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Title: Half-Hours with the Stars - A Plain and Easy Guide to the Knowledge of the Constellations
Author: Proctor, Richard A. (Richard Anthony), 1837-1888
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Half-Hours with the Stars - A Plain and Easy Guide to the Knowledge of the Constellations" ***

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HALF-HOURS WITH THE STARS


A PLAIN AND EASY GUIDE TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE CONSTELLATIONS

SHOWING, IN TWELVE MAPS, THE POSITION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF
THE PRINCIPAL STAR GROUPS NIGHT AFTER NIGHT THROUGHOUT THE YEAR,
WITH INTRODUCTION AND A SEPARATE EXPLANATION OF EACH MAP.

TRUE FOR EVERY YEAR

MAPS AND TEXT SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR AMERICAN STUDENTS


BY

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, F.R.A.S.

AUTHOR OF "HALF HOURS WITH THE TELESCOPE," "EASY STAR LESSONS," "A
LARGER STAR ATLAS," AND THE ARTICLE ON ASTRONOMY IN THE "AMERICAN
CYCLOPÆDIA" AND THE "CYCLOPÆDIA BRITTANICA." ETC., ETC.


"Here I may sit and rightly spell
 Of every star that Heav'n doth show."--MILTON.

The Heavens declare the glory of God; and the Firmament showeth
His handiwork.--PSALMS xix: 1.


G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK AND LONDON

The Knickerbocker press

1911



INTRODUCTION ON THE USE OF THE MAPS.

It is very easy to gain a knowledge of the stars, if the learner
sets to work in the proper manner. But he commonly meets with a
difficulty at the outset of his task. He provides himself with a
set of the ordinary star-maps, and then finds himself at a loss
how to make use of them. Such maps tell him nothing of the position
of the constellations _on the sky_. If he happen to recognize a
constellation, then indeed his maps, if properly constructed, will
tell him the names of the stars forming the constellation, and also
he may be able to recognize a few of the neighboring constellations.
But when he has done this he may meet with a new difficulty, even
as respects this very constellation. For if he look for it again
some months later, he will neither find it in its former place nor
will it present the same aspect,--if indeed it happen to be above
the horizon at all.

It is clear, then, that what the learner wants is a set of maps
specially constructed to show him in what part of the sky the
constellations are to be looked for. He ought on any night of the
year to be able to turn at once to the proper map, and in that
map he ought to see at once what to look for, toward what point
of the compass each visible constellation lies, and how high it
is above the horizon. And, if possible (as the present work shows
is the case), _one_ map ought to suffice to exhibit the aspect of
the whole heavens, in order that the beginner may not be confused
by turning from map to map, and trying to find out how each fits
in with the others.

It is to fulfil these requirements that the present maps have been
constructed. Each exhibits the aspect of the whole sky at a given
day and hour. The circumference of the map represents the natural
horizon, the middle of the map representing the part of the sky
which lies immediately overhead. If the learner hold one of these
maps over his head, so as to look vertically upwards at it, the
different parts of the horizon marked in round the circumference
being turned towards the proper compass points, he will see the
same view of the heavens as he would if he were to lie on his back
and look upwards at the sky, only that the map is a planisphere
and the sky a hemisphere.

But although this illustration serves to indicate the nature of
the maps, the actual mode of using them is more convenient.

Let it first be noted that properly speaking the maps have neither
top, bottom, nor sides. Each map may be held with any part of the
circumference downward: then the centre of the map is to be looked
upon as the top for that part of the circumference. The portion
of the map lying beneath the centre represents the portion of the
sky lying between the point overhead and a certain part of the
horizon--the part in fact corresponding to the particular part
of the circumference which is turned downwards. Thus if on any
night we wish to learn what are the stars towards the north, we
look for the map corresponding to that night. At the hour named
the stars toward the north will be those shown between the centre
of the map and the top; and, of course, we hold the map upside
down so as to bring the centre above the northern part of the
circumference.

But this matter will be more clearly understood by comparing the
account of any of the accompanying maps with the map itself.

Again, it must be noted that, although the maps are necessarily
arranged in a certain order, there is in reality no first or last
in the series. The map numbered I. follows the map numbered XII.
in exactly the same manner that the latter follows the map numbered
XI. The maps form a circular series, in fact.

The only reason for numbering the maps as at present, is that the map
numbered I. Happens to exhibit the aspect of the sky at a convenient
hour on the night of January 1st. It will be found that the dates
follow on with intervals of seven or eight days right round the year,
the end of the year falling in the left-hand column of the table
under Map I., while the beginning of the year is in the right-hand
column of the same map.[*]

[Footnote *: It may be mentioned in passing, that the dates have
not been thrown in so as to fall regularly round the year, but
correspond with the variations due to the earth's variable motion
round the sun.]

It will be seen at once that a map can always be found corresponding
to a convenient hour on any night of the year. (In midsummer, on
a few of the dates mentioned under the maps, night has not begun
at the hour named.) On any date named under a map, the aspect of
the sky two hours later than that named is that represented in
the following map. Thus at eight o'clock in the evening of January
22d, the aspect of the stars is as shown in Map I. At ten o'clock
on the same night the aspect of the sky is that shown in Map II., as
a date under that map shows. Applying this rule to the few occasions
on which the hour named is not available for observation (five or
six in all out of ninety-six dates), the observer can manage as
well for those occasions as for any others.

Next, as to finding the north point, or any point of the compass
which will enable the observer to determine the rest. If he is
only familiar with the aspect of those seven bright stars of the
Great Bear which have been called the Dipper, Charles' Wain, (really
"The Churl's Wain,") the Butcher's Cleaver, and by other names,
he can always determine the north point by means of the two stars
called the Pointers, since these seven stars never set. In the
explanation of each map I have shown where the Great Bear is to
be looked for on each night, the observer being assumed to have
such a general knowledge of the direction of the compass-points,
as will suffice for the purpose of finding so marked a collection
of stars. Thus the pole-star is found, and for the purpose of such
observations as are here considered, this star may be looked upon
as marking the exact direction of the north.

Perhaps nothing further is required; but if the observer prefer it
he can determine the north point conveniently _at noon_ by setting
up a vertical stick in the sunlight and noting the direction in which
the shadow lies. Once the observation has been made, he can note what
objects (these should be distant) lie towards the different points
of the compass, and from that time he can use the accompanying maps
without any reference to the Great Bear and the Pointers.

It is worth noticing that the stars called the Guardians of the
Pole form no bad time-piece when used with the aid of such maps
as the present. They revolve round the pole once in twenty-four
hours (less about four minutes), in a direction contrary to that of
a clock's hands. But stars near the equator, whose motions are much
more rapid, afford a yet better measure of time, if the direction
of the south point is well determined.

Of course, the observer who really wishes to become an astronomer
will not rest satisfied by learning only the principal stars shown
in these maps. By means of the regular star-maps, such as those
of my School Star Atlas, he will be able to explore the depths
of all the constellations, having once learned their position and
general appearance from the accompanying maps. It will be well for
the student to remember that the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn will at times appear among the constellations here shown.
Venus and Jupiter can always be recognized by their superior light,
Mars and Saturn by the steadiness with which they shine. The almanac
will always show when these planets and Mercury (often very bright
in the clear skies of America) are above the horizon, and where
they are situate. They never appear except among the zodiacal
constellations.

For particulars and pictures of the different constellations, and
other details associated with the study of the star-groupings,
the reader is referred to my "Easy Star Lessons," published like
the present maps by Messrs. PUTNAM'S SONS. I have to thank the
proprietors of the _Scientific American_ for permission to publish
these maps, which originally appeared (though in a slightly different
form) in the pages of that excellent magazine. The Latin names
of the constellations included in the maps of this series are as
follows:

  THE LITTLE BEAR, URSA MINOR (a, the _Pole Star_; b, g, _the Guardians_).
  THE DRAGON, DRACO (a, _Thuban_).
  KING CEPHEUS, CEPHEUS.
  THE LADY IN THE CHAIR, CASSIOPEIA.
  THE CHAMPION, PERSEUS (b, _Algol_, remarkable variable).
  THE CHARIOTEER, AURIGA (a, _Capella_).
  THE GREATER BEAR, URSA MAJOR (a, b, the _Pointers_).
  THE HUNTING DOGS, CANES VENATICI (a, _Cor Caroli_).
  QUEEN BERENICE'S HAIR, COMA BERENICES.
  THE HERDSMAN, BOÖTES (a, _Arcturus_).
  THE NORTHERN CROWN, CORONA BOREALIS.
  THE SERPENT, SERPENS.
  THE KNEELER, HERCULES.
  THE LYRE, LYRA (a, _Vega_).
  THE SWAN, CYGNUS (a, _Arided_; b, _Albireo_).
  THE WINGED HORSE, PEGASUS.
  THE CHAINED LADY, ANDROMEDA.
  THE TRIANGLES, TRIANGULA.
  THE RAM, ARIES.
  THE BULL, TAURUS (a, _Aldebaran_; ae, _Alcyone_, the chief _Pleiad_).
  THE TWINS, GEMINI (a, _Castor_; b, _Pollux_).
  THE CRAB, CANCER (the cluster between g and d is the _Beehive_).
  THE LION, LEO (a, _Regulus_).
  THE VIRGIN, VIRGO (a, _Spica_).
  THE SCALES, LIBRA.
  THE SERPENT-HOLDER, OPHIUCHUS.
  THE EAGLE, AQUILA (a, _Altair_).
  THE DOLPHIN, DELPHINUS.
  THE WATER CARRIER, AQUARIUS.
  THE FISHES, PISCES.
  THE SEA MONSTER, CETUS (o, _Mira_, remarkable variable)
  THE RIVER, ERIDANUS.
  THE GIANT HUNTER, ORION (a, _Betelgeux_; b, _Rigel_).
  THE LESSER DOG, CANIS MINOR (a, _Procyon_).
  THE SEA SERPENT, HYDRA (a, _Alphard_).
  THE CUP, CRATER (a, _Alkes_).
  THE CROW, CORVUS.
  THE SCORPION, SCORPIO (a, _Antares_).
  THE ARCHER, SAGITTARIUS.
  THE SEA-GOAT, CAPRICORNUS.
  THE SOUTHERN FISH, PISCIS AUSTRALIS (a, _Fomalhaut_).
  THE HARE, LEPUS.
  THE DOVE, COLUMBA.
  THE GREATER DOG, CANIS MAJOR, (a, _Sirius_).
  THE SHIP, ARGO.
  THE CENTAUR, CENTAURUS.

The following table exhibits the names of all the stars of the
first three magnitudes to which astronomers have given names; at
least, all those whose names are in common use:

a Andromedæ, _Alpheratz_
b ----, _Mirach, Mizar_.
g ----, _Almach_.
a Aquarii, _Sadalmelik_
b ----, _Sadalsund_
g ----, _Skat_
a Aquilæ, _Altair_
b ----, _Alshain_
g ----, _Tarazed_
a Arietis, _Hamal_
b ----, _Sheratan_
g ----, _Mesartim_
a Aurigæ, _Capella_
b ----, _Menkalinan_
a Boötis, _Arcturus_
b ----, _Nekkar_
e ----, _Izar, Mizar, Mirach_
ae ----, _Muphrid_
a Canum Ven., _Cor Caroli_
a Canis Majoris, _Sirius_
b ----, _Mirzam_
e ----, _Adara_
a Canis Minoris, _Procyon_
b ----, _Gomeisa_
a2 Capricorni, _Secunda Giedi_
d ----, _Deneb Algiedi_
a Cassiopeiæ, _Schedar_
b ----, _Chaph_
a Cephei, _Alderamin_
b ----, _Alphirk_
g ----, _Errai_
a Ceti, _Menkar_
b ----, _Diphda_

z Ceti, _Baten Kaitos_
o ----, _Mira_
a Columbæ, _Phact_
a Coronæ Bor, _Alphecca_
a Corvi, _Alchiba_
d ----, _Algores_
a Crateris, _Alkes_
a Cygni, _Arided, Deneb Adige_
b ----, _Albireo_
a Draconis, _Thuban_
b ----, _Alwaid_
g ----, _Etanin_
b Eridani, _Cursa_
g ----, _Zaurac_
a Geminorum, _Castor_.
b ----, _Pollux_
g ----, _Alhena_
d ----, _Wesat_
e ----, _Mebsuta_
a Herculis, _Ras Algethi_
b ----, _Korneforos_
a Hydræ, _Al Fard, Cor Hydroe_
a Leonis, _Regulus, Cor Leonis_
b ----, _Deneb Aleet, Denebola, Deneb_
g ----, _Algeiba_
d ----, _Zosma_
a Leporis, _Arneb_
a Libræ, _Zuben el Genubi_
b ----, _Zuben el Chamali_
g ----, _Zuben Hakrabi_
a Lyræ, _Vega_
b ----, _Sheliak_
g ----, _Salaphat_

a Ophiuchi, _Ras Alhague_
b ----, _Cebalrai_
a Orionis, _Betelgeux_
b ----, _Rigel_
g ----, _Bellatrix_
d ----, _Mintaka_
e ----, _Alnilam_
a Pegasi, _Markab_
b ----, _Scheat_
g ----, _Algenib_
e ----, _Enif_
z ----, _Homan_
a Persei, _Mirfak_
b ----, _Algol_
a Piscis Aust., _Fomalhaut_
e Sagittarii, _Kaus Australis_
a Scorpionis, _Antares, Cor Scorpionis_
a Serpentis, _Unukalhai_
a Tauri, _Aldebaran_
b ----, _Nath_
ae ----, _Alcyone_ (Pleiad)
a Ursæ Majoris, _Dubhe_
b ----, _Merak_
g ----, _Phecda_
e ----, _Alioth_
z ----, _Mizar_
ae ----, _Alkaid, Benetnasch_
i ----, _Talitha_
a Ursa Minoris, _Polaris_
b ----, _Kochab_
a Virginis, _Spica Azimech, Spica_
b ----, _Zavijava_
e ----, _Vindemiatrix_



[Illustration: MAP I. NIGHT SKY.--DECEMBER AND JANUARY.

At 11 o'clock: Dec. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Jan. 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Dec. 15.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Jan. 14.
At 10 o'clock: Dec. 23.    |  Dec. 30.       |At 8 o'clock: Jan. 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]


NIGHT SKY.--DECEMBER AND JANUARY.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is now rising well above the horizon, in
the northeast, the Pointers about midway between north and northeast.
A line from the Pole Star to the Guardians of the Pole is now in
the position of the minute hand of a clock about 28 minutes past
an hour. The Dragon (_Draco_) lies due north, curving round under
the Little Bear, its head close to the horizon. Low down in the
northwest is a part of the Swan (_Cygnus_). Higher up we see King
Cepheus, his wife _Cassiopeia_, and their daughter _Andromeda_
(the Seated Lady and Chained Lady, respectively), with the Rescuer
(_Perseus_) nearly overhead. The Winged Horse is setting, his head
close by the western horizon, and near the jar of the Water Bearer
(_Aquarius_).

In the southwest is the Whale; and close by, the constellation
_Pisces_, or the Fishes; above them the Ram (_Aries_), between which
and _Andromeda_ the Triangles can be seen.

In the south the River (_Eridanus_) makes now its best show. Its
leading brilliant, _Achernar_, is, however, never seen in the United
States. In the southeast the Great Dog, with the splendid Sirius
("which brightliest shines when laved of ocean's wave"), shows
resplendently. Above is Orion now standing upright, treading on the
Hare (_Lepus_) and facing the Bull (_Taurus_), now at its highest. The
Dove (_Columba_) below the Hare is a modern and not very interesting
constellation.

The Little Dog (_Canis Minor_) is on the east of Orion. In the
east the Sea Serpent (_Hydra_) is rising, and due east a little
higher we find _Cancer_, the Crab, (note the pretty cluster called
the Beehive (_Proesepe_)); above are the twins (_Gemini_), and
above them the Charioteer (_Auriga_), with the bright _Capella_,
nearly overhead.

The Lion is rising in the northeast, his heart star _Regulus_ (a)
being low down a little north of east.

Lastly, due north, high up, the absurd Giraffe (_Camelopardus_)
stands proudly on his ridiculous head.



NIGHT SKY.--JANUARY AND FEBRUARY.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) with its Dipper and Pointers, occupies
the northeasterly mid-heaven. A line from the Pole Star (a of the
Little Bear, _Ursa Minor_) to the Guardians, b and g, lies in the
position of the minute hand of a clock 23 minutes after an hour.
The Camelopard (_Camelopardus_) is above. The Dragon (_Draco_),
whose head is below the horizon, curves round the Little Bear to
between the Guardians and the Pointers. In the northwest, fairly
high up, we find _Cassiopeia_, the Seated Lady, and on her right,
lower down, the inconspicuous constellation _Cephius_. _Andromeda_,
the Chained Lady, is on _Cassiopeia's_ left. The Great Nebula will
be noticed in the map--it is faintly visible to the naked eye. Above
_Andromeda_ is _Perseus_, the Rescuing Knight, and above him the
Charioteer (_Auriga_), nearly overhead. On the left of _Andromeda_
is _Aries_, the Ram, the small constellation the Triangles lying
between them.

Toward the southwest, the Whale (_Cetus_) is beginning to set. The
River (_Eridanus_) occupies the lower part of the southwesterly
sky, and extends also to the mid-heavens in that direction. The
Dove (_Columba_) is nearly due south, and at its best--which is
not saying much. Above is the Hare (_Lepus_), on which _Orion_
treads. The Giant now presents his noblest aspect--prince of all
the constellations as he is. He faces the Bull (_Taurus_), known
by the _Pleiades_ and the bright _Aldebaran_.

Close by the poor Hare, on the left, leaps _Canis Major_, the Greater
Dog, with the bright Sirius, which "bickers into green and emerald."
The stern of the Star Ship (_Argo_) is nearing the south.

Very high in the southeast we find the Twins (_Gemini_), with the
twin stars, _Castor_ and _Pollux_ (a and b); and below them the
Little Dog (_Canis Minor_). The Sea Serpent (_Hydra_) is rearing
its tall neck above the eastern horizon (by south), as if aiming
either for the Little Dog or for the Crab (_Cancer_), now high
up in the east, with its pretty Beehive cluster showing well in
clear weather. The Lion (_Leo_) is due east, the Sickle (marked
by the stars a, ae, g, m, and e) being easily recognized.

Queen Berenice's Hair (_Coma Berenices_, not _Berenicis_, as often
ignorantly given) is in the northeast. It used to mark the tip of
the real Lion's tail, just as the stars of the Crab marked his
head. The Hunting Dogs occupy the space between Berenice's Hair
and the Great Bear.


[Illustration: MAP II. NIGHT SKY.--JANUARY AND FEBRUARY.

At 11 o'clock: Jan. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Feb. 6.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Jan. 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Feb. 14.
At 10 o'clock: Jan. 22.    |  Jan. 29.       |At 8 o'clock: Jan. 21.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]



[Illustration: MAP III. NIGHT SKY.--FEBRUARY AND MARCH.

At 11 o'clock: Feb. 6.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Mar. 8.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Feb. 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Mar. 16.
At 10 o'clock: Feb. 21.    |  Mar. 1.        |At 8 o'clock: Mar. 23.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]


NIGHT SKY.--FEBRUARY AND MARCH.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_), with its Dipper and Pointers, is
now high up in the northeastern sky. The Pointers direct us to the
Pole Star, (a of the Little Bear _Ursa Minor_). A line from the
Pole Star to the Guardians of the Pole (b and g) lies in the position
of the minute hand of a clock 18 minutes after an hour. The Dragon
(_Draco_) extends from between the Bears to the horizon--east of
north--where its head with its two bright eyes can be seen.

_Cepheus_ is low down, somewhat to the west of north; his Queen
(_Cassiopeia_) the Seated Lady, beside him (a and b mark the top rail
of her chair's back); while above her lies the poor constellation
_Camelopardus_, the Giraffe.

_Andromeda_, the Chained Lady, is in the northwest, low down--in
fact, partly set; the Triangles and the Ram (_Aries_) beside her,
toward the west. Above them is _Perseus_, the Rescuing Knight; and
above him, somewhat to the west, the Charioteer (_Auriga_). The
Bull (_Taurus_), with the _Pleiades_ and the bright _Aldebaran_,
is in the mid-heaven, due west; _Gemini_, the Twins, higher, and
toward the southwest. _Orion_, below them, is already slanting
toward "his grave, low down in the west"; beneath him the Hare,
and in the southwest a part of the River (_Eridanus_).

Due south is a part of the Star Ship (_Argo_), beside which, low
down, is the foolish Dove (_Columba_), while above leaps the Great
Dog (_Canis Major_), with the splendid _Sirius_, chief of all the
stars in the sky, marking his mouth.

High up, a little west of north, is the Little Dog (_Canis Minor_);
and higher, a little east of north, the Crab (_Cancer_), the "dark
constellation," as it was called of old, with the pretty cluster
_Proesepe_, or the Beehive.

The Sea Serpent (_Hydra_) is rearing his long neck high above the
horizon, bearing on his back, absurdly enough, Noah's Cup (_Crater_)
and Noah's Raven or Crow (_Corvus_).

Nearly due east, the Virgin (_Virgo_) has risen, Spica shining
brightly just above the horizon. The Lion (_Leo_) occupies the
mid-space above; the "Sickle in the Lion"--its handle marked by ae
and a, its curved blade by g, m, and e--will at once be recognized.
The Hair of Queen Berenice (_Coma Berenices_) is nearly due east,
and fairly high. Between this small but remarkable group and the
Great Bear, lies Hevelius's foolish constellation, the Hunting
Dogs (_Canes Venatici_). Lastly, in the northeast, the Herdsman
(_Boötes_), with the orange-yellow brilliant, Arcturus, is rising,
though at present, paradoxical as it may seem, he lies on his back.



NIGHT SKY.--MARCH AND APRIL.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is now nearing the point overhead,
the Pointers (a and b) aiming almost directly downward toward the
Pole Star. The line from this star (a of the Little Bear, _Ursa
Minor_) to the Guardians (b and g) is now in the position of the
minute hand of a clock about 13 minutes after an hour.

_Cepheus_ lies north, low down, _Cassiopeia_ on his left, the Camelopard
above her, _Andromeda_ just setting, almost due northwest, on the left.
_Perseus_ is due northwest, rather low, the Charioteer (_Auriga_) on
his left, but higher. Setting between west and northwest we see
the Bull (_Taurus_), with the _Pleiades_ and the ruddy _Aldebaran_.
_Orion_ is almost prone in his descent toward his western grave.
The Twins (_Gemini_) are due west, in the mid-heavens; the Little
Dog (_Canis Minor_) beside them on their left, the Crab (_Cancer_)
above, the Greater Dog (_Canis Major_) below, chasing the Hare
(_Lepus_) below the horizon. Just behind the Dog the poop of the
Great Ship (_Argo_) is also setting.

The Sea Serpent (_Hydra_) now shows his full length, rearing his
head high in the south. Observe the darkness of the region around
his heart, marked by the star a, _Alfard_, the Solitary One. The
Cup (_Crater_) and Crow (_Corvus_) stand on his back.

The Sickle in the Lion (_Leo_) now stands with handle upright, due
south. Below the tail stars of the Lion we see the Virgin (_Virgo_),
with the bright _Spica Azimech_. The set of five third magnitude
stars, above, was called by the Arabs, for reasons not explained,
the "Retreat of the Howling She Dog."

Behind the Lion, due east and high up, we see _Coma Berenices_,
the hair of Queen Berenice, between which and the tail of the Great
Bear we see in the chart one star only of the Hunting Dogs (_Canes
Venatici_).

The Herdsman (_Boötes_), still on his back, pursues in that striking
and effective position the Great Bear. Below the shoulder stars of
the Herdsman we see the Crown (_Corona Borealis_), near which, on
the right, low down and due east, the head of the Serpent (_Serpens_)
is rising. _Hercules_ is also rising, but in the northeast.

Lastly, the stars of the Dragon (_Draco_) can be seen curving from
between the Pointers and the Pole, round the Little Bear, then back
toward _Hercules_, the head of the Dragon, with the bright eyes,
b and g, being rather low down, and somewhat north of northeast.


[Illustration: MAP IV. NIGHT SKY.--MARCH AND APRIL.

At 11 o'clock: Mar. 8.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Apr. 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Mar. 16.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Apr. 14.
At 10 o'clock: Mar. 23.    |  Mar. 30.       |At 8 o'clock: Apr. 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]



[Illustration: MAP V. NIGHT SKY.--APRIL AND MAY.

At 11 o'clock: Apr. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: May 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Apr. 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: May 15.
At 10 o'clock: Apr. 22.    |  Apr. 30.       |At 8 o'clock: May. 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]


NIGHT SKY.--APRIL AND MAY.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is now at its highest and nearly
overhead, the pointers aiming downward from high up, slightly west
of due north. A line from the Pole Star, (a of the Little Bear,
_Ursa Minor_) to the Guardians of the Pole, (b and g) is now in
the position of the minute hand of a clock 8 minutes after an hour.

Below the Little Bear we find _Cepheus_ low down to the east of
north, and _Cassiopeia_ low down to the west of north. _Perseus_,
the Rescuer, is setting in the northwest; the Camelopard is above,
trying to get on his feet.

The Charioteer (_Auriga_), with the bright _Capella_, is nearing
the northwestern horizon, followed by the Twins (_Gemini_), in the
west. Further west and higher we find the Crab (_Cancer_), below
which is the Little Dog (_Canis Minor_).

The southwestern sky is very barren of bright stars. _Alfard_, the
heart of the Sea Serpent, _Hydra_, shines here alone in a great
blank space. Above the Sea Serpent's head we see the Sickle in the
Lion, _Leo_ himself stretching his tail to due south, very high
up. _Coma Berenices_ is close by, and the Hunting Dogs (_Canes
Venatici_) between _Coma_ and the Great Bear.

In the south, lower down, we find the Crow (_Corvus_), and the Cup
(_Crater_), on the Serpent's back; the Virgin (_Virgo_), extending
in the mid-heavens from southeast to south, between the Lion's
tail and the Crow. In the same direction, but low down, we find
the head and body of the Centaur (_Centaurus_), supposed to have
typified the patriarchal Noah.

In the southeast the Scorpion's heart has just risen, and between
the head of _Scorpio_ and the Virgin's robes we see the stars of
the Scales (_Libra_).

Due east, low down, is the Serpent-Holder (_Ophiuchus_), on his
back--it is the customary attitude of heavenly bodies when rising.
The Serpent (_Serpens_) held by him is seen curving upward toward
the Crown (_Corona Borealis_). The Serpent's head is due west,
and above it we see the bright Arcturus, chief brilliant of the
Herdsman (_Boötes_).

In the northeast is _Hercules_, his head close to the head of the
Serpent-Holder. Beneath his feet is the Lyre (_Lyra_) with the
brilliant _Vega_; and the Swan (_Cygnus_) has already half risen
above the northeastern horizon.

Lastly, the Dragon (_Draco_) curves from between the Pointers and
the Pole, round the Guardians toward _Cepheus_, and then retorts its
head, with gleaming eyes (b and g), toward the heel of _Hercules_.



NIGHT SKY.--MAY AND JUNE.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) occupies all the upper sky from the
west to north, except a small space occupied by the Hunting Dogs
(_Canes Venatici_). The Pointers are in the northwest, almost
horizontal. A line from the Pole Star (a of the Little Bear--_Ursa
Minor_) to the Guardians of the Pole (b and g) now occupies the
position of the minute hand of a clock 3 minutes past an hour.

Due north, low down, lies _Cassiopeia_, while above, somewhat toward
the east, we find the inconspicuous constellation _Cepheus_. The
Camelopard is in the west of north, and getting upright.

Low down in the northwest lie the Charioteer (_Auriga_), and the
head stars of the Twins (_Gemini_) further west. The Crab (_Cancer_)
is nearly due west, the Sea Serpent (_Hydra_) holding his head
almost exactly to the west point. Above is the Sickle in the Lion,
its blade curved downward, and the tail of the Lion (_Leo_) lies
above, toward the south of west.

On the Serpent's back we find the Cup (_Crater_) and the Crow
(_Corvus_), in the southwest and to the south of southwest respectively.
Above these constellations, and extending beyond the south toward
the east, the Virgin (_Virgo_) occupies the mid-heavens.

Above the Virgin we see the Herdsman (_Boötes_), his head and shoulders
nearly overhead. Low down in the south is the Centaur (_Centaurus_),
bearing on his spear the Wolf (_Lupus_) as an offering for the
Altar (_Ara_), which, however, is invisible in these latitudes.
Above the Wolf we see the Scales (_Libra_), while the Scorpion
(_Scorpio_), one of the few constellations which can at once be
recognized by its shape, is rising balefully in the southeast.

The Serpent Bearer (_Ophiuchus_) bears the Serpent (_Serpens_) in
the mid-heavens toward the southeast, the Crown (_Corona Borealis_)
being high up in the east, close by the Serpent's head.

Low down in the east is the Eagle (_Aquila_), with the fine steel-blue
star _Altair_, the Swan on the left about northeast, and above
it the Lyre (_Lyra_), with the still more brilliant steel-blue
star _Vega_. Hercules occupies the space between the Lyre on the
one side and the Crown and the Serpent's head on the other. He
is high up, due east.

Lastly, the Dragon winds from between the Pointers and the Pole
round the Little Bear, toward Cepheus, and then eastward toward
the feet of Hercules, close by which we see his head and gleaming
eyes (b and g).


[Illustration: MAP VI. NIGHT SKY.--MAY AND JUNE.

At 11 o'clock: May 7.     |                  |At 9 o'clock: June 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: May 15.|At 9-1/2 o'clock: |At 8-1/2 o'clock: June 14.
At 10 o'clock: May 22.    |  May 30.         |At 8 o'clock: June 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]



[Illustration: MAP VII. NIGHT SKY.--JUNE AND JULY.

At 11 o'clock: June 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: July 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: June 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: July 14.
At 10 o'clock: June 22.    |  June 30.       |At 8 o'clock: July 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]


NIGHT SKY.--JUNE AND JULY.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is in the mid-heavens toward the
northwest, the Pointers not far from the horizontal position. They
direct us to the Pole Star (a of the Little Bear, _Ursa Minor_).
The line from this star to the Guardians of the Pole, b and g, is
in about the position of the minute hand of a clock 2 minutes before
an hour. The Dragon (_Draco_) curls over the Little Bear, curving
upward on the east, to where its head, high up in the northeast, is
marked by the gleaming eyes, b and g. Under the Little Bear, the
Camelopard has at last come upright.

Low down in the west the Lion (_Leo_) is setting. The point of
the "Sickle in the Lion" is turned toward the horizon; the handle
(marked by a and ae) is nearly horizontal. Above the Lion's tail
is Berenice's Hair (_Coma Berenices_); and between that and the
Great Bear's tail our chart shows a solitary star of the Hunting
Dogs (_Canes Venatici_). The Crow (_Corvus_) is low down in the
southwest, the Cup (_Crater_) beside it, partly set, on the right.
Above is _Virgo_, the Virgin. Still higher in the southwest--in fact,
with head close to the point overhead--is the Herdsman (_Boötes_),
the Crown (_Corona Borealis_) near his southern shoulder marking
what was once the Herdsman's uplifted arm.

Low down between the south and southwest we find the head and shoulders
of the Centaur (_Centaurus_), who holds the Wolf (_Lupus_) due
south. Above the Wolf are the Scales (_Libra_), and above these
the Serpent (_Serpens_), his head in the south, stretching toward
the Crown. In the mid-sky, toward the southeast, we find the Serpent
Bearer (_Ophiuchus_--one star of the Serpent lies east of him).
Below the Serpent Bearer we find the Scorpion (_Scorpio_), now
fully risen, and showing truly scorpionic form. Beside the Scorpion
is the Archer (_Sagittarius_), low down in the southeast. To his
left we see, low down, two stars marking the head of the Sea Goat
(_Capricornus_), and one belonging to the Water Bearer (_Aquarius_).
Above the Sea Goat flies the Eagle (_Aquila_), with the bright
star _Altair_; and above, near the point overhead, is the kneeling
_Hercules_. Due east, we see part of the Winged Horse (_Pegasus_);
above that, the little Dolphin (_Delphinus_), and higher, the Swan
(_Cygnus_) and the Lyre (_Lyra_), with the beautiful bluish-white
star _Vega_.

Lastly, low down, between north and northeast, we find the Seated
Lady (_Cassiopeia_); and above, somewhat eastwardly, the inconspicuous
constellation _Cepheus, Cassiopeia's_ royal husband.



NIGHT SKY.--JULY AND AUGUST.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is now in the northwest, his paws
near the horizon. The Pointers (a and b) direct us to the Pole
Star, (a of the Little Bear, _Ursa Minor_). A line from the Pole
Star to the Guardians of the Pole is in the position of the minute
hand of a clock about 7 minutes before an hour. Below the Little
Bear we see the Camelopard, a little to the east of due north.
The Dragon (_Draco_) curves round from between the Pointers and
the Pole, above the Little Bear toward the east, then upward to
near the point overhead, its head, with the bright stars b and g,
being highest. Low down in the west we see Berenice's Hair (_Coma
Berenices_), and one star of the Hunting Dogs (_Canes Venatici_) is
seen in the chart between _Coma_ and the Great Bear. The Herdsman
{_Boötes_) occupies the mid-heaven in the west, the Crown (_Corona
Borealis_) higher up, and due west, Hercules, between the Crown
and the point overhead.

Low down, extending from the west to near the southwest, we find the
Virgin (_Virgo_), the bright _Spica_ near its setting place. In the
southwest are the Scales (_Libra_), and farther to the left, extending
from the Scales to low down near the south, we find the Scorpion
(_Scorpio_), one of the finest of the constellations, _Antares_,
the rival of Mars (as the name means), marking its heart. Above the
Scorpion and the Scales are the Serpent Bearer (_Serpentarius_ or
_Ophiuchus_) and the Serpent (_Serpens_), extending right across
him to near the Crown, after which the Serpent seems reaching.

A little east due south, low down, we find the Archer (_Sagittarius_);
in the southeast, low down, the Sea Goat (_Capricornus_); and farther
east, and lower down, the Water Bearer (_Aquarius_). Above the Sea
Goat is the Eagle (_Aquila_), with the bright bluish-white star
_Altair_; on its left the pretty little Dolphin (_Delphinus_),
and above the Dolphin, nearly overhead, the Lyre (_Lyra_), with
the bluish-white star _Vega_ (even brighter than _Altair_) nearly
overhead.

Below the Lyre we see the Swan (_Cygnus_), due east; and below the
Swan the Winged Horse (_Pegasus_), upside down, as usual.

In the northeast, _Andromeda_, the Chained Lady, is rising, her
head marked by the star a (which was also called d of _Pegasus_).
(The "Square of Pegasus" is formed by a of _Andromeda_ and a, b,
and g of _Pegasus_.)

Between the north and northeast is _Cassiopeia_, the Seated Lady,
and above her, her husband, King _Cepheus_. And lastly _Perseus_
is just rising, between the north and northeast.


[Illustration: MAP VIII. NIGHT SKY.--JULY AND AUGUST.

At 11 o'clock: July 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Aug. 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: July 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Aug. 14.
At 10 o'clock: July 22.    |  July 30.       |At 8 o'clock: Aug. 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]



[Illustration: MAP IX. NIGHT SKY.--AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER.

At 11 o'clock: Aug. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Sept. 6.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Aug. 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Sept. 14.
At 10 o'clock: Aug. 22.    | Aug. 29.        |At 8 o'clock: Sept. 21.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]


NIGHT SKY.--AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is low down, between northwest and
north, the Pointers (a and b) directed slantingly upward toward
the Pole. A line from the Pole Star (a of the Little Bear, _Ursa
Minor_) to the Guardians of the Pole (b and g), is in the position
of the minute hand of a clock 12 minutes before an hour. Between
the Great Bear and the Little Bear run the stars of the Dragon
(_Draco_), round the Little Bear toward the north, thence toward
the northwest, where we see the head of the Dragon high up, its two
bright eyes, b and g, directed toward _Hercules_, which occupies
the western mid-heaven. Above Hercules is _Lyra_, the Lyre, with
the bright steel-blue star Vega high up toward the point overhead.
Right overhead is the Swan (_Cygnus_).

Low down in the northwest we see in the chart one star of the Hunting
Dogs (_Canes Venatici_). Nearer the west stands the Herdsman, rather
slanting forward, however, with the Crown (_Corona Borealis_) on his
left, almost due west. The long winding Serpent (_Serpens_) runs
from near the Crown (where we see its head due west) to farther
south than southwest, high up on the western side of the Serpent
Holder (_Serpentarius_ or _Ophiuchus_), now standing upright in
the southwest. Low down creeps the Scorpion (_Scorpio_), its heart
Antares, rival of Mars, in the southwest, the end of its tail between
south and southwest. Above and south of the Scorpion's tail we see
the Archer (_Sagittarius_).

Due south, and high up, is the Eagle (_Aquila_), its tail at z and
e, its head at th, the bright steel-blue Altair marking its body.
On the left, or east, of the Eagle lies the neat little Dolphin
(_Delphinus_). Midway between the Dolphin and the horizon is the
tip of the tail of the Sea Goat (_Capricornus_), whose head lies
nearly due south.

On the southern horizon is the head of the Indian (_Indus_); on its
left a part of the Crane (_Grus_), and low down in the southeast
lies Fomalhaut, the chief brilliant of the Southern Fish (_Piscis
Australis_). Above lies the Water Bearer (_Aquarius_), in the
southwestern mid-heaven.

Due east, fairly high, is "the Square of Pegasus," the head of the
Winged Horse, Pegasus lying close by the Water Pitcher of Aquarius
(marked by the stars z, g, and a).

The Fishes (_Pisces_) are low down in the east. A few stars of
the Whale (_Cetus_) are seen on their right, very low down. On
the left of Pisces we see the Ram (_Aries_), low down; above it
the Triangle; and above that the Chained Lady (_Andromeda_).

Low down in the northeast is the Rescuing Knight (_Perseus_); above
whom is _Cassiopeia_, and on her left, higher up, the inconspicuous
constellation _Cepheus_.

Lastly, immediately below _Cepheus_, we find the Camelopard, below
which, very low down, between north and northeast, is the Charioteer
(_Auriga_), the brilliant Capella being just above the horizon.



NIGHT SKY.--SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER.

Low down, between north and northwest, we find the seven stars
of the Dipper, the Pointers on the right nearly due north. They
direct us to the Pole Star. The Guardians of the Pole (b and g of
the Little Bear, _Ursa Minor_) lie in a direction from the Pole
Star corresponding to that of the minute hand of a clock about 17
minutes before an hour. Between the Pointers and the Pole Star we
find the tip of the Dragon's tail: then passing round the Little
Bear with the Dragon's long train of third magnitude stars, we come,
after a bend, to the Dragon's head, with the two bright eyes, a
and b--(part of the Dragon's nose has been borrowed by Hercules).
These two stars are almost exactly midway between the horizon and
the point overhead, and nearly northwest. King Cepheus--not a very
conspicuous constellation--lies between the point overhead and
the Little Bear.

Low down in the northwest we find the head of the Herdsman (_Boötes_).
The Crown (_Corona Borealis_), which no one can mistake, lies on
his left; and close by is the setting head of the Serpent. Above
these three groups we see Hercules--the Kneeler--his head at a,
his upraised club by g. Above the head of Hercules we find the
Lyre, with the bright star Vega; and above that the Swan.

Passing southward, we see the Serpent-Holder (_Serpentarius_ or
_Ophiuchus_), beyond whom lies the Serpent's tail; a most inconvenient
arrangement, as the Serpent is divided into two parts. Almost exactly
southeast, and low down, are the stars of the Archer (_Sagittarius_);
while above, in the mid-sky, we see the Eagle (_Aquila_), with the
bright Altair. Note the neat little constellation the Dolphin
(_Delphinus_), close by.

Due south is the Crane (_Grus_); above it the Southern Fish, with
the bright star Fomalhaut. Above that the Sea Goat (_Capricornus_),
and on the left of this the Water Bearer (_Aquarius_); one can
recognize his water pitcher, marked by the stars b, g, and a.

Toward the west, high up, is the Winged Horse (_Pegasus_); he is
upside down just now. Below lies the Whale (_Cetus_), or rather
the Sea Monster. I have my own notion about Cetus, regarding him
as an icthyosaurus: but that is neither here nor there. The star
o of this constellation is called Mira; it is a wonderful variable
star. The Fishes (_Pisces_) may be seen between the Whale and Pegasus.
Few constellations have suffered more than Pisces by the breaking
up of star groups. The Fishes themselves are now lost in Andromeda
and Pegasus.

Note how on the left of Pisces the Ram (_Aries_) "bears aloft"
Andromeda, the Chained Lady (whose head lies at a), as Milton set
Aries doing long since. The Triangles serve only as a saddle. Between
Andromeda and her father, Cepheus, we find her mother, Cassiopeia, or
rather Cassiopeia's Chair. (Of course b, a, and g mark the chair's
back.) Perseus, the Rescuer, lies below; b is the famous variable
_Algol_. Below him lies the Bull (_Taurus_), with the Pleiades and
the bright Aldebaran. Low down to the left of the Bull, we find
the Charioteer (_Auriga_), with the bright Capella. And lastly,
anyone who likes may admire the Camelopard (_Camelopardalis_),
between the Great Bear, Cepheus, and the Charioteer.


[Illustration: MAP X. NIGHT SKY.--SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER.

At 11 o'clock: Sept. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Oct. 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Sept. 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Oct. 15.
At 10 o'clock: Sept. 21.    |  Sept. 30.      |At 8 o'clock: Oct. 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]



[Illustration: MAP XI. NIGHT SKY.--OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER.

At 11 o'clock: Oct. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Nov. 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Oct. 15.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Nov. 14.
At 10 o'clock: Oct. 22.    |  Oct. 30.       |At 8 o'clock: Nov. 22.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]


NIGHT SKY.--OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER.

The Dipper lies low, the Pointers a little east of north. They
direct to the Pole Star. The Guardians of the Pole (b and g of
the Little Bear, _Ursa Minor_) lie in a direction from the pole
star corresponding to that of the minute hand of a clock about 22
minutes before an hour. Between the Pointers and Pole Star lies
the tip of the Dragon's Tail. Sweeping around the Little Bear (_Ursa
Minor_) we find the stars of the Dragon (_Draco_) curving back by
the star d to the Dragon's Head, with the two bright eyes, g and
b. Above is the inconspicuous constellation Cepheus; and somewhat
higher, the stars of Cassiopeia, a and b, marking the top rail of
the Seated Lady's Chair.

Low down in the northwest Hercules is setting. Above is the Lyre,
with the bright steel-blue Vega; and above that the stars of the
Swan (_Cygnus_), which has sometimes been called the Northern Cross.

Nearly due west we find the Eagle (_Aquila_), z and e marking its
tail, th the head. Above the Eagle is the pretty little constellation
_Delphinus_, the Dolphin.

In the southwest, rather low, is the Sea Goat (_Capricornus_);
above and to the south of him the Water Bearer (_Aquarius_), with
his pitcher, marked by the stars, a, g, and z. The head of the
Winged Horse, _Pegasus_, now upside down (in fact, he is seldom
otherwise), is just above this group. The "Square of Pegasus" will
be noticed high up, due south. The star a of Andromeda, one of
the corners of this square, used to be also called d of Pegasus.

Much attention need not be directed to the Phoenix, low in the
southern horizon. The River _Eridanus_ is coming well into view;
and the great Sea Monster (_Cetus_) now shows finely, his head at
a and g, his paddles at z and t. The Fishes (_Pisces_) are above;
the Ram (_Aries_) above them and eastward, lying toward the southeast;
then the Triangle (_Triangula_, or the Triangles, according to modern
maps), and the Chained Lady (_Andromeda_) too nearly overhead to be
very pleasantly observed. The great nebula in which the new star
recently appeared is near the point overhead.

The grand giant Orion is rising in the east; above him the Bull
(_Taurus_) with the Pleiades. Low down in the northeast the Twins
(_Gemini_) are rising; above is the Charioteer (_Auriga_), and
above him the Rescuing Knight (_Perseus_), "of fair-haired Danae
born." The Camelopard is hardly worth noticing, except as marking
a barren region of the heavens.



NIGHT SKY.--NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER.

The Great Bear (_Ursa Major_) is beginning to rise above the northeast
(by north) horizon. The end of the Dipper's handle is hidden. A line
from the Pole Star (toward which the Pointers direct the observer)
to the Guardians of the pole (b and g of the Little Bear, _Ursa
Minor_), is now in the position of the minute hand of a clock 27
minutes before an hour. The stars of the Dragon wind round below
the Little Bear toward the west, the head of the Dragon with the
gleaming eyes ("oblique retorted that askant cast gleaming fire")
being low down, a little north of northwest. Above is King Cepheus,
and above him his queen, the Seated Lady (_Cassiopeia_); their
daughter, the Chained Lady (_Andromeda_) being nearly overhead.

Low down in the northwest we see the Lyre (_Lyra_), with the bright
Vega; and close by toward the west the Swan (_Cygnus_), or Northern
Cross. The Eagle is setting in the west, and the Little Dolphin
nears the western horizon.

Toward the southwest (by west) we see the Water Bearer (_Aquarius_),
with his pitcher (b, g, a), close by which is the head of the Winged
Horse (_Pegasus_). In the south, low down, is the absurd Phoenix;
above, the Sea Monster, or Whale (_Cetus_); above him, the Fishes
(_Pisces_); above them, the Ram (_Aries_); while nearly overhead
lies the Triangle, in reality the Triangles (_Triangula_).

The River (_Eridanus_) occupies the southeasterly sky. The Dove and
Great Dog (_Columba_ and _Canis Major_) are rising in the southeast.
The glorious _Orion_ has now come well into view, though not yet
so upright as we could wish a knightly hunter to be. He treads
on the Hare (_Lepus_), and faces the Bull (_Taurus_) above.

Due east we find the Crab (_Cancer_), and Little Dog (_Canis Minor_)
low down; the Twins (_Gemini_) higher; above them the Charioteer
(_Auriga_), with the bright _Capella_, and _Perseus_ the Rescuer
nearing the point overhead. In the mid-space between _Perseus,
Auriga_, and the two Bears, we find the ridiculous constellation
_Camelopardus_, or the Giraffe.


[Illustration: MAP XII. NIGHT SKY.--NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER.

At 11 o'clock: Nov. 7.     |                 |At 9 o'clock: Dec. 7.
At 10-1/2 o'clock: Nov. 14.|At 9-1/2 o'clock:|At 8-1/2 o'clock: Dec. 15.
At 10 o'clock: Nov. 22.    |  Nov. 30.       |At 8 o'clock: Dec. 23.

Stars of the first magnitude are eight-pointed; second magnitude,
six-pointed; third magnitude, five-pointed; fourth magnitude (a
few), four-pointed; fifth magnitude (very few), three-pointed.
For star names refer to page 4.]





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translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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