)

Uses.--The fleshy, aromatic leaves of this plant are bruised and
applied locally for the bites of centipedes and scorpions. They
are also applied to the temples and forehead for headache, held in
place by a bandage. In Cochin China they are used in asthma, chronic
bronchitis, epilepsy and other convulsive diseases. The juice of the
leaves is a carminative and is given to children suffering with wind
colic. Dr. Wight claims to have observed occasional intoxicating
effects following its use, but Dymock states that he has never
observed such effects. The plant contains a coloring matter, _colein_
(C_10_H_10_O_3_), red, insoluble in ether, soluble in alcohol, slightly
soluble in water. On the addition of ammonia the solution changes to
purple, then violet, indigo, green, and, finally, greenish-yellow.

Another species, the _C. atropurpureus_, Benth. (_C. grandifolius_,
Blanco), well known in the Philippines by its common name _mayana_,
is used in the treatment of bruises, the bruised fleshy leaves being
the part employed; these leaves are downy and dark violet in color.

Botanical Description.--Leaves opposite, nearly sessile, cordate,
obtuse, downy and very fleshy. Flowers in a quadrangular raceme, each
group of these flowerets having a concave scale at the base. Calyx
bell-shaped, 2-lipped; the upper lip longer and entire; the lower
with 4 narrow teeth. Corolla a pale violet, 5 times longer than the
calyx. Stamens didynamous, straight, longer than the corolla. Style
bifid. Seeds 4.

Habitat.--Universally abundant.



_Rosmarinus officinalis_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Romero_, Sp.; _Rosemary_, Eng.

Uses.--This is one of the plants most valued by the Filipinos. Its
infusion is used as an eye-wash for slight catarrhal conjunctivitis,
applied 3 or 4 times a day. It is one of the aromatic plants used so
commonly to bathe women in the puerperal state, and in vapor baths
for rheumatism, paralysis and incipient catarrhs. The entire plant
is a stimulant and carminative but little used internally; in atonic
dyspepsia it has given good results taken in the same form as the
infusion of manzanilla.

It contains a large per cent. of an essential oil which gives the
plant its agreeable odor. This oil enters into the composition of
"Cologne Water"; it is said to arrest falling of the hair and is a
diffusible stimulant which may be given internally in doses of 3-5
drops. It is colorless and liquid when fresh, but in time becomes dark
and viscid. It combines freely with alcohol and its density is 0.885.

Botanical Description.--A plant from 2 to 3° high. Leaves sessile,
linear, obtuse, margins revolute, white-hoary beneath. Calyx tubular,
2-lipped. Corolla rose-violet color, gaping; the upper lip concave,
2-lobed; the lower lip longer, 3-lobed. Stamens, 2 fertile and 2
sterile. Style, same length as the stamens. Stigma simple. Fruit,
4 seeds in the depths of the calyx.

Habitat.--It is carefully cultivated throughout the Philippines.



_Anisomeles ovata_, R. Br. (_Phlomis alba_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Taligharap_, Tag.; _Jerusalem Sage_, Eng.

Uses.--The infusion of the leaves is bitter and aromatic and is
used in catarrhal inflammations of the stomach and intestines and
in intermittent fevers. Used as a vapor-bath it produces abundant
diaphoresis, and the infusion given internally has a like effect. The
leaves, when distilled, yield an oil which is used as an external
application in rheumatism.

Botanical Description.--A plant 6° or more high. Root fibrous,
trunk and branches enlarged at the joints. Leaves opposite, ovate,
obtusely serrate, soft and downy. Flowers pink, verticillate, in
opposite clusters around the stem, with several linear and hairy
involucres at the base of each cluster. Calyx, 5 sharp teeth. Corolla,
2-lipped; the lower much larger, downy within, 3-lobed, the middle
lobe larger and broader, notched at the extremity, and its borders
turned downward; the other 2 lateral lobes very small, narrow;
the upper lip much shorter and smaller, entire, enveloping the
stamens. Stamens didynamous. Style about the same length as the
stamens. Stigma bifid. Fruit, 4 small seeds.

Habitat.--Very common on the fields of Manila Province.



_Leucas aspera_, Spreng. (_Phlomis Zeylanica_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Pansipansi_, _Solasolasian_, _Karukansoli_, Tag.;
_Pansipansi_, _Paypaysi_, Vis.

Uses.--The bruised leaves are applied to the bites of serpents or
poisonous insects. In India they are similarly used. The juice of
the leaves is very useful in the treatment of certain skin diseases,
especially psoriasis.

Botanical Description.--A plant about 2° high, very well known to
the natives. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, finely serrate and covered
with short hairs. Flowers terminal, white, verticillate, with the
characteristics of the mint family.



PLANTAGINACEÆ.

Plantain Family.



_Plantago erosa_, Wall. (_P. crenata_ and _media_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Llantén_, Sp.-Fil.; _Lantín_, Tag.; _Plantain_, Eng.

Uses.--The leaves of this popular plant are the commonest remedy in
the Philippines for abscess of the gums. They are bruised and applied
with a little lard over the swollen cheek. It is emollient and,
in decoction, is used as a substitute for flaxseed.

Botanical Description.--This plant is so universally known that there
is no fear of confusing it with others. It flourishes as a common
weed in the U. S. as well as the Philippines.



NYCTAGINACEÆ.

Four-O'Clock Family.



_Mirabilis Jalapa_, L. (_M. longiflora_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Maravillas_, _Suspiros_, Sp.-Fil.; _Gilalas_, Tag.;
_Four O'Clock_, _Marvel of Peru_, Eng.

Uses.--The root is purgative and possesses the same active  principles,
the same properties and is given in the same dose as jalap. According
to the experience of Shoolbred, Hunter, W. O'Shaughnessy and Ainslie,
its purgative action is weak and uncertain and therefore unworthy
of use as a substitute for jalap. The bruised leaves are used as
poultices to hasten suppuration, but according to Waring they are
capable of causing dermatitis.

Botanical Description.--The flowers open toward the end of the day and
close again at sunrise. The root is blackish and spindle-shaped. The
stem smooth, branches forked. Leaves opposite, lanceolate-cordate,
acute, somewhat downy along the borders and the upper surface. Petioles
short. Flowers fragrant, almost constantly blooming, of different
colors even in the same plant, terminal, in umbels. Pedicels very
short. Calyx persistent, 5-toothed. Corolla superior, very long, its
tube downy, funnel-form, limb 5-lobed. Stamens 5, longer than the
corolla. Style longer than the stamens. Stigma globose. Nut small,
black, globose, many-ribbed, full of a mealy substance.

Habitat.--Common in gardens.



AMARANTHACEÆ.

Amaranth Family.



_Amaranthus spinosus_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Kilitis_, _Orayi_, Tag.; _Ayantoto_, Pam.; _Kalitis_,
_Tilites_, _Bayang-bayang_, Vis.; _Kuanton_, Iloc.; _Thorny Amaranth_,
Eng.

Uses.--The entire plant is emollient and its principal use is as a
poultice for inflammations, bruises, etc. The decoction of the root is
diuretic and antiphlogistic and is used in Mauritius (30 grams root to
750 cc. water) as an internal remedy for gonorrhoea; indeed it is there
regarded as a specific for that disease, checking the discharge and
the "ardor urinæ." It should be continued till the cure is complete.

The bruised leaves are used locally for eczema.

Botanical Description.--A plant 2-3° high of a reddish color. Leaves
alternate, lanceolate, broad, notched at the apex, wavy,
glabrous. Petioles with a pair of spines in their axils. Flowers
small, yellow-green, in round axillary clusters and in long
terminal spikes. The pistillate flowers are sometimes separated from
the staminate, sometimes mixed with them in the lower part of the
spike. Staminate: No corolla, calyx 2-5 parts, stamens 4-5. Pistillate:
Style and stigma 2 or 3, otherwise the same as the staminate. Seed
vessel with 1 seed.

Habitat.--Common in all parts. Blooms in October.



_Achyranthes obtusifolia_, Lam. (_A. aspera_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Hangor_, _Hangot_, _Dokotdekot_, _Libay_, Tag.; _Angod_,
Pam.

Uses.--The plant has astringent and diuretic properties; the latter
were observed by Dr. Cornish, who communicated the facts to Waring,
calling special attention to the good service the drug had afforded him
in dropsy. Other physicians in India have confirmed these observations
of Cornish. The decoction is made of 60 grams of the entire plant
to 750 cc. water, boiled till reduced one-half and strained under
pressure. Dose, 60 cc. every 2 hours till diuresis is induced.

The ashes of this plant, like those of the _Amaranthus spinosus_,
L., contain a large quantity of potassa, and are used for washing
clothes; on this account it has received its Sanscrit name _Apamarga_
(the washer). The ashes are also mixed in an infusion of ginger and
given internally in dropsy.

The flowers are bruised and applied to the bites of snakes and other
poisonous animals. In India there is a superstition that carrying
these flowers about the person will keep off scorpions.

Botanical Description.--A plant about 3° high, the stem angular and
downy. Leaves opposite, downy, clasping the stem, lanceolate, very
obtuse and wavy. Flowers bent downward in a long spike bearing many
flowerets. Calyx, 5 tough scales. Corolla wanting. Nectary much smaller
than the calyx, monophyllous, 5-lobed. Stamens 5. Ovary top-shaped,
upper part somewhat concave. Style same length as stamens. Stigma
coarse, bifid. Fruit, a seed covered with 2 membranes, one enveloping
it completely, the outer one adherent in only one part.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon. Blooms in November.



CHENOPODIACÆ.

Goosefoot Family.



_Chenopodium ambrosioides_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Alpasotes_, Sp.-Fil.; _Pasotis_, _Apasotis_, Tag.;
_American Worm-seed_, _Mexican Tea_, Eng.

Uses.--This plant is a native of Mexico. It has a peculiar, somewhat
offensive odor and an acrid, aromatic taste due to an essential oil
resembling peppermint (?). According to Padre Mercado, "When the seeds
are taken with wine, sensation is so dulled that the drinker may be
whipped without feeling the lashes, and even if put to the torment,
does not feel it." These properties, if true, make this plant one of
the most useful in the Philippines. The entire plant is stimulant. The
infusion, given internally, causes sweating, excites the circulation,
is diuretic, tonic, stomachic, and useful as well as an antispasmodic
in nervous troubles. The leaves are employed in making the infusion, 8
grams to 200 of boiling water. It is widely used in bronchial catarrhs
and in asthma on account of its sudorific and expectorant action. It
seems also to possess emmenagogue properties. The seeds yield on
distillation a yellow essential oil with a strong and disagreeable
odor, density 0.908. Both seeds and flowers are vermifuge, and are
used as such in Brazil in doses of 8 grams in infusion or with an
equal dose of castor oil. The anthelmintic dose of the essential oil
is 5-15 drops with powdered sugar.

Rilliet and Barthez recommend the following potion for infantile
chorea:


        Leaves of chenopodium       4 grams.
        Water                     500 grams.


Make an infusion and add syrup of orange flowers 50 grams. Dose,
several tablespoonfuls a day.

Botanical Description.--A plant 2° high; stem beset with
hairs, many-angled. Leaves lanceolate, varying from entire
to cut-pinnatifid. Flowers green, sessile, axillary, in small
clusters. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla wanting. Stamens 5. Filaments
flattened, inserted near the center of the flowers opposite the parts
of the calyx. Anthers in 2 globose parts. Ovary superior, globose,
depressed, unilocular, uniovulate. Style none. Stigmas, 2, 3 or 4,
short, divergent. Fruit a lenticular seed covered by the membrane of
the ovary.

Habitat.--Common in gardens and fields. Blooms in May.



ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ.

Birthwort Family.



_Aristolochia Indica_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Timbangan_, _Malaubi_, Tag.; _Indian Birthwort_, Eng.

Uses.--The root has a wide use in medicine in the Philippines; it
is bitter, of a nauseating odor and has the reputation of being a
powerful antidote for the bites of poisonous serpents and insects. It
has further use in the treatment of malarial fever, in dyspepsia,
and in the flatulent colic of teething children. It is regarded as
tonic and emmenagogue. In various forms of diarrhoea it appears to
be effective and Dr. Gibson states that it is useful in intestinal
disorders. In the Philippines it is not only given internally but
also externally applied over the abdomen, mixed with hot cocoanut oil
(10 grams of the powdered root to 100 oil).

The first Portuguese settlers in India called the drug "Cobra Root,"
because the natives regarded it as an antidote for the bite of the
terrible "Cobra da Capello." This reputation, however, seems not to
have been deserved, judging from the fearful mortality in India and
Ceylon due to the bite of the cobra.

Dr. Imlach, a surgeon of Singapore, states that in one season in
one collectorate, Shikapore, no less than 306 cases of snake bites
were officially reported, the mortality being 63, or about 20.58
per cent. Other reports make it safe to conclude that in the entire
province during the year no less than 300 deaths were due to this
cause alone. Dr. Waring believes that if an antidote for snake bite
exist in the vegetable kingdom it will most probably be found in the
natural order Aristolochiaceæ.

In North India this drug is used as emmenagogue and anti-arthritic, and
in Banda for intermittent fevers and intestinal disorders. The juice of
the leaves is emetic. The dose of the powdered root is 3-5 grams daily.

Botanical Description.--A twining shrub, with leaves heart-shaped,
ovate, acute, glabrous. Petioles short. Flowers dark reddish-gray, in
panicles. Calyx wanting. Corolla globose below, the tube cylindrical,
expanding at the top. Anthers 6, in pairs. Filaments, none. Styles 6,
very coarse, a membrane at the base including all. Stigmas simple. Seed
vessel inferior, 6-ribbed, 6 cells and many winged seeds. The seed
vessel after casting the seeds resembles a pair of balance scales
with its little plates or pans. Hence the Tagalo name _Timbangan_
meaning "balance."

Habitat.--In Luzon and Panay. Blooms in November.



PIPERACEÆ.

Pepper Family.



_Piper Betle_, L. (_Chavica Betle_ and _C. auriculata_, Miq.; _Piper
Betel_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Hojas de buyo_, Sp.-Fil.; _Itmó_, Tag.; _Mamin_, Bic.;
_Buyo_, _Mamón_, Vis.; _Samat_, Pam.; _Betel Pepper_, Eng.

Uses.--A masticatory, used all over the extreme Orient, is composed
of the leaves of this plant, a little slaked oyster-shell lime
and a rounded slice of the bonga or areca nut; the Filipinos call
this combination _bayo_, though the name is not of native origin;
the Tagalos call it _hitsú_. The use of buyo by careless persons is
decidedly repugnant, for the mixture of the lime and the pigment of the
bonga imparts a blood-red or rather brick-red color to the saliva which
they spit in mouthfuls into the streets and other public places with
no thought of the feelings of others. Unless the mouth is carefully
cleaned the teeth become encrusted with a sort of black enamel and
the breath assumes a detestable odor. When used in small quantities
and with proper toilet of the mouth, and this is the common practice
among the Filipinos, buyo seems to be a very useful preservative
of the teeth and a gingival and stomachic tonic. These properties
are readily understood when we consider that the lime is antacid,
the bonga astringent and tonic and the betel aromatic and stimulant.

The buyo leaf plays a very important part in the therapeutics of the
infant of the Philippines: in its indigestions, colics and diarrhoeas
the heated leaves are applied to the abdomen previously anointed
with hot cocoanut oil. In bronchitis and laryngitis the heated
leaves are applied over the chest or neck after rubbing the parts
with oil. It undoubtedly produces good effects and the physicians of
India recommend it in the same cases and in the same form as in the
Philippines. Applied to the breasts of parturient women it dries up
the milk and in the same way tends to reduce any glandular enlargement.

Dr. Kleinstück of Java recommends the essence of the leaves in
all sorts of catarrhs and as an antiseptic in doses of one drop
to 140 of the vehicle. This essence is obtained by distillation;
it is dark in color, has an acrid taste and an odor resembling that
of tea. Its density is 1.020. The dried leaves contain one-half per
cent. of the essence and it is probable that the fresh ones contain
a greater proportion.

Botanical Description.--A plant with yellow flowers and scandent stem,
climbing straight up trees or artificial supports. Leaves cleft at
the base, acute, entire, glabrous, dark green. According to Blanco
it is cultivated best in somewhat sandy soil. Pasay, near Manila,
and Bauang, in Batangas, furnish a leaf most highly appreciated.



_Piper nigrum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Pimienta_, Sp.; _Paminta_, _Malisa_, Tag.; _Black
Pepper_, Eng.

Uses.--The berry-like fruit of the pepper is more extensively used
as a condiment in cooking than in the treatment of disease. Used in
moderation, however, it is of considerable value as a convenient
stomachic and aid to digestion in tropical countries where the
digestive functions readily become sluggish. Its abuse may lead to
serious consequences, such as inflammation of the gastro-intestinal
mucous membrane, of the portal system and the liver itself.

Pepper is used as a febrifuge in the various forms of malarial fevers,
in the form of granules of 8 or 10 berries in a cup of brandy and anise
(Spanish); this is taken by the patient in one dose at the beginning of
the cold stage and followed by large quantities of water to relieve the
thirst caused by the pepper. This treatment causes the cold stage to
rapidly subside and more rapidly induces and intensifies the sweating
stage. It is said that no further attack of fever follows.

Piperin (C_17_H_19_NO_3_) is febrifuge and is given in pill form
internally in doses of 30-60 centigrams; the action of the crude drug
is evidently due to this neutral principle.

Botanical Description.--The plant is a perennial, climbing
shrub. Leaves oval, tapering at both extremities, 7-nerved. Flowers
yellow, in a spike. Stigmas 2, bifid. Fruit globose, with one seed.

Habitat.--The dried fruit of the pepper is universally familiar. It was
at one time cultivated in the Philippines, especially in Batangas,
and Gen. Basco promulgated a series of orders to encourage its
cultivation. Padre Gainza, afterward Bishop of Nueva Cáceres, wrote a
report about its cultivation, but since then the subject has entirely
disappeared from notice.



CHLORANTHACEÆ.

Chloranth Family.



_Chloranthus officinalis_, Bl. (_C. Indicus_, Wight.;
_C. inconspicuus_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--Unknown.

Uses.--All parts of the plant are aromatic. The leaves and stems
lose this property after drying, but the roots, if properly dried,
preserve it for a long time. They have a camphoraceous odor and
bitter, aromatic taste, reminding one of that of _Aristolochia
Serpentaria_. The mountaineers of Java use an infusion of the
powdered root and the bark of the _Cinnamomum Culilowan_ to treat
puerperal eclampsia. Combined with carminatives like anise and onion,
they use it with some success in virulent small-pox of children. The
infusion seems to be efficacious in fevers accompanied by debility and
suppression of the function of the skin. It has also been prescribed
in the intermittent fevers of Java, mixed with an infusion of the
leaves of the _Cedrela Toona_. Blume states that it is one of the
most powerful stimulants known.

Botanical Description.--A plant 3-4° high. Stem quadrangular. Leaves
opposite, broad, lanceolate, serrate, with stiff-pointed teeth and
somewhat scaly beneath. Petioles very short, clasping the stem at
their base, with 2 intermediate stipules ending in two awl-shaped
points. Flowers compound in axillary spikes, which bear the flowerets
in 2 ranks, each flower with a keeled bract. The corolla (if it may
be so called) a fleshy, 3-lobed lamina. Perianth wanting. Receptacle
dome-shaped. Anthers 4, inserted on the surface of the lamina,
2-valved. Ovary 1-celled, with 1 ovule. Style short. Berry-like fruit,
globose, with 1 seed covered by a somewhat brittle membrane.

Habitat.--La Laguna and other provinces of Luzon. Blooms in September.



LAURACEÆ.

Laurel Family.



_Cinnamomum pauciflorum_, Nees. (_Laurus culilaban_, Var., Blanco.)

_C. tamala_, Nees. (_L. culilaban_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg. (of both).--_Kalingag_, _Makalingag_, Tag., Vis.;
_Kandaroma_, Iloc; _Cassia Lignea_ or _Cassia_, Eng.

Uses.--The bark of both species is known in pharmacy as Chinese
cassia or Chinese cinnamon (cassia cinnamon). Indeed it is very like
the cinnamon of Ceylon, comes in curled quills, has the same odor and
taste though not so delicate; but it is darker in color, with a surface
less clean and smooth. Its chemical composition is identical with that
of the latter and nowadays it forms an important article of commerce.

Cinnamon renders good service in therapeutics as a stimulant of the
digestive tract and a heart tonic. In the atonic diarrhoeas so common
in the Philippines a tincture of cinnamon in doses of 8-10 grams a
day, or the powder in cases where alcohol was contraindicated, have
given me unhoped-for results.

In Spain and the Philippines it is very popular as a condiment in the
kitchen of the confectionery and as a flavor for chocolate; in fact
in those countries it takes the place of vanilla in France. It enters
into the composition of several elixirs and compound tinctures, such
as "Botot's Water" (dentifrice), "Elixir of Garus" (tonic stimulant),
"Balsam of Fioraventi" (external stimulant), laudanum and the elixir
of the Grande Chartreuse (diffusible stimulant).

Lately it has been demonstrated that the essence is a powerful
antiseptic, in the presence of which typhoid fever bacilli cannot
develop.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 15-20° high. Leaves opposite,
lanceolate, 3-nerved, entire, glabrous. Flowers yellow, paniculate,
umbellate. Common peduncles very long, those of the flowerets
long. Calyx none. Corolla, 6 ovate, hairy petals. Stamens 9; 6
external to the rest and bearing the anthers, 4 on each filament,
2 below the others; the 3 inner stamens bear 2 anthers each.

In the second species the flowers form loose, terminal
panicles. Stamens 9; 6 filaments inserted on the receptacle, spatulate,
each bearing 4 anthers on the inferior face; the other 3 filaments
thick, each bearing 4 anthers. Between the last filaments are 8 nearly
globose glandules.

Habitat.--Both species are common in the forests of Luzon. The first
species blooms in May, the second in January.



_Cassytha filiformis_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Malabohok._

Uses.--This plant has no therapeutical uses in the Philippines. In
Senegal it is employed, according to Dujardin-Beaumetz, mixed with
lard to treat urethritis; its action is to decrease the ardor urinæ. It
is not stated whether this mixture is used internally or externally.

In Cochin China the same writer states that it is used as an
antisyphilitic. In India it is used for the piles and as an alterative
for bilious disorders. It possibly acts as a circulatory stimulant.

Botanical Description.--A slender, thread-like, cylindrical vine,
without leaves, that covers the trees like a mantle, so luxuriant
is its growth. Flowers yellow, in axillary spikes. Calyx small, 3
sepals. Corolla, 3 fleshy concave petals. Stamens 12 in 4 verticils,
9 fertile and 3 inner sterile. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Style
cylindrical. Drupe globose, 1-2'' in diameter, covered by a fleshy
envelope, formed by the receptacle. Seeds without albumen.

Habitat.--Luzon, Mindanao, Cebú, on the seashore.



EUPHORBIACEÆ.

Spurge Family.



_Euphorbia pilulifera_, L. (_E. capitata_, Lam.; _E. hirta_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Golondrina_, Sp.-Fil.; _Gatasgatas_, _Batobatonis_,
_Sayikan_, Tag.; _Buyayawa_, _Tawawa_, _Bowi_, Vis.; _Malismalis_,
_Sisiwhan_, _Bolobotones_, _Magatas_, Pam.

Uses.--This plant has a reputation in the Philippines as a hæmostatic
of great efficiency, for which purpose the whole plant is crushed and
applied as a poultice over the wound. Like all members of this family
it abounds in milky juice. We have had no occasion to employ it as a
hæmostatic, but do not doubt its action in view of the effect that it
exercises on the circulation and the heart when given internally. In
toxic doses experiment has demonstrated that it kills animals by
suspension of the respiratory movements and those of the heart,
which at first beats faster but gradually more slowly. It has no
effect upon any other organ and is eliminated by the liver.

Matheson recommends it as an antispasmodic and has employed it also in
dyspnoea of cardiac origin. I have used it in both these conditions
in Manila with highly satisfactory results. I have found the most
convenient form of administration to be the tincture in doses of
15-40 drops a day given in an infusion of althæa every 3 or 4 hours;
the vehicle should be used liberally as it diminishes the irritant
action of the euphorbia on the stomach. A decoction of 15 grams
of the plant to 2 liters of water may be given in doses of from 6
to 12 tablespoonfuls daily. A proper dose of the alcoholic extract
is 10 centigrams in 24 hours. Dr. Daruty, of Mauritius, gives the
following formula:


        _Euphorbia pilulifera_ dried in the shade     30 grams.
        Water                                          1 1/2 liters.

Boil till reduced to 1 liter, cool and add:

        Rum or cognac                                 30 grams.


Dose.--1 wineglassful 3 times a day.

This decoction relieves the most obstinate asthma, as well as cough
and bronchial irritation. It is necessary to use the entire plant. The
decoction is usually given in the morning, fasting, in the middle of
the afternoon and at bedtime. In very stubborn cases another dose
may be given in the middle of the night. Frequently the relief is
immediate and in some cases a liter of the decoction is enough to
effect a cure. If the symptoms return, it is easy to abort them; they
are less distressing and, according to the statements of patients,
the medicine "gives them air."

Dr. Hicks Bunting found, in an analysis of the drug, 60 per cent. of
insoluble residue, wax, "caucho," resin, tannin, sugar, albuminoids,
oxalate of calcium and other salts.

Dr. Marsset states that the active principle is soluble in water, in
dilute alcohol; insoluble in ether, chloroform, bisulphide of carbon,
and turpentine, but does not give the reaction.

The toxic dose is 1 gram of dried plant for each kilogram of weight
of the animal.

Botanical Description.--A small creeping plant with milky juice. Stem
1-2° high, cylindrical, hairy and reddish in color. Leaves opposite,
obliquely ovate, rhomboid, serrate, hairy. Petioles very short. Two
pointed stipules at the base. Flowers yellowish in hemispherical
umbels of 5 divisions, each subdivided in 2. Involucre universal. Calyx
bell-shaped, laciniate, in 5 parts. Corolla, 5 petals, inserted on the
divisions of the calyx, fleshy, orbicular, with an orbicular appendix
at the base, concave and differing from the corolla in color. Stamens
8, inserted on the base of the calyx; filaments unequal in length,
each bearing 2 anthers. Four filaments lacking anthers. Ovary with
stalk longer than the flower, curved downward. Styles 3, bifid. Stigmas
simple. Seed vessels 3, united, hairy, 3-angled, each bearing 1 red
globose seed with a wrinkled surface.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the islands and well known to the
natives. The name by which it is best known in Manila is "golondrina."



_Euphorbia neriifolia_, L. (_E. ligularia_, Roxb.; _E. pentagona_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sorosoro_, _Sorog-sorog_, _Bait_, Tag., Pam.;
_Karambauaya_, Iloc.; _Lengua de perro_, Sp.-Fil.

Uses.--The principal medicinal use of this plant in the Philippines
is the introduction of the hot juice of its fleshy leaves into the
external auditory canal in cases of otorrhoea or of simple earache,
whatever its cause.

The root is regarded in India as an antidote for snake bite and,
indeed, the plant is sacred to Munsa, the snake divinity. During the
months of July and August in some parts of India the natives make
offerings of rice, milk and sugar to this sacred tree every Tuesday
and Thursday, praying for protection from the bites of serpents.

The leaves contain an abundance of milky juice, acrid and very
active, used in the treatment of several skin diseases. Like the
species _E. pilulifera_ it possesses antiasthmatic properties;
Dr. S. C. Amcobury reports 6 cases treated with satisfactory
results. Owing to the acrid quality of the juice great care should be
maintained both in its internal and external use. The Sanscrit authors
regard it as purgative and usually administer it with other drugs of
the same action to increase its effect. Ainslie states that the native
herb-doctors of India give the juice in intestinal obstruction and in
the oedema of malarial cachexia. The dose is 1.25 grams in 24 hours
given in 300 cc. of sweetened water in divided doses. This dose is,
in my opinion, dangerous; 40-60 centigrams a day is more prudent.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, from 5 to 6° high. Trunk erect,
jointed, 5-sided, at the angles 2 rows of thorns. Leaves spatulate,
fleshy. Flowers yellowish. Calyx bell-shaped, 5-lobed. Corolla,
numerous imbricated, spatulate petals with ravelled or fringed
ends. Stamens in groups. Styles 3. Stigma coarse. Seed vessel,
3 carpels on a stalk.

Habitat.--In all parts of Luzon.



_Euphorbia Tirucalli_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Consuelda_, Sp.-Fil.; _Katwit_, _Suelda_, Tag.

Uses.--The milky juice of this species is very caustic. It is used
chiefly in India mixed with oil as an embrocation for rheumatism;
given internally it is regarded as an antisyphilitic. Dr. J. Shortt
states that it is an excellent alterant in syphilis in dose of 30
centigrams, morning and evening. It is further employed in malarial
hypertrophy of the spleen, in asthma and as a purgative; in a word
the same virtues are attributed to it as to the foregoing species.

Botanical Description.--Small trees, 9-12° high. Trunk erect. Branches
cylindrical, stumpy (not tapering), several very small leaves at
the ends. Flowers yellowish, in umbels. Calyx, 5 rounded, fleshy
sepals. Corolla, 5 groups of woolly hairs on the divisions of the
calyx. Stamens 5, inserted on the sepals, with double or irregular
anthers. Seed vessel, 3 carpels each with one seed.

Habitat.--Very common, especially in the suburbs of Manila where they
serve as hedges.



_Phyllanthus reticulatus_, Müll. (_Cica decandra_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tinatinaan_, _Tintatintahan_, _Malinta_, Tag.;
_Sungot-olang_, Vis.

Uses.--The natives eat the little berries of this species, which are
dark purple before and black after maturity, and use their juice for
ink. The leaves are diuretic and refreshing; the bark alterant. In
the bazaars of India the bark is sold commonly in pieces 1° long
and as thick as the wrist; its taste is slightly sweet, color dark
and the alterative dose of its decoction is 120-150 grams a day. In
Concan they make a compound pill of the leaf-juice, powdered cubebs
and camphor, to be dissolved in the mouth for ulcerated, bleeding or
scorbutic gums. The juice is also given internally for urticaria.

Botanical Description.--Small trees, 12° or more high, with leaves
pinnate, oval, entire, alternate, glabrous, downy when young. Common
petiole, 2 stipules at the base. Flowers monoecious. Staminate: calyx,
5 colored sepals; no corolla; filaments 4, coarse, somewhat shorter
than the calyx, the middle one thicker and 2-parted; anthers 10,
4 on the middle filament and two on each of the others. Pistillate:
calyx and corolla same as staminate; nectary, 5 glandules on the base
of the ovary. Fruit, a black berry seated within the calyx, crowned
with 2 erect styles, 6 or 8 compartments each with a single seed.

Habitat.--Grows everywhere and is well known.



_Phyllanthus Niruri_, L.

_P. urinaria_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Hierba de San Pablo, de San Pedro_, Sp.

Uses.--This species is not used medicinally in the Philippines, but
in India is given for its diuretic effect and has great repute in
the treatment of genito-urinary diseases, dropsy and gonorrhoea. The
infusion of the leaves of _P. Niruri_ with Fenugreek seeds is a
highly prized remedy for chronic dysentery, mentioned by Ainslie. The
leaves are bitter and tonic and in Bombay they are in common use in
gonorrhoea to correct the acidity of the urine. Bruised and mixed with
salt they make a sort of jelly frequently used as an application for
itch; without salt the same is used for contusions.

The dose of the leaf juice of both species, for internal use, is 15
grams a day in divided doses.

A decoction of the entire plant well dried and powdered, is given
for jaundice in doses of 5 grams a day.

The milky juice of the stem is useful in the local treatment of
ulcers. The bruised root is employed in Concan for neuralgia.

Botanical Description.--_P. Niruri_ is an herb with straight
stem. Leaves alternate, pinnate with stylet in place of the
odd leaflet. Leaflets nearly oval, glabrous, 2 stipules at
the base. Flowers monoecious, greenish, axillary; the staminate
growing along the common petiole above the pistillate. Staminate:
Calyx, 5 lanceolate, entire sepals; no corolla; 1 filament with 1
anther. Pistillate: Calyx and corolla as above; ovary free, 3 biovulate
cells; style with 2 stigma-bearing branches. Fruit capsular, globose.

_P. urinaria_ may be distinguished by its sessile flowers and
reddish stem.

Habitat.--Very common in Manila and all over Luzon.



_Jatropha Curcas_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Tuba_, Tag.; _Kasla_, Vis.; _Tawatawa_, Iloc. (Seeds
called "English Physic Nuts" in India.)

Uses.--The milky juice of the trunk and branches is a drastic
purgative, too active for safety as a physic. Mixed with water it is
used as a wash for atonic ulcers.

The seeds yield 25-30 per cent. of a yellowish oil, more active than
castor oil as a purgative but less certain. Ten or twelve of the
former equal in effect 30 to 40 drops of the latter. Its density is
0.919, and it differs from castor oil in being only slightly soluble
in absolute alcohol. In some parts of the Philippines it is used for
purposes of illumination, and it is exported to Europe to adulterate
soaps and candles. It contains a little stearin which begins to be
deposited at 9° and is entirely solidified at 0°.

The fruit is strongly purgative, and this action is not due to the
oil but to a peculiar resin so active that 3 fruits produce drastic
effects. Whatever purgative action the oil possesses is due to the
resin which it contains in solution. It seems, therefore, preferable
to treat the seeds with alcohol, thus dissolving the resin, and use
the tincture thus obtained in place of the oil.

The natives use the plant to intoxicate the fish in ponds and sluggish
streams.

The seeds of the species _J. multifida_, L., also called _tuba_ in
Tag., and _mana_, are likewise purgative in their action. Dr. Waring
saw a case of poisoning with the fruit; the patient, a young man,
suffered violent vomiting, intense pain in the stomach and head,
and marked prostration. He recovered under the use of lime juice
and stimulants.

Botanical Description.--The _J. Curcas_ is a small tree growing as high
as 9°. Leaves alternate, cordate, glabrous, 3-5 cut-lobed. Flowers
yellowish-green, monoecious, in terminal umbels, staminate and
pistillate flowers mingled without order. Staminate: Calyx, 5 unequal
sepals; corolla bell-shaped, 5 petals, woolly within, a small notch
at the end, bent downward; stamens 10, in 2 whorls of 5. Pistillate:
Calyx and corolla as above; several tongue-like staminodes replace
the stamens; ovary free, oblong, 3-celled, 1 ovule in each cell;
style 3-branched. Seed vessel fleshy, of 3 capsules, each bearing 1
oval, coriaceous seed.

Habitat.--Luzon and Visayas.



_Aleurites Moluccana_, Willd. (_A. triloba_, Forst. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lumbán_, _Kapili_, Tag.; _Belgaum_ or _Indian Walnut_,
Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The kernels are rich in oil which is used for illumination
and the manufacture of soap. For industrial purposes it is superior
to linseed oil, according to the report of the Madras Drug Committee.

Dr. O'Rocke states that in doses of 1-2 ounces it acts as a gentle
and sure purgative, producing copious bilious evacuations after 3-6
hours, without causing nausea, colic or other similar effects. The
municipal physician of Sampaloc, Señor Xerez, states that he has
frequently used this oil in Manila, as a purgative, and he agrees
perfectly with Dr. O'Rocke as to its effect.

D. Anacleto del Rosario, the distinguished Filipino chemist, tells
me that he once witnessed a case of poisoning by the fruit of the
_lumbán_, the patient being a native boy. Doubtless the milky juice,
so active in all the Euphorbiaceæ, was the cause of the symptoms. It
is true that the kernel causes colic and copious alvine discharges.

Nellino's chemical analysis of the seeds is as follows:


            Water               5.25
            Fatty matter       62.97
            Cellulose          28.99
            Mineral matter      2.79


The ashes contain the following matters:


            Lime               28.69%
            Magnesia            6.01%
            Potash             11.23%
            Phosphoric acid    20.30%


The oil is yellow, syrupy, transparent, odorless, insipid.

Botanical Description.--A tree with leaves bunched or clustered,
3-5 lobulate with as many nerves. Petioles about as long as
the leaves. Flowers white, terminal in panicles, the pistillate
mixed with the more numerous staminate flowers. Staminate: Calyx
monophyllous, cylindrical, 2-toothed; corolla, 5 linear petals twice
as long as the calyx; stamens 20 or more, joined in a column at
their bases. Pistillate: Calyx and corolla as above; ovary of 2 or 3
uniovulate locules, encircled by a disk; style 2-or 3-branched. Seed
vessel large, ovate, compressed, fleshy, 2 sutures at right angles,
2 compartments, in each a hard nut.

Habitat.--Grows all over Luzon and is well known to the natives.



_Croton Tiglium_, L. (_C. glandulosum_, _C. muricatum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tuba kamaisa_, Tag.; _The Purging Croton_, Eng.

Uses.--The fruit is used by the Filipinos to intoxicate the fish
in ponds and sluggish streams. The seeds contain an oil that
is official in all Pharmacopoeias as one of the most powerful
hydragogue cathartics. As it is intensely irritating it should never
be administered alone but combined with other substances, such as
castor oil, or in pill form. The internal dose is 1 to 2 drops. It
is considered a specific for lead colic and is indicated when not
only purgation but active irritation of the digestive canal is desired.

Applied to the skin it is a strong irritant causing rapid and painful
vesication. Great care should be exercised not to raise the hands to
the eyes after touching the oil, as serious inflammation might result.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, 8-9° high, with rough
trunk. Leaves alternate, ovate, acute, minutely serrate, both surfaces
beset with sharp hairs. Flowers yellowish-white, monoecious. Staminate:
Fewer than the pistillate, growing above them; calyx 5-toothed;
corolla, 5 woolly petals; stamens 16, joined in the center. Pistillate:
Calyx 5-toothed; corolla much less developed than in the staminate;
ovary free, 3 uniovulate locules; styles 3, bifid. Seed vessel
dry, with thin envelope bristling with stiff hairs; 3 carpels each
containing a seed.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon.



_Acalypha Indica_, L. (_A. Caroliniana_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--Not known.

Uses.--This plant is not used medicinally in the Philippines, but
is very common in India. Dr. G. Bidie, of Madras, states that the
expressed juice of the leaves is in great repute, wherever the plant
grows, as an emetic for children and is safe, certain and speedy in
its action. Like ipecacuanha it seems to have little tendency to act on
the bowels or depress the vital powers, and it decidedly increases the
secretion of the pulmonary organs. Probably an infusion of the dried
leaves or an extract prepared from the green plant would retain all
its active properties. The dose of the expressed juice for an infant
is a teaspoonful.

Dr. A. E. Ross speaks highly of its use as an expectorant, ranking
it in this respect with senega; he found it especially useful in the
bronchitis of children. He also makes favorable report of a cataplasm
of the leaves as a local application to syphilitic ulcers and as a
means of relieving the pain attendant on the bites of venomous insects.

The alleged purgative action of the root noticed by Ainslie is
confirmed by Dr. H. E. Busteed, who reports having used the expressed
juice of the root and leaves as a laxative for children.

Langley, a military surgeon, states that in Canara the natives employ
the leaf juice in congestive headache, soaking pledgets of cotton
with it and introducing them into the nasal fossæ; the resultant
nose bleed relieves the headache. The powder of the dry leaves is
dusted on ulcers and putrid sores. In asthma and bronchitis, both of
children and adults, Langley has used this plant with good results,
and he recommends 1.25-3.50 grams of the tincture (100 grams of the
fresh plant to 500 of alcohol, 90°) repeated several times a day;
the effect is expectorant, nauseant and, in large doses, emetic.

It must be noted that only the young, growing plants are active.

The flowers of another species, _A. hispida_, Burm., called _bugos_
in Tag. and Vis., is used in India for the dysentery.

Botanical Description.--A little plant, about 3° high. Leaves
alternate, broad, lanceolate, 5-nerved, serrate from middle to
apex. Petioles much longer than the leaves, 2 stipules at their
bases. Flowers greenish, monoecious in axillary spikes, pedunculate, as
long as the leaves, crowned by a prolongation of the axis in the form
of a cross. Staminate: Numerous, in upper part of spike; calyx 4 parts;
no corolla; stamens 8-16, small, free. Pistillate: Less in number,
at the base of the spike; perianth of 3 imbricated leaflets; ovary,
3 uniovulate locules; style, 3 branches which also subdivide. Capsule
3-celled, each cell containing a globose seed with cicatrix.

Habitat.--Luzon, Panay and Mindanao. Blooms in October.



_Echinus Philippensis_, H. Baillon. (_Croton Philippense_, Lamk.;
_Rottlera tinctoria_, Roxb.; _Mallotus Philippensis_, Müll.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Banato_, Tag.; _Buas_, _Vuas_, Iloc.; _Monkey-face Tree_,
_Kamala_ or _Kamala Dye_, Indo-Eng.

Uses.--The capsular fruit of this plant is thickly beset with reddish
glands and hairs, which, when brushed off and gathered in powder form,
constitute the _kamala dye_ of the Hindoos. It was mentioned by the
Arabian physicians of the tenth century under the names of _Kanbil_
and _Wars_. In India the powder is highly valued as a yellow dye-stuff
for silk. Medicinally it is used as an anthelmintic, the English
physician Mackinnon, of the Bengal Hospital, having been the first to
scientifically prove this property; he reported that it was successful
in expelling the tape-worm. It is now official in the Pharmacopoeia
of India and also in the U. S. P. as an anthelmintic and purgative;
in Switzerland it is commonly given to expel the bothriocephalus
which abounds there, the lake fish acting as hosts.

The dose recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of India is 8-12 grams,
divided in 3 or 4 doses. This amount sometimes causes nausea and
colic; in the third or fourth stool the tænia is commonly expelled
in a lifeless condition. Dujardin-Beaumetz advises a dose of 30
grams of castor oil in case the tænia has not been expelled 2 hours
after the last dose of kamala. The powder is efficacious but the
tincture seems to be surer; the dose is 6 grams for children and 20
for adults, given in divided doses in aromatic water every hour for
6 hours. This tincture is prepared by macerating 200 grams of kamala
in 500 cc. alcohol for 7 days; then filtering with expression and
adding enough alcohol to complete the 500 cc.

The powder is also used in India as a local application in herpes
circinata. It is insoluble in water; in ether and alcohol it yields 80%
of a red resin. Anderson noted that a concentrated ethereal solution of
kamala after a few days formed a solid crystalline mass, yellow, very
soluble in ether; this substance he named _rottlerin_, C_11_H_10_O_3_.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 6-8 meters high, covered with
stellate groups of short yellow hairs. Leaves alternate, petiolate,
rhomboid-oval or lanceolate, acuminate, 3-nerved, entire or slightly
dentate, upper surface glabrous, lower surface covered with woolly
hairs and powdery red glands. Flowers yellowish-green, small,
dioecious, apetalous, in spikes. Staminate: By 3's in the axil of each
bract; perianth, 3 or 5 deeply cut, lanceolate lobules; stamens 15-25,
free, inserted in the center of the flower. Pistillate: In the axil
of each bract; ovary, 3 locules each with 1 ovule, covered like the
leaves with hairs and yellow, granular glands. Seed vessel globose,
3-celled, like ovary covered with hairs and glands.

Habitat.--Mountains of Morong, San Mateo, Tarlak, Bosoboso, Ilocos
Norte, Albay and Batangas.



_Ricinus communis_, L. (Variety _microcarpus_, Müll.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Tangantangan_, _Lingasina_, Tag.; _Tangantangan_,
_Tawatawasinga_, Iloc.; _Castor Oil Plant_, Eng.

Uses.--A purgative oil is expressed from the seeds, called "Aceite de
Ricino" (castor oil). It operates mechanically in the intestinal tract
and its action is rapid and is indicated whenever it is desired simply
to empty the intestines without producing any irritating effect;
it is, therefore, a purgative indicated in diseases of children,
in pregnancy, and in hemorrhoidal congestions where a non-irritating
evacuation of the rectum is desired. It is an anthelmintic, though
not ordinarily given alone, but in combination with other drugs of
a purely anthelmintic action, the object being to expel the worms
which have been attacked by the specific.

Oil extracted simply by expression is less purgative than that obtained
by treating the seeds with bisulphide of carbon and absolute alcohol;
also less purgative than the seeds themselves, because it contains only
a very small proportion of a drastic principle existing exclusively in
the seeds; this principle is completely dissolved in the oil extracted
by chemical process.

It is pale yellow in color, very viscid, with a characteristic mouldy
odor. The purgative dose is 10-30 grams. A small dose may purge as
actively as a larger one provided that the patient drink abundantly
after the administration of the drug. The best method of disguising its
taste is by giving it in half a cup of very strong, hot coffee. Just
before the dose, take a swallow of coffee to disguise the taste even
more effectually.

Castor oil enters into the composition of elastic collodion (simple
collodion, 30 grams, castor oil, 2 grams). The leaves pounded and
boiled are applied as a poultice to foul ulcers.

Botanical Description.--There are two forms of this variety in
the Philippines, possessing the same properties and known by the
same common name: _R. viridis_, Müll. (_R. communis_, Blanco) and
_R. subpurpurascens_, Müll.; the former is the more common and has
a glabrous, fistular stem. Leaves peltate, palmately cleft in 7 or
9 lobules, lanceolate, serrate. Petioles long. Flowers greenish,
monoecious, the staminate ones in large panicled clusters below the
pistillate. Filaments numerous, subdivided into several anther-bearing
branches. Pistillate flowers, 3 sepals, 3 styles. Seed vessel,
3 prickly capsules, containing solitary seeds.

The _R. subpurpurascens_ is distinguished from the former by bearing
2 glandules at the base of the leaves, the mulberry color of which
latter suggests its common name, _Tangantangan na morado_, Tag., Vis.

Habitat.--Very common in Luzon, Mindanao and other islands.



URTICACEÆ.

Nettle Family.



_Artocarpus integrifolia_, Willd.

Nom. Vulg.--_Nangka_, Tag.; _Jack Fruit Tree_, Eng.

Uses.--The huge fruit of this tree is well known to the Filipinos
and well liked by them as an article of food, eaten fresh or in sweet
preserves. The arils and pulpy envelopes of the seeds are the parts
eaten, also the seeds themselves, boiled or roasted. According to
Padre Mercado the roasted seeds have an aphrodisiac action.

The heated and powdered leaves are applied to wounds and given
internally for congestions. The resin of the trunk is a useful
application to ulcers and in India they give it internally to cure la
melena, the dose, one "tola" mixed with the same amount of _manga_
resin and a little lime water. The same resin if heated makes an
excellent cement for broken china.

Botanical Description.--A tree, 20° or more in height, with abundant
milky sap. Leaves alternate, oval, acute at both ends, slightly wavy
and revolute borders, tough, glabrous and dark green upper surface;
light green, slightly rough under surface. Petioles short. Flowers
greenish, monoecious, growing on root, trunk and branches. Calyx very
small, monophyllous, of about 7 deciduous lobules. Staminate: On a
club-shaped receptacle, 3' or 4' long, bristling with the stamens;
filaments very short, anthers 2-celled. Pistillate: On a common,
oblong receptacle which ripens to the great fruit; style 1, short;
rarely 2 divergent styles; stigmas acute. Fruit about size and shape
of a small watermelon, beset with many sharp eminences, containing
many seeds enveloped in thick arils.

Habitat.--It grows in all parts of the Archipelago and is commonly
known.



_Laportea gaudichaudiana_, Wedd. (_Urtica umbellata_, _U. ferox_,
Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Lingaton_, _Lipa_, _Apariagua_ (?), Tag., Vis.;
_Lipangdoton_, Pam.

Uses.--The Padre Mercado writes as follows concerning the properties of
this plant: "The leaves, applied with salt in the form of a plaster,
purify dog bites, foul, putrid, malignant and cankerous ulcers;
they cure boils, contusions and all abscesses; mixed with wax
they may be applied for obstruction of the spleen; mashed with the
juice and inserted in the nose they arrest nose-bleed; cooked with
snails they soften the stomach, excite the secretion of urine and
dissipate flatus; the juice given as a gargle aborts inflammation of
the epiglottis. The seeds mixed with wine are a sexual excitant and
"clear out" the womb; taken with syrup they relieve dyspnoea, pain
in the side and inflammation of the lungs and force up the humors
from the chest; it may be mixed with medicines that corrupt the flesh
(sic). The grated root drunk with wine relieves painful flatulence. I
myself (continues the Padre Mercado) have experimented with a woman
who suffered with painful flatulence and this remedy relieved her."

We repeat that all the foregoing is copied from the writings of Padre
Mercado and we offer it as a therapeutic curiosity.

P. Blanco states that merely to touch the leaves causes an intolerable
itching.

Botanical Description.--A small tree, 12-15° high, trunk richly
branched. Leaves opposite, bunched at the ends of the branches, notched
at the base, long, ovate, serrate, hairy on both surfaces. Flowers
yellowish-white, dioecious. Staminate: In compound racemes;
calyx 4 parts; corolla none; stamens 4, inserted on the base of the
calyx. Pistillate: Flowers in 2-forked umbel, flat, very large; calyx,
none; stamens none; stigma 1; seed heart-shaped.

Habitat.--Very common in all the fields and in the mountains. Blooms
in June.



CASUARINEÆ.

Beefwood Family.



_Casuarina Sumatrana_, Jung. (_C. equisetifolia_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Agoho_, Tag.; _Malabohok_, _Agoho_, Vis.; _Aro_, _Karo_,
_Agoó_, Iloc.

Uses.--The bark is astringent by virtue of the large quantity of tannin
it contains. Its principal use is in decoction in the treatment of
diarrhoea, dysentery and hæmoptysis; it is also given in amenorrhoea,
though it is apt to increase the pain. Externally it is used as a
wash for contusions and ulcers.

Another species, _C. equisetifolia_, Forst., confounded with the
former species by the natives, has the same therapeutic applications.

Botanical Description.--A tree with stellately arranged straight
branches. Leaves stellate, long, narrow, linear, 4-grooved. They
have been compared to the tail of a horse and the tail of a certain
bird--the casobar. Staminate and pistillate flowers greenish,
on different parts of the same stalk. Staminate, in small
aments. Pistillate on small globose aments; calyx proper of the
floweret, a coarse scale; corolla none; ovary conical; styles 2,
flattened, divergent; stigmas acute. Fruit: Each floweret produces
a woody seed-vessel, bivalved, ovate, glabrous, with a small seed
ending in an oval wing; all these seed vessels joined form a small
cone about 1' long.

Habitat.--Very common in Ilocos, Tarlak, Binangonang of Lampong and
N. Ecija.



MONOCOTYLEDONS.



MUSACEÆ.

Banana Family.



_Musa paradisiaca_, L.

_M. sapientum_, L.

Nom. Vulg. _Plátano_, Sp.; _Saging_, Tag., etc.; _Banana_, Eng.

Uses.--The fruit produced by the various varieties of the banana
plant constitutes one of the most wholesome and delicious of foods,
appreciated by natives and Europeans alike. According to Boussingaul
its nutritive value is greater than that of the potato and it may
be used constantly without ill effects. Bananas contain a large
percentage of sugar and mucilage. In India they dry them in the sun,
as figs and grapes are treated in other countries and thus preserve
them for long voyages by sea or land; eaten in conjunction with animal
food they are a strong preventive of scurvy. If eaten when thoroughly
ripe they have a laxative effect.

The young and tender leaves are used in the Philippines as a
protective dressing for ulcers, dermatitis, burns and cantharidal or
other artificial blisters. Before applying to the affected surface
the leaf is heated to make it more flexible and coated with a thin
layer of cocoanut oil or other fatty substance.

In the dispensaries of India they also use the leaves in this way,
thus protecting and at the same time maintaining the moisture of the
part. Dr. Waring recommends the practice and Dr. Van Someren follows
it in the application of water dressings, having substituted banana
leaves for gutta-percha.

In Mauritius the fruit is used for dysentery, and the flowers,
together with an equal quantity of those of _Spilanthes Acmella_,
are made into a decoction and prescribed for dropsy.

Botanical Description.--The banana plant with its huge waving leaves
and succulent stem is universally familiar. The flower stalk rises
through the center developing a drooping spike, the flowers in short
rows in the axils of its large purplish bracts. According to Blanco
there are 57 varieties of this plant in the Philippines, the following
being the most common edible varieties: _bungulang_, _lakatan_,
_letondang_, _obispo_, _higo_, _morado_, _butuan_, _bentikohol_,
_sabá_, _tampuhing_.

Habitat.--Common everywhere in the islands.



ZINGIBERACEÆ.

Ginger Family.



_Zingiber officinale_, L. (_Amomum zingiber_, L. and Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Ajengibre_, _Jengibre_, Sp.; _Luya_, Tag.; _Laya_, Bic.;
_Ginger_, Eng.

Uses.--The rhizome is used principally as a condiment in the
Philippines. Its flavor is extremely agreeable, much appreciated
in Europe by the English who are the greatest consumers of the
condiment. In the Philippines a decoction is made of ginger and
brown sugar, called _tahu_ by the Chinese who drink it regularly as
we do coffee in the early hours of the morning. It is an excellent
drink, aromatic, tonic, stomachic and stimulant, and would probably
be highly useful as well as economical as a part of the ration of
European and native troops in the field. Hot _tahú_ or _tahu_ is an
active diuretic; and during the last epidemic of cholera in Manila
some physicians used it with very satisfactory results.

Ginger is a good carminative and is official in the pharmacopoeias of
Europe, America and India. It is used with good effect in flatulent
colic, atonic diseases of the intestines so common in the Philippines
and in chronic rheumatism.

The tincture is given in doses of 2-4 grams. The official infusion
30-60 grams.

The rhizome contains a volatile oil [10] (25 per cent.), a pale yellow
liquid, specific gravity 0.878, the odor like that of the rhizome
but lacking its strong and piquant taste. Its reaction is not acid;
it dissolves slowly in alcohol. The burning taste is due to a resin
that produces protocatechuic acid when melted with potassa.

Botanical Description.--The only part employed is the rhizome, well
known all over the islands and found in all their pharmacies and shops.

Several stems rise 2-3° directly from the peculiar, branched rhizome;
long-lanceolate, acuminate, entire, glabrous, alternate leaves diverge
stiffly from the sides of the stem; petiole proper very short, its
broader extension ensheathing the stem; general appearance of a single
stem is much like that of the Solomon's seal so familiar in the U. S.



_Curcuma longa_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Dilaw_, Tag.; _Dulaw_, _Kalawaga_, _Kinamboy_, Vis.;
_Angay_, Pam.; _Turmeric Plant_, Eng.

Uses.--The yellow rhizome called by some _azafrán_ (saffron), is
used as a condiment; its odor is remotely suggestive of vanilla. The
Philippine herb-doctors give it internally for hæmoptysis, externally
as a plaster or in infusion for acute dermatitis. The juice is
prescribed in doses of 30-60 grams in bronchial catarrh. In India
they inhale the fumes of burning turmeric paper for coryza, and with
good effect according to the testimony of Dr. Waring.

The drug is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India. It is carminative,
stimulant and probably antiseptic. Its decoction is used as an eye-wash
in catarrhal and purulent conjunctivitis. The Mohammedans of Deccan
use it for jaundice upon the theory that the yellow color of the skin
in that disease is an indication for a remedy of the same color. The
juice is also used in many parts of India to stain the face, nails
and other parts of the body.

The tincture is prepared by macerating 30 grams of bruised rhizome
in 200 cc. alcohol for seven days, then filtering. Turmeric paper is
prepared by impregnating unsized paper with this tincture, and then
drying. Both tincture and paper are used to test for alkalies.

The rhizomes contain a pigment called curcumin, an essential oil and
fæcula. Curcumin (C_14_H_14_O_4_) is crystalline, yellow by direct
light and blue by reflected light; it was studied by Jackson and Menke.

In the Philippines it is used extensively as a diaphoretic and
emmenagogue and in icterus, intestinal colic and dysmenorrhoea;
externally for skin diseases, contusions and atonic ulcers.

Gubler regards it as a diffusible stimulant. Its use is more extensive
in England than in France and Spain; in India it forms an ingredient of
_curry_, called _carí_ in Manila. Curcumin is eliminated by the urine,
which it colors yellow, and if at the same time an alkali be taken by
the patient, especially a salt of calcium, the urine becomes red and
may communicate this stain to the clothes. This fact should be borne
in mind to avoid embarrassing mistakes in diagnosis or prognosis. Dose
of powder, 2-5 grams.

Botanical Description.--Leaves 2-4° long, rising in bush-like bunches
directly from the rhizome, broad-lanceolate, acuminate, gradually
tapering down the long petioles; numerous prominent nerves give
a ribbed appearance to the blade. Rhizome cylindrical, irregular,
bright yellow within.



_Elettaria Cardamomum_, White.

Nom. Vulg.--_Langkuas_, _Langkawas_, Vis.; _Cardamon_, Eng.

Uses.--This plant, though official in several pharmacopoeias, is not
used as a medicine in the Philippines, probably on account of its
scarcity here. The seeds are used as a condiment; they are stimulant
and carminative and yield good results in atonic dyspepsia, nervous
depression and spasmodic or flatulent affections of the intestine. The
dose of the powdered seeds is from 0.60-1.50 grams in pill form;
the tincture is, however, more convenient and is given in doses of
from 4 to 8 grams.

Botanical Description.--A plant with a scaly rhizome and adventitious
roots from which spring the stems, some of which bear leaves and
others flowers. The leaves are alternate, in pairs; extended,
lanceolate blade, with a short petiole. Branches bearing flowers,
short, flexible and scaly. The flowers spring from the sheaths of
the leaves. Calyx tubular, 3-toothed; second calyx with limb divided
into 3 unequal lobules. Stamens 3. Ovary inferior, 3 many-ovuled
compartments. Style simple. Stigma rounded. Fruit an oblong, ovoid
capsule, 3-celled, trivalvate. Seeds blackish, albuminous.

Habitat.--Visayan Islands.



AMARYLLIDACEÆ.

Amaryllis Family.



_Crinum Asiaticum, L._ (_C. giganteum_, Blanco.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Bakong_, Tag.

Uses.--The decoction of the leaves is used in the Philippines as an
expectorant. The plant is official in the Pharmacopoeia of India as
an emetic and in small doses is nauseant and diaphoretic. As an emetic
the dose of the fresh juice of the root is 8-16 grams every 10 minutes
till vomiting occurs. Dr. W. O'Shaughnessy, writing from Bengal, states
that this is the only indigenous and abundant emetic plant of which
he has experience, which acts without producing griping, purging, or
other unpleasant symptoms. In a communication to Dr. Waring he remarks
that it is a good emetic and diaphoretic whenever ipecacuanha is not
at hand but that it should be regarded not so much as a substitute
for that article as a resource in case of need.

The leaf juice is used in India to drop into the ears for disease of
these organs.

One of the infinite remedies used by the Filipinos under the name
of "contrapoisons," without specifying or knowing what poison,
is the powdered root of _Crinum_, given internally with a little
water. They also use the leaves locally for the itch, bruising them
and rubbing the affected parts energetically with them. I may note
here in passing, what I have written before: that the Filipinos have
from time immemorial been familiar with the sarcopt of scabies (Kahaw)
which they pick out with a needle or spine of some fish or vegetable.

Botanical Description.--A plant with globose, scaly root. Leaves
keeled or ridged. Flowers white, on a flattened stalk, on a spathe
of 2 leaflets and several dry threads enclosing 4 flowerets. Corolla
funnel-form, tube long and triangular; limb cut in 6 horizontal
lanceolate lobes. Stamens 6, shorter than corolla. Anthers long. Stigma
with 3 points. Seed vessel inferior, 3-celled, each cell containing
a seed.

_Habitat._--Very common on the seashore and in groves of mangrove
trees. Blooms in July.



LILIACEÆ.

Lily Family.



_Aloes Barbadensis_, Mill. (_A. humilis_, Blanco; _A. vera_, L.;
_A. vulgaris_, Banck.; _A. Indica_, Royl.)

Nom. Vulg.--_Sabila_, Tag.; _Dilang boaya_, Vis.; _Aloes_, Eng.

Uses.--This species is one of those which produce the substance known
in pharmacy as _aloes_, which is the juice of the leaf evaporated to
the consistency of an extract. It is official in all pharmacopoeias
and its properties are known to the Filipino herb-doctors. They
use the fresh juice of the leaves as a stimulant of the scalp in
baldness and locally in contusions. Aloes is a slow purgative and
its irritating action on the lower portion of the large intestine
extends to the genito-urinary organs. It is, therefore, an emmenagogue
and its prolonged use causes hemorrhoids, especially in man. It is
contraindicated where there is disease of the genito-urinary organs
or rectum. As it increases the secretion of bile it is useful in
certain hepatic diseases. It is used in small doses as a tonic in
dyspepsia. The tonic dose is 1/2-20 centigrams; purgative, 15-50 of
the extract, preferably in pill form. It is customary to associate
it with other purgatives.

Botanical Description.--A stemless plant, the leaves springing
immediately from the root as in the pineapple, joined at the base,
straight, ligulate, very fleshy and becoming thinner toward the end,
with stiff thorns along the edges. Flowers between yellow and red
outside and straw-colored inside, in racemes on a cylindrical scape
3° or more high, sometimes ramose, peduncles very short. Corolla
cylindrical, somewhat incurved, cleft to the middle in 6 parts, 3
external, acute and superposed on the others, obtuse at the apex and
of different color. Stamens 6, inserted at the nectiferous base of
the ovary and of the same length as the corolla. Anthers erect. Ovary
cylindrical with 6 furrows. Stigma obtuse, with raveled edges. The
seed vessel ovoid, 3-valved, 3-celled, with 2 seeds in each, furnished
with 3 spongy wings.

Habitat.--Common in gardens.



_Allium sativum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Ajo_, Sp.; _Bawang_, Tag.; _Garlic_, Eng.

_Allium Cepa_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Cebolla_, Sp.; _Lasuna_, _Sibuyas_, Tag.; _Onion_, Eng.

Uses.--The garlic and the onion are used to excess as condiments
in Philippine as well as Spanish cooking. Both are difficult of
digestion and communicate a very disagreeable odor to the breath,
intolerable to those who are unaccustomed to it. Garlic possesses
the singular property, familiar to many students and soldiers,
of inducing a transient fever if introduced within the anus. When
bruised and applied to the skin it has a counter-irritant action which
makes it useful in the treatment of rheumatism, but the odor is so
disagreeable that it is not worth while to use it for that purpose
when we have so many other medicines which produce the same effect
without being objectionable. It is also used locally for the bites
of venomous animals.

The onion is used cooked as a poultice over the bladder and internally
for various catarrhs. It is better to abstain from the therapeutic
and culinary use of products so indigestible and so malodorous.

Botanical Description.--These plants are so well known in all parts
of the world that a description of them would be superfluous.



PALMÆ.

Palm Family.



_Areca Catechu_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Bonga_, Tag.; _Betel-nut Palm_, _Areca_, Eng.

Uses.--The seeds form part of a masticatory very common throughout
the extreme Orient, known as _Buyo_ and composed of a betel leaf,
a little slaked lime, and a slice of the fruit of the bonga, known
as _Siri_ in Indo-China and among the Malays. It is so common that
it is hard to find a man or woman who does not use it. The saliva
of those who use it is red and of a strong odor, and its careless
use in time blackens the teeth and makes the breath extremely
disagreeable. Habitual chewers consider it a tonic of the mouth and
stomach and a general stimulant as well. It probably does possess
these properties but they are reversed in the case of persons who
use it immoderately for they lose appetite, become salivated, and
the whole organism degenerates. The carbonized and powdered fruit
is used as a dentifrice but its virtues are doubtless identical with
those of any vegetable charcoal, _i. e._, absorbent and antiseptic.

One unaccustomed to the use of bonga and chewing it for the first time,
usually experiences a most disagreeable combination of symptoms;
constriction of the oesophagus, a sensation of heat in the head
and face, the latter becoming red and congested; at the same time
dizziness and precordial distress are experienced. The same phenomena
occur in certain persons after eating palmito salad or the tender
central portion of the bonga and of other palms.

The flowers are eaten in salad like the above-mentioned _palmito_. The
seed is astringent and tænifuge; for the latter purpose it is given
internally as a powder in a dose of from 16 to 24 grams. Its action
is uncertain. The catechu which is obtained in India from the Bonga
differs from that obtained from the _Acacia Catechu_ and is a tonic
analogous to rhatany and cinchona.

The seeds contain about 14% of a fatty crystalline material which
melts at 39°, and after saponification yields a crystalline, fatty acid
that may be regarded as a mixture of lauric and muriatic acids. They
also contain about 14% of a red, amorphous tonic material which,
after drying, is but slightly soluble in cold or hot water.

The lower part of the petiole of the leaves is thin and broad,
ensheathing the trunk, is as tough as pasteboard when dry and is used
in the Philippines as wrapping paper; Dr. Bholanauth Bose and other
physicians of India use it as a material for splints in fractures,
a practice which might well be imitated in Manila and especially in
the country.

Botanical Description.--A well-known palm with slender stem, surrounded
by many circles; it grows to about the same height as the coco-nut palm
or less. The flowers spring in bunches of long, thread-like spikes from
the trunk a little below the crown of leaves at the base of the long,
smooth, green, sheath-like petioles which clasp the trunk; each spike
bears many staminate and a few pistillate flowers. The fruit is about
the size and shape of a hen's egg, the husk tow-like or filamentose,
the kernel pinkish or light red.

Habitat.--Grows throughout the islands.



_Cocos nucifera_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Coco_, Sp.-Fil.; _Niog_, Tag.; _Coco-nut Palm_, Eng.

Uses.--This plant is, perhaps, the most useful in the
Philippines. Without it and the bamboo plant the people of the
Archipelago would not know how to live. It produces vinegar, an
alcoholic drink called _tuba_ or _coco-wine_, an oil, an edible nut,
and its leaves are used instead of nipa to roof the huts.

Tuba is an opaline, slightly sweet liquid, with an agreeable taste,
which rapidly becomes acid under the influence of the heat. A flowering
or fruit-bearing stalk, which has not been incised before, is chosen
and encircled with several rings of rope or rattan. The stalk is then
cut and a bamboo vessel called a _bombón_ is hung to receive the sap
which escapes during the night. This liquid is valuable as a drink
for those who are debilitated, suffering from pulmonary catarrh, and
even for consumptives, who are accustomed to drink it every morning,
sometimes with marvelous results, according to reports. The heat of
the day rapidly ferments the tuba, converting it into a mild vinegar,
which is widely used for domestic purposes in the Philippines. When
fermented and distilled it produces a weak alcohol of disagreeable
taste called coco-wine.

The ripe fruit contains a rather soft and savory meat which is
generally eaten mixed with the clear, sweet coco-nut milk. Later the
meat becomes firmer and is used as a food and an oil much used in the
islands is extracted from it. To extract the oil the meat is grated
and pressed until all the juice is extracted. This is called the milk
and when boiled is converted almost completely into oil. Cocoanut
milk has an agreeable taste and may in some cases take the place of
cow's milk. It is apt to produce diarrhoea, however, which action
may be bad for some but on the other hand good for others, such as
the habitually constipated. Both the meat and the milk are widely
used by the natives in making sweets.

In the greater part of the islands it is the only oil used for
illumination. As a medicine it is employed internally as a purgative
and externally in the treatment of scores of troubles in which the
good results obtained are due, not to the oil but to the massage used
in rubbing it in. It has the reputation of stimulating the growth
of the hair and all the natives and some Europeans use it lavishly
as a hair ointment. When fresh its odor is agreeable, but it easily
becomes rancid and assumes a most disagreeable odor. In the Visayan
Islands they make an oil of a nauseous odor which they call in Manila
_Caracoa_. It is used only for illumination and by the poor.

At a temperature of 20° or more the oil remains liquid; it is colorless
when fresh and properly extracted. It solidifies at 18° and two kinds
of soap are made of it; one soft and exceedingly cheap called "Quiapo";
the other hard, white, of a high quality, but as a rule containing
an excess of lime which in time is deposited in a fluorescent film
on its surface.

In India the root is employed in the treatment of dysentery.

Botanical Description.--A tree most familiar to every one.

Habitat.--Common in all parts of the Archipelago.



_Nipa fruticans_, Wurmb.

Nom. Vulg.--_Nipa_, Sp.-Fil.; _Sasa_, Tag.

Uses.--The dry leaves of this palm are generally used in the villages
of Manila Province, Pampanga, Bulacan and other provinces in the
construction of roofs and walls of houses, which are therefore called
"nipa houses." The decoction of the fresh leaves is used as a lotion
for indolent ulcers, and a popular preserve is made from the fruit.

Like the coco and following the same process the nipa yields a liquid
also called tuba and possessing properties identical with those of
the former plant. The weak alcohol distilled from it has some repute
in the treatment of conjunctivitis, for which purpose a few drops are
mixed with a small quantity of water and the eyes are washed with it
several times a day. This alcohol, improperly called wine of nipa,
has a characteristically unpleasant odor which makes it impracticable
for medicinal or industrial use. Several chemists have attempted to
remove the characteristic odor from nipa alcohol, but their results
had always been negative because the odorous principle was distilled
over at the same temperature as the alcohol. Finally a distinguished
Filipino chemist, D. Anacleto del Rosario, perfected a process of
producing from the nipa tuba an absolute alcohol perfectly free from
the characteristic odor; an alcohol, in fact, possessing all the
qualities of chemically pure alcohol, and of such a high grade that
it was awarded the first prize at the last World's Fair in Paris.

Botanical Description.--A palm about 6° high with long, pinnate leaves
with leaflets which separate, at maturity, like those of the coco
palm. Flowers monoecious, in a spathe. Fruit, many pyramidal drupes
joined together, but easily separable. The outer covering of each
drupe is hard, the inner part tow-like; seed enveloped in a sort of
fleshy white meat.

Habitat.--Salt water marshes, especially in Pampanga and the Visayan
Islands.



CYPERACEÆ.

Sedge Family.



_Cyperus rotundus_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Mutha_, Tag.; _Botobotones_, Vis.; _Mota_, _Malaapolid_,
_Sursur_, _Onoran_, _Kusung_, _Omadiung_, _Galonalpas_, Pam.;
_Nutgrass_ or _Coco-grass_, Eng.

Uses.--The root possesses stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic and
emmenagogue properties. In the Philippines it is used internally for
dysentery, and in India for the same purpose and as a vermifuge. It is
given as a tonic in gastro-intestinal diseases, and General Hardwick
has reported good results with it in cholera; as he reported only
two cases, his testimony is not of much value.

The Chinese use the dry or roasted root, especially in inflammation of
the viscera and uterine diseases. They also attribute to it diuretic,
emmenagogue and anthelmintic properties. In Java and India they use it
for gonorrhoea, and in Mauritius as a diaphoretic and astringent. In
the Philippines the bruised root is applied to the face for toothache.

Botanical Description.--The root is ovoid, ranging in size from that
of a hazel-nut to that of a walnut, composed of a white, spongy
substance. Leaves sword-shaped, ensheathing the stem. Flowers in
a compound umbel on the end of the stalk which is naked, long and
triangular. The umbellets are alternate, awl-shaped, with distinct
flowers. Calyx universal, with 2 sword-shaped leaflets. Calyx proper,
a very small, ridged scale. Corolla none. Stamens 3. Filaments long,
inserted on the base of the ovary. Anthers long and straight. Style
1. Stigmas 3, simple, revolute. Fruit 1. Seed oblong, 3-sided,
glabrous.

Habitat.--Common in Luzon and Panay. Blooms in June and July.



GRAMINEÆ.

Grass Family.



_Zea Mays_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Maíz_, Sp.; _Maize_, _Corn_, Eng.

Uses.--Corn is an extensive article of diet in the Philippines,
but has the reputation of being indigestible. This is true when it
is eaten in the grain, but in the form of meal it is easily digested
and highly nutritious. The tassels have been used in the Philippines
from time immemorial in decoction as a diuretic, for which property
they received notice in the _Medical World_ of Paris about the year
1876. The entire plant is diuretic and the natives give the decoction
of the stalk for various diseases of the bladder and kidneys. An
extract of the tassels has been put on the market, but it is better
to administer a decoction made from 20 grams of tassel to 1 liter of
water to be taken at will during the day. Rademaker and Fischer give
the following chemical composition:


        Fixed oil                                   5.25
        Resin, crystalline matter and chlorophyl    3.25
        Maizenic acid                               2.25
        Sugar and gum                              19.50
        Albuminoids                                 3.50
        Salts and extracts                          5.50
        Cellulose                                  37.00
        Water                                      20.00


The fixed oil is bright yellow, saponifiable by potash, soluble in
chloroform and ether, insoluble in alcohol, solidifies at 10°.

Habitat.--Very common in all parts of the islands.



_Andropogon Schoenanthes_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Salay_, _Tanglad_, Tag.; _Paja de Meca_, Sp.-Fil.;
_Baliyoko_, Vis.; _Geranium Grass_, Eng.

Uses.--The Filipino women use the leaves to perfume their gogo
hair-wash. The decoction of the leaves is used internally as a diuretic
(10 grams to a liter of water) and also to bathe pregnant women. The
roots also are diuretic.

A Manila pharmacist, D. Rosendo García, has obtained a good quality of
the fixed oil of this plant. In India they call this essence _rusa_,
_geranium_ and _gin-gembre_ (nimar oil, Eng.); the annual export
from Bombay is over 40,000 English pounds. It is dextrogyrous and
its formula is C_5_H_4_.

Another species, the _A. nardus_, L., commonly called "raiz de mora"
(mulberry root), "citronella," Eng., possesses the same therapeutic
properties as the former. It also possesses an agreeable perfume
and yields an essential oil, which, like rusa, is used to adulterate
Attar of Roses.

The dried root is widely used in the Philippines and in Europe as
well, to preserve clothing from moths and other destructive insects,
at the same time giving them a sweet odor. In India the decoction is
used internally, 10 grams to a liter of water, in the treatment of
rheumatism and as a diuretic.

Botanical Description.--An indigenous grass with sword-shaped leaves
about 4° high, tapering at the base, possessing a sweet odor. Root
thick, irregular, rough, formed by the union of several small rootlets.



_Saccharum officinarum_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Cañamiel_, _Caña de azúcar_, _Caña dulc_, Sp.; _Tubo_,
Tag.; _Sugar Cane_, Eng.

Uses.--The Filipinos are very fond of the fresh cane. The juice,
which is extracted by means of primitive wooden presses, is used
as a drink mixed with lemon juice or vino and is sold in markets
and public places as a popular beverage on hot days. A tepid juice,
extracted from heated cane is given for catarrhal troubles. This use
of the juice is the only one peculiar to the Philippines. Its general
use and properties are universally familiar and are amply treated in
the materia medica.

Botanical Description.--This plant is so universally familiar that
it is unnecessary to describe it. More than 20 varieties are found
in the Philippines.

Habitat.--Throughout the islands, especially in the Island of Negros
and the Luzon Provinces of Pampanga, Bulacan and Nueva Ecija.



_Oriza_, L.

Nom. Vulg.--_Arroz_, Sp.; _Palay_, Tag. (the plant and the unhusked
rice); _Bigas_, Tag. (the husked rice); _Rice_, Eng.

Uses.--All the people of Indo-China, China, Japan and the greater
part of the Indian Archipelago eat rice as Europeans do bread.

In the Philippines an immense variety of rice grows and in the World's
Fair at Paris, in 1889, Señor D. Regino García, of Manila, presented
a unique collection of 147 varieties. The rice grown in high lands
above irrigation is called "arroz de secano" and mountain rice, and
that grown in low and irrigated land is called "arroz de sementera"
and swamp rice. The two kinds are equally valuable as food.

The proportion of starch in rice is large, but it contains but a
small amount of gluten, and therefore a large amount must be eaten
in order to obtain sufficient nutritive elements.


        Water                                       5.00
        Starch                                     85.07
        Parenchyma                                  4.80
        Nitrogenous matter                          3.68
        Crystallizable sugar                        0.29
        Gummy matter                                1.71
        Oil                                         0.13
        Phosphate of lime                           0.40
        Chloride of potash, phosphate of potash,
        acetic acid, calcareous vegetable salt,
        salt of potash, sulphur                     Traces.


In the Filipino therapeutics rice has an extensive use, especially in
the form of a decoction called _cange_, which is commonly given in the
treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, with good results. Cooked as a
sort of mush it may be used as a substitute for linseed poultices and
has the great advantage of not becoming rancid. Roasted and powdered
it is dusted upon wounds or abrasions of the skin and forms a dry
and absorbent covering under which they heal rapidly.

It has lately been claimed that beriberi is due to a microorganism
found in rice under certain abnormal conditions; this claim is not
yet firmly established and beriberi is still one of the many problems
in medicine which are awaiting solution.

Habitat.--All parts of the Archipelago.



BAMBUSEÆ.

Bamboo Family.


Nom. Vulg.--_Caña_, Sp.; _Bamboo_, Eng.

Linnæus and Blanco include in the genus _Bambus_ all the different
species of bamboo to which the Spaniards have given the general name
of _caña_. The plant is of incomparable value to the natives of the
Philippines; they build their houses of it, make agricultural and
industrial instruments of it, use it in all the varied apparatus
of their fisheries and for a multitude of household utensils and
furniture.

The variety _B. arundinacea_, Retz. (_B. arundo_, Blanco),
_Kawayag-totóo_, Tag., is the largest and most generally employed
in making houses and furniture. The tender shoots prepared in lime
water are edible but have the deserved reputation of being difficult
of digestion.

The variety _Schizostachyum acutiflorum_, Munro (_B. diffusa_, Blanco),
_Osiw_, _Bokawy_, Tag., is less used. The shoots are used to treat
opacity of the cornea, for which purpose they are cut when about a
palm in height, the outer leaves removed, and the center soaked over
night with a little sugar candy. The following day the water in the
bottom of the jar is collected and used to paint the cornea.

The variety _Dendrocalamus sericens_, Munro (_B. mitis_, Blanco),
_Taywanak_, Tag., is also used in medicine. Its abundant sap is given
internally in the treatment of phthisis.

All of the above species and the _Dendrocalamus flagellifer_, Munro
(_B. levis_, Blanco), _Boho_, Tag., produce at their joints a hard
porcelain-like substance, friable, of opaline color, called "bamboo
stone" or "tabashir" in India, where, as well as in the Philippines
and Indo-China, it has great repute among the popular remedies. It is
given in venereal diseases, hiccough, hemorrhage, fevers and other
diseases. As a matter of fact, it is an almost inert substance, the
imaginary virtues of which originated, doubtless, in the apparently
remarkable fact that a stone (?) was produced inside of a vegetable.

The analysis of M. Guibourt is as follows:


        Silicon                    96.04
        Water                       2.94
        Lime and potassium          0.13
        Organic material          Traces.



INDEX OF PLANTS

ACCORDING TO THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES.


_Alteratives._--Anona muricata.--Tinospora crispa.--Raphanus
sativus.--Bombax malabaricus.--Oxalis corniculata.--Citrus acida
and C. Bigaradia.--Mangifera Indica.--Pongamia glabra.--Lawsonia
alba.--Hydrocotyle Asiatica.--Alangium Lamarkii.--Oldenlandia
corymbosa.--Calotropis gigantea.--Ehretia buxifolia.--Solanum
nigrum.--Cassytha filiformis--Euphorbia Tirucalli.--Phyllanthus
reticulatus.

_Anthelmintics._ [11]--Cleome viscosa.--Pangium
edule.--Ruta graveolens.--Melia Azedarach.--Dysoxylum
Blancoi.--Mangifera Indica.--Anacardium occidentale.--Mucuna
pruriens.--Quisqualis Indica.--_Punica Granatum._
[12]--Jussiæa suffruticosa.--Carica Papaya.--Trichosanthes
anguina and T. cucumerina.--Lagenaria.--Momordica.--Hydrocotyle
Asiatica.--Sphæranthus Indicus.--Calotropis gigantea.--Tectona
grandis.--Clerodendron infortunatum.--Chenopodium
ambrosioides.--Echinus Philippinensis.--Cyperus
rotundus.--_Rhinacanthus communis._

_Antispasmodics._--Sida carpinifolia.--Hibiscus Abelmoschus.--Ruta
graveolens.--Citrus acida and C. Bigaradia.--Cedrela Toona.--Celastrus
paniculata.--Cassia occidentalis.--Carum copticum.--Blumea
balsamifera.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Solanum nigrum.--Datura
alba.--Nicotiana Tabacum.--Adhatoda vasica.--Chenopodium
ambrosioides.--Chloranthus officinalis.

_Antiseptics._--Ruta graveolens.--Citrus acida and
C. Bigaradia.--Mangifera Indica.--Anacardium occidentale.--Erythrina
Indica.--Pongamia glabra.--Entada scandens.--_Coffea Arabica._--Blumea
balsamifera.--Spilanthes Acmella.--Nerium odorum.--Solanum
nigrum.--Nicotiana Tabacum.--Tectona grandis.--Ocimum.--Piper
Betle.--_Cinnamomum._--Acalypha Indica.--Curcuma longa.--Areca
Catechu.--Nipa fruticans.

_Astringents._--Tetracera macrophylla.--Michelia Champaca.--Anona
squamosa, A. reticulata and A. muricata.--Nelumbium nucifera.--Bixa
Orellana.--Garcinia mangostana, G. Cambogia.--Ochrocarpus
pentapetalus.--Sida carpinifolia.--Thespesia populnea.--Bombax
malabaricus.--Sterculia foetida.--Murraya exotica.--Ægle
decandra.--Feronia elephantum.--Melia Azedarach.--Sandoricum
Indicum.--Caropa Moluccensis.--Rhamnus Wightii.--Mangifera
Indica.--Odina Wodier.--Pterocarpus.--Cæsalpinia Sappan.--Acacia
Farnesiana.--Terminalia Catappa and T. Chebula.--Psidium
pomiferum.--Melastoma malabatrichum.--Punica Granatum.--Hymenodictyon
Indicum.--Tectona grandis.--Achyranthes obtusifolia.--Artocarpus
integrifolia.--Casuarina Sumatrana.--Areca Catechu.--Cyperus rotundus.

_Acids or Refrigerants._--Oxalis corniculata.--_Averrhoa Bilimbi_
and _A. Carambola_.--_Citrus acida_ and _C. Bigaradia_.--Feronia
elephantum.--Amaranthus spinosus.--Phyllanthus
reticulatus.--_Tamarindus Indica._

_Balsams._--Calophyllum Inophyllum.--Dipterocarpus turbinatus. Garuga
pinnata.--Canarium commune.

_Carminatives._--Illicium anisatum.--Cleome viscosa.--Helicteres
Isora.--Abroma fastuosa.--Feronia elephantum.--Terminalia
Chebula.--Carum copticum.--Foeniculum vulgare.--Plumbago
Zeylanica.--Coleus aromaticus.--Rosmarinus officinalis.--Aristolochia
Indica.--Zingiber officinale.--Curcuma longa.--Elettaria Cardamomum.

_Convulsives._--_Strychnos Ignatii._

_Cosmetics._--Eriodendrum anfractuosum.--Cocos nucifera.

_Diaphoretics._--Cissampelos Pareira.--Sida carpinifolia.--Hibiscus
Rosa-Sinensis.--Gossypium herbaceum.--Ruta graveolens.--Xanthoxylum
oxyphyllum.--Celastrus paniculata.--Hydrocotyle Asiatica. Eupatorium
Ayapana.--Blumea balsamifera.--Plumbago Zeylanica. Calotropis
gigantea.--Tylophora asthmatica.--Oroxylum Indicum.--Barleria
Prionitis.--Justicia Gendarussa.--Ocimum.--Anisomeles ovata.--Crinum
Asiaticum.--Cyperus rotundus.--Andropogon Schoenanthus and A. nardus.

_Digestives._--_Carica Papaya._

_Diuretics._--Cissampelos Pareira.--Abutilon Indicum.--Anacardium
occidentale.--Abrus precatorius.--Erythrina Indica.--Clitoria
ternata.--Cassia occidentalis.--Hydrocotyle Asiatica.--Pæderia
foetida.--Spilanthes Acmella.--Achras Sapota.--Ipomoea
pes-capræ.--Solanum nigrum.--Limnophila Menthastrum.--Sesamum
Indicum.--Lippia nodiflora.--Tectona grandis.--Vitex.--Amaranthus
spinosa.--_Achyranthes obtusifolia._--Chenopodium
ambrosioides.--Phyllanthus reticulatus and P. Niruri.--Allium
Cepa.--Cyperus rotundus.--Zea Mays.--Andropogon Schoenanthus.

_Emmenagogues._--Michelia Champaca.--Artabotrys
odoratissimus.--Anamirta Cocculus.--Cissampelos
Pareira.--Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis.--Gossypium herbaceum.--Abroma
fastuosa.--Ruta graveolens.--Dysoxylum Blancoi.--Cæsalpinia
Sappan and C. pulcherrima.--Citrullus Colocynthis.--Morinda
citrifolia.--Blumea balsamifera.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Plumbago
Zeylanica.--Plumeria acutifolia.--Sesamum Indicum.--Vitex.--Chenopodium
ambrosioides.--Aristolochia Indica.--Casuarina Sumatrana.--Aloes
Barbadensis.--Cyperus rotundus.

_Emetics._--Hibiscus tiliaceus.--Dysoxylum Blancoi.--Moringa
pterygosperma.--Clitoria ternatea.--Entada scandens.--Trichosanthes
anguina.--Lagenaria.--Alangium Lamarkii.--Randia dumetorum.--Pæderia
foetida.--Allamanda cathartica.--Thevetia neriifolia.--Cerbera
Odallam.--Calotropis gigantea.--Tylophora asthmatica.--Justicia
Gendarussa.--_Acalypha Indica._--_Crinum Asiaticum._

_Emollients._--Sida carpinifolia.--Abutilon Indicum.--Urena
sinuata.--Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis.--Gossypium herbaceum.--Eriodendron
anfractuosum.--Helicteres Isora.--Biophytum sensitivum.--Zizyphus
Jujuba.--Abrus precatorius.--Clitoria ternata.--Cæsalpinia
pulcherrima.--Lawsonia alba.--Luffa Ægyptiaca.--Ipomoea
pes-capræ.--Sesamum Indicum.--Acanthus ilicifolius.--Lippia
nodiflora.--Plantago erosa.--Musa paradisiaca and
M. sapientum.--Curcuma longa.--Allium Cepa.--Cocos nucifera.--Oriza.

_Stimulants._--Illicium anisatum.--Artabotrys odoratissimus.--Brassica
juncea.--Raphanus sativus.--Mesua ferrea.--Hibiscus
Abelmoschus.--Helicteres Isora.--Ruta graveolens.--Xanthoxylum
oxyphyllum.--Citrus acida.--Celastrus paniculata.--Moringa
pterygosperma.--Cæsalpinia pulcherrima.--Hydrocotyle Asiatica.--Carum
copticum.--Foeniculum vulgare.--_Coffea Arabica._--Eupatorium
Ayapana.--Blumea balsamifera.--Sphæranthus Indicus.--Spilanthes
Acmella.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Mimusops Elengi.--Jasminum
Sambac.--_Capsicum fastigiatum._--Ocimum.--Rosmarinus
officinalis.--Chenopodium ambrosioides.--Piper Betle and
P. nigrum.--Chloranthus officinalis.--_Cinnamomum._--_Zingiber
officinale._--Curcuma longa.--Allium sativum and A. Cepa.--Cyperus
rotundus.--Andropogon Schoenanthus and A. nardus.

_Expectorants._--Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis.--Biophytum
sensitivum.--Trichosanthes cucumerina.--Blumea balsamifera.--Tylophora
asthmatica.--Acanthus ilicifolius.--Barleria Prionitis.--Adhatoda
vasica.--Vitex.--Ocimum.--_Acalypha Indica._--_Crinum Asiaticum._

_Febrifuges._--Michelia Champaca.--Tinospora crispa.--Anamirta
Cocculus.--Sida carpinifolia.--Melia Azedarach.--Dysoxylum
Blancoi.--Carapa Moluccensis.--Cedrela Toona.--Erythrina
Indica.--Cæsalpinia Bonducella and C. pulcherrima.--Cassia
occidentalis.--Ammannia vesicatoria.--Trichosanthes
cucumerina.--Hymenodictyon excelsum.--Ixora
coccinea.--Morinda citrifolia.--Achras Sapota.--Mimusops
Elengi.--Thevetia neriifolia.--Plumeria acutifolia.--Alstonia
scholaris.--Vitex.--Clerodendron infortunatum.--Anisomeles
ovata.--Aristolochia Indica.--Piper nigrum.--Chloranthus officinalis.

_Galactagogues._--Gossypium herbaceum.

_Antigalactagogues._--Jasminum Sambac.--Piper Betle.

_Hemostatics._--Portulaca oleracea.--Tetracera macrophylla.--Mangifera
Indica.--Pterocarpus.--Cæsalpinia Sappan.--Euphorbia pilulifera.

_Narcotics_ (_sedatives and anodynes_).--Anamirta Cocculus.--Argemone
Mexicana.--Pangium edule.--Cassia occidentalis.--Solanum
nigrum.--_Datura alba._--Nicotiana Tabacum.--Vitex.

_Nutritive Plants._--_Anona squamosa_, A. reticulata
and A. muricata.--Nelumbium nucifera.--Pangium
edule.--Portulaca oleracea.--Garcinia mangostana and
G. Cambogia.--Sterculia foetida.--_Theobroma Cacao._--_Averrhoa
Bilimbi_, _A. Carambola._--Feronia elephantum.--Garuga
pinnata.--Canarium commune.--Sandoricum Indicum.--Zizyphus
Jujuba.--_Mangifera Indica._--Anacardium occidentale.--Moringa
pterygosperma.--Agati grandiflora.--_Tamarindus Indica._--Bauhinia
malabarica.--Parkia Roxburghii.--Psidium pomiferum.--Eugenia
Jambolana.--Trichosanthes.--Lagenaria.--Momordica.--Achras
Sapota.--Solanum nigrum.--Sesamum Indicum.--Artocarpus
integrifolia.--_Musa paradisiaca_ and _M. sapientum_.--Areca
Catechu.--_Cocos nucifera._--_Zea Mays._--_Saccharum
officinarum._--_Oriza._--Bambuseæ.

_Purgatives._--Argemone Mexicana.--Garcinia morella.--Mesua
ferrea.--Agati grandiflora.--Erythrina Indica.--Clitoria
ternatea.--Cæsalpinia pulcherrima.--Cassia fistula and
C. alata.--Tamarindus Indica.--Entada scandens.--Terminalia
Chebula.--Jussiæa suffruticosa.--Carica Papaya.--Trichosanthes
anguina and T. cucumerina.--Lagenaria.--Luffa
Ægyptiaca.--Momordica.--_Citrullus Colocynthis._--Trianthema
monogyna.--Morinda citrifolia.--Spilanthes Acmella.--Carthamus
tinctorius.--Allamanda cathartica.--Cerbera Odallam.--Plumeria
acutifolia.--Calotropis gigantea.--Ipomoea hederacea.--Ipomoea
Turpethum.--Solanum nigrum.--Sesamum Indicum.--Tectona
grandis.--Samadera Indica.--Mirabilis Jalapa.--Amaranthus
spinosus.--Euphorbia neriifolia.--Euphorbia Tirucalli.--Jatropha
Curcas.--Aleurites moluccana.--Croton Tiglium.--Acalypha
Indica.--_Ricinus communis_.--_Aloes Barbadensis._

_Sialagogues._--Carum copticum.

_Bitter Tonics._--Michelia Champaca.--Tinospora
crispa.--Cissampelos Pareira.--Cratæva religiosa.--Mesua
ferrea.--Sida carpinifolia.--Murraya exotica.--Citrus
Bigaradia.--Samadera Indica.--Melia Azedarach.--Rhamnus Wightii.--Agati
grandiflora.--Cæsalpinia Bonducella.--Cassia occidentalis.--Terminalia
Chebula.--Trichosanthes cucumerina.--Momordica.--Hymenodictyon
excelsum.--Morinda citrifolia.--Sphæranthus Indicus.--Achras
Sapota.--Mimusops Elengi.--Alstonia scholaris.--Calotropis
gigantea.--_Strychnos Ignatii._--Limnophila Menthastrum.--Oroxylum
Indicum.--Vitex.--Clerodendron infortunatum.--Anisomeles
ovata.--Phyllanthus Niruri.--Aloes Barbadensis.--_Areca
Catechu._--_Nerium odorum_ (cardiac).

_Aromatic Tonics._--Feronia elephantum.--Sandoricum
Indicum.--Foeniculum.--_Coffea Arabica._--Eupatorium
Ayapana.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Chenopodium ambrosioides,
Cinnamomum.--_Zingiber officinale._

_Vesicants._--Anacardium occidentale.--Moringa pterygosperma.--Ammannia
vesicatoria.--Plumbago Zeylanica.--Calotropis gigantea.--Euphorbia
Tirucalli.

_Rubefacients or Revulsives._--Moringa pterygosperma.--Plumeria
acutifolia.--Croton Tiglium.--Jatropha Curcas.--Allium sativum.

_Stimulants._--Sterculia urens.--Argemone Mexicana.--Kleinhovia
hospitata.--Celastrus paniculata.--Pongamia glabra.--Cassia
alata.--Entada scandens.--Kalanchoe laciniata.--Elettaria Cardamomum.

_Antiherpetics, etc._--Sterculia foetida.--Canarium
commune.--Trichosanthes palmata.



INDEX OF PLANTS

ACCORDING TO SPECIAL DISEASES.


_Aphthæ, Stomatitis, Glossitis._ [13]--Tetracera macrophylla.--Feronia
elephantum.--Pterocarpus santalinus, Indicus and erinaceus.--Melastoma
malabatrichum.--_Punica Granatum._--Mimusops Elengi.--Calotropis
gigantea.--Tectona grandis.--Ocimum.--Achyranthes
obtusifolia.--Phyllanthus reticulatus.

_Hemorrhoids._--Mesua ferrea.--Thespesia populnea.--Terminalia
Chebula.--Punica Granatum.--Plumbago Zeylanica.--Capsicum
fastigiatum.--Sesamum Indicum.--Aloes Barbadensis (for inducing the
hemorrhoids).

_Amenorrhoea and Dysmenorrhoea._--Abroma fastuosa.--Dysoxylum
Blancoi.--Cæsalpinia Sappan.--Cæsalpinia pulcherrima.--Blumea
balsamifera.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Plumeria acutifolia.--Sesamum
Indicum.--Chenopodium ambrosioides.--Casuarina Sumatrana.--Aloes
Barbadensis.

_Anasarca._--Plumbago Zeylanicum.--Coffea Arabica.--Plumeria
acutifolia.--Calotropis gigantea.--Ipomoea pes-capræ.--Solanum
nigrum.--Barlonia Prionitis.--Achyranthes obtusifolia.--Euphorbia
neriifolia.--Phyllanthus Niruri.--Cissampelos Pareira.

_Anal Fistula._--Pterocarpus.

_Asthma._--Gossypium herbaceum.--Garuga pinnata.--Dysoxylum
Blancoi.--Erythrina Indica.--Cæsalpinia pulcherrima.--Entada
scandens.--Trichosanthes palmata.--Coffea Arabica.--Tylophora
asthmatica.--Datura alba.--Acanthus ilicifolius.--_Adhatoda
vasica._--Coleus aromaticus.--_Euphorbia pilulifera._--Euphorbia
Tirucalli.--Euphorbia neriifolia.--Phyllanthus Niruri.

_Spleen, Affections of._--Ammannia vesicatoria.--Lawsonia
alba.--Momordica.

_Beriberi._--Celastrus paniculata.--Vitex.

_Blenorrhoea, Gonorrhoea, Urethritis._--Nymphæa
Lotus.--Argemone Mexicana.--Dipterocarpus turbinatus.--Sterculia
foetida.--Clitoria ternata.--Pterocarpus.--Trichosanthes
palmata.--Mimusops Elengi.--Plumeria acutifolia.--Lippia
nodiflora.--_Ocimum._--_Amaranthus spinosus._--Cassytha
filiformis.--Cyperus rotundus.

_Bronchi and Lungs, Diseases of._--Anona muricata.--Calophyllum
Inophyllum.--Dipterocarpus turbinatus.--Canarium commune.--Zizyphus
Jujuba.--Abrus precatorius.--Erythrina Indica.--Cæsalpinia
pulcherrima.--Trichosanthes cucumerina.--Lagenaria.--Ixora
coccinea.--Blumea balsamifera.--Tylophora asthmatica.--Sesamum
Indicum.--Barleria Prionitis.--_Adhatoda vasica._--Vitex.--Coleus
aromaticus.--Anisomeles ovata.--_Chenopodium ambrosioides._--_Euphorbia
pilulifera._--Acalypha Indica.--Curcuma longa.

_Cholera._--Artabotrys odoratissimus.--Samadera Indica.--Carum
copticum.--Eupatorium Ayapana.--_Zingiber officinale._--Cyperus
rotundus.

_Colic._--(_a_) _Flatulent: Illicium anisatum._--Argemone
Mexicana.--Cleome viscosa.--Helicteres
Isora.--Dysoxylum Blancoi.--Terminalia Chebula.--_Carum
copticum._--_Foeniculum._--Plumbago Zeylanica.--Ipomoea
pes-capræ.--Ocimum.--Coleus aromaticus.--Rosmarinus
officinalis.--Aristolochia Indica.--_Piper Betle._--_Elettaria
Cardamomum._

(_b_) _Lead_: Allamanda cathartica.

_Contusions._--Samadera Indica.--Plumeria acutifolia.--Aloes
Barbadensis.--Casuarina sumatrana.

_Heart, Diseases of._--Helicteres Isora.--Coffea Arabica.--Cinnamomum.

_Coryza_ (_rhinitis_, _nasal catarrh_, _ozoena_).--Agati
grandiflora.--Ocimum.--Curcuma longa.

_Diabetes._--Eugenia Jambolana.

_Diarrhoea, Dysentery._--Anona squamosa.--Anona reticulata
and A. muricata.--Nelumbium nucifera.--Bixa Orellana.--Garcinia
mangostana.--Ochrocarpus pentapetalus.--Thespesia populnea.--Gossypium
herbaceum.--Bombax malabaricum.--Averrhoa Bilimbi.--_Averrhoa
Carambola._--Murraya exotica.--_Ægle decandra._--_Feronia
elephantum._--Sandoricum Indicum.--Carapa Moluccensis.--Cedrela
Toona.--Rhamnus Wightii.--Mangifera Indica.--Pterocarpus.--Cæsalpinia
Bonducella.--Bauhinia malabarica.--Kalanchoe laciniata.--Terminalia
Catappa.--Psidium pomiferum.--Eugenia Jambolana.--Punica
Granatum.--Jussiæa suffruticosa.--_Carica Papaya._--Carum copticum.

_Randia dumetorum._--Ixora coccinea.--Morinda citrifolia.--Sphæranthus
Indicus.--Plumbago Zeylanica.--Mimusops Elengi.--Plumeria
acutifolia.--Calotropis gigantea.--Tylophora asthmatica.--Oroxylum
Indicum.--Anisomeles ovata.--Aristolochia Indica.--Piper
Betle.--Phyllanthus Niruri.--Casuarina Sumatrana.--_Zingiber
officinale._--Cyperus rotundus.--Oriza.

_Dyspepsia._--Illicium anisatum.--Sida carpinifolia.--_Ægle
decandra._--Samadera Indica.--Sandoricum Indicum.--Rhamnus
Wightii.--Agati grandiflora.--Cæsalpinia Bonducella.--Cassia
occidentalis.--_Terminalia Chebula._--_Carica Papaya._--Trichosanthes
cucumerina.--Momordica.--Carum copticum.--Eupatorium
Ayapana.--Blumea balsamifera.--Sphæranthus Indicus.--Artemisia
vulgaris.--Alstonia scholaris.--_Strychnos Ignatii._--Capsicum
fastigiatum.--Acanthus ilicifolius.--Lippia nodiflora.--Tectona
grandis.--Ocimum.--Rosmarinus officinalis.--Anisomeles
ovata.--Chenopodium ambrosioides.--Aristolochia Indica.--Piper
Betle.--Zingiber officinale.--Elettaria Cardamomum.--Aloes Barbadensis.

_Gingivitis, Hemorrhage, etc._--Feronia elephantum.--Tectona
grandis.--Plantago erosa.--Phyllanthus reticulatus. (See
"Sore-throat.")

_Scorbutics._--Anona muricata.--Raphanus sativus.--_Oxalis
corniculata._--Phyllanthus reticulatus.--_Musa paradisiaca_ and
_M. sapientum_.

_Spermatorrhoea._--Sida carpinifolia.--Lawsonia alba.

_Constipation._--Ægle decandra.--Helicteres Isora.--Nicotiana
Tabacum.--Sesamum Indicum.--Musa paradisiaca and M. sapientum. (See
"Purgatives.")

_Fevers._--Michelia Champaca.--Sida carpinifolia.--Tinospora
crispa.--Anamirta Cocculus.--Samadera Indica.--Melia
Azedarach.--Dysoxylum Blancoi.--Carapa moluccensis.--Cedrela
Toona.--Erythrina Indica.--_Cassia occidentalis_ (malarial).--Ammannia
vesicatoria.--Trichosanthes cucumerina.--Hymenodictyon
excelsum.--Morinda citrifolia.--Pæderia foetida.--Plumbago
Zeylanica.--Mimusops Elengi.--_Alstonia scholaris._

_Fracture._--Sterculia urens.

_Throat, Diseases of_ (_anginas_, _amygdalitis_,
_pharyngitis_).--Feronia elephantum.--Mangifera Indica.--Odina
Wodier.--Melastoma malabatrichum.--Punica Granatum.--Mimusops Elengi.

_Gout._--Celastrus paniculata.--Momordica.

_Hemorrhage._--Bixa Orellana.--Bombax malabaricum.--Mangifera
Indica.--Pterocarpus.--Cæsalpinia Sappan.

_Hemoptysis._--Tetracera macrophylla.--Portulaca oleracea.--Cæsalpinia
Sappan.--Casuarina Sumatrana.--Curcuma longa.

_Herniæ._--Nicotiana Tabacum.

_Liver, Diseases of._--Anona muricata.--Kalanchoe laciniata.--Lawsonia
alba.--Lagenaria.--Momordica.--Oldenlandia corymbosa.--Sphæranthus
Indicus.--Carthamus tinctorius.--Solanum nigrum.

_Cephalalgia._--Portulaca oleracea.--Coffea Arabica.--Blumea
balsamifera.--Vitex.--Colus aromaticus.--Acalypha Indica.

_Laryngitis._--Mangifera Indica.--Capsicum fastigiatum.

_Leucorrhoea._--Garcinia mangostana.--Sandoricum Indicum.--Mangifera
Indica.--Pterocarpus.--Acacia Farnesiana.--Terminalia Chebula.--Punica
Granatum.

_Bloody Flux._--Artocarpus integrifolia.

_Menorrhagia, Metrorrhagia._ See "Hemorrhages."

_Bites of Insects and Poisonous Animals._--Feronia elephantum.--Carapa
moluccensis.--Eupatorium Ayapana.--Tylophora asthmatica.--Rhinocanthus
communis.--Coleus aromaticus.--Leucas aspera.--_Aristolochia
Indica._--_Euphorbia neriifolia._--Acalypha Indica.--Allium sativum.

_Nervous Diseases_ (_chorea_, _epilepsy_, _convulsions_,
_hysteria_, etc.).--Sida carpinifolia.--Ruta graveolens.--Blumea
balsamifera.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Solanum nigrum.--Datura
alba.--Nicotiana Tabacum.--Coleus aromaticus.--Chenopodium
ambrosioides.

_Neuralgia._--Coffea Arabica.--Acanthus ilicifolius.

_Odontalgia._--Murraya exotica and
M. Koenigi.--Pterocarpus.--Calotropis gigantea.--Plantago
erosa.--Cyperus rotundus. (See "Ears.")

_Intestinal Obstruction._--Nicotiana Tabacum. (See "Purgatives.")

_Ears, Affections of._--Cleome viscosa.--Hibiscus
tiliaceus.--Helicteres Isora.--Crinum Asiaticum. (See "Odontalgia.")

_Eyes, Affections of._--Argemone Mexicana.--Portulaca
oleracea.--Calophyllum Inophyllum.--Garuga pinnata.--Abrus
precatorius.--Erythrina Indica.--Jasminum Sambac.--Rosmarinus
officinalis.--Curcuma longa.

_Orchitis._--Calophyllum Inophyllum.--Sterculia urens.--Vitex.

_Paralysis._--Celastrus paniculata.--Acanthus
ilicifolius.--Ocimum.--Rosmarinus officinalis.

_Parasites_ (_pediculi_, etc.).--Anona squamosa.--Anamirta Cocculus.

_Skin, Affections of_ (_lepra_, _itch_, _eczema_,
_psoriasis_).--Argemone Mexicana.--Pangium edule.--Portulaca
oleracea.--Urena sinuata.--Thespesia populnea.--Sterculia
foetida.--Kleinhovia hospitata.--Helicteres Isora.--Canarium
commune.--Celastrus paniculata.--Mangifera Indica.--Anacardium
occidentale.--Odina Wodier.--_Pongamia glabra_ (itch).--Cassia
fistula.--_Cassia alata_ (herpes).--Entada scandens.--Psidium
pomiferum.--Melastoma malabatrichum.--Lawsonia alba.--Carica
Papaya.--Momordica.--_Hydrocotyle Asiatica._--Alangium
Lamarkii.--Oldenlandia corymbosa.--Ixora coccinea.--Spilanthes
Acmella.--Plumbago Zeylanica.--Plumeria acutifolia.--Nerium
odorum.--Calotropis gigantea.--Solanum nigrum.--Rhinacanthus
communis.--Tectona grandis.--Leucas aspera.--Amaranthus
spinosus.--Echinus Philippinensis.--Curcuma longa.

_Burns._--Eriodendron anfractuosum.--Lawsonia alba.

_Rectum, Prolapsed._--Pterocarpus.--Acacia Farnesiana.--Psidium
pomiferum.

_Rheumatism._--Tinospora crispa.--Cratæva religiosa.--Ochrocarpus
pentapetalus.--Mesua ferrea.--Sida carpinifolia.--Samadera
Indica.--Celastrus paniculata.--Erythrina Indica.--Pongamia
glabra.--Momordica.--Alangium Lamarkii.--Pæderia
foetida.--Blumea balsamifera.--Spilanthes Acmella.--Plumeria
acutifolia.--Calotropis gigantea.--Ipomoea pes-capræ.--Datura
alba.--Oroxylum Indicum.--Acanthus ilicifolius.--Justicia
Gendarussa.--Vitex.--Ocimum.--Rosmarinus officinalis.--Anisomeles
ovata.--Euphorbia Tirucalli.--Zingiber officinale.--Allium
sativum.--Andropogon Schoenanthus and A. nardus.

_Kidneys, Affections of._--Sida carpinifolia.--_Zea Mays._

_Syphilis._--Tinospora crispa.--Erythrina Indica.--Hydrocotyle
Asiatica.--Alangium Lamarkii.--Nerium odorum.--Calotropis
gigantea.--Ehretia buxifolia.--Cassytha filiformis.--Euphorbia
Tirucalli.--Acalypha Indica.

_Tæniæ._ (See "Anthelmintics.")

_Phthisis._--Garuga pinnata.

_Tumors._--Trichosanthes palmata.--Sphæranthus Indicus.--Ipomoea
pes-capræ.

_Ulcers, Wounds, Sores, etc._--Tinospora crispa.--Dipterocarpus
turbinatus.--Hibiscus tiliaceus.--Sterculia foetida.--Canarium
commune.--Melia Azedarach.--Cedrela Toona.--Mangifera
Indica.--Anacardium occidentale.--Odina Wodier.--Erythrina
Indica.--Pongamia glabra.--Kalanchoe laciniata.--Terminalia Catappa and
T. Chebula.--Psidium pomiferum.--Melastoma malabatrichum.--Hydrocotyle
Asiatica.--Morinda citrifolia.--Eupatorium Ayapana.--Blumea
balsamifera.--Spilanthes Acmella.--Artemisia vulgaris.--Mimusops
Elengi.--Ipomoea pes-capræ.--Solanum nigrum.--Nicotiana
Tabacum.--Tectona grandis.--Phyllanthus Niruri.--Acalypha
Indica.--Ricinus communis.--Artocarpus integrifolia.--Casuarina
Sumatrana.--Nipa fruticans.--_Carica Papaya._

_Urticaria._--Phyllanthus reticulatus.

_Bladder, Affections of._--_Cissampelos Pareira._--Portulaca
oleracea.--Dipterocarpus turbinatus.--Urena sinuata.--Abrus
precatorius.--Clitoria ternata.--Pterocarpus.--Lawsonia alba.--Pæderia
foetida.--Spilanthus Acmella.--Allium sativum.--Zea Mays.

_Vermes._ (See "Anthelmintics.")



ALPHABETICAL INDEX

OF SYSTEMATIC AND COMMON NAMES OF PLANTS



A


_Abangabang_, 183

_Abilo_, 73

Abroma angulata, 55
  augusta, 55
  communis, 55
  fastuosa, 55

Abrus precatorius, 88

Abutilon Indicum, 43

Acacia Arabica, 108
  Catechu, 235
  Farnesiana, 108
  Indica, 108

Acalypha Caroliniana, 219
  hispida, 220
  Indica, 219

Acanthaceæ, 185

Acanthus ilicifolius, 185

_Acapulco_, 102

_Achiote_, _achuete_, 32

Achras Sapota, 156

_Achuiti_, 32

Achyranthes aspera, 201
  obtusifolia, 201

Aconitum heterophyllum, 155

_Adelfa_, 165

Adhatoda vasica, 188

Adiantum lunulatum, 142

Ægle decandra, 67
  Marmelos, 70

Agati grandiflora, 88

_Angay_, 229

_Agí_, 177

_Agiw_, 76

_Agoho_, _agóo_, 225

_Agonoy_, 152

_Aguason_, 171

_Ajengibre_, 228

_Ajo_, 233

_Ajonjolì_, 184

_Alang-ilang Sonson_, 20

_Alangitngit_, 173

Alangium decapetalum, 138
  hexapetalum, 138
  Lamarkii, 138
  tomentosum, 138

_Albahaca_, 195

_Albohol_, 176

Aleurites Moluccana, 217
  triloba, 217

_Algodón_, 48

_Alibangbang_, 105

_Alibun_, 150

Allamanda cathartica, 159

Allium Cepa, 233
  sativum, 233

_Almendro_, 110

_Almond, Indian_, 110
  _tree, Java_, 73

_Aloes_, 232
  Barbadensis, 232
  humilis, 232
  Indica, 232
  vera, 232
  vulgaris, 232

_Alpasotes_, 202

Alstonia scholaris, 163

Althæa officinalis, 45

_Alusiman_, 134

_Amaranth, thorny_, 200

Amaranthaceæ, 200

Amaranthus spinosus, 200, 201

_Amargoso_, 132

Amaryllidaceæ, 231

Ammannia baccifera, 117
  _blistering_, 117
  debilis, 117
  Indica, 117
  vesicatoria, 117

Ammi copticum, 136
  glaucifolium, 136

Amomum zingiber, 228

_Ampalaya, ampalea_, 132

_Amugis_, 86

_Anabo_, 55

Anacardiaceæ, 82

Anacardium occidentale, 84

Anamirta Cocculus, 24

_Ananangtang_, 76

Andropogon nardus, 241
  Schoenanthes, 240

Anethum foeniculum, 137

_Angod_, 201

_Anibong_, 55

_Anis_, 137
  _estrellado_, 18

_Anise, star_, 18

Anisomeles ovata, 198

_Annatto_, 32

Anona muricata, 22
  reticulata, 21
  squamosa, 20
  tuberosa, 20

Anonaceæ, 20

_Anonang_, 21

_Anonas_, 21

_Apalia_, 132

_Apalit_, 93

_Apalot_, 148

_Apamarga_, 201

_Apana_, 149

_Apariagua_, 224

_Apasotis_, 202

Apocynaceæ, 159

_Apoyapoyan_, 31

_Apple, balsam_, 132
  _bitter_, 133

_Areca_, 234
  Catechu, 234

Argemone Mexicana, 29

Aristolochia Indica, 203
  Serpentaria, 207

Aristolochiaceæ, 203

_Aro_, 225

_Arodayday_, 175

_Aronganan_, 46

_Aroma_, 108

_Arroz_, 242

Artabotrys hamatus, 20
  odoratissimus, 20
  suaveolens, 20

Artemisia Indica, 153
  vulgaris, 153

Artocarpus integrifolia, 223

_Asana_, 93

Asclepiadaceæ, 167

Asclepias asthmatica, 169
  gigantea, 167

_Ates_, 20

_Atsuiti_, 32

Averrhoa Bilimbi, 60
  Carambola, 60

_Ayam_, 134

_Ayantoto_, 200

_Ayapan_, 149

_Ayapana_, 149

_Ayo_, 58

_Ayoban_, 150

_Azafrán_, 229
  _de la tierra_, 154



B


_Babebabe_, 112

_Babay gubat_, 47

_Badiana_, 18

_Bael fruit tree_, 67

_Bangar_, 51

_Bagasoa_, 175

_Bangati, bangati gikosgikos_, 88

_Bagbag_, 155

_Bangkuro_, 148

_Bait_, 212

_Bakong_, 231

_Bakugan_, 76

_Balabalanoyan_, 31

_Baladri_, 165

_Balanoy_, 195

_Balasin_, 24

_Balay-namuk_, 32

_Balibago_, 46

_Balikbalik_, 95

_Balimbin_, 60

_Baliyoko_, 240

_Balogo_, 106

_Balotangaso_, 100

_Baloyong_, 99

_Balsamina_, 132

_Bamboo_, 243

Bambus arundinacea, 243
  arundo, 243
  diffusa, 243
  levis, 244
  mitis, 244

Bambuseae, 243

_Banana_, 227

_Banato_, 220

_Banilad_, 52

_Banilak_, 110

_Bankundo_, 148

_Barbadoes flower-fence_, 98

Barleria Prionitis, 186

Barreliera Prionitis, 186

_Basil, sacred_, 195
  _sweet_, 195

_Basiloag_, 76

_Batobatonis_, 210

Bauhinia malabarica, 105
  tomentosa, 105

_Bayabas_, 113

_Bayang-bayang_, 200

_Bayag-, Bayan-kambing_, 96

_Bayati_, 24

_Bayno_, 28

_Bayogo_, 106

_Bawang_, 233

_Belgaum_, 217

_Bentikohol_, 228

Bergera Koenigi, 65

_Betel-nut palm_, 234

_Betel pepper_, 204

_Bias pogo_, 117

_Bigas_, 242

Bignonia Indica, 183
  quadripinnata, 183

Bignoniaceæ, 183

_Bilimbin_, 60

_Bilogo_, 80

_Binukaw_, 36

Biophytum cumiagiunum, 59
  sensitivum, 59

_Biri_, 154

_Birthwort, Indian_, 203

_Bitanhol_, 38

_Bitaog_, 38

_Bitnong_, 53

Bixa Orellana, 32

Bixineæ, 32

Blumea balsamifera, 150

_Boboy_, 50

_Bobuy-gubat_, 50

_Bonga_, 234

_Boho_, 244

_Bokawy_, 243

_Bolagtob_, 176

_Bolobotones_, 210

Bombax Ceiba, 50
  malabaricum, 50, 183
  pentandrum, 50

_Bonak_, 195

_Bonduc seeds_, 96

Boraginaceæ, 173

_Botobotones_, 239

_Bowi_, 210

Brassica juncea, 30

_Brea blanca_, 73

Bryophyllum serratum, 109

_Buas_, 220

Bucida cuminata, 111

_Bugayon_, 88

_Bugo_, 72

_Bugos_, 220

_Bulak_, 48
  _kastila_, 50
  _na bundok_, 49
  _na totoo_, 49

_Bungulang_, 228

_Bulakan_, 47, 174

_Bunlaw_, 187

Burseraceæ, 72

_Butong_, 95

_Butterfly pea_, 92

_Butuan_, 228

_Buyayawa_, 210

_Buyo_, 204

_Buyok-buyok_, 128



C


_Cabalonga_, 171

_Caballero_, 98

_Cacao_, 55

_Cafe_, 144

_Cagel_, 66

Cæsalpinia Bonduc, 96
  Bonducella, 96
  pulcherrima, 98
  Sappan, 97

_Calabash_, 129

_Calabaza blanca_, 130
  _de peregrino_, 129

_Calachuche_, 162

Calophyllum apetalum, 39
  Calaba, 39
  Inophyllum, 38

Calotrops gigantea, 167

Calyptranthes Jambolana, 114

Cambogia binucao, 36
  venulosa, 36

_Campanelo_, 159

_Camphire_, 118

Canarium album, 73
  commune, 73, 110
  Luzonicum, 73

_Caña_, 243
  _de azúcar_, 241
  _dulc_, 241

_Cañamiel_, 241

_Cañafístula_, 99

Capparidaceæ, 31

_Capsicum_, 177
  annuum, 178
  fastigiatum, 177
  minimum, 177

Carapa Moluccensis, 78
  Guianensis, 78

_Caraway_, 136

_Cardamon_, 230

Carica Papaya, 123

Carmonea heterophylla, 173

Carpopogon pruriens, 90

Carthamus tinctorius, 154

Carum ajowan, 136
  copticum, 136

_Cashew nut_, 84

_Cassia_, 208
  alata, 102
  fistula, 99
  _lignea_, 208
  occidentalis, 99
  _purging_, 99
  sophera, 103
  tora, 103

_Cassie flower_, 108

Cassuvium reniforme, 84

Cassytha filiformis, 209

_Castor oil plant_, 222

Casuarina equisetifolia, 225
  Sumatrana, 225

Casuarineæ, 225

Cavallium urens, 52

Ceanothus Wightiana, 82

_Cebolla_, 233

Cedrela odorata, 79
  Toona, 79, 207

Celastraceæ, 80

Celastrus alnifolia, 80
  paniculata, 80
  Rothiana, 80

Celosia mana, 117

Cerbera manghas, 161
  Odallam, 161
  Thevetia, 159

_Chachachachahan_, 190

_Champaca_, 19

Chavica auriculata, 204
  Betle, 204

Chenopodiaceæ, 202

Chenopodium ambrosioides, 202

_Chico, chiko_, 156

_Chili picante_, 177

_China tree_, 75

_Chinchaochinchauan_, 26

Chinchona excelsa, 140

Chloranthaceæ, 207

Chloranthus inconspicuus, 207
  Indicus, 207
  officinalis, 207

Chondrodendron tomentosum, 26

Cica decandra, 214

_Cinamomo del país_, 118

Cinnamomum Culilowan, 207

Cinnamomum pauciflorum, 208
  tamala, 208

Cissampelos Pareira, 26, 155

Citrullus Colocynthis, 133

Citrus acida, 65
  aurantium, 66
  Bigaradia, 66
  Decumana, 67
  notissima, 65
  reticulata, 67
  vulgaris, 66

Cleome alliacea, 31
  alliodora, 31
  icosandra, 31
  pentaphylla, 31
  viscosa, 31

Clerodendron fortunatum, 194
  infortunatum, 194

Clitoria ternatea, 92

Clompanus major, 51

_Cocas de Levante_, 24

Cocculus crispus, 22
  lacunosus, 24
  suberosus, 24

_Coco_, 236

_Coco-grass_, 239

_Coconut_, 236

Cocos nucifera, 236

Coffea Arabica, 144

_Coffee_, 144
  _Negro_, 100

Coleus aromaticus, 196
  atropurpureus, 197
  grandifolius, 197
  suganda, 196

_Colocynth_, 133

_Coloquíntida_, 133

Colosanthes Indica, 183

Combretaceæ, 110

_Cominos_, 137

Compositæ, 149

Connarus foetens, 64
  santaloides, 64

_Consuelda_, 213

Convolvulaceæ, 174

Convolvulus maximus, 176
  nil, 174
  pes-capræ, 175
  Turpethum, 176

Conyza balsamifera, 150

_Coral tree, Indian_, 91

_Coriander_, 137

Coriandrum sativum, 137

_Corn_, 240

Cornaceæ, 138

_Cotton_, 48

Cotyledon laciniata, 109

Crassulaceæ, 109

Cratæva religiosa, 32

Crinum Asiaticum, 231
  giganteum, 231

Croton glandulosum, 218
  muricatum, 218
  Philippense, 220
  _purging_, 218
  Tiglium, 218

Cruciferæ, 30

Cucumis Colocynthis, 133

Cucurbita lagenaria oblonga, 129
  villosa, 130

Cucurbitaceæ, 127

_Culantro_, 137

Cuminum cynimum, 137

Curcuma longa, 229

_Custard apple_, 20

Cyamus mysticus, 28
  Nelumbo, 28

Cyperaceæ, 239

Cyperus rotundus, 239



D


_Dalaw_, 229

_Dallapawen_, 163

_Dalondón_, 190

_Dalugdug_, 96

_Dalupan_, 45

_Damonghiya_, 59

_Damoro_, 136

_Dangla_, 192

_Dankagi_, 171

_Dankalan_, 38

_Dapdap_, 91

_Daraput_, 71

_Darasig_, 58

_Daripay_, 175

Datura alba, 178
  fastuosa, 179
  Metel, 178
  Stramonium, 178

Daucus anisodorus, 136
  copticus, 136

_Dayap_, 65

_Daytanag_, 93

Dendrocalamus flagellifer, 244
  sericens, 244

_Dhatura_, 178

Dianthera subserrata, 187

Dicotyledonous, Gamopetalous, 140
  Polypetalous, 17

_Diglas, dinglas_, 111

_Dilang boaya_, 232

_Dilaw_, 229

_Diliwariw_, 185

Dilleniaceæ, 17

_Dinkalin_, 38

Diosma serrata, 80

Dipterocarpeæ, 40

Dipterocarpus alatus, 40
  incanus, 40
  Indicus, 40
  Mayapis, 40
  trinervis, 40
  turbinatus, 40

_Dita_, 163
  _tree_, 163

_Dokotdekot_, 201

_Doldol_, 50

Dolichos pruriens, 90

_Dolo-ariw_, 185

_Dool_, 86

_Duhat, duat_, 114

_Dukum_, 45

_Dulawari_, 185

_Dulupang_, 43

Dysoxylum Blancoi, 76
  salutare, 76
  schizochitoides, 77



E


Echinus Philippinensis, 220

Echites scholaris, 163

Ehretia buxifolia, 173

_Elemi, East Indian_, 73

Elettaria Cardamomum, 230

Entada Pursætha, 106
  scandens, 106

Eriodendron anfractuosum, 50

Erythrina carnea, 91
  corallodendron, 91
  Indica, 91

_Eskobanghaba_, 42

Eugenia Jambolana, 114

Eupatorium Ayapana, 149, 182

Euphorbia capitata, 210
  hirta, 210
  ligularia, 212
  neriifolia, 212
  pentagona, 212
  pilulifera, 210
  Tirucalli, 213

Euphorbiaceæ, 210

_Exile, the_, 159

Exostema Philippicum, 140



F


Fagara piperita, 63

_Fennel_, 137

_Fever nut_, 96

Foeniculum panmorium, 137

  officinale, 137

  vulgare, 137

Feronia elephantum, 69
  ternata, 67

Ficoideæ, 134

_Flores y Rosas Caballero_, 98

_Four o'clock_, 199



G


_Gabuen_, 150

Gadelupa maculata, 95

_Galonalpas_, 239

_Gamagamatisan_, 176

_Gamboge tree_, 136

_Gamut sa buni_, 102

Gandarussa vulgaris, 187

_Gapasgapas_, 192

Garcinia Cambogia, 36
  Hanburii, 37
  mangostana, 35
  morella, 36
  pedicellata, 36
  venulosa, 36

Gardenia spinosa, 142

_Garlic_, 233

Garuga floribunda, 72
  Madagascarensis, 72
  pinnata, 72

_Gatasan pulá_, 36

_Gatasgatas_, 210

_Gaway-gaway_, 27

Geraniaceæ, 58

_Geranium grass_, 240

_Gikosgikos_, 88

_Gilalas_, 199

_Giling-gilingan_, 43

_Gilla nuts_, 106

_Ginger_, 228

_Gintingintin_, 150

_Gogo_, 106

_Gohong bakay_, 106

_Golondrina_, 210

Gossypium arboreum, 49
  Barbadense, 48
  Capas, 48
  herbaceum, 48
  Indicum, 48

_Gourd, bottle_, 129
  _common_, 129
  _pilgrim's_, 129
  _white_, 130

_Goyabano, guyabano_, 22

Gramineæ, 240

_Granada_, 120

_Granatis_, 116

_Guanábano_, 22

_Guava_, 113

_Guayabas_, 113

_Gubat_, 194

Guilandina Bonducella, 96
  Moringa, 86

_Gumamila_, 46

_Gurjun_, 40

Guttiferæ, 35

Gynandropsis pentaphylla, 31



H


_Hagonog_, 152

_Halahala_, 128

_Hamitanago_, 53

_Hamlibon_, 150

_Hangor_, 201

_Hangot_, 201

Helicteres chrysocalyx, 54
  Isora, 54
  Roxburghii, 54

_Hemp, perennial Indian_, 55

Hibiscus Abelmoschus, 45
  Rosa-Sinensis, 46
  tiliaceus, 46

_Hierba de San Pablo, de San Pedro_, 214
  _mora_, 176

_Higo_, 228

_Higotbalato_, 42

_Himamaw_, 77

_Hitam_, 110

_Hojas de buyo_, 204

_Horse radish tree_, 86

_Huligaga_, 140

Hydnocarpus inebrians, 132
  polyandra, 33

Hydrocotyle Asiatica, 134, 142

Hymenodictyon excelsum, 140
  Horsfieldii, 140



I


_Ibabaw_, 99

Icica Abilo, 72

_Igasud_, 171

_Igiw_, 76

Ignatia amara, 171
  Philippinea, 171

_Ilang-ilang de China_, 20

Illicium anisatum, 18

Ipomoea hederacea, 174
  nil, 174
  pes-capræ, 175
  Turpethem, 176

_Itmó_, 204

Ixora bandhuca, 143
  coccinea, 143



J


_Jalap, Indian_, 176

_Jambul_, 114

_Jasmine, Arabian_, 158

Jasmium Sambac, 158

Jatropha Curcas, 215
  multifida, 216

_Jengibre_, 228

_Jequirity_, 88

_Jujube tree_, 81

Jussiæa erecta, 122
  suffruticosa, 122
  villosa, 122

Justicia adhatoda, 188
  Gendarussa, 187
  nasuta, 189



K


_Kabalongan_, 171

_Kabatiti_, 82

_Kabiki_, 157

_Kabrab_, 91

_Kahel_, _kahil_, 66

_Kala-danah_, 174

_Kalambibit_, 96

_Kalamias_, 60

Kalanchoe laciniata, 109

_Kalantas_, 79

_Kalasusi_, 162

_Kalatsutsi_, 162

_Kalawaga_, 229

_Kalayati_, 190

_Kalingag_, 208

_Kalisay_, 110

_Kalitis_, 200

_Kalungay_, 86

_Kalumpang_, 51
  _sa lati_, 78

_Kamala_, 220

_Kamalagi_, 104

_Kamalungay_, 86

_Ka-María_, 153

_Kamela_, 220

_Kamias_, 60

_Kamigag_, 175

_Kamot-kabag_, 96

_Kamuning_, 64

_Kanaasaga_, 88

_Kanbil_, 220

_Kandaroma_, 208

_Kanlara_, 171

_Kantutæ_, _Kantutan_, 149

_Kanyin_, 40

_Kapal-kapal_, 167

_Kapanitulot_, 187

_Kapili_, 217

_Karambauaya_, 212

_Karo_, 225

_Karukansoli_, 199

_Kasabba_, 154

_Kasindik_, 91

_Kasitás_, 102

_Kasla_, 215

_Kastio_, _kastiogan_, 45

_Kastuli_, 45

_Kastumba_, 154

_Kasubha_, 154

_Kasubhang-aso_, 29

_Kasupangit_, 194

_Kasuy_, 84

_Katagkatag_, 175

_Katakataka_, 109

_Katalonga_, 171

_Katandá_, 102

_Katbolongan_, 171

_Katsumba_, 154

_Katuray_, 88

_Katwit_, 213

_Kayanga_, 46

_Kayutana_, 63

_Kawayag-totóo_, 243

_Kilingiwa_, 60

_Kilitis_, 200

_Kinamboy_, 229

Kleinhovia hospitata, 53

_Kokongmanok_, 186

_Kolasiman_, 34

_Kolokanting_, _kolokating_, 92

_Kolonkogon_, 195

_Kongi_, 58

_Konty_, 176

_Kopang_, 107

_Kuakuakohan_, 43

_Kuanton_, 200

_Kukubitan_, 128

_Kulanta_, 186

_Kulit_, 148

_Kulutan_, _kulutkulutan_, 44

_Kuragda_, 128

_Kusung_, 239

_Kuty_, 176



L


Labiatæ, 195

_Lagayray_, 175

Lagenaria clavata, 130
  courgourda, 129
  Gourda, 129
  vulgaris, 129

_Langis_, 184

_Lagiwlagiw_, 185

_Langkawas_, 230

_Langkuas_, 230

_Lago_, 154

_Lagpakon_, 176

_Lagundi_, 192

_Lagunding gayang_, 192

_Lakadbulan_, 150

_Lakatan_, 228

_Lakbanbulan_, 150

_Laktang_, 24

_Lalakdan_, 150

_Lambayog_, 175

_Lampayog_, 175

_Lamudio_, 136

_Lanigpa_, 79

_Lanta_, 24

_Lantín_, _llantén_, 199

Laportea Gaudichaudiana, 224

_Lasuna_, 233

Lauraceæ, 208

Laurus culilaban, 208

_Lawas_, 27

Lawsonia alba, 118
  inermis, 118
  spinosa, 118

_Laya_, 228

_Leadwort, white-flowered_, 155

Leguminosæ, Cesalpinaceæ, 96
  Mimoseæ, 106
  Papilionaceæ, 88

_Lemon_, 65

_Lengua de perro_, 212

_Letondang_, 228

Leucas aspera, 199

_Libáy_, 201

_Lingá_, 184

_Lingaton_, 224

_Lingasina_, 222

_Liktang_, 24

Liliaceæ, 232

_Lilitan_, 149

Limnophila menthastrum, 182

_Limón_, 65

_Linatoganak_, 71

_Lino_, 148

_Lintang bagin_, 24

_Lipa_, 224

_Lipangdoton_, 224

_Lipay_, 90

Lippia nodiflora, 190

_Live-for-ever_, 109

_Longá_, 184

Loganiaceæ, 171

_Lokoloko_, 195

_Lombayong_, 99

_Lomboy_, 114

_Lotus, sacred_, 28

_Lubilubi_, 176

Luffa Ægyptiaca, 131
  pentandra, 131
  petola, 131

_Lugo_, 110

_Lukban_, 67

_Lumban_, 217

_Luya_, 228

Lythraceæ, 117



M


_Magatas_, 210

Magnoliaceæ, 18

_Mangit_, 173

_Mahihiin_, 59

_Maíz_, 240

_Maize_, 240

_Makabuhay_, 22

_Makahiya_, 59

_Makalingag_, 208

_Makasili_, 76

_Malaapolid_, 239

_Malabangaw_, 76

_Malabago_, 46

_Malabalugbug-dagis_, 58

_Malabohok_, 209, 225

_Malabukbuk_, 39

_Malakabuyaw_, 67

_Malakatmón_, 17

_Malapoko_, 122

_Malaubi_, 203

_Malawin_, 192

_Malinta_, 214

_Malis_, 43

_Malisa_, 206

_Malismalis_, 210

Mallotus Philippensis, 220

_Malungay_, 86

_Malungit_, 86

Malvaceæ, 42

_Malvas de Castilla_, 43

_Mamalis_, 42

_Mambog_, 148

_Mamin_, 204

_Mamón_, 204

_Mana_, 216

_Mananaog_, 171

_Manga_, 82

Mangifera Indica, 82

_Mangostán_, 35

_Mangosteen_, 35

_Manimanikan_, 103

_Manungal_, _manunagl_, 71

Manungala pendula, 71

_Manzanitas_, 81

_Marapoto_, 45

_Maravillas_, 199

_Marikum_, _marukum_, 45

_Marjoram_, 196

_Marsh mallow_, 45

_Marvel of Peru_, 199

_Mayana_, 197

_Mayapis_, 40

Melastomaceæ, 116

Melastoma aspera, 116
  malabatrichum, 116
  obvoluta, 116
  obvolutum, 116

Melia Azedarach, 75

Meliaceæ,75

Menispermaceæ, 22

Menispermum Cocculus, 22
  crispum, 24
  lacunosum, 24
  rimosum, 22

Mesua ferrea, 39, 143

Michelia Champaca, 19

_Migi_, 78

Mimosa Farnesiana, 108
  peregrina, 107

Mimusops Elengi, 157

Mirabilis Jalapa, 199
  longiflora, 199

_Molawin_, 194

_Molopolo_, 44

Momordica balsamina, 132
  Charanta, 132
  cylindrica, 132
  muricata, 132
  operculata, 131

_Monkey-face tree_, 220

Monocotyledons, 227

_Morado_, 228

Morinda bracteata, 148
  citrifolia, 148
  ligulata, 148
  Royoc, 148
  tinctoria, 149

Moringa oleifera, 86
  poligona, 86
  pterigosperma, 86

Moringeæ, 86

_Mostaza_, 30

_Mota_, 239

Mucuma pruriens, 90
  prurita, 90
  utilis, 90

_Mudar_, 167

_Mulberry, Indian_, 148

Murraya exotica, 64
  Koenigi, 65

Murraya odorata, 69
  paniculata, 64

Musa paradisiaca, 227
  sapientum, 227

Musaceæ, 227

Musla-samul, 50

_Mustard_, 30
  _wild_, 31

_Mutha_, 239

_Myrobalans_, 111

_Myrtaceæ_, 113



N


_Naga_, 93

_Nagamulli_, 189

_Nagesur_, _Nag-kasar_, 40

_Nangka_, 223

_Namakpakan_, 38

_Naranjas_, 67

_Naranjas del país_, 66

_Naranjita_, 67

_Narra_, 93

_Nato_, 110

Nelumbium Asiaticum, 28
  nucifera, 28
  speciosum, 28

Nerium odorum, 165
  oleander, 165

Nicotiana Tabacum, 180

_Nightshade, black or common_, 176

_Nigi_, 78

_Nino_, 148

_Niog_, 236

_Niogniogan_, 112

Niota tetrapela, 71

_Nipa_, 238
  fruticans, 238

_Nipay_, 90

_Nutgrass_, 239

Nyctaginaceæ, 199

Nyctanthes Sambac, 158

Nymphæa Lotus, 27

Nymphæaceæ, 27



O


_Obispo_, 228

Ochrocarpus pentapetalus, 38

Ocimum Americanum, 195
  basilicum, 195
  flexuosum, 195
  gratissimum, 195
  sanctum, 195
  virgatum, 195

Odina Wodier, 86

_Olasiman_, 34

Oldenlandia biflora, 141
  burmaniana, 141

Oldenlandia corymbosa, 141

  herbacea, 141

  ramosa, 141

  scabrida, 141

Oleaceæ, 158

_Oleander, sweet-scented_, 165
  _Yellow_, 159

_Omadiung_, 239

Onagraceæ, 122

_Onion_, 233

_Onoran_, 239

_Onty_, 176

Ophelia chirata, 194

_Opo_, 130

_Orange_, 66

_Orayi_, 200

_Orégano_, 196

Oriza, 242

Oroxylum Indicum, 183

_Osiw_, 243

Oxalis Acetosella, 58
  corniculata, 58
  sensitivum, 59



P


Pæderia foetida, 149
  sessiflora, 149

_Paja de Meca_, 240

_Pakayomkon-kastila_, 102

_Pakupis_, 128

_Palagarium_, 71

_Palay_, 242

Palmæ, 234

_Palo del Brasil_, 97
  _Maria_, 38

_Palunay_, 152

_Pamalis_, 42

_Paminta_, 206

_Pamunoan_, 69

_Panampat_, 53

_Pandan_, 110

_Pangaguason_, 171

_Pangi_, 33

Pangium edule, 33

_Pankundo_, 148

_Panoan_, 69

_Pansipansi_, 199

Papaveraceæ, 29

_Papaw_, 123

_Papaya_, 123

_Paraiso_, 75

Pareira brava, 26

_Paria_, 132

Parkia biglobosa, 107
  Brunonis, 107
  Roxburghii, 107

_Pasotis_, 202

Passifloraceæ, 123

_Paypaysi_, 199

Pedaliaceæ, 184

_Pennywort, Indian_, 134

_Pepita_, 171
  _sa katbalongan_, 171
  _sa katbolongan_, 171

_Pepper, black_, 206
  _red_, 177

_Pernambuko_, 49

Phlomis alba, 198
  Zeylanica, 199

Phyllanthus Niruri, 214
  reticulatus, 214
  urinaria, 214

_Physic nuts, English_, 96

_Pias_, 60

Picrorrhiza kurroa, 155

_Pili_, _pilis_, 43, 73

_Pimienta_, 206

_Pinkapinka_, 183

_Pinkapinkahan_, 183

Piper Betel, 204
  Betle, 204
  nigrum, 206

Piperaceæ, 204

Plantaginaceæ, 199

Plantago crenata, 199
  erosa, 199
  media, 199

_Plantain_, 199

_Plátano_, 227

_Plum, black_, 114

Plumbagineæ, 155

Plumbago viscosa, 155
  Zeylanica, 155

Plumeria acutifolia, 162
  alba, 162

Poinciana pulcherrima, 98

Polanisia viscosa, 31

_Pomegranate_, 120

Pongamia glabra, 95

_Poppy, Mexican_, 29

Portulaca axiflora, 134
  oleracea, 34
  toston, 134

Portulaceæ, 34

_Prayerbeads_, 88

_Pride of India_, 75

Psidium aromaticum, 113
  pomiferum, 113
  pyriferum, 113

Pterocarpus echinatus, 93
  erinaceus, 93

Pterocarpus Indicus, 93

  marsupium, 94

  pallidus, 93

  santalinus, 93

_Pukingang_, 92

_Pukopukot_, 128

Punica Granatum, 120

_Purslane_, 34



Q


Quisqualis Indica, 112
  spinosa, 112
  villosa, 112



R


_Rábano_, 30

_Rabasa_, 134

_Radish_, 30

_Raiz de mora_, 241

Randia aculeata, 142
  dumetorum, 54, 142
  longispina, 142
  stipulosa, 142

Raphanus sativus, 30

Rhamnaceæ, 81

Rhamnus Carolinianus, 81
  Jujuba, 81
  Wightii, 82

Rhinacanthus communis, 189

_Rice_, 242

Ricinus communis, 222
  microcarpus, 222
  Subpurpurascens, 223
  viridis, 223

Robinia mitis, 95

_Romero_, 197

_Rosas-Caballero_, 116

_Rose of China_, 46

_Rosemary_, 197

Rosmarinus officinalis, 197

Rottlera tinctoria, 220

Rubiaceæ, 140

_Ruda_, 61

_Rue_, 61

Ruta angustifolia, 61
  graveolens, 61

Rutaceæ, 61



S


_Sabá_, 228

_Sabila_, 232

Saccharum officinarum, 241

_Sacred lotus_, 28

_Safflower, dyer's_, 154

_Saffron, bastard_, 154

_Saga_, 88

_Sagamamin_, 88

_Sagdikit_, 155

_Saging_, 227

_Sage, Jerusalem_, 198

_Sangki_, 18

_St. Ignatius' bean_, 171

_Sàladay_, 63

_Salagsalag_, 128

_Salay_, 63, 240

_Salingbobag_, 32

_Saling-wok_, 194

_Salimpokot_, 128

Samadera Indica, 71

_Samat_, 204

_Sambak_, 104

_Sambong-gala_, 151

_Sambon_, 150

_Sampaga_, 158

_Sampaguitas_, 158

_Sampaka_, 19

_Sampalok_, 104

_Samphire_, 118

_Sandalwood tree, red_, 93

Sandoricum Indicum, 77

_Sansawsansawan_, 26

_Santa María_, 153

Santalum rubrum, 93

_Santan_, 143

_Santol_, 77

_Sapang_, 97

Sapotaceæ, 156

_Sappan wood_, 97

_Sasa_, 238

_Saunders, red_, 93

_Sayikan_, 210

Schizostachyum acutiflorum, 243

_Screw tree, Indian_, 54

_Senna, western_, 100

_Sesamé_, 184

Sesamum Indicum, 184

Sesbania grandiflora, 88

_Sibukao_, 97

_Sibuyas_, 233

Sida acuta, 42
  carpinifolia, 42
  frutescens, 42
  Indica, 43
  stipulata, 42

_Siempreviva_, 109

_Sili_, 177

Simarubaceæ, 71

_Sinampaga_, 142

Sinapis alba, 30
  juncea, 30
  nigra, 30

_Sisiwhan_, 210

_Sobsob_, 150

Solanaceæ, 176

Solanum Dulcamara, 177
  nigrum, 176

_Solasi_, 195

_Solasolasian_, 199

_Sonting_, _sunting_, 102

_Sorog-sorog, sorosoro_, 212

_Sorrel, Indian_, 58

Sphoeranthus hirtus, 151
  Indicus, 151
  mollis, 151

Spilanthes Acmella, 152, 228

_Star anise_, 18

Sterculiaceæ, 51

Sterculia cordifolia, 52
  foetida, 51
  polyphilla, 51
  urens, 52

Strychnos Ignatii, 171
  Philippensis, 171

_Suelda_, 213

_Suganda_, 196

_Sugar cane_, 241

_Sungot-olang_, 214

_Suha_, 67

_Sukaw_, 28

_Sulbang_, 91

_Suma_, 24

_Sumalagi_, 104

_Sursur_, 239

_Susong damulog_, 20

_Susokayoli_, 58

_Suspiros_, 199

_Swallow-wort_, 167

Swertia Chirata, 128

Syzygium Jambolanum, 114



T


_Tabaco_, 180

_Tabayag_, 129

_Tabing_, 43

_Tabigi_, 78

_Tabobog_, 128

_Tabog_, 67

_Tacamahaca_, 39

_Toe-toe_, 149

_Tagaktagak_, 189

_Tagaraw_, 112

_Tagaray_, 175

_Taghilaw_, 183

_Taglinaw_, 50

_Tangantangan_, 222
  _na morado_, 223

_Tanglad_, 240

_Tagudin_, 38

_Taingan dogá_, 58

_Takbibung_, 178

_Takip kohol_, 134
  _suso_, 134

_Taklang-anak_, 36

_Takpus_, 148

_Takurangan_, 46

_Tala_, 182
  odorata, 182

_Talatala_, 182

_Talamponay_, 178
  _na itim_, 179

_Talankaw_, 155

_Talaylo_, 27

_Taliantar_, 148

_Taliatan_, 76

_Taligharap_, 198

_Talisay_, 110

_Talutu_, 50

_Tamarind_, 104

_Tamarindo_, 104

Tamarindus Indica, 104

_Tamawian_, 38

_Tambalisa_, 101

_Tampuhing_, 228

_Tanag_, 53

_Tangolon_, 112

_Tapulanga_, 46

_Taramhampam_, 182

_Taratara_, 182

_Tartaraw_, 112

Tawatawa, 215

_Tawatawasinga_, 222

_Tawawa_, 210

_Tayabas_, 113

_Taywanak_, 244

_Tea, Mexican_, 202

_Teak tree_, 190

_Teca_, 190

Tectona grandis, 190

Terminalia Catappa, 110
  Chebula, 111, 115, 127, 155
  mauriciana, 110
  moluccana, 110
  reticulata, 111

Tetracera Assa, 17
  macrophylla, 17
  monocarpa, 17
  Rheedi, 17
  sarmentosa, 17

Theobroma Cacao, 55

Thespesia populnea, 47

Thevetia nerifolia, 159

_Tighiman_, 100

_Tinglog_, 185

_Tikla_, 190

_Tilites_, 200

_Timbangan_, 203

_Tinatinaan_, 214

_Tindang-bayang_, 171

_Tinisas_, 153

Tinospora cordifolia, 23
  crispa, 22

_Tintatintahan_, 214

_Titiw_, 185

_Tobacco_, 180

_Toktok-kaló_, 161

_Toronjas_, 67

_Toston_, 134

Tovomita pentapetala, 38

_Tree, alstonia or dita_, 163
  _Black Myrobalan_, 111
  _Jack fruit_, 223

Trianthema monogyna, 134
  obcordata, 134

Trichosanthes amara, 128
  anguina, 128
  cucumerina, 128
  lucioniana, 127
  palmata, 127
  tricuspis, 127

Tsampaka, 19

_Tsatsatsatsahan_, 190

_Tsiku_, 156

_Tuba_, 24, 215
  _kamaisa_, 218

_Tubó_, 241

_Tumbongaso_, 148

_Tumboung aso, kapay_, 148

_Tunas_, 27

_Turmeric plant_, 229

_Turpeth root_, 216

Turroea octandra, 77
  virens, 76

Tylophora asthmatica, 169



U


Umbelliferæ, 134

Unona uncinata, 20

Urena morifolia, 44
  multifida, 44
  muricata, 44
  sinuata, 44

Urticaceæ, 223

Urtica ferox, 224
  umbellata, 224

Uvaria Sinensis, 20



V


Verbena capitata, 190
  nodiflora, 190

Verbenaceæ, 190

_Verdolagas_, 34

Vitex Leucoxylon, 192
  Negundo, 192
  repens, 192
  trifolia, 192

_Vuas_, 220



W


_Walnut, Indian_, 217

_Wars_, 220

_Water lily_, 27

_Wawalisan_, 42

_Weed, styptic_, 100

_Wood apple_, 69

_Wormseed, American_, 202

_Wormwood, Indian_, 153



X


Xanthoxylum oxyphyllum, 63
  violaceum, 63

Xylocarpus granatum, 78



Y


_Yate_, 190

_Yayo_, 58



Z


Zea Mays, 240

Zingiberaceæ, 228

Zingiber officinale, 228

Zizyphus Jujuba, 81
  Mauritania, 81



NOTES


[1] A ward or Barrio of Manila.

[2] In the U. S. P. and P. G. Marsh Mallow is a synonym for _Althæa
officinalis_, the root being the part of the plant which is used.

[3] Journal de Phar. et de Chim., XX., p. 3811.

[4] Daruty, loc. cit., p. xxvi.

[5] Official in the U. S. P. under the name of _Santalum rubrum_,
and used only for coloring alcoholic solutions.

[6] Do not grow in the Philippines.

[7] Waring, loc. cit., p. 170.

[8] Journal de Pharmacie, Vol. XIV., p. 441.

[9] L'Union Pharm., Vol. XXIII., p. 291.

[10] European analyses make the amount 1-2.2 per cent.

[11] Including tænifuges.

[12] Names in italics are considered of especial importance by
the author.

[13] I do not join these diseases because I consider them identical
or due to the same pathogenic agent but because the plants that follow
are used indifferently for the diseases.





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