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Title: Banbury Chap Books - And Nursery Toy Book Literature
Author: Pearson, Edwin
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Banbury Chap Books - And Nursery Toy Book Literature" ***

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[Transcriber's Note:

This book has over 800 small black-and-white illustrations. They can
be found in the "images" directory associated with the html version of
this file, in two forms:

  thumbnails, named in the form "thumb_NN_NN.png" numbered sequentially
    within each page (without leading 0's)
  larger images, named "pic_NN_NN.png"

For this plain-text file, each illustration or group of illustrations
is identified by number, omitting the "pic_" or "thumb_" component
and the "png" extension.

Misspellings have generally been left uncorrected. They are listed at
the end of the text.]


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


  [Illustrations: frontis_1 - frontis_5

  _The "White Lion," Banbury, early John Bewick._

  _Early cuts used to illustrate "Tommy Two Shoes." York and Hull
  editions._

  _Early cut from "A New Year's Gift."_

  _"Jack and the Giants," early York edition._]



              _BANBURY CHAP BOOKS_

                      and

          NURSERY TOY BOOK LITERATURE

    [of the XVIII. and Early XIX. Centuries]

                      with
        Impressions from Several Hundred

By T. & J. Bewick, Blake, Cruikshank, Craig, Lee,
              Austin, and Others.

    Illustrating Favourite Nursery Classics,
  with their Antiquarian, Historical, Literary
           and Artistic Associations:

   FAITHFULLY GLEANED FROM THE ORIGINAL WORKS
  IN THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY, OXFORD, THE BRITISH
       AND SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUMS, &c.

With very much that is Interesting and Valuable
     appertaining to the early Typography
       and Topography of Children's Books
     relating to Great Britain and America.

                   INCLUDING

 Jack the Giant Killer, Cock Robin, Tom Thumb,
  Whittington, Goody Two Shoes, Philip Quarll,
      Tommy Trip, York and Banbury Cries,
  Children in the Wood, Dame Trot, Horn Books,
           Battledores, Primers, etc.

               By EDWIN PEARSON.

                   LONDON:
Arthur Reader, 1, Orange Street, Bloomsbury, W.C.
                     1890.



         _Only 50 copies Large Paper,_
             _500 "    Small._



[Decoration]

INTRODUCTION.


"Banbury Cakes," and "Banbury Cross," with its favourite juvenile
associations, with the Lady with bells on her toes, having music
wherever she goes, are indissolubly connected with the early years not
only of ourselves but many prior generations. In fact, the Ancient Cross
has been rebuilt since the days, when in Drunken Barnaby's Journal, we
are made familiar with the puritan "who hanged his cat on a Monday for
killing of a mouse on a Sunday." The quaint old town and its people are
rapidly modernizing; but they cling to the old traditions. Both in
pictorial and legendary lore we have some Banburies of another kind
altogether, viz., Banbury Blocks, or in plain English, Engraved Woodcut
Blocks, associated with the Local Chap Books, Toy Books, and other
Histories, for which this quaint old Oxfordshire town is celebrated. The
faithful description of the Blocks illustrating this volume has led to
numerous descriptive digressions, apparently irrelevant to the subject;
it was found however that in tracing out the former history and use of
some of the "Bewick" and other cuts contained in this volume, that the
Literary, Artistic, Historical, Topographical, Typographical, and
Antiquarian Reminiscences connected with the early Printing and
Engraving of Banbury involved that of many other important towns and
counties of Great Britain, and also America. A provincial publisher
about the beginning of the present century would reflect more or less
the modus operandi of each of his contemporaries in abridging or
reproducing verbatim the immortal little chap books issued from the
press of John Newbury's "Toy Book Manufactory," at the Bible and Sun
(a sign lately restored), 65, Saint Paul's Church Yard, near the Bar.

This again leads to the subject as to who wrote these clever little
tomes. In my "Angler's Garland," printed at the Dryden Press, 1870 and
1871, I fully announced my intention of issuing a reprint of the first
edition of "Goody Two Shoes," but the intended volume was published by
the firm at the corner, "Griffith, Farren, Okenden, and Welsh," now in
the direct line of business descent from worthy and industrious John
Newbery: Carman, Harris, Grant and Griffith. Mr. Charles Welsh of the
present firm has taken a warm interest in the Antiquarian and Historical
Associations of the Newbery firm. The premises have been lately rebuilt,
the Sign and Emblems adopted by Newbery restored, and C. Welsh has
reprinted "Goody Two Shoes" in facsimile, since which there has been
added to it a Standard edition of Goldsmith's Works, edited by Mr.
Gibbs. I had the pleasure of making many researches respecting the old
London publisher (Goldsmith's friend), John Newbery, respecting his
Lilliputian Classics, and I have been enabled to introduce several of
the Quarto early editions to the firm, and have had great pleasure in
writing and placing on record numerous facts and data, since utilized in
the very interesting "Life of John Newbery, a last century bookseller."
The connection of Oliver Goldsmith's name is indissolubly associated
with the juvenile classics industriously issued by Newbery. Dr. Johnson
himself edited and prefaced several children's books which I have seen
in the Jupp and Hugo Collections. The weary hours of adversity, through
which "Goldie" passed at Green Arbour Court, top of Break Neck Steps and
Turn Again Lane--I remember them all well, and the Fleet prison walls
too, when I was a boy--and in refuge at Canonbury Tower, near the
village of Islington, these are the places where Goldsmith wrote for
children. Sir Joshua Reynolds tells how, when he called on the poet at
Green Arbour Court, he found the couplet:--

 "By sports like these are all their cares beguiled,
  The sports of children satisfy the child."

see "The Traveller." He was surrounded by children in this unsavoury
neighbourhood, where he had his humble domicile: a woodcut in Lumburd's
Mirror depicts it very correctly. Bishop Percy, author of the
"Reliques," called on him, and during the interview the oft repeated
incident occurred of a little child of an adjacent neighbour, "Would Mr.
Goldsmith oblige her mother with a chamber pot full of coals!" Truly
these were hours of ill-at-ease. The largest collection of the various
relics of woodcuts used in the chap book literature, "printed for the
Company of Flying Stationers, also Walking Stationers,"--for such is a
portion of the imprint to be found on several of the early Chap Books
printed at Banbury--is to be seen in the Library of the British Museum;
but the richest collection of these celebrated little rarities of Toy
Books is in the venerable Bodleian Library. Among the very interesting
block relics of the past are the pretty cuts to Mrs. Trimmer's "Fabulous
Histories, or The Robins:" these were designed by Thomas Bewick, and
engraved by John Thompson, his pupil, who enriched Whittingham's
celebrated Chiswick Press with his fine and tasteful work. A numerous
series of little fable cuts by the same artist are to be found in this
volume. One of the quaintest sets engraved at an early period by John
Bewick (the Hogarth of Newcastle), are to "The Hermit, or Adventures of
Edward Dorrington," or "Philip Quarll," as it was most popularly known
by that title a century ago. The earliest edition I have seen of Philip
Quarll is as follows: "The Hermit, or the unparalleled sufferings and
surprising adventures of Mr. Philip Quarll, an Englishman who was lately
discovered by Mr. Dorrington, a Bristol merchant, upon an uninhabited
island in the South Sea, where he lived above fifty years without any
human assistance, still continues to reside, and will not come away,"
etc. Westminster: Printed by J. Cluer and A. Campbell, for T. Warner in
Paternoster Row, and B. Creape at The Bible in Jermyn Street, St.
James's, 1727. 8vo, xii pp., map and explanation, 2 pp., and 1 to 26
appendix, with full page copper plate engravings. He was born in St.
Giles', left his master a locksmith, went to sea, married a famous
w----e, listed for a soldier, married three wives, condemned at the Old
Bailey, pardoned by King Charles II., turned merchant, and was
shipwrecked on a desolate island on the coast of Mexico, etc. Other
editions in the British Museum are 1750; 1759 (third); 1780 (twelfth);
1786 (first American edition, from the 6th English edition, Boston,
U.S.A.); 1787 (in French); 1795 (seventeenth); 1807; and also in a
"Storehouse of Stories," edited by Miss C. M. Yonge, 2 vols, 8vo
(Macmillan, 1870-2), Philip Quarll (also Perambulations of a Mouse,
Little Jack, Goody Two Shoes, Blossoms of Morality, Puzzle for a curious
Girl), and others are given. The text is useful to refer to, as the
originals are rare: the woodcuts of several of them are in this volume.
"Philip Quarll," Miss Yonge says, "comes to us with the reputation of
being by Daniel Defoe; but we have never found anything to warrant the
supposition. It must have been written during the period preceding the
first French Revolution." There is also in the Museum an edition printed
in Dutch in 1805.

In 1869, Mr. Wm. Tegg reprinted the Surprising Adventures of Philip
Quarll, entirely re-edited and modernized, with only a frontispiece and
vignette on title as illustrations. The quaint old cuts on next page
probably illustrated an early Newcastle, then York, and finally Banbury,
edition of this oft published work.


  _The Blocks designed and engraved by John Bewick, for "The Hermit;
  or Philip Quarll,"_ (_circa 1785._)

  [Illustrations: iv_1 - iv_6]


Tegg's edition of 356 pages, 12mo, is to be seen in the Reading Room of
the British Museum, and gives the full text and history of these. This
curious book would well bear representing with the original Bewick cuts,
after the manner of the present Newbery firm, who have revived
Butterfly's Ball, Grasshopper's Feast, Goody Two Shoes, Looking Glass
for the Mind, and contemplate others in the immediate future. Tegg in
his reprint of the Book on Philip Quarll, states that he was born in St.
Giles' Parish, London, 1647, voyaged to Brazil, Mexico, and other parts
of America, was left on an island, nourished by a goat, and other
surprising adventures. Edward Dorrington communicates an account (see p.
1 to 94 inclusive) of how the hermit Philip Quarll was discovered, with
his (E. D.'s) return to Bristol from Mexico, Jan. 3, 1724-5; but is
about returning to Peru and Mexico again (p. 94). This is of both
American and Bewick interest. Besides these representatives of this Chap
Book, we are enabled to give in this collection impressions from the
blocks of other editions fortunately rescued from oblivion and
destruction.

  [Illustrations: v_1, v_2]


  [Illustrations: vi_1, vi_2]



  [Illustration: 1_1]


BANBURY CHAP BOOKS.

 "Old Story Books! Old Story Books!
        we owe ye much old friends,
  Bright coloured threads in memory's wrap,
        of which Death holds the ends,
  Who can forget ye? Who can spurn the ministers of joy
  That waited on the lisping girl and petticoated boy?
  Talk of your vellum, gold emboss'd morocco, roan, and calf,
  The blue and yellow wraps of old were prettier by half."

                                     --Eliza Cook's Poems.


In 1708 John White, a Citizen of York, established himself as a printer
in Newcastle-on-Tyne, bringing with him a stock of quaint old cuts,
formerly his father's, at York, where he was Sole Printer to King
William, for the five Northern Counties of England. He entered into
partnership with Thomas Saint, who on the death of John White, at their
Printing Office in Pilgrim Street, succeeded in 1796 to his extensive
business as Printer, Bookseller, and Publisher. In this stock of
woodcuts were some of the veritable pieces of wood engraved, or cut for
Caxton, Wynken de Worde, Pynson, and others down to Tommy Gent--the
curious genius, historian, author, poet, woodcuter and engraver, binder
and printer, of York. We give some early examples out of this stock.
Thomas Saint, about 1770, had the honour of introducing to the public,
the brothers Thomas and John Bewick's first efforts in wood-engravings,
early and crude as they undoubtedly were. They are to be found in Hutton
"On Mensuration," and also in various children's and juvenile works,
such as Æsop's and Gay's Fables. We give some of the earliest known of
their work in this very interesting collection of woodcuts.

Some years ago a collection was formed of Newbury and Marshall's
Children's Gift Toy Books, and early educational works, which were
placed in the South Kensington Museum, in several glass cases. These
attracted other collections of rare little volumes, adorned with similar
cuts, many of which are from the identical blocks here impressed,
notably the "Cries of York," "Goody Two Shoes," etc. They are still on
view, near the George Cruikshank collection, and during the twenty years
they have been exhibited, such literature has steadily gone up to fancy
prices.

Charles Knight in his Shadows of the Old Booksellers, says of Newbury,
(pp. 233), "This old bookseller is a very old friend of mine. He wound
himself round my heart some seventy years ago, when I became possessed
of an immortal volume, entitled the history of 'Little Goody Shoes.'
I felt myself personally honoured in the dedication." He then refers to
Dr. Primrose, Thomas Trip, etc., and adds further on, "my father had a
drawer full of them [Newbury's little books] very smartly bound in gilt
paper." Priceless now would this collection be, mixed up with
horn-books--a single copy of which is one of the rarest relics of the
olden time.

Chalmer's in his preface to "Idler," regards Mr. Newbury as the reputed
author of many little chap books for masters and misses.

Mr. John Nichols brings forward other candidates for the honour of
projecting and writing the "Lilliputian histories, of Goody Two Shoes,
etc.;" and refers to Griffith Jones and Giles Jones, in conjunction with
Mr. John Newbury, as those to whom the public are indebted for the
origin of those numerous and popular little books for the amusement and
instruction of children, which have ever since been received with
universal approbation.

The following are two of the identical cuts engraved by John Bewick, and
used in the Newbury editions of Goody Two Shoes, London, 1769 to 1771.

  [Illustrations: 2_1, 2_2]

It will be seen on contrasting these cuts with the other two, on the
following page, from early York editions, how wonderfully even in his
early years Bewick improved the illustrated juvenile literature of his
day. No wonder when Goldsmith the poet had an interview with Bewick,
that delighted with his cuts, he confessed to writing Goody Two Shoes,
Tommy Trip, etc. Bewick's daughter supplied this information.

  [Illustrations: 3_1 - 3_3

  _Early cuts to Goody Two Shoes._
  _Bewick's frontispiece to Goody Two Shoes._]

Here are two early examples of Thomas Bewick. They were used in a York
edition of "A Pretty Book of Pictures for little Masters and Misses,
or History of Beasts and Birds by Tommy Trip," etc.

  [Illustrations: 4_1, 4_2

  _Miss Polly Riding in a Coach, from Tommy Trip._
  _The Student, from Tommy Trip._]

There was an American edition of Goody Two Shoes, and is very
interesting indeed, having a woodcut frontispiece engraved by Thomas
Bewick, and was printed at Worcester, Mass., U.S.A., by Isaiah Thomas,
and sold wholesale and retail at his book-store, 1787. A copy of this
little book sold in London for £1 16s.

We also give two other specimens from the J. Newbery editions of Tommy
Trip and Goody Two Shoes, both engraved by John Bewick.

  [Illustrations: 4_3, 4_4

  _The Student, from Tommy Trip._
  _Margery, from Goody Two Shoes._]

The packmen of the past [see frontispiece of a pack-horse in First
Edition only of Bewick's Quadrupeds, 1790] carried in their packs the
ephemeral literature of the day, Calendars, Almanacks, and Chep-Books.
The Leicestershire pronunciation to this day at markets is "Buy Chep"
for Cheap, hence the Chep-side, or Cheape-or Cheapside; otherwise
derivation of Chap Men, or Running, Flying, and other mercurial
stationers, peripatetic booksellers, pedlers, packmen, and again
chepmen, these visited the villages and small towns from the large
printers of the supply towns, as London, Banbury, Newcastle, Edinburgh,
Glasgow, etc. The "History of John Cheap, the Chapman," "Parley the
Porter," "Stephen of Salisbury Plain," and other favourite tracts, with
John Bewick's and Lee's square woodcuts were written by the quaker lady,
Hannah More, about 1777, and were first published in broadsheet folio.
Some were done by Hazzard, of Bath, others by Marshall, of Bow Lane,
Aldermary Church Yard. A most curious collection of chap books did they
print, reviving the quaint old "Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green," "Guy,
Earl of Warwick," "Seven Champions," "Mother Shipton's Life and
Prophecies," "Wise Men of Gothan," "Adam Bell," "Robin Hood's Garland,"
"Jane Shore," "Joaks upon Joaks," "Strapho, or Roger the Clown,"
"Whetstone for dull Wits," "St. George and the Dragon," "Jack Horner:"
and hundreds of ballads, garlands, carols, broadsheets, songs, etc.,
were in the collection.

The "Great A and bouncing B Toy Book Factory," was somewhere near Little
Britain, the proprietor being John Marshall, who published the famous
"Life of a Fly."

  [Illustration: 5_1

  _Block by Thomas Bewick._]

The "Memoirs of a Peg Top," "Perambulations of a Mouse," 2 volumes with
cuts by John Bewick, and a number of other works, some by Mrs. Trimmer,
under various pseudonyms, were published in Bow Lane, also many quaint
broadsheets, the cuts of which are in this volume.

Hazzard, printer of Bath, who published many works for Dr. J. Trusler,
with woodcuts by John Bewick, Lee, and others, also published the cheap
repository tracts.

All the following little wood blocks were used in several toy books,
sometimes with Bewick's name on the titles, and done from 1787 to 1814,
in Dutch flowery and gingerbread gilt paper binding, just like Newbery
series.


Early John Bewick Cuts.

  [Illustrations: 6_1 - 6_6

  _Tommy Two Shoes._
  _Robin Hood and Little John, pub. Wilson and Spence, York._
  _York Story Books, by Wilson and Spence, circa 1797._
  _Used in the Fables._
  _Used in the Fables_]

  [Illustrations: 7_1 - 7_5

  _Cut by Lee, on the covers of Rusher's Penny "Banbury's."_
  _Two Blocks from Valentine's Gift. 1797._
  _Used by Wilson and Spence, York._
  _Patty Primrose._]

  [Illustrations: 8_1 - 8_6

  _From Primrose Prettyface and her Scholars._
  _Two Ballad Cuts, by Green, of Knaresborough._
  _Mrs. Winlove's Rise of Learning._
  _The Concert of Birds, from Tommy Tag._]

  [Illustrations: 9_1, 9_2

  _Frontispiece to Tommy Playlove and Joseph Lovebook._
  _Whitfield's Tabernacle, Moorfields, or Spa Fields Chapel. (?)_]

In Blade's Life of Caxton, the reader will find interesting examples of
the earliest woodcut blocks illustrating the quaint and rare tomes
issued by the Almonry, Westminster, also at Oxford. The Robin Hood
Garland blocks (circa 1680 or earlier), is one of the earliest
provincial blocks with a distinct history. We can trace them in varied
collections used by early London and Provincial printers, and in the
London Bridge printed Chap Book Literature.

Sutton, printer of Nottingham, issued a curious quarto volume of old
woodcuts. He was descended from the celebrated T. Sutton, who founded
the Charterhouse. Some twenty-five years ago I went over the very quaint
collection with the proprietor, and suggested a volume being issued, but
the idea had already been matured by him.

Robert White, the poet and local historian of Newcastle upon Tyne--by
whose favour I reprinted Tommy Trip in 1867--has one of the choicest,
most comprehensive, and rarest libraries of local stories, garlands,
ballads, and chap books, and North country folk-lore children's books,
almanacks, primers, "A. B. C.," horn books, battledores, etc., that were
ever gathered together. I am glad to place on record, that by his will,
his collection will remain intact. The special opportunities afforded
him at the time for collecting them have entirely passed away.

I believe he was descended from John White, printer for the five
northern counties of England to King William. This is referred to by Mr.
Dodd in his preface to a quarto volume of woodcut impressions. William
Dodd fully appreciated the local interest, by producing a limited
impression of the quaint blocks in his possession.

The Rev. Mr. Hugo had a very large and important collection of blocks
and books, and at his death I arranged and catalogued them for Messrs.
Sotheby, according to the wish of his widow. The Rev. gentleman had
wished his collection to be purchased by the trustees of the British
Museum, but some little hitch occurred and this was not accomplished.
In his collection the Robin Hood block, perforated with worm holes,
realized quite a fancy price.

Among the relics of ancient woodcutting, are some so early and crude in
their execution--quaint as the period they illustrate--as to really
entitle them to the literal name and meaning of _woodcuts_, rather than
wood-engravings, which they really became in the hands of the two
Bewicks and their numerous school of pupils. Other provincial publishers
were not so favoured as those at Newcastle-on-Tyne, as to have a Bewick
trying his prentice hand on similar series, as used by J. Bell and
others.

The Cock Robin blocks in this collection are certainly the earliest
series I have seen among the thousands I have examined. The York Cries,
Tom Hickethrift, Jack the Giant Killer, and many kindred cuts, are
evidently from the collection of John White, the early printer, and are
as quaint, as funny and droll in crudity of execution, as any of Thomas
Gent's, the unique York engraver and bookseller.

The rarity and interest of a collection like the present, with their
varied associations, may be fairly estimated when we consider that the
country printers in those days were not particular in making the same
woodcut do duty in most incongrous and inapplicable positions and
subjects.

We have met with a block in a child's book, then the identical woodcut
on a ballad, catchpenny, or last dying speech and confession, setting at
defiance any suitability of illustration, or adaptability to the text
matter. Of course now, some of these examples are exceedingly ludicrous,
and do not fail to excite merriment, and often add to the intrinsic
value of the article, as may be judged by numerous examples that have
occurred in our literary auction marts during the last half century.

Besides it must be taken fair notice of that a genuine wood-engraving,
or woodcut block may soon become a curiosity of the past, owing to the
improved methods of illustrating children's books. Many of Bewick's
blocks are veritable paintings on boxwood, and are as much classical
works of art as work by Josiah Wedgwood, and his able coadjutor,
J. Flaxman are in Fine Art. These early crude, quaint, droll little
pioneer wood blocks will ever remain of great and even historical
interest as showing the progress and influence on the illustrated
literature of the civilized world.

Many of our readers have heard of Banbury Cross and Banbury cakes, and
other famous juvenile associations, as the lady with bells on her toes,
but it was also connected with the production of books for juvenile
readers. A great portion of the blocks in this volume are Banbury blocks
used for illustrating the toy books, children's histories, etc., for
which this quaint old Oxfordshire town was famous. Many of them are
connected with the early printing and engraving carried on in this and
other towns of England. A quantity of the blocks were used in the books
printed by John White of York, who established himself, as before
mentioned, as a printer in Newcastle-on-Tyne, bringing with him a stock
of quaint old blocks formerly his father's [at York], where he was sole
printer to King William, for the five northern counties of England.

Boswell has recorded several conversations of Oliver Goldsmith with Dr.
Johnson, in which the warm-hearted poet expressed a wish, "to make
fishes, animals, birds, etc., _talk_, or appear so to do, for the
amusement and instruction of children." In the National Collection is
"The Valentine's Gift, or a Plan to enable children of all sizes and
denomination to behave with honour, integrity, and humanity, very
necessary to a trading nation: to which is added some account of Old
Zigzag, and of the Horn with which he used to understand the language of
birds, beasts, fishes and insects," etc., "Printed for Francis Power,
(grandson to the late Mr. J. Newbery) and Co., No. 65, St. Paul's
Churchyard, 1790, price sixpence, bound in gilt dutch paper binding, 105
and iii pages".

Numerous books were sold by Francis Power, No. 65, _near the Bar_, in
St. Paul's Churchyard, London; his list comprises "Giles Gingerbread,"
"Tom Thumb's Folio," "The London Cries, taken from the Life," "The
Lilliputian Auction," by Charley Chatter, "Nurse Truelove's Christmas
Box," "New Year's Gift," "The History of Little Goody Two Shoes," new
edition, "Adventures of a Bee," "The Little Lottery Book," "A Pretty
Plaything for Children," "The Lilliputian Magazine," "The Picture
Exhibition," "Lilliputian Masquerade," "Juvenile Trials for Robbing
Orchards and Telling Fibs," "Pretty Poems by Tommy Tagg, for children
three feet high," "A Pretty Book of Pictures, or Tommy Tripp's History,"
"The Drawing School by Master Angelo," "Poetical Flower Garden," "Tommy
Trapwit's Be Merry and Wise," "Lecture upon Toys," 2 vols; "Pretty Poems
for children six feet high," "The Museum," "Polite Academy," "Poetical
Flower Basket," "Mother Goose's Fairy Tales," "A Spelling Dictionary,
Rhetoric; Logic; Arithmetic; History; Chronology; Geography;" "Vicar of
Wakefield." Most of the latter except "Vicar" formed a circle of the
sciences licensed by approval of the King, each dedicated to a youthful
nobleman, by "John Newbery." The size was "snuffbox," or waistcoat
pocket (capacious in 1790, see "School for Scandal," etc., Costume,
etc.) Documentary evidence and receipts in Goldsmith's handwriting,
acknowledging various sums for writing the "Rhetorick," and others of
the above exist. Goldsmith also did numerous Abridgements of the Old and
New Testaments, Robinson Crusoe, Pamela, Clarissa Harlow, Sir Chas.
Grandison, all in this juvenile series for J. Newbery.

  [Illustration: 12_1
  _The Spider, from Bunyan's Divine Emblems._]

This was a most popular juvenile brochure, at end of eighteenth century.
The early editions of J. Bunyan's Works, 2 vols, folio, had the Divine
Emblems at end of vol 2, with quaint old woodcuts. These were
industriously copied in reduced sizes, and published from 1d. to 6d., by
various London and Provincial "toy book" manufacturers. The above is a
solitary representative of the illustrations of one of these rare
editions of "Bunyan."

  [Illustrations: 12_2, 12_3

  _From Evans's Cock Robin._
  _Frontispiece to Farthing Cinderella._]


  [Illustrations: 13_1, 13_2

  _Tobacco Paper Cut and Tavern Sign._
  _Very Early Ballad, D----l cut, etc._]

John Evans, 42, Long Lane, West Smithfield, circa 1791, brought out some
singular little farthing children's books, printed on coarse sugar
paper, also ballads, single-sheet songs, and "patters." One, "The
tragical death of an Apple Pye, cut in pieces and eat, by twenty-five
gentlemen, with whom all little people ought to be very well
acquainted."

J. Drewey, Irongate, Derby, brought out some entertaining fables,
in which the following woodcuts were used again.


_Blocks used in Red Riding Hood._

  [Illustrations: 14_1 - 14_6]


_Blocks used in "Jack and the Giants" and "Tom, Tom, the Piper's son,"
etc. From John White's stock, at York._

  [Illustrations: 15_1 - 15_15]


_Cuts used for "Tom, Tom, the Piper's Son," etc._

  [Illustrations: 16_1 - 16_6]


_Cuts to "Whittington and his Cat."_

  [Illustrations: 16_7 - 16_10]


John Evans issued "Cock Robin, a pretty gilded toy for either girl or
boy," in which the early cut on page 12 was used. This rare edition has
the following comical variation from the orthodox version:

 "Little Robin Redbreast sat upon a pole,
  Wiggle-waggle went its tail, and p--p went its hole."


_Very Early Cock Robin Set, from John White's York Stock._

  [Illustrations: 17_1 - 17_10]


That quaint divine Dean Swift of St. Patricks, Dublin, edited some
curious poetry for "A Royal Primer," sqr. 32mo, published in the Seven
Dials, of Dublin ("Rainbow Court").

 "Ech, ech, my dear'y, and
       Ach, ach, my love.
 "There was a little man who had a little gun, and
 "There was a little maid who was very much afraid
         To get wed, wed, wed," etc.

This is long and curious, and was greatly altered and abreviated in
early 19th Century Editions.


_"The Royal Primer," from John White's York and Newcastle Stock._

  [Illustrations: 18_1 - 18_12]


_From Dean Swift's Royal Primer, Dublin, circa 1770._

  [Illustrations: 19_1 - 19_7]


_From Evans's edition of Cinderella._

  [Illustrations: 19_8 - 19_11]


_Very Early "Cock Robin" Series, "Postboy" by Bewick for a Newcastle
Newspaper, "Wife Joan," etc., from J. White's Stock._

  [Illustrations: 20_1 - 20_15]


_Early "Mother Hubbard:" J. Evans, Long Lane, circa 1770._

  [Illustrations: 21_1 - 21_10]


_Early "Goody Two Shoes," "Jack and Jill," "Cock Robin," The Fables,
early Bewick School._

  [Illustrations: 22_1 - 22_14]


_All Evans's style of woodcut, Catnach, etc., all used at Rushers
Banbury Press._

  [Illustrations: 23_1 - 23_11

  _Babes in the Wood._
  _Blue Beard._]


Providing ourselves with a variety of pens and ink, we select two of the
best and proceed to describe the Banbury Printer's old stock of cuts.

Banbury, Oxfordshire, was one of the chief provincial towns noted for
its Children's Books, Chap Books, Battledoes, Reading Easies, etc., also
for locally printed works, notably for two, viz., Dr. Johnson's
_Rasselas_, and White and Beesley's workon _Bees_, thin 12mo volumes,
boards, printed in a curious phonetic character, called "Rusher's
Types." Rusher, printer of this town, had some ingenuity and originality
of his own, and was not such a plagiarist and imitator as some of his
contemporaries. Many of the tales he cleverly adapted to the locality,
which have become very valuable. His edition of the Rasselas realized £5
5s. This book was written by Johnson in a week to defray his mother's
funeral expenses.

We give several extracts from some of Rusher's Penny Books which will
show how well he adapted them to his town.


  [Illustrations: 24_1 - 24_4]

  _[Early John Bewick,] Rusher's Lilliputian Library, Banbury,
  circa. 1810._

  At Rusher's fam'd Warehouse,
  Books, Pictures and Toys
  Are selling to please all
  The good girls and boys.

  For youth of all ages
  There's plenty in store,
  Amusement, instruction,
  For rich and the poor.


  _From the New House that Jack Built._

  See Jack in his study,
  Is writting a book,
  As pretty as this is
  In which you may look;

  The price is one penny,
  For girls or for boys,
  There's more too at Rusher's,
  And Pictures and Toys.


  _Poetic Trifles._

  Sing see-saw, Jack thatching the ridge,
  Which is the way to Banbury-bridge?
  One foot up and t'other foot down,
  And that's the way to Banbury town.


  As I was going to Banbury
  Upon a summer's day,
  My dame had butter, eggs and fruit,
  And I had corn and hay,
  Joe drove the ox and Tom the swine,
  Dick took the foal and mare:
  I sold them all--then home to dine
  From famous Banbury Fair.


  Here's something new
  Dear child for you,
  I will please you in a trice
  A halfp'ny chuse,
  Now don't refuse,
  A penny is the price.


  Tho' basely born
  Pray do not scorn
  A Tale no worse than many
  For I'm afraid
  More say in trade,
  A halfp'ny's made a penny.


  Good things to engross,
  Near Banbury cross
    Where Tommy shall go on the nag,
  He makes no mistake,
  Buy a Banbury Cake,
    Books, Pictures, and Banbury Shag.


  Little Robin Redbreast
  Sat upon a tree
  He sang merrily
  As merrily could be.

  He nodded with his head
  And his tail waggled he
  As little Robin Redbreast
  Sat upon a tree.


  Now each lad and each lass
  Both sister and brother
  May have books for each class
  For Father or Mother.

  And when with much pleasure
  You've read them all o'er,
  Then hasten to Rusher's,
  He's printing some more.

  Where each daughter and son
  And each nephew and niece,
  Each good child may have one,
  For a penny a piece.


BLACK YOUR SHOES, YOUR HONOUR?

  Here's Finiky Hawkes,
  As busy as any,
  Will well black your shoes,
  And charge but a penny.


The following little "Banbury Cake" Book is so excessively rare, we give
the text verbatim.


       *       *       *       *       *

                  THE HISTORY
                      of a
                 BANBURY CAKE.

       An Entertaining Book For Children.

                   _BANBURY:_
       Printed and Sold by J. G. RUSHER,
                 Bridge Street.

               _Price One Penny._


PREFACE.

It will be thought very odd, I doubt not, by each little boy and girl
into whose hands this book shall fall, that a Banbury Cake should be
able to write (as it were) its own life; but as they advance in years,
they will find that many strange things happen every day--I shall
therefore without more words to the bargain proceed with my story.


HISTORY OF A BANBURY CAKE.

I was born or made (whichever you please, my little reader) at Banbury
in the county of Oxford, as you can plainly conceive by my title, where
great numbers of Cakes are brought into being daily; and from whence
they travel by coach, chaise, waggon, cart horse and foot into all parts
of this Kingdom: nay and beyond the seas, as I heard my maker declare
that he had, more then once sent some of them into France.

Soon after I was made, and while I was yet warm from the oven, I was
sold by my maker's fair daughter to a person on horseback for twopence.

With this person I took my first journey to Oxford; he rode a very fine
Black Horse. As soon as he came home, he gave me to his son a lovely
little boy, about seven years of age, and one as I found to my comfort
not only lovely in person but in temper also. His name was Tommy, and he
was praised and loved by all that knew him, and had often presents of
cakes, toys and little books, and other things that are proper for
children of his age; the books he kept with great care as things of
value and worthy of his notice, but other trinkets he seemed to despise.

Tommy and his cousin were taken to see Mr. Polito's collection of wild
beasts and birds, which were then exhibiting at Oxford, among which were
a large lion, an eagle, and many other natural curiosities, which sight
was very entertaining, as Tommy and his cousin had never seen such
before. They afterwards walked into the Colleges, round Christ Church
College Meadow, and indeed saw all the curiosities about Oxford.

                                        (The Banbury Cake).

       *       *       *       *       *


We give a Bibliographical List, as perfect as is possible to date,
of the "Halfpenny Series" of little History and Story Books issued at
Rusher's Banbury Press, some even with the same titles as the "Penny
Series," yet totally different in arrangement and woodcuts, used, as
comparison in the Bodleian Library will readily show: Mother Hubbard and
her Dog; Nursery Rymmes from the Royal Collections; Poetic Trifles for
young Gentlemen and Ladies; The Cries of Banbury, London, and Celebrated
Stories; Children in the Wood, Historical Ballad (Norfolk?); Children in
the Wood, Restored by Honestus; Hermit of the Forest (Cumberland); Jack
the Giant Killer, a Hero, celebrated by Ancient Historians (Cornwall);
Robinson Crusoe; Nursery Poems from the Ancient and Modern Poets; Jack
and Gill and Old Dame Gill; Read who will, They'll laugh their fill;
Dick Whittington and his Cat; The History of Tom Thumb (Middlesex);
Death and Burial of Cock Robin; Renowned History of Dame Trot and her
Cat; London Jingles and Country Tales for Young People; Tom, Tom, the
Piper' Son; Cinderella and her Glass Slipper; Jack Spratt and his Wife
Joan, etc. etc.


  [Illustrations: 27_1, 27_2]


_Bewick School, used in Rusher's Banbury Toy Books._

  [Illustrations: 28_1, 28_2]


_Used by Rusher in his Banbury Horn Books, Battledores, Galloping
Guide to A, B, C, Primers, Reading Made Easy, Spelling Books, etc._

  [Illustration: 28_3]


  [Illustration: 29_1

  _From Evans's, Long Lane, West Smithfield, used afterwards at
  Banbury._]


Rusher's Banbury _Battledore_ and _Reading Made Easy_ blocks, show the
next improvement on the old _Horn Books_. Then Rusher published a
_Galloping Guide to the A B C._, for which see next page.

  [Illustrations: 29_2, 29_3]


  [Transcriber's Note:

  Beginning with D, each letter has its own illustration, printed in
  sets of three. The alphabet is printed continuously down the left
  and right margins. A page break separates the "Judge" illustration
  from its line of text. The complete pages can be seen as
  "pic_30_all.png" - "pic_32_all.png"]

  [Illustration: 30_1]

  A was an Acorn, that grew on the oak;
  B is a Boy, who delights in his book.
  C is a Canister, holds mamma's teas;
  D is a Drum, you may sound if you please.

  [Illustration {D, E, F}: 30_2]

  E is an Eagle, that soars very high;
  F is a Fox, that is crafty and sly.

  [Illustration {G, H, J}: 30_3]

  G is a Griffin, of him pray take heed;
  H is a Hare, that can run with great speed.

  [Illustration {K, L, M}: 31_1]

  J is a Judge, that the law oft obeys;
  K is a Key, that no secret betrays.
  L is a Lamb, often freaks o'er the lea;
  M is a Mermaid, that sings in the sea.

  [Illustration {N, O, P}: 31_2]

  N is a Nightingale, dwells in the wood;
  O is an Ox, whose beef roasted is good.
  P is a Peach, that did grow very high;
  Q is a Quince, makes a savoury pie.

  [Illustration {Q, R, S}: 31_3]

  R is a Raven, rapacity charms;
  S shining Sun, is the Banbury Arms.

  [Illustration {T, V, W}: 31_4]

  T is a Trumpet, your merit to raise;
  V is a Vulture, on other birds preys.
  W a Wren, that was perch'd on a spray;

  [Illustration {X, Y, Z}: 32_1]

  X was King Xerxes, well known in his day.
  Y is a Yew Tree, both slender and tall;
  Z Zacaariah, the last of them all.


  [Illustration: 32_2
  _Reading made Easie, copy of Bewick._]

  [Illustration: 32_3
  _You are Old Father William, by Green._]


  [Illustration: 33_1
  The History of Jack the Giant-killer.]

The above woodcut of a Fugitive Soldier (designed by Craig, and engraved
by Lee) was used on the back of the cover of this little book, as issued
by J. G. Rusher at Banbury.

  [Illustrations: 33_2 - 33_7

  Jack's Artfulness.
  Jack shows the Giant a trick.
  The Giant and his Prisoners.
  Jack slices off the Giant's nose.
  Jack kills Blunderbore.
  Jack strangles the Giants.]


DEATH AND BURIAL OF COCK ROBIN.

  [Illustrations: 34_1 - 34_8, 35_1 - 35_7

  Who killed Cock Robin?

  I, said the sparrow,
  With my bow and arrow,
  I killed Cock Robin!

  This is the pie
  That saw him die.

  Who caught his blood?
  I said the fish,
  With my little dish,
  I caught his blood!

  Who made his shroud?
  I, said the Eagle,
  With my thread and needle!

  This is the Owl so brave
  That dug Cock Robin's grave.

  Who'll be the parson?
  I, said the Rook.

  Who'll be the clerk?
  I, said the lark.

  Who'll carry him to his grave?
  I, said the kite.

  Who'll be the chief mourner?
  I, said the swan.

  Who'll bear his Pall?
  We, said the wrens.

  Who'll toll the bell?
  I, said the Bull.

  Who'll lead the way?
  I, said the martin.

  The birds of the air fell a sighing and sobbing,
  When they heard the bell toll for poor Cock Robin.]


  [Illustrations: 36_1 - 36_7

  The History of Tom Thumb.

  The cow took Tom Thumb
  With a mouthful of grass.

  His butterfly mounted,
  And rode o'er the stream.

  He climbed up the edge,
  And fell in the bowl.

  Tom soused in the firmity,
  And had a great fall.

  The breath of the spider
  In the midst of the strife
  Was too much for Sir Thomas,
  And cost him his life.

  {Alas! Sir Thomas}]


  [Illustrations: 37_1 - 37_7

  Children in the Wood.
  With clay-cold lips the babes they kissed.
  He bargained with two ruffians strong.
  Away the little babes were sent.
  To fight they go right suddenly.
  Then hand in hand they took their way.
  Till death did end their grief.]


Mother Hubbard and her Dog.

Designed by George Cruikshank (early work), and engraved by Branston.

  [Illustrations: 38_1 - 38_8]


Dame Trot and her Cat.

Early Cruikshank School.

  [Illustrations: 39_1 - 39_8

  Dame Trot.
  Dame Trot's Cat.
  Dame teaches the Cat.
  Dame takes her to market.
  Riding.
  The Cat smells a Rat.
  Dressing.
  The Cat fights Dog Ball.]


The History of Robinson Crusoe.

  [Illustrations: 40_1 - 40_7

 "Robinson Crusoe, he
  Was determined to go to sea"
  The Raft.
  At Home.
  The Tame Goat.
  The Footprints.
  Shooting Savages.
  Traversing the Island.]

_Designed by Cruikshank, engraved by Dranston._


The Life of Jack Sprat and his Wife Joan.

Cruikshank School.

  [Illustrations: 41_1 - 41_12

  Jack and his Wife.
  Jack Sprat goes courting.
  Joan goes for a walk.
  Jack's Marriage.
  Jack wheeling his Wife.
  Joan sits in her chair.
  Jack takes his gun.
  But the birds don't care.
  Jack buys a cow.
  Jack buys a mare.
  Jack rests.
  And grows fat.]


Cinderella and her Glass Slipper.

Published by Rusher, circa 1814. Designed by Cruikshank, and engraved
by Branstone. A copy is in the Bodleian Library.

  [Illustrations: 42_1 - 42_7

  Cinderella.
  Cinderella dressing for the Ball.
  Cinderella going to the Ball in a fine coach.
  Cinderella dancing with the King's Son.
  Cinderella drops one of her glass slippers.
  Cinderella marries the Prince.]


Jack and Jill.

  [Illustrations: 43_1 - 43_13

  Jack and Jill
  Went up the hill.

  Then up Jack got,
  And home did trot.

  Then Jill came in,
  And she did grin.

  They rode dog Ball,
  And Jill did fall.

  Says Jill, I'll tell
  You how Jack fell.

  I'll try, says Jack,
  Upon his back.

  Now Jill did laugh,
  And Jack did cry.

  They first rode high,
  And then rode low.

  The very next thing
  They made a swing.

  Camel came by.
  Says Jack, I'll try.

  The pig he squalled,
  While Jack he bawled.

  Hearing the rout,
  The dame came out.

  Read it who will,
  They'll laugh they fill.]


Dick Whittington and his Cat.

Designed by Cruikshank, and engraved by Branstone; published by Rusher
about 1814. An original copy is in the Bodleian Library.

  [Illustrations: 44_1 - 44_6

  Dick goes on his travels.
  And meets with a kind Merchant.
  A penny for your cat, Dame!
  Bow Bells ringing "Turn again Whittington!"
  Pussy clears the King's table,
  And makes Whittington's fortune.]


  [Illustration: 45_1

  The Cries of York.]

"The Cries of York, for the amusement of Young Children, decorated with
cuts printed by T. Kendrew, Collier Gate, York." These York Cries have
not been mentioned by any writer on juvenile literature and the same may
be said of the Banbury Cries. T. Kendrew of York, brought out many
interesting penny and other children's books. He published "Giles
Gingerbread, a little boy who lived upon learning, by Tom Trip," this
was an abbreviation of Newberry's Edition of the "Silver Penny." The
series was illustrated with the early and prentice work of the Bewick
School. One of the rarest is "The Cries of York," the cuts of which
afterwards travelled to Banbury and appeared in "Banbury Cries." The
series we are enabled to give complete.

  [Illustrations: 45_2 - 45_4]


_Cuts belonging to York Cries._

  [Illustrations: 46_1 - 46_9]

  [Illustrations: 47_1 - 47_9]

  [Illustrations: 48_1 - 48_3]


Appended are the words to many of the foregoing Cries.

THE ITALIAN BASKET SELLER.

  Ventured across the main behold,
  "Buy Baskets," solemn Face,
  He sells for Lust of Naughty Gold,
  Which is a Common Case.

MEND OLD PANS AND KETTLES, O!

  (_Peaseholme Green Postern_)
  Hark! who is this, the Tinker Bold,
  To mend or spoil you Kettle,
  Whose wife, I'm certain is a Scold,
  Made up of base metal.

  Buy my Clocks and Weather Glasses!
  Buy Shirt Hand Buttons!
  (_Walmgate Bar_)

 "If I'd as much money as I could tell;
  I never would cry young lambs to sell."
  (_Thursday Market_)

 "Buy my Anchovies.
  Buy my nice Anchovies."

SWEEP YOUR CHIMNEY CLEAN, O!

  With drawling tone, Brush under arm,
  And Bag slung o'er his shoulder,
  Behold the Sweep, the Streets alarm,
  With Stentor's voice and louder.

COME BUY MY NICE MUFFINS.

  Hot Muffins and Crumpets too,
  For Breakfast and for Tea;
  I've only a very few left,
  In Basket as you may see.

  Buy Banbury Cakes! By fortune's frown,
  You see this needy man,
  Along the street and up and down
  Is selling all he can.

COCKLES ALIVE, ALIVE, O!

  Behold Poor James at York again,
  His Cockles all alive, O!
  Alive, Alive, he cries amain,
  Come buy that he may thrive, O!

 "Buy my fine Larks."
    (_Catching Larks_)

 "Sixpence a Score Oysters."
    (_Ouse Bridge_)

 "Come Buy my Roasting Spits."

 "Rabbits! Rabbits!"

 "Buy my fine Writing Ink."

 "The City Bellman."
    (_Hay Weigh_)

 "Buy my Cranberries, fine Cranberries."

 "Sweet China Oranges."
    (_Pavement_)

 "Buy my Capers.
  Buy my nice Capers, Capers."

 "Buy my nice Banbury Cakes."

 "Buy my Windmills, a halfpenny-a-piece."
    (_Monk Bar_)

 "Fine Kidney Potatoes."

 "Threepence a Mart Ripe Gooseberries."

 "Come buy a true Calendar."
    (_Castle Gates_)

 "Razors, Knives, and Scissors to grind."

 "Acomb Sand."

 "Race Lists."


The Cries of York is distinctly different from The Cries of London
issued by Kendrew though the same set of Cuts are utilized.

London Street Cries have always had a fascination peculiarly their own.
Madame Vestris used to bring down the house with "Cherry Ripe," and
where are happier efforts of the favourite home Artists than "London
Cries" by A. Morland, Wheatley, Stodhard, and others, which are so
eagerly sought after by connoiseurs? The pretty plaintive Cries too,
would we had the 'music' to them, so familiar in the streets in those
charming old English days.

  [Illustration: 49_1

  "_Nothing like leather._"]

A most interesting and quaint old relic is the one from which annexed
impression is given, from Dyche's Spelling Book: an exceedingly clean,
choice and crisp copy of this book, in the original sheep covers,--a
veritable "old shopkeeper," which for nearly a century had escaped its
intended destiny in Rusher's varied stores, at length found a resting
place in Sir Thomas Bodley's venerable receptacle for bibliographical
treasures in the Bodelian, Oxford. The present example--a portion of
which was broken away many years ago,--is probably the sole surviving
one of the quaint series of cuts, doubtless admired by our
great-grand-parents over 100 years ago.


The following are curious examples of Fable Cuts, which were used in
Dilworth, Cocker, Fisher, and others.

  [Illustrations: 50_1 - 50_4]


_Early Fable Cuts, used at Banbury in Spelling Books._

  [Illustrations: 51_1 - 51_5]


_History of Joseph, designed by Isaac Cruikshank._

  [Illustrations: 52_1 - 52_7]


_Clever little vignettes, by Thomas and John Bewick and Pupils, used
first at Nicholson's, Ludlow, circa 1787, and afterwards, circa 1814,
used in Rusher's Banbury Books._

  [Illustrations: 53_1 - 53_10]


_Woodcuts of the Bewick and Cruikshank Schools, from Ludlow and
Ploughwill, afterwards used at Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 54_1 - 54_14]


_Used in various Rusher's Penny Banbury Children's Books._

  [Illustrations: 55_1 - 55_10]


_By Bewick's Pupils, used in Children's Books at Banbury by Rusher._

  [Illustrations: 56_1 - 56_13]


_By Bewick and Pupils, from Ludlow, all used at Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 57_1 - 57_10]


  [Illustration: 58_1

  _Close copy of Bewick, by a pupil._]

  DRUNKEN BARNABY.

  To Banbury came I,
  Prophane one,
  Where I saw a Puritan
  Hanging of his cat on Monday
  For killing of a mouse on Sunday.

  [Illustrations: 58_2 - 58_6

  _Bewick playing the Northumbrian Pipes, a very early
    J. Bewick._
  _Jack and the Giants, from the early York edition._
  _Raree, or Peep Show, R. Cruikshank's design, engraved by Sears._
  _Chapman, or Running Stationer, designed by Cruikshank and engraved
    by Branston. (Used in York Cries)._]


  [Illustrations: 59_1, 59_2

  _Banbury Old Church._]

A Gentleman wrote to one of the newspapers some time ago, detailing a
curious incident that happened to himself, showing how these very
interesting prints and blocks are being scattered and destroyed. He says
"In the old days when Catnach was King of the ballad world, boys used to
steal the woodblocks of Mr. Bewick the wood-cutter, and sell them to the
great song singer. Yesterday, for a halfpenny, I picked up in a bye
street in London one of the prints of a very beautiful block of this
kind heading a song called 'The Wealthy Farmer's Son.' I wonder whether
anybody has ever thought it worth while to collect these pictures." This
interesting pursuit of collecting and illustrating with extra cuts,
pages of child book literature of the 17th, 18th, and early 19th
century, would indeed be a charming recreation. On this subject there
appeared a long article in the Graphic, where the writer says, under the
initials 'C. H.,' "There are few more agreeable occupations for anyone
who has sufficient leisure at his disposal, than that of embellishing a
favourite book with illustrations appropriate to the subject, and
thereby endowing it with additional interest and value. To those who
cultivate this fascinating pursuit with taste and intelligence, there
are two indispensible conditions of success. The task of collecting the
materials is a labour of love, and every fresh discovery in some
out-of-the-way corner, of a long-sought desideratum, a delight which the
patience and industrious enthusiast alone can appreciate." Then follows
much genial advice on tasteful and judicious collecting, and how to
illustrate. In the present case the interest and value could only be
realized or conceived on the completion of a choice collection of extra
cuts, and cuttings of articles, portraits, views, autograph letters,
etc., carefully mounted on cartridge paper, paged to correspond with the
text, and then handed to a judicious binder--this is a very important
item--who would carefully encase it, and make it form a select and an
exceptionibly valuable addition to the library.


  [Illustration: 60_1

  _The Banbury Bellman._]

  [Illustrations: 60_2, 60_3

  _Tradesmen' Shops in Banbury, used on their bill-heads._]


  [Illustrations: 61_1 - 61_5

  _Used in various tradesmen's Billheads, etc., printed at Rusher's
    Press, Banbury._]


That this interesting idea may not be considered unworthy of
adoption--which by the way the few large paper copies of this book are
admirably adopted--we give a short list of those who have collected and
treasured with care these little brochures. In the South Kensington
Museum on exhibition, is a collection of Horn Books and Battledores,
exhibited by Kenneth, R. H. Mackenzie, Esq., _F.S.A.,_ who read a paper
on this subject before the Society of Antiquaries. There is another
collection which includes many curious Horn Books or Battledores, from
circa 1750, 1784, 1800 to 1810, including photo and facsimiles of one of
the Middleton Horn Books now in the Bateman Museum. There is also a
curious poem on the Horn Book by a Gent. suffering from the gout,
printed at Dublin by T. Cowan, 1728, small 4to, only a few leaves.
Another very neat Horn Book with the Horn in front, hence its name, is
also on view. The scarcity of these quaint early educational books may
be understood from the fact that Mr. Hone, author of the Every Day Book,
etc., sought for an original Horn Book for years without success. Mr.
Coleridge had one or two cases on exhibition, with numerous examples of
Newbury and Marshall's little books, but we believe these are withdrawn.
There is also a selection of early educational books; but the largest
collection formed is still on exhibition. In conclusion, it may be said
that the present volume contains many precious relics of the Bewick,
Newbury, Goldsmith, Newcastle York, Banbury, Coventry, and Catnach
presses, and a representative collection of the stock of workable
woodcuts of a provincial printer in the latter part of the 18th century,
and to those who would like to inspect the rentable copies of those
valuable and interesting little books, and some of the original Horn
Books, etc., let them see the Coleridge, Kenneth Mackenzie, and Pearson
collections in the South Kensington Museum.

  [Illustrations: 62_1, 62_2

  _Rustic Cottages near Banbury._]

Since writing the above, there appeared in the catalogue of books
belonging to William Bell Scott, Esq., recently sold at Messrs. Sotheby,
a small 4to Album containing a collection of wood engravings by Bewick,
Clennell, and others, which with some newspaper cuttings made quite a
dainty extra illustrated volume.

If so eminent an artist could find pleasure and recreation in this
pursuit, others may certainly rely upon finding it equally attractive,
but he would have found his task much easier if he had had a large paper
copy of this work interleaved. This is recommended to any person
desiring to take up this charming recreation.

  [Illustrations: 62_3, 62_4]


_Illustrations of Children's Books, used by Rusher at Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 63_1 - 63_15]


_All used by Rusher in his Children's Books, Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 64_1 - 64_11]


_All used in Rusher's Banbury Books._

  [Illustrations: 65_1 - 65_10]


_Used by Rusher._

  [Illustrations: 66_1 - 66_12]


_All used in Rusher's Books._

  [Illustrations: 67_1 - 67_13]


_Bewick School, all used in Rusher's Banbury Toy Books._

  [Illustrations: 68_1 - 68_11]


_Used on Local Tracts and afterwards, issued at Rusher's Press,
Bridge St., Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 69_1 - 69_11]


_Used by Rusher._

  [Illustrations: 70_1 - 70_13]


_All used in the Banbury Juvenile Series._

  [Illustrations: 71_1 - 71_11]


_Engraved by Bewick School, used in the Children's Books._

  [Illustrations: 72_1 - 72_12]


_All used in Rusher's Banbury Toy Books._

  [Illustrations: 73_1 - 73_12]


_On Early Tract Society Publications._

  [Illustrations: 74_1 - 74_10]


_Used for illustrating early Tracts._

  [Illustrations: 75_1 - 75_9]


_All used in Educational Tracts, Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 76_1 - 76_9]


_Used in Early Tracts, Banbury._

  [Illustrations: 77_1 - 77_8]


  [Illustration: 78_1

  BANBURY FAIR.]

About 1820, many curious Tracts were issued by various Societies with
the illustrations which follow. Some of these Tracts relating to Social
and Religious questions of that day had been edited by Hannah More and
her sister--at "Barley Wood," near Bath--also by Rowland Hill, the
eccentric divine of old Surrey Chapel, and others; these are now quite
ephemeral literary productions, notably some on the "Sunday Question."
Several of the following cuts were used contemporary with Timothy
Spagg's (Charles Dickens's) Sunday Under Three Heads. One of these,
an 8vo pamphlet, has on the title, a large woodcut by Thomas Bewick,
commencing;--_Here we have Bewick, I declare_, etc. Many of the original
cuts to the Bristol series of Tracts issued from 1805 to 1820 are in
this volume.

  [Illustrations: 78_2, 78_3]


Cuts used in Educational Tracts written by Hannah More and Mrs.
Trimmer, circa 1810. Engraved by Anderson, Thompson, Williams, and
others.

  [Illustrations: 79_1 - 79_5]


Used on Local Tracts and Juvenile Literature, by Rusher.

  [Illustrations: 80_1 - 80_8]


Used on Tracts by Hannah More and Rev. Rowland Hill, circa 1814, and
afterwards in Rusher's Books.

  [Illustrations: 81_1 - 81_5]


Vignettes by Sears, engraved after Williams and others, and used on
cheap Repository Tracts, etc., and books issued from Rusher's press.

  [Illustrations: 82_1 - 82_6]


These cuts were used in a series of Tracts published by Chilcott of
Bristol. Afterwards by Rusher at Banbury.

  [Illustrations: 83_1 - 83_6]


Cuts by Sears after Williams, used on Cheap Repository Tracts, and on
Local Banbury Ephemeral Literature.

  [Illustrations: 84_1 - 84_6]


Used on Rusher's Educational and other Local Pamphlets.

  [Illustrations: 85_1 - 85_5

  "Distaff."]


Engraved by Lee--used by Rusher.

  [Illustrations: 86_1 - 86_5]


THE LILLIPUTIAN MAGAZINE.

  [Illustrations: 87_1 - 87_6

  From Catnach.
  Norwood Gipsy.
  Catnach Spelling Book Cuts.]


  [Illustrations: 88_1 - 88_9

  Engravings used by Evans in his Ballad Singers.
  Early Newbery block by J. Bell.
  Very early 'Cock Robin' cut.
  A Tradesman's Shop at Banbury.
  The Marriage Ceremony.]


"Billy Buttons" ride to Brentford, and other Catnach 'Catches,' used
by Rusher.

  [Illustrations: 89_1 - 89_6]


Used by Rusher at Banbury.

  [Illustrations: 90_1 - 90_2

  Bible Cut.
  Frontispiece to Banbury Local Biography.]


Used by Rusher.

  [Illustrations: 91_1 - 91_8]


  [Illustrations: 92_1 - 92_5

  Used on Banbury 'Catch-pennies.'
  Mr. Doubleface, a man not to be trusted.]


  [Illustrations: 93_1, 93_2

  Battle of the Nile.
  Battle of Trafalgar.]


  [Illustrations: 94_1 - 94_6

  Lamenting the Great Fire, engraved by Austin.
  Christian and Hopeful escaping from Doubting Castle.]


  [Illustrations: 95_1 - 95_3

  Vignette by Green, of Knaresborough.
  Knaresborough Tragedy, engraved by Lee.]


Cuts used by Rusher at Banbury.

  [Illustrations: 96_1 - 96_4]


Newspaper and Heraldic cuts, 18th Century.

  [Illustrations: 97_1 - 97_5]


EARLY TAVERN SIGNS AT BANBURY.

  [Illustrations: 98_1 - 98_6

  The Boar's Head.
  The White Hart.
  The Sportsman's Arms.
  The Bull's Head.
  Vignettes to 'Vicar of Wakefield,' by Craig and Sears.]

"Children's Games," and other Toy Books published by Darton and Harvey,
Gracechurch Street, and afterwards by Rusher, Banbury.

  [Illustrations: 99_1 - 99_8]


Published by Darton and Harvey, afterwards by Rusher.

  [Illustrations: 100_1 - 100_8]

  [Illustrations: 101_1 - 101_8]

  [Illustrations: 102_1 - 102_10]


  [Illustrations: 103_1 - 103_4

  Cyclops, from 'Thorton's Virgil,' circa 1810.
    In the Preface it is stated, Wm. Blake designed, and Branstone
    engraved the above.
  Bewick Tailpieces.]


  [Illustrations: 104_1 - 104_5

  Banbury Horse "to travel" cuts, used by Rusher.
  Children's Book Cuts, used by Rusher.]


Cuts used on Mrs. Trimmer's Educational Works; engraved by Thomson
and Branston.

  [Illustrations: 105_1 - 105_7]


Choice Vignette wood-engravings to Goldsmith's 'Vicar,' 'Poems,' etc.,
published by Nicholson in his "Literary Miscellany," at Ludlow and
Ploughmill, circa 1798.

Engraved by Craig, Bewick's Pupil.

  [Illustrations: 106_1 - 106_5]


  [Illustrations: 107_1 - 107_3

  The Newcastle Collier on his "homeway way."
  Portrait of a Shrew.
  Engraving by Thomson.]


DROLLERIES OF THE STEAM ENGINE.

When Steam was first introduced it naturally called forth much 'text'
and illustration. The above we believe to be designed by 'Cromek.' Miss
Bewick spoke highly of him; he was one of the 'Boys' or pupils in
Bewick's School. He executed some choice vignettes for 'Burns's Poems,'
much in Luke Clennell's style, Bewick's favourite pupil.

  [Illustrations: 108_1 - 108_9]

  [Illustrations: 109_1 - 109_3]


  [Illustrations: 109_4 - 109_7]


VIGNETTES AND TAILPIECES TO GAY'S FABLES.

Engraved by John Thomson, Branstone, and Williams; used at Chiswick
Press.

  [Illustrations: 110_1 - 110_12]

  [Illustrations: 111_1 - 111_12]

  [Illustrations: 112_1 - 112_12]

  [Illustrations: 113_1 - 113_12]


  [Illustrations: 114_1 - 114_12]


  [Illustrations: 115_1 - 115_6]


  [Illustrations: 116_1 - 116_3

  This woodcut did duty for "Arabian Nights," "Bluebeard," etc.;
  probably designed by Cruikshank, engraved by Branstone.]


FINIS.


       *       *       *       *       *

Errors and Anomalies Noted by Transcriber:

Branston : Branstone
  _variant spelling as in the original_
these celebrated little rarities of Toy Books
  _text reads "of // of" at page break_
the curious genius, historian, author, poet, woodcuter and engraver
  _spelling as in original_
Calendars, Almanacks, and Chep-Books
  _spelling as in original_
"Wise Men of Gothan,"
  _spelling as in original_
_Whitfield's Tabernacle, Moorfields, or Spa Fields Chapel. (?)_
  _(?) in original_
most incongrous and inapplicable positions and subjects
  _spelling as in original_
This is long and curious, and was greatly altered and abreviated
  _spelling as in original_
Children's Books, Chap Books, Battledoes, Reading Easies, etc.
  _spelling as in original_
White and Beesley's work on _Bees_
  _text reads "workon"_
See Jack in his study, / Is writting a book,
  _spelling as in original_
as comparison in the Bodleian Library will readily show
  _text reads "Bodilean"_
an abbreviation of Newberry's Edition
  _spelling as in original_
adoption--which by the way the few large paper copies of this book are
admirably adopted--
  _so in original: possible corrected reading:_
    adoption--to which by the way the few large paper copies of this
    book are admirably adapted--
The above we believe to be designed by 'Cromek.'
  _so in original: the illustrations were actually printed below
  the text_


Punctuation (unchanged except as noted):

... Philip Quarll (also Perambulations of a Mouse, / Little Jack, Goody
    Two Shoes, Blossoms of Morality, Puzzle for a curious / Girl), and
    others are given.
  _close parenthesis missing: may belong at end of sentence_
Chalmer's in his preface to "Idler,"
circa. 1810.
Tom, Tom, the Piper' Son
I, said the Eagle, / With my thread and needle!
  _text has ? for !_
Who'll be the parson?
  _? missing_
"Razors, Knives, and Scissors to grind."
  _text has , for final ._
Tradesmen' Shops in Banbury, used on their bill-heads.


Quotation Marks (corrected by transcriber):

missing open quote:
  "Children's Games," and other Toy Books
missing close quote:
  ... bound in gilt dutch paper binding, 105 and iii pages".
  "A Spelling Dictionary, Rhetoric; Logic; Arithmetic; History;
    Chronology; Geography;"
  "Buy my nice Banbury Cakes."
extra open quote:
  Buy my nice Anchovies." (second line of two)
  Buy my nice Capers, Capers." (second line of two)
single for double open quote:
  "Wife Joan," etc., from J. White's Stock.
  the "Silver Penny."
single for double close quote:
  "Buy Chep"
  "Adam Bell,"





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