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Title: Parker's Second Reader - National Series of Selections for Reading, Designed For The Younger Classes In Schools, Academies, &C.
Author: Parker, Richard Green, 1798-1869
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *

"Understandest thou what thou readest?"--ACTS 6:30.

       *       *       *       *       *

51 & 53 JOHN STREET.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year Eighteen Hundred and


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of
New York.



In the preparation of this volume, I have kept fresh in my recollection
the immature state of the minds which I have endeavored to enlighten;
and while it has been my aim to present such a succession of reading
lessons as are suitable for the younger classes in our common schools
and academies, I have not forgotten that the first step to be taken, in
making good readers, is to open the understanding wide enough to afford
a sufficient entrance for the ideas which are to be communicated by
reading. Words are but sounds, by which ideas should be conveyed; and
written language is of little use, if it convey but sound alone. Great
pains have therefore been taken to exclude from this volume what the
young scholar cannot understand, while, at the same time, it has been
the aim of the author to avoid a puerile style, by which the early
intellect is kept down, and its exertions are repressed. In every step
and stage of its progress, the maxim "_Excelsior_" should be the aim of
the youthful mind; and the hand of the teacher should be extended, not
to _lift it up_, but only to _assist it in its endeavors to raise
itself_. All of the labor must not be done by the teacher, nor by books.
_They_ are of use only in exciting the mind to act for itself. They may,
indeed, act as pioneers, but the pupil must not be _carried_ in their
arms; he must perform the march himself. And herein lies the great
difficulty of the teacher's task: on the one hand, to avoid the evil of
leaving too little to be done by the scholar; and, on the other, to be
careful that he be not required to do too much. Real difficulties should
be lightened, but some labor should be permitted to remain. To make such
labor attractive, and easily endured without discouragement, is the task
which best shows the tact and skill of the teacher. If this volume be
found useful in aiding the teacher, by doing all that should be required
_from the book_, the design of the author will be accomplished.


    _Kneeland Place_, }
    _May, 1851._      }


[_The Poetical Extracts are designated by Italic Letters_]

Lesson                                                           Page
 Preface                                                            v
 1. The Author's Address to the Pupil                               9
 2. Same subject, continued                                        13
 3.  "     "          "                                            17
 4. The Discontented Pendulum, _Jane Taylor_                       19
 5. Address of the Author to the Pupil, continued                  23
 6.  "      "   "    "    "   "   "     concluded                  26
 7. How to find out the Meaning of Words, _Original_               29
 8. Same subject, continued                   "                    31
 9.  "     "      concluded                   "                    34
10. Words                                     "                    38
11. Definitions                               "                    42
12. Reading and Spelling                      "                    48
13. Importance of Learning to Spell, _Original Version_            51
14. Demosthenes,                     _Original_                    53
15. Hard Words,                           "                        57
16. Fire: a Conversation,                 "                        63
17. Same subject, continued               "                        67
18.  "     "      concluded               "                        73
19. The Lark and her Young Ones, _Altered from Æsop_               79
20. Dogs,                    _Original_                            82
21. Same subject, concluded      "                                 85
22. Frogs and Toads, _Bigland_                                     87
23. Maida, the Scotch Greyhound, _Altered from Bigland_            90
24. Gelert,                              "                         94
25. Knock again                     _Child's Companion_            96
26. Same subject, continued,                "                      98
27.  "     "      concluded,                "                     100
28. Make Good Use of Time, _Emma C. Embury_                       102
29. Same subject, continued,       "                              107
30.  "     "      concluded,       "                              111
31. Verse, or Poetry, _Original_                                  116
32. _A Morning Hymn_, _Anonymous_                                 121
33. _Evening Hymn_,       "                                       122
34. _The Gardener and the Hog_, _Gay_                             123
35. _The Hare and many Friends_,  "                               125
36. Maxims, _Selected_                                            128
37. How to be Happy, _Child at Home_                              129
38. Obedience and Disobedience, _Child's Companion_               133
39. Obstinacy, _Lessons without Books_                            139
40. King Edward and his Bible, _L.H. Sigourney_                   144
41. What does it Mean to be Tempted? _Rose-bud_                   147
42. Same subject, continued,             "                        151
43.  "     "          "                  "                        154
44.  "     "      concluded,             "                        157
45. _Mary Dow_,                  _H.F. Gould_                     163
46. _It Snows_,                       "                           165
47. _The Dissatisfied Angler Boy_,    "                           166
48. _The Violet: a Fable_, _Children's Magazine_                  168
49. Captain John Smith, _Juvenile Miscellany_                     170
50. Same subject, continued,     "                                173
51   "     "         "           "                                176
52.  "     "      concluded,     "                                179
53. John Ledyard,                "                                180
54. Same subject, concluded,     "                                183
55. Learning to Work, _Original_                                  185
56. Same subject, continued, _Abbott_                             187
57.  "     "      concluded,    "                                 189
58. The Comma, _Parker's Rhetorical Reader_                       193
59. The Semicolon,            "                                   199
60. The Colon,                "                                   202



_The Author's Address to the Pupil._

1. I present to you, my little friend, a new book, to assist you in
learning to read. I do not intend that it shall be a book full of hard
words, which you do not understand.

2. I do not think it proper to require children to read what they cannot
understand. I shall, therefore, show you how you may understand what is
in this book, and how you may be able, with very little assistance from
your teacher, to read all the hard words, not only in this book, but
also in any book which you may hereafter take up.

3. But first let me repeat to you a saying, which, when I was a little
boy, and went to school, my teacher used to repeat to me. He said that
any one might lead a horse to the water, but no one could make him
drink. The horse must do that himself. He must open his own mouth, and
draw in the water, and swallow it, himself.

4. And so it is with anything which I wish to teach you. I can tell you
many things which it will be useful for you to know, but I cannot open
your ears and make you hear me. I cannot turn your eyes so that they
will look at me when I am talking to you, that you may listen to me.
That, you must do yourself; and if you do not do it, nothing that I can
say to you, or do for you, will do you any good.

5. Many little boys and girls, when their teacher is talking to them,
are in the habit of staring about the school-room, or looking at their
fellow-pupils, or, perhaps, slyly talking to them or laughing with them,
when they ought to be listening to what their teacher is saying.

6. Others, perhaps, may appear to be looking at their teacher, while, at
the same time, they are thinking about tops and marbles, or kites and
dolls, and other play-things, and have no more idea of what their
teacher is saying to them than if he were not in the room.

7. Now, here is a little picture, from which I wish to teach you a very
important lesson. The picture represents a nest, with four little birds
in it. The mother bird has just been out to get some food for them. The
little birds, as soon as their mother returns, begin to open their
mouths wide, and the mother drops some food from her bill into the mouth
of each one; and in this manner they are all fed, until they are old
enough to go abroad and find food for themselves.


8. Now, what would these little birds do, if, when their mother brings
them their food, they should keep their mouths all shut, or, perhaps, be
feeling of one another with their little bills, or crowding each other
out of the nest?

9. You know that they would have to go without their food; for their
mother would not open their mouths for them, nor could she swallow
their food for them. They must do that for themselves, or they must

10. Now, in the same manner that little birds open their mouths to
receive the food which their mother brings to them, little boys and
girls should have their ears open to hear what their teachers say to

11. The little birds, as you see in the picture, have very large mouths,
and they keep them wide open to receive all the food that their mother
drops; so that none of their food ever falls into the nest, but all goes
into their mouths, and they swallow it, and it nourishes them, and makes
them grow.

12. So, also, little boys and girls should try to catch, in their ears,
everything that their teacher says to them, and keep it in their minds,
and be able to recollect it, by often thinking about it; and thus they
will grow wise and learned, and be able to teach other little boys and
girls, of their own, when they themselves grow up.

13. Now, my little friend, please to open your eyes and see what I have
put into this book for you, and open your ears to hear what your kind
teacher has to say to you, that your minds may grow, and that you may
become wise and good children.


_The same subject, continued._

1. I told you, in the last lesson, that I would teach you how to
understand what is in this book, and how to read the hard words that you
may find in this or in any other book.

2. Now, before you can understand them, you must be able to read them;
and in order that you may understand how to read them, you must take the
words to pieces; that is, take a few of the letters at a time, and see
whether you can read a part of the word first, and then another part,
until you have read the whole of it in parts, and then you can put the
parts together, and thus read the whole word.

3. Now, in order that you may understand what I mean, I will explain it
to you by taking a long word to pieces, and letting you read a part of
it at a time, until you have learned how to read the whole word.

4. In the next line, you may read the parts of the word all separated:

    Ab      ra      ca      dab     ra.

Now you have read the parts of the word ab-ra-ca-dab-ra all separated,
you can read them very easily together, so as to make one word, and the
word will be Abracadabra.

5. This long and hard word was the name of a false god, that was
worshiped many hundreds of years ago, by a people who did not know the
true God, whom we worship; and they very foolishly supposed that by
wearing this name, written on paper, in a certain manner, it would cure
them of many diseases.

6. Here are a few more long and hard words, divided in the same manner,
which you may first read by syllables, that is, one syllable at a time:

Val  e     tu    di    na´    ri    an.
In   de    fat   i     ga     bil´  i    ty.
Hy   po    chon  dri´  a      cal.
Me   temp  sy    cho´  sis.
Hal  lu    ci    na´   tion.
Zo   o     no´   mi    a.
Ses  qui   pe    dal´  i      ty.

7. You may now read these long words as they are here presented, without
a division of the syllables, as follows: valetudinarian,
indefatigability, hypochondriacal, metempsychosis, hallucination,
zoonomia, sesquipedality.

8. Now, you see that words which look hard, and which you find difficult
to read, can be easily read, if you take the pains to divide them into
parts or syllables, and not try to read the whole word at once.

9. I now propose to relate to you a little story which I read when I was
a little boy, and which I think will make you remember what I have just
told you about reading hard words, by first taking them to pieces, and
reading a part of them at a time.

10. A father, who was dying, called his seven sons around his bed, and
showed them a bundle of small sticks tied together, and asked each one
to try to break all the sticks at once, without untying the bundle.


11. Each of the sons took the bundle of sticks, and putting it across
his knee, tried with all his strength to break it; but not one of them
could break the sticks, or even bend them, while they were tied

12. The father then directed his oldest son to untie the bundle, and to
break each stick separately. As soon as the bundle was untied, each of
the sons took the sticks separately, and found that they could easily
break every one of them, and scatter them, in small pieces, all about
the floor.

13. "Now," said the father, "I wish you, my dear sons, to learn a lesson
from these sticks. So long as you are all united in love and friendship,
you need fear little from any enemies; but, if you quarrel among
yourselves, and do not keep together, you see by these little sticks how
easily your enemies may put you down separately."

14. Now, this was a very wise father, and he taught his sons a very
useful lesson with this bundle of sticks. I also wish to teach you, my
little friend, whoever you are, that are reading this book, another
useful lesson from the same story.

15. Hard words, especially long ones, will be difficult to you to read,
unless, like the sons in the story, you untie the bundle; that is, until
you take the long words apart, and read one part or syllable at a time.
Thus you may learn what is meant by that wise saying, "_Divide and


_The same subject, continued._

1. I have another lesson to teach you from the same story of the old man
and the bundle of sticks, which I think will be very useful to you, and
will make your lessons very much easier to you.

2. Whenever you have a lesson to learn, do not look at it all at once,
and say, I cannot learn this long lesson; but divide it into small
parts, and say to yourself, I will try to learn this first little part,
and after I have learned that, I will rest two or three minutes, and
then I will learn another little part, and then rest again a few
minutes, and then I will learn another.

3. I think that in this way you will find study is not so hard a thing
as it seemed to you at first, and you will have another explanation of
that wise saying, _Divide and conquer_.

4. I will now tell you another story that I read when I was a little
boy. It was called a fable. But before I tell you the story, I must
tell you what a fable is.

5. A fable is a story which is not true. But, although it is not a true
story, it is a very useful one, because it always teaches us a good

6. In many fables, birds and beasts are represented as speaking. Now,
you know that birds and beasts cannot talk, and therefore the story, or
fable, which tells us that birds and beasts, and other things, that are
not alive, do talk, cannot be true.

7. But I have told you, that although fables are not true stories, they
are very useful to us, because they teach us a useful lesson. This
lesson that they teach is called the _moral_ of the fable; and that is
always the best fable that has the best moral to it, or, in other words,
that teaches us the best lesson.

8. The story, or the fable, that I promised to tell you, is in the next
lesson, and I wish you, when you read it, to see whether you can find
out what the lesson, or moral, is which it teaches; and whether it is at
all like the story of the father and the bundle of sticks, that I told
you in the last lesson. While you read it, be very careful that you do
not pass over any word the meaning of which you do not know.


_The Discontented Pendulum._--JANE TAYLOR.


1. An old clock, that had stood for fifty years in a farmer's kitchen,
without giving its owner any cause of complaint, early one summer's
morning, before the family was stirring, suddenly stopped.

2. Upon this, the dial-plate (if we may credit the fable) changed
countenance with alarm; the hands made a vain effort to continue their
course; the wheels remained motionless with surprise; the weights hung
speechless;--each member felt disposed to lay the blame on the others.

3. At length the dial instituted a formal inquiry as to the cause of
the stagnation, when hands, wheels, weights, with one voice, protested
their innocence.

4. But now a faint tick was heard below from the pendulum, who thus
spoke:--"I confess myself to be the sole cause of the present stoppage;
and I am willing, for the general satisfaction, to assign my reasons.
The truth is, that I am tired of ticking."

5. Upon hearing this, the old clock became so enraged, that it was on
the very point of _striking_. "Lazy wire!" exclaimed the dial-plate,
holding up its hands.

6. "Very good!" replied the pendulum; "it is vastly easy for you,
Mistress Dial, who have always, as everybody knows, set yourself up
above me,--it is vastly easy for you, I say, to accuse other people of
laziness! You, who have had nothing to do, all the days of your life,
but to stare people in the face, and to amuse yourself with watching all
that goes on in the kitchen!

7. "Think, I beseech you, how you would like to be shut up for life in
this dark closet, and to wag backwards and forwards, year after year, as
I do."

8. "As to that," said the dial, "is there not a window in your house, on
purpose for you to look through?"--"For all that," resumed the
pendulum, "it is very dark here; and although there is a window, I dare
not stop, even for an instant, to look out at it.

9. "Besides, I am really tired of my way of life; and, if you wish, I'll
tell you how I took this disgust at my employment. I happened this
morning to be calculating how many times I should have to tick in the
course of only the next twenty-four hours; perhaps some of you, above
there, can give me the exact sum."

10. The minute-hand, being _quick_ at figures, presently replied,
"Eighty-six thousand four hundred times."

11. "Exactly so," replied the pendulum; "well, I appeal to you all, if
the very thought of this was not enough to fatigue one; and when I began
to multiply the strokes of one day by those of months and years, really,
it is no wonder if I felt discouraged at the prospect: so, after a great
deal of reasoning and hesitation, thinks I to myself, I'll stop."

12. The dial could scarcely keep its countenance during this harangue;
but, resuming its gravity, thus replied: "Dear Mr. Pendulum, I am really
astonished that such a useful, industrious person as yourself, should
have been overcome by this sudden action.

13. "It is true, you have done a great deal of work in your time; so
have we all, and are likely to do; which, although it may fatigue us to
_think_ of, the question is, whether it will fatigue us to _do_. Would
you now do me the favor to give about half a dozen strokes, to
illustrate my argument?"

14. The pendulum complied, and ticked six times in its usual pace.
"Now," resumed the dial, "may I be allowed to inquire if that exertion
was at all fatiguing or disagreeable to you?"

15. "Not in the least," replied the pendulum; "it is not of six strokes
that I complain, nor of sixty, but of _millions_."

16. "Very good," replied the dial; "but recollect, that though you may
_think_ of a million strokes in an instant, you are required to
_execute_ but one; and that, however often you may hereafter have to
swing, a moment will always be given you to swing in."

17. "That consideration staggers me, I confess," said the
pendulum.--"Then I hope," resumed the dial-plate, "we shall all
immediately return to our duty; for the maids will lie in bed, if we
stand idling thus."

18. Upon this, the weights, who had never been accused of _light_
conduct, used all their influence in urging him to proceed; when, as
with one consent, the wheels began to turn, the hands began to move, the
pendulum began to swing, and, to its credit, ticked as loud as ever;
while a red beam of the rising sun, that streamed through a hole in the
kitchen window, shining full upon the dial-plate, it brightened up, as
if nothing had been the matter.

19. When the farmer came down to breakfast that morning, upon looking at
the clock, he declared that his watch had gained half an hour in the


_Address of the Author to the Pupil,--continued from Lesson 3d._

1. The fable of the old clock, which has just been read, is intended to
teach us a lesson, or moral, and that is, that whenever we have anything
to do, whether it be a long lesson or a piece of hard work, we must not
think of it all at once, but divide the labor, and thus conquer the

2. The pendulum was discouraged when it thought that it had to tick
eighty-six thousand four hundred times in twenty-four hours; but when
the dial asked it to tick half a dozen times only, the pendulum
confessed that it was not fatiguing or disagreeable to do so.

3. It was only by thinking what a large number of times it had to tick
in twenty-four hours, that it became fatigued.

4. Now, suppose that a little boy, or a little girl, has a hard lesson
to learn, and, instead of sitting down quietly and trying to learn a
little of it at a time, and after that a little more, until it is all
learned, should begin to cry, and say I cannot learn all of this lesson,
it is too long, or too hard, and I never can get it, that little boy, or
girl, would act just as the pendulum did when it complained of the hard
work it had to do.

5. But the teacher says to the little boy, Come, my dear, read over the
first sentence of your lesson to me six times. The little boy reads the
first sentence six times, and confesses to his teacher that it was not
very hard work to do so.

6. The teacher then asks him to read it over six times more; and the
little boy finds that, before he has read it to his teacher so often as
the six times more, he can say it without his book before him.

7. In this way, that little boy will find, that it is not, after all,
so hard work to get what he calls a hard lesson; because all that he has
to do, is to read a small portion of the lesson at a time, and to repeat
the reading of that small portion until he can repeat it without the

8. When he has done this, he can take another small portion of the
lesson, and do the same with that, until, by degrees, he has learnt the
whole lesson; and then he will feel happy, because he knows that his
teacher, and his parents, will be pleased with him.

9. But some pupils say to themselves, when they have a lesson to learn,
I do not want to study this lesson now; I will study it by and by, or
to-morrow morning.

10. But, by and by, and when to-morrow comes, they feel no more disposed
to study their lesson than they did when the lesson was first given to

11. Now, my little friend, if you wish your time at school to pass
pleasantly, do not say to yourself, I will get my lesson by and by, or
to-morrow, but set yourself about it immediately, learn it as quickly as
you can, and I will assure you will not only make your teachers and your
parents happier, but you will be much happier yourself.


_The Author to the Pupil._

1. In the first lesson, I told you that I would show you how to
understand what is in this book; and how you may, with very little
assistance from your teacher, be able to read all the hard words that
you find in any book.

2. Many little boys and girls are very fond of running out of their
places in school, and going up to their teachers with a great many
unnecessary questions. This always troubles the teacher, and prevents
his going through with all his business in time to dismiss you at the
usual hour.

3. Whenever you meet with any real difficulty, that you cannot overcome
yourself without his assistance, you should watch for an opportunity
when he is at leisure, and endeavor to attract his attention quietly,
and without noise and bustle, so that your fellow-pupils may not be
disturbed, and then respectfully and modestly ask him to assist you.

4. But if you are noisy and troublesome, and run up to him frequently
with questions that, with a little thought, you could easily answer
yourself, he will not be pleased with you, but will think that you wish
to make trouble; and, perhaps, will appear unkind to you.

5. I will now endeavor to show you how you may understand what is in
your book, so that you will have no need to be troublesome to your

6. In the first place, then, always endeavor to understand every line
that you read; try to find out what it means, and, if there is any word
that you have never seen or heard of before, look out the word in a
dictionary, and see what the meaning of the word is; and then read the
line over again, and see whether you can tell what the whole line means,
when you have found out the meaning of the strange word.

7. Now, as you can understand everything best when you have an example,
I will give you one, as follows. In the tenth chapter of the Acts of the
Apostles, at the first verse, there are these words:

     1. "There was a certain man in Cesarea, called
     Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian

     2. "A devout man, and one that feared God with all his
     house, and gave much alms to the people, and prayed to
     God always."

8. I suppose you know what most of the words in these verses mean,
except the word _centurion_ in the first verse, and the word _alms_ in
the second.

9. Now, if you look for the word _centurion_ in the dictionary, it will
tell you that _centurion_ means a military officer, who commanded a
hundred men. Thus you find that Cornelius was a soldier; and not only
that he was a soldier, but that he was an officer, that commanded

10. Again, if you look for the word _alms_ in your dictionary, you will
find that it means money given to the poor; and thus you find that
Cornelius was a very good man, and not only prayed to God, but also gave
much money to assist the poor.

11. You see, then, how useful a book a dictionary is at school, and how
important it is that you should have one. If your parents cannot give
you a very good one, any one is better than none.

12. But if you have no dictionary, or if you cannot find the word you
wish to find in the dictionary, you must then wait for a convenient time
to ask your teacher, and he will always be pleased to find that you are
trying to understand the words in your lesson.

13. If you have a dictionary, and do not know how to find out the words
in it, ask your teacher to show you; and when he has showed you how to
use it, be sure never to pass over a single word without knowing what it


_How to find out the Meaning of Words._--ORIGINAL.


1. Many years ago, when I lived in a small town, near the Merrimac
river, a little Spanish girl came to board in the same house.

2. She could speak very well in her own language; but the people in her
country speak a language very different from ours: and when she first
began to speak, she heard nothing but Spanish words; and she learned no

3. She could not speak a word of English, and did not understand a word
that was spoken to her by any of the family.

4. Her parents were very rich, but they placed her in the family, that
she might learn to speak English.

5. She had no dictionary to turn to, to look out the meaning of words;
and if she was hungry, she could not ask for bread, and if she was
thirsty, she could not ask for water, nor milk, nor tea, for she did not
know the meaning of either of the words, _water_, _tea_, nor _milk_.

6. Perhaps you would be puzzled to tell how she could learn to speak
English, if she had no one to teach her, and had no dictionary to inform
her about the words.

7. But it was not many days before she could say "_bread_," if she was
hungry, and "_water_," if she wanted to drink; and I was very much
surprised to find how soon it was, at the dinner-table, she could ask
for meat, or potato, or pudding; and, at tea-time, for tea, or milk, or
sugar, or butter, or bread.

8. I have no doubt that you would like to know how this little Spanish
girl learned to speak all of these words. I do not intend to tell you
quite yet, but I think you will find out yourself, if you will read the
next lesson.


_The same subject, continued._

1. About twenty years ago, I was very ill, and, for a long time, my
friends thought I never should recover.

2. By the very attentive care of my physician, and by the devoted
attention of my wife, I unexpectedly grew better; and the doctor said
that I must take a voyage for the recovery of my health.

3. A kind friend, who was going to the West Indies, in a vessel of his
own, very generously offered to take me with him, and I gratefully
accepted the offer.

4. We sailed from Boston early one morning, and were soon out of sight
of the land. I was quite ill during the voyage; but fortunately the
voyage was a short one, and we reached the place of our destination on
the fourteenth day after we sailed.

5. The island, where we landed, was a beautiful spot; and lemons,
oranges, pine-apples, and many other delicious fruits, were growing out
in the open air.

6. The people who lived on this island did not speak the English
language; and the family with whom I was to reside could speak only in

7. I observed, at dinner-time, that some of the persons at the table
held out their tumblers to the servant, and said something which sounded
to me like _O_.

8. I often heard this word; and every time it was spoken, _water_ was
brought, or poured out, or something was done with _water_.

9. I then made up my mind that this word that I thought was O meant
water; and I found out afterwards that I was right, except that I did
not spell it right.

10. This I discovered by means of the Bible, from which the family used
to read.

11. It was a very large one, with very large letters; and as I was very
fond of hearing them read, and of looking over the book while some one
was reading aloud, I noticed that whenever the reader came to the
letters e, a, u, he called them O; and thus I found out that water, in
their language, was called O, but was spelt e, a, u.

12. In the same manner, I found out the words, or names, which they gave
to bread, and sugar, and butter, and meat, and figs, and oranges, and
lemons, and pine-apples.

13. And now, perhaps, you may be able to find out how the little Spanish
girl, mentioned in the last lesson, learned the meaning of English words
that she had never heard until she came to live in the family where
nothing but English was spoken.

14. She was obliged to listen, when any one spoke, and watch to see what
was wanted; and in the same manner in which I found out the meaning of
O, and what to call bread, and sugar, and butter, and meat, and figs,
and oranges, and other fruits, she learned to call things by their
English names.

15. But, in order to do this, she was obliged to listen very
attentively, to try to remember every new name that she learned; and, by
so doing, in less than a year she could talk almost as plainly as any
one in the house.

16. It was very easy for her to learn the names of things, because she
heard them spoken very often. Such words as _chair_, _table_, _water_,
_sugar_, _cake_, _potato_, _pudding_, and other words which are the
names of things she could see, she learned very quickly.

17. But such words as _come_ and _go_, or _run_ and _walk_, and the
little words _to_ and _from_, and _over_ and _under_, or such words as
_quickly_ and _slowly_, and many other words of the same kind, she could
not learn so easily.

18. In the next lesson perhaps you will find out how she learned the
meaning of these words.


_The same subject, continued._


1. There was a small family living very near to your residence, my young
friends who are reading this lesson, consisting of the father, the
mother, and four young children.

2. The oldest was a boy of twelve years old, the next was a little girl
of about eight, the third was another pretty little girl of six, and the
youngest was an infant boy, only nine months old.

3. As you may well suppose, the baby, as he was called, was the delight,
not only of the father and the mother, but also of his elder brother and
his two sisters.

4. The oldest brother had a dog whose name was Guido,--an Italian name,
which is pronounced as if it were spelt Gwe´do.

5. The dog had learned to love the dear little baby as much as the rest
of the family; and very often, when he was lying on the floor, the baby
would pull his tail, or his ears, or put his little hand into the
creature's mouth, and Guido would play as gently with him as if he knew
that the baby was a very tender little thing, and could not bear any
rough treatment.

6. Nothing pleased the whole family, and Guido among the rest, so much,
as to hear the baby try to say _papa_, and _mamma_, and _bub_, and
_sis_; for he could not say _brother_, nor _sister_, nor pronounce any
other words plainly.

7. The youngest sister was very fond of making him say these words; and
every time the little creature repeated them to her, she would throw her
arms around his little neck, and hug and kiss him with all the
affectionate love her little heart could express.

8. She often used to dress her little doll as prettily as she knew how;
tying its frock on one day with a pretty blue ribbon, and on another
with a red one; for she had noticed, that whenever the doll was newly
dressed, the dear little baby would look very steadily at it, and hold
out its little arms towards it; and then she would carry it to her
little brother, and say to him, "Dolly,--pretty dolly,--bub want to see

9. One day she had dressed her doll in a very bright new dress, with
very gay ribbons, and was carrying it towards her father to show it to
him, when suddenly she heard the baby cry out, "Dolly!"

10. She immediately ran with delight to her little brother, holding up
the doll in its new shining dress, and repeated her usual words,
"Dolly,--bub want dolly?"

11. The baby, delighted, looked up in its mother's face, and laughed,
and crowed, and giggled, and in its delight again repeated the word

12. Pleased with her success, the little sister was unwearied in her
efforts to make her little brother repeat other words; and day by day
she was gratified to find the list of words which he lisped was growing
in length.

13. By the unwearied endeavors of father, mother, brother and sisters,
this pretty little baby, by the time that it was three years old, could
speak plainly anything that was repeated to him, and had learned the
names of almost everything that he saw about the house, the yard, and
the street.

14. But it was observed that Guido, the dog, although he could not speak
a word, had also learned the names of many things; and when George, the
oldest son, told him to go and bring his ball to him, Guido would wag
his tail, and go up into George's chamber, and look about the room until
he had found the ball; and then he would run down the stairs, and
dropping the ball at his young master's feet, look up in his face,
expecting that George would throw it down for him to catch again.


15. The baby, however, learnt words and names much faster than Guido;
for although Guido knew as much as any dog knows, yet dogs are different
creatures from children, and cannot learn so much nor so fast as
children can, because it has not pleased God to give them the same

16. Now, perhaps you may wish to know who this interesting family were
of whom I have been speaking; and you will probably be surprised to
learn, that all I have told you about this little baby is true of every
little baby, and that the manner that every infant is taught to speak is
the same.

17. It is the same manner as that in which the little Spanish girl,
mentioned in the seventh lesson, was taught to speak the English



1. I told you, in the last lesson, how an infant child first learned to
speak, when it was taught by its father and mother, and brother and

2. I intend to show you, in this lesson, how the little child learned
the meaning of a great many words himself, without the assistance of any
one else.

3. He was very fond of Guido, the dog, and watched everything he did,
especially when his brother George was playing with him.

4. When George called Guido, and said to the dog, "_Come here_, Guido,"
the little boy could not help noticing that Guido _went to_ George.

5. When George's father or mother called George, and said, "Come here,
George," the little child saw that George _went to_ his father, or his

6. Now, nobody told the little child what George, or his father, or his
mother, meant by the word _come_; but he always saw, that when any one
said to another, "_Come_," that the one who was spoken to always _moved
towards_ the person who called him, and in this way the little child
found out what his father or his mother meant by the word _come_.

7. It was in this way, my young friend who are reading this lesson, that
you, yourself, learned the meaning of most of the words that you know.

8. When you were a little child, like the infant of whom I have been
speaking, you knew no more about words, or about speaking, than he did.

9. But, by hearing others speak and use words, you learned to use them
yourself; and there is no word ever used, either in books or anywhere
else, that you cannot find out its meaning, provided that you hear it
used frequently, and by different persons.

10. I will now give you an example, to show you what I mean. I will give
you a word that you probably never heard of before; and although I shall
not tell you what the word means, I think you will find it out yourself,
before you have read many more lines of this lesson.

11. The word _hippoi_ is the word that I shall choose, because I know
that you do not know the meaning of it; but I wish you to read the
following sentences in which the word is used, and I think that you will
find out what _hippoi_ means, before you have read them all.

12. In California, and in Mexico, and in most parts of South America,
there are many wild _hippoi_, which feed on the grass that grows wild

13. The Indians hunt the _hippoi_; and when they catch them, they tame
them, and put bridles on their heads, and bits in their mouths, and
saddles on their backs, and ride on them.

14. A carriage, with four white _hippoi_, has just passed by the window,
and one of the _hippoi_ has dropped his shoe. The coachman must take him
to the blacksmith, to have the shoe put on.

15. The noise which _hippoi_ make is a very strange noise, and when
they make it they are said to neigh (_pronounced na_).

16. The hoofs of cows and goats and sheep and deer are cloven; that is,
they are split into two parts; but the hoofs of _hippoi_ are not split
or cloven, and for that reason they are called whole-hoofed animals.

17. My father has in his barn four _hippoi_. One of them is red, and has
a short tail; another is white, with a few dark hairs in his mane, or
long hair on the top of his neck; the third is gray, with dark spots on
his body; and the fourth is perfectly black, and has a very long tail,
which reaches almost to the ground.

18. Now, from these sentences, I think you will see that _hippoi_ does
not mean cows, or goats, or sheep, or deer; and I do not think it
necessary to tell you anything more about it, except that it is a word
that was spoken by the Corinthians and the Colossians and the Ephesians,
the people to whom St. Paul addressed those epistles or letters in the
Bible called by their names.

19. When you have read this lesson, your teacher will probably ask you
what the word _hippoi_ means; and I hope you will be able to tell him
that _hippoi_ means----[here put in the English word for _hippoi_.]



1. In the last lesson, I gave you a word which you had not seen before,
to find out the meaning of it, without looking in a dictionary.

2. I told you, in a former lesson, how the little Spanish girl found out
the meaning of words which she did not know; and afterwards informed you
how the infant child was taught to speak.

3. Now, I doubt not that you can speak a great many words, and know what
they mean when you use them; but I do not think that you ever thought
much about the way in which you learned them.

4. Perhaps you will be surprised to hear that everybody learns to talk
and to use words in the same way that the little Spanish girl and the
little infant learned them; that is, by hearing others use them in
different ways, just as the word _hippoi_ was used in the last lesson.

5. Nobody ever told you, probably, the meaning of a great many words
that you know; and yet you know them full as well, and perhaps better,
than if any one had told you about them.

6. Perhaps you have a brother whose name is John, or George, or James,
or a sister whose name is Mary, or Jane, or Ann, or Lucy. You have
always heard them called by these names, ever since you, or they, were
quite young; and have noticed that when John was called, that the one
whose name is John would answer; and as each one answered when spoken
to, you learnt which was John, and which was Mary, and which was Lucy.

7. So also, when a certain animal, having two large horns and a long
tail, and which is milked every night and morning, passed by, you heard
some one say _cow_; and in this way you learned what the word _cow_

8. So also, when water falls from the sky in drops, little children hear
people say it rains; and thus they find out what _rain_, means.

9. Now, when anybody asks you what any word means, although you know it
very well, yet it is a very hard thing to tell what it means,--that is,
to give a definition of it,--as you will see by the little story I am
about to tell you.

10. A teacher, who was very anxious to make his scholars understand
their lessons, once told them he had a very hard question he wished to
ask them, and that he would let the one who answered the question best
take the head of the class.

11. This teacher never allowed any of his pupils to speak to him without
first raising his right hand above his head, to signify that the child
had something to say; and when any child raised his hand in this way, if
he was not busy, he called upon the child to say what he wished.

12. In this way he prevented the children from troubling him when he was
busy; and in this way he also prevented them from interrupting each
other, as would be the case if several of them should speak at once.

13. On the day of which I am about to speak, he said to them, Now,
children, I have a very hard question to ask you, that does not require
you to study, but only to think about it, in order to answer it well;
and the one who gives me the best answer shall go to the head of the
class. The question is this: _What is a bird?_

14. Before they heard the question, they looked very sober, and thought
their master intended to puzzle them, or to give them a long sentence to
commit to memory. But as soon as they heard the question, they began to
smile among themselves, and wonder how their teacher should call that a
hard question.

15. A dozen hands were immediately raised, to signify that so many of
the children were ready to answer it.

16. Well, John, said the teacher, your hand is up; can you tell me _what
a bird is_?

17. John immediately rose, and standing on the right-hand side of his
seat, said, A bird is a thing that has two legs.

18. Well, said the teacher, suppose some one should saw off two of the
legs of my chair; it would then be a thing that has two legs; but it
would not be a bird, would it? You see, then, that your answer is not

19. I will not mention the names of the other children who raised their
hands; but I will tell you what the answers were which some of them made
to the questions, and what the teacher said about each of their answers.

20. One of the children said that a bird is an _animal_ with two legs.
But, said the teacher, all little boys and girls, and all men and women,
are animals with two legs; but they are not birds.

21. Another child said that a bird is an animal that has wings. But the
teacher said there are some fishes that have wings, and that fishes are
not birds.

22. A bright little girl then modestly rose and said, A bird is an
animal that has legs and wings, and that flies. The teacher smiled upon
her very kindly, and told her that it is true that a bird has legs and
wings, and that it flies; but, said he, there is another animal, also,
that has legs and wings, and that flies very fast in the air. It is
called a _bat_. It flies only in the night; but it has no feathers, and
therefore is not a bird.

23. Upon hearing this, another bright-eyed child very timidly rose and
said, A bird is an animal that has legs, wings and feathers. Very well,
said the teacher; but can you not think of anything else that a bird
has, which other creatures have not?

24. The children looked at one another, wondering what their teacher
could mean; and no one could think what to say, until the teacher said
to them, Think a moment, and try to tell me how a bird's mouth looks.
Look first at my mouth. You see I have two lips, and these two lips form
my mouth. Now, tell me whether a bird has two lips; and if he has not,
what he has instead of lips.

25. One of the children immediately arose and said, that a bird has no
lips, but he has a bill; and that bill opens as the lips of a man do,
and forms the mouth of the bird.

26. Yes, said the teacher; and now listen to me while I tell you the
things you should always mention, when you are asked what a bird is,--

    First, A bird is an animal.
    Secondly, It has two legs.
    Thirdly, It has two wings.
    Fourthly, It has feathers.
    Fifthly, It has a hard, glossy bill.

27. And now, said the teacher, you see that I was right when I told you
that I had a hard question to ask you, when I asked What is a bird?

28. Now, if you will join all of these things which belong to a bird in
the description which you give in answer to my question, What is a bird,
you will then give a correct definition of a bird,--that is, you will
tell exactly what a bird is, and no more, and no less.

29. A bird is an animal covered with feathers, having two legs, two
wings, and a hard, glossy bill.

30. When you are asked what anything is, recollect what I have told you
about a bird, and try to recall everything that you ever knew about the
thing, and in this way you will be able to give a satisfactory answer.

31. This will also teach you to think, and that is one of the most
important objects for which you go to school. It will enable you also to
understand what you read; and you can always read those things best
which you understand well.


_Reading and Spelling._

1. Another important thing for which you go to school is to learn how to
spell. It is not always very easy to spell, because there are so many
different ways in which the same letters are pronounced in different

2. That you may understand what I mean, I shall give an example, to show
you how many different ways the same letters are pronounced in different
words; and also another example, to show you how many different ways
there are of spelling the same syllable.

3. To show you, first, in how many different ways the same letters are
pronounced in different words, I shall take the letters o, u, g, h.

4. The letters _o, u, g, h_, are sounded or pronounced like the letter
_o_ alone, in the word _though_. The letters _o, u, g, h_, are
pronounced like _uf_, in the word _tough_.

5. In the word _cough_, the letters _o, u, g, h_, are pronounced like
_off_. In the words _slough_ and _plough_, the letters _o, u, g, h_, are
pronounced like _ow_; and in the word _through_, they are pronounced
like _ew_, or like _u_.

6. In the word _hiccough_ the letters _ough_ are pronounced like
_up_--and in the word _lough_, the letters are pronounced like _lok_.

7. There are many words which end with a sound like _shun_; and this
syllable is spelled in many different ways, as you will see in the
following example.

8. In the words _ocean_, _motion_, _mansion_, _physician_, _halcyon_,
_Parnassian_, _Christian_, and many other such words, the last syllable
is pronounced as if it were spelled _shun_.

9. You see, then, that in some words a syllable sounding very much like
_shun_ is spelled

                          _cean_, as in ocean;
    in some it is spelled _tion_, as in nation;
    in some it is spelled _sion_, as in mansion;
    in some it is spelled _cian_, as in physician;
    in some it is spelled _cyon_, as in halcyon;
    in some it is spelled _sian_, as in Parnassian.

10. It is such things as these which make both reading and spelling very
hard lessons for young children. If they think of them all at once, as
the pendulum did of the eighty-six thousand times that it had to swing
in twenty-four hours, it is no wonder if they feel discouraged, and say,
I can't get these hard lessons.

11. But you must recollect that, as the pendulum, every time it had to
swing, had a moment given it to swing in, so you also have a moment
given you to learn everything in; and if you get a little at a time, you
will, in the end, finish it all, if it be ever so large.

12. You have seen the workman engaged in building a brick house. He
takes one brick at a time, and lays it on the mortar, smoothing the
mortar with his trowel; and then he takes another brick, and another,
until he has made a long row for the side of the house.

13. He then takes another brick, and lays that on the first row; and
continues laying brick after brick, until the house gradually rises to
its proper height.

14. Now, if the workman had said that he could never lay so many bricks,
the house would never have been built; but he knew that, although he
could lay but one brick at a time, yet, by continuing to lay them, one
by one, the house would at last be finished.

15. There are some children, who live as much as a mile, or a half of a
mile, from the school-house. If these children were told that they must
step forward with first one foot and then the other, and must take three
or four thousand steps, before they could reach the school-house, they
would probably be very much discouraged, every morning, before they set
out, and would say to their mothers, Mother, I can't go to school,--it
is so far; I must put out one foot, and drag the other after it, three
thousand times, before I can get there.

16. You see, then, that although it may appear to be a very hard thing
to learn to read and to spell so many words as there are in large books,
yet you are required to learn but a few of them at a time; and if there
were twice as many as there are, you will learn them all, in time.

17. I shall tell you a story, in the next lesson, to show you how
important it is to know how to spell.


_Importance of Learning to Spell._--ORIGINAL VERSION.

1. A rich man, whose education had been neglected in early life, and who
was, of course, very ignorant of many things which even little boys and
girls among us now-a-days know very well, lived in a large house, with
very handsome furniture in it.

2. He kept a carriage, and many servants, some of whom were very much
better educated than he was himself.

3. This rich man had been invited out many times to dine with his
neighbors; and he observed that at the dinners to which he was invited
there were turkeys, and ducks, and chickens, as well as partridges, and
quails, and woodcocks, together with salmon, and trout, and
pickerel,--with roasted beef, and lamb, and mutton, and pork.

4. But he noticed that every one seemed to be more fond of chickens than
anything else, but that they also ate of the ducks and the turkeys.

5. He, one day, determined to invite his friends to dine with him, in
return for their civilities in inviting him; and he made up his mind to
have an abundance of those things, in particular, of which he had
observed his friends to be most fond.

6. He accordingly sent his servant to market, to buy his dinner; and,
for fear the servant should make any mistake, he wrote his directions on
paper, and, giving the paper, with some money, to the servant, he sent
him to the market.

7. The servant took the paper and the money, and set off. Just before he
reached the market, he opened the paper, to see what his master had

8. But his master wrote so very badly, it took him a long time to find
out what was written on the paper; but, at last, he contrived to make
it out, as follows:

9. "Dukes would be preferred to Turks; but Chittens would be better than

10. What his master meant by dukes, and turks, and chittens, he could
not guess. No such things were for sale at the market, and he did not
dare to return home without buying something.

11. As he could find nothing like dukes nor turks, he happened to see a
poor woman carrying home a basket full of kittens. This was the most
like _chittens_ of anything he could find; and not being able to get
what his master had written for, he thought his master meant kittens. He
therefore bought the basket of kittens, and carried them home for his
master's dinner.



1. There lived, a great many years ago, in Athens, one of the most
renowned cities of Greece, a very celebrated orator, whose name was

2. But you will not understand what an _orator_ is, until you are told
that it means a person who speaks before a large number of people, to
persuade them what to do, or to give them information, or good advice.

3. Thus, when a minister or clergyman preaches a good sermon, and speaks
in such a manner as to please all who hear him, convincing them of their
duty, and persuading them to do it, he is called an orator.

4. Demos'thenes was not a clergyman, or minister, but he spoke before
large assemblies of the Athenians, and they were very much delighted to
hear him. Whenever it was known that he intended to speak in public,
every one was anxious to hear him.

5. Now, I wish to show you how hard he worked, and what he did, to
become a great orator.

6. In the first place, then, he had a very weak voice, and could not
speak loud enough to be heard by a large assembly; and, besides this, he
was very much troubled with shortness of breath. These were very great
discouragements, and had he not labored very hard to overcome them, he
never could have succeeded.

7. To cure his shortness of breath, he used to go up and down stairs
very frequently, and run up steep and uneven places; and to strengthen
his voice, he often went to the sea-shore, when the waves were very
noisy and violent, and talked aloud to them, so that he could hear his
own voice above the noise of the waters.


8. He could not speak the letter _r_ plainly, but pronounced it very
much as you have heard some little boys and girls pronounce it, when
they say a _wed wose_ for a _red rose_, or a _wipe cherwy_ instead of a
_ripe cherry_.

9. Besides this, he stammered, or stuttered, very badly. To cure himself
of these faults in speaking, he used to fill his mouth full of pebbles,
and try to speak with them in his mouth.

10. He had a habit, also, of making up faces, when he was trying to
speak hard words; and, in order to cure himself of this, he used to
practice speaking before a looking-glass, that he might see himself,
and try to correct the habit.

11. To break himself of a habit he had of shrugging up his shoulders,
and making himself appear hump-backed, he hung up a sword over his back,
so that it might prick him, with its sharp point, whenever he did so.


12. He shut himself up in a cave under ground, and, in order to confine
himself there to his studies, he shaved the hair off of one half of his
head, so that he might be ashamed to go out among men.

13. It was in this way that this great man overcame all of his
difficulties, and, at last, became one of the greatest orators that have
ever lived.

14. Now, whenever you have a hard lesson to read, or to study, think of
Demos'thenes, and recollect how he overcame all his difficulties, and I
think you will find that you have few things to do so hard as these
things which he did.

15. When your teacher requests you to put out your voice and speak loud,
remember what Demos'thenes used to do to strengthen his voice, and you
will find very little trouble in speaking loudly enough to be heard, if
you will only try.


_Hard Words._

1. In one of the former lessons, you were taught how to read long and
hard words, by taking them to pieces, and reading a part of a word at a

2. I promised you also that this book should not be filled with hard
words; but I did not promise that there should be no hard words in it.

3. Having taught you how to read hard words, I propose, in this lesson,
to give you a few long words to read,--not for the purpose of
understanding what they mean, but only to make you able to read such
words, when you find them in any other book.

4. The best way of getting rid of all difficulties, is to learn how to
overcome them, and master them; for they cease to be difficulties, when
you have overcome them.

5. Demos'thenes, as I told you in the last lesson, had a very hard task
to perform, before he became a great orator. You, also, can become a
good scholar, if you will take pains to study your lessons, and learn
them well.

6. Before you read any lesson to your teacher from this book, it is
expected that you will study it over, and find out all the most
difficult words, so that you may read them right off to him, without
stopping to find them out, while he is waiting to hear you read them.

7. Now, here I shall place a few hard words for you to study over, to
read to your teacher when you read this lesson to him; and he will
probably require every one in your class to read them all aloud to him.

8. I wish you not to go up to your teacher to ask him to assist you,
until you have tried yourself to read them, and find that you cannot.

9. There are some words that are not pronounced as they are spelt, as I
have taught you in a former lesson.

10. Such a word as _phthisic_, which is pronounced as if it were spelled
_tis´ic_, I dare say would puzzle you, if you had never seen it before;
but before you go up to your teacher, to ask him any questions, you
should read over the whole of your lesson, and perhaps you will find, in
the lesson itself, something that will explain what puzzled you; and
thus you could find it out from your book, without troubling your

11. Here are some of the long words I wish you to read.

12. Organization, Theoretical, Metaphysical, Metempsychosis,
Multitudinous, Arithmetician, Metaphysician, Hyperbolical.

13. Apotheosis, Indefeasible, Feasibility, Supersaturated, Prolongation,
Meridional, Ferruginous, Fastidiousness.

14. Haberdashery, Fuliginous, Exhalation, Prematurely, Depreciation,
Appreciability, Resuscitate, Surreptitious, Interlocutory.

15. Sometimes the letters _a e_, and _o e_, are printed together, like
one letter, as in the words Cæsar, Coelebs, and then the syllable is
pronounced as if it were spelled with _e_ alone, as in the following

16. Diæresis, Aphæresis, OEcumenical, Æthiop, Subpoena,
Encyclopædia, Phoenix, Phoebus, Æolus.

17. When there are two little dots over one of the letters, they are
both to be sounded, as in the word Aërial, which is pronounced

18. The letter _c_ is one which puzzles many young persons who are
learning to read, because it is sometimes pronounced like _k_, as in the
word _can_, and sometimes like _s_, as in the word _cent_; and they do
not know when to pronounce it like _k_, and when to sound it like _s_.

19. But if you will recollect that _c_ is sounded like _k_ when it
stands before the letters _a_, _o_, or _u_, and that it is sounded like
_s_ before the letters _e_, _i_, and _y_, you will have very little
trouble in reading words that have the letter _c_ in them.

20. So also the letter _g_ has two sounds, called the hard sound, and
the soft sound. The hard sound is the sound given to it in the word
_gone_; the soft sound is that which is heard in the word _gentle_.

21. The same rule which you have just learnt with regard to the letter
_c_ applies to the letter _g_. It has its hard sound before _a_, _o_,
and _u_, and its soft sound before _e_, _i_, and _y_.

22. There are, it is true, some words where this rule is not applied;
but these words are very few, so that you may safely follow this rule in
most words.

23. The letters _ph_ are sounded like _f_. The letters _ch_ are sounded
sometimes like _k_, as in the words _loch_ and _monarch_, and sometimes
like _sh_, as in the words _chaise_ and _charade_; and they have
sometimes a sound which cannot be represented by any other letters, as
in the words _charm_ and _chance_.

24. I suppose that you have probably learned most of these things which
I have now told you in your spelling-book; but I have repeated them in
this book, because I have so often found that little boys and girls are
very apt to forget what they have learned.

25. If you recollect them all, it will do you no harm to read them
again, but it will impress them more deeply on your memory. But if you
have forgotten them, this little book will recall them to your mind, so
that you will never forget them.

26. I recollect, when I was a little boy, that the letter _y_ used to
trouble me very much when it began a word, and was not followed by one
of the letters which are called vowels, namely, _a_, _e_, _i_, _o_, _u_.
I knew how to pronounce _ya_, _ye_, _yi_, _yo_, _yu_; but one day, when
I was studying a lesson in geography, I saw a word which was spelt _Y,
p, r, e, s_, which puzzled me very much.

27. I knew that the letters _p, r, e, s_, would spell _pres_, but I did
not know what to call the _y_. After studying it a long time, I found
that the letter _y_, in that word and some others, was to be pronounced
like the long _e_, and that the word was pronounced _Epres_, though it
was spelled _Y, p, r, e, s_.

28. Perhaps you will be able, when you grow up, to write a book; and to
tell little boys and girls who go to school, when you have grown up, how
to read hard words, better than I have told you.

29. If you wish to do so, you must try to recollect what puzzles you
most now, and then you will be able to inform them how to get over their
difficulties and troubles at school; and when they grow up, I have no
doubt that they will feel very grateful to you for the assistance you
have given them.


_Fire,[A]--a Conversation between a Mother and her little Daughter._


_Daughter._ Mother dear, you told me, the other day, that nobody knows
what _light_ is, except the Great Creator. Now, can you tell me _what
fire is_?

_Mother._ I fear, my child, that you have asked another question which I
cannot directly answer. What fire is, is known only by its effects.

_Daughter._ And what are its effects, mother?

_Mother._ Some of its effects are as well known to you, my dear, as they
are to me; and I shall, in the first place, call to your recollection
what you yourself know about _fire_, before I attempt to give you any
further information in relation to it.

_Daughter._ Why, mother, I am sure I do not know what fire is.

_Mother._ No, Caroline, I know that you do not know what fire is;
neither do I, nor does any one, except the Great Creator himself. This
is one of his secrets, which, in his wisdom, he reserves for himself.

But you certainly know some of the effects of fire. For instance, you
know that when you have been out into the cold, you wish, on your
return, to go to the fire. Now, can you tell me what you go to the fire

_Daughter._ Why, certainly, mother; I go to the fire to warm myself.

_Mother._ And how does the fire warm you, my dear?

_Daughter._ Why, it sends out its heat, mother; and I hold out my hands
to it, and feel the heat.

_Mother._ And where does the heat come from, Caroline?

_Daughter._ Why, the heat comes from the fire, mother.

_Mother._ Then, my dear, you know at least one of the effects of fire.
It produces, or rather sends out, heat.

_Daughter._ But does not the fire make the heat, mother?

_Mother._ If you had a little bird, or a mouse, in a cage, and should
open the door and let it out, should you say that you _made_ the little
bird, or the mouse?

_Daughter._ Say that I made them, mother?--why, no; certainly not. I
only let them go free. God made them. You told me that God made all

_Mother._ Neither did the fire make the heat. It only made it free,
somewhat in the same manner that you would make the bird or the mouse
free, by opening the door of the cage.

_Daughter._ Why, mother, is heat kept in cages, like birds or mice?

_Mother._ No, my dear, not exactly in cages, like birds or mice; but a
great deal closer, in a different kind of cage.

_Daughter_ Why, mother, what sort of a cage can heat be kept in?

_Mother._ I must answer your question, Caroline, by asking you another.
When Alice makes her fire in the kitchen, how does she make it?

_Daughter._ She takes some wood, or some coal, and puts under it some
pine wood, which she calls kindling, and some shavings, and then takes a
match and sets the shavings on fire, and very soon the fire is made.

_Mother._ But does she not first do something to the match?


_Daughter._ O, yes; I forgot to say that she lights the match first, and
then sets fire to the shavings with the lighted match.

_Mother._ But how does she light the match, my dear?

_Daughter._ Why, mother, have you never seen her? She rubs one end of
the match on the box, where there is a little piece of sand-paper, and
that sets the match on fire.

_Mother._ Is there any fire in the sand-paper, Caroline?

_Daughter._ Why, no, mother; certainly not.

_Mother._ Was there any fire in the match, before she lighted it?

_Daughter._ Why, no, mother; if there had been, she would have had no
need to light it.

_Mother._ You see, then, that fire came when she rubbed the match
against the sand-paper; and that the fire was not in the sand-paper, nor
in the match.

_Daughter._ Yes, mother, but I did not see where it came from.

_Mother._ I am going to explain that to you, my dear, in the next


[A] This lesson, together with the two following lessons, is
taken from a little book, called "Juvenile Philosophy," published by
Messrs. A.S. Barnes & Co., 51 John-street, New York. It consists of nine
conversations, between a little girl and her mother, on the subjects,
Rain, Color, Vision or Sight, the Eye, Light, Fire, Heat and Wind.


_The same subject, continued._

_Mother._ Did you ever see a person rub his hands together, when he was

_Daughter._ O yes, mother, a great many times. I have seen father come
in from the cold, and rub his hands together, and afterwards hold them
to the fire and rub them again, and then they get warm.

_Mother._ And now, Caroline, take your hand and rub it quickly backwards
and forwards, over that woolen table-cloth, on the table in the corner
of the room, and tell me whether that will make your hand warm.

_Daughter._ O, yes, dear mother; I feel it grow warmer, the faster I rub

_Mother._ Here are two small pieces of wood. Touch them to your cheek,
and tell me whether they feel warm now.

_Daughter._ They do not feel warm, nor cold, mother.

_Mother._ Now rub them together quickly a little while, and then touch
them to your cheek.

[Illustration: R]

_Daughter._ O, dear, mother! they are so hot that they almost burnt my

_Mother._ Yes, Caroline; and do you not recollect, when you read
Robinson Crusoe, that his man Friday made a fire by rubbing two pieces
of wood together?

_Daughter._ O, yes, dear mother; and I have often wondered why Alice
could not light her lire and the lamp in the same manner, without those
matches, which have so offensive a smell.

_Mother._ It is very hard work, my dear, to obtain fire by rubbing two
pieces of wood together; and it would take too long a time to do it. The
two pieces of wood would grow warm by a very little rubbing; but in
order to make them take fire, they must be rubbed together a great

_Daughter._ But, mother, if it takes so long a time to get fire by
rubbing two pieces of wood together, why can Alice set the match on fire
so easily by rubbing it once on the sand-paper?

_Mother._ That is what I am about to explain to you, my dear. Here, take
this piece of paper and hold it up to the lamp.

_Daughter._ It has taken fire, mother.

[Illustration: L]

_Mother._ Now take this piece of pine wood, and hold that up to the lamp
in the same manner, and see whether that will take fire too.

_Daughter._ Yes, mother, it has taken fire; but I had to hold it up to
the lamp much longer than I did the paper.

_Mother._ Now take this piece of hard wood, and do the same with that.

_Daughter._ The hard wood takes longer still to catch fire, mother.

_Mother._ Yes, my child. And now I am going to make the hard wood take
fire more quickly than the paper did.

_Daughter._ Dear mother, how can you do it?

_Mother._ I am going to show you, my dear. Here is a small phial, which
contains something that looks like water. It is spirits of turpentine. I
shall dip the point of the piece of hard wood into the phial, and take
up a little of the spirits of turpentine. Now, Caroline, touch the point
of the hard wood with the turpentine on it to the flame.

_Daughter._ Why, mother, it caught fire as soon as I touched the flame
with it!

_Mother._ Yes, certainly; and you now see that some things, like the
spirits of turpentine and the paper, take fire very readily, and others
take fire with more difficulty.

_Daughter._ Yes, mother; but when Alice drew the match across the
sand-paper, there was no flame nor fire to touch it to. How, then, could
it take fire?

_Mother._ Hold this piece of paper up to the blaze of the lamp, my dear,
but be careful not to touch the fire or flame of the lamp; only hold it
close to the blaze.

_Daughter._ Why, mother, it has taken fire!

_Mother._ You see, then, that a thing will sometimes take fire when it
does not touch the fire.

_Daughter._ Yes, mother; but I do not understand where the fire comes

_Mother._ The fire comes from the heat, my dear. Now, you know that heat
is produced by rubbing two things together; and that some things, like
the spirits of turpentine, take fire very easily, or with very little
heat; and others, like the hard wood, require to be heated some
time,--or, in other words, require much heat,--to make them take fire,
or to burn. Some things require only as much heat to make them take fire
as can be obtained by rubbing them together very quickly, like the wood
which Robinson Crusoe's man Friday used.

_Daughter._ But, mother, the match is made of wood,--why does that take
fire so easily?

_Mother._ It is true, Caroline, that the match is made of wood; but it
has something at the end of it, which takes fire much more easily than
the spirits of turpentine. Indeed, so easily does it take fire, that it
requires only so much heat to set it on fire as can be obtained by
drawing the match once across the sand-paper.

_Daughter._ But, mother, matches do not always take fire. I have seen
Alice rub several across the sand-paper, before she could set one on

_Mother._ That is true, and the reason of this is, that the matches are
not all well made. Now, if I should take several pieces of hard wood and
tie them together, and dip their ends into the spirits of turpentine,
what would happen, if the ends of some of the pieces did not touch the
spirits of turpentine, because I had not tied them together with their
points all even?

_Daughter._ Why, mother, some of them would take fire easily, because
the points had the spirits of turpentine on them; while those which did
not touch the spirits could not be lighted so easily.

_Mother._ So it is, my dear, with the matches. They are all dipped into
the substance which takes fire so easily; but some of the ends do not
reach the substance, and do not become coated with it, and therefore
they will not light more easily than the pine wood of which they are


_The same subject, concluded._

_Daughter._ Well, mother, I understand, now, how the match is set on
fire. It is rubbed on the sand-paper, and that produces heat, and the
heat sets the match on fire. But I always thought that fire makes heat,
and not that heat makes fire.

_Mother._ Heat does not always make fire, Caroline; for, if it did,
everything would be on fire.

_Daughter._ Everything on fire, mother! why, what do you mean?

_Mother._ I mean, my dear, that everything contains heat.

_Daughter._ Everything contains heat, mother, did you say? Why, then, is
not everything warm? Some things, mother, are very cold; as ice, and
snow, and that marble slab.

_Mother._ Yes, my child, everything contains heat, as I shall presently
show you. When Alice goes to make a fire in a cold day, she does not
carry the heat with her, and put it into the fire, nor into the wood,
nor the coal, does she?

_Daughter._ Why, no, to be sure not, mother.

_Mother._ And the heat that comes from the fire, after it is made, does
not come in at the windows, nor down the chimney, does it?

_Daughter._ Why, no, mother; it feels cold at the windows, and cold air
comes down the chimney.

_Mother._ But, after the fire is made, we feel much heat coming from the
fire, do we not?

_Daughter._ Why, yes, mother; that is what the fire is made for. We feel
cold, and we want a fire to make us warm; and when the fire is made, it
sends out heat, and makes us warm.

_Mother._ Well, now, where can the heat come from? You know what fire is
made from, do you not?

_Daughter._ Certainly, mother; the fire is made of wood, or of coal.

_Mother._ But is the wood or the coal warm before the fire is made?

_Daughter._ No, mother, the wood and the coal come from the cold
wood-house, or the cellar, and they are both very cold.

_Mother._ And yet, the wood and the coal become very hot when they are
on fire.

_Daughter._ O yes, mother, so hot that we cannot touch them with our
hands, and we have to take the shovel or the tongs to move them.

_Mother._ And do they burn the shovel and the tongs, my dear?

_Daughter._ Why, no, mother; if they did, the shovel and the tongs would
be of little use in stirring the fire.

_Mother._ Can you think of any reason why they do not burn the shovel
and the tongs?

_Daughter._ You told me, mother, that some things require a very little
heat to set them on fire, and that other things require a great deal. I
suppose that there was not heat enough to set them on fire; and if there
had been, they would not burn, because they are made of iron.

_Mother._ You are partly right, my dear, and partly wrong. They would
not burn, because there was not heat enough in the fire to burn them.
But there are very few things, and in fact it may be doubted whether
there is anything, which will not burn, when sufficient heat is applied.
But let us return to the fire: you say the heat does not come from the
windows nor from the chimney, and you say, also, that the wood and the
coal are both cold. Now, where can the heat come from?

_Daughter._ I am sure I cannot tell, mother; will you please to tell me?

_Mother._ You recollect that I told you that the rubbing of the match on
the sand-paper produces a little heat, which caused the match to burn.
The match was then applied to the shavings, and, as it was burning, gave
out heat enough to set the shavings on fire; the shavings produced heat
enough to set the pine wood, or kindling, on fire, and then the pine
wood, or kindling, produced more heat, and set the wood and coal on
fire. Now, there was nothing to produce the heat but the match, the
shavings, the wood and the coal; and _the heat must have been in them_.
The fire only served to set it free, and let it come out of the match,
the wood, and the coal.

_Daughter._ But, mother, how did the heat get into the wood and coal?

_Mother._ It is not known, my dear, how the heat _got into_ the wood and
coal, any more than how the fruit gets on to a tree. We say that it
grows on the tree; but what growing is, and how it is caused, are among
the secrets of God.

_Daughter._ If the heat is in the wood and the coal, mother, why do we
not feel it in them? They both feel cold. I cannot perceive any heat in

_Mother._ The heat is in the wood and the coal, although you do not see
it. Do you see any smoke in the wood and the coal, my dear?

_Daughter._ No, mother, I do not.

_Mother._ Did you never see a stick of wood fall on the hearth from the
kitchen fire, and see the smoke coming from it?


_Daughter._ O yes, mother, very often; and the smoke goes all over the
room, and into my eyes, and makes the tears come into my eyes.

_Mother._ And can you see the smoke in the wood before the wood is put
on the fire?

_Daughter._ No, mother, I am sure I cannot.

_Mother._ But you are sure that the smoke comes from the wood, are you

_Daughter._ O yes, mother; I see it coming right out of the wood.

_Mother._ Then, my dear, I suppose you know that if there is something
in the wood and coal, which you call _smoke_, although you cannot see
it until it comes out, you can easily conceive how another thing, which
we call _heat_, can be in the wood and coal, which we cannot perceive
until it is made to come out.

_Daughter._ O yes, mother; how wonderful it is!

_Mother._ Yes, my dear, all the works of God are wonderful; and what is
very surprising is, that many of his most wonderful works are so common,
so continually before our eyes, that we do not deem them wonderful until
we have been made to think much about them, by talking about them, as
you and I have talked about the rain, and the clouds, and light, and its

_Daughter._ I have been thinking, mother, about Alice and the fire. You
told me that the fire did not _make_ the heat, any more than I _make_
the little mouse or the bird when I open the cage door and let them out.
I see now how it is. Alice brings the wood and the coal into the kitchen
fireplace, and the match lets the heat out of the shavings, and the
shavings let it out of the wood and the coal, until we get heat enough
to make us warm.

_Mother._ Yes, my dear; and there is no more heat in the room after the
fire is made than there was before,--only, before the fire was made,
the heat was hid, and we could not perceive it; but when the fire is
made, it makes the heat come out, and makes it free, just as I make the
little bird free, by opening his cage door.


_The Lark and her Young Ones._--Altered from ÆSOP.

1. A lark having built her nest in a corn-field, the corn grew ripe
before the young ones were able to fly. Fearing that the reapers would
come to cut down the corn before she had provided a safe place for her
little ones, she directed them every day, when she went out to obtain
their food, to listen to what the farmers should say about reaping the

2. The little birds promised their mother that they would listen very
attentively, and inform her of every word they should hear.

3. She then went abroad; and on her return, the little birds said to
their mother, Mother, you must take us away from here; for while you
were gone we heard the farmer tell his sons to go and ask some of his
neighbors to come to-morrow morning early, and help them cut down the

4. Is that what he said? asked their mother. Yes, mother, said the
little birds; and we are very much afraid that you cannot find a safe
place for us before the farmer and his neighbors begin to cut down the

5. Do not be afraid, my children, said the lark; if the former depends
on his neighbors to do his work for him, we shall be safe where we are.
So lie down in the nest, and give yourselves no uneasiness.

6. The next day, when the mother went out for food, she directed the
little ones again to listen, and to tell her all that they should hear.

7. In the evening, when she returned, the little ones told her that the
farmer's neighbors did not come to assist him on that day; and that the
farmer had told his sons to go and request his friends and relations to
come and assist him to cut down the corn, early in the next day morning.

8. I think, my children, said the lark, we shall still be safe here; and
we will, therefore, feel no anxiety or concern to-night.

9. On the third day, the mother again charged the young larks to give
her a faithful report of what was done and said, while she was absent.

10. When the old lark returned that evening, the little larks told her
that the farmer had been there, with his sons, early in the morning;
but, as his friends and relations had not come to assist him, he had
directed his sons to bring some sharp sickles early in the next morning,
and that, with their assistance, he should reap the corn himself.

11. Ah! said the mother, did he say so? Then it is time for us to
prepare to be gone; for when a man begins to think seriously of doing
his work himself, there is some prospect that it will be done; but if he
depends on his friends, his neighbors, or his relations, no one can tell
when his work will be done.

12. Now, this little story is called a Fable. It cannot be true, because
birds do not and cannot speak.

13. But, although it is not true, it is a very useful little story,
because it teaches us a valuable lesson: and that is, that it is best to
do our own work ourselves, rather than to depend upon others to do it
for us; for, if we depend upon them, they may disappoint us, but
whatever we determine to do for ourselves, we can easily accomplish, if
we go right to work about it.



1. I never knew a little boy that was not fond of a dog, and I have
never seen many dogs which were not fond of little children.

2. It is not safe for little children to touch every strange dog that
they see, because some dogs are naturally rather cross, and may possibly
bite any one who touches them, when they do not know the persons.

3. But when a dog knows any one, and sees that his master is fond of
that person, he will let such a person play with him. He is always
pleased with any attentions that his master's friends bestow on him.

4. Large dogs are generally more gentle than small ones, and seldom bark
so much as the little ones do. They are also more easily taught to carry
bundles and baskets, and draw little carriages for children to ride in.

5. Some people are very much afraid of dogs, because they sometimes run
mad. The bite of a mad dog produces a very dreadful disease, called

6. This is a long and hard word, and means _a fear of water_. It is
called by that name because the person who has the disease cannot bear
to touch or to see water.

7. Dogs that are mad cannot bear to see water. They run from it with
dreadful cries, and seem to be in very great distress.

8. Whenever, therefore, a dog will drink water, it is a pretty sure sign
that he is not mad.

9. This dreadful disease very seldom affects dogs that are properly
supplied with water.

10. Dogs require a great deal of water. They do not always want much at
a time, and it is seldom that they drink much. But whoever keeps a dog
ought always to keep water in such a place that the dog may go to it to
drink, whenever he requires it.

11. A dog is a very affectionate animal, and he will permit his master,
and his master's children and friends, to do a great many things to him,
which he would perhaps bite others for doing.

12. There are many very interesting stories told of dogs, which show
their love and fidelity to their masters, which you can read in a book
called "Anecdotes of Dogs."

13. But there are a few little stories about dogs that I know, which I
will tell you, that are not contained in that book. I know these
stories to be true.

14. My son had a dog, whose name was Guido. He was very fond of playing
in the street with the boys, early in the morning, before they went to

15. Guido was always very impatient to get out into the street in the
morning, to join the boys in their sports; and all the boys in the
street were very fond of him.

16. He used to wake very early, and go into the parlor, and seat himself
in a chair by the window, to look out for the boys; and as soon as he
saw a boy in the street, he would cry and whine until the servant opened
the door for him to go out.

17. One very cold morning, when the frost was on the glass, so that he
could not see out into the street, he applied his warm tongue to the
glass, and licking from it the frost, attempted to look out.

18. But the spot which he had made clear being only large enough to
admit one of his eyes, he immediately made another, just like it, in the
same manner, for the other eye, by which he was enabled to enjoy the
sight as usual. In the next lesson, I will tell you some other little
stories of Guido, and another dog, whose name was Don, that belonged to
my daughter.


_The same subject, concluded._

1. One day I went to take a walk, with a friend of mine, in the country;
and Don, the dog I mentioned in the last lesson, followed us.

2. We walked to a little grove about a mile from my house, to see the
grave of a beautiful little child, that was buried on the summit of a
little hill, covered with pines, spruce and other evergreens.

3. While we were admiring the beauty of the spot, Don was running about
the grove; and I completely lost sight of him, and supposed that he had
returned home.

4. But presently I saw him at a distance, barking up a tree at a
squirrel that had escaped from him.

5. As I turned to go home, I said to my friend, You see Don is away, and
does not see me. I am going to drop my handkerchief here, and send him
after it.

6. We had got half way home, when presently Don came bounding along, and
very shortly came up to us.

7. As soon as he came up to me, I stopped, and feeling in my
coat-pocket, said to him,--Don, I have lost my pocket-handkerchief,--go
find it.

8. I had scarcely uttered the words before he was off. He was gone only
two or three minutes, and then, returning with my handkerchief in his
mouth, he dropped it at my feet.

9. Guido, the other dog, was very fond of going into the water himself;
but he never would allow any one else to go in.

10. The reason was this. My little son George was one day looking over
into the water, to watch the eels that were gliding through the water
below, and losing his balance, he fell into the water.

11. No one was near except Guido, and he immediately jumped in after
George, and, with great labor, brought him on shore, and saved him from

12. Ever since that time, Guido has been very unwilling to let any one
go near the water. It seemed as if he had reasoned about it, and said to
himself, It is hard work to drag a boy out of the water, but it is much
easier to keep him from going in.

13. Guido was not a very large dog. He was of the breed, or kind, named
Spaniel; so called because that kind of dog originally came from
Hispaniola. He had long ears, curling hair, a long bushy tail, and
webbed feet, like all dogs that are fond of the water.

14. Webbed feet are those in which the toes are not separated, but seem
to be joined together by a thin substance, like thick skin, which
enables them to swim more easily.

15. Don was a very large dog, of the Newfoundland species, a kind which
is remarkable for its beauty and intelligence.


_Frogs and Toads._--BIGLAND.

1. Frogs and toads resemble one another in figure, but custom and
prejudice have taught us to make a very different estimate of their
properties: the first is considered as perfectly harmless, while the
latter is supposed to be poisonous.

2. In this respect, the toad has been treated with great injustice: it
is a torpid, harmless animal, that passes the greatest part of the
winter in sleep.

3. Astonishing stories have been told of toads found in the center of
solid blocks of stone, and other similar situations, without the least
trace of the way by which they entered, and without any possibility of
their finding any kind of nutriment.

4. Toads, as well as frogs, are of a variety of species; and in the
tropical climates they grow to an enormous size. It is very probable
that they contribute to clear both the land and the water of many
noxious reptiles of a diminutive size, which might prove exceedingly
hurtful to man.

5. The toad, however, is one of the most inoffensive of all animals. We
have even heard that it has sometimes been successfully applied for the
cure of the cancer, the most dreadful, and one of the most fatal, of
human evils.

6. Mr. Pennant has related some interesting particulars respecting a
toad which was perfectly domesticated, and continued in the same spot
for upwards of thirty-six years.

7. It frequented the steps before the hall-door of a gentleman's house
in Devonshire; and, from receiving a regular supply of food, it became
so tame as always to crawl out of its hole in an evening, when a candle
was brought, and look up, as if expecting to be carried into the house.

8. A reptile so generally detested being taken into favor, excited the
curiosity of every visitant; and even ladies so far conquered their
natural horror and disgust as to request to see it fed. It seemed
particularly fond of flesh maggots, which were kept for it in bran.

9. When these were laid upon a table, it would follow them, and, at a
certain distance, would fix its eyes and remain motionless for a little
while, as if preparing for the stroke, which was always instantaneous.

10. It threw out its tongue to a great distance, when the insect stuck
by the glutinous matter to its lip, and was swallowed with inconceivable

11. After living under the protection of its benefactor upwards of
thirty-six years, it was one day attacked by a tame raven, which wounded
it so severely that it died shortly afterward.

12. The erroneous opinion of toads containing and ejecting poison has
caused many cruelties to be exercised upon this harmless, and
undoubtedly useful tribe. Toads have been inhumanly treated, merely
because they are ugly; and frogs have been abused, because they are like

13. But, we are to observe, that our ideas of beauty and deformity, of
which some arise from natural antipathies implanted in us for wise and
good purposes, and others from custom and caprice, are of a relative
nature, and peculiar to ourselves.

14. None of these relative distinctions, of great and small, beautiful
or ugly, exist in the all-comprising view of the Creator of the
universe: in his eyes, the toad is as pleasing an object as the
canary-bird, or the bulfinch.


_Maida, the Scotch Greyhound._--Altered from BINGLEY.


1. A hound is a dog with long, smooth, hanging ears, and long limbs,
that enable him to run very swiftly. The greyhound is not so called on
account of his color, but from a word which denotes his Grecian origin.

2. The Scotch greyhound is a larger and more powerful animal than the
common greyhound; and its hair, instead of being sleek and smooth, is
long, stiff and bristly. It can endure great fatigue.

3. It was this dog that the Highland chieftains, in Scotland, used in
former times, in their grand hunting-parties.

4. Sir Walter Scott had a very fine dog of this kind, which was given to
him by his friend Macdonnel of Glengarry, the chief of one of the
Highland clans. His name was Maida.

5. He was one of the finest dogs of the kind ever seen in Scotland, not
only on account of his beauty and dignified appearance, but also from
his extraordinary size and strength.

6. He was so remarkable in his appearance, that whenever his master
brought him to the city of Edinburgh, great crowds of people collected
together to see him.

7. When Sir Walter happened to travel through a strange town, Maida was
usually surrounded by crowds of people, whose curiosity he indulged with
great patience, until it began to be troublesome, and then he gave a
single short bark, as a signal that they must trouble him no more.

8. Nothing could exceed the fidelity, obedience and attachment, of this
dog to his master, whom he seldom quitted, and on whom he was a
constant attendant, when traveling.

9. Maida was a remarkably high-spirited and beautiful dog, with long
black ears, cheeks, back, and sides. The tip of his tail was white. His
muzzle, neck, throat, breast, belly and legs, were also white.

10. The hair on his whole body and limbs was rough and shaggy, and
particularly so on the neck, throat, and breast: that on the ridge of
the neck he used to raise, like a lion's mane, when excited to anger.

11. His disposition was gentle and peaceable, both to men and animals;
but he showed marked symptoms of anger to ill-dressed or
blackguard-looking people, whom he always regarded with a suspicious
eye, and whose motions he watched with the most scrupulous jealousy.

12. This fine dog probably brought on himself premature old age, by the
excessive fatigue and exercise to which his natural ardor incited him;
for he had the greatest pleasure in accompanying the common greyhounds;
and although, from his great size and strength, he was not at all
adapted for coursing, he not unfrequently turned and even ran down

13. Sir Walter used to give an amusing account of an incident which
befell Maida in one of his chases. "I was once riding over a field on
which the reapers were at work, the stooks, or bundles of grain, being
placed behind them, as is usual.

14. "Maida, having found a hare, began to chase her, to the great
amusement of the spectators, as the hare turned very often and very
swiftly among the stooks. At length, being hard pressed, she fairly
bolted into one of them.

15. "Maida went in headlong after her, and the stook began to be much
agitated in various directions; at length the sheaves tumbled down, and
the hare and the dog, terrified alike at their overthrow, ran different
ways, to the great amusement of the spectators."

16. Among several peculiarities which Maida possessed, one was a strong
aversion to artists, arising from the frequent restraints he was
subjected to in having his portrait taken, on account of his majestic

17. The instant he saw a pencil and paper produced, he prepared to beat
a retreat; and, if forced to remain, he exhibited the strongest marks of

18. Maida's bark was deep and hollow. Sometimes he amused himself with
howling in a very tiresome way. When he was very fond of his friends,
he used to grin, tucking up his whole lips and showing all his teeth;
but this was only when he was particularly disposed to recommend

19. Maida lies buried at the gate of Abbotsford, Sir Walter's country
seat, which he long protected; a grave-stone is placed over him, on
which is carved the figure of a dog. It bears the following inscription,
as it was translated by Sir Walter:

    "Beneath the sculptured form which late you wore,
     Sleep soundly, Maida, at your master's door."


_Gelert._--BINGLEY, altered.

1. I have one more story to tell you about the Highland greyhound. It is
an old Welsh story, and shows how extremely dangerous it is to indulge
in anger and resentment.

2. In a village at the foot of Snowden, a mountain in Wales, there is a
tradition that Llewellyn (_pronounced_ Lewel´lin), son-in-law to King
John, had a residence in that neighborhood.

3. The king, it is said, had presented him with one of the finest
greyhounds in England, named Gelert. In the year 1205, Llewellyn, one
day, on going out to hunt, called all his dogs together; but his
favorite greyhound was missing, and nowhere to be found.

4. He blew his horn as a signal for the chase, and still Gelert came
not. Llewellyn was much disconcerted at the heedlessness of his
favorite, but at length pursued the chase without him. For want of
Gelert, the sport was limited; and getting tired, Llewellyn returned
home at an early hour, when the first object that presented itself to
him, at his castle gate, was Gelert, who bounded, with his usual
transport, to meet his master, having his lips besmeared with blood.

5. Llewellyn gazed with surprise at the unusual appearance of his dog.
On going into the apartment where he had left his infant son and heir
asleep, he found the bed-clothes all in confusion, the cover rent, and
stained with blood.

6. He called on his child, but no answer was made, from which he hastily
concluded that the dog must have devoured him; and, giving vent to his
rage, plunged his sword to the hilt in Gelert's side.

7. The noble animal fell at his feet, uttering a dying yell, which
awoke the infant, who was sleeping beneath a mingled heap of the
bed-clothes, while beneath the bed lay a great wolf covered with gore,
which the faithful and gallant hound had destroyed.

8. Llewellyn, smitten with sorrow and remorse for the rash and frantic
deed which had deprived him of so faithful an animal, caused an elegant
marble monument, with an appropriate inscription, to be erected over the
spot where Gelert was buried, to commemorate his fidelity and unhappy
fate. The place, to this day, is called Beth-Gelert, or The Grave of the


_Knock Again._--CHILD'S COMPANION.

1. I remember having been sent, when I was a very little boy, with a
message from my father to a particular friend of his, who resided in the
suburbs of the town in which my parents then lived.

2. This gentleman occupied an old-fashioned house, the door of which was
approached by a broad flight of stone steps of a semi-circular form. The
brass knocker was an object of much interest to me, in those days; for
the whim of the maker had led him to give it the shape of an elephant's
head, the trunk of the animal being the movable portion.

3. Away, then, I scampered, in great haste; and having reached the
house, ran up the stone steps as usual; and, seizing the elephant's
trunk, made the house reëcho to my knocking. No answer was returned.

4. At this my astonishment was considerable, as the servants, in the
times I write of, were more alert and attentive than they are at
present. However, I knocked a second time. Still no one came.

5. At this I was much more surprised. I looked at the house. It
presented no appearance of a desertion. Some of the windows were open to
admit the fresh air, for it was summer; others of them were closed. But
all had the aspect of an inhabited dwelling.

6. I was greatly perplexed; and looked around, to see if any one was
near who could advise me how to act. Immediately a venerable old
gentleman, whom I had never seen before, came across the way, and,
looking kindly in my face, advised me to knock again.

7. I did so without a moment's hesitation, and presently the door was
opened, so that I had an opportunity of delivering my message. I
afterward learned that the servants had been engaged in removing a heavy
piece of furniture from one part of the house to the other; an operation
which required their united strength, and prevented them from opening
the door.


_The same subject, continued._

1. As I was tripping lightly homeward, I passed the kind old gentleman,
about half way down the street. He took me gently by the arm; and,
retaining his hold, began to address me thus, as we walked on together:

2. "The incident, my little friend, which has just occurred, may be of
some use to you in after life, if it be suitably improved. Young people
are usually very enthusiastic in all their undertakings, and in the same
proportion are very easily discouraged.

3. "Learn, then, from what has taken place this morning, to persevere in
the business which you have commenced, provided it be laudable in
itself; and, ten to one, you will succeed. If you do not at first
obtain what you aim at, _knock again_. A door may be opened when you
least expect it.

4. "In entering on the practice of a profession, engaging in trade, or
what is usually called settling in the world, young people often meet
with great disappointments.

5. "Friends, whom they naturally expected to employ them, not
unfrequently prefer others in the same line; and even professors of
religion do not seem to consider it a duty to promote the temporal
interest of their brethren in the Lord.

6. "Nevertheless, industry, sobriety, and patience, are usually
accompanied by the Divine blessing. Should you therefore, my little
friend, ever experience disappointments of this kind, think of the brass
knocker; _knock again_; be sober, be diligent, and your labors will be

7. "In the pursuit of philosophy many difficulties are encountered.
These the student must expect to meet; but he must not relinquish the
investigation of truth, because it seems to elude his search. He may
knock at the gate of science, and apparently without being heard. But
let him _knock again_, and he will find an entrance."


_The same subject, concluded._

1. "Do you ever pray to God? I hope and trust you do. God commands and
encourages us to pray to him. But he does not always answer our prayers
at the time, or in the way, we expect.

2. "What then? We know that he hears them. We know that he is a gracious
God, a reconciled Father in Christ. Let us _knock again_. Let us ask in
faith, and, if what we ask be pleasing in his sight, he will grant it in
his own good time.

3. "You know who it was that said, 'Ask, and it shall be given you;
seek, and ye shall find; _knock_, and it shall be opened unto you: for
every one that asketh, receiveth; and he that seeketh, findeth; and to
him that _knocketh_, it shall be opened.'

4. "Once more: our progress in the Divine life, even after we have
wholly given ourselves to the Lord, does not always equal our wishes or
expectations. We find much indwelling sin, much remaining corruption, to
struggle with.

5. "But let us not despond. The grace of our Lord is sufficient for us,
and his strength is made perfect in our weakness. Let us _knock again_.

6. "Let us continue, with humble confidence, to do what we know to be
pleasing in our Master's sight. Let us work out our own salvation, with
fear and trembling; for it is God that worketh in us both to will and to
do of his good pleasure."

7. We had now reached the gate of my father's garden; and the good old
gentleman, taking me kindly by the hand, bid me try to remember what he
had said. He then went his way, and I saw him no more.

8. I afterward endeavored to find out who he was; but I did not succeed.
His advice, however, sunk deep into my mind, and has often been of
singular value to me since.

9. My disposition is naturally sanguine, and my disappointments
proportionably acute. But, upon calling to mind the old mansion, the
brass knocker, and my venerable counselor, I have frequently been led to
_knock again_, when I might otherwise have sat down in despondency.

10. I hope that many of my readers will derive similar benefit from the
perusal of this little history; for the sole end of its publication will
be answered, if the young persons under whose eyes it may come be
induced, at every season of doubt and perplexity, in the exercise of
simple confidence in God, to _knock again_.


_Make Good Use of your Time._--EMMA C. EMBURY.

[Illustration: "To everything there is a season, and a time for every
purpose under heaven."]

1. "My dear Anna," said Mrs. Elmore, as she bade her little girl
farewell, "I shall be absent ten days; and as you have already had so
many lessons from me respecting the manner of distributing your hours of
amusement and study, I will only say to you, now, '_Make good use of
your time_.'"

2. Anna's eyes filled with tears as the carriage drove off, and she felt
very lonely when she returned to the parlor without her mother. She
thought over her mother's parting words, until she felt quite proud of
the confidence reposed in her, and resolved not to abuse it by neglect.

3. She accordingly took her books and sat down to her studies, as
attentively as if her mother had been waiting to hear her recitation.

4. Anna was an affectionate, intelligent child. She would have made any
sacrifices to please her mother, and she really loved her studies; but
her one great fault was a disposition to loiter away time.

5. This her mother well knew; and after trying admonition, until she
almost feared she was increasing the evil by allowing Anna to depend too
much upon her guidance, she determined to test the effect of leaving her
to her own responsibility.

6. For an hour after her mother's departure, Anna sat in close attention
to her studies. All at once, she started up. "I am so hungry," said she,
"I must go to Betty for some luncheon;--but stop--I will finish my
exercise first."

7. She wrote a line or two; then throwing down her pen, petulantly
exclaimed, "There! I have made two mistakes, because I was in such a
hurry;--I will not finish it till I come back."

8. So away ran the little girl to her old nurse, and the next half-hour
was spent in satisfying her hunger. As she was returning, with laggard
step, she happened to spy, from the window, a beautiful butterfly
fluttering about the rose-bushes in the garden; and, quite forgetting
her unfinished exercise, away she flew in chase of the butterfly.

9. But, agile as were her movements, the insect was too nimble for her;
and after an hour's race beneath the burning sun, she returned, flushed
and overheated, without having succeeded in its capture.

10. Again she applied herself to her books; but study was not so easy
now as it would have been a little earlier. Anna was too tired to apply
her mind to her lessons; and after loitering a while over her desk, she
threw herself on the sofa, and fell into a sound sleep, from which she
was only awakened by a summons to dinner.

11. After dinner, Betty proposed taking her out to walk; and though
conscious that she had not performed half her duties, she had not
resolution enough to refuse to go. Tying on her bonnet, she took a
little basket on her arm, and set out with Betty to gather

12. When they reached the woods, Betty sought out a mossy seat under an
old tree, and, taking her work from her pocket, began to sew as
industriously as if she had been at home.

13. "O Betty!" exclaimed Anna, "how can you sit and sew, when there are
so many pleasant sights and sounds around you?"

14. "I can hear the pleasant sounds, my child, without looking round to
see where they come from," replied Betty; "and as for the pretty sights,
though I can enjoy them as much as any one, I cannot neglect my work for

15. "I promised your mother to have these shirts finished when she came
home, and I mean to do so."--"Dear me!" said the little girl, "I wish I
had brought my book, and I might have studied my lesson here."

16. "No, no, Anna," said the old woman; "little girls can't study in the
woods, with the birds singing and the grasshoppers chirping around them.
Better attend to your books in-doors."

17. Betty continued her sewing; and towards sunset, when they arose to
return, she had stitched a collar and a pair of wristbands, while Anna
had filled her basket with flowers.

18. As they approached the village, Betty called at a poor cottage, to
inquire after a sick child, and Anna was shocked at the poverty and
wretchedness of the inmates. The little children were only half clothed,
their faces were covered with dirt, and their rough locks seemed to bid
defiance to the comb.

19. Pitying the condition of the poor little girls, Anna determined to
provide them with some better clothing; and she returned home full of
benevolent projects.

20. The next morning, as soon as she rose, she began to look over her
wardrobe; and selecting three frocks which she had outgrown, she carried
them to Betty, to alter for Mrs. Wilson's children.

21. "I shall do no such thing," said Betty; "Mrs. Wilson's children are
not suffering for clothes; the weather is warm, and they are as well
clad as they will be the day after they are dressed up in your finery.

22. "Mrs. Wilson is an untidy, slovenly woman; and though your mother
charged me to look after her sick baby, she did not tell me to furnish
new clothes for the other dirty little brats!"

23. "Well, Betty, if you don't choose to do it, I'll try it
myself."--"Pretty work you'll make of it, to be sure! you will just cut
the frocks to pieces, and then they will fit nobody."

24. "Well, I am determined to fix them for those poor little ragged
children," said Anna; "and if you will not help me, I will get Kitty the
chambermaid to do it."


_The same subject, continued._

1. Anna found a very good assistant in the warm-hearted, thoughtless
Irish girl. Kitty cut out the frocks, and Anna sat herself down to make

2. She found it rather tedious work, and, if she had not been afraid of
Betty's ridicule, she would have been tempted to throw her task aside;
but as Kitty promised to help her, as soon as her household duties were
completed, Anna determined to persevere.

3. When night came, she had finished one frock, and begun another; so
she went to bed quite happy, forgetting that, in her benevolent zeal,
she had neglected her studies and her music, as well as her mother's
plants and her own Canary-bird.

4. The next day, she again went to work at the frocks, and, with Kitty's
assistance, they were completed before tea-time. Never was a child
happier than Anna, when she saw the three little frocks spread out upon
the bed.

5. A degree of self-satisfaction was mingled with her benevolence, and
she began to think how pleased her mother would be to learn how hard she
had worked in the cause of charity. She ran off for Betty to take her
down to Mrs. Wilson's cottage; but she found Betty in no humor to
gratify her.

6. "I'll have nothing to do with it!" said the old woman. "Kitty helped
you to spoil your pretty frocks, and she may help you dress the dirty
children;--they will look fine, to be sure, in your French calico

7. Anna was too happy to mind Betty's scolding; so away she flew to find
Kitty, and they set off together for Mrs. Wilson's cottage. When they
arrived there, they found the children by the edge of the pond making
dirt pies, while their faces and hands bore testimony to their industry.

8. Kitty stripped and washed them, though nothing but the bribe of a new
frock could have induced them to submit to so unusual an operation. Anna
almost danced with pleasure, when she beheld their clean faces,
well-combed locks, and new dresses.


9. Her mother had now been three days gone, and Anna felt that she had
not quite fulfilled her trust. But she satisfied herself with the
thought that two days had been devoted to a charitable purpose, and she
was sure her mother would think that she had made good use of that
portion of her time.

10. The fourth day, she determined to make amends for past neglect, by
studying double lessons. She went to her room and locked the door,
resolving to perform all her duties on that day, at least.

11. She had scarcely commenced her studies, however, when she
recollected that she had not watered her mother's plants since she had
been gone. She threw down her books, and running into the garden, sought
her little watering-pot; but it was not to be found.

12. She was sure she had put it either in the summer-house, or the
tool-house, or under the piazza, or somewhere. After spending half an
hour in search of it, she remembered that she had left it under the
great elm-tree, in the field.

13. By this time, the sun was shining with full vigor upon the delicate
plants; and, forgetting her mother's caution to water them only in the
shade, she overwhelmed the parched leaves with a deluge of water, and
went off quite content.

14. She then thought of her bird; and on examining his cage, found that
he could reach neither the seed nor the water. So she replenished his
cups, decorated his cage with fresh chickweed, treated him to a lump of
sugar, and played with him until she had loitered away the best part of
the morning.

15. Immediately after dinner, a little friend came to see her, and the
rest of the day was consumed in dressing dolls, or arranging her


_The same subject, concluded._

1. On the fifth day, she summoned courage enough to persevere, and
actually performed every task with attention.

2. In the afternoon, Betty took her out to walk, and Anna coaxed her
into a visit to Mrs. Wilson's cottage. What was her indignation, as she
approached the house, to see the children again playing on the margin of
the duck-pond!

3. As soon as they saw her, they ran to hide themselves, but not until
she had observed that their new frocks were as dirty, and almost as
ragged, as the old ones. Betty did not fail to make Anna fully sensible
of her own superior wisdom.

4. "I told you so, child," said she; "I told you it was all nonsense to
try to dress up those dirty creatures; much good you have done, to be
sure!" Anna almost cried with vexation, as she thought of all the time
and labor she had wasted upon her benevolent task, and she walked home
with a heavy heart.

5. The next morning, she had scarcely risen from the breakfast-table,
when Kitty came to show her a beautiful little ship, which, her
brother, who was a sailor, had made for her, as a token of remembrance.


6. Anna was delighted with it; nothing could be more beautiful than its
graceful form, its delicate rigging and snowy sails. She begged to have
it set on her table, that she might see it while she was studying, and
the good-natured Kitty left it with her.

7. But in vain the heedless child tried to study; her eyes and thoughts
wandered perpetually to the pretty toy before her. "How I should like to
see it sail!" said she to herself. The more she looked at it, the more
anxious she became to see it in the water.

8. At length, taking it carefully up, she stole down stairs, and hurried
across the garden to a little brook in the adjacent field. Here she
launched her tiny bark; but it had scarcely touched the water, when it
turned over on its side. She then recollected that she had once heard
her father speak of the manner of ballasting a ship; so she hastened to
gather a quantity of small stones, with which she filled the little

9. Again she intrusted her ship to the crystal streamlet; but, alas! the
weight of the stones carried it straight to the bottom. There it lay in
the pebbly channel, with the clear waters rippling above it, and the
little girl stood aghast upon the brink.

10. She bared her arm, and attempted to reach it, but without success.
At length, while making a desperate effort to regain it, she lost her
balance, and fell into the water.

11. Fortunately, the water was not deep, and she soon scrambled out
again; but she was thoroughly wet, and, having been very warm before the
accident, she was now chilled to the heart.

12. Grasping the little ship, the cause of all the mischief, she hurried
home, and creeping softly into the kitchen, sought her friend Kitty, to
screen her from Betty's anger. By this time she was shivering with a
violent ague, and Kitty carried her immediately to Betty.

13. Poor Anna! she was now obliged to be put to bed, and to take some
of Betty's bitter herb tea, seasoned too with scolding, and all kinds of
evil predictions. She felt very unhappy, and cried sadly; but
repentance, in this case, came too late.

14. Her head began to ache dreadfully; her skin was parched with fever,
and before the next morning she was very ill. She had taken a violent
cold, which brought on an attack of scarlet fever; and when Mrs. Elmore
returned, she found her little daughter stretched on a bed of sickness.

15. How did that fond mother tremble, as she watched by the bedside of
her darling child, uncertain whether she would ever again lift up her
head from her uneasy pillow!

16. Anna did not know her mother in the delirium of fever, and her
melancholy cry of "Mother! mother! come back!--I will never be so bad
again!" wrung Mrs. Elmore's heart.

17. For three weeks Anna lay between life and death; and when she was at
length pronounced out of danger, she was as helpless as an infant.

18. One day, as she sat propped up by pillows, she told her mother all
that had passed during her absence, and awaited her decision respecting
the use she had made of her time.

19. "My dear child," said Mrs. Elinore, "I trust the past will afford a
lesson you will never forget. So far from having made good use of your
time, you have done harm in everything you have undertaken.

20. "Your attempts at study, instead of affording you any real
instruction, have only given you habits of inattention, which you will
find very difficult to overcome; for your eyes have wandered over the
page, while your thoughts have been with the fool's, to the ends of the

21. "Your irregular care of my plants, which you thought would serve
instead of habitual attention, has been the means of destroying them as
effectually as if you had allowed them to perish from total neglect.

22. "Your injudicious benevolence to the Wilsons served only to make the
children envious of each other, without giving them habits of neatness,
which are essential to the well-being of such a family; while it had a
worse effect upon yourself, because it not only wasted your precious
time, but excited in you a feeling of vanity, on account of what you
considered a good action.

23. "If, instead of trusting so boldly to your good resolutions, you had
entered upon your duties with an humble mind, and resolved to _try_ to
do right,--if you had apportioned your time with some degree of
regularity,--you might have performed all that was required of you,
enjoyed all your amusements, and gratified every kindly feeling, without
a single self-reproach.

24. "As it is, you feel sensible of having failed in everything,--of
having exposed yourself to great peril, and subjected your mother to
great anxiety, simply from your disposition to loiter, when you should

25. "I trust that, in the solitude of your sick chamber, 'the still
small voice' of your many wasted hours has made itself heard, and that
hereafter you will not so utterly fail to make good use of your time."


_Verse, or Poetry._

1. All the lessons in this book which you have thus far read have been
in prose. I intend to give you some lessons in verse, or, as it is
sometimes, but improperly called, poetry.

2. There is a great deal of difference between verse and poetry; but as
this book is intended for those who are not quite old enough to
understand all these differences, I shall not attempt at present to
point them out to you.

3. But I wish you first to understand the difference, which you can see
with your eye, between prose and verse. The lines of verse often end in
what are called _rhymes_. Thus, if one line ends with the word _found_,
the next line ends with a word which sounds very much like it, as
_ground, round, bound, sound, hound, wound_.

4. These are called _rhymes_. Here are a few such lines.


    "Defer not till to-morrow to be wise;
     To-morrow's sun to thee may never rise."


    "When wealth to virtuous hands is given,
     It blesses like the dew of Heaven;
     Like Heaven, it hears the orphan's cries,
     And wipes the tears from widow's eyes."

5. Sometimes the rhymes occur in alternate lines; that is, two lines
come together which are not rhymes, and are followed by two lines to
make rhymes to both, as follows:

    "Let the sweet work of prayer and praise
       Employ our youngest breath;
     Thus we're prepared for longer days,
       Or fit for early death."

6. There are some kinds of verses that do not rhyme. These are called
_blank_ verse. Here is an example of blank verse:

        "Mark well, my child, he said; this little stream
    Shall teach thee charity. It is a source
    I never knew to fail: directed thus
    Be that soft stream, the fountain of thy heart.
    For, oh! my much-loved child, I trust thy heart
    Has those affections that shall bless thyself;
    And, flowing softly like this little rill,
    Cheer all that droop. The good man did not err."

7. Now, there are several things that I wish you to notice in these
lines. In the first place, if you will count the syllables, you will
find that there are exactly ten syllables in each line; and it is always
the case, that in verse it is necessary that there should be a certain
number of syllables of a certain kind.

8. What that number is, I cannot now explain to you; but you will be
able to understand from a book called a grammar, which you will probably
study at some future time, if you do not study it now. It is contained
in that part of grammar called Prosody.

9. The next thing I wish you to notice is, that every line of verse
always begins with a capital letter.

10. And thirdly you will notice, that the lines of verse are more
regular in their sound than lines of prose. They have a kind of musical
sound about them, which you very rarely hear, except in verse.

11. And fourthly you will notice, that some of the words are shortened
by leaving out a letter, and putting in its place a mark called an
_apostrophe_, which looks just like a comma, only it is placed higher up
in the line, as in the following line:

    "Thus we're prepared for longer days."

12. In this line, if the words were written out at full length, with all
their letters in them, the line would stand as follows:

    "Thus we are prepared for longer days."

13. But this would destroy what is called the _measure_ of the line, by
putting too many syllables into it; and therefore the words _we are_ are
shortened, so as to be read as one syllable, and the line is to be read
as follows:

    "Thus weer prepared for longer days."

14. The next difference I shall point out to you between prose and
verse, is that in verse the words are placed in a different order from
what they would be in prose; as you will notice in the following lines:

    "When all thy mercies, oh my God!
       My rising soul surveys,
     Transported with the view, I'm lost
       In wonder, love and praise."

15. Now, if these lines were written in prose, the words would stand in
the following order: "O my God! when my rising soul surveys all thy
mercies, I'm transported with the view of them, and lost in wonder, love
and praise."

16. And now that I have explained to you a few of the points in which
verse differs from prose, I will only add, that when you read verse, you
must not stop at the end of every line, unless there is a pause or mark
there; and that you must avoid reading it as if you were singing it to a


_God Present Everywhere._

    1. Thou, Lord, by strictest search hast known
    My rising up and lying down;
    My secret thoughts are known to thee,
    Known long before conceived by me.

    2. Surrounded by thy power I stand,
    On every side I find thy hand:
    O skill for human reach too high!
    Too dazzling bright for mortal eye!

    3. From thy all-seeing Spirit, Lord,
    What hiding-place does earth afford?
    O where can I thy influence shun,
    Or whither from thy presence run?

    4. If up to heaven I take my flight,
    'Tis there thou dwell'st enthroned in light;
    If to the world unseen, my God,
    There also hast thou thine abode.

    5. If I the morning's wings could gain,
    And fly beyond the western main;
    E'en there, in earth's remotest land,
    I still should find thy guiding hand.

    6. Or, should I try to shun thy sight
    Beneath the sable wings of night;
    One glance from thee, one piercing ray,
    Would kindle darkness into day.

    7. The veil of night is no disguise,
    No screen from thy all-searching eyes;
    Through midnight shades thou find'st thy way,
    As in the blazing noon, of day.

    8. Thou know'st the texture of my heart,
    My reins, and every vital part:
    I'll praise thee, from whose hands I came
    A work of such a wondrous frame.

    9. Let me acknowledge too, O God,
    That since this maze of life I trod,
    Thy thoughts of love to me surmount
    The power of numbers to recount.

    10. Search, try, O God, my thoughts and heart,
    If mischief lurk in any part;
    Correct me where I go astray,
    And guide me in thy perfect way.



    1. While thee I seek, protecting Power,
    Be my vain wishes stilled;
    And may this consecrated hour
    With better hopes be filled.

    2. Thy love the power of thought stowed,
    To thee my thoughts would soar:
    Thy mercy o'er my life has flowed,
    That mercy I adore.

    3. In each event of life, how clear
    Thy ruling hand I see!
    Each blessing to my soul more dear,
    Because conferred by thee.

    4. In every joy that crowns my days,
    In every pain I bear,
    My heart shall find delight in praise,
    Or seek relief in prayer.

    5. When gladness wings my favored hour,
    Thy love my thoughts shall fill;
    Resigned, when storms of sorrow lower,
    My soul shall meet thy will.

    6. My lifted eye, without a tear,
    The gathering storm shall see;
    My steadfast heart shall know no fear--
    That heart will rest on thee.


_The Gardener and the Hog._--GAY.

    1. A gardener, of peculiar taste,
    On a young hog his favor placed,
    Who fed not with the common herd,--
    His tray was to the hall preferred;
    He wallowed underneath the board,
    Or in his master's chamber snored,
    Who fondly stroked him every day,
    And taught him all the puppy's play.

    2. Where'er he went, the grunting friend
    Ne'er failed his pleasure to attend.
    As on a time the loving pair
    Walked forth to tend the garden's care,
    The master thus addressed the swine:

    3. "My house, my garden, all is thine:
    On turnips feast whene'er you please,
    And riot in my beans and peas;
    If the potato's taste delights,
    Or the red carrot's sweet invites,
    Indulge thy morn and evening hours,
    But let due care regard my flowers;
    My tulips are my garden's pride--
    What vast expense these beds supplied!"

    4. The hog, by chance, one morning roamed
    Where with new ale the vessels foamed;
    He munches now the steaming grains,
    Now with full swill the liquor drains;
    Intoxicating fumes arise,
    He reels, he rolls his winking eyes;
    Then, staggering, through the garden scours,
    And treads down painted ranks of flowers;
    With delving snout he turns the soil,
    And cools his palate with the spoil.

    5. The master came,--the ruin spied.
    "Villain, suspend thy rage!" he cried:
    "Hast then, thou most ungrateful sot,
    My charge, my only charge, forgot?
    What, all my flowers?" No more he said;
    But gazed, and sighed, and hung his head.

    6. The hog, with stuttering speech, returns:--
    "Explain, sir, why your anger burns;
    See there, untouched, your tulips strown,
    For I devoured the roots alone!"

    7. At this the gardener's passion grows;
    From oaths and threats he fell to blows;
    The stubborn brute the blows sustains,
    Assaults his leg, and tears the veins.
    Ah! foolish swain, too late you find
    That sties were for such friends designed!

    8. Homeward he limps with painful pace,
    Reflecting thus on past disgrace:
    Who cherishes a brutal mate,
    Shall mourn the folly soon or late.


_The Hare and many Friends._--GAY.

    1. A hare, who, in a civil way,
    Complied with everything, like Gay,
    Was known by all the bestial train
    Who haunt the wood, or graze the plain.
    Her care was never to offend,
    And every creature was her friend.

    2. As forth she went, at early dawn,
    To taste the dew-besprinkled lawn,
    Behind she hears the hunter's cries,
    And from the deep-mouthed thunder flies.

    3. She starts, she stops, she pants for breath;
    She hears the near advance of death;
    She doubles to mislead the hound,
    And measures back her mazy round;
    Till, fainting in the public way,
    Half dead with fear, she gasping lay.

    4. What transport in her bosom grew,
    When first the horse appeared in view!
    "Let me," says she, "your back ascend,
    And owe my safety to a friend.
    You know my feet betray my flight,--
    To friendship every burden's light."

    5. The horse replied:--"Poor honest puss,
    It grieves my heart to see thee thus.
    Be comforted,--relief is near;
    For all your friends are in the rear."

    6. She next the stately bull implored;
    And thus replied the mighty lord:--
    "Since every beast alive can tell
    That I sincerely wish you well,
    I may, without offense, pretend
    To take the freedom of a friend.
    Love calls me hence; a favorite cow
    Expects me near yon barley-mow;
    And when a lady's in the case,
    You know all other things give place.
    To leave you thus might seem unkind;
    But see,--the goat is just behind."

    7. The goat remarked her pulse was high,
    Her languid head, her heavy eye,--
    "My back," says he, "may do you harm;
    The sheep's at hand, and wool is warm."

    8. The sheep was feeble, and complained
    His sides a load of wool sustained:
    Said he was slow, confessed his fears;
    For hounds eat sheep, as well as hares.

    9. She now the trotting calf addressed,
    To save from death a friend distressed.
    "Shall I," says he, "of tender age,
    In this important care engage?
    Older and abler passed you by;
    How strong are those! how weak am I!

    10. "Should I presume to bear you hence,
    Those friends of mine may take offense.
    Excuse me, then,--you know my heart;
    But dearest friends, alas! must part.
    How shall we all lament! Adieu!
    For see,--the hounds are just in view."

    11. 'Tis thus in friendships; who depend
    On many, rarely find a friend.




Never delay until to-morrow what you can do to-day.

Never trouble others for what you can do yourself.

Never spend your money before you have it.

Never buy what you do not want, because it is cheap.

Pride costs more than hunger, thirst, or cold.

We never repent of having eaten too little.

Nothing is troublesome that we do willingly.

How much pains have those evils cost us which never happened!

Take things always by their smooth handle.

When angry, count ten before you speak; if very angry, a hundred.

Hear as little as possible spoken against others; and believe nothing of
the kind, until you are absolutely forced to believe it.

Always believe that if you heard what may be said on the other side of
the question, a very different account of the matter might be given.

Do to others what you would have them do to you.


_How to be Happy._--CHILD AT HOME.

1. Every child must have observed how much happier and more beloved some
children are than others. There are some children whom you always love
to be with. They are happy themselves, and they make you happy.

2. There are others, whose society you always avoid. The very expression
of their countenances produces unpleasant feelings. They seem to have no

3. No person can be happy without friends. The heart is formed for love,
and cannot be happy without the opportunity of giving and receiving

4. But you cannot receive affection, unless you will also give it. You
cannot find others to love you, unless you will also love them. Love is
only to be obtained by giving love in return. Hence the importance of
cultivating a cheerful and obliging disposition. You cannot be happy
without it.

5. I have sometimes heard a girl say, "I know that I am very unpopular
at school." Now, this is a plain confession that she is very disobliging
and unamiable in her disposition.

6. If your companions do not love you, it is your own fault. They cannot
help loving you, if you will be kind and friendly. If you are not loved,
it is a good evidence that you do not deserve to be loved. It is true,
that a sense of duty may, at times, render it necessary for you to do
that which will be displeasing to your companions.

7. But, if it is seen that you have a noble spirit, that you are above
selfishness, that you are willing to make sacrifices of your own
personal convenience to promote the happiness of your associates, you
will never be in want of friends.

8. You must not regard it as your _misfortune_ that others do not love
you, but your _fault_. It is not beauty, it is not wealth, that will
give you friends. Your heart must glow with kindness, if you would
attract to yourself the esteem and affection of those by whom you are

9. You are little aware how much the happiness of your whole life
depends upon the cultivation of an affectionate and obliging
disposition. If you will adopt the resolution that you will confer
favors whenever you have an opportunity, you will certainly be
surrounded by ardent friends.

10. Begin upon this principle in childhood, and act upon it through
life, and you will make yourself happy, and promote the happiness of all
within your influence.

11. You go to school on a cold winter morning. A bright fire is blazing
upon the hearth, surrounded with boys struggling to get near it to warm
themselves. After you get slightly warmed, another school-mate comes in,
suffering with cold. "Here, James," you pleasantly call out to him, "I
am almost warm; you may have my place."

12. As you slip aside to allow him to take your place at the fire, will
he not feel that you are kind? The worst dispositioned boy in the world
cannot help admiring such generosity.

13. And even though he be so ungrateful as to be unwilling to return the
favor, you may depend upon it that he will be your friend as far as he
is capable of friendship. If you will habitually act upon this
principle, you will never want friends.

14. Suppose, some day, you were out with your companions, playing ball.
After you had been playing for some time, another boy comes along. He
cannot be chosen upon either side, for there is no one to match him.
"Henry," you say, "you may take my place a little while, and I will

15. You throw yourself down upon the grass, while Henry, fresh and
vigorous, takes your bat and engages in the game. He knows that you gave
up to accommodate him; and how can he help liking you for it?

16. The fact is, that neither man nor child can cultivate such a spirit
of generosity and kindness, without attracting affection and esteem.

17. Look and see which of your companions have the most friends, and you
will find that they are those who have this noble spirit,--who are
willing to deny themselves, that they may make their associates happy.

18. This is not peculiar to childhood. It is the same in all periods of
life. There is but one way to make friends; and that is, by being
friendly to others.

19. Perhaps some child, who reads this, feels conscious of being
disliked, and yet desires to have the affection of his companions. You
ask me what you shall do. I will tell you.

20. I will give you an infallible rule. Do all in your power to make
others happy. Be willing to make sacrifices of your own convenience,
that you may promote the happiness of others.

21. This is the way to make friends, and the only way. When you are
playing with your brothers and sisters at home, be always ready to give
them more than their share of privileges.

22. Manifest an obliging disposition, and they cannot but regard you
with affection. In all your intercourse with others, at home or abroad,
let these feelings influence you, and you will receive a rich reward.


_Obedience and Disobedience._--CHILD'S COMPANION.

1. You have never disobeyed your parents, or your teachers, or any who
have been placed in authority over you, without being uncomfortable and
unhappy! Obedience, in a child, is one of the most necessary qualities;
for it protects him from all the evils of his want of experience, and
gives him the benefit of the experience of others.

2. One fine summer's day, I went to spend an afternoon at a house in
the country, where some young people were enjoying a holiday.

3. They were running cheerfully up and down a meadow, covered over with
yellow crocuses, and other flowers; and I looked on them with delight,
while they gamboled and made posies, as they felt disposed.

    "Here sister with sister roamed over the mead,
       And brother plucked flow'rets with brother;
     And playmates with playmates ran on with such speed
       That the one tumbled over the other."

4. Now, they all had been told to keep away from the ditch at the bottom
of the field; but, notwithstanding this injunction, one little urchin,
of the name of Jarvis, seeing a flower in the hedge on the opposite
bank, which he wished to gather, crept nearer and nearer to the ditch.

5. The closer he got to the flower, the more beautiful it appeared to
be, and the stronger the temptation became to pluck it.

6. Now, what right had he to put himself in the way of temptation? The
field, as I said before, was covered over with flowers; and that in the
hedge was no better than the rest, only it was a forbidden flower, and
when anything is forbidden it becomes, on that very account, a greater
temptation to a disobedient heart.

7. Jarvis had gathered a whole handful of flowers before he saw the one
growing in the hedge; but he threw all these away, so much was his mind
set on getting the one which he wanted.

8. Unluckily for him, in getting down the bank, his foot slipped, and
down he rolled into a bed of stinging nettles, at the bottom of the
ditch, which fortunately happened to have in it but little water.

9. Jarvis screamed out with might and main, as he lay on his back; for,
whichever way he turned, his cheeks and his fingers brushed against the


10. His cries soon brought his companions around him; but, as they were
all young, they knew not how to render him assistance, on account of
the stinging nettles, and the depth of the ditch.

11. I ran to the spot, and pulled up Master Jarvis in a pretty pickle,
his jacket and trowsers plastered with mud, and his hands and face
covered with blotches.

12. Here was the fruit of disobedience! And as it was with Jarvis, so
will it be with every one who acts disobediently.

13. Whenever you feel a temptation to disobey God; to disobey his holy
word; to disobey the admonitions of your own conscience; to disobey your
parents, your teachers, or any in authority over you,--be sure that a
punishment awaits you, if you do not resist it.

14. As you are not able to resist it in your own strength, ask God's
assistance for Christ's sake, and it will not be withheld. Now, remember
Jarvis, and the bed of stinging nettles!

15. The Bible tells us very plainly how much God sets his face against
disobedience. "The children of Israel walked forty years in the
wilderness, till all the people that were men of war, which came out of
Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord."

16. "Let no man deceive you with vain words: for, because of these
things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience." Nor
is it disobedience to God that is alone hateful in his sight; for
disobedience to parents is spoken of as an evil thing, too.

17. "The eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his
mother, the ravens of the valley shall pluck it out, and the young
eagles shall eat it."

18. But I cannot bear to think that you are disobedient! I would rather
consider you obedient in all things, and encourage you in holding on
your way, obeying the will of God, and the word of all in authority over

    "The Lord rules over sea and land,
       And blest indeed are they
     Who all his counsels understand,
       And his commands obey."

19. I have often been struck with the simplicity with which some
children obey their parents. This tractable disposition is very amiable
in a child.

20. It was no longer ago than last week, that, in crossing a field, I
overtook three children: one, a little girl of about five years old, was
on the foot-path, and, just as I came up, her brother called her to him,
where he was in the field.

21. "No, William," said the little maid; "my mother told me not to go
off the foot-path, and it would be very wicked to disobey my mother."

22. I caught the little creature up in my arms; and having a small neat
book in my pocket, suitable for a child, I gave it to her, and told her
to remember that the reason why I gave it was, that she had been
obedient to her mother.

    "Though cares on cares in parent hearts be piled,
     Great is that blessing--an obedient child!"

23. Without obedience there can be no order. The man must obey his
master, the maid her mistress, and the scholar his teacher. If you
attend a Sunday-school, whatever class you are in, be obedient to your
instructors, or you will make but little progress. By obedience you will
learn faster, secure the respect of those about you, and set a proper
example to those younger than yourself.

24. If you are in a place of work, be obedient to your employer. Those
make the best masters and mistresses who have been the most obedient
servants; for the discharge of one duty disposes us to perform another.

25. The best way to qualify yourselves to act well when grown up, is to
act well while you are children.



1. There is a certain fault which almost all children have in a greater
or less degree. It is called by different names; sometimes it is termed
wilfulness, sometimes pertinacity, and sometimes it receives the still
harsher name of obstinacy.

2. Almost all our faults are owing to the perversion or abuse of
propensities originally good; and perseverance, when carried too far, or
expended upon unworthy objects, becomes a troublesome infirmity.

3. Louisa and Emily had both something of this infirmity, but differing
both in degree and in its mode of operation.

4. What are called _little things_ did not trouble Emily at all; and, on
the contrary, they troubled Louisa very much.

5. But, when anything did seem peculiarly desirable to Emily,--when she
set her heart upon having her own way,--she carried her perseverance to
a degree which deserved to be called obstinacy.

6. She could _give up_, as children term it, with less effort, and more
grace, than most others; but if anything determined her not to give up,
she was immovable.

7. "You are almost always in the right," my daughter, her father once
said to her, "and Heaven preserve you from error; for when you once fall
into it, you will be too apt to persevere."

8. It happened, at one time, that she and Louisa were having some nice
sun-bonnets made. Emily went for them at the time when they were to be
finished, and finding only one completed, immediately appropriated it to
herself, because she was really in greater need of it than Louisa, who
had one that answered her purpose very well.

9. Louisa resented this, because that, being the eldest, she considered
herself as having the first right; but Emily could not be persuaded to
give up, although Louisa's equanimity was very much disturbed on that

10. If it had been proposed to her beforehand to let Louisa have the
bonnet voluntarily, she would not have hesitated, for she was not
selfish; but when Louisa claimed it as a right, she resisted.

11. Her mother afterwards told her that she should always avoid
irritating the peculiar humors of her companions. "You," said she,
"would not have minded waiting for the other bonnet a day or two, but to
Louisa it was quite a serious evil."

12. And here let me remark upon the proneness which all children have to
magnify the importance of little things. A strife often arises among
them, about just nothing at all, from a mere spirit of competition.


13. One says, "This is my seat." Another, who would not else have
thought of desiring that particular seat, immediately regards it in the
light of a prize, and exclaims, "No, I meant to have that seat; and I
had it just before you took it."

14. Half a dozen claimants will appear directly, and perhaps get into a
serious quarrel; whereas, had the reply been, in the first instance,
"Very well, let it be your seat," there would have been an end to the

15. But to return to Louisa. She magnified a thousand little things, of
every day occurrence, in such a manner as proved a very serious
inconvenience to herself.

16. She wished to have her potato sliced, but never mashed. She could
not bear to see a door open a single moment; and, even if she were at
her meals, and the closet door happened to stand ajar, she would jump up
and fly to shut it, with the speed of lightning.

17. She could not _endure_ the feeling of gloves; nor could she any
better endure to have her hat tied. Her aunt bore with all these follies
a while, and then deliberately resolved to counteract them.

18. Louisa at first thought this was very hard and unreasonable. "Why
can't I have my potato sliced, Aunt Cleaveland?" said she; "what hurt
can it do? And why can't I shut the door when it is open? is there any
harm in that?"

19. "Not at all, my dear, in the thing itself," Mrs. Cleaveland replied;
"but there is a great deal of evil in having your tranquillity disturbed
by things of such small moment.

20. "If you allow yourself to be distressed by trifles now, how will you
bear the real trials of life, which you must inevitably sustain, sooner
or later?

21. "By and by, you will find out that your suffering from these sources
is all imaginary, and then you will thank me for having restrained you.

22. "Now, here is this nice dish of mashed potatoes, which we have every
day. If such a little hungry girl as you are, since you have breathed
our healthy mountain air, cannot eat it, and with relish too, I am
greatly mistaken; and, in process of time, I have no doubt you will
cease to observe whether the door is open or shut."

23. On the first day of trial, Louisa just tasted the potato, and left
the whole of it upon her plate. Her aunt took no notice of this. The
next day, Louisa came in to dinner after a long walk, and was very

24. There was but one dish of meat upon the table, and it was of a kind
which she did not much like; so, forgetting all her repugnance to mashed
potato, she ate it very heartily.

25. Mrs. Cleaveland, however, forbore to take any notice of this change;
and it was not until after several weeks had elapsed, and Louisa had
ceased to think of the distinction between sliced potato and mashed
potato, that her aunt reminded her of the importance which she had
formerly attached to the former.

26. "Now, my dear Louisa," said Mrs. Cleaveland, "since you find the
task is not so very difficult as you apprehended, promise me that you
will try to cure yourself of all these little infirmities; for such I
must term them.

27. "There is so much real suffering in life, that it is a pity to have
any which is merely imaginary; and though, while you are a little girl,
living with indulgent friends, your whims might all be gratified, a
constant and uniform regard to them will be impossible by and by, when
you are old enough to mingle with the world."


_King Edward and his Bible._--MRS. L.H. SIGOURNEY.

1. I will tell you a little story about a young and good king. He was
king of England more than two hundred and eighty years ago. His name was
Edward, and, because there had been five kings before him of the name of
Edward, he was called Edward the Sixth.

2. He was only nine years old when he began to reign. He was early
taught to be good, by pious teachers, and he loved to do what they told
him would please God. He had a great reverence for the Bible, which he
knew contained the words of his Father in heaven.


3. Once, when he was quite a young child, he was playing with some
children about his own age. He wished much to reach something which was
above his head. To assist him, they laid a large, thick book in a chair,
for him to step on. Just as he was putting his foot upon it, he
discovered it to be the Bible.

4. Drawing back, he took it in his arms, kissed it, and returned it to
its place. Turning to his little playmates, he said, with a serious
face,--"Shall I dare to tread under my feet that which God has
commanded me to keep in my heart?"

5. This pious king never forgot his prayers. Though the people with whom
he lived were continually anxious to amuse him, and show him some new
thing, they never could induce him to omit his daily devotions.

6. One day he heard that one of his teachers was sick. Immediately, he
retired to pray for him. Coming from his prayers, he said, with a
cheerful countenance, "I think there is hope that he will recover. I
have this morning earnestly begged of God to spare him to us."

7. After his teacher became well, he was told of this; and he very much
loved the young king for remembering him in his prayers.

8. Edward the Sixth died when he was sixteen years old. He was beloved
by all, for his goodness and piety. His mind was calm and serene in his

9. If you are not tired of my story, I will tell you part of a prayer
which he used often to say, when on his dying bed.

10. "My Lord God, if thou wilt deliver me from this miserable life, take
me among thy chosen. Yet not my will, but thy will, be done. Lord, I
commit my spirit unto thee. Thou knowest how happy it were for me to be
with thee. Yet, if thou shouldst send me life and health, grant that I
may truly serve thee."

11. Children, you should do like King Edward, reverence your Bible, and
love to pray to God.


_What does it Mean to be Tempted._--M.H., IN THE ROSE-BUD.

1. "Mother," said little Frank, "I wish you would tell me what it means
to be tempted. I heard you say, the other day, that people are tempted
to do many wicked things;--pray tell me, mother, if such a little boy as
I am is ever tempted?"

2. "Yes, my child, every day you live; and when I have told you what
temptation is, I think you will confess that you have not only been
tempted, but often yielded to temptation.

3. "To be tempted, means to be drawn by the offer of present pleasure to
do what is wrong. There are many kinds of temptation, and I think you
will understand me better if I give you an instance.

4. "You know, my dear Frank, that both your father and I have forbidden
your going to the pond where your cousin Henry was drowned, because we
think it very dangerous for you to venture there. But you also know that
the other day you went, and suffered severely afterward for your

5. "Yes, mother," said Frank; "but then I should not have gone, if
William Brown had not showed me his pretty ship, just as I was coming
out of school, and asked me to go see him launch it; and oh, mother, if
you had only seen it!

6. "It had masts and sails, just like a _real_ ship; and on the deck a
little man, which William called the captain. And then, when it was on
the water, it sailed along so sweetly!--the pond was as smooth as a
looking-glass, so that we could see two little ships all the time.

7. "I didn't think of disobeying you, mother; I only thought of the
pretty ship, and that there could be no harm in seeing William sail
it."--"The harm, my dear son (as you call it)," said his mother, "was
not in sailing the boat,--this is an innocent pleasure in itself; but it
was doing it after it had been forbidden by your parents, that made it

8. "The temptation to disobedience came in the form of a little ship.
You were drawn by it to the pond, the forbidden spot. You saw it sail
gayly off, and stood on the bank delighted."

9. "But, mother," interrupted Frank, "I shouldn't have got into the
water and muddied my clothes, if the little ship hadn't got tangled in
the weeds; and the boys all shouted, Clear her! Clear her! and I
couldn't help stepping in, I was so near; and my foot slipped, and I
fell in."

10. "Yes," said his mother, "and but for assistance of your
play-fellows, you might have been drowned. But God, whose eye was upon
you all the while, saw fit to spare you; and how thankful you ought to
be that he did not take you away in your disobedience!

11. "You now see how you were tempted, first to go with William Brown to
the pond, and then to step into the water; which shows how one
temptation leads to another. But did not something within you, my son,
tell you, while there, that you were doing wrong to disobey your

12. "No, mother; I do not recollect that it did. I'm sure I did not
think a word about it till I was alone in bed, and was asking my
heavenly Father to take care of me. Then something seemed to say,
'Frank, you have done wrong to-day.'

13. "And I felt how wicked I had been, and could not ask God to forgive
me till I had confessed all to you. I knew you were away when I came
home, and I thought you hadn't returned.

14. "I was so unhappy that I called Betsy, and told her how I felt. She
told me it was an accident, and no matter at all; that she had taken
care of my clothes, and she believed you would never know anything about

15. "But all this was no comfort to me; the something within would not
be quiet. If it had spoken to me in the same way when I first saw the
little ship, I think I should not have gone to the pond."

16. "Frank," said his mother, "this something within, which is
conscience, did then speak, but you did not listen to its voice. The
voice of temptation was louder, and you obeyed it, just as you followed
some noisy boys, the other day, though I was calling to you, 'Frank,
come back.'

17. "I spoke louder than usual, and at any other time you would have
heard my voice; but you were too much attracted by the boys to listen to

18. "Temptation makes us deaf to the voice within; and yielding to
temptation, as you see, my son, leads us into sin; and this is why we
pray, in the Lord's prayer, 'Lead us not into temptation, but deliver
us from evil,' which is sin, for there is no greater evil than sin.

19. "It is to keep us from this great evil that God has given us this
voice within, to warn us not to follow temptation, though the sin appear
but a trifling one, and though it hold out the promise of pleasure, as
the little ship did."


_The same subject, continued._

1. "I will name some of the temptations to which little boys are a good
deal exposed, and yield to without thinking, and sometimes without
knowing to what they may lead.

2. "Sometimes the temptation to steal comes in the form of some
beautiful fruit; perhaps in his father's garden, which he has been
forbidden to touch; or perhaps in an orchard far from the eye of the
owner, where he might take it without fear of being seen; and he says to
himself, 'No one will ever know it; I will take only a few.'

3. "But does he forget that the eye of God is upon him, and does he not
hear the voice of conscience saying, 'Thou shalt not steal!' He would
shudder to be called a thief; but taking what does not belong to us, be
it ever so small a thing, is stealing.

4. "And when detected, he is tempted to lie, to conceal his fault and
avoid punishment; and here again we see how one sin leads to another.
The temptations to cruelty are many. Sometimes they appear in the form
of a bird's nest, placed by a fond and loving mother on the high bough
of a tree, to secure her young brood from danger.

5. "The boy, in his rambles in the woods, sees the nest, climbs the
tree, and, though the little birds are too feeble to fly, and the
anxious mother flutters round, as if to entreat the cruel boy to spare
her little ones, he is unmindful of her tenderness, and, thinking only
of his prize, bears it off to his companions, who enjoy it with him.

6. "Here is a sinful feeling indulged, which, if not subdued, may lead
to murder. I wish you to remember, my dear boy, that it is by allowing
ourselves to commit little sins that we become great sinners.

7. "You would be frightened if you could have placed before you a
picture of the course of sin. You would exclaim, What a monster!--he
must never come near me,--it is dangerous even to look on him! Let me
entreat you, then, my son, to guard against temptation.


8. "If you say to temptation, as you would to a wicked companion, who
had often led you into mischief, 'Go away; I do not like your company,'
temptation, though for a while it may plead to be indulged, will soon do
as the wicked companion would, if often sent away with such a reproof,
discontinue to come; or, if found in your company, will not harm you;
for conscience, like a good friend, will be ever near; and your blessed
Saviour, who has promised to help those who are tempted, will assist you
to overcome temptation.

9. "I hope now you understand what it means to be tempted."--"I think I
do, mother," said Frank, "and I thank you for telling me so much about
temptation. I shall never again repeat the Lord's prayer without
thinking what it means, and I hope God will keep me from the great evil
of sin." He then kissed his mother, and she promised to tell him, some
other time, how we are tempted by sinful thoughts.


_The same, subject, continued._


1. It was not long after Frank had the conversation with his mother upon
the temptation to sinful actions, that he claimed her promise to tell
him how we may be tempted to sinful thoughts.

2. It was Sunday evening. Frank and his mother were sitting alone
together at a window which opened upon a flower-garden, rich in the hues
with which God has seen fit to adorn this beautiful part of creation.

3. "You have been at church to-day, my son," said his mother; "and to my
eye you did nothing offensive, for you sat still during the sermon, and
appeared engaged with your book during the prayers.

4. "I saw only the _outward_ part; but remember there was an eye of
infinite purity looking upon your heart, and seeing the thoughts that
were passing there. You only can tell if they were fit to meet that

5. Frank looked down; for, like most children, he was not apt to examine
either his thoughts or motives, but was well satisfied if he gained the
approbation of his parents.

6. His mother, seeing he was struggling to disclose something, said,
"You are an honest boy, Frank, and do not, I trust, wish to conceal the
truth from your mother. If you have received my approbation for correct
conduct, you certainly cannot enjoy it, if you feel that it is not

7. "That is what troubles me, mother," said Frank; "for, while I was
sitting so still, and you thought I was attending to the sermon, I was
all the while watching a pretty little dog, that was running from pew to
pew, trying to find his master; and when he got on the pulpit step, and
rolled off, I came so near laughing that I was obliged to put my
handkerchief to my mouth, and make believe to cough.

8. "I kept my eye upon him till church was done, and thought, if I could
see him at the door, I would try to make him follow me home, and keep

9. "I feel now, mother, that all this was very wrong, and that these
naughty thoughts tempted me to break God's holy Sabbath."

10. "I am glad you feel this, my son; for, besides being sinful to
desire to have the little dog, which was coveting what belonged to
another, the time and place in which you indulged the thought was the
breaking of that commandment which says, 'Remember the Sabbath day, to
keep it holy.'"

11. "But, mother," asked Frank, impatiently, "how shall I keep these
thoughts out? They come before I know it. Sometimes a boy has a new suit
of clothes on, and I cannot help looking at him; and sometimes the
girls will play with their gloves, and tie and untie their bonnets; and
sometimes the little children get to sleep, and I can't help watching
them, to see if they will not slip off the seat.

12. "I think, mother, if we did not sit in the gallery, I shouldn't see
so many things to tempt me to wicked thoughts in church."

13. "If I really believed this myself, Frank, I should think it
important to change our seat: but the mischief does not lie here; it is
in your heart.

14. "If this were right, and you really loved God and his service, the
thought of his presence would keep out these troublesome intruders; not
altogether, my son, for the best of people are sometimes subject to
wandering thoughts; but it is a temptation which they overcome, by
turning their attention immediately to the services, and by taking their
eyes from the object that drew away their thoughts from God."


_The same subject, concluded._

1. "If some great king, who loved his people, and was continually giving
them some good things, should appoint a day when he would meet his
subjects, rich and poor, young and old, and should declare to them how
they may best please him; and a person should be appointed to read to
them, from a book he had himself written, directions for their conduct;
and that, as a reward for obedience, should promise they should be
admitted to his palace, where nothing that could trouble them should
ever be allowed to enter--"

2. "Why, mother," exclaimed Frank, "I should so admire to see a king,
that I should be willing to do everything he required; and should be
afraid, all the time, of doing something he did not like, while in his
presence. I should keep looking at him all the time, to see if he were
pleased;--but go on, mother."

3. "Well, my son, suppose this great person, who is also good, should
keep a book in which he noted down all your actions, and even looks;
and, on a certain day which he had appointed, and which was known to
himself, should call together a great multitude of people, his friends
and yours, and should read to them all that he had written there,--do
you think you would be careless or indifferent what was written against
your name?"

4. "O no, mother! I should be so anxious that I should want to hide
myself, for fear something should be read that I should be ashamed
of,--something very bad. But, mother, no king ever did this, that you
know of. If he did, pray tell me more about him; and if his subjects
were not all good and obedient."

5. "I have heard of a king, my son, who has done more than this; but not
an earthly king. Earthly kings are limited in their power; for they are
but men. But the king of whom I speak is the Lord of the whole earth."

6. "Do you mean God, mother?"--"I do, my son. You have told me how you
should behave in the presence of an earthly king on the day he should
appoint to meet his people; and would you treat with less reverence and
respect him who is the King of kings and Lord of lords?

7. "Can you, on entering his house, say, 'The Lord is in his holy
temple,' and feel no desire to meet him there; but allow any trifle that
meets your eye to carry your thoughts away? Do you, when his holy book
is read, feel no desire to hear the directions he has given to lead you
to your heavenly home?

8. "And when the petitions are sent up imploring his blessings, and
asking his forgiveness, have you none to offer? Are you so blest as to
have nothing to ask, and so good as to need no forgiveness?

9. "O my son, be careful how you neglect these gracious privileges! And
when his ministers, whom he has appointed to declare his will,--to
instruct you out of his word,--preach to you from the sacred pulpit,
will you turn a deaf ear, and lose their instructions, and at the same
time displease your heavenly Father?

10. "This great and powerful king is also your father and friend. He
loves you more than any earthly friend. He is willing to hear all your
petitions, and is even more ready to give than we are to ask. He has
appointed one day in seven in which to meet us, and this is the Sabbath,
about the keeping of which we are now talking.

11. "And he has also appointed a day in which he will judge the world,
from the book which he has kept of our accounts.

12. "On that day there will be assembled a great multitude, which no man
can number, out of every kindred and tongue; great and small, good and
bad. You and I will be there, my son.

13. "There will be the minister and his people, the Sunday-school
teacher and his scholars, all to receive either the sentence, 'Come, ye
blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the
foundation of the world,' or, 'Depart from me, ye cursed, into
everlasting punishment.'"

14. Frank was moved by this representation of the consequences of his
neglect of the duties he owed his heavenly Father, and said, "O, how sad
it would be, how dreadful, if, on that day I should be sent to dwell
forever where God is not, and where you and father are not!"

15. "Dreadful, indeed, my son, would be such a separation; and when you
think of this, let it make you more earnest to serve and please God; for
Jesus Christ, who came upon earth once to die for us all, and will come
again to judge the earth, has gone to prepare mansions in heaven for
those who love him, that they may dwell with him forever in perfect

16. "Let us now, my son, pray to our heavenly Father to prepare us for
this blessedness, that where he is, there we may be also." Frank and his
mother knelt together, and offered up the following prayer:--


17. Almighty and most merciful Father! teach us thy will, that we may
know how to please thee. Put good thoughts into our hearts, and right
words into our lips, that our services may be such as thou wilt please
to accept.

18. Forgive, we pray thee, the sins we have committed this day, in
thought, word, or deed, and make us truly sorry on account of them. Help
us to love thee more, and serve thee better, for the time to come.


19. Bless all our friends, and make them thy friends. Make us a
household serving thee, that after this life is over, we may all meet in

20. O then, great Shepherd, who neither slumberest nor sleepest, take us
under thy protection this night; and when the cheerful light of day
again returns, lead us forth in thy fold, and keep us from every
temptation that will draw us away from thee.

21. May our peaceful slumbers remind us of the sleep of death; and, on
the morning of the resurrection, wilt thou clothe us in the
righteousness of Christ, and receive us to dwell with him in life
everlasting! Amen.


_Mary Dow._--H.F. GOULD.

    1. "Come in, little stranger," I said,
    As she tapped at my half-opened door,
    While the blanket pinned over her head
    Just reached to the basket she bore.

    2. A look full of innocence fell
    From her modest and pretty blue eye,
    As she said, "I have matches to sell,
    And hope you are willing to buy.

    3. "A penny a bunch is the price;
    I think you'll not find it too much;
    They're tied up so even and nice,
    And ready to light with a touch."

    4. I asked, "What's your name, little girl?"
    "'Tis Mary," said she,--"Mary Dow,"
    And carelessly tossed off a curl,
    That played o'er her delicate brow.

    5. "My father was lost in the deep,--
    The ship never got to the shore;
    And mother is sad, and will weep,
    When she hears the wind blow and sea roar.

    6. "She sits there at home, without food,
    Beside our poor sick Willie's bed;
    She paid all her money for wood,
    And so I sell matches for bread.

    7. "For every time that she tries
    Some things she'd be paid for to make,
    And lays down the baby, it cries,
    And that makes my sick brother wake.

    8. "I'd go to the yard and get chips,
    But, then, it would make me too sad,
    To see men there building the ships,
    And think they had made one so bad.

    9. "I've one other gown, and, with care,
    We think it may decently pass,
    With my bonnet that's put by to wear
    To meeting and Sunday-school class.

    10. "I love to go there, where I'm taught,
    Of One who's so wise and so good,
    He knows every action and thought,
    And gives e'en the raven his food.

    11. "For He, I am sure, who can take
    Such fatherly care of a bird,
    Will never forget or forsake
    The children who trust to his word.

    12. "And now, if I only can sell
    The matches I brought out to-day,
    I think I shall do very well,
    And mother'll rejoice at the pay."

    13. "Fly home, little bird," then I thought,
    "Fly home, full of joy, to your nest!"
    For I took all the matches she brought,
    And Mary may tell you the rest.


_It Snows._--H.F. GOULD.

    1. It snows! it snows! from out the sky,
    The feathered flakes, how fast they fly!
    Like little birds, that don't know why
    They're on the chase, from place to place,
    While neither can the other trace.
    It snows! it snows! a merry play
    Is o'er us, on this heavy day!

    2. As dancers in an airy hall,
    That hasn't room to hold them all,
    While some keep up and others fall,
    The atoms shift; then, thick and swift,
    They drive along to form the drift,
    That, weaving up, so dazzling white,
    Is rising like a wall of light.

    3. But now the wind comes whistling loud,
    To snatch and waft it, as a cloud,
    Or giant phantom in a shroud;
    It spreads, it curls, it mounts and whirls,
    At length a mighty wing unfurls,
    And then, away! but where, none knows,
    Or ever will.--It snows! it snows!

    4. To-morrow will the storm be done;
    Then out will come the golden sun,
    And we shall see, upon the run
    Before his beams, in sparkling streams,
    What now a curtain o'er him seems.
    And thus with life it ever goes,
    'Tis shade and shine!--It snows! it snows!


_The Dissatisfied Angler Boy._--H.F. GOULD.


    1. I'm sorry they let me go down to the brook,
    I'm sorry they gave me the line and the hook,
    And I wish I had stayed at home with my book.
    I'm sure 'twas no pleasure to see
    That poor, little, harmless, suffering thing,
    Silently writhe at the end of the string;
    Or to hold the pole, while I felt him swing
    In torture, and all for me!

    2. 'Twas a beautiful speckled and glossy trout,
    And when from the water I drew him out
    On the grassy bank, as he floundered about,
    It made me shivering cold,
    To think I had caused so much needless pain;
    And I tried to relieve him, but all in vain;
    O! never, as long as I live, again
    May I such a sight behold!

    3. O, what would I give once more to see
    The brisk little swimmer alive and free,
    And darting about, as he used to be,
    Unhurt, in his native brook!
    'Tis strange how people can love to play,
    By taking innocent lives away;
    I wish I had stayed at home to-day,
    With sister, and read my book.


_The Violet: a Fable._--CHILDREN'S MAGAZINE.

    1. Down in a humble dell
    A modest violet chanced to dwell
    Remote from gayer flowers;
    Its days were passed in simple ease,
    It sipped the dew and kissed the breeze,
    Nor thought of happier hours.

    2. Long lived it in this quiet way,
    Till, on a hot and sultry day
    About the midst of June,
    It chanced to spy a lady fair,
    All dressed in satins rich and rare,
    Come walking by, at noon.

    3. And thus the silly flower began:--
    "I much should like to live with man,
    And other flowers to see;--
    Why is it (for I cannot tell)
    That I forever here should dwell,
    Where there is none but me?"

    4. While thus it spoke, the lady stopped
    To pick up something she had dropped,
    And there the flower she spied;
    And soon she plucked it from its bed,
    Just shook the dew-drop from its head,
    And placed it at her side.

    5. Soon at the lady's splendid home
    The violet found that she was come,
    For all was bright and gay:
    And then upon the mantel-shelf,
    With many a flower beside herself,
    Was placed, without delay.

    6. And oh, how glad and proud was she
    In such a splendid place to be!--
    But short was her delight;
    For rose and lily turned away,
    And would not deign a word to say
    To such a country wight.

    7. She passed the day in much disgrace,
    And wished that she might change her place,
    And be at home again:
    She sighed for her own mossy bed,
    Where she might rest her aching head;
    But now to wish were vain.

    8. Next morn, the housemaid, passing by,
    Just chanced the little flower to spy,
    And then, without delay,
    She rudely seized its tender stalk,
    And threw it in the gravel walk,
    And left it to decay.

    9. And thus it mourned,--"O silly flower,
    To wish to leave its native bower!
    Was it for this I sighed?
    O, had I more contented been,
    And lived unnoticed and unseen,
    I might not thus have died!"

    10. Nor let this lesson be forgot:
    Remain contented with the lot
    That Providence decrees.
    Contentment is a richer gem
    Than sparkles in a diadem,
    And gives us greater ease.


_Captain John Smith._--JUVENILE MISCELLANY.

1. The adventures of this singular man are so various, and so very
extraordinary, that the detail of them seems more like romance than true
history. He was born in Lincolnshire, England, and was left an orphan at
an early age.

2. His love of adventure displayed itself while he was yet a school-boy.
He sold his satchel, books and clothes, and went over to France, without
the knowledge of his guardians.

3. Afterward, he served as a soldier in the Netherlands for several
years. At the end of his campaign, he returned to England, where he
recovered a small portion of the estate left him by his deceased father.

4. This money enabled him to resume his travels under more favorable
auspices, at the age of seventeen. He again went to France, and embarked
at Marseilles (_pronounced_ Mar-sales´), with some pious pilgrims,
bound to Italy.

5. During this voyage a violent tempest threatened destruction to the
vessel; and poor Smith being the suspected cause of the impending danger
was thrown, without mercy, into the sea.


6. He saved himself by his great expertness in swimming; and soon after
went on board another vessel, bound to Alexandria, where he entered into
the service of the Emperor of Austria, against the Turks.

7. His bravery, and great ingenuity in all the stratagems of war, soon
made him famous, and obtained for him the command of two hundred and
fifty horsemen.

8. At the siege of Regal, the Ottomans sent a challenge, purporting that
Lord Turbisha, to amuse the ladies, would fight with any captain among
the Austrian troops. Smith accepted the challenge.

9. Flags of truce were exchanged between the two armies, and crowds of
fair dames and fearless men assembled to witness the combat. Lord
Turbisha entered the field well mounted and armed.

10. On his shoulders were fixed two large wings made of eagles'
feathers, set in silver, and richly ornamented with gold and precious
stones. A janizary, or Turkish soldier, bore his lance before him, and
another followed, leading a horse superbly caparisoned.

11. Smith came upon the ground with less parade. A flourish of trumpets
preceded him, and his lance was supported by a single page.

12. The Turk fell at the first charge, and Smith returned to his army in
triumph. This so enraged one of the friends of the slain that he sent a
challenge to Smith, offering him his head, his horse and his armor, if
he dared come and take them.

13. The challenge was accepted, and the combatants came upon the ground
with nearly the same ceremony and splendor. Their lances broke at the
first charge, without doing injury to either; but, at the second onset,
the Turk was wounded, thrown from his horse, and killed.


_The same subject, continued._

1. The Christian army were at this time anxious to finish erecting some
fortifications, and were very willing to amuse their enemies in this
way. They therefore persuaded Captain Smith to send a challenge in his
turn, offering his head, in payment for the two he had won, to any one
who had skill and strength enough to take it.

2. The offer was accepted; and a third Turk tried his fortune with the
bold adventurer. This time Captain Smith was nearly unhorsed; but, by
his dexterity and judgment, he recovered himself, and soon returned to
the camp victorious.

3. These warlike deeds met with much applause; and the prince gave him a
coat of arms, signed with the royal seal, representing three Turk's
heads on a white field.

4. Not long after this, Captain Smith was left wounded on the field of
battle,--was taken prisoner by the Turks,--and sent as a slave to a
noble lady in the interior of the country.

5. He could speak Italian well, and his fair mistress was very fond of
that language. She listened to accounts of his bravery, his adventures,
and his misfortunes, with deepening interest; and finally sent him to
her brother, a powerful bashaw, with a request that he should be treated
with much kindness.

6. The proud officer was angry that his sister should trouble herself
about a vile European slave; and, instead of attending to her request,
he caused him to be loaded with irons, and abused in the most shameful

7. During the long and tedious period of his slavery, he suffered as
much as it is possible for man to endure; but at length he killed his
tyrannical master, and, with great peril, escaped through the deserts
into Russia.

8. His romantic genius would not long allow him to remain easy. He could
not be happy unless he was engaged in daring and adventurous actions. He
no sooner heard of an expedition to Virginia, under the command of
Christopher Newport, than he resolved to join it.

9. He arrived in this country with the first emigrants, who settled in
Jamestown, April 26, 1607. It is said this infant settlement must have
perished, had it not been for the courage and ingenuity of Captain


10. Once they were all nearly dying with hunger, and the savages utterly
refused to sell them any food. In this extremity, Smith stole the Indian
idol, Okee, which was made of skins stuffed with moss, and would not
return it until the Indians sold them as much corn as they wanted.


_The same subject, continued._

1. The colony were once in imminent danger of losing their brave and
intelligent friend. While exploring the source of the Chickahominy
river, he imprudently left his companions, and, while alone, was seen
and pursued by a party of savages. He retreated fighting, killed three
Indians with his own hand, and probably would have regained his boat in
safety, had he not accidentally plunged into a miry hole, from which he
could not extricate himself.

2. By this accident, he was taken prisoner; and the Indians would have
tortured him, and put him to death, according to their cruel customs,
had not his ever-ready wit come to his aid.

3. He showed them a small ivory compass, which he had with him, and, by
signs, explained many wonderful things to them, till his enemies were
inspired with a most profound respect, and resolved not to kill the
extraordinary man without consulting their chief.

4. He was, accordingly, brought into the presence of the king, Powhatan,
who received him in a robe of raccoon skins, and seated on a kind of
throne, with two beautiful young daughters at his side. After a long
consultation, he was condemned to die.

5. Two large stones were brought, his head laid upon one of them, and
the war-clubs raised to strike the deadly blow. At this moment,
Pocahontas, the king's favorite daughter, sprang forward, threw herself
between him and the executioners, and by her entreaties saved his life.

6. Powhatan promised him that he should return to Jamestown, if the
English would give him a certain quantity of ammunition and trinkets.
Smith agreed to obtain them, provided a messenger would carry a leaf to
his companions. On this leaf he briefly stated what must be sent.

7. Powhatan had never heard of writing;--he laughed at the idea that a
leaf could speak, and regarded the whole as an imposition on the part of
the prisoner.

8. When, however, the messenger returned with the promised ransom, he
regarded Smith as nothing less than a wizard, and gladly allowed him to
depart. It seemed to be the fate of this singular man to excite a
powerful interest wherever he went.

9. Pocahontas had such a deep attachment for him, that, in 1609, when
only fourteen years old, she stole away from her tribe, and, during a
most dreary night, walked to Jamestown, to tell him that her father had
formed the design of cutting off the whole English settlement.

10. Thus she a second time saved his life, at the hazard of her own.
This charming Indian girl did not meet with all the gratitude she

11. Before 1612, Captain Smith received a wound, which made it necessary
for him to go to England, for surgical aid; and after his departure a
copper kettle was offered to any Indian who would bring Pocahontas to
the English settlement.

12. She was, accordingly, stolen from her father, and carried prisoner
to Jamestown. Powhatan offered five hundred bushels of corn as a ransom
for his darling child.

13. Before the negotiation was finished, an Englishman of good
character, by the name of Thomas Rolfe, became attached to Pocahontas,
and they were soon after married, with the king's consent.

14. This event secured peace to the English for many years. The Indian
bride became a Christian, and was baptized.


_The same subject, concluded._

1. In 1616, Pocahontas went to England with her husband,--was introduced
at court, and received great attention.

2. King James is said to have been very indignant that any of his
subjects should have dared to marry a princess; but Captain Smith has
been accused, perhaps falsely, of being sufficiently cold and selfish to
blush for his acquaintance with the generous North American savage.

3. Pocahontas never returned to her native country. She died at
Gravesend, in 1617, just as she was about to embark for America.

4. She left one son, Thomas Rolfe; and from his daughter are descended
several people of high rank in Virginia, among whom was the celebrated
John Randolph of Roanoke.

5. Smith had many adventures, after his wound obliged him to leave
Jamestown. He visited this country again; made a voyage to the Summer
Isles; fought with pirates; joined the French against the Spaniards; and
was adrift, in a little boat, alone, on the stormy sea, during a night
so tempestuous that thirteen French ships were wrecked, near the Isle
of Re; yet he was saved.

6. He died in London, in 1631, in the fifty-second year of his age,
after having published his singular adventures in Europe, Asia, Africa,
and America.



1. Few men have done so much, in a short life, as John Ledyard. When he
was a mere boy, he built a canoe with his own hands, and descended
Connecticut river alone and unassisted.

2. He enlisted as a soldier, at Gibraltar; and afterwards, in the humble
character of corporal of the marines, he sailed round the world with the
celebrated Captain Cook.

3. After his return to England, he formed the bold design of traversing
the northern parts of Europe and Asia, crossing Behring's Straits, and
examining the whole of North America, from east to west.

4. Sir Joseph Banks, famous for his generosity to men of enterprise,
furnished him with money for the undertaking. He expended nearly all of
it in purchasing sea stores; and these, most unluckily, were all seized
by a custom-house officer, on account of some articles which the English
law forbade to be exported.

5. Poor Ledyard was now left in utter poverty; but he was a resolute
man, and he would not be discouraged. With only ten guineas in his
purse, he attempted to _walk_ over the greater part of three continents.

6. He walked through Denmark and Sweden, and attempted to cross the
great Gulf of Bothnia, on his way to Siberia; but when he reached the
middle of that inland sea, he found the water was not frozen, and he was
obliged to foot it back to Stockholm.

7. He then traveled round the head of the gulf, and descended to St.
Petersburg. Here he was soon discovered to be a man of talents and
activity; and though he was without money, and absolutely destitute of
stockings and shoes, he was treated with great attention.

8. The Portuguese ambassador invited him to dine, and was so much
pleased with him, that he used his influence to obtain for him a free
passage in the government wagons, then going to Irkutsk, in Siberia, at
the command of the Empress Katharine.

9. He went from this place to Yakutz, and there awaited the opening of
the spring, full of the animating hope of soon completing his wearisome
journey. But misfortune seemed to follow him wherever he went.

10. The empress could not believe that any man in his senses was
traveling through the ice and snows of uncivilized Siberia, merely for
the sake of seeing the country and the people.

11. She imagined that he was an English spy, sent there merely for the
purpose of prying into the state of her empire and her government. She
therefore employed two Russian soldiers to seize him, and convey him out
of her dominions.

12. Taken, he knew not why, and obliged to go off without his clothes,
his money, or his papers, he was seated in one of the strange-looking
sledges used in those northern deserts, and carried through Tartary and
White Russia, to the frontiers of Poland.

13. Covered with dirty rags, worn out with hardships, sick almost unto
death, without friends and without money, he begged his way to
Konigsberg, in Prussia.


_The same subject, concluded._

1. In this hour of deep distress, he found a person willing to take his
draft for five guineas on the Royal Society of England. With this
assistance, he arrived in the land of our forefathers.

2. He immediately applied to his ever-ready friend, Sir Joseph Banks,
for employment. Sir Joseph, knowing that nothing suited him better than
perilous adventures, told him that a company had just been formed, for
the purpose of penetrating into the interior of Africa, and discovering
the source of the river Niger.

3. Burning sands, savage negroes, venomous serpents, all the frightful
animals of the torrid zone, could not alarm the intrepid soul of
Ledyard. He immediately expressed his desire to go.

4. When the map was spread before him, and his dangerous journey pointed
out, he promptly exclaimed, "I will go to-morrow morning."

5. The gentleman smiled at his eagerness, and gladly intrusted him with
an expedition in which suffering and peril were certain, and success
extremely doubtful. He left London on the 30th of June, 1788, and
arrived in Grand Cairo on the 19th of August.

6. There he spent his time to great advantage, in searching for and
deciphering the various wonders of that ancient and once learned land.

7. His letters from Egypt were delightful. They showed much enthusiasm,
united with the most patient and laborious exertion. The company formed
great hopes concerning his discoveries in Senaar, and awaited letters
from that country with much anxiety.

8. But, alas! he never reached there. He was seized with a violent
illness at Cairo; died, and was decently buried beside the English who
had ended their days in that celebrated city.

9. We should never read accounts of great or good men without learning
some profitable lesson. If we cannot, like Ledyard, defend Gibraltar,
sail round the world with Captain Cook, project trading voyages to the
north-west coast, study Egyptian hieroglyph´ics, and traverse the dreary
northern zone on foot,--we can, at least, learn from him the important
lesson of _perseverance_.

10. The boy who perseveringly pores over a hard lesson, and who will not
give up an intricate problem until he has studied it out, forms a
habit, which, in after life, will make him a great man; and he who
resolutely struggles against his own indolence, violent temper, or any
other bad propensity, will most assuredly be a good one.


_Learning to Work._--ORIGINAL.

1. A few years ago, several little volumes were published, called "_The
Rollo Books_," which are full of interesting stories about a little boy
of that name. They were written by a gentleman whose name is Abbott.

2. They are not only interesting, but also very instructive books; and
no little boy or girl can read them, without learning many very useful
lessons from them. They are not only useful to young persons, but their
parents, also, have derived many useful hints from them, in the
management of their children.

3. The following little story is taken from one of them, called "_Rollo
at Work_;" and I hope that my little friends who read this story at
school will also read it at home to their parents, because it will be
both interesting and useful to them.

4. The story begins, by telling us that Rollo's father had set him at
work in the barn, with a box full of nails, directing him to pick them
all over, and to put all those that were alike by themselves.

5. Rollo began very willingly at first, but soon grew tired of the work,
and left it unfinished. The remainder of the story will be found in the
following lessons, in Mr. Abbott's own words.


_The same subject, continued._--ABBOTT.

1. That evening, when Rollo was just going to bed, his father took him
up in his lap, and told him he had concluded what to do.

2. "You see it is very necessary," said he, "that you should have the
power of confining yourself steadily and patiently to a single
employment, even if it does not amuse you.

3. "I have to do that, and all people have to do it; and you must learn
to do it, or you will grow up indolent and useless. You cannot do it
now, it is very plain.

4. "If I set you to doing anything, you go on as long as the novelty and
the amusement last; and then your patience is gone, and you contrive
every possible excuse for getting away from your task.

5. "Now, I am going to give you one hour's work to do, every forenoon
and afternoon. I shall give you such things to do as are perfectly plain
and easy, so that you will have no excuse for neglecting your work, or
leaving it.

6. "But yet I shall choose such things as will afford you no amusement;
for my wish is that you should learn to work, not play."

7. "But, father," said Rollo, "you told me there was pleasure in work,
the other day. But how can there be any pleasure in it, if you choose
such things as have no amusement in them, at all?"

8. "The pleasure of working," said his father, "is not the fun of doing
amusing things, but the satisfaction and solid happiness of being
faithful in duty, and accomplishing some useful purpose.

9. "For example, if I were to lose my pocket-book on the road, and
should tell you to walk back a mile, and look carefully all the way,
until you found it, and if you did it faithfully and carefully, you
would find a kind of satisfaction in doing it; and when you found the
pocket-book, and brought it back to me, you would enjoy a high degree
of happiness. Should not you?"

10. "Why, yes, sir, I should," said Rollo.--"And, yet, there would be no
amusement in it. You might, perhaps, the next day, go over the same
road, catching butterflies; that would be amusement. Now, the pleasure
you would enjoy in looking for the pocket-book would be the solid
satisfaction of useful work.

11. "The pleasure of catching butterflies would be the amusement of
play. Now, the difficulty is, with you, that you have scarcely any idea,
yet, of the first.

12. "You are all the time looking for the other; that is, the amusement.
You begin to work, when I give you anything to do; but if you do not
find amusement in it, you soon give it up. But if you would only
persevere, you would find, at length, a solid satisfaction, that would
be worth a great deal more."

13. Rollo sat still, and listened; but his father saw, from his looks,
that he was not much interested in what he was saying; and he perceived
that it was not at all probable that so small a boy could be reasoned
into liking work.

14. In fact, it was rather hard for Rollo to understand all that his
father said; and still harder for him to feel the force of it. He began
to grow sleepy, and so his father let him go to bed.


_The same subject, concluded._


1. The next day, his father gave him his work. He was to begin at ten
o'clock, and work till eleven, gathering beans in the garden.

2. His father went out with him, and waited to see how long it took him
to gather half a pint, and then calculated how many he could gather in
an hour, if he was industrious. Rollo knew that if he failed now he
should be punished in some way, although his father did not say anything
about punishment.

3. When he was set at work, the day before, about the nails, he was
making an experiment, as it were, and he did not expect to be actually
punished, if he failed; but now he knew that he was under orders, and
must obey.

4. So he worked very diligently, and when his father came out, at the
end of the hour, he found that Rollo had got rather more beans than he
had expected. Rollo was much gratified to see his father pleased; and he
carried in his large basket full of beans to show his mother, with great

5. Then he went to play, and enjoyed himself very highly. The next
morning, his father said to him,--"Well, Rollo, you did very well
yesterday; but doing right once is a very different thing from forming a
habit of doing right. I can hardly expect you will succeed as well
to-day; or, if you should to-day, that you will to-morrow."

6. Rollo thought he should. His work was to pick up all the loose stones
in the road, and carry them, in a basket, to a great heap of stones
behind the barn.

7. But he was not quite faithful. His father observed him playing
several times. He did not speak to him, however, until the hour was
over; and then he called him in.

8. "Rollo," said he, "you have failed to-day. You have not been very
idle, but have not been industrious; and the punishment which I have
concluded to try first is, to give you only bread and water for dinner."

9. So, when dinner-time came, and the family sat down to the good
beef-steak and apple-pie which was upon the table, Rollo knew that he
was not to come. He felt very unhappy, but he did not cry.

10. His father called him, and cut off a good slice of bread, and put
into his hands, and told him he might go and eat it on the steps of the
back door. "If you should be thirsty," he added, "you may ask Mary to
give you some water."

11. Rollo took the bread, and went out, and took his solitary seat on
the stone step leading into the back yard; and, in spite of all his
efforts to prevent it, the tears would come into his eyes.

12. He thought of his guilt in disobeying his father, and he felt
unhappy to think that his father and mother were seated together at
their pleasant table, and that he could not come, because he had been an
undutiful son. He determined that he would never be unfaithful in his
work again.

13. He went on, after this, several days, very well. His father gave him
various kinds of work to do, and he began, at last, to find a
considerable degree of satisfaction in doing it.

14. He found, particularly, that he enjoyed himself a great deal more
after his work than before; and, whenever he saw what he had done, it
gave him pleasure.

15. After he had picked up the loose stones before the house, for
instance, he drove his hoop about there with unusual satisfaction;
enjoying the neat and tidy appearance of the road much more than he
would have done, if Jonas had cleared it. In fact, in the course of a
month, Rollo became quite a faithful and efficient little workman.



_The Comma._

THE COMMA is a mark like this =,=

When you come to a comma in reading, you must generally make a short
pause. Sometimes you must use the falling inflection of the voice, when
you come to a comma; and sometimes you must keep your voice suspended,
as if some one had stopped you before you had read all that you
intended. The general rule, when you come to a comma, is, to stop just
long enough to count one.


Diligence, industry, and proper improvement of time, are material duties
of the young.

He is generous, just, charitable, and humane.

By wisdom, by art, by the united strength of a civil community, men have
been enabled to subdue the whole race of lions, bears, and serpents.

     [Sometimes a comma must be read like a question.]

Do you pretend to sit as high in school as Anthony? Did you read as
correctly, articulate as distinctly, speak as loudly, or behave as
well, as he?

Did he recite his lesson correctly, read audibly, and appear to
understand what he read?

Was his copy written neatly, his letters made handsomely, and did no
blot appear on his book?

Was his wealth stored fraudfully, the spoil of orphans wronged, and
widows who had none to plead their rights?

Have not you, too, gone about the earth like an evil genius, blasting
the fair fruits of peace and industry?

Is that a map which you have before you, with the leaves blotted with

Will you say that your time is your own, and that you have a right to
employ it in the manner you please?

     [Sometimes a comma is to be read like a period, with
     the falling inflection of the voice.]

The teacher directed him to take his seat, to study his lesson, and to
pass no more time in idleness.

It is said by unbelievers that religion is dull, unsocial, uncharitable,
enthusiastic, a damper of human joy, a morose intruder upon human

Charles has brought his pen instead of his pencil, his paper instead of
his slate, his grammar instead of his arithmetic.

Perhaps you have mistaken sobriety for dullness, equanimity for
moroseness, disinclination to bad company for aversion to society,
abhorrence of vice for uncharitableness, and piety for enthusiasm.

Henry was careless, thoughtless, heedless, and inattentive.

     [Sometimes the comma is to be read like an

O, how can you destroy those beautiful things which your father procured
for you! that beautiful top, those polished marbles, that excellent
ball, and that beautiful painted kite,--oh, how can you destroy them,
and expect that he will buy you new ones!

O, how canst thou renounce the boundless store of charms that Nature to
her votary yields! the warbling woodland, the resounding shore, the pomp
of groves, the garniture of fields, all that the genial ray of morning
gilds, and all that echoes to the song of even, all that the mountain's
sheltering bosom shields, and all the dread magnificence of heaven, oh,
how canst thou renounce, and hope to be forgiven!

     [Sometimes the comma, and other marks, are to be read
     without any pause or inflection of the voice.]

You see, boys, what a fine school-room we have, in which you can pursue
your studies.

You see, my son, this wide and large firmament over our heads, where the
sun and moon, and all the stars, appear in their turns.

Therefore, my child, fear, and worship, and love God.

He that can read as well as you can, James, need not be ashamed to read

He that can make the multitude laugh and weep as you can, Mr.
Shakspeare, need not fear scholars.

     [Sometimes the pause of a comma must be made where
     there is no pause in your book. Spaces are left, in the
     following sentences, where the pause is proper.]

    James was very much delighted     with
    the picture which he saw.

    The Europeans were hardly less amazed
        at the scene now before them.

    The inhabitants     were entirely naked.
    Their black hair, long and curled, floated
    upon their shoulders, or was bound in tresses
        around their head.

    Persons of reflection and sensibility
        contemplate with interest the scenes of

    The succession and contrast of the seasons
        give scope to that care and foresight,
    diligence and industry, which are
    essential to the dignity     and enjoyment
    of human beings.

     [The pupil may read the following sentences; but before
     reading them, he may tell after what word the pause
     should be made. The pause is not printed in the
     sentences, but it must be made when reading them. And
     here it may be observed, that the comma is more
     frequently used to point out the grammatical divisions
     of a sentence than to indicate a rest or cessation of
     the voice. Good reading depends much upon skill and
     judgment in making those pauses which the sense of the
     sentence dictates, but which are not noted in the book;
     and the sooner the pupil is taught to make them, with
     proper discrimination, the surer and the more rapid
     will be his progress in the art of reading.]

While they were at their silent meal a horseman came galloping to the
door, and, with a loud voice, called out that he had been sent express
with a letter to Gilbert Ainslee.

The golden head that was wont to rise at that part of the table was now

For even though absent from school I shall get the lesson.

For even though dead I will control the trophies of the capitol.

It is now two hundred years since attempts have been made to civilize
the North American savage.

Doing well has something more in it than the fulfilling of a duty.

You will expect me to say something of the lonely records of the former
races that inhabited this country.

There is no virtue without a characteristic beauty to make it
particularly loved by the good, and to make the bad ashamed of their
neglect of it.

A sacrifice was never yet offered to a principle, that was not made up
to us by self-approval, and the consideration of what our degradation
would have been had we done otherwise.

The following story has been handed down by family tradition for more
than a century.

The succession and contrast of the seasons give scope to that care and
foresight, diligence and industry, which are essential to the dignity
and enjoyment of human beings, whose happiness is connected with the
exertion of their faculties.

A lion of the largest size measures from eight to nine feet from the
muzzle to the origin of the tail, which last is of itself about four
feet long. The height of the larger specimens is four or five feet.

The following anecdote will show with what obstinate perseverance
pack-horses have been known to preserve the line of their order.

Good-morning to you, Charles! Whose book is that which you have under
your arm?

A benison upon thee, gentle huntsman! Whose towers are these that
overlook the wood?

The incidents of the last few days have been such as will probably never
again be witnessed by the people of America, and such as were never
before witnessed by any nation under heaven.

To the memory of Andre his country has erected the most magnificent
monuments, and bestowed on his family the highest honors and most
liberal rewards. To the memory of Hale not a stone has been erected, and
the traveler asks in vain for the place of his long sleep.


_The Semicolon._

THE SEMICOLON is made by a comma placed under a period, thus =;=

When you come to a semicolon, you must generally make a pause twice as
long as you would make at a comma.

Sometimes you must keep the voice suspended when you come to a
semicolon, as in the following:


That God whom you see me daily worship; whom I daily call upon to bless
both you and me, and all mankind; whose wondrous acts are recorded in
those Scriptures which you constantly read; that God who created the
heaven and the earth is your Father and Friend.

My son, as you have been used to look to me in all your actions, and
have been afraid to do anything unless you first knew my will; so let it
now be a rule of your life to look up to God in all your actions.

     [Sometimes you must use the falling inflection of the
     voice when you come to a semicolon, as in the


Let your dress be sober, clean, and modest; not to set off the beauty of
your person, but to declare the sobriety of your mind; that your outward
garb may resemble the inward plainness and simplicity of your heart.

In meat and drink, observe the rules of Christian temperance and
sobriety; consider your body only as the servant and minister of your
soul; and only so nourish it, as it may best perform an humble and
obedient service.

Condescend to all the weakness and infirmities of your fellow-creatures;
cover their frailties; love their excellences; encourage their virtues;
relieve their wants; rejoice in their prosperity; compassionate their
distress; receive their friendship; overlook their unkindness; forgive
their malice; be a servant of servants; and condescend to do the lowest
offices for the lowest of mankind.

     [The semicolon is sometimes used for a question, and
     sometimes as an exclamation.]


Hast thou not set at defiance my authority; violated the public peace,
and passed thy life in injuring the persons and properties of thy

O, it was impious; it was unmanly; it was poor and pitiful!

Have not you too gone about the earth like an evil genius; blasting the
fair fruits of peace and industry; plundering, ravaging, killing,
without law, without justice, merely to gratify an insatiable lust for

What a glorious monument of human invention, that has thus triumphed
over wind and wave; has brought the ends of the earth in communion; has
established an interchange of blessings, pouring into the sterile
regions of the north all the luxuries of the south; diffused the light
of knowledge and the charities of cultivated life; and has thus bound
together those scattered portions of the human race, between which
Nature seemed to have thrown an insurmountable barrier!


_The Colon._

THE COLON consists of two periods placed one above the other, thus =:=

Sometimes the passage ending with a colon is to be read with the voice
suspended; but it should generally be read with the falling inflection
of the voice.

The general rule, when you come to a colon, is to stop just long enough
to count three; or three times as long as you are directed to pause at a


Law and order are forgotten: violence and rapine are abroad: the golden
cords of society are loosed.

The temples are profaned: the soldier's curse resounds in the house of
God: the marble pavement is trampled by iron hoofs: horses neigh beside
the altar.

Blue wreaths of smoke ascend through the trees, and betray the
half-hidden cottage: the eye contemplates well-thatched ricks, and barns
bursting with plenty: the peasant laughs at the approach of winter.

     [The following passages ending with a colon are to be
     read with the voice suspended:]

Do not flatter yourselves with the hope of perfect happiness: there is
no such thing in the world.

A boy at school is by no means at liberty to read what books he pleases:
he must give attention to those which contain his lessons; so that, when
he is called upon to recite, he may be ready, fluent, and accurate, in
repeating the portion assigned him.

As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial, but did not
perceive its moving; and it appears that the grass has grown, though
nobody ever saw it grow: so the advances we make in knowledge, as they
consist of such minute steps, are perceivable only by the distance gone

When the proud steed shall know why man restrains his fiery course, or
drives him o'er the plains; when the dull ox, why now he breaks the
clod, is now a victim, and now Egypt's god: then shall man's pride and
dullness comprehend his actions', passions', being's use and end.

Jehovah, God of hosts, hath sworn, saying: Surely, as I have devised, so
shall it be; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand.

George, you must not laugh at me; I will not bear it. You forget what
you are about when you ridicule me: I know more than you do about the

I never heard a word about it before, said George, yesterday: who told
you about it, Charles?

I never heard one word of it before, said my uncle Toby, hastily: how
came he there, Trim?

Thou shalt pronounce this parable upon the King of Babylon; and shalt
say: How hath the oppressor ceased?

It is not only in the sacred fane that homage should be paid to the Most
High: there is a temple, one not made with hands; the vaulted firmament:
far in the woods, almost beyond the sound of city-chime, at intervals
heard through the breezeless air.


[Illustration: List of textbooks]

Transcriber's Notes:

To retain the flavor of this schoolbook, the Transcriber has left all
grammar errors in tact. Any exceptions are noted below.

Page vii: Opening bracket added to first sentence. [_The Poetical

Page 131: Period added: generosity.

Page 139: Period added: she was immovable.

Page 150: Period added: 18.

Page 154: Period added: The same, subject, continued.

Page 165: Word "might" changed to "mighty" due to space in poem and
poem's scheme.

Page 202: Word "curse" is presumed: "...curse resounds in the ..."

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