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Title: Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases
Author: Roget, Peter Mark, 1779-1869
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Poster's note: The dagger symbol has been replaced
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1. Existence -- N. existence, being, entity, ens [Lat.], esse [Lat.],
     reality, actuality; positiveness &c adj.; fact, matter of fact,
sober reality; truth &c 494; actual existence.
     presence &c (existence in space) 186; coexistence &c 120.
     stubborn fact, hard fact; not a dream &c 515; no joke.
     center of life, essence, inmost nature, inner reality, vital
     [Science of existence], ontology.
V. exist, be; have being &c n.; subsist, live, breathe, stand, obtain,
be the case; occur &c (event) 151; have place, prevail; find oneself,
pass the time, vegetate.
     consist in, lie in; be comprised in, be contained in, be
constituted by.
     come into existence &c n.; arise &c (begin) 66; come forth &c
(appear) 446.
     become &c (be converted) 144; bring into existence &c 161.
     abide, continue, endure, last, remain, stay.
Adj. existing &c v.; existent, under the sun; in existence &c n.;
extant; afloat, afoot, on foot, current, prevalent; undestroyed.
     real, actual, positive, absolute; true &c 494; substantial,
substantive; self-existing, self-existent; essential.
     well-founded, well-grounded; unideal^, unimagined; not potential &c
2; authentic.
Adv. actually &c adj.; in fact, in point of fact, in reality; indeed;
de facto, ipso facto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; ergo sum cogito [Lat.], thinkest thou
existence doth depend on time? [Byron].

2. Inexistence -- N. inexistence^; nonexistence, nonsubsistence;
nonentity, nil; negativeness &c adj.; nullity; nihility^, nihilism;
tabula rasa [Lat.], blank; abeyance; absence &c 187; no such thing &c
4; nonbeing, nothingness, oblivion.
     annihilation; extinction &c (destruction) 162; extinguishment,
extirpation, Nirvana, obliteration.
V. not exist &c 1; have no existence &c 1; be null and void; cease to
exist &c 1; pass away, perish; be extinct, become extinct &c adj.; die
out; disappear &c 449; melt away, dissolve, leave not a rack behind;
go, be no more; die &c 360.
     annihilate, render null, nullify; abrogate &c 756; destroy &c 162;
take away; remove &c (displace) 185; obliterate, extirpate.
Adj. inexistent^, nonexistent &c 1; negative, blank; missing, omitted;
absent &c 187; insubstantial, shadowy, spectral, visionary.
     unreal, potential, virtual; baseless, in nubibus [Lat.];
unsubstantial &c 4; vain.
     unborn, uncreated^, unbegotten, unconceived, unproduced, unmade.
     perished, annihilated, &c v.; extinct, exhausted, gone, lost,
vanished, departed, gone with the wind; defunct &c (dead) 360.
     fabulous, ideal &c (imaginary) 515, supposititious &c 514.
Adv. negatively, virtually &c adj..
Phr. non ens [Lat.].


3. Substantiality -- N. substantiality, hypostasis; person, being,
thing, object, article, item; something, a being, an existence;
creature, body, substance, flesh and blood, stuff, substratum; matter
&c 316; corporeity^, element, essential nature, groundwork, materiality,
substantialness, vital part.
     [Totality of existences], world &c 318; plenum.
Adj. substantive, substantial; hypostatic; personal, bodily, tangible
&c (material) 316; corporeal.
Adv. substantially &c adj.; bodily, essentially.

4. Unsubstantiality -- N. unsubstantiality^, insubstantiality;
nothingness, nihility^; no degree, no part, no quantity, no thing.
     nothing, naught, nil, nullity, zero, cipher, no one, nobody; never
a one, ne'er a one [Contr.]; no such thing, none in the world; nothing
whatever, nothing at all, nothing on earth; not a particle &c
(smallness) 32; all talk, moonshine, stuff and nonsense; matter of no
importance, matter of no consequence.
     thing of naught, man of straw, John Doe and Richard Roe, faggot
voter; nominis umbra [Lat.], nonentity; flash in the pan, vox et
praeterea nihil [Lat.].
     shadow; phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (imagination)
515; ignis fatuus &c (luminary) 423 [Lat.]; such stuff as dreams are
made of [Tempest]; air, thin air, vapor; bubble &c 353; baseless fabric
of a vision [Tempest]; mockery.
     hollowness, blank; void &c (absence) 187.
     inanity, fool's paradise.
V. vanish, evaporate, fade, dissolve, melt away; disappear &c 449.
Adj. unsubstantial; baseless, groundless; ungrounded; without
foundation, having no foundation.
     visionary &c (imaginary) 515; immaterial &c 137; spectral &c 980;
dreamy; shadowy; ethereal, airy; cloud built, cloud formed; gossamery,
illusory, insubstantial, unreal.
     vacant, vacuous; empty &c 187; eviscerated; blank, hollow;
nominal; null; inane.
Phr. there's nothing in it; an ocean of dreams without a sound


Internal conditions

5. Intrinsicality -- N. intrinsicality^, inbeing^, inherence, inhesion^;
subjectiveness; ego; egohood^; essence, noumenon; essentialness^ &c
adj.; essential part, quintessence, incarnation, quiddity, gist, pith,
marrow, core, sap, lifeblood, backbone, heart, soul; important part &c
(importance) 642.
     principle, nature, constitution, character, type, quality, crasis^,
     habit; temper, temperament; spirit, humor, grain; disposition.
     endowment, capacity; capability &c (power) 157.
     moods, declensions, features, aspects; peculiarities &c
(speciality) 79; idiosyncrasy, oddity; idiocrasy &c (tendency) 176;
V. be in the blood, run in the blood; be born so; be intrinsic &c adj..
Adj. derived from within, subjective; intrinsic, intrinsical^;
fundamental, normal; implanted, inherent, essential, natural; innate,
inborn, inbred, ingrained, inwrought; coeval with birth, genetous^,
haematobious^, syngenic^; radical, incarnate, thoroughbred, hereditary,
inherited, immanent; congenital, congenite^; connate, running in the
blood; ingenerate^, ingenite^; indigenous; in the grain &c n.; bred in
the bone, instinctive; inward, internal &c 221; to the manner born;
     characteristic &c (special) 79, (indicative) 550; invariable,
incurable, incorrigible, ineradicable, fixed.
Adv. intrinsically &c adj.; at bottom, in the main, in effect,
practically, virtually, substantially, au fond; fairly.
Phr. character is higher than intellect [Emerson]; come give us a taste
of your quality [Hamlet]; magnos homines virtute metimur non fortuna
[Lat.] [Nepos]; non numero haec judicantur sed pondere [Lat.] [Cicero];
vital spark of heavenly flame [Pope].

External conditions

6. Extrinsicality -- N. extrinsicality^, objectiveness, non ego;
extraneousness &c 57; accident; appearance, phenomenon &c 448.
Adj. derived from without; objective; extrinsic, extrinsical^;
extraneous &c (foreign) 57; modal, adventitious; ascititious^,
adscititious^; incidental, accidental, nonessential; contingent,
     implanted, ingrafted^; inculcated, infused.
     outward, apparent &c (external) 220.
Adv. extrinsically &c adj..



7. State -- N. state, condition, category, estate, lot, ease, trim,
mood, pickle, plight, temper; aspect &c (appearance) 448, dilemma,
pass, predicament.
     constitution, habitude, diathesis^; frame, fabric &c 329; stamp,
set, fit, mold, mould.
     mode, modality, schesis^; form &c (shape) 240.
     tone, tenor, turn; trim, guise, fashion, light, complexion, style,
V. be in a state, possess a state, enjoy a state, labor under a state
&c n.; be on a footing, do, fare; come to pass.
Adj. conditional, modal, formal; structural, organic.
Adv. conditionally &c adj.; as the matter stands, as things are; such
being the case &c 8.


8. Circumstance -- N. circumstance, situation, phase, position,
posture, attitude, place, point; terms; regime; footing, standing,
     occasion, juncture, conjunctive; contingency &c (event) 151.
     predicament; emergence, emergency; exigency, crisis, pinch, pass,
push; occurrence; turning point.
     bearings, how the land lies.
     surroundings, context, environment 232; location 184.
     contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; causation 153,
attribution 155.
Adj. circumstantial; given, conditional, provisional; critical; modal;
contingent, incidental; adventitious &c (extrinsic) 6; limitative^.
Adv. in the circumstances, under the circumstances &c n., the
circumstances, conditions &c 7; thus, in such wise.
     accordingly; that being the case, such being the case, in view of
the circumstances; that being so, sith^, since, seeing that.
     as matters stand; as things go, as times go.
     conditionally, provided, if, in case; if so, if so be, if it be
so; depending on circumstances, in certain circumstances, under certain
conditions; if it so happen, if it so turn out; in the event of; in
such a contingency, in such a case, in such an event; provisionally,
unless, without.
     according to circumstances, according to the occasion; as it may
happen, as it may turn out, as it may be; as the case may be, as the
wind blows; pro re nata [Lat.].
Phr. yet are my sins not those of circumstance [Lytton].



9. Relation -- N. relation, bearing, reference, connection, concern,
cognation; correlation &c 12; analogy; similarity &c 17; affinity,
homology, alliance, homogeneity, association; approximation &c
(nearness) 197; filiation &c (consanguinity) 11; interest; relevancy &c
23; dependency, relationship, relative position.
     comparison &c 464; ratio, proportion.
     link, tie, bond of union.
V. be related &c adj.; have a relation &c n.; relate to, refer to; bear
upon, regard, concern, touch, affect, have to do with; pertain to,
belong to, appertain to; answer to; interest.
     bring into relation with, bring to bear upon; connect, associate,
draw a parallel; link &c 43.
Adj. relative; correlative &c 12; cognate; relating to &c v.; relative
to, in relation with, referable or referrible to^; belonging to &c v.;
appurtenant to, in common with.
     related, connected; implicated, associated, affiliated, allied to;
en rapport, in touch with.
     approximative^, approximating; proportional, proportionate,
proportionable; allusive, comparable.
     in the same category &c 75; like &c 17; relevant &c (apt) 23;
applicable, equiparant^.
Adv. relatively &c adj.; pertinently &c 23.
     thereof; as to, as for, as respects, as regards; about; concerning
&c v.; anent; relating to, as relates to; with relation, with reference
to, with respect to, with regard to; in respect of; while speaking of,
a propos of [Fr.]; in connection with; by the way, by the by; whereas;
for as much as, in as much as; in point of, as far as; on the part of,
on the score of; quoad hoc [Lat.]; pro re nata [Lat.]; under the head
of &c (class) 75, of; in the matter of, in re.
Phr. thereby hangs a tale [Taming of the Shrew].

10. [Want, or absence of relation.] Irrelation -- N. irrelation^,
dissociation; misrelation^; inapplicability; inconnection^;
multifariousness; disconnection &c (disjunction) 44; inconsequence,
independence; incommensurability; irreconcilableness &c (disagreement)
24; heterogeneity; unconformity &c 83; irrelevancy, impertinence, nihil
ad rem [Lat.]; intrusion &c 24; non-pertinence.
V. have no relation to &c 9; have no bearing upon, have no concern with
&c 9, have no business with; not concern &c 9; have no business there,
have nothing to do with, intrude &c 24.
     bring in head and shoulders, drag in head and shoulders, lug in
head and shoulders.
Adj. irrelative^, irrespective, unrelated; arbitrary; independent,
unallied; unconnected, disconnected; adrift, isolated, insular;
extraneous, strange, alien, foreign, outlandish, exotic.
     not comparable, incommensurable, heterogeneous; unconformable &c
     irrelevant, inapplicable; not pertinent, not to the, purpose;
impertinent, inapposite, beside the mark, a propos de bottes [Fr.];
aside from the purpose, away from the purpose, foreign to the purpose,
beside the purpose, beside the question, beside the transaction, beside
the point; misplaced &c (intrusive) 24; traveling out of the record.
     remote, far-fetched, out of the way, forced, neither here nor
there, quite another thing; detached, segregate; disquiparant^.
     multifarious; discordant &c 24.
     incidental, parenthetical, obiter dicta, episodic.
Adv. parenthetically &c adj.; by the way, by the by; en passant [Fr.],
incidentally; irrespectively &c adj.; without reference to, without
regard to; in the abstract &c 87; a se.

11. [Relations of kindred.] Consanguinity -- N. consanguinity,
relationship, kindred, blood; parentage &c (paternity) 166; filiation^,
affiliation; lineage, agnation^, connection, alliance; family
connection, family tie; ties of blood; nepotism.
     kinsman, kinfolk; kith and kin; relation, relative; connection;
sibling, sib; next of kin; uncle, aunt, nephew, niece; cousin, cousin-
german^; first cousin, second cousin; cousin once removed, cousin twice
removed; &c near relation, distant relation; brother, sister, one's own
flesh and blood.
     family, fraternity; brotherhood, sisterhood, cousinhood^.
     race, stock, generation; sept &c 166; stirps, side; strain; breed,
clan, tribe, nation.
V. be related to &c adj.. claim relationship with &c n.. with.
Adj. related, akin, consanguineous, of the blood, family, allied,
collateral; cognate, agnate, connate; kindred; affiliated; fraternal.
     intimately related, nearly related, closely related, remotely
related, distantly related, allied; german.

12. [Double or reciprocal relation.] Correlation -- N. reciprocalness
&c adj.^; reciprocity, reciprocation; mutuality, correlation,
interdependence, interrelation, connection, link, association;
interchange &c 148; exchange, barter.
     reciprocator, reprocitist.
V. reciprocate, alternate; interchange &c 148; exchange; counterchange^.
Adj. reciprocal, mutual, commutual^, correlative, reciprocative,
interrelated, closely related; alternate; interchangeable;
interdependent; international; complemental, complementary.
Adv. mutually, mutatis mutandis [Lat.]; vice versa; each other, one
another; by turns &c 148; reciprocally &c adj..
Phr. happy in our mutual help [Milton].

13. Identity -- N. identity, sameness; coincidence, coalescence;
convertibility; equality &c 27; selfness^, self, oneself;
     monotony, tautology &c (repetition) 104.
     facsimile &c (copy) 21; homoousia: alter ego &c (similar) 17;
ipsissima verba &c (exactness) 494 [Lat.]; same; self, very, one and
the same; very thing, actual thing; real McCoy; no other; one and only;
in the flesh.
V. be identical &c adj.; coincide, coalesce, merge.
     treat as the same, render the same, identical; identify; recognize
the identity of.
Adj. identical; self, ilk; the same &c n.. selfsame, one and the same,
     coincide, coalescent, coalescing; indistinguishable; one;
equivalent &c (equal) 27; tweedle dee and tweedle dum [Lat.]; much the
same, of a muchness^; unaltered.
Adv. identically &c adj.; on all fours.

14. [Noncoincidence.] Contrariety -- N. contrariety, contrast, foil,
antithesis, oppositeness; contradiction; antagonism &c (opposition)
708; clashing, repugnance.
     inversion &c 218; the opposite, the reverse, the inverse, the
converse, the antipodes, the antithesis, the other extreme.
V. be contrary &c adj.; contrast with, oppose; diller toto coelo
     invert, reverse, turn the tables; turn topsy-turvy, turn end for
end, turn upside down, turn inside out.
     contradict, contravene; antagonize &c 708.
Adj. contrary, contrarious^, contrariant^; opposite, counter, dead
against; converse, reverse; opposed, antithetical, contrasted,
antipodean, antagonistic, opposing; conflicting, inconsistent,
contradictory, at cross purposes; negative; hostile &c 703.
     differing toto coelo [Lat.]; diametrically opposite; diametrically
opposed; as opposite as black and white, as opposite as light and
darkness, as opposite as fire and water, as opposite as the poles; as
different as night and day; Hyperion to a satyr [Hamlet]; quite the
contrary, quite the reverse; no such thing, just the other way, tout au
contraire [Fr.].
Adv. contrarily &c adj.; contra, contrariwise, per contra, on the
contrary, nay rather; vice versa; on the other hand &c (in
compensation) 30.
Phr. all concord's born of contraries [B.
     Thesis, antithesis, synthesis [Marx].

15. Difference -- N. difference; variance, variation, variety;
diversity, dissimilarity &c 18; disagreement &c 24; disparity &c
(inequality) 28; distinction, contradistinction; alteration.
     modification, permutation, moods and tenses.
     nice distinction, fine distinction, delicate distinction, subtle
distinction; shade of difference, nuance; discrimination &c 465;
     different thing, something else, apple off another tree, another
pair of shoes; horse of a different color; this that or the other.
V. be different &c adj.; differ, vary, ablude^, mismatch, contrast;
divaricate; differ toto coelo [Lat.], differ longo intervallo [It].
     vary, modify &c (change) 140.
     discriminate &c 465.
Adj. differing &c v.; different, diverse, heterogeneous, multifarious,
polyglot; distinguishable, dissimilar; varied, modified; diversified,
various, divers, all manner of, all kinds of; variform &c 81; daedal^.
     other, another, not the same; unequal &c 28.
     unmatched; widely apart, poles apart, distinctive; characteristic,
discriminative, distinguishing.
     incommensurable, incommensurate.
Adv. differently &c adj..
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots.


16. Uniformity -- N. uniformity; homogeneity, homogeneousness;
consistency; connaturality^, connaturalness^; homology; accordance;
conformity &c 82; agreement &c 23; consonance, uniformness.
     regularity, constancy, even tenor, routine; monotony.
V. be uniform &c adj.; accord with &c 23; run through.
     become uniform &c adj.; conform to &c 82.
     render uniform, homogenize &c adj.; assimilate, level, smooth,
Adj. uniform; homogeneous, homologous; of a piece [Fr.], consistent,
connatural^; monotonous, even, invariable; regular, unchanged,
undeviating, unvaried, unvarying.
Adv. uniformly &c adj.; uniformly with &c (conformably) 82; in harmony
with &c (agreeing) 23.
     always, invariably, without exception, without fail, unfailingly,
never otherwise; by clockwork.
Phr. ab uno disce omnes [Lat.].

16a. [Absence or want of uniformity.] Nonuniformity -- N. diversity,
irregularity, unevenness; multiformity &c 81; unconformity &c 83;
roughness &c 256; dissimilarity, dissimilitude, divarication,
Adj. diversified varied, irregular, uneven, rough &c 256; multifarious;
multiform &c 81; of various kinds; all manner of, all sorts of, all
kinds of.
Adv. variously, in all manner of ways, here there and everywhere.


17. Similarity -- N. similarity, resemblance, likeness, similitude,
semblance; affinity, approximation, parallelism; agreement &c 23;
analogy, analogicalness^; correspondence, homoiousia^, parity.
     connaturalness^, connaturality^; brotherhood, family likeness.
     alliteration, rhyme, pun.
     repetition &c 104; sameness &c (identity) 13; uniformity &c 16;
     analogue; the like; match, pendant, fellow companion, pair, mate,
twin, double, counterpart, brother, sister; one's second self, alter
ego, chip of the old block, par nobile fratrum [Lat.], Arcades ambo^,
birds of a feather, et hoc genus omne [Lat.]; gens de meme famille
     parallel; simile; type &c (metaphor) 521; image &c
(representation) 554; photograph; close resemblance, striking
resemblance, speaking resemblance, faithful likeness, faithful
V. be similar &c adj.; look like, resemble, bear resemblance; smack of,
savor of, approximate; parallel, match, rhyme with; take after; imitate
&c 19; favor, span [U.S.].
     render similar &c adj.; assimilate, approximate, bring near;
connaturalize^, make alike; rhyme, pun.
Adj. similar; resembling &c v.; like, alike; twin.
     analogous, analogical; parallel, of a piece [Fr.]; such as, so;
     connatural^, congener, allied to; akin to &c (consanguineous) 11.
     approximate, much the same, near, close, something like, sort of,
in the ballpark, such like; a show of; mock, pseudo, simulating,
     exact &c (true) 494; lifelike, faithful; true to nature, true to
life, the very image, the very picture of; for all the world like,
comme deux gouttes d'eau [Fr.]; as like as two peas in a pod, as like
as it can stare; instar omnium [Lat.], cast in the same mold,
ridiculously like.
Adv. as if, so to speak; as it were, as if it were; quasi, just as,
veluti in speculum [Lat.].
Phr. et sic de similibus [Lat.]; tel maitre tel valet [Fr.]; tel pere
tel fils [Fr.]; like master, like servant; like father, like son; the
fruit doesn't fall far from the tree; a chip off the old block

18. Dissimilarity -- N. dissimilarity, dissimilaritude^; unlikeness,
diversity, disparity, dissemblance^; divergence, variation.; difference
&c 15; novelty, originality; creativeness; oogamy^.
V. be unlike &c adj.; vary &c (differ) 15; bear no resemblance to,
differ toto coelo [Lat.].
     render unlike &c adj.; vary &c (diversify) 140.
Adj. dissimilar, unlike, disparate; divergent; of a different kind; &c
(class) 75 unmatched, unique; new, novel; unprecedented &c 83;
     nothing of the kind; no such thing, quite another thing; far from
it, cast in a different mold, tertium quid [Lat.], as like a dock as a
daisy, very like a whale [Hamlet]; as different as chalk from cheese,
as different as Macedon and Monmouth; lucus a non lucendo [Lat.].
     diversified &c 16.1.
Adv. otherwise.
Phr. diis aliter visum [Lat.]; no more like my father than I to
Hercules [Hamlet].

19. Imitation -- N. imitation; copying &c v.; transcription;
repetition, duplication, reduplication; quotation; reproduction;
mimeograph, xerox, facsimile; reprint, offprint.
     mockery, mimicry; simulation, impersonation, personation;
representation &c 554; semblance; copy &c 21; assimilation.
     paraphrase, parody, take-off, lampoon, caricature &c 21.
     plagiarism; forgery, counterfeit &c (falsehood) 544; celluloid.
     imitator, echo, cuckoo^, parrot, ape, monkey, mocking bird, mime;
copyist, copycat; plagiarist, pirate.
V. imitate, copy, mirror, reflect, reproduce, repeat; do like, echo,
reecho, catch; transcribe; match, parallel.
     mock, take off, mimic, ape, simulate, impersonate, personate; act
&c (drama) 599; represent &c 554; counterfeit, parody, travesty,
caricature, lampoon, burlesque.
     follow in the steps of, tread in the steps, follow in the
footsteps of, follow in the wake of; take pattern by; follow suit,
follow the example of; walk in the shoes of, take a leaf out of
another's book, strike in with, follow suit; take after, model after;
Adj. imitated &c v.; mock, mimic; modelled after, molded on.
     paraphrastic; literal; imitative; secondhand; imitable; aping,
apish, mimicking.
Adv. literally, to the letter, verbatim, literatim [Lat.], sic, totidem
verbis [Lat.], word for word, mot a mot [Fr.]; exactly, precisely.
Phr. like master like man; like - but oh! how different! [Wordsworth];
genius borrows nobly [Emerson]; pursuing echoes calling 'mong the rocks
     Coles]; quotation confesses inferiority [Emerson]; Imitation is
the sincerest form of flattery.

20. Nonimitation -- N. no imitation; originality; creativeness.
     invention, creation.
Adj. unimitated^, uncopied^; unmatched, unparalleled; inimitable &c 13;
unique, original; creative, inventive, untranslated; exceptional, rare,
sui generis uncommon [Lat.], unexampled.

20a. Variation -- N. variation; alteration &c (change) 140.
     modification, moods and tenses; discrepance^, discrepancy.
     divergency &c 291; deviation &c 279; aberration; innovation.
V. vary &c (change) 140; deviate &c 279; diverge &c 291; alternate,
Adj. varied &c v.; modified; diversified &c 16.1.

21. [Result of imitation.] Copy -- N. copy, facsimile, counterpart,
effigies, effigy, form, likeness.
     image, picture, photo, xerox, similitude, semblance, ectype^, photo
offset, electrotype; imitation &c 19; model, representation,
adumbration, study; portrait &c (representation) 554; resemblance.
     duplicate, reproduction; cast, tracing; reflex, reflexion [Brit.],
reflection; shadow, echo.
     transcript [copy into a non-visual form], transcription;
recording, scan.
     chip off the old block; reprint, new printing; rechauffe [Fr.];
apograph^, fair copy.
     parody, caricature, burlesque, travesty, travestie^, paraphrase.
     [copy with some differences] derivative, derivation, modification,
expansion, extension, revision; second edition &c (repetition) 104.
     servile copy, servile imitation; plagiarism, counterfeit, fake &c
(deception) 545; pasticcio^.
Adj. faithful; lifelike &c (similar) 17; close, conscientious.
     unoriginal, imitative, derivative.

22. [Thing copied.] Prototype -- N. prototype, original, model,
pattern, precedent, standard, ideal, reference, scantling, type;
archetype, antitype^; protoplast, module, exemplar, example, ensample^,
paradigm; lay-figure.
     text, copy, design; fugleman^, keynote.
     die, mold; matrix, last, plasm^; proplasm^, protoplasm; mint; seal,
punch, intaglio, negative; stamp.
V. be an example, be a role model, set an example; set a copy.
Phr. a precedent embalms a principle [Lat.Tran] [Disraeli]; exempla
sunt odiosa [Lat.].


23. Agreement -- N. agreement; accord, accordance; unison, harmony;
concord &c 714; concordance, concert; understanding, mutual
     conformity &c 82; conformance; uniformity &c 16; consonance,
consentaneousness^, consistency; congruity, congruence; keeping;
congeniality; correspondence, parallelism, apposition, union.
     fitness, aptness &c adj.; relevancy; pertinence, pertinencey^;
sortance^; case in point; aptitude, coaptation^, propriety,
applicability, admissibility, commensurability, compatibility;
cognation &c (relation) 9.
     adaption^, adjustment, graduation, accommodation; reconciliation,
reconcilement; assimilation.
     consent &c (assent) 488; concurrence &c 178; cooperation &c 709.
     right man in the right place, very thing; quite the thing, just
the thing.
V. be accordant &c adj.; agree, accord, harmonize; correspond, tally,
respond; meet, suit, fit, befit, do, adapt itself to; fall in with,
chime in with, square with, quadrate with, consort with, comport with;
dovetail, assimilate; fit like a glove, fit to a tittle, fit to a T;
match &c 17; become one; homologate^.
     consent &c (assent) 488.
     render accordant &c adj.; fit, suit, adapt, accommodate; graduate;
adjust &c (render equal) 27; dress, regulate, readjust; accord,
harmonize, reconcile; fadge^, dovetail, square.
Adj. agreeing, suiting &c v.; in accord, accordant, concordant,
consonant, congruous, consentaneous^, correspondent, congenial;
coherent; becoming; harmonious reconcilable, conformable; in accordance
with, in harmony with, in keeping with, in unison with, &c n.; at one
with, of one mind, of a piece [Fr.]; consistent, compatible,
proportionate; commensurate; on all fours.
     apt, apposite, pertinent, pat; to the point, to the purpose;
happy, felicitous, germane, ad rem [Lat.], in point, on point, directly
on point, bearing upon, applicable, relevant, admissible.
     fit adapted, in loco, a propos [Fr.], appropriate, seasonable,
sortable, suitable, idoneous^, deft; meet &c (expedient) 646.
     at home, in one's proper element.
Adv. a propos of [Fr.]; pertinently &c adj..
Phr. rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; if the shoe fits, wear it; the cap fits;
auxilia humilia firma consensus facit [Lat.] [Syrus]; discers concordia
[Lat.] [Ovid].

24. Disagreement -- N. disagreement; discord, discordance; dissonance,
dissidence, discrepancy; unconformity &c 83; incongruity, incongruence^;
discongruity^, mesalliance; jarring &c v.; dissension &c 713; conflict
&c (opposition) 708; bickering, clashing, misunderstanding, wrangle.
     disparity, mismatch, disproportion; dissimilitude, inequality;
disproportionateness &c adj.^; variance, divergence, repugnance.
     unfitness &c adj.; inaptitude, impropriety; inapplicability &c
adj.; inconsistency, inconcinnity^; irrelevancy &c (irrelation) 10.
     misjoining^, misjoinder^; syncretism^, intrusion, interference;
concordia discors [Lat.].
     fish out of water.
V. disagree; clash, jar &c (discord) 713; interfere, intrude, come
amiss; not concern &c 10; mismatch; humano capiti cervicem jungere
equinam [Lat.].
Adj. disagreeing &c v.; discordant, discrepant; at variance, at war;
hostile, antagonistic, repugnant, incompatible, irreconcilable,
inconsistent with; unconformable, exceptional &c 83; intrusive,
incongruous; disproportionate, disproportionated^; inharmonious,
unharmonious^; inconsonant, unconsonant^; divergent, repugnant to.
     inapt, unapt, inappropriate, improper; unsuited, unsuitable;
inapplicable, not to the point; unfit, unfitting, unbefitting;
unbecoming; illtimed, unseasonable, mal a propos [Fr.], inadmissible;
inapposite &c (irrelevant) 10.
     uncongenial; ill-assorted, ill-sorted; mismatched, misjoined^,
misplaced, misclassified; unaccommodating, irreducible,
incommensurable, uncommensurable^; unsympathetic.
     out of character, out of keeping, out of proportion, out of joint,
out of tune, out of place, out of season, out of its element; at odds
with, at variance with.
Adv. in defiance, in contempt, in spite of; discordantly &c adj.; a
tort et a travers^.
Phr. asinus ad lyram [Lat.].



25. [Absolute quantity.] Quantity -- N. quantity, magnitude; size &c
(dimensions) 192; amplitude, magnitude, mass, amount, sum, quantum,
measure, substance, strength, force.
     [Science of quantity.] mathematics, mathesis^.
     [Logic.] category, general conception, universal predicament.
     [Definite or finite quantity.] armful, handful, mouthful,
spoonful, capful; stock, batch, lot, dose; yaffle^.
V. quantify, measure, fix, estimate, determine, quantitate, enumerate.
Adj. quantitative, some, any, aught, more or less, a few.
Adv. to the tune of, all of, a full, the sum of, fully, exactly,

26. [Relative quantity.] Degree -- N. degree, grade, extent, measure,
amount, ratio, stint, standard, height, pitch; reach, amplitude, range,
scope, caliber; gradation, shade; tenor, compass; sphere, station,
rank, standing; rate, way, sort.
     point, mark, stage &c (term) 71; intensity, strength &c
(greatness) 31.
Adj. comparative; gradual, shading off; within the bounds &c (limit)
Adv. by degrees, gradually, inasmuch, pro tanto [It]; however,
howsoever; step by step, bit by bit, little by little, inch by inch,
drop by drop; a little at a time, by inches, by slow degrees, by
degrees, by little and little; in some degree, in some measure; to some
extent; di grado in grado [Lat.].


27. [Sameness of quantity or degree.] Equality -- N. equality, parity,
coextension^, symmetry, balance, poise; evenness, monotony, level.
     equivalence; equipollence^, equipoise, equilibrium,
equiponderance^; par, quits, a wash; not a pin to choose; distinction
without a difference, six of one and half a dozen of the other; tweedle
dee and tweedle dum [Lat.]; identity &c 13; similarity &c 17.
     equalization, equation; equilibration, co-ordination, adjustment,
     drawn game, drawn battle; neck and neck race; tie, draw, standoff,
dead heat.
     match, peer, compeer, equal, mate, fellow, brother; equivalent.
V. be equal &c adj.; equal, match, reach, keep pace with, run abreast;
come to, amount to, come up to; be on a level with, lie on a level
with; balance; cope with; come to the same thing.
     render equal &c adj.; equalize level, dress, balance, equate,
handicap, give points, spot points, handicap, trim, adjust, poise; fit,
accommodate; adapt &c (render accordant) 23; strike a balance;
establish equality, restore equality, restore equilibrium; readjust;
stretch on the bed of Procrustes.
Adj. equal, even, level, monotonous, coequal, symmetrical, coordinate;
on a par with, on a level with, on a footing with; up to the mark;
     equivalent, tantamount; indistinguishable; quits; homologous;
synonymous &c 522; resolvable into, convertible, much at one, as broad
as long, neither more nor less.; much the same as, the same thing as,
as good as; all one, all the same; equipollent, equiponderant^,
equiponderous^, equibalanced^; equalized &c v.; drawn; half and half;
isochronal, isochronous isoperimetric^, isoperimetrical^; isobath
[Ocean.], isobathic [Ocean.].
Adv. equally &c adj.; pari passu [Lat.], ad eundum [Lat.], caeteris
paribus [Lat.]; in equilibrio [Lat.]; to all intents and purposes.
Phr. it comes to the same thing, it amounts to the same thing; what is
sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

28. [Difference of quantity or degree.] Inequality -- N. inequality;
disparity, imparity; odds; difference &c 15; unevenness; inclination of
the balance, partiality, bias, weight; shortcoming; casting weight,
make-weight; superiority &c 33; inferiority &c 34; inequation^.
V. be unequal &c adj.; countervail; have the advantage, give the
advantage; turn the scale; kick the beam; topple, topple over;
overmatch &c 33; not come up to &c 34.
Adj. unequal, uneven, disparate, partial; unbalanced, overbalanced;
top-heavy, lopsided, biased, skewed; disquiparant^.
Adv. haud passibus aequis [Lat.] [Vergil].

29. Mean -- N. mean, average; median, mode; balance, medium,
mediocrity, generality; golden mean &c (mid-course) 628; middle &c 68;
compromise &c 774; middle course, middle state; neutrality.
     mediocrity, least common denominator.
V. split the difference; take the average &c n.; reduce to a mean &c
n.; strike a balance, pair off.
Adj. mean, intermediate; middle &c 68; average; neutral.
     mediocre, middle-class; commonplace &c (unimportant) 643.
Adv. on an average, in the long run; taking one with another, taking
all things together, taking it for all in all; communibus annis [Lat.],
in round numbers.
Phr. medium tenuere beati [Lat.].

30. Compensation -- N. compensation, equation; commutation;
indemnification; compromise; &c 774 neutralization, nullification;
counteraction &c 179; reaction; measure for measure, retaliation, &c
718 equalization; &c 27; robbing Peter to pay Paul.
     set-off, offset; make-weight, casting-weight; counterpoise,
ballast; indemnity, equivalent, quid pro quo; bribe, hush money; amends
&c (atonement) 952; counterbalance, counterclaim; cross-debt, cross-
V. make compensation; compensate, compense^; indemnify; counteract,
countervail, counterpoise; balance; outbalance^, overbalance,
counterbalance; set off; hedge, square, give and take; make up for, lee
way; cover, fill up, neutralize, nullify; equalize &c 27; make good;
redeem &c (atone) 952.
Adj. compensating, compensatory; countervailing &c v.; in the opposite
scale; equivalent &c (equal) 27.
Adv. in return, in consideration; but, however, yet, still,
notwithstanding; nevertheless, nathless^, none the less; although,
though; albeit, howbeit; mauger^; at all events, at any rate; be that as
it may, for all that, even so, on the other, hand, at the same time,
quoad minus [Lat.], quand meme [Fr.], however that may be; after all is
said and done; taking one thing with another &c (average) 29.
Phr. light is mingled with the gloom [Whittier]; every dark cloud has a
silver lining; primo avulso non deficit alter [Vergil]; saepe creat
molles aspera spina rosas [Lat.] [Ovid].

31. Greatness -- N. greatness &c adj.; magnitude; size &c (dimensions)
192; multitude &c (number) 102; immensity; enormity; infinity &c 105;
might, strength, intensity, fullness; importance &c 642.
     great quantity, quantity, deal, power, sight, pot, volume, world;
mass, heap &c (assemblage) 72; stock &c (store) 636; peck, bushel,
load, cargo; cartload^, wagonload, shipload; flood, spring tide;
abundance &c (sufficiency) 639.
     principal part, chief part, main part, greater part, major part,
best part, essential part; bulk, mass &c (whole) 50.
V. be great &c adj.; run high, soar, tower, transcend; rise to a great
height, carry to a great height; know no bounds; ascend, mount.
     enlarge &c (increase) 35, (expand) 194.
Adj. great; greater &c 33; large, considerable, fair, above par; big,
huge &c (large in size) 192; Herculean, cyclopean; ample; abundant; &c
(enough) 639 full, intense, strong, sound, passing, heavy, plenary,
deep, high; signal, at its height, in the zenith.
     world-wide, widespread, far-famed, extensive; wholesale; many &c
     goodly, noble, precious, mighty; sad, grave, heavy, serious; far
gone, arrant, downright; utter, uttermost; crass, gross, arch,
profound, intense, consummate; rank, uninitiated, red-hot, desperate;
glaring, flagrant, stark staring; thorough-paced, thoroughgoing;
roaring, thumping; extraordinary.; important &c 642; unsurpassed &c
(supreme) 33; complete &c 52.
     august, grand, dignified, sublime, majestic &c (repute) 873.
     vast, immense, enormous, extreme; inordinate, excessive,
extravagant, exorbitant, outrageous, preposterous, unconscionable,
swinging, monstrous, overgrown; towering, stupendous, prodigious,
astonishing, incredible; marvelous &c 870.
     unlimited &c (infinite) 105; unapproachable, unutterable,
indescribable, ineffable, unspeakable, inexpressible, beyond
expression, fabulous.
     undiminished, unabated, unreduced^, unrestricted.
     absolute, positive, stark, decided, unequivocal, essential,
perfect, finished.
     remarkable, of mark, marked, pointed, veriest; noteworthy;
Adv. truly &c (truth) 494 [in a positive degree]; decidedly,
unequivocally, purely, absolutely, seriously, essentially,
fundamentally, radically, downright, in all conscience; for the most
part, in the main.
     [in a complete degree] entirely &c (completely) 52; abundantly &c
(sufficiently) 639; widely, far and wide.
     [in a great or high degree] greatly &c adj.; much, muckle^, well,
indeed, very, very much, a deal, no end of, most, not a little; pretty,
pretty well; enough, in a great measure, richly; to a large extent, to
a great extent, to a gigantic extent; on a large scale; so; never so,
ever so; ever so dole; scrap, shred, tag, splinter, rag, much; by
wholesale; mighty, powerfully; with a witness, ultra [Lat.], in the
extreme, extremely, exceedingly, intensely, exquisitely, acutely,
indefinitely, immeasurably; beyond compare, beyond comparison, beyond
measure, beyond all bounds; incalculably, infinitely.
     [in a supreme degree] preeminently, superlatively &c (superiority)
     [in a too great degree] immoderately, monstrously, preposterously,
inordinately, exorbitantly, excessively, enormously, out of all
proportion, with a vengeance.
     [in a marked degree] particularly, remarkably, singularly,
curiously, uncommonly, unusually, peculiarly, notably, signally,
strikingly, pointedly, mainly, chiefly; famously, egregiously,
prominently, glaringly, emphatically, kat exochin [Gr.], strangely,
wonderfully, amazingly, surprisingly, astonishingly, incredibly,
marvelously, awfully, stupendously.
     [in an exceptional degree] peculiarly &c (unconformity) 83.
     [in a violent degree] furiously &c (violence) 173; severely,
desperately, tremendously, extravagantly, confoundedly, deucedly,
devilishly, with a vengeance; a outrance^, a toute outrance [Fr.].
     [in a painful degree] painfully, sadly, grossly, sorely, bitterly,
piteously, grievously, miserably, cruelly, woefully, lamentably,
shockingly, frightfully, dreadfully, fearfully, terribly, horribly.
Phr. a maximis ad minima [Lat.]; greatness knows itself [Henry IV];
mightiest powers by deepest calms are fed [B.
     Cornwall]; minimum decet libere cui multum licet [Lat.] [Seneca];
some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness
thrust upon them [Twelfth Night].

32. Smallness -- N. smallness &c adj.; littleness &c (small size) 193;
tenuity; paucity; fewness &c (small number) 103; meanness,
insignificance (unimportance) 643; mediocrity, moderation.
     small quantity, modicum, trace, hint, minimum; vanishing point;
material point, atom, particle, molecule, corpuscle, point, speck, dot,
mote, jot, iota, ace; minutiae, details; look, thought, idea, soupcon,
dab, dight^, whit, tittle, shade, shadow; spark, scintilla, gleam;
touch, cast; grain, scruple, granule, globule, minim, sup, sip, sop,
spice, drop, droplet, sprinkling, dash, morceau^, screed, smack, tinge,
tincture; inch, patch, scantling, tatter, cantlet^, flitter, gobbet^,
mite, bit, morsel, crumb, seed, fritter, shive^; snip, snippet; snick^,
snack, snatch, slip, scrag^; chip, chipping; shiver, sliver, driblet,
clipping, paring, shaving, hair.
     nutshell; thimbleful, spoonful, handful, capful, mouthful;
fragment; fraction &c (part) 51; drop in the ocean.
     animalcule &c 193.
     trifle &c (unimportant thing) 643; mere nothing, next to nothing;
hardly anything; just enough to swear by; the shadow of a shade.
     finiteness, finite quantity.
V. be small &c adj.; lie in a nutshell.
     diminish &c (decrease) 36; (contract) 195.
Adj. small, little; diminutive &c (small in size) 193; minute; fine;
inconsiderable, paltry &c (unimportant) 643; faint &c (weak) 160;
slender, light, slight, scanty, scant, limited; meager &c
(insufficient) 640; sparing; few &c 103; low, so-so, middling,
tolerable, no great shakes; below par, under par, below the mark; at a
low ebb; halfway; moderate, modest; tender, subtle.
     inappreciable, evanescent, infinitesimal, homeopathic, very small;
atomic, corpuscular, microscopic, molecular, subatomic.
     mere, simple, sheer, stark, bare; near run.
     dull, petty, shallow, stolid, ungifted, unintelligent.
Adv. to a small extent [in a small degree], on a small scale; a little
bit, a wee bit; slightly &c adj.; imperceptibly; miserably, wretchedly;
insufficiently &c 640; imperfectly; faintly &c 160; passably, pretty
well, well enough.
     [in a certain or limited degree] partially, in part; in a certain
degree, to a certain degree; to a certain extent; comparatively; some,
rather in some degree, in some measure; something, somewhat; simply,
only, purely, merely; at least, at the least, at most, at the most;
ever so little, as little as may be, tant soit peu [Fr.], in ever so
small a degree; thus far, pro tanto [It], within bounds, in a manner,
after a fashion, so to speak.
     almost, nearly, well-nigh, short of, not quite, all but; near
upon, close upon; peu s'en faut [Fr.], near the mark; within an ace of,
within an inch of; on the brink of; scarcely, hardly, barely, only
just, no more than.
     about [in an uncertain degree], thereabouts, somewhere about,
nearly, say; be the same, be little more or less.
     no ways [in no degree], no way, no wise; not at all, not in the
least, not a bit, not a bit of it, not a whit, not a jot, not a shadow;
in no wise, in no respect; by no means, by no manner of means; on no
account, at no hand.
Phr. dare pondus idonea fumo [Lat.] [Persius]; magno conatu magnas
nugas [Lat.] [Terence]; small sands the mountain, moments make the year

33. [Supremacy.] Superiority -- N. superiority, majority; greatness &c
31; advantage; pull; preponderance, preponderation; vantage ground,
prevalence, partiality; personal superiority; nobility &c (rank) 875;
Triton among the minnows, primus inter pares [Lat.], nulli secundus
[Lat.], captain; crackajack [U.S.].
     supremacy, preeminence; lead; maximum; record; trikumia [Gr.],
climax; culmination &c (summit) 210; transcendence; ne plus ultra
[Lat.]; lion's share, Benjamin's mess; excess, surplus &c (remainder)
40; (redundancy) 641.
V. be superior &c adj.; exceed, excel, transcend; outdo, outbalance^,
outweigh, outrank, outrival, out-Herod; pass, surpass, get ahead of;
over-top, override, overpass, overbalance, overweigh, overmatch; top,
o'ertop, cap, beat, cut out; beat hollow; outstrip &c 303; eclipse,
throw into the shade, take the shine out of, outshine, put one's nose
out of joint; have the upper hand, have the whip hand of, have the
advantage; turn the scale, kick the beam; play first fiddle &c
(importance) 642; preponderate, predominate, prevail; precede, take
precedence, come first; come to a head, culminate; beat all others, &c
bear the palm; break the record; take the cake [U.S.].
     become larger, render larger &c (increase) 35, (expand) 194.
Adj. superior, greater, major, higher; exceeding &c v.; great &c 31;
distinguished, ultra [Lat.]; vaulting; more than a match for.
     supreme, greatest, utmost, paramount, preeminent, foremost,
crowning; first-rate &c (important) 642, (excellent) 648; unrivaled
peerless, matchless; none such, second to none, sans pareil [Fr.];
unparagoned^, unparalleled, unequalled, unapproached^, unsurpassed;
superlative, inimitable facile princeps [Lat.], incomparable,
sovereign, without parallel, nulli secundus [Lat.], ne plus ultra
[Lat.]; beyond compare, beyond comparison; culminating &c (topmost)
210; transcendent, transcendental; plus royaliste que le Roi [Fr.],
more catholic than the Pope increased &c (added to) 35; enlarged &c
(expanded) 194.
Adv. beyond, more, over; over the mark, above the mark; above par;
upwards of, in advance of; over and above; at the top of the scale, at
its height.
     [in a superior or supreme degree] eminently, egregiously,
preeminently, surpassing, prominently, superlatively, supremely, above
all, of all things, the most, to crown all, kat exochin [Gr.], par
excellence, principally, especially, particularly, peculiarly, a
fortiori, even, yea, still more.
Phr. I shall not look upon his like again [Hamlet]; deos fortioribus
addesse [Lat.] [Tacitus].

34. Inferiority -- N. inferiority, minority, subordinacy; shortcoming,
deficiency; minimum; smallness &c 32; imperfection; lower quality,
lower worth.
     [personal inferiority] commonalty &c 876.
V. be inferior &c adj.; fall short of, come short of; not pass, not
come up to; want.
     become smaller, render smaller &c (decrease) 36, (contract) 195;
hide its diminished head, retire into the shade, yield the palm, play
second fiddle, be upstaged, take a back seat.
Adj. inferior, smaller; small &c 32; minor, less, lesser, deficient,
minus, lower, subordinate, secondary; secondrate &c (imperfect) 651;
sub, subaltern; thrown into the shade; weighed in the balance and found
wanting; not fit to hold a candle to, can't hold a candle to.
     least, smallest &c (little) (small) &c 193; lowest.
     diminished &c (decreased) 36; reduced &c (contracted) 195;
unimportant &c 643.
Adv. less; under the mark, below the mark, below par; at the bottom of
the scale, at a low ebb, at a disadvantage; short of, under.

35. Increase -- N. increase, augmentation, enlargement, extension;
dilatation &c (expansion) 194; increment, accretion; accession &c 37;
development, growth; aggrandizement, aggravation; rise; ascent &c 305;
exaggeration exacerbation; spread &c (dispersion) 73; flood tide; gain,
produce, product, profit.
V. increase, augment, add to, enlarge; dilate &c (expand) 194; grow,
wax, get ahead.
     gain strength; advance; run up, shoot up; rise; ascend &c 305;
sprout &c 194.
     aggrandize; raise, exalt; deepen, heighten; strengthen; intensify,
enhance, magnify, redouble; aggravate, exaggerate; exasperate,
exacerbate; add fuel to the flame, oleum addere camino [Lat.], superadd
&c (add) 37; spread &c (disperse) 73.
Adj. increased &c v.; on the increase, undiminished; additional &c
(added) 37.
Adv. crescendo.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Lat.] [Vergil].

36. Nonincrease, Decrease -- N. decrease, diminution; lessening &c v.;
subtraction &c 38; reduction, abatement, declension; shrinking &c
(contraction.) 195; coarctation^; abridgment &c (shortening) 201;
     subsidence, wane, ebb, decline; ebbing; descent &c 306; decrement,
reflux, depreciation; deterioration &c 659; anticlimax; mitigation &c
(moderation) 174.
V. decrease, diminish, lessen; abridge &c (shorten) 201; shrink &c
(contract) 195; drop off, fall off, tail off; fall away, waste, wear;
wane, ebb, decline; descend &c 306; subside; melt away, die away;
retire into the shade, hide its diminished head, fall to a low ebb, run
low, languish, decay, crumble.
     bate, abate, dequantitate^; discount; depreciate; extenuate, lower,
weaken, attenuate, fritter away; mitigate &c (moderate) 174; dwarf,
throw into the shade; reduce &c 195; shorten &c 201; subtract &c 38.
Adj. unincreased^ &c 35; decreased &c v.; decreasing &c v.; on the wane
&c n..
Phr. a gilded halo hovering round decay [Byron]; fine by degrees and
beautifully less [Prior].


37. Addition -- N. addition, annexation, adjection^; junction &c 43;
superposition, superaddition, superjunction^, superfetation; accession,
reinforcement; increase &c 35; increment, supplement; accompaniment &c
88; interposition &c 228; insertion &c 300.
V. add, annex, affix, superadd^, subjoin, superpose; clap on, saddle on;
tack to, append, tag; ingraft^; saddle with; sprinkle; introduce &c
(interpose) 228; insert &c 300.
     become added, accrue; advene^, supervene.
     reinforce, reenforce, restrengthen^; swell the ranks of; augment &c
Adj. added &c v.; additional; supplemental, supplementary; suppletory^,
subjunctive; adjectitious^, adscititious^, ascititious^; additive, extra,
Adv. au reste [Fr.], in addition, more, plus, extra; and, also,
likewise, too, furthermore, further, item; and also, and eke; else,
besides, to boot, et cetera; &c; and so on, and so forth; into the
bargain, cum multis aliis [Lat.], over and above, moreover.
     with, withal; including, inclusive, as well as, not to mention,
let alone; together with, along with, coupled with, in conjunction
with; conjointly; jointly &c 43.
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit [Lat.].

38. Nonaddition. Subtraction -- N. subtraction, subduction^; deduction,
retrenchment; removal, withdrawal; ablation, sublation^; abstraction &c
(taking) 789; garbling, &c v.. mutilation, detruncation^; amputation;
abscission, excision, recision; curtailment &c 201; minuend,
subtrahend; decrease &c 36; abrasion.
V. subduct, subtract; deduct, deduce; bate, retrench; remove, withdraw,
take from, take away; detract.
     garble, mutilate, amputate, detruncate^; cut off, cut away, cut
out; abscind^, excise; pare, thin, prune, decimate; abrade, scrape,
file; geld, castrate; eliminate.
     diminish &c 36; curtail &c (shorten) 201; deprive of &c (take)
789; weaken.
Adj. subtracted &c v.; subtractive.
Adv. in deduction &c n.; less; short of; minus, without, except, except
for, excepting, with the exception of, barring, save, exclusive of,
save and except, with a reservation; not counting, if one doesn't

39. [Thing added] Adjunct -- N. adjunct; addition, additament^; additum
[Lat.], affix, appelidage^, annexe^, annex; augment, augmentation;
increment, reinforcement, supernumerary, accessory, item; garnish,
sauce; accompaniment &c 88; adjective, addendum; complement,
supplement; continuation.
     rider, offshoot, episode, side issue, corollary; piece [Fr.];
flap, lappet, skirt, embroidery, trappings, cortege; tail, suffix &c
(sequel) 65; wing.
Adj. additional &c 37.
     alate^, alated^; winged.
Adv. in addition &c 37.

40. [Thing remaining.] Remainder -- N. remainder, residue; remains,
remanent, remnant, rest, relic; leavings, heeltap^, odds and ends,
cheesepairings^, candle ends, orts^; residuum; dregs &c (dirt) 653;
refuse &c (useless) 645; stubble, result, educt^; fag-end; ruins, wreck,
skeleton., stump; alluvium.
     surplus, overplus^, excess; balance, complement; superplus^,
surplusage^; superfluity &c (redundancy) 641; survival, survivance^.
V. remain; be left &c adj.; exceed, survive; leave.
Adj. remaining, left; left behind left over; residual, residuary; over,
odd; unconsumed, sedimentary; surviving; net; exceeding, over and
above; outlying, outstanding; cast off &c 782; superfluous &c
(redundant) 641.

40a. [Thing deducted.] Decrement -- N. decrement, discount, defect,
loss, deduction; afterglow; eduction^; waste.

41. [Forming a whole without coherence.] Mixture -- N. mixture,
admixture, commixture, commixtion^; commixion^, intermixture, alloyage^,
matrimony; junction &c 43; combination &c 48; miscegenation.
     impregnation; infusion, diffusion suffusion, transfusion;
infiltration; seasoning, sprinkling, interlarding; interpolation; &c
228 adulteration, sophistication.
     [Thing mixed] tinge, tincture, touch, dash, smack, sprinkling,
spice, seasoning, infusion, soupcon.
     [Compound resulting from mixture] alloy, amalgam; brass, chowchow^,
pewter; magma, half-and-half, melange, tertium quid [Lat.], miscellany,
ambigu^, medley, mess, hotchpot^, pasticcio^, patchwork, odds and ends,
all sorts; jumble &c (disorder) 59; salad, sauce, mash, omnium gatherum
[Lat.], gallimaufry, olla-podrida^, olio, salmagundi, potpourri, Noah's
ark, caldron texture, mingled yarn; mosaic &c (variegation) 440.
     half-blood, half-caste.
     mulatto; terceron^, quarteron^, quinteron^ &c; quadroon, octoroon;
griffo^, zambo^; cafuzo^; Eurasian; fustee^, fustie^; griffe, ladino^,
marabou, mestee^, mestizo, quintroon, sacatra zebrule [Lat.]; catalo^;
cross, hybrid, mongrel.
V. mix; join &c 43; combine &c 48; commix, immix^, intermix; mix up
with, mingle; commingle, intermingle, bemingle^; shuffle &c (derange)
61; pound together; hash up, stir up; knead, brew; impregnate with;
interlard &c (interpolate) 228; intertwine, interweave &c 219;
associate with; miscegenate^.
     be mixed &c; get among, be entangled with.
     instill, imbue; infuse, suffuse, transfuse; infiltrate, dash,
tinge, tincture, season, sprinkle, besprinkle, attemper^, medicate,
blend, cross; alloy, amalgamate, compound, adulterate, sophisticate,
Adj. mixed &c v.; implex^, composite, half-and-half, linsey-woolsey,
chowchow, hybrid, mongrel, heterogeneous; motley &c (variegated) 440;
miscellaneous, promiscuous, indiscriminate; miscible.
Adv. among, amongst, amid, amidst; with; in the midst of, in the crowd.

42. [Freedom from mixture.] Simpleness -- N. simpleness &c adj.;
purity, homogeneity.
     elimination; sifting &c v.; purification &c (cleanness) 652.
V. render simple &c adj.; simplify.
     sift, winnow, bolt, eliminate; exclude, get rid of; clear; purify
&c (clean) 652; disentangle &c (disjoin) 44.
Adj. simple, uniform, of a piece [Fr.], homogeneous, single, pure,
sheer, neat.
     unmixed, unmingled^, unblended, uncombined, uncompounded;
elementary, undecomposed; unadulterated, unsophisticated, unalloyed,
untinged^, unfortified, pur et simple [Fr.]; incomplex^.
     free from, exempt from; exclusive.
Adv. simple &c adj.. only.

43. Junction -- N. junction; joining &c v.; joinder [Law], union
connection, conjunction, conjugation; annexion^, annexation, annexment^;
astriction^, attachment, compagination^, vincture^, ligation,
alligation^; accouplement^; marriage &c (wedlock,) 903; infibulation^,
inosculation^, symphysis [Anat.], anastomosis, confluence,
communication, concatenation; meeting, reunion; assemblage &c 72.
     coition, copulation; sex, sexual congress, sexual conjunction,
sexual intercourse, love-making.
     joint, joining, juncture, pivot, hinge, articulation, commissure^,
seam, gore, gusset, suture, stitch; link &c 45; miter mortise.
     closeness, tightness, &c adj.; coherence &c 46; combination &c 48.
V. join, unite; conjoin, connect; associate; put together, lay
together, clap together, hang together, lump together, hold together,
piece together [Fr.], tack together, fix together, bind up together
together; embody, reembody^; roll into one.
     attach, fix, affix, saddle on, fasten, bind, secure, clinch,
twist, make fast &c adj.; tie, pinion, string, strap, sew, lace, tat,
stitch, tack, knit, button, buckle, hitch, lash, truss, bandage, braid,
splice, swathe, gird, tether, moor, picket, harness, chain; fetter &c
(restrain) 751; lock, latch, belay, brace, hook, grapple, leash,
couple, accouple^, link, yoke, bracket; marry &c (wed) 903; bridge over,
     braze; pin, nail, bolt, hasp, clasp, clamp, crimp, screw, rivet;
impact, solder, set; weld together, fuse together; wedge, rabbet,
mortise, miter, jam, dovetail, enchase^; graft, ingraft^, inosculate^;
entwine, intwine^; interlink, interlace, intertwine, intertwist^,
interweave; entangle; twine round, belay; tighten; trice up, screw up.
     be joined &c; hang together, hold together; cohere &c 46.
Adj. joined &c v.; joint; conjoint, conjunct; corporate, compact; hand
in hand.
     firm, fast, close, tight, taut, taught, secure, set, intervolved^;
inseparable, indissoluble, insecable^, severable.
Adv. jointly &c adj.; in conjunction with &c (in addition to) 37; fast,
firmly, &c adj.; intimately.
Phr. tria juncta in uno [Lat.].

44. Disjunction -- N. disjunction, disconnection, disunity, disunion,
disassociation, disengagement; discontinuity &c 70; abjunction^;
cataclasm^; inconnection^; abstraction, abstractedness; isolation;
insularity, insulation; oasis; island; separateness &c adj.; severalty;
disjecta membra [Lat.]; dispersion &c 73; apportionment &c 786.
     separation; parting &c v.; circumcision; detachment, segregation;
divorce, sejunction^, seposition^, diduction^, diremption^, discerption^;
elision; caesura, break, fracture, division, subdivision, rupture;
compartition^; dismemberment, dislocation; luxation^; severance,
disseverance; scission; rescission, abscission; laceration,
dilaceration^; disruption, abruption^; avulsion^, divulsion^; section,
resection, cleavage; fission; partibility^, separability.
     fissure, breach, rent, split, rift, crack, slit, incision.
     dissection anatomy; decomposition &c 49; cutting instrument &c
(sharpness) 253; buzzsaw, circular saw, rip saw.
V. be disjoined &c; come off, fall off, come to pieces, fall to pieces;
peel off; get loose.
     disjoin, disconnect, disengage, disunite, dissociate, dispair^;
divorce, part, dispart^, detach, separate, cut off, rescind, segregate;
set apart, keep apart; insulate, isolate; throw out of gear; cut
adrift; loose; unloose, undo, unbind, unchain, unlock &c (fix) 43,
unpack, unravel; disentangle; set free &c (liberate) 750.
     sunder, divide, subdivide, sever, dissever, abscind^; circumcise;
cut; incide^, incise; saw, snip, nib, nip, cleave, rive, rend, slit,
split, splinter, chip, crack, snap, break, tear, burst; rend &c, rend
asunder, rend in twain; wrench, rupture, shatter, shiver, cranch^,
crunch, craunch^, chop; cut up, rip up; hack, hew, slash; whittle;
haggle, hackle, discind^, lacerate, scamble^, mangle, gash, hash, slice.
     cut up, carve, dissect, anatomize; dislimb^; take to pieces, pull
to pieces, pick to pieces, tear to pieces; tear to tatters, tear
piecemeal, tear limb from limb; divellicate^; skin &c 226; disintegrate,
dismember, disbranch^, disband; disperse &c 73; dislocate, disjoint;
break up; mince; comminute &c (pulverize) 330; apportion &c 786.
     part, part company; separate, leave.
Adj. disjoined &c v.; discontinuous &c 70; multipartite^, abstract;
disjunctive; secant; isolated &c v.; insular, separate, disparate,
discrete, apart, asunder, far between, loose, free; unattached,
unannexed, unassociated, unconnected; distinct; adrift; straggling;
rift, reft^.
     [capable of being cut] scissile [Chem], divisible, discerptible^,
partible, separable.
Adv. separately &c adj.; one by one, severally, apart; adrift, asunder,
in twain; in the abstract, abstractedly.

45. [Connecting medium.] Connection -- N. vinculum, link; connective,
connection; junction &c 43; bond of union, copula, hyphen, intermedium^;
bracket; bridge, stepping-stone, isthmus.
     bond, tendon, tendril; fiber; cord, cordage; riband, ribbon, rope,
guy, cable, line, halser^, hawser, painter, moorings, wire, chain;
string &c (filament) 205.
     fastener, fastening, tie; ligament, ligature; strap; tackle,
rigging; standing rigging, running rigging; traces, harness; yoke; band
ribband, bandage; brace, roller, fillet; inkle^; with, withe, withy;
thong, braid; girder, tiebeam; girth, girdle, cestus^, garter, halter,
noose, lasso, surcingle, knot, running knot; cabestro [U.S.], cinch
[U.S.], lariat, legadero^, oxreim^; suspenders.
     pin, corking pin, nail, brad, tack, skewer, staple, corrugated
fastener; clamp, U-clamp, C-clamp; cramp, cramp iron; ratchet, detent,
larigo^, pawl; terret^, treenail, screw, button, buckle; clasp, hasp,
hinge, hank, catch, latch, bolt, latchet^, tag; tooth; hook, hook and
eye; lock, holdfast^, padlock, rivet; anchor, grappling iron, trennel^,
stake, post.
     cement, glue, gum, paste, size, wafer, solder, lute, putty,
birdlime, mortar, stucco, plaster, grout; viscum^.
     shackle, rein &c (means of restraint) 752; prop &c (support) 215.
V. bridge over, span; connect &c 43; hang &c 214.

46. Coherence -- N. coherence, adherence, adhesion, adhesiveness;
concretion accretion; conglutination, agglutination, agglomeration;
aggregation; consolidation, set, cementation; sticking, soldering &c
v.; connection; dependence.
     tenacity, toughness; stickiness &c 352; inseparability,
inseparableness; bur, remora.
     conglomerate, concrete &c (density) 321.
V. cohere, adhere, stick, cling, cleave, hold, take hold of, hold fast,
close with, clasp, hug; grow together, hang together; twine round &c
(join) 43.
     stick like a leech, stick like wax; stick close; cling like ivy,
cling like a bur; adhere like a remora, adhere like Dejanira's shirt.
     glue; agglutinate, conglutinate^; cement, lute, paste, gum; solder,
weld; cake, consolidate &c (solidify) 321; agglomerate.
Adj. cohesive, adhesive, adhering, cohering &c v.; tenacious, tough;
sticky &c 352.
     united, unseparated, unsessile^, inseparable, inextricable,
infrangible^; compact &c (dense) 321.

47. [Want of adhesion, nonadhesion, immiscibility.] Incoherence -- N.
nonadhesion^; immiscibility; incoherence; looseness &c adj.; laxity;
relaxation; loosening &c v.; freedom; disjunction &c 44; rope of sand.
V. make loose &c adj.; loosen, slacken, relax; unglue &c 46; detach &c
(disjoin) 44.
Adj. nonadhesive, immiscible; incoherent, detached, loose, baggy,
slack, lax, relaxed, flapping, streaming; disheveled; segregated, like
grains of sand unconsolidated &c 231, uncombined &c 48; noncohesive^.

48. Combination -- N. combination; mixture &c 41; junction &c 43;
union, unification, synthesis, incorporation, amalgamation, embodiment,
coalescence, crasis^, fusion, blending, absorption, centralization.
     alloy, compound, amalgam, composition, tertium quid [Lat.];
resultant, impregnation.
V. combine, unite, incorporate, amalgamate, embody, absorb, reembody^,
blend, merge, fuse, melt into one, consolidate, coalesce, centralize,
impregnate; put together, lump together; cement a union, marry.
Adj. combined &c v.; impregnated with, ingrained; imbued inoculated.

49. Decomposition -- N. decomposition, analysis, dissection,
resolution, catalysis, dissolution; corruption &c (uncleanness) 653;
dispersion &c 73; disjunction &c 44; disintegration.
V. decompose, decompound; analyze, disembody, dissolve; resolve into
its elements, separate into its elements; electrolyze [Chem]; dissect,
decentralize, break up; disperse &c 73; unravel &c (unroll) 313;
crumble into dust.
Adj. decomposed &c v.; catalytic, analytical; resolvent, separative,


50. [Principal part.] Whole -- N. whole, totality, integrity; totalness
&c adj.^; entirety, ensemble, collectiveness^; unity &c 87; completeness
&c 52; indivisibility, indiscerptibility^; integration, embodiment;
     all, the whole, total, aggregate, one and all, gross amount, sum,
sum total, tout ensemble, length and breadth of, Alpha and Omega, be
all and end all; complex, complexus^; lock stock and barrel.
     bulk, mass, lump, tissue, staple, body, compages^; trunk, torso,
bole, hull, hulk, skeleton greater part, major part, best part,
principal part, main part; essential part &c (importance) 642; lion's
share, Benjamin's mess; the long and the short; nearly, all, almost
V. form a whole, constitute a whole; integrate, embody, amass;
aggregate &c (assemble) 72; amount to, come to.
Adj. whole, total, integral, entire; complete &c 52; one, individual.
     unbroken, intact, uncut, undivided, unsevered^, unclipped^,
uncropped, unshorn; seamless; undiminished; undemolished, undissolved,
undestroyed, unbruised.
     indivisible, indissoluble, indissolvable^, indiscerptible^.
     wholesale, sweeping; comprehensive.
Adv. wholly, altogether; totally &c (completely) 52; entirely, all, all
in all, as a whole, wholesale, in a body, collectively, all put
together; in the aggregate, in the lump, in the mass, in the gross, in
the main, in the long run; en masse, as a body, on the whole, bodily^,
en bloc, in extenso [Lat.], throughout, every inch; substantially.
Phr. tout bien ou rien [Fr.].

51. Part -- N. part, portion; dose; item, particular; aught, any;
division, ward; subdivision, section; chapter, clause, count,
paragraph, verse; article, passage; sector, segment; fraction,
fragment; cantle, frustum; detachment, parcel.
     piece [Fr.], lump, bit cut, cutting; chip, chunk, collop^, slice,
scale; lamina &c 204; small part; morsel, particle &c (smallness) 32;
installment, dividend; share &c (allotment) 786.
     debris, odds and ends, oddments, detritus; excerpta^; member, limb,
lobe, lobule, arm, wing, scion, branch, bough, joint, link, offshoot,
ramification, twig, bush, spray, sprig; runner; leaf, leaflet; stump;
component part &c 56; sarmentum^.
     compartment; department &c (class) 75; county &c (region) 181.
V. part, divide, break &c (disjoin) 44; partition &c (apportion) 786.
Adj. fractional, fragmentary; sectional, aliquot; divided &c v.; in
compartments, multifid^; disconnected; partial.
Adv. partly, in part, partially; piecemeal, part by part; by by
installments, by snatches, by inches, by driblets; bit by bit, inch by
inch, foot by foot, drop by drop; in detail, in lots.

52. Completeness -- N. completeness &c adj.; completion &c 729;
integration; allness^.
     entirety; perfection &c 650; solidity, solidarity; unity; all; ne
plus ultra [Lat.], ideal, limit.
     complement, supplement, make-weight; filling, up &c v.. impletion^;
saturation, saturity^; high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide;
fill, load, bumper, bellyful^; brimmer^; sufficiency &c 639.
V. be complete &c adj.; come to a head.
     render complete &c adj.; complete &c (accomplish) 729; fill,
charge, load, replenish; make up, make good; piece out [Fr.], eke out;
supply deficiencies; fill up, fill in, fill to the brim, fill the
measure of; saturate.
     go the whole hog, go the whole length; go all lengths.
Adj. complete, entire; whole &c 50; perfect &c 650; full, good,
absolute, thorough, plenary; solid, undivided; with all its parts; all-
     exhaustive, radical, sweeping, thorough-going; dead.
     regular, consummate, unmitigated, sheer, unqualified,
unconditional, free; abundant &c (sufficient) 639.
     brimming; brimful, topful, topfull; chock full, choke full; as
full as an egg is of meat, as full as a vetch; saturated, crammed;
replete &c (redundant) 641; fraught, laden; full-laden, full-fraught,
full-charged; heavy laden.
     completing &c v.; supplemental, supplementary; ascititious^.
Adv. completely &c adj.; altogether, outright, wholly, totally, in
toto, quite; all out; over head and ears; effectually, for good and
all, nicely, fully, through thick and thin, head and shoulders; neck
and heel, neck and crop; in all respects, in every respect; at all
points, out and out, to all intents and purposes; toto coelo [Lat.];
utterly; clean, clean as a whistle; to the full, to the utmost, to the
backbone; hollow, stark; heart and soul, root and branch, down to the
     to the top of one's bent, as far as possible, a outrance^.
     throughout; from first to last, from beginning to end, from end to
end, from one end to the other, from Dan to Beersheba, from head to
foot, from top to toe, from top to bottom, de fond en comble [Fr.]; a
fond, a capite ad calcem [Lat.], ab ovo usque ad mala [Lat.], fore and
aft; every, whit, every inch; cap-a-pie, to the end of the chapter; up
to the brim, up to the ears, up to the eyes; as a as can be.
     on all accounts; sous tous les rapports [Fr.]; with a vengeance,
with a witness.
Phr. falsus in uno falsus in omnibus [Lat.], false in one thing, false
in everything; omnem movere lapidem [Lat.]; una scopa nuova spazza bene

53. Incompleteness -- N. incompleteness &c adj.; deficiency, short
measure; shortcoming &c 304; insufficiency &c 640; imperfection &c 651;
immaturity &c (nonpreparation) 674; half measures.
     [part wanting] defect, deficit, defalcation, omission; caret;
shortage; interval &c 198; break &c (discontinuity) 70; noncompletion
&c 730; missing link.
     missing piece, missing part, gap, hole, lacuna.
V. be incomplete &c adj.; fall short of &c 304; lack &c (be
insufficient) 640; neglect &c 460.
Adj. incomplete; imperfect &c 651; unfinished; uncompleted &c
(complete) &c 729; defective, deficient, wanting, lacking, failing; in
default, in arrear^; short of; hollow, meager, lame, halfand-half,
perfunctory, sketchy; crude &c (unprepared) 674.
     mutilated, garbled, docked, lopped, truncated.
     in progress, in hand; going on, proceeding.
Adv. incompletely &c adj.; by halves.
Phr. caetera desunt [Lat.]; caret.

54. Composition -- N. composition, constitution, crasis^; combination &c
48; inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception; embodiment;
V. be composed of, be made of, be formed of, be made up of; consist of,
be resolved into.
     include &c (in a class) 76; contain, hold, comprehend, take in,
admit, embrace, embody; involve, implicate; drag into.
     compose, constitute, form, make; make up, fill up, build up; enter
into the composition of &c (be a component) 56.
Adj. containing, constituting &c v..

55. Exclusion -- N. exclusion, nonadmission, omission, exception,
rejection, repudiation; exile &c (seclusion) 893; noninclusion^,
preclusion, prohibition.
     separation, segregation, seposition^, elimination, expulsion;
V. be excluded from &c; exclude, bar; leave out, shut out, bar out;
reject, repudiate, blackball; lay apart, put apart, set apart, lay
aside, put aside; relegate, segregate; throw overboard; strike off,
strike out; neglect &c 460; banish &c (seclude) 893; separate &c
(disjoin) 44.
     pass over, omit; garble; eliminate, weed, winnow.
Adj. excluding &c v.; exclusive.
     excluded &c v.; unrecounted^, not included in; inadmissible.
Adv. exclusive of, barring; except; with the exception of; save;

56. Component -- N. component; component part, integral part, integrant
part^; element, constituent, ingredient, leaven; part and parcel;
contents; appurtenance; feature; member &c (part) 51; personnel.
V. enter into, enter into the composition of; be a component &c n. be
part of, form part of &c 51; merge in, be merged in; be implicated in;
share in &c (participate) 778; belong to, appertain to; combine, inhere
in, unite.
     form, make, constitute, compose.
Adj. forming &c v.. inclusive.

57. Extraneousness -- N. extraneousness &c adj.; extrinsicality &c 6;
exteriority &c 220; alienage^, alienism.
     foreign body, foreign substance, foreign element; alien, stranger,
intruder, interloper, foreigner, novus homo [Lat.], newcomer,
immigrant, emigrant; creole, Africander^; outsider; Dago [Slang], wop,
mick, polak, greaser, slant, Easterner [U.S.], Dutchman, tenderfoot.
Adj. extraneous, foreign, alien, ulterior; tramontane, ultramontane.
     excluded &c 55; inadmissible; exceptional.
Adv. in foreign parts, in foreign lands; abroad, beyond seas; over sea
on one's travels.



58. Order -- N. order, regularity, uniformity, symmetry, lucidus ordo
[Lat.]; music of the spheres.
     gradation, progression; series &c (continuity) 69.
     subordination; course, even tenor, routine; method, disposition,
arrangement, array, system, economy, discipline orderliness &c adj..
rank, place &c (term) 71.
V. be in order, become in order &c adj.; form, fall in, draw up;
arrange itself, range itself, place itself; fall into one's place, take
one's place, take one's rank; rally round.
     adjust, methodize, regulate, systematize.
Adj. orderly, regular; in order, in trim, in apple-pie order, in its
proper place; neat, tidy, en regle [Fr.], well regulated, correct,
methodical, uniform, symmetrical, shipshape, businesslike, systematic;
unconfused &c (confuse) &c 61; arranged &c 60.
Adv. in order; methodically &c adj.; in turn, in its turn; by steps,
step by step; by regular steps, by regular gradations, by regular
stages, by regular intervals; seriatim, systematically, by clockwork,
gradatim [Lat.]; at stated periods &c (periodically) 138.
Phr. natura non facit saltum [Lat.]; order is heaven's first law
[Pope]; order from disorder sprung [Paradise Lost]; ordo est parium
dispariumque rerum sua loca tribuens dispositio [Lat.] [St.

59. [Absence, or want of Order, &c] Disorder -- N. disorder;
derangement &c 61; irregularity; anomaly &c (unconformity) 83; anarchy,
anarchism; want of method; untidiness &c adj.; disunion; discord &c 24.
     confusion; confusedness &c adj.; mishmash, mix; disarray, jumble,
huddle, litter, lumber; cahotage^; farrago; mess, mash, muddle, muss
[U.S.], hash, hodgepodge; hotch-potch^, hotch-pot^; imbroglio, chaos,
omnium gatherum [Lat.], medley; mere mixture &c 41; fortuitous
concourse of atoms, disjecta membra [Lat.], rudis indigestaque moles
[Lat.] [Ovid].
     complexity &c 59.1.
     turmoil; ferment &c (agitation) 315; to-do, trouble, pudder^,
pother, row, rumble, disturbance, hubbub, convulsion, tumult, uproar,
revolution, riot, rumpus, stour^, scramble, brawl, fracas, rhubarb,
fight, free-for-all, row, ruction, rumpus, embroilment, melee, spill
and pelt, rough and tumble; whirlwind &c 349; bear garden, Babel,
Saturnalia, donnybrook, Donnybrook Fair, confusion worse confounded,
most admired disorder, concordia discors [Lat.]; Bedlam, all hell broke
loose; bull in a china shop; all the fat in the fire, diable a' quatre
[Fr.], Devil to pay; pretty kettle of fish; pretty piece of work [Fr.],
pretty piece of business [Fr.].
     [legal terms] disorderly person; disorderly persons offence;
     [moral disorder] slattern, slut (libertine) 962.
V. be disorderly &c adj.; ferment, play at cross-purposes.
     put out of order; derange &c 61; ravel &c 219; ruffle, rumple.
Adj. disorderly, orderless; out of order, out of place, out of gear;
irregular, desultory; anomalous &c (unconformable) 83; acephalous^,
deranged; aimless; disorganized; straggling; unmethodical,
immethodical^; unsymmetric^, unsystematic; untidy, slovenly; dislocated;
out of sorts; promiscuous, indiscriminate; chaotic, anarchical;
unarranged &c (arrange) &c 60; confused; deranged &c 61; topsy-turvy &c
(inverted) 218; shapeless &c 241; disjointed, out of joint.
     troublous^; riotous &c (violent) 173.
     complex &c 59.1.
Adv. irregularly &c adj.; by fits, by fits and snatches, by fits and
starts; pellmell; higgledy-piggledy; helter-skelter, harum-scarum; in a
ferment; at sixes and sevens, at cross-purposes; upside down &c 218.
Phr. the cart before the horse; hysteron proteron [Gr.]; chaos is come
again; the wreck of matter and the crush of worlds [Addison].

59a. Complexity -- N. complexity; complexness &c adj.; complexus^;
complication, implication; intricacy, intrication^; perplexity; network,
labyrinth; wilderness, jungle; involution, raveling, entanglement; coil
&c (convolution) 248; sleave^, tangled skein, knot, Gordian knot, wheels
within wheels; kink, gnarl, knarl^; webwork^.
     [complexity if a task or action] difficulty &c 704.
V. complexify^, complicate.
Adj. gnarled, knarled^.
     complex, complexed; intricate, complicated, perplexed, involved,
raveled, entangled, knotted, tangled, inextricable; irreducible.

60. [Reduction to Order.] Arrangement -- N. arrangement; plan &c 626;
preparation &c 673; disposal, disposition; collocation, allocation;
distribution; sorting &c v.; assortment, allotment, apportionment,
taxis, taxonomy, syntaxis^, graduation, organization; grouping;
     analysis, classification, clustering, division, digestion.
     [Result of arrangement] digest; synopsis &c (compendium) 596;
syntagma [Gramm.], table, atlas; file, database; register.
     &c (record) 551; organism, architecture.
     [Instrument for sorting] sieve, riddle, screen, sorter.
V. reduce to order, bring into order; introduce order into; rally.
     arrange, dispose, place, form; put in order, set in order, place
in order; set out, collocate, pack, marshal, range, size, rank, group,
parcel out, allot, distribute, deal; cast the parts, assign the parts;
dispose of, assign places to; assort, sort; sift, riddle; put to
rights, set to rights, put into shape, put in trim, put in array;
     class, classify; divide; file, string together, thread; register
&c (record) 551; catalogue, tabulate, index, graduate, digest, grade.
     methodize, regulate, systematize, coordinate, organize, settle,
     unravel, disentangle, ravel, card; disembroil^; feaze^.
Adj. arranged &c v.; embattled, in battle array; cut and dried;
methodical, orderly, regular, systematic.
Phr. In vast cumbrous array [Churchill].

61. [Subversion of Order; bringing into disorder.] Derangement -- N.
derangement &c v.; disorder &c 59; evection^, discomposure, disturbance;
disorganization, deorganization^; dislocation; perturbation,
interruption; shuffling &c v.; inversion &c 218; corrugation &c (fold)
258; involvement.
     interchange &c 148.
V. derange; disarrange, misarrange^; displace, misplace; mislay,
discompose, disorder; deorganize^, discombobulate, disorganize; embroil,
unsettle, disturb, confuse, trouble, perturb, jumble, tumble; shuffle,
randomize; huddle, muddle, toss, hustle, fumble, riot; bring into
disorder, put into disorder, throw into disorder &c 59; muss [U.S.];
break the ranks, disconcert, convulse; break in upon.
     unhinge, dislocate, put out of joint, throw out of gear.
     turn topsy-turvy &c (invert) 218; bedevil; complicate, involve,
perplex, confound; imbrangle^, embrangle^, tangle, entangle, ravel,
tousle, towzle^, dishevel, ruffle; rumple &c (fold) 258.
     litter, scatter; mix &c 41.
     rearrange &c 148.
Adj. deranged &c v.; syncretic, syncretistic^; mussy, messy; flaky;
random, unordered [U.S.].


62. Precedence -- N. precedence; coming before &c v.; the lead, le pas;
superiority &c 33; importance &c 642; antecedence, antecedency^;
anteriority &c (front) 234; precursor &c 64; priority &c 116;
precession &c 280; anteposition^; epacme^; preference.
V. precede; come before, come first; head, lead, take the lead; lead
the way, lead the dance; be in the vanguard; introduce, usher in; have
the pas; set the fashion &c (influence) 175; open the ball; take
precedence, have precedence; have the start &c (get before) 280.
     place before; prefix; premise, prelude, preface.
Adj. preceding &c v.; precedent, antecedent; anterior; prior &c 116;
before; former; foregoing; beforementioned^, abovementioned^,
aforementioned; aforesaid, said; precursory, precursive^; prevenient^,
preliminary, prefatory, introductory; prelusive, prelusory; proemial^,
Adv. before; in advance &c (precession) 280.
Phr. seniores priores [Lat.]; prior tempore prior jure [Lat.].

63. Sequence -- N. sequence, coming after; going after &c (following)
281; consecution, succession; posteriority &c 117.
     continuation; order of succession; successiveness; paracme^.
     secondariness^; subordinancy &c (inferiority) 34.
     afterbirth, afterburden^; placenta, secundines [Med.].
V. succeed; come after, come on, come next; follow, ensue, step into
the shoes of; alternate.
     place after, suffix, append.
Adj. succeeding &c; v.; sequent^; subsequent, consequent, sequacious^,
proximate, next; consecutive &c (continuity) 69; alternate, amoebean^.
     latter; posterior &c 117.
Adv. after, subsequently; behind &c (rear) 235.

64. Precursor -- N. precursor, antecedent, precedent, predecessor;
forerunner, vancourier^, avant-coureur [Fr.], pioneer, prodrome^,
prodromos^, prodromus^, outrider; leader, bellwether; herald, harbinger;
foreboding; dawn; avant-courier, avant-garde, bellmare^, forelooper^,
foreloper^, stalking-horse, voorlooper [Afrik.], voortrekker [Afrik.].
     prelude, preamble, preface, prologue, foreword, avant-propos
[Fr.], protasis^, proemium^, prolusion^, proem, prolepsis [Gramm.],
prolegomena, prefix, introduction; heading, frontispiece, groundwork;
preparation &c 673; overture, exordium [Lat.], symphony; premises.
     prefigurement &c 511; omen &c 512.
Adj. precursory; prelusive, prelusory, preludious^; proemial^,
introductory, prefatory, prodromous^, inaugural, preliminary; precedent
&c (prior) 116.
Phr. a precedent embalms a principle [Disraeli].

65. Sequel -- N. sequel, suffix, successor; tail, queue, train, wake,
trail, rear; retinue, suite; appendix, postscript; epilogue;
peroration; codicil; continuation, sequela^; appendage; tail piece
[Fr.], heelpiece^; tag, more last words; colophon.
     aftercome^, aftergrowth^, afterpart^, afterpiece^, aftercourse^,
afterthought, aftergame^; arriere pensee [Fr.], second thoughts;

66. Beginning -- N. beginning, commencement, opening, outset,
incipience, inception, inchoation^; introduction &c (precursor) 64;
alpha, initial; inauguration, debut, le premier pas, embarcation [Fr.],
rising of the curtain; maiden speech; outbreak, onset, brunt;
initiative, move, first move; narrow end of the wedge, thin end of the
wedge; fresh start, new departure.
     origin &c (cause) 153; source, rise; bud, germ &c 153; egg,
rudiment; genesis, primogenesis^, birth, nativity, cradle, infancy;
start, inception, creation, starting point &c 293; dawn &c (morning)
125; evolution.
     title-page; head, heading; van &c (front) 234; caption, fatihah^.
     entrance, entry; inlet, orifice, mouth, chops, lips, porch,
portal, portico, propylon^, door; gate, gateway; postern, wicket,
threshold, vestibule; propylaeum^; skirts, border &c (edge) 231.
     first stage, first blush, first glance, first impression, first
     rudiments, elements, outlines, grammar, alphabet, ABC.
V. begin, start, commence; conceive, open, dawn, set in, take its rise,
enter upon, enter; set out &c (depart) 293; embark in; incept^.
     initiate, launch, inaugurate.
     inchoate, rise, arise, originate.
     usher in; lead off, lead the way; take the lead, take the
initiative; head; stand at the head, stand first, stand for; lay the
foundations &c (prepare) 673; found &c (cause) 153; set up, set on
foot, agoing^, set abroach^, set the ball in motion; apply the match to
a train; broach; open up, open the door to.
     get underway, set about, get to work, set to work, set to; make a
beginning, make a start.
     handsel; take the first step, lay the first stone, cut the first
turf; break ground, break the ice, break cover; pass the Rubicon, cross
the Rubicon; open fire, open the ball; ventilate, air; undertake &c
     come into existence, come into the world; make one's debut, take
birth; burst forth, break out; spring up, spring forth, crop up, pop
up, appear, materialize.
     begin at the beginning, begin ab ovo [Lat.].
     begin again, begin de novo; start afresh, make a fresh start, take
it from the top, shuffle the cards, reshuffle the cards, resume,
Adj. beginning &c v.; initial, initiatory, initiative; inceptive,
introductory, incipient; proemial^, inaugural; inchoate, inchoative^;
embryonic, rudimental; primogenial^; primeval, primitive, primordial &c
(old) 124; aboriginal; natal, nascent.
     first, foremost, leading; maiden.
     begun &c v.; just begun &c v..
Adv. at the beginning, in the beginning, &c n.; first, in the first
place, imprimis [Lat.], first and foremost; in limine [Lat.]; in the
bud, in embryo, in its infancy; from the beginning, from its birth; ab
initio [Lat.], ab ovo [Lat.], ab incunabilis [Lat.], ab origine [Lat.].
Phr. let's get going!, let's get this show on the road!, up and at
'em!; aller Anfang ist schwer [G.], dimidium facti qui coepit habet
[Lat.] [Cicero]; omnium rerum principia parva sunt [Lat.] [Cicero].

67. End -- N. end, close, termination; desinence^, conclusion, finis,
finale, period, term, terminus, endpoint, last, omega; extreme,
extremity; gable end, butt end, fag-end; tip, nib, point; tail &c
(rear) 235; verge &c (edge) 231; tag, peroration; bonne bouche [Fr.];
bottom dollar, tail end, rear guard.
     consummation, denouement; finish &c (completion) 729; fate; doom,
doomsday; crack of doom, day of Judgment, dies irae, fall of the
curtain; goal, destination; limit, determination; expiration, expiry^,
extinction, extermination; death &c 360; end of all things; finality;
     break up, commencement de la fin, last stage, turning point; coup
de grace, deathblow; knock-out-blow; sockdolager [U.S.].
V. end, close, finish, terminate, conclude, be all over; expire; die &c
360; come-, draw-to-a-close &c n.; have run its course; run out, pass
     bring to an end &c n.; put an end to, make an end of; determine;
get through; achieve &c (complete) 729; stop &c (make to cease) 142;
shut up shop; hang up one's fiddle.
Adj. ending &c v.; final, terminal, definitive; crowning &c
(completing) 729; last, ultimate; hindermost^; rear &c 235; caudal;
     conterminate^, conterminous, conterminable^.
     ended &c v.; at an end; settled, decided, over, played out, set at
rest; conclusive.
     penultimate; last but one, last but two, &c unbegun, uncommenced^;
Adv. finally &c adj.; in fine; at the last; once for all.
Phr. as high as Heaven and as deep as hell [Beaumont and Fletcher];
deficit omne quod nascitur [Lat.] [Quintilian]; en toute chose il faut
considerer la fin [Fr.]; finem respice [Lat.]; ultimus Romanorum

68. Middle -- N. middle, midst, mediety^, mean &c 29; medium, middle
term; center &c 222, mid-course &c 628; mezzo termine [It]; juste
milieu &c 628 [Fr.]; halfway house, nave, navel, omphalos^; nucleus,
     equidistance^, bisection, half distance; equator, diaphragm,
midriff; intermediate &c 228.
Adj. middle, medial, mesial [Med.], mean, mid, median, average;
middlemost, midmost; mediate; intermediate &c (interjacent) 228;
equidistant; central &c 222; mediterranean, equatorial; homocentric.
Adv. in the middle; midway, halfway; midships^, amidships, in medias

69. [Uninterrupted sequence.] Continuity -- N. continuity; consecution,
consecutiveness &c adj.; succession, round, suite, progression, series,
train chain; catenation, concatenation; scale; gradation, course;
ceaselessness, constant flow, unbroken extent.
     procession, column; retinue, cortege, cavalcade, rank and file,
line of battle, array.
     pedigree, genealogy, lineage, race; ancestry, descent, family,
house; line, line of ancestors; strain.
     rank, file, line, row, range, tier, string, thread, team; suit;
V. follow in a series, form a series &c n.; fall in.
     arrange in a series, collate &c n.; string together, file, thread,
graduate, organize, sort, tabulate.
Adj. continuous, continued; consecutive; progressive, gradual; serial,
successive; immediate, unbroken, entire; linear; in a line, in a row &c
n.; uninterrupted, unintermitting^; unremitting, unrelenting
(perseverence) 604.1; perennial, evergreen; constant.
Adv. continuously &c adj.; seriatim; in a line &c n.; in succession, in
turn; running, gradually, step by step, gradatim [Lat.], at a stretch;
in file, in column, in single file, in Indian file.

70. [Interrupted sequence.] Discontinuity -- N. discontinuity;
disjunction &c 44; anacoluthon^; interruption, break, fracture, flaw,
fault, crack, cut; gap &c (interval) 198; solution of continuity,
caesura; broken thread; parenthesis, episode, rhapsody, patchwork;
intermission; alternation &c (periodicity) 138; dropping fire.
V. be discontinuous &c adj.; alternate, intermit, sputter, stop and
start, hesitate.
     discontinue, pause, interrupt; intervene; break, break in upon,
break off; interpose &c 228; break the thread, snap the thread;
disconnect &c (disjoin) 44; dissever.
Adj. discontinuous, unsuccessive^, broken, interrupted, dicousu [Fr.];
disconnected, unconnected; discrete, disjunctive; fitful &c (irregular)
139; spasmodic, desultory; intermitting, occasional &c v.,
intermittent; alternate; recurrent &c (periodic) 138.
Adv. at intervals; by snatches, by jerks, by skips, by catches, by fits
and starts; skippingly^, per saltum [Lat.]; longo intervallo [It].
Phr. like 'angel visits few and far between' [Campbell].

71. Term -- N. term, rank, station, stage, step; degree &c 26; scale,
remove, grade, link, peg, round of the ladder, status, position, place,
point, mark, pas, period, pitch; stand, standing; footing, range.
V. hold a place, occupy a place, find a place, fall into a place &c n..


72. Assemblage -- N. {opp.
     73} assemblage; collection, collocation, colligation^; compilation,
levy, gathering, ingathering, muster, attroupement^; team; concourse,
conflux^, congregation, contesseration^, convergence &c 290; meeting,
levee, reunion, drawing room, at home; conversazione [It] &c (social
gathering) 892; assembly, congress; convention, conventicle; gemote^;
conclave &c (council) 696; posse, posse comitatus [Lat.]; Noah's ark.
     miscellany, collectanea^; museum, menagerie &c (store) 636;
     crowd, throng, group; flood, rush, deluge; rabble, mob, press,
crush, cohue^, horde, body, tribe; crew, gang, knot, squad, band, party;
swarm, shoal, school, covey, flock, herd, drove; atajo^; bunch, drive,
force, mulada [U.S.]; remuda^; roundup [U.S.]; array, bevy, galaxy;
corps, company, troop, troupe, task force; army, regiment &c
(combatants) 726; host &c (multitude) 102; populousness.
     clan, brotherhood, fraternity, sorority, association &c (party)
     volley, shower, storm, cloud.
     group, cluster, Pleiades, clump, pencil; set, batch, lot, pack;
budget, assortment, bunch; parcel; packet, package; bundle, fascine^,
fasces^, bale; seron^, seroon^; fagot, wisp, truss, tuft; shock, rick,
fardel^, stack, sheaf, haycock^; fascicle, fascicule^, fasciculus [Lat.],
gavel, hattock^, stook^.
     accumulation &c (store) 636; congeries, heap, lump, pile, rouleau^,
tissue, mass, pyramid; bing^; drift; snowball, snowdrift; acervation^,
cumulation; glomeration^, agglomeration; conglobation^; conglomeration,
conglomerate; coacervate [Chem], coacervation [Chem], coagmentation^,
aggregation, concentration, congestion, omnium gaterum [Lat.],
spicilegium^, black hole of Calcutta; quantity &c (greatness) 31.
     collector, gatherer; whip, whipper in.
V. assemble [be or come together], collect, muster; meet, unite, join,
rejoin; cluster, flock, swarm, surge, stream, herd, crowd, throng,
associate; congregate, conglomerate, concentrate; precipitate; center
round, rendezvous, resort; come together, flock get together, pig
together; forgather; huddle; reassemble.
     [get or bring together] assemble, muster; bring together, get
together, put together, draw together, scrape together, lump together;
collect, collocate, colligate^; get, whip in; gather; hold a meeting;
convene, convoke, convocate^; rake up, dredge; heap, mass, pile; pack,
put up, truss, cram; acervate^; agglomerate, aggregate; compile; group,
aggroup^, concentrate, unite; collect into a focus, bring into a focus;
amass, accumulate &c (store) 636; collect in a dragnet; heap Ossa upon
Adj. assembled &c v.; closely packed, dense, serried, crowded to
suffocation, teeming, swarming, populous; as thick as hops; all of a
heap, fasciculated cumulative.
Phr. the plot thickens; acervatim [Lat.]; tibi seris tibi metis [Lat.].

73. Nonassemblage. Dispersion -- N. {opp.
     72} dispersion; disjunction &c 44; divergence &c 291; aspersion;
scattering &c v.; dissemination, diffusion, dissipation, distribution;
apportionment &c 786; spread, respersion^, circumfusion^, interspersion,
spargefaction^; affusion^.
     waifs and estrays^, flotsam and jetsam, disjecta membra [Lat.],
[Horace]; waveson^.
V. disperse, scatter, sow, broadcast, disseminate, diffuse, shed,
spread, bestrew, overspread, dispense, disband, disembody, dismember,
distribute; apportion &c 786; blow off, let out, dispel, cast forth,
draught off; strew, straw, strow^; ted; spirtle^, cast, sprinkle; issue,
deal out, retail, utter; resperse^, intersperse; set abroach^,
     turn adrift, cast adrift; scatter to the winds; spread like
wildfire, disperse themselves.
Adj. unassembled &c (assemble) &c 72; dispersed &c v.; sparse,
dispread, broadcast, sporadic, widespread; epidemic &c (general) 78;
adrift, stray; disheveled, streaming.
Adv. sparsim^, here and there, passim.

74. [Place of meeting.] Focus -- N. focus; point of convergence &c 290;
corradiation^; center &c 222; gathering place, resort haunt retreat;
venue; rendezvous; rallying point, headquarters, home, club; depot &c
(store) 636; trysting place; place of meeting, place of resort, place
of assignation; point de reunion; issue.
V. bring to a point, bring to a focus, bring to an issue.


75. Class -- N. class, division, category, categorema^, head, order,
section; department, subdepartment, province, domain.
     kind, sort, genus, species, variety, family, order, kingdom, race,
tribe, caste, sept, clan, breed, type, subtype, kit, sect, set, subset;
assortment; feather, kidney; suit; range; gender, sex, kin.
     manner, description, denomination, designation, rubric, character,
stamp predicament; indication, particularization, selection,
     similarity &c 17.

76. [Comprehension under, or reference to a class.] Inclusion -- N.
     77} inclusion, admission, comprehension, reception.
     composition &c (inclusion in a compound) 54.
V. be included in &c; come under, fall under, range under; belong to,
pertain to; range with; merge in.
     include, comprise, comprehend, contain, admit, embrace, receive;
inclose &c (circumscribe) 229; embody, encircle.
     reckon among, enumerate among, number among; refer to; place with,
arrange with, place under; take into account.
Adj. included, including &c v.; inclusive; congener, congenerous; of
the same class &c 75; encircling.
Phr. a maximis ad minima [Lat.], et hoc genus omne [Lat.], &c etc.; et
coetera [Lat.].

77. Exclusion -- N. {opp.
     76} exclusion &c 55.

78. Generality -- N. {opp.
     79} generality, generalization; universality; catholicity,
catholicism; miscellany, miscellaneousness^; dragnet; common run;
     everyone, everybody; all hands, all the world and his wife;
anybody, N or M, all sorts.
     prevalence, run.
V. be general &c adj.; prevail, be going about, stalk abroad.
     render general &c adj.; generalize.
Adj. general, generic, collective; broad, comprehensive, sweeping;
encyclopedical^, widespread &c (dispersed) 73.
     universal; catholic, catholical^; common, worldwide; ecumenical,
oecumenical^; transcendental; prevalent, prevailing, rife, epidemic,
besetting; all over, covered with.
     Pan-American, Anglican^, Pan-Hellenic, Pan-Germanic, slavic;
     every, all; unspecified, impersonal.
     customary &c (habitual) 613.
Adv. whatever, whatsoever; to a man, one and all.
     generally &c adj.; always, for better for worse; in general,
generally speaking; speaking generally; for the most part; in the long
run &c (on an average) 29.

79. Speciality -- N. {opp.
     78} speciality, specialite^; individuality, individuity^;
particularity, peculiarity; idiocrasy &c (tendency) 176; personality,
characteristic, mannerism, idiosyncrasy; specificness &c adj.^;
singularity &c (unconformity) 83; reading, version, lection; state;
trait; distinctive feature; technicality; differentia.
     particulars, details, items, counts; minutiae.
     I, self, I myself; myself, himself, herself, itself.
V. specify, particularize, individualize, realize, specialize,
designate, determine; denote, indicate, point out, select.
     descend to particulars, enter into detail, go into detail, come to
the point.
Adj. special, particular, individual, specific, proper, personal,
original, private, respective, definite, determinate, especial,
certain, esoteric, endemic, partial, party, peculiar, appropriate,
several, characteristic, diagnostic, exclusive; singular &c
(exceptional) 83; idiomatic; idiotypical; typical.
     this, that; yon, yonder.
Adv. specially, especially, particularly &c adj.; in particular, in
propria persona [Lat.]; ad hominem [Lat.]; for my part.
     each, apiece, one by one, one at a time; severally, respectively,
each to each; seriatim, in detail, in great detail, in excruciating
detail, in mind-numbing detail; bit by bit; pro hac vice [Lat.], pro re
nata [Lat.].
     namely, that is to say, for example, id est, exemplia gratia
[Lat.], e.g., i.e., videlicet, viz.; to wit.
Phr. le style est l'homme meme [Fr.].


80. Normality -- N. normality, normalcy, normalness^; familiarity,
naturalness; commonness (frequency) 136; rule, standard (conformity)
82; customary (habit) 613; standard, pattern (prototype) 22.
V. normalize, standardize.
Adj. normal, natural, unexceptional; common, usual (frequency) 136;

81. Multiformity -- N. multiformity, omniformity^; variety, diversity;
multifariousness &c adj.; varied assortment.
     dissimilarity &c 18.
Adj. polymorphous, multiform, multifold, multifarious, multigenerous^,
multiplex; heterogeneous, diversified, dissimilar, various, varied,
variform^; manifold, many-sided; variegated, motley, mosaic; epicene,
indiscriminate, desultory, irregular; mixed, different, assorted,
mingled, odd, diverse, divers; all manner of; of every description, of
all sorts and kinds; et hoc genus omne [Lat.]; and what not? de omnibus
rebus et quibusdam aliis [Lat.].
     jumbled, confused, mixed up, discordant; inharmonious, unmatched,
unrelated, nonuniform.
     omniform^, omnigenous^, omnifarious^; protean (form) 240.
Phr. harmoniously confused [Pope]; variety's the very spice of life

82. Conformity -- N. {opp.
     83} conformity, conformance; observance; habituation.
     naturalization; conventionality &c (custom) 613; agreement &c 23.
     example, instance, specimen, sample, quotation; exemplification,
illustration, case in point; object lesson; elucidation.
     standard, model, pattern &c (prototype) 22.
     rule, nature, principle; law; order of things; normal state,
natural state, ordinary state, model state, normal condition, natural
condition, ordinary condition, model condition; standing dish, standing
order; Procrustean law; law of the Medes and Persians; hard and fast
V. conform to, conform to rule; accommodate oneself to, adapt oneself
to; rub off corners.
     be regular &c adj.; move in a groove; follow observe the rules, go
by the rules, bend to the rules, obey the rules, obey the precedents;
comply with, tally with, chime in with, fall in with; be guided by, be
regulated by; fall into a custom, fall into a usage; follow the
fashion, follow the crowd, follow the multitude; pass muster, do as
others do, hurler avec les loups [Fr.]; stand on ceremony; when in Rome
do as the Romans do; go with the stream, go with the flow, swim with
the stream, swim with the current, swim with the tide, blow with the
wind; stick to the beaten track &c (habit) 613; keep one in
     exemplify, illustrate, cite, quote, quote precedent, quote
authority, appeal to authority, put a case; produce an instance &c n.;
elucidate, explain.
Adj. conformable to rule; regular &c 136; according to regulation,
according to rule, according to Hoyle, according to Cocker, according
to Gunter; en regle [Fr.], selon les regles [Fr.], well regulated,
orderly; symmetric &c 242.
     conventional &c (customary) 613; of daily occurrence, of everyday
occurrence; in the natural order of things; ordinary, common, habitual,
usual, everyday, workaday.
     in the order of the day; naturalized.
     typical, normal, nominal, formal; canonical, orthodox, sound,
strict, rigid, positive, uncompromising, Procrustean.
     secundum artem [Lat.], shipshape, technical.
     exempIe [Fr.].
     illustrative, in point.
Adv. conformably &c adj.; by rule; agreeably to; in conformity with, in
accordance with, in keeping with; according to; consistently with; as
usual, ad instar [Lat.], instar omnium [Lat.]; more solito [Lat.],
     for the sake of conformity; as a matter of course, of course; pro
forma [Lat.], for form's sake, by the card.
     invariably, &c (uniformly) 16.
     for example, exempli gratia [Lat.], e.g.; inter alia [Lat.], among
other things; for instance.
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.]; ex pede Herculem [Lat.]; noscitur a
sociis [Lat.]; ne e quovis ligno Mercurius fiat [Lat.] [Erasmus]; they
are happy men whose natures sort with their vocations [Bacon].
     The nail that sticks up hammered down [Jap.Tr.]; Tall poppy
syndrome; Stick your neck out and it may get cut off.

83. Unconformity -- N. {opp.
     82} nonconformity &c 82; unconformity, disconformity;
unconventionality, informality, abnormity^, abnormality, anomaly;
anomalousness &c adj.^; exception, peculiarity; infraction of law,
breach, of law, violation of law, violation of custom, violation of
usage, infringement of law, infringement of custom, infringement of
usage; teratism^, eccentricity, bizarrerie^, oddity, je ne sais quoi
[Fr.], monster, monstrosity, rarity; freak, freak of Nature, weirdo,
mutant; rouser, snorter [U.S.].
     individuality, idiosyncrasy, originality, mannerism.
     aberration; irregularity; variety; singularity; exemption; salvo
&c (qualification) 469.
     nonconformist; nondescript, character, original, nonesuch,
nonsuch^, monster, prodigy, wonder, miracle, curiosity, flying fish,
black sheep, black swan, lusus naturae [Lat.], rara avis [Lat.], queer
fish; mongrel, random breed; half-caste, half-blood, half-breed; metis
[Lat.], crossbreed, hybrid, mule, hinny, mulatto; tertium quid [Lat.],
     [Mythical animals] phoenix, chimera, hydra, sphinx, minotaur;
griffin, griffon; centaur; saggittary^; kraken, cockatrice, wyvern, roc,
dragon, sea serpent; mermaid, merman, merfolk^; unicorn; Cyclops, men
whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders [Othello]; teratology.
     [unconformable to the surroundings] fish out of water; neither one
thing nor another, neither fish nor fowl, neither fish flesh nor fowl
nor good red herring; one in a million, one in a way, one in a
thousand; outcast, outlaw; off the beaten track; oasis.
V. be uncomformable &c adj.; abnormalize^; leave the beaten track, leave
the beaten path; infringe a law, infringe a habit, infringe a usage,
infringe a custom, break a law, break a habit, break a usage, break a
custom, violate a law, violate a habit, violate a usage, violate a
custom; drive a coach and six through; stretch a point; have no
business there; baffle all description, beggar all description.
Adj. uncomformable, exceptional; abnormal, abnormous^; anomalous,
anomalistic; out of order, out of place, out of keeping, out of tune,
out of one's element; irregular, arbitrary; teratogenic; lawless,
informal, aberrant, stray, wandering, wanton; peculiar, exclusive,
unnatural, eccentric, egregious; out of the beaten track, off the
beaten track, out of the common, out of the common run; beyond the pale
of, out of the pale of; misplaced; funny.
     unusual, unaccustomed, uncustomary, unwonted, uncommon; rare,
curious, odd, extraordinary, out of the ordinary; strange, monstrous;
wonderful &c 870; unexpected, unaccountable; outre [Fr.], out of the
way, remarkable, noteworthy; queer, quaint, nondescript, none such, sui
generis [Lat.]; unfashionable; fantastic, grotesque, bizarre;
outlandish, exotic, tombe des nues [Fr.], preternatural; denaturalized^.
     heterogeneous, heteroclite [Gramm.], amorphous, mongrel,
amphibious, epicene, half blood, hybrid; androgynous, androgynal^;
asymmetric &c 243; adelomorphous^, bisexual, hermaphrodite,
     qualified &c 469.
     singular, unique, one-of-a-kind.
     newfangled, novel, non-classical; original, unconventional,
unheard of, unfamiliar; undescribed, unprecedented, unparalleled,
Adv. unconformably &c adj.; except, unless, save barring, beside,
without, save and except, let alone.
     however, yet, but.
     once in a blue moon, once in a million years.
Int. what on earth!, what in the world!, What the devil!, Holy cow!,
Can you top that?; Sacre bleu [Fr.].
Phr. never was seen the like, never was heard the like, never was known
the like.
     I could hardly believe it; I saw it, but I didn't believe it.



84. Number -- N. number, symbol, numeral, figure, cipher, digit,
integer; counter; round number; formula; function; series.
     sum, difference, complement, subtrahend; product; multiplicand,
multiplier, multiplicator^; coefficient, multiple; dividend, divisor,
factor, quotient, submultiple [Math.]; fraction, rational number; surd,
irrational number; transcendental number; mixed number, complex number,
complex conjugate; numerator, denominator; decimal, circulating
decimal, repetend; common measure, aliquot part; prime number, prime,
relative prime, prime factor, prime pair; reciprocal; totient^.
     binary number, octal number, hexadecimal number [Comp.].
     permutation, combination, variation; election.
     ratio, proportion, comparison &c 464; progression; arithmetical
progression, geometrical progression, harmonical progression^;
percentage, permilage.
     figurate numbers^, pyramidal numbers, polygonal numbers.
     power, root, exponent, index, logarithm, antilogarithm; modulus,
     differential, integral, fluxion^, fluent.
Adj. numeral, complementary, divisible, aliquot, reciprocal, prime,
relatively prime, fractional, decimal, figurate^, incommensurable.
     proportional, exponential, logarithmic, logometric^, differential,
fluxional^, integral, totitive^.
     positive, negative; rational, irrational; surd, radical, real;
complex, imaginary; finite; infinite; impossible.
Adv. numerically; modulo.

85. Numeration -- N. numeration; numbering &c v.; pagination; tale,
recension^, enumeration, summation, reckoning, computation,
supputation^; calculation, calculus; algorithm, algorism^, rhabdology^,
dactylonomy^; measurement &c 466; statistics.
     arithmetic, analysis, algebra, geometry, analytical geometry,
fluxions^; differential calculus, integral calculus, infinitesimal
calculus; calculus of differences.
     [Statistics] dead reckoning, muster, poll, census, capitation,
roll call, recapitulation; account &c (list) 86.
     [Operations] notation,, addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, rule of three, practice, equations, extraction of roots,
reduction, involution, evolution, estimation, approximation,
interpolation, differentiation, integration.
     [Instruments] abacus, logometer^, slide rule, slipstick [Coll.],
tallies, Napier's bones, calculating machine, difference engine, suan-
pan^; adding machine; cash register; electronic calculator, calculator,
computer; [people who calculate] arithmetician, calculator, abacist^,
algebraist, mathematician; statistician, geometer; programmer;
accountant, auditor.
V. number, count, tally, tell; call over, run over; take an account of,
enumerate, muster, poll, recite, recapitulate; sum; sum up, cast up;
tell off, score, cipher, compute, calculate, suppute^, add, subtract,
multiply, divide, extract roots.
     check, prove, demonstrate, balance, audit, overhaul, take stock;
affix numbers to, page.
     amount to, add up to, come to.
Adj. numeral, numerical; arithmetical, analytic, algebraic,
statistical, numerable, computable, calculable; commensurable,
commensurate; incommensurable, incommensurate, innumerable,
unfathomable, infinite.
Adv. quantitatively; arithmetically; measurably; in numbers.

86. List -- N. list, catalog, catalogue, inventory; register &c
(record) 551.
     account; bill, bill of costs; terrier; tally, listing,
itemization; atlas; book, ledger; catalogue raisonne [Fr.]; tableau;
invoice, bill of lading; prospectus; bill of fare, menu, carte [Fr.];
score, census, statistics, returns.
     [list of topics in a document] contents, table of contents,
outline; synopsis.
     [written list used as an aid to memory] checklist.
     table, chart, database; index, inverted file, word list,
     dictionary, lexicon; vocabulary, glossary; thesaurus.
     file, card index, card file, rolodex, address book.
     Red book, Blue book, Domesday book; cadastre [Fr.]; directory,
     almanac; army list, clergy list, civil service list, navy list;
Almanach de Gotha^, cadaster; Lloyd's register, nautical almanac; who's
who; Guiness's Book of World Records.
     roll; check roll, checker roll, bead roll; muster roll, muster
book; roster, panel, jury list; cartulary, diptych.
V. list, itemize; sort, collate; enumerate, tabulate, catalog, tally.
Adj. cadastral^.


87. Unity -- N. unity; oneness &c adj.; individuality; solitude &c
(seclusion) 893; isolation &c (disjunction) 44; unification &c 48.
     one, unit, ace; individual; none else, no other.
V. be one, be alone &c adj.; dine with Duke Humphrey^.
     isolate &c (disjoin) 44.
     render one; unite &c (join) 43, (combine) 48.
Adj. one, sole, single, solitary, unitary; individual, apart, alone;
     unaccompanied, unattended; solus [Lat.], single-handed; singular,
odd, unique, unrepeated^, azygous, first and last; isolated &c
(disjoined) 44; insular.
     monospermous^; unific^, uniflorous^, unifoliate^, unigenital^,
uniliteral^, unijocular^, unimodal [Math.], unimodular^.
     lone, lonely, lonesome; desolate, dreary.
     insecable^, inseverable^, indiscerptible^; compact, indivisible,
atomic, irresolvable^.
Adv. singly &c adj.; alone, by itself, per se, only, apart, in the
singular number, in the abstract; one by one, one at a time; simply;
one and a half, sesqui-^.
Phr. natura il fece [It], e poi roppe la stampa [It]; du fort au faible
[Fr.]; two souls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as

88. Accompaniment -- N. accompaniment; adjunct &c 39; context;
appendage, appurtenance.
     coexistence, concomitance, company, association, companionship;
partnership, copartnership; coefficiency^.
     concomitant, accessory, coefficient; companion, buddy, attendant,
fellow, associate, friend, colleague; consort, spouse, mate; partner,
co-partner; satellite, hanger on, fellow-traveller, shadow; escort,
cortege; attribute.
V. accompany, coexist, attend; hang on, wait on; go hand in hand with;
synchronize &c 120; bear company, keep company; row in the same boat;
bring in its train; associate with, couple with.
Adj. accompanying &c v.; concomitant, fellow, twin, joint; associated
with, coupled with; accessory, attendant, obbligato.
Adv. with, withal; together with, along with, in company with; hand in
hand, side by side; cheek by jowl, cheek by jole^; arm in arm;
therewith, herewith; and &c (addition) 37.
     together, in a body, collectively.
Phr. noscitur a sociis [Lat.]; virtutis fortuna comes [Lat.].

89. Duality -- N. duality, dualism; duplicity; biplicity^, biformity^;
     two, deuce, couple, duet, brace, pair, cheeks, twins, Castor and
Pollux, gemini, Siamese twins; fellows; yoke, conjugation; dispermy^,
doublets, dyad, span.
V. pair [unite in pairs], couple, bracket, yoke; conduplicate^; mate,
span [U.S.].
Adj. two, twin; dual, dualistic, double; binary, binomial; twin,
biparous^; dyadic [Math.]; conduplicate^; duplex &c 90; biduous^,
binate^, diphyletic^, dispermic^, unijugate^; tete-a-tete.
     coupled &c v.; conjugate.
     both, both the one and the other.

90. Duplication -- N. duplication; doubling &c v.; gemination,
ingemination^; reduplication; iteration &c (repetition) 104; renewal.
V. double, redouble, duplicate, reduplicate; geminate; repeat &c 104;
renew &c 660.
Adj. double; doubled &c v.; bicipital^, bicephalous^, bidental^,
bilabiate, bivalve, bivalvular^, bifold^, biform^, bilateral; bifarious^,
bifacial^; twofold, two-sided; disomatous^; duplex; double-faced,
double-headed; twin, duplicate, ingeminate^; second.
Adv. twice, once more; over again &c (repeatedly) 104; as much again,
     secondly, in the second place, again.

91. [Division into two parts.] bisection -- N. bisection, bipartition;
dichotomy, subdichotomy^; halving &c v.; dimidiation^.
     bifurcation, forking, branching, ramification, divarication; fork,
prong; fold.
     half, moiety.
V. bisect, halve, divide, split, cut in two, cleave dimidiate^,
     go halves, divide with.
     separate, fork, bifurcate; branch off, out; ramify.
Adj. bisected &c v.; cloven, cleft; bipartite, biconjugate^, bicuspid,
bifid; bifurcous^, bifurcate, bifurcated; distichous, dichotomous,
furcular^; semi-, demi-, hemi^.

92. Triality -- N. Triality^, trinity; triunity^.
     three, triad, triplet, trey, trio, ternion^, leash; shamrock,
tierce^, spike-team [U.S.], trefoil; triangle, trident, triennium^,
trigon^, trinomial, trionym^, triplopia^, tripod, trireme, triseme^,
triskele^, triskelion, trisula^.
     third power, cube; cube root.
Adj. three; triform^, trinal^, trinomial; tertiary; ternary; triune;
triarch, triadie^; triple &c 93.
     tri- [Pref.], tris- [Pref.].
Phr. tria juncta in uno [Lat.].

93. Triplication -- N. triplication, triplicity^; trebleness^, trine.
V. treble, triple; triplicate, cube.
Adj. treble, triple; tern, ternary; triplicate, threefold, trilogistic^;
third; trinal^, trine.
Adv. three times, three fold; thrice, in the third place, thirdly;
trebly &c adj..

94. [Division into three parts.] Trisection -- N. trisection,
tripartition^, trichotomy; third, third part.
V. trisect, divide into three parts.
Adj. trifid; trisected &c v.; tripartite, trichotomous^, trisulcate^.
     Triadelphous^, triangular, tricuspid, tricapsular^, tridental^,
tridentate, tridentiferous^, trifoliate, trifurcate, trigonal^,
trigrammic^, trigrammatic^, tripetalous^, tripodal, tripodic^,
triquetral^, triquetrous^.

95. Four -- N. quaternity^, four, tetrad, quartet, quaternion, square,
     [planar form with four sides] tetract^, tetragon, quadrangle,
     [three dimensional object with four surfaces] tetrahedron.
     quadrature, quadrifoil, quadriform, quadruplet; quatrefoil.
     [object or animal with four legs] tetrapod.
     [geographical area with four sides] quadrangle, quad [Coll.].
     [electromagnetic object] quadrupole.
     [four fundamental studies] quadrivium.
V. reduce to a square, square.
Adj. four; quaternary, quaternal^; quadratic; quartile; tetract^,
tetractic^, tetractinal^; tetrad, tetragonal; square, quadrate.

96. Quadruplication -- N. quadruplication.
V. multiply by four, quadruplicate, biquadrate^.
Adj. fourfold, four times; quadrable^, quadrumanous^, quadruple,
quadruplicate, quadrible^; fourth.
     quadrifoliate^, quadrifoliolate^, quadrigeminal^, quadrigeminate^,
quadriplanar^, quadriserial^.
Adv. four times; in the fourth place, fourthly.

97. [Division into four parts.] Quadrisection -- N. quadrisection,
quadripartition^; quartering &c v.; fourth; quart; quarter, quartern^;
farthing^, fourthing; quadrant.
V. quarter, divide into four parts.
Adj. quartered &c v.; quadrifid^, quadripartite.

98. Five &c -- N. five, cinque [Fr.], quint, quincux^; six, half-a-
dozen, half dozen; seven; eight; nine, three times three; dicker; ten,
decade; eleven; twelve, dozen; thirteen; long dozen, baker's dozen;
quintuplet; twenty, score; twenty-four, four and twenty, two dozen;
twenty-five, five and twenty, quarter of a hundred; forty, two score;
fifty, half a hundred; sixty, three score; seventy, three score and
ten; eighty, four score; ninety, fourscore and ten; sestiad^.
     hundred, centenary, hecatomb, century; hundredweight, cwt.; one
hundred and forty-four, gross.
     thousand, chiliad; millennium, thousand years, grand [Coll.];
myriad; ten thousand, ban [Jap.], man [Jap.]; ten thousand years,
banzai [Jap.]; lac, one hundred thousand, plum; million; thousand
million, milliard, billion, trillion &c
V. centuriate^; quintuplicate.
Adj. five, quinary^, quintuple; fifth; senary^, sextuple; sixth;
seventh; septuple; octuple; eighth; ninefold, ninth; tenfold, decimal,
denary^, decuple^, tenth; eleventh; duodenary^, duodenal; twelfth; in
one's 'teens, thirteenth.
     vicesimal^, vigesimal; twentieth; twenty-fourth &c n.; vicenary^,
     centuple^, centuplicate^, centennial, centenary, centurial^;
secular, hundredth; thousandth, &c

99. Quinquesection &c -- N. division by five &c 98; quinquesection &c;
decimation; fifth &c
V. decimate; quinquesect.
Adj. quinquefid, quinquelateral, quinquepartite; quinqevalent,
pentavalent; quinquarticular^; octifid^; decimal, tenth, tithe;
duodecimal, twelfth; sexagesimal^, sexagenary^; hundredth, centesimal;
millesimal &c

100. {opp.
     87} [More than one.] Plurality -- N. plurality; a number, a
certain number; one or two, two or three &c; a few, several; multitude
&c 102; majority.
     [large number] multitude &c 102.
Adj. plural, more than one, upwards of; some, several, a few; certain;
not alone &c 87.
Adv. et cetera, &c etc.
     among other things, inter alia [Lat.].
Phr. non deficit alter [Lat.].


100a. [Less than one.] Fraction -- N. fraction, fractional part; part
&c 51.
Adj. fractional, fragmentary, inconsiderable, negligible,

101. Zero -- N. zero, nothing; null, nul, naught, nought, void; cipher,
goose egg; none, nobody, no one; nichts [G.], nixie [Slang], nix
[Slang]; zilch [Slang], zip [Slang], zippo [Slang]; not a soul; ame qui
vive [Fr.]; absence &c 187; unsubstantiality &c 4 [Obs.].
Adj. not one, not a one, not any, nary a one [Dial.]; not a, never a;
not a whit of, not an iota of, not a drop of, not a speck of, not a
jot; not a trace of, not a hint of, not a smidgen of, not a suspicion
of, not a shadow of, neither hide nor hair of.

102. Multitude -- N. multitude; numerous &c adj.; numerosity,
numerality; multiplicity; profusion &c (plenty) 639; legion, host;
great number, large number, round number, enormous number; a quantity,
numbers, array, sight, army, sea, galaxy; scores, peck, bushel, shoal,
swarm, draught, bevy, cloud, flock, herd, drove, flight, covey, hive,
brood, litter, farrow, fry, nest; crowd &c (assemblage) 72; lots; all
in the world and his wife.
     [Increase of number] greater number, majority; multiplication,
V. be numerous &c adj.; swarm with, teem with, creep with; crowd,
swarm, come thick upon; outnumber, multiply; people; swarm like
locusts, swarm like bees.
Adj. many, several, sundry, divers, various, not a few; Briarean; a
hundred, a thousand, a myriad, a million, a quadrillion, a nonillion, a
thousand and one; some ten or a dozen, some forty or fifty &c; half a
dozen, half a hundred &c; very many, full many, ever so many; numerous;
numerose^; profuse, in profusion; manifold, multiplied, multitudinous,
multiple, multinominal, teeming, populous, peopled, crowded, thick,
studded; galore.
     thick coming, many more, more than one can tell, a world of; no
end of, no end to; cum multis aliis [Lat.]; thick as hops, thick as
hail; plenty as blackberries; numerous as the stars in the firmament,
numerous as the sands on the seashore, numerous as the hairs on the
head; and what not, and heaven knows what; endless &c (infinite) 105.
Phr. their name is 'legion'; acervatim [Lat.]; en foule [Fr.]; many-
headed multitude [Sidney]; numerous as glittering gems of morning dew
[Young]; vel prece vel pretio [Lat.].

103. Fewness -- N. fewness &c adj.; paucity, small number; small
quantity &c 32; rarity; infrequency &c 137; handful, maniple; minority;
     [Diminution of number] reduction; weeding &c v.; elimination,
sarculation^, decimation; eradication.
V. be few &c adj.. render few &c adj.; reduce, diminish the number,
weed, eliminate, cull, thin, decimate.
Adj. few; scant, scanty; thin, rare, scattered, thinly scattered,
spotty, few and far between, exiguous; infrequent &c 137; rari nantes
[Lat.]; hardly any, scarcely any; to be counted on one's fingers;
reduced &c v.; unrepeated^.
Adv. rarely, here and there.

104. Repetition -- N. repetition, iteration, reiteration, harping,
recurrence, succession, run; battology, tautology; monotony,
tautophony; rhythm &c 138; diffuseness, pleonasm, redundancy.
     chimes, repetend, echo, ritornello^, burden of a song, refrain;
rehearsal; rechauffe [Fr.], rifacimento [It], recapitulation.
     cuckoo &c (imitation) 19; reverberation &c 408; drumming &c (roll)
407; renewal &c (restoration) 660.
     twice-told tale; old story, old song; second edition, new edition;
reappearance, reproduction, recursion [Comp.]; periodicity &c 138.
V. repeat, iterate, reiterate, reproduce, echo, reecho, drum, harp
upon, battologize^, hammer, redouble.
     recur, revert, return, reappear, recurse [Comp.]; renew &c
(restore) 660.
     rehearse; do over again, say over again; ring the changes on; harp
on the same string; din in the ear, drum in the ear; conjugate in all
its moods tenses and inflexions^, begin again, go over the same ground,
go the same round, never hear the last of; resume, return to,
recapitulate, reword.
Adj. repeated &c v.; repetitional^, repetitionary^; recurrent,
recurring; ever recurring, thick coming; frequent, incessant;
redundant, pleonastic.
     monotonous, harping, iterative, recursive [Comp.], unvaried;
mocking, chiming; retold; aforesaid, aforenamed^; above-mentioned,
above-said; habitual &c 613; another.
Adv. repeatedly, often, again, anew, over again, afresh, once more;
ding-dong, ditto, encore, de novo, bis^, da capo [It].
     again and again; over and over, over and over again; recursively
[Comp.]; many times over; time and again, time after time; year after
year; day by day &c; many times, several times, a number of times; many
a time, full many a time; frequently &c 136.
Phr. ecce iterum Crispinus [Lat.]; toujours perdrix [Fr.]; cut and come
again [Crabbe]; tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow [Macbeth];
cantilenam eandem canis [Lat.] [Terence]; nullum est jam dictum quod
non dictum sit prius [Lat.] [Terence].

105. Infinity -- N. infinity, infinitude, infiniteness &c adj.;
perpetuity &c 112; boundlessness.
V. be infinite &c adj.; know no limits, have no limits, know no bounds,
have no bounds; go on for ever.
Adj. infinite; immense; numberless, countless, sumless^, measureless;
innumerable, immeasurable, incalculable, illimitable, inexhaustible,
interminable, unfathomable, unapproachable; exhaustless, indefinite;
without number, without measure, without limit, without end;
incomprehensible; limitless, endless, boundless, termless^; untold,
unnumbered, unmeasured, unbounded, unlimited; illimited^; perpetual &c
Adv. infinitely &c adj.; ad infinitum.
Phr. as boundless as the sea [Romeo and Juliet].



106. Time -- N. time, duration; period, term, stage, space, span,
spell, season; the whole time, the whole period; space-time; course &c
109; snap.
     intermediate time, while, interim, interval, pendency^;
intervention, intermission, intermittence, interregnum, interlude;
     era, epoch; time of life, age, year, date; decade &c (period) 108;
moment, &c (instant) 113.
     glass of time, sands of time, march of time, Father Time, ravages
of time; arrow of time; river of time, whirligig of time, noiseless
foot of time; scythe.
V. continue last endure, go on, remain, persist; intervene; elapse &c
109; hold out.
     take time, take up time, fill time, occupy time.
     pass time, pass away time, spend time, while away time, consume
time, talk against time; tide over; use time, employ time; seize an
opportunity &c 134; waste time &c (be inactive) 683.
Adj. continuing &c v.; on foot; permanent &c (durable) 110.
Adv. while, whilst, during, pending; during the time, during the
interval; in the course of, at that point, at that point in time; for
the time being, day by day; in the time of, when; meantime, meanwhile;
in the meantime, in the interim; ad interim, pendente lite [Lat.]; de
die in diem [Lat.]; from day to day, from hour to hour &c; hourly,
always; for a time, for a season; till, until, up to, yet, as far as,
by that time, so far, hereunto, heretofore, prior to this, up to this
     the whole time, all the time; all along; throughout &c
(completely) 52; for good &c (diuturnity) 110.
     hereupon, thereupon, whereupon; then; anno Domini, A.D.; ante
Christum, A.C.; before Christ, B.C.; anno urbis conditae [Lat.],
A.U.C.; anno regni [Lat.], A.R.; once upon a time, one fine morning,
one fine day, one day, once.
Phr. time flies, tempus fugit [Lat.]; time runs out, time runs against,
race against time, racing the clock, time marches on, time is of the
essence, time and tide wait for no man.
     ad calendas Groecas [Lat.]; panting Time toileth after him in vain
[Johnson]; 'gainst the tooth of time and razure of oblivion [Contr.]
[Measure for Measure]; rich with the spoils of time [Gray]; tempus edax
rerum [Lat.] [Horace]; the long hours come and go [C.G.
     Rossetti]; the time is out of joint [Hamlet]; Time rolls his
ceaseless course [Scott]; Time the foe of man's dominion [Peacock];
time wasted is existence, used is life [Young]; truditur dies die
[Lat.] [Horace]; volat hora per orbem [Lat.] [Lucretius]; carpe diem

107. Neverness -- N. neverness; absence of time, no time; dies non;
Tib's eve; Greek Kalends, a blue moon.
Adv. never, ne'er [Contr.]; at no time, at no period; on the second
Tuesday of the week, when Hell freezes over; on no occasion, never in
all one's born days, nevermore, sine die; in no degree.

108. [Definite duration, or portion of time.] Period -- N. period, age,
era; second, minute, hour, day, week, month, quarter, year, decade,
decenniumm lustrum^, quinquennium, lifetime, generation; epoch, ghurry^,
lunation^, moon.
     century, millennium; annus magnus [Lat.].
Adj. horary^; hourly, annual &c (periodical) 138.

108a. Contingent Duration --
Adv. during pleasure, during good behavior; quamdiu se bene gesserit

109. [Indefinite duration.] Course -- N. corridors of time, sweep of
time, vesta of time^, course of time, progress of time, process of time,
succession of time, lapse of time, flow of time, flux of time, stream
of time, tract of time, current of time, tide of time, march of time,
step of time, flight of time; duration &c 106.
     [Indefinite time] aorist^.
V. elapse, lapse, flow, run, proceed, advance, pass; roll on, wear on,
press on; flit, fly, slip, slide, glide; run its course.
     run out, expire; go by, pass by; be past &c 122.
Adj. elapsing &c v.; aoristic^; progressive.
Adv. in due time, in due season; in in due course, in due process, in
the fullness of time; in time.
Phr. labitur et labetur [Lat.] [Horace]; truditur dies die [Lat.]
[Horace]; fugaces labuntur anni [Lat.] [Horace]; tomorrow and tomorrow
and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day [Macbeth].

110. [Long duration.] Diuturnity -- N. diuturnity^; a long time, a
length of time; an age, a century, an eternity; slowness &c 275;
perpetuity &c 112; blue moon, coon's age [U.S.], dog's age.
     durableness, durability; persistence, endlessness, lastingness &c
adj.^; continuance, standing; permanence &c (stability) 150; survival,
survivance^; longevity &c (age) 128; distance of time.
     protraction of time, prolongation of time, extension of time;
delay &c (lateness) 133.
V. last, endure, stand, remain, abide, continue, brave a thousand
     tarry &c (be late) 133; drag on, drag its slow length along, drag
a lengthening chain; protract, prolong; spin out, eke out, draw out,
lengthen out; temporize; gain time, make time, talk against time.
     outlast, outlive; survive; live to fight again.
Adj. durable; lasting &c v.; of long duration, of long-standing;
permanent, endless, chronic, long-standing; intransient^, intransitive;
intransmutable^, persistent; lifelong, livelong; longeval^, long-lived,
macrobiotic, diuturnal^, evergreen, perennial; sempervirent^,
sempervirid^; unrelenting, unintermitting^, unremitting; perpetual &c
     lingering, protracted, prolonged, spun out &c v.. long-pending,
long-winded; slow &c 275.
Adv. long; for a long time, for an age, for ages, for ever so long, for
many a long day; long ago &c (in a past time) 122; longo intervallo
     all the day long, all the year round; the livelong day, as the day
is long, morning noon and night; hour after hour, day after day, &c;
for good; permanently &c adj..

111. [Short duration.] Transientness -- N. transience, transientness &c
adj.^; evanescence, impermanence, fugacity [Chem], caducity^, mortality,
span; nine days' wonder, bubble, Mayfly; spurt; flash in the pan;
temporary arrangement, interregnum.
     velocity &c 274; suddenness &c 113; changeableness &c 149.
     transient, transient boarder, transient guest [U.S.].
V. be transient &c adj.; flit, pass away, fly, gallop, vanish, fade,
evaporate; pass away like a cloud, pass away like a summer cloud, pass
away like a shadow, pass away like a dream.
Adj. transient, transitory, transitive; passing, evanescent, fleeting,
cursory, short-lived, ephemeral; flying &c v.; fugacious, fugitive;
shifting, slippery; spasmodic; instantaneous, momentaneous^.
     temporal, temporary; provisional, provisory; deciduous;
perishable, mortal, precarious, unstable, insecure; impermanent.
     brief, quick, brisk, extemporaneous, summary; pressed for time &c
(haste) 684; sudden, momentary &c (instantaneous) 113.
Adv. temporarily &c adj.; pro tempore [Lat.]; for the moment, for a
time; awhile, en passant [Fr.], in transitu [Lat.]; in a short time;
soon &c (early) 132; briefly &c adj.; at short notice; on the point of,
on the eve of; in articulo; between cup and lip.
Phr. one's days are numbered; the time is up; here today and gone
tomorrow; non semper erit aestas [Lat.]; eheu! fugaces labuntur anni
[Lat.]; sic transit gloria mundi [Lat.]; a schoolboy's tale, the wonder
of the hour! [Byron]; dum loquimur fugerit invidia aetas [Lat.]; fugit
hora [Lat.]; all that is transitory is but an illusion [Goethe].

112. [Endless duration.] Perpetuity -- N. perpetuity, eternity,
everness^, aye, sempiternity^, immortality, athanasia^; interminability^,
agelessness^, everlastingness &c adj.; perpetuation; continued
existence, uninterrupted existence; perennity^; permanence (durability)
V. last forever, endure forever, go on forever; have no end.
     eternize, perpetuate.
Adj. perpetual, eternal; everduring^, everlasting, ever-living, ever-
flowing; continual, sempiternal^; coeternal; endless, unending;
ceaseless, incessant, uninterrupted, indesinent^, unceasing; endless,
unending, interminable, having no end; unfading^, evergreen,
amaranthine; neverending^, never-dying, never-fading; deathless,
immortal, undying, imperishable.
Adv. perpetually &c adj.; always, ever, evermore, aye; for ever, for
aye, till the end of the universe, forevermore, forever and a day, for
ever and ever; in all ages, from age to age; without end; world without
end, time without end; in secula seculorum [Lat.]; to the end of time,
to the crack of doom, to the 'last syllable of recorded time'
[Macbeth]; till doomsday; constantly &c (very frequently) 136.
Phr. esto perpetuum [Lat.]; labitur et labetur in omne volubilis oevum
[Lat.] [Horace]; but thou shall flourish in immortal youth [Addison];
Eternity! thou pleasing, dreadful thought [Addison]; her immortal part
with angels lives [Romeo and Juliet]; ohne Rast [G.], [Goethe's motto];
ora e sempre [It].

113. [Point of time] Instantaneity -- N. instantaneity,
instantaneousness, immediacy; suddenness, abruptness.
     moment, instant, second, minute; twinkling, trice, flash, breath,
crack, jiffy, coup, burst, flash of lightning, stroke of time.
     epoch, time; time of day, time of night; hour, minute; very minute
&c, very time, very hour; present time, right time, true time, exact
correct time.
V. be instantaneous &c adj.; twinkle, flash.
Adj. instantaneous, momentary, sudden, immediate, instant, abrupt,
discontinuous, precipitous, precipitant, precipitate; subitaneous^,
hasty; quick as thought, quick as lightning, quick as a flash; rapid as
     speedy, quick, fast, fleet, swift, lively, blitz; rapid (velocity)
Adv. instantaneously &c adj.; in no time, in less than no time; presto,
subito^, instanter, suddenly, at a stroke, like a shot; in a moment &c
n.. in the blink of an eye, in the twinkling of an eye, in a trice; in
one's tracks; right away; toute a l'heure [Fr.]; at one jump, in the
same breath, per saltum [Lat.], uno saltu [Lat.]; at once, all at once;
plump, slap; at one fell swoop; at the same instant &c n.; immediately
&c (early) 132; extempore, on the moment, on the spot, on the spur of
the moment; no sooner said than done; just then; slap-dash &c (haste)
Phr. touch and go; no sooner said than done.

114. [Estimation, measurement, and record of time.] Chronometry -- N.
chronometry, horometry^, horology; date, epoch; style, era.
     almanac, calendar, ephemeris; register, registry; chronicle,
annals, journal, diary.
     [Instruments for the measurement of time] chronogram; clock, wall
clock, pendulum clock, grandfather's clock, cuckoo clock, alarm clock,
clock radio; watch, wristwatch, pocket watch, stopwatch, Swiss watch;
atomic clock, digital clock, analog clock, quartz watch, water clock;
chronometer, chronoscope^, chronograph; repeater; timekeeper, timepiece;
dial, sundial, gnomon, horologe, pendulum, hourglass, clepsydra^;
     chronographer^, chronologer, chronologist, timekeeper; annalist.
     calendar year, leap year, Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar,
Chinese calendar, Jewish calendar, perpetual calendar, Farmer's
almanac, fiscal year.
V. fix the time, mark the time; date, register, chronicle; measure
time, beat time, mark time; bear date; synchronize watches.
Adj. chronological, chronometrical^, chronogrammatical^; cinquecento
[Fr.], quattrocento^, trecento^.
Adv. o'clock.

115. [False estimate of time.] Anachronism -- N. anachronism,
metachronism, parachronism, prochronism; prolepsis, misdate;
anticipation, antichronism.
     disregard of time, neglect of time, oblivion of time.
     intempestivity &c 135 [Obs.].
V. misdate, antedate, postdate, backdate, overdate^; anticipate; take no
note of time, lose track of time; anachronize^.
Adj. misdated &c v.; undated; overdue, past due; out of date.

1. Time with reference to Succession

116. Priority -- N. priority, antecedence, anteriority, precedence,
pre-existence; precession &c 280; precursor &c 64; the past &c 122;
V. precede, come before; forerun; go before &c (lead) 280; preexist;
dawn; presage &c 511; herald, usher in.
     be beforehand &c (be early) 132; steal a march upon, anticipate,
forestall; have the start, gain the start.
Adj. prior, previous; preceding, precedent; anterior, antecedent; pre-
existing, pre-existent; former, foregoing; aforementioned, before-
mentioned, abovementioned; aforesaid, said; introductory &c
(precursory) 64.
Adv. before, prior to; earlier; previously &c adj.; afore^, aforehand^,
beforehand, ere, theretofore, erewhile^; ere then, ere now, before then,
before now; erewhile^, already, yet, beforehand; on the eve of.
Phr. prior tempore prior jure [Lat.].

117. Posteriority -- N. posteriority; succession, sequence; following
&c 281; subsequence, supervention; futurity &c 121; successor; sequel
&c 65; remainder, reversion.
V. follow after &c 281, come after, go after; succeed, supervene;
ensue, occur; step into the shoes of.
Adj. subsequent, posterior, following, after, later, succeeding,
postliminious^, postnate^; postdiluvial^, postdiluvian^; puisne^;
posthumous; future &c 121; afterdinner, postprandial.
Adv. subsequently, after, afterwards, since, later; at a subsequent, at
a later period, at a later date; next, in the sequel, close upon,
thereafter, thereupon, upon which, eftsoons^; from that time, from that
moment; after a while, after a time; in process of time.

118. The Present Time -- N. the present, the present time, the present
day, the present moment, the present juncture, the present occasion;
the times, the existing time, the time being; today, these days,
nowadays, our times, modern times, the twentieth century; nonce,
crisis, epoch, day, hour.
     age, time of life.
Adj. present, actual, instant, current, existing, extant, that is;
present-day, up-to-date, up-to-the-moment.
Adv. at this time, at this moment &c 113; at the present time &c n.;
now, at present; at hand.
     at this time of day, today, nowadays; already; even now, but now,
just now; on the present occasion; for the time being, for the nonce;
pro hac vice. [Lat.]; on the nail, on the spot; on the spur of the
moment, until now; to this day, to the present day.
Phr. the present hour alone is man's [Johnson].

119. [Time different from the present.] Different time -- N. different
time, other time.
     [Indefinite time] aorist.
Adj. aoristic; indefinite.
Adv. at that time, at which time, at that moment, at that instant;
then, on that occasion, upon; not now, some other time.
     when; whenever, whensoever; upon which, on which occasion; at
another time, at a different time, at some other time, at any time; at
various times; some one of these days, one of these days, one fine
morning; eventually, some day, by and by, sooner or later; some time or
other; once upon a time.

120. Synchronism -- N. synchronism; coexistence, coincidence;
simultaneousness, simultaneity &c adj.; concurrence, concomitance,
unity of time, interim.
     [Having equal times] isochronism^.
     contemporary, coetanian^.
V. coexist, concur, accompany, go hand in hand, keep pace with;
Adj. synchronous, synchronal^, synchronic, synchronical,
synchronistical^; simultaneous, coexisting, coincident, concomitant,
concurrent; coeval, coevous^; contemporary, contemporaneous;
coetaneous^; coeternal; isochronous.
Adv. at the same time; simultaneously &c adj.; together, in concert,
during the same time; in the same breath; pari passu [Lat.]; in the
interim; as one.
     at the very moment &c 113; just as, as soon as; meanwhile &c
(while) 106.

121. [Prospective time.] Futurity -- N. futurity, futurition; future,
hereafter, time to come; approaching time, coming time, subsequent
time, after time, approaching age, coming age, subsequent age, after
age, approaching days, coming days, subsequent days, after days,
approaching hours, coming hours, subsequent hours, after hours,
approaching ages, coming ages, subsequent ages, after ages, approaching
life, coming life, subsequent life, after life, approaching years,
coming years, subsequent years, after years; morrow; millennium,
doomsday, day of judgment, crack of doom, remote future.
     approach of time advent, time drawing on, womb of time; destiny &c
152; eventuality.
     heritage, heirs posterity.
     prospect &c (expectation) 507; foresight &c 510.
V. look forwards; anticipate &c (expect) 507, (foresee) 510; forestall
&c (be early) 132.
     come on, draw on; draw near; approach, await, threaten; impend &c
(be destined) 152.
Adj. future, to come; coming &c (impending) 152; next, near; close at
hand; eventual, ulterior; in prospect &c (expectation) 507.
Adv. prospectively, hereafter, in future; kal^, tomorrow, the day after
tomorrow; in course of time, in process of time, in the fullness of
time; eventually, ultimately, sooner or later; proximo [Lat.]; paulo
post futurum [Lat.]; in after time; one of these days; after a time,
after a while.
     from this time; henceforth, henceforwards^; thence; thenceforth,
thenceforward; whereupon, upon which.
     soon &c (early) 132; on the eve of, on the point of, on the brink
of; about to; close upon.
Phr. quid sit futurum cras fuge quaerere [Lat.] [Horace].

122. [Retrospective time.] The Past -- N. the past, past time; days of
yore, times of yore, days of old, times of old, days past, times past,
days gone by, times gone by; bygone days; old times, ancient times,
former times; fore time; the good old days, the olden time, good old
time; auld lang syne^; eld^.
     antiquity, antiqueness^, status quo; time immemorial; distance of
time; remote age, remote time; remote past; rust of antiquity.
     [study of the past] paleontology, paleography, paleology^;
paleozoology; palaetiology^, archaeology; paleogeography; paleoecology;
paleobotany; paleoclimatoogy; archaism, antiquarianism, medievalism,
Pre-Raphaelitism; paleography.
     retrospect, retrospection, looking back, memory &c 505.
     laudator temporis acti [Lat.]; medievalist, Pre-Raphaelite;
antiquary, antiquarian; archmologist &c; Oldbuck, Dryasdust.
     ancestry &c (paternity) 166.
V. be past &c adj.; have expired &c adj., have run its course, have had
its day; pass; pass by, go by, pass away, go away, pass off, go off;
lapse, blow over.
     look back, trace back, cast the eyes back; exhume.
Adj. past, gone, gone by, over, passed away, bygone, foregone; elapsed,
lapsed, preterlapsed^, expired, no more, run out, blown over, has-been,
that has been, extinct, antediluvian, antebellum, never to return, gone
with the wind, exploded, forgotten, irrecoverable; obsolete &c (old)
     former, pristine, quondam, ci-devant [Fr.], late; ancestral.
     foregoing; last, latter; recent, over night; preterperfect^,
     looking back &c v.; retrospective, retroactive; archaeological &c
Adv. paleo-; archaeo-; formerly; of old, of yore; erst [G.], whilom,
erewhile^, time was, ago, over; in the olden time &c n.; anciently, long
ago, long since; a long while, a long time ago; years ago, yesteryear,
ages ago; some time ago, some time since, some time back.
     yesterday, the day before yesterday; last year, ultimo; lately &c
(newly) 123.
     retrospectively; ere now, before now, till now; hitherto,
heretofore; no longer; once, once upon a time; from time immemorial,
from prehistoric times; in the memory of man; time out of mind;
already, yet, up to this time; ex post facto.
Phr. time was; the time has been, the time hath been; you can't go home
again; fuimus Troes [Lat.] [Vergil]; fruit Ilium [Lat.] [Vergil]; hoc
erat in more majorum [Lat.]; O call back yesterday, bid time return
[Richard II]; tempi passati [It]; the eternal landscape of the past
[Tennyson]; ultimus Romanorum [Lat.]; what's past is prologue
[Tempest]; whose yesterdays look backward with a smile [Young].
2. Time with reference to a particular period

123. Newness -- N. newness &c adj.; novelty, recency; immaturity; youth
&c 127; gloss of novelty.
     innovation; renovation &c (restoration) 660.
     modernism; mushroom, parvenu; latest fashion.
V. renew &c (restore) 660; modernize.
Adj. new, novel, recent, fresh, green; young &c 127; evergreen; raw,
immature, unsettled, yeasty; virgin; untried, unhandseled^, untrodden,
untrod, unbeaten; fire-new, span-new.
     late, modern, neoteric, hypermodern, nouveau; new-born, nascent,
neonatal [Med.], new-fashioned, new-fangled, new-fledged; of yesterday;
just out, brand-new, up to date, up to the minute, with it,
fashionable, in fashion; in, hip [Coll.]; vernal, renovated,
sempervirent^, sempervirid^.
     fresh as a rose, fresh as a daisy, fresh as paint; spick and span.
Adv. newly &c adj.; afresh, anew, lately, just now, only yesterday, the
other day; latterly, of late.
     not long ago, a short time ago.
Phr. di novello tutto par bello [It]; nullum est jam dictum quod non
dictum est prius [Lat.]; una scopa nuova spazza bene [It].

124. Oldness -- N. oldness &c adj.^; age, antiquity; cobwebs of
     maturity; decline, decay; senility &c 128.
     seniority, eldership, primogeniture.
     archaism &c (the past) 122; thing of the past, relic of the past;
megatherium^; Sanskrit.
     tradition, prescription, custom, immemorial usage, common law.
V. be old &c adj.; have had its day, have seen its day; become old &c
adj.; age, fade, senesce.
Adj. old, ancient, antique; of long standing, time-honored, venerable;
elder, eldest; firstborn.
     prime; primitive, primeval, primigenous^; paleolontological,
paleontologic, paleoanthropological, paleoanthropic^, paleolithic,
primordial, primordinate^; aboriginal &c (beginning) 66; diluvian^,
antediluvian; protohistoric^; prehistoric; antebellum, colonial,
precolumbian; patriarchal, preadamite^; paleocrystic^; fossil,
paleozoolical, paleozoic, preglacial^, antemundane^; archaic, classic,
medieval, Pre-Raphaelite, ancestral, black-letter.
     immemorial, traditional, prescriptive, customary, whereof the
memory of man runneth not to the contrary; inveterate, rooted.
     antiquated, of other times, rococo, of the old school, after-age,
obsolete; out of date, out of fashion, out of it; stale, old-fashioned,
behind the age; old-world; exploded; gone out, gone by; passe, run out;
senile &c 128; time worn; crumbling &c (deteriorated) 659; secondhand.
     old as the hills, old as Methuselah, old as Adam^, old as history.
     [geological eras (list, starting at given number of years bp)]
Archeozoic [5,000,000,000], Proterozoic [1,500,000,000], Paleozoic
[600,000,000], Mesozoic [220,000,000], Cenozoic [70,000,000].
     [geological periods] Precambrian, Cambrian [600,000,000],
Ordovician [500,000,000], Silurian [440,000,000], Devonian
[400,000,000], Mississippian [350,000,000], Pennsylvanian
[300,000,000], Permian [270,000,000], Triassic [220,000,000], Jurassic
[180,000,000], Cretaceous [135,000,000], Tertiary [70,000,000],
Paleogene [70,000,000], Neocene [25,0000,000], Quaternary [1,000,000].
     [geological epochs (list, starting at 70,000,000 years bp)]
Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Recent.
Adv. since the world was made, since the year one, since the days of
Phr. vetera extollimus recentium incuriosi [Lat.] [Tacitus].

125. Morning [Noon.] -- N. morning, morn, forenoon, a.m., prime, dawn,
daybreak; dayspring^, foreday^, sunup; peep of day, break of day;
aurora; first blush of the morning, first flush of the morning, prime
of the morning; twilight, crepuscule, sunrise; cockcrow, cockcrowing^;
the small hours, the wee hours of the morning.
     spring; vernal equinox, first point of Aries.
     noon; midday, noonday; noontide, meridian, prime; nooning,
     summer, midsummer.
Adj. matin, matutinal^; vernal.
Adv. at sunrise &c n.; with the sun, with the lark, when the morning
Phr. at shut of evening flowers [Paradise Lost]; entre chien et loup
[Fr.]; flames in the forehead of the morning sky [Milton]; the breezy
call of incense-breathing morn [Gray].

126. Evening [Midnight.] -- N. evening, eve; decline of day, fall of
day, close of day; candlelight, candlelighting^; eventide, nightfall,
curfew, dusk, twilight, eleventh hour; sunset, sundown; going down of
the sun, cock-shut, dewy eve, gloaming, bedtime.
     afternoon, postmeridian, p.m.
     autumn, fall, fall of the leaf; autumnal equinox; Indian summer,
     Luke's summer, St.
     Martin's summer.
     midnight; dead of night, witching hour, witching hour of night,
witching time of night; winter; killing time.
Adj. vespertine, autumnal, nocturnal.
Phr. midnight, the outpost of advancing day [Longfellow]; sable-vested
Night [Milton]; this gorgeous arch with golden worlds inlay'd [Young].

127. Youth -- N. youth; juvenility, juvenescence^; juniority^; infancy;
babyhood, childhood, boyhood, girlhood, youthhood^; incunabula;
minority, nonage, teens, tender age, bloom.
     cradle, nursery, leading strings, pupilage, puberty, pucelage^.
     prime of life, flower of life, springtide of life^, seedtime of
life, golden season of life; heyday of youth, school days; rising
Adj. young, youthful, juvenile, green, callow, budding, sappy, puisne,
beardless, under age, in one's teens; in statu pupillari [Lat.];
younger, junior; hebetic^, unfledged.
Phr. youth on the prow and pleasure at the helm [Gray]; youth a the
glad season of life [Carlyle].

128. Age -- N. age; oldness^ &c adj.; old age, advanced age, golden
years; senility, senescence; years, anility^, gray hairs, climacteric,
grand climacteric, declining years, decrepitude, hoary age, caducity^,
superannuation; second childhood, second childishness; dotage; vale of
years, decline of life, sear and yellow leaf [Macbeth]; threescore
years and ten; green old age, ripe age; longevity; time of life.
     seniority, eldership; elders &c (veteran) 130; firstling; doyen,
father; primogeniture.
     [Science of old age.] geriatrics, nostology^.
V. be aged &c adj.; grow old, get old &c adj.; age; decline, wane,
dodder; senesce.
Adj. aged; old &c 124; elderly, geriatric, senile; matronly, anile^; in
years; ripe, mellow, run to seed, declining, waning, past one's prime;
gray, gray-headed; hoar, hoary; venerable, time-worn, antiquated,
passe, effete, decrepit, superannuated; advanced in life, advanced in
years; stricken in years; wrinkled, marked withthe crow's foot; having
one foot in the grave; doting &c (imbecile) 499; like the last of pea
     older, elder, eldest; senior; firstborn.
     turned of, years old; of a certain age, no chicken, old as
Methuselah; ancestral, patriarchal, &c (ancient) 124; gerontic.
Phr. give me a staff of honor for my age [Titus Andronicus]; bis pueri
senes [Lat.]; peu de gens savent elre vieux [Fr.]; plenus annis abiit
plenus honoribus [Lat.] [Pliny the Younger]; old age is creeping on
apace [Byron]; slow-consuming age [Gray]; the hoary head is a crown of
glory [Proverbs xvi, 31]; the silver livery of advised age [II Henry
VI]; to grow old gracefully; to vanish in the chinks that Time has made

129. Infant -- N. infant, babe, baby, babe in arms; nurseling,
suckling, yearling, weanling; papoose, bambino; kid; vagitus.
     child, bairn [Scot.], little one, brat, chit, pickaninny, urchin;
bantling, bratling^; elf.
     youth, boy, lad, stripling, youngster, youngun, younker^, callant^,
whipster^, whippersnapper, whiffet [U.S.], schoolboy, hobbledehoy,
hopeful, cadet, minor, master.
     scion; sap, seedling; tendril, olive branch, nestling, chicken,
larva, chrysalis, tadpole, whelp, cub, pullet, fry, callow; codlin,
codling; foetus, calf, colt, pup, foal, kitten; lamb, lambkin^;
aurelia^, caterpillar, cocoon, nymph, nympha^, orphan, pupa, staddle^.
     girl; lass, lassie; wench, miss, damsel, demoiselle; maid, maiden;
virgin; hoyden.
Adj. infantine^, infantile; puerile; boyish, girlish, childish, babyish,
kittenish; baby; newborn, unfledged, new-fledged, callow.
     in the cradle, in swaddling clothes, in long clothes, in arms, in
leading strings; at the breast; in one's teens.

130. Veteran -- N. veteran, old man, seer, patriarch, graybeard;
grandfather, grandsire; grandam; gaffer, gammer; crone; pantaloon;
sexagenarian, octogenarian, nonagenarian, centenarian; old stager;
dotard &c 501.
     preadamite^, Methuselah, Nestor, old Parr; elders; forefathers &c
(paternity) 166.
Phr. superfluous lags the veteran on the stage [Johnson].

131. Adolescence -- N. adolescence, pubescence, majority; adultism;
adultness &c adj.; manhood, virility, maturity full age, ripe age;
flower of age; prime of life, meridian of life, spring of life.
     man &c 373; woman &c 374; adult, no chicken.
V. come of age, come to man's estate, come to years of discretion;
attain majority, assume the toga virilis [Lat.]; have cut one's
eyeteeth, have sown one's mild oats.
Adj. adolescent, pubescent, of age; of full age, of ripe age; out of
one's teens, grown up, mature, full grown, in one's prime, middle-aged,
manly, virile, adult; womanly, matronly; marriageable, nubile.
3. Time with reference to an Effect or Purpose

132. Earliness -- N. {ant.
     133} earliness &c adj.; morning &c 125.
     punctuality; promptitude &c (activity) 682; haste &c (velocity)
274; suddenness &c (instantaneity) 113.
     prematurity, precocity, precipitation, anticipation; a stitch in
V. be early &c adj., be beforehand &c adv.; keep time, take time by the
forelock, anticipate, forestall; have the start, gain the start; steal
a march upon; gain time, draw on futurity; bespeak, secure, engage,
     accelerate; expedite &c (quicken) 274; make haste &c (hurry) 684.
Adj. early, prime, forward; prompt &c (active) 682; summary.
     premature, precipitate, precocious; prevenient^, anticipatory;
     sudden &c (instantaneous) 113; unexpected &c 508; near, near at
hand; immediate.
Adv. early, soon, anon, betimes, rath^; eft, eftsoons; ere long, before
long, shortly; beforehand; prematurely &c adj.; precipitately &c
(hastily) 684; too soon; before its time, before one's time; in
anticipation; unexpectedly &c 508.
     suddenly &c (instantaneously) 113; before one can say 'Jack
Robinson', at short notice, extempore; on the spur of the moment, on
the spur of the occasion [Bacon]; at once; on the spot, on the instant;
at sight; offhand, out of hand; a' vue d'oeil [Fr.]; straight,
straightway, straightforth^; forthwith, incontinently, summarily,
immediately, briefly, shortly, quickly, speedily, apace, before the ink
is dry, almost immediately, presently at the first opportunity, in no
long time, by and by, in a while, directly.
Phr. no sooner said than done, immediately, if not sooner; tout vient a
temps pour qui sait attendre [Fr.].

132a. Punctuality -- N. punctuality, promptness, immediateness.
V. be prompt, be on time, be in time; arrive on time; be in the nick of
Adj. timely, seasonable, in time, punctual, prompt.
Adv. on time, punctually, at the deadline, precisely, exactly; right on
time, to the minute; in time; in good time, in military time, in
pudding time^, in due time; time enough; with no time to spare, by a
hair's breadth.
Phr. touch and go, not a minute too soon, in the nick of time, just
under the wire, get on board before the train leaves the station.

133. Lateness -- N. {ant.
     132} lateness &c adj.; tardiness &c (slowness) 275.
     delay, delation; cunctation, procrastination; deferring, deferral
&c v.; postponement, adjournment, prorogation, retardation, respite,
pause, reprieve, stay of execution; protraction, prolongation; Fabian
policy, medecine expectante [Fr.], chancery suit, federal case; leeway;
high time; moratorium, holdover.
V. be late &c adj.; tarry, wait, stay, bide, take time; dawdle &c (be
inactive) 683; linger, loiter; bide one's time, take one's time; gain
time; hang fire; stand over, lie over.
     put off, defer, delay, lay over, suspend; table [Parl.]; shift
off, stave off; waive, retard, remand, postpone, adjourn;
procrastinate; dally; prolong, protract; spin out, draw out, lengthen
out, stretch out; prorogue; keep back; tide over; push to the last,
drive to the last; let the matter stand over; reserve &c (store) 636;
temporize; consult one's pillow, sleep on it.
     lose an opportunity &c 135; be kept waiting, dance attendance;
kick one's heels, cool one's heels; faire antichambre [Fr.]; wait
impatiently; await &c (expect) 507; sit up, sit up at night.
Adj. late, tardy, slow, behindhand, serotine^, belated, postliminious^,
posthumous, backward, unpunctual, untimely; delayed, postponed;
dilatory &c (slow) 275; delayed &c v.; in abeyance.
Adv. late; lateward^, backward; late in the day; at sunset, at the
eleventh hour, at length, at last; ultimately; after time, behind time,
after the deadline; too late; too late for &c 135.
     slowly, leisurely, deliberately, at one's leisure; ex post facto;
sine die.
Phr. nonum prematur in annum [Lat.] [Horace]; against the sunbeams
serotine and lucent [Longfellow]; ie meglio tardi che mai [It];
deliberando saepe perit occasio [Lat.] [Syrus].

134. Occasion -- N. {ant.
     135} timeliness, occasion, opportunity, opening, room; event
(eventuality) 151; suitable season, proper season, suitable time,
proper time; high time; opportuneness &c adj.; tempestivity^.
     crisis, turn, juncture, conjuncture; crisis, turning point, given
     nick of time; golden opportunity, well timed opportunity, fine
opportunity, favorable opportunity, opening; clear stage, fair field;
mollia tempora [Lat.]; fata Morgana [Lat.]; spare time &c (leisure)
V. seize an opportunity &c (take) 789, use an opportunity &c 677, give
an opportunity &c 784, use an occasion; improve the occasion.
     suit the occasion &c (be expedient) 646.
     seize the occasion, strike while the iron is hot, battre le fer
sur l'enclume [Fr.], make hay while the sun shines, seize the present
hour, take time by the forelock, prendre la balle au bond [Fr.].
Adj. opportune, timely, well-timed, timeful^, seasonable.
     providential, lucky, fortunate, happy, favorable, propitious,
auspicious, critical; suitable &c 23; obiter dicta.
Adv. opportunely &c adj.; in proper course, in due course, in proper
season, in due season, in proper time, in due time; for the nonce; in
the nick of time, in the fullness of time; all in good time; just in
time, at the eleventh hour, now or never.
     by the way, by the by; en passant [Fr.], a propos [Fr.]; pro re
nata [Lat.], pro hac vice [Lat.]; par parenthese [Fr.],
parenthetically, by way of parenthesis, incidentally; while speaking
of, while on the subject; extempore; on the spur of the moment, on the
spur of the occasion; on the spot &c (early) 132.
Phr. carpe diem [Lat.], [Horace]; occasionem cognosce [Lat.]; one's
hour is come, the time is up; that reminds me, now that you mention it,
come to think of it; bien perdu bien connu [Fr.]; e sempre l'ora [It];
ex quovis ligno non fit Mercurius [Lat.]; nosce tempus [Lat.]; nunc aut
nunquam [Lat.].

135. Untimeliness -- N. {ant.
     134} untimeliness, intempestivity^, unseasonableness, inexpedience;
unsuitable time, improper time; unreasonableness &c adj.; evil hour;
contretemps; intrusion; anachronism &c 115.
     bad time, wrong time, inappropriate time, not the right occasion,
unsuitable time, inopportune time, poor timing.
V. be ill timed &c adj.; mistime, intrude, come amiss, break in upon;
have other fish to fry; be busy, be occupied.
     lose an opportunity, throw away an opportunity, waste an
opportunity, neglect an opportunity &c 460; allow the opportunity to
pass, suffer the opportunity to pass, allow the opportunity to slip,
suffer the opportunity to slip, allow the opportunity to go by, suffer
the opportunity to go by, allow the opportunity to escape, suffer the
opportunity to escape, allow the opportunity to lapse, suffer the
opportunity to lapse, allow the occasion to pass, allow the occasion to
slip by; waste time &c (be inactive) 683; let slip through the fingers,
lock the barn door after the horse is stolen.
Adj. ill-timed, mistimed; ill-fated, ill-omened, ill-starred; untimely,
unseasonable; out of date, out of season; inopportune, timeless,
intrusive, untoward, mal a propos [Fr.], unlucky, inauspicious,
infelicitous, unbefitting, unpropitious, unfortunate, unfavorable;
unsuited &c 24; inexpedient &c 647.
     unpunctual &c (late) 133; too late for; premature &c (early) 132;
too soon for; wise after the event, monday morning quarterbacking,
twenty-twenty hindsight.
Adv. inopportunely &c adj.; as ill luck would have it, in an evil hour,
the time having gone by, a day after the fair.
Phr. after death the doctor, after meat mustard.


136. Frequency -- N. frequency, oftness^, oftenness^, commonness;
repetition &c 104; normality &c 80; example (conformity) 82; routine,
custom (habit) 613.
     regularity, uniformity, constancy, clock-work precision;
punctuality &c (exactness) 494; even tenor; system; routine &c (custom)
613; formula; rule &c (form regulation) 697; keynote, standard, model;
precedent &c (prototype) 22; conformity &c 82.
V. recur &c 104; do nothing but; keep, keep on.
Adj. frequent, many times, not rare, thickcoming^, incessant, perpetual,
continual, steady, constant, thick; uniform; repeated &c 104; customary
&c 613 (habit) 613; regular (normal) 80; according to rule &c
(conformable) 82.
     common, everyday, usual, ordinary, familiar.
     old-hat, boring, well-known, trivial.
Adv. often, oft; ofttimes^, oftentimes; frequently; repeatedly &c 104;
unseldom^, not unfrequently^; in quick succession, in rapid succession;
many a time and oft; daily, hourly &c; every day, every hour, every
moment &c, perpetually, continually, constantly, incessantly, without
ceasing, at all times, daily and hourly, night and day, day and night,
day after day, morning noon and night, ever anon, invariably (habit)
     most often; commonly &c (habitually) 613.
     sometimes, occasionally, at times, now and then, from time to
time, there being times when, toties quoties [Lat.], often enough, when
the mood strikes, again and again.

137. Infrequency -- N. infrequency, rareness, rarity; fewness &c 103;
seldomness^; uncommonness.
V. be rare &c adj..
Adj. unfrequent^, infrequent; rare, rare as a blue diamond; few &c 103;
scarce; almost unheard of, unprecedented, which has not occurred within
the memory of the oldest inhabitant, not within one's previous
experience; not since Adam^.
     scarce as hen's teeth; one in a million; few and far between.
Adv. seldom, rarely, scarcely, hardly; not often, not much,
infrequently, unfrequently^, unoften^; scarcely, scarcely ever, hardly
ever; once in a blue moon.
     once; once in a blue moon; once in a million years; once for all,
once in a way; pro hac vice [Lat.].
Phr. ein mal kein mal [G.].

138. Periodicity [Regularity of recurrence] -- N. periodicity,
intermittence; beat; oscillation &c 314; pulse, pulsation; rhythm;
alternation, alternateness, alternativeness, alternity^.
     bout, round, revolution, rotation, turn, say.
     anniversary, jubilee, centenary.
     catamenia^, courses, menses, menstrual flux.
     [Regularity of return] rota, cycle, period, stated time, routine;
days of the week; Sunday, Monday &c; months of the year; January &c;
feast, fast &c; Christmas, Easter, New Year's day &c; Allhallows^,
Allhallowmas^, All Saints' Day; All Souls', All Souls' Day; Ash
Wednesday, bicentennial, birthday, bissextile^, Candlemas^, Dewali,
groundhog day [U.S.], Halloween, Hallowmas^, Lady day, leap year,
Midsummer day, Muharram, woodchuck day [U.S.], St.
     Swithin's day, natal day; yearbook; yuletide.
     punctuality, regularity, steadiness.
V. recur in regular order, recur in regular succession; return,
revolve; come again, come in its turn; come round, come round again;
beat, pulsate; alternate; intermit.
Adj. periodic, periodical; serial, recurrent, cyclical, rhythmical;
recurring &c v.; intermittent, remittent; alternate, every other.
     hourly; diurnal, daily; quotidian, tertian, weekly; hebdomadal^,
hebdomadary^; biweekly, fortnightly; bimonthly; catamenial^; monthly,
menstrual; yearly, annual; biennial, triennial, &c; centennial,
secular; paschal, lenten, &c regular, steady, punctual, regular as
Adv. periodically &c adj.; at regular intervals, at stated times; at
fixed established, at established periods; punctually &c adj.. de die
in diem [Lat.]; from day to day, day by day.
     by turns; in turn, in rotation; alternately, every other day, off
and on, ride and tie, round and round.

139. Irregularity of recurrence -- N. irregularity, uncertainty,
unpunctuality; fitfulness &c adj.; capriciousness, ecrhythmus^.
Adj. irregular, uncertain, unpunctual, capricious, desultory, fitful,
flickering; rambling, rhapsodical; spasmodic; immethodical^,
unmethodical, variable.
Adv. irregularly &c adj.; by fits and starts &c (discontinuously) 70.



140. [Difference at different times.] Change -- N. change, alteration,
mutation, permutation, variation, modification, modulation, inflexion,
mood, qualification, innovation, metastasis, deviation, turn,
evolution, revolution; diversion; break.
     transformation, transfiguration; metamorphosis; transmutation;
deoxidization [Chem]; transubstantiation; [Genetics], mutagenesis
transanimation^, transmigration, metempsychosis^; avatar; alterative.
     conversion &c (gradual change) 144; revolution &c (sudden or
radical change) 146, inversion &c (reversal) 218; displacement &c 185;
transference &c 270.
     changeableness &c 149; tergiversation &c (change of mind) 607.
V. change, alter, vary, wax and wane; modulate, diversify, qualify,
tamper with; turn, shift, veer, tack, chop, shuffle, swerve, warp,
deviate, turn aside, evert, intervert^; pass to, take a turn, turn the
corner, resume.
     work a change, modify, vamp, superinduce; transform, transfigure,
transmute, transmogrify, transume^; metamorphose, ring the changes.
     innovate, introduce new blood, shuffle the cards; give a turn to,
give a color to; influence, turn the scale; shift the scene, turn over
a new leaf.
     recast &c 146; reverse &c 218; disturb &c 61; convert into &c 144.
Adj. changed &c v.; newfangled; changeable &c 149; transitional;
modifiable; alterative.
Adv. mutatis mutandis [Lat.].
Int. quantum mutatus! [Lat.],
Phr. a change came o'er the spirit of my dream [Byron]; nous avons
change tout cela [Moliere]; tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis
[Lat.]; non sum qualis eram [Lat.] [Horace]; casaque tourner [Fr.];
corpora lente augescent cito extinguuntur [Tacitus]; in statu quo ante
bellum [Lat.]; still ending and beginning still [Cowper]; vox audita
perit littera scripta manet [Lat.].

141. [Absence of change.] Permanence -- N. stability &c 150; quiescence
&c 265; obstinacy &c 606.
     permanence, persistence, endurance; durability; standing, status
quo; maintenance, preservation, conservation; conservation; law of the
Medes and Persians; standing dish.
V. let alone, let be, let it be; persist, remain, stay, tarry, rest;
stet (copy editing) hold, hold on; last, endure, bide, abide, aby^,
dwell, maintain, keep; stand, stand still, stand fast; subsist, live,
outlive, survive; hold one's ground, keep one's ground, hold one's
footing, keep one's footing; hold good.
Adj. stable &c 150; persisting &c v.; permanent; established; unchanged
&c (change) &c 140; renewed; intact, inviolate; persistent; monotonous,
uncheckered^; unfailing.
     undestroyed, unrepealed, unsuppressed^; conservative, qualis ab
incepto [Lat.]; prescriptive &c (old) 124; stationary &c 265.
Adv. in statu quo [Lat.]; for good, finally; at a stand, at a
standstill; uti possidetis [Lat.]; without a shadow of turning.
Phr. esto perpetua [Lat.]; nolumus leges Angliae mutari [Lat.]; j'y
suis et j'y ereste [Fr.].

142. [Change from action to rest.] Cessation -- N. cessation,
discontinuance, desistance, desinence^.
     intermission, remission; suspense, suspension; interruption; stop;
stopping &c v.; closure, stoppage, halt; arrival &c 292.
     pause, rest, lull, respite, truce, drop; interregnum, abeyance;
cloture [U.S.].
     dead stop, dead stand, dead lock; finis, cerrado [Sp.]; blowout,
burnout, meltdown, disintegration; comma, colon, semicolon, period,
full stop; end &c 67; death &c 360.
V. cease, discontinue, desist, stay, halt; break off, leave off; hold,
stop, pull up, stop short; stick, hang fire; halt; pause, rest; burn
out, blow out, melt down.
     have done with, give over, surcease, shut up shop; give up &c
(relinquish) 624.
     hold one's hand, stay one's hand; rest on one's oars repose on
one's laurels.
     come to a stand, come to a standstill; come to a deadlock, come to
a full stop; arrive &c 292; go out, die away; wear away, wear off; pass
away &c (be past) 122; be at an end; disintegrate, self-destruct.
     intromit, interrupt, suspend, interpel^; intermit, remit; put an
end to, put a stop to, put a period to; derail; turn off, switch off,
power down, deactivate, disconnect; bring to a stand, bring to a
standstill; stop, cut short, arrest, stem the tide, stem the torrent;
pull the check-string, pull the plug on.
Int. hold!, stop!, enough!, avast!, have done!, a truce to!, soft!,
leave off!, tenez! [Fr.],
Phr. I pause for a reply [Julius Caesar].

143. Continuance in action -- N. continuance, continuation; run;
perpetuation, prolongation; persistence &c (perseverance) 604.1;
repetition &c 104.
V. continue, persist; go on, jog on, keep on, run on, hold on; abide,
keep, pursue, stick to its course, take its course, maintain its
course; carry on, keep up.
     sustain, uphold, hold up, keep on foot; follow up, perpetuate;
maintain; preserve &c 604.1; harp upon &c (repeat) 104.
     keep going, keep alive, keep the pot boiling, keep up the ball,
keep up the good work; die in harness, die with one's boots on; hold on
the even tenor of one's way, pursue the even tenor of one's way.
     let be; stare super antiquas vias [Lat.]; quieta non movere
[Lat.]; let things take their course; stare decisis (Jurisprudence).
Adj. continuing &c v.; uninterrupted, unintermitting^, unvarying,
unshifting^; unreversed^, unstopped, unrevoked, unvaried; sustained;
undying &c (perpetual) 112; inconvertible.
Int. keep it up!, go to it!, right away!, right on!, attaboy!,
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari [Lat.]; vestigia nulla retrorsum
[Lat.] [Horace]; labitur et albetur [Horace].

144. [Gradual change to something different.] Conversion -- N.
conversion, reduction, transmutation, resolution, assimilation;
evolution, sea change; change of state; assumption; naturalization;
transportation; development [Biol.], developing.
     [photography] [conversion of currency] conversion of currency,
exchange of currency; exchange rate; bureau de change.
     chemistry, alchemy; progress, growth, lapse, flux.
     passage; transit, transition; transmigration, shifting &c v.;
phase; conjugation; convertibility.
     crucible, alembic, caldron, retort.
     convert, pervert, renegade, apostate.
V. be converted into; become, get, wax; come to, turn to, turn into,
evolve into, develop into; turn out, lapse, shift; run into, fall into,
pass into, slide into, glide into, grow into, ripen into, open into,
resolve itself into, settle into, merge into, emerge as; melt, grow,
come round to, mature, mellow; assume the form of, assume the shape of,
assume the state of, assume the nature of, assume the character of;
illapse^; begin a new phase, assume a new phase, undergo a change.
     convert into, resolve into; make, render; mold, form &c 240;
remodel, new model, refound^, reform, reorganize; assimilate to, bring
to, reduce to.
Adj. converted into &c v.; convertible, resolvable into; transitional;
Adv. gradually, &c (slowly) 275 in transitu &c (transference) 270

145. Reversion -- N. reversion, return; revulsion.
     turning point, turn of the tide; status quo ante bellum; calm
before a storm.
     alternation &c (periodicity) 138; inversion &c 219; recoil &c 277;
retreat, regression, retrogression &c 283; restoration &c 660; relapse,
recidivism &c 661; atavism; vicinism^;
V. revert, turn back, regress; relapse &c 661; recoil &c 277; retreat
&c 283; restore &c 660; undo, unmake; turn the tide, roll back the
tide, turn the scale, tip the scale.
Adj. reverting &c v.; regressive, revulsive, reactionary; retrorse^.
Adv. a rebours [Fr.].

146. [Sudden or violent change.] Revolution -- N. revolution,
bouleversement, subversion, break up; destruction &c 162; sudden
change, radical change, sweeping organic change; change of state, phase
change; quantum leap, quantum jump; clean sweep, coup d'etat [Fr.],
counter revolution.
     jump, leap, plunge, jerk, start, transilience^; explosion; spasm,
convulsion, throe, revulsion; storm, earthquake, cataclysm.
     legerdemain &c (trick) 545.
V. revolutionize; new model, remodel, recast; strike out something new,
break with the past; change the face of, unsex.
Adj. unrecognizable; revolutionary.

147. [Change of one thing for another.] Substitution -- N.
substitution, commutation; supplanting &c v.; metaphor, metonymy &c
(figure of speech) 521.
     [Thing substituted] substitute, ersatz, makeshift, temporary
expedient, replacement, succedaneum; shift, pis aller [Fr.], stopgap,
jury rigging, jury mast, locum tenens, warming pan, dummy, scapegoat;
double; changeling; quid pro quo, alternative.
     representative &c (deputy) 759; palimpsest.
     price, purchase money, consideration, equivalent.
V. substitute, put in the place of, change for; make way for, give
place to; supply the place of, take the place of; supplant, supersede,
replace, cut out, serve as a substitute; step into stand in the shoes
of; jury rig, make a shift with, put up with; borrow from Peter to pay
Paul, take money out of one pocket and put it in another, cannibalize;
commute, redeem, compound for.
Adj. substituted &c; ersatz; phony; vicarious, subdititious^.
Adv. instead; in place of, in lieu of, in the stead of, in the room of;
faute de mieux [Fr.].

148. [Double or mutual change.] Interchange -- N. interchange,
exchange; commutation, permutation, intermutation; reciprocation,
transposition, rearrangement; shuffling; alternation, reciprocity;
castling (at chess); hocus-pocus.
     interchangeableness^, interchangeability.
     recombination; combination &c 48.
     barter &c 794; tit for tat &c (retaliation) 718; cross fire,
battledore and shuttlecock; quid pro quo.
V. interchange, exchange, counterchange^; bandy, transpose, shuffle,
change bands, swap, permute, reciprocate, commute; give and take,
return the compliment; play at puss in the corner, play at battledore
and shuttlecock; retaliate &c 718; requite.
     rearrange, recombine.
Adj. interchanged &c v.; reciprocal, mutual, commutative,
interchangeable, intercurrent^.
     combinatorial [Math.].
     recombinant [Biol.].
Adv. in exchange, vice versa, mutatis mutandis [Lat.], backwards and
forwards, by turns, turn and turn about; each in his turn, everyone in
his turn.


149. Changeableness -- N. changeableness &c adj.; mutability,
inconstancy; versatility, mobility; instability, unstable equilibrium;
vacillation &c (irresolution) 605; fluctuation, vicissitude;
alternation &c (oscillation) 314.
     restlessness &c adj.. fidgets, disquiet; disquietude, inquietude;
unrest; agitation &c 315.
     moon, Proteus, chameleon, quicksilver, shifting sands,
weathercock, harlequin, Cynthia of the minute, April showers^; wheel of
Fortune; transientness &c 111 [Obs.].
V. fluctuate, vary, waver, flounder, flicker, flitter, flit, flutter,
shift, shuffle, shake, totter, tremble, vacillate, wamble^, turn and
turn about, ring the changes; sway to and fro, shift to and fro; change
and change about; waffle, blow with the wind (irresolute) 605;
oscillate &c 314; vibrate between, two extremes, oscillate between, two
extremes; alternate; have as man phases as the moon.
Adj. changeable, changeful; changing &c 140; mutable, variable,
checkered, ever changing; protean, proteiform^; versatile.
     unstaid^, inconstant; unsteady, unstable, unfixed, unsettled;
fluctuating &c v.; restless; agitated &c 315; erratic, fickle;
irresolute &c 605; capricious &c 608; touch and go; inconsonant,
fitful, spasmodic; vibratory; vagrant, wayward; desultory; afloat;
alternating; alterable, plastic, mobile; transient &c 111; wavering.
Adv. seesaw &c (oscillation) 314; off and on.
Phr. a rolling stone gathers no moss; pictra mossa non fa muschis [It];
honores mutant mores [Lat.]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat.]

150. Stability -- N. stability; immutability &c adj.; unchangeability,
&c adj.; unchangeableness^; constancy; stable equilibrium, immobility,
soundness, vitality, stabiliment^, stiffness, ankylosis^, solidity,
     establishment, fixture; rock, pillar, tower, foundation, leopard's
spots, Ethiopia's skin.
     permanence &c 141; obstinacy &c 606.
V. be firm &c adj.; stick fast; stand firm, keep firm, remain firm;
weather the storm, stay the course, stick to the course, keep the
faith, don't give in, don't buckle under.
     settle, establish, stablish^, ascertain, fix, set, stabilitate^;
retain, keep hold; make good, make sure; fasten &c (join) 43; set on
its legs, float; perpetuate.
     settle down; strike roots, put down roots, take root; take up
one's abode &c 184; build one's house on a rock.
Adj. unchangeable, immutable; unaltered, unalterable; not to be
changed, constant; permanent &c 141; invariable, undeviating; stable,
durable; perennial &c (diuturnal) 110 [Obs.].
     fixed, steadfast, firm, fast, steady, balanced; confirmed, valid;
fiducial^; immovable, irremovable, riveted, rooted; settled, established
&c v.; vested; incontrovertible, stereotyped, indeclinable.
     tethered, anchored, moored, at anchor, on a rock, rock solid, firm
as a rock; firmly seated, firmly established &c v.; deep-rooted,
ineradicable; inveterate; obstinate &c 606.
     transfixed, stuck fast, aground, high and dry, stranded.
     [movable object rendered unmovable] stuck, jammed; unremovable;
quiescent &c 265; deterioration &c 659.
     indefeasible, irretrievable, intransmutable^, incommutable^,
irresoluble^, irrevocable, irreversible, reverseless^, inextinguishable,
irreducible; indissoluble, indissolvable^; indestructible, undying,
imperishable, incorruptible, indelible, indeciduous^; insusceptible,
insusceptible of change.
Int. stet.
Phr. littera scripta manet [Lat.].

Present Events

151. Eventuality -- N. eventuality, event, occurrence, incident,
affair, matter, thing, episode, happening, proceeding, contingency,
juncture, experience, fact; matter of fact; naked fact, bare facts,
just the facts; phenomenon; advent.
     business, concern, transaction, dealing, proceeding; circumstance,
particular, casualty, accident, adventure, passage, crisis, pass,
emergency, contingency, consequence; opportunity (occasion) 143.
     the world, life, things, doings, affairs in general; things in
general, affairs in general; the times, state of affairs, order of the
day; course of things, tide of things, stream of things, current of
things, run of things, march of things, course of events; ups and downs
of life, vicissitudes of life; chapter of accidents &c (chance) 156;
situation &c (circumstances) 8.
V. happen, occur; take place, take effect; come, become of; come off,
comeabout^, come round, come into existence, come forth, come to pass,
come on; pass, present itself; fall; fall out, turn out; run, be on
foot, fall in; befall, betide, bechance^; prove, eventuate, draw on;
turn up, crop up, spring up, pop up, arise, show up, show its face,
appear, come forth, cast up; supervene, survene^; issue, arrive, ensue,
arise, start, hold, take its course; pass off &c (be past) 122.
     meet with; experience, enjoy, encounter, undergo, suffer, pass
through, go through, be subjected to, be exposed to; fall to the lot
of; be one's chance, be one's fortune, be one's lot; find; endure &c
(feel) 821.
Adj. happening &c v.; going on, doing, current; in the wind, in the
air, afloat; on foot, afoot, on the tapis^; at issue, in question;
     eventful, stirring, bustling, full of incident; memorable,
momentous, signal.
Adv. eventually; in the event of, in case, just in case; in the course
of things; as things, times go; as the world goes, wags; as the tree
falls, cat jumps; as it may turn out, happen.
Phr. that's the way the ball bounces, that's the way the cookie
crumbles; you never know what may turn up, you never know what the
future will bring; the plot thickens; breasts the blows of circumstance
[Tennyson]; so runs round of life from hour to hour [Keble]; sprinkled
along the waste of years [Tennyson].

Future Events

152. Destiny -- N. destiny &c (necessity) 601; future existence, post
existence; hereafter; future state, next world, world to come, after
life; futurity &c 121; everlasting life, everlasting death; life beyond
the grave, world beyond the grave; prospect &c (expectation) 507.
V. impend; hang over, lie over; threaten, loom, await, come on,
approach, stare one in the face; foreordain, preordain; predestine,
doom, have in store for.
Adj. impending &c v.; destined; about to be, happen; coming, in store,
to come, going to happen, instant, at hand, near; near, close at hand;
over hanging, hanging over one's head, imminent; brewing, preparing,
forthcoming; int he wind, on the cards, in reserve; that will, is to
be; in prospect &c (expected) 507; looming in the distance, horizon,
future; unborn, in embryo; int he womb of time, futurity; pregnant &c
(producing) 161.
Adv. in time, the long run; all in good time; eventually &c 151;
whatever may happen &c (certainly) 474; as chance would have it &c 156.



153. [Constant antecedent]. Cause -- N. cause, origin, source,
principle, element; occasioner^, prime mover, primum mobile [Lat.]; vera
causa [Lat.]; author &c (producer) 164; mainspring; agent; leaven;
groundwork, foundation &c (support) 215.
     spring, fountain, well, font; fountainhead, spring head, wellhead;
fons et origo [Lat.], genesis; descent &c (paternity) 166; remote
cause; influence.
     pivot, hinge, turning point, lever, crux, fulcrum; key; proximate
cause, causa causans [Lat.]; straw that breaks the camel's back.
     ground; reason, reason why; why and wherefore, rationale,
occasion, derivation; final cause &c (intention) 620; les dessous des
cartes [Fr.]; undercurrents.
     egg, germ, embryo, bud, root, radix radical, etymon, nucleus,
seed, stem, stock, stirps, trunk, tap-root, gemmule^, radicle, semen,
     nest, cradle, nursery, womb, nidus, birthplace, hotbed.
     causality, causation; origination; production &c 161.
V. be the cause of &c n .; originate; give origin to, give rise, to,
give occasion to; cause, occasion, sow the seeds of, kindle, suscitate^;
bring on, bring to bring pass, bring about; produce; create &c 161; set
up, set afloat, set on foot; found, broach, institute, lay the
foundation of; lie at the root of.
     procure, induce, draw down, open the door to, superinduce, evoke,
entail, operate; elicit, provoke.
     conduce to &c (tend to) 176; contribute; have a hand in the pie,
have a finger in the pie; determine, decide, turn the scale; have a
common origin; derive its origin &c (effect) 154.
Adj. caused &c v.; causal, original; primary, primitive, primordial;
aboriginal; protogenal^; radical; embryonic, embryotic^; in embryo, in
ovo [Lat.]; seminal, germinal; at the bottom of; connate, having a
common origin.
Adv. because &c 155; behind the scenes.
Phr. causa latet vis est notissima [Lat.] [Ovid]; felix qui potuit
rerum cognoscere causas [Lat.] [Vergil].

154. [Constant sequent.] Effect -- N. effect, consequence; aftergrowth^,
aftercome^; derivative, derivation; result; resultant, resultance^;
upshot, issue, denouement; end &c 67; development, outgrowth, fruit,
crop, harvest, product, bud.
     production, produce, work, handiwork, fabric, performance;
creature, creation; offspring, offshoot; firstfruits^, firstlings;
heredity, telegony^; premices premises^.
V. be the effect of &c n.; be due to, be owing to; originate in,
originate from; rise from, arise, take its rise spring from, proceed
from, emanate from, come from, grow from, bud from, sprout from,
germinate from, issue from, flow from, result from, follow from, derive
its origin from, accrue from; come to, come of, come out of; depend
upon, hang upon, hinge upon, turn upon.
     take the consequences, sow the wind and reap the whirlwind.
Adj. owing to; resulting from &c v.; derivable from; due to; caused by
&c 153; dependent upon; derived from, evolved from; derivative;
hereditary; telegonous^.
Adv. of course, it follows that, naturally, consequently; as a
consequence, in consequence; through, all along of, necessarily,
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.], thereby hangs a tale [Taming of the

155. [Assignment of cause] Attribution -- N. attribution, theory,
etiology, ascription, reference to, rationale; accounting for &c v.;
palaetiology1, imputation, derivation from.
     filiation^, affiliation; pedigree &c (paternity) 166.
     explanation &c (interpretation) 522; reason why &c (cause) 153.
V. attribute to, ascribe to, impute to, refer to, lay to, point to,
trace to, bring home to; put down to, set down to, blame; charge on,
ground on; invest with, assign as cause, lay at, the door of, father
upon; account for, derive from, point out the reason &c 153; theorize;
tell how it comes; put the saddle on the right horse.
Adj. attributed &c v.; attributable &c v.; referable to, referrible to^,
due to, derivable from; owing to &c (effect) 154; putative; ecbatic^.
Adv. hence, thence, therefore, for, since, on account of, because,
owing to; on that account; from this cause, from that cause; thanks to,
forasmuch as; whence, propter hoc [Lat.].
     why? wherefore? whence? how comes it, how is it, how happens it?
how does it happen? in some way, in some such way; somehow, somehow or
Phr. that is why; hinc illae lachrymae [Lat.] [Horace].

156. [Absence of assignable cause.] Chance -- N. chance,
indetermination, accident, fortune, hazard, hap, haphazard, chance
medley, random, luck, raccroc^, casualty, contingence, adventure, hit;
fate &c (necessity) 601; equal chance; lottery; tombola^; toss up &c
621; turn of the table, turn of the cards; hazard of the die, chapter
of accidents, fickle finger of fate; cast of the dice, throw of the
dice; heads or tails, flip of a coin, wheel of Fortune; sortes^, sortes
     probability, possibility, odds; long odds, run of luck;
accidentalness; main chance, odds on, favorable odds.
     contingency, dependence (uncertainty) 475; situation
(circumstance) 8.
     statistics, theory of Probabilities, theory of Chances;
bookmaking; assurance; speculation, gaming &c 621.
V. chance, hap, turn up; fall to one's lot; be one's fate &c 601;
stumble on light upon; take one's chance &c 621.
Adj. casual, fortuitous, accidental, adventitious, causeless,
incidental, contingent, uncaused, undetermined, indeterminate; random,
statistical; possible &c 470; unintentional &c 621.
Adv. by chance, accidentally, by accident; casually; perchance &c
(possibly) 470; for aught one knows; as good would have it, as bad
would have it, as luck would have it, as ill-luck would have it, as
chance would have it; as it may be, as it may chance, as it may turn
up, as it may happen; as the case may be.
Phr. grasps the skirts of happy chance [Tennyson]; the accident of an
accident [Lord Thurlow].
     There but for the grace of God go I


157. Power -- N. power; potency, potentiality; jiva^; puissance, might,
force, energy &c 171; dint; right hand, right arm; ascendency^, sway,
control; prepotency, prepollence^; almightiness, omnipotence; authority
&c 737; strength &c 159.
     ability; ableness &c adj.^; competency; efficacy; efficiency,
productivity, expertise (skill) 698; validity, cogency; enablement^;
vantage ground; influence &c 175.
     pressure; conductivity; elasticity; gravity, electricity,
magnetism, galvanism, voltaic electricity, voltaism, electromagnetism;
atomic power, nuclear power, thermonuclear power; fuel cell; hydraulic
power, water power, hydroelectric power; solar power, solar energy,
solar panels; tidal power; wind power; attraction; vis inertiae [Lat.],
vis mortua [Lat.], vis viva [Lat.]; potential energy, dynamic energy;
dynamic friction, dynamic suction; live circuit, live rail, live wire.
     capability, capacity; quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent
[Lat.]; faculty, quality, attribute, endowment, virtue, gift, property,
qualification, susceptibility.
V. be powerful &c adj.; gain power &c n.. belong to, pertain to; lie in
one's power, be in one's power; can, be able.
     give power, confer power, exercise power &c n.; empower, enable,
invest; indue^, endue; endow, arm; strengthen &c 159; compel &c 744.
Adj. powerful, puissant; potential; capable, able; equal to, up to;
cogent, valid; efficient, productive; effective, effectual,
efficacious, adequate, competent; multipotent^, plenipotent^,
omnipotent; almighty.
     forcible &c adj.. (energetic) 171; influential &c 175; productive
&c 168.
Adv. powerfully &c adj.; by virtue of, by dint of.
Phr. a toute force [Fr.]; dos moi pou sto kai kino ten gen [Gr.];
eripuit coelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis [Lat.]; fortis cadere cedere
non potest [Lat.].

158. Impotence -- N. impotence; inability, disability; disablement,
impuissance, imbecility; incapacity, incapability; inaptitude,
ineptitude, incompetence, unproductivity^; indocility^; invalidity,
disqualification; inefficiency, wastefulness.
     telum imbelle [Lat.], brutum fulmen [Lat.], blank, blank
cartridge, flash in the pan, vox et proeterea nihil [Lat.], dead
letter, bit of waste paper, dummy; paper tiger; Quaker gun.
     inefficacy &c (inutility) 645 [Obs.]; failure &c 732.
     helplessness &c adj.; prostration, paralysis, palsy, apoplexy,
syncope, sideration^, deliquium [Lat.], collapse, exhaustion, softening
of the brain, inanition; emasculation, orchiotomy [Med.], orchotomy
     cripple, old woman, muff, powder puff, creampuff, pussycat, wimp,
mollycoddle; eunuch.
V. be impotent &c adj.; not have a leg to stand on.
     vouloir rompre l'anguille au genou [Fr.], vouloir prendre la lune
avec les dents [Fr.].
     collapse, faint, swoon, fall into a swoon, drop; go by the board,
go by the wayside; go up in smoke, end in smoke &c (fail) 732.
     render powerless &c adj.; deprive of power; disable, disenable^;
disarm, incapacitate, disqualify, unfit, invalidate, deaden, cramp, tie
the hands; double up, prostrate, paralyze, muzzle, cripple, becripple^,
maim, lame, hamstring, draw the teeth of; throttle, strangle, garrotte,
garrote; ratten^, silence, sprain, clip the wings of, put hors de combat
[Fr.], spike the guns; take the wind out of one's sails, scotch the
snake, put a spoke in one's wheel; break the neck, break the back;
unhinge, unfit; put out of gear.
     unman, unnerve, enervate; emasculate, castrate, geld, alter,
neuter, sterilize, fix.
     shatter, exhaust, weaken &c 160.
Adj. powerless, impotent, unable, incapable, incompetent; inefficient,
ineffective; inept; unfit, unfitted; unqualified, disqualified;
unendowed; inapt, unapt; crippled, disabled &c v.; armless^.
     harmless, unarmed, weaponless, defenseless, sine ictu [Lat.],
unfortified, indefensible, vincible, pregnable, untenable.
     paralytic, paralyzed; palsied, imbecile; nerveless, sinewless^,
marrowless^, pithless^, lustless^; emasculate, disjointed; out of joint,
out of gear; unnerved, unhinged; water-logged, on one's beam ends,
rudderless; laid on one's back; done up, dead beat, exhausted,
shattered, demoralized; graveled &c (in difficulty) 704; helpless,
unfriended^, fatherless; without a leg to stand on, hors de combat
[Fr.], laid on the shelf.
     null and void, nugatory, inoperative, good for nothing;
ineffectual &c (failing) 732; inadequate &c 640; inefficacious &c
(useless) 645.
Phr. der kranke Mann [G.]; desirous still but impotent to rise
[Shenstone]; the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.

159. [Degree of power.] Strength -- N. strength; power &c 157; energy
&c 171; vigor, force; main force, physical force, brute force; spring,
elasticity, tone, tension, tonicity.
     stoutness &c adj.; lustihood^, stamina, nerve, muscle, sinew, thews
and sinews, physique; pith, pithiness; virtility, vitality.
     athletics, athleticism^; gymnastics, feats of strength.
     adamant, steel, iron, oak, heart of oak; iron grip; grit, bone.
     athlete, gymnast, acrobat; superman, Atlas, Hercules, Antaeus^,
Samson, Cyclops, Goliath; tower of strength; giant refreshed.
     strengthening &c v.; invigoration, refreshment, refocillation^.
     [Science of forces] dynamics, statics.
V. be strong &c adj., be stronger; overmatch.
     render strong &c adj.; give strength &c n.; strengthen,
invigorate, brace, nerve, fortify, sustain, harden, case harden, steel,
gird; screw up, wind up, set up; gird up one's loins, brace up one's
loins; recruit, set on one's legs; vivify; refresh &c 689; refect^;
reinforce, reenforce &c (restore) 660.
Adj. strong, mighty, vigorous, forcible, hard, adamantine, stout,
robust, sturdy, hardy, powerful, potent, puissant, valid.
     resistless, irresistible, invincible, proof against, impregnable,
unconquerable, indomitable, dominating, inextinguishable, unquenchable;
incontestable; more than a match for; overpowering, overwhelming; all
powerful, all sufficient; sovereign.
     able-bodied; athletic; Herculean, Cyclopean, Atlantean^; muscular,
brawny, wiry, well-knit, broad-shouldered, sinewy, strapping, stalwart,
     manly, man-like, manful; masculine, male, virile.
     unweakened^, unallayed, unwithered^, unshaken, unworn, unexhausted^;
in full force, in full swing; in the plenitude of power.
     stubborn, thick-ribbed, made of iron, deep-rooted; strong as a
lion, strong as a horse, strong as an ox, strong as brandy; sound as a
roach; in fine feather, in high feather; built like a brick shithouse;
like a giant refreshed.
Adv. strongly &c adj.; by force &c n.; by main force &c (by compulsion)
Phr. our withers are unwrung [Hamlet].
     Blut und Eisen [G.]; coelitus mihi vires [Lat.]; du fort au diable
[Fr.]; en habiles gens [Lat.]; ex vi termini; flecti non frangi [Lat.];
he that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill
[Burke]; inflexible in faith invincible in arms [Beattie].

160. Weakness -- N. weakness &c adj.; debility, atony^, relaxation,
languor, enervation; impotence &c 158; infirmity; effeminacy,
feminality^; fragility, flaccidity; inactivity &c 683.
     anaemia, bloodlessness, deficiency of blood, poverty of blood.
     declension of strength, loss of strength, failure of strength;
delicacy, invalidation, decrepitude, asthenia^, adynamy^, cachexy^,
cachexia [Med.], sprain, strain.
     reed, thread, rope of sand, house of cards.
     softling^, weakling; infant &c 129; youth &c 127.
V. be weak &c adj.; drop, crumble, give way, totter, tremble, shake,
halt, limp, fade, languish, decline, flag, fail, have one leg in the
     render weak &c adj.; weaken, enfeeble, debilitate, shake, deprive
of strength, relax, enervate, eviscerate; unbrace, unnerve; cripple,
unman &c (render powerless) 158; cramp, reduce, sprain, strain, blunt
the edge of; dilute, impoverish; decimate; extenuate; reduce in
strength, reduce the strength of; mettre de l'eau dans son vin [Fr.].
Adj. weak, feeble, debile^; impotent &c 158; relaxed, unnerved, &c v.;
sapless, strengthless^, powerless; weakly, unstrung, flaccid, adynamic^,
asthenic^; nervous.
     soft, effeminate, feminate^, womanly.
     frail, fragile, shattery^; flimsy, unsubstantial, insubstantial,
gimcrack, gingerbread; rickety, creaky, creaking, cranky; craichy^;
drooping, tottering &c v.. broken, lame, withered, shattered, shaken,
crazy, shaky; palsied &c 158; decrepit.
     languid, poor, infirm; faint, faintish^; sickly &c (disease) 655;
dull, slack, evanid^, spent, short-winded, effete; weather-beaten;
decayed, rotten, worn, seedy, languishing, wasted, washy, laid low,
pulled down, the worse for wear.
     unstrengthened &c 159 [Obs.], unsupported, unaided, unassisted;
aidless^, defenseless &c 158; cantilevered (support) 215.
     on its last legs; weak as a child, weak as a baby, weak as a
chicken, weak as a cat, weak as a rat; weak as water, weak as water
gruel, weak as gingerbread, weak as milk and water; colorless &c 429.
Phr. non sum qualis eram [Lat.].


161. Production -- N. {ant.
     162,, 158} production, creation, construction, formation,
fabrication, manufacture; building, architecture, erection,
edification; coinage; diaster^; organization; nisus formativus [Lat.];
putting together &c v.; establishment; workmanship, performance;
achievement &c (completion) 729.
     flowering, fructification; inflorescence.
     bringing forth &c v.; parturition, birth, birth-throe, childbirth,
delivery, confinement, accouchement, travail, labor, midwifery,
obstetrics; geniture^; gestation &c (maturation) 673; assimilation;
evolution, development, growth; entelechy [Phil.]; fertilization,
gemination, germination, heterogamy [Biol.], genesis, generation,
epigenesis^, procreation, progeneration^, propagation; fecundation,
impregnation; albumen &c 357.
     spontaneous generation; archegenesis^, archebiosis^; biogenesis,
abiogenesis^, digenesis^, dysmerogenesis^, eumerogenesis^,
heterogenesis^, oogenesis, merogenesis^, metogenesis^, monogenesis^,
parthenogenesis, homogenesis^, xenogenesis1^; authorship, publication;
works, opus, oeuvre.
     biogeny^, dissogeny^, xenogeny^; tocogony^, vacuolization.
     edifice, building, structure, fabric, erection, pile, tower,
flower, fruit.
V. produce, perform, operate, do, make, gar, form, construct,
fabricate, frame, contrive, manufacture; weave, forge, coin, carve,
chisel; build, raise, edify, rear, erect, put together, set up, run up;
establish, constitute, compose, organize, institute; achieve,
accomplish &c (complete) 729.
     flower, bear fruit, fructify, teem, ean^, yean^, farrow, drop, pup,
kitten, kindle; bear, lay, whelp, bring forth, give birth to, lie in,
be brought to bed of, evolve, pullulate, usher into the world.
     make productive &c 168; create; beget, get, generate, fecundate,
impregnate; procreate, progenerate^, propagate; engender; bring into
being, call into being, bring into existence; breed, hatch, develop,
bring up.
     induce, superinduce; suscitate^; cause &c 153; acquire &c 775.
Adj. produced, producing &c v.; productive of; prolific &c 168;
creative; formative, genetic, genial, genital; pregnant; enceinte, big
with, fraught with; in the family way, teeming, parturient, in the
straw, brought to bed of; puerperal, puerperous^.
     digenetic^, heterogenetic^, oogenetic, xenogenetic^; ectogenous^,
gamic^, haematobious^, sporogenous [Biol.], sporophorous [Biol.].
Phr. ex nihilo nihil [Lat.]; fiat lux [Lat.]; materiam superabat opus
[Lat.] [Ovid]; nemo dat quod non habet [Lat.].

162. [Nonproduction.] Destruction -- N. {ant.
     161} destruction; waste, dissolution, breaking up; diruption^,
disruption; consumption; disorganization.
     fall, downfall, devastation, ruin, perdition, crash; eboulement
[Fr.], smash, havoc, delabrement [Fr.], debacle; break down, break up,
fall apart; prostration; desolation, bouleversement [Fr.], wreck,
wrack, shipwreck, cataclysm; washout.
     extinction, annihilation; destruction of life &c 361; knock-down
blow; doom, crack of doom.
     destroying &c v.; demolition, demolishment; overthrow, subversion,
suppression; abolition &c (abrogation) 756; biblioclasm^; sacrifice;
ravage, razzia^; inactivation; incendiarism; revolution &c 146;
extirpation &c (extraction) 301; beginning of the end, commencement de
la fin [Fr.], road to ruin; dilapidation &c (deterioration) 659;
V. be destroyed &c; perish; fall to the ground; tumble, topple; go to
pieces, fall to pieces; break up; crumble to dust; go to the dogs, go
to the wall, go to smash, go to shivers, go to wreck, go to pot, go to
wrack and ruin; go by the board, go all to smash; be all over, be all
up, be all with; totter to its fall.
     destroy; do away with, make away with; nullify; annual &c 756;
sacrifice, demolish; tear up; overturn, overthrow, overwhelm; upset,
subvert, put an end to; seal the doom of, do in, do for, dish [Slang],
undo; break up, cut up; break down, cut down, pull down, mow down, blow
down, beat down; suppress, quash, put down, do a job on; cut short,
take off, blot out; dispel, dissipate, dissolve; consume.
     smash, crash, quell, squash, squelch, crumple up, shatter, shiver;
batter to pieces, tear to pieces, crush to pieces, cut to pieces, shake
to pieces, pull to pieces, pick to pieces; laniate^; nip; tear to rags,
tear to tatters; crush to atoms, knock to atoms; ruin; strike out;
throw over, knock down over; fell, sink, swamp, scuttle, wreck,
shipwreck, engulf, ingulf^, submerge; lay in ashes, lay in ruins; sweep
away, erase, wipe out, expunge, raze; level with the dust, level with
the ground; waste; atomize, vaporize.
     deal destruction, desolate, devastate, lay waste, ravage gut;
disorganize; dismantle &c (render useless) 645; devour, swallow up,
sap, mine, blast, bomb, blow to smithereens, drop the big one,
confound; exterminate, extinguish, quench, annihilate; snuff out, put
out, stamp out, trample out; lay in the dust, trample in the dust;
prostrate; tread under foot; crush under foot, trample under foot; lay
the ax to the root of; make short work of, make clean sweep of, make
mincemeat of; cut up root and branch, chop into pieces, cut into
ribbons; fling to the winds, scatter to the winds; throw overboard;
strike at the root of, sap the foundations of, spring a mine, blow up,
ravage with fire and sword; cast to the dogs; eradicate &c 301.
Adj. destroyed &c v.; perishing &c v.; trembling to its fall, nodding
to its fall, tottering to its fall; in course of destruction &c n.;
     all-destroying, all-devouring, all-engulfing.
     destructive, subversive, ruinous, devastating; incendiary,
deletory^; destroying &c n.. suicidal; deadly &c (killing) 361.
Adv. with crushing effect, with a sledge hammer.
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat.]; dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit
[Lat.]; ecrasez l'infame [Voltaire].

163. Reproduction -- N. reproduction, renovation; restoration &c 660;
renewal; new edition, reprint, revival, regeneration, palingenesis^,
revivification; apotheosis; resuscitation, reanimation, resurrection,
reappearance; regrowth; Phoenix.
     generation &c (production) 161; multiplication.
V. reproduce; restore &c 660; revive, renovate, renew, regenerate,
revivify, resuscitate, reanimate; remake, refashion, stir the embers,
put into the crucible; multiply, repeat; resurge^.
     crop up, spring up like mushrooms.
Adj. reproduced &c v.; renascent, reappearing; reproductive;

164. Producer -- N. producer, originator, inventor, author, founder,
generator, mover, architect, creator, prime mover; maker &c (agent)
690; prime mover.

165. Destroyer -- N. destroyer &c (destroy) &c 162; cankerworm &c
(bane) 663; assassin &c (killer) 361; executioner &c (punish) 975;
biblioclast^, eidoloclast^, iconoclast, idoloclast^; nihilist.

166. Paternity -- N. paternity; parentage; consanguinity &c 11.
     parent; father, sire, dad, papa, paterfamilias, abba^; genitor,
progenitor, procreator; ancestor; grandsire^, grandfather; great-
grandfather; fathership^, fatherhood; mabap^.
     house, stem, trunk, tree, stock, stirps, pedigree, lineage, line,
family, tribe, sept, race, clan; genealogy, descent, extraction, birth,
ancestry; forefathers, forbears, patriarchs.
     motherhood, maternity; mother, dam, mamma, materfamilias [Lat.],
Adj. paternal, parental; maternal; family, ancestral, linear,
Phr. avi numerantur avorum [Lat.]; happy he with such a mother
[Tennyson]; hombre bueno no le busquen abolengo [Sp.]; philosophia
stemma non inspicit [Lat.] [Seneca].

167. Posterity -- N. posterity, progeny, breed, issue, offspring,
brood, litter, seed, farrow, spawn, spat; family, grandchildren, heirs;
     child, son, daughter; butcha^; bantling, scion; acrospire^,
plumule^, shoot, sprout, olive-branch, sprit^, branch; off-shoot, off-
set; ramification; descendant; heir, heiress; heir-apparent, heir-
presumptive; chip off the old block; heredity; rising generation.
     straight descent, sonship^, line, lineage, filiation^,
Adj. filial; diphyletic^.
Phr. the child is father of the man [Wordsworth]; the fruit doesn't
fall far from the tree, like father, like son.

168. Productiveness -- N. productiveness &c adj.; fecundity, fertility,
luxuriance, uberty^.
     pregnancy, pullulation, fructification, multiplication,
propagation, procreation; superfetation.
     milch cow, rabbit, hydra, warren, seed plot, land flowing with
milk and honey; second crop, aftermath; aftercrop, aftergrowth^;
arrish^, eddish^, rowen^; protoplasm; fertilization.
V. make productive &c adj.; fructify; procreate, generate, fertilize,
spermative^, impregnate; fecundate, fecundify^; teem, multiply; produce
&c 161; conceive.
Adj. productive, prolific; teeming, teemful^; fertile, fruitful,
frugiferous^, fruit-bearing; fecund, luxuriant; pregnant, uberous^.
     procreant^, procreative; generative, life-giving, spermatic;
multiparous; omnific^, propagable.
     parturient &c (producing) 161; profitable &c (useful) 644.

169. Unproductiveness -- N. unproductiveness &c adj.; infertility,
sterility, infecundity^; masturbation; impotence &c 158;
unprofitableness &c (inutility) 645.
     waste, desert, Sahara, wild, wilderness, howling wilderness.
V. be unproductive &c adj.; hang fire, flash in the pan, come to
     [make unproductive] sterilize, addle; disable, inactivate.
Adj. unproductive, acarpous^, inoperative, barren, addled, infertile,
unfertile, unprolific^, arid, sterile, unfruitful, infecund^; sine
prole; fallow; teemless^, issueless^, fruitless; unprofitable &c
(useless) 645; null and void, of no effect.

170. Agency -- N. agency, operation, force, working, strain, function,
office, maintenance, exercise, work, swing, play; interworking^,
interaction; procurement.
     causation &c 153; instrumentality &c 631; influence &c 175; action
&c (voluntary) 680; modus operandi &c 627.
     quickening power, maintaining power, sustaining power; home
V. be in action &c adj.; operate, work; act, act upon; perform, play,
support, sustain, strain, maintain, take effect, quicken, strike.
     come play, come bring into operation; have play, have free play;
bring to bear upon.
Adj. operative, efficient, efficacious, practical, effectual.
     at work, on foot; acting &c (doing) 680; in operation, in force,
in action, in play, in exercise; acted upon, wrought upon.
Adv. by the agency of, &c n.; through &c (instrumentality) 631; by
means of &c 632.
Phr. I myself must mix with action lest I wither by despair [Tennyson].

171. Physical Energy -- N. energy, physical energy, force, power &c
157; keenness &c adj.; intensity, vigor, strength, elasticity; go; high
pressure; fire; rush.
     acrimony, acritude^; causiticity^, virulence; poignancy; harshness
&c adj.; severity, edge, point; pungency &c 392.
     cantharides; seasoning &c (condiment) 393.
     activity, agitation, effervescence; ferment, fermentation;
ebullition, splutter, perturbation, stir, bustle; voluntary energy &c
682; quicksilver.
     resolution &c (mental energy) 604; exertion &c (effort) 686;
excitation &c (mental) 824.
V. give energy &c n.; energize, stimulate, kindle, excite, exert;
sharpen, intensify; inflame &c (render violent) 173; wind up &c
(strengthen) 159.
     strike home, into home, hard home; make an impression.
Adj. strong, energetic, forcible, active; intense, deep-dyed, severe,
keen, vivid, sharp, acute, incisive, trenchant, brisk.
     rousing, irritation; poignant; virulent, caustic, corrosive,
mordant, harsh, stringent; double-edged, double-shotted^, double-
distilled; drastic, escharotic^; racy &c (pungent) 392.
     potent &c (powerful) 157; radioactive.
Adv. strongly &c adj.; fortiter in re [Lat.]; with telling effect.
Phr. the steam is up; vires acquirit eundo [Lat.]; the race by vigor
not by vaunts is won [Pope].

172. Physical Inertness -- N. inertness, dullness &c adj.; inertia, vis
inertiae [Lat.], inertion^, inactivity, torpor, languor; quiescence &c
265; latency, inaction; passivity.
     mental inertness; sloth &c (inactivity) 683; inexcitability &c 826
[Obs.]; irresolution &c 605; obstinacy &c 606; permanence &c 141.
     rare gas, paraffin, noble metal, unreactivity.
V. be inert &c adj.; hang fire, smolder.
Adj. inert, inactive, passive; torpid &c 683; sluggish, dull, heavy,
flat, slack, tame, slow, blunt; unreactive; lifeless, dead,
     latent, dormant, smoldering, unexerted^.
Adv. inactively &c adj.; in suspense, in abeyance.

173. Violence -- N. violence, inclemency, vehemence, might,
impetuosity; boisterousness &c adj.; effervescence, ebullition;
turbulence, bluster; uproar, callithump [U.S.], riot, row, rumpus, le
diable a quatre [Fr.], devil to pay, all the fat in the fire.
     severity &c 739; ferocity, rage, fury; exacerbation, exasperation,
malignity; fit, paroxysm; orgasm, climax, aphrodisia^; force, brute
force; outrage; coup de main; strain, shock, shog^; spasm, convulsion,
throe; hysterics, passion &c (state of excitability) 825.
     outbreak, outburst; debacle; burst, bounce, dissilience^,
discharge, volley, explosion, blow up, blast, detonation, rush,
eruption, displosion^, torrent.
     turmoil &c (disorder) 59; ferment &c (agitation) 315; storm,
tempest, rough weather; squall &c (wind) 349; earthquake, volcano,
     berserk, berserker; fury, dragon, demon, tiger, beldame,
Tisiphone^, Megaera, Alecto^, madcap, wild beast; fire eater &c
(blusterer) 887.
V. be violent &c adj.; run high; ferment, effervesce; romp, rampage, go
on a rampage; run wild, run amuck, run riot; break the peace; rush,
tear; rush headlong, rush foremost; raise a storm, make a riot; rough
house [Slang]; riot, storm; wreak, bear down, ride roughshod, out
Herod, Herod; spread like wildfire (person).
     [shout or act in anger at something], explode, make a row, kick up
a row; boil, boil over; fume, foam, come on like a lion, bluster, rage,
roar, fly off the handle, go bananas, go ape, blow one's top, blow
one's cool, flip one's lid, hit the ceiling, hit the roof; fly into a
rage (anger) 900.
     break out, fly out, burst out; bounce, explode, go off, displode^,
fly, detonate, thunder, blow up, crump^, flash, flare, burst; shock,
strain; break open, force open, prize open.
     render violent &c adj.; sharpen, stir up, quicken, excite, incite,
annoy, urge, lash, stimulate, turn on; irritate, inflame, kindle,
suscitate^, foment; accelerate, aggravate, exasperate, exacerbate,
convulse, infuriate, madden, lash into fury; fan the flame; add fuel to
the flame, pour oil on the fire, oleum addere camino [Lat.].
     explode; let fly, fly off; discharge, detonate, set off, detonize^,
Adj. violent, vehement; warm; acute, sharp; rough, rude, ungentle,
bluff, boisterous, wild; brusque, abrupt, waspish; impetuous; rampant.
     turbulent; disorderly; blustering, raging &c v.; troublous^,
riotous; tumultuary^, tumultuous; obstreperous, uproarious; extravagant;
unmitigated; ravening, inextinguishable, tameless; frenzied &c (insane)
     desperate &c (rash) 863; infuriate, furious, outrageous, frantic,
hysteric, in hysterics.
     fiery, flaming, scorching, hot, red-hot, ebullient.
     savage, fierce, ferocious, fierce as a tiger.
     excited &c v.; unquelled^, unquenched, unextinguished^,
unrepressed, unbridled, unruly; headstrong, ungovernable, unappeasable,
immitigable, unmitigable^; uncontrollable, incontrollable^;
insuppressible, irrepressible; orgastic, orgasmatic, orgasmic.
     spasmodic, convulsive, explosive; detonating &c v.; volcanic,
meteoric; stormy &c (wind) 349.
Adv. violently &c adj.; amain^; by storm, by force, by main force; with
might and main; tooth and nail, vi et armis [Lat.], at the point of the
sword, at the point of the bayonet; at one fell swoop; with a high
hand, through thick and thin; in desperation, with a vengeance; a
outrance^, a toute outrance [Fr.]; headlong, head foremost.
Phr. furor arma ministrat [Lat.]; blown with restless violence round
about the pendent world [Measure for Measure].

174. Moderation -- N. moderation, lenity &c 740; temperateness,
gentleness &c adj.; sobriety; quiet; mental calmness &c
(inexcitability) 826 [Obs.].
     moderating &c v.; anaphrodisia^; relaxation, remission, mitigation,
tranquilization^, assuagement, contemporation^, pacification.
     measure, juste milieu [Fr.], golden mean, ariston metron [Gr.].
     moderator; lullaby, sedative, lenitive, demulcent, antispasmodic,
carminative, laudanum; rose water, balm, poppy, opiate, anodyne, milk,
opium, poppy or mandragora; wet blanket; palliative.
V. be moderate &c adj.; keep within bounds, keep within compass; sober
down, settle down; keep the peace, remit, relent, take in sail.
     moderate, soften, mitigate, temper, accoy^; attemper^, contemper^;
mollify, lenify^, dulcify^, dull, take off the edge, blunt, obtund^,
sheathe, subdue, chasten; sober down, tone down, smooth down; weaken &c
160; lessen &c (decrease) 36; check palliate.
     tranquilize, pacify, assuage, appease, swag, lull, soothe,
compose, still, calm, calm down, cool, quiet, hush, quell, sober,
pacify, tame, damp, lay, allay, rebate, slacken, smooth, alleviate,
rock to sleep, deaden, smooth, throw cold water on, throw a wet blanket
over, turn off; slake; curb &c (restrain) 751; tame &c (subjugate) 749;
smooth over; pour oil on the waves, pour oil on the troubled waters;
pour balm into, mattre de l'eau dans son vin [Fr.].
     go out like a lamb, roar you as gently as any sucking dove
[Midsummer-Night's Dream].
Adj. moderate; lenient &c 740; gentle, mild, mellow; cool, sober,
temperate, reasonable, measured; tempered &c v.; calm, unruffled,
quiet, tranquil, still; slow, smooth, untroubled; tame; peaceful,
peaceable; pacific, halcyon.
     unexciting, unirritating^; soft, bland, oily, demulcent, lenitive,
anodyne; hypnotic &c 683; sedative; antiorgastic^, anaphrodisiac^.
     mild as mother's milk; milk and water.
Adv. moderately &c adj.; gingerly; piano; under easy sail, at half
speed; within bounds, within compass; in reason.
Phr. est modue in rebus^; pour oil on troubled waters.


175. Influence -- N. influence; importance &c 642; weight, pressure,
preponderance, prevalence, sway; predominance, predominancy^;
ascendency^; dominance, reign; control, domination, pull [Slang];
authority &c 737; capability &c (power) 157; effect &c 154; interest.
     synergy (cooperation) 709.
     footing; purchase &c (support) 215; play, leverage, vantage
     tower of strength, host in himself; protection, patronage,
V. have influence &c n.; be influential &c adj.; carry weight, weigh,
tell; have a hold upon, magnetize, bear upon, gain a footing, work
upon; take root, take hold; strike root in.
     run through, pervade; prevail, dominate, predominate; out weigh,
over weigh; over-ride, over-bear; gain head; rage; be rife &c adj.;
spread like wildfire; have the upper hand, get the upper hand, gain the
upper hand, have full play, get full play, gain full play.
     be recognized, be listened to; make one's voice heard, gain a
hearing; play a part, play a leading part, play a leading part in; take
the lead, pull the strings; turn the scale, throw one's weight into the
scale; set the fashion, lead the dance.
Adj. influential, effective; important &c 642; weighty; prevailing &c
v.; prevalent, rife, rampant, dominant, regnant, predominant, in the
ascendant, hegemonical^.
Adv. with telling effect.
Phr. tel maure tel valet [Fr.].

175a. Absence of Influence -- N. impotence &c 158; powerlessness;
inertness &c 172; irrelevancy &c 10.
V. have no influence &c 175.
Adj. uninfluential^, ineffective; inconsequential, nugatory;
unconducing, unconducive, unconducting to^; powerless &c 158; irrelevant
&c 10.

176. Tendency -- N. tendency; aptness, aptitude; proneness, proclivity,
bent, turn, tone, bias, set, leaning to, predisposition, inclination,
propensity, susceptibility; conatus [Lat.], nisus [Lat.]; liability &c
177; quality, nature, temperament; idiocrasy^, idiosyncrasy; cast, vein,
grain; humor, mood; drift &c (direction) 278; conduciveness,
conducement^; applicability &c (utility) 644; subservience &c
(instrumentality) 631.
V. tend, contribute, conduce, lead, dispose, incline, verge, bend to,
trend, affect, carry, redound to, bid fair to, gravitate towards;
promote &c (aid) 707.
Adj. tending &c v.; conducive, working towards, in a fair way to,
calculated to; liable &c 177; subservient &c (instrumental) 631; useful
&c 644; subsidiary &c (helping) 707.
Adv. for, whither.

177. Liability -- N. liability, liableness^; possibility, contingency;
susceptivity^, susceptibility, exposure.
V. be liable &c adj.; incur, lay oneself open to; run the chance, stand
a chance; lie under, expose oneself to, open a door to.
Adj. liable, subject; in danger &c 665; open to, exposed to, obnoxious
to; answerable; unexempt from^; apt to; dependent on; incident to.
     contingent, incidental, possible, on the cards, within range of,
at the mercy of.


178. Concurrence -- N. concurrence, cooperation, coagency^; union;
agreement &c 23; consilience^; consent, coincidence &c (assent) 488;
alliance; concert, additivity, synergy &c 709; partnership &c 712.
     common cause.
V. concur, conduce, conspire, contribute; agree, unite; hang together,
pull together, join forces, make common cause.
     &c (cooperate) 709; help to &c (aid) 707.
     keep pace with, run parallel; go with, go along with, go hand in
hand with, coincide.
Adj. concurring &c v.; concurrent, in alliance with, banded together,
of one mind, at one with, coinciding.
Adv. with one consent.

179. Counteraction -- N. counteraction, opposition; contrariety &c 14;
antagonism, polarity; clashing &c v.; collision, interference,
inhibition, resistance, renitency, friction; reaction; retroaction &c
(recoil) 277; counterblast^; neutralization &c (compensation) 30; vis
inertiae [Lat.]; check &c (hindrance) 706.
     voluntary opposition &c 708, voluntary resistance &c 719;
repression &c (restraint) 751.
     opposites, action and reaction, yang and yin, yang-yin
(contrariety) 14.
V. counteract; run counter, clash, cross; interfere with, conflict
with; contravene; jostle; go against, run against, beat against,
militate against; stultify; antagonize, block, oppose &c 708; traverse;
withstand &c (resist) 719; hinder &c 706; repress &c (restrain) 751;
react &c (recoil) 277.
     undo, neutralize; counterpoise &c (compensate) 30; overpoise^.
Adj. counteracting &c v.; antagonistic, conflicting, retroactive,
renitent, reactionary; contrary &c 14.
Adv. although &c 30; in spite of &c 708; against.
Phr. for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].




180. [Indefinite space.] Space -- N. space, extension, extent,
superficial extent, expanse, stretch, hyperspace; room, scope, range,
field, way, expansion, compass, sweep, swing, spread.
     dimension, length &c 200; distance &c 196; size &c 192; volume;
     latitude, play, leeway, purchase, tolerance, room for maneuver.
     spare room, elbow room, house room; stowage, roomage^, margin;
opening, sphere, arena.
     open space, free space; void &c (absence) 187; waste; wildness,
wilderness; moor, moorland; campagna^.
     abyss &c (interval) 198; unlimited space; infinity &c 105; world;
ubiquity &c (presence) 186; length and breadth of the land.
     proportions, acreage; acres, acres and perches, roods and perches,
hectares, square miles; square inches, square yards, square
centimeters, square meters, yards (clothing) &c; ares, arpents^.
Adj. spacious, roomy, extensive, expansive, capacious, ample;
widespread, vast, world-wide, uncircumscribed; boundless &c (infinite)
105; shoreless^, trackless, pathless; extended.
Adv. extensively &c adj.; wherever; everywhere; far and near, far and
wide; right and left, all over, all the world over; throughout the
world, throughout the length and breadth of the land; under the sun, in
every quarter; in all quarters, in all lands; here there and
everywhere; from pole to pole, from China to Peru [Johnson], from Indus
to the pole [Pope], from Dan to Beersheba, from end to end; on the face
of the earth, in the wide world, from all points of the compass; to the
four winds, to the uttermost parts of the earth.

180a. Inextension -- N. inextension^, nonextension^, point; dot; atom &c
(smallness) 32.

181. [Definite space.] Region -- N. region, sphere, ground, soil, area,
field, realm, hemisphere, quarter, district, beat, orb, circuit,
circle; reservation, pale &c (limit) 233; compartment, department;
     [political divisions: see] (property) &c 780 (Government) &c 737.1
arena, precincts, enceinte, walk, march; patch, plot, parcel,
inclosure, close, field, court; enclave, reserve, preserve; street &c
(abode) 189.
     clime, climate, zone, meridian, latitude.
     biosphere; lithosphere.
Adj. territorial, local, parochial, provincial, regional.

182. [Limited space.] Place -- N. place, lieu, spot, point, dot; niche,
nook &c (corner) 244; hole; pigeonhole &c (receptacle) 191;
compartment; premises, precinct, station; area, courtyard, square;
abode &c 189; locality &c (situation) 183.
     ins and outs; every hole and corner.
Adv. somewhere, in some place, wherever it may be, here and there, in
various places, passim.


183. Situation -- N. situation, position, locality, locale, status,
latitude and longitude; footing, standing, standpoint, post; stage;
aspect, attitude, posture, pose.
     environment, surroundings (location) 184; circumjacence &c 227
     place, site, station, seat, venue, whereabouts; ground; bearings
&c (direction) 278; spot &c (limited space) 182.
     topography, geography, chorography^; map &c 554.
V. be situated, be situate; lie, have its seat in.
Adj. situate, situated; local, topical, topographical &c n..
Adv. in situ, in loco; here and there, passim; hereabouts, thereabouts,
whereabouts; in place, here, there.
     in such and such surroundings, in such and such environs, in such
and such entourage, amidst such and such surroundings, amidst such and
such environs, amidst such and such entourage.

184. Location -- N. location, localization; lodgment; deposition,
reposition; stowage, package; collocation; packing, lading;
establishment, settlement, installation; fixation; insertion &c 300.
     habitat, environment, surroundings (situation) 183; circumjacence
&c 227 [Obs.].
     anchorage, mooring, encampment.
     plantation, colony, settlement, cantonment; colonization,
domestication, situation; habitation &c (abode) 189; cohabitation; a
local habitation and a name [Midsummer Night's Dream]; endenization^,
V. place, situate, locate, localize, make a place for, put, lay, set,
seat, station, lodge, quarter, post, install; house, stow; establish,
fix, pin, root; graft; plant &c (insert) 300; shelve, pitch, camp, lay
down, deposit, reposit^; cradle; moor, tether, picket; pack, tuck in;
embed, imbed; vest, invest in.
     billet on, quarter upon, saddle with; load, lade, freight; pocket,
put up, bag.
     inhabit &c (be present) 186; domesticate, colonize; take root,
strike root; anchor; cast anchor, come to an anchor; sit down, settle
down; settle; take up one's abode, take up one's quarters; plant
oneself, establish oneself, locate oneself; squat, perch, hive, se
nicher [Fr.], bivouac, burrow, get a footing; encamp, pitch one's tent;
put up at, put up one's horses at; keep house.
     endenizen^, naturalize, adopt.
     put back, replace &c (restore) 660.
Adj. placed &c v.; situate, posited, ensconced, imbedded, embosomed^,
rooted; domesticated; vested in, unremoved^.
     moored &c v.; at anchor.

185. Displacement -- N. displacement, elocation^, transposition.
     ejectment &c 297 [Obs.]; exile &c (banishment) 893; removal &c
(transference) 270.
     misplacement, dislocation &c 61; fish out of water.
V. displace, misplace, displant^, dislodge, disestablish; exile &c
(seclude) 893; ablegate^, set aside, remove; take away, cart away; take
off, draft off; lade &c 184.
     unload, empty &c (eject) 297; transfer &c 270; dispel.
     vacate; depart &c 293.
Adj. displaced &c v.; unplaced, unhoused^, unharbored^, unestablished^,
unsettled; houseless^, homeless; out of place, out of a situation; in
the wrong place.
     misplaced, out of its element.


186. Presence -- N. presence; occupancy, occupation; attendance;
     permeation, pervasion; diffusion &c (dispersion) 73.
     ubiety^, ubiquity, ubiquitariness^; omnipresence.
     bystander &c (spectator) 444.
V. exist in space, be present &c adj.; assister^; make one of, make one
at; look on, attend, remain; find oneself, present oneself; show one's
face; fall in the way of, occur in a place; lie, stand; occupy; be
     people; inhabit, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn, live, abide, lodge,
nestle, roost, perch; take up one's abode &c (be located) 184; tenant.
     resort to, frequent, haunt; revisit.
     fill, pervade, permeate; be diffused, be disseminated, be through;
over spread, overrun; run through; meet one at every turn.
Adj. present; occupying, inhabiting &c v.; moored &c 184; resiant^,
resident, residentiary^; domiciled.
     ubiquitous, ubiquitary^; omnipresent; universally present.
     peopled, populous, full of people, inhabited.
Adv. here, there, where, everywhere, aboard, on board, at home, afield;
here there and everywhere &c (space) 180; in presence of, before; under
the eyes of, under the nose of; in the face of; in propria persona
     on the spot; in person, in the flesh.
Phr. nusquam est qui ubique est [Lat.] [Seneca].

187. [Nullibiety.1] Absence -- N. absence; inexistence &c 2 [Obs.];
nonresidence, absenteeism; nonattendance, alibi.
     emptiness &c adj.; void, vacuum; vacuity, vacancy; tabula rasa
[Lat.]; exemption; hiatus &c (interval) 198; lipotype^.
     truant, absentee.
     nobody; nobody present, nobody on earth; not a soul; ame qui vive
V. be absent &c adj.; keep away, keep out of the way; play truant,
absent oneself, stay away; keep aloof, hold aloof.
     withdraw, make oneself scarce, vacate; go away &c 293.
Adj. absent, not present, away, nonresident, gone, from home; missing;
lost; wanting; omitted; nowhere to be found; inexistence &c 2 [Obs.].
     empty, void; vacant, vacuous; untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited;
tenantless; barren, sterile; desert, deserted; devoid; uninhabitable.
Adv. without, minus, nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there; in
default of; sans; behind one's back.
Phr. the bird has flown, non est inventus [Lat.].
     absence makes the heart grow fonder [Bayley]; absent in body but
present in spirit [1 Corinthians verse 3]; absento nemo ne nocuisse
velit [Lat.] [Propertius]; Achilles absent was Achilles still [Homer];
aux absents les os; briller par son absence [Fr.]; conspicuous by his
absence [Russell]; in the hope to meet shortly again and make our
absence sweet [B.

188. Inhabitant -- N. inhabitant; resident, residentiary^; dweller,
indweller^; addressee; occupier, occupant; householder, lodger, inmate,
tenant, incumbent, sojourner, locum tenens, commorant^; settler,
squatter, backwoodsman, colonist; islander; denizen, citizen; burgher,
oppidan^, cockney, cit, townsman, burgess; villager; cottager, cottier^,
cotter; compatriot; backsettler^, boarder; hotel keeper, innkeeper;
habitant; paying guest; planter.
     native, indigene, aborigines, autochthones^; Englishman, John Bull;
newcomer &c (stranger) 57.
     aboriginal, American^, Caledonian, Cambrian, Canadian, Canuck
[Slang], downeaster [U.S.], Scot, Scotchman, Hibernian, Irishman,
Welshman, Uncle Sam, Yankee, Brother Jonathan.
     garrison, crew; population; people &c (mankind) 372; colony,
settlement; household; mir^.
V. inhabit &c (be present) 186; endenizen &c (locate oneself) 184
Adj. indigenous; native, natal; autochthonal^, autochthonous; British;
English; American^; Canadian, Irish, Scotch, Scottish, Welsh; domestic;
domiciliated^, domiciled; naturalized, vernacular, domesticated;
     in the occupation of; garrisoned by, occupied by.

189. [Place of habitation, or resort.] Abode -- N. abode, dwelling,
lodging, domicile, residence, apartment, place, digs, pad, address,
habitation, where one's lot is cast, local habitation, berth, diggings,
seat, lap, sojourn, housing, quarters, headquarters, resiance^,
tabernacle, throne, ark.
     home, fatherland; country; homestead, homestall^; fireside; hearth,
hearth stone; chimney corner, inglenook, ingle side; harem, seraglio,
zenana^; household gods, lares et penates [Lat.], roof, household,
housing, dulce domum [Lat.], paternal domicile; native soil, native
     habitat, range, stamping ground; haunt, hangout; biosphere;
environment, ecological niche.
     nest, nidus, snuggery^; arbor, bower, &c 191; lair, den, cave,
hole, hiding place, cell, sanctum sanctorum [Lat.], aerie, eyrie, eyry^,
rookery, hive; covert, resort, retreat, perch, roost; nidification;
kala jagah^.
     bivouac, camp, encampment, cantonment, castrametation^; barrack,
casemate^, casern^.
     tent &c (covering) 223; building &c (construction) 161; chamber &c
(receptacle) 191; xenodochium^.
     tenement, messuage, farm, farmhouse, grange, hacienda, toft^.
     cot, cabin, hut, chalet, croft, shed, booth, stall, hovel, bothy^,
shanty, dugout [U.S.], wigwam; pen &c (inclosure) 232; barn, bawn^;
kennel, sty, doghold^, cote, coop, hutch, byre; cow house, cow shed;
stable, dovecote, columbary^, columbarium; shippen^; igloo, iglu^,
jacal^; lacustrine dwelling^, lacuslake dwelling^, lacuspile dwelling^;
log cabin, log house; shack, shebang [Slang], tepee, topek^.
     house, mansion, place, villa, cottage, box, lodge, hermitage, rus
in urbe [Lat.], folly, rotunda, tower, chateau, castle, pavilion,
hotel, court, manor-house, capital messuage, hall, palace; kiosk,
bungalow; casa [Sp.], country seat, apartment house, flat house, frame
house, shingle house, tenement house; temple &c 1000.
     hamlet, village, thorp^, dorp^, ham, kraal; borough, burgh, town,
city, capital, metropolis; suburb; province, country; county town,
county seat; courthouse [U.S.]; ghetto.
     street, place, terrace, parade, esplanade, alameda^, board walk,
embankment, road, row, lane, alley, court, quadrangle, quad, wynd
[Scot.], close [Scot.], yard, passage, rents, buildings, mews.
     square, polygon, circus, crescent, mall, piazza, arcade,
colonnade, peristyle, cloister; gardens, grove, residences; block of
buildings, market place, place, plaza.
     anchorage, roadstead, roads; dock, basin, wharf, quay, port,
     quarter, parish &c (region) 181.
     assembly room, meetinghouse, pump room, spa, watering place; inn;
hostel, hostelry; hotel, tavern, caravansary, dak bungalow^, khan,
hospice; public house, pub, pot house, mug house; gin mill, gin palace;
bar, bar room; barrel house [U.S.], cabaret, chophouse; club,
clubhouse; cookshop^, dive [U.S.], exchange [Euph.]; grill room, saloon
[U.S.], shebeen^; coffee house, eating house; canteen, restaurant,
buffet, cafe, estaminet^, posada^; almshouse^, poorhouse, townhouse
     garden, park, pleasure ground, plaisance^, demesne.
     [quarters for animals] cage, terrarium, doghouse; pen, aviary;
barn, stall; zoo.
V. take up one's abode &c (locate oneself) 184; inhabit &c (be present)
Adj. urban, metropolitan; suburban; provincial, rural, rustic;
domestic; cosmopolitan; palatial.
Phr. eigner Hert ist goldes Werth [G.]; even cities have their graves
[Longfellow]; ubi libertas ibi patria [Lat.]; home sweet home.

190. [Things contained.] Contents -- N. contents; cargo, lading,
freight, shipment, load, bale, burden, jag; cartload^, shipload; cup of,
basket of, &c (receptacle) 191 of; inside &c 221; stuffing, ullage.

191. Receptacle -- N. receptacle; inclosure &c 232; recipient,
receiver, reservatory.
     compartment; cell, cellule; follicle; hole, corner, niche, recess,
nook; crypt, stall, pigeonhole, cove, oriel; cave &c (concavity) 252.
     capsule, vesicle, cyst, pod, calyx, cancelli, utricle, bladder;
pericarp, udder.
     stomach, paunch, venter, ventricle, crop, craw, maw, gizzard,
breadbasket; mouth.
     pocket, pouch, fob, sheath, scabbard, socket, bag, sac, sack,
saccule, wallet, cardcase, scrip, poke, knit, knapsack, haversack,
sachel, satchel, reticule, budget, net; ditty bag, ditty box;
housewife, hussif; saddlebags; portfolio; quiver &c (magazine) 636.
     chest, box, coffer, caddy, case, casket, pyx, pix, caisson, desk,
bureau, reliquary; trunk, portmanteau, band-box, valise; grip, grip
sack [U.S.]; skippet, vasculum; boot, imperial; vache; cage, manger,
     vessel, vase, bushel, barrel; canister, jar; pottle, basket,
pannier, buck-basket, hopper, maund^, creel, cran, crate, cradle,
bassinet, wisket, whisket, jardiniere, corbeille, hamper, dosser,
dorser, tray, hod, scuttle, utensil; brazier; cuspidor, spittoon.
     [For liquids] cistern &c (store) 636; vat, caldron, barrel, cask,
drum, puncheon, keg, rundlet, tun, butt, cag, firkin, kilderkin,
carboy, amphora, bottle, jar, decanter, ewer, cruse, caraffe, crock,
kit, canteen, flagon; demijohn; flask, flasket; stoup, noggin, vial,
phial, cruet, caster; urn, epergne, salver, patella, tazza, patera; pig
gin, big gin; tyg, nipperkin, pocket pistol; tub, bucket, pail, skeel,
pot, tankard, jug, pitcher, mug, pipkin; galipot, gallipot; matrass,
receiver, retort, alembic, bolthead, capsule, can, kettle; bowl, basin,
jorum, punch bowl, cup, goblet, chalice, tumbler, glass, rummer, horn,
saucepan, skillet, posnet^, tureen.
     [laboratory vessels for liquids] beaker, flask, Erlenmeyer flask,
Florence flask, round-bottom flask, graduated cylinder, test tube,
culture tube, pipette, Pasteur pipette, disposable pipette, syringe,
vial, carboy, vacuum flask, Petri dish, microtiter tray, centrifuge
     bail, beaker, billy, canakin; catch basin, catch drain; chatti,
lota, mussuk, schooner [U.S.], spider, terrine, toby, urceus.
     plate, platter, dish, trencher, calabash, porringer, potager,
saucer, pan, crucible; glassware, tableware; vitrics.
     compote, gravy boat, creamer, sugar bowl, butter dish, mug,
pitcher, punch bowl, chafing dish.
     shovel, trowel, spoon, spatula, ladle, dipper, tablespoon, watch
glass, thimble.
     closet, commode, cupboard, cellaret, chiffonniere, locker, bin,
bunker, buffet, press, clothespress, safe, sideboard, drawer, chest of
drawers, chest on chest, highboy, lowboy, till, scrutoire^, secretary,
secretaire, davenport, bookcase, cabinet, canterbury; escritoire,
etagere, vargueno, vitrine.
     chamber, apartment, room, cabin; office, court, hall, atrium;
suite of rooms, apartment [U.S.], flat, story; saloon, salon, parlor;
by-room, cubicle; presence chamber; sitting room, best room, keeping
room, drawing room, reception room, state room; gallery, cabinet,
closet; pew, box; boudoir; adytum, sanctum; bedroom, dormitory;
refectory, dining room, salle-a-manger; nursery, schoolroom; library,
study; studio; billiard room, smoking room; den; stateroom, tablinum,
     [room for defecation and urination] bath room, bathroom, toilet,
lavatory, powder room; john, jakes, necessary, loo; [in public places]
men's room, ladies' room, rest room; [fixtures] (uncleanness). 653
attic, loft, garret, cockloft, clerestory; cellar, vault, hold,
cockpit; cubbyhole; cook house; entre-sol; mezzanine floor; ground
floor, rez-de-chaussee; basement, kitchen, pantry, bawarchi-khana,
scullery, offices; storeroom &c (depository) 636; lumber room; dairy,
     coach house; garage; hangar; outhouse; penthouse; lean-to.
     portico, porch, stoop, stope, veranda, patio, lanai, terrace,
deck; lobby, court, courtyard, hall, vestibule, corridor, passage,
breezeway; ante room, ante chamber; lounge; piazza, veranda.
     conservatory, greenhouse, bower, arbor, summerhouse, alcove,
grotto, hermitage.
     lodging &c (abode) 189; bed &c (support) 215; carriage &c
(vehicle) 272.
Adj. capsular; saccular, sacculated; recipient; ventricular, cystic,
vascular, vesicular, cellular, camerated, locular, multilocular,
polygastric; marsupial; siliquose, siliquous.



192. Size -- N. size, magnitude, dimension, bulk, volume; largeness &c
adj.; greatness &c (of quantity) 31; expanse &c (space) 180; amplitude,
mass; proportions.
     capacity, tonnage, tunnage; cordage; caliber, scantling.
     turgidity &c (expansion) 194; corpulence, obesity; plumpness &c
adj.; embonpoint, corporation, flesh and blood, lustihood.
     hugeness &c adj.; enormity, immensity, monstrosity.
     giant, Brobdingnagian, Antaeus, Goliath, Gog and Magog, Gargantua,
monster, mammoth, Cyclops; cachalot, whale, porpoise, behemoth,
leviathan, elephant, hippopotamus; colossus; tun, cord, lump, bulk,
block, loaf, mass, swad, clod, nugget, bushel, thumper, whooper,
spanker, strapper; Triton among the minnows [Coriolanus].
     mountain, mound; heap &c (assemblage) 72.
     largest portion &c 50; full size, life size.
V. be large &c adj.; become large &c (expand) 194.
Adj. large, big; great &c (in quantity) 31; considerable, bulky,
voluminous, ample, massive, massy; capacious, comprehensive; spacious
&c 180; mighty, towering, fine, magnificent.
     corpulent, stout, fat, obese, plump, squab, full, lusty,
strapping, bouncing; portly, burly, well-fed, full-grown; corn fed,
gram fed; stalwart, brawny, fleshy; goodly; in good case, in good
condition; in condition; chopping, jolly; chub faced, chubby faced.
     lubberly, hulky, unwieldy, lumpish, gaunt, spanking, whacking,
whopping, walloping, thumping, thundering, hulking; overgrown; puffy &c
(swollen) 194.
     huge, immense, enormous, mighty; vast, vasty; amplitudinous,
stupendous; monster, monstrous, humongous, monumental; elephantine,
jumbo, mammoth; gigantic, gigantean, giant, giant like, titanic;
prodigious, colossal, Cyclopean, Brobdingnagian, Bunyanesque,
Herculean, Gargantuan; infinite &c 105.
     large as life; plump as a dumpling, plump as a partridge; fat as a
pig, fat as a quail, fat as butter, fat as brawn, fat as bacon.
     immeasurable, unfathomable, unplumbed; inconceivable,
unimaginable, unheard-of.
     of cosmic proportions; of epic proportions, the mother of all, teh
granddaddy of all.

193. Littleness -- N. littleness &c adj.; smallness &c (of quantity)
32; exiguity, inextension^; parvitude^, parvity^; duodecimo^; Elzevir
edition, epitome, microcosm; rudiment; vanishing point; thinness &c
     dwarf, pygmy, pigmy^, Liliputian, chit, pigwidgeon^, urchin, elf;
atomy^, dandiprat^; doll, puppet; Tom Thumb, Hop-o'-my-thumb^; manikin,
mannikin; homunculus, dapperling^, cock-sparrow.
     animalcule, monad, mite, insect, emmet^, fly, midge, gnat, shrimp,
minnow, worm, maggot, entozoon^; bacteria; infusoria^; microzoa
[Micro.]; phytozoaria^; microbe; grub; tit, tomtit, runt, mouse, small
fry; millet seed, mustard seed; barleycorn; pebble, grain of sand;
molehill, button, bubble.
     point; atom &c (small quantity) 32; fragment &c (small part) 51;
powder &c 330; point of a pin, mathematical point; minutiae &c
(unimportance) 643.
     micrometer; vernier; scale.
     microphotography, photomicrography, micrography^; photomicrograph,
microphotograph; microscopy; microscope (optical instruments) 445.
V. be little &c adj.; lie in a nutshell; become small &c (decrease) 36,
(contract) 195.
Adj. little; small &c (in quantity) 32; minute, diminutive,
microscopic; microzoal; inconsiderable &c (unimportant) 643; exiguous,
puny, tiny, wee, petty, minikin^, miniature, pygmy, pigmy^, elfin;
undersized; dwarf, dwarfed, dwarfish; spare, stunted, limited; cramp,
cramped; pollard, Liliputian, dapper, pocket; portative^, portable;
duodecimo^; dumpy, squat; short &c 201.
     impalpable, intangible, evanescent, imperceptible, invisible,
inappreciable, insignificant, inconsiderable, trivial; infinitesimal,
homoeopathic^; atomic, subatomic, corpuscular, molecular; rudimentary,
rudimental; embryonic, vestigial.
     weazen^, scant, scraggy, scrubby; thin &c (narrow) 203; granular &c
(powdery) 330; shrunk &c 195; brevipennate^.
Adv. in a small compass, in a nutshell; on a small scale; minutely,

194. Expansion -- N. expansion; increase of size &c 35; enlargement,
extension, augmentation; amplification, ampliation^; aggrandizement,
spread, increment, growth, development, pullulation, swell, dilation,
rarefaction; turgescence^, turgidness, turgidity; dispansion^; obesity
&c (size) 192; hydrocephalus, hydrophthalmus [Med.]; dropsy,
tumefaction, intumescence, swelling, tumor, diastole, distension;
puffing, puffiness; inflation; pandiculation^.
     dilatability, expansibility.
     germination, growth, upgrowth^; accretion &c 35; budding,
     overgrowth, overdistension^; hypertrophy, tympany^.
     bulb &c (convexity) 250; plumper; superiority of size.
     [expansion of the universe] big bang; Hubble constant.
V. become larger &c (large) &c 192; expand, widen, enlarge, extend,
grow, increase, incrassate^, swell, gather; fill out; deploy, take open
order, dilate, stretch, distend, spread; mantle, wax; grow up, spring
up; bud, bourgeon [Fr.], shoot, sprout, germinate, put forth, vegetate,
pullulate, open, burst forth; gain flesh, gather flesh; outgrow; spread
like wildfire, overrun.
     be larger than; surpass &c (be superior) 33.
     render larger &c (large) &c 192; expand, spread, extend,
aggrandize, distend, develop, amplify, spread out, widen, magnify,
rarefy, inflate, puff, blow up, stuff, pad, cram; exaggerate; fatten.
Adj. expanded, &c v.; larger, &c (large) &c 192; swollen; expansive;
wide open, wide spread; flabelliform^; overgrown, exaggerated, bloated,
fat, turgid, tumid, hypertrophied, dropsical; pot bellied, swag
bellied^; edematous, oedematous^, obese, puffy, pursy^, blowzy,
bigswoln^, distended; patulous; bulbous &c (convex) 250; full blown,
full grown, full formed; big &c 192; abdominous^, enchymatous^,
rhipidate^; tumefacient^, tumefying^.

195. Contraction -- N. contraction, reduction, diminution; decrease of
size &c 36; defalcation, decrement; lessening, shrinking &c v.;
compaction; tabes^, collapse, emaciation, attenuation, tabefaction^,
consumption, marasmus^, atrophy; systole, neck, hourglass.
     condensation, compression, compactness; compendium &c 596;
squeezing &c v.; strangulation; corrugation; astringency; astringents,
sclerotics; contractility, compressibility; coarctation^.
     inferiority in size.
V. become small, become smaller; lessen, decrease &c 36; grow less,
dwindle, shrink, contract, narrow, shrivel, collapse, wither, lose
flesh, wizen, fall away, waste, wane, ebb; decay &c (deteriorate) 659.
     be smaller than, fall short of; not come up to &c (be inferior)
     render smaller, lessen, diminish, contract, draw in, narrow,
coarctate^; boil down; constrict, constringe^; condense, compress,
squeeze, corrugate, crimp, crunch, crush, crumple up, warp, purse up,
pack, squeeze, stow; pinch, tighten, strangle; cramp; dwarf, bedwarf^;
shorten &c 201; circumscribe &c 229; restrain &c 751.
     [reduce in size by abrasion or paring. ] (subtraction) 38 abrade,
pare, reduce, attenuate, rub down, scrape, file, file down, grind,
grind down, chip, shave, shear, wear down.
Adj. contracting &c v.; astringent; shrunk, contracted &c v.;
strangulated, tabid^, wizened, stunted; waning &c v.; neap, compact.
     unexpanded &c (expand) &c 194 [Obs.]; contractile; compressible;
smaller &c (small) &c 193.

196. Distance -- N. distance; space &c 180; remoteness, farness^, far-
cry to; longinquity^, elongation; offing, background; remote region;
removedness^; parallax; reach, span, stride.
     outpost, outskirt; horizon; aphelion; foreign parts, ultima Thule
[Lat.], ne plus ultra [Lat.], antipodes; long range, giant's stride.
     dispersion &c 73.
     [units of distance] length &c 200.
     cosmic distance, light-years.
V. be distant &c adj.; extend to, stretch to, reach to, spread to, go
to, get to, stretch away to; range.
     remain at a distance; keep away, keep off, keep aloof, keep clear
of, stand away, stand off, stand aloof, stand clear of, stay away, keep
one's distance.
     distance; distance oneself from.
Adj. distant; far off, far away; remote, telescopic, distal, wide of;
stretching to &c v.; yon, yonder; ulterior; transmarine^, transpontine^,
transatlantic, transalpine; tramontane; ultramontane, ultramundane^;
hyperborean, antipodean; inaccessible, out of the way; unapproached^,
unapproachable; incontiguous^.
Adv. far off, far away; afar, afar off; off; away; a long way off, a
great way off, a good way off; wide away, aloof; wide of, clear of; out
of the way, out of reach; abroad, yonder, farther, further, beyond;
outre mer [Fr.], over the border, far and wide, over the hills and far
away [Gay]; from pole to pole &c (over great space) 180; to the
uttermost parts, to the ends of the earth; out of hearing, nobody knows
where, a perte de vue [Fr.], out of the sphere of, wide of the mark; a
far cry to.
     apart, asunder; wide apart, wide asunder; longo intervallo [It];
at arm's length.
Phr. distance lends enchantment [Campbell]; it's a long long way to
Tipperary; out of sight, out of mind.

197. Nearness -- N. nearness &c adj.; proximity, propinquity; vicinity,
vicinage; neighborhood, adjacency; contiguity &c 199.
     short distance, short step, short cut; earshot, close quarters,
stone's throw; bow shot, gun shot, pistol shot; hair's breadth, span.
     purlieus, neighborhood, vicinage, environs, alentours [Fr.],
suburbs, confines, banlieue^, borderland; whereabouts.
     bystander; neighbor, borderer^.
     approach &c 286; convergence &c 290; perihelion.
V. be near &c adj.; adjoin, hang about, trench on; border upon, verge
upon; stand by, approximate, tread on the heels of, cling to, clasp,
hug; huddle; hang upon the skirts of, hover over; burn.
     touch &c 199; bring near, draw near &c 286; converge &c 290; crowd
&c 72; place side by side &c adv..
Adj. near, nigh; close at hand, near at hand; close, neighboring;
bordering upon, contiguous, adjacent, adjoining; proximate, proximal;
at hand, handy; near the mark, near run; home, intimate.
Adv. near, nigh; hard by, fast by; close to, close upon; hard upon; at
the point of; next door to; within reach, within call, within hearing,
within earshot; within an ace of; but a step, not far from, at no great
distance; on the verge of, on the brink of, on the skirts of; in the
environs &c n.; at one's door, at one's feet, at one's elbow, at one's
finger's end, at one's side; on the tip of one's tongue; under one's
nose; within a stone's throw &c n.; in sight of, in presence of; at
close quarters; cheek by jole^, cheek by jowl; beside, alongside, side
by side, tete-a-tete; in juxtaposition &c (touching) 199; yardarm to
yardarm, at the heels of; on the confines of, at the threshold,
bordering upon, verging to; in the way.
     about; hereabouts, thereabouts; roughly, in round numbers;
approximately, approximatively^; as good as, well-nigh.

198. Interval -- N. interval, interspace^; separation &c 44; break, gap,
opening; hole &c 260; chasm, hiatus, caesura; interruption,
interregnum; interstice, lacuna, cleft, mesh, crevice, chink, rime,
creek, cranny, crack, chap, slit, fissure, scissure^, rift, flaw,
breach, rent, gash, cut, leak, dike, ha-ha.
     gorge, defile, ravine, canon, crevasse, abyss, abysm; gulf; inlet,
frith^, strait, gully; pass; furrow &c 259; abra^; barranca^, barranco^;
clove [U.S.], gulch [U.S.], notch [U.S.]; yawning gulf; hiatus maxime
[Lat.], hiatus valde deflendus [Lat.]; parenthesis &c (interjacence)
228 [Obs.]; void &c (absence) 187; incompleteness &c 53.
     [interval of time] period &c 108; interim (time) 106.
V. gape &c (open) 260.
Adj. with an interval, far between; breachy^, rimose^, rimulose^.
Adv. at intervals &c (discontinuously) 70; longo intervallo [It].

199. Contiguity -- N. contiguity, contact, proximity, apposition,
abuttal^, juxtaposition; abutment, osculation; meeting, appulse^,
rencontre^, rencounter^, syzygy [Astr.], coincidence, coexistence;
adhesion &c 46; touching &c v.. (touch) 379.
     borderland; frontier &c (limit) 233; tangent; abutter.
V. be contiguous &c adj.; join, adjoin, abut on, march with; graze,
touch, meet, osculate, come in contact, coincide; coexist; adhere &c
     [cause to be contiguous] juxtapose; contact; join (unite) 43; link
(vinculum) 45.
Adj. contiguous; touching &c v.; in contact &c n.; conterminous, end to
end, osculatory; pertingent^; tangential.
     hand to hand; close to &c (near) 197; with no interval &c 198.


200. Length -- N. length, longitude, span; mileage; distance &c 196.
     line, bar, rule, stripe, streak, spoke, radius.
     lengthening &c v.; prolongation, production, protraction; tension,
tensure^; extension.
     [Measures of length] line, nail, inch, hand, palm, foot, cubit,
yard, ell, fathom, rood, pole, furlong, mile, league; chain, link;
arpent^, handbreadth^, jornada [U.S.], kos^, vara^.
     [astronomical units of distance] astronomical unit, AU, light-
year, parsec.
     [metric units of length] nanometer, nm, micron, micrometer,
millimicron, millimeter, mm, centimeter, cm, meter, kilometer, km.
     pedometer, perambulator; scale &c (measurement) 466.
V. be long &c adj.; stretch out, sprawl; extend to, reach to, stretch
to; make a long arm, drag its slow length along.
     render long &c adj.; lengthen, extend, elongate; stretch; prolong,
produce, protract; let out, draw out, spin out^; drawl.
     enfilade, look along, view in perspective.
     distend (expand) 194.
Adj. long, longsome^; lengthy, wiredrawn^, outstretched; lengthened &c
v.; sesquipedalian &c (words) 577; interminable, no end of;
     linear, lineal; longitudinal, oblong.
     as long as my arm, as long as today and tomorrow; unshortened &c
(shorten) &c 201 [Obs.].
Adv. lengthwise, at length, longitudinally, endlong^, along; tandem; in
a line &c (continuously) 69; in perspective.
     from end to end, from stem to stern, from head to foot, from the
crown of the head to the sole of the foot, from top to toe; fore and

201. Shortness -- N. shortness &c adj.; brevity; littleness &c 193; a
     shortening &c v.; abbreviation, abbreviature^; abridgment,
concision, retrenchment, curtailment, decurtation^; reduction &c
(contraction) 195; epitome &c (compendium) 596.
     elision, ellipsis; conciseness &c (in style) 572.
     abridger, epitomist^, epitomizer^.
V. be short &c adj.; render short &c adj.; shorten, curtail, abridge,
abbreviate, take in, reduce; compress &c (contract) 195; epitomize &c
     retrench, cut short, obtruncate^; scrimp, cut, chop up, hack, hew;
cut down, pare down; clip, dock, lop, prune, shear, shave, mow, reap,
crop; snub; truncate, pollard, stunt, nip, check the growth of;
foreshorten (in drawing).
Adj. short, brief, curt; compendious, compact; stubby, scrimp; shorn,
stubbed; stumpy, thickset, pug; chunky [U.S.], decurtate^; retrousse^;
stocky; squab, squabby^; squat, dumpy; little &c 193; curtailed of its
fair proportions; short by; oblate; concise &c 572; summary.
Adv. shortly &c adj.; in short &c (concisely) 572.

202. Breadth, Thickness, -- N. breadth, width, latitude, amplitude;
diameter, bore, caliber, radius; superficial extent &c (space) 180.
     thickness, crassitude^; corpulence &c (size) 192; dilation &c
(expansion) 194.
V. be broad &c adj.; become broad, render broad &c adj.; expand &c 194;
thicken, widen, calibrate.
Adj. broad, wide, ample, extended; discous^; fanlike; outspread,
outstretched; wide as a church-door [Romeo and Juliet]; latifoliate^,
     thick, dumpy, squab, squat, thickset; thick as a rope.

203. Narrowness. Thinness -- N. narrowness &c adj.; closeness, exility^;
exiguity &c (little) 193.
     line; hair's breadth, finger's breadth; strip, streak, vein.
     monolayer; epitaxial deposition [Eng.].
     thinness &c adj.; tenuity; emaciation, macilency^, marcor^.
     shaving, slip &c (filament) 205; thread paper, skeleton, shadow,
anatomy, spindleshanks^, lantern jaws, mere skin and bone.
     middle constriction, stricture, neck, waist, isthmus, wasp,
hourglass; ridge, ghaut^, ghat^, pass; ravine &c 198.
     narrowing, coarctation^, angustation^, tapering; contraction &c
V. be narrow &c adj.; narrow, taper, contract &c 195; render narrow &c
adj.; waste away.
Adj. narrow, close; slender, thin, fine; thread-like &c (filament) 205;
finespun^, gossamer; paper-thin; taper, slim, slight-made; scant,
scanty; spare, delicate, incapacious^; contracted &c 195; unexpanded &c
(expand) &c 194 [Obs.]; slender as a thread.
     [in reference to people or animals] emaciated, lean, meager,
gaunt, macilent^; lank, lanky; weedy, skinny; scrawny slinky [U.S.];
starved, starveling; herring gutted; worn to a shadow, lean as a rake
[Chaucer]; thin as a lath, thin as a whipping post, thin as a wafer;
hatchet-faced; lantern-jawed.
     attenuated, shriveled, extenuated, tabid^, marcid^, barebone,

204. Layer -- N. layer, stratum, strata, course, bed, zone, substratum,
substrata, floor, flag, stage, story, tier, slab, escarpment; table,
tablet; dess^; flagstone; board, plank; trencher, platter.
     plate; lamina, lamella; sheet, foil; wafer; scale, flake, peel;
coat, pellicle; membrane, film; leaf; slice, shive^, cut, rasher,
shaving, integument &c (covering) 223; eschar^.
     stratification, scaliness, nest of boxes, coats of an onion.
     monolayer; bilayer; trilayer [Bioch.].
V. slice, shave, pare, peel; delaminate; plate, coat, veneer; cover &c
Adj. lamellar, lamellated^, lamelliform^, layered; laminated,
laminiferous^; micaceous^; schistose, schistous^; scaly, filmy,
membranous, pellicular, flaky, squamous [Anat.]; foliated, foliaceous^;
stratified, stratiform; tabular, discoid; spathic^, spathose^.

205. Filament -- N. filament, line; fiber, fibril; funicle^, vein; hair,
capillament^, cilium, cilia, pilus, pili; tendril, gossamer; hair
stroke; veinlet^, venula^, venule^.
     wire, string, thread, packthread, cotton, sewing silk, twine,
twist, whipcord, tape, ribbon, cord, rope, yarn, hemp, oakum, jute.
     strip, shred, slip, spill, list, band, fillet, fascia, ribbon,
riband, roll, lath, splinter, shiver, shaving.
     beard &c (roughness) 256; ramification; strand.
Adj. filamentous, filamentiferous^, filaceous^, filiform^; fibrous,
fibrillous^; thread-like, wiry, stringy, ropy; capillary, capilliform^;
funicular, wire-drawn; anguilliform^; flagelliform^; hairy &c (rough)
256; taeniate^, taeniform^, taenioid^; venose^, venous.

206. Height -- N. height, altitude, elevation; eminence, pitch;
loftiness &c adj.; sublimity.
     tallness &c adj.; stature, procerity^; prominence &c 250.
     colossus &c (size) 192; giant, grenadier, giraffe, camelopard.
     mount, mountain; hill alto, butte [U.S.], monticle^, fell, knap^;
cape; headland, foreland^; promontory; ridge, hog's back, dune; rising
ground, vantage ground; down; moor, moorland; Alp; uplands, highlands;
heights &c (summit) 210; knob, loma^, pena [U.S.], picacho^, tump^;
knoll, hummock, hillock, barrow, mound, mole; steeps, bluff, cliff,
craig^, tor^, peak, pike, clough^; escarpment, edge, ledge, brae; dizzy
     tower, pillar, column, obelisk, monument, steeple, spire, minaret,
campanile, turret, dome, cupola; skyscraper.
     pole, pikestaff, maypole, flagstaff; top mast, topgallant mast.
     ceiling &c (covering) 223.
     high water; high tide, flood tide, spring tide.
     altimetry &c (angel) 244 [Obs.]; batophobia^.
     satellite, spy-in-the-sky.
V. be high &c adj.; tower, soar, command; hover, hover over, fly over;
orbit, be in orbit; cap, culminate; overhang, hang over, impend,
beetle, bestride, ride, mount; perch, surmount; cover &c 223; overtop
&c (be superior) 33; stand on tiptoe.
     become high &c adj.; grow higher, grow taller; upgrow^; rise &c
(ascend) 305; send into orbit.
     render high &c adj.; heighten &c (elevate) 307.
Adj. high, elevated, eminent, exalted, lofty, tall; gigantic &c (big)
192; Patagonian; towering, beetling, soaring, hanging (gardens);
elevated &c 307; upper; highest &c (topmost) 210; high reaching,
insessorial^, perching.
     upland, moorland; hilly, knobby [U.S.]; mountainous, alpine,
subalpine, heaven kissing; cloudtopt^, cloudcapt^, cloudtouching^;
     overhanging &c v.; incumbent, overlying, superincumbent^,
supernatant, superimposed; prominent &c v. 250.
     tall as a maypole, tall as a poplar, tall as a steeple, lanky &c
(thin) 203.
Adv. on high, high up, aloft, up, above, aloof, overhead; airwind^;
upstairs, abovestairs^; in the clouds; on tiptoe, on stilts, on the
shoulders of; over head and ears; breast high.
     over, upwards; from top to bottom &c (completely) 52.
Phr. e meglio cader dalle finistre che dal tetto [It].

207. Lowness -- N. lowness &c adj.; debasement, depression, prostration
&c (horizontal) 213; depression &c (concave) 252.
     molehill; lowlands; basement floor, ground floor; rez de chaussee
[Fr.]; cellar; hold, bilge; feet, heels.
     low water; low tide, ebb tide, neap tide, spring tide.
V. be low &c adj.; lie low, lie flat; underlie; crouch, slouch, wallow,
grovel; lower &c (depress) 308.
Adj. low, neap, debased; nether, nether most; flat, level with the
ground; lying low &c v.; crouched, subjacent, squat, prostrate &c
(horizontal) 213.
Adv. under; beneath, underneath; below; downwards; adown^, at the foot
of; under foot, under ground; down stairs, below stairs; at a low ebb;
below par.

208. Depth -- N. depth; deepness &c adj.; profundity, depression &c
(concavity) 252.
     hollow, pit, shaft, well, crater; gulf &c 198; bowels of the
earth, botttomless pit^, hell.
     soundings, depth of water, water, draught, submersion; plummet,
sound, probe; sounding rod, sounding line; lead.
     [instrument to measure depth] sonar, side-looking sonar;
V. be deep &c adj.; render deep &c adj.; deepen.
     plunge &c 310; sound, fathom, plumb, cast the lead, heave the
lead, take soundings, make soundings; dig &c (excavate) 252.
Adj. deep, deep seated; profound, sunk, buried; submerged &c 310;
subaqueous, submarine, subterranean, subterraneous, subterrene^;
     bottomless, soundless, fathomless; unfathomed, unfathomable;
abysmal; deep as a well; bathycolpian^; benthal^, benthopelagic^;
downreaching^, yawning.
     knee deep, ankle deep.
Adv. beyond one's depth, out of one's depth; over head and ears; mark
twine, mark twain.

209. Shallowness -- N. shallowness &c adj.; shoals; mere scratch.
Adj. shallow, slight, superficial; skin deep, ankle deep, knee deep;
just enough to wet one's feet; shoal, shoaly^.

210. Summit -- N. summit, summity^; top, peak, vertex, apex, zenith,
pinnacle, acme, culmination, meridian, utmost height, ne plus utra,
height, pitch, maximum, climax, culminating point, crowning point,
turning point; turn of the tide, fountain head; water shed, water
parting; sky, pole.
     tip, tip top; crest, crow's nest, cap, truck, nib; end &c 67;
crown, brow; head, nob^, noddle^, pate; capsheaf^.
     high places, heights.
     topgallant mast, sky scraper; quarter deck, hurricane deck.
     architrave, frieze, cornice, coping stone, zoophorus^, capital,
epistyle^, sconce, pediment, entablature^; tympanum; ceiling &c
(covering) 223.
     attic, loft, garret, house top, upper story.
     [metaphorical use] summit conference, summit; peak of achievement,
peak of performance; peaks and troughs, peaks and valleys (in graphs).
V. culminate, crown, top; overtop &c (be superior to) 33.
Adj. highest &c (high) &c 206; top; top most, upper most; tiptop;
culminating &c v.; meridian, meridional^; capital, head, polar, supreme,
supernal, topgallant.
Adv. atop, at the top of the tree.
Phr. en flute; fleur deau [Fr.].

211. Base -- N. base, basement; plinth, dado, wainscot; baseboard,
mopboard^; bedrock, hardpan [U.S.]; foundation &c (support) 215;
substructure, substratum, ground, earth, pavement, floor, paving, flag,
carped, ground floor, deck; footing, ground work, basis; hold, bilge.
     bottom, nadir, foot, sole, toe, hoof, keel, root; centerboard.
Adj. bottom, undermost, nethermost; fundamental; founded on, based on,
grounded on, built on.

212. Verticality -- N. verticality; erectness &c adj.; perpendicularity
&c 216.1; right angle, normal; azimuth circle.
     wall, precipice, cliff.
     elevation, erection; square, plumb line, plummet.
V. be vertical &c adj.; stand up, stand on end, stand erect, stand
upright; stick up, cock up.
     render vertical &c adj.; set up, stick up, raise up, cock up;
erect, rear, raise on its legs.
Adj. vertical, upright, erect, perpendicular, plumb, normal, straight,
bolt, upright; rampant; standing up &c v.; rectangular, orthogonal &c
Adv. vertically &c adj.; up, on end; up on end, right on end; a plomb
[Fr.], endwise; one one's legs; at right angles.

213. Horizontality -- N. horizontality^; flatness; level, plane; stratum
&c 204; dead level, dead flat; level plane.
     recumbency, lying down &c v.; reclination^, decumbence^;
decumbency^, discumbency^; proneness &c adj.; accubation^, supination^,
resupination^, prostration; azimuth.
     plain, floor, platform, bowling green; cricket ground; croquet
ground, croquet lawn; billiard table; terrace, estrade^, esplanade,
     [flat land area] table land, plateau, ledge; butte; mesa (plain)
     [instrument to measure horizontality] level, spirit level.
V. be horizontal &c adj.; lie, recline, couch; lie down, lie flat, lie
prostrate; sprawl, loll, sit down.
     render horizontal &c adj.; lay down, lay out; level, flatten;
prostrate, knock down, floor, fell.
Adj. horizontal, level, even, plane; flat &c 251; flat as a billiard
table, flat as a bowling green; alluvial; calm, calm as a mill pond;
smooth, smooth as glass.
     recumbent, decumbent, procumbent, accumbent^; lying &c v.; prone,
supine, couchant, jacent^, prostrate, recubant^.
Adv. horizontally &c adj.; on one's back, on all fours, on its beam

214. Pendency -- N. pendency^, dependency; suspension, hanging &c v.;
pedicel, pedicle, peduncle; tail, train, flap, skirt, pigtail, pony
tail, pendulum; hangnail peg, knob, button, hook, nail, stud, ring,
staple, tenterhook; fastening &c 45; spar, horse.
V. be pendent &c adj.; hang, depend, swing, dangle; swag; daggle^, flap,
trail, flow; beetle.
     suspend, hang, sling, hook up, hitch, fasten to, append.
Adj. pendent, pendulous; pensile; hanging &c v.; beetling, jutting
over, overhanging, projecting; dependent; suspended &c v.; loose,
     having a peduncle &c n.; pedunculate^, tailed, caudate.

215. Support -- N. support, ground, foundation, base, basis; terra
firma; bearing, fulcrum, bait [U.S.], caudex crib^; point d'appui [Fr.],
pou sto [Gr.], purchase footing, hold, locus standi [Lat.]; landing
place, landing stage; stage, platform; block; rest, resting place;
groundwork, substratum, riprap, sustentation, subvention; floor &c
(basement) 211.
     supporter; aid &c 707; prop, stand, anvil, fulciment^; cue rest,
jigger; monkey; stay, shore, skid, rib, truss, bandage; sleeper;
stirrup, stilts, shoe, sole, heel, splint, lap, bar, rod, boom, sprit^,
outrigger; ratlings^.
     staff, stick, crutch, alpenstock, baton, staddle^; bourdon^,
cowlstaff^, lathi^, mahlstick^.
     post, pillar, shaft, thill^, column, pilaster; pediment, pedicle;
pedestal; plinth, shank, leg, socle^, zocle^; buttress, jamb, mullion,
abutment; baluster, banister, stanchion; balustrade; headstone;
upright; door post, jamb, door jamb.
     frame, framework; scaffold, skeleton, beam, rafter, girder,
lintel, joist, travis^, trave^, corner stone, summer, transom; rung,
round, step, sill; angle rafter, hip rafter; cantilever, modillion^;
crown post, king post; vertebra.
     columella^, backbone; keystone; axle, axletree; axis; arch,
     trunnion, pivot, rowlock^; peg &c (pendency) 214 [Obs.]; tiebeam &c
(fastening) 45; thole pin^.
     board, ledge, shelf, hob, bracket, trevet^, trivet, arbor, rack;
mantel, mantle piece [Fr.], mantleshelf^; slab, console; counter,
dresser; flange, corbel; table, trestle; shoulder; perch; horse; easel,
desk; clotheshorse, hatrack; retable; teapoy^.
     seat, throne, dais; divan, musnud^; chair, bench, form, stool,
sofa, settee, stall; arm chair, easy chair, elbow chair, rocking chair;
couch, fauteuil [Fr.], woolsack^, ottoman, settle, squab, bench;
aparejo^, faldstool^, horn; long chair, long sleeve chair, morris chair;
lamba chauki^, lamba kursi^; saddle, pannel^, pillion; side saddle, pack
saddle; pommel.
     bed, berth, pallet, tester, crib, cot, hammock, shakedown,
trucklebed^, cradle, litter, stretcher, bedstead; four poster, French
bed, bunk, kip, palang^; bedding, bichhona, mattress, paillasse^;
pillow, bolster; mat, rug, cushion.
     footstool, hassock; tabouret^; tripod, monopod.
     Atlas, Persides, Atlantes^, Caryatides, Hercules.
V. be supported &c; lie on, sit on, recline on, lean on, loll on, rest
on, stand on, step on, repose on, abut on, bear on, be based on &c;
have at one's back; bestride, bestraddle^.
     support, bear, carry, hold, sustain, shoulder; hold up, back up,
bolster up, shore up; uphold, upbear^; prop; under prop, under pin,
under set; riprap; bandage &c 43.
     give support, furnish support, afford support, supply support,
lend support, give foundations, furnish foundations, afford
foundations, supply foundations, lend foundations; bottom, found, base,
ground, imbed, embed.
     maintain, keep on foot; aid &c 707.
Adj. supporting, supported &c v.; fundamental; dorsigerous^.
Adv. astride on, straddle.

216. Parallelism -- N. {ant.
     216a} parallelism; coextension^; equidistance^; similarity &c 17.
Adj. parallel; coextensive; equidistant.
Adv. alongside &c (laterally) 236.

216a. Perpendicularity -- N. {ant.
     216} perpendicularity, orthogonality; verticality, &c 212.
V. be perpendicular, be orthogonal; intersect at right angles, be
rectangular, be at right angles to, intersect at 90 degrees; have no
Adj. orthogonal, perpendicular; rectangular; uncorrelated.

217. Obliquity -- N. obliquity, inclination, slope, slant, crookedness
&c adj.; slopeness^; leaning &c v.; bevel, tilt; bias, list, twist,
swag, cant, lurch; distortion &c 243; bend &c (curve) 245; tower of
     acclivity, rise, ascent, gradient, khudd^, rising ground, hill,
bank, declivity, downhill, dip, fall, devexity^; gentle slope, rapid
slope, easy ascent, easy descent; shelving beach; talus; monagne Russe
[Fr.]; facilis descensus averni [Lat.].
V. intersect; lack parallelism.

218. Inversion -- N. inversion, eversion, subversion, reversion,
retroversion, introversion; contraposition &c 237 [Obs.]; contrariety
&c 14; reversal; turn of the tide.
     overturn; somersault, somerset; summerset^; culbute^; revulsion;
     transposition, transposal^, anastrophy^, metastasis, hyperbaton^,
anastrophe^, hysteron proteron [Gr.], hypallage^, synchysis^, tmesis^,
parenthesis; metathesis; palindrome.
     pronation and supination [Anat.].
V. be inverted &c; turn round, turn about, turn to the right about, go
round, go about, go to the right about, wheel round, wheel about, wheel
to the right about; turn over, go over, tilt over, topple over;
capsize, turn turtle.
     invert, subvert, retrovert^, introvert; reverse; up turn, over
turn, up set, over set; turn topsy turvy &c adj.; culbuter^; transpose,
put the cart before the horse, turn the tables.
Adj. inverted &c v.; wrong side out, wrong side up; inside out, upside
down; bottom upwards, keel upwards; supine, on one's head, topsy-turvy,
sens dessus dessous [Fr.].
     inverse; reverse &c (contrary) 14; opposite &c 237.
     top heavy.
Adv. inversely &c adj.; hirdy-girdy^; heels over head, head over heels.

219. Crossing -- N. crossing &c v.; intersection, interdigitation;
decussation^, transversion^; convolution &c 248; level crossing.
     reticulation, network; inosculation^, anastomosis, intertexture^,
     net, plexus, web, mesh, twill, skein, sleeve, felt, lace; wicker;
mat, matting; plait, trellis, wattle, lattice, grating, grille,
gridiron, tracery, fretwork, filigree, reticle; tissue, netting, mokes^;
     cross, chain, wreath, braid, cat's cradle, knot; entangle &c
(disorder) 59.
     [woven fabrics] cloth, linen, muslin, cambric &c
V. cross, decussate^; intersect, interlace, intertwine, intertwist^,
interweave, interdigitate, interlink.
     twine, entwine, weave, inweave^, twist, wreathe; anastomose [Med.],
inosculate^, dovetail, splice, link; lace, tat.
     mat, plait, plat, braid, felt, twill; tangle, entangle, ravel;
net, knot; dishevel, raddle^.
Adj. crossing &c v.; crossed, matted &c, v.. transverse.
     cross, cruciform, crucial; retiform^, reticular, reticulated;
areolar^, cancellated^, grated, barred, streaked; textile; crossbarred^,
cruciate^, palmiped^, secant; web-footed.
Adv. cross, thwart, athwart, transversely; at grade [U.S.]; crosswise.

1. General.

220. Exteriority -- N. exteriority^; outside, exterior; surface,
superficies; skin &c (covering) 223; superstratum^; disk, disc; face,
facet; extrados^.
     excentricity^; eccentricity; circumjacence &c 227 [Obs.].
V. be exterior &c adj.; lie around &c 227.
     place exteriorly, place outwardly, place outside; put out, turn
Adj. exterior, external; outer most; outward, outlying, outside,
outdoor; round about &c 227; extramural; extralimitary^, extramundane.
     superficial, skin-deep; frontal, discoid.
     extraregarding^; excentric^, eccentric; outstanding; extrinsic &c
6; ecdemic [Med.], exomorphic^.
Adv. externally &c adj.; out, with out, over, outwards, ab extra, out
of doors; extra muros [Lat.].
     in the open air; sub Jove, sub dio [Lat.]; a la belle etoile
[Fr.], al fresco.

221. Interiority -- N. interiority; inside, interior; interspace^,
subsoil, substratum; intrados.
     contents &c 190; substance, pith, marrow; backbone &c (center)
222; heart, bosom, breast; abdomen; vitals, viscera, entrails, bowels,
belly, intestines, guts, chitterings^, womb, lap; penetralia [Lat.],
recesses, innermost recesses; cave &c (concavity) 252.
V. be inside &c adj.; within &c adv.. place within, keep within;
inclose &c (circumscribe) 229; intern; imbed &c (insert) 300.
Adj. interior, internal; inner, inside, inward, intraregarding^; inmost,
innermost; deep seated, gut; intestine, intestinal; inland;
subcutaneous; abdominal, coeliac, endomorphic [Physio.]; interstitial
&c (interjacent) 228 [Obs.]; inwrought &c (intrinsic) 5; inclosed &c
v.. home, domestic, indoor, intramural, vernacular; endemic.
Adv. internally &c adj.; inwards, within, in, inly^; here in, there in,
where in; ab intra, withinside^; in doors, within doors; at home, in the
bosom of one's family.

222. Centrality -- N. centrality, centricalness^, center; middle &c 68;
focus &c 74.
     core, kernel; nucleus, nucleolus; heart, pole axis, bull's eye;
nave, navel; umbilicus, backbone, marrow, pith; vertebra, vertebral
column; hotbed; concentration &c (convergence) 290; centralization;
     center of gravity, center of pressure, center of percussion,
center of oscillation, center of buoyancy &c; metacenter^.
V. be central &c adj.; converge &c 290.
     render central, centralize, concentrate; bring to a focus.
Adj. central, centrical^; middle &c 68; azygous, axial, focal,
umbilical, concentric; middlemost; rachidian^; spinal, vertebral.
Adv. middle; midst; centrally &c adj..

223. Covering -- N. covering, cover; baldachin, baldachino^, baldaquin^;
canopy, tilt, awning, tent, marquee, tente d'abri [Fr.], umbrella,
parasol, sunshade; veil (shade) 424; shield &c (defense) 717.
     roof, ceiling, thatch, tile; pantile, pentile^; tiling, slates,
slating, leads; barrack [U.S.], plafond, planchment [U.S.], tiling,
shed &c (abode) 189.
     top, lid, covercle^, door, operculum; bulkhead [U.S.].
     bandage, plaster, lint, wrapping, dossil^, finger stall.
     coverlet, counterpane, sheet, quilt, tarpaulin, blanket, rug,
drugget^; housing; antimacassar, eiderdown, numdah^, pillowcase,
pillowslip^; linoleum; saddle cloth, blanket cloth; tidy; tilpah [U.S.],
apishamore [U.S.].
     integument, tegument; skin, pellicle, fleece, fell, fur, leather,
shagreen^, hide; pelt, peltry^; cordwain^; derm^; robe, buffalo robe
[U.S.]; cuticle, scarfskin, epidermis.
     clothing &c 225; mask &c (concealment) 530.
     peel, crust, bark, rind, cortex, husk, shell, coat; eggshell,
     capsule; sheath, sheathing; pod, cod; casing, case, theca^;
elytron^; elytrum^; involucrum [Lat.]; wrapping, wrapper; envelope,
vesicle; corn husk, corn shuck [U.S.]; dermatology, conchology;
     inunction^; incrustation, superimposition, superposition,
obduction^; scale &c (layer) 204.
     [specific coverings] veneer, facing; overlay; plate, silver plate,
gold plate, copper plate; engobe^; ormolu; Sheffield plate; pavement;
coating, paint; varnish &c (resin) 216.1; plating, barrel plating,
anointing &c v.; enamel; epitaxial deposition [Eng.], vapor deposition;
ground, whitewash, plaster, spackel, stucco, compo; cerement; ointment
&c (grease) 356.
V. cover; superpose, superimpose; overlay, overspread; wrap &c 225;
encase, incase^; face, case, veneer, pave, paper; tip, cap, bind;
bulkhead, bulkhead in; clapboard [U.S.].
     coat, paint, varnish, pay, incrust, stucco, dab, plaster, tar;
wash; besmear, bedaub; anoint, do over; gild, plate, japan, lacquer,
lacker^, enamel, whitewash; parget^; lay it on thick.
     overlie, overarch^; endome^; conceal &c 528.
     [of aluminum] anodize.
     [of steel] galvanize.
Adj. covering &c v.; superimposed, overlaid, plated &c v.; cutaneous,
dermal, cortical, cuticular, tegumentary^, skinny, scaly, squamous
[Anat.]; covered &c v.; imbricated, loricated^, armor plated, ironclad;
under cover; cowled, cucullate^, dermatoid^, encuirassed^, hooded,
squamiferous^, tectiform^; vaginate^.

224. Lining -- N. lining, inner coating; coating &c (covering) 223;
stalactite, stalagmite.
     filling, stuffing, wadding, padding.
     wainscot, parietes [Lat.], wall.
V. line, stuff, incrust, wad, pad, fill.
Adj. lined &c v..

225. Clothing -- N. clothing, investment; covering &c 223; dress,
raiment, drapery, costume, attire, guise, toilet, toilette, trim;
habiliment; vesture, vestment; garment, garb, palliament^, apparel,
wardrobe, wearing apparel, clothes, things; underclothes.
     array; tailoring, millinery; finery &c (ornament) 847; full dress
&c (show) 882; garniture; theatrical properties.
     outfit, equipment, trousseau; uniform, regimentals; continentals
[U.S.]; canonicals &c 999; livery, gear, harness, turn-out,
accouterment, caparison, suit, rigging, trappings, traps, slops, togs,
toggery^; day wear, night wear, zoot suit; designer clothes; masquerade.
     dishabille, morning dress, undress.
     kimono; lungi^; shooting-coat; mufti; rags, tatters, old clothes;
mourning, weeds; duds; slippers.
     robe, tunic, paletot^, habit, gown, coat, frock, blouse, toga,
smock frock, claw coat, hammer coat, Prince Albert coat^, sack coat,
tuxedo coat, frock coat, dress coat, tail coat.
     cloak, pall, mantle, mantlet mantua^, shawl, pelisse, wrapper;
veil; cape, tippet, kirtle^, plaid, muffler, comforter, haik^, huke^,
chlamys^, mantilla, tabard, housing, horse cloth, burnoose, burnous,
roquelaure^; houppelande [Fr.]; surcoat, overcoat, great coat; surtout
[Fr.], spencer^; mackintosh, waterproof, raincoat; ulster, P-coat,
dreadnought, wraprascal^, poncho, cardinal, pelerine^; barbe^, chudder^,
jubbah^, oilskins, pajamas, pilot jacket, talma jacket^, vest, jerkin,
waistcoat, doublet, camisole, gabardine; farthingale, kilt, jupe^,
crinoline, bustle, panier, skirt, apron, pinafore; bloomer, bloomers;
chaqueta^, songtag [G.], tablier^.
     pants, trousers, trowsers^; breeches, pantaloons, inexpressibles^,
overalls, smalls, small clothes; shintiyan^; shorts, jockey shorts,
boxer shorts; tights, drawers, panties, unmentionables; knickers,
knickerbockers; philibeg^, fillibeg^; pants suit; culottes; jeans, blue
jeans, dungarees, denims.
     [brand names for jeans] Levis, Calvin Klein, Calvins, Bonjour,
Gloria Vanderbilt.
     headdress, headgear; chapeau [Fr.], crush hat, opera hat;
kaffiyeh; sombrero, jam, tam-o-shanter, tarboosh^, topi, sola topi
[Lat.], pagri^, puggaree^; cap, hat, beaver hat, coonskin cap; castor,
bonnet, tile, wideawake, billycock^, wimple; nightcap, mobcap^,
skullcap; hood, coif; capote^, calash; kerchief, snood, babushka; head,
coiffure; crown &c (circle) 247; chignon, pelt, wig, front, peruke,
periwig, caftan, turban, fez, shako, csako^, busby; kepi^, forage cap,
bearskin; baseball cap; fishing hat; helmet &c 717; mask, domino.
     body clothes; linen; hickory shirt [U.S.]; shirt, sark^, smock,
shift, chemise; night gown, negligee, dressing gown, night shirt;
bedgown^, sac de nuit [Fr.].
     underclothes [underclothing], underpants, undershirt; slip [for
women], brassiere, corset, stays, corsage, corset, corselet, bodice,
girdle &c (circle) 247; stomacher; petticoat, panties; under waistcoat;
jock [for men], athletic supporter, jockstrap.
     sweater, jersey; cardigan; turtleneck, pullover; sweater vest.
     neckerchief, neckcloth^; tie, ruff, collar, cravat, stock,
handkerchief, scarf; bib, tucker; boa; cummerbund, rumal^, rabat^.
     shoe, pump, boot, slipper, sandal, galoche^, galoshes, patten,
clog; sneakers, running shoes, hiking boots; high-low; Blucher boot,
wellington boot, Hessian boot, jack boot, top boot; Balmoral^; arctics,
bootee, bootikin^, brogan, chaparajos^; chavar^, chivarras^, chivarros^;
gums [U.S.], larrigan [U.S.], rubbers, showshoe, stogy^, veldtschoen
[G.], legging, buskin, greave^, galligaskin^, gamache^, gamashes^,
moccasin, gambado, gaiter, spatterdash^, brogue, antigropelos^;
stocking, hose, gaskins^, trunk hose, sock; hosiery.
     glove, gauntlet, mitten, cuff, wristband, sleeve.
     swaddling cloth, baby linen, layette; ice wool; taffeta.
     pocket handkerchief, hanky^, hankie.
     clothier, tailor, milliner, costumier, sempstress^, snip;
dressmaker, habitmaker^, breechesmaker^, shoemaker; Crispin; friseur
[Fr.]; cordwainer^, cobbler, hosier^, hatter; draper, linen draper,
haberdasher, mercer.
     [underpants for babies] diaper, nappy [Brit.]; disposable diaper,
cloth diaper; [brand names for diapers], Luvs Huggies.
V. invest; cover &c 223; envelope, lap, involve; inwrap^, enwrap; wrap;
fold up, wrap up, lap up, muffle up; overlap; sheath, swathe, swaddle,
roll up in, circumvest.
     vest, clothe, array, dress, dight^, drape, robe, enrobe, attire,
apparel, accounter^, rig, fit out; deck &c (ornament) 847; perk, equip,
harness, caparison.
     wear; don; put on, huddle on, slip on; mantle.
Adj. invested &c v.; habited; dighted^; barbed, barded; clad, costume,
shod, chausse [Fr.]; en grande tenue &c (show) 882 [Fr.].
Phr. the soul of this man is his clothes [All's Well].

226. Divestment -- N. divestment; taking off &c v.. nudity; bareness &c
adj.; undress; dishabille &c 225; the altogether; nudation^, denudation;
decortication, depilation, excoriation, desquamation; molting;
exfoliation; trichosis [Med.].
V. divest; uncover &c (cover) &c 223; denude, bare, strip; disfurnish^;
undress, disrobe &c (dress, enrobe) &c 225; uncoif^; dismantle; put off,
take off, cast off; doff; peel, pare, decorticate, excoriate, skin,
scalp, flay; expose, lay open; exfoliate, molt, mew; cast the skin.
Adj. divested &c v.; bare, naked, nude; undressed, undraped; denuded;
exposed; in dishabille; bald, threadbare, ragged, callow, roofless.
     in a state of nature, in nature's garb, in the buff, in native
buff, in birthday suit; in puris naturalibus [Lat.]; with nothing on,
stark naked, stark raving naked [Joc.]; bald as a coot, bare as the
back of one's hand; out at elbows; barefoot; bareback, barebacked;
leafless, napless^, hairless.

227. Circumjacence -- N. circumjacence^, circumambience^; environment,
encompassment; atmosphere, medium, surroundings.
     outpost; border &c (edge) 231; girdle &c (circumference) 230;
outskirts, boulebards, suburbs, purlieus, precincts, faubourgs^,
environs, entourage, banlieue^; neighborhood, vicinage, vicinity.
V. lie around &c adv.; surround, beset, compass, encompass, environ,
inclose, enclose, encircle, embrace, circumvent, lap, gird; belt;
begird, engird^; skirt, twine round; hem in &c (circumscribe) 229.
Adj. circumjacent, circumambient^, circumfluent^; ambient; surrounding
&c v.; circumferential, suburban.
Adv. around, about; without; on every side; on all sides; right and
left, all round, round about.

228. Interposition -- N. interposition, interjacence^, intercurrence^,
intervenience^, interlocation^, interdigitation, interjection,
interpolation, interlineation, interspersion, intercalation.
     [interposition at a fine-grained level] interpenetration;
permeation; infiltration.
     [interposition by one person in another's affairs, at the
intervenor's initiative] intervention, interference; intrusion,
obtrusion; insinuation.
     insertion &c 300; dovetailing; embolism.
     intermediary, intermedium^; go between, bodkin^, intruder,
interloper; parenthesis, episode, flyleaf.
     partition, septum, diaphragm; midriff; dissepiment^; party wall,
panel, room divider.
     halfway house.
V. lie between, come between, get between; intervene, slide in,
interpenetrate, permeate.
     put between, introduce, import, throw in, wedge in, edge in, jam
in, worm in, foist in, run in, plow in, work in; interpose, interject,
intercalate, interpolate, interline, interleave, intersperse,
interweave, interlard, interdigitate, sandwich in, fit in, squeeze in;
let in, dovetail, splice, mortise; insinuate, smuggle; infiltrate,
     interfere, put in an oar, thrust one's nose in; intrude, obtrude;
have a finger in the pie; introduce the thin end of the wedge; thrust
in &c (insert) 300.
Adj. interjacent^, intercurrent^, intervenient^, intervening &c v.,
intermediate, intermediary, intercalary, interstitial; embolismal^.
     parenthetical, episodic; mediterranean; intrusive; embosomed^;
Adv. between, betwixt; twixt; among, amongst; amid, amidst; mid, midst;
in the thick of; betwixt and between; sandwich-wise; parenthetically,
obiter dictum.

229. Circumscription -- N. circumscription, limitation, inclosure;
confinement &c (restraint) 751; circumvallation^; encincture; envelope
&c 232.
     container (receptacle) 191.
V. circumscribe, limit, bound, confine, inclose; surround &c 227;
compass about; imprison &c (restrain) 751; hedge in, wall in, rail in;
fence round, fence in, hedge round; picket; corral.
     enfold, bury, encase, incase^, pack up, enshrine, inclasp^; wrap up
&c (invest) 225; embay^, embosom^.
     containment (inclusion) 76.
Adj. circumscribed &c v.; begirt^, lapt^; buried in, immersed in;
embosomed^, in the bosom of, imbedded, encysted, mewed up; imprisoned &c
751; landlocked, in a ring fence.

230. Outline -- N. outline, circumference; perimeter, periphery, ambit,
circuit, lines tournure^, contour, profile, silhouette; bounds; coast
     zone, belt, girth, band, baldric, zodiac, girdle, tyre [Brit.],
cingle^, clasp, girt; cordon &c (inclosure) 232; circlet, &c 247.

231. Edge -- N. edge, verge, brink, brow, brim, margin, border,
confine, skirt, rim, flange, side, mouth; jaws, chops, chaps, fauces;
lip, muzzle.
     threshold, door, porch; portal &c (opening) 260; coast, shore.
     frame, fringe, flounce, frill, list, trimming, edging, skirting,
hem, selvedge, welt, furbelow, valance, gimp.
Adj. border, marginal, skirting; labial, labiated^, marginated^.

232. Inclosure -- N. inclosure, envelope; case &c (receptacle) 191;
wrapper; girdle &c 230.
     pen, fold; pen fold, in fold, sheep fold; paddock, pound; corral;
yard; net, seine net.
     wall, hedge, hedge row; espalier; fence &c (defense) 717; pale,
paling, balustrade, rail, railing, quickset hedge, park paling,
circumvallation^, enceinte, ring fence.
     barrier, barricade; gate, gateway; bent, dingle [U.S.]; door,
hatch, cordon; prison &c 752.
     dike, dyke, ditch, fosse^, moat.
V. inclose, circumscribe &c 229.

233. Limit -- N. limit, boundary, bounds, confine, enclave, term,
bourn, verge, curbstone^, but, pale, reservation; termination, terminus;
stint, frontier, precinct, marches; backwoods.
     boundary line, landmark; line of demarcation, line of
circumvallation^; pillars of Hercules; Rubicon, turning point; ne plus
ultra [Lat.]; sluice, floodgate.
Adj. definite; conterminate^, conterminable^; terminal, frontier;
Adv. thus far, thus far and no further.
Phr. stick to the reservation; go beyond the pale.
2. Special

234. Front -- N. front; fore, forepart; foreground; face, disk, disc,
frontage; facade, proscenium, facia [Lat.], frontispiece; anteriority^;
obverse (of a medal or coin).
     fore rank, front rank; van, vanguard; advanced guard; outpost;
first line; scout.
     brow, forehead, visage, physiognomy, phiz^, countenance, mut
[Slang]; rostrum, beak, bow, stem, prow, prore^, jib.
     pioneer &c (precursor) 64; metoposcopy^.
V. be in front, stand in front &c adj.; front, face, confront; bend
forwards; come to the front, come to the fore.
Adj. fore, anterior, front, frontal.
Adv. before; in front, in the van, in advance; ahead, right ahead;
forehead, foremost; in the foreground, in the lee of; before one's
face, before one's eyes; face to face, vis-a-vis; front a front.
Phr. formosa muta commendatio est [Lat.] [Syrus]; frons est animi janua
[Lat.] [Cicero]; Human face divine [Milton]; imago animi vultus est
indices oculi [Lat.] [Cicero]; sea of upturned faces [Scott].

235. Rear -- N. rear, back, posteriority; rear rank, rear guard;
background, hinterland.
     occiput [Anat.], nape, chine; heels; tail, rump, croup, buttock,
posteriors, backside scut^, breech, dorsum, loin; dorsal region, lumbar
region; hind quarters; aitchbone^; natch, natch bone.
     stern, poop, afterpart^, heelpiece^, crupper.
     wake; train &c (sequence) 281.
     reverse; other side of the shield.
V. be behind &c adv.; fall astern; bend backwards; bring up the rear.
Adj. back, rear; hind, hinder, hindmost, hindermost^; postern,
posterior; dorsal, after; caudal, lumbar; mizzen, tergal^.
Adv. behind; in the rear, in the background; behind one's back; at the
heels of, at the tail of, at the back of; back to back.
     after, aft, abaft, astern, sternmost^, aback, rearward.
Phr. ogni medaglia ha il suo rovescio [It]; the other side of the coin.

236. Laterality -- N. laterality^; side, flank, quarter, lee; hand;
cheek, jowl, jole^, wing; profile; temple, parietes [Lat.], loin,
haunch, hip; beam.
     gable, gable end; broadside; lee side.
     points of the compass; East, Orient, Levant; West; orientation.
V. be on one side &c adv.; flank, outflank; sidle; skirt; orientate.
Adj. lateral, sidelong; collateral; parietal, flanking, skirting;
flanked; sideling.
     many sided; multilateral, bilateral, trilateral, quadrilateral.
     Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental,
Adv. sideways, sidelong; broadside on; on one side, abreast, alongside,
beside, aside; by the side of; side by side; cheek by jowl &c (near)
197; to windward, to leeward; laterally &c adj.; right and left; on her
beam ends.
Phr. his cheek the may of days outworn [Shakespeare].

237. Contraposition -- N. contraposition^, opposition; polarity;
inversion &c 218; opposite side; reverse, inverse; counterpart;
antipodes; opposite poles, North and South.
     antonym, opposite (contrariety) 14.
V. be opposite &c adj.; subtend.
Adj. opposite; reverse, inverse; converse, antipodal, subcontrary^;
fronting, facing, diametrically opposite.
     Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral,
Adv. over, over the way, over against; against; face to face, vis-a-
vis; as poles asunder.

238. Dextrality -- N. dextrality^; right, right hand; dexter, offside,
Adj. dextral, right-handed; dexter, dextrorsal^, dextrorse^;
ambidextral^, ambidextrous; dextro-.
Adv. dextrad^, dextrally^.

239. Sinistrality -- N. sinistrality^; left, left hand, a gauche;
sinister, nearside^, larboard, port.
Adj. left-handed; sinister; sinistral, sinistrorsal^, sinistrorse^,
sinistrous^; laevo- [Pref.].
Adv. sinistrally, sinistrously^.



240. Form -- N. form, figure, shape; conformation, configuration; make,
formation, frame, construction, cut, set, build, trim, cut of one's
jib; stamp, type, cast, mold; fashion; contour &c (outline) 230;
structure &c 329; plasmature^.
     feature, lineament, turn; phase &c (aspect) 448; posture,
attitude, pose.
     [Science of form] morphism.
     [Similarity of form] isomorphism.
     forming &c v.; formation, figuration, efformation^; sculpture;
V. form, shape, figure, fashion, efform^, carve, cut, chisel, hew, cast;
rough hew, rough cast; sketch; block out, hammer out; trim; lick into
shape, put into shape; model, knead, work up into, set, mold,
sculpture; cast, stamp; build &c (construct) 161.
Adj. formed &c v.. [Receiving form] plastic, fictile^; formative; fluid.
     [Giving form] plasmic^.
     [Similar in form] isomorphous.
     [taking several forms] pleomorphic; protean; changeable, &c 149.

241. [Absence of form.] Amorphism -- N. amorphism^, informity^; unlicked
cub^; rudis indigestaque moles [Lat.]; disorder &c 59; deformity &c 243.
     disfigurement, defacement; mutilation; deforming.
     chaos, randomness (disorder) 59.
     [taking form from surroundings] fluid &c 333.
V. deface [Destroy form], disfigure, deform, mutilate, truncate;
derange &c 61; blemish, mar.
Adj. shapeless, amorphous, formless; unformed, unhewn^, unfashioned^,
unshaped, unshapen; rough, rude, Gothic, barbarous, rugged.

242. [Regularity of form.] Symmetry -- N. symmetry, shapeliness,
finish; beauty &c 845; proportion, eurythmy^, uniformity, parallelism;
bilateral symmetry, trilateral symmetry, multilateral symmetry;
centrality &c 222.
     arborescence^, branching, ramification; arbor vitae.
Adj. symmetrical, shapely, well set, finished; beautiful &c 845;
classic, chaste, severe.
     regular, uniform, balanced; equal &c 27; parallel, coextensive.
     arborescent^, arboriform^; dendriform^, dendroid^; branching;
ramous^, ramose; filiciform^, filicoid^; subarborescent^;
     fuji-shaped, fujigata [Jap.].

243. [Irregularity of form.] Distortion -- N. distortion, detortion^,
contortion; twist, crookedness &c (obliquity) 217; grimace; deformity;
malformation, malconformation^; harelip; monstrosity, misproportion^,
want of symmetry, anamorphosis^; ugliness &c 846; talipes^; teratology.
     asymmetry; irregularity.
V. distort, contort, twist, warp, wrest, writhe, make faces, deform,
Adj. distorted &c v.; out of shape, irregular, asymmetric, unsymmetric^,
awry, wry, askew, crooked; not true, not straight; on one side, crump^,
deformed; harelipped; misshapen, misbegotten; misproportioned^, ill
proportioned; ill-made; grotesque, monstrous, crooked as a ram's horn;
camel backed, hump backed, hunch backed, bunch backed, crook backed;
bandy; bandy legged, bow legged; bow kneed, knock kneed; splay footed,
club footed; round shouldered; snub nosed; curtailed of one's fair
proportions; stumpy &c (short) 201; gaunt &c (thin) 203; bloated &c
194; scalene; simous^; taliped^, talipedic^.
Adv. all manner of ways.
Phr. crooked as a Virginia fence [U.S.].


244. Angularity -- N. angularity, angularness^; aduncity^; angle, cusp,
bend; fold &c 258; notch &c 257; fork, bifurcation.
     elbow, knee, knuckle, ankle, groin, crotch, crutch, crane, fluke,
scythe, sickle, zigzag, kimbo^, akimbo.
     corner, nook, recess, niche, oriel [Arch.], coign^.
     right angle &c (perpendicular) 216.1, 212; obliquity &c 217; angle
of 45 degrees, miter; acute angle, obtuse angle, salient angle,
reentering angle, spherical angle.
     angular measurement, angular elevation, angular distance, angular
velocity; trigonometry, goniometry; altimetry^; clinometer,
graphometer^, goniometer; theodolite; sextant, quadrant; dichotomy.
     triangle, trigon^, wedge; rectangle, square, lozenge, diamond;
rhomb, rhombus; quadrangle, quadrilateral; parallelogram; quadrature;
polygon, pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, oxygon^, decagon.
     pyramid, cone.
     Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron,
hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism,
pyramid; parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.
V. bend, fork, bifurcate, crinkle.
Adj. angular, bent, crooked, aduncous^, uncinated^, aquiline, jagged,
serrated; falciform^, falcated^; furcated^, forked, bifurcate, zigzag;
furcular^; hooked; dovetailed; knock kneed, crinkled, akimbo, kimbo^,
geniculated^; oblique &c 217.
     fusiform [Micro.], wedge-shaped, cuneiform; cuneate^, multangular^,
oxygonal^; triangular, trigonal^, trilateral; quadrangular,
quadrilateral; foursquare; rectangular, square, multilateral; polygonal
&c n.; cubical, rhomboid, rhomboidal, pyramidal.

245. Curvature -- N. curvature, curvity^, curvation^; incurvature^,
incurvity^; incurvation^; bend; flexure, flexion, flection^; conflexure^;
crook, hook, bought, bending; deflection, deflexion^; inflection,
inflexion^; concameration^; arcuation^, devexity^, turn, deviation,
detour, sweep; curl, curling; bough; recurvity^, recurvation^; sinuosity
&c 248.
     carve, arc, arch, arcade, vault, bow, crescent, half-moon, lunule^,
horseshoe, loop, crane neck; parabola, hyperbola; helix, spiral;
catenary^, festoon; conchoid^, cardioid; caustic; tracery; arched
ceiling, arched roof; bay window, bow window.
     sine curve; spline, spline curve, spline function; obliquity &c
V. be curved, &c adj.; curve, sweep, sway, swag, sag; deviate &c 279;
curl, turn; reenter.
     render curved &c adj.; flex, bend, curve, incurvate^; inflect;
deflect, scatter [Phys.]; refract (light) 420; crook; turn, round,
arch, arcuate, arch over, concamerate^; bow, curl, recurve, frizzle.
     rotundity &c 249; convexity &c 250.
Adj. curved &c v.; curviform^, curvilineal^, curvilinear; devex^,
devious; recurved, recurvous^; crump^; bowed &c v.; vaulted, hooked;
falciform^, falcated^; semicircular, crescentic; sinusoid [Geom.],
parabolic, paraboloid; luniform^, lunular^; semilunar, conchoidal^;
helical, double helical, spiral; kinky; cordiform^, cordated^; cardioid;
heart shaped, bell shaped, boat shaped, crescent shaped, lens shaped,
moon shaped, oar shaped, shield shaped, sickle shaped, tongue shaped,
pear shaped, fig shaped; kidney-shaped, reniform; lentiform^,
lenticular; bow-legged &c (distorted) 243; oblique &c 217; circular &c
     aduncated^, arclike^, arcuate, arched, beaked; bicorn^, bicornuous^,
bicornute^; clypeate^, clypeiform^; cymbiform^, embowed^, galeiform^;
hamate^, hamiform^, hamous^; hooked; linguiform^, lingulate^; lobiform^,
lunate, navicular^, peltate^, remiform^, rhamphoid^; rostrate^,
rostriferous^, rostroid^; scutate^, scaphoid^, uncate^; unguiculate^,

246. Straightness -- N. straightness, rectilinearity^, directness;
inflexibility &c (stiffness) 323; straight line, right line, direct
line; short cut.
V. be straight &c adj.; have no turning; not incline to either side,
not bend to either side, not turn to either side, not deviate to either
side; go straight; steer for &c (directions) 278.
     render straight, straighten, rectify; set straight, put straight;
unbend, unfold, uncurl &c 248, unravel &c 219, unwrap.
Adj. straight; rectilinear, rectilineal^; direct, even, right, true, in
a line; unbent, virgate^ &c v.; undeviating, unturned, undistorted,
unswerving; straight as an arrow &c (direct) 278; inflexible &c 323.
     laser-straight; ramrod-straight.

247. [Simple circularity.] Circularity -- N. circularity, roundness;
rotundity &c 249.
     circle, circlet, ring, areola, hoop, roundlet^, annulus, annulet^,
bracelet, armlet; ringlet; eye, loop, wheel; cycle, orb, orbit, rundle,
zone, belt, cordon, band; contrate wheel^, crown wheel; hub; nave; sash,
girdle, cestus^, cincture, baldric, fillet, fascia, wreath, garland;
crown, corona, coronet, chaplet, snood, necklace, collar; noose, lasso,
     ellipse, oval, ovule; ellipsoid, cycloid; epicycloid [Geom.],
epicycle; semicircle; quadrant, sextant, sector.
     sphere &c 249.
V. make round &c adj.; round.
     go round; encircle &c 227; describe a circle &c 311.
Adj. round, rounded, circular, annular, orbicular; oval, ovate;
elliptic, elliptical; egg-shaped; pear-shaped &c 245; cycloidal &c n.^;
spherical &c 249.
Phr. I watched the little circles die [Tennyson].

248. [Complex curvature.] Convolution -- N. winding &c v.; convolution,
involution, circumvolution; wave, undulation, tortuosity,
anfractuosity^; sinuosity, sinuation^; meandering, circuit,
circumbendibus^, twist, twirl, windings and turnings, ambages^; torsion;
inosculation^; reticulation &c (crossing) 219; rivulation^; roughness &c
     coil, roll, curl; buckle, spiral, helix, corkscrew, worm, volute,
rundle; tendril; scollop^, scallop, escalop^; kink; ammonite,
     serpent, eel, maze, labyrinth.
V. be convoluted &c adj.; wind, twine, turn and twist, twirl; wave,
undulate, meander; inosculate^; entwine, intwine^; twist, coil, roll;
wrinkle, curl, crisp, twill; frizzle; crimp, crape, indent, scollop^,
scallop, wring, intort^; contort; wreathe &c (cross) 219.
Adj. convoluted; winding, twisted &c v.; tortile^, tortive^; wavy;
undated, undulatory; circling, snaky, snake-like, serpentine; serpent,
anguill^, vermiform; vermicular; mazy, tortuous, sinuous, flexuous,
anfractuous^, reclivate^, rivulose^, scolecoid^; sigmoid, sigmoidal
[Geom.]; spiriferous^, spiroid^; involved, intricate, complicated,
perplexed; labyrinth, labyrinthic^, labyrinthian^, labyrinthine;
peristaltic; daedalian^; kinky, knotted.
     wreathy^, frizzly, crepe, buckled; raveled &c (in disorder) 59.
     spiral, coiled, helical; cochleate, cochleous; screw-shaped;
turbinated, turbiniform^.
Adv. in and out, round and round; a can of worms; Gordian knot.

249. Rotundity -- N. rotundity; roundness &c adj.; cylindricity^;
sphericity, spheroidity^; globosity^.
     cylinder, cylindroid^, cylindrical; barrel, drum; roll, roller;
rouleau^, column, rolling-pin, rundle.
     cone, conoid^; pear shape, egg shape, bell shape.
     sphere, globe, ball, boulder, bowlder^; spheroid, ellipsoid; oblong
spheroid; oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid; drop, spherule, globule,
vesicle, bulb, bullet, pellet, pelote^, clew, pill, marble, pea, knob,
pommel, horn; knot (convolution) 248.
     curved surface, hypersphere; hyperdimensional surface.
V. render spherical &c adj.; form into a sphere, sphere, roll into a
ball; give rotundity &c n.; round.
Adj. rotund; round &c (circular) 247; cylindric, cylindrical,
cylindroid^; columnar, lumbriciform^; conic, conical; spherical,
spheroidal; globular, globated^, globous^, globose; egg shaped, bell
shaped, pear shaped; ovoid, oviform; gibbous; rixiform^; campaniform^,
campanulate^, campaniliform^; fungiform^, bead-like, moniliform^,
pyriform^, bulbous; tres atque rotundus [Lat.]; round as an orange,
round as an apple, round as a ball, round as a billiard ball, round as
a cannon ball.


250. Convexity -- N. convexity, prominence, projection, swelling,
gibbosity^, bilge, bulge, protuberance, protrusion; camber, cahot
     thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.].
     intumescence; tumour [Brit.], tumor; tubercle, tuberosity [Anat.];
excrescence; hump, hunch, bunch.
     boss, embossment, hub, hubble; [convex body parts] tooth [U.S.],
knob, elbow, process, apophysis^, condyle, bulb, node, nodule,
nodosity^, tongue, dorsum, bump, clump; sugar loaf &c (sharpness) 253;
bow; mamelon^; molar; belly, corporation^, pot belly, gut [Coll.];
withers, back, shoulder, lip, flange.
     [convexities on skin] pimple, zit [Slang]; wen, wheel, papula
[Med.], pustule, pock, proud flesh, growth, sarcoma, caruncle^, corn,
wart, pappiloma, furuncle, polypus^, fungus, fungosity^, exostosis^,
bleb, blister, blain^; boil &c (disease) 655; airbubble^, blob, papule,
     [convex body parts on chest] papilla, nipple, teat, tit [Vulg.],
titty [Vulg.], boob [Vulg.], knocker [Vulg.], pap, breast, dug,
     [prominent convexity on the face] proboscis, nose, neb, beak,
snout, nozzle, schnoz [Coll.].
     peg, button, stud, ridge, rib, jutty, trunnion, snag.
     cupola, dome, arch, balcony, eaves; pilaster.
     relief, relievo [It], cameo; bassorilievo^, mezzorilevo^,
altorivievo; low relief, bas relief [Fr.], high relief.
     hill &c (height) 206; cape, promontory, mull; forehead, foreland^;
point of land, mole, jetty, hummock, ledge, spur; naze^, ness.
V. be prominent &c adj.; project, bulge, protrude, pout, bouge [Fr.],
bunch; jut out, stand out, stick out, poke out; stick up, bristle up,
start up, cock up, shoot up; swell over, hang over, bend over; beetle.
     render prominent &c adj.; raise 307; emboss, chase.
     [become convex] belly out.
Adj. convex, prominent, protuberant, projecting &c v.; bossed,
embossed, bossy, nodular, bunchy; clavate, clavated^, claviform;
hummocky^, moutonne^, mammiliform^; papulous^, papilose^; hemispheric,
bulbous; bowed, arched; bold; bellied; tuberous, tuberculous; tumous^;
cornute^, odontoid^; lentiform^, lenticular; gibbous; club shaped, hubby
[U.S.], hubbly [U.S.], knobby, papillose, saddle-shaped, selliform^,
subclavate^, torose^, ventricose^, verrucose^.
     salient, in relief, raised, repousse; bloated &c, (expanded) 194.

251. Flatness -- N. flatness &c adj.; smoothness &c 255.
     plane; level &c 213; plate, platter, table, tablet, slab.
V. render flat, flatten; level &c 213.
Adj. flat, plane, even, flush, scutiform^, discoid; level &c
(horizontal) 213; flat as a pancake, flat as a fluke, flat as a
flounder, flat as a board, flat as my hand.

252. Concavity -- N. concavity, depression, dip; hollow, hollowness;
indentation, intaglio, cavity, dent, dint, dimple, follicle, pit,
sinus, alveolus^, lacuna; excavation, strip mine; trough &c (furrow)
259; honeycomb.
     cup, basin, crater, punch bowl; cell &c (receptacle) 191; socket.
     valley, vale, dale, dell, dingle, combe^, bottom, slade^, strath^,
glade, grove, glen, cave, cavern, cove; grot^, grotto; alcove, cul-de-
sac; gully &c 198; arch &c (curve) 245; bay &c (of the sea) 343.
     excavator, sapper, miner.
     honeycomb (sponge) 252.1.
V. be concave &c adj.; retire, cave in.
     render concave &c adj.; depress, hollow; scoop, scoop out; gouge,
gouge out, dig, delve, excavate, dent, dint, mine, sap, undermine,
burrow, tunnel, stave in.
Adj. depressed &c v.; alveolate^, calathiform^, cup-shaped, dishing;
favaginous^, faveolate^, favose^; scyphiform^, scyphose^; concave,
hollow, stove in; retiring; retreating; cavernous; porous &c (with
holes) 260; infundibul^, infundibular^, infundibuliform^; funnel shaped,
bell shaped; campaniform^, capsular; vaulted, arched.

252a Sponge -- N. sponge, honeycomb, network; frit [Chem], filter.
     sieve, net, screen (opening) 260.
Adj. cellular, spongy, spongious^; honeycombed, alveolar; sintered;
porous (opening) 260.

253. Sharpness -- N. sharpness &c adj.; acuity, acumination^;
     point, spike, spine, spicule [Biol.], spiculum^; needle, hypodermic
needle, tack, nail, pin; prick, prickle; spur, rowel, barb; spit, cusp;
horn, antler; snag; tag thorn, bristle; Adam's needle^, bear grass
[U.S.], tine, yucca.
     nib, tooth, tusk; spoke, cog, ratchet.
     crag, crest, arete [Fr.], cone peak, sugar loaf, pike, aiguille^;
spire, pyramid, steeple.
     beard, chevaux de frise [Fr.], porcupine, hedgehog, brier,
bramble, thistle; comb; awn, beggar's lice, bur, burr, catchweed^,
cleavers, clivers^, goose, grass, hairif^, hariff, flax comb, hackle,
hatchel^, heckle.
     wedge; knife edge, cutting edge; blade, edge tool, cutlery, knife,
penknife, whittle, razor, razor blade, safety razor, straight razor,
electric razor; scalpel; bistoury^, lancet; plowshare, coulter, colter^;
hatchet, ax, pickax, mattock, pick, adze, gill; billhook, cleaver,
cutter; scythe, sickle; scissors, shears, pruning shears, cutters, wire
cutters, nail clipper, paper cutter; sword &c (arms) 727; bodkin &c
(perforator) 262; belduque^, bowie knife^, paring knife; bushwhacker
[U.S.]; drawing knife, drawing shave; microtome [Micro.]; chisel,
screwdriver blade; flint blade; guillotine.
     sharpener, hone, strop; grindstone, whetstone; novaculite^; steel,
V. be sharp &c adj.; taper to a point; bristle with.
     render sharp &c adj.; sharpen, point, aculeate, whet, barb,
spiculate^, set, strop, grind; chip (flint).
     cut &c (sunder) 44.
Adj. sharp, keen; acute; acicular, aciform^; aculeated^, acuminated^;
pointed; tapering; conical, pyramidal; mucronate^, mucronated^; spindle
shaped, needle shaped; spiked, spiky, ensiform^, peaked, salient;
cusped, cuspidate, cuspidated^; cornute^, cornuted^, cornicultate^;
prickly; spiny, spinous^, spicular; thorny, bristling, muricated^,
pectinated^, studded, thistly, briary^; craggy &c (rough) 256; snaggy,
digitated^, two-edged, fusiform [Micro.]; dentiform^, denticulated;
toothed; odontoid^; starlike; stellated^, stelliform^; sagittate^,
sagittiform^; arrowheaded^; arrowy^, barbed, spurred.
     acinaciform; apiculate^, apiculated^; aristate^, awned, awny^,
bearded, calamiform^, cone-shaped, coniform^, crestate^, echinate^,
gladiate^; lanceolate^, lanciform; awl, awl-shaped, lance-shaped, awl-
shaped, scimitar-shaped, sword-shaped; setarious^, spinuliferous^,
subulate^, tetrahedral, xiphoid^.
     cutting; sharp edged, knife edged; sharp as a razor, keen as a
razor; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; sharpened &c v.; set

254. Bluntness -- N. bluntness &c adj..
V. be blunt, render blunt &c adj.; obtund^, dull; take off the point,
take off the edge; turn.
Adj. blunt, obtuse, dull, bluff; edentate, toothless.

255. Smoothness -- N. smoothness &c adj.; polish, gloss; lubricity,
     [smooth materials] down, velvet, velure, silk, satin; velveteen,
velour, velours, velumen^; glass, ice.
     slide; bowling green &c (level) 213; asphalt, wood pavement,
flagstone, flags.
     [objects used to smooth other objects] roller, steam roller, lawn
roller, rolling pin, rolling mill; sand paper, emery paper, emery
cloth, sander; flat iron, sad iron; burnisher, turpentine and beeswax;
polish, shoe polish.
     [art of cutting and polishing gemstones] lapidary.
     [person who polishes gemstones] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. smooth, smoothen^; plane; file; mow, shave; level, roll; macadamize;
polish, burnish, calender^, glaze; iron, hot-press, mangle; lubricate &c
(oil) 332.
Adj. smooth; polished &c v.; leiodermatous^, slick, velutinous^; even;
level &c 213; plane &c (flat) 251; sleek, glossy; silken, silky;
lanate^, downy, velvety; glabrous, slippery, glassy, lubricous, oily,
soft, unwrinkled^; smooth as glass, smooth as ice, smooth as monumental
alabaster, smooth as velvet, smooth as oil; slippery as an eel; woolly
&c (feathery) 256.
Phr. smooth as silk; slippery as coonshit on a pump handle; slippery as
a greased pig.

256. Roughness -- N. roughness &c adj.; tooth, grain, texture, ripple;
asperity, rugosity^, salebrosity^, corrugation, nodosity^; arborescence^
&c 242; pilosity^.
     brush, hair, beard, shag, mane, whisker, moustache, imperial,
tress, lock, curl, ringlet; fimbriae, pili, cilia, villi; lovelock;
beaucatcher^; curl paper; goatee; papillote, scalp lock.
     plumage, plumosity^; plume, panache, crest; feather, tuft, fringe,
     wool, velvet, plush, nap, pile, floss, fur, down; byssus^, moss,
bur; fluff.
     knot (convolution) 248.
V. be rough &c adj.; go against the grain.
     render-rough &c adj.; roughen, ruffle, crisp, crumple, corrugate,
set on edge, stroke the wrong way, rumple.
Adj. rough, uneven, scabrous, scaly, knotted; rugged, rugose^, rugous^;
knurly^; asperous^, crisp, salebrous^, gnarled, unpolished, unsmooth^,
roughhewn^; craggy, cragged; crankling^, scraggy; prickly &c (sharp)
253; arborescent &c 242 [Obs.]; leafy, well-wooded; feathery; plumose,
plumigerous^; laciniate^, laciniform^, laciniose^; pappose^; pileous^,
pilose^; trichogenous^, trichoid [Med.]; tufted, fimbriated, hairy,
ciliated, filamentous, hirsute; crinose^, crinite^; bushy, hispid,
villous, pappous^, bearded, pilous^, shaggy, shagged; fringed,
befringed^; setous^, setose^, setaceous; like quills upon the fretful
porcupine [Hamlet]; rough as a nutmeg grater, rough as a bear.
     downy, velvety, flocculent, woolly; lanate^, lanated^; lanuginous^,
lanuginose^; tomentose^; fluffy.
Adv. against the grain.
Phr. cabello luengo y corto el seso [Sp.].

257. Notch -- N. notch, dent, nick, cut; indent, indentation; dimple.
     embrasure, battlement, machicolation^; saw, tooth, crenelle^,
scallop, scollop^, vandyke; depression; jag.
V. notch, nick, cut, dent, indent, jag, scarify, scotch, crimp,
scallop, scollop^, crenulate^, vandyke.
Adj. notched &c v.; crenate^, crenated^; dentate, dentated; denticulate,
denticulated; toothed, palmated^, serrated.

258. Fold -- N. fold, plicature^, plait, pleat, ply, crease; tuck,
gather; flexion, flexure, joint, elbow, double, doubling, duplicature^,
gather, wrinkle, rimple^, crinkle, crankle^, crumple, rumple, rivel^,
ruck^, ruffle, dog's ear, corrugation, frounce^, flounce, lapel; pucker,
crow's feet; plication^.
V. fold, double, plicate^, plait, crease, wrinkle, crinkle, crankle^,
curl, cockle up, cocker, rimple^, rumple, flute, frizzle, frounce^,
rivel^, twill, corrugate, ruffle, crimple^, crumple, pucker; turn down,
double down, down under; tuck, ruck^, hem, gather.
Adj. folded, fluted, pleated &c v..

259. Furrow -- N. furrow, groove, rut, sulcus [Anat.], scratch, streak,
striae, crack, score, incision, slit; chamfer, fluting; corduroy road,
cradle hole.
     channel, gutter, trench, ditch, dike, dyke; moat, fosse^, trough,
kennel; ravine &c (interval) 198; tajo [U.S.], thank-ye-ma'am [U.S.].
V. furrow &c n.; flute, plow; incise, engrave, etch, bite in.
Adj. furrowed &c v.; ribbed, striated, sulcated [Anat.], fluted,
canaliculated^; bisulcous^, bisulcate^, bisulcated^; canaliferous^;
trisulcate^; corduroy; unisulcate^; costate^, rimiform^.

260. Opening -- N. hole, foramen; puncture, perforation; fontanel^;
transforation^; pinhole, keyhole, loophole, porthole, peephole,
mousehole, pigeonhole; eye of a needle; eyelet; slot.
     opening; aperture, apertness^; hiation^, yawning, oscitancy^,
dehiscence, patefaction^, pandiculation^; chasm &c (interval) 198.
     embrasure, window, casement; abatjour^; light; sky light, fan
light; lattice; bay window, bow window; oriel [Arch.]; dormer, lantern.
     outlet, inlet; vent, vomitory; embouchure; orifice, mouth, sucker,
muzzle, throat, gullet, weasand^, wizen, nozzle; placket.
     portal, porch, gate, ostiary^, postern, wicket, trapdoor, hatch,
door; arcade; cellarway^, driveway, gateway, doorway, hatchway, gangway;
lich gate^.
     way, path &c 627; thoroughfare; channel; passage, passageway;
tube, pipe; water pipe &c 350; air pipe &c 351; vessel, tubule, canal,
gut, fistula; adjutage^, ajutage^; ostium^; smokestack; chimney, flue,
tap, funnel, gully, tunnel, main; mine, pit, adit^, shaft; gallery.
     alley, aisle, glade, vista.
     bore, caliber; pore; blind orifice; fulgurite^, thundertube^.
     porousness, porosity.
     sieve, cullender^, colander; cribble^, riddle, screen; honeycomb.
     apertion^, perforation; piercing &c v.; terebration^, empalement^,
pertusion^, puncture, acupuncture, penetration.
     key &c 631, opener, master key, password, combination, passe-
V. open, ope^, gape, yawn, bilge; fly open.
     perforate, pierce, empierce^, tap, bore, drill; mine &c (scoop out)
252; tunnel; transpierce^, transfix; enfilade, impale, spike, spear,
gore, spit, stab, pink, puncture, lance, stick, prick, riddle, punch;
stave in.
     cut a passage through; make way for, make room for.
     uncover, unclose, unrip^; lay open, cut open, rip open, throw open,
pop open, blow open, pry open, tear open, pull open.
Adj. open; perforated &c v.; perforate; wide open, ajar, unclosed,
unstopped; oscitant^, gaping, yawning; patent.
     tubular, cannular^, fistulous; pervious, permeable; foraminous^;
vesicular, vasicular^; porous, follicular, cribriform^, honeycombed,
infundibular^, riddled; tubulous^, tubulated^; piped, tubate^.
     opening &c v.; aperient^.
Int. open sesame!,

261. Closure -- N. closure, occlusion, blockade; shutting up &c v.;
obstruction &c (hindrance) 706; embolus; contraction &c 195;
infarction; constipation, obstipation^; blind alley, blind corner;
keddah^; cul-de-sac, caecum; imperforation^, imperviousness &c adj.;
impermeability; stopper &c 263.
V. close, occlude, plug; block up, stop up, fill up, bung up, cork up,
button up, stuff up, shut up, dam up; blockade, obstruct &c (hinder)
706; bar, bolt, stop, seal, plumb; choke, throttle; ram down, dam,
cram; trap, clinch; put to the door, shut the door.
Adj. closed &c v.; shut, operculated^; unopened.
     unpierced^, imporous^, caecal [Med.]; closable; imperforate,
impervious, impermeable; impenetrable; impassable, unpassable^;
invious^; pathless, wayless^; untrodden, untrod.
     unventilated; air tight, water tight; hermetically sealed; tight,

262. Perforator -- N. perforator, piercer, borer, auger, chisel,
gimlet, stylet^, drill, wimble^, awl, bradawl, scoop, terrier,
corkscrew, dibble, trocar [Med.], trepan, probe, bodkin, needle,
stiletto, rimer, warder, lancet; punch, puncheon; spikebit^, gouge;
spear &c (weapon) 727; puncher; punching machine, punching press; punch

263. Stopper -- N. stopper, stopple; plug, cork, bung, spike, spill,
stopcock, tap; rammer^; ram, ramrod; piston; stop-gap; wadding,
stuffing, padding, stopping, dossil^, pledget^, tompion^, tourniquet.
     cover &c 223; valve, vent peg, spigot, slide valve.
     janitor, doorkeeper, porter, warder, beadle, cerberus, ostiary^.



264. [Successive change of place.] Motion -- N. motion, movement, move;
going &c v.; unrest.
     stream, flow, flux, run, course, stir; evolution; kinematics;
     step, rate, pace, tread, stride, gait, port, footfall, cadence,
carriage, velocity, angular velocity; clip, progress, locomotion;
journey &c 266; voyage &c 267; transit &c 270.
     restlessness &c (changeableness) 149; mobility; movableness,
motive power; laws of motion; mobilization.
V. be in motion &c adj.; move, go, hie, gang, budge, stir, pass, flit;
hover about, hover round, hover about; shift, slide, glide; roll, roll
on; flow, stream, run, drift, sweep along; wander &c (deviate) 279;
walk &c 266; change one's place, shift one's place, change one's
quarters, shift one's quarters; dodge; keep going, keep moving; put in
motion, set in motion; move; impel &c 276; propel &c 284; render
movable, mobilize.
Adj. moving &c v.; in motion; transitional; motory^, motive; shifting,
movable, mobile, mercurial, unquiet; restless &c (changeable) 149;
nomadic &c 266; erratic &c 279.
Adv. under way; on the move, on the wing, on the tramp, on the march.
Phr. eppur si muove [Galileo]; es bildet ein Talent sich in der Stille
[G.], sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt [G.].

265. Quiescence -- N. rest; stillness &c adj.; quiescence; stagnation,
stagnancy; fixity, immobility, catalepsy; indisturbance^; quietism.
     quiet, tranquility, calm; repose &c 687; peace; dead calm,
anticyclone^; statue-like repose; silence &c 203; not a breath of air,
not a mouse stirring; sleep &c (inactivity) 683.
     pause, lull &c (cessation) 142; stand still; standing still &c v.;
lock; dead lock, dead stop, dead stand; full stop; fix; embargo.
     resting place; gite [Fr.]; bivouac; home &c (abode) 189; pillow &c
(support) 215; haven &c (refuge) 666; goal &c (arrival) 292.
V. be quiescent &c adj.; stand still, lie still; keep quiet, repose,
hold the breath.
     remain, stay; stand, lie to, ride at anchor, remain in situ,
tarry, mark time; bring to, heave to, lay to; pull up, draw up; hold,
halt; stop, stop short; rest, pause, anchor; cast to an anchor, come to
an anchor; rest on one's oars; repose on one's laurels, take breath;
stop &c (discontinue) 142.
     stagnate; quieta non movere [Lat.]; let alone; abide, rest and be
thankful; keep within doors, stay at home, go to bed.
     dwell &c (be present) 186; settle &c (be located) 184; alight &c
(arrive) 292; stick, stick fast; stand like a post; not stir a peg, not
stir a step; be at a stand &c n.. quell, becalm, hush, stay, lull to
sleep, lay an embargo on.
Adj. quiescent, still; motionless, moveless; fixed; stationary;
immotile; at rest at a stand, at a standstill, at anchor; stock, still;
standing still &c v.; sedentary, untraveled, stay-at-home; becalmed,
stagnant, quiet; unmoved, undisturbed, unruffled; calm, restful;
cataleptic; immovable &c (stable) 150; sleeping &c (inactive) 683;
silent &c 403; still as a statue, still as a post, still as a mouse,
still as death; vegetative, vegetating.
Adv. at a stand &c adj.; tout court; at the halt.
Int. stop!, stay!, avast!, halt!, hold hard!, whoa!, hold!, sabr karo!^.
Phr. requiescat in pace [Lat.]; Deus nobis haec otia fecit [Lat.]
[Vergil]; the noonday quiet holds the hill [Tennyson].

266. [Locomotion by land.] Journey -- N. travel; traveling &c v..
wayfaring, campaigning.
     journey, excursion, expedition, tour, trip, grand tour, circuit,
peregrination, discursion^, ramble, pilgrimage, hajj, trek, course,
ambulation^, march, walk, promenade, constitutional, stroll, saunter,
tramp, jog trot, turn, stalk, perambulation; noctambulation^,
noctambulism; somnambulism; outing, ride, drive, airing, jaunt.
     equitation, horsemanship, riding, manege [Fr.], ride and tie;
     roving, vagrancy, pererration^; marching and countermarching;
nomadism; vagabondism, vagabondage; hoboism [U.S.]; gadding; flit,
flitting, migration; emigration, immigration, demigration^,
intermigration^; wanderlust.
     plan, itinerary, guide; handbook, guidebook, road book; Baedeker^,
Bradshaw, Murray; map, road map, transportation guide, subway map.
     procession, cavalcade, caravan, file, cortege, column.
     [Organs and instruments of locomotion] vehicle &c 272; automobile,
train, bus, airplane, plane, autobus, omnibus, subway, motorbike, dirt
bike, off-road vehicle, van, minivan, motor scooter, trolley,
locomotive; legs, feet, pegs, pins, trotters.
     traveler &c 268.
     depot [U.S.], railway station, station.
V. travel, journey, course; take a journey, go a journey; take a walk,
go out for walk &c n.; have a run; take the air.
     flit, take wing; migrate, emigrate; trek; rove, prowl, roam,
range, patrol, pace up and down, traverse; scour the country, traverse
the country; peragrate^; circumambulate, perambulate; nomadize^, wander,
ramble, stroll, saunter, hover, go one's rounds, straggle; gad, gad
about; expatiate.
     walk, march, step, tread, pace, plod, wend, go by shank's mare;
promenade; trudge, tramp; stalk, stride, straddle, strut, foot it, hoof
it, stump, bundle, bowl along, toddle; paddle; tread a path.
     take horse, ride, drive, trot, amble, canter, prance, fisk^, frisk,
caracoler^, caracole; gallop &c (move quickly) 274.
     [start riding] embark, board, set out, hit the road, get going,
get underway.
     peg on, jog on, wag on, shuffle on; stir one's stumps; bend one's
steps, bend one's course; make one's way, find one's way, wend one's
way, pick one's way, pick one's way, thread one's way, plow one's way;
slide, glide, coast, skim, skate; march in procession, file on, defile.
     go to, repair to, resort to, hie to, betake oneself to.
Adj. traveling &c v.; ambulatory, itinerant, peripatetic, roving,
rambling, gadding, discursive, vagrant, migratory, monadic;
circumforanean^, circumforaneous^; noctivagrant^, mundivagrant;
     wayfaring, wayworn; travel-stained.
Adv. on foot, on horseback, on Shanks's mare; by the Marrowbone stage:
in transitu &c 270 [Lat.]; en route &c 282.
Int. come along!,

267. [Locomotion by water, or air.] Navigation -- N. navigation;
aquatics; boating, yachting; ship &c 273; oar, paddle, screw, sail,
canvas, aileron.
     natation^, swimming; fin, flipper, fish's tail.
     aerostation^, aerostatics^, aeronautics; balloonery^; balloon &c
273; ballooning, aviation, airmanship; flying, flight, volitation^;
wing, pinion; rocketry, space travel, astronautics, orbital mechanics,
     voyage, sail, cruise, passage, circumnavigation, periplus^;
headway, sternway, leeway; fairway.
     mariner &c 269.
     flight, trip; shuttle, run, airlift.
V. sail; put to sea &c (depart) 293; take ship, get under way; set
sail, spread sail, spread canvas; gather way, have way on; make sail,
carry sail; plow the waves, plow the deep, plow the main, plow the
ocean; walk the waters.
     navigate, warp, luff^, scud, boom, kedge; drift, course, cruise,
coast; hug the shore, hug the land; circumnavigate.
     ply the oar, row, paddle, pull, scull, punt, steam.
     swim, float; buffet the waves, ride the storm, skim, effleurer
[Fr.], dive, wade.
     fly, be wafted, hover, soar, flutter, jet, orbit, rocket; take
wing, take a flight, take off, ascend, blast off, land, alight; wing
one's flight, wing one's way; aviate; parachute, jump, glide.
Adj. sailing &c v.; volant^, aerostatic^; seafaring, nautical, maritime,
naval; seagoing, coasting; afloat; navigable; aerial, aeronautic;
Adv. under way, under sail, under canvas, under steam; on the wing, in
flight, in orbit.
Phr. bon voyage; spread the thin oar and catch the driving gale [Pope].

268. Traveler -- N. traveler, wayfarer, voyager, itinerant, passenger,
     tourist, excursionist, explorer, adventurer, mountaineer, hiker,
backpacker, Alpine Club; peregrinator^, wanderer, rover, straggler,
rambler; bird of passage; gadabout, gadling^; vagrant, scatterling^,
landloper^, waifs and estrays^, wastrel, foundling; loafer; tramp,
tramper; vagabond, nomad, Bohemian, gypsy, Arab^, Wandering Jew, Hadji,
pilgrim, palmer; peripatetic; somnambulist, emigrant, fugitive,
refugee; beach comber, booly^; globegirdler^, globetrotter; vagrant,
hobo [U.S.], night walker, sleep walker; noctambulist, runabout,
straphanger, swagman, swagsman [Austral.]; trecker^, trekker, zingano^,
     runner, courier; Mercury, Iris, Ariel^, comet.
     pedestrian, walker, foot passenger; cyclist; wheelman.
     rider, horseman, equestrian, cavalier, jockey, roughrider,
trainer, breaker.
     driver, coachman, whip, Jehu, charioteer, postilion, postboy^,
carter, wagoner, drayman^; cabman, cabdriver; voiturier^, vetturino^,
condottiere^; engine driver; stoker, fireman, guard; chauffeur,
conductor, engineer, gharry-wallah^, gari-wala^, hackman, syce^,
Phr. on the road

269. Mariner -- N. sailor, mariner, navigator; seaman, seafarer,
seafaring man; dock walloper [Slang]; tar, jack tar, salt, able seaman,
     B.; man-of-war's man, bluejacket, galiongee^, galionji^, marine,
jolly, midshipman, middy; skipper; shipman^, boatman, ferryman,
waterman^, lighterman^, bargeman, longshoreman; bargee^, gondolier; oar,
oarsman; rower; boatswain, cockswain^; coxswain; steersman, pilot; crew.
     aerial navigator, aeronaut, balloonist, Icarus; aeroplanist^,
airman, aviator, birdman, man-bird, wizard of the air, aviatrix, flier,
pilot, test pilot, glider pilot, bush pilot, navigator, flight
attendant, steward, stewardess, crew; astronaut, cosmonaut;
parachutist, paratrooper.

270. Transference -- N. transfer, transference; translocation,
elocation^; displacement; metastasis, metathesis; removal; remotion^,
amotion^; relegation; deportation, asportation^; extradition,
conveyance, draft, carrying, carriage; convection, conduction,
contagion; transfer &c (of property) 783.
     transit, transition; passage, ferry, gestation; portage,
porterage^, carting, cartage; shoveling &c v.; vection^, vecture^,
vectitation^; shipment, freight, wafture^; transmission, transport,
transportation, importation, exportation, transumption^,
transplantation, translation; shifting, dodging; dispersion &c 73;
transposition &c (interchange) 148; traction &c 285.
     [Thing transferred] drift.
V. transfer, transmit, transport, transplace^, transplant, translocate;
convey, carry, bear, fetch and carry; carry over, ferry over; hand
pass, forward; shift; conduct, convoy, bring, fetch, reach; tote
[U.S.]; port, import, export.
     send, delegate, consign, relegate, turn over to, deliver; ship,
embark; waft; shunt; transpose &c (interchange) 148; displace &c 185;
throw &c 284; drag &c 285; mail, post.
     shovel, ladle, decant, draft off, transfuse, infuse, siphon.
Adj. transferred &c v.; drifted, movable; portable, portative^; mailable
[U.S.]; contagious.
Adv. from hand to hand, from pillar to post.
     on the way, by the way; on the road, on the wing, under way, in
transit, on course; as one goes; in transitu [Lat.], en route, chemin
faisant [Fr.], en passant [Fr.], in mid progress, in mid course.

271. Carrier -- N. carrier, porter, bearer, tranter^, conveyer;
cargador^; express, expressman; stevedore, coolie; conductor,
locomotive, motor.
     beast, beast of burden, cattle, horse, nag, palfrey, Arab^, blood
horse, thoroughbred, galloway^, charger, courser, racer, hunter,
jument^, pony, filly, colt, foal, barb, roan, jade, hack, bidet, pad,
cob, tit, punch, roadster, goer^; racehorse, pack horse, draft horse,
cart horse, dray horse, post horse; ketch; Shetland pony, shelty,
sheltie; garran^, garron^; jennet, genet^, bayard^, mare, stallion,
gelding; bronco, broncho^, cayuse [U.S.]; creature, critter [U.S.]; cow
pony, mustang, Narraganset, waler^; stud.
     Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante.
     ass, donkey, jackass, mule, hinny; sumpter horse, sumpter mule;
burro, cuddy^, ladino [U.S.]; reindeer; camel, dromedary, llama,
elephant; carrier pigeon.
     [object used for carrying] pallet, brace, cart, dolley; support &c
215; fork lift.
     carriage &c (vehicle) 272; ship &c 273.
Adj. equine, asinine.

272. Vehicle -- N. vehicle, conveyance, carriage, caravan, van; common
carrier; wagon, waggon^, wain, dray, cart, lorry.
     truck, tram; cariole, carriole^; limber, tumbrel, pontoon; barrow;
wheel barrow, hand barrow; perambulator; Bath chair, wheel chair, sedan
chair; chaise; palankeen^, palanquin; litter, brancard^, crate, hurdle,
stretcher, ambulance; black Maria; conestoga wagon, conestoga wain;
jinrikisha, ricksha, brett^, dearborn [U.S.], dump cart, hack, hackery^,
jigger, kittereen^, mailstate^, manomotor^, rig, rockaway^, prairie
schooner [U.S.], shay, sloven, team, tonga^, wheel; hobbyhorse, go-cart;
cycle; bicycle, bike, two-wheeler; tricycle, velocipede, quadricycle^.
     equipage, turn-out; coach, chariot, phaeton, break, mail phaeton,
wagonette, drag, curricle^, tilbury^, whisky, landau, barouche,
victoria, brougham, clarence^, calash, caleche [Fr.], britzka^, araba^,
kibitka^; berlin; sulky, desobligeant [Fr.], sociable, vis-a-vis,
dormeuse [Fr.]; jaunting car, outside car; dandi^; doolie^, dooly^;
munchil^, palki^; roller skates, skate; runabout; ski; tonjon^; vettura^.
     post chaise, diligence, stage; stage coach, mail coach, hackney
coach, glass coach; stage wagon, car, omnibus, fly, cabriolet^, cab,
hansom, shofle^, four-wheeler, growler, droshki^, drosky^.
     dogcart, trap, whitechapel, buggy, four-in-hand, unicorn, random,
tandem; shandredhan^, char-a-bancs [Fr.].
     motor car, automobile, limousine, car, auto, jalopy, clunker,
lemon, flivver, coupe, sedan, two-door sedan, four-door sedan, luxury
sedan; wheels [Coll.], sports car, roadster, gran turismo [It], jeep,
four-wheel drive vehicle, electric car, steamer; golf cart, electric
wagon; taxicab, cab, taxicoach^, checker cab, yellow cab; station wagon,
family car; motorcycle, motor bike, side car; van, minivan, bus,
minibus, microbus; truck, wagon, pick-up wagon, pick-up, tractor-
trailer, road train, articulated vehicle; racing car, racer, hot rod,
stock car, souped-up car.
     bob, bobsled, bobsleigh^; cutter; double ripper, double runner
[U.S.]; jumper, sled, sledge, sleigh, toboggan.
     train; accommodation train, passenger train, express trail,
special train, corridor train, parliamentary train, luggage train,
freight train, goods train; 1st class train, 2nd class train, 3rd class
train, 1st class carriage, 2nd class carriage, 3rd class carriage, 1st
class compartment, 2nd class compartment, 3rd class compartment;
rolling stock; horse box, cattle truck; baggage car, express car,
freight car, parlor car, dining car, Pullman car, sleeping car,
sleeper, dome car; surface car, tram car, trolley car; box car, box
wagon; horse car [U.S.]; bullet train, shinkansen [Jap.], cannonball,
the Wabash cannonball, lightning express; luggage van; mail, mail car,
mail van.
     shovel, spool, spatula, ladle, hod, hoe; spade, spaddle^, loy^;
spud; pitchfork; post hole digger.
     [powered construction vehicles] tractor, steamshovel, backhoe,
fork lift, earth mover, dump truck, bulldozer, grader, caterpillar,
trench digger, steamroller; pile driver; crane, wrecking crane.

273. Ship -- N. ship, vessel, sail; craft, bottom.
     navy, marine, fleet, flotilla; shipping.
     man of war &c (combatant) 726; transport, tender, storeship^;
merchant ship, merchantman; packet, liner; whaler, slaver, collier,
coaster, lighter; fishing boat, pilot boat; trawler, hulk; yacht;
baggala^; floating hotel, floating palace; ocean greyhound.
     ship, bark, barque, brig, snow, hermaphrodite brig; brigantine,
barkantine^; schooner; topsail schooner, for and aft schooner, three
masted schooner; chasse-maree [Fr.]; sloop, cutter, corvette, clipper,
foist, yawl, dandy, ketch, smack, lugger, barge, hoy^, cat, buss;
sailer, sailing vessel; windjammer; steamer, steamboat, steamship,
liner, ocean liner, cruiseship, ship of the line; mail steamer, paddle
steamer, screw steamer; tug; line of steamers &c. destroyer, cruiser,
frigate; landing ship, LST; aircraft carrier, carrier, flattop [Coll.],
nuclear powered carrier; submarine, submersible, atomic submarine.
     boat, pinnace, launch; life boat, long boat, jolly boat, bum boat,
fly boat, cock boat, ferry boat, canal boat; swamp boat, ark, bully,
battery, bateau [Can.], broadhorn^, dory, droger^, drogher; dugout,
durham boat, flatboat, galiot^; shallop^, gig, funny, skiff, dingy,
scow, cockleshell, wherry, coble^, punt, cog, kedge, lerret^; eight oar,
four oar, pair oar; randan^; outrigger; float, raft, pontoon; prame^;
iceboat, ice canoe, ice yacht.
     catamaran, hydroplane, hovercraft, coracle, gondola, carvel^,
caravel; felucca, caique^, canoe, birch bark canoe, dugout canoe;
galley, galleyfoist^; bilander^, dogger^, hooker, howker^; argosy,
carack^; galliass^, galleon; polacca^, polacre^, tartane^, junk, lorcha^,
praam^, proa^, prahu^, saick^, sampan, xebec, dhow; dahabeah^; nuggah^;
kayak, keel boat [U.S.], log canoe, pirogue; quadrireme^, trireme;
stern-wheeler [U.S.]; wanigan^, wangan [U.S.], wharf boat.
     balloon; airship, aeroplane; biplane, monoplane, triplane^;
hydroplane; aerodrome; air balloon, pilot balloon, fire balloon,
dirigible, zeppelin; aerostat, Montgolfier; kite, parachute.
     jet plane, rocket plane, jet liner, turbojet, prop-jet, propeller
plane; corporate plane, corporate jet, private plane, private aviation;
airline, common carrier; fighter, bomber, fighter-bomber, escort plane,
spy plane; supersonic aircraft, subsonic aircraft.
Adv. afloat, aboard; on board, on ship board; hard a lee, hard a port,
hard a starboard, hard a weather.


274. Velocity -- N. velocity, speed, celerity; swiftness &c adj.;
rapidity, eagle speed; expedition &c (activity) 682; pernicity^;
acceleration; haste &c 684.
     spurt, rush, dash, race, steeple chase; smart rate, lively rate,
swift rate &c adj.; rattling rate, spanking rate, strapping rate, smart
pace, lively pace, swift pace, rattling pace, spanking pace, strapping
pace; round pace; flying, flight.
     lightning, greased lightning, light, electricity, wind; cannon
ball, rocket, arrow, dart, hydrargyrum [Lat.], quicksilver; telegraph,
express train; torrent.
     eagle, antelope, courser, race horse, gazelle, greyhound, hare,
doe, squirrel, camel bird, chickaree^, chipmunk, hackee [U.S.], ostrich,
scorcher [Slang].
     Mercury, Ariel^, Camilla^, Harlequin.
     [Measurement of velocity] log, log line; speedometer, odometer,
tachometer, strobe, radar speed detector, radar trap, air speed gauge,
wind sock, wind speed meter; pedometer.
V. move quickly, trip, fisk^; speed, hie, hasten, post, spank, scuttle;
scud, scuddle^; scour, scour the plain; scamper; run like mad, beat it;
fly, race, run a race, cut away, shot, tear, whisk, zoom, swoosh,
sweep, skim, brush; cut along, bowl along, barrel along, barrel;
scorch, burn up the track; rush &c (be violent) 173; dash on, dash off,
dash forward; bolt; trot, gallop, amble, troll, bound, flit, spring,
dart, boom; march in quick time, march in double time; ride hard, get
over the ground.
     hurry &c (hasten) 684; accelerate, put on; quicken; quicken one's
pace, mend one's pace; clap spurs to one's horse; make haste, make
rapid strides, make forced marches, make the best of one's way; put
one's best leg foremost, stir one's stumps, wing one's way, set off at
a score; carry sail, crowd sail; go off like a shot, go like a shot, go
ahead, gain ground; outstrip the wind, fly on the wings of the wind.
     keep up with, keep pace with; outstrip &c 303; outmarch^.
Adj. fast, speedy, swift, rapid, quick, fleet; aliped^; nimble, agile,
expeditious; express; active &c 682; flying, galloping &c v.; light
footed, nimble footed; winged, eagle winged, mercurial, electric,
telegraphic; light-legged, light of heel; swift as an arrow &c n.;
quick as lightning &c n., quick as a thought.
Adv. swiftly &c adj.; with speed &c n.; apace; at a great rate, at full
speed, at railway speed; full drive, full gallop; posthaste, in full
sail, tantivy^; trippingly; instantaneously &c 113.
     under press of sail, under press of canvas, under press of sail
and steam; velis et remis [Lat.], on eagle's wing, in double quick
time; with rapid strides, with giant strides; a pas de geant [Fr.]; in
seven league boots; whip and spur; ventre a terre [Fr.]; as fast as
one's legs will carry one, as fast as one's heels will carry one; as
fast as one can lay legs to the ground, at the top of one's speed; by
leaps and bounds; with haste &c 684.
Phr. vires acquirit eundo [Lat.]; I'll put a girdle about the earth in
forty minutes [M.N.D.]; swifter than arrow from the Tartar's bow
[M.N.D.]; go like a bat out of hell; tempus fugit [Lat.].

275. Slowness -- N. slowness &c adj.; languor &c (inactivity) 683;
drawl; creeping &c v., lentor^.
     retardation; slackening &c v.; delay &c (lateness) 133;
     jog trot, dog trot; mincing steps; slow march, slow time.
     slow goer^, slow coach, slow back; lingerer, loiterer, sluggard,
tortoise, snail; poke [U.S.]; dawdle &c (inactive) 683.
V. move slowly &c adv.; creep, crawl, lag, slug, drawl, linger, loiter,
saunter; plod, trudge, stump along, lumber; trail, drag; dawdle &c (be
inactive) 683; grovel, worm one's way, steal along; job on, rub on,
bundle on; toddle, waddle, wabble^, slug, traipse, slouch, shuffle,
halt, hobble, limp, caludicate^, shamble; flag, falter, trotter,
stagger; mince, step short; march in slow time, march in funeral
procession; take one's time; hang fire &c (be late) 133.
     retard, relax; slacken, check, moderate, rein in, curb; reef;
strike sail, shorten sail, take in sail; put on the drag, apply the
brake; clip the wings; reduce the speed; slacken speed, slacken one's
pace; lose ground.
Adj. slow, slack; tardy; dilatory &c (inactive) 683; gentle, easy;
leisurely; deliberate, gradual; insensible, imperceptible; glacial,
languid, sluggish, slow paced, tardigrade^, snail-like; creeping &c v.;
Adv. slowly &c adj.; leisurely; piano, adagio; largo, larghetto; at
half speed, under easy sail; at a foots pace, at a snail's pace, at a
funeral pace; in slow time, with mincing steps, with clipped wings;
haud passibus aequis [Lat.] [Vergil].
     gradually &c adj.; gradatim [Lat.]; by degrees, by slow degrees,
by inches, by little and little; step by step, one step at a time; inch
by inch, bit by bit, little by little, seriatim; consecutively.
Phr. dum Roma deliberat Saguntum perit [Lat.]; at a glacial pace.


276. Impulse -- N. impulse, impulsion, impetus; momentum; push,
pulsion^, thrust, shove, jog, jolt, brunt, booming, boost [U.S.], throw;
explosion &c (violence) 173; propulsion &c 284.
     percussion, concussion, collision, occursion^, clash, encounter,
cannon, carambole^, appulse^, shock, crash, bump; impact; elan; charge
&c (attack) 716; beating &c (punishment) 972.
     blow, dint, stroke, knock, tap, rap, slap, smack, pat, dab;
fillip; slam, bang; hit, whack, thwack; cuff &c 972; squash, dowse,
swap, whap^, punch, thump, pelt, kick, punce^, calcitration^; ruade^;
arietation^; cut, thrust, lunge, yerk^; carom, carrom^, clip [Slang],
jab, plug [Slang], sidewinder [U.S.], sidewipe^, sideswipe [U.S.].
     hammer, sledge hammer, mall, maul, mallet, flail; ram, rammer^;
battering ram, monkey, pile-driving engine, punch, bat; cant hook;
cudgel &c (weapon) 727; ax &c (sharp) 253.
     [Science of mechanical forces] dynamics; seismometer,
accelerometer, earthquake detector.
V. give an impetus &c n.; impel, push; start, give a start to, set
going; drive, urge, boom; thrust, prod, foin [Fr.]; cant; elbow,
shoulder, jostle, justle^, hustle, hurtle, shove, jog, jolt, encounter;
run against, bump against, butt against; knock one's head against, run
one's head against; impinge; boost [U.S.]; bunt, carom, clip y; fan,
fan out; jab, plug [Slang].
     strike, knock, hit, tap, rap, slap, flap, dab, pat, thump, beat,
blow, bang, slam, dash; punch, thwack, whack; hit hard, strike hard;
swap, batter, dowse^, baste; pelt, patter, buffet, belabor; fetch one a
blow; poke at, pink, lunge, yerk^; kick, calcitrate^; butt, strike at &c
(attack) 716; whip &c (punish) 972.
     come into a collision, enter into collision; collide; sideswipe;
foul; fall foul of, run foul of; telescope.
     throw &c (propel) 284.
Adj. impelling &c v.; impulsive, impellent^; booming; dynamic,
dynamical; impelled &c v..
Phr. a hit, a very palpable hit [Hamlet].

277. Recoil -- N. recoil; reaction, retroaction; revulsion; bounce,
rebound, ricochet; repercussion, recalcitration^; kick, contrecoup
[Fr.]; springing back &c v.; elasticity &c 325; reflection, reflexion
[Brit.], reflex, reflux; reverberation &c (resonance) 408; rebuff,
repulse; return.
     ducks and drakes; boomerang; spring, reactionist^.
     elastic collision, coefficient of restitution.
V. recoil, react; spring back, fly back, bounce back, bound back;
rebound, reverberate, repercuss^, recalcitrate^; echo, ricochet.
Adj. recoiling &c v.; refluent^, repercussive, recalcitrant,
reactionary; retroactive.
Adv. on the rebound, on the recoil &c n..
Phr. for every action there is a reaction, equal in force and opposite
in direction [Newton].


278. Direction -- N. direction, bearing, course, vector; set, drift,
tenor; tendency &c 176; incidence; bending, trending &c v.; dip, tack,
aim, collimation; steering steerage.
     point of the compass, cardinal points; North East, South, West; N
by E, ENE, NE by N, NE, &c; rhumb^, azimuth, line of collimation.
     line, path, road, range, quarter, line of march; alignment,
allignment^; air line, beeline; straight shoot.
V. tend towards, bend towards, point towards; conduct to, go to; point
to, point at; bend, trend, verge, incline, dip, determine.
     steer for, steer towards, make for, make towards; aim at, level
at; take aim; keep a course, hold a course; be bound for; bend one's
steps towards; direct one's course, steer one's course, bend one's
course, shape one's course; align one's march, allign one's march^; to
straight, go straight to the point; march on, march on a point.
     ascertain one's direction &c n.; s'orienter [Fr.], see which way
the wind blows; box the compass; take the air line.
Adj. directed &c v.. directed towards; pointing towards &c v.; bound
for; aligned, with alligned with^; direct, straight; undeviating,
unswerving; straightforward; North, Northern, Northerly, &c n..
Adv. towards; on the road, on the high road to; en avant; versus, to;
hither, thither, whither; directly; straight as an arrow, forwards as
an arrow; point blank; in a bee line to, in a direct line to, as the
crow flies, in a straight line to, in a bee line for, in a direct line
for, in a straight line for, in a bee line with, in a direct line with,
in a straight line with; in a line with; full tilt at, as the crow
     before the wind, near the wind, close to the wind, against the
wind; windwards, in the wind's eye.
     through, via, by way of; in all directions, in all manner of ways;
quaquaversum [Lat.], from the four winds.
Phr. the shortest distance between two points is a straight line.

279. Deviation -- N. deviation; swerving &c v.; obliquation^, warp,
refraction; flection^, flexion; sweep; deflection, deflexure^;
     diversion, digression, depart from, aberration; divergence &c 291;
zigzag; detour &c (circuit) 629; divagation.
     [Desultory motion] wandering &c v.; vagrancy, evagation^; bypaths
and crooked ways; byroad.
     [Motion sideways, oblique motion] sidling &c v.; knight's move at
V. alter one's course, deviate, depart from, turn, trend; bend, curve
&c 245; swerve, heel, bear off; gybe^, wear.
     intervert^; deflect; divert, divert from its course; put on a new
scent, shift, shunt, draw aside, crook, warp.
     stray, straggle; sidle; diverge &c 291; tralineate^; digress,
wander; wind, twist, meander; veer, tack; divagate; sidetrack; turn
aside, turn a corner, turn away from; wheel, steer clear of; ramble,
rove, drift; go astray, go adrift; yaw, dodge; step aside, ease off,
make way for, shy.
     fly off at a tangent; glance off; wheel about, face about; turn to
the right about, face to the right about; waddle &c (oscillate) 314; go
out of one's way &c (perform a circuit) 629; lose one's way.
Adj. deviating &c v.; aberrant, errant; excursive, discursive; devious,
desultory, loose; rambling; stray, erratic, vagrant, undirected,
circuitous, indirect, zigzag; crab-like.
Adv. astray from, round about, wide of the mark; to the right about;
all manner of ways; circuitously &c 629.
     obliquely, sideling, like the move of the knight on a chessboard.

280. [Going before.] Precession -- N. precession, leading, heading;
precedence &c 62; priority &c 116; the lead, le pas; van &c (front)
234; precursor &c 64.
V. go before, go ahead, go in the van, go in advance; precede, forerun;
usher in, introduce, herald, head, take the lead; lead the way, lead
the dance; get the start, have the start; steal a march; get before,
get ahead, get in front of; outstrip &c 303; take precedence &c (first
in order) 62.
Adj. leading, precedent &c v..
Adv. in advance, before, ahead, in the van, in the lead; foremost,
headmost^; in front; at the head, out in front; way out in front, far
Phr. seniores priores [Lat.], ahead of his time.

281. [Going after.] Sequence -- N. sequence; coming after &c (order)
63; (time) 117; following pursuit &c 622.
     follower, attendant, satellite, shadow, dangler, train.
V. follow; pursue &c 622; go after, fly after.
     attend, beset, dance attendance on, dog; tread in the steps of,
tread close upon; be in the wake of, be in the trail of, be in the rear
of, go in the wake of, go in the trail of, go in the rear of, follow in
the wake of, follow in the trail of, follow in the rear of; follow as a
shadow, hang on the skirts of; tread on the heels of, follow on the
heels of; camp on the trail.
Adj. subsequent, next, succeeding; following &c v..
Adv. behind; in the rear &c 235, in the train of, in the wake of; after
&c (order) 63, (time) 117.

282. [Motion forward; progressive motion.] Progression -- N. progress,
progression, progressiveness; advancing &c v.; advance, advancement;
ongoing; flood, tide, headway; march &c 266; rise; improvement &c 658.
V. advance; proceed, progress; get on, get along, get over the ground;
gain ground; forge ahead; jog on, rub on, wag on; go with the stream;
keep one's course, hold on one's course; go on, move on, come one, get
on, pass on, push on, press on, go forward, move forward, come forward,
get forward, pass forward, push forward, press forward, go forwards,
move forwards, come forwards, get forwards, pass forwards, push
forwards, press forwards, go ahead, move ahead, come ahead, get ahead,
pass ahead, push ahead, press ahead; make one's way, work one's way,
carve one's way, push one's way, force one's way, edge one's way, elbow
one's way; make progress, make head, make way, make headway, make
advances, make strides, make rapid strides &c (velocity) 274; go ahead,
shoot ahead; distance; make up leeway.
Adj. advancing &c v.; progressive, profluent^; advanced.
Adv. forward, onward; forth, on, ahead, under way, en route for, on
one's way, on the way, on the road, on the high road, on the road to;
in progress; in mid progress; in transitu &c 270 [Lat.].
Phr. vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat.]; westward the course of empire
takes its way [Berkeley].

283. [Motion backwards.] Regression -- N. regress, regression;
retrocession^, retrogression, retrograduation^, retroaction; reculade^;
retreat, withdrawal, retirement, remigration^; recession &c (motion
from) 287; recess; crab-like motion.
     refluence^, reflux; backwater, regurgitation, ebb, return;
resilience reflection, reflexion [Brit.] (recoil) 277; flip-flop,
volte-face [Fr.].
     counter motion, retrograde motion, backward movement, motion in
reverse, counter movement, counter march; veering, tergiversation,
recidivation^, backsliding, fall; deterioration &c 659; recidivism,
     reversal, relapse, turning point &c (reversion) 145.
V. recede, regrade, return, revert, retreat, retire; retrograde,
retrocede; back out; back down; balk; crawfish [U.S.], crawl [Slang];
withdraw; rebound &c 277; go back, come back, turn back, hark back,
draw back, fall back, get back, put back, run back; lose ground; fall
astern, drop astern; backwater, put about; backtrack, take the back
track; veer round; double, wheel, countermarch; ebb, regurgitate; jib,
shrink, shy.
     turn tail, turn round, turn upon one's heel, turn one's back upon;
retrace one's steps, dance the back step; sound a retreat, beat a
retreat; go home.
Adj. receding &c v.; retrograde, retrogressive; regressive, refluent^,
reflex, recidivous, resilient; crab-like; balky; reactionary &c 277.
Adv. back, backwards; reflexively, to the right about; a reculons
[Fr.], a rebours [Fr.].
Phr. revenons a nos moutons [Fr.], as you were.

284. [Motion given to an object situated in front.] Propulsion -- N.
propulsion, projection; propelment^; vis a tergo [Lat.], force from
behind; push, shove &c (impulse) 276; ejaculate; ejection &c 297;
throw, fling, toss, shot, discharge, shy; launch, release.
     [Science of propulsion] projectiles, ballistics, archery.
     [devices to give propulsion] propeller, screw, twin screws,
turbine, jet engine.
     [objects propelled] missile, projectile, ball, discus, quoit,
brickbat, shot; [weapons which propel] arrow, gun, ballista &c (arms)
727 [Obs.].
     [preparation for propulsion] countdown, windup.
     shooter; shot; archer, toxophilite^; bowman, rifleman, marksman;
good shot, crack shot; sharpshooter &c (combatant) 726.
V. propel, project, throw, fling, cast, pitch, chuck, toss, jerk,
heave, shy, hurl; flirt, fillip.
     dart, lance, tilt; ejaculate, jaculate^; fulminate, bolt, drive,
sling, pitchfork.
     send; send off, let off, fire off; discharge, shoot; launch,
release, send forth, let fly; put in orbit, send into orbit, launch
into orbit dash.
     put in motion, set in motion; set agoing^, start; give a start,
give an impulse to; impel &c 276; trundle &c (set in rotation) 312;
expel &c 297.
     carry one off one's legs; put to flight.
Adj. propelled &c v.; propelling &c v.; propulsive, projectile.

285. [Motion given to an object situated behind.] Traction -- N.
traction; drawing &c v.; draught, pull, haul; rake; a long pull a
strong pull and a pull all together; towage^, haulage.
V. draw, pull, haul, lug, rake, drag, tug, tow, trail, train; take in
     wrench, jerk, twitch, touse^; yank [U.S.].
Adj. drawing &c v.; tractile^, tractive.

286. [Motion towards.] Approach -- N. approach, approximation,
appropinquation^; access; appulse^; afflux^, affluxion^; advent &c
(approach of time) 121; pursuit &c 622.
V. approach, approximate, appropinquate^; near; get near, go near, draw
near; come to close quarters, come near; move towards, set in towards;
drift; make up to; gain upon; pursue &c 622; tread on the heels of;
bear up; make the land; hug the shore, hug the land.
Adj. approaching &c v.; approximative^; affluent; impending, imminent &c
(destined) 152.
Adv. on the road.
Int. come hither!, approach!, here!, come!, come near!, forward!,

287. [Motion from.] Recession -- N. recession, retirement, withdrawal;
retreat; retrocession &c 283 [Obs.]; departure, &c 293; recoil &c 277;
flight &c (avoidance) 623.
V. recede, go, move back, move from, retire; withdraw, shrink, back
off; come away, move away, back away, go away, get away, drift away;
depart &c 293; retreat &c 283; move off, stand off, sheer off; fall
back, stand aside; run away &c (avoid) 623.
     remove, shunt, distance.
Adj. receding &c v..
Phr. distance oneself from a person.

288. [Motion towards, actively; force causing to draw closer.]
Attraction -- N. attraction, attractiveness; attractivity^; drawing to,
pulling towards, adduction^.
     electrical attraction, electricity, static electricity, static,
static cling; magnetism, magnetic attraction; gravity, attraction of
     [objects which attract by physical force] lodestone, loadstone,
lodestar, loadstar^; magnet, permanent magnet, siderite, magnetite;
electromagnet; magnetic coil, voice coil; magnetic dipole; motor coil,
rotor, stator.
     electrical charge; positive charge, negative charge.
     magnetic pole; north pole, south pole; magnetic monopole.
V. attract, draw; draw towards, pull towards, drag towards; adduce.
Adj. attracting &c v.; attrahent^, attractive, adducent^, adductive^.
Phr. ubi mel ibi apes [Lat.] [Plautus].

289. [Motion from, actively; force driving apart.] Repulsion -- N.
repulsion; driving from &c v.; repulse, abduction.
     magnetic repulsion, magnetic levitation; antigravity.
V. repel, push from, drive apart, drive from &c 276; chase, dispel;
retrude^; abduce^, abduct; send away; repulse.
     keep at arm's length, turn one's back upon, give the cold
shoulder; send off, send away with a flea in one's ear.
Adj. repelling &c v.; repellent, repulsive; abducent^, abductive^.
Phr. like charges repel; opposite charges attract; like poles repel,
opposite poles attract.

290. [Motion nearer to.] Convergence -- N. convergence, confluence,
concourse, conflux^, congress, concurrence, concentration; convergency;
appulse^, meeting; corradiation^.
     assemblage &c 72; resort &c (focus) 74; asymptote.
V. converge, concur, come together, unite, meet, fall in with; close
with, close in upon; center round, center in; enter in; pour in.
     gather together, unite, concentrate, bring into a focus.
Adj. converging &c v.; convergent, confluent, concurrent; centripetal;
asymptotical, asymptotic; confluxible^.

291. [Motion further off.] Divergence -- N. divergence, divergency^;
divarication, ramification, forking; radiation; separation &c
(disjunction) 44; dispersion &c 73; deviation &c 279; aberration.
V. diverge, divaricate, radiate; ramify; branch off, glance off, file
off; fly off, fly off at a tangent; spread, scatter, disperse &c 73;
deviate &c 279; part &c (separate) 44.
Adj. diverging &c v.; divergent, radiant, centrifugal; aberrant.

292. [Terminal motion at.] Arrival -- N. arrival, advent; landing;
debarkation, disembarkation; reception, welcome, vin d'honneur [Fr.].
     home, goal, goalpost; landing place, landing stage; bunder^;
resting place; destination, harbor, haven, port, airport, spaceport;
terminus, halting place, halting ground, landing strip, runway,
terminal; journey's end; anchorage &c (refuge) 666.
     return, remigration^; meeting; rencounter^, encounter.
     completion &c 729.
     recursion [Comp.].
V. arrive; get to, come to; come; reach, attain; come up with, come up
to; overtake, make, fetch; complete &c 729; join, rejoin.
     light, alight, dismount; land, go ashore; debark, disembark; put
in, put into; visit, cast anchor, pitch one's tent; sit down &c (be
located) 184; get to one's journey's end; make the land; be in at the
death; come back, get back, come home, get home; return; come in &c
(ingress) 294; make one's appearance &c (appear) 446; drop in; detrain,
deplane; outspan; de-orbit.
     come to hand; come at, come across; hit; come upon, light upon,
pop upon, bounce upon, plump upon, burst upon, pitch upon; meet;
encounter, rencounter^; come in contact.
Adj. arriving &c v.; homeward bound.
Adv. here, hither.
Int. welcome!, hail!, all Hail!, good-day, good morrow!,
Phr. any port in a storm.

293. [Initial motion from.] Departure -- N. departure, decession^,
decampment; embarkation; outset, start; removal; exit &c (egress) 295;
exodus, hejira, flight.
     leave taking, valediction, adieu, farewell, goodbye, auf
wiedersehen [G.], sayonara, dosvidanya [Rus.], ciao, aloha, hasta la
vista [Sp.]; stirrup cup; valedictorian.
     starting point, starting post; point of departure, point of
embarkation, place of departure, place of embarkation; port of
embarkation; airport, take-off point, taxiing runway, runway, launching
pad, spaceport.
V. depart; go away; take one's departure, set out; set off, march off,
put off, start off, be off, move off, get off, whip off, pack off, go
off, take oneself off; start, issue, march out, debouch; go forth,
sally forth; sally, set forward; be gone; hail from.
     leave a place, quit, vacate, evacuate, abandon; go off the stage,
make one's exit; retire, withdraw, remove; vamoose [Slang], vamose
[U.S.]; go one's way, go along, go from home; take flight, take wing;
spring, fly, flit, wing one's flight; fly away, whip away; embark; go
on board, go aboard; set sail' put to sea, go to sea; sail, take ship;
hoist blue Peter; get under way, weigh anchor; strike tents, decamp;
walk one's chalks, cut one's stick; take leave; say good bye, bid
goodbye &c n.; disappear &c 449; abscond &c (avoid) 623; entrain;
Adj. departing &c v.; valedictory; outward bound.
Adv. whence, hence, thence; with a foot in the stirrup; on the wing, on
the move.
Int. begone!, &c (ejection) 297; farewell!, adieu!, goodbye!, good
day!, au revoir! [Fr.], fare you well!, God bless you!, God speed!, all
aboard!, auf wiedersehen! [G.], au plaisir de vous revoir! [Fr.], bon
voyage!, gluckliche Reise! [G.], vive valeque! [Fr.],

294. [Motion into.] Ingress -- N. ingress; entrance, entry;
introgression; influx, intrusion, inroad, incursion, invasion,
irruption; ingression; penetration, interpenetration; illapse^, import,
infiltration; immigration; admission &c (reception) 296; insinuation &c
(interjacence) 228 [Obs.]; insertion &c 300.
     inlet; way in; mouth, door, &c (opening) 260; barway^; path &c
(way) 627; conduit &c 350; immigrant.
V. have the entree; enter; go into, go in, come into, come in, pour
into, pour in, flow into, flow in, creep into, creep in, slip into,
slip in, pop into, pop in, break into, break in, burst into, burst in;
set foot on; ingress; burst in upon, break in upon; invade, intrude;
insinuate itself; interpenetrate, penetrate; infiltrate; find one's way
into, wriggle into, worm oneself into.
     give entrance to &c (receive) 296; insert &c 300.
Adj. incoming.

295. [Motion out of.] Egress -- N. egress, exit, issue; emersion,
emergence; outbreak, outburst; eruption, proruption^; emanation;
egression; evacuation; exudation, transudation; extravasation [Med.],
perspiration, sweating, leakage, percolation, distillation, oozing;
gush &c (water in motion) 348; outpour, outpouring; effluence,
effusion; effluxion^, drain; dribbling &c v.; defluxion^; drainage;
outcome, output; discharge &c (excretion) 299.
     export, expatriation; emigration, remigration^; debouch, debouche;
emunctory^; exodus &c (departure) 293; emigrant.
     outlet, vent, spout, tap, sluice, floodgate; pore; vomitory,
outgate^, sally port; way out; mouth, door &c (opening) 260; path &c
(way) 627; conduit &c 350; airpipe &c 351 [Obs.].
V. emerge, emanate, issue; egress; go out of, come out of, move out of,
pass out of, pour out of, flow out of; pass out of, evacuate.
     exude, transude; leak, run through, out through; percolate,
transcolate^; egurgitate^; strain, distill; perspire, sweat, drain,
ooze; filter, filtrate; dribble, gush, spout, flow out; well, well out;
pour, trickle, &c (water in motion) 348; effuse, extravasate [Med.],
disembogue^, discharge itself, debouch; come forth, break forth; burst
out, burst through; find vent; escape &c 671.
Adj. effused &c v.; outgoing.

296. [Motion into, actively.] Reception -- N. reception; admission,
admittance, entree, importation; introduction, intromission; immission^,
ingestion, imbibation^, introception^, absorption, ingurgitation^,
inhalation; suction, sucking; eating, drinking &c (food) 298; insertion
&c 300; interjection &c 228; introit.
V. give entrance to, give admittance to, give the entree; introduce,
intromit; usher, admit, receive, import, bring in, open the door to,
throw in, ingest, absorb, imbibe, inhale, breathe in; let in, take in,
suck in, draw in; readmit, resorb, reabsorb; snuff up, swallow,
ingurgitate^; engulf, engorge; gulp; eat, drink &c (food) 298.
Adj. admitting &c v., admitted &c v.; admissable; absorbent.

297. [Motion out of, actively] Ejection -- N. ejection, emission,
effusion, rejection, expulsion, exportation, eviction, extrusion,
trajection^; discharge.
     emesis, vomiting, vomition^.
     egestion^, evacuation; ructation^, eructation; bloodletting,
venesection [Med.], phlebotomy, paracentesis^; expuition, exspuition;
tapping, drainage; clearance, clearage^.
     deportation; banishment &c (punishment ) 972; rouge's march;
relegation, extradition; dislodgment.
     bouncer [U.S.], chucker-out [Slang].
     [material vomited] vomit, vomitus [Med.], puke, barf [Coll.].
V. give exit, give vent to; let out, give out, pour out, squeeze out,
send out; dispatch, despatch; exhale, excern^, excrete; embogue^;
secrete, secern^; extravasate [Med.], shed, void, evacuation; emit; open
the sluices, open the floodgates; turn on the tap; extrude, detrude^;
effuse, spend, expend; pour forth; squirt, spirt^, spurt, spill, slop;
perspire &c (exude) 295; breathe, blow &c (wind) 349.
     tap, draw off; bale out, lade out; let blood, broach.
     eject, reject; expel, discard; cut, send to coventry, boycott;
chasser [Fr.]; banish &c (punish) 972; bounce [U.S.]; fire [Slang],
fire out [Slang]; throw &c 284, throw out, throw up, throw off, throw
away, throw aside; push &c 276; throw out, throw off, throw away, throw
aside; shovel out, shovel away, sweep out, sweep away; brush off, brush
away, whisk off, whisk away, turn off, turn away, send off, send away;
discharge; send adrift, turn adrift, cast adrift; turn out, bundle out;
throw overboard; give the sack to; send packing, send about one's
business, send to the right about; strike off the roll &c (abrogate)
756; turn out neck and heels, turn out head and shoulders, turn out
neck and crop; pack off; send away with a flea in the ear; send to
Jericho; bow out, show the door to, turn out of doors, turn out of
house and home; evict, oust; unhouse, unkennel; dislodge; unpeople^,
dispeople^; depopulate; relegate, deport.
     empty; drain to the dregs; sweep off; clear off, clear out, clear
away; suck, draw off; clean out, make a clean sweep of, clear decks,
     embowel^, disbowel^, disembowel; eviscerate, gut; unearth, root
out, root up; averuncate^; weed out, get out; eliminate, get rid of, do
away with, shake off; exenterate^.
     vomit, throw up, regurgitate, spew, puke, keck^, retch, heave,
upchuck, chuck up, barf; belch out; cast up, bring up, be sick, get
sick, worship the porcelain god.
     disgorge; expectorate, clear the throat, hawk, spit, sputter,
splutter, slobber, drivel, slaver, slabber^; eructate; drool.
     unpack, unlade, unload, unship, offload; break bulk; dump.
     be let out.
     spew forth, erupt, ooze &c (emerge) 295.
Adj. emitting, emitted, &c v..
Int. begone!, get you gone!, get away, go away, get along, go along,
get along with you, go along with you!, go your way!, away with!, off
with you!, get the hell out of here! [Vulg.], go about your business!,
be off!, avaunt!^, aroynt!^, allez-vous-en! [Fr.], jao!^, va-t'en! [Fr.],

298. [Eating.] Food -- N. eating &c v.; deglutition, gulp, epulation^,
mastication, manducation^, rumination; gluttony &c 957.
     [eating specific foods] hippophagy^, ichthyophagy^.
     [Eating anatomy:] (appetite) &c 865; mouth, jaws, mandible,
mazard^, gob [Slang], chops.
     drinking &c v.; potation, draught, libation; carousal &c
(amusement) 840; drunkenness &c 959.
     food, pabulum; aliment, nourishment, nutriment; sustenance,
sustentation, sustention; nurture, subsistence, provender, corn, feed,
fodder, provision, ration, keep, commons, board; commissariat &c
(provision) 637; prey, forage, pasture, pasturage; fare, cheer; diet,
dietary; regimen; belly timber, staff of life; bread, bread and cheese.
     comestibles, eatables, victuals, edibles, ingesta; grub,
grubstake, prog^, meat; bread, bread stuffs; cerealia^; cereals; viands,
cates^, delicacy, dainty, creature comforts, contents of the larder,
fleshpots; festal board; ambrosia; good cheer, good living.
     beef, bisquit^, bun; cornstarch [U.S.]; cookie, cooky [U.S.];
cracker, doughnut; fatling^; hardtack, hoecake [U.S.], hominy [U.S.];
mutton, pilot bread; pork; roti^, rusk, ship biscuit; veal; joint, piece
de resistance [Fr.], roast and boiled; remove, entremet^, releve [Fr.],
hash, rechauffe [Fr.], stew, ragout, fricassee, mince; pottage, potage^,
broth, soup, consomme, puree, spoonmeat^; pie, pasty, volauvent^;
pudding, omelet; pastry; sweets &c 296; kickshaws^; condiment &c 393.
     appetizer, hors d'oeuvre [Fr.].
     main course, entree.
     alligator pear, apple &c, apple slump; artichoke; ashcake^,
griddlecake, pancake, flapjack; atole^, avocado, banana, beche de mer
[Fr.], barbecue, beefsteak; beet root; blackberry, blancmange, bloater,
bouilli^, bouillon, breadfruit, chop suey [U.S.]; chowder, chupatty^,
clam, compote, damper, fish, frumenty^, grapes, hasty pudding, ice
cream, lettuce, mango, mangosteen, mince pie, oatmeal, oyster,
pineapple, porridge, porterhouse steak, salmis^, sauerkraut, sea slug,
sturgeon ("Albany beef"), succotash [U.S.], supawn [U.S.], trepang^,
vanilla, waffle, walnut.
     table, cuisine, bill of fare, menu, table d'hote [Fr.], ordinary,
     meal, repast, feed, spread; mess; dish, plate, course; regale;
regalement^, refreshment, entertainment; refection, collation, picnic,
feast, banquet, junket; breakfast; lunch, luncheon; dejeuner [Fr.],
bever^, tiffin^, dinner, supper, snack, junk food, fast food, whet,
bait, dessert; potluck, table d'hote [Fr.], dejeuner a la fourchette
[Fr.]; hearty meal, square meal, substantial meal, full meal; blowout
[Slang]; light refreshment; bara^, chotahazri^; bara khana^.
     mouthful, bolus, gobbet^, morsel, sop, sippet^.
     drink, beverage, liquor, broth, soup; potion, dram, draught,
drench, swill [Slang]; nip, sip, sup, gulp.
     wine, spirits, liqueur, beer, ale, malt liquor, Sir John
Barleycorn, stingo^, heavy wet; grog, toddy, flip, purl, punch, negus^,
cup, bishop, wassail; gin &c (intoxicating liquor) 959; coffee,
chocolate, cocoa, tea, the cup that cheers but not inebriates; bock
beer, lager beer, Pilsener beer, schenck beer^; Brazil tea, cider,
claret, ice water, mate, mint julep [U.S.]; near beer, 3.2 beer, non-
alcoholic beverage.
     eating house &c 189.
     [person who eats] diner; hippophage; glutton &c 957.
V. eat, feed, fare, devour, swallow, take; gulp, bolt, snap; fall to;
despatch, dispatch; discuss; take down, get down, gulp down; lay in,
tuck in [Slang]; lick, pick, peck; gormandize &c 957; bite, champ,
munch, cranch^, craunch^, crunch, chew, masticate, nibble, gnaw, mumble.
     live on; feed upon, batten upon, fatten upon, feast upon; browse,
graze, crop, regale; carouse &c (make merry) 840; eat heartily, do
justice to, play a good knife and fork, banquet.
     break bread, break one's fast; breakfast, lunch, dine, take tea,
     drink in, drink up, drink one's fill; quaff, sip, sup; suck, suck
up; lap; swig; swill [Slang], chugalug [Slang], tipple &c (be drunken)
959; empty one's glass, drain the cup; toss off, toss one's glass; wash
down, crack a bottle, wet one's whistle.
     purvey &c 637.
Adj. eatable, edible, esculent^, comestible, alimentary; cereal,
cibarious^; dietetic; culinary; nutritive, nutritious; gastric;
succulent; potable, potulent^; bibulous.
     omnivorous, carnivorous, herbivorous, granivorous, graminivorous,
phytivorous; ichthyivorous; omophagic, omophagous; pantophagous,
phytophagous, xylophagous.
Phr. across the walnuts and the wine [Tennyson]; blessed hour of our
dinners! [O.
     Meredith]; now good digestion wait on appetite, and health on
both! [Macbeth]; who can cloy the hungry edge of appetite? [Richard

299. Excretion -- N. excretion, discharge, emanation; exhalation,
exudation, extrusion, secretion, effusion, extravasation [Med.],
ecchymosis [Med.]; evacuation, dejection, faeces, excrement, shit,
stools, crap [Vulg.]; bloody flux; cacation^; coeliac-flux, coeliac-
passion; dysentery; perspiration, sweat; subation^, exudation;
diaphoresis; sewage; eccrinology [Med.].
     saliva, spittle, rheum; ptyalism^, salivation, catarrh; diarrhoea;
ejecta, egesta [Biol.], sputa; excreta; lava; exuviae &c (uncleanness)
653 [Lat.].
     hemorrhage, bleeding; outpouring &c (egress) 295.
V. excrete &c (eject) 297; emanate &c (come out) 295.

300. [Forcible ingress.] Insertion -- N. insertion, implantation,
introduction; insinuation &c (intervention) 228; planting, &c v.;
injection, inoculation, importation, infusion; forcible ingress &c 294;
immersion; submersion, submergence, dip, plunge; bath &c (water) 337;
interment &c 363.
     clyster [Med.], enema, glyster^, lavage, lavement^.
V. insert; introduce, intromit; put into, run into; import; inject;
interject &c 298; infuse, instill, inoculate, impregnate, imbue,
     graft, ingraft^, bud, plant, implant; dovetail.
     obtrude; thrust in, stick in, ram in, stuff in, tuck in, press,
in, drive in, pop in, whip in, drop in, put in; impact; empierce^ &c
(make a hole) 260 [Obs.].
     imbed; immerse, immerge, merge; bathe, soak &c (water) 337; dip,
plunge &c 310.
     bury &c (inter) 363.
     insert itself, lodge itself &c; plunge in medias res.
Adj. inserted &c v..

301. [Forcible egress.] Extraction -- N. extraction; extracting &c v.;
removal, elimination, extrication, eradication, evolution.
     evulsion^, avulsion^; wrench; expression, squeezing; extirpation,
extermination; ejection &c 297; export &c (egress) 295.
     extractor, corkscrew, forceps, pliers.
V. extract, draw; take out, draw out, pull out, tear out, pluck out,
pick out, get out; wring from, wrench; extort; root up, weed up, grub
up, rake up, root out, weed out, grub out, rake out; eradicate; pull up
by the roots, pluck up by the roots; averruncate^; unroot^; uproot, pull
up, extirpate, dredge.
     remove; educe, elicit; evolve, extricate; eliminate &c (eject)
297; eviscerate &c 297.
     express, squeeze out, press out.
Adj. extracted &c v..

302. [Motion through.] Passage -- N. passage, transmission; permeation;
penetration, interpenetration; transudation, infiltration; endosmose
exosmose^; endosmosis [Chem]; intercurrence^; ingress &c 294; egress &c
295; path &c 627; conduit &c 350; opening &c 260; journey &c 266;
voyage &c 267.
V. pass, pass through; perforate &c (hole) 260; penetrate, permeate,
thread, thrid^, enfilade; go through, go across; go over, pass over; cut
across; ford, cross; pass and repass, work; make one's way, thread
one's way, worm one's way, force one's way; make a passage form a
passage; cut one's way through; find its way, find its vent; transmit,
make way, clear the course; traverse, go over the ground.
Adj. passing &c v.; intercurrent^; endosmosmic^, endosmotic [Chem].
Adv. en passant &c (transit) 270 [Fr.].

303. [Motion beyond] Transcursion -- N. transcursion^, transiliency^,
transgression; trespass; encroachment, infringement; extravagation^,
transcendence; redundancy &c 641.
V. transgress, surpass, pass; go beyond, go by; show in front, come to
the front; shoot ahead of; steal a march upon, steal a gain upon.
     overstep, overpass, overreach, overgo^, override, overleap,
overjump^, overskip^, overlap, overshoot the mark; outstrip, outleap,
outjump, outgo, outstep^, outrun, outride, outrival, outdo; beat, beat
hollow; distance; leave in the lurch, leave in the rear; throw into the
shade; exceed, transcend, surmount; soar &c (rise) 305.
     encroach, trespass, infringe, trench upon, entrench on, intrench
on^; strain; stretch a point, strain a point; cross the Rubicon.
Adj. surpassing &c v..
Adv. beyond the mark, ahead.

304. [motion short of] Shortcoming -- N. shortcoming, failure; falling
short &c v.; default, defalcation; leeway; labor in vain, no go.
     incompleteness &c 53; imperfection &c 651; insufficiency &c 640;
noncompletion &c 730; failure &c 732.
V. 303, come short of, fall short of, stop short of, come short, fall
short, stop short; not reach; want; keep within bounds, keep within the
mark, keep within the compass.
     break down, stick in the mud, collapse, flat out [U.S.], come to
nothing; fall through, fall to the ground; cave in, end in smoke, miss
the mark, fail; lose ground; miss stays.
Adj. unreached; deficient; short, short of; minus; out of depth;
perfunctory &c (neglect) 460.
Adv. within the mark, within the compass, within the bounds;
behindhand; re infecta [Lat.]; to no purpose; for from it.
Phr. the bubble burst.

305. [Motion upwards] Ascent -- N. ascent, ascension; rising &c 309;
acclivity, hill &c 217; flight of steps, flight of stairs; ladder
rocket, lark; sky rocket, sky lark; Alpine Club.
V. ascend, rise, mount, arise, uprise; go up, get up, work one's way
up, start up; shoot up, go into orbit; float up; bubble up; aspire.
     climb, clamber, ramp, scramble, escalade^, surmount; shin, shinny,
shinney; scale, scale the heights.
     [cause to go up] raise, elevate &c 307.
     go aloft, fly aloft; tower, soar, take off; spring up, pop up,
jump up, catapult upwards, explode upwards; hover, spire, plane, swim,
float, surge; leap &c 309.
Adj. rising &c v.. scandent^, buoyant; supernatant, superfluitant^;
Adv. uphill.

306. [Motion downwards] Descent -- N. descent, descension^, declension,
declination; fall; falling &c v.; slump; drop, plunge, plummet,
cadence; subsidence, collapse, lapse; downfall, tumble, slip, tilt,
trip, lurch; cropper, culbute^; titubation^, stumble; fate of Icarus.
     avalanche, debacle, landslip, landslide.
     declivity, dip, hill.
     [equipment for descending by rappeling] rappel.
V. descend; go down, drop down, come down; fall, gravitate, drop, slip,
slide, rappel, settle; plunge, plummet, crash; decline, set, sink,
droop, come down a peg; slump.
     dismount, alight, light, get down; swoop; stoop &c 308; fall
prostrate, precipitate oneself; let fall &c 308.
     tumble, trip, stumble, titubate^, lurch, pitch, swag, topple,
topple over, tumble over, topple down, tumble down; tilt, sprawl, plump
down, come down a cropper.
Adj. descending &c v.; descendent; decurrent^, decursive^; labent^,
deciduous; nodding to its fall.
Adv. downhill, downwards.
Phr. the bottom fell out.

307. Elevation -- N. elevation; raising &c v.; erection, lift;
sublevation^, upheaval; sublimation, exaltation; prominence &c
(convexity) 250.
     lever &c 633; crane, derrick, windlass, capstan, winch; dredge,
dredger, dredging machine.
     dumbwaiter, elevator, escalator, lift.
V. heighten, elevate, raise, lift, erect; set up, stick up, perch up,
perk up, tilt up; rear, hoist, heave; uplift, upraise, uprear, upbear^,
upcast^, uphoist^, upheave; buoy, weigh mount, give a lift; exalt;
sublimate; place on a pedestal, set on a pedestal.
     escalate &c (increase) 35 102 194.
     take up, drag up, fish up; dredge.
     stand up, rise up, get up, jump up; spring to one's feet; hold
oneself, hold one's head up; drawn oneself up to his full height.
Adj. elevated &c v.; stilted, attollent^, rampant.
Adv. on stilts, on the shoulders of, on one's legs, on one's hind legs.

308. Depression -- N. lowering &c v.; depression; dip &c (concavity)
252; abasement; detrusion^; reduction.
     overthrow, overset^, overturn; upset; prostration, subversion,
     bow; courtesy, curtsy; genuflexion^, genuflection, kowtow,
obeisance, salaam.
V. depress, lower, let down, take down, let down a peg, take down a
peg; cast; let drop, let fall; sink, debase, bring low, abase, reduce,
detrude^, pitch, precipitate.
     overthrow, overturn, overset^; upset, subvert, prostate, level,
fell; cast down, take down, throw down, fling down, dash down, pull
down, cut down, knock down, hew down; raze, raze to the ground, rase to
the ground^; trample in the dust, pull about one's ears.
     sit, sit down; couch, squat, crouch, stoop, bend, bow; courtesy,
curtsy; bob, duck, dip, kneel; bend the knee, bow the knee, bend the
head, bow the head; cower; recline &c (be horizontal) 213.
Adj. depressed &c v.; at a low ebb; prostrate &c (horizontal) 213;
Phr. facinus quos inquinat aequat [Lat.] [Lucan].

309. Leap -- N. leap, jump, hop, spring, bound, vault, saltation^.
     ance, caper; curvet, caracole; gambade^, gambado^; capriole,
demivolt^; buck, buck jump; hop skip and jump; falcade^.
     kangaroo, jerboa; chamois, goat, frog, grasshopper, flea;
buckjumper^; wallaby.
V. leap; jump up, jump over the moon; hop, spring, bound, vault, ramp,
cut capers, trip, skip, dance, caper; buck, buck jump; curvet,
caracole; foot it, bob, bounce, flounce, start; frisk &c (amusement)
840; jump about &c (agitation) 315; trip it on the light fantastic toe,
trip the light fantastic, dance oneself off one's legs, dance off one's
Adj. leaping &c v.; saltatory^, frisky.
Adv. on the light fantastic toe.
Phr. di salto in salto [It].

310. Plunge -- N. plunge, dip, dive, header; ducking &c v.; diver.
V. plunge, dip, souse, duck; dive, plump; take a plunge, take a header;
make a plunge; bathe &c (water) 337.
     submerge, submerse; immerse; douse, sink, engulf, send to the
     get out of one's depth; go to the bottom, go down like a stone,
drop like a lead balloon; founder, welter, wallow.

311. [Curvilinear motion.] Circuition -- N. circuition^, circulation;
turn, curvet; excursion, circumvention, circumnavigation,
circumambulation; northwest passage; circuit &c 629.
     turning &c v.; wrench; evolution; coil, corkscrew.
V. turn, bend, wheel; go about, put about; heel; go round to the right
about, turn round to the right about; turn on one's heel; make a
circle, make a complete circle, describe a circle, describe a complete
circle; go through 180 degrees, go through 360 degrees, pass through
180 degrees, pass through 360 degrees.
     circumnavigate, circumambulate, circumvent; put a girdle round
about the earth [M.N.D.]; go the round, make the round of.
     wind, circulate, meander; whisk, twirl; twist &c (convolution)
248; make a detour &c (circuit) 629.
Adj. turning &c v.; circuitous; circumforaneous^, circumfluent^.
Adv. round about.

312. [Motion in a continued circle.] Rotation -- N. rotation,
revolution, spinning, gyration, turning about an axis, turning aound an
axis, circulation, roll; circumrotation^, circumvolution,
circumgyration^; volutation^, circination^, turbination^, pirouette,
     verticity^, whir, whirl, eddy, vortex, whirlpool, gurge^;
countercurrent; Maelstrom, Charybdis; Ixion.
     [rotating air] cyclone; tornado, whirlwind; dust devil.
     [rotation of an automobile] spin-out.
     axis, axis of rotation, swivel, pivot, pivot point; axle, spindle,
pin, hinge, pole, arbor, bobbin, mandrel; axle shaft; gymbal; hub, hub
of rotation.
     [rotation and translation together] helix, helical motion.
     [measure of rotation] angular momentum, angular velocity;
revolutions per minute, RPM.
     [result of rotation] centrifugal force; surge; vertigo, dizzy
round; coriolus force.
     [things that go around] carousel, merry-go-round; Ferris wheel;
top, dreidel^, teetotum; gyroscope; turntable, lazy suzan; screw,
whirligig, rollingstone^, water wheel, windmill; wheel, pulley wheel,
roulette wheel, potter's wheel, pinwheel, gear; roller; flywheel; jack;
caster; centrifuge, ultracentrifuge, bench centrifuge, refrigerated
centrifuge, gas centrifuge, microfuge; drill, augur, oil rig; wagon
wheel, wheel, tire, tyre [Brit.].
     [Science of rotary motion] trochilics^.
     [person who rotates] whirling dervish.
V. rotate; roll along; revolve, spin; turn round; circumvolve^;
circulate; gyre, gyrate, wheel, whirl, pirouette; twirl, trundle,
troll, bowl.
     roll up, furl; wallow, welter; box the compass; spin like a top,
spin like a teetotum^.
     [of an automobile] spin out.
Adj. rotating &c v.; rotary, rotary; circumrotatory^, trochilic^,
vertiginous, gyratory; vortical, vorticose^.
Adv. head over heels, round and round, like a horse in a mill.

313. [Motion in the reverse circle.] Evolution -- N. evolution,
unfolding, development; evolvement; unfoldment; eversion &c (inversion)
V. evolve; unfold, unroll, unwind, uncoil, untwist, unfurl, untwine,
unravel; untangle, disentangle; develop.
Adj. evolving &c v.; evolved &c v..

314. [Reciprocating motion, motion to and fro.] Oscillation -- N.
oscillation; vibration, libration; motion of a pendulum; nutation;
undulation; pulsation; pulse.
     alternation; coming and going &c v.; ebb and flow, flux and
reflux, ups and down.
     fluctuation; vacillation &c (irresolution) 605.
     wave, vibratiuncle^, swing, beat, shake, wag, seesaw, dance, lurch,
dodge; logan^, loggan^, rocking-stone, vibroscope^.
V. oscillate; vibrate, librate^; alternate, undulate, wave; rock, swing;
pulsate, beat; wag, waggle; nod, bob, courtesy, curtsy; tick; play;
wamble^, wabble^; dangle, swag.
     fluctuate, dance, curvet, reel, quake; quiver, quaver; shake,
flicker; wriggle; roll, toss, pitch; flounder, stagger, totter; move up
and down, bob up and down &c adv.; pass and repass, ebb and flow, come
and go; vacillate &c 605; teeter [U.S.].
     brandish, shake, flourish.
Adj. oscillating &c v.; oscillatory, undulatory, pulsatory^, libratory,
rectilinear; vibratory, vibratile^; pendulous.
Adv. to and fro, up and down, backwards and forwards, hither and yon,
seesaw, zigzag, wibble-wabble^, in and out, from side to side, like
buckets in a well.

315. [Irregular motion] Agitation -- N. agitation, stir, tremor, shake,
ripple, jog, jolt, jar, jerk, shock, succussion^, trepidation, quiver,
quaver, dance; jactitation^, quassation^; shuffling &c v.; twitter,
flicker, flutter.
     turbulence, perturbation; commotion, turmoil, disquiet; tumult,
tumultuation^; hubbub, rout, bustle, fuss, racket, subsultus^, staggers,
megrims, epilepsy, fits; carphology^, chorea, floccillation^, the jerks,
     Vitus's dance, tilmus^.
     spasm, throe, throb, palpitation, convulsion.
     disturbance, chaos &c (disorder) 59; restlessness &c
(changeableness) 149.
     ferment, fermentation; ebullition, effervescence, hurly-burly,
cahotage^; tempest, storm, ground swell, heavy sea, whirlpool, vortex &c
312; whirlwind &c (wind) 349.
V. be agitated &c; shake; tremble, tremble like an aspen leaf; quiver,
quaver, quake, shiver, twitter, twire^, writhe, toss, shuffle, tumble,
stagger, bob, reel, sway, wag, waggle; wriggle, wriggle like an eel;
dance, stumble, shamble, flounder, totter, flounce, flop, curvet,
prance, cavort [U.S.]; squirm.
     throb, pulsate, beat, palpitate, go pitapat; flutter, flitter,
flicker, bicker; bustle.
     ferment, effervesce, foam; boil, boil over; bubble up; simmer.
     toss about, jump about; jump like a parched pea; shake like an
aspen leaf; shake to its center, shake to its foundations; be the sport
of the winds and waves; reel to and fro like a drunken man; move from
post to pillar and from pillar to post, drive from post to pillar and
from pillar to post, keep between hawk and buzzard.
     agitate, shake, convulse, toss, tumble, bandy, wield, brandish,
flap, flourish, whisk, jerk, hitch, jolt; jog, joggle, jostle, buffet,
hustle, disturb, stir, shake up, churn, jounce, wallop, whip,
Adj. shaking &c v.; agitated tremulous; desultory, subsultory^;
saltatoric^; quasative^; shambling; giddy-paced, saltatory^, convulsive,
unquiet, restless, all of a twitter.
Adv. by fits and starts; subsultorily^ &c adj.^; per saltum [Lat.]; hop
skip and jump; in convulsions, in fits.
Phr. tempete dans un verre d'eau [Fr.].



316. Materiality -- N. materiality, materialness; corporeity^,
corporality^; substantiality, substantialness, flesh and blood, plenum;
physical condition.
     matter, body, substance, brute matter, stuff, element, principle,
parenchyma [Biol.], material, substratum, hyle^, corpus, pabulum; frame.
     object, article, thing, something; still life; stocks and stones;
materials &c 635.
     [Science of matter] physics; somatology^, somatics; natural
philosophy, experimental philosophy; physicism^; physical science,
philosophie positive [Fr.], materialism; materialist; physicist;
somatism^, somatist^.
Adj. material, bodily; corporeal, corporal; physical; somatic,
somatoscopic^; sensible, tangible, ponderable, palpable, substantial.
     objective, impersonal, nonsubjective^, neuter, unspiritual,

317. Immateriality -- N. immateriality, immaterialness; incorporeity^,
spirituality; inextension^; astral plane.
     personality; I, myself, me; ego, spirit &c (soul) 450; astral
body; immaterialism^; spiritualism, spiritualist.
V. disembody, spiritualize.
Adj. immaterial, immateriate^; incorporeal, incorporal^; incorporate,
unfleshly^; supersensible^; asomatous^, unextended^; unembodied^,
disembodied; extramundane, unearthly; pneumatoscopic^; spiritual &c
(psychical) 450 [Obs.].
     personal, subjective, nonobjective.

318. World -- N. world, creation, nature, universe; earth, globe, wide
world; cosmos; kosmos^; terraqueous globe^, sphere; macrocosm, megacosm^;
music of the spheres.
     heavens, sky, welkin^, empyrean; starry cope, starry heaven, starry
host; firmament; Midgard; supersensible regions^; varuna; vault of
heaven, canopy of heaven; celestial spaces.
     heavenly bodies, stars, asteroids; nebulae; galaxy, milky way,
galactic circle, via lactea [Lat.], ame no kawa [Jap.].
     sun, orb of day, Apollo^, Phoebus; photosphere, chromosphere; solar
system; planet, planetoid; comet; satellite, moon, orb of night, Diana,
silver-footed queen; aerolite^, meteor; planetary ring; falling star,
shooting star; meteorite, uranolite^.
     constellation, zodiac, signs of the zodiac, Charles's wain, Big
Dipper, Little Dipper, Great Bear, Southern Cross, Orion's belt,
Cassiopea's chair, Pleiades.
     colures^, equator, ecliptic, orbit.
     [Science of heavenly bodies] astronomy; uranography, uranology^;
cosmology, cosmography^, cosmogony; eidouranion^, orrery; geodesy &c
(measurement) 466; star gazing, star gazer^; astronomer; observatory;
Adj. cosmic, cosmical^; mundane, terrestrial, terrestrious^,
terraqueous^, terrene, terreous^, telluric, earthly, geotic^, under the
sun; sublunary^, subastral^.
     solar, heliacal^; lunar; celestial, heavenly, sphery^; starry,
stellar; sidereal, sideral^; astral; nebular; uranic.
Adv. in all creation, on the face of the globe, here below, under the
Phr. die Weltgeschichte ist das Weltergesicht [G.]; earth is but the
frozen echo of the silent voice of God [Hageman]; green calm below,
blue quietness above [Whittier]; hanging in a golden chain this pendant
World [Paradise Lost]; nothing in nature is unbeautiful [Tennyson];
silently as a dream the fabric rose [Cowper]; some touch of nature's
genial glow [Scott]; this majestical roof fretted with golden fire
[Hamlet]; through knowledge we behold the World's creation [Spenser].

319. Gravity -- N. gravity, gravitation; weight; heaviness &c adj.;
specific gravity; pondorosity^, pressure, load; burden, burthen^;
ballast, counterpoise; lump of, mass of, weight of.
     lead, millstone, mountain, Ossa on Pelion.
     weighing, ponderation^, trutination^; weights; avoirdupois weight,
troy weight, apothecaries' weight; grain, scruple, drachma^, ounce,
pound, lb, arroba^, load, stone, hundredweight, cwt, ton, long ton,
metric ton, quintal, carat, pennyweight, tod^.
     [metric weights] gram, centigram, milligram, microgram, kilogram;
nanogram, picogram, femtogram, attogram.
     [Weighing Instrument] balance, scale, scales, steelyard, beam,
weighbridge^; spring balance, piezoelectric balance, analytical balance,
two-pan balance, one-pan balance; postal scale, baby scale.
     [Science of gravity] statics.
V. be heavy &c adj.; gravitate, weigh, press, cumber, load.
     [Measure the weight of] weigh, poise.
Adj. weighty; weighing &c v.; heavy as lead; ponderous, ponderable;
lumpish^, lumpy, cumbersome, burdensome; cumbrous, unwieldy, massive.
     incumbent, superincumbent^.

320. Levity -- N. levity; lightness &c adj.; imponderability, buoyancy,
     feather, dust, mote, down, thistle, down, flue, cobweb, gossamer,
straw, cork, bubble, balloon; float, buoy; ether, air.
     leaven, ferment, barm^, yeast.
     lighter-than-air balloon, helium balloon, hydrogen balloon, hot
air balloon.
     convection, thermal draft, thermal.
V. be light &c adj.; float, rise, swim, be buoyed up.
     render light &c adj.; lighten, leaven.
Adj. light, subtile, airy; imponderous^, imponderable; astatic^,
weightless, ethereal, sublimated; gossamery; suberose^, suberous^;
uncompressed, volatile; buoyant, floating &c v.; portable.
     light as a feather, light as a thistle, light as air; lighter than
air; rise like a balloon, float like a balloon



321. Density -- N. density, solidity; solidness &c adj.;
impenetrability, impermeability; incompressibility; imporosity^;
cohesion &c 46; constipation, consistence, spissitude^.
     specific gravity; hydrometer, areometer^.
     condensation; caseation^; solidation^, solidification;
consolidation; concretion, coagulation; petrification &c (hardening)
323; crystallization, precipitation; deposit, precipitate;
inspissation^; gelation, thickening &c v.. indivisibility,
indiscerptibility^, insolubility, indissolvableness.
     solid body, mass, block, knot, lump; concretion, concrete,
conglomerate; cake, clot, stone, curd, coagulum; bone, gristle,
cartilage; casein, crassamentum^; legumin^.
     superdense matter, condensed states of matter; dwarf star, neutron
V. be dense &c adj.; become solid, render solid &c adj.; solidify,
solidate^; concrete, set, take a set, consolidate, congeal, coagulate;
curd, curdle; lopper; fix, clot, cake, candy, precipitate, deposit,
cohere, crystallize; petrify &c (harden) 323.
     condense, thicken, gel, inspissate^, incrassate^; compress,
squeeze, ram down, constipate.
Adj. dense, solid; solidified &c v.; caseous; pukka^; coherent, cohesive
&c 46; compact, close, serried, thickset; substantial, massive,
lumpish^; impenetrable, impermeable, nonporous, imporous^;
incompressible; constipated; concrete &c (hard) 323; knotted, knotty;
gnarled; crystalline, crystallizable; thick, grumous^, stuffy.
     undissolved, unmelted^, unliquefied^, unthawed^.
     indivisible, indiscerptible^, infrangible^, indissolvable^,
indissoluble, insoluble, infusible.

322. Rarity -- N. rarity, tenuity; absence of solidity &c 321;
subtility^; subtilty^, subtlety; sponginess, compressibility.
     rarefaction, expansion, dilatation, inflation, subtilization^.
     vaporization, evaporation, diffusion, gassification^.
     ether &c (gas) 334.
V. rarefy, expand, dilate, subtilize^.
Adj. rare, subtile, thin, fine, tenuous, compressible, flimsy, slight;
light &c 320; cavernous, spongy &c (hollow) 252.
     rarefied &c v.; unsubstantial; uncompact^, incompressed^;

323. Hardness -- N. hardness &c adj.; rigidity; renitence^, renitency;
inflexibility, temper, callosity, durity^.
     induration, petrifaction; lapidification^, lapidescence^;
vitrification, ossification; crystallization.
     stone, pebble, flint, marble, rock, fossil, crag, crystal, quartz,
granite, adamant; bone, cartilage; hardware; heart of oak, block,
board, deal board; iron, steel; cast iron, decarbonized iron, wrought
iron; nail; brick, concrete; cement.
V. render hard &c adj.; harden, stiffen, indurate, petrify, temper,
ossify, vitrify; accrust^.
Adj. hard, rigid, stubborn, stiff, firm; starch, starched; stark,
unbending, unlimber, unyielding; inflexible, tense; indurate,
indurated; gritty, proof.
     adamant, adamantine, adamantean^; concrete, stony, granitic,
calculous, lithic^, vitreous; horny, corneous^; bony; osseous, ossific^;
cartilaginous; hard as a rock &c n.; stiff as buckram, stiff as a
poker; stiff as starch, stiff as as board.

324. Softness -- N. softness, pliableness &c adj.; flexibility;
pliancy, pliability; sequacity^, malleability; ductility, tractility^;
extendibility, extensibility; plasticity; inelasticity, flaccidity,
     clay, wax, butter, dough, pudding; alumina, argil; cushion,
pillow, feather bed, down, padding, wadding; foam.
     mollification; softening &c v..
V. render soft &c adj.; soften, mollify, mellow, relax, temper; mash,
knead, squash.
     bend, yield, relent, relax, give.
Adj. soft, tender, supple; pliant, pliable; flexible, flexile; lithe,
lithesome; lissom, limber, plastic; ductile; tractile^, tractable;
malleable, extensile, sequacious^, inelastic; aluminous^; remollient^.
     yielding &c v.; flabby, limp, flimsy.
     doughy, spongy, penetrable, foamy, cushiony^.
     flaccid, flocculent, downy; edematous, oedematous^, medullary
[Anat.], argillaceous, mellow.
     soft as butter, soft as down, soft as silk; yielding as wax,
tender as chicken.

325. Elasticity -- N. elasticity, springiness, spring, resilience,
renitency, buoyancy.
     rubber, India rubber, Indian rubber, latex, caoutchouc, whalebone,
gum elastic, baleen, natural rubber; neoprene, synthetic rubber, Buna-
S, plastic.
     flexibility, Young's modulus.
V. stretch, flex, extend, distend, be elastic &c adj.; bounce, spring
back &c (recoil) 277.
Adj. elastic, flexible, tensile, spring, resilient, renitent, buoyant;
ductile, stretchable, extendable.
Phr. the stress is proportional to the strain.

326. Inelasticity -- N. want of elasticity, absence of elasticity &c
325; inelasticity &c (softness) 324,
Adj. unyielding, inelastic, inflexible &c (soft) 324; irresilient^.

327. Tenacity -- N. {ant.
     328} tenacity, toughness, strength; (cohesion) 46; grip, grasp,
stickiness, (cohesion) 46; sequacity^; stubbornness &c (obstinacy);;
glue, cement, glutinousness^, sequaciousness^, viscidity,
(semiliquidity) 352.
     leather; white leather, whitleather^; gristle, cartilage.
     unbreakability, tensile strength.
V. be tenacious &c adj.; resist fracture.
     grip, grasp, stick (cohesion) 46.
Adj. tenacious, tough, strong, resisting, sequacious^, stringy, gristly
cartilaginous, leathery, coriaceous^, tough as whitleather^; stubborn &c
(obstinate) 606.
     unbreakable, indivisible; atomic.

328. Brittleness -- N. {ant.
     327} brittleness &c adj.; fragility, friability, frangibility,
fissibility^; house of cards, house of glass.
V. be brittle &c adj.; live in a glass house.
     break, crack, snap, split, shiver, splinter, crumble, break short,
burst, fly, give way; fall to pieces; crumble to, crumble into dust.
Adj. brittle, brash [U.S.], breakable, weak, frangible, fragile, frail,
gimcrack^, shivery, fissile; splitting &c v.; lacerable^, splintery,
crisp, crimp, short, brittle as glass.

329. [Structure.] Texture -- N. structure (form) 240, organization,
anatomy, frame, mold, fabric, construction; framework, carcass,
architecture; stratification, cleavage.
     substance, stuff, compages^, parenchyma [Biol.]; constitution,
staple, organism.
     [Science of structures] organography^, osteology, myology,
splanchnology^, neurology, angiography^, adeology^; angiography^,
     texture, surface texture; intertexture^, contexture^; tissue,
grain, web, surface; warp and woof, warp and weft; tooth, nap &c
(roughness) 256; flatness (smoothness) 255; fineness of grain;
coarseness of grain, dry goods.
     silk, satin; muslin, burlap.
     [Science of textures] histology.
Adj. structural, organic; anatomic, anatomical.
     textural, textile; fine grained, coarse grained; fine, delicate,
subtile, gossamery, filmy, silky, satiny; coarse; homespun.
     rough, gritty; smooth.
     smooth as silk, smooth as satin.

330. Pulverulence -- N. powderiness^ [State of powder.], pulverulence^;
sandiness &c adj.; efflorescence; friability.
     powder, dust, sand, shingle; sawdust; grit; meal, bran, flour,
farina, rice, paddy, spore, sporule^; crumb, seed, grain; particle &c
(smallness) 32; limature^, filings, debris, detritus, tailings, talus
slope, scobs^, magistery^, fine powder; flocculi [Lat.].
     smoke; cloud of dust, cloud of sand, cloud of smoke; puff of
smoke, volume of smoke; sand storm, dust storm.
     [Reduction to powder] pulverization, comminution^, attenuation,
granulation, disintegration, subaction^, contusion, trituration [Chem],
levigation^, abrasion, detrition, multure^; limitation; tripsis^; filing
&c v.. [Instruments for pulverization] mill, arrastra^, gristmill,
grater, rasp, file, mortar and pestle, nutmeg grater, teeth, grinder,
grindstone, kern^, quern^, koniology^.
V. come to dust; be disintegrated, be reduced to powder &c reduce to
powder, grind to powder; pulverize, comminute, granulate, triturate,
levigate^; scrape, file, abrade, rub down, grind, grate, rasp, pound,
bray, bruise; contuse, contund^; beat, crush, cranch^, craunch^, crunch,
scranch^, crumble, disintegrate; attenuate &c 195.
Adj. powdery, pulverulent^, granular, mealy, floury, farinaceous,
branny^, furfuraceous^, flocculent, dusty, sandy, sabulous^, psammous^;
arenose^, arenarious^, arenaceous^; gritty, efflorescent, impalpable;
lentiginous^, lepidote^, sabuline^; sporaceous^, sporous^.
     pulverizable; friable, crumbly, shivery; pulverized &c v.;
attrite^; in pieces.

331. Friction -- N. friction, attrition; rubbing, abrasion, scraping &c
v.; confrication^, detrition, contrition^, affriction^, abrasion,
arrosion^, limature^, frication^, rub; elbow grease; rosin; massage;
roughness &c 256.
     rolling friction, sliding friction, starting friction.
V. rub, scratch, scrape, scrub, slide, fray, rasp, graze, curry, scour,
polish, rub out, wear down, gnaw; file, grind &c (reduce to powder)
     set one's teeth on edge; rosin.
Adj. anatriptic^; attrite^.

332. [Absence of friction. Prevention of friction.] Lubrication -- N.
smoothness &c 255; unctuousness &c 355.
     lubrication, lubrification^; anointment; oiling &c v.. synovia
[Anat.]; glycerine, oil, lubricating oil, grease &c 356; saliva;
V. lubricate, lubricitate^; oil, grease, lather, soap; wax.
Adj. lubricated &c v.; lubricous.

1. Fluids in General

333. Fluidity -- N. fluidity, liquidity; liquidness &c adj.^; gaseity &c
334 [Obs.].
     fluid, inelastic fluid; liquid, liquor; lymph, humor, juice, sap,
serum, blood, serosity^, gravy, rheum, ichor^, sanies^; chyle [Med.].
     solubility, solubleness^.
     [Science of liquids at rest] hydrology, hydrostatics,
V. be fluid &c adj.; flow &c (water in motion) 348; liquefy, melt,
condense &c 335.
Adj. liquid, fluid, serous, juicy, succulent, sappy; ichorous^; fluent
&c (flowing) 348.
     liquefied &c 335; uncongealed; soluble.

334. Gaseity -- N. gaseity^; vaporousness &c adj.; flatulence,
flatulency; volatility; aeration, aerification.
     elastic fluid, gas, air, vapor, ether, steam, essence, fume, reek,
effluvium, flatus; cloud &c 353; ammonia, ammoniacal gas^; volatile
alkali; vacuum, partial vacuum.
     [Science of elastic fluids] pneumatics, pneumatostatics^;
aerostatics^, aerodynamics.
     gasmeter^, gasometer^; air bladder, swimming bladder, sound, (of a
V. vaporize, evaporate, evanesce, gasify, emit vapor &c 336; diffuse.
Adj. gaseous, aeriform^, ethereal, aerial, airy, vaporous, volatile,
evaporable^, flatulent.

335. Liquefaction -- N. liquefaction; liquescence^, liquescency^;
melting &c (heat) 384; colliquation^, colliquefaction^; thaw; liquation^,
deliquation^, deliquescence; lixiviation^, dissolution.
     solution, apozem^, lixivium^, infusion, flux.
     solvent, menstruum, alkahest^.
V. render liquid &c 333; liquefy, run; deliquesce; melt &c (heat) 384;
solve; dissolve, resolve; liquate^; hold in solution; condense,
precipitate, rain.
Adj. liquefied &c v., liquescent, liquefiable; deliquescent, soluble,

336. Vaporization -- N. vaporization, volatilization; gasification,
evaporation, vaporation^; distillation, cupellation [Chem], cohobation,
sublimination^, exhalation; volatility.
     vaporizer, still, retort; fumigation, steaming; bay salt, chloride
of sodium^.
     mister, spray.
     bubble, effervescence.'
V. render gaseous &c 334; vaporize, volatilize; distill, sublime;
evaporate, exhale, smoke, transpire, emit vapor, fume, reek, steam,
fumigate; cohobate^; finestill^.
     bubble, sparge, effervesce, boil.
Adj. volatilized &c v.; reeking &c v.; volatile; evaporable^,
     bubbly, effervescent, boiling.
2. Specific Fluids

337. Water -- N. water; serum, serosity^; lymph; rheum; diluent; agua
[Sp.], aqua, pani^.
     dilution, maceration, lotion; washing &c v.; immersion^,
humectation^, infiltration, spargefaction^, affusion^, irrigation,
douche, balneation^, bath.
     deluge &c (water in motion) 348; high water, flood tide.
V. be watery &c adj.; reek.
     add water, water, wet; moisten &c 339; dilute, dip, immerse;
merge; immerge, submerge; plunge, souse, duck, drown; soak, steep,
macerate, pickle, wash, sprinkle, lave, bathe, affuse^, splash, swash,
douse, drench; dabble, slop, slobber, irrigate, inundate, deluge;
syringe, inject, gargle.
Adj. watery, aqueous, aquatic, hydrous, lymphatic; balneal^, diluent;
drenching &c v.; diluted &c v.; weak; wet &c (moist) 339.
Phr. the waters are out.

338. Air -- N. air &c (gas) 334; common air, atmospheric air;
atmosphere; aerosphere^.
     open air; sky, welkin; blue sky; cloud &c 353.
     weather, climate, rise and fall of the barometer, isobar.
     [Science of air] aerology, aerometry^, aeroscopy^, aeroscopy^,
aerography^; meteorology, climatology; pneumatics; eudioscope^,
baroscope^, aeroscope^, eudiometer^, barometer, aerometer^; aneroid,
baroscope^; weather gauge, weather glass, weather cock.
     exposure to the air, exposure to the weather; ventilation;
aerostation^, aeronautics, aeronaut.
V. air, ventilate, fan &c (wind) 349.
Adj. containing air, flatulent, effervescent; windy &c 349.
     atmospheric, airy; aerial, aeriform^; meteorological; weatherwise^.
Adv. in the open air, a la belle etoile [Fr.], al fresco; sub jove dio

339. Moisture -- N. moisture; moistness &c adj.; humidity, humectation^;
madefaction^, dew; serein^; marsh &c 345; hygrometry, hygrometer.
V. moisten, wet; humect^, humectate^; sponge, damp, bedew; imbue,
imbrue, infiltrate, saturate; soak, drench &c (water) 337.
     be moist &c adj.; not have a dry thread; perspire &c (exude) 295.
Adj. moist, damp; watery &c 337; madid^, roric^; undried^, humid, sultry,
wet, dank, luggy^, dewy; roral^, rorid^; roscid^; juicy.
     wringing wet, soaking wet; wet through to the skin; saturated &c
v.. swashy^, soggy, dabbled; reeking, dripping, soaking, soft, sodden,
sloppy, muddy; swampy &c (marshy) 345; irriguous^.

340. Dryness -- N. dryness &c adj.; siccity^, aridity, drought, ebb
tide, low water.
     exsiccation^, desiccation; arefaction^, dephlegmation^, drainage;
     [chemical subs. which renders dry] desiccative, dessicator.
     [device to render dry] dessicator; hair drier, clothes drier, gas
drier, electric drier; vacuum oven, drying oven, kiln; lyophilizer.
V. be dry &c adj.. render dry &c adj.; dry; dry up, soak up; sponge,
swab, wipe; drain.
     desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate^; parch.
     kiln dry; vacuum dry, blow dry, oven dry; hang out to dry.
     be fine, hold up.
Adj. dry, anhydrous, arid; adust^, arescent^; dried &c v.; undamped;
juiceless^, sapless; sear; husky; rainless, without rain, fine; dry as a
bone, dry as dust, dry as a stick, dry as a mummy, dry as a biscuit.
     water proof, water tight.
     dehydrated, dessicated.

341. Ocean -- N. sea, ocean, main, deep, brine, salt water, waves,
billows, high seas, offing, great waters, watery waste, vasty deep;
wave, tide, &c (water in motion) 348.
     hydrography, hydrographer; Neptune, Poseidon, Thetis, Triton,
Naiad, Nereid; sea nymph, Siren; trident, dolphin.
Adj. oceanic; marine, maritime; pelagic, pelagian; seagoing;
hydrographic; bathybic^, cotidal^.
Adv. at sea, on sea; afloat.

342. Land -- N. land, earth, ground, dry land, terra firma.
     continent, mainland, peninsula, chersonese [Fr.], delta; tongue of
land, neck of land; isthmus, oasis; promontory &c (projection) 250;
highland &c (height) 206.
     coast, shore, scar, strand, beach; playa; bank, lea; seaboard,
seaside, seabank^, seacoast, seabeach^; ironbound coast; loom of the
land; derelict; innings; alluvium, alluvion^; ancon.
     riverbank, river bank, levee.
     soil, glebe, clay, loam, marl, cledge^, chalk, gravel, mold,
subsoil, clod, clot; rock, crag.
     acres; real estate &c (property) 780; landsman^.
V. land, come to land, set foot on the soil, set foot on dry land; come
ashore, go ashore, debark.
Adj. earthy, continental, midland, coastal, littoral, riparian;
alluvial; terrene &c (world) 318; landed, predial^, territorial;
geophilous^; ripicolous.
Adv. ashore; on shore, on land.

343. Gulf. Lake -- N. land covered with water, gulf, gulph^, bay, inlet,
bight, estuary, arm of the sea, bayou [U.S.], fiord, armlet; frith^,
firth, ostiary^, mouth; lagune^, lagoon; indraught^; cove, creek; natural
harbor; roads; strait; narrows; Euripus; sound, belt, gut, kyles^;
continental slope, continental shelf.
     lake, loch, lough^, mere, tarn, plash, broad, pond, pool, lin^,
puddle, slab, well, artesian well; standing water, dead water, sheet of
water; fish pond, mill pond; ditch, dike, dyke, dam; reservoir &c
(store) 636; alberca^, barachois^, hog wallow [U.S.].
Adj. lacustrine^.

344. Plain -- N. plain, table-land, face of the country; open country,
champaign country^; basin, downs, waste, weary waste, desert, wild,
steppe, pampas, savanna, prairie, heath, common, wold^, veldt; moor,
moorland; bush; plateau &c (level) 213; campagna^; alkali flat, llano;
mesa, mesilla [U.S.], playa; shaking prairie, trembling prairie; vega
     meadow, mead, haugh^, pasturage, park, field, lawn, green, plat,
plot, grassplat^, greensward, sward, turf, sod, heather; lea, ley, lay;
grounds; maidan^, agostadero^.
Adj. champaign^, alluvial; campestral^, campestrial^, campestrian^,

345. Marsh -- N. marsh, swamp, morass, marish^, moss, fen, bog,
quagmire, slough, sump, wash; mud, squash, slush; baygall [U.S.],
cienaga^, jhil^, vlei^.
Adj. marsh, marshy; swampy, boggy, plashy^, poachy^, quaggy^, soft;
muddy, sloppy, squashy; paludal^; moorish, moory; fenny.

346. Island -- N. island, isle, islet, eyot^, ait^, holf^, reef, atoll,
breaker; archipelago; islander.
Adj. insular, seagirt; archipelagic^.
3. Fluids in Motion

347. [Fluid in motion.] Stream -- N. stream &c (of water) 348, (of air)
V. flow &c 348; blow &c 349.

348. [Water in motion.] River -- N. running water.
     jet, spirt^, spurt, squirt, spout, spray, splash, rush, gush, jet
d'eau [Fr.]; sluice.
     water spout, water fall; cascade, force, foss^; lin^, linn^; ghyll^,
Niagara; cataract, rapids, white water, catadupe^, cataclysm; debacle,
inundation, deluge; chute, washout.
     rain, rainfall; serein^; shower, scud; downpour; driving rain,
drenching rain, cloudburst; hyetology^, hyetography^; predominance of
Aquarius^, reign of St.
     Swithin; mizzle^, drizzle, stillicidum^, plash; dropping &c v.;
falling weather; northeaster, hurricane, typhoon.
     stream, course, flux, flow, profluence^; effluence &c (egress) 295;
defluxion^; flowing &c v.; current, tide, race, coulee.
     spring, artesian well, fount, fountain; rill, rivulet, gill,
gullet, rillet^; streamlet, brooklet; branch [U.S.]; runnel, sike^,
burn, beck, creek, brook, bayou, stream, river; reach, tributary.
     geyser, spout, waterspout.
     body of water, torrent, rapids, flush, flood, swash; spring tide,
high tide, full tide; bore, tidal bore, eagre^, hygre^; fresh, freshet;
indraught^, reflux, undercurrent, eddy, vortex, gurge^, whirlpool,
Maelstrom, regurgitation, overflow; confluence, corrivation^.
     wave, billow, surge, swell, ripple; anerythmon gelasma [Gr.];
beach comber, riffle [U.S.], rollers, ground swell, surf, breakers,
white horses, whitecaps; rough sea, heavy sea, high seas, cross sea,
long sea, short sea, chopping sea.
     [Science of fluids in motion] hydrodynamics; hydraulics,
hydraulicostatics^; rain gauge, flowmeter; pegology^.
     irrigation &c (water) 337; pump; watering pot, watering cart;
hydrant, syringe; garden hose, lawn spray; bhisti^, mussuk^.
V. flow, run; meander; gush, pour, spout, roll, jet, well, issue; drop,
drip, dribble, plash, spirtle^, trill, trickle, distill, percolate;
stream, overflow, inundate, deluge, flow over, splash, swash; guggle^,
murmur, babble, bubble, purl, gurgle, sputter, spurt, spray,
regurgitate; ooze, flow out &c (egress) 295.
     rain hard, rain in torrents, rain cats and dogs, rain pitchforks;
pour with rain, drizzle, spit, set in; mizzle^.
     flow into, fall into, open into, drain into; discharge itself,
     [Cause a flow] pour; pour out &c (discharge) 297; shower down,
irrigate, drench &c (wet) 337; spill, splash.
     [Stop a flow] stanch; dam, up &c (close) 261; obstruct &c 706.
Adj. fluent; diffluent^, profluent^, affluent; tidal; flowing &c v.;
meandering, meandry^, meandrous^; fluvial, fluviatile; streamy^, showery,
rainy, pluvial, stillicidous^; stillatitious^.
Phr. for men may come and men may go but I go on forever [Tennyson];
that old man river, he just keeps rolling along [Showboat].

349. [Air in motion] Wind -- N. wind, draught, flatus, afflatus,
efflation^, eluvium^; air; breath, breath of air; puff, whiff, zephyr;
blow, breeze, drift; aura; stream, current, jet stream; undercurrent.
     gust, blast, squall, gale, half a gale, storm, tempest, hurricane,
whirlwind, tornado, samiel, cyclone, anticyclone, typhoon; simoon^,
simoom; harmattan^, monsoon, trade wind, sirocco, mistral, bise^,
tramontane, levanter; capful of wind; fresh breeze, stiff breeze; keen
blast; blizzard, barber [Can.], candelia^, chinook, foehn, khamsin^,
norther, vendaval^, wuther^.
     windiness &c adj.; ventosity^; rough weather, dirty weather, ugly
weather, stress of weather; dirty sky, mare's tail; thick squall, black
squall, white squall.
     anemography^, aerodynamics; wind gauge, weathercock, vane, weather-
vane, wind sock; anemometer, anemoscope^.
     sufflation^, insufflation^, perflation^, inflation, afflation^;
blowing, fanning &c v.; ventilation.
     sneezing &c v.; errhine^; sternutative^, sternutatory^;
sternutation; hiccup, hiccough; catching of the breath.
     Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus.
     air pump, air blower, lungs, bellows, blowpipe, fan, ventilator,
punkah^; branchiae^, gills, flabellum^, vertilabrum^.
     whiffle ball.
V. blow, waft; blow hard, blow great guns, blow a hurricane &c n.;
wuther^; stream, issue.
     respire, breathe, puff; whiff, whiffle; gasp, wheeze; snuff,
snuffle; sniff, sniffle; sneeze, cough.
     fan, ventilate; inflate, perflate^; blow up.
Adj. blowing &c v.; windy, flatulent; breezy, gusty, squally; stormy,
tempestuous, blustering; boisterous &c (violent) 173.
     pulmonic [Med.], pulmonary.
Phr. lull'd by soft zephyrs [Pope]; the storm is up and all is on the
hazard [Julius Caesar]; the winds were wither'd in the stagnant air
[Byron]; while mocking winds are piping loud [Milton]; winged with red
lightning and tempestuous rage [Paradise Lost].

350. [Channel for the passage of water.] Conduit -- N. conduit,
channel, duct, watercourse, race; head race, tail race; abito^,
aboideau^, aboiteau [Fr.], bito^; acequia^, acequiador^, acequiamadre^;
arroyo; adit^, aqueduct, canal, trough, gutter, pantile; flume, ingate^,
runner; lock-weir, tedge^; vena^; dike, main, gully, moat, ditch, drain,
sewer, culvert, cloaca, sough, kennel, siphon; piscina^; pipe &c (tube)
260; funnel; tunnel &c (passage) 627; water pipe, waste pipe;
emunctory^, gully hole, artery, aorta, pore, spout, scupper; adjutage^,
ajutage^; hose; gargoyle; gurgoyle^; penstock, weir; flood gate, water
gate; sluice, lock, valve; rose; waterworks.
Adj. vascular &c (with holes) 260.

351. [Channel for the passage of air.] Airpipe -- N. air pipe, air
tube; airhole^, blowhole, breathinghole^, venthole; shaft, flue,
chimney, funnel, vent, nostril, nozzle, throat, weasand^, trachea;
bronchus, bronchia [Med.]; larynx, tonsils, windpipe, spiracle;
ventiduct^, ventilator; louvre, jalousie, Venetian blinds; blowpipe &c
(wind) 349; pipe &c (tube) 260; jhilmil^; smokestack.
     screen, window screen.' artificial lung, iron lung, heart and lung


352. Semiliquidity -- N. semiliquidity; stickiness &c adj.; viscidity,
viscosity; gummosity^, glutinosity^, mucosity^; spissitude^, crassitude^;
lentor^; adhesiveness &c (cohesion) 46.
     inspissation^, incrassation^; thickening.
     jelly, mucilage, gelatin, gluten; carlock^, fish glue; ichthyocol^,
ichthycolla^; isinglass; mucus, phlegm, goo; pituite^, lava; glair^,
starch, gluten, albumen, milk, cream, protein^; treacle; gum, size, glue
(tenacity) 327; wax, beeswax.
     emulsion, soup; squash, mud, slush, slime, ooze; moisture &c 339;
marsh &c 345.
V. inspissate^, incrassate^; thicken, mash, squash, churn, beat up.
Adj. semifluid, semiliquid; tremellose^; half melted, half frozen;
milky, muddy &c n.; lacteal, lactean^, lacteous^, lactescent^,
lactiferous^; emulsive, curdled, thick, succulent, uliginous^.
     gelatinous, albuminous, mucilaginous, glutinous; glutenous,
gelatin, mastic, amylaceous^, ropy, clammy, clotted; viscid, viscous;
sticky, tacky, gooey; slab, slabby^; lentous^, pituitous^; mucid^,
muculent^, mucous; gummy.

353. [Mixture of air and water.] Bubble [Cloud.] -- N. bubble, foam,
froth, head, spume, lather, suds, spray, surf, yeast, barm^, spindrift.
     cloud, vapor, fog, mist, haze, steam, geyser; scud, messenger,
rack, nimbus; cumulus, woolpack^, cirrus, stratus; cirrostratus,
cumulostratus; cirrocumulus; mackerel sky, mare's tale, dirty sky; curl
cloud; frost smoke; thunderhead.
     [Science of clouds] nephelognosy^; nephograph^, nephology^.
     effervescence, fermentation; bubbling &c v.. nebula; cloudliness
&c (opacity) 426 [Obs.]; nebulosity &c (dimness) 422.
V. bubble, boil, foam, froth, mantle, sparkle, guggle^, gurgle;
effervesce, ferment, fizzle.
Adj. bubbling &c v.; frothy, nappy^, effervescent, sparkling, mousseux
[Fr.], frothy [Fr.Tr.], up.
     cloudy &c n.; thunderheaded^; vaporous, nebulous, overcast.
Phr. the lowring element scowls o'er the darkened landscip [Paradise

354. Pulpiness -- N. pulpiness &c adj.; pulp, taste, dough, curd, pap,
rob, jam, pudding, poultice, grume^.
     mush, oatmeal, baby food.
Adj. pulpy &c n.; pultaceous^, grumous^; baccate^.

355. Unctuousness -- N. unctuousness &c adj.; unctuosity^, lubricity;
ointment &c (oil) 356; anointment; lubrication &c 332.
V. oil &c (lubricate) 332.
Adj. unctuous, oily, oleaginous, adipose, sebaceous; unguinous^; fat,
fatty, greasy; waxy, butyraceous, soapy, saponaceous^, pinguid,
lardaceous^; slippery.

356. Oil -- N. oil, fat, butter, cream, grease, tallow, suet, lard,
dripping exunge^, blubber; glycerin, stearin, elaine [Chem], oleagine^;
soap; soft soap, wax, cerement; paraffin, spermaceti, adipocere^;
petroleum, mineral, mineral rock, mineral crystal, mineral oil;
vegetable oil, colza oil^, olive oil, salad oil, linseed oil, cottonseed
oil, soybean oil, nut oil; animal oil, neat's foot oil, train oil;
ointment, unguent, liniment; aceite^, amole^, Barbados tar^; fusel oil,
grain oil, rape oil, seneca oil; hydrate of amyl, ghee^; heating oil, #2
oil, No.
     2 oil, distillate, residual oils, kerosene, jet fuel, gasoline,
naphtha; stearin.

356a. Resin -- N. resin, rosin; gum; lac, sealing wax; amber,
ambergris; bitumen, pitch, tar; asphalt, asphaltum; camphor; varnish,
copal^, mastic, magilp^, lacquer, japan.
     artificial resin, polymer; ion-exchange resin, cation-exchange
resin, anion exchange resin, water softener, Amberlite^, Dowex [Chem],
V. varnish &c (overlay) 223.
Adj. resiny^, resinous; bituminous, pitchy, tarry; asphaltic,


1. Vitality in general

357. Organization -- N. organized world, organized nature; living
nature, animated nature; living beings; organic remains, fossils.
     protoplasm, cytoplasm, protein; albumen; structure &c 329;
organization, organism.
     [Science of living beings] biology; natural history, organic
chemistry, anatomy, physiology; zoology &c 368; botany; microbiology,
virology, bacteriology, mycology &c 369; naturalist.
     archegenesis &c (production) 161 [Obs.]; antherozoid^, bioplasm^,
biotaxy^, chromosome, dysmeromorph^; ecology, oecology; erythroblast
[Physio.], gametangium^, gamete, germinal matter, invagination [Biol.];
isogamy^, oogamy^; karyaster^; macrogamete^, microgamete^; metabolism,
anabolism, catabolism; metaplasm^, ontogeny, ovary, ovum, oxidation,
phylogeny, polymorphism, protozoa, spermary^, spermatozoon,
trophoplasm^, vacuole, vertebration^, zoogloea^, zygote.
     Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.
     morphology, taxonomy.
Adj. organic, organized; karyoplasmic^, unsegmentic^, vacuolar,
zoogloeic^, zoogloeoid^.

358. Inorganization -- N. mineral world, mineral kingdom; unorganized
matter, inorganic matter, brute matter, inanimate matter.
     [Science of the mineral kingdom] mineralogy, geology, geognosy^,
geoscopy^; metallurgy, metallography^; lithology; oryctology^,
V. turn to dust; mineralize, fossilize.
Adj. inorganic, inanimate, inorganized^; lithoidal^; azoic; mineral.

359. Life -- N. life, vitality, viability; animation; vital spark,
vital flame, soul, spirit.
     respiration, wind; breath of life, breath of one's nostrils;
oxygen, air.
     [devices to sustain respiration] respirator, artificial
respirator, heart and lung machine, iron lung; medical devices &c 662.
     lifeblood; Archeus^; existence &c 1.
     vivification; vital force; vitalization; revivification &c 163;
Prometheus; life to come &c (destiny) 152.
     [Science of life] physiology, biology; animal ecology.
     nourishment, staff of life &c (food) 298.
     genetics, heredity, inheritance, evolution, natural selection,
reproduction (production) 161.
     microbe, aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe,
obligate anaerobe, halophile [Micro.], methanogen [Micro.],
archaebacteria [Micro.], microaerophile [Micro.].
     animal &c 366; vegetable &c 367.
     artificial life, robot, robotics, artificial intelligence.
     [vital signs] breathing, breathing rate, heartbeat, pulse,
     preservation of life, healing (medicine) 662.
V. be alive &c adj.; live, breathe, respire; subsist &c (exist) 1; walk
the earth, strut and fret one's hour upon the stage [Macbeth]; be
     see the light, be born, come into the world, fetch breath, draw
breath, fetch the breath of life, draw the breath of life; quicken;
revive; come to life.
     give birth to &c (produce) 161; bring to life, put into life,
vitalize; vivify, vivificate^; reanimate &c (restore) 660; keep alive,
keep body and soul together, keep the wolf from the door; support life.
     hive nine lives like a cat.
Adj. living, alive; in life, in the flesh, in the land of the living;
on this side of the grave, above ground, breathing, quick, animated;
animative^; lively &c (active) 682; all alive and kicking; tenacious of
life; full of life, yeasty.
     vital, vitalic^; vivifying, vivified, &c v.; viable, zoetic^;
Adv. vivendi causa [Lat.].
Phr. atqui vivere militare est [Lat.] [Seneca]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat.] [Marial].

360. Death -- N. death; decease, demise; dissolution, departure, obit,
release, rest, quietus, fall; loss, bereavement; mortality, morbidity.
     end of life &c 67, cessation of life &c 142, loss of life,
extinction of life, ebb of life &c 359.
     death warrant, death watch, death rattle, death bed; stroke of
death, agonies of death, shades of death, valley of death, jaws of
death, hand of death; last breath, last gasp, last agonies; dying day,
dying breath, dying agonies; chant du cygne [Fr.]; rigor mortis [Lat.];
Stygian shore.
     King of terrors, King Death; Death; doom &c (necessity) 601;
Hell's grim Tyrant [Pope].
     euthanasia; break up of the system; natural death, natural decay;
sudden death, violent death; untimely end, watery grave; debt of
nature; suffocation, asphyxia; fatal disease &c (disease) 655; death
blow &c (killing) 361.
     necrology, bills of mortality, obituary; death song &c
(lamentation) 839.
V. die, expire, perish; meet one's death, meet one's end; pass away, be
taken; yield one's breath, resign one's breath; resign one's being,
resign one's life; end one's days, end one's life, end one's earthly
career; breathe one's last; cease to live, cease to breathe; depart
this life; be no more &c adj.; go off, drop off, pop off; lose one's
life, lay down one's life, relinquish one's life, surrender one's life;
drop into the grave, sink into the grave; close one's eyes; fall dead,
drop dead, fall down dead, drop down dead; break one's neck; give up
the ghost, yield up the ghost; be all over with one.
     pay the debt to nature, shuffle off this mortal coil, take one's
last sleep; go the way of all flesh; hand in one's checks, pass in
one's checks, hand in one's chips, pass in one's chips [U.S.]; join the
greater number, join the majority; come to dust, turn to dust; cross
the Stygian ferry, cross the bar; go to one's long account, go to one's
last home, go to Davy Jones's locker, go to the wall; receive one's
death warrant, make one's will, step out, die a natural death, go out
like the snuff of a candle; come to an untimely end; catch one's death;
go off the hooks, kick the bucket, buy the farm, hop the twig, turn up
one's toes; die a violent death &c (be killed) 361.
Adj. dead, lifeless; deceased, demised, departed, defunct, extinct;
late, gone, no more; exanimate^, inanimate; out of the world, taken off,
released; departed this life &c v.; dead and gone; dead as a doornail,
dead as a doorpost^, dead as a mutton, dead as a herring, dead as nits;
launched into eternity, gone to one's eternal reward, gone to meet
one's maker, pushing up daisies, gathered to one's fathers, numbered
with the dead.
     dying &c v.; moribund, morient^; hippocratic; in articulo, in
extremis; in the jaws of death, in the agony of death; going off; aux
abois [Fr.]; one one's last legs, on one's death bed; at the point of
death, at death's door, at the last gasp; near one's end, given over,
booked; with one foot in the grave, tottering on the brink of the
     stillborn; mortuary; deadly &c (killing) 361.
Adv. post obit, post mortem [Lat.].
Phr. life ebbs, life fails, life hangs by a thread; one's days are
numbered, one's hour is come, one's race is run, one's doom is sealed;
Death knocks at the door, Death stares one in the face; the breath is
out of the body; the grave closes over one; sic itur ad astra [Lat.]
[Vergil]; de mortuis nil nisi bonum [Lat.]; dulce et decorum est pro
patria mori [Lat.] [Horace]; honesta mors turpi vita potior [Lat.]
[Tacitus]; in adamantine chains shall death be bound [Pope]; mors
ultima linea rerum est [Lat.] [Girace]; ominia mors aequat [Lat.]
[Claudianus]; Spake the grisly Terror [Paradise Lost]; the lone couch
of this everlasting sleep [Shelley]; nothing is certain but death and

361. [Destruction of life; violent death.] Killing -- N. killing &c v.;
homicide, manslaughter, murder, assassination, trucidation^, iccusion^;
effusion of blood; blood, blood shed; gore, slaughter, carnage,
butchery; battue^.
     massacre; fusillade, noyade^; thuggery, Thuggism^.
     deathblow, finishing stroke, coup de grace, quietus; execution &c
(capital punishment) 972; judicial murder; martyrdom.
     butcher, slayer, murderer, Cain, assassin, terrorist, cutthroat,
garroter, bravo, Thug, Moloch, matador, sabreur^; guet-a-pens; gallows,
executioner &c (punishment) 975; man-eater, apache^, hatchet man [U.S.],
highbinder [U.S.].
     regicide, parricide, matricide, fratricide, infanticide, feticide,
foeticide^, uxoricide^, vaticide^.
     suicide, felo de se^, hara-kiri, suttee, Juggernath^; immolation,
auto da fe, holocaust.
     suffocation, strangulation, garrote; hanging &c v.; lapidation^.
     deadly weapon &c (arms) 727; Aceldama^.
     [Destruction of animals] slaughtering; phthisozoics^; sport,
sporting; the chase, venery; hunting, coursing, shooting, fishing; pig-
sticking; sportsman, huntsman, fisherman; hunter, Nimrod;
slaughterhouse, meat packing plant, shambles, abattoir.
     fatal accident, violent death, casualty.
V. kill, put to death, slay, shed blood; murder, assassinate, butcher,
slaughter, victimize, immolate; massacre; take away life, deprive of
life; make away with, put an end to; despatch, dispatch; burke, settle,
do for.
     strangle, garrote, hang, throttle, choke, stifle, suffocate, stop
the breath, smother, asphyxiate, drown.
     saber; cut down, cut to pieces, cut the throat; jugulate^; stab,
run through the body, bayonet, eviscerate; put to the sword, put to the
edge of the sword.
     shoot dead; blow one's brains out; brain, knock on the head;
stone, lapidate^; give a deathblow; deal a deathblow; give a quietus,
give a coupe de grace.
     behead, bowstring, electrocute, gas &c (execute) 972.
     hunt, shoot &c n.. cut off, nip in the bud, launch into eternity,
send to one's last account, sign one's death warrant, strike the death
knell of.
     give no quarter, pour out blood like water; decimate; run amuck;
wade knee deep in blood, imbrue one's hands in blood.
     die a violent death, welter in one's blood; dash out one's brains,
blow out one's brains; commit suicide; kill oneself, make away with
oneself, put an end to oneself, put an end to it all.
Adj. killing &c v.; murderous, slaughterous; sanguinary, sanguinolent^;
blood stained, blood thirsty; homicidal, red handed; bloody, bloody
minded; ensanguined^, gory; thuggish.
     mortal, fatal, lethal; dead, deadly; mortiferous^, lethiferous^;
unhealthy &c 657; internecine; suicidal.
     sporting; piscatorial, piscatory^.
Adv. in at the death.
Phr. assassination has never changed the history of the world

362. Corpse -- N. corpse, corse^, carcass, cadaver, bones, skeleton, dry
bones; defunct, relics, reliquiae [Lat.], remains, mortal remains,
dust, ashes, earth, clay; mummy; carrion; food for worms, food for
fishes; tenement of clay this mortal coil.
     shade, ghost, manes.
     organic remains, fossils.
Adj. cadaverous, corpse-like; unburied &c 363; sapromyiophyllous^.

363. Interment -- N. interment, burial, sepulture^; inhumation^;
obsequies, exequies^; funeral, wake, pyre, funeral pile; cremation.
     funeral, funeral rite, funeral solemnity; kneel, passing bell,
tolling; dirge &c (lamentation) 839; cypress; orbit, dead march,
muffled drum; mortuary, undertaker, mute; elegy; funeral, funeral
oration, funeral sermon; epitaph.
     graveclothes^, shroud, winding sheet, cerecloth; cerement.
     coffin, shell, sarcophagus, urn, pall, bier, hearse, catafalque,
cinerary urn^.
     grave, pit, sepulcher, tomb, vault, crypt, catacomb, mausoleum,
Golgotha, house of death, narrow house; cemetery, necropolis; burial
place, burial ground; grave yard, church yard; God's acre; tope,
cromlech, barrow, tumulus, cairn; ossuary; bone house, charnel house,
dead house; morgue; lich gate^; burning ghat^; crematorium, crematory;
dokhma^, mastaba^, potter's field, stupa^, Tower of Silence.
     sexton, gravedigger.
     monument, cenotaph, shrine; grave stone, head stone, tomb stone;
memento mori [Lat.]; hatchment^, stone; obelisk, pyramid.
     exhumation, disinterment; necropsy, autopsy, post mortem
examination [Lat.]; zoothapsis^.
V. inter, bury; lay in the grave, consign to the grave, lay in the
tomb, entomb, in tomb; inhume; lay out, perform a funeral, embalm,
mummify; toll the knell; put to bed with a shovel; inurn^.
     exhume, disinter, unearth.
Adj. burried &c v.; burial, funereal, funebrial^; mortuary, sepulchral,
cinerary^; elegiac; necroscopic^.
Adv. in memoriam; post obit, post mortem [Lat.]; beneath the sod.
Phr. hic jacet [Lat.], ci-git [Fr.]; RIP; requiescat in pace [Lat.];
the lone couch of his everlasting sleep [Shelley]; without a grave-
unknell'd, uncoffin'd, and unknown [Byron]; in the dark union of
insensate dust [Byron]; the deep cold shadow of the tomb [Moore].
2. Special Vitality

364. Animality -- N. animal life; animation, animality^, animalization^;
animalness, corporeal nature, human system; breath.
     flesh, flesh and blood; physique; strength &c 159.
Adj. fleshly, human, corporeal.

365. Vegetability^ -- N. vegetable life; vegetation, vegetability^;
V. vegetate, grow roots, put down roots.
Adj. rank, lush; vegetable, vegetal, vegetive^.

366. Animal -- N. animal, animal kingdom; fauna; brute creation.
     beast, brute, creature, critter [U.S.]; wight, created being;
creeping thing, living thing; dumb animal, dumb creature; zoophyte.
     [major divisions of animals] mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian,
fish, crustacean, shellfish, mollusk, worm, insect, arthropod, microbe.
     [microscopic animals] microbe, animalcule &c 193.
     [reptiles] alligator, crocodile; saurian; dinosaur (extinct);
snake, serpent, viper, eft; asp, aspick^.
     [amphibians] frog, toad.
     [fishes] trout, bass, tuna, muskelunge, sailfish, sardine,
     [insects] ant, mosquito, bee, honeybee.
     [arthropods] tardigrade, spider.
     [classification by number of feet] biped, quadruped; [web-footed
animal] webfoot.
     flocks and herds, live stock; domestic animals, wild animals;
game, ferae naturae [Lat.]; beasts of the field, fowls of the air,
denizens of the sea; black game, black grouse; blackcock^, duck, grouse,
plover, rail, snipe.
     [domesticated mammals] horse &c (beast of burden) 271; cattle,
kine^, ox; bull, bullock; cow, milch cow, calf, heifer, shorthorn;
sheep; lamb, lambkin^; ewe, ram, tup; pig, swine, boar, hog, sow; steer,
stot^; tag, teg^; bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, dog, cat.
     [dogs] dog, hound; pup, puppy; whelp, cur, mongrel; house dog,
watch dog, sheep dog, shepherd's dog, sporting dog, fancy dog, lap dog,
toy dog, bull dog, badger dog; mastiff; blood hound, grey hound, stag
hound, deer hound, fox hound, otter hound; harrier, beagle, spaniel,
pointer, setter, retriever; Newfoundland; water dog, water spaniel;
pug, poodle; turnspit; terrier; fox terrier, Skye terrier; Dandie
Dinmont; collie.
     [cats--generally] feline, puss, pussy; grimalkin^; gib cat, tom
     [wild mammals] fox, Reynard, vixen, stag, deer, hart, buck, doe,
roe; caribou, coyote, elk, moose, musk ox, sambar^.
     [birds] bird; poultry, fowl, cock, hen, chicken, chanticleer,
partlet^, rooster, dunghill cock, barn door fowl; feathered tribes,
feathered songster; singing bird, dicky bird; canary, warbler; finch;
aberdevine^, cushat^, cygnet, ringdove^, siskin, swan, wood pigeon.
     [undesirable animals] vermin, varmint [U.S.], pest.
Adj. animal, zoological equine, bovine, vaccine, canine, feline, fishy;
piscatory^, piscatorial; molluscous^, vermicular; gallinaceous,
rasorial^, solidungulate^, soliped^.

367. Vegetable -- N. vegetable, vegetable kingdom; flora, verdure.
     plant; tree, shrub, bush; creeper; herb, herbage; grass.
     annual; perennial, biennial, triennial; exotic.
     timber, forest; wood, woodlands; timberland; hurst^, frith^, holt,
weald^, park, chase, greenwood, brake, grove, copse, coppice, bocage^,
tope, clump of trees, thicket, spinet, spinney; underwood, brushwood;
scrub; boscage, bosk^, ceja [Sp.], chaparal, motte [U.S.]; arboretum &c
     bush, jungle, prairie; heath, heather; fern, bracken; furze,
gorse, whin; grass, turf; pasture, pasturage; turbary^; sedge, rush,
weed; fungus, mushroom, toadstool; lichen, moss, conferva^, mold;
growth; alfalfa, alfilaria^, banyan; blow, blowth^; floret^, petiole; pin
grass, timothy, yam, yew, zinnia.
     foliage, branch, bough, ramage^, stem, tigella^; spray &c 51; leaf.
     flower, blossom, bine^; flowering plant; timber tree, fruit tree;
pulse, legume.
Adj. vegetable, vegetal, vegetive^, vegitous^; herbaceous, herbal;
botanic^; sylvan, silvan^; arborary^, arboreous^, arborescent^,
arborical^; woody, grassy; verdant, verdurous; floral, mossy; lignous^,
ligneous; wooden, leguminous; vosky^, cespitose^, turf-like, turfy;
endogenous, exogenous.
Phr. green-robed senators of mighty woods [Keats]; this is the forest
primeval [Longfellow].

368. [The science of animals.] Zoology -- N. zoology, zoonomy^,
zoography^, zootomy^; anatomy; comparative anatomy; animal physiology,
comparative physiology; morphology; mammalogy.
     anthropology, ornithology, ichthyology, herpetology, ophiology^,
malacology^, helminthology [Med.], entomology, oryctology^,
paleontology, mastology^, vermeology^; ornithotomy^, ichthyotomy^, &c;
     zoologist &c
Adj. zoological &c n..

369. [The science of plants.] Botany -- N. botany; physiological
botany, structural botany, systematic botany; phytography^, phytology^,
phytotomy^; vegetable physiology, herborization^, dendrology, mycology,
fungology^, algology^; flora, romona; botanic garden &c (garden) 371
[Obs.]; hortus siccus [Lat.], herbarium, herbal.
     botanist &c; herbist^, herbarist^, herbalist, herborist^,
V. botanize, herborize^.
Adj. botanical &c n.; botanic^.

370. [The economy or management of animals.] Husbandry -- N. husbandry,
taming &c v.; circuration^, zoohygiantics^; domestication, domesticity;
manege [Fr.], veterinary art; farriery^; breeding, pisciculture.
     menagerie, vivarium, zoological garden; bear pit; aviary, apiary,
alveary^, beehive; hive; aquarium, fishery; duck pond, fish pond.
     phthisozoics &c (killing) 361 [Obs.] [Destruction of animals];
euthanasia, sacrifice, humane destruction.
     neatherd^, cowherd, shepherd; grazier, drover, cowkeeper^; trainer,
breeder; apiarian^, apiarist; bull whacker [U.S.], cowboy, cow puncher
[U.S.], farrier; horse leech, horse doctor; vaquero, veterinarian, vet,
veterinary surgeon.
     cage &c (prison) 752; hencoop^, bird cage, cauf^; range, sheepfold,
&c (inclosure) 232.
V. tame, domesticate, acclimatize, breed, tend, break in, train; cage,
bridle, &c (restrain) 751.
Adj. pastoral, bucolic; tame, domestic.

371. [The economy or management of plants.] Agriculture -- N.
agriculture, cultivation, husbandry, farming; georgics, geoponics^;
tillage, agronomy, gardening, spade husbandry, vintage; horticulture,
arboriculture^, floriculture; landscape gardening; viticulture.
     husbandman, horticulturist, gardener, florist; agricultor^,
agriculturist; yeoman, farmer, cultivator, tiller of the soil,
woodcutter, backwoodsman; granger, habitat, vigneron^, viticulturist;
     field, meadow, garden; botanic garden^, winter garden, ornamental
garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, market garden, hop garden;
nursery; green house, hot house; conservatory, bed, border, seed plot;
grassplot^, grassplat^, lawn; park &c (pleasure ground) 840; parterre,
shrubbery, plantation, avenue, arboretum, pinery^, pinetum^, orchard;
vineyard, vinery; orangery^; farm &c (abode) 189.
V. cultivate; till the soil; farm, garden; sow, plant; reap, mow, cut;
manure, dress the ground, dig, delve, dibble, hoe, plough, plow,
harrow, rake, weed, lop and top; backset [U.S.].
Adj. agricultural, agrarian, agrestic^.
     arable, predial^, rural, rustic, country; horticultural.

372. Mankind -- N. man, mankind; human race, human species, human kind,
human nature; humanity, mortality, flesh, generation.
     [Science of man] anthropology, anthropogeny^, anthropography^,
anthroposophy^; ethnology, ethnography; humanitarian.
     human being; person, personage; individual, creature, fellow
creature, mortal, body, somebody; one; such a one, some one; soul,
living soul; earthling; party, head, hand; dramatis personae [Lat.];
quidam [Lat.].
     people, persons, folk, public, society, world; community,
community at large; general public; nation, nationality; state, realm;
commonweal, commonwealth; republic, body politic; million &c
(commonalty) 876; population &c (inhabitant) 188.
     tribe, clan (paternity) 166; family (consanguinity) 11.
     cosmopolite; lords of the creation; ourselves.
Adj. human, mortal, personal, individual, national, civic, public,
social; cosmopolitan; anthropoid.
Phr. am I not a man and a brother? [Wedgwood].

373. Man -- N. man, male, he, him; manhood &c (adolescence) 131;
gentleman, sir, master; sahib; yeoman, wight^, swain, fellow, blade,
beau, elf, chap, gaffer, good man; husband &c (married man) 903; Mr.,
mister; boy &c (youth) 129.
     [Male animal] cock, drake, gander, dog, boar, stag, hart, buck,
horse, entire horse, stallion; gibcat^, tomcat; he goat, Billy goat;
ram, tup; bull, bullock; capon, ox, gelding, steer, stot^.
     homosexual, gay, queen [Slang].
V. masculinize
Adj. male, he-, masculine; manly, virile; unwomanly, unfeminine.
     he, him, his.
Phr. hominem pagina nostra sapit [Lat.] [Martial]; homo homini aut deus
aut lupus [Lat.] [Erasmus]; homo vitae commodatus non donatus est
[Lat.] [Syrus].

374. Woman -- N. woman, she, her, female, petticoat.
     feminality^, muliebrity^; womanhood &c (adolescence) 131.
     womankind; the sex, the fair; fair sex, softer sex; weaker vessel.
     dame, madam, madame, mistress, Mrs.
     lady, donna belle [Sp.], matron, dowager, goody, gammer^; Frau
[G.], frow^, Vrouw [Du.], rani; good woman, good wife; squaw; wife &c
(marriage) 903; matronage, matronhood^.
     bachelor girl, new woman, feminist, suffragette, suffragist.
     nymph, wench, grisette^; girl &c (youth) 129.
     [Effeminacy] sissy, betty, cot betty [U.S.], cotquean^, henhussy^,
mollycoddle, muff, old woman.
     [Female animal] hen, bitch, sow, doe, roe, mare; she goat, Nanny
goat, tabita; ewe, cow; lioness, tigress; vixen.
     estrogen, oestrogen.
     consanguinity &c 166 [Female relatives], paternity &c 11.
     lesbian, dyke [Slang].
V. feminize.
Adj. female, she-; feminine, womanly, ladylike, matronly, maidenly,
wifely; womanish, effeminate, unmanly; gynecic^, gynaecic^.
     she, her, hers.'
Phr. a perfect woman nobly planned [Wordsworth]; a lovely lady
garmented in white [Shelley]; das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns hinan
[Goethe]; earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected [Lowell]; es de
vidrio la mujer [Sp.]; she moves a goddess and she looks a queen
[Pope]; the beauty of a lovely woman is like music [G.
     Eliot]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat.] [Vergil]; woman is
the lesser man [Tennyson].

374a. Sexuality [human] -- N. sex, sexuality, gender; male,
masculinity, maleness &c 373; female, femininity &c 374.
     sexual intercourse, copulation, mating, coitus, sex; lovemaking,
marital relations, sexual union; sleeping together, carnal knowledge.
     sex instinct, sex drive, libido, lust, concupiscence; hots, horns
[Coll.]; arousal, heat, rut, estrus, oestrus; tumescence; erection,
hard-on, boner.
     masturbation, self-gratification, autoeroticism, onanism, self-
     orgasm, climax, ejaculation.
     sexiness, attractiveness; sensuality, voluptuousness.
     [sexual intercourse outside of marriage] fornication, adultery.
     [person who is sexy] sex symbol, sex goddess; stud, hunk.
     one-night stand.
     pornography, porn, porno; hardcore pornography, softcore
pornography; pin-up, cheesecake; beefcake; [magazines with sexual
photos], Playboy, Esquire, Hustler.
     [unorthodox sexual activity] perversion, deviation, sexual
abnormality; fetish, fetishism; homosexuality, lesbianism, bisexuality;
sodomy, buggery; pederasty; sadism.
     masochism, sado-masochism; incest.
V. mate, copulate; make love, have intercourse, fornicate, have sex, do
it, sleep together, fuck [Vulg.]; sleep around, play the field.
     masturbate, jerk off [Coll.], jack off [Coll.], play with oneself.
     have the hots [Coll.]; become aroused, get hot; have an erection,
get it up.
     come, climax, ejaculate.
Adj. sexy, erotic, sexual, carnal, sensual.
     hot, horny, randy, rutting; passionate, lusty, hot-blooded,
libidinous; up, in the mood.
     homosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual.

1. Sensation in general

375. Physical Sensibility -- N. sensibility; sensitiveness &c adj.;
physical sensibility, feeling, impressibility, perceptivity,
aesthetics; moral sensibility &c 822.
     sensation, impression; consciousness &c (knowledge) 490.
     external senses.
V. be sensible of &c adj.; feel, perceive.
     render sensible &c adj.; sharpen, cultivate, tutor.
     cause sensation, impress; excite an impression, produce an
Adj. sensible, sensitive, sensuous; aesthetic, perceptive, sentient;
conscious &c (aware) 490.
     acute, sharp, keen, vivid, lively, impressive, thin-skinned.
Adv. to the quick.
Phr. the touch'd needle trembles to the pole [Pope].

376. Physical Insensibility -- N. insensibility, physical
insensibility; obtuseness &c adj.; palsy, paralysis, paraesthesia
[Med.], anaesthesia; sleep &c 823; hemiplegia^, motor paralysis;
vegetable state; coma.
     anaesthetic agent, opium, ether, chloroform, chloral; nitrous
oxide, laughing gas; exhilarating gas, protoxide of nitrogen;
V. be insensible &c adj.; have a thick skin, have a rhinoceros hide.
     render insensible &c adj.; anaesthetize^, blunt, pall, obtund^,
benumb, paralyze; put under the influence of chloroform &c n.; stupefy,
Adj. insensible, unfeeling, senseless, impercipient^, callous, thick-
skinned, pachydermatous; hard, hardened; case hardened; proof, obtuse,
dull; anaesthetic; comatose, paralytic, palsied, numb, dead.

377. Physical Pleasure -- N. pleasure; physical pleasure, sensual
pleasure, sensuous pleasure; bodily enjoyment, animal gratification,
hedonism, sensuality; luxuriousness &c adj.; dissipation, round of
pleasure, titillation, gusto, creature comforts, comfort, ease; pillow
&c (support) 215; luxury, lap of luxury; purple and fine linen; bed of
downs, bed of roses; velvet, clover; cup of Circe &c (intemperance)
     treat; refreshment, regale; feast; delice [Fr.]; dainty &c 394;
bonne bouche [Fr.].
     source of pleasure &c 829; happiness &c (mental enjoyment) 827.
V. feel pleasure, experience pleasure, receive pleasure; enjoy, relish;
luxuriate in, revel in, riot in, bask in, swim in, drink up, eat up,
wallow in; feast on; gloat over, float on; smack the lips.
     live on the fat of the land, live in comfort &c adv.; bask in the
sunshine, faire ses choux gras [Fr.].
     give pleasure &c 829.
Adj. enjoying &c v.; luxurious, voluptuous, sensual, comfortable, cosy,
snug, in comfort, at ease.
     pleasant, agreeable &c 829.
Adv. in comfort &c n.; on a bed of roses &c n.; at one's ease.
Phr. ride si sapis [Lat.] [Martial]; voluptales commendat rarior usus
[Lat.] [Juvenal].

378. Physical Pain -- N. pain; suffering, sufferance, suffrance^; bodily
pain, physical pain, bodily suffering, physical suffering, body pain;
mental suffering &c 828; dolour, ache; aching &c v.; smart; shoot,
shooting; twinge, twitch, gripe, headache, stomach ache, heartburn,
angina, angina pectoris [Lat.]; hurt, cut; sore, soreness; discomfort,
malaise; cephalalgia [Med.], earache, gout, ischiagra^, lumbago,
neuralgia, odontalgia^, otalgia^, podagra^, rheumatism, sciatica; tic
douloureux [Fr.], toothache, tormina^, torticollis^.
     spasm, cramp; nightmare, ephialtes^; crick, stitch; thrill,
convulsion, throe; throb &c (agitation) 315; pang; colic; kink.
     sharp pain, piercing pain, throbbing pain, shooting pain, sting,
gnawing pain, burning pain; excruciating pain.
     anguish, agony; torment, torture; rack; cruciation^, crucifixion;
martyrdom, toad under a harrow, vivisection.
V. feel pain, experience pain, suffer pain, undergo pain &c n.; suffer,
ache, smart, bleed; tingle, shoot; twinge, twitch, lancinate^; writhe,
wince, make a wry face; sit on thorns, sit on pins and needles.
     give pain, inflict pain; lacerate; pain, hurt, chafe, sting, bite,
gnaw, gripe; pinch, tweak; grate, gall, fret, prick, pierce, wring,
convulse; torment, torture; rack, agonize; crucify; cruciate^,
excruciate^; break on the wheel, put to the rack; flog &c (punish) 972;
grate on the ear &c (harsh sound) 410.
Adj. in pain &c n., in a state of pain; pained &c v.; gouty, podagric^,
     painful; aching &c v.; sore, raw.
2. Special Sensation
(1) Touch

379. [Sensation of pressure] Touch -- N. touch; tact, taction^,
tactility; feeling; palpation, palpability; contrectation^;
manipulation; massage.
     [Organ of touch] hand, finger, forefinger, thumb, paw, feeler,
antenna; palpus^.
V. touch, feel, handle, finger, thumb, paw, fumble, grope, grabble;
twiddle, tweedle; pass the fingers over, run the fingers over;
manipulate, wield; throw out a feeler.
Adj. tactual, tactile; tangible, palpable; lambent.

380. Sensations of Touch -- N. itching, pruritis [Med.] &c v.;
titillation, formication^, aura; stereognosis^.
V. itch, tingle, creep, thrill, sting; prick, prickle; tickle,
Adj. itching &c v.; stereognostic^, titillative.

381. [insensibility to touch.] Numbness -- N. numbness &c (physical
insensibility) 376; anaesthesia; pins and needles.
V. benumb &c 376.
Adj. numb; benumbed &c v.; deadened; intangible, impalpable.
(2) Heat

382. Heat -- N. heat, caloric; temperature, warmth, fervor, calidity^;
incalescence^, incandescence; glow, flush; fever, hectic.
     phlogiston; fire, spark, scintillation, flash, flame, blaze;
bonfire; firework, pyrotechnics, pyrotechny^; wildfire; sheet of fire,
lambent flame; devouring element; adiathermancy^; recalescence [Phys.].
     summer, dog days; canicular days^; baking &c 384; heat, white heat,
tropical heat, Afric heat^, Bengal heat^, summer heat, blood heat;
sirocco, simoom; broiling sun; insolation; warming &c 384.
     sun &c (luminary) 423.
     [Science of heat] pyrology^; thermology^, thermotics^,
thermodynamics; thermometer &c 389.
     [thermal units] calorie, gram-calorie, small calorie; kilocalorie,
kilogram calorie, large calorie; British Thermal Unit, B.T.U.; therm,
     [units of temperature] degrees Kelvin, kelvins, degrees
centigrade, degrees Celsius; degrees Fahrenheit.
V. be hot &c adj.; glow, flush, sweat, swelter, bask, smoke, reek,
stew, simmer, seethe, boil, burn, blister, broil, blaze, flame;
smolder; parch, fume, pant.
     heat &c (make hot) 384; recalesce^; thaw, give.
Adj. hot, warm, mild, genial, tepid, lukewarm, unfrozen; thermal,
thermic; calorific; fervent, fervid; ardent; aglow.
     sunny, torrid, tropical, estival^, canicular^, steamy; close,
sultry, stifling, stuffy, suffocating, oppressive; reeking &c v.;
baking &c 384.
     red hot, white hot, smoking hot, burning &c v.. hot, piping hot;
like a furnace, like an oven; burning, hot as fire, hot as pepper; hot
enough to roast an ox, hot enough to boil an egg.
     fiery; incandescent, incalescent^; candent^, ebullient, glowing,
smoking; live; on fire; dazzling &c v.; in flames, blazing, in a blaze;
alight, afire, ablaze; unquenched, unextinguished^; smoldering; in a
heat, in a glow, in a fever, in a perspiration, in a sweat; sudorific^;
sweltering, sweltered; blood hot, blood warm; warm as a toast, warm as
     volcanic, plutonic, igneous; isothermal^, isothermic^, isotheral^.
Phr. not a breath of air; whirlwinds of tempestuous fire [Paradise

383. Cold -- N. cold, coldness &c adj.; frigidity, inclemency, fresco.
     winter; depth of winter, hard winter; Siberia, Nova Zembla; wind-
chill factor.
     [forms of frozen water] ice; snow, snowflake, snow crystal, snow
drift; sleet; hail, hailstone; rime, frost; hoar frost, white frost,
hard frost, sharp frost; barf; glaze [U.S.], lolly [U.S.]; icicle,
thick-ribbed ice; fall of snow, heavy fall; iceberg, icefloe; floe
berg; glacier; nev_ee, serac^; pruina^.
     [cold substances] freezing mixture, dry ice, liquid nitrogen,
liquid helium.
     [Sensation of cold] chilliness &c adj.; chill; shivering &c v.;
goose skin, horripilation^; rigor; chattering of teeth; numbness,
V. be cold &c adj.; shiver, starve, quake, shake, tremble, shudder,
didder^, quiver; freeze, freeze to death, perish with cold.
     freeze &c (render cold) 385; horripilate^, make the skin crawl,
give one goose flesh.
Adj. cold, cool; chill, chilly; icy; gelid, frigid, algid^; fresh, keen,
bleak, raw, inclement, bitter, biting, niveous^, cutting, nipping,
piercing, pinching; clay-cold; starved &c (made cold) 385; chilled to
the bone, shivering &c v.; aguish, transi de froid [Fr.]; frostbitten,
frost-bound, frost-nipped.
     cold as a stone, cold as marble, cold as lead, cold as iron, cold
as a frog, cold as charity, cold as Christmas; cool as a cucumber, cool
as custard.
     icy, glacial, frosty, freezing, pruinose^, wintry, brumal^,
hibernal^, boreal, arctic, Siberian, hyemal^; hyperborean, hyperboreal^;
icebound; frozen out.
     unwarmed^, unthawed^; lukewarm, tepid; isocheimal^, isocheimenal^,
     frozen, numb, frost-bitten.
Adv. coldly, bitterly &c adj.; pierre fendre [Fr.];

384. Calefaction -- N. increase of temperature; heating &c v.;
calefaction^, tepefaction^, torrefaction^; melting, fusion; liquefaction
&c 335; burning &c v.; ambustion^, combustion; incension^, accension^;
concremation^, cremation; scorification^; cautery, cauterization;
ustulation^, calcination; cracking, refining; incineration, cineration^;
carbonization; cupellation [Chem].
     ignition, inflammation, adustion^, flagration^; deflagration,
conflagration; empyrosis^, incendiarism; arson; auto dafe [Fr.].
     boiling &c v.; coction^, ebullition, estuation^, elixation^,
decoction; ebullioscope^; geyser; distillation (vaporization) 336.
     furnace &c 386; blanket, flannel, fur; wadding &c (lining) 224;
clothing &c 225.
     still; refinery; fractionating column, fractionating tower,
cracking tower.
     match &c (fuel) 388; incendiary; petroleuse [Fr.]; [biological
effects resembling the effects of heat] [substances causing a burning
sensation and damage on skin or tissue] cauterizer^; caustic, lunar
caustic, alkali, apozem^, moxa^; acid, aqua fortis [Lat.], aqua regia;
catheretic^, nitric acid, nitrochloro-hydric acid, nitromuriatic acid;
radioactivity, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta rays, X-rays,
radiation, cosmic radiation, background radiation, radioactive
isotopes, tritium, uranium, plutonium, radon, radium.
     sunstroke, coup de soleil [Fr.]; insolation.
     [artifacts requiring heat in their manufacture] pottery, ceramics,
crockery, porcelain, china; earthenware, stoneware; pot, mug, terra
cotta [Sp.], brick, clinker.
     [products of combustion] cinder, ash, scoriae, embers, soot; slag.
     [products of heating organic materials] coke, carbon, charcoal;
wood alcohol, turpentine, tea tree oil; gasoline, kerosene, naptha,
fuel oil (fuel) 388; wax, paraffin; residue, tar.
     inflammability, combustibility.
     [Transmission of heat] diathermancy^, transcalency^, conduction;
convection; radiation, radiant heat; heat conductivity, conductivity.
     [effects of heat 2] thermal expansion; coefficient of expansion.
V. heat, warm, chafe, stive^, foment; make hot &c 382; sun oneself,
     go up in flames, burn to the ground (flame) 382.
     fire; set fire to, set on fire; kindle, enkindle, light, ignite,
strike a light; apply the match to, apply the torch to; rekindle,
relume^; fan the flame, add fuel to the flame; poke the fire, stir the
fire, blow the fire; make a bonfire of.
     melt, thaw, fuse; liquefy &c 335.
     burn, inflame, roast, toast, fry, grill, singe, parch, bake,
torrefy^, scorch; brand, cauterize, sear, burn in; corrode, char,
calcine, incinerate; smelt, scorify^; reduce to ashes; burn to a cinder;
commit to the flames, consign to the flames.
     boil, digest, stew, cook, seethe, scald, parboil, simmer; do to
     take fire, catch fire; blaze &c (flame) 382.
Adj. heated &c v.; molten, sodden; r_echauff_e; heating &c v.; adust^.
     inflammable, combustible; diathermal^, diathermanous^; burnt &c v.;
volcanic, radioactive.

385. Refrigeration -- N. refrigeration, infrigidation^, reduction of
temperature; cooling &c v.; congelation^, conglaciation^; ice &c 383;
solidification &c (density) 321; ice box (refrigerator) 385.
     extincteur [Fr.]; fire annihilator; amianth^, amianthus^; earth-
flax, mountain-flax; flexible asbestos; fireman, fire brigade
(incombustibility) 388.1.
     incombustibility, incombustibleness &c adj.^. (insulation) 388.1.
     air conditioning [residential cooling], central air conditioning;
air conditioner; fan, attic fan; dehumidifier.
V. cool, fan, refrigerate, refresh, ice; congeal, freeze, glaciate;
benumb, starve, pinch, chill, petrify, chill to the marrow, regelate^,
nip, cut, pierce, bite, make one's teeth chatter, damp, slack quench;
put out, stamp out; extinguish; go out, burn out (incombustibility)
Adj. cooled &c v.; frozen out; cooling &c v.; frigorific^.

386. Furnace -- N. furnace, stove, kiln, oven; cracker; hearth, focus,
combustion chamber; athanor^, hypocaust^, reverberatory; volcano; forge,
fiery furnace; limekiln; Dutch oven; tuyere, brasier^, salamander,
heater, warming pan; boiler, caldron, seething caldron, pot; urn,
kettle; chafing-dish; retort, crucible, alembic, still; waffle irons;
muffle furnace, induction furnace; electric heater, electric furnace,
electric resistance heat.
     [steel-making furnace] open-hearth furnace.
     fireplace, gas fireplace; coal fire, wood fire; fire-dog, fire-
irons; grate, range, kitchener; caboose, camboose^; poker, tongs,
shovel, ashpan, hob, trivet; andiron, gridiron; ashdrop; frying-pan,
stew-pan, backlog.
     [area near a fireplace] hearth, inglenook.
     [residential heating methods] oil burner, gas burner, Franklin
stove, pot-bellied stove; wood-burning stove; central heating, steam
heat, hot water heat, gas heat, forced hot air, electric heat, heat
pump; solar heat, convective heat.
     hothouse, bakehouse^, washhouse^; laundry; conservatory; sudatory^;
Turkish bath, Russian bath, vapor bath, steam bath, sauna, warm bath;

387. Refrigerator -- N. refrigerator, refrigeratory^; frigidarium^; cold
storage, cold room, cold laboratory; icehouse, icepail, icebag, icebox;
cooler, damper, polyurethane cooler; wine cooler.
     freezer, deep freeze, dry ice freezer, liquid nitrogen freezer,
     freezing mixture [refrigerating substances], ice, ice cubes,
blocks of ice, chipped ice; liquid nitrogen, dry ice, dry ice-acetone,
liquid helium.

388. Fuel -- N. fuel, firing, combustible.
     [solid fuels] coal, wallsend^, anthracite, culm^, coke, carbon,
charcoal, bituminous coal, tar shale; turf, peat, firewood, bobbing,
faggot, log; cinder &c (products of combustion) 384; ingle, tinder,
touchwood; sulphur, brimstone; incense; port-fire; fire-barrel,
fireball, brand; amadou^, bavin^; blind coal, glance coal; German
tinder, pyrotechnic sponge, punk, smudge [U.S.]; solid fueled rocket.
     [fuels for candles and lamps] wax, paraffin wax, paraffin oil;
lamp oil, whale oil.
     [liquid fuels] oil, petroleum, gasoline, high octane gasoline,
nitromethane, petrol, gas, juice [Coll.], gasohol, alcohol, ethanol,
methanol, fuel oil, kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil, number 2 oil,
number 4 oil, naphtha; rocket fuel, high specific impulse fuel, liquid
hydrogen, liquid oxygen, lox.
     [gaseous fuels] natural gas, synthetic gas, synthesis gas,
propane, butane, hydrogen.
     brand, torch, fuse; wick; spill, match, light, lucifer, congreve^,
vesuvian, vesta^, fusee, locofoco^; linstock^.
     candle &c (luminary) 423; oil &c (grease) 356.
Adj. carbonaceous; combustible, inflammable; high octane, high specific
impulse; heat of combustion,

388a. Insulation [Fire extinction] {ant.
     of 388} -- N. insulation, incombustible material, noncombustible
material; fire retardant, flame retardant; fire wall, fire door.
     incombustibility, incombustibleness &c adj.. extincteur [Fr.];
fire annihilator; amianth^, amianthus^; earth-flax, mountain-flax;
asbestos; fireman, fire fighter, fire eater, fire department, fire
brigade, engine company; pumper, fire truck, hook and ladder, aerial
ladder, bucket; fire hose, fire hydrant.
     [forest fires] backfire, firebreak, trench; aerial water
     wet blanket; fire extinguisher, soda and acid extinguisher, dry
chemical extinguisher, CO-two extinguisher, carbon tetrachloride, foam;
sprinklers, automatic sprinkler system; fire bucket, sand bucket.
     [warning of fire] fire alarm, evacuation alarm, [laws to prevent
fire] fire code, fire regulations, fire; fire inspector; code
violation, citation.
V. go out, die out, burn out; fizzle.
     extinguish; damp, slack, quench, smother; put out, stamp out;
douse, snuff, snuff out, blow out.
     fireproof, flameproof.
Adj. incombustible; nonflammable, uninflammable, unflammable^;
Phr. fight fire with fire

389. Thermometer -- N. thermometer, thermometrograph^, mercury
thermometer, alcohol thermometer, clinical thermometer, dry-bulb
thermometer, wet-bulb thermometer, Anschutz thermometer [G.], gas
thermometer, telethermometer; color-changing temperature indicator;
thermopile, thermoscope^; pyrometer, calorimeter, bomb calorimeter;
thermistor, thermocouple.
     [temperature-control devices] thermostat, thermoregulator.
(3) Taste

390. Taste -- N. taste, flavor, gust, gusto, savor; gout, relish;
sapor^, sapidity^; twang, smack, smatch^; aftertaste, tang.
     tasting; degustation, gustation.
     palate, tongue, tooth, stomach.
V. taste, savor, smatch^, smack, flavor, twang; tickle the palate &c
(savory) 394; smack the lips.
Adj. sapid, saporific^; gustable^, gustatory; gustful^; strong, gamy;
palatable &c 394.

391. Insipidity -- N. insipidity, blandness; tastelessness &c adj..
V. be tasteless &c adj..
Adj. bland, void of taste &c 390; insipid; tasteless, gustless^,
savorless; ingustible^, mawkish, milk and water, weak, stale, flat,
vapid, fade, wishy-washy, mild; untasted^.

392. Pungency -- N. pungency, piquance, piquancy, poignancy haut-gout,
strong taste, twang, race.
     sharpness &c adj.; acrimony; roughness &c (sour) 392; unsavoriness
&c 395.
     mustard, cayenne, caviare; seasoning &c (condiment) 393; niter,
saltpeter, brine (saltiness) 392.1; carbonate of ammonia; sal ammoniac^,
sal volatile, smelling salts; hartshorn (acridity) 401.1.
     dram, cordial, nip.
     nicotine, tobacco, snuff, quid, smoke; segar^; cigar, cigarette;
weed; fragrant weed, Indian weed; Cavendish, fid^, negro head, old
soldier, rappee^, stogy^.
V. be pungent &c adj.; bite the tongue.
     render pungent &c adj.; season, spice, salt, pepper, pickle,
brine, devil.
     smoke, chew, take snuff.
Adj. pungent, strong; high-, full-flavored; high-tasted, high-seasoned;
gamy, sharp, stinging, rough, piquant, racy; biting, mordant; spicy;
seasoned &c v.; hot, hot as pepper; peppery, vellicating^, escharotic^,
meracious^; acrid, acrimonious, bitter; rough &c (sour) 397; unsavory &c

392a. Saltiness -- N. saltiness.
     niter, saltpeter, brine.
Adj. salty, salt, saline, brackish, briny; salty as brine, salty as a
herring, salty as Lot's wife.
     salty, racy (indecent) 961.
Phr. take it with a grain of salt.

392b. Bitterness -- N. bitterness, acridness^, acridity, acrimony;
caustic, alkali; acerbity; gall, wormwood; bitters, astringent bitters.
     Angostura [additive for alcoholic beverages], aromatic bitters.
     sourness &c 397; pungency &c 392.
     [bitter substances] alkaloids; turmeric.
Adj. bitter, bitterish, acrid, acerb, acerbic.
Phr. bitter as gall; bitter pill to take; sugar coating on a bitter

393. Condiment -- N. condiment, seasoning, sauce, spice, relish,
     [Condiments] salt; mustard, grey poupon mustard; pepper, black
pepper, white pepper, peppercorn, curry, sauce piquante [Fr.]; caviare,
onion, garlic, pickle; achar^, allspice; bell pepper, Jamaica pepper,
green pepper; chutney; cubeb^, pimento.
     [capsicum peppers] capsicum, red pepper, chili peppers, cayenne.
     nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, oregano, cloves, fennel.
     [herbs] pot herbs, parsley, sage, rosemary, thyme, bay leaves,
     [fragrant woods and gums] frankincense, balm, myrrh.
     [from pods] paprika.
     [from flower stigmas] saffron.
     [from roots] ginger, turmeric.
V. season, spice, flavor, spice up &c (render pungent) 392.

394. Savoriness -- N. savoriness &c adj.; good taste, deliciousness,
     relish, zest; appetizer.
     tidbit, titbit^, dainty, delicacy, tasty morsel; appetizer, hors
d'ouvres [Fr.]; ambrosia, nectar, bonne-bouche [Fr.]; game, turtle,
venison; delicatessen.
V. be savory &c adj.; tickle the palate, tickle the appetite; flatter
the palate.
     render palatable &c adj.. relish, like, smack the lips.
Adj. savory, delicious, tasty, well-tasted, to one's taste, good,
palatable, nice, dainty, delectable; toothful^, toothsome; gustful^,
appetizing, lickerish^, delicate, exquisite, rich, luscious, ambrosial,
scrumptious, delightful.
Adv. per amusare la bocca [It]
Phr. cela se laisse manger [Fr.].

395. Unsavoriness -- N. unsavoriness &c adj.; amaritude^; acrimony,
acridity (bitterness) 392.2; roughness &c (sour) 397; acerbity,
austerity; gall and wormwood, rue, quassia^, aloes; marah^; sickener^.
V. be unpalatable &c adj.; sicken, disgust, nauseate, pall, turn the
Adj. unsavory, unpalatable, unsweetened, unsweet^; ill-flavored; bitter,
bitter as gall; acrid, acrimonious; rough.
     offensive, repulsive, nasty; sickening &c v.; nauseous; loathsome,
fulsome; unpleasant &c 830.

396. Sweetness -- N. sweetness, dulcitude^.
     sugar, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, manna; confection,
confectionary; sweets, grocery, conserve, preserve, confiture^, jam,
julep; sugar-candy, sugar-plum; licorice, marmalade, plum, lollipop,
bonbon, jujube, comfit, sweetmeat; apple butter, caramel, damson,
glucose; maple sirup^, maple syrup, maple sugar; mithai^, sorghum,
     nectar; hydromel^, mead, meade^, metheglin^, honeysuckle, liqueur,
sweet wine, aperitif.
     [sources of sugar] sugar cane, sugar beets.
     [sweet foods] desert, pastry, pie, cake, candy, ice cream, tart,
puff, pudding (food) 298.
     dulcification^, dulcoration^.
     sweetener, corn syrup, cane sugar, refined sugar, beet sugar,
dextrose; artificial sweetener, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame,
Sweet'N Low.
V. be sweet &c adj.. render sweet &c adj.; sweeten; edulcorate^;
dulcorate^, dulcify^; candy; mull.
Adj. sweet; saccharine, sacchariferous^; dulcet, candied, honied^,
luscious, lush, nectarious^, melliferous^; sweetened &c v.. sweet as a
nut, sweet as sugar, sweet as honey.
     sickly sweet.
Phr. eau sucr_ee [Fr.]; sweets to the sweet [Hamlet].

397. Sourness -- N. sourness &c adj.; acid, acidity, low pH; acetous
fermentation, lactic fermentation.
     vinegar, verjuice^, crab, alum; acetic acid, lactic acid.
V. be sour; sour, turn sour &c adj.; set the teeth on edge.
     render sour &c adj.; acidify, acidulate.
Adj. sour; acid, acidulous, acidulated; tart, crabbed; acetous,
acetose^; acerb, acetic; sour as vinegar, sourish, acescent^, subacid
[Chem]; styptic, hard, rough.
Phr. sour as a lemon.
(4) Odor

398. Odor -- N. odor, smell, odorament^, scent, effluvium; emanation,
exhalation; fume, essence, trail, nidor^, redolence.
     sense of smell; scent; act of smelling &c v.; olfaction,
     [pleasant odor] fragrance &c 400.
     [animal with acute sense of smell] bloodhound, hound.
     [smell detected by a hound] spoor.
V. have an odor &c n.; smell, smell of, smell strong of; exhale; give
out a smell &c n.; reek, reek of; scent.
     smell, scent; snuff, snuff up; sniff, nose, inhale.
Adj. odorous, odoriferous; smelling, reeking, foul-smelling, strong-
scented; redolent, graveolent^, nidorous^, pungent; putrid, foul.
     [Relating to the sense of smell] olfactory, quick-scented.

399. Inodorousness -- N. inodorousness^; absence of smell, want of
     deodorant, deodorization, deodorizer.
V. be inodorous &c adj.^; not smell.
Adj. inodorous^, onodorate; scentless; without smell, wanting smell &c
     deodorized, deodorizing.

400. Fragrance -- N. fragrance, aroma, redolence, perfume, bouquet,
essence, scent; sweet smell, aromatic perfume.
     agalloch^, agallochium^; aloes wood; bay rum; calambac^, calambour^;
champak^, horehound, lign-aloes^, marrubium^, mint, muskrat, napha
water^, olibanum^, spirit of myrcia^.
     essential oil.
     incense; musk, frankincense; pastil^, pastille; myrrh, perfumes of
Arabia^; otto^, ottar^, attar; bergamot, balm, civet, potpourri, pulvil^;
nosegay; scentbag^; sachet, smelling bottle, vinaigrette; eau de Cologne
[Fr.], toilet water, lotion, after-shave lotion; thurification^.
     [fragrant wood oils] eucalyptus oil, pinene.
V. be fragrant &c adj.; have a perfume &c n.; smell sweet.
     scent [render fragrant], perfume, embalm.
Adj. fragrant, aromatic, redolent, spicy, savory, balmy, scented,
sweet-smelling, sweet-scented; perfumed, perfumatory^; thuriferous;
fragrant as a rose, muscadine^, ambrosial.

401. Fetor -- N. fetor^; bad &c adj.. smell, bad odor; stench, stink;
foul odor, malodor; empyreuma^; mustiness &c adj.; rancidity; foulness
&c (uncleanness) 653.
     stoat, polecat, skunk; assafoetida^; fungus, garlic; stinkpot;
fitchet^, fitchew^, fourmart^, peccary.
     acridity &c 401.1.
V. have a bad smell &c n.; smell; stink, stink in the nostrils, stink
like a polecat; smell strong &c adj., smell offensively.
Adj. fetid; strong-smelling; high, bad, strong, fulsome, offensive,
noisome, rank, rancid, reasty^, tainted, musty, fusty, frouzy^; olid^,
olidous^; nidorous^; smelling, stinking; putrid &c 653; suffocating,
mephitic; empyreumatic^.

401a. Acridity -- N. acridity, astringency, bite.
     [acrid substances] tear gas; smoke, acrid fumes.
Adj. acrid, biting, astringent, sharp, harsh; bitter &c 392.2.
(5) Sound

402. Sound -- N. sound, noise, strain; accent, twang, intonation, tone;
cadence; sonorousness &c adj.; audibility; resonance &c 408; voice &c
580; aspirate; ideophone^; rough breathing.
     [Science, of sound] acoustics; phonics, phonetics, phonology,
phonography^; diacoustics^, diaphonics^; phonetism^.
V. produce sound; sound, make a noise; give out sound, emit sound;
resound &c 408.
Adj. sounding; soniferous^; sonorous, sonorific^; resonant, audible,
distinct; stertorous; phonetic; phonic, phonocamptic^.
Phr. a thousand trills and quivering sounds [Addison]; forensis
strepitus [Lat.].

403. Silence -- N. silence; stillness &c (quiet) 265; peace, hush,
lull; muteness &c 581; solemn silence, awful silence, dead silence,
deathlike silence.
V. be silent &c adj.; hold one's tongue &c (not speak) 585.
     render silent &c adj.; silence, still, hush; stifle, muffle, stop;
muzzle, put to silence &c (render mute) 581.
Adj. silent; still, stilly; noiseless, soundless; hushed &c v.; mute &c
     soft, solemn, awful, deathlike, silent as the grave; inaudible &c
(faint) 405.
Adv. silently &c adj.; sub silentio [Lat.].
Int. hush!, silence!, soft!, whist!, tush!, chut!^, tut!, pax! [Lat.],
be quiet!, be silent!, be still!, shut up! [Slang]; chup!^, chup rao!^,
tace! [It],
Phr. one might hear a feather drop, one might hear a pin drop, so quiet
you could hear a pin drop; grosse Seelen dulden still [G.]; le silence
est la vertu de ceux qui ne sont pas sages [Fr.]; le silence est le
parti le plus sar de celui se d_efie de soi-meme [Fr.]; silence more
musical than any song [C.G.
     Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant [Lat.]; better to be silent and
thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt.

404. Loudness -- N. loudness, power; loud noise, din; blare; clang,
clangor; clatter, noise, bombilation^, roar, uproar, racket, hubbub,
bobbery^, fracas, charivari^, trumpet blast, flourish of trumpets,
fanfare, tintamarre^, peal, swell, blast, larum^, boom; bang (explosion)
406; resonance &c 408.
     vociferation, hullabaloo, &c 411; lungs; Stentor.
     artillery, cannon; thunder.
V. be loud &c adj.; peal, swell, clang, boom, thunder, blare,
fulminate, roar; resound &c 408.
     speak up, shout &c (vociferate) 411; bellow &c (cry as an animal)
     rend the air, rend the skies; fill the air; din in the ear, ring
in the ear, thunder in the ear; pierce the ears, split the ears, rend
the ears, split the head; deafen, stun; faire le diable a quatre [Fr.];
make one's windows shake, rattle the windows; awaken the echoes,
startle the echoes; wake the dead.
Adj. loud, sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding; deep, full, powerful,
noisy, blatant, clangorous, multisonous^; thundering, deafening &c v.;
trumpet-tongued; ear-splitting, ear-rending, ear-deafening; piercing;
obstreperous, rackety, uproarious; enough to wake the dead, enough to
wake seven sleepers.
     shrill &c 410 clamorous &c (vociferous) 411 stentorian,
Adv. loudly &c adj.. aloud; at the top of one's voice, at the top of
one's lungs, lustily, in full cry.
Phr. the air rings with; the deep dread-bolted thunder [Lear].

405. Faintness -- N. faintness &c adj.; faint sound, whisper, breath;
undertone, underbreath^; murmur, hum, susurration; tinkle; still small
     hoarseness &c adj.; raucity^.
V. whisper, breathe, murmur, purl, hum, gurgle, ripple, babble, flow;
tinkle; mutter &c (speak imperfectly) 583; susurrate^.
     steal on the ear; melt in the air, float on the air.
Adj. inaudible; scarcely audible, just audible; low, dull; stifled,
muffled; hoarse, husky; gentle, soft, faint; floating; purling, flowing
&c v.; whispered &c v.; liquid; soothing; dulcet &c (melodious) 413;
susurrant^, susurrous^.
Adv. in a whisper, with bated breath, sotto voce [Lat.], between the
teeth, aside; piano, pianissimo; d la sourdine^; out of earshot
inaudibly &c adj..

406. [Sudden and violent sounds.] Snap -- N. snap &c v.; rapping &c v.;
decrepitation, crepitation; report, thud; burst, explosion, blast,
boom, discharge, detonation, firing, salvo, volley.
     squib, cracker, firecracker, cherry bomb, M80, gun, cap, cap gun,
     bomb burst, atomic explosion, nuclear explosion (arms) 727.
     [explosive substances] gunpowder, dynamite, gun cotton,
nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, plastic explosive, plastique, TNT,
cordite, trinitrotoluene, picric acid, picrates, mercury fulminate
(arms) 727.
     whack, wham, pow.
V. rap, snap, tap, knock, ping; click; clash; crack, crackle; crash;
pop; slam, bang, blast, boom, clap, clang, clack, whack, wham; brustle^;
burst on the ear; crepitate, rump.
     blow up, blow; detonate.
Adj. rapping &c v..
Int. kaboom!, whamo!, Heewhack!, pow!,

407. [Repeated and protracted sounds.] Roll -- N. roll &c v.; drumming
&c v.; berloque^, bombination^, rumbling; tattoo, drumroll; dingdong;
tantara^; rataplan^; whirr; ratatat, ratatat-tat; rubadub; pitapat;
quaver, clutter, charivari^, racket; cuckoo; repetition &c 104; peal of
bells, devil's tattoo; reverberation &c 408.
     [sound of railroad train rolling on rails] clickety-clack.
     hum, purr.
     [animals that hum] hummingbird.
     [animals that purr] cat, kitten (animal sounds) 412.
V. roll, drum, rumble, rattle, clatter, patter, clack; bombinate^.
     hum, trill, shake; chime, peal, toll; tick, beat.
     drum in the ear, din in the ear.
Adj. rolling &c v.; monotonous &c (repeated) 104; like a bee in a

408. Resonance -- N. resonance; ring &c v.; ringing, tintinabulation &c
v.; reflexion [Brit.], reflection, reverberation; echo, reecho; zap,
zot [Coll.]; buzz (hiss) 409.
     low note, base note, bass note, flat note, grave note, deep note;
bass; basso, basso profondo [It]; baritone, barytone^; contralto.
     [device to cause resonance] echo chamber, resonator.
     [ringing in the ears] tinnitus [Med.].
     [devices which make a resonating sound] bell, doorbell, buzzer;
gong, cymbals (musical instruments) 417.
     [physical resonance] sympathetic vibrations; natural frequency,
coupled vibration frequency; overtone; resonating cavity; sounding
board, tuning fork.
     [electrical resonance] tuning, squelch, frequency selection;
resonator, resonator circuit; radio &c [chemical resonance] resonant
structure, aromaticity, alternating double bonds, non-bonded resonance;
pi clouds, unsaturation, double bond, (valence).
V. resound, reverberate, reecho, resonate; ring, jingle, gingle^, chink,
clink; tink^, tinkle; chime; gurgle &c 405; plash, goggle, echo, ring in
the ear.
Adj. resounding &c v.; resonant, reverberant, tinnient^, tintinnabulary;
sonorous, booming, deep-toned, deep-sounding, deep-mouthed, vibrant;
hollow, sepulchral; gruff &c (harsh) 410.
Phr. sweet bells jangled, out of time and harsh [Hamlet]; echoing down
the mountain and through the dell.

408a. Nonresonance^ -- N. thud, thump, dead sound; nonresonance^;
muffled drums, cracked bell; damper; silencer.
V. sound dead; stop the sound, damp the sound, deaden the sound, deaden
the reverberations, dampen the reverberations.
Adj. nonresonant^, dead; dampened, muffled.

409. [Hissing sounds.] Sibilation -- N. sibilance, sibilation; zip;
hiss &c v.; sternutation; high note &c 410.
     [animals that hiss] goose, serpent, snake (animal sounds) 412.
     [animals that buzz] insect, bug; bee, mosquito, wasp, fly.
     [inanimate things that hiss] tea kettle, pressure cooker; air
valve, pressure release valve, safety valve, tires, air escaping from
tires, punctured tire; escaping steam, steam, steam radiator, steam
release valve.
V. hiss, buzz, whiz, rustle; fizz, fizzle; wheeze, whistle, snuffle;
squash; sneeze; sizzle, swish.
Adj. sibilant; hissing &c v.; wheezy; sternutative^.

410. [Harsh sounds.] Stridor -- N. creak &c v.; creaking &c v.;
discord, &c 414; stridor; roughness, sharpness, &c adj.; cacophony;
     acute note, high note; soprano, treble, tenor, alto, falsetto,
penny trumpet, voce di testa [It].
V. creak, grate, jar, burr, pipe, twang, jangle, clank, clink; scream
&c (cry) 411; yelp &c (animal sound) 412; buzz &c (hiss) 409.
     set the teeth on edge, corcher les oreilles [Fr.]; pierce the
ears, split the ears, split the head; offend the ear, grate upon the
ear, jar upon the ear.
Adj. creaking &c v.; stridulous^, harsh, coarse, hoarse, horrisonous^,
rough, gruff, grum^, sepulchral, hollow.
     sharp, high, acute, shrill; trumpet-toned; piercing, ear-piercing,
high-pitched, high-toned; cracked; discordant &c 414; cacophonous.

411. Cry -- N. cry &c v.; voice &c (human) 580; hubbub; bark &c
(animal) 412.
     vociferation, outcry, hullabaloo, chorus, clamor, hue and cry,
plaint; lungs; stentor.
V. cry, roar, shout, bawl, brawl, halloo, halloa, hoop, whoop, yell,
bellow, howl, scream, screech, screak^, shriek, shrill, squeak, squeal,
squall, whine, pule, pipe, yaup^.
     cheer; hoot; grumble, moan, groan.
     snore, snort; grunt &c (animal sounds) 412.
     vociferate; raise up the voice, lift up the voice; call out, sing
out, cry out; exclaim; rend the air; thunder at the top of one's voice,
shout at the top of one's voice, shout at the pitch of one's breath,
thunder at the pitch of one's breath; s'_egosiller; strain the throat,
strain the voice, strain the lungs; give a cry &c
Adj. crying &c v.; clamant^, clamorous; vociferous; stentorian &c (loud)
404; open-mouthed.

412. [Animal sounds.] Ululation -- N. cry &c v.; crying &c v.; bowwow,
ululation, latration^, belling; reboation^; wood-note; insect cry,
fritiniancy^, drone; screech owl; cuckoo.
     wailing (lamentation) 839.
V. cry, roar, bellow, blare, rebellow^; growl, snarl.
     [specific animal sounds] bark [dog, seal]; bow-wow, yelp [dog];
bay, bay at the moon [dog, wolf]; yap, yip, yipe, growl, yarr^, yawl,
snarl, howl [dog, wolf]; grunt, gruntle^; snort [pig, hog, swine,
horse]; squeak, [swine, mouse]; neigh, whinny [horse]; bray [donkey,
mule, hinny, ass]; mew, mewl [kitten]; meow [cat]; purr [cat];
caterwaul, pule [cats]; baa^, bleat [lamb]; low, moo [cow, cattle];
troat^, croak, peep [frog]; coo [dove, pigeon]; gobble [turkeys]; quack
[duck]; honk, gaggle, guggle [goose]; crow, caw, squawk, screech,
[crow]; cackle, cluck, clack [hen, rooster, poultry]; chuck, chuckle;
hoot, hoo [owl]; chirp, cheep, chirrup, twitter, cuckoo, warble, trill,
tweet, pipe, whistle [small birds]; hum [insects, hummingbird]; buzz
[flying insects, bugs]; hiss [snakes, geese]; blatter^; ratatat
Adj. crying &c v.; blatant, latrant^, remugient^, mugient^; deep-mouthed,
full-mouthed; rebellowing^, reboant^.
Adv. in full cry.

413. Melody. Concord -- N. melody, rhythm, measure; rhyme &c (poetry)
     pitch, timbre, intonation, tone.
     scale, gamut; diapason; diatonic chromatic scale^, enharmonic
scale^; key, clef, chords.
     modulation, temperament, syncope, syncopation, preparation,
suspension, resolution.
     staff, stave, line, space, brace; bar, rest; appoggiato^,
appoggiatura^; acciaccatura^.
     note, musical note, notes of a scale; sharp, flat, natural; high
note &c (shrillness) 410; low note &c 408; interval; semitone; second,
third, fourth &c; diatessaron^.
     breve, semibreve [Mus.], minim, crotchet, quaver; semiquaver,
demisemiquaver, hemidemisemiquaver; sustained note, drone, burden.
     tonic; key note, leading note, fundamental note; supertonic^,
mediant^, dominant; submediant^, subdominant^; octave, tetrachord^; major
key, minor key, major scale, minor scale, major mode, minor mode;
passage, phrase.
     concord, harmony; emmeleia^; unison, unisonance^; chime, homophony;
euphony, euphonism^; tonality; consonance; consent; part.
     [Science of harmony] harmony, harmonics; thorough-bass,
fundamental-bass; counterpoint; faburden^.
     piece of music &c 415 [Fr.]; composer, harmonist^, contrapuntist
(musician) 416.
V. be harmonious &c adj.; harmonize, chime, symphonize^, transpose; put
in tune, tune, accord, string.
Adj. harmonious, harmonical^; in concord &c n., in tune, in concert;
unisonant^, concentual^, symphonizing^, isotonic, homophonous^, assonant;
ariose^, consonant.
     measured, rhythmical, diatonic^, chromatic, enharmonic^.
     melodious, musical; melic^; tuneful, tunable; sweet, dulcet,
canorous^; mellow, mellifluous; soft, clear, clear as a bell; silvery;
euphonious, euphonic, euphonical^; symphonious; enchanting &c (pleasure-
giving) 829; fine-toned, full-toned, silver-toned.
Adv. harmoniously, in harmony; as one &c adj..
Phr. the hidden soul of harmony [Milton].

414. Discord -- N. discord, discordance; dissonance, cacophony, want of
harmony, caterwauling; harshness &c 410.
     [Confused sounds], Babel, Dutch concert, cat's concert;
marrowbones and cleavers.
V. be discordant &c adj.; jar &c (sound harshly) 410.
Adj. discordant; dissonant, absonant^; out of tune, tuneless; unmusical,
untunable^; unmelodious, immelodious^; unharmonious^, inharmonious;
singsong; cacophonous; harsh &c 410; jarring.

415. Music -- N. music; concert; strain, tune, air; melody &c 413;
aria, arietta^; piece of music [Fr.], work, number, opus; sonata; rondo,
rondeau [Fr.]; pastorale, cavatina^, roulade^, fantasia, concerto,
overture, symphony, variations, cadenza; cadence; fugue, canon,
quodlibet, serenade, notturno [It], dithyramb; opera, operetta;
oratorio; composition, movement; stave; passamezzo [It], toccata,
Vorspiel [G.].
     instrumental music; full score; minstrelsy, tweedledum and
tweedledee, band, orchestra; concerted piece [Fr.], potpourri,
     vocal music, vocalism^; chaunt, chant; psalm, psalmody; hymn; song
&c (poem) 597; canticle, canzonet^, cantata, bravura, lay, ballad,
ditty, carol, pastoral, recitative, recitativo^, solfeggio^.
     Lydian measures; slow music, slow movement; adagio &c adv.;
minuet; siren strains, soft music, lullaby; dump; dirge &c (lament)
839; pibroch^; martial music, march; dance music; waltz &c (dance) 840.
     solo, duet, duo, trio; quartet, quartett^; septett^; part song,
descant, glee, madrigal, catch, round, chorus, chorale; antiphon^,
antiphony; accompaniment, second, bass; score; bourdon^, drone,
morceau^, terzetto^.
     composer &c 413; musician &c 416.
V. compose, perform &c 416; attune.
Adj. musical; instrumental, vocal, choral, lyric, operatic; harmonious
&c 413; Wagnerian.
Adv. adagio; largo, larghetto, andante, andantino^; alla capella [It];
maestoso^, moderato; allegro, allegretto; spiritoso^, vivace^, veloce^;
presto, prestissimo^; con brio; capriccioso^; scherzo, scherzando^;
legato, staccato, crescendo, diminuendo, rallentando^, affettuoso^;
obbligato; pizzicato; desto^.
Phr. in notes by distance made more sweet [Collins]; like the faint
exquisite music of a dream [Moore]; music arose with its voluptuous
swell [Byron]; music is the universal language of mankind [Longfellow];
music's golden tongue [Keats]; the speech of angels [Carlyle]; will
sing the savageness out of a bear [Othello]; music hath charms to
soothe the savage beast.

416. Musician [Performance of Music.] -- N. musician, artiste,
performer, player, minstrel; bard &c (poet) 597; [specific types of
musicians] accompanist, accordionist, instrumentalist, organist,
pianist, violinist, flautist; harper, fiddler, fifer^, trumpeter, piper,
drummer; catgut scraper.
     band, orchestral waits.
     vocalist, melodist; singer, warbler; songster, chaunter^,
chauntress^, songstress; cantatrice^.
     choir, quire, chorister; chorus, chorus singer; liedertafel [G.].
     nightingale, philomel^, thrush; siren; bulbul, mavis; Pierides;
sacred nine; Orpheus, Apollo^, the Muses Erato, Euterpe, Terpsichore;
tuneful nine, tuneful quire.
     composer &c 413.
     performance, execution, touch, expression, solmization^.
V. play, pipe, strike up, sweep the chords, tweedle, fiddle; strike the
lyre, beat the drum; blow the horn, sound the horn, wind the horn;
doodle; grind the organ; touch the guitar &c (instruments) 417; thrum,
strum, beat time.
     execute, perform; accompany; sing a second, play a second;
compose, set to music, arrange.
     sing, chaunt, chant, hum, warble, carol, chirp, chirrup, lilt,
purl, quaver, trill, shake, twitter, whistle; sol-fa^; intone.
     have an ear for music, have a musical ear, have a correct ear.
Adj. playing &c v.; musical.
Adv. adagio, andante &c (music) 415.

417. Musical Instruments -- N. musical instruments; band; string-band,
brass-band; orchestra; orchestrina^.
     [Stringed instruments], monochord^, polychord^; harp, lyre, lute,
archlute^; mandola^, mandolin, mandoline^; guitar; zither; cither^,
cithern^; gittern^, rebeck^, bandurria^, bandura, banjo; bina^, vina^;
     viol, violin, fiddle, kit; viola, viola d'amore [Fr.], viola di
gamba [It]; tenor, cremona, violoncello, bass; bass viol, base viol;
theorbo^, double base, contrabasso^, violone^, psaltery [Slang]; bow,
     piano, pianoforte; harpsichord, clavichord, clarichord^,
manichord^; clavier, spinet, virginals, dulcimer, hurdy-gurdy, vielle^,
pianino^, Eolian harp.
     [Wind instruments]; organ, harmonium, harmoniphon^; American
organ^, barrel organ, hand organ; accordion, seraphina^, concertina;
humming top.
     flute, fife, piccolo, flageolet; clarinet, claronet^; basset horn,
corno di bassetto [It], oboe, hautboy, cor Anglais [Fr.], corno
Inglese^, bassoon, double bassoon, contrafagotto^, serpent, bass
clarinet; bagpipes, union pipes; musette, ocarina, Pandean pipes; reed
instrument; sirene^, pipe, pitch-pipe; sourdet^; whistle, catcall;
doodlesack^, harmoniphone^.
     horn, bugle, cornet, cornet-a-pistons, cornopean^, clarion,
trumpet, trombone, ophicleide^; French horn, saxophone, sax [Slang],
buglehorn^, saxhorn, flugelhorn^, althorn^, helicanhorn^, posthorn^;
sackbut, euphonium, bombardon tuba^.
     [Vibrating surfaces] cymbal, bell, gong; tambour^, tambourine,
tamborine^; drum, tom-tom; tabor, tabret^, tabourine^, taborin^; side
drum, kettle drum; timpani, tympani^; tymbal^, timbrel^, castanet, bones;
musical glasses, musical stones; harmonica, sounding-board, rattle;
tam-tam, zambomba^.
     [Vibrating bars] reed, tuning fork, triangle, Jew's harp, musical
box, harmonicon^, xylophone.
     sordine^, sordet^; sourdine^, sourdet^; mute.

418. [Sense of sound.] Hearing -- N. hearing &c v.; audition,
auscultation; eavesdropping; audibility.
     acute ear, nice ear, delicate ear, quick ear, sharp ear, correct
ear, musical ear; ear for music.
     ear, auricle, lug, acoustic organs, auditory apparatus; eardrum,
tympanum, tympanic membrane.
     [devices to aid human hearing by amplifying sound] ear trumpet,
speaking trumpet, hearing aid, stethoscope.
     [distance within which direct hearing is possible] earshot,
hearing distance, hearing, hearing range, sound, carrying distance.
     [devices for talking beyond hearing distance: list] telephone,
phone, telephone booth, intercom, house phone, radiotelephone,
radiophone, wireless, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, car radio,
police radio, two-way radio, walkie-talkie [Mil.], handie-talkie,
citizen's band, CB, amateur radio, ham radio, short-wave radio, police
band, ship-to-shore radio, airplane radio, control tower communication;
(communication) 525, 527, 529, 531, 532; electronic devices [devices
for recording and reproducing recorded sound], phonograph, gramophone,
megaphone, phonorganon^.
     [device to convert sound to electrical signals] microphone,
directional microphone, mike, hand mike, lapel microphone.
     [devices to convert recorded sound to electronic signals]
phonograph needle, stylus, diamond stylus, pickup; reading head
(electronic devices).
     hearer, auditor, listener, eavesdropper, listener-in.
     auditory, audience.
     [science of hearing] otology, otorhinolaryngology.
     [physicians specializing in hearing] otologist,
V. hear, overhear; hark, harken; list, listen, pay attention, take
heed; give an ear, lend an ear, bend an ear; catch, catch a sound,
prick up one's ears; give ear, give a hearing, give audience to.
     hang upon the lips of, be all ears, listen with both ears.
     become audible; meet the ear, fall upon the ear, catch the ear,
reach the ear; be heard; ring in the ear &c (resound) 408.
Adj. hearing &c v.; auditory, auricular, acoustic; phonic.
Adv. arrectis auribus [Lat.].
Int. hark, hark ye!, hear!, list, listen!, O yes!, Oyez!, listen up
[Coll.]; listen here!, hear ye!, attention!, achtung [G.].

419. Deafness -- N. deafness, hardness of hearing, surdity^;
inaudibility, inaudibleness^.
V. be deaf &c adj.; have no ear; shut one's ears, stop one's ears,
close one's ears; turn a deaf ear to.
     render deaf, stun, deafen.
Adj. deaf, earless^, surd; hard of hearing, dull of hearing; deaf-mute,
stunned, deafened; stone deaf; deaf as a post, deaf as an adder, deaf
as a beetle, deaf as a trunkmaker^.
     inaudible, out of hearing.
Phr. hear no evil.
(6) Light

420. Light -- N. light, ray, beam, stream, gleam, streak, pencil;
sunbeam, moonbeam; aurora.
     day; sunshine; light of day, light of heaven; moonlight,
starlight, sunlight &c (luminary) 432; daylight, broad daylight,
noontide light; noontide, noonday, noonday sun.
     glow &c v.; glimmering &c v.; glint; play of light, flood of
light; phosphorescence, lambent flame.
     flush, halo, glory, nimbus, aureola.
     spark, scintilla; facula; sparkling &c v.; emication^,
scintillation, flash, blaze, coruscation, fulguration^; flame &c (fire)
382; lightning, levin^, ignis fatuus [Lat.], &c (luminary) 423.
     luster, sheen, shimmer, reflexion [Brit.], reflection; gloss,
tinsel, spangle, brightness, brilliancy, splendor; effulgence,
refulgence; fulgor^, fulgidity^; dazzlement^, resplendence,
transplendency^; luminousness &c adj.; luminosity; lucidity; renitency^,
nitency^; radiance, radiation; irradiation, illumination.
     actinic rays, actinism; Roentgen-ray, Xray; photography,
heliography; photometer &c 445.
     [Science of light] optics; photology^, photometry; dioptrics^,
     [Distribution of light] chiaroscuro, clairobscur^, clear obscure,
breadth, light and shade, black and white, tonality.
     reflection, refraction, dispersion; refractivity.
V. shine, glow, glitter; glister, glisten; twinkle, gleam; flare, flare
up; glare, beam, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, scintillate,
coruscate, flash, blaze; be bright &c adj.; reflect light, daze,
dazzle, bedazzle, radiate, shoot out beams; fulgurate.
     clear up, brighten.
     lighten, enlighten; levin^; light, light up; irradiate, shine upon;
give out a light, hang out a light; cast light upon, cast light in,
throw light upon, throw light in, shed light upon, shed luster upon;
illume^, illumine, illuminate; relume^, strike a light; kindle &c (set
fire to) 384.
Adj. shining &c v.; luminous, luminiferous^; lucid, lucent, luculent^,
lucific^, luciferous; light, lightsome; bright, vivid, splendent^,
nitid^, lustrous, shiny, beamy^, scintillant^, radiant, lambent; sheen,
sheeny; glossy, burnished, glassy, sunny, orient, meridian; noonday,
tide; cloudless, clear; unclouded, unobscured^.
     gairish^, garish; resplendent, transplendent^; refulgent,
effulgent; fulgid^, fulgent^; relucent^, splendid, blazing, in a blaze,
ablaze, rutilant^, meteoric, phosphorescent; aglow.
     bright as silver; light as day, bright as day, light as noonday,
bright as noonday, bright as the sun at noonday.
     actinic; photogenic, graphic; heliographic; heliophagous^.
Phr. a day for gods to stoop and men to soar [Tennyson]; dark with
excessive bright [Milton].

421. Darkness -- N. darkness &c adj., absence of light; blackness &c
(dark color) 431; obscurity, gloom, murk; dusk &c (dimness) 422.
     Cimmerian darkness^, Stygian darkness, Egyptian darkness; night;
midnight; dead of night, witching hour of night, witching time of
night; blind man's holiday; darkness visible, darkness that can be
felt; palpable obscure; Erebus [Lat.]; the jaws of darkness [Midsummer
Night's Dream]; sablevested night [Milton].
     shade, shadow, umbra, penumbra; sciagraphy^.
     obscuration; occultation, adumbration, obumbration^;
obtenebration^, offuscation^, caligation^; extinction; eclipse, total
eclipse; gathering of the clouds.
     shading; distribution of shade; chiaroscuro &c (light) 420.
     [perfectly black objects] black body; hohlraum [Phys.]; black
hole; dark star; dark matter, cold dark matter.
V. be dark &c adj.. darken, obscure, shade; dim; tone down, lower;
overcast, overshadow; eclipse; obfuscate, offuscate^; obumbrate^,
adumbrate; cast into the shade becloud, bedim^, bedarken^; cast a shade,
throw a shade, spread a shade, cast a shadow, cast a gloom, throw a
shadow, spread a shadow, cast gloom, throw gloom, spread gloom.
     extinguish; put out, blow out, snuff out; doubt.
     turn out the lights, douse the lights, dim the lights, turn off
the lights, switch off the lights.
Adj. dark, darksome^, darkling; obscure, tenebrious^, sombrous^, pitch
dark, pitchy, pitch black; caliginous^; black &c (in color) 431.
     sunless, lightless &c (sun) (light), &c 423; somber, dusky;
unilluminated &c (illuminate) &c 420 [Obs.]; nocturnal; dingy, lurid,
gloomy; murky, murksome^; shady, umbrageous; overcast &c (dim) 422;
cloudy &c (opaque) 426; darkened; &c v.. dark as pitch, dark as a pit,
dark as Erebus [Lat.].
     benighted; noctivagant^, noctivagous^.
Adv. in the dark, in the shade.
Phr. brief as the lightning in the collied night [M.
     D.]; eldest Night and Chaos, ancestors of Nature [Paradise Lost];
the blackness of the noonday night [Longfellow]; the prayer of Ajax was
for light [Longfellow].

422. Dimness -- N. dimness &c adj.; darkness &c 421; paleness &c (light
color) 429.
     half light, demi-jour; partial shadow, partial eclipse; shadow of
a shade; glimmer, gliming^; nebulosity; cloud &c 353; eclipse.
     aurora, dusk, twilight, shades of evening, crepuscule, cockshut
time^; break of day, daybreak, dawn.
     moonlight, moonbeam, moonglade^, moonshine; starlight, owl's light,
candlelight, rushlight, firelight; farthing candle.
V. be dim, grow dim &c adj.; flicker, twinkle, glimmer; loom, lower;
fade; pale, pale its ineffectual fire [Hamlet].
     render dim &c adj.; dim, bedim^, obscure; darken, tone down.
Adj. dim, dull, lackluster, dingy, darkish, shorn of its beams, dark
     faint, shadowed forth; glassy; cloudy; misty &c (opaque) 426;
blear; muggy^, fuliginous^; nebulous, nebular; obnubilated^, overcast,
crepuscular, muddy, lurid, leaden, dun, dirty; looming &c v.. pale &c
(colorless) 429; confused &c (invisible) 447.

423. [Source of light, self-luminous body.] Luminary -- N. luminary;
light &c 420; flame &c (fire) 382.
     spark, scintilla; phosphorescence, fluorescence.
     sun, orb of day, Phoebus, Apollo^, Aurora; star, orb; meteor,
falling star, shooting star; blazing star, dog star, Sirius; canicula,
Aldebaran^; constellation, galaxy; zodiacal light; anthelion^; day star,
morning star; Lucifer; mock sun, parhelion; phosphor, phosphorus; sun
dog^; Venus.
     aurora, polar lights; northern lights, aurora borealis; southern
lights, aurora australis.
     lightning; chain lightning, fork lightning, sheet lightning,
summer lightning; ball lightning, kugelblitz [G.]; [chemical substances
giving off light without burning] phosphorus, yellow phosphorus;
scintillator, phosphor; firefly luminescence.
     ignis fatuus [Lat.]; Jack o'lantern, Friar's lantern; will-o'-the-
wisp, firedrake^, Fata Morgana [Lat.]; Saint Elmo's fire.
     [luminous insects] glowworm, firefly, June bug, lightning bug.
     [luminous fish] anglerfish.
     [Artificial light] gas; gas light, lime light, lantern, lanthorn^;
dark lantern, bull's-eye; candle, bougie [Fr.], taper, rushlight; oil
&c (grease) 356; wick, burner; Argand^, moderator, duplex; torch,
flambeau, link, brand; gaselier^, chandelier, electrolier^, candelabrum,
candelabra, girandole^, sconce, luster, candlestick.
     [non-combustion based light sources] lamp, light; incandescent
lamp, tungsten bulb, light bulb; flashlight, torch [Brit.]; arc light;
laser; [microwave radiation]; maser neon bulb, neon sign; fluorescent
     [parts of a light bulb] filament; socket; contacts; filler gas.
     firework, fizgig^; pyrotechnics; rocket, lighthouse &c (signal)
V. illuminate &c (light) 420.
Adj. self-luminous, glowing; phosphoric^, phosphorescent, fluorescent;
incandescent; luminescent, chemiluminescent; radiant &c (light) 420.
Phr. blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels
[Longfellow]; the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky [Campbell];
the planets in their station list'ning stood [Paradise Lost]; the
Scriptures of the skies [Bailey]; that orbed continent, the fire that
severs day from night [Twelfth Night].

424. Shade -- N. shade; awning &c (cover) 223; parasol, sunshade,
umbrella; chick; portiere; screen, curtain, shutter, blind, gauze,
veil, chador, mantle, mask; cloud, mist, gathering.
     of clouds.
     umbrage, glade; shadow &c 421.
     beach umbrella, folding umbrella.
V. draw a curtain; put up a shutter, close a shutter; veil &c v.; cast
a shadow &c (darken) 421.
Adj. shady, umbrageous.
Phr. welcome ye shades! ye bowery thickets hail [Thomson].

425. Transparency -- N. transparence, transparency; clarity;
translucence, translucency; diaphaneity^; lucidity, pellucidity^,
limpidity; fluorescence; transillumination, translumination^.
     transparent medium, glass, crystal, lymph, vitrite^, water.
V. be transparent &c adj.; transmit light.
Adj. transparent, pellucid, lucid, diaphanous, translucent, tralucent^,
relucent^; limpid, clear, serene, crystalline, clear as crystal,
vitreous, transpicuous^, glassy, hyaline; hyaloid [Med.], vitreform^.

426. Opacity -- N. opacity; opaqueness &c adj.. film; cloud &c 353.
V. be opaque &c adj.; obstruct the passage of light; obfuscate,
Adj. opaque, impervious to light; adiaphanous^; dim &c 422; turbid,
thick, muddy, opacous^, obfuscated, fuliginous^, cloud, hazy, misty,
foggy, vaporous, nubiferous^, muggy^ &c (turbidity) 426.1.
     smoky, fumid^, murky, dirty.

426a. Turbidity -- N. turbidity, cloudiness, fog, haze, muddiness,
haziness, obscurity.
     nephelometer [instrument to measure turbidity].
Adj. turbid, thick, muddy, obfuscated, fuliginous^, hazy, misty, foggy,
vaporous, nubiferous^; cloudy (cloud) 353.
     smoky, fumid^, murky, dirty.

427. Semitransparency -- N. semitransparency, translucency,
semiopacity; opalescence, milkiness, pearliness^; gauze, muslin; film;
mica, mother-of-pearl, nacre; mist &c (cloud) 353.
     [opalescent jewel] opal.
     turbidity &c 426.1.
Adj. semitransparent, translucent, semipellucid^, semidiaphanous^,
semiopacous^, semiopaque; opalescent, opaline^; pearly, milky; frosted,
V. opalesce.

428. Color -- N. color, hue, tint, tinge, dye, complexion, shade,
tincture, cast, livery, coloration, glow, flush; tone, key.
     pure color, positive color, primary color, primitive complementary
color; three primaries; spectrum, chromatic dispersion; broken color,
secondary color, tertiary color.
     local color, coloring, keeping, tone, value, aerial perspective.
     [Science of color] chromatics, spectrum analysis, spectroscopy;
chromatism^, chromatography^, chromatology^.
     [instruments to measure color] prism, spectroscope, spectrograph,
spectrometer, colorimeter (optical instruments) 445.
     pigment, coloring matter, paint, dye, wash, distemper, stain;
medium; mordant; oil paint &c (painting) 556.
V. color, dye, tinge, stain, tint, tinct^, paint, wash, ingrain, grain,
illuminate, emblazon, bedizen, imbue; paint &c (fine art) 556.
Adj. colored &c v.; colorific^, tingent^, tinctorial^; chromatic,
prismatic; full-colored, high-colored, deep-colored; doubly-dyed;
polychromatic; chromatogenous^; tingible^.
     bright, vivid, intense, deep; fresh, unfaded^; rich, gorgeous; gay.
     gaudy, florid; gay, garish; rainbow-colored, multihued; showy,
flaunting, flashy; raw, crude; glaring, flaring; discordant,
     mellow, pastel, harmonious, pearly, sweet, delicate, tender,

429. [Absence of color.] Achromatism -- N. achromatism^; decoloration^,
discoloration; pallor, pallidness, pallidity^; paleness &c adj.;
etiolation; neutral tint, monochrome, black and white.
V. lose color &c 428; fade, fly, go; become colorless &c adj.; turn
pale, pale.
     deprive of color, decolorize, bleach, tarnish, achromatize,
blanch, etiolate, wash out, tone down.
Adj. uncolored &c (color) &c 428; colorless, achromatic, aplanatic^;
etiolate, etiolated; hueless^, pale, pallid; palefaced^, tallow-faced;
faint, dull, cold, muddy, leaden, dun, wan, sallow, dead, dingy, ashy,
ashen, ghastly, cadaverous, glassy, lackluster; discolored &c v..
light-colored, fair, blond; white &c 430.
     pale as death, pale as ashes, pale as a witch, pale as a ghost,
pale as a corpse, white as a corpse.

430. Whiteness -- N. whiteness &c adj.; argent.
     albification^, etiolation; lactescence^.
     snow, paper, chalk, milk, lily, ivory, alabaster; albata^, eburin^,
German silver, white metal, barium sulphate [Chem], titanium oxide,
blanc fixe [Fr.], ceruse^, pearl white; white lead, carbonate of lead.
V. be white &c adj.. render white &c adj.; whiten, bleach, blanch,
etiolate, whitewash, silver.
Adj. white; milk-white, snow-white; snowy; niveous^, candid, chalky;
hoar, hoary; silvery; argent, argentine; canescent^, cretaceous,
     whitish, creamy, pearly, fair, blond; blanched &c v.; high in
tone, light.
     white as a sheet, white as driven snow, white as a lily, white as
silver; like ivory &c n..

431. Blackness -- N. blackness, &c adj.; darkness, &c (want of light)..
421; swartliness^, lividity, dark color, tone, color; chiaroscuro &c
     nigrification^, infuscation^.
     jet, ink, ebony, coal pitch, soot, charcoal, sloe, smut, raven,
     [derogatory terms for black-skinned people] negro, blackamoor, man
of color, nigger, darkie, Ethiop, black; buck, nigger [U.S.]; coon
[U.S.], sambo.
     [Pigments] lampblack, ivory black, blueblack; writing ink,
printing ink, printer's ink, Indian ink, India ink.
V. be black &c adj.; render black &c adj.. blacken, infuscate^,
denigrate; blot, blotch; smutch^; smirch; darken &c 421.
     black, sable, swarthy, somber, dark, inky, ebony, ebon,
atramentous^, jetty; coal-black, jet-black; fuliginous^, pitchy, sooty,
swart, dusky, dingy, murky, Ethiopic; low-toned, low in tone; of the
deepest dye.
     black as jet &c n., black as my hat, black as a shoe, black as a
tinker's pot, black as November, black as thunder, black as midnight;
nocturnal &c (dark) 421; nigrescent^; gray &c 432; obscure &c 421.
Adv. in mourning.

432. Gray -- N. gray &c adj.; neutral tint, silver, pepper and salt,
chiaroscuro, grisaille [Fr.].
     [Pigments] Payne's gray; black &c 431.
Adj. gray, grey; iron-gray, dun, drab, dingy, leaden, livid, somber,
sad, pearly, russet, roan; calcareous, limy, favillous^; silver,
silvery, silvered; ashen, ashy; cinereous^, cineritious^; grizzly,
grizzled; slate-colored, stone-colored, mouse-colored, ash-colored;

433. Brown -- N. brown &c adj.. [Pigments],, bister ocher, sepia,
Vandyke brown.
V. render brown &c adj.; tan, embrown^, bronze.
Adj. brown, bay, dapple, auburn, castaneous^, chestnut, nut-brown,
cinnamon, russet, tawny, fuscous^, chocolate, maroon, foxy, tan,
brunette, whitey brown^; fawn-colored, snuff-colored, liver-colored;
brown as a berry, brown as mahogany, brown as the oak leaves; khaki.
     sun-burnt; tanned &c v..

Primitive Colors

434. Redness -- N. red, scarlet, vermilion, carmine, crimson, pink,
lake, maroon, carnation, couleur de rose [Fr.], rose du Barry^; magenta,
damask, purple; flesh color, flesh tint; color; fresh color, high
color; warmth; gules [Heral.].
     ruby, carbuncle; rose; rust, iron mold.
     [Dyes and pigments] cinnabar, cochineal; fuchsine^; ruddle^,
madder; Indian red, light red, Venetian red; red ink, annotto^;
annatto^, realgar, minium^, red lead.
     redness &c adj.; rubescence^, rubicundity, rubification^;
erubescence^, blush.
V. be red, become red &c adj.; blush, flush, color up, mantle, redden.
     render red &c adj.; redden, rouge; rubify^, rubricate;
incarnadine.; ruddle^.
Adj. red &c n., reddish; rufous, ruddy, florid, incarnadine, sanguine;
rosy, roseate; blowzy, blowed^; burnt; rubicund, rubiform^; lurid,
stammell blood red^; russet buff, murrey^, carroty^, sorrel,
lateritious^; rubineous^, rubricate, rubricose^, rufulous^.
     rose-colored, ruby-colored, cherry-colored, claret-colored, flame-
colored, flesh-colored, peach-colored, salmon-colored, brick-colored,
brick-colored, dust-colored.
     blushing &c v.; erubescent^; reddened &c v.. red as fire, red as
blood, red as scarlet, red as a turkey cock, red as a lobster; warm,
hot; foxy.

Complementary Colors

435. Greenness -- N. green &c adj.; blue and yellow; vert [Heral.].
     emerald, verd antique [Fr.], verdigris, malachite, beryl,
aquamarine; absinthe, cr=eme de menthe [Fr.].
     [Pigments] terre verte [Fr.], verditer^, verdine^, copperas.
     greenness, verdure; viridity^, viridescence^; verditure^.
     [disease of eyes with green tint] glaucoma, rokunaisho [Jap.Tr.].
Adj. green, verdant; glaucous, olive, olive green; green as grass;
     emerald green, pea green, grass green, apple green, sea green,
olive green, bottle green, coke bottle green.
     greenish; virent^, virescent^.
     green (learner) 541, new, inexperienced, novice, (unskillful) 699.
     green (ill, sick).
Phr. green with envy; the green grass of Ireland; the wearing of the

436. Yellowness -- N. yellow &c adj.; or.
     [Pigments] gamboge; cadmium-yellow, chrome-yellow, Indian-yellow
king's-yellow, lemonyellow; orpiment^, yellow ocher, Claude tint,
aureolin^; xanthein [Chem], xanthin^; zaofulvin^.
     crocus, saffron, topaz; xanthite^; yolk.
     jaundice; London fog^; yellowness &c adj.; icterus^; xantho-
cyanopia^, xanthopsia [Med.].
Adj. yellow, aureate, golden, flavous^, citrine, fallow; fulvous^,
fulvid^; sallow, luteous^, tawny, creamy, sandy; xanthic^, xanthous^;
jaundiced^, auricomous^.
     gold-colored, citron-colored, saffron-colored, lemon-colored,
lemon yellow, sulphur-colored, amber-colored, straw-colored, primrose-
colored, creamcolored; xanthocarpous^, xanthochroid^, xanthopous^.
     yellow as a quince, yellow as a guinea, yellow as a crow's foot.
     warm, advancing.

437. Purple -- N. purple &c adj.; blue and red, bishop's purple;
aniline dyes, gridelin^, amethyst; purpure [Heral.]; heliotrope.
     lividness, lividity.
V. empurple^.
Adj. purple, violet, ultraviolet; plum-colored, lavender, lilac, puce,
mauve; livid.

438. Blueness -- N. blue &c adj.; garter-blue; watchet^.
     [Pigments] ultramarine, smalt, cobalt, cyanogen [Chem]; Prussian
blue, syenite blue^; bice^, indigo; zaffer^.
     lapis lazuli, sapphire, turquoise; indicolite^.
     blueness, bluishness; bloom.
Adj. blue, azure, cerulean; sky-blue, sky-colored, sky-dyed;
cerulescent^; powder blue, bluish; atmospheric, retiring; cold.

439. Orange -- N. orange, red and yellow; gold; or; flame color &c
adj.. [Pigments] ocher, Mars'orange^, cadmium.
     cardinal bird, cardinal flower, cardinal grosbeak, cardinal
lobelia (a flowering plant).
V. gild, warm.
Adj. orange; ochreous^; orange-colored, gold-colored, flame-colored,
copper-colored, brass-colored, apricot-colored; warm, hot, glowing.

440. Variegation -- N. variegation; colors, dichroism, trichroism;
iridescence, play of colors, polychrome, maculation, spottiness,
     spectrum, rainbow, iris, tulip, peacock, chameleon, butterfly,
tortoise shell; mackerel, mackerel sky; zebra, leopard, cheetah, nacre,
ocelot, ophite^, mother-of-pearl, opal, marble.
     check, plaid, tartan, patchwork; marquetry-, parquetry; mosaic,
tesserae^, strigae^; chessboard, checkers, chequers; harlequin; Joseph's
coat; tricolor.
V. be variegated &c adj.; variegate, stripe, streak, checker, chequer;
bespeckle^, speckle; besprinkle, sprinkle; stipple, maculate, dot,
bespot^; tattoo, inlay, damascene; embroider, braid, quilt.
Adj. variegated &c v.; many-colored, many-hued; divers-colored, party-
colored; dichromatic, polychromatic; bicolor^, tricolor, versicolor^; of
all the colors of the rainbow, of all manner of colors; kaleidoscopic.
     iridescent; opaline^, opalescent; prismatic, nacreous, pearly,
shot, gorge de pigeon, chatoyant^; irisated^, pavonine^.
     pied, piebald; motley; mottled, marbled; pepper and salt, paned,
dappled, clouded, cymophanous^.
     mosaic, tesselated, plaid; tortoise shell &c n.. spotted, spotty;
punctated^, powdered; speckled &c v.; freckled, flea-bitten, studded;
flecked, fleckered^; striated, barred, veined; brinded^, brindled;
tabby; watered; grizzled; listed; embroidered &c v.; daedal^; naevose^,
stipiform^; strigose^, striolate^.

441. Vision -- N. vision, sight, optics, eyesight.
     view, look, espial^, glance, ken [Scot.], coup d'oeil [Fr.];
glimpse, glint, peep; gaze, stare, leer; perlustration^, contemplation;
conspection^, conspectuity^; regard, survey; introspection;
reconnaissance, speculation, watch, espionage, espionnage [Fr.],
autopsy; ocular inspection, ocular demonstration; sight-seeing.
     point of view; gazebo, loophole, belvedere, watchtower.
     field of view; theater, amphitheater, arena, vista, horizon;
commanding view, bird's eye view; periscope.
     visual organ, organ of vision; eye; naked eye, unassisted eye;
retina, pupil, iris, cornea, white; optics, orbs; saucer eyes, goggle
eyes, gooseberry eyes.
     short sight &c 443; clear sight, sharp sight, quick sight, eagle
sight, piercing sight, penetrating sight, clear glance, sharp glance,
quick glance, eagle glance, piercing glance, penetrating glance, clear
eye, sharp eye, quick eye, eagle eye, piercing eye, penetrating eye;
perspicacity, discernment; catopsis^.
     eagle, hawk; cat, lynx; Argus^.
     evil eye; basilisk, cockatrice [Myth.].
V. see, behold, discern, perceive, have in sight, descry, sight, make
out, discover, distinguish, recognize, spy, espy, ken [Scot.]; get a
sight of, have a sight of, catch a sight of, get a glimpse of, have a
glimpse of, catch a glimpse of; command a view of; witness,
contemplate, speculate; cast the eyes on, set the eyes on; be a
spectator of &c 444; look on &c (be present) 186; see sights &c
(curiosity) 455; see at a glance &c (intelligence) 498.
     look, view, eye; lift up the eyes, open one's eye; look at, look
on, look upon, look over, look about one, look round; survey, scan,
inspect; run the eye over, run the eye through; reconnoiter, glance
round, glance on, glance over turn one's looks upon, bend one's looks
upon; direct the eyes to, turn the eyes on, cast a glance.
     observe &c (attend to) 457; watch &c (care) 459; see with one's
own eyes; watch for &c (expect) 507; peep, peer, pry, take a peep; play
at bopeep^.
     look full in the face, look hard at, look intently; strain one's
eyes; fix the eyes upon, rivet the eyes upon; stare, gaze; pore over,
gloat on; leer, ogle, glare; goggle; cock the eye, squint, gloat, look
Adj. seeing &c v.; visual, ocular; optic, optical; ophthalmic.
     clear-eyesighted &c n.; eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, lynx-eyed, keen-
eyed, Argus-eyed.
     visible &c 446.
Adv. visibly &c 446; in sight of, with one's eyes open at sight, at
first sight, at a glance, at the first blush; prima facie [Lat.].
Int. look!, &c (attention) 457.
Phr. the scales falling from one's eyes; an eye like Mars to threaten
or command [Hamlet]; her eyes are homes of silent prayer [Tennyson];
looking before and after [Hamlet]; thy rapt soul sitting in thine eyes

442. Blindness -- N. blindness, cecity^, excecation^, amaurosis^,
cataract, ablepsy^, ablepsia^, prestriction^; dim-sightedness &c 443;
Braille, Braille-type; guttaserena (drop serene), noctograph^,
V. be blind &c adj.; not see; lose sight of; have the eyes bandaged;
grope in the dark.
     not look; close the eyes, shut the eyes-, turn away the eyes,
avert the eyes; look another way; wink &c (limited vision) 443; shut
the eyes to, be blind to, wink at, blink at.
     render blind &c adj.; blind, blindfold; hoodwink, dazzle, put
one's eyes out; throw dust into one's eyes, pull the wool over one's
eyes; jeter de la poudre aux yeux [Fr.]; screen from sight &c (hide)
Adj. blind; eyeless, sightless, visionless; dark; stone-blind, sand-
blind, stark-blind; undiscerning^; dimsighted &c 443.
     blind as a bat, blind as a buzzard, blind as a beetle, blind as a
mole, blind as an owl; wall-eyed.
     blinded &c v..
Adv. blindly, blindfold, blindfolded; darkly.
Phr. O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon [Milton].

443. [Imperfect vision.] Dimsightedness [Fallacies of vision.] -- N.
dim sight, dull sight half sight, short sight, near sight, long sight,
double sight, astigmatic sight, failing sight; dimsightedness &c;
purblindness, lippitude^; myopia, presbyopia^; confusion of vision;
astigmatism; color blindness, chromato pseudo blepsis^, Daltonism;
nyctalopia^; strabismus, strabism^, squint; blearedness^, day blindness,
hemeralopia^, nystagmus; xanthocyanopia^, xanthopsia [Med.]; cast in the
eye, swivel eye, goggle-eyes; obliquity of vision.
     winking &c v.; nictitation; blinkard^, albino.
     dizziness, swimming, scotomy^; cataract; ophthalmia.
     [Limitation of vision] blinker; screen &c (hider) 530.
     [Fallacies of vision] deceptio visus [Lat.]; refraction,
distortion, illusion, false light, anamorphosis^, virtual image,
spectrum, mirage, looming, phasma^; phantasm, phantasma^, phantom;
vision; specter, apparition, ghost; ignis fatuus [Lat.] &c (luminary)
423; specter of the Brocken; magic mirror; magic lantern &c (show) 448;
mirror lens &c (instrument) 445.
V. be dimsighted &c n.; see double; have a mote in the eye, have a mist
before the eyes, have a film over the eyes; see through a prism, see
through a glass darkly; wink, blink, nictitate; squint; look askant^,
askant askance^; screw up the eyes, glare, glower; nictate^.
     dazzle, loom.
Adj. dim-sighted &c n.; myopic, presbyopic^; astigmatic, moon-eyed,
mope-eyed, blear-eyed, goggle-eyed, gooseberry-eyed, one-eyed; blind of
one eye, monoculous^; half-blind, purblind; cock-eyed, dim-eyed, mole-
eyed; dichroic.
     blind as a bat &c (blind) 442; winking &c v..

444. Spectator -- N. spectator, beholder, observer, looker-on,
onlooker, witness, eyewitness, bystander, passer by; sightseer;
rubberneck, rubbernecker [U.S.].
     spy; sentinel &c (warning) 668.
V. witness, behold &c (see) 441; look on &c (be present) 186; gawk,
rubber [Slang], rubberneck [U.S.].

445. Optical Instruments -- N. optical instruments; lens, meniscus,
magnifier, sunglass, magnifying glass, hand lens; microscope,
megascope^, tienoscope^.
     spectacles, specs [Coll.], glasses, barnacles, goggles, eyeglass,
pince-nez, monocle, reading glasses, bifocals; contact lenses, soft
lenses, hard lenses; sunglasses, shades [Coll.].
     periscopic lens^; telescope, glass, lorgnette; spyglass, opera
glass, binocular, binoculars, field glass; burning glass, convex lens,
concave lens, convexo-concave lens^, coated lens, multiple lens,
compound lens, lens system, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye
lens, zoom lens; optical bench.
     astronomical telescope, reflecting telescope, reflector,
refracting telescope, refractor, Newtonian telescope, folded-path
telescope, finder telescope, chromatoscope; X-ray telescope;
radiotelescope, phased-array telescope, Very Large Array
radiotelescope; ultraviolet telescope; infrared telescope; star
spectroscope; space telescope.
     [telescope mounts] altazimuth mount, equatorial mount.
     refractometer, circular dichroism spectrometer.
     phase-contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, dissecting
microscope; electron microscope, transmission electron microscope;
scanning electron microscope, SEM; scanning tunneling electron
     [microscope components] objective lens, eyepiece, barrel,
platform, focusing knob; slide, slide glass, cover glass, counting
chamber; illuminator, light source, polarizer, [component parts of
telescopes] reticle, cross-hairs.
     light pipe, fiber optics mirror, reflector, speculum; looking-
glass, pier-glass, cheval-glass, rear-view mirror, hand mirror, one-way
mirror, magnifying mirror.
     [room with distorting mirrors] fun house.
     prism, diffraction grating; beam splitter, half-wave plate,
quarter-wave plate.
     camera lucida [Lat.], camera obscura [Lat.]; magic lantern &c
(show) 448; stereopticon; chromatrope^, thaumatrope^; stereoscope,
pseudoscope^, polyscope^, kaleidoscope.
     photometer, eriometer^, actinometer^, lucimeter^, radiometer; ligth
detector, photodiode, photomultiplier, photodiode array, photocell.
     X-ray diffractometer, goniometer.
     spectrometer, monochrometer, UV spectrometer, visible
spectrometer, Infrared spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer, recording spectrometer; densitometer, scanning
densitometer, two-dimensional densitometer.
     abdominoscope^, gastroscope [Med.], helioscope^, polariscope^,
polemoscope^, spectroscope.
     abdominoscopy^; gastroscopy [Med.]; microscopy, microscopist.

446. Visibility -- N. visibility, perceptibility; conspicuousness,
distinctness &c adj.; conspicuity^, conspicuousness; appearance &c 448;
bassetting^; exposure; manifestation &c 525; ocular proof, ocular
evidence, ocular demonstration; field of view &c (vision) 441;
V. be become visible &c adj.; appear, open to the view; meet the eye,
catch the eye; basset; present itself, show manifest itself, produce
itself, discover itself, reveal itself, expose itself, betray itself;
stand forth, stand out; materialize; show; arise; peep out, peer out,
crop out; start up, spring up, show up, turn up, crop up; glimmer,
loom; glare; burst forth; burst upon the view, burst upon the sight;
heave in sight; come in sight, come into view, come out, come forth,
come forward; see the light of day; break through the clouds; make its
appearance, show its face, appear to one's eyes, come upon the stage,
float before the eyes, speak for itself &c (manifest) 525; attract the
attention &c 457; reappear; live in a glass house.
     expose to view &c 525.
Adj. visible, perceptible, perceivable, discernible, apparent; in view,
in full view, in sight; exposed to view, en vidence; unclouded,
unobscured^, in the foreground.
     obvious &c (manifest) 525; plain, clear, distinct, definite; well
defined, well marked; in focus; recognizable, palpable, autoptical^;
glaring, staring, conspicuous; stereoscopic; in bold, in strong relief.
     periscopic^, panoramic.
     before one's eyes, under one's eyes; before one, +a vue d'oeil
[Fr.], in one's eye, oculis subjecta fidelibus [Lat.].
Adv. visibly &c adj.; in sight of; before one's eyes &c adj.; veluti in
speculum [Lat.].

447. Invisibility -- N. invisibility, invisibleness, nonappearance,
imperceptibility; indistinctness &c adj.; mystery, delitescence^.
     concealment &c 528; latency &c 526.
V. be invisible &c adj.; be hidden &c (hide) 528; lurk &c (lie hidden)
526; escape notice.
     render invisible &c adj.; conceal &c 528; put out of sight.
     not see &c (be blind) 442; lose sight of.
Adj. invisible, imperceptible; undiscernible^, indiscernible;
unapparent, non-apparent; out of sight, not in sight; a perte de vue
[Fr.]; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; viewless, sightless;
inconspicuous, unconspicuous^; unseen &c (see) &c 441; covert &c
(latent) 526; eclipsed, under an eclipse.
     dim &c (faint) 422; mysterious, dark, obscure, confused;
indistinct, indistinguishable; shadowy, indefinite, undefined; ill-
defined, ill-marked; blurred, fuzzy, out of focus; misty &c (opaque)
426; delitescent^.
     hidden, obscured, covered, veiled (concealed) 528.
Phr. full many a flower is born to blush unseen [Gray].

448. Appearance -- N. appearance, phenomenon, sight, spectacle, show,
premonstration^, scene, species, view, coup d'oeil [Fr.]; lookout,
outlook, prospect, vista, perspective, bird's-eye view, scenery,
landscape, picture, tableau; display, exposure, mise en sc ne [Fr.];
rising of the curtain.
     phantasm, phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443.
     pageant, spectacle; peep-show, raree-show, gallanty-show; ombres
chinoises [Sp.]; magic lantern, phantasmagoria, dissolving views;
biograph^, cinematograph, moving pictures; panorama, diorama,
cosmorama^, georama^; coup de theatre, jeu de theatre [Fr.]; pageantry
&c (ostentation) 882; insignia &c (indication) 550.
     aspect, angle, phase, phasis^, seeming; shape &c (form) 240; guise,
look, complexion, color, image, mien, air, cast, carriage, port,
demeanor; presence, expression, first blush, face of the thing; point
of view, light.
     lineament feature trait lines; outline, outside; contour, face,
countenance, physiognomy, visage, phiz., cast of countenance, profile,
tournure^, cut of one s jib, metoposcopy^; outside &c 220.
V. appear; be visible, become visible &c 446; seem, look, show; present
the appearance of, wear the appearance of, carry the appearance of,
have the appearance of, bear the appearance of, exhibit the appearance
of, take the appearance of, take on the appearance of, assume the
appearance, present the semblance of, wear the semblance of, carry the
semblance of, have the semblance of, bear the semblance of, exhibit the
semblance of, take the semblance of, take on the semblance of, assume
the semblance of; look like; cut a figure, figure; present to the view;
show &c (make manifest) 525.
Adj. apparent, seeming, ostensible; on view.
Adv. apparently; to all seeming, to all appearance; ostensibly,
seemingly, as it seems, on the face of it, prima facie [Lat.]; at the
first blush, at first sight; in the eyes of; to the eye.
Phr. editio princeps [Lat.].

449. Disappearance -- N. disappearance, evanescence, eclipse,
     departure &c 293; exit; vanishing point; dissolving views.
V. disappear, vanish, dissolve, fade, melt away, pass, go, avaunt^,
evaporate, vaporize; be gone &c adj.; leave no trace, leave 'not a rack
behind' [Tempest]; go off the stage &c (depart) 293; suffer an eclipse,
undergo an eclipse; retire from sight; be lost to view, pass out of
     lose sight of.
     efface &c 552.
Adj. disappearing &c v.; evanescent; missing, lost; lost to sight, lost
to view; gone.
Int. vanish!, disappear!, avaunt!^, get lost!, get out of here &c
(ejection) 297.



450. Intellect -- N. intellect, mind, understanding, reason, thinking
principle; rationality; cogitative faculties, cognitive faculties,
discursive faculties, reasoning faculties, intellectual faculties;
faculties, senses, consciousness, observation, percipience,
intelligence, intellection, intuition, association of ideas, instinct,
conception, judgment, wits, parts, capacity, intellectuality, genius;
brains, cognitive powers, intellectual powers; wit &c 498; ability &c
(skill) 698; wisdom &c 498; Vernunft [G.], Verstand [G.].
     soul, spirit, ghost, inner man, heart, breast, bosom, penetralia
mentis [Lat.], divina particula aurae [Lat.], heart's core; the
Absolute, psyche, subliminal consciousness, supreme principle.
     brain, organ of thought, seat of thought; sensorium^, sensory;
head, headpiece; pate, noddle^, noggin, skull, scull, pericranium
[Med.], cerebrum, cranium, brainpan^, sconce, upper story.
     [in computers] [Comp.] central processing unit, CPU; arithmetic
and logical unit, ALU.
     [Science of mind] metaphysics; psychics, psychology; ideology;
mental philosophy, moral philosophy; philosophy of the mind;
pneumatology^, phrenology; craniology [Med.], cranioscopy [Med.].
     ideality, idealism; transcendentalism, spiritualism; immateriality
&c 317; universal concept, universal conception.
     metaphysician, psychologist &c
V. note, notice, mark; take notice of, take cognizance of be aware of,
be conscious of; realize; appreciate; ruminate &c (think) 451; fancy &c
(imagine) 515.
Adj. intellectual [Relating to intellect], mental, rational,
subjective, metaphysical, nooscopic^, spiritual; ghostly; psychical^,
psychological; cerebral; animastic^; brainy; hyperphysical^,
superphysical^; subconscious, subliminal.
     immaterial &c 317; endowed with reason.
Adv. in petto.
Phr. ens rationis [Lat.]; frons est animi janua [Lat.] [Cicero]; locos
y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp.]; mens sola loco non exulat [Lat.] [Ovid];
my mind is my kingdom [Campbell]; stern men with empires in their
brains [Lowell]; the mind, the music breathing from her face [Byron];
thou living ray of intellectual Fire [Falconer].

450a. Absence or want of Intellect -- N. absence of intellect, want of
intellect &c 450; imbecility &c 499.
     brutality, brute force.
     instinct, brute instinct, stimulus-response loop, conditioned
response, instinctive reaction, Pavlovian response.
     mimicry, aping (imitation) 19.
     moron, imbecile, idiot; fool &c 501; dumb animal; vegetable, brain
Adj. unendowed with reason, void of reason; thoughtless; vegetative;
moronic [Sarc.], idiotic [Sarc.], brainless [Sarc.].
Adv. instinctively, like Pavlov's dog; vegetatively.
V. mimic, ape (imitate) 19; respond instinctively.

451. Thought -- N. thought; exercitation of the intellect^, exercise of
the intellect; intellection; reflection, cogitation, consideration,
meditation, study, lucubration, speculation, deliberation, pondering;
head work, brain work; cerebration; deep reflection; close study,
application &c (attention) 457.
     abstract thought, abstraction contemplation, musing; brown study
&c (inattention) 458; reverie, Platonism; depth of thought, workings of
the mind, thoughts, inmost thoughts; self-counsel self-communing, self-
consultation; philosophy of the Absolute, philosophy of the Academy,
philosophy of the Garden, philosophy of the lyceum, philosophy of the
     association of thought, succession of thought, flow of thought,
train of thought, current of thought, association of ideas, succession
of ideas, flow of ideas, train of ideas, current of ideas.
     after thought, mature thought; reconsideration, second thoughts;
retrospection &c (memory) 505; excogitation^; examination &c (inquiry)
461; invention &c (imagination) 515.
     thoughtfulness &c adj..
V. think, reflect, cogitate, excogitate^, consider, deliberate; bestow
thought upon, bestow consideration upon; speculate, contemplate,
meditate, ponder, muse, dream, ruminate; brood over, con over;
animadvert, study; bend the mind, apply the mind &c (attend) 457;
digest, discuss, hammer at, weigh, perpend; realize, appreciate; fancy
&c (imagine) 515; trow^.
     take into consideration; take counsel &c (be advised) 695; commune
with oneself, bethink oneself; collect one's thoughts; revolve in the
mind, turn over in the mind, run over in the mind; chew the cud upon,
sleep upon; take counsel of one's pillow, advise with one's pillow.
     rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, crack one's brains, beat
one's brains, cudgel one's brains; set one's brain to work, set one's
wits to work.
     harbor an idea, entertain an idea, cherish an idea, nurture an
idea &c 453; take into one's head; bear in mind; reconsider.
     occur; present itself, suggest itself; come into one's head, get
into one's head; strike one, flit across the view, come uppermost, run
in one s head; enter the mind, pass in the mind, cross the mind, flash
on the mind, flash across the mind, float in the mind, fasten itself on
the mind, be uppermost in the mind, occupy the mind; have in one's
     make an impression; sink into the mind, penetrate into the mind;
engross the thoughts.
Adj. thinking &c v.; thoughtful, pensive, meditative, reflective,
museful^, wistful, contemplative, speculative, deliberative, studious,
sedate, introspective, Platonic, philosophical.
     lost in thought &c (inattentive) 458; deep musing &c (intent) 457.
     in the mind, under consideration.
Adv. all things considered.
Phr. the mind being on the stretch; the mind turning upon, the head
turning upon, the mind running upon; divinely, bent to meditation
[Richard III]; en toute chose il faut considerer la fin [Fr.]; fresh-
pluckt from bowers of never-failing thought [O.
     Meredith]; go speed the stars of Thought [Emerson]; in maiden
meditation fancy-free [M.N.D.]; so sweet is zealous contemplation
[Richard III]; the power of thought is the magic of the Mind [Byron];
those that think must govern those that toil [Goldsmith]; thought is
parent of the deed [Carlyle]; thoughts in attitudes imperious
[Longfellow]; thoughts that breathe and words that burn [Gray]; vivere
est cogitare [Lat.] [Cicero]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [G.].

452. [Absence or want of thought.] Incogitancy -- N. incogitancy^,
vacancy, inunderstanding^; fatuity &c 499; thoughtlessness &c
(inattention) 458; vacuity.
     couch potato, vegetable.
V. not think &c 451; not think of; dismiss from the mind, dismiss from
the thoughts &c 451.
     indulge in reverie &c (be inattentive) 458.
     put away thought; unbend the mind, relax the mind, divert the
mind, veg out.
Adj. vacant, unintellectual, unideal^, unoccupied, unthinking,
inconsiderate, thoughtless, mindless, no-brain, vacuous; absent &c
(inattentive) 458; diverted; irrational &c 499; narrow-minded &c 481.
     unthought of, undreamt 'of, unconsidered; off one's mind;
incogitable^, not to be thought of.
Phr. absence d'esprit; pabulum pictura pascit inani [Lat.].

453. [Object of thought.] Idea -- N. idea, notion, conception, thought,
apprehension, impression, perception, image, eidolon [Gr.], sentiment,
reflection, observation, consideration; abstract idea; archetype,
formative notion; guiding conception, organizing conception; image in
the mind, regulative principle.
     view &c (opinion) 484; theory &c 514; conceit, fancy; phantasy &c
(imagination) 515.
     point of view &c (aspect) 448; field of view.

454. [Subject of thought] Topic -- N. subject of thought, material for
thought; food for the mind, mental pabulum.
     subject, subject matter; matter, theme, noemata [Gr.], topic, what
it is about, thesis, text, business, affair, matter in hand, argument;
motion, resolution; head, chapter; case, point; proposition, theorem;
field of inquiry; moot point, problem &c (question) 461.
V. float in the mind, pass in the mind &c 451.
Adj. thought of; uppermost in the mind; in petto.
Adv. under consideration; in question, in the mind; on foot, on the
carpet, on the docket, on the tapis^; relative to &c 9.


455. [The desire of knowledge.] Curiosity -- N. interest, thirst for
knowledge, thirst for truth; curiosity, curiousness; inquiring mind;
     omnivorous intellect, devouring mind.
     [person who desires knowledge] inquirer; sightseer; quidnunc
[Lat.], newsmonger, Paul Pry, eavesdropper; gossip &c (news) 532;
rubberneck; intellectual; seeker [inquirer after religious knowledge],
seeker after truth.
V. be curious &c adj.; take an interest in, stare, gape; prick up the
ears, see sights, lionize; pry; nose; rubberneck [U.S.].
Adj. curious, inquisitive, burning with curiosity, overcurious;
inquiring &c 461; prying, snoopy, nosy, peering; prurient;
inquisitorial, inquisitory^; curious as a cat; agape &c (expectant) 507.
Phr. what's the matter? what next? consumed with curiosity; curiosity
killed the cat, satisfaction brought it back.
     curiouser and curiouser [Alice in Wonderland].

456. [Absence of curiosity.] Incuriosity -- N. incuriosity,
incuriousness &c adj.; insouciance &c 866; indifference, lack of
interest, disinterest.
     boredom, ennui (weariness) 841; satiety &c 639; foreknowledge
(foresight) 510;
V. be incurious &c adj.; have no curiosity &c 455; take no interest in
&c 823; mind one's own business.
Adj. incurious, uninquisitive, indifferent; impassive &c 823;
uninterested, detached, aloof.

457. Attention -- N. attention; mindfulness, presence of mind &c adj.;
intentness, intentiveness^; alertness; thought &c 451; advertence,
advertency^; observance, observation; consideration, reflection,
perpension^; heed; heedfulness; particularity; notice, regard &c v.;
circumspection, diligence &c (care) 459; study, scrutiny inspection,
introspection; revision, revisal.
     active application, diligent application, exclusive application,
minute application, close application, intense application, deep
application, profound application, abstract application, labored
application, deliberate application, active attention, diligent
attention, exclusive attention, minute attention, close attention,
intense attention, deep attention, profound attention, abstract
attention, labored attention, deliberate attention, active thought,
diligent thought, exclusive thought, minute thought, close thought,
intense thought, deep thought, profound thought, abstract thought,
labored thought, deliberate thought, active study, diligent study,
exclusive study, minute study, close study, intense study, deep study,
profound study, abstract study, labored study, deliberate study.
     minuteness, attention to detail.
     absorption of mind &c (abstraction) 458.
     indication, calling attention to &c v..
V. be attentive &c adj.; attend, advert to, observe, look, see, view,
remark, notice, regard, take notice, mark; give attention to, pay
attention to, pay heed to, give heed to; incline an ear to, lend an ear
to; trouble one's head about; give a thought to, animadvert to; occupy
oneself with; contemplate &c (think of) 451; look at, look to, look
after, look into, look over; see to; turn the mind to, bend the mind
to, apply the mind to, direct the mind to, give the mind to, turn the
eye to, bend the eye to, apply the eye to, direct the eye to, give the
eye to, turn the attention to, bend the attention to, apply the
attention to, direct the attention to, give the attention to; have an
eye to, have in one's eye; bear in mind; take into account, take into
consideration; keep in sight, keep in view; have regard to, heed, mind,
take cognizance of entertain, recognize; make note of, take note of;
     examine cursorily; glance at, glance upon, glance over; cast the
eyes over, pass the eyes over; run over, turn over the leaves, dip
into, perstringe^; skim &c (neglect) 460; take a cursory view of.
     examine, examine closely, examine intently; scan, scrutinize,
consider; give one's mind to, bend one's mind to; overhaul, revise,
pore over; inspect, review, pass under review; take stock of; fix the
eye on, rivet attention on, fix attention on, devote the eye to, fix
the mind on, devote the thoughts to; hear out, think out; mind one's
     revert to; watch &c (expect) 507, (take care of) 459; hearken to,
listen to; prick up the ears; have the eyes open, keep the eyes open;
come to the point.
     meet with attention; fall under one's notice, fall under one's
observation; be under consideration &c (topic) 454.
     catch the eye, strike the eye; attract notice; catch the
attention, awaken the attention, wake the attention, invite the
attention, solicit the attention, attract the attention, claim the
attention excite the attention, engage the attention, occupy the
attention, strike the attention, arrest the attention, fix the
attention, engross the attention, absorb the attention, rivet the
attention, catch the mind, awaken the mind, wake the mind, invite the
mind, solicit the mind, attract the mind, claim the mind excite the
mind, engage the mind, occupy the mind, strike the mind, arrest the
mind, fix the mind, engross the mind, absorb the mind, rivet the mind,
catch the thoughts, awaken the thoughts, wake the thoughts, invite the
thoughts, solicit the thoughts, attract the thoughts, claim the
thoughts excite the thoughts, engage the thoughts, occupy the thoughts,
strike the thoughts, arrest the thoughts, fix the thoughts, engross the
thoughts, absorb the thoughts, rivet the thoughts; be present to the
mind, be uppermost in the mind.
     bring under one's notice; point out, point to, point at, point the
finger at; lay the finger on, indigitate^, indicate; direct attention
to, call attention to; show; put a mark upon &c (sign) 550; call
soldiers to 'attention'; bring forward &c (make manifest) 525.
Adj. attentive, mindful, observant, regardful; alive to, awake to;
observing &c v.; alert, open-eyed; intent on, taken up with, occupied
with, engaged in; engrossed in, wrapped in, absorbed, rapt, transfixed,
riveted, mesmerized, hypnotized; glued to (the TV, the window, a book);
breathless; preoccupied &c (inattentive) 458; watchful &c (careful)
459; breathless, undistracted, upon the stretch; on the watch &c
(expectant) 507.
     [compelling attention] interesting, engrossing, mesmerizing,
Int. see!, look, look here, look you, look to it!, mark!, lo!, behold!,
soho!^, hark, hark ye!, mind!, halloo!, observe!, lo and behold!,
attention!, nota bene [Lat.], N.B., note well; I'd have you to know;
notice!, O yes!, Oyez!, dekko!^, ecco!^, yoho!,
Phr. this is to give notice, these are to give notice; dictum sapienti
sat est [Lat.], a word to the wise is sufficient; finem respice [Lat.].
     Attention! Now hear this! Oyez!; Achtung [G.]; vnimanie [Rus.];
chui [Jap.].

458. Inattention -- N. inattention, inconsideration; inconsiderateness
&c adj.; oversight; inadvertence, inadvertency, nonobservance,
     supineness &c (inactivity) 683; etourderie [Fr.], want of thought;
heedlessness &c (neglect) 460; insouciance &c (indifference) 866.
     abstraction; absence of mind, absorption of mind; preoccupation,
distraction, reverie, brown study, deep musing, fit of abstraction.
V. be inattentive &c adj.; overlook, disregard; pass by &c (neglect)
460; not observe &c 457; think little of.
     close one's eyes to, shut one's eyes to; pay no attention to;
dismiss from one's thoughts, discard from one's thoughts, discharge
from one's thoughts, dismiss from one's mind, discard from one's mind,
discharge from one's mind; drop the subject, think no more of; set
aside, turn aside, put aside; turn away from, turn one's attention
from, turn a deaf ear to, turn one's back upon.
     abstract oneself, dream, indulge in reverie.
     escape notice, escape attention; come in at one ear and go out at
the other; forget &c (have no remembrance) 506.
     call off the attention, draw off the attention, call away the
attention, divert the attention, distract the mind; put out of one's
head; disconcert, discompose; put out, confuse, perplex, bewilder,
moider^, fluster, muddle, dazzle; throw a sop to Cerberus.
Adj. inattentive; unobservant, unmindful, heedless, unthinking,
unheeding, undiscerning^; inadvertent; mindless, regardless,
respectless^, listless &c (indifferent) 866; blind, deaf; bird-witted;
hand over head; cursory, percursory^; giddy-brained, scatter-brained,
hare-brained; unreflective, unreflecting^, ecervele [Fr.]; offhand;
dizzy, muzzy^, brainsick^; giddy, giddy as a goose; wild, harum-scarum,
rantipole^, highflying; heedless, careless &c (neglectful) 460.
     inconsiderate, thoughtless.
     absent, abstracted, distrait; absentminded, lost; lost in thought,
wrapped in thought; rapt, in the clouds, bemused; dreaming on other
things, musing on other things; preoccupied, engrossed &c (attentive)
457; daydreaming, in a reverie &c n.; off one's guard &c (inexpectant)
508 [Obs.]; napping; dreamy; caught napping.
     disconcerted, distracted, put out &c v..
Adv. inattentively, inadvertently, absent-mindedly &c adj.^; per
incuriam [Lat.], sub silentio [Lat.].
Int. stand at ease, stand easy!,
Phr. the attention wanders; one's wits gone a woolgathering, one's wits
gone a bird's nesting; it never entered into one's head; the mind
running on other things; one's thoughts being elsewhere; had it been a
bear it would have bitten you.

459. Care [Vigilance.] -- N. care, solicitude, heed; heedfulness &c
adj.; scruple &c (conscientiousness) 939.
     watchfulness &c adj.; vigilance, surveillance, eyes of Argus^,
watch, vigil, look out, watch and ward, loeil du maitre [Fr.].
     alertness &c (activity) 682; attention &c 457; prudence &c,
circumspection &c (caution) 864; anxiety; forethought &c 510;
precaution &c (preparation) 673; tidiness &c (order) 58, (cleanliness)
652; accuracy &c (exactness) 494; minuteness, attention to detail.
V. be careful &c adj.; reck^; take care &c (be cautious) 864; pay
attention to &c 457; take care of; look to, look after, see to, see
after; keep an eye on, keep a sharp eye on; chaperon, matronize^, play
gooseberry; keep watch, keep watch and ward; mount guard, set watch,
watch; keep in sight, keep in view; mind, mind one's business.
     look sharp, look about one; look with one's own eyes; keep a good
lookout, keep a sharp lookout; have all one's wits about one, have all
one's eyes about one; watch for &c (expect) 507; keep one's eyes open,
have the eyes open, sleep with one's eye open.
Adj. careful regardful, heedful; taking care &c v.; particular; prudent
&c (cautious) 864; considerate; thoughtful &c (deliberative) 451;
provident &c (prepared) 673; alert &c (active) 682; sure-footed.
     guarded, on one's guard; on the qui vivre [Fr.], on the alert, on
watch, on the lookout; awake, broad awake, vigilant; watchful, wakeful,
wistful; Argus-eyed; wide awake &c (intelligent) 498; on the watch for
(expectant) 507.
     tidy &c (orderly) 58, (clean) 652; accurate &c (exact) 494;
scrupulous &c (conscientious) 939; cavendo tutus &c (safe) 664 [Lat.].
Adv. carefully &c adj.; with care, gingerly.
Phr. quis custodiet istos custodes? [Lat.], who will watch the
watchers?; care will kill a cat [Wither]; ni bebas agua que no veas
[Sp.]; O polished perturbation! Golden care! [Henry IV]; the incessant
care and labor of his mind [Henry IV].

460. Neglect -- N. neglect; carelessness &c adj.; trifling &c v.;
negligence; omission, oversight, laches [Law], default; supineness &c
(inactivity) 683; inattention &c 458; nonchalance &c (insensibility)
823; imprudence, recklessness &c 863; slovenliness &c (disorder) 59,
(dirt) 653; improvidence &c 674; noncompletion &c 730; inexactness &c
(error) 495.
     paralipsis, paralepsis, paraleipsis (in rhetoric).
     trifler, waiter on Providence; Micawber.
V. be negligent &c adj.; take no care of &c (take care of) &c 459;
neglect; let slip, let go; lay aside, set aside, cst aside, put aside;
keep out of sight, put out of sight; lose sight of.
     overlook, disregard; pass over, pas by; let pass; blink; wink at,
connive at; gloss over; take no note of, take no thought of, take no
account of, take no notice of; pay no regard to; laisser aller [Fr.].
     scamp; trifle, fribble^; do by halves; cut; slight &c (despise)
930; play with, trifle with; slur, skim, skim the surface; effleurer
[Fr.]; take a cursory view of &c 457.
     slur over, skip over, jump over, slip over; pretermit^, miss, skip,
jump, omit, give the go-by to, push aside, pigeonhole, shelve, sink;
table [Parl.]; ignore, shut one's eyes to, refuse to hear, turn a deaf
ear to; leave out of one's calculation; not attend to &c 457, not mind;
not trouble oneself about, not trouble one's head about, not trouble
oneself with; forget &c 506; be caught napping &c (not expect) 508;
leave a loose thread; let the grass grow under one's feet.
     render neglectful &c adj.; put off one's guard, throw off one's
guard; distract, divert.
Adj. neglecting &c v.; unmindful, negligent, neglectful; heedless,
careless, thoughtless; perfunctory, remiss; feebleness &c 575.
     inconsiderate; uncircumspect^, incircumspect^; off one's guard;
unwary, unwatchful^, unguarded; offhand.
     supine &c (inactive) 683; inattentive &c 458; insouciant &c
(indifferent) 823; imprudent, reckless &c 863; slovenly &c (disorderly)
59, (dirty) 653; inexact &c (erroneous) 495; improvident &c 674.
     neglected &c v.; unheeded, uncared-for, unperceived, unseen,
unobserved, unnoticed, unnoted^, unmarked, unattended to, unthought of,
unregarded^, unremarked, unmissed^; shunted, shelved.
     unexamined, unstudied, unsearched^, unscanned^, unweighed^,
unsifted, unexplored.
     abandoned; buried in a napkin, hid under a bushel.
Adv. negligently &c adj.; hand over head, anyhow; in an unguarded
moment &c (unexpectedly) 508; per incuriam [Lat.].
Int. never mind, no matter, let it pass.
Phr. out of sight, out of mind.

461. Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] -- N. inquiry; request &c
765; search, research, quest, pursuit &c 622.
     examination, review, scrutiny, investigation, indagation^;
perquisition^, perscrutation^, pervestigation^; inquest, inquisition;
exploration; exploitation, ventilation.
     sifting; calculation, analysis, dissection, resolution, induction;
Baconian method^.
     strict inquiry, close inquiry, searching inquiry, exhaustive
inquiry; narrow search, strict search; study &c (consideration) 451.
     scire facias [Lat.], ad referendum; trial.
     questioning &c v.; interrogation, interrogatory; interpellation;
challenge, examination, cross-examination, catechism; feeler, Socratic
method, zetetic philosophy^; leading question; discussion &c (reasoning)
     reconnoitering, reconnaissance; prying &c v.; espionage,
espionnage [Fr.]; domiciliary visit, peep behind the curtain; lantern
of Diogenes.
     question, query, problem, desideratum, point to be solved, porism^;
subject of inquiry, field of inquiry, subject of controversy; point in
dispute, matter in dispute; moot point; issue, question at issue; bone
of contention &c (discord) 713; plain question, fair question, open
question; enigma &c (secret) 533; knotty point &c (difficulty) 704;
quodlibet; threshold of an inquiry.
     [person who questions] inquirer, investigator, inquisitor,
inspector, querist^, examiner, catechist; scrutator scrutineer
scrutinizer^; analyst; quidnunc &c (curiosity) 455 [Lat.].
V. make inquiry &c n.; inquire, ask, seek, search.
     look for, look about for, look out for; scan, reconnoiter,
explore, sound, rummage, ransack, pry, peer, look round; look over, go
over, look through, go through; spy, overhaul.
     [object is a topic] ask about, inquire about.
     scratch the head, slap the forehead.
     look into every hole and corner, peer into every hole and corner,
pry into every hole and corner; nose; trace up; search out, hunt down,
hunt out, fish out, ferret out; unearth; leave no stone unturned.
     seek a clue, seek a clew; hunt, track, trail, mouse, dodge, trace;
follow the trail, follow the scent; pursue &c 662; beat up one's
quarters; fish for; feel for &c (experiment) 463.
     investigate; take up an inquiry, institute an inquiry, pursue an
inquiry, follow up an inquiry, conduct an inquiry, carry on an inquiry,
carry out an inquiry, prosecute an inquiry &c n.; look at, look into;
preexamine; discuss, canvass, agitate.
     [inquire into a topic] examine, study, consider, calculate; dip
into, dive into, delve into, go deep into; make sure of, probe, sound,
fathom; probe to the bottom, probe to the quick; scrutinize, analyze,
anatomize, dissect, parse, resolve, sift, winnow; view in all its
phases, try in all its phases; thresh out.
     bring in question, bring into question, subject to examination;
put to the proof &c (experiment) 463; audit, tax, pass in review; take
into consideration &c (think over) 451; take counsel &c 695.
     question, demand; put the question, pop the question, propose the
question, propound the question, moot the question, start the question,
raise the question, stir the question, suggest the question, put forth
the question, ventilate the question, grapple with the question, go
into a question.
     [human object], question, put to the question, interrogate, pump;
subject to interrogation, subject to examination; cross-question,
cross-examine; press for an answer; give the third degree; put to the
inquisition; dodge^.
     require an answer; pick the brains of, suck the brains of; feel
the pulse.
     get the lay of the land; see how the wind is blowing; put one's
ear to the ground.
     be in question &c adj.; undergo examination.
Adj. inquiry &c v.; inquisitive &c (curious) 455; requisitive^,
requisitory^; catechetical^, inquisitorial, analytic; in search of, in
quest of; on the lookout for, interrogative, zetetic^; all searching.
     undetermined, untried, undecided; in question, in dispute, in
issue, in course of inquiry; under discussion, under consideration,
under investigation &c n.; sub judice [Lat.], moot, proposed; doubtful
&c (uncertain) 475.
Adv. quaere? [Lat.], what?, why?, wherefore?, whence?, whither?,
where?, how comes it?, how happens it?, how is it?, what is the
reason?, what's the matter?, nicht wahr? [G.], what's in the wind?,
what on earth?, when?, who?.

462. Answer -- N. answer, response, reply, replication, riposte,
rejoinder, surrejoinder^, rebutter, surrebutter^, retort, repartee;
rescript, rescription^; antiphon^, antiphony; acknowledgment; password;
echo; counter statement.
     discovery &c 480.1; solution &c (explanation) 522; rationale &c
(cause) 153; clue &c (indication) 550.
     Oedipus; oracle &c 513; return &c (record) 551.
V. answer, respond, reply, rebut, retort, rejoin; give for answer,
return for answer; acknowledge, echo.
     explain &c (interpret) 522; solve &c (unriddle) 522; discover &c
480.1; fathom, hunt out &c (inquire) 461; satisfy, set at rest,
Adj. answering &c v.; responsive, respondent; conclusive.
Adv. because &c (cause) 153; on the scent, on the right scent.
Int. eureka!,

463. Experiment -- N. experiment; essay &c (attempt) 675; analysis &c
(investigation) 461; screen; trial, tentative method, t=atonnement.
     verification, probation, experimentum crucis [Lat.], proof,
(demonstration) 478; criterion, diagnostic, test, probe, crucial test,
acid test, litmus test.
     crucible, reagent, check, touchstone, pix^; assay, ordeal; ring;
litmus paper, curcuma paper^, turmeric paper; test tube; analytical
instruments &c 633.
     empiricism, rule of thumb.
     feeler; trial balloon, pilot balloon, messenger balloon; pilot
engine; scout; straw to show the wind.
     speculation, random shot, leap in the dark.
     analyzer, analyst, assayist^; adventurer; experimenter,
experimentist^, experimentalist; scientist, engineer, technician.
     subject, experimentee^, guinea pig, experimental animal.
     [experimental method] protocol, experimental method, blind
experiment, double-blind experiment, controlled experiment.
     poll, survey, opinion poll.
     epidemiological survey [Med.], retrospective analysis,
retrospective survey, prospective survey, prospective analysis;
statistical analysis.
     literature search, library research.
     tryout, audition.
     [results of experiment] discovery &c 480; measurement &c 466;
evidence &c 467.
     [reasoning about an experiment] deduction, induction, abduction.
V. experiment; essay &c (endeavor) 675; try, try out, assay; make an
experiment, make a trial of; give a trial to; put on trial, subject to
trial; experiment upon; rehearse; put to the test, bring to the test,
submit to the test, submit to the proof; prove, verify, test, touch,
practice upon, try one's strength; road-test, test drive, take for a
spin; test fly.
     grope; feel one's way, grope for one's way; fumble, t=atonner,
aller =a t=atons [Fr.], put out a feeler, throw out a feeler; send up a
trial balloon, send up a pilot balloon; see how the land lies, get the
lay of the land, test the waters, feel out, sound out, take the pulse,
see, check, check out [Coll.], see how the wind blows; consult the
barometer; feel the pulse; fish for, bob for; cast for, beat about for;
angle, trawl, cast one's net, beat the bushes.
     try one's fortune &c (adventure) 675; explore &c (inquire) 461.
Adj. experimental, empirical.
     probative, probatory^, probationary, provisional; analytic,
docimastic^; tentative; unverified, unproven, speculative, untested.
Adv. on trial, under examination, on probation, under probation, on
one's trial, on approval.
Phr. check it out, give it a try, see how it goes; Run it up the
flagpole and see who salutes

464. Comparison -- N. comparison, collation, contrast; identification;
comparative estimate, relative estimate, relativity.
     simile, similitude, analogy (similarity) 17; allegory &c
(metaphor) 521.
     matching, pattern-matching.
     [quantitative comparison] ratio, proportion (number) 84.
     [results of comparison] discrimination 465; indiscrimination 465.1
[Obs.]; identification 465.2.
V. compare to, compare with; collate, confront; place side by side,
juxtapose &c (near) 197; set against one another, pit against one
another; contrast, balance.
     identify, draw a parallel, parallel.
     compare notes; institute a comparison; parva componere magnis
Adj. comparative; metaphorical &c 521.
     compared with &c v.; comparable; judged by comparison.
Adv. relatively &c (relation) 9; as compared with &c v..
Phr. comparisons are odious; comparisons are odorous [Much Ado about

464a. Incomparability [Lack of comparison] -- N. incomparability;
incommensurability; indistinguishablility &c 465.1.
Adj. incommensurable, incommensurate; incomparable; different &c 15.
Phr. like apples and oranges; no basis for comparison; no standard for

465. [results of comparison. 1] Discrimination -- N. discrimination,
distinction, differentiation, diagnosis, diorism^; nice perception;
perception of difference, appreciation of difference; estimation &c
466; nicety, refinement; taste &c 850; critique, judgment; tact;
discernment &c (intelligence) 498; acuteness, penetration; nuances.
     dope [Slang], past performances.
V. discriminate, distinguish, severalize^; recognize, match, identify;
separate; draw the line, sift; separate the chaff from the wheat,
winnow the chaff from the wheat; separate the men from the boys; split
hairs, draw a fine line, nitpick, quibble.
     estimate &c (measure) 466; know which is which, know what is what,
know 'a hawk from a handsaw' [Hamlet].
     take into account, take into consideration; give due weight to,
allow due weight to; weigh carefully.
Adj. discriminating &c v.; dioristic^, discriminative, distinctive;
Phr. il y a fagots et fagots; rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; la critique est
aisee et l'art est difficile [Fr.]; miles apart; a distinction without
a difference.

465a. [results of comparison. 2] Indiscrimination -- N.
indiscrimination^, indistinguishability; indistinctness, indistinction^;
uncertainty &c (doubt) 475; incomparability &c 464.1.
V. not discriminate &c 465; overlook a distinction &c (neglect) 460,
confound, confuse.
Adj. indiscriminate; undistinguished^, indistinguishable,
undistinguishable^; unmeasured; promiscuous, undiscriminating.
Phr. valeat quantum valere potest [Lat.].

465b. [results of comparison. 3] Identification -- N. identification,
recognition, diagnosis, match; apperception, assimilation;
dereplication; classification; memory &c 505; interpretation &c 522;
cognizance (knowledge) 490.
V. identify, recognize, match, match up; classify; recall, remember &c
(memory) 505; find similarity (similarity) 17; put in its proper place,
put in its proper niche, place in order (arrangement) 60.

466. Measurement -- N. measurement, admeasurement^, mensuration, survey,
valuation, appraisement, assessment, assize; estimate, estimation; dead
reckoning, reckoning &c (numeration) 85; gauging &c v.; horse power.
     metrology, weights and measures, compound arithmetic.
     measure, yard measure, standard, rule, foot rule, compass,
calipers; gage, gauge; meter, line, rod, check; dividers; velo^.
     flood mark, high water mark; Plimsoll line; index &c 550.
     scale; graduation, graduated scale; nonius^; vernier &c
(minuteness) 193.
     [instruments for measuring] bathometer, galvanometer, heliometer,
interferometer, odometer, ombrometer^, pantometer^, pluviometer^,
pneumatometer^, pneumometer^, radiometer, refractometer, respirometer,
rheometer, spirometer^, telemeter, udometer^, vacuometer^, variometer^,
viameter^, thermometer, thermistor (heat) &c 382, barometer (air) &c
338, anemometer (wind) 349, dynamometer, goniometer, (angle) 244 meter;
landmark &c (limit) 233; balance, scale &c (weight) 319; marigraph^,
pneumatograph^, stethograph^; rain gauge, rain gage; voltmeter (volts),
ammeter (amps); spectrophotometer (light absorbance); mass
spectrophotometer (molecular mass); geiger counter, scintillation
counter (radioactivity); pycnometer (liquid density); graduated
cylinder, volumetric flask (volume); radar gun (velocity); radar
(distance); side-looking radar, (shape, topography); sonar (depth in
water); light meter (light intensity); clock, watch, stopwatch,
chronometer (time); anemometer (wind velocity); densitometer (color
     measurability, computability, determinability^.
     coordinates, ordinate and abscissa, polar coordinates, latitude
and longitude, declination and right ascension, altitude and azimuth.
     geometry, stereometry^, hypsometry^; metage^; surveying, land
surveying; geodesy, geodetics^, geodesia^; orthometry^, altimetry^;
cadastre [Fr.].
     astrolabe, armillary sphere^.
     land surveyor; geometer.
V. measure, mete; determine, assay; evaluate, value, assess, rate,
appraise, estimate, form an estimate, set a value on; appreciate;
     span, pace step; apply the compass &c n.; gauge, plumb, probe,
sound, fathom; heave the log, heave the lead; survey.
     take an average &c 29; graduate.
Adj. measuring &c v.; metric, metrical; measurable, perceptible,
noticeable, detectable, appreciable, ponderable, determinable,
fathomable; geodetical, topographic, topographical, cartographic,

Evidence for, against, and in mitigation

467. Evidence [On one side.] -- N. evidence; facts, premises, data,
praecognita [Lat.], grounds.
     indication &c 550; criterion &c (test) 463.
     testimony, testification^, expert testimony; attestation;
deposition &c (affirmation) 535; examination.
     admission &c (assent) 488; authority, warrant, credential,
diploma, voucher, certificate, doquet^, docket; testamur^; record &c
551; document; pi ce justificative^; deed, warranty &c (security) 771;
signature, seal &c (identification) 550; exhibit, material evidence,
objective evidence.
     witness, indicator, hostile witness; eyewitness, earwitness,
material witness, state's evidence; deponent; sponsor; cojuror^.
     oral evidence, documentary evidence, hearsay evidence, external
evidence, extrinsic evidence, internal evidence, intrinsic evidence,
circumstantial evidence, cumulative evidence, ex parte evidence [Lat.],
presumptive evidence, collateral evidence, constructive evidence; proof
&c (demonstration) 478; evidence in chief.
     secondary evidence; confirmation, corroboration, support;
ratification &c (assent) 488; authentication; compurgation^, wager of
law, comprobation^.
     citation, reference; legal research, literature search
(experiment) 463.
V. be evidence &c n.; evince, show, betoken, tell of; indicate &c
(denote) 550; imply, involve, argue, bespeak, breathe.
     have weight, carry weight; tell, speak volumes; speak for itself
&c (manifest) 525.
     rest upon, depend upon; repose on.
     bear witness &c n.; give evidence &c n.; testify, depose, witness,
vouch for; sign, seal, undersign^, set one's hand and seal, sign and
seal, deliver as one's act and deed, certify, attest; acknowledge &c
(assent) 488.
     [provide conclusive evidence] make absolute, confirm, prove
(demonstrate) 478.
     [add further evidence] indorse, countersign, corroborate, support,
ratify, bear out, uphold, warrant.
     adduce, attest, cite, quote; refer to, appeal to; call, call to
witness; bring forward, bring into court; allege, plead; produce
witnesses, confront witnesses.
     place into evidence, mark into evidence.
     [obtain evidence] collect evidence, bring together evidence, rake
up evidence; experiment &c 463.
     have a case, make out a case; establish, authenticate,
substantiate, verify, make good, quote chapter and verse; bring home
to, bring to book.
Adj. showing &c v.; indicative, indicatory; deducible &c 478; grounded
on, founded on, based on; corroborative, confirmatory.
Adv. by inference; according to, witness, a fortiori; still more, still
less; raison de plus [Fr.]; in corroboration &c n.. of; valeat quantum
[Lat.]; under seal, under one's hand and seal.
Phr. dictum de dicto [Lat.]; mise en evidence [Fr.].

468. [Evidence on the other side, on the other hand.] Counter Evidence
-- N. counter evidence; evidence on the other side, evidence on the
other hand; conflicting evidence, contradictory evidence, opposing
evidence; disproof, refutation &c 479; negation &c 536.
     plea &c 617; vindication &c 937; counter protest; 'tu quoque'
argument; other side of the shield, other side of the coin, reverse of
the shield.
V. countervail, oppose; mitigate against; rebut &c (refute) 479;
subvert &c (destroy) 162; cheek, weaken; contravene; contradict &c
(deny) 536; tell the other side of the story, tell another story, turn
the scale, alter the case; turn the tables; cut both ways; prove a
     audire alteram partem [Lat.].
Adj. countervailing &c v.; contradictory.
     unattested, unauthenticated, unsupported by evidence;
Adv. on the contrary, per contra.

469. Qualification -- N. qualification, limitation, modification,
     allowance, grains of allowance, consideration, extenuating
circumstances; mitigation.
     condition, proviso, prerequisite, contingency, stipulation,
provision, specification, sine qua non [Lat.]; catch, string, strings
attached; exemption; exception, escape clause, salvo, saving clause;
discount &c 813; restriction; fine print.
V. qualify, limit, modify, leaven, give a color to, introduce new
conditions, narrow, temper.
     waffle, quibble, hem and haw (be uncertain) 475; equivocate
(sophistry) 477.
     depend, depend on, be contingent on (effect) 154.
     allow for, make allowance for; admit exceptions, take into
account; modulate.
     moderate, temper, season, leaven.
     take exception.
Adj. qualifying &c v.; qualified, conditioned, restricted, hedged;
conditional; exceptional &c (unconformable) 83.
     hypothetical &c (supposed) 514; contingent &c (uncertain) 475.
Adv. provided, provided that, provided always; if, unless, but, yet;
according as; conditionally, admitting, supposing; on the supposition
of &c (theoretically) 514; with the understanding, even, although,
though, for all that, after all, at all events.
     approximately &c 197, 17; in a limited degree (smallness) 32;
somewhat, sort of, something like that, to a certain extent, to a
degree, in a sense, so to speak.
     with grains of allowance, cum grano salis [Lat.], with a grain of
salt; exceptis excipiendis [Lat.]; wind and weather permitting; if
possible &c 470.
     subject to, conditioned upon; with this proviso &c n..
Phr. if the good lord is willing and the creeks don't rise; catch- 22.
     Degrees of Evidence

470. Possibility -- N. possibility, potentiality; what may be, what is
possible &c adj.; compatibility &c (agreement) 23.
     practicability, feasibility; practicableness &c adj.. contingency,
chance &c 156.
V. be possible &c adj.; stand a chance; admit of, bear.
     render possible &c adj.; put in the way of.
Adj. possible; in the cards, on the dice; in posse, within the bounds
of possibility, conceivable, credible; compatible &c 23; likely.
     practicable, feasible, performable, achievable; within reach,
within measurable distance; accessible, superable^, surmountable;
attainable, obtainable; contingent &c (doubtful) 475, (effect) 154.
     barely possible, marginally possible, just possible; possible but
improbably, (improbable) 473; theoretically possible.
Adv. possibly, by possibility; perhaps, perchance, peradventure; maybe,
may be, haply, mayhap.
     if possible, wind and weather permitting, God willing, Deo volente
[Lat.], D.V.; as luck may have it.
Phr. misericordia Domini inter pontem et fontent [Lat.]; the glories of
the Possible are ours [B.
     Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory possible, but in practise

471. Impossibility -- N. impossibility &c adj.; what cannot, what can
never be; sour grapes; hopelessness &c 859.
V. be impossible &c adj.; have no chance whatever.
     attempt impossibilities; square the circle, wash a blackamoor
white; skin a flint; make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, make bricks
without straw; have nothing to go upon; weave a rope of sand, build
castles in the air, prendre la lune avec les dents [Fr.], extract
sunbeams from cucumbers, set the Thames on fire, milk a he-goat into a
sieve, catch a weasel asleep, rompre l'anguille au genou [Fr.], be in
two places at once.
Adj. impossible; not possible &c 470; absurd, contrary to reason;
unlikely; unreasonable &c 477; incredible &c 485; beyond the bounds of
reason, beyond the bounds of possibility, beyond the realm of
possibility; from which reason recoils; visionary; inconceivable &c
(improbable) 473; prodigious &c (wonderful) 870; unimaginable,
inimaginable^; unthinkable.
     impracticable unachievable; unfeasible, infeasible; insuperable;
unsurmountable^, insurmountable; unattainable, unobtainable; out of
reach, out of the question; not to be had, not to be thought of; beyond
control; desperate &c (hopeless) 859; incompatible &c 24; inaccessible,
uncomeatable^, impassable, impervious, innavigable^, inextricable; self-
     out of one's power, beyond one's power, beyond one's depth, beyond
one's reach, beyond one's grasp; too much for; ultra crepidam [Lat.].
Phr. the grapes are sour; non possumus [Lat.]; non nostrum tantas
componere lites [Lat.] [Vergil]; look for a needle in a haystack,
chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin [Fr.]; il a le mer +a

472. Probability -- N. probability, likelihood; credibleness^;
likeliness &c adj.; vraisemblance [Fr.], verisimilitude, plausibility;
color, semblance, show of; presumption; presumptive evidence,
circumstantial evidence; credibility.
     reasonable chance, fair chance, good chance, favorable chance,
reasonable prospect, fair prospect, good prospect, favorable prospect;
prospect, wellgrounded hope; chance &c 156.
V. be probable &c adj.; give color to, lend color to; point to; imply
&c (evidence) 467; bid fair &c (promise) 511; stand fair for; stand a
good chance, run a good chance.
     think likely, dare say, flatter oneself; expect &c 507; count upon
&c (believe) 484.
Adj. probable, likely, hopeful, to be expected, in a fair way.
     plausible, specious, ostensible, colorable, ben trovato [It],
well-founded, reasonable, credible, easy of belief, presumable,
presumptive, apparent.
Adv. probably &c adj.; belike^; in all probability, in all likelihood;
very likely, most likely; like enough; odds on, odds in favor, ten to
one &c; apparently, seemingly, according to every reasonable
expectation; prim=a facie [Lat.]; to all appearance &c (to the eye)
Phr. the chances, the odds are; appearances are in favor of, chances
are in favor of; there is reason to believe, there is reason to think,
there is reason to expect; I dare say; all Lombard Street to a China

473. Improbability -- N. improbability, unlikelihood; unfavorable
chance, bad chance, ghost of a chance, little chance, small chance,
poor chance, scarcely any chance, no chance; bare possibility; long
odds; incredibility &c 485.
V. be improbable &c adj.; have a small chance &c n..
Adj. improbable, unlikely, contrary to all reasonable expectation; wild
[Coll.], far out [Coll.], out of sight [Coll.], outtasight [Coll.],
heavy [Coll.].
     rare &c (infrequent) 137; unheard of, inconceivable; unimaginable,
inimaginable^; incredible &c 485; more than doubtful; strange, bizarre
(uncomformable) 83.
Phr. the chances are against; aquila non capit muscas [Lat.]; pedir
peras pal olmo [Lat.].

474. Certainty -- N. certainty; necessity &c 601; certitude, surety,
assurance; dead certainty, moral certainty; infallibleness &c adj.;
infallibility, reliability; indubitableness, inevitableness,
     gospel, scripture, church, pope, court of final appeal; res
judicata [Lat.], ultimatum positiveness; dogmatism, dogmatist,
dogmatizer; doctrinaire, bigot, opinionist^, Sir Oracle; ipse dixit
     fact; positive fact, matter of fact; fait accompli [Fr.].
V. be certain &c adj.; stand to reason.
     render certain &c adj.; insure, ensure, assure; clinch, make sure;
determine, decide, set at rest, make assurance double sure [Macbeth];
know &c (believe) 484.
     dogmatize, lay down the law.
Adj. certain, sure, assured &c v.; solid, well-founded.
     unqualified, absolute, positive, determinate, definite, clear,
unequivocal, categorical, unmistakable, decisive, decided, ascertained.
     inevitable, unavoidable, avoidless^; ineluctable.
     unerring, infallible; unchangeable &c 150; to be depended on,
trustworthy, reliable, bound.
     unimpeachable, undeniable, unquestionable; indisputable,
incontestable, incontrovertible, indubitable; irrefutable &c (proven)
478; conclusive, without power of appeal.
     indubious^; without doubt, beyond a doubt, without a shade or
shadow of doubt, without question, beyond question; past dispute; clear
as day; beyond all question, beyond all dispute; undoubted,
uncontested, unquestioned, undisputed; questionless^, doubtless.
     authoritative, authentic, official.
     sure as fate, sure as death and taxes, sure as a gun.
     evident, self-evident, axiomatic; clear, clear as day, clear as
the sun at noonday.
Adv. certainly &c adj.; for certain, certes [Lat.], sure, no doubt,
doubtless, and no mistake, flagrante delicto [Lat.], sure enough, to be
sure, of course, as a matter of course, a coup sur, to a certainty; in
truth &c (truly) 494; at any rate, at all events; without fail; coute
que coute [Fr.], coute qu'il coute [Fr.]; whatever may happen, if the
worst come to the worst; come what may, happen what may, come what
will; sink or swim; rain or shine.
Phr. cela va sans dire [Fr.]; there is no question, no question, not a
shadow of doubt, there is not a shadow of doubt; the die is cast &c
(necessity) 601; facts are stubborn things [Smollett].

475. Uncertainty -- N. uncertainty, incertitude, doubt; doubtfulness &c
adj.; dubiety, dubitation^, dubitancy^, dubitousness^.
     hesitation, suspense; perplexity, embarrassment, dilemma,
bewilderment; timidity &c (fear) 860; vacillation &c 605; diaporesis^,
     vagueness &c adj.; haze, fog; obscurity &c (darkness) 421;
ambiguity &c (double meaning) 520; contingency, dependence, dependency,
double contingency, possibility upon a possibility; open question &c
(question) 461; onus probandi [Lat.]; blind bargain, pig in a poke,
leap in the dark, something or other; needle in a haystack, needle in a
bottle of hay; roving commission.
     precariousness &c adj.; fallibility.
V. be uncertain &c adj.; wonder whether.
     lose the clue, lose the clew, scent; miss one's way.
     not know what to make of &c (unintelligibility) 519, not know
which way to turn, not know whether one stands on one s head or one's
heels; float in a sea of doubt, hesitate, flounder; lose oneself, lose
one's head; muddle one's brains.
     render uncertain &c adj.; put out, pose, puzzle, perplex,
embarrass; confuse, confound; bewilder, bother, molder, addle the wits,
throw off the scent, ambiguas in vulgus spargere voces [Lat.]; keep in
     doubt &c (disbelieve) 485; hang in the balance, tremble in the
balance; depend.
Adj. uncertain; casual; random &c (aimless) 621; changeable &c 149.
     doubtful, dubious; indecisive; unsettled, undecided, undetermined;
in suspense, open to discussion; controvertible; in question &c
(inquiry) 461.
     vague; indeterminate, indefinite; ambiguous, equivocal; undefined,
undefinable; confused &c (indistinct) 447; mystic, oracular; dazed.
     perplexing &c v.; enigmatic, paradoxical, apocryphal,
problematical, hypothetical; experimental &c 463.
     unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
     fallible, questionable, precarious, slippery, ticklish, debatable,
disputable; unreliable, untrustworthy.
     contingent, contingent on, dependent on; subject to; dependent on
circumstances; occasional; provisional.
     unauthentic, unauthenticated, unauthoritative; unascertained,
unconfirmed; undemonstrated; untold, uncounted.
     in a state of uncertainty, in a cloud, in a maze; bushed, off the
track; ignorant, &c 491; afraid to say; out of one's reckoning, astray,
adrift; at sea, at fault, at a loss, at one's wit's end, at a nonplus;
puzzled &c v.; lost, abroad, d_esorient_e; distracted, distraught.
Adv. pendente lite [Lat.]; sub spe rati [Lat.].
Phr. Heaven knows; who can tell? who shall decide when doctors
disagree? ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.].


476. Reasoning, -- N. {ant.
     477} reasoning ratiocination rationalism; dialectics, induction,
     discussion, comment; ventilation; inquiry &c 461.
     argumentation, controversy, debate; polemics, wrangling;
contention &c 720; logomachy^; disputation, disceptation^; paper war.
     art of reasoning, logic.
     process of reasoning, train of reasoning, chain of reasoning;
deduction, induction, abduction; synthesis, analysis.
     argument; case, plaidoyer^, opening; lemma, proposition, terms,
premises, postulate, data, starting point, principle; inference &c
(judgment) 480.
     prosyllogism^, syllogism; enthymeme^, sorites^, dilemma,
perilepsis^, a priori reasoning, reductio ad absurdum, horns of a
dilemma, argumentum ad hominem [Lat.], comprehensive argument;
empirema^, epagoge^.
     [person who reasons] reasoner, logician, dialectician; disputant;
controversialist, controvertist^; wrangler, arguer, debater polemic,
casuist, rationalist; scientist; eristic^.
     logical sequence; good case; correct just reasoning, sound
reasoning, valid reasoning, cogent reasoning, logical reasoning,
forcible reasoning, persuasive reasoning, persuasory reasoning^,
consectary reasoning^, conclusive &c 478; subtle reasoning; force of
argument, strong point, strong argument, persuasive argument.
     arguments, reasons, pros and cons.
V. reason, argue, discuss, debate, dispute, wrangle^, argufy^, bandy
words, bandy arguments; chop logic; hold an argument, carry on an
argument; controvert &c (deny) 536; canvass; comment upon, moralize
upon; spiritualize; consider &c (examine) 461.
     open a discussion, open a case; try conclusions; join issue, be at
issue; moot; come to the point; stir a question, agitate a question,
ventilate a question, torture a question; take up a side, take up a
     contend, take one's stand upon, insist, lay stress on; infer &c
     follow from &c (demonstration) 478.
Adj. reasoning &c v.; rationalistic; argumentative, controversial,
dialectic, polemical; discursory^, discursive; disputatious;
Aristotelian^, eristic^, eristical^.
     debatable, controvertible.
     logical; relevant &c 23.
Adv. for, because, hence, whence, seeing that, since, sith^, then thence
so; for that reason, for this reason, for which reason; for as,
inasmuch as; whereas, ex concesso [Lat.], considering, in consideration
of; therefore, wherefore; consequently, ergo, thus, accordingly; a
     in conclusion, in fine; finally, after all, au bout du compt
[Fr.], on the whole, taking one thing with another.
Phr. ab actu ad posse valet consecutio [Lat.]; per troppo dibatter la
verita si perde [It]; troppo disputare la verita fa errare [It].

477. Intuition. & Sophistry [The absence of reasoning.] [False or
vicious reasoning; show of reason.] -- N. intuition, instinct,
association, hunch, gut feeling; presentiment, premonition; rule of
thumb; superstition; astrology^; faith (supposition) 514.
     sophistry, paralogy^, perversion, casuistry, jesuitry,
equivocation, evasion; chicane, chicanery; quiddet^, quiddity;
mystification; special pleading; speciousness &c adj.; nonsense &c 497;
word sense, tongue sense.
     false reasoning, vicious reasoning, circular reasoning; petitio
principii [Lat.], ignoratio elenchi [Lat.]; post hoc ergo propter hoc
[Lat.]; non sequitur, ignotum per ignotius [Lat.].
     misjudgment &c 481; false teaching &c 538.
     sophism, solecism, paralogism^; quibble, quirk, elenchus^, elench^,
fallacy, quodlibet, subterfuge, subtlety, quillet^; inconsistency,
antilogy^; a delusion, a mockery, and a snare [Denman]; claptrap, cant,
mere words; lame and impotent conclusion [Othello].
     meshes of sophistry, cobwebs of sophistry; flaw in an argument;
weak point, bad case.
     overrefinement^; hairsplitting &c v..
V. judge intuitively, judge by intuition; hazard a proposition, hazard
a guess, talk at random.
     reason ill, falsely &c adj.; misjudge &c 481; paralogize^.
     take on faith, take as a given; assume (supposition) 514.
     pervert, quibble; equivocate, mystify, evade, elude; gloss over,
varnish; misteach &c 538 [Obs.]; mislead &c (error) 495; cavil, refine,
subtilize^, split hairs; misrepresent &c (lie) 544.
     beg the question, reason in a circle, reason in circles, assume
the conclusion.
     cut blocks with a razor, beat about the bush, play fast and loose,
play fast and loose with the facts, blow hot and cold, prove that black
is white and white black, travel out of the record, parler a tort et a
travers [Fr.], put oneself out of court, not have a leg to stand on.
     judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to conclusions
(misjudgment) 481.
Adj. intuitive, instinctive, impulsive; independent of reason, anterior
to reason; gratuitous, hazarded; unconnected.
     unreasonable, illogical, false, unsound, invalid; unwarranted, not
following; inconsequent, inconsequential; inconsistent; absonous^,
absonant^; unscientific; untenable, inconclusive, incorrect; fallacious,
fallible; groundless, unproved; non sequitur [Lat.], it does not
     deceptive, sophistical, jesuitical; illusive, illusory; specious,
hollow, plausible, ad captandum [Lat.], evasive; irrelevant &c 10.
     weak, feeble, poor, flimsy, loose, vague.
     irrational; nonsensical &c (absurd) 497.
     foolish &c (imbecile) 499; frivolous, pettifogging, quibbling;
finespun^, overrefined^.
     at the end of one's tether, au bout de son latin.
Adv. intuitively &c adj.; by intuition; illogically &c adj..
Phr. non constat [Lat.]; that goes for nothing.

478. Demonstration -- N. {ant.
     479} demonstration, proof, rigorous proof; conclusiveness &c adj.;
apodeixis^, apodixis^, probation, comprobation^.
     logic of facts &c (evidence) 467; experimentum crucis &c (test)
463 [Lat.]; argument &c 476; rigorous establishment, absolute
     conviction, cogency, (persuasion) 484.
V. demonstrate, prove, establish; make good; show, evince, manifest &c
(be evidence of) 467; confirm, corroborate, substantiate, verify &c
467, settle the question, reduce to demonstration, set the question at
     make out, make out a case; prove one's point, have the best of the
argument; draw a conclusion &c (judge) 480.
     follow, follow of course, follow as a matter of course, follow
necessarily; stand to reason; hold good, hold water.
     convince, persuade (belief) 484.
Adj. demonstrating &c v., demonstrative, demonstrable; probative,
unanswerable, conclusive; apodictic^, apodeictic^, apodeictical^;
irresistible, irrefutable, irrefragable; necessary.
     categorical, decisive, crucial.
     demonstrated &c v.; proven; unconfuted^, unanswered, unrefuted^;
evident &c 474.
     deducible, consequential, consectary^, inferential, following.
     [demonstrated to one's satisfaction] convincing, cogent,
persuasive (believable) 484.
Adv. of course, in consequence, consequently, as a matter of course;
necessarily, of necessity.
Phr. probatum est [Lat.]; there is nothing more to be said; quod est
demonstrandum [Lat.], Q.E.D.; it must follow; exitus acta probat

479. Confutation -- N. {ant 478} confutation, refutation; answer,
complete answer; disproof, conviction, redargution^, invalidation;
exposure, exposition; clincher; retort; reductio ad absurdum; knock
down argument, tu quoque argument [Lat.]; sockdolager [U.S.],
correction &c 572.1; dissuasion &c 616.
V. confute, refute, disprove; parry, negative, controvert, rebut,
confound, disconfirm, redargue^, expose, show the fallacy of, defeat;
demolish, break &c (destroy) 162; overthrow, overturn scatter to the
winds, explode, invalidate; silence; put to silence, reduce to silence;
clinch an argument, clinch a question; give one a setdown^, stop the
mouth, shut up; have, have on the hip.
     not leave a leg to stand on, cut the ground from under one's feet.
     be confuted &c; fail; expose one's weak point, show one's weak
     counter evidence &c 468.
Adj. confuting, confuted, &c v.; capable of refutation; refutable,
confutable^, defeasible.
     contravene (counter evidence) 468.
     condemned on one's own showing, condemned out of one's own mouth.
Phr. the argument falls to the ground, cadit quaestio [Lat.], it does
not hold water, suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo [Terence]; his argument was
demolished by new evidence.


480. Judgment [Conclusion.] -- N. result, conclusion, upshot;
deduction, inference, ergotism [Med.]; illation; corollary, porism^;
     estimation, valuation, appreciation, judication^; dijudication^,
adjudication; arbitrament, arbitrement^, arbitration; assessment,
ponderation^; valorization.
     award, estimate; review, criticism, critique, notice, report.
     decision, determination, judgment, finding, verdict, sentence,
decree; findings of fact; findings of law; res judicata [Lat.].
     plebiscite, voice, casting vote; vote &c (choice) 609; opinion &c
(belief) 484; good judgment &c (wisdom) 498.
     judge, umpire; arbiter, arbitrator; asessor, referee.
     censor, reviewer, critic; connoisseur; commentator &c 524;
inspector, inspecting officer.
     twenty-twenty hindsight [judgment after the fact]; armchair
general, monday morning quarterback.
V. judge, conclude; come to a conclusion, draw a conclusion, arrive at
a conclusion; ascertain, determine, make up one's mind.
     deduce, derive, gather, collect, draw an inference, make a
deduction, weet^, ween^.
     form an estimate, estimate, appreciate, value, count, assess,
rate, rank, account; regard, consider, think of; look upon &c (believe)
484; review; size up [Slang].
     settle; pass an opinion, give an opinion; decide, try, pronounce,
rule; pass judgment, pass sentence; sentence, doom; find; give
judgment, deliver judgment; adjudge, adjudicate; arbitrate, award,
report; bring in a verdict; make absolute, set a question at rest;
confirm &c (assent) 488.
     comment, criticize, kibitz; pass under review &c (examine) 457;
investigate &c (inquire) 461.
     hold the scales, sit in judgment; try judgment, hear a cause.
Adj. judging &c v.; judicious &c (wise) 498; determinate, conclusive.
Adv. on the whole, all things considered.
Phr. a Daniel come to judgment [Merchant of Venice]; and stand a
critic, hated yet caress'd [Byron]; it is much easier to be critical
than to be correct [Disraeli]; la critique est aisee et l'art est
difficile [Fr.]; nothing if not critical [Othello]; O most lame and
impotent conclusion [Othello].

480a. [Result of search or inquiry.] Discovery -- N. discovery,
detection, disenchantment; ascertainment^, disclosure, find, revelation.
     trover [Law] &c (recovery) 775.
V. discover, find, determine, evolve, learn &c 539; fix upon; pick up;
find out, trace out, make out, hunt out, fish out, worm out, ferret
out, root out; fathom; bring out, draw out; educe, elicit, bring to
light; dig out, grub up, fish up; unearth, disinter.
     solve, resolve, elucidate; unriddle, unravel, unlock, crack, crack
open; pick up, open the lock; find a clue, find clew a to, find the key
to the riddle; interpret &c 522; disclose &c 529.
     trace, get at; hit it, have it; lay one's finger, lay one's hands
upon; spot; get at the truth, arrive at the truth &c 494; put the
saddle on the right horse, hit the right nail on the head.
     be near the truth, be warm, get warmer, burn; smoke, scent, sniff,
catch a whiff of, smell a rat.
     open the eyes to; see through, see daylight, see in its true
colors, see the cloven foot; detect; catch, catch tripping.
     pitch upon, fall upon, light upon, hit upon, stumble upon, pop
upon; come across, come onto; meet with, meet up with, fall in with.
     recognize, realize; verify, make certain of, identify.
Int. eureka!, aha!^, I've got it!,

481. Misjudgment -- N. misjudgment, obliquity of judgment;
miscalculation, miscomputation, misconception &c (error) 495; hasty
     [causes of misjudgment. 1] prejudgment, prejudication^, prejudice;
foregone conclusion; prenotion^, prevention, preconception,
predilection, prepossession, preapprehension^, presumption, assumption,
presentiment; fixed idea, preconceived idea; id_ee fixe; mentis
gratissimus error [Lat.]; fool's paradise.
     [causes of misjudgment. 2] esprit de corps, party spirit,
partisanship, clannishness, prestige.
     [causes of misjudgment. 3] bias, bigotry, warp, twist; hobby, fad,
quirk, crotchet, partiality, infatuation, blind side, mote in the eye.
     [causes of misjudgment. 4] one-sided views, one-track mind,
partial views, narrow views, confined views, superficial views, one-
sided ideas, partial ideas, narrow ideas, confined ideas, superficial
ideas, one-sided conceptions, partial conceptions, narrow conceptions,
confined conceptions, superficial conceptions, one-sided notions,
partial notions, narrow notions, confined notions, superficial notions;
narrow mind; bigotry &c (obstinacy) 606; odium theologicum [Lat.];
pedantry; hypercriticism.
     doctrinaire &c (positive) 474.
     [causes of misjudgment. 5] overestimation &c 482; underestimation
&c 483.
     [causes of misjudgment. 6] ignorance &c 491.
     erroneous assumptions, erroneous data, mistaken assumptions,
incorrect assumptions (error) 495.
V. misjudge, misestimate, misthink^, misconjecture^, misconceive &c
(error) 495; fly in the face of facts; miscalculate, misreckon,
     overestimate &c 482; underestimate &c 483.
     prejudge, forejudge; presuppose, presume, prejudicate^; dogmatize;
have a bias &c n.; have only one idea; jurare in verba magistri [Lat.],
run away with the notion; jump to a conclusion, rush to a conclusion,
leap to a conclusion, judge hastily, shoot from the hip, jump to
conclusions; look only at one side of the shield; view with jaundiced
eye, view through distorting spectacles; not see beyond one's nose;
dare pondus fumo [Lat.]; get the wrong sow by the ear &c (blunder) 699.
     give a bias, give a twist; bias, warp, twist; prejudice,
Adj. misjudging &c v.; ill-judging, wrong-headed; prejudiced &c v.;
jaundiced; shortsighted, purblind; partial, one-sided, superficial.
     narrow-minded, narrow-souled^; mean-spirited; confined, illiberal,
intolerant, besotted, infatuated, fanatical, entete [Fr.], positive,
dogmatic, conceited; opinative, opiniative^; opinioned, opinionate,
opinionative, opinionated; self-opinioned, wedded to an opinion,
opini=atre; bigoted &c (obstinate) 606; crotchety, fussy,
impracticable; unreasonable, stupid &c 499; credulous &c 486; warped.
     misjudged &c v..
Adv. ex parte [Lat.].
Phr. nothing like leather; the wish the father to the thought; wishful
thinking; unshakable conviction; my mind is made up - don't bother me
with the facts.

482. Overestimation -- N. overestimation &c v.; exaggeration &c 549;
vanity &c 880; optimism, pessimism, pessimist.
     much cry and little wool, much ado about nothing; storm in a
teacup, tempest in a teacup; fine talking.
V. overestimate, overrate, overvalue, overprize, overweigh, overreckon^,
overstrain, overpraise; eulogize; estimate too highly, attach too much
importance to, make mountains of molehills, catch at straws; strain,
magnify; exaggerate &c 549; set too high a value upon; think much of,
make much of, think too much of, make too much of; outreckon^;
     extol, extol to the skies; make the most of, make the best of,
make the worst of; make two bites of a cherry.
     have too high an opinion of oneself &c (vanity) 880.
Adj. overestimated &c v.; oversensitive &c (sensibility) 822.
Phr. all his geese are swans; parturiunt montes [Lat.].

483. Underestimation -- N. underestimation; depreciation &c
(detraction) 934; pessimism, pessimist; undervaluing &c v.; modesty &c
V. underrate, underestimate, undervalue, underreckon^; depreciate;
disparage &c (detract) 934; not do justice to; misprize, disprize;
ridicule &c 856; slight &c (despise) 930; neglect &c 460; slur over.
     make light of, make little of, make nothing of, make no account
of; belittle; minimize, think nothing of; set no store by, set at
naught; shake off as dewdrops from the lion's mane.
Adj. depreciating, depreciated &c v.; unvalued, unprized^.

484. Belief -- N. belief; credence; credit; assurance; faith, trust,
troth, confidence, presumption, sanguine expectation &c (hope) 858;
dependence on, reliance on.
     persuasion, conviction, convincement^, plerophory^, self-
conviction; certainty &c 474; opinion, mind, view; conception,
thinking; impression &c (idea) 453; surmise &c 514; conclusion &c
(judgment) 480.
     tenet, dogma, principle, way of thinking; popular belief &c
(assent) 488.
     firm belief, implicit belief, settled belief, fixed rooted deep-
rooted belief, staunch belief, unshaken belief, steadfast belief,
inveterate belief, calm belief, sober belief, dispassionate belief,
impartial belief, well-founded belief, firm opinion, implicit opinion,
settled opinion, fixed rooted deep-rooted opinion, staunch opinion,
unshaken opinion, steadfast opinion, inveterate opinion, calm opinion,
sober opinion, dispassionate opinion, impartial opinion, well-founded
opinion &c; uberrima fides [Lat.].
     system of opinions, school, doctrine, articles, canons; article of
faith, declaration of faith, profession of faith; tenets, credenda^,
creed; thirty-nine articles &c (orthodoxy) 983.1; catechism; assent &c
488; propaganda &c (teaching) 537.
     credibility &c (probability) 472.
V. believe, credit; give faith to, give credit to, credence to; see,
realize; assume, receive; set down for, take for; have it, take it;
consider, esteem, presume.
     count upon, depend upon, calculate upon, pin one's faith upon,
reckon upon, lean upon, build upon, rely upon, rest upon; lay one's
account for; make sure of.
     make oneself easy about, on that score; take on trust, take on
credit; take for granted, take for gospel; allow some weight to, attach
some weight to.
     know, know for certain; have know, make no doubt; doubt not; be,
rest assured &c adj.; persuade oneself, assure oneself, satisfy
oneself; make up one's mind.
     give one credit for; confide in, believe in, put one's trust in;
place in, repose in, implicit confidence in; take one's word for, at
one's word; place reliance on, rely upon, swear by, regard to.
     think, hold; take, take it; opine, be of opinion, conceive, trow^,
ween^, fancy, apprehend; have it, hold a belief, possess, entertain a
belief, adopt a belief, imbibe a belief, embrace a belief, get hold of
a belief, hazard, foster, nurture a belief, cherish a belief, have an
opinion, hold an opinion, possess, entertain an opinion, adopt an
opinion, imbibe an opinion, embrace an opinion, get hold of an opinion,
hazard an opinion, foster an opinion, nurture an opinion, cherish an
opinion &c n.. view as, consider as, take as, hold as, conceive as,
regard as, esteem as, deem as, look upon as, account as, set down as;
surmise &c 514.
     get it into one's head, take it into one's head; come round to an
opinion; swallow &c (credulity) 486.
     cause to be believed &c v.; satisfy, persuade, have the ear of,
gain the confidence of, assure; convince, convict^, convert; wean, bring
round; bring over, win over; indoctrinate &c (teach) 537; cram down the
throat; produce conviction, carry conviction; bring home to, drive home
     go down, find credence, pass current; be received &c v., be
current &c adj.; possess, take hold of, take possession of the mind.
Adj. believing &c v.; certain, sure, assured, positive, cocksure,
satisfied, confident, unhesitating, convinced, secure.
     under the impression; impressed with, imbued with, penetrated
     confiding, suspectless^; unsuspecting, unsuspicious; void of
suspicion; credulous &c 486; wedded to.
     believed &c v.; accredited, putative; unsuspected.
     worthy of, deserving of, commanding belief; credible, reliable,
trustworthy, to be depended on; satisfactory; probably &c 472;
fiducial^, fiduciary; persuasive, impressive.
     relating to belief, doctrinal.
Adv. in the opinion of, in the eyes of; me judice [Lat.]; meseems^,
methinks; to the best of one's belief; I dare say, I doubt not, I have
no doubt, I am sure; sure enough &c (certainty) 474; depend upon, rely
upon it; be assured, rest assured; I'll warrant you &c (affirmation)
Phr. experto crede [Lat.] [Vergil]; fata viam invenient [Lat.];
Justitiae soror incorrupta Fides [Lat.]; live to explain thy doctrine
by thy life [Prior]; stands not within the prospect of belief
[Macbeth]; tarde quae credita laedunt credimus [Lat.] [Ovid]; vide et
crede [Lat.].

485. Unbelief. Doubt -- N. unbelief, disbelief, misbelief; discredit,
miscreance^; infidelity &c (irreligion) 989 [Obs.]; dissent &c 489;
change of opinion &c 484; retraction &c 607.
     doubt &c (uncertainty) 475; skepticism, scepticism, misgiving,
demure; distrust, mistrust, cynicism; misdoubt^, suspicion, jealousy,
scruple, qualm; onus probandi [Lat.].
     incredibility, incredibleness; incredulity.
     [person who doubts] doubter, skeptic, cynic.; unbeliever &c 487.
V. disbelieve, discredit; not believe &c 484; misbelieve^; refuse to
admit &c (dissent) 489; refuse to believe &c (incredulity) 487.
     doubt; be doubtful &c (uncertain) 475; doubt the truth of; be
skeptical as to &c adj.; diffide^; distrust, mistrust; suspect, smoke,
scent, smell a rat; have doubts, harbor doubts, entertain doubts,
suspicions; have one's doubts.
     demure, stick at, pause, hesitate, scruple; stop to consider,
     hang in suspense, hang in doubt.
     throw doubt upon, raise a question; bring in, call in question;
question, challenge, dispute; deny &c 536; cavil; cause a doubt, raise
a doubt, start a doubt, suggest a doubt, awake a doubt, make suspicion;
     startle, stagger; shake one's faith, shake one's belief, stagger
one's faith, stagger one's belief.
Adj. unbelieving; skeptical, sceptical.
     incredulous as to, skeptical as to; distrustful as to, shy as to,
suspicious of; doubting &c v.. doubtful &c (uncertain) 475; disputable;
unworthy of, undeserving of belief &c 484; questionable; suspect,
suspicious; open to suspicion, open to doubt; staggering, hard to
believe, incredible, unbelievable, not to be believed, inconceivable;
impossible &c 471.
     fallible &c (uncertain) 475; undemonstrable; controvertible &c
(untrue) 495.
Adv. cum grano salis [Lat.], with a grain of salt; with grains of
Phr. fronti nulla fides [Lat.]; nimium ne crede colori [Lat.] [Vergil];
timeo Danaos et dona ferentes [Vergil], I fear the Greeks even when
bearing gifts, beware of Greeks bearing gifts; credat Judaeus Apella
[Lat.] [Horace]; let those believe who may; ad tristem partem stenua
est suspicio [Lat.] [Syrus].

486. Credulity -- N. credulity, credulousness &c adj.; cullibility^,
gullibility; gross credulity, infatuation; self delusion, self
deception; superstition; one's blind side; bigotry &c (obstinacy) 606;
hyperorthodoxy &c 984 [Obs.]; misjudgment &c 481.
     credulous person &c (dupe) 547.
V. be credulous &c adj.; jurare in verba magistri [Lat.]; follow
implicitly; swallow, gulp down; take on trust; take for granted, take
for gospel; run away with a notion, run away with an idea; jump to a
conclusion, rush to a conclusion; think the moon is made of green
cheese; take for granted, grasp the shadow for the substance; catch at
straws, grasp at straws.
     impose upon &c (deceive) 545.
Adj. credulous, gullible; easily deceived &c 545; simple, green, soft,
childish, silly, stupid; easily convinced; over-credulous, over
confident, over trustful; infatuated, superstitious; confiding &c
(believing) 484.
Phr. the wish the father to the thought; credo quia impossibile [Lat.]
[Tertullian]; all is not gold that glitters; no es oro todo lo que
reluce [Sp.]; omne ignotum pro magnifico [Lat.].

487. Incredulity -- N. incredulousness^, incredulity; skepticism,
pyrrhonism^; want of faith &c (irreligion) 989 [Obs.].
     suspiciousness &c adj.; scrupulosity; suspicion &c (unbelief) 485.
     mistrust, cynicism.
     unbeliever, skeptic, cynic; misbeliever.1, pyrrhonist; heretic &c
(heterodox) 984.
V. be incredulous &c adj.; distrust &c (disbelieve) 485; refuse to
believe; shut one's eyes to, shut one's ears to; turn a deaf ear to;
hold aloof, ignore, nullis jurare in verba magistri [Lat.].
Adj. incredulous, skeptical, unbelieving, inconvincible^; hard of
belief, shy of belief, disposed to doubt, indisposed to believe;
suspicious, scrupulous, distrustful, cynical;

488. Assent -- N. assent, assentment^; acquiescence, admission; nod;
accord, concord, concordance; agreement &c 23; affirmance, affirmation;
recognition, acknowledgment, avowal; confession of faith.
     unanimity, common consent, consensus, acclamation, chorus, vox
populi; popular belief, current belief, current opinion; public
opinion; concurrence &c (of causes) 178; cooperation &c (voluntary)
     ratification, confirmation, corroboration, approval, acceptance,
visa; indorsement &c (record) 551 [Obs.].
     consent &c (compliance) 762.
     pressure to conform, herd instinct, peer pressure.
V. assent; give assent, yield assent, nod assent; acquiesce; agree &c
23; receive, accept, accede, accord, concur, lend oneself to, consent,
coincide, reciprocate, go with; be at one with &c adj.; go along with,
chime in with, strike in with, close in with; echo, enter into one's
views, agree in opinion; vote, give one's voice for; recognize;
subscribe to, conform to, defer to; say yes to, say ditto, amen to, say
aye to.
     acknowledge, own, admit, allow, avow, confess; concede &c (yield)
762; come round to; abide by; permit &c 760.
     arrive at an understanding, come to an understanding, come to
terms, come to an agreement.
     confirm, affirm; ratify, appprove, indorse, countersign;
corroborate &c 467.
     go with the stream, swim with the stream, go with the flow, blow
with the wind; be in fashion, join in the chorus, join the crowd, be
one of the guys, be part of the group, go with the crowd, don't make
waves; be in every mouth.
Adj. assenting &c v.; of one accord, of one mind; of the same mind, at
one with, agreed, acquiescent, content; willing &c 602.
     uncontradicted, unchallenged, unquestioned, uncontroverted.
     carried, agreed, nem.
     con. [Lat.], nemine contradicente [Lat.], &c adv.; unanimous;
agreed on all hands, carried by acclamation.
     affirmative &c 535.
Adv. yes, yea, ay, aye, true; good; well; very well, very true; well
and good; granted; even so, just so; to be sure, 'thou hast said', you
said it, you said a mouthful; truly, exactly, precisely, that's just
it, indeed, certainly, you bet, certes [Lat.], ex concesso [Lat.]; of
course, unquestionably, assuredly, no doubt, doubtless; naturally,
     be it so; so be it, so let it be; amen; willingly &c 602.
     affirmatively, in the affirmative.
     OK, all right, might as well, why not? with one consent, with one
voice, with one accord; unanimously, una voce, by common consent, in
chorus, to a man; nem.
     con, nemine contradicente [Lat.]; nemine dissentiente [Lat.];
without a dissentient voice; as one man, one and all, on all hands.
Phr. avec plaisir [Fr.]; chi tace accousente [It]; the public mind is
the creation of the Master-Writers [Disraeli]; you bet your sweet ass
it is; what are we waiting for? whenever you're ready; anytime you're

489. Dissent -- N. dissent; discordance &c (disagreement) 24;
difference diversity of opinion.
     nonconformity &c (heterodoxy) 984; protestantism, recusancy,
schism; disaffection; secession &c 624; recantation &c 607.
     dissension &c (discord) 713; discontent &c 832; cavilling.
     protest; contradiction &c (denial) 536; noncompliance &c
(rejection) 764.
     dissentient, dissenter; non-juror, non-content, nonconformist;
sectary, separatist, recusant, schismatic, protestant, heretic.
     refusal &c 764.
V. dissent, demur; call in question &c (doubt) 485; differ in opinion,
disagree; say no &c 536; refuse assent, refuse to admit; cavil,
protest, raise one's voice against, repudiate; contradict &c (deny)
     have no notion of, differ toto caelo [Lat.]; revolt at, revolt
from the idea.
     shake the head, shrug the shoulders; look askance, look askant^.
     secede; recant &c 607.
Adj. dissenting &c v.; negative &c 536; dissident, dissentient;
unconsenting &c (refusing) 764; non-content, nonjuring^; protestant,
recusant; unconvinced, unconverted.
     unavowed, unacknowledged; out of the question.
     discontented &c 832; unwilling &c 603; extorted.
     sectarian, denominational, schismatic; heterodox; intolerant.
Adv. no &c 536; at variance, at issue with; under protest.
Int. God forbid!, not for the world; I'll be hanged if; never tell me;
your humble servant, pardon me.
Phr. many men many minds; quot homines tot sententiae [Lat.] [Terence];
tant s'en faut [Fr.]; il s'en faut bien [Fr.]; no way; by no means;
count me out.

490. Knowledge -- N. knowledge; cognizance, cognition, cognoscence^;
acquaintance, experience, ken [Scot.], privity^, insight, familiarity;
comprehension, apprehension; recognition; appreciation &c (judgment)
480; intuition; conscience, consciousness; perception, precognition;
     light, enlightenment; glimpse, inkling; glimmer, glimmering; dawn;
scent, suspicion; impression &c (idea) 453; discovery &c 480.1.
     system of knowledge, body of knowledge; science, philosophy,
pansophy^; acroama^; theory, aetiology^, etiology; circle of the
sciences; pandect^, doctrine, body of doctrine; cyclopedia,
encyclopedia; school &c (system of opinions) 484.
     tree of knowledge; republic of letters &c (language) 560.
     erudition, learning, lore, scholarship, reading, letters;
literature; book madness; book learning, bookishness; bibliomania^,
bibliolatry^; information, general information; store of knowledge &c;
education &c (teaching) 537; culture, menticulture^, attainments;
acquirements, acquisitions; accomplishments; proficiency; practical
knowledge &c (skill) 698; liberal education; dilettantism; rudiments &c
(beginning) 66.
     deep knowledge, profound knowledge, solid knowledge, accurate
knowledge, acroatic knowledge^, acroamatic knowledge^, vast knowledge,
extensive knowledge, encyclopedic knowledge, encyclopedic learning;
omniscience, pantology^.
     march of intellect; progress of science, advance of science,
advance of learning; schoolmaster abroad.
     [person who knows much] scholar &c 492.
V. know, ken [Scot.], scan, wot^; wot aware^, be aware of &c adj.; ween^,
weet^, trow^, have, possess.
     conceive; apprehend, comprehend; take, realize, understand, savvy
[Slang], appreciate; fathom, make out; recognize, discern, perceive,
see, get a sight-of, experience.
     know full well; have some knowledge of, possess some knowledge of;
be au courant &c adj.; have in one's head, have at one' fingers ends;
know by heart, know by rote; be master of; connaitre le dessous des
cartes [Fr.], know what's what &c 698.
     see one's way; discover &c 480.1.
     come to one's knowledge &c (information) 527.
Adj. knowing &c v.; cognitive; acroamatic^.
     aware of, cognizant of, conscious of; acquainted with, made
acquainted with; privy to, no stranger to; au fait with, au courant; in
the secret; up to, alive to; behind the scenes, behind the curtain; let
into; apprized of, informed of; undeceived.
     proficient with, versed with, read with, forward with, strong
with, at home in; conversant with, familiar with.
     erudite, instructed, leaned, lettered, educated; well conned, well
informed, well read, well grounded, well educated; enlightened, shrewd,
savant, blue, bookish, scholastic, solid, profound, deep-read, book-
learned; accomplished &c (skillful) 698; omniscient; self-taught.
     known &c v.; ascertained, well-known, recognized, received,
notorious, noted; proverbial; familiar, familiar as household words,
familiar to every schoolboy; hackneyed, trite, trivial, commonplace.
     cognoscible^, cognizable.
Adv. to one's knowledge, to the best of one's knowledge.
Phr. one's eyes being opened &c (disclosure) 529; ompredre tout c'est
tout pardonner [Fr.], to know all is to pardon all; empta dolore docet
experientia [Lat.]; gnothi seauton [Gr.]; half our knowledge we must
snatch not take [Pope]; Jahre lehren mehr als Bucher [G.], years teach
more than books [G.]; knowledge comes but wisdom lingers [Tennyson];
knowledge is power [Bacon]; les affaires font les hommes [Fr.]; nec
scire fas est omnia [Lat.] [Horace]; the amassed thought and experience
of innumerable minds [Emerson]; was ich nicht weiss macht mich nicht
heiss [G.].

491. Ignorance -- N. ignorance, nescience, tabula rasa [Lat.], crass
ignorance, ignorance crasse [Fr.]; unfamiliarity, unacquaintance^;
unconsciousness &c adj.; darkness, blindness; incomprehension,
inexperience, simplicity.
     unknown quantities, x, y, z.
     sealed book, terra incognita, virgin soil, unexplored ground; dark
     [Imperfect knowledge] smattering, sciolism^, glimmering,
dilettantism; bewilderment &c (uncertainty) 475; incapacity.
     [Affectation of knowledge] pedantry; charlatanry, charlatism^;
Philister^, Philistine.
V. be ignorant &c adj.; not know &c 490; know not, know not what, know
nothing of; have no idea, have no notion, have no conception; not have
the remotest idea; not know chalk from cheese.
     ignore, be blind to; keep in ignorance &c (conceal) 528.
     see through a glass darkly; have a film over the eyes, have a
glimmering &c n.; wonder whether; not know what to make of &c
(unintelligibility) 519; not pretend to take upon, not take upon one
self to say.
Adj. ignorant; nescient; unknowing, unaware, unacquainted, unapprised,
unapprized^, unwitting, unweeting^, unconscious; witless, weetless^; a
stranger to; unconversant^.
     uninformed, uncultivated, unversed, uninstructed, untaught,
uninitiated, untutored, unschooled, misguided, unenlightened;
Philistine; behind the age.
     shallow, superficial, green, rude, empty, half-learned,
illiterate; unread, uninformed, uneducated, unlearned, unlettered,
unbookish; empty-headed, dizzy, wooly-headed; pedantic; in the dark;
benighted, belated; blinded, blindfolded; hoodwinked; misinformed; au
bout de son latin, at the end of his tether, at fault; at sea &c
(uncertain) 475; caught tripping.
     unknown, unapprehended, unexplained, unascertained,
uninvestigated^, unexplored, unheard of, not perceived; concealed &c
528; novel.
Adv. ignorantly &c adj.; unawares; for anything, for aught one knows;
not that one knows.
Int. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows.
Phr. ignorance never settles a question [Disraeli]; quantum animis
erroris inest! [Lat.] [Ovid]; small Latin and less Greek [B.
     Jonson]; that unlettered small-knowing soul [Love's Labor's Lost];
there is no darkness but ignorance [Twelfth Night].

492. Scholar -- N. scholar, connoisseur, savant, pundit, schoolman^,
professor, graduate, wrangler; academician, academist^; master of arts,
doctor, licentitate, gownsman; philosopher, master of math; scientist,
clerk; sophist, sophister^; linguist; glossolinguist, philologist;
philologer^; lexicographer, glossographer; grammarian; litterateur
[Fr.], literati, dilettanti, illuminati, cogniscenti [It]; fellow,
Hebraist, lexicologist, mullah, munshi^, Sanskritish; sinologist,
sinologue^; Mezzofanti^, admirable Crichton, Mecaenas.
     bookworm, helluo librorum [Lat.]; bibliophile, bibliomaniac^;
bluestocking, bas-bleu [Fr.]; bigwig, learned Theban, don; Artium
Baccalaureus [Lat.], Artium Magister [Lat.].
     learned man, literary man; homo multarum literarum [Lat.]; man of
learning, man of letters, man of education, man of genius.
     antiquarian, antiquary; archaeologist.
     sage &c (wise man) 500.
     pedant, doctrinaire; pedagogue, Dr.
     Pangloss; pantologist^, criminologist.
     schoolboy &c (learner) 541.
Adj. learned &c 490; brought up at the feet of Gamaliel.
Phr. he was a scholar and a ripe and good one [Henry VIII]; the
manifold linguist [All's Well That Ends Well].

493. Ignoramus -- N. ignoramus, dunce; wooden spoon; no scholar.
     [insulting terms for ignorant person:] (imbecility) 499 (folly)
501 moron, imbecile, idiot; fool, jerk, nincompoop, asshole [Vulg.].
     [person with superficial knowledge] dilettante, sciolist^,
smatterer, dabbler, half scholar; charlatan; wiseacre.
     greenhorn, amateur &c (dupe) 547; novice, tyro &c (learner) 541;
     lubber &c (bungler) 701; fool &c 501; pedant &c 492.
Adj. bookless^, shallow; ignorant &c 491.
Phr. a wit with dunces and a dunce with wits [Pope].

494. [Object of knowledge.] Truth -- N. fact, reality &c (existence) 1;
plain fact, plain matter of fact; nature &c (principle) 5; truth,
verity; gospel, gospel truth, God's honest truth; orthodoxy &c 983.1;
authenticity; veracity &c 543; correctness, correctitude^.
     accuracy, exactitude; exactness, preciseness &c adj.; precision,
delicacy; rigor, mathematical precision, punctuality; clockwork
precision &c (regularity) 80; conformity to rule; nicety.
     orthology^; ipsissima verba [Lat.]; realism.
     plain truth, honest truth, sober truth, naked truth, unalloyed
truth, unqualified truth, stern truth, exact truth, intrinsic truth;
nuda veritas [Lat.]; the very thing; not an illusion &c 495; real Simon
Pure; unvarnished tale, unvarnished truth; the truth the whole truth
and nothing but the truth; just the thing.
V. be true &c adj., be the case; sand the test; have the true ring;
hold good, hold true, hold water.
     render true, prove true &c adj.; substantiate &c (evidence) 467.
     get at the truth &c (discover) 480.1.
Adj. real, actual &c (existing) 1; veritable, true; right, correct;
certain &c 474; substantially true, categorically true, definitively
true &c; true to the letter, true as gospel; unimpeachable; veracious
&c 543; unreconfuted^, unconfuted^; unideal^, unimagined; realistic.
     exact, accurate, definite, precise, well-defined, just, just so,
so; strict, severe; close &c (similar) 17; literal; rigid, rigorous;
scrupulous &c (conscientious) 939; religiously exact, punctual,
mathematical, scientific; faithful, constant, unerring; curious,
particular, nice, delicate, fine; clean-cut, clear-cut.
     verified, empirically true, experimentally verified,
substantiated, proven (demonstrated) 478.
     rigorously true, unquestionably true.
     true by definition.
     genuine, authentic, legitimate; orthodox &c 983.1; official, ex
     pure, natural, sound, sterling; unsophisticated, unadulterated,
unvarnished, unalloyed, uncolored; in its true colors; pukka^.
     well-grounded, well founded; solid, substantial, tangible, valid;
undistorted, undisguised; unaffected, unexaggerated, unromantic,
Adv. truly &c adj.; verily, indeed, really, in reality; with truth &c
(veracity) 543; certainly &c (certain) 474; actually &c (existence) 1;
in effect &c (intrinsically) 5.
     exactly &c adj.; ad amussim [Lat.]; verbatim, verbatim et
literatim [Lat.]; word for word, literally, literatim [Lat.], totidem
vervis [Lat.], sic, to the letter, chapter and verse, ipsissimis verbis
[Lat.]; ad unguem [Lat.]; to an inch; to a nicety, to a hair, to a
tittle, to a turn, to a T; au pied de la lettre [Fr.]; neither more nor
less; in every respect, in all respects; sous tous les rapports [Fr.];
at any rate, at all events; strictly speaking.
Phr. the truth is, the fact is; rem acu tetigisti [Lat.]; en suivant la
verite [Fr.]; ex facto jus oritur [Lat.]; la verita e figlia del empo
[It]; locos y ninos dicen la verdad [Sp.], crazy people and children
tell the truth; nihil est veritatis luce dulcius [Lat.] [Cicero];
veritas nunquam perit [Lat.] [Seneca]; veritatem dies aperit [Lat.]
[Seneca]; the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; just
the facts, ma'am, just the facts [Dragnet].

495. Error -- N. error, fallacy; misconception, misapprehension,
misstanding^, misunderstanding; inexactness &c adj.; laxity;
misconstruction &c (misinterpretation) 523; miscomputation &c
(misjudgment) 481; non sequitur &c 477; mis-statement, mis-report;
     mistake; miss, fault, blunder, quiproquo, cross purposes,
oversight, misprint, erratum, corrigendum, slip, blot, flaw, loose
thread; trip, stumble &c (failure) 732; botchery &c (want of skill) 699
[Obs.]; slip of the tongue, slip of the lip, Freudian slip; slip of the
pen; lapsus linguae [Lat.], clerical error; bull &c (absurdity) 497;
     illusion, delusion; snare; false impression, false idea; bubble;
self-decit, self-deception; mists of error.
     heresy &c (heterodoxy) 984; hallucination &c (insanity) 503; false
light &c (fallacy of vision) 443; dream &c (fancy) 515; fable &c
(untruth) 546; bias &c (misjudgment) 481; misleading &c v..
V. be erroneous &c adj.. cause error; mislead, misguide; lead astray,
lead into error; beguile, misinform &c (misteach) 538 [Obs.]; delude;
give a false impression, give a false idea; falsify, misstate; deceive
&c 545; lie &c 544.
     err; be in error &c adj., be mistaken &c v.; be deceived &c
(duped) 547; mistake, receive a false impression, deceive oneself; fall
into error, lie under error, labor under an error &c n.; be in the
wrong, blunder; misapprehend, misconceive, misunderstand, misreckon,
miscount, miscalculate &c (misjudge) 481.
     play at cross purposes, be at cross purposes &c (misinterpret)
     trip, stumble; lose oneself &c (uncertainty) 475; go astray; fail
&c 732; be in the wrong box; take the wrong sow by the ear &c
(mismanage) 699; put the saddle on the wrong horse; reckon without
one's host; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity) 486; dream
&c (imagine) 515.
Adj. erroneous, untrue, false, devoid of truth, fallacious, apocryphal,
unreal, ungrounded, groundless; unsubstantial &c 4; heretical &c
(heterodox) 984; unsound; illogical &c 477.
     inexact, unexact inaccurate^, incorrect; indefinite &c (uncertain)
     illusive, illusory; delusive; mock, ideal &c (imaginary) 515;
spurious &c 545; deceitful &c 544; perverted.
     controvertible, unsustainable; unauthenticated, untrustworthy.
     exploded, refuted; discarded.
     in error, under an error &c n.; mistaken &c v.; tripping &c v.;
out, out in one's reckoning; aberrant; beside the mark, wide of the
mark, wide of the truth, way off, far off; astray &c (at fault) 475; on
a false scent, on the wrong scent; in the wrong box, outside the
ballpark; at cross purposes, all in the wrong; all out.
Adv. more or less.
Phr. errare est humanum [Lat.]; mentis gratissimus error [Lat.]
[Horace]; on the dubious waves of error tost [Cowper]; to err is human,
to forgive divine [Pope]; you lie -- under a mistake [Shelley].

496. Maxim -- N. maxim, aphorism; apothegm, apophthegm^; dictum, saying,
adage, saw, proverb; sentence, mot [Fr.], motto, word, byword, moral,
phylactery, protasis^.
     axiom, theorem, scholium^, truism, postulate.
     first principles, a priori fact, assumption (supposition) 514.
     reflection &c (idea) 453; conclusion &c (judgment) 480; golden
rule &c (precept) 697; principle, principia [Lat.]; profession of faith
&c (belief) 484; settled principle, accepted principle, formula.
     accepted fact.
     received truth, wise maxim, sage maxim, received maxim, admitted
maxim, recognized maxim &c; true saying, common saying, hackneyed
saying, trite saying, commonplace saying &c
Adj. aphoristic, proverbial, phylacteric^; axiomatic, gnomic.
Adv. as the saying goes, as the saying is, as they say.

497. Absurdity -- N. absurdity, absurdness &c adj.; imbecility &c 499;
alogy^, nonsense, utter nonsense; paradox, inconsistency; stultiloquy^,
stultiloquence^; nugacity^.
     blunder, muddle, bull; Irishism^, Hibernicism^; slipslop^;
anticlimax, bathos; sophism &c 477.
     farce, galimathias^, amphigouri^, rhapsody; farrago &c (disorder)
59; betise [Fr.]; extravagance, romance; sciamachy^.
     sell, pun, verbal quibble, macaronic^.
     jargon, fustian, twaddle, gibberish &c (no meaning) 517;
exaggeration &c 549; moonshine, stuff; mare's nest, quibble, self-
     vagary, tomfoolery, poppycock, mummery, monkey trick, boutade
[Fr.], escapade.
V. play the fool &c 499; talk nonsense, parler a tort et a travess
[Fr.]; battre la campagne [Fr.]; hanemolia bazein [Gr.]; be absurd &c
Adj. absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, egregious, senseless,
inconsistent, ridiculous, extravagant, quibbling; self-annulling, self-
contradictory; macaronic^, punning.
     foolish &c 499; sophistical &c 477; unmeaning &c 517; without
rhyme or reason; fantastic.
Int. fiddlededee!, pish!, pho!^, in the name of the Prophet--figs!
[Horace Smith].
Phr. credat Judaeus Apella [Lat.] [Horace]; tell it to the marines.

498. Intelligence, Wisdom -- N. intelligence, capacity, comprehension,
understanding; cuteness, sabe [U.S.], savvy [U.S.]; intellect &c 450;
nous [Fr.], parts, sagacity, mother wit, wit, esprit, gumption, quick
parts, grasp of intellect; acuteness &c adj.; acumen, subtlety,
penetration, perspicacy^, perspicacity; discernment, due sense of, good
judgment; discrimination &c 465; cunning &c 702; refinement &c (taste)
     head, brains, headpiece, upper story, long head; eagle eye, eagle-
glance; eye of a lynx, eye of a hawk.
     wisdom, sapience, sense; good sense, common sense, horse sense
[U.S.], plain sense; rationality, reason; reasonableness &c adj.;
judgment; solidity, depth, profundity, caliber; enlarged views; reach
of thought, compass of thought; enlargement of mind.
     genius, inspiration, geist [G.], fire of genius, heaven-born
genius, soul; talent &c (aptitude) 698.
     [Wisdom in action] prudence &c 864; vigilance &c 459; tact &c 698;
foresight &c 510; sobriety, self-possession, aplomb, ballast.
     a bright thought, not a bad idea.
     Solomon-like wisdom.
V. be intelligent &c adj.; have all one's wits about one; understand &c
(intelligible) 518; catch an idea, take in an idea; take a joke, take a
     see through, see at a glance, see with half an eye, see far into,
see through a millstone; penetrate; discern &c (descry) 441; foresee &c
     discriminate &c 465; know what's what &c 698; listen to reason.
Adj. intelligent [Applied to persons], quick of apprehension, keen,
acute, alive, brainy, awake, bright, quick, sharp; quick witted, keen
witted, clear witted, sharp-eyed, sharp sighted, sharp witted; wide-
awake; canny, shrewd, astute; clear-headed; farsighted &c 510;
discerning, perspicacious, penetrating, piercing; argute^; quick-witted,
nimble-witted, needle-witted; sharp as a needle, sharp as a tack; alive
to &c (cognizant) 490; clever &c (apt) 698; arch &c (cunning) 702; pas
si bete [Fr.]; acute &c 682.
     wise, sage, sapient, sagacious, reasonable, rational, sound, in
one's right mind, sensible, abnormis sapiens [Lat.], judicious, strong-
     unprejudiced, unbiased, unbigoted^, unprepossessed^; undazzled^,
unperplexed^; unwarped judgment^, impartial, equitable, fair.
     cool; cool-headed, long-headed, hardheaded, strong-headed; long-
sighted, calculating, thoughtful, reflecting; solid, deep, profound.
     oracular; heaven-directed, heaven-born.
     prudent &c (cautious) 864; sober, stand, solid; considerate,
politic, wise in one's generation; watchful &c 459; provident &c
(prepared) 673; in advance of one' age; wise as a serpent, wise as
Solomon, wise as Solon.
     [Applied to actions] wise, sensible, reasonable, judicious; well-
thought-out, well-planned, well-judged, well-advised; prudent, politic;
expedient &c 646.
Phr. aut regem aut fatuum nasci oportet [Lat.]; but with the morning
cool reflection came [Scott]; flosculi sententiarum [Lat.]; les
affaires font les hommes [Fr.]; mas vale saber que haber [Sp.]; mas
vale ser necio que profiadol nemo solus sapit [Lat.] [Plautus]; nosce
te [Lat.]; gnothi seauton [Gr.]; nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura
dementiae fuit [Lat.] [Seneca from Aristotle]; sapere aude [Lat.]
[Horace]; victrix fortunae sapientia [Lat.] [Juvenal].

499. Imbecility. Folly -- N. want of intelligence &c 498, want of
intellect &c 450; shadowness^, silliness, foolishness &c adj.;
imbecility, incapacity, vacancy of mind, poverty of intellect, weakness
of intellect, clouded perception, poor head, apartments to let;
stupidity, stolidity; hebetude^, dull understanding, meanest capacity,
shortsightedness; incompetence &c (unskillfulness) 699.
     one's weak side, not one's strong point; bias &c 481; infatuation
&c (insanity) 503.
     simplicity, puerility, babyhood; dotage, anility^, second
childishness, fatuity; idiocy, idiotism^; driveling.
     folly, frivolity, irrationality, trifling, ineptitude, nugacity^,
inconsistency, lip wisdom, conceit; sophistry &c 477; giddiness &c
(inattention) 458; eccentricity &c 503; extravagance &c (absurdity)
497; rashness &c 863.
     act of folly &c 699.
V. to be an imbecile &c adj.; have no brains, have no sense &c 498.
     trifle, drivel, radoter^, dote; ramble &c (madness) 503; play the
fool, play the monkey, monkey around, fool around; take leave of one's
senses (insanity) 503; not see an inch beyond one's nose; stultify
oneself &c 699; talk nonsense &c 497.
Adj. unintelligent [Applied to persons], unintellectual, unreasoning;
mindless, witless, reasoningless^, brainless; halfbaked; having no head
&c 498; not bright &c 498; inapprehensible^.
     weak headed, addle headed, puzzle headed, blunder headed, muddle
headed, muddy headed, pig headed, beetle headed, buffle headed^, chuckle
headed, mutton headed, maggoty headed, grossheaded^; beef headed, fat
witted, fat-headed.
     weak-minded, feeble-minded; dull minded, shallow minded, lack-
brained; rattle-brained, rattle headed; half witted, lean witted, short
witted, dull witted, blunt-witted, shallow-pated^, clod-pated^, addle-
pated^, addle-brained^; dim-sighted, short-sighted; thick-skulled; weak
in the upper story.
     shallow, borne, weak, wanting, soft, sappy, spoony; dull, dull as
a beetle; stupid, heavy, insulse^, obtuse, blunt, stolid, doltish;
asinine; inapt &c 699; prosaic &c 843; hebetudinous^.
     childish, child-like; infantine^, infantile, babyish, babish^;
puerile, anile; simple &c (credulous) 486; old-womanish.
     fatuous, idiotic, imbecile, driveling; blatant, babbling; vacant;
sottish; bewildered &c 475.
     blockish^, unteachable Boeotian, Boeotic; bovine; ungifted,
undiscerning^, unenlightened, unwise, unphilosophical^; apish; simious^.
     foolish, silly, senseless, irrational, insensate, nonsensical,
inept; maudlin.
     narrow-minded &c 481; bigoted &c (obstinate) 606; giddy &c
(thoughtless) 458; rash &c 863; eccentric &c (crazed) 503.
     [Applied to actions] foolish, unwise, injudicious, improper,
unreasonable, without reason, ridiculous, absurd, idiotic, silly,
stupid, asinine; ill-imagined, ill-advised, ill-judged, ill-devised;
mal entendu [Fr.]; inconsistent, irrational, unphilosophical^;
extravagant &c (nonsensical) 497; sleeveless, idle; pointless, useless
&c 645; inexpedient &c 647; frivolous &c (trivial) 643.
Phr. Davus sum non [Lat.] [Oedipus]; a fool's bolt is soon shot [Henry
V.] clitellae bovi sunt impositae [Lat.] [Cicero]; fools rush in where
angels fear to tread [Pope]; il n' a ni bouche ni eperon [Fr.]; the
bookful blockhead, ignorantly read [Pope]; to varnish nonsense with the
charms of sound [Churchill].

500. Sage -- N. sage, wise man; genius; master mind, master spirit of
the age; longhead^, thinker; intellectual, longhair.
     authority, oracle, luminary, shining light, esprit fort, magnus
Apollo [Lat.], Solon, Solomon, Nestor, Magi, second Daniel.
     man of learning &c 492; expert &c 700; wizard &c 994.
     wiseacre [Iron.], bigwig, know-it-all; poor man's Einstein.
Adj. venerable, reverenced, emeritus.
Phr. barba tenus sapientes [Lat.].

501. Fool -- N. fool, idiot, tomfool, wiseacre, simpleton, witling^,
dizzard^, donkey, ass; ninny, ninnyhammer^; chowderhead^, chucklehead^;
dolt, booby, Tom Noddy, looby^, hoddy-doddy^, noddy, nonny, noodle,
nizy^, owl; goose, goosecap^; imbecile; gaby^; radoteur^, nincompoop,
badaud^, zany; trifler, babbler; pretty fellow; natural, niais^.
     child, baby, infant, innocent, milksop, sop.
     oaf, lout, loon, lown^, dullard, doodle, calf, colt, buzzard,
block, put, stick, stock, numps^, tony.
     bull head, dunderhead, addlehead^, blockhead, dullhead^,
loggerhead, jolthead^, jolterhead^, beetlehead^, beetlebrain, grosshead^,
muttonhead, noodlehead, giddyhead^; numbskull, thickskull^; lackbrain^,
shallowbrain^; dimwit, halfwit, lackwit^; dunderpate^; lunkhead sawney
[U.S.], gowk^; clod, clod-hopper; clod-poll, clot-poll, clot-pate; bull
calf; gawk, Gothamite, lummox, rube [U.S.]; men of Boeotia, wise men of
     un sot a triple etage [Fr.], sot; jobbernowl^, changeling,
mooncalf, gobemouche^.
     dotard, driveler; old fogey, old woman, crock; crone, grandmother;
cotquean^, henhussy^.
     incompetent (insanity) 503.
     greenhorn &c (dupe) 547; dunce &c (ignoramus) 493; lubber &c
(bungler) 701; madman &c 504.
     one who will not set the Thames on fire; one who did not invent
gunpowder, qui n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr.]; no conjuror.
Phr. fortuna favet fatuis [Lat.]; les fous font les festinas et les
sages les mangent [Fr.]; nomina stultorum parietibus harrent [Lat.];
stultorum plena sunt omnia [Lat.] [Cicero].

502. Sanity -- N. sanity; soundness &c adj.; rationality, sobriety,
lucidity, lucid interval; senses, sober senses, right mind, sound mind,
mens sana [Lat.].
V. be sane &c adj.; retain one's senses, retain one's reason.
     become sane &c adj.; come to one's senses, sober down.
     render sane &c adj.; bring to one's senses, sober.
Adj. sane, rational, reasonable, compos mentis, of sound mind; sound,
sound-minded; lucid.
     self-possessed; sober, sober-minded.
     in one's sober senses, in one's right mind; in possession of one's
Adv. sanely &c adj..

503. Insanity -- N. disordered reason, disordered intellect; diseased
mind, unsound mind, abnormal mind; derangement, unsoundness; psychosis;
neurosis; cognitive disorder; affective disorder^.
     insanity, lunacy; madness &c adj.; mania, rabies, furor, mental
alienation, aberration; paranoia, schizophrenia; dementation^, dementia,
demency^; phrenitis^, phrensy^, frenzy, raving, incoherence, wandering,
delirium, calenture of the brain^; delusion, hallucination;
lycanthropy^; brain storm^.
     vertigo, dizziness, swimming; sunstroke, coup de soleil [Fr.],
     fanaticism, infatuation, craze; oddity, eccentricity, twist,
monomania (caprice) 608; kleptodipsomania^; hypochondriasis [Med.] &c
(low spirits) 837; melancholia, depression, clinical depression, severe
depression; hysteria; amentia^.
     screw loose, tile loose, slate loose; bee in one's bonnet, rats in
the upper story.
     dotage &c (imbecility) 499.
V. be insane &c adj.. become insane &c adj.; lose one's senses, lose
one's reason, lose one's faculties, lose one's wits; go mad, run mad,
lose one's marbles [Coll.], go crazy, go bonkers [Coll.], flip one's
wig [Coll.], flip one's lid [Coll.], flip out [Coll.], flip one's bush
     rave, dote, ramble, wander; drivel &c (be imbecile) 499; have a
screw loose &c n., have a devil; avoir le diable au corps [Fr.]; lose
one's head &c (be uncertain) 475.
     render mad, drive mad &c adj.; madden, dementate^, addle the wits,
addle the brain, derange the head, infatuate, befool^; turn the brain,
turn one's head; drive one nuts [Coll.].
Adj. insane, mad, lunatic, loony [Coll.]; crazy, crazed, aliene^, non
compos mentis; not right, cracked, touched; bereft of reason; all
possessed, unhinged, unsettled in one's mind; insensate, reasonless,
beside oneself, demented, daft; phrenzied^, frenzied, frenetic;
possessed, possessed with a devil; deranged, maddened, moonstruck;
shatterpated^; mad-brained, scatter brained, shatter brained,
crackbrained; touched, tetched [Coll.]; off one's head.
     [behavior suggesting insanity] maniacal; delirious, lightheaded,
incoherent, rambling, doting, wandering; frantic, raving, stark staring
mad, stark raving mad, wild-eyed, berserk; delusional, hallucinatory.
     [behavior somewhat resembling insanity] corybantic^, dithyrambic;
rabid, giddy, vertiginous, wild; haggard, mazed; flighty; distracted,
distraught; depressed; agitated, hyped up; bewildered &c (uncertain)
     mad as a March hare, mad as a hatter; of unsound mind &c n.;
touched in one's head, wrong in one's head, not right in one's head,
not in one's right mind, not right in one's wits, upper story; out of
one's mind, out of one's wits, out of one's skull [Coll.], far gone,
out of one's senses, out of one's wits; not in one's right mind.
     fanatical, infatuated, odd, eccentric; hypped^, hyppish^; spaced
out [Coll.].
     imbecile, silly, &c 499.
Adv. like one possessed.
Phr. the mind having lost its balance; the reason under a cloud; tet
exaltee [Fr.], tet montee [Fr.]; ira furor brevis est [Lat.]; omnes
stultos insanire [Lat.] [Horace].

504. Madman -- N. madman, lunatic, maniac, bedlamite^, candidate for
Bedlam, raver^, madcap, crazy; energumen^; automaniac^, monomaniac,
dipsomaniac, kleptomaniac; hypochondriac &c (low spirits);; crank, Tom
     dreamer &c 515; rhapsodist, seer, highflier^, enthusiast, fanatic,
fanatico [Sp.]; exalte [Fr.]; knight errant, Don Quixote.
     idiot &c 501.

1. To the Past

505. Memory -- N. memory, remembrance; retention, retentiveness;
tenacity; veteris vestigia flammae [Lat.]; tablets of the memory;
     reminiscence, recognition, recollection, rememoration^; recurrence,
flashback; retrospect, retrospection.
     afterthought, post script, PS.
     suggestion &c (information) 527; prompting &c v.; hint, reminder;
remembrancer^, flapper; memorial &c (record) 551; commemoration &c
(celebration) 883.
     [written reminder] note, memo, memorandum; things to be
remembered, token of remembrance, memento, souvenir, keepsake, relic,
     art of memory, artificial memory; memoria technica [Lat.];
mnemonics, mnemotechnics^; phrenotypics^; Mnemosyne.
     prompt-book; crib sheet, cheat sheet.
     retentive memory, tenacious memory, photographic memory, green
memory^, trustworthy memory, capacious memory, faithful memory, correct
memory, exact memory, ready memory, prompt memory, accurate
recollection; perfect memory, total recall.
     celebrity, fame, renown, reputation &c (repute) 873.
V. remember, mind; retain the memory of, retain the remembrance of;
keep in view.
     recognize, recollect, bethink oneself, recall, call up, retrace;
look back, trace back, trace backwards; think back, look back upon;
review; call upon, recall upon, bring to mind, bring to remembrance;
carry one's thoughts back; rake up the past.
     have in the thoughts, hold in the thoughts, bear in the thoughts,
carry in the thoughts, keep in the thoughts, retain in the thoughts,
have in the memory, hold in the memory, bear in the memory, carry in
the memory, keep in the memory, retain in the memory, have in the mind,
hold in the mind, bear in the mind, carry in the mind, keep in the
mind, retain in the mind, hold in remembrance; be in one's thoughts,
live in one's thoughts, remain in one's thoughts, dwell in one's
thoughts, haunt one's thoughts, impress one's thoughts, be in one's
mind, live in one's mind, remain in one's mind, dwell in one's mind,
haunt one's mind, impress one's mind, dwell in one's memory.
     sink in the mind; run in the head; not be able to get out of one's
head; be deeply impressed with; rankle &c (revenge) 919.
     recur to the mind; flash on the mind, flash across the memory.
     [cause to remember] remind; suggest &c (inform ) 527; prompt; put
in mind, keep in mind, bring to mind; fan the embers; call up, summon
up, rip up; renew; infandum renovare dolorem [Lat.]; jog the memory,
flap the memory, refresh the memory, rub up the memory, awaken the
memory; pull by the sleeve; bring back to the memory, put in
remembrance, memorialize.
     task the memory, tax the memory.
     get at one's fingers' ends, have at one's fingers', learn at one's
fingers', know one's lesson, say one's lesson, repeat by heart, repeat
by rote; say one's lesson; repeat, repeat as a parrot; have at one's
fingers' ends, have at one's finger tips; commit to memory, memorize;
con over, con; fix in the memory, rivet in the memory, imprint in the
memory, impress in the memory, stamp in the memory, grave in the
memory, engrave in the memory, store in the memory, treasure up in the
memory, bottle up in the memory, embalm in the memory, enshrine in the
memory; load the memory with, store the memory with, stuff the memory
with, burden the memory with.
     redeem from oblivion; keep the memory alive, keep the wound green,
pour salt in the wound, reopen old wounds'; tangere ulcus [Lat.]; keep
up the memory of; commemorate &c (celebrate) 883.
     make a note of, jot a note, pen a memorandum &c (record) 551.
Adj. remembering, remembered &c v.; mindful, reminiscential^; retained
in the memory &c v.; pent up in one's memory; fresh; green, green in
remembrance; unforgotten, present to the mind; within one's memory &c
n.; indelible; uppermost in one's thoughts; memorable &c (important)
Adv. by heart, by rote; without book, memoriter^.
     in memory of; in memoriam; memoria in aeterna [Lat.]; suggestive.
Phr. manet alta mente repostum [Lat.] [Vergil]; forsan et haec olim
meminisse juvabit [Lat.] [Vergil]; absens haeres non erit [Lat.];
beatae memoriae [Lat.]; briefly thyself remember [Lear]; mendacem
memorem esse oportet [Lat.] [Quintilian]; memory the warder of the
brain [Macbeth]; parsque est meminisse doloris [Lat.] [Ovid]; to live
in hearts we leave behind is not to die [Campbell]; vox audita peril
littera scripta manet [Lat.]; out of sight, out of mind.

506. Oblivion -- N. oblivion, obliviousness, lethe; forgetfulness &c
adj.; amnesia; obliteration of &c 552, insensibility to the past &c
     short memory, treacherous memory, poor memory, loose memory,
slippery memory, failing memory; decay of memory, failure of memory,
lapse of memory; waters of Lethe, waters of oblivion.
     amnesty, general pardon.
     [deliberate or unconscious forgetting] repressed memory.
V. forget; be forgetful &c adj.; fall into oblivion, sink into
oblivion; have a short memory &c n., have no head.
     forget one's own name, have on the tip of one's tongue, come in
one ear and go out the other.
     slip memory, escape memory, fade from memory, die away from the
memory; lose, lose sight of.
     fail to recall, not be able to recall.
     [cause oneself to forget] unlearn; efface &c 552, discharge from
the memory; consign to oblivion, consign to the tomb of the Capulets;
think no more of &c (turn the attention from) 458; cast behind one's
back, wean one's thoughts from; let bygones be bygones &c (forgive)
Adj. forgotten &c v.; unremembered, past recollection, bygone, out of
mind; buried in oblivion, sunk in oblivion; clean forgotten; gone out
of one's head, gone out of one's recollection.
     forgetful, oblivious, mindless, Lethean; insensible to the past &c
823; heedless.
Phr. non mi ricordo [It]; the memory failing, the memory deserting one,
being at fault, being in fault.
2. To the Future

507. Expectation -- N. expectation, expectance, expectancy;
anticipation, reckoning, calculation; foresight &c 510.
     contemplation, prospection^, lookout; prospect, perspective,
horizon, vista; destiny &c 152.
     suspense, waiting, abeyance; curiosity &c 455; anxious
expectation, ardent expectation, eager expectation, breathless
expectation, sanguine expectation; torment of Tantalus.
     hope &c 858; trust &c (belief) 484; auspices &c (prediction) 511;
assurance, confidence, presumption, reliance.
V. expect; look for, look out for, look forward to; hope for;
anticipate; have in prospect, have in contemplation; keep in view;
contemplate, promise oneself; not wonder at &c 870, not wonder if.
     wait for, tarry for, lie in wait for, watch for, bargain for; keep
a good lookout for, keep a sharp lookout for; await; stand at
'attention' abide, bide one's time, watch.
     foresee &c 510; prepare for &c 673; forestall &c (be early) 132;
count upon &c (believe in) 484; think likely &c (probability) 472.
     lead one to expect &c (predict) 511; have in store for &c
(destiny) 152.
     prick up one's ears, hold one's breath.
Adj. expectant; expecting &c v.; in expectation &c n.; on the watch &c
(vigilant) 459; open-eyed, open-mouthed, in wide-eyed anticipation;
agape, gaping, all agog; on tenterhooks, on tiptoe, on the tiptoe of
expectation; aux aguets^; ready; curious &c 455; looking forward to.
     expected &c v.; long expected, foreseen; in prospect &c n.;
prospective; in one's eye, in one's view, in the horizon, on the
horizon, just over the horizon, just around the corner, around the
corner; impending &c (destiny) 152.
Adv. on the watch &c adj.; with breathless expectation &c n.; with
bated breath, with rapt anticipation; arrectis auribus [Lat.].
Phr. we shall see; nous verrons [Fr.]; expectation whirls me round
[Troilus and Cressida]; the light at the end of the tunnel.

508. Inexpectation -- N. inexpectation^, non-expectation; false
expectation &c (disappointment) 509; miscalculation &c 481.
     surprise, sudden burst, thunderclap, blow, shock, start; bolt out
of the blue; wonder &c 870; eye opener.
     unpleasant surprise, pleasant surprise.
V. not expect &c 507; be taken by surprise; start; miscalculate &c 481;
not bargain for; come upon, fall upon.
     be unexpected &c adj.; come unawares &c adv.; turn up, pop, drop
from the clouds; come upon one, burst upon one, flash upon one, bounce
upon one, steal upon one, creep upon one; come like a thunder clap,
burst like a thunderclap, thunder bolt; take by surprise, catch by
surprise, catch unawares, catch napping; yach [S. Afr.].
     pounce upon, spring a mine upon.
     surprise, startle, take aback, electrify, stun, stagger, take away
one's breath, throw off one's guard; astonish, dumbfound &c (strike
with wonder) 870.
Adj. nonexpectant^; surprised &c v.; unwarned, unaware; off one's guard;
inattentive 458.
     unexpected, unanticipated, unpredicted^, unlooked for, unforeseen,
unhoped for; dropped from the clouds; beyond expectation, contrary to
expectation, against expectation, against all expectation; out of one's
reckoning; unheard of &c (exceptional) 83; startling, surprising;
sudden &c (instantaneous) 113.
     unpredictable, unforeseeable (unknowable) 519.
Adv. abruptly, unexpectedly, surprisingly; plump, pop, a l'improviste
[Fr.], unawares; without notice, without warning, without a 'by your
leave'; like a thief in the night, like a thunderbolt; in an unguarded
moment; suddenly &c (instantaneously) 113.
Int. heydey!^, &c (wonder) 870.
Phr. little did one think, little did one expect; nobody would ever
suppose, nobody would ever think, nobody would ever expect; who would
have thought? it beats the Dutch^.

509. [Failure of expectation.] Disappointment -- N. disappointment;
blighted hope, balk; blow; anticlimax; slip 'twixt cup and lip;
nonfulfillment of one's hopes; sad disappointment, bitter
disappointment; trick of fortune; afterclap; false expectation, vain
expectation; miscalculation &c 481; fool's paradise; much cry and
little wool.
V. be disappointed; look blank, look blue; look aghast, stand aghast &c
(wonder) 870; find to one's cost; laugh on the wrong side of one's
mouth; find one a false prophet.
     not realize one's hope, not realize one's expectation.
     [cause to be disappointed] disappoint; frustrate, discomfit,
crush, defeat (failure) 732; crush one's hope, dash one's hope, balk
one's hope, disappoint one's hope, blight one's hope, falsify one's
hope, defeat one's hope, discourage; balk, jilt, bilk; play one false,
play a trick; dash the cup from the lips, tantalize; dumfound,
dumbfound, dumbfounder, dumfounder (astonish) 870.
Adj. disappointed &c v.; disconcerted, aghast; disgruntled; out of
one's reckoning.
Phr. the mountain labored and brought forth a mouse; parturiunt montes
[Lat.]; nascitur ridiculus mus [Lat.] [Horace]; diis aliter visum
[Lat.], the bubble burst; one's countenance falling.

510. Foresight -- N. foresight, prospicience^, prevision, long-
sightedness; anticipation; providence &c (preparation) 673.
     forethought, forecast; predeliberation^, presurmise^; foregone
conclusion &c (prejudgment) 481; prudence &c (caution) 864.
     foreknowledge; prognosis; precognition, prescience, prenotion^,
presentiment; second sight; sagacity &c (intelligence) 498; antepast^,
prelibation^, prophasis^.
     prospect &c (expectation) 507; foretaste; prospectus &c (plan)
V. foresee; look forwards to, look ahead, look beyond; scent from afar;
look into the future, pry into the future, peer into the future.
     see one's way; see how the land lies, get the lay of the land, see
how the wind blows, test the waters, see how the cat jumps.
     anticipate; expect &c 507; be beforehand &c (early) 132; predict
&c 511; foreknow, forejudge, forecast; presurmise^; have an eye to the
future, have an eye to the main chance; respicere finem [Lat.]; keep a
sharp lookout &c (vigilance) 459; forewarn &c 668.
Adj. foreseeing &c v.; prescient; farseeing, farsighted; sagacious &c
(intelligent) 498; weatherwise^; provident &c (prepared) 673;
prospective &c 507.
Adv. against the time when.
Phr. cernit omnia Deus vindex [Lat.]; mihi cura futuri [Lat.]; run it
up the flagpole and see who salutes.

511. Prediction -- N. prediction, announcement; program, programme
[Brit.] &c (plan) 626; premonition &c (warning) 668; prognosis,
prophecy, vaticination, mantology^, prognostication, premonstration^;
augury, auguration^; ariolation^, hariolation^; foreboding, aboding^;
bodement^, abodement^; omniation^, omniousness^; auspices, forecast; omen
&c 512; horoscope, nativity; sooth^, soothsaying; fortune telling,
crystal gazing; divination; necromancy &c 992.
     [Divination by the stars] astrology^, horoscopy^, judicial
     [Place of Prediction]. adytum prefiguration^, prefigurement;
prototype, type.
     [person who predicts] oracle &c 513.
V. predict, prognosticate, prophesy, vaticinate, divine, foretell,
soothsay, augurate^, tell fortunes; cast a horoscope, cast a nativity;
advise; forewarn &c 668.
     presage, augur, bode; abode, forebode; foretoken, betoken;
prefigure, preshow^; portend; foreshow^, foreshadow; shadow forth,
typify, pretypify^, ominate^, signify, point to.
     usher in, herald, premise, announce; lower.
     hold out expectation, raise expectation, excite expectation,
excite hope; bid fair, promise, lead one to expect; be the precursor &c
     [predict by mathematical or statistical means from past
experience] extrapolate, project.
Adj. predicting &c v.; predictive, prophetic; fatidic^, fatidical^;
vaticinal, oracular, fatiloquent^, haruspical, Sibylline; weatherwise^.
     ominous, portentous, augurous^, augurial, augural; auspicial^,
auspicious; prescious^, monitory, extispicious^, premonitory,
significant of, pregnant with, bit with the fate of.
Phr. coming events cast their shadows before [Campbell]; dicamus bona
verba [Lat.]; there buds the promise of celestial worth [Young].
     [Divination: list] by oracles, Theomancy^; by the Bible,
Bibliomancy; by ghosts, Psychomancy^; by crystal gazing,
Crystallomancy^; by shadows or manes, Sciomancy; by appearances in the
air, Aeromancy^, Chaomancy^; by the stars at birth, Genethliacs; by
meteors, Meteoromancy^; by winds, Austromancy^; by sacrificial
appearances, Aruspicy, Haruspicy^, Hieromancy^, Hieroscopy^; by the
entrails of animals sacrificed, Extispicy^, Hieromancy^; by the entrails
of a human sacrifice, Anthropomancy^; by the entrails of fishes,
Ichthyomancy^; by sacrificial fire, Pyromancy^; by red-hot iron,
Sideromancy^; by smoke from the altar, Capnomancy^; by mice, Myomancy^;
by birds, Orniscopy^, Ornithomancy^; by a cock picking up grains,
Alectryomancy, Alectromancy^; by fishes, Ophiomancy^; by herbs,
Botanomancy^; by water, Hydromancy^; by fountains, Pegomancy^; by a wand,
Rhabdomancy; by dough of cakes, Crithomancy^; by meal, Aleuromancy^,
Alphitomancy^; by salt, Halomancy^; by dice, Cleromancy^; by arrows,
Belomancy^; by a balanced hatchet, Axinomancy^; by a balanced sieve,
Coscinomancy^; by a suspended ring, Dactyliomancy^; by dots made at
random on paper, Geomancy^; by precious stones, Lithomancy^; by pebbles,
Pessomancy^; by pebbles drawn from a heap, Psephomancy^; by mirrors,
Catoptromancy^; by writings in ashes, Tephramancy^; by dreams,
Oneiromancy^; by the hand, Palmistry, Chiromancy; by nails reflecting
the sun's rays, Onychomancy^; by finger rings, Dactylomancy^; by
numbers, Arithmancy^; by drawing lots, Sortilege^; by passages in books,
Stichomancy^; by the letters forming the name of the person, Onomancy^,
Nomancy; by the features, Anthroposcopy^; by the mode of laughing,
Geloscopy^; by ventriloquism, Gastromancy^; by walking in a circle,
Gyromancy^; by dropping melted wax into water, Ceromancy^; by currents,
Bletonism; by the color and peculiarities of wine, Oenomancy^.

512. Omen -- N. omen, portent, presage, prognostic, augury, auspice;
sign &c (indication) 550; harbinger &c (precursor) 64; yule candle^.
     bird of ill omen; signs of the times; gathering clouds; warning &c
     prefigurement &c 511.
Adj. ill-boding.
Phr. auspicium melioris aevi [Lat.].

513. Oracle -- N. oracle; prophet, prophesier, seer, soothsayer, augur,
fortune teller, crystal gazer^, witch, geomancer^, aruspex^; aruspice^,
haruspice^; haruspex; astrologer, star gazer^; Sibyl; Python, Pythoness^;
Pythia; Pythian oracle, Delphian oracle; Monitor, Sphinx, Tiresias,
Cassandra^, Sibylline leaves; Zadkiel, Old Moore; sorcerer &c 994;
interpreter, &c 524.
     [person who predicts by non-mystical (natural) means] predictor,
prognosticator, forecaster; weather forecaster, weatherman.
Phr. a prophet is without honor in his own country; you don't need a
weatherman to know which way the wind blows [Bob Dylan].


514. Supposition -- N. supposition, assumption, assumed position,
postulation, condition, presupposition, hypothesis, blue sky
hypothesis, postulate, postulatum [Lat.], theory; thesis, theorem;
data; proposition, position; proposal &c (plan) 626; presumption &c
(belief) 484; divination.
     conjecture; guess, guesswork, speculation; rough guess, shot, shot
in the dark [Coll.]; conjecturality^; surmise, suspicion, sneaking
suspicion; estimate, approximation (nearness) 197.
     inkling, suggestion, hint, intimation, notion, impression; bare
supposition, vague supposition, loose supposition, loose suggestion.
     association of ideas, (analogy) 514.1; metonym [Gramm.], metonymy
[Gramm.], simile (metaphor) 521.
     conceit, idea, thought; original idea, invention (imagination)
V. suppose, conjecture, surmise, suspect, guess, divine; theorize;
presume, presurmise^, presuppose; assume, fancy, wis^, take it; give a
guess, speculate, believe, dare say, take it into one's head, take for
granted; imagine &c 515.
     put forth; propound, propose; start, put a case, submit, move,
make a motion; hazard out, throw out a suggestion, put forward a
suggestion, put forward conjecture.
     allude to, suggest, hint, put it into one's head.
     suggest itself &c (thought) 451; run in the head &c (memory) 505;
marvel if, wonder if, wonder whether.
Adj. supposing &c v.; given, mooted, postulatory^; assumed &c v.;
supposititious, suppositive^, suppositious; gratuitous, speculative,
conjectural, hypothetical, theoretical, academic, supposable,
presumptive, putative; suppositional.
     suggestive, allusive.
Adv. if, if so be; an; on the supposition &c n.; ex hypothesi [Lat.];
in the case, in the event of; quasi, as if, provided; perhaps &c (by
possibility) 470; for aught one knows.

514a. Analogy -- N. analogy, association, association of ideas.
     metaphor &c 521.
     analogical thinking; free association; train of thought.
Adj. analogical.

515. Imagination -- N. imagination; originality; invention; fancy;
inspiration; verve.
     warm imagination, heated imagination, excited imagination,
sanguine imagination, ardent imagination, fiery imagination, boiling
imagination, wild imagination, bold imagination, daring imagination,
playful imagination, lively imagination, fertile imagination, fancy.
     mind's eye; such stuff as dreams are made of [Tempest].
     ideality, idealism; romanticism, utopianism, castle-building.
     dreaming; phrensy^, frenzy; ecstasy, extasy^; calenture &c
(delirium) 503 [Obs.]; reverie, trance; day dream, golden dream;
     conception, Vorstellung [G.], excogitation^, a fine frenzy;
cloudland^, dreamland; flight of fancy, fumes of fancy; thick coming
fancies [Macbeth]; creation of the brain, coinage of the brain;
     conceit, maggot, figment, myth, dream, vision, shadow, chimera;
phantasm, phantasy; fantasy, fancy; whim, whimsey^, whimsy; vagary,
rhapsody, romance, gest^, geste^, extravaganza; air drawn dagger,
bugbear, nightmare.
     flying Dutchman, great sea serpent, man in the moon, castle in the
air, pipe dream, pie-in-the-sky, chateau en Espagne [Fr.]; Utopia,
Atlantis^, happy valley, millennium, fairyland; land of Prester John,
kindgom of Micomicon; work of fiction &c (novel) 594; Arabian nights^;
le pot au lait [Fr.]; dream of Alnashar &c (hope) 858 [Obs.].
     illusion &c (error) 495; phantom &c (fallacy of vision) 443; Fata
Morgana &c (ignis fatuus) 423 [Lat.]; vapor &c (cloud) 353; stretch of
the imagination &c (exaggeration) 549; mythogenesis^.
     idealist, romanticist, visionary; mopus^; romancer, dreamer;
somnambulist; rhapsodist &c (fanatic) 504; castle-buildier, fanciful
V. imagine, fancy, conceive; idealize, realize; dream, dream of, dream
up; give to airy nothing a local habitation and a name [Midsummer
Night's Dream].
     create, originate, devise, invent, coin, fabricate; improvise,
strike out something new.
     set one's wits to work; strain one's invention, crack one's
invention; rack one's brains, ransack one's brains, cudgel one's
brains; excogitate^; brainstorm.
     give play, give the reins, give a loose to the imagination, give
fancy; indulge in reverie.
     visualize, envision, conjure up a vision; fancy oneself, represent
oneself, picture, picture-oneself, figure to oneself; vorstellen [G.].
     float in the mind; suggest itself &c (thought) 451.
Adj. imagined &c v.; ben trovato [It]; air drawn, airbuilt^.
     imagining &c v., imaginative; original, inventive, creative,
     romantic, high flown, flighty, extravagant, fanatic, enthusiastic,
unrealistic, Utopian, Quixotic.
     ideal, unreal; in the clouds, in nubibus [Lat.]; unsubsantial^ &c
4; illusory &c (fallacious) 495.
     fabulous, legendary; mythical, mythic, mythological; chimerical;
imaginary, visionary; notional; fancy, fanciful, fantastic,
fantastical^; whimsical; fairy, fairy-like; gestic^.
Phr. a change came o'er the spirit of my dream [Byron]; aegri somnia
vana [Lat.]; dolphinum appingit sylvis in fluctibus aprum [Horace];
fancy light from fancy caught [Tennyson]; imagination rules the world
[Napoleon]; l'imagination gallope [Fr.], le jugement ne va que le pas
[Fr.]; musaeo contingens cuncta lepore [Lat.] [Lucretius]; tous songes
sont mensonges [Fr.]; Wahrheil und Dichtung [G.].


516. [Idea to be conveyed.] Meaning [Thing signified.] -- N. meaning;
signification, significance; sense, expression; import, purport; force;
drift, tenor, spirit, bearing, coloring; scope.
     [important part of the meaning] substance; gist, essence, marrow,
spirit &c 5.
     matter; subject, subject matter; argument, text, sum and
     general meaning, broad meaning, substantial meaning, colloquial
meaning, literal meaning, plain meaning, simple meaning, natural
meaning, unstrained meaning, true meaning, &c (exact) 494 honest
meaning, &c 543 prima facie meaning [Lat.]; &c (manifest) 525.
     letter of the law.
     literally; after acceptation.
     synonym; implication, allusion &c (latency) 526; suggestion &c
(information) 527; figure of speech &c 521; acceptation &c
(interpretation) 522.
V. mean, signify, express; import, purport; convey, imply, breathe,
indicate, bespeak, bear a sense; tell of, speak of; touch on; point to,
allude to; drive at; involve &c (latency) 526; declare &c (affirm) 535.
     understand by &c (interpret) 522.
Adj. meaning &c v.; expressive, suggestive, allusive; significant,
significative^, significatory^; pithy; full of meaning, pregnant with
     declaratory &c 535; intelligible &c 518; literal; synonymous;
tantamount &c (equivalent) 27; implied &c (latent) 526; explicit &c
Adv. to that effect; that is to say &c (being interpreted) 522.

517. [Absence of meaning.] Unmeaningness -- N. meaninglessness,
unmeaningness &c adj.^; scrabble.
     empty sound, dead letter, vox et praeterea nihil [Lat.]; a tale
told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing; sounding
brass and a tinkling cymbal.
     nonsense, utter nonsense, gibberish; jargon, jabber, mere words,
hocus-pocus, fustian, rant, bombast, balderdash, palaver, flummery,
verbiage, babble, baverdage, baragouin^, platitude, niaiserie^; inanity;
flap-doodle; rigmarole, rodomontade; truism; nugae canorae [Lat.];
twaddle, twattle, fudge, trash, garbage, humbug; poppy-cock [U.S.];
stuff, stuff and nonsense; bosh, rubbish, moonshine, wish-wash, fiddle-
faddle; absurdity &c 497; vagueness &c (unintelligibility) 519.
     [routine or reflexive statements without substantive thought, esp.
legal] boilerplate, clich_¬.
V. mean nothing; be unmeaning &c adj.; twaddle, quibble, scrabble.
Adj. unmeaning; meaningless, senseless; nonsensical; void of sense &c
     inexpressive, unexpressive; vacant; not significant &c 516;
     trashy, washy, trumpery, trivial, fiddle-faddle, twaddling,
     unmeant, not expressed; tacit &c (latent) 526.
     inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.

518. Intelligibility -- N. intelligibility; clearness, explicitness &c
adj.; lucidity, comprehensibility, perspicuity; legibility, plain
speaking &c (manifestation) 525; precision &c 494; phonanta synetoisy
[Gr.]; a word to the wise.
V. be intelligible &c adj.; speak for itself, speak volumes; tell its
own tale, lie on the surface.
     render intelligible &c adj.; popularize, simplify, clear up;
elucidate &c (explain) 522.
     understand, comprehend, take, take in; catch, grasp, follow,
collect, master, make out; see with half an eye, see daylight, see
one's way; enter into the ideas of; come to an understanding.
Adj. intelligible; clear, clear as day, clear as noonday; lucid;
perspicuous, transpicuous^; luminous, transparent.
     easily understood, easy to understand, for the million,
intelligible to the meanest capacity, popularized.
     plain, distinct, explicit; positive; definite &c (precise) 494.
     graphic; expressive &c (meaning) 516; illustrative &c
(explanatory) 522.
     unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable &c (manifest) 525;
unconfused; legible, recognizable; obvious &c 525.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English.
Phr. he that runs may read &c (manifest) 525.

519. Unintelligibility -- N. unintelligibility; incomprehensibility,
imperspicuity^; inconceivableness, vagueness &c adj.; obscurity;
ambiguity &c 520; doubtful meaning; uncertainty &c 475; perplexity &c
(confusion) 59; spinosity^; obscurum per obscurius [Lat.]; mystification
&c (concealment) 528; latency &c 526; transcendentalism.
     paradox, oxymoron; riddle, enigma, puzzle &c (secret) 533; diagnus
vindice nodus [Lat.]; sealed book; steganography^, freemasonry.
     pons asinorum [Lat.], asses' bridge; high Dutch, Greek, Hebrew;
jargon &c (unmeaning) 517.
V. be unintelligible &c adj.; require explanation &c 522; have a
doubtful meaning, pass comprehension.
     render unintelligible &c adj.; conceal &c 528; darken &c 421;
confuse &c (derange) 61; perplex &c (bewilder) 475.
     not understand &c 518; lose, lose the clue; miss; not know what to
make of, be able to make nothing of, give it up; not be able to account
for, not be able to make either head or tail of; be at sea &c
(uncertain) 475; wonder &c 870; see through a glass darkly &c
(ignorance) 491.
     not understand one another; play at cross purposes &c
(misinterpret) 523.
Adj. unintelligible, unaccountable, undecipherable, undiscoverable,
unknowable, unfathomable; incognizable^, inexplicable, inscrutable;
inapprehensible^, incomprehensible; insolvable^, insoluble;
     illegible, as Greek to one, unexplained, paradoxical; enigmatic,
enigmatical, puzzling (secret) 533; indecipherable.
     obscure, dark, muddy, clear as mud, seen through a mist, dim,
nebulous, shrouded in mystery; opaque, dense; undiscernible &c
(invisible) 447 [Obs.]; misty &c (opaque) 426; hidden &c 528; latent &c
     indefinite, garbled &c (indistinct) 447; perplexed &c (confused)
59; undetermined, vague, loose, ambiguous; mysterious; mystic,
mystical; acroamatic^, acroamatical^; metempirical; transcendental;
occult, recondite, abstruse, crabbed.
     inconceivable, inconceptible^; searchless^; above comprehension,
beyond comprehension, past comprehension; beyond one's depth;
     inexpressible, undefinable, incommunicable.
     unpredictable, unforeseeable.
Phr. it's Greek to me.

520. [Having a double sense] Equivocalness -- N. equivocalness &c adj.;
double meaning &c 516; ambiguity, double entente, double entendre
[Fr.], pun, paragram^, calembour^, quibble, equivoque [Fr.], anagram;
conundrum &c (riddle) 533; play on words, word play &c (wit) 842;
homonym, homonymy [Gramm.]; amphiboly^, amphibology^; ambilogy^,
     Sphinx, Delphic oracle.
     equivocation &c (duplicity) 544; white lie, mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528; paltering.
V. be equivocal &c adj.; have two meanings &c 516; equivocate &c
(alter) 544.
Adj. equivocal, ambiguous, amphibolous^, homonymous^; double-tongued &c
(lying) 544; enigmatical, indeterminate.
Phr. on the one hand, on the other hand.

521. Metaphor -- N. figure of speech; facon de parler [Fr.], way of
speaking, colloquialism.
     phrase &c 566; figure, trope, metaphor, enallage^, catachresis^;
metonymy [Gramm.], synecdoche [Sem.]; autonomasia^, irony,
figurativeness &c adj.; image, imagery; metalepsis^, type, anagoge^,
simile, personification, prosopopoeia^, allegory, apologue^, parable,
fable; allusion, adumbration; application.
     exaggeration, hyperbole &c 549.
     association, association of ideas (analogy) 514.1
V. employ a metaphor &c n.; personify, allegorize, adumbrate, shadow
forth, apply, allude to.
Adj. metaphorical, figurative, catachrestical^, typical, tralatitious^,
parabolic, allegorical, allusive, anagogical^; ironical; colloquial;
Adv. so to speak, so to say, so to express oneself; as it were.
Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Lat.] [Horace].

522. Interpretation -- N. interpretation, definition; explanation,
explication; solution, answer; rationale; plain interpretation, simple
interpretation, strict interpretation; meaning &c 516.
     translation; rendering, rendition; redition^; literal translation,
free translation; key; secret; clew &c (indication) 550; clavis^, crib,
pony, trot [U.S.].
     exegesis; expounding, exposition; hermeneutics; comment,
commentary; inference &c (deduction) 480; illustration,
exemplification; gloss, annotation, scholium^, note; elucidation,
dilucidation^; eclaircissement [Fr.], mot d'enigme [Fr.].
     [methods of interpreting - list] symptomatology [Med.], semiology,
semeiology^, semiotics; metoposcopy^, physiognomy; paleography &c
(philology) 560; oneirology acception^, acceptation, acceptance; light,
reading, lection, construction, version.
     equivalent, equivalent meaning &c 516; synonym; paraphrase,
metaphrase^; convertible terms, apposition; dictionary &c 562; polyglot.
V. interpret, explain, define, construe, translate, render; do into,
turn into; transfuse the sense of.
     find out &c 480.1 the meaning of, &c 516 read; spell out, make
out; decipher, unravel, disentangle; find the key of, enucleate,
resolve, solve; read between the lines.
     account for; find the cause, tell the cause of &c 153; throw light
upon, shed light upon, shed new light upon, shed fresh light upon;
clear up, clarify, elucidate.
     illustrate, exemplify; unfold, expound, comment upon, annotate;
popularize &c (render intelligible) 518.
     take in a particular sense, understand in a particular sense,
receive in a particular sense, accept in a particular sense; understand
by, put a construction on, be given to understand.
Adj. explanatory, expository; explicative, explicatory; exegetical^;
     polyglot; literal; paraphrastic, metaphrastic^; consignificative^,
synonymous; equivalent &c 27.
Adv. in explanation &c n.; that is to say, id est, videlicet, to wit,
namely, in other words.
     literally, strictly speaking; in plain, in plainer terms, in
plainer words, in plainer English; more simply.

523. Misinterpretation -- N. misinterpretation, misapprehension,
misunderstanding, misacceptation^, misconstruction, misapplication;
catachresis^; eisegesis^; cross-reading, cross-purposes; mistake &c 495.
     misrepresentation, perversion, exaggeration &c 549; false
coloring, false construction; abuse of terms; parody, travesty;
falsification &c (lying) 544.
V. misinterpret, misapprehend, misunderstand, misconceive, misspell,
mistranslate, misconstrue, misapply; mistake &c 495.
     misrepresent, pervert; explain wrongly, misstate; garble &c
(falsify) 544; distort, detort^; travesty, play upon words; stretch the
sense, strain the sense, stretch the meaning, strain the meaning, wrest
the sense, wrest the meaning; explain away; put a bad construction on,
put a false construction on; give a false coloring.
     be at cross purposes, play at cross purposes.
Adj. misinterpreted &c v.; untranslated, untranslatable.

524. Interpreter -- N. interpreter; expositor, expounder, exponent,
explainer; demonstrator.
     scholiast, commentator, annotator; metaphrast^, paraphrast^;
glossarist^, prolocutor.
     spokesman, speaker, mouthpiece.
     dragoman, courier, valet de place, cicerone, showman;
oneirocritic^; (Edipus; oracle) &c 513


525. Manifestation -- N. {ant.
     526} manifestation; plainness &c adj.; plain speaking; expression;
showing &c v.; exposition, demonstration; exhibition, production;
display, show; showing off; premonstration^.
     exhibit [Thing shown].
     indication &c (calling attention to) 457.
     publicity &c 531; disclosure &c 529; openness &c (honesty) 543,
(artlessness) 703; panchement.
     evidence &c 467.
V. make manifest, render manifest &c adj.; bring forth, bring forward,
bring to the front, bring into view; give notice; express; represent,
set forth, exhibit; show, show up; expose; produce; hold up to view,
expose to view; set before one, place before one, lay before one, one's
eyes; tell to one's face; trot out, put through one's paces, bring to
light, display, demonstrate, unroll; lay open; draw out, bring out;
bring out in strong relief; call into notice, bring into notice; hold
up the mirror; wear one's heart upon his sleeve; show one's face, show
one's colors; manifest oneself; speak out; make no mystery, make no
secret of; unfurl the flag; proclaim &c (publish) 531.
     indicate &c (direct attention to) 457; disclose &c 529; elicit &c
     be manifest &c adj.; appear &c (be visible) 446; transpire &c (be
disclosed) 529; speak for itself, stand to reason; stare one in the
face, rear its head; give token, give sign, give indication of; tell
its own tale &c (intelligible) 518.
Adj. manifest, apparent; salient, striking, demonstrative, prominent,
in the foreground, notable, pronounced.
     flagrant; notorious &c (public) 531; arrant; stark staring;
unshaded, glaring.
     defined, definite.
     distinct, conspicuous &c (visible) 446; obvious, evident,
unmistakable, indubitable, not to be mistaken, palpable, self-evident,
autoptical^; intelligible &c 518.
     plain, clear, clear as day, clear as daylight, clear as noonday;
plain as a pike staff, plain as the sun at noon-day, plain as the nose
on one's face, plain as the way to parish church.
     explicit, overt, patent, express; ostensible; open, open as day;
naked, bare, literal, downright, undisguised, exoteric.
     unreserved, frank, plain-spoken &c (artless) 703; candid
(veracious) 543; barefaced.
     manifested &c v.; disclosed &c 529; capable of being shown,
producible; inconcealable^, unconcealable; no secret.
Adv. manifestly, openly &c adj.; before one's eyes, under one's nose,
to one's face, face to face, above board, cartes sur table, on the
stage, in open court, in the open streets; in market overt; in the face
of day, face of heaven; in broad daylight, in open daylight; without
reserve; at first blush, prima facie [Lat.], on the face of; in set
Phr. cela saute aux yeux [Fr.]; he that runs may read; you can see it
with half an eye; it needs no ghost to tell us [Hamlet]; the meaning
lies on the surface; cela va sans dire [Fr.]; res ipsa loquitur [Lat.];
clothing the palpable and familiar [Coleridge]; fari quae sentiat
[Lat.]; volto sciolto i pensieri stretti [It]; you don't need a
weatherman to know which way the wind blows [Bob Dylan].

526. Latency. Implication -- N. {ant.
     525} latency, inexpression^; hidden meaning, occult meaning;
occultness, mystery, cabala^, anagoge^; silence &c (taciturnity) 585;
concealment &c 528; more than meets the eye, more than meets the ear;
Delphic oracle; le dessous des cartes [Fr.], undercurrent.
     implication, logical implication; logical consequence; entailment.
     allusion, insinuation; innuendo &c 527; adumbration; something
rotten in the state of Denmark [Hamlet].
     snake in the grass &c (pitfall) 667; secret &c 533.
     darkness, invisibility, imperceptibility.
V. be latent &c adj.; lurk, smolder, underlie, make no sign; escape
observation, escape detection, escape recognition; lie hid &c 528.
     laugh in one's sleeve; keep back &c (conceal) 528.
     involve, imply, understand, allude to, infer, leave an inference;
entail; whisper &c (conceal) 528.
     [understand the implication] read between the lines.
Adj. latent; lurking &c v.; secret &c 528; occult; implied &c v.;
dormant; abeyant.
     unapparent, unknown, unseen &c 441; in the background; invisible
&c 447; indiscoverable^, dark; impenetrable &c (unintelligible) 519;
unspied^, unsuspected.
     unsaid, unwritten, unpublished, unbreathed^, untalked of^, untold
&c 527, unsung, unexposed, unproclaimed^, undisclosed &c 529,
unexpressed; not expressed, tacit.
     undeveloped, solved, unexplained, untraced^, undiscovered &c 480.1,
untracked, unexplored, uninvented^.
     indirect, crooked, inferential; by inference, by implication;
implicit; constructive; allusive, covert, muffled; steganographic^;
understood, underhand, underground; delitescent^, concealed &c 528.
Adv. by a side wind; sub silentio [Lat.]; in the background; behind the
scenes, behind one's back; on the tip of one's tongue; secretly &c 528;
between the lines.
Phr. thereby hangs a tale [As You Like It]; tacitum vivit sub pectore
vulnus [Lat.] [Vergil]; where there's smoke, there's fire.

527. Information -- N. information, enlightenment, acquaintance,
knowledge &c 490; publicity &c 531; data &c 467.
     communication, intimation; notice, notification; enunciation,
annunciation; announcement; communiqu_e; representation, round robin,
     case, estimate, specification, report, advice, monition; news &c
532; return &c (record) 551; account &c (description) 594; statement &c
(affirmation) 535.
     mention; acquainting &c v.; instruction &c (teaching) 537;
outpouring; intercommunication, communicativeness.
     informant, authority, teller, intelligencer^, reporter, exponent,
mouthpiece; informer, eavesdropper, delator, detective; sleuth;
mouchard^, spy, newsmonger; messenger &c 534; amicus curiae [Lat.].
     valet de place, cicerone, pilot, guide; guidebook, handbook; vade
mecum [Lat.]; manual; map, plan, chart, gazetteer; itinerary &c
(journey) 266.
     hint, suggestion, innuendo, inkling, whisper, passing word, word
in the ear, subaudition^, cue, byplay; gesture &c (indication) 550;
gentle hint, broad hint; verbum sapienti [Lat.], a word to the wise;
insinuation &c (latency) 526.
     information theory.
     [units of information] bit, byte, word, doubleword [Comp.], quad
word, paragraph, segment.
     [information storage media] magnetic media, paper medium, optical
media; random access memory, RAM; read-only memory, ROM; write once
read mostly memory, WORM.
V. tell; inform, inform of; acquaint, acquaint with; impart, impart to;
make acquaintance with, apprise, advise, enlighten, awaken; transmit.
     let fall, mention, express, intimate, represent, communicate, make
known; publish &c 531; notify, signify, specify, convey the knowledge
     let one know, have one to know; give one to understand; give
notice; set before, lay before, put before; point out, put into one's
head; put one in possession of; instruct &c (teach) 537; direct the
attention to &c 457.
     announce, annunciate; report, report progress; bringword^, send
word, leave word, write word; telegraph, telephone; wire; retail,
render an account; give an account &c (describe) 594; state &c (affirm)
     [disclose inadvertently or reluctantly] let slip, blurt out, spill
the beans, unburden oneself of, let off one's chest; disclose &c 529.
     show cause; explain &c (interpret) 522.
     hint; given an inkling of; give a hint, drop a hint, throw out a
hint; insinuate; allude to, make allusion to; glance at; tip the wink
&c (indicate) 550; suggest, prompt, give the cue, breathe; whisper,
whisper in the ear.
     give a bit of one's mind; tell one plainly, tell once for all;
speak volumes.
     undeceive^, unbeguile^; set right, correct, open the eyes of,
disabuse, disillusion one of.
     be informed of &c; know &c 490; learn &c 539; get scent of, get
wind of, gather from; awaken to, open one's eyes to; become alive,
become awake to; hear, overhear, understand.
     come to one's ears, come to one's knowledge; reach one's ears.
Adj. informed &c v.; communique; reported &c v.; published &c 531.
     expressive &c 516; explicit &c (open) 525, (clear) 518; plain
spoken &c, (artless) 703.
     nuncupative, nuncupatory^; declaratory, expository; enunciative^;
communicative, communicatory^.
Adv. from information received.
Phr. a little bird told me; I heard it through the grapevine.

527a. Correction [Correct an error of information; distinguish from
correcting a flaw or misbehavior] -- N. correction.
     disillusionment &c 616.
V. correct, set right, set straight, put straight; undeceive^;
     show one one's error; point out an error, point out a fallacy;
pick out an error, pick out the fallacy; open one's eyes.
     pick apart an argument, confutation &c 479; reasoning &c 476.
Adj. corrective.
Phr. I stand corrected.

528. Concealment -- N. concealment; hiding &c v.; occultation,
     seal of secrecy; screen &c 530; disguise &c 530; masquerade;
masked battery; hiding place &c 530; cryptography, steganography^;
     stealth, stealthiness, sneakiness; obreption^; slyness &c (cunning)
     latitancy^, latitation^; seclusion &c 893; privacy, secrecy,
secretness^; incognita.
     reticence; reserve; mental reserve, reservation; arriere pensee
[Fr.], suppression, evasion, white lie, misprision; silence &c
(taciturnity) 585; suppression of truth &c 544; underhand dealing;
closeness, secretiveness &c adj.; mystery.
     latency &c 526; snake in the grass; secret &c 533; stowaway.
V. conceal, hide, secrete, put out of sight; lock up, seal up, bottle
     encrypt, encode, cipher.
     cover, screen, cloak, veil, shroud; cover up one's tracks; screen
from sight, screen from observation; drawing the veil; draw the
curtain, close the curtain; curtain, shade, eclipse, throw a view over;
be cloud, be mask; mask, disguise; ensconce, muffle, smother; befog;
     keep from; keep back, keep to oneself; keep snug, keep close, keep
secret, keep dark; bury; sink, suppress; keep from, keep from out of
view, keep from out of sight; keep in the shade, throw into the shade,
throw into background; stifle, hush up, smother, withhold, reserve;
fence with a question; ignore &c 460.
     keep a secret, keep one's own counsel; hold one's tongue &c
(silence) 585; make no sign, not let it go further; not breathe a word,
not breathe a syllable about; not let the right hand know what the left
is doing; hide one's light under a bushel, bury one's talent in a
     keep in the dark, leave in the dark, keep in the ignorance; blind,
blind the eyes; blindfold, hoodwink, mystify; puzzle &c (render
uncertain) 475; bamboozle &c (deceive) 545.
     be concealed &c v.; suffer an eclipse; retire from sight, couch;
hide oneself; lie hid, lie in perdu [Fr.], lie in close; lie in ambush
(ambush) 530; seclude oneself &c 893; lurk, sneak, skulk, slink, prowl;
steal into, steal out of, steal by, steal along; play at bopeep^, play
at hide and seek; hide in holes and corners; still hunt.
Adj. concealed &c v.; hidden; secret, recondite, mystic, cabalistic,
occult, dark; cryptic, cryptical^; private, privy, in petto, auricular,
clandestine, close, inviolate; tortuous.
     behind a screen &c 530; undercover, under an eclipse; in ambush,
in hiding, in disguise; in a cloud, in a fog, in a mist, in a haze, in
a dark corner; in the shade, in the dark; clouded, wrapped in clouds,
wrapt in clouds^; invisible &c 447; buried, underground, perdu [Fr.];
secluded &c 893.
     undisclosed &c 529, untold &c 527; covert &c (latent) 526;
untraceable; mysterious &c (unintelligible) 519.
     irrevealable^, inviolable; confidential; esoteric; not to be spoken
of; unmentionable.
     obreptitious^, furtive, stealthy, feline; skulking &c v.;
surreptitious, underhand, hole and corner; sly &c (cunning) 702;
secretive, evasive; reserved, reticent, uncommunicative, buttoned up;
close, close as wax; taciturn &c 585.
Adv. secretly &c adj.; in secret, in private, in one's sleeve, in holes
and corners; in the dark &c adj.. januis clausis [Lat.], with closed
doors, a huis clos [Fr.]; hugger mugger, a la derobee [Fr.]; under the
cloak of, under the rose, under the table; sub rosa [Lat.], en tapinois
[Fr.], in the background, aside, on the sly, with bated breath, sotto
voce [Lat.], in a whisper, without beat of drum, a la sourdine^.
     behind the veil; beyond mortal ken, beyond the grave, beyond the
veil; hid from mortal vision; into the eternal secret, into the realms
supersensible^, into the supreme mystery.
     in confidence, in strict confidence, in strictest confidence;
confidentially &c adj.; between ourselves, between you and me; between
you and me and the bedpost; entre nous [Fr.], inter nos, under the seal
of secrecy; a couvert [Fr.].
     underhand, by stealth, like a thief in the night; stealthily &c
adj.; behind the scenes, behind the curtain, behind one's back, behind
a screen &c 530; incognito; in camera.
Phr. it must go no further, it will go no further; don't tell a soul;
tell it not in Gath, nobody the wiser; alitur vitium vivitque tegendo
[Lat.]; let it be tenable in your silence still [Hamlet].
     [confidential disclosure to news reporters] background
information, deep background information, deep background; background
session, backgrounder; not for attribution

529. Disclosure -- N. disclosure; retection^; unveiling &c v.;
deterration^, revealment, revelation; exposition, exposure; expose;
whole truth; telltale &c (news) 532.
     acknowledgment, avowal; confession, confessional; shrift.
     bursting of a bubble; denouement.
     [person who discloses a secret] tattletale, snitch, fink, stool
pigeon, canary.
V. disclose, discover, dismask^; draw the veil, draw aside the veil,
lift the veil, raise the veil, lift up the veil, remove the veil, tear
aside the veil, tear the curtain; unmask, unveil, unfold, uncover,
unseal, unkennel; take off the seal, break the seal; lay open, lay
bare; expose; open, open up; bare, bring to light.
     divulge, reveal, break; squeal [Coll.], tattle [Coll.], sing
[Coll.], rat [Coll.], snitch [Coll.]; let into the secret; reveal the
secrets of the prison house; tell &c (inform) 527; breathe, utter,
blab, peach; let out, let fall, let drop, let slip, spill the beans,
let the cat out of the bag; betray; tell tales, come out of school;
come out with; give vent, give utterance to; open the lips, blurt out,
vent, whisper about; speak out &c (make manifest) 525; make public &c
531; unriddle &c (find out) 480.1; split.
     acknowledge, allow, concede, grant, admit, own, own up to,
confess, avow, throw off all disguise, turn inside out, make a clean
breast; show one's hand, show one's cards; unburden one's mind,
disburden one's mind, disburden one's conscience, disburden one's
heart; open one's mind, lay bare one's mind, tell a piece of one's mind
[Fr.]; unbosom oneself, own to the soft impeachment; say the truth,
speak the truth; turn King's evidence, Queen's evidence; acknowledge
the corn [U.S.].
     raise the mask, drop the mask, lift the mask, remove the mask,
throw off the mask; expose; lay open; undeceive^, unbeguile^; disabuse,
set right, correct, open the eyes of; d_esillusionner.
     be disclosed &c; transpire, come to light; come in sight &c (be
visible) 446; become known, escape the lips; come out, ooze out, creep
out, leak out, peep out, crop-out; show its face, show its colors;
discover itself &c; break through the clouds, flash on the mind.
Adj. disclosed &c v.; open, public &c 525.
Int. out with it!,
Phr. the murder is out; a light breaks in upon one; the scales fall
from one's eyes; the eyes are opened.

530. Ambush [Means of concealment]. -- N. camouflage; mimicry; hiding
place; secret place, secret drawer; recess, hold, holes and corners;
closet, crypt, adytum^, abditory^, oubliette.
     ambush, ambuscade; stalking horse; lurking hole, lurking place;
secret path, back stairs; retreat &c (refuge) 666.
     screen, cover, shade, blinker; veil, curtain, blind, cloak, cloud.
     mask, visor, vizor^, disguise, masquerade dress, domino.
     pitfall &c (source of danger) 667; trap &c (snare) 545.
V. blend in, blend into the background.
     lie in ambush &c (hide oneself) 528; lie in wait for, lurk; set a
trap for &c (deceive) 545; ambuscade, ambush.
Adj. camouflaged, hidden, concealed.
Adv. aux aguets^.

531. Publication -- N. publication; public announcement &c 527;
promulgation, propagation, proclamation, pronunziamento [It];
circulation, indiction^, edition; hue and cry.
     publicity, notoriety, currency, flagrancy, cry, bruit, hype; vox
populi; report &c (news) 532.
     the Press, public press, newspaper, journal, gazette, daily;
telegraphy; publisher &c v.; imprint.
     circular, circular letter; manifesto, advertisement, ad., placard,
bill, affiche^, broadside, poster; notice &c 527.
V. publish; make public, make known &c (information) 527; speak of,
talk of; broach, utter; put forward; circulate, propagate, promulgate;
spread, spread abroad; rumor, diffuse, disseminate, evulugate; put
forth, give forth, send forth; emit, edit, get out; issue; bring before
the public, lay before the public, drag before the public; give out,
give to the world; put about, bandy about, hawk about, buzz about,
whisper about, bruit about, blaze about; drag into the open day; voice.
     proclaim, herald, blazon; blaze abroad, noise abroad; sound a
trumpet; trumpet forth, thunder forth; give tongue; announce with beat
of drum, announce with flourish of trumpets; proclaim from the
housetops, proclaim at Charing Cross.
     advertise, placard; post, post up afficher^, publish in the
Gazette, send round the crier.
     raise a cry, raise a hue and cry, raise a report; set news afloat.
     be published &c; be public, become public &c adj.; come out; go
about, fly about, buzz about, blow about; get about, get abroad, get
afloat, get wind; find vent; see the light; go forth, take air, acquire
currency, pass current; go the rounds, go the round of the newspapers,
go through the length and breadth of the land; virum volitare per ora
[Lat.]; pass from mouth to mouth; spread; run like wildfire, spread
like wildfire.
Adj. published &c v.; current &c (news) 532; in circulation, public;
notorious; flagrant, arrant; open &c 525; trumpet-tongued; encyclical,
encyclic^, promulgatory^; exoteric.
Adv. publicly &c adj.; in open court, with open doors.
Int. Oyez!, O yes!, notice!,
Phr. notice is hereby given; this is to give, these are to give notice;
nomina stultorum parietibus haerent [Lat.]; semel emissum volat
irrevocabile verbum [Lat.].

532. News -- N. news; information &c 527; piece of news [Fr.], budget
of news, budget of information; intelligence, tidings.
     word, advice, aviso [Sp.], message; dispatch, despatch; telegram,
cable, marconigram^, wire, communication, errand, embassy.
     report, rumor, hearsay, on dit [Fr.], flying rumor, news stirring,
cry, buzz, bruit, fame; talk, oui dire [Fr.], scandal, eavesdropping;
town tattle, table talk; tittle tattle; canard, topic of the day, idea
     bulletin, fresh news, stirring news; glad tidings; flash, news
just in; on-the-spot coverage; live coverage.
     old story, old news, stale news, stale story; chestnut [Slang].
     narrator &c (describe) 594; newsmonger, scandalmonger; talebearer,
telltale, gossip, tattler.
     [study of news reporting] journalism.
     [methods of conveying news] media, news media, the press, the
information industry; newspaper, magazine, tract, journal, gazette,
publication &c 531; radio, television, ticker (electronic information
     [organizations producing news reports] [methods of conveying news]
United Press International, UPI; Associated Press, AP; The Dow Jones
News Service, DJ; The New York Times News Service, NYT; Reuters
[Brit.]; TASS [Rus.]; The Nikkei [Jap.].
     [person reporting news as a profession] newscaster, newsman,
newswoman, reporter, journalist, correspondent, foreign correspondent,
special correspondent, war correspondent, news team, news department;
anchorman, anchorwoman^; sportscaster; weatherman.
     [officials providing news for an organization] press secretary,
public relations department, public relations man.
V. transpire &c (be disclosed) 529; rumor &c (publish) 531.
Adj. many-tongued; rumored; publicly rumored, currently rumored,
currently reported; rife, current, floating, afloat, going about, in
circulation, in every one's mouth, all over the town.
     in progress; live; on the spot; in person.
Adv. as the story goes, as the story runs; as they say, it is said; by
telegraph, by wireless.
Phr. airy tongues that syllable men's names [Milton]; what's up?;
what's the latest?; what's new?; what's the latest poop?.

533. Secret -- N. secret; dead secret, profound secret; arcanum^,
mystery; latency &c 526; Asian mystery^; sealed book, secrets of the
prison house; le desous des cartes [Fr.].
     enigma, riddle, puzzle, nut to crack, conundrum, charade, rebus,
logogriph^; monogram, anagram; Sphinx; crux criticorum [Lat.].
     maze, labyrinth, Hyrcynian wood; intricacy, meander.
     problem &c (question) 461; paradox &c (difficulty) 704;
unintelligibility &c 519; terra incognita &c (ignorance) 491.
Adj. secret &c (concealed) 528; involved &c, 248; labyrinthine,
labyrinthian^, mazy.
     confidential; top secret.

534. Messenger -- N. messenger, envoy, emissary, legate; nuncio,
internuncio^; ambassador &c (diplomatist) 758.
     marshal, flag bearer, herald, crier, trumpeter, bellman^,
pursuivant^, parlementaire [Fr.], apparitor^.
     courier, runner; dak^, estafette^; Mercury, Iris, Ariel^.
     commissionaire [Fr.]; errand boy, chore boy; newsboy.
     mail, overnight mail, express mail, next-day delivery; post, post
office; letter bag; delivery service; United Parcel Service, UPS;
Federal Express, Fedex.
     telegraph, telephone; cable, wire (electronic information
transmission); carrier pigeon.
     [person reporting news] (news) 532 reporter, gentleman of the
press, representative of the press; penny-a-liner; special
correspondent, own correspondent; spy, scout; informer &c 527.

535. Affirmation -- N. affirmance, affirmation; statement, allegation,
assertion, predication, declaration, word, averment; confirmation.
     asseveration, adjuration, swearing, oath, affidavit; deposition &c
(record) 551; avouchment; assurance; protest, protestation; profession;
acknowledgment &c (assent) 488; legal pledge, pronouncement; solemn
averment, solemn avowal, solemn declaration.
     remark, observation; position &c (proposition) 514, saying,
dictum, sentence, ipse dixit [Lat.].
     emphasis; weight; dogmatism &c (certainty) 474; dogmatics &c 887.
V. assert; make an assertion &c n.; have one's say; say, affirm,
predicate, declare, state; protest, profess.
     put forth, put forward; advance, allege, propose, propound,
enunciate, broach, set forth, hold out, maintain, contend, pronounce,
     depose, depone, aver, avow, avouch, asseverate, swear; make oath,
take one's oath; make an affidavit, swear an affidavit, put in an
affidavit; take one's Bible oath, kiss the book, vow, vitam impendere
vero [Lat.]; swear till one is black in the face, swear till one is
blue in the face, swear till all's blue; be sworn, call Heaven to
witness; vouch, warrant, certify, assure, swear by bell book and
     swear by &c (believe) 484; insist upon, take one's stand upon;
emphasize, lay stress on; assert roundly, assert positively; lay down,
lay down the law; raise one's voice, dogmatize, have the last word; rap
out; repeat; reassert, reaffirm.
     announce &c (information) 527; acknowledge &c (assent) 488; attest
&c (evidence) 467; adjure &c (put to one's oath) 768.
Adj. asserting &c v.; declaratory, predicatory^, pronunciative^,
affirmative, soi-disant [Fr.]; positive; certain &c 474; express,
explicit &c (patent) 525; absolute, emphatic, flat, broad, round,
pointed, marked, distinct, decided, confident, trenchant, dogmatic,
definitive, formal, solemn, categorical, peremptory; unretracted^;
Adv. affirmatively &c adj.; in the affirmative.
     with emphasis, ex-cathedra, without fear of contradiction.
     as God is my witness, I must say, indeed, i' faith, let me tell
you, why, give me leave to say, marry, you may be sure, I'd have you to
know; upon my word, upon my honor; by my troth, egad, I assure you; by
jingo, by Jove, by George, &c; troth, seriously, sadly; in sadness, in
sober sadness, in truth, in earnest; of a truth, truly, perdy^, in all
conscience, upon oath; be assured &c (belief) 484; yes &c (assent) 488;
I'll warrant, I'll warrant you, I'll engage, I'll answer for it, I'll
be bound, I'll venture to say, I'll take my oath; in fact, forsooth,
joking apart; so help me God; not to mince the matter.
Phr. quoth he; dixi [Lat.].

536. Negation -- N. negation, abnegation; denial; disavowal,
disclaimer; abjuration; contradiction, contravention; recusation [Law],
protest; recusancy &c (dissent) 489; flat contradiction, emphatic
contradiction, emphatic denial, dementi [Lat.].
     qualification &c 469; repudiation &c 610; retraction &c 607;
confutation &c 479; refusal &c 764; prohibition &c 761.
V. deny; contradict, contravene; controvert, give denial to, gainsay,
negative, shake the head.
     disown, disaffirm, disclaim, disavow; recant &c 607; revoke &c
(abrogate) 756.
     dispute; impugn, traverse, rebut, join issue upon; bring in
question, call in question &c (doubt) 485; give the lie in his throat,
give one the lie in his throat.
     deny flatly, deny peremptorily, deny emphatically, deny
absolutely, deny wholly, deny entirely; give the lie to, belie.
     repudiate &c 610; set aside, ignore &c 460; rebut &c (confute)
479; qualify &c 469; refuse &c 764.
     recuse [Law].
Adj. denying &c v.; denied &c v.; contradictory; negative, negatory;
recusant &c (dissenting) 489; at issue upon.
Adv. no, nay, not, nowise; not a bit, not a whit, not a jot; not at
all, nohow, not in the least, not so; negative, negatory; no way
[Coll.]; no such thing; nothing of the kind, nothing of the sort; quite
the contrary, tout au contraire [Fr.], far from it; tant s'en faut
[Fr.]; on no account, in no respect; by no, by no manner of means;
     [negative with respect to time] never, never in a million years;
at no time.
Phr. there never was a greater mistake; I know better; non haec in
faedera [Lat.]; a thousand times no.

537. Teaching -- N. teaching &c v.; instruction; edification;
education; tuition; tutorage, tutelage; direction, guidance; opsimathy^.
     qualification, preparation; training, schooling &c v.; discipline;
     drill, practice; book exercise.
     persuasion, proselytism, propagandism^, propaganda; indoctrination,
inculcation, inoculation; advise &c 695.
     explanation &c (interpretation) 522; lesson, lecture, sermon;
apologue^, parable; discourse, prolection^, preachment; chalk talk;
Chautauqua [U.S.].
     exercise, task; curriculum; course, course of study; grammar,
three R's, initiation, A.B.C., &c (beginning) 66.
     elementary education, primary education, secondary education,
technical education, college education, collegiate education, military
education, university education, liberal education, classical
education, religious education, denominational education, moral
education, secular education; propaedeutics^, moral tuition.
     gymnastics, calisthenics; physical drill, physical education;
     [methods of teaching] phonics; rote, rote memorization, brute
memory; cooperative learning; Montessori method, ungraded classes.
     [measuring degree of learning of pupils] test, examination, exam;
final exam, mid-term exam grade [result of measurement of learning],
score, marks; A,B,C,D,E,F; gentleman's C; pass, fail, incomplete.
     homework; take-home lesson; exercise for the student; theme,
V. teach, instruct, educate, edify, school, tutor; cram, prime, coach;
enlighten &c (inform) 527.
     inculcate, indoctrinate, inoculate, infuse, instill, infix,
ingraft^, infiltrate; imbue, impregnate, implant; graft, sow the seeds
of, disseminate.
     given an idea of; put up to, put in the way of; set right.
     sharpen the wits, enlarge the mind; give new ideas, open the eyes,
bring forward, teach the young idea how to shoot [Thomson]; improve &c
     expound &c (interpret) 522; lecture; read a lesson, give a lesson,
give a lecture, give a sermon, give a discourse; incept^; hold forth,
preach; sermonize, moralize; point a moral.
     train, discipline; bring up, bring up to; form, ground, prepare,
qualify; drill, exercise, practice, habituate, familiarize with,
nurture, drynurse^, breed, rear, take in hand; break, break in; tame;
preinstruct^; initiate; inure &c (habituate) 613.
     put to nurse, send to school.
     direct, guide; direct attention to &c (attention) 457; impress
upon the mind, impress upon the memory; beat into, beat into the head;
convince &c (belief) 484.
     [instructional materials] book, workbook, exercise book.
     [unnecessary teaching] preach to the wise, teach one's grandmother
to suck eggs, teach granny to suck eggs; preach to the converted.
Adj. teaching &c v.; taught &c v.; educational; scholastic, academic,
doctrinal; disciplinal^; instructive, instructional, didactic;
propaedeutic^, propaedeutical^.
Phr. the schoolmaster abroad; a bovi majori disscit arare minor [Lat.];
adeo in teneris consuecere multum est [Lat.] [Vergil]; docendo discimus
[Lat.]; quaenocent docent [Lat.]; qui docet discit [Lat.]; sermons in
stones and good in everything [As You Like It].

538. Misteaching -- N. misteaching^, misinformaton, misintelligence^,
misguidance, misdirection, mispersuasion^, misinstruction^, misleading
&c v.; perversion, false teaching; sophistry &c 477; college of Laputa;
the blind leading the blind.
     [misteaching by government agents] propaganda, disinformation,
agitprop; indoctrination.
V. misinform, misteach^, misdescribe^, misinstruct^, miscorrect^;
misdirect, misguide; pervert; put on a false scent, throw off the
scent, throw off the trail; deceive &c 545; mislead &c (error) 495;
misrepresent; lie &c 544; ambiguas in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.]
     propagandize, disinform.
     render unintelligible &c 519; bewilder &c (uncertainty) 475;
mystify &c (conceal) 528; unteach.
     [person or government agent who misteaches] propagandist.
Adj. misteaching &c v.; unedifying.
Phr. piscem natare doces [Lat.]; the blind leading the blind.

539. Learning -- N. learning; acquisition of knowledge &c 490,
acquisition of skill &c 698; acquirement, attainment; edification,
scholarship, erudition; acquired knowledge, lore, wide information;
self-instruction; study, reading, perusal; inquiry &c 451.
     apprenticeship, prenticeship^; pupilage, pupilarity^; tutelage,
novitiate, matriculation.
     docility &c (willingness) 602; aptitude &c 698.
V. learn; acquire knowledge, gain knowledge, receive knowledge, take in
knowledge, drink in knowledge, imbibe knowledge, pick up knowledge,
gather knowledge, get knowledge, obtain knowledge, collect knowledge,
glean knowledge, glean information, glean learning.
     acquaint oneself with, master; make oneself master of, make
oneself acquainted with; grind, cram; get up, coach up; learn by heart,
learn by rote.
     read, spell, peruse; con over, pore over, thumb over; wade
through; dip into; run the eye over, run the eye through; turn over the
     study; be studious &c adj.. [study intensely] burn the midnight
oil, consume the midnight oil, mind one's book; cram.
     go to school, go to college, go to the university; matriculate;
serve an apprenticeship, serve one's apprenticeship, serve one's time;
learn one's trade; be informed &c 527; be taught &c 537.
     [stop going to school voluntarily (intransitive)] drop out, leave
school, quit school; graduate; transfer; take a leave.
     [cause to stop going to school (transitive)] dismiss, expel, kick
out of school.
     [stop going to school involuntarily] flunk out; be dismissed &c
Adj. studious; scholastic, scholarly; teachable; docile &c (willing)
602; apt &c 698, industrious &c 682.
Adv. at one's books; in statu pupillari &c (learner) 541 [Lat.].
Phr. a lumber-house of books in every head [Pope]; ancora imparo!
[Lat.]; hold high converse with the mighty dead [Thomson]; lash'd into
Latin by the tingling rod [Gay].

540. Teacher -- N. teacher, trainer, instructor, institutor, master,
tutor, director, Corypheus, dry nurse, coach, grinder, crammer, don;
governor, bear leader; governess, duenna [Sp.]; disciplinarian.
     professor, lecturer, reader, prelector^, prolocutor, preacher;
chalk talker, khoja^; pastor &c (clergy) 996; schoolmaster, dominie
[Fr.], usher, pedagogue, abecedarian; schoolmistress, dame, monitor,
pupil teacher.
     expositor &c 524; preceptor, guide; guru; mentor &c (adviser) 695;
pioneer, apostle, missionary, propagandist, munshi^, example &c (model
for imitation) 22.
     professorship &c (school) 542.
     tutelage &c (teaching) 537.
Adj. professorial.
Phr. qui doet discet [Lat.].

541. Learner -- N. learner, scholar, student, pupil; apprentice,
prentice^, journeyman; articled clerk; beginner, tyro, amateur, rank
amateur; abecedarian, alphabetarian^; alumnus, eleve [Fr.].
     recruit, raw recruit, novice, neophyte, inceptor^, catechumen,
probationer; seminarian, chela, fellow-commoner; debutant.
     [apprentice medical doctors] intern; resident.
     schoolboy; fresh, freshman, frosh; junior soph^, junior; senior
soph^, senior; sophister^, sophomore; questionist^.
     [college and university students] undergraduate; graduate student;
law student; medical student; pre-med; post-doctoral student, post-doc;
matriculated student; part-time student, night student, auditor.
     [group of learners] class, grade, seminar, form, remove; pupilage
&c (learning) 539.
     disciple, follower, apostle, proselyte; fellow-student,
     [place of learning] school &c 542.
V. learn; practise.
Adj. in statu pupillari [Lat.], in leading strings.
Phr. practise makes perfect.

542. School -- N. school, academy, university, alma mater, college,
seminary, Lyceum; institute, institution; palaestra, Gymnasium, class,
     day school, boarding school, preparatory school, primary school,
infant school, dame's school, grammar school, middle class school,
Board school, denominational school, National school, British and
Foreign school, collegiate school, art school, continuation school,
convent school, County Council school, government school, grant-in-aid
school, high school, higher grade school, military school, missionary
school, naval school, naval academy, state-aided school, technical
school, voluntary school, school; school of art; kindergarten, nursery,
creche, reformatory.
     pulpit, lectern, soap box desk, reading desk, ambo^, lecture room,
theater, auditorium, amphitheater, forum, state, rostrum, platform,
hustings, tribune.
     school book, horn book, text book; grammar, primer, abecedary^,
rudiments, manual, vade mecum; encyclopedia, cyclopedia; Lindley
Murray, Cocker; dictionary, lexicon.
     professorship, lectureship, readership, fellowship, tutorship;
     School Board Council of Education; Board of Education; Board of
Studies, Prefect of Studies; Textbook Committee; propaganda.
Adj. scholastic, academic, collegiate; educational.
Adv. ex cathedra [Lat.].

543. Veracity -- N. veracity; truthfulness, frankness, &c adj.; truth,
sincerity, candor, unreserve^, honesty, fidelity; plain dealing, bona
fides [Lat.]; love of truth; probity &c 939; ingenuousness &c
(artlessness) 703.
     the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth; honest truth,
sober truth &c (fact) 494; unvarnished tale; light of truth.
V. speak the truth, tell the truth; speak by the card; paint in its
true colors, show oneself in one's true colors; make a clean breast &c
(disclose) 529; speak one's mind &c (be blunt) 703; not lie &c 544, not
deceive &c 545.
Adj. truthful, true; veracious, veridical; scrupulous &c (honorable)
939; sincere, candid, frank, open, straightforward, unreserved; open
hearted, true hearted, simple-hearted; honest, trustworthy;
undissembling &c (dissemble) &c 544 [Obs.]; guileless, pure; truth-
loving; unperjured^; true blue, as good as one's word; unaffected,
unfeigned, bona fide; outspoken, ingenuous &c (artless) 703;
undisguised &c (real) 494.
Adv. truly &c (really) 494; in plain words &c 703; in truth, with
truth, of a truth, in good truth; as the dial to the sun, as the needle
to the pole; honor bright; troth; in good sooth^, in good earnest;
unfeignedly, with no nonsense, in sooth^, sooth to say^, bona fide, in
foro conscientiae [Lat.]; without equivocation; cartes sur table, from
the bottom of one's heart; by my troth &c (affirmation) 535.
Phr. di il vero a affronterai il diavolo [It]; Dichtung und Wahrheit
[G.]; esto quod esse videris [Lat.]; magna est veritas et praevalet
[Lat.]; that golden key that opes the palace of eternity [Milton];
veritas odium parit [Lat.]; veritatis simplex oratio est [Lat.]; verite
sans peur [Fr.].

544. Falsehood -- N. falsehood, falseness; falsity, falsification;
deception &c 545; untruth &c 546; guile; lying &c 454; untruth &c 546;
guile; lying &c v.. misrepresentation; mendacity, perjury, false
swearing; forgery, invention, fabrication; subreption^; covin^.
     perversion of truth, suppression of truth; suppressio veri [Lat.];
perversion, distortion, false coloring; exaggeration &c 549;
prevarication, equivocation, shuffling, fencing, evasion, fraud;
suggestio falsi &c (lie) 546 [Lat.]; mystification &c (concealment)
528; simulation &c (imitation) 19; dissimulation, dissembling; deceit;
     sham; pretense, pretending, malingering.
     lip homage, lip service; mouth honor; hollowness; mere show, mere
outside; duplicity, double dealing, insincerity, hypocrisy, cant,
humbug; jesuitism, jesuitry; pharisaism; Machiavelism, organized
hypocrisy; crocodile tears, mealy-mouthedness^, quackery; charlatanism^,
charlatanry; gammon; bun-kum^, bumcombe, flam; bam [Slang], flimflam,
cajolery, flattery; Judas kiss; perfidy &c (bad faith) 940; il volto
sciolto i pensieri stretti [It].
     unfairness &c (dishonesty) 940; artfulness &c (cunning) 702;
misstatement &c (error) 495.
V. be false &c adj., be a liar &c 548; speak falsely &c adv.; tell a
lie &c 546; lie, fib; lie like a trooper; swear false, forswear,
perjure oneself, bear false witness.
     misstate, misquote, miscite^, misreport, misrepresent; belie,
falsify, pervert, distort; put a false construction upon &c
(misinterpret); prevaricate, equivocate, quibble; palter, palter to the
understanding; repondre en Normand [Fr.]; trim, shuffle, fence, mince
the truth, beat about the bush, blow hot and cold, play fast and loose.
     garble, gloss over, disguise, give a color to; give a gloss, put a
gloss, put false coloring upon; color, varnish, cook, dress up,
embroider; varnish right and puzzle wrong; exaggerate &c 549; blague^.
     invent, fabricate; trump up, get up; force, fake, hatch, concoct;
romance &c (imagine) 515; cry 'wolf!'.
     dissemble, dissimulate; feign, assume, put on, pretend, make
believe; play possum; play false, play a double game; coquet; act a
part, play a part; affect &c 855; simulate, pass off for; counterfeit,
sham, make a show of; malinger; say the grapes are sour.
     cant, play the hypocrite, sham Abraham, faire pattes de velours,
put on the mask, clean the outside of the platter, lie like a conjuror;
hand out false colors, hold out false colors, sail under false colors;
commend the poisoned chalice to the lips [Macbeth]; ambiguas in vulgum
spargere voces [Lat.]; deceive &c 545.
Adj. false, deceitful, mendacious, unveracious, fraudulent, dishonest,
faithless, truthless, trothless; unfair, uncandid; hollow-hearted;
evasive; uningenuous, disingenuous; hollow, sincere, Parthis mendacior;
     artificial, contrived; canting; hypocritical, jesuitical,
pharisaical; tartuffish; Machiavelian; double, double tongued, double
faced, double handed, double minded, double hearted, double dealing;
Janus faced; smooth-faced, smooth spoken, smooth tongued; plausible;
mealy-mouthed; affected &c 855.
     collusive, collusory; artful &c (cunning) 702; perfidious &c 940;
spurious &c (deceptive) 545; untrue &c 546; falsified &c v.; covinous.
Adv. falsely &c adj.; a la tartufe, with a double tongue; silly &c
(cunning) 702.
Phr. blandae mendacia lingua [Lat.]; falsus in uno falsus in omnibus
[Lat.]; I give him joy that's awkward at a lie [Young]; la mentira
tiene las piernas cortas [Sp.]; O what a goodly outside falsehood hath
[Merchant of Venice].

545. Deception -- N. deception; falseness &c 544; untruth &c 546;
imposition, imposture; fraud, deceit, guile; fraudulence, fraudulency^;
covin^; knavery &c (cunning) 702; misrepresentation &c (falsehood) 544;
bluff; straw-bail, straw bid [U.S.]; spoof [Slang].
     delusion, gullery^; juggling, jugglery^; slight of hand,
legerdemain; prestigiation^, prestidigitation; magic &c 992; conjuring,
conjuration; hocus-pocus, escamoterie^, jockeyship^; trickery, coggery^,
chicanery; supercherie^, cozenage^, circumvention, ingannation^,
collusion; treachery &c 940; practical joke.
     trick, cheat, wile, blind, feint, plant, bubble, fetch, catch,
chicane, juggle, reach, hocus, bite; card sharping, stacked deck,
loaded dice, quick shuffle, double dealing, dealing seconds, dealing
from the bottom of the deck; artful dodge, swindle; tricks upon
travelers; stratagem &c (artifice) 702; confidence trick, fake, hoax;
theft &c 791; ballot-box stuffing [U.S.], barney [Slang]; brace game
[Slang], bunko game, drop game [Slang], gum game [U.S.], panel game
[U.S.], shell game, thimblerig, skin game [U.S.].
     snare, trap, pitfall, decoy, gin; springe^, springle^; noose, hoot;
bait, decoy-duck, tub to the whale, baited trap, guet-a-pens; cobweb,
net, meshes, toils, mouse trap, birdlime; dionaea^, Venus's flytrap^;
ambush &c 530; trapdoor, sliding panel, false bottom; spring-net,
spring net, spring gun, mask, masked battery; mine; flytrap^; green
goods [U.S.]; panel house.
     Cornish hug; wolf in sheep's clothing &c (deceiver) 548; disguise,
disguisement^; false colors, masquerade, mummery, borrowed plumes;
pattes de velours [Fr.].
     mockery &c (imitation) 19; copy &c 21; counterfeit, sham, make-
believe, forgery, fraud; lie &c 546; a delusion a mockery and a snare
[Denman], hollow mockery.
     whited sepulcher, painted sepulcher; tinsel; paste, junk jewelry,
costume jewelry, false jewelry, synthetic jewels; scagliola^, ormolu,
German silver, albata^, paktong^, white metal, Britannia metal, paint;
veneer; jerry building; man of straw.
     illusion &c (error) 495; ignis fatuus &c 423 [Lat.]; mirage &c
V. deceive, take in; defraud, cheat, jockey, do, cozen, diddle, nab,
chouse, play one false, bilk, cully^, jilt, bite, pluck, swindle,
victimize; abuse; mystify; blind one's eyes; blindfold, hoodwink; throw
dust into the eyes; dupe, gull, hoax, fool, befool^, bamboozle,
flimflam, hornswoggle; trick.
     impose upon, practice upon, play upon, put upon, palm off on, palm
upon, foist upon; snatch a verdict; bluff off, bluff; bunko, four flush
[Slang], gum [U.S.], spoof [Slang], stuff (a ballot box) [U.S.].
     circumvent, overreach; outreach, out wit, out maneuver; steal a
march upon, give the go-by, to leave in the lurch decoy, waylay, lure,
beguile, delude, inveigle; entrap, intrap^, ensnare; nick, springe^; set
a trap, lay a trap, lay a snare for; bait the hook, forelay^, spread the
toils, lime; trapan^, trepan; kidnap; let in, hook in; nousle^, nousel^;
blind a trail; enmesh, immesh^; shanghai; catch, catch in a trap;
sniggle, entangle, illaqueate^, hocus, escamoter^, practice on one's
credulity; hum, humbug; gammon, stuff up [Slang], sell; play a trick
upon one, play a practical joke upon one, put something over on one,
put one over on; balk, trip up, throw a tub to a whale; fool to the top
of one's bent, send on a fool's errand; make game, make a fool of, make
an April fool of^, make an ass of; trifle with, cajole, flatter; come
over &c (influence) 615; gild the pill, make things pleasant, divert,
put a good face upon; dissemble &c 544.
     cog, cog the dice, load the dice, stack the deck; live by one's
wits, play at hide and seek; obtain money under false pretenses &c
(steal) 791; conjure, juggle, practice chicanery; deacon [U.S.].
     play off, palm off, foist off, fob-off.
     lie &c 544; misinform &c 538; mislead &c (error) 495; betray &c
940; be deceived &c 547.
Adj. deceived &c v.; deceiving &c; cunning &c 702; prestigious^,
prestigiatory^; deceptive, deceptious^; deceitful, covinous^; delusive,
delusory; illusive, illusory; elusive, insidious, ad captandum vulgus
     untrue &c 546; mock, sham, make-believe, counterfeit, snide
[Slang], pseudo, spurious, supposititious, so-called, pretended,
feigned, trumped up, bogus, scamped, fraudulent, tricky, factitious
bastard; surreptitious, illegitimate, contraband, adulterated,
sophisticated; unsound, rotten at the core; colorable; disguised;
meretricious, tinsel, pinchbeck, plated; catchpenny; Brummagem.
     artificial, synthetic, ersatz [G.]; simulated &c 544.
Adv. under false colors, under the garb of, under cover of; over the
Phr. keep the word of promise to the ear and break it to the hope
[Macbeth]; fronti nulla fides [Lat.]; ah that deceit should steal such
gentle shapes [Richard III]; a quicksand of deceit [Henry VI];
decipimur specie recti [Lat.] [Horace]; falsi crimen [Lat.]; fraus est
celare fraudem [Lat.]; lupus in fabula [Lat.]; so smooth, he daubed his
vice with show of virtue [Richard III].

546. Untruth -- N. untruth, falsehood, lie, story, thing that is not,
fib, bounce, crammer, taradiddle^, whopper; jhuth^.
     forgery, fabrication, invention; misstatement, misrepresentation;
perversion, falsification, gloss, suggestio falsi [Lat.]; exaggeration
&c 549.
     invention, fabrication, fiction; fable, nursery tale; romance &c
(imagination) 515; absurd story, untrue story, false story, trumped up
story, trumped up statement; thing devised by the enemy; canard; shave,
sell, hum, traveler's tale, Canterbury tale, cock and bull story, fairy
tale, fake; claptrap.
     press agent's yarn; puff, puffery (exaggeration) 549.
     myth, moonshine, bosh, all my eye and Betty Martin, mare's nest,
     irony; half truth, white lie, pious fraud; mental reservation &c
(concealment) 528.
     pretense, pretext; false plea &c 617; subterfuge, evasion, shift,
shuffle, make-believe; sham &c (deception) 545.
     profession, empty words; Judas kiss &c (hypocrisy) 544; disguise
&c (mask) 530.
V. have a false meaning.
Adj. untrue, false, phony, trumped up; void of foundation, without-
foundation; fictive, far from the truth, false as dicer's oaths;
unfounded, ben trovato [It], invented, fabulous, fabricated, forged;
fictitious, factitious, supposititious, surreptitious; elusory^,
illusory; ironical; soi-disant &c (misnamed) 565 [Fr.].
Phr. se non e vero e ben trovato [It]; where none is meant that meets
the ear [Milton].

547. Dupe -- N. dupe, gull, gudgeon, gobemouche^, cull [Slang], cully^,
victim, pigeon, April fool^; jay [Slang], sucker [Slang]; laughingstock
&c 857; Cyclops, simple Simon, flat; greenhorn; fool &c 501; puppet,
cat's paw.
V. be deceived &c 545, be the dupe of; fall into a trap; swallow the
bait, nibble at the bait; bite, catch a Tartar.
Adj. credulous &c 486; mistaken &c (error) 495.

548. Deceiver -- N. deceiver &c (deceive) &c 545; dissembler,
hypocrite; sophist, Pharisee, Jesuit, Mawworm^, Pecksniff, Joseph
Surface, Tartufe^, Janus; serpent, snake in the grass, cockatrice,
Judas, wolf in sheep's clothing; jilt; shuffler^, stool pigeon.
     liar &c (lie) &c 544; story-teller, perjurer, false witness,
menteur a triple etage [Fr.], Scapin^; bunko steerer [U.S.],
carpetbagger [U.S.], capper [U.S.], faker, fraud, four flusher [Slang],
horse coper^, ringer [Slang], spieler^, straw bidder [U.S.].
     imposter, pretender, soi-disant [Fr.], humbug; adventurer;
Cagliostro, Fernam Mendez Pinto; ass in lion's skin &c (bungler) 701;
actor &c (stage player) 599.
     quack, charlatan, mountebank, saltimbanco^, saltimbanque^, empiric,
quacksalver, medicaster^, Rosicrucian, gypsy; man of straw.
     conjuror, juggler, trickster, prestidigitator, jockey; crimp,
decoy, decoy duck; rogue, knave, cheat; swindler &c (thief) 792;
Phr. saint abroad and a devil at home [Bunyan].

549. Exaggeration -- N. exaggeration; expansion &c 194; hyperbole,
stretch, strain, coloring; high coloring, caricature, caricatura^;
extravagance &c (nonsense) 497; Baron Munchausen; men in buckram, yarn,
fringe, embroidery, traveler's tale; fish story, gooseberry [Slang].
     storm in a teacup; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482;
puff, puffery &c (boasting) 884; rant &c (turgescence) 577 [Obs.].
     figure of speech, facon de parler [Fr.]; stretch of fancy, stretch
of the imagination; flight of fancy &c (imagination) 515.
     false coloring &c (falsehood) 544; aggravation &c 835.
V. exaggerate, magnify, pile up, aggravate; amplify &c (expand) 194;
overestimate &c 482; hyperbolize; overcharge, overstate, overdraw,
overlay, overshoot the mark, overpraise; make over much, over the most
of; strain, strain over a point; stretch, stretch a point; go great
lengths; spin a long yarn; draw with a longbow, shoot with a longbow;
deal in the marvelous.
     out-Herod Herod, run riot, talk at random.
     heighten, overcolor^; color highly, color too highly; broder^;
flourish; color &c (misrepresent) 544; puff &c (boast) 884.
Adj. exaggerated &c v.; overwrought; bombastic &c (grandiloquent) 577;
hyperbolical^, on stilts; fabulous, extravagant, preposterous,
egregious, outre [Fr.], highflying^.
Adv. hyperbolically &c adj..
Phr. excitabat enim fluctus in simpulo [Lat.] [Cicero].



550. Indication -- N. indication; symbolism, symbolization; semiology,
semiotics, semeiology^, semeiotics^; Zeitgeist.
     [means of recognition: property] characteristic, diagnostic;
lineament, feature, trait; fingerprint, voiceprint, footprint,
noseprint [for animals]; cloven hoof; footfall; recognition (memory)
     [means of recognition: tool] diagnostic, divining rod; detector.
     sign, symbol; index, indice^, indicator; point, pointer; exponent,
note, token, symptom; dollar sign, dollar mark.
     type, figure, emblem, cipher, device; representation &c 554;
epigraph, motto, posy.
     gesture, gesticulation; pantomime; wink, glance, leer; nod, shrug,
beck; touch, nudge; dactylology^, dactylonomy^; freemasonry, telegraphy,
chirology [Med.], byplay, dumb show; cue; hint &c 527; clue, clew, key,
     signal, signal post; rocket, blue light; watch fire, watch tower;
telegraph, semaphore, flagstaff; cresset^, fiery cross; calumet;
heliograph; guidon; headlight.
     [sign (evidence) on physobj of contact with another physobj] mark,
scratch, line, stroke, dash, score, stripe, streak, tick, dot, point,
notch, nick.
     print; imprint, impress, impression.
     [symbols accompanying written text to signify modified
interpretation] keyboard symbols, printing symbols; [Symbols for
emphasis], red letter, italics, sublineation^, underlining, bold font;
jotting; note, annotation, reference; blaze, cedilla, guillemets^,
hachure [Topo.];
[Special Characters list], quotation marks, "; double quotes, " ";
parentheses, "( )"; brackets, "[ ]"; braces, "{ }", curly brackets;
arrows, slashes; left parenthesis, "("; right parenthesis, ")"; opening
bracket, "["; closing bracket, "]"; left curly brace, "{"; right curly
brace, "}"; left arrow, "<"; right arrow, ">"; forward slash, "/";
backward slash, "\\"; exclamation point, "!"; commercial at, "@"; pound
sign, "#"; percent sign, "%"; carat, "^"; ampersand, "&"; asterisk,
"*"; hyphen, "-"; dash, "-", "_"; em dash, "--"; plus sign, "+"; equals
sign, "="; question mark, "?"; period, "."; semicolon, ";"; colon, ":";
comma, ","; apostrophe, "'"; single quote, "'"; tilde, "~".
[For identification: general] badge, criterion; countercheck^,
countermark^, countersign, counterfoil; duplicate, tally; label, ticket,
billet, letter, counter, check, chip, chop; dib^; totem; tessera^, card,
bill; witness, voucher; stamp; cacher [Fr.]; trade mark, Hall mark.
     [For identification of people, on a document] signature, mark,
autograph, autography; attestation; hand, hand writing, sign manual;
cipher; seal, sigil [Lat.], signet, hand and seal [Law]; paraph^, brand;
superscription; indorsement^, endorsement.
     [For identification of people, to gain access to restricted
(locations or information)] password, watchword, catchword; security
card, pass, passkey; credentials &c (evidence) 467; open sesame;
timbrology^; mot de passe [Fr.], mot du guet [Fr.]; pass-parole;
     title, heading, docket.
     address card, visiting card; carte de visite [Fr.].
     insignia; banner, banneret^, bannerol^; bandrol^; flag, colors,
streamer, standard, eagle, labarum^, oriflamb^, oriflamme; figurehead;
ensign; pennon, pennant, pendant; burgee^, blue Peter, jack, ancient,
gonfalon, union jack; banderole, old glory [U.S.], quarantine flag;
vexillum^; yellow-flag, yellow jack; tricolor, stars and stripes;
     heraldry, crest; coat of arms, arms; armorial bearings, hatchment^;
escutcheon, scutcheon; shield, supporters; livery, uniform; cockade,
epaulet, chevron; garland, love knot, favor.
     [Of locality] beacon, cairn, post, staff, flagstaff, hand,
pointer, vane, cock, weathercock; guidepost, handpost^, fingerpost^,
directing post, signpost; pillars of Hercules, pharos; bale-fire,
beacon-fire; l'etoile du Nord [Fr.]; landmark, seamark; lighthouse,
balize^; polestar, loadstar^, lodestar; cynosure, guide; address,
direction, name; sign, signboard.
     [Of the future] warning &c 668; omen &c 512; prefigurement &c 511.
     [Of the past] trace, record &c, 551.
     [Of danger] warning &c 668, alarm &c 669.
     [of authority]. scepter &c 747.
     [of triumph]. trophy &c 733.
     [of quantity]. gauge &c 466.
     [Of Distance] milestone, milepost.
     [Of disgrace], brand, fool's cap.
     [For detection], check, telltale; test &c (experiment) 463;
mileage ticket; milliary^.
     notification &c (information) 527; advertisement &c (publication)
     word of command, call; bugle call, trumpet call; bell, alarum,
cry; battle cry, rallying cry; angelus^; reveille; sacring bell^,
sanctus bell [Lat.].
     exposition &c (explanation) 522, proof &c (evidence) 463; pattern
&c (prototype) 22.
V. indicate; be the sign &c n.. of; denote, betoken; argue, testify &c
(evidence) 467; bear the impress &c n.. of; connote, connotate^.
     represent, stand for; typify &c (prefigure) 511; symbolize.
     put an indication, put a mark &c n.; note, mark, stamp, earmark;
blaze; label, ticket, docket; dot, spot, score, dash, trace, chalk;
print; imprint, impress; engrave, stereotype.
     make a sign &c n.. signalize; underscore; give a signal, hang out
a signal; beckon; nod; wink, glance, leer, nudge, shrug, tip the wink;
gesticulate; raise the finger, hold up the finger, raise the hand, hold
up the hand; saw the air, suit the action to the word [Hamlet].
     wave a banner, unfurl a banner, hoist a banner, hang out a banner
&c n.; wave the hand, wave a kerchief; give the cue &c (inform) 527;
show one's colors; give an alarm, sound an alarm; beat the drum, sound
the trumpets, raise a cry.
     sign, seal, attest &c (evidence) 467; underline &c (give
importance to) 642; call attention to &c (attention) 457; give notice
&c (inform) 527.
Adj. indicating &c v., indicative, indicatory; denotative, connotative;
diacritical, representative, typical, symbolic, pantomimic,
pathognomonic^, symptomatic, characteristic, demonstrative, diagnostic,
exponential, emblematic, armorial; individual &c (special) 79.
     known by, recognizable by; indicated &c v.; pointed, marked.
     [Capable of being denoted] denotable^; indelible.
Adv. in token of; symbolically &c adj.; in dumb show.
Phr. ecce signum [Lat.]; ex ungue leonem [Lat.], ex pede Herculem
[Lat.]; vide ut supra; vultus ariete fortior [Lat.].

551. Record -- N. trace, vestige, relic, remains; scar, cicatrix;
footstep, footmark^, footprint; pug; track mark, wake, trail, scent,
     monument, hatchment^, slab, tablet, trophy, achievement; obelisk,
pillar, column, monolith; memorial; memento &c (memory) 505;
testimonial, medal; commemoration &c (celebration) 883.
     record, note, minute; register, registry; roll &c (list) 86;
cartulary, diptych, Domesday book; catalogue raisonne [Fr.]; entry,
memorandum, indorsement^, inscription, copy, duplicate, docket; notch &c
(mark) 550; muniment^, deed &c (security) 771; document; deposition,
proces verbal [Fr.]; affidavit; certificate &c (evidence) 467.
     notebook, memorandum book, memo book, pocketbook, commonplace
book; portfolio; pigeonholes, excerpta^, adversaria [Lat.], jottings,
     gazette, gazetteer; newspaper, daily, magazine; almanac, almanack^;
calendar, ephemeris, diary, log, journal, daybook, ledger; cashbook^,
petty cashbook^; professional journal, scientific literature, the
literature, primary literature, secondary literature, article, review
     archive, scroll, state paper, return, blue book; statistics &c 86;
compte rendu [Fr.]; Acts of, Transactions of, Proceedings of; Hansard's
Debates; chronicle, annals, legend; history, biography &c 594;
Congressional Records.
     registration; registry; enrollment, inrollment^; tabulation; entry,
booking; signature &c (identification) 550; recorder &c 553;
     [analog recording media] recording, tape recording, videotape.
     [digital recording media] compact disk; floppy disk, diskette;
hard disk, Winchester disk; read-only memory, ROM; write once read
mostly memory, WORM.
V. record; put on record, place on record; chronicle, calendar, hand
down to posterity; keep up the memory &c (remember) 505; commemorate &c
(celebrate) 883; report &c (inform) 527; write, commit to writing,
reduce to writing; put in writing, set down in writing, writing in
black and white; put down, jot down, take down, write down, note down,
set down; note, minute, put on paper; take note, make a note, take
minute, take memorandum; make a return.
     mark &c (indicate) 550; sign &c (attest) 467.
     enter, book; post, post up, insert, make an entry of; mark off,
tick off; register, enroll, inscroll^; file &c (store) 636.
     burn into memory; carve in stone.
Adv. on record.
Phr. exegi monumentum aere perennium [Horace]; read their history in a
nation's eyes [Gray]; records that defy the tooth of time [Young].

552. [Suppression of sign.] Obliteration -- N. obliteration; erasure,
rasure^; cancel, cancellation; circumduction^; deletion, blot; tabula
rasa [Lat.]; effacement, extinction.
V. efface, obliterate, erase, raze^, rase^, expunge, cancel; blot out,
take out, rub out, scratch out, strike out, wipe out, wash out, sponge
out; wipe off, rub off; wipe away; deface, render illegible; draw the
pen through, apply the sponge.
     be effaced &c; leave no trace &c 550; leave not a rack behind
Adj. obliterated &c v.; out of print; printless^; leaving no trace;
intestate; unrecorded, unregistered, unwritten.
Int. dele; out with it!,
Phr. delenda est Carthago [Lat.] [Cato].

553. Recorder -- N. recorder, notary, clerk; registrar, registrary^,
register; prothonotary [Law]; amanuensis, secretary, scribe, babu^,
remembrancer^, bookkeeper, custos rotulorum [Lat.], Master of the Rolls.
     annalist; historian, historiographer; chronicler, journalist;
biographer &c (narrator) 594; antiquary &c (antiquity) 122;
memorialist^; interviewer.

554. Representation -- N. representation, representment^; imitation &c
19; illustration, delineation, depictment^; imagery, portraiture,
iconography; design, designing; art, fine arts; painting &c 556;
sculpture &c 557; engraving &c 558; photography, cinematography;
radiography, autoradiography [Bioch.], fluorography [Chem], sciagraphy^.
     personation, personification; impersonation; drama &c 599.
     picture, photo, photograph, daguerreotype, snapshot; X-ray photo;
movie film, movie; tracing, scan, TV image, video image, image file,
graphics, computer graphics, televideo, closed-circuit TV.
     copy &c 21; drawing, sketch, drought, draft; plot, chart, figure,
     image, likeness, icon, portrait, striking likeness, speaking
likeness; very image; effigy, facsimile.
     figure, figure head; puppet, doll, figurine, aglet^, manikin, lay-
figure, model, mammet^, marionette, fantoccini^, waxwork, bust; statue,
     ideograph, hieroglyphic, anaglyph, kanji [Jap.]; diagram,
     map, plan, chart, ground plan, projection, elevation (plan) 626.
     ichnography^, cartography; atlas; outline, scheme; view &c
(painting) 556; radiograph, scotograph^, sciagraph^; spectrogram,
V. represent, delineate; depict, depicture^; portray; take a likeness,
catch a likeness &c n.; hit off, photograph, daguerreotype; snapshot;
figure, shadow forth, shadow out; adumbrate; body forth; describe &c
594; trace, copy; mold.
     dress up; illustrate, symbolize.
     paint &c 556; carve &c 557; engrave &c 558.
     personate, personify; impersonate; assume a character; pose as;
act; play &c (drama) 599; mimic &c (imitate) 19; hold the mirror up to
Adj. represent, representing &c v., representative; illustrative
[Slang]; represented &c v.; imitative, figurative; iconic.
     like &c 17; graphic &c (descriptive) 594; cinquecento quattrocento
[Fr.], trecento^.

555. Misrepresentation -- N. misrepresentation, distortion, caricatura^,
exaggeration; daubing &c v.; bad likeness, daub, sign painting;
scratch, caricature; anamorphosis^; burlesque, falsification,
misstatement; parody, lampoon, take-off, travesty.
V. misrepresent, distort, overdraw, exaggerate, caricature, daub;
burlesque, parody, travesty.
Adj. misrepresented &c v..

556. Painting -- N. painting; depicting; drawing &c v.; design;
perspective, sciagraphy^, skiagraphy^; chiaroscuro &c (light) 420;
composition; treatment.
     historical painting, portrait painting, miniature painting;
landscape painting, marine painting; still life, flower painting, scene
painting; scenography^.
     school, style; the grand style, high art, genre, portraiture;
ornamental art &c 847.
     monochrome, polychrome; grisaille [Fr.].
     pallet, palette; easel; brush, pencil, stump; black lead,
charcoal, crayons, chalk, pastel; paint &c (coloring matter) 428;
watercolor, body color, oil color; oils, oil paint; varnish &c 356.1,
priming; gouache, tempera, distemper, fresco, water glass; enamel;
encaustic painting; mosaic; tapestry.
     photography, heliography, color photography; sun painting;
graphics, computer graphics.
     picture, painting, piece [Fr.], tableau, canvas; oil painting &c;
fresco, cartoon; easel picture, cabinet picture, draught, draft; pencil
drawing &c, water color drawing, etching, charcoal, pen-and-ink;
sketch, outline, study.
     photograph, color photograph, black-and-white photograph,
holograph, heliograph; daguerreotype, talbotype^, calotype^, heliotype^;
negative, positive; print, glossy print, matte print; enlargement,
reduction, life-size print; instant photo, Polaroid photo.
     technicolor, Kodachrome, Ektachrome; Polaroid.
     portrait &c (representation) 554; whole length, full length, half
length; kitcat, head; miniature; shade, silhouette; profile.
     landscape, seapiece^; view, scene, prospect; panorama, diorama;
still life.
     picture gallery, exhibit; studio, atelier; pinacotheca^.
V. paint, design, limn draw, sketch, pencil, scratch, shade, stipple,
hatch, dash off, chalk out, square up; color, dead color, wash,
varnish; draw in pencil &c n.; paint in oils &c n.; stencil; depict &c
(represent) 554.
Adj. painted &c v.; pictorial, graphic, picturesque.
     pencil, oil &c n..
Adv. in pencil &c n..
Phr. fecit [Lat.], delineavit [Lat.]; mutum est pictura poema [Lat.].

557. Sculpture -- N. sculpture, insculpture^; carving &c v.; statuary.
     high relief, low relief, bas relief [Fr.]; relief; relieve;
bassorilievo^, altorilievo^, mezzorilievo^; intaglio, anaglyph^; medal,
medallion; cameo.
     marble, bronze, terra cotta [Sp.], papier-mache; ceramic ware,
pottery, porcelain, china, earthenware; cloisonne, enamel, faience,
Laocoon, satsuma.
     statue, &c (image) 554; cast &c (copy) 21; glyptotheca^.
V. sculpture, carve, cut, chisel, model, mold; cast [Slang].
Adj. sculptured &c, v.. in relief, anaglyptic^, ceroplastic^, ceramic;
parian^; marble &c n.; xanthian^.

558. Engraving -- N. engraving, chalcography^; line engraving, mezzotint
engraving, stipple engraving, chalk engraving; dry point, bur; etching,
aquatinta^; chiseling; plate engraving, copperplate engraving, steel
engraving, wood engraving; xylography, lignography^, glyptography^,
cerography^, lithography, chromolithography^, photolithography,
zincography^, glyphography, xylograph, lignograph^, glyptograph^,
cerograph^, lithograph, chromolithograph, photolithograph, zincograph^,
glyphograph^, holograph.
     impression, print, engraving, plate; steelplate, copperplate;
etching; mezzotint, aquatint, lithotint^; cut, woodcut; stereotype,
graphotype^, autotype^, heliotype^.
     graver, burin^, etching point, style; plate, stone, wood block,
negative; die, punch, stamp.
     printing; plate printing, copperplate printing, anastatic
printing^, color printing, lithographic printing; type printing &c 591;
three-color process.
     illustration, illumination; half tone; photogravure; vignette,
initial letter, cul de lampe [Fr.], tailpiece.
     [person who inscribes on stone] lapidary, lapidarian.
V. engrave, grave, stipple, scrape, etch; bite, bite in; lithograph &c
n.; print.
Adj. insculptured^; engraved &c v.. [of inscriptions on stone] lapidary.
Phr. sculpsit [Lat.], imprimit [Lat.].

559. Artist -- N. artist; painter, limner, drawer, sketcher, designer,
engraver; master, old master; draftsman, draughtsman; copyist, dauber,
hack; enamel, enameler, enamelist; caricaturist.
     historical painter, landscape painter, marine painter, flower
painter, portrait painter, miniature painter, miniaturist, scene
painter, sign painter, coach painter; engraver; Apelles^; sculptor,
carver, chaser, modeler, figuriste^, statuary; Phidias, Praxiteles;
Royal Academician.
     photographer, cinematographer, lensman, cameraman, camera
technician, camera buff; wildlife photographer.
Phr. photo safari; with gun and camera

1. Language generally

560. Language -- N. language; phraseology &c 569; speech &c 582;
tongue, lingo, vernacular; mother tongue, vulgar tongue, native tongue;
household words; King's English, Queen's English; dialect &c 563.
     confusion of tongues, Babel, pasigraphie^; pantomime &c (signs)
550; onomatopoeia; betacism^, mimmation, myatism^, nunnation^;
     lexicology, philology, glossology^, glottology^; linguistics,
chrestomathy^; paleology^, paleography; comparative grammar.
     literature, letters, polite literature, belles lettres [Fr.],
muses, humanities, literae humaniores [Lat.], republic of letters, dead
languages, classics; genius of language; scholarship &c (scholar) 492.
V. express by words &c 566.
Adj. lingual, linguistic; dialectic; vernacular, current; bilingual;
diglot^, hexaglot^, polyglot; literary.
Phr. syllables govern the world [Selden].

561. Letter -- N. letter; character; hieroglyphic &c (writing) 590;
type &c (printing) 591; capitals; digraph, trigraph; ideogram,
ideograph; majuscule, minuscule; majuscule, minuscule; alphabet, ABC^,
abecedary^, christcross-row.
     consonant, vowel; diphthong, triphthong [Gramm.]; mute, liquid,
labial, dental, guttural.
     syllable; monosyllable, dissyllable^, polysyllable; affix, suffix.
     spelling, orthograph^; phonography^, phonetic spelling;
anagrammatism^, metagrammatism^.
     cipher, monogram, anagram; doubleacrostic^.
V. spell.
Adj. literal; alphabetical, abecedarian; syllabic; majuscular^,
minuscular^; uncial &c (writing) 590.

562. Word -- N. word, term, vocable; name &c 564; phrase &c 566; root,
etymon; derivative; part of speech &c (grammar) 567; ideophone^.
     dictionary, vocabulary, lexicon, glossary; index, concordance;
thesaurus; gradus [Lat.], delectus [Lat.].
     etymology, derivation; glossology^, terminology orismology^;
paleology &c (philology) 560 [Obs.].
     lexicography; glossographer &c (scholar) 492; lexicologist,
Adj. verbal, literal; titular, nominal.
     conjugate [Similarly derived], paronymous^; derivative.
Adv. verbally &c adj.; verbatim &c (exactly) 494.
Phr. the artillery of words [Swift].

563. Neologism -- N. neology, neologism; newfangled expression, nonce
expression; back-formation; caconym^; barbarism.
     archaism, black letter, monkish Latin.
     corruption, missaying^, malapropism, antiphrasis^.
     pun, paranomasia^, play upon words; word play &c (wit) 842; double-
entendre &c (ambiguity) 520 [Fr.]; palindrome, paragram^, anagram,
clinch; abuse of language, abuse of terms.
     dialect, brogue, idiom, accent, patois; provincialism,
regionalism, localism; broken English, lingua franca; Anglicism,
Briticism, Gallicism, Scotticism, Hibernicism; Americanism^; Gypsy
lingo, Romany; pidgin, pidgin English, pigeon English; Volapuk,
Chinook, Esperanto, Hindustani, kitchen Kaffir.
     dog Latin, macaronics^, gibberish; confusion of tongues, Babel;
babu English^, chi-chi.
     figure of speech &c (metaphor) 521; byword.
     colloquialism, informal speech, informal language.
     substandard language, vernacular.
     vulgar language, obscene language, obscenity, vulgarity.
     jargon, technical terms, technicality, lingo, slang, cant, argot;
     Gile's Greek, thieves' Latin, peddler's French, flash tongue,
Billingsgate, Wall Street slang.
     pseudonym &c (misnomer) 565; Mr.
     So-and-so; wha d'ye call 'em^, whatchacallim, what's his name;
thingummy^, thingumbob; je ne sais quoi [Fr.].
     neologist^, coiner of words.
V. coin words, coin a term; backform; Americanize, Anglicize.
Adj. neologic^, neological^; archaic; obsolete &c (old) 124; colloquial;

564. Nomenclature -- N. nomenclature; naming &c v.; nuncupation^,
nomination, baptism; orismology^; onomatopoeia; antonomasia^.
     name; appelation^, appelative^; designation, title; heading,
rubric; caption; denomination; by-name, epithet.
     style, proper name; praenomen [Lat.], agnomen^, cognomen;
patronymic, surname; cognomination^; eponym; compellation^, description,
antonym; empty title, empty name; handle to one's name; namesake.
     term, expression, noun; byword; convertible terms &c 522;
technical term; cant &c 563.
V. name, call, term, denominate designate, style, entitle, clepe^, dub,
christen, baptize, characterize, specify, define, distinguish by the
name of; label &c (mark) 550.
     be called &c v.; take the name of, bean the name of, go by the
name of, be known by the name of, go under the name of, pass under the
name of, rejoice in the name of.
Adj. named &c v.; hight^, ycleped, known as; what one may well, call
fairly, call properly, call fitly.
     nuncupatory^, nuncupative; cognominal^, titular, nominal,
Phr. beggar'd all description [Antony and Cleopatra].

565. Misnomer -- N. misnomer; lucus a non lucendo [Lat.]; Mrs.
     Malaprop; what d'ye call 'em &c (neologism) 563 [Obs.]; Hoosier.
     nickname, sobriquet, by-name; assumed name, assumed title; alias;
nom de course, nom de theatre, nom de guerre [Fr.], nom de plume;
pseudonym, pseudonymy.
V. misname, miscall, misterm^; nickname; assume a name.
Adj. misnamed &c v.; pseudonymous; soi-disant [Fr.]; self called, self
styled, self christened; so-called.
     nameless, anonymous; without a having no name; innominate,
unnamed; unacknowledged.
Adv. in no sense.

566. Phrase -- N. phrase, expression, set phrase; sentence, paragraph;
figure of speech &c 521; idiom, idiotism^; turn of expression; style.
     paraphrase &c (synonym) 522; periphrase &c (circumlocution) 573;
motto &c (proverb) 496 [Obs.].
     phraseology &c 569.
V. express, phrase; word, word it; give words to, give expression to;
voice; arrange in words, clothe in words, put into words, express by
words; couch in terms; find words to express; speak by the card; call,
denominate, designate, dub.
Adj. expressed &c v.; idiomatic.
Adv. in round terms, in set terms, in good set terms, set terms; in set

567. Grammar -- N. grammar, accidence, syntax, praxis, punctuation;
parts of speech; jussive^; syllabication; inflection, case, declension,
conjugation; us et norma loquendi [Lat.]; Lindley Murray &c
(schoolbook) 542; correct style, philology &c (language) 560.
V. parse, punctuate, syllabicate^.

568. Solecism -- N. solecism; bad grammar, false grammar, faulty
grammar; slip of the pen, slip of the tongue; lapsus linguae [Lat.];
slipslop^; bull; barbarism, impropriety.
V. use bad grammar, faulty grammar; solecize^, commit a solecism; murder
the King's English, murder the Queen's English, break Priscian's head.
Adj. ungrammatical; incorrect, inaccurate; faulty; improper,
incongruous; solecistic, solecistical^.

569. Style -- N. style, diction, phraseology, wording; manner, strain;
composition; mode of expression, choice of words; mode of speech,
literary power, ready pen, pen of a ready writer; command of language
&c (eloquence) 582; authorship; la morgue litteraire [Fr.].
V. express by words &c 566; write.
Phr. le style c'est de l'homme [Buffon]; style is the dress of thoughts
     Various Qualities of Style

570. Perspicuity -- N. perspicuity, perspicuousness &c
(intelligibility) 518; plain speaking &c (manifestation) 525;
definiteness, definition; exactness &c 494; explicitness, lucidness.
Adj. lucid &c (intelligible) 518; explicit &c (manifest) 525; exact &c

571. Obscurity -- N. obscurity &c (unintelligibility) 519; involution;
hard words; ambiguity &c 520; unintelligibleness; vagueness &c 475,
inexactness &c 495; what d'ye call 'em &c (neologism) 563 [Obs.];
darkness of meaning.
Adj. obscure &c n.; crabbed, involved, confused.

572. Conciseness -- N. conciseness &c adj.; brevity, the soul of wit,
laconism^; Tacitus; ellipsis; syncope; abridgment &c (shortening) 201;
compression &c 195; epitome &c 596; monostich^; brunch word, portmanteau
V. be concise &c adj.; condense &c 195; abridge &c 201; abstract &c
596; come to the point.
Adj. concise, brief, short, terse, close; to the point, exact; neat,
compact; compressed, condensed, pointed; laconic, curt, pithy,
trenchant, summary; pregnant; compendious &c (compendium) 596;
succinct; elliptical, epigrammatic, quaint, crisp; sententious.
Adv. concisely &c adj.; briefly, summarily; in brief, in short, in a
word, in a few words; for shortness sake; to come to the point, to make
a long story short, to cut the matter short, to be brief; it comes to
this, the long and the short of it is.
Phr. brevis esse laboro obscurus fio [Lat.] [Horace].

573. Diffuseness -- N. diffuseness &c adj.; amplification &c v.;
dilating &c v.; verbosity, verbiage, cloud of words, copia verborum
[Lat.]; flow of words &c (loquacity) 584; looseness.
     Polylogy^, tautology, battology^, perissology^; pleonasm,
exuberance, redundancy; thrice-told tale; prolixity; circumlocution,
ambages^; periphrase^, periphrasis; roundabout phrases; episode;
expletive; pennya-lining; richness &c 577.
V. be diffuse &c adj.; run out on, descant, expatiate, enlarge, dilate,
amplify, expand, inflate; launch out, branch out; rant.
     maunder, prose; harp upon &c (repeat) 104; dwell on, insist upon.
     digress, ramble, battre la campagne [Fr.], beat about the bush,
perorate, spin a long yarn, protract; spin out, swell out, draw out;
Adj. diffuse, profuse; wordy, verbose, largiloquent^, copious,
exuberant, pleonastic, lengthy; longsome^, long-winded, longspun^, long
drawn out; spun out, protracted, prolix, prosing, maundering;
circumlocutory, periphrastic, ambagious^, roundabout; digressive;
discursive, excursive; loose; rambling episodic; flatulent, frothy.
Adv. diffusely &c adj.; at large, in extenso [Lat.]; about it and about

574. Vigor -- N. vigor, power, force; boldness, raciness &c adj.;
intellectual, force; spirit, point, antithesis, piquance, piquancy;
verve, glow, fire, warmth; strong language; gravity, sententiousness;
elevation, loftiness, sublimity.
     eloquence; command of words, command of language.
Adj. vigorous, nervous, powerful, forcible, trenchant, incisive,
impressive; sensational.
     spirited, lively, glowing, sparkling, racy, bold, slashing;
pungent, piquant, full of point, pointed, pithy, antithetical;
     lofty, elevated, sublime; eloquent; vehement, petulant,
impassioned; poetic.
Adv. in glowing terms, in good set terms, in no measured terms.
Phr. thoughts that breath and words that burn [Gray].

575. Feebleness -- N. feebleness &c adj..
Adj. feeble, bald, tame, meager, jejune, vapid, bland, trashy,
lukewarm, cold, frigid, poor, dull, dry, languid; colorless, enervated;
proposing, prosy, prosaic; unvaried, monotonous, weak, washy, wishy-
washy; sketchy, slight.
     careless, slovenly, loose, lax (negligent) 460; slipshod,
slipslop^; inexact; puerile, childish; flatulent; rambling &c (diffuse)

576. Plainness -- N. plainness &c adj.; simplicity, severity; plain
terms, plain English; Saxon English; household words
V. call a spade 'a spade'; plunge in medias res; come to the point.
Adj. plain, simple; unornamented, unadorned, unvarnished; homely,
homespun; neat; severe, chaste, pure, Saxon; commonplace, matter-of-
fact, natural, prosaic.
     dry, unvaried, monotonous &c 575.
Adv. in plain terms, in plain words, in plain English, in plain common
parlance; point-blank.

577. Ornament -- N. ornament; floridness c^.
     adj.. turgidity, turgescence^; altiloquence &c adj.^; declamation,
teratology^; well-rounded periods; elegance &c 578; orotundity.
     inversion, antithesis, alliteration, paronomasia; figurativeness
&c (metaphor) 521.
     flourish; flowers of speech, flowers of rhetoric; frills of style,
euphuism^, euphemism.
     big-sounding words, high-sounding words; macrology^, sesquipedalia
verba [Lat.], Alexandrine; inflation, pretension; rant, bombast,
fustian, prose run mad; fine writing; sesquipedality^; Minerva press.
     phrasemonger; euphuist^, euphemist.
V. ornament, overlay with ornament, overcharge; smell of the lamp.
Adj. ornament &c v.; beautified &c 847; ornate, florid, rich, flowery;
euphuistic^, euphemistic; sonorous; high-sounding, big-sounding;
inflated, swelling, tumid; turgid, turgescent; pedantic, pompous,
stilted; orotund; high flown, high flowing; sententious, rhetorical,
declamatory; grandiose; grandiloquent, magniloquent, altiloquent^;
sesquipedal^, sesquipedalian; Johnsonian, mouthy; bombastic; fustian;
frothy, flashy, flaming.
     antithetical, alliterative; figurative &c 521; artificial &c
(inelegant) 579.
Adv. ore rutundo [Lat.].

578. Elegance -- N. elegance, purity, grace, ease; gracefulness,
readiness &c adj.; concinnity^, euphony, numerosity^; Atticism^,
classicalism^, classicism.
     well rounded periods, well turned periods, flowing periods; the
right word in the right place; antithesis &c 577.
     purist [Slang].
V. point an antithesis, round a period.
Adj. elegant, polished, classical, Attic, correct, Ciceronian,
artistic; chaste, pure, Saxon, academical^.
     graceful, easy, readable, fluent, flowing, tripping; unaffected,
natural, unlabored^; mellifluous; euphonious, euphemism, euphemistic;
numerose^, rhythmical.
     felicitous, happy, neat; well put, neatly put, well expressed,
neatly expressed

579. Inelegance -- N. inelegance; stiffness &c adj.; unlettered Muse
[Gray]; barbarism; slang &c 563; solecism &c 568; mannerism &c
(affectation) 855; euphuism^; fustian &c 577; cacophony; words that
break the teeth, words that dislocate the jaw; marinism^.
V. be inelegant &c adj..
Adj. inelegant, graceless, ungraceful; harsh, abrupt; dry, stiff,
cramped, formal, guinde [Fr.]; forced, labored; artificial, mannered,
ponderous; awkward, uncourtly^, unpolished; turgid &c 577; affected,
euphuistic^; barbarous, uncouth, grotesque, rude, crude, halting;
offensive to ears polite.
2. Spoken Language

580. Voice -- N. voice; vocality^; organ, lungs, bellows; good voice,
fine voice, powerful voice &c (loud) 404; musical voice &c 413;
intonation; tone of voice &c (sound) 402.
     vocalization; cry &c 411; strain, utterance, prolation^;
exclamation, ejaculation, vociferation, ecphonesis^; enunciation,
articulation; articulate sound, distinctness; clearness, of
articulation; stage whisper; delivery.
     accent, accentuation; emphasis, stress; broad accent, strong
accent, pure accent, native accent, foreign accent; pronunciation.
     [Word similarly pronounced] homonym.
     orthoepy^; cacoepy^; euphony &c (melody) 413.
     gastriloquism^, ventriloquism; ventriloquist; polyphonism^,
     [Science of voice] phonology &c (sound) 402.
V. utter, breathe; give utterance, give tongue; cry &c (shout) 411;
ejaculate, rap out; vocalize, prolate^, articulate, enunciate,
pronounce, accentuate, aspirate, deliver, mouth; whisper in the ear.
Adj. vocal, phonetic, oral; ejaculatory, articulate, distinct,
stertorous; euphonious &c (melodious) 413.
Phr. how sweetly sounds the voice of a good woman [Massinger]; the
organ of the soul [Longfellow]; thy voice is a celestial melody

581. Aphony -- N. aphony^, aphonia^; dumbness &c adj.; obmutescence^;
absence of voice, want of voice; dysphony^; cacoepy^; silence &c
(taciturnity) 585; raucity^; harsh voice &c 410, unmusical voice &c 414;
falsetto, childish treble mute; dummy.
V. keep silence &c 585; speak low, speak softly; whisper &c (faintness)
     silence; render mute, render silent; muzzle, muffle, suppress,
smother, gag, strike dumb, dumfounder; drown the voice, put to silence,
stop one's mouth, cut one short.
     stick in the throat.
Adj. aphonous^, dumb, mute; deafmute, deaf and dumb; mum; tongue-tied;
breathless, tongueless, voiceless, speechless, wordless; mute as a
fish, mute as a stockfish^, mute as a mackerel; silent &c (taciturn)
585; muzzled; inarticulate, inaudible.
     croaking, raucous, hoarse, husky, dry, hollow, sepulchral, hoarse
as a raven; rough.
Adv. with bated breath, with the finger on the lips; sotto voce [Lat.];
in a low tone, in a cracked voice, in a broken voice.
Phr. vox faucibus haesit [Lat.] [Vergil].

582. Speech -- N. speech, faculty of speech; locution, talk, parlance,
verbal intercourse, prolation^, oral communication, word of mouth,
parole, palaver, prattle; effusion.
     oration, recitation, delivery, say, speech, lecture, harangue,
sermon, tirade, formal speech, peroration; speechifying; soliloquy &c
589; allocution &c 586; conversation &c 588; salutatory : screed:
valedictory [U.S.].
     oratory; elocution, eloquence; rhetoric, declamation;
grandiloquence, multiloquence^; burst of eloquence; facundity^; flow of
words, command of words, command of language; copia verborum [Lat.];
power of speech, gift of the gab; usus loquendi [Lat.].
     speaker &c v.; spokesman; prolocutor, interlocutor; mouthpiece,
Hermes; orator, oratrix^, oratress^; Demosthenes, Cicero; rhetorician;
stump orator, platform orator; speechmaker, patterer^, improvisatore^.
V. speak of; say, utter, pronounce, deliver, give utterance to; utter
forth, pour forth; breathe, let fall, come out with; rap out, blurt out
have on one's lips; have at the end of one's tongue, have at the tip of
one's tongue.
     break silence; open one's lips, open one's mouth; lift one's
voice, raise one's voice; give the tongue, wag the tongue; talk,
outspeak^; put in a word or two, hold forth; make a speech, deliver a
speech &c n.; speechify, harangue, declaim, stump, flourish, recite,
lecture, sermonize, discourse, be on one's legs; have one's say, say
one's say; spout, rant, rave, vent one's fury, vent one's rage;
expatiate &c (speak at length) 573; speak one's mind, go on the stump,
take the stump [U.S.].
     soliloquize &c 589; tell &c (inform) 527; speak to &c 586; talk
together &c 588.
     be eloquent &c adj.; have a tongue in one's head, have the gift of
the gab &c n.. pass one's lips, escape one's lips; fall from the lips,
fall from the mouth.
Adj. speaking &c; spoken &c v.; oral, lingual, phonetic, not written,
unwritten, outspoken; eloquent, elocutionary; oratorical, rhetorical;
declamatory; grandiloquent &c 577; talkative &c 584; Ciceronian,
nuncupative, Tullian.
Adv. orally &c adj.; by word of mouth, viva voce, from the lips of.
Phr. quoth he, said he &c; action is eloquence [Coriolanus]; pour the
full tide of eloquence along [Pope]; she speaks poignards and every
word stabs [Much Ado About Nothing]; speech is but broken light upon
the depth of the unspoken [G.
     Eliot]; to try thy eloquence now 'tis time [Antony and Cleopatra].

583. [Imperfect Speech.] Stammering -- N. inarticulateness; stammering
&c v.; hesitation &c v.; impediment in one's speech; titubancy^,
traulism^; whisper &c (faint sound) 405; lisp, drawl, tardiloquence^;
nasal tone, nasal accent; twang; falsetto &c (want of voice) 581;
broken voice, broken accents, broken sentences.
     brogue &c 563; slip of the tongue, lapsus linouae [Lat.].
V. stammer, stutter, hesitate, falter, hammer; balbutiate^,
balbucinate^, haw, hum and haw, be unable to put two words together.
     mumble, mutter; maud^, mauder^; whisper &c 405; mince, lisp;
jabber, gibber; sputter, splutter; muffle, mump^; drawl, mouth; croak;
speak thick, speak through the nose; snuffle, clip one's words; murder
the language, murder the King's English, murder the Queen's English;
mispronounce, missay^.
Adj. stammering &c v.; inarticulate, guttural, nasal; tremulous;
Adv. sotto voce &c (faintly) 405 [Lat.].

584. Loquacity -- N. loquacity, loquaciousness; talkativeness &c adj.;
garrulity; multiloquence^, much speaking.
     jaw; gabble; jabber, chatter; prate, prattle, cackle, clack;
twaddle, twattle, rattle; caquet^, caquetterie [Fr.]; blabber,
bavardage^, bibble-babble^, gibble-gabble^; small talk &c (converse) 588.
     fluency, flippancy, volubility, flowing, tongue; flow of words;
flux de bouche [Fr.], flux de mots [Fr.]; copia verborum [Lat.],
cacoethes loquendi [Lat.]; furor loquendi [Lat.]; verbosity &c
(diffuseness) 573; gift of the gab &c (eloquence) 582.
     talker; chatterer, chatterbox; babbler &c v.; rattle; ranter;
sermonizer, proser^, driveler; blatherskite [U.S.]; gossip &c (converse)
588; magpie, jay, parrot, poll, Babel; moulin a paroles [Fr.].
V. be loquacious &c adj.; talk glibly, pour forth, patter; prate,
palaver, prose, chatter, prattle, clack, jabber, jaw; blather, blatter^,
blether^; rattle, rattle on; twaddle, twattle; babble, gabble; outtalk;
talk oneself out of breath, talk oneself hoarse; expatiate &c (speak at
length) 573; gossip &c (converse) 588; din in the ears &c (repeat) 104;
talk at random, talk nonsense &c 497; be hoarse with talking.
Adj. loquacious, talkative, garrulous, linguacious^, multiloquous^;
largiloquent^; chattering &c v.; chatty &c (sociable) 892; declamatory
&c 582; open-mouthed.
     fluent, voluble, glib, flippant; long tongued, long winded &c
(diffuse) 573.
Adv. trippingly on the tongue; glibly &c adj.; off the reel.
Phr. the tongue running fast, the tongue running loose, the tongue
running on wheels; all talk and no cider; foul whisperings are abroad
[Macbeth]; what a spendthrift is he of his tongue! [Tempest].

585. Taciturnity -- N. silence, muteness, obmutescence^; taciturnity,
pauciloquy^, costiveness^, curtness; reserve, reticence &c (concealment)
     man of few words.
V. be silent &c adj.; keep silence, keep mum; hold one's tongue, hold
one's peace, hold one's jaw; not speak.
     &c 582; say nothing, keep one's counsel; seal the lips, close the
lips, button the lips, zipper the lips, put a padlock on the lips, put
a padlock on the mouth; put a bridle on one's tongue; bite one's
tongue, keep one's tongue between one's teeth; make no sign, not let a
word escape one; keep a secret &c 528; not have a word to say; hush up,
hush, lay the finger on the lips, place the finger on the lips; render
mute &c 581.
     stick in one's throat.
Adj. silent, mute, mum; silent as a post, silent as a stone, silent as
the grave &c (still) 403; dumb &c 581; unconversable^.
     taciturn, sparing of words; closetongued; costive^, inconversable^,
curt; reserved; reticent &c (concealing) 528.
Int. shush!, tush!, silence!, mum!, hush!, chut!^, hist!, tut!, chup!^,
mum's the word; keep your mouth shut! [Vulg.].
Phr. cave quid dicis quando et cui [Lat.]; volto sciolto i pensieri
stretti [It].

586. Allocution -- N. allocution, alloquy^, address; speech &c 582;
apostrophe, interpellation, appeal, invocation, salutation; word in the
     [Feigned dialogue] dialogism^.
     platform &c 542; plank; audience &c (interview) 588.
V. speak to, address, accost, make up to, apostrophize, appeal to,
invoke; ball, salute; call to, halloo.
     take aside, take by the button; talk to in private.
     lecture &c (make a speech) 582.
Int. soho!^, halloo!, hey!, hist!,

587. Response -- N. &c see Answer 462.

588. Conversation -- N. conversation, interlocution; collocution^,
colloquy, converse, confabulation, talk, discourse, verbal intercourse;
oral communication, commerce; dialogue, duologue, trialogue.
     causerie, chat, chitchat; small talk, table talk, teatable talk^,
town talk, village talk, idle talk; tattle, gossip, tittle-tattle;
babble, babblement^; tripotage^, cackle, prittle-prattle^, cancan, on dit
[Fr.]; talk of the town, talk of the village.
     conference, parley, interview, audience, pourparler; tete-a-tete;
reception, conversazione [It]; congress &c (council) 696; powwow
     hall of audience, durbar^.
     palaver, debate, logomachy^, war of words.
     gossip, tattler; Paul Pry; tabby; chatterer &c (loquacity) 584;
interlocutor &c (spokesman) 582; conversationist^, dialogist^.
     the feast of reason and the flow of soul [Pope]; mollia tempora
fandi [Lat.].
V. talk together, converse, confabulate; hold on a conversation, carry
on a conversation, join in a conversation, engage in a conversation;
put in a word; shine in conversation; bandy words; parley; palaver;
chat, gossip, tattle; prate &c (loquacity) 584; powwow [U.S.].
     discourse with, confer with, commune with, commerce with; hold
converse, hold conference, hold intercourse; talk it over; be closeted
with; talk with one in private, tete-a-tete.
Adj. conversing &c v.; interlocutory; conversational, conversable^;
discursive, discoursive^; chatty &c (sociable) 892; colloquial.
Phr. with thee conversing I forget all time [Paradise Lost].

589. Soliloquy -- N. soliloquy, monologue, apostrophe; monology^.
V. Soliloquize; say to oneself, talk to oneself; say aside, think
aloud, apostrophize.
Adj. soliloquizing &c v..
Adv. aside.
3. Written Language

590. Writing -- N. writing &c v.; chirography, stelography^,
cerography^; penmanship, craftmanship^; quill driving; typewriting.
     writing, manuscript, MS., literae scriptae [Lat.]; these presents.
     stroke of the pen, dash of the pen; coupe de plume; line;
headline; pen and ink.
     letter &c 561; uncial writing, cuneiform character, arrowhead,
Ogham, Runes, hieroglyphic; contraction; Brahmi^, Devanagari, Nagari;
     shorthand; stenography, brachygraphy^, tachygraphy^; secret
writing, writing in cipher; cryptography, stenography; phonography^,
pasigraphy^, Polygraphy^, logography^.
     copy; transcript, rescript; rough copy, fair copy; handwriting;
signature, sign manual; autograph, monograph, holograph; hand, fist.
     calligraphy; good hand, running hand, flowing hand, cursive hand,
legible hand, bold hand.
     cacography^, griffonage^, barbouillage^; bad hand, cramped hand,
crabbed hand, illegible hand; scribble &c v.; pattes de mouche [Fr.];
ill-formed letters; pothooks and hangers.
     stationery; pen, quill, goose quill; pencil, style; paper,
foolscap, parchment, vellum, papyrus, tablet, slate, marble, pillar,
table; blackboard; ink bottle, ink horn, ink pot, ink stand, ink well;
     transcription &c (copy) 21; inscription &c (record) 551;
superscription &c (indication) 550; graphology.
     composition, authorship; cacoethes scribendi [Lat.]; graphoidea^,
graphomania^; phrenoia^.
     writer, scribe, amanuensis, scrivener, secretary, clerk, penman,
copyist, transcriber, quill driver; stenographer, typewriter, typist;
writer for the press &c (author) 593.
V. write, pen; copy, engross; write out, write out fair; transcribe;
scribble, scrawl, scrabble, scratch; interline; stain paper; write down
&c (record) 551; sign &c (attest) 467; enface^.
     compose, indite, draw up, draft, formulate; dictate; inscribe,
throw on paper, dash off; manifold.
     take up the pen, take pen in hand; shed ink, spill ink, dip one's
pen in ink.
Adj. writing &c v.; written &c v.; in writing, in black and white;
under one's hand.
     uncial, Runic, cuneiform, hieroglyphical^.
Adv. currente calamo [Sp.]; pen in hand.
Phr. audacter et sincere [Lat.]; le style est l'homme meme [Fr.];
nature's noblest gift - my gray goose quill [Byron]; scribendi recte
sapere et principium et fons [Lat.] [Horace]; that mighty instrument of
little men [Byron]; the pen became a clarion [Longfellow].

591. Printing -- N. printing; block printing, type-printing; plate
printing &c 558 (engraving); the press &c (publication) 531;
     print, letterpress, text; context, note, page, column.
     typography; stereotype, electrotype, aprotype^; type, black letter,
font, fount; pi, pie; capitals &c (letters) 561; brevier^, bourgeois,
pica boldface &c, capitals, caps., catchword; composing-frame,
composing room, composing rule, composing stand, composing stick;
italics, justification, linotype, live matter, logotype; lower case,
upper case; make-up, matrix, matter, monotype^; [point system], 4-1/2
point, 5 point, 5-1/2 point, 6 point, 7 point, 8 point, press room,
press work; reglet^, roman; running head, running title; scale, serif,
shank, sheet work, shoulder, signature, slug, underlay.
     folio &c (book) 593; copy, impression, pull, proof, revise;
author's proof, galley proof, press proof; press revise.
     printer, compositor, reader; printer's devil copyholder.
V. print; compose; put to press, go to press; pass through the press,
see through the press; publish &c 531; bring out; appear in print, rush
into print; distribute, makeup, mortise, offset, overrun, rout.
Adj. printed &c v.; in type; typographical &c n.; solid in galleys.

592. Correspondence -- N. correspondence, letter, epistle, note,
billet, post card, missive, circular, favor, billet-doux; chit, chitty^,
letter card, picture post card; postal [U.S.], card; despatch;
dispatch; bulletin, these presents; rescript, rescription^; post &c
(messenger) 534.
V. correspond with; write to, send a letter to; keep up a
Adj. epistolary.
Phr. furor scribendi [Lat.].

593. Book -- N. booklet; writing, work, volume, tome, opuscule^; tract,
tractate^; livret^; brochure, libretto, handbook, codex, manual,
pamphlet, enchiridion^, circular, publication; chap book.
     part, issue, number livraison [Fr.]; album, portfolio; periodical,
serial, magazine, ephemeris, annual, journal.
     paper, bill, sheet, broadsheet^; leaf, leaflet; fly leaf, page;
quire, ream.
     [subdivisions of a book] chapter, section, head, article,
paragraph, passage, clause; endpapers, frontispiece; cover, binding.
     folio, quarto, octavo; duodecimo^, sextodecimo^, octodecimo^.
     encyclopedia; encompilation^.
     [collection of books] library, bibliotheca^.
     press &c (publication) 531.
     [complete description] definitive work, treatise, comprehensive
treatise (dissertation) 595.
     [person who writes a book] writer, author, litterateur [Fr.],
essayist, journalism; pen, scribbler, the scribbling race; literary
hack, Grub-street writer; writer for the press, gentleman of the press,
representative of the press; adjective jerker^, diaskeaust^, ghost, hack
writer, ink slinger; publicist; reporter, penny a liner; editor,
subeditor^; playwright &c 599; poet &c 597.
     bookseller, publisher; bibliopole^, bibliopolist^; librarian;
bookstore, bookshop, bookseller's shop.
     knowledge of books, bibliography; book learning &c (knowledge)
Phr. among the giant fossils of my past [E.
     Browning]; craignez tout d'un auteur en courroux [Fr.]; for
authors nobler palms remain [Pope]; I lived to write and wrote to live
[Rogers]; look in thy heart and write [Sidney]; there is no Past so
long as Books shall live [Bulwer Lytton]; the public mind is the
creation of the Master-Writers [Disraeli]; volumes that I prize above
my dukedom [Tempest].

594. Description -- N. description, account, statement, report; expose
&c (disclosure) 529; specification, particulars; state of facts,
summary of facts; brief &c (abstract) 596; return &c (record) 551;
catalogue raisonne &c (list) 86 [Fr.]; guidebook &c (information) 527.
     delineation &c (representation) 554; sketch; monograph; minute
account, detailed particular account, circumstantial account, graphic
account; narration, recital, rehearsal, relation.
     historiography^, chronography^; historic Muse, Clio; history;
biography, autobiography; necrology, obituary.
     narrative, history; memoir, memorials; annals &c (chronicle) 551;
saga; tradition, legend, story, tale, historiette^; personal narrative,
journal, life, adventures, fortunes, experiences, confessions;
anecdote, ana^, trait.
     work of fiction, novel, romance, Minerva press; fairy tale,
nursery tale; fable, parable, apologue^; dime novel, penny dreadful,
shilling shocker relator &c v.; raconteur, historian &c (recorder) 553;
biographer, fabulist^, novelist.
V. describe; set forth &c (state) 535; draw a picture, picture; portray
&c (represent) 554; characterize, particularize; narrate, relate,
recite, recount, sum up, run over, recapitulate, rehearse, fight one's
battles over again.
     unfold a tale &c (disclose) 529; tell; give an account of, render
an account of; report, make a report, draw up a statement.
     detail; enter into particulars, enter into details, descend to
particulars, descend to details; itemize.
Adj. descriptive, graphic, narrative, epic, suggestive, well-drawn;
historic; traditional, traditionary; legendary; anecdotic^, storied;
described &c v..
Phr. furor scribendi [Lat.].

595. Dissertation -- N. dissertation, treatise, essay; thesis, theme;
monograph, tract, tractate^, tractation^; discourse, memoir,
disquisition, lecture, sermon, homily, pandect^; excursus.
     commentary, review, critique, criticism, article; leader, leading
article; editorial; running commentary.
     investigation &c (inquiry) 461; study &c (consideration) 451;
discussion &c (reasoning) 476; exposition &c (explanation) 522.
     commentator, critic, essayist, pamphleteer.
V. expound upon a subject, dissert upon a subject^, descant upon a
subject, write upon a subject, touch upon a subject; treat a subject,
treat a subject thoroughly, treat of a subject, take up a subject,
ventilate a subject, discuss a subject, deal with a subject, go into a
subject, go into a subject at length, canvass a subject, handle a
subject, do justice to a subject.
     hold forth [oral dissertation], discourse, delve into.
Adj. discursive, discoursive^; disquisitionary^; expository.

596. Compendium -- N. compend, compendium; abstract, precis, epitome,
multum in parvo [Lat.], analysis, pandect^, digest, sum and substance,
brief, abridgment, summary, apercu, draft, minute, note; excerpt;
synopsis, textbook, conspectus, outlines, syllabus, contents, heads,
     album; scrap book, note book, memorandum book, commonplace book;
extracts, excerpta^, cuttings; fugitive pieces, fugitive writing;
spicilegium^, flowers, anthology, collectanea^, analecta^; compilation.
     recapitulation, resume, review.
     abbreviation, abbreviature^; contraction; shortening &c 201;
compression &c 195.
V. abridge, abstract, epitomize, summarize; make an abstract, prepare
an abstract, draw an abstract, compile an abstract &c n.. recapitulate,
review, skim, run over, sum up.
     abbreviate &c (shorten) 201; condense &c (compress) 195; compile
&c (collect) 72.
Adj. compendious, synoptic, analectic^; abrege [Fr.], abridged &c v.;
Adv. in short, in epitome, in substance, in few words.
Phr. it lies in a nutshell.

597. Poetry -- N. poetry, poetics, poesy, Muse, Calliope, tuneful Nine,
Parnassus, Helicon^, Pierides, Pierian spring.
     versification, rhyming, making verses; prosody, orthometry^.
     poem; epic, epic poem; epopee^, epopoea, ode, epode^, idyl, lyric,
eclogue, pastoral, bucolic, dithyramb, anacreontic^, sonnet, roundelay,
rondeau [Fr.], rondo, madrigal, canzonet^, cento^, monody [Slang],
elegy; amoebaeum, ghazal^, palinode.
     dramatic poetry, lyric poetry; opera; posy, anthology; disjecta
membra poetae song [Lat.], ballad, lay; love song, drinking song, war
song, sea song; lullaby; music &c 415; nursery rhymes.
     [Bad poetry] doggerel, Hudibrastic verse^, prose run mad;
macaronics^; macaronic verse^, leonine verse; runes.
     canto, stanza, distich, verse, line, couplet, triplet, quatrain;
strophe, antistrophe^.
     verse, rhyme, assonance, crambo^, meter, measure, foot, numbers,
strain, rhythm; accentuation &c (voice) 580; dactyl, spondee, trochee,
anapest &c; hexameter, pentameter; Alexandrine; anacrusis^, antispast^,
blank verse, ictus.
     elegiacs &c adj.; elegiac verse, elegaic meter, elegaic poetry.
     poet, poet laureate; laureate; bard, lyrist^, scald, skald^,
troubadour, trouvere [Fr.]; minstrel; minnesinger, meistersinger [G.];
improvisatore^; versifier, sonneteer; rhymer, rhymist^, rhymester;
ballad monger, runer^; poetaster; genus irritabile vatum [Lat.].
V. poetize, sing, versify, make verses, rhyme, scan.
Adj. poetic, poetical; lyric, lyrical, tuneful, epic, dithyrambic &c
n.; metrical; a catalectin^; elegiac, iambic, trochaic, anapestic^;
amoebaeic, Melibean, skaldic^; Ionic, Sapphic, Alcaic^, Pindaric.
Phr. a poem round and perfect as a star [Alex.
     Smith]; Dichtung und Wahrheit [G.]; furor poeticus [Lat.]; his
virtues formed the magic of his song [Hayley]; I do but sing because I
must [Tennyson]; I learnt life from the poets [de Stael]; licentia
vatum [Lat.]; mutum est pictura poema [Lat.]; O for a muse of fire!
[Henry V]; sweet food of sweetly uttered knowledge [Sidney]; the true
poem is the poet's mind [Emerson]; Volk der Dichter und Denker [G.];
wisdom married to immortal verse [Wordsworth].

598. Prose -- N. prose, prose writer.
     prosaicism^, prosaism^, prosaist^, proser^.
V. prose.
     write prose, write in prose.
Adj. prosal^, prosy, prosaic; unpoetic, unpoetical^.
     rhymeless^, unrhymed, in prose, not in verse.

599. The Drama -- N. the drama, the stage, the theater, the play; film
the film, movies, motion pictures, cinema, cinematography; theatricals,
dramaturgy, histrionic art, buskin, sock, cothurnus^, Melpomene and
Thalia, Thespis.
     play, drama, stage play, piece [Fr.], five-act play, tragedy,
comedy, opera, vaudeville, comedietta^, lever de rideau [Fr.],
interlude, afterpiece^, exode^, farce, divertissement, extravaganza,
burletta^, harlequinade^, pantomime, burlesque, opera bouffe [Fr.],
ballet, spectacle, masque, drame comedie drame [Fr.]; melodrama,
melodrame^; comidie larmoyante [Fr.], sensation drama; tragicomedy,
farcical-comedy; monodrame monologue; duologue trilogy^; charade,
proverbs; mystery, miracle play; musical, musical comedy.
     [movies] western, horse opera; flick [Coll.]; spy film, love
story, adventure film, documentary, nature film; pornographic film,
smoker, skin flick, X-rated film.
     act, scene, tableau; induction, introduction; prologue, epilogue;
     performance, representation, mise en scene [Fr.], stagery^, jeu de
theatre [Fr.]; acting; gesture &c 550; impersonation &c 554; stage
business, gag, buffoonery.
     light comedy, genteel comedy, low comedy.
     theater; playhouse, opera house; house; music hall; amphitheater,
circus, hippodrome, theater in the round; puppet show, fantoccini^;
marionettes, Punch and Judy.
     auditory, auditorium, front of the house, stalls, boxes, pit,
gallery, parquet; greenroom, coulisses [Fr.].
     flat; drop, drop scene; wing, screen, side scene; transformation
scene, curtain, act drop; proscenium.
     stage, scene, scenery, the boards; trap, mezzanine floor; flies;
floats, footlights; offstage; orchestra.
     theatrical costume, theatrical properties.
     movie studio, back lot, on location.
     part, role, character, dramatis personae [Lat.]; repertoire.
     actor, thespian, player; method actor; stage player, strolling
player; stager, performer; mime, mimer^; artists; comedian, tragedian;
tragedienne, Roscius; star, movie star, star of stage and screen,
superstar, idol, sex symbol; supporting actor, supporting cast; ham,
hamfatter [Slang]; masker^.
     pantomimist, clown harlequin, buffo^, buffoon, farceur, grimacer,
pantaloon, columbine; punchinello^; pulcinello^, pulcinella^; extra, bit-
player, walk-on role, cameo appearance; mute, figurante^, general
utility; super, supernumerary.
     company; first tragedian, prima donna [Sp.], protagonist; jeune
premier [Fr.]; debutant, debutante [Fr.]; light comedian, genteel
comedian, low comedian; walking gentleman, amoroso^, heavy father,
ingenue [Fr.], jeune veuve [Fr.].
     mummer, guiser^, guisard^, gysart^, masque.
     mountebank, Jack Pudding; tumbler, posture master, acrobat;
contortionist; ballet dancer, ballet girl; chorus singer; coryphee
danseuse [Fr.].
     property man, costumier, machinist; prompter, call boy; manager;
director, stage manager, acting manager.
     producer, entrepreneur, impresario; backer, investor, angel
     dramatic author, dramatic writer; play writer, playwright;
dramatist, mimographer^.
V. act, play, perform; put on the stage; personate &c 554; mimic &c
(imitate) 19; enact; play a part, act a part, go through a part,
perform a part; rehearse, spout, gag, rant; strut and fret one's hour
upon a stage; tread the boards, tread the stage; come out; star it.
Adj. dramatic; theatric, theatrical; scenic, histrionic, comic, tragic,
buskined^, farcical, tragicomic, melodramatic, operatic; stagy.
Adv. on the stage, on the boards; on film; before the floats, before an
audience; behind the scenes.
Phr. fere totus mundus exercet histrionem [Lat.] [Petronius Arbiter];
suit the action to the word, the word to the action [Hamlet]; the
play's the thing [Hamlet]; to wake the soul by tender strokes of art



1. Acts of Volition

600. Will -- N. will, volition, conation^, velleity; liberum arbitrium
[Lat.]; will and pleasure, free will; freedom &c 748; discretion;
option &c (choice) 609; voluntariness^; spontaneity, spontaneousness;
     pleasure, wish, mind; desire; frame of mind &c (inclination) 602;
intention &c 620; predetermination &c 611; selfcontrol &c;
determination &c (resolution) 604; force of will.
V. will, list; see fit, think fit; determine &c (resolve) 604; enjoin;
settle &c (choose) 609; volunteer.
     have a will of one's own; do what one chooses &c (freedom) 748;
have it all.one's own way; have one's will, have one's own way.
     use one's discretion, exercise one's discretion; take upon
oneself, take one's own course, take the law into one's own hands; do
of one's own accord, do upon one's own authority; originate &c (cause)
Adj. voluntary, volitional, willful; free &c 748; optional;
discretional, discretionary; volitient^, volitive^.
     minded &c (willing) 602; prepense &c (predetermined) 611 [Obs.];
intended &c 620; autocratic; unbidden &c (bid) &c 741; spontaneous;
original &c (casual) 153; unconstrained.
Adv. voluntarily &c adj.; at will, at pleasure; a volonte [Fr.], a
discretion; al piacere [It]; ad libitum, ad arbitrium [Lat.]; as one
thinks proper, as it seems good to; a beneplacito [It].
     of one's won accord, of one's own free will; proprio motu [Lat.],
suo motu [Lat.], ex meromotu [Lat.]; out of one's won head; by choice
&c 609; purposely &c (intentionally) 620; deliberately &c 611.
Phr. stet pro ratione voluntas [Lat.]; sic volo sic jubeo [Lat.]; a
vostro beneplacito [It]; beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere
[Lat.]; Deus vult [Lat.]; was man nicht kann meiden muss man willig
leiden [G.].

601. Necessity -- N. involuntariness; instinct, blind impulse; inborn
proclivity, innate proclivity; native tendency, natural tendency;
natural impulse, predetermination.
     necessity, necessitation; obligation; compulsion &c 744;
subjection &c 749; stern necessity, hard necessity, dire necessity,
imperious necessity, inexorable necessity, iron necessity, adverse
necessity; fate; what must be.
     destiny, destination; fatality, fate, kismet, doom, foredoom,
election, predestination; preordination, foreordination; lot fortune;
fatalism; inevitableness &c adj.; spell &c 993.
     star, stars; planet, planets; astral influence; sky, Fates,
Parcae, Sisters three, book of fate; God's will, will of Heaven; wheel
of Fortune, Ides of March, Hobson's choice.
     last shift, last resort; dernier ressort [Fr.]; pis aller &c
(substitute) 147 [Fr.]; necessaries &c (requirement) 630.
     necessarian^, necessitarian^; fatalist; automaton.
V. lie under a necessity; befated^, be doomed, be destined &c, in for,
under the necessity of; have no choice, have no alternative; be one's
fate &c n.. to be pushed to the wall to be driven into a corner, to be
unable to help.
     destine, doom, foredoom, devote; predestine, preordain; cast a
spell &c 992; necessitate; compel &c 744.
Adj. necessary, needful &c (requisite) 630.
     fated; destined &c v.; elect; spellbound compulsory &c (compel)
744; uncontrollable, inevitable, unavoidable, irresistible,
irrevocable, inexorable; avoidless^, resistless.
     involuntary, instinctive, automatic, blind, mechanical;
unconscious, unwitting, unthinking; unintentional &c (undesigned) 621;
impulsive &c 612.
Adv. necessarily &c adv.; of necessity, of course; ex necessitate rei
[Lat.]; needs must; perforce &c 744; nolens volens [Lat.]; will he nil
he, willy nilly, bon gre mal gre [Fr.], willing or unwilling, coute que
coute [Fr.].
     faute de mieux [Fr.]; by stress of; if need be.
Phr. it cannot be helped; there is no help for, there is no helping it;
it will be, it must be, it needs to be, it must be so, it will have its
way; the die is cast; jacta est alea [Lat.]; che sara sara [Fr.]; it is
written; one's days are numbered, one's fate is sealed; Fata obstant
[Lat.]; diis aliter visum [Lat.]; actum me invito factus [Lat.], non
est meus actus [Lat.]; aujord'hui roi demain rien [Fr.]; quisque suos
patimur manes [Lat.] [Vergil]; The moving finger writes and having writ
moves on.
     Nor all thy piety nor wit shall draw it back to cancel half a
[Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam].

602. Willingness -- N. willingness, voluntariness &c adj.^; willing
mind, heart.
     disposition, inclination, leaning, animus; frame of mind, humor,
mood, vein; bent &c (turn of mind) 820; penchant &c (desire) 865;
aptitude &c 698.
     docility, docibleness^; persuasibleness^, persuasibility^;
pliability &c (softness) 324.
     geniality, cordiality; goodwill; alacrity, readiness, earnestness,
forwardness; eagerness &c (desire) 865.
     asset &c 488; compliance &c 762; pleasure &c (will) 600;
gratuitous service.
     labor of love; volunteer, volunteering.
V. be willing &c adj.; incline, lean to, mind, propend; had as lief;
lend a willing ear, give a willing ear, turn a willing ear; have a half
a mind to, have a great mind to; hold to, cling to; desire &c 865.
     see fit, think good, think proper; acquiesce &c (assent) 488;
comply with &c 762.
     swallow the bait, nibble at the bait; gorge the hook; have no
scruple of, make no scruple of; make no bones of; jump at, catch at;
meet halfway; volunteer.
Adj. willing, minded, fain, disposed, inclined, favorable; favorably-
minded, favorably inclined, favorably disposed; nothing loth; in the
vein, in the mood, in the humor, in the mind.
     ready, forward, earnest, eager; bent upon &c (desirous) 865;
predisposed, propense^.
     docile; persuadable, persuasible; suasible^, easily persuaded,
facile, easy-going; tractable &c (pliant) 324; genial, gracious,
cordial, cheering, hearty; content &c (assenting) 488.
     voluntary, gratuitous, spontaneous; unasked &c (ask) &c 765;
unforced &c (free) 748.
Adv. willingly &c adj.; fain, freely, as lief, heart and soul; with
pleasure, with all one's heart, with open arms; with good will, with
right will; de bonne volonte [Fr.], ex animo [Lat.]; con amore [It],
heart in hand, nothing loth, without reluctance, of one's own accord,
graciously, with a good grace.
     a la bonne heure [Fr.]; by all means, by all manner of means; to
one's heart's content; yes &c (assent) 488.

603. Unwillingness -- N. unwillingness &c adj.; indisposition,
indisposedness^; disinclination, aversation^; nolleity^, nolition^;
renitence^, renitency; reluctance; indifference &c 866; backwardness &c
adj.; slowness &c 275; want of alacrity, want of readiness; indocility
&c (obstinacy) 606 [Obs.].
     scrupulousness, scrupulosity; qualms of conscience, twinge of
conscience; delicacy, demur, scruple, qualm, shrinking, recoil;
hesitation &c (irresolution) 605; fastidiousness &c 868.
     averseness &c (dislike) 867 [Obs.]; dissent &c 489; refusal &c
V. be unwilling &c adj.; nill; dislike &c 867; grudge, begrudge; not be
able to find it in one's heart to, not have the stomach to.
     demur, stick at, scruple, stickle; hang fire, run rusty; recoil,
shrink, swerve; hesitate &c 605; avoid &c 623.
     oppose &c 708; dissent &c 489; refuse &c 764.
Adj. unwilling; not in the vein, loth, loath, shy of, disinclined,
indisposed, averse, reluctant, not content; adverse &c (opposed) 708;
laggard, backward, remiss, slack, slow to; indifferent &c 866;
scrupulous; squeamish &c (fastidious) 868; repugnant &c (dislike) 867;
restiff^, restive; demurring &c v.; unconsenting &c (refusing) 764;
involuntary &c 601.
Adv. unwillingly &c adj.; grudgingly, with a heavy heart; with a bad,
with an ill grace; against one's wishes, against one's will, against
the grain, sore against one's wishes, sore against one's will, sore
against one's grain; invita Minerva [Lat.]; a contre caeur [Fr.];
malgre soi [Fr.]; in spite of one's teeth, in spite of oneself; nolens
volens &c (necessity) 601 [Lat.]; perforce &c 744; under protest; no &c
536; not for the world, far be it from me.

604. Resolution -- N. determination, will; iron will, unconquerable
will; will of one's own, decision, resolution; backbone; clear grit,
true grit, grit [U.S.]; sand, strength of mind, strength of will;
resolve &c (intent) 620; firmness &c (stability) 150; energy,
manliness, vigor; game, pluck; resoluteness &c (courage) 861; zeal &c
682; aplomb; desperation; devotion, devotedness.
     mastery over self; self control, self command, self possession,
self reliance, self government, self restraint, self conquest, self
denial; moral courage, moral strength; perseverance &c 604.1; tenacity;
obstinacy &c 606; bulldog; British lion.
V. have determination &c n.; know one's own mind; be resolved &c adj.;
make up one's mind, will, resolve, determine; decide &c (judgment) 480;
form a determination, come to a determination, come to a resolution,
come to a resolve; conclude, fix, seal, determine once for all, bring
to a crisis, drive matters to an extremity; take a decisive step &c
(choice) 609; take upon oneself &c (undertake) 676.
     devote oneself to, give oneself up to; throw away the scabbard,
kick down the ladder, nail one's colors to the mast, set one's back
against the wall, set one's teeth, put one's foot down, take one's
stand; stand firm &c (stability) 150; steel oneself; stand no nonsense,
not listen to the voice of the charmer.
     buckle to; buckle oneself put one's shoulder to the wheel, lay
one's shoulder to the wheel, set one's shoulder to the wheel; put one's
heart into; run the gauntlet, make a dash at, take the bull by the
horns; rush in medias res, plunge in medias res; go in for; insist
upon, make a point of; set one's heart upon, set one's mind upon.
     stick at nothing, stop at nothing; make short work of &c
(activity) 682; not stick at trifles; go all lengths, go the limit
[Slang], go the whole hog; persist &c (persevere) 604.1; go through
fire and water, ride the tiger, ride in the whirlwind and direct the
Adj. resolved &c v.; determined; strong-willed, strong-minded; resolute
&c (brave) 861; self-possessed; decided, definitive, peremptory,
tranchant^; unhesitating, unflinching, unshrinking^; firm, iron, gritty
[U.S.], indomitable, game to the backbone; inexorable, relentless, not
to be shaken, not to be put down; tenax propositi [Lat.]; inflexible &c
(hard) 323; obstinate &c 606; steady &c (persevering) 604.1.
     earnest, serious; set upon, bent upon, intent upon.
     steel against, proof against; in utrumque paratus [Lat.].
Adv. resolutely &c adj.; in earnest, in good earnest; seriously, joking
apart, earnestly, heart and soul; on one's mettle; manfully, like a
man, with a high hand; with a strong hand &c (exertion) 686.
     at any rate, at any risk, at any hazard, at any price, at any
cost, at any sacrifice; at all hazards, at all risks, at all events; a'
bis ou a blanc [Fr.]; cost what it may; coute [Fr.]; a tort et a
travers^; once for all; neck or nothing; rain or shine.
Phr. spes sibi quisque [Lat.]; celui qui veut celui-la peut [Fr.]; chi
non s'arrischia non guadagna [Fr.]; frangas non flectes [Lat.]; manu
forti [Lat.]; tentanda via est [Lat.].

604a. Perseverance -- N. perseverance; continuance &c (inaction) 143;
permanence &c (absence of change) 141; firmness &c (stability) 150.
     constancy, steadiness; singleness of purpose, tenacity of purpose;
persistence, plodding, patience; sedulity &c (industry) 682; pertinacy^,
pertinacity, pertinaciousness; iteration &c 104; bottom, game, pluck,
stamina, backbone, grit; indefatigability, indefatigableness; bulldog
V. persevere, persist; hold on, hold out; die in the last ditch, be in
at the death; stick to, cling to, adhere to; stick to one's text, keep
on; keep to one's course, keep to one's ground, maintain one's course,
maintain one's ground; go all lengths, go through fire and water; bear
up, keep up, hold up; plod; stick to work &c (work) 686; continue &c
143; follow up; die in harness, die at one's post.
Adj. persevering, constant; steady, steadfast; undeviating, unwavering,
unfaltering, unswerving, unflinching, unsleeping^, unflagging,
undrooping^; steady as time; unrelenting, unintermitting^, unremitting;
plodding; industrious &c 682; strenuous &c 686; pertinacious;
persisting, persistent.
     solid, sturdy, staunch, stanch, true to oneself; unchangeable &c
150; unconquerable &c (strong) 159; indomitable, game to the last,
indefatigable, untiring, unwearied, never tiring.
Adv. through evil report and good report, through thick and thin,
through fire and water; per fas et nefas [Lat.]; without fail, sink or
swim, at any price, vogue la galere [Fr.].
Phr. never say die; give it the old college try; vestigia nulla
retrorsum [Lat.]; aut vincer aut mori [Lat.]; la garde meurt et ne se
rend pas [Fr.]; tout vient a temps pour qui sait attendre [Fr.].

605. Irresolution -- N. irresolution, infirmity of purpose, indecision;
indetermination, undetermination^; unsettlement; uncertainty &c 475;
demur, suspense; hesitating &c v., hesitation, hesitancy; vacillation;
changeableness &c 149; fluctuation; alternation &c (oscillation) 314;
caprice &c 608.
     fickleness, levity, legerete [Fr.]; pliancy &c (softness) 324;
weakness; timidity &c 860; cowardice &c 862; half measures.
     waverer, ass between two bundles of hay; shuttlecock, butterfly;
wimp; doughface [U.S.].
V. be irresolute &c adj.; hang in suspense, keep in suspense; leave "ad
referendum"; think twice about, pause; dawdle &c (inactivity) 683;
remain neuter; dillydally, hesitate, boggle, hover, dacker^, hum and
haw, demur, not know one's own mind; debate, balance; dally with,
coquet with; will and will not, chaser-balancer^; go halfway,
compromise, make a compromise; be thrown off one's balance, stagger
like a drunken man; be afraid &c 860; let 'I dare not' wait upon 'I
would' [Macbeth]; falter, waver vacillate &c 149; change &c 140;
retract &c 607; fluctuate; pendulate^; alternate &c (oscillate) 314;
keep off and on, play fast and loose; blow hot and cold &c (caprice)
     shuffle, palter, blink; trim.
Adj. irresolute, infirm of purpose, double-minded, half-hearted;
undecided, unresolved, undetermined; shilly-shally; fidgety, tremulous;
hesitating &c v.; off one's balance; at a loss &c (uncertain) 475.
     vacillating &c v.; unsteady &c (changeable) 149; unsteadfast^,
fickle, without ballast; capricious &c 608; volatile, frothy; light,
lightsome, light-minded; giddy; fast and loose.
     weak, feeble-minded, frail; timid, wimpish, wimpy &c 860; cowardly
&c 862; dough-faced [U.S.]; facile; pliant &c (soft) 324; unable to say
'no', easy-going revocable, reversible.
Adv. irresolutely &c adj.; irresolved^, irresolvedly^; in faltering
accents; off and on; from pillar to post; seesaw &c 314.
Int. how happy could I be with either! [Gay].

606. Obstinacy -- N. obstinateness &c adj.; obstinacy, tenacity;
cussedness [U.S.]; perseverance &c 604.1; immovability; old school;
inflexibility &c (hardness) 323; obduracy, obduration^; dogged
resolution; resolution &c 604; ruling passion; blind side.
     self-will, contumacy, perversity; pervicacy^, pervicacity^;
     bigotry, intolerance, dogmatism; opiniatry^, opiniativeness; fixed
idea &c (prejudgment) 481; fanaticism, zealotry, infatuation,
monomania; opinionatedness opinionativeness^.
     mule; opinionist^, opinionatist^, opiniator^, opinator^; stickler,
dogmatist; bigot; zealot, enthusiast, fanatic.
V. be obstinate &c adj.; stickle, take no denial, fly in the face of
facts; opinionate, be wedded to an opinion, hug a belief; have one's
own way &c (will) 600; persist &c (persevere) 604.1; have the last
word, insist on having the last word.
     die hard, fight against destiny, not yield an inch, stand out.
Adj. obstinate, tenacious, stubborn, obdurate, casehardened; inflexible
&c (hard) 323; balky; immovable, unshakable, not to be moved; inert &c
172; unchangeable &c 150; inexorable &c (determined) 604; mulish,
obstinate as a mule, pig-headed.
     dogged; sullen, sulky; unmoved, uninfluenced unaffected.
     willful, self-willed, perverse; resty^, restive, restiff^;
pervicacious^, wayward, refractory, unruly; heady, headstrong; entete
[Fr.]; contumacious; crossgrained^.
     arbitrary, dogmatic, positive, bigoted; prejudiced &c 481; creed-
bound; prepossessed, infatuated; stiff-backed, stiff necked, stiff
hearted; hard-mouthed, hidebound; unyielding; impervious,
impracticable, inpersuasible^; unpersuadable; intractable, untractable^;
incorrigible, deaf to advice, impervious to reason; crotchety &c 608.
Adv. obstinately &c adj..
Phr. non possumus [Lat.]; no surrender; ils n'ont rien appris ne rien
oublie [Fr.].

607. Tergiversation -- N. change of mind, change of intention, change
of purpose; afterthought.
     tergiversation, recantation; palinode, palinody^; renunciation;
abjuration^, abjurement; defection &c (relinquishment) 624; going over
&c v.; apostasy; retraction, retractation^; withdrawal; disavowal &c
(negation) 536; revocation, revokement^; reversal; repentance &c 950;
redintegratio amoris [Lat.].
     coquetry; vacillation &c 605; backsliding; volte-face [Fr.].
     turn coat, turn tippet^; rat, apostate, renegade; convert, pervert;
proselyte, deserter; backslider; blackleg, crawfish [U.S.], scab
[Slang], mugwump [U.S.], recidivist.
     time server, time pleaser^; timist^, Vicar of Bray, trimmer,
ambidexter^; weathercock &c (changeable) 149; Janus.
V. change one's mind, change one's intention, change one's purpose,
change one's note; abjure, renounce; withdraw from &c (relinquish) 624;
waver, vacillate; wheel round, turn round, veer round; turn a
pirouette; go over from one side to another, pass from one side to
another, change from one side to another, skip from one side to
another; go to the rightabout; box the compass, shift one's ground, go
upon another tack.
     apostatize, change sides, go over, rat; recant, retract; revoke;
rescind &c (abrogate) 756; recall; forswear, unsay; come over, come
round to an opinion; crawfish [U.S.], crawl [U.S.].
     draw in one's horns, eat one's words; eat the leek, swallow the
leek; swerve, flinch, back out of, retrace one's steps, think better of
it; come back return to one's first love; turn over a new leaf &c
(repent) 950.
     trim, shuffle, play fast and loose, blow hot and cold, coquet, be
on the fence, straddle, bold with the hare but run with the hounds;
nager entre deux eaux [Fr.]; wait to see how the cat jumps, wait to see
how the wind blows.
Adj. changeful &c 149; irresolute &c 605; ductile, slippery as an eel,
trimming, ambidextrous, timeserving^; coquetting &c v.. revocatory^,
Phr. a change came o'er the spirit of my dream [Byron].

608. Caprice -- N. caprice, fancy, humor; whim, whimsy, whimsey^,
whimwham^; crotchet, capriccio, quirk, freak, maggot, fad, vagary,
prank, fit, flimflam, escapade, boutade [Fr.], wild-goose chase;
capriciousness &c adj.; kink.
V. be capricious &c adj.; have a maggot in the brain; take it into
one's head, strain at a gnat and swallow a camel; blow hot and cold;
play fast and loose, play fantastic tricks; tourner casaque [Fr.].
Adj. capricious; erratic, eccentric, fitful, hysterical; full of whims
&c n.; maggoty; inconsistent, fanciful, fantastic, whimsical,
crotchety, kinky [U.S.], particular, humorsome^, freakish, skittish,
wanton, wayward; contrary; captious; arbitrary; unconformable &c 83;
penny wise and pound foolish; fickle &c (irresolute) 605; frivolous,
sleeveless, giddy, volatile.
Adv. by fits and starts, without rhyme or reason.
Phr. nil fuit unquain sic inipar sibi [Lat.]; the deuce is in him.

609. Choice -- N. choice, option; discretion &c (volition) 600;
preoption^; alternative; dilemma, embarras de choix [Fr.]; adoption,
cooptation^; novation^; decision &c (judgment) 480.
     election; political election (politics) 737.1.
     selection, excerption, gleaning, eclecticism; excerpta^, gleanings,
cuttings, scissors and paste; pick &c (best) 650.
     preference, prelation^, opinion poll, survey; predilection &c
(desire) 865.
V. offers one's choice, set before; hold out the alternative, present
the alternative, offer the alternative; put to the vote.
     use option, use discretion, exercise option, exercise discretion,
one's option; adopt, take up, embrace, espouse; choose, elect, opt for;
take one's choice, make one's choice; make choice of, fix upon.
     vote, poll, hold up one's hand; divide.
     settle; decide &c (adjudge) 480; list &c (will) 600; make up one's
mind &c (resolve) 604.
     select; pick and choose; pick out, single out; cull, glean,
winnow; sift the chaff from the wheat, separate the chaff from the
wheat, winnow the chaff from the wheat; pick up, pitch upon; pick one's
way; indulge one's fancy.
     set apart, mark out for; mark &c 550.
     prefer; have rather, have as lief; fancy &c (desire) 865; be
persuaded &c 615.
     take a decided step, take a decisive step; commit oneself to a
course; pass the Rubicon, cross the Rubicon; cast in one's lot with;
take for better or for worse.
Adj. optional; discretional &c (voluntary) 600.
     eclectic; choosing &c v.; preferential; chosen &c v.; choice &c
(good) 648.
Adv. optionally &c adj.; at pleasure &c (will) 600; either the one or
the other; or at the option of; whether or not; once and for all; for
one's money.
     by choice, by preference; in preference; rather, before.

609a. Absence of Choice -- N. no choice, Hobson's choice; first come
first served, random selection; necessity &c 601; not a pin to choose
&c (equality) 27; any, the first that comes; that or nothing.
     neutrality, indifference; indecision &c (irresolution) 605;
     coercion (compulsion) 744.
V. be neutral &c adj.; have no choice, have no election; waive, not
vote; abstain from voting, refrain from voting; leave undecided; make a
virtue of necessity [Two Gentlemen].
Adj. neutral, neuter; indifferent, uninterested; undecided &c
(irresolute) 605.
Adv. either &c (choice) 609.
Phr. who cares?, what difference does it make?; There's not a dime's
worth of difference between them [George Wallace].

610. Rejection -- N. rejection, repudiation, exclusion; refusal &c 764;
V. reject; set aside, lay aside; give up; decline &c (refuse) 764;
exclude, except; pluck, spin; cast.
     repudiate, scout, set at naught; fling to the winds, fling to the
dogs, fling overboard, fling away, cast to the winds, cast to the dogs,
cast overboard, cast away, throw to the winds, throw to the dogs, throw
overboard, throw away, toss to the winds, toss to the dogs, toss
overboard, toss away; send to the right about; disclaim &c (deny) 536;
discard &c (eject) 297, (have done with) 678.
Adj. rejected &c v.; reject, rejectaneous^, rejectious^; not chosen &c
609, to be thought of, out of the question
Adv. neither, neither the one nor the other; no &c 536.
Phr. non haec in faedera [Lat.].

611. Predetermination -- N. predestination, preordination,
premeditation, predeliberation^, predetermination; foregone conclusion,
fait accompli [Fr.]; parti pris [Fr.]; resolve, propendency^; intention
&c 620; project &c 626; fate, foredoom, necessity.
V. predestine, preordain, predetermine, premeditate, resolve, concert;
resolve beforehand, predesignate.
Adj. prepense^, premeditated &c v., predesignated, predesigned^;
advised, studied, designed, calculated; aforethought; intended &c 620;
     well-laid, well-devised, well-weighed; maturely considered;
Adv. advisedly &c adj.; with premeditation, deliberately, all things
considered, with eyes open, in cold blood; intentionally &c 620.

612. Impulse -- N. impulse, sudden thought; impromptu, improvisation;
inspiration, flash, spurt.
     improvisatore^; creature of impulse.
V. flash on the mind.
     say what comes uppermost; improvise, extemporize.
Adj. extemporaneous, impulsive, indeliberate^; snap; improvised,
improvisate^, improvisatory^; unpremeditated, unmeditated; improvise;
unprompted, unguided; natural, unguarded; spontaneous &c (voluntary)
600; instinctive &c 601.
Adv. extempore, extemporaneously; offhand, impromptu, a limproviste
[Fr.]; improviso^; on the spur of the moment, on the spur of the

613. Habit [includes commonness due to frequency of occurrence] -- N.
habit, habitude; assuetude^, assuefaction^, wont; run, way.
     common state of things, general state of things, natural state of
things, ordinary state of things, ordinary course of things, ordinary
run of things; matter of course; beaten path, beaten track, beaten
     prescription, custom, use, usage, immemorial usage, practice;
prevalence, observance; conventionalism, conventionality; mode,
fashion, vogue; etiquette &c (gentility) 852; order of the day, cry;
conformity &c 82; consuetude, dustoor^.
     one's old way, old school, veteris vestigia flammae [Lat.];
laudator temporis acti [Lat.].
     rule, standing order, precedent, routine; red-tape, red-tapism^;
pipe clay; rut, groove.
     cacoethes [Lat.]; bad habit, confirmed habit, inveterate habit,
intrinsic habit &c; addiction, trick.
     training &c (education) 537; seasoning, second nature,
acclimatization; knack &c
V. be wont &c adj.. fall into a rut, fall into a custom &c (conform to)
82; tread the beaten track, follow the beaten track, tread the beaten
path, follow the beaten; stare super antiquas vias [Lat.]; move in a
rut, run on in a groove, go round like a horse in a mill, go on in the
old jog trot way.
     habituate, inure, harden, season, caseharden; accustom,
familiarize; naturalize, acclimatize; keep one's hand in; train &c
(educate) 537.
     get into the way, get into the knack of; learn &c 539; cling to,
adhere to; repeat &c 104; acquire a habit, contract a habit, fall into
a habit, acquire a trick, contract a trick, fall into a trick; addict
oneself to, take to, get into.
     be habitual &c adj.; prevail; come into use, become a habit, take
root; gain upon one, grow upon one.
Adj. habitual; accustomary^; prescriptive, accustomed &c v.; of daily
occurrence, of everyday occurrence; consuetudinary^; wonted, usual,
general, ordinary, common, frequent, everyday, household, garden
variety, jog, trot; well-trodden, well-known; familiar, vernacular,
trite, commonplace, conventional, regular, set, stock, established,
stereotyped; prevailing, prevalent; current, received, acknowledged,
recognized, accredited; of course, admitted, understood.
     &c 82; according to use, according to custom, according to
routine; in vogue, in fashion, in, with it; fashionable &c (genteel)
     wont; used to, given to, addicted to, attuned to, habituated &c
v.; in the habit of; habitue; at home in &c (skillful) 698; seasoned;
imbued with; devoted to, wedded to.
     hackneyed, fixed, rooted, deep-rooted, ingrafted^, permanent,
inveterate, besetting; naturalized; ingrained &c (intrinsic) 5.
Adv. habitually &c adj.; always &c (uniformly) 16.
     as usual, as is one's wont, as things go, as the world goes, as
the sparks fly upwards; more suo, more solito [Lat.]; ex more.
     as a rule, for the most part; usually, generally, typically &c
adj.; most often, most frequently.
Phr. cela s'entend [Fr.]; abeunt studia in mores [Lat.]; adeo in
teneris consuescere multum est [Lat.]; consuetudo quasi altera natura
[Lat.] [Cicero]; hoc erat in more majorum [Lat.]; How use doth breed a
habit in a man! [Two Gentlemen]; magna est vis consuetudinis [Lat.];
morent fecerat usus [Lat.] [Ovid].

614. Desuetude -- N. desuetude, disusage^; obsolescence, disuse &c 678;
want of habit, want of practice; inusitation^; newness to; new brooms.
     infraction of usage &c (unconformity) 83; nonprevalence^; a custom
more honored in the breach than the observance [Hamlet].
V. be unaccustomed &c adj.; leave off a habit, cast off a habit, break
off a habit, wean oneself of a habit, violate a habit, break through a
habit, infringe a habit, leave off a custom, cast off a custom, break
off a custom, wean oneself of a custom, violate a custom, break through
a custom, infringe a custom, leave off a usage, cast off a usage, break
off a usage, wean oneself of a usage, violate a usage, break through a
usage, infringe a usage; disuse &c 678; wear off.
Adj. unaccustomed, unused, unwonted, unseasoned, uninured^,
unhabituated^, untrained; new; green &c (unskilled) 699; unhackneyed.
     unusual &c (unconformable) 83; nonobservant^; disused &c 678.

2. Causes of Volition

615. Motive -- N. motive, springs of action, wellsprings of action.
     reason, ground, call, principle; by end, by purpose; mainspring,
primum mobile [Lat.], keystone; the why and the wherefore; pro and con,
reason why; secret motive, arriere pensee [Fr.]; intention &c 620.
     inducement, consideration; attraction; loadstone; magnet,
magnetism, magnetic force; allectation^, allective^; temptation,
enticement, agacerie^, allurement, witchery; bewitchment, bewitchery;
charm; spell &c 993; fascination, blandishment, cajolery; seduction,
seducement; honeyed words, voice of the tempter, song of the Sirens
forbidden fruit, golden apple.
     persuasibility^, persuasibleness^; attractability^; impressibility,
susceptibility; softness; persuasiveness, attractiveness;
     influence, prompting, dictate, instance; impulse, impulsion;
incitement, incitation; press, instigation; provocation &c (excitation
of feeling) 824; inspiration; persuasion, suasion; encouragement,
advocacy; exhortation; advice &c 695; solicitation &c (request) 765;
lobbyism; pull [Slang].
     incentive, stimulus, spur, fillip, whip, goad, ankus^, rowel,
provocative, whet, dram.
     bribe, lure; decoy, decoy duck; bait, trail of a red herring;
bribery and corruption; sop, sop for Cerberus.
     prompter, tempter; seducer, seductor^; instigator, firebrand,
incendiary; Siren, Circe; agent provocateur; lobbyist.
V. induce, move; draw, draw on; bring in its train, give an impulse &c
n.; to; inspire; put up to, prompt, call up; attract, beckon.
     stimulate &c (excite) 824; spirit up, inspirit; rouse, arouse;
animate, incite, foment, provoke, instigate, set on, actuate; act upon,
work upon, operate upon; encourage; pat on the back, pat on the
shoulder, clap on the back, clap on the shoulder.
     influence, weigh with, bias, sway, incline, dispose, predispose,
turn the scale, inoculate; lead by the nose; have influence with, have
influence over, have influence upon, exercise influence with, exercise
influence over, exercise influence upon; go round, come round one; turn
the head, magnetize; lobby.
     persuade; prevail with, prevail upon; overcome, carry; bring round
to one's senses, bring to one's senses; draw over, win over, gain over,
come over, talk over; procure, enlist, engage; invite, court.
     tempt, seduce, overpersuade^, entice, allure, captivate, fascinate,
bewitch, carry away, charm, conciliate, wheedle, coax, lure; inveigle;
tantalize; cajole &c (deceive) 545.
     tamper with, bribe, suborn, grease the palm, bait with a silver
hook, gild the pill, make things pleasant, put a sop into the pan,
throw a sop to, bait the hook.
     enforce, force; impel &c (push) 276; propel &c 284; whip, lash,
goad, spur, prick, urge; egg on, hound, hurry on; drag &c 285; exhort;
advise &c 695; call upon &c; press &c (request) 765; advocate.
     set an example, set the fashion; keep in countenance.
     be persuaded &c; yield to temptation, come round; concede &c
(consent) 762; obey a call; follow advice, follow the bent, follow the
dictates of; act on principle.
Adj. impulsive, motive; suasive, suasory^, persuasive, persuasory^,
hortative, hortatory; protreptical^; inviting, tempting, &c v.; suasive,
suasory^; seductive, attractive; fascinating &c (pleasing) 829;
provocative &c (exciting) 824.
     induced &c v.; disposed; persuadable &c (docile) 602; spellbound;
instinct with, smitten with, infatuated; inspired &c v.; by.
Adv. because, therefore &c (cause) 155; from this motive, from that
motive; for this reason, for that reason; for; by reason of, for the
sake of, count of; out of, from, as, forasmuch as.
     for all the world; on principle.
Phr. fax mentis incendium gloriae [Lat.]; temptation hath a music for
all ears [Willis]; to beguile many and be beguiled by one [Othello].

615a. Absence of Motive -- N. absence of motive, aimlessness; caprice
&c 608; chance &c (absence of design) 621.
V. have no motive; scruple &c (be unwilling) 603.
Adj. without rhyme or reason; aimless, capricious, whimsical &c
(chance) 621.
Adv. out of mere caprice.

616. Dissuasion -- N. dissuasion, dehortation^, expostulation,
remonstrance; deprecation &c 766.
     discouragement, damper, wet blanket; disillusionment,
     cohibition &c (restraint) 751 [Obs.]; curb &c (means of restraint)
752; check &c (hindrance) 706.
     reluctance &c (unwillingness) 603; contraindication.
V. dissuade, dehort^, cry out against, remonstrate, expostulate, warn,
     disincline, indispose, shake, stagger; dispirit; discourage,
dishearten; deter; repress, hold back, keep back &c (restrain) 751;
render averse &c 603; repel; turn aside &c (deviation) 279; wean from;
act as a drag &c (hinder) 706; throw cold water on, damp, cool, chill,
blunt, calm, quiet, quench; deprecate &c 766.
     disenchant, disillusion, deflate, take down a peg, pop one's
balloon, prick one's balloon, burst one's bubble; disabuse (correction)
Adj. dissuading &c v.; dissuasive; dehortatory^, expostulatory^;
monitive^, monitory.
     dissuaded &c v.; admonitory; uninduced &c (induce) &c 615;
unpersuadable &c (obstinate) 606; averse &c (unwilling) 603; repugnant
&c (dislike) 867.

617. [Ostensible motive, ground, or reason assigned.] Pretext -- N.
pretext, pretense, pretension, plea^; allegation, advocation; ostensible
motive, ostensible ground, ostensible reason, phony reason; excuse &c
(vindication) 937; subterfuge; color; gloss, guise, cover.
     loop hole, starting hole; how to creep out of, salvo, come off;
way of escape.
     handle, peg to hang on, room locus standi [Lat.]; stalking-horse,
cheval de bataille [Fr.], cue.
     pretense &c (untruth) 546; put off, dust thrown in the eyes;
blind; moonshine; mere pretext, shallow pretext; lame excuse, lame
apology; tub to a whale; false plea, sour grapes; makeshift, shift,
white lie; special pleading &c (sophistry) 477; soft sawder &c
(flattery) 933 [Obs.].
V. pretend, plead, allege; shelter oneself under the plea of; excuse &c
(vindicate) 937; lend a color to; furnish a handle &c n.; make a
pretext of, make a handle of; use as a plea &c n.; take one's stand
upon, make capital out of, pretend &c (lie) 544.
Adj. ostensibly &c (manifest) 525; alleged, apologetic; pretended &c
Adv. ostensibly; under color; under the plea, under the pretense of,
under the guise of.

3. Objects of Volition

618. Good -- N. good, benefit, advantage; improvement &c 658; greatest
good, supreme good; interest, service, behoof, behalf; weal; main
chance, summum bonum [Lat.], common weal; consummation devoutly to be
wished; gain, boot; profit, harvest.
     boon &c (gift) 784; good turn; blessing; world of good; piece of
good luck [Fr.], piece of good fortune [Fr.]; nuts, prize, windfall,
godsend, waif, treasure-trove.
     good fortune &c (prosperity) 734; happiness &c 827.
     [Source of good] goodness &c 648; utility &c 644; remedy &c 662;
pleasure giving &c 829.
Adj. commendable &c 931; useful &c 644; good &c; beneficial &c 648.
Adv. well, aright, satisfactorily, favorably, not amis [Fr.]; all for
the best; to one's advantage &c n.; in one's favor, in one's interest
&c n..
Phr. so far so good; magnum bonum [Lat.].

619. Evil -- N. evil, ill, harm, hurt., mischief, nuisance;
machinations of the devil, Pandora's box, ills that flesh is heir to.
     blow, buffet, stroke, scratch, bruise, wound, gash, mutilation;
mortal blow, wound; immedicabile vulnus [Lat.]; damage, loss &c
(deterioration) 659.
     disadvantage, prejudice, drawback.
     disaster, accident, casualty; mishap &c (misfortune) 735; bad job,
devil to pay; calamity, bale, catastrophe, tragedy; ruin &c
(destruction) 162; adversity &c 735.
     mental suffering &c 828.
     demon &c 980.
     (Evil spirit) bane, &c 663 (cause of evil). badness, &c 649
(Production of Evil); painfulness, &c 830; evil doer, &c 913.
     outrage, wrong, injury, foul play; bad turn, ill turn; disservice,
spoliation &c 791; grievance, crying evil.
V. be in trouble &c (adversity) 735.
Adj. disastrous, bad &c 649; awry, out of joint; disadvantageous.
Adv. amis [Fr.], wrong, ill, to one's cost
Phr. moving accidents by flood and field [Othello].



620. Intention -- N. intent, intention, intentionality; purpose; quo
animo [Lat.]; project &c 626; undertaking &c 676; predetermination &c
611; design, ambition.
     contemplation, mind, animus, view, purview, proposal; study; look
     final cause; raison d'etre [Fr.]; cui bono [Lat.]; object, aim,
end; the be all and the end all; drift &c (meaning) 516; tendency &c
176; destination, mark, point, butt, goal, target, bull's-eye, quintain
[Mediev.]; prey, quarry, game.
     decision, determination, resolve; fixed set purpose, settled
purpose; ultimatum; resolution &c 604; wish &c 865; arriere pensee
[Fr.]; motive &c 615.
     [Study of final causes] teleology.
V. intend, purpose, design, mean; have to; propose to oneself; harbor a
design; have in view, have in contemplation, have in one's eye, have in
petto; have an eye to.
     bid for, labor for; be after, aspire after, endeavor after; be at,
aim at, drive at, point at, level at, aspire at; take aim; set before
oneself; study to.
     take upon oneself &c (undertake) 676; take into one's head;
meditate, contemplate of, think of, dream of, talk of; premeditate &c
611; compass, calculate; destine, destinate^; propose.
     project &c (plan) 626; have a mind to &c (be willing) 602; desire
&c 865; pursue &c 622.
Adj. intended &c v.; intentional, advised, express, determinate;
prepense &c 611 [Obs.]; bound for; intending &c v.; minded; bent upon
&c (earnest) 604; at stake; on the anvil, on the tapis^; in view, in
prospect, in the breast of; in petto; teleological
Adv. intentionally &c adj.; advisedly, wittingly, knowingly,
designedly, purposely, on purpose, by design, studiously, pointedly;
with intent &c n.; deliberately &c (with premeditation) 611; with one's
eyes open, in cold blood.
     for; with a view, with an eye to; in order to, in order that; to
the end that, with the intent that; for the purpose of, with the view
of, in contemplation of, on account of.
     in pursuance of, pursuant to; quo animo [Lat.]; to all intents and
Phr. The road to hell is paved with good intentions [Johnson]; sublimi
feriam sidera vertice [Lat.] [Horace].

621. [Absence of purpose in the succession of events] Chance -- N.
chance &c 156; lot, fate &c (necessity) 601; luck; good luck &c (good)
618; mascot.
     speculation, venture, stake, game of chance; mere shot, random
shot; blind bargain, leap in the dark; pig in a poke &c (uncertainty)
475; fluke, potluck; faro bank; flyer [Slang]; limit.
     uncertainty; uncertainty principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty
     drawing lots; sortilegy^, sortition^; sortes^, sortes Virgilianae^;
rouge et noir [Fr.], hazard, ante, chuck-a-luck, crack-loo [U.S.],
craps, faro, roulette, pitch and toss, chuck, farthing, cup tossing,
heads or tails cross and pile, poker-dice; wager; bet, betting;
gambling; the turf.
     gaming house, gambling house, betting house; bucket shop; gambling
joint; totalizator, totalizer; hell; betting ring; dice, dice box.
     [person who takes chances] gambler, gamester; man of the turf;
adventurer; dicer^.
V. chance &c (hap) 156; stand a chance &c (be possible) 470.
     toss up; cast lots, draw lots; leave to chance, trust to chance,
leave to the chapter of accidents, trust to the chapter of accidents;
tempt fortune; chance it, take one's chance, take a shot at it
(attempt) 675; run the risk, run the chance, incur the risk, incur the
chance, encounter the risk, encounter the chance; stand the hazard of
the die.
     speculate, try one's luck, set on a cast, raffle, put into a
lottery, buy a pig in a poke, shuffle the cards.
     risk, venture, hazard, stake; ante; lay, lay a wager; make a bet,
wager, bet, gamble, game, play for; play at chuck farthing.
Adj. fortuitous &c 156; unintentional, unintended; accidental; not
meant; undesigned, purposed; unpremeditated &c 612; unforeseen,
uncontemplated, never thought of.
     random, indiscriminate, promiscuous; undirected; aimless,
driftless^, designless^, purposeless, causeless; without purpose.
     possible &c 470.
     unforeseeable, unpredictable, chancy, risky, speculative, dicey.
Adv. randomly, by chance, fortuitously; unpredictably, unforeseeably;
casually &c 156; unintentionally &c adj.; unwittingly.
     en passant [Fr.], by the way, incidentally; as it may happen; at
random, at a venture, at haphazard.
Phr. acierta errando [Lat.]; dextro tempore [Lat.]; fearful
concatenation of circumstances [D.
     Webster]; fortuitous combination of circumstances [Dickens]; le
jeu est le fils d'avarice et le pere du desespoir [Fr.]; the happy
combination of fortuitous circumstances [Scott]; the fortuitous or
casual concourse of atoms [Bentley]; God does not play dice with the
universe [A.

622. [Purpose in action.] Pursuit -- N. pursuit; pursuing &c v.;
prosecution; pursuance; enterprise &c (undertaking) 676; business &c
625; adventure &c (essay) 675; quest &c (search) 461; scramble, hue and
cry, game; hobby; still-hunt.
     chase, hunt, battue^, race, steeple chase, hunting, coursing;
venation, venery; fox chase; sport, sporting; shooting, angling,
fishing, hawking; shikar (Geog loc:India).
     pursuer; hunter, huntsman; shikari (Geog loc:India), sportsman,
Nimrod; hound &c 366.
V. pursue, prosecute, follow; run after, make after, be after, hunt
after, prowl after; shadow; carry on &c (do) 680; engage in &c
(undertake) 676; set about &c (begin) 66; endeavor &c 675; court &c
(request) 765; seek &c (search) 461; aim at &c (intention) 620; follow
the trail &c (trace) 461; fish for &c (experiment) 463; press on &c
(haste) 684; run a race &c (velocity) 274.
     chase, give chase, course, dog, hunt, hound; tread on the heels,
follow on the heels of, &c (sequence) 281.
     rush upon; rush headlong &c (violence) 173, ride full tilt at, run
full tilt at; make a leap at, jump at, snatch at run down; start game.
     tread a path; take a course, hold a course; shape one's steps,
direct one's steps, bend one's steps, course; play a game; fight one's
way, elbow one's way; follow up; take to, take up; go in for; ride
one's hobby.
Adj. pursuing &c v.; in quest of &c (inquiry) 461; in pursuit, in full
cry, in hot pursuit; on the scent.
Adv. in pursuance of &c (intention) 620; after.
Int. tallyho!, yoicks!, soho!^,

623. [Absence of pursuit.] Avoidance -- N. abstention, abstinence; for
bearance^; refraining &c v.; inaction &c 681; neutrality.
     avoidance, evasion, elusion; seclusion &c 893.
     avolation^, flight; escape &c 671; retreat &c 287; recoil &c 277;
departure &c 293; rejection &c 610.
     shirker &c v.; truant; fugitive, refugee; runaway, runagate;
V. abstain, refrain, spare, not attempt; not do &c 681; maintain the
even tenor of one's way.
     eschew, keep from, let alone, have nothing to do with; keep aloof
keep off, stand aloof, stand off, hold aloof, hold off; take no part
in, have no hand in.
     avoid, shun; steer clear of, keep clear of; fight shy of; keep
one's distance, keep at a respectful distance; keep out of the way, get
out of the way; evade, elude, turn away from; set one's face against &c
(oppose) 708; deny oneself.
     shrink back; hang back, hold back, draw back; recoil &c 277;
retire &c (recede) 287; flinch, blink, blench, shy, shirk, dodge,
parry, make way for, give place to.
     beat a retreat; turn tail, turn one's back; take to one's heels;
runaway, run for one's life; cut and run; be off like a shot; fly,
flee; fly away, flee away, run away from; take flight, take to flight;
desert, elope; make off, scamper off, sneak off, shuffle off, sheer
off; break away, tear oneself away, slip away, slink away, steel away,
make away from, scamper away from, sneak away from, shuffle away from,
sheer away from; slip cable, part company, turn one's heel; sneak out
of, play truant, give one the go by, give leg bail, take French leave,
slope, decamp, flit, bolt, abscond, levant, skedaddle, absquatulat
[U.S.], cut one's stick, walk one's chalks, show a light pair of heels,
make oneself scarce; escape &c 671; go away &c (depart) 293; abandon &c
624; reject &c 610.
     lead one a dance, lead one a pretty dance; throw off the scent,
play at hide and seek.
Adj. unsought, unattempted; avoiding &c v.; neutral, shy of &c
(unwilling) 603; elusive, evasive; fugitive, runaway; shy, wild.
Adj. lest, in order to avoid.
Int. forbear!, keep off, hands off!, sauve qui peut! [Fr.], every man
for himself! [Fr.Tr.]; devil take the hindmost!,
Phr. things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme [Paradise Lost].

624. Relinquishment -- N. relinquishment, abandonment; desertion,
defection, secession, withdrawal; cave of Adullam^; nolle prosequi
     discontinuance &c (cessation) 142; renunciation &c (recantation)
607; abrogation &c 756; resignation &c (retirement) 757; desuetude &c
614; cession &c (of property) 782.
V. relinquish, give up, abandon, desert, forsake, leave in the lurch;
go back on; depart from, secede from, withdraw from; back out of;
leave, quit, take leave of, bid a long farewell; vacate &c (resign)
     renounce &c (abjure) 607; forego, have done with, drop; disuse &c
678; discard &c 782; wash one's hands of; drop all idea of.
     break off, leave off; desist; stop &c (cease) 142; hold one's
hand, stay one's hand; quit one's hold; give over, shut up shop.
     throw up the game, throw up the cards; give up the point, give up
the argument; pass to the order of the day, move to the previous
Adj. unpursued^; relinquished &c v.; relinquishing &c v..
Int. avast!, &c (stop) 142.
Phr. aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben [G.]; entbehre gern was du nicht
hast [G.].

625. Business -- N. business, occupation, employment; pursuit &c 622;
what one is doing, what one is about; affair, concern, matter, case.
     matter in hand, irons in the fire; thing to do, agendum, task,
work, job, chore [U.S.], errand, commission, mission, charge, care;
duty &c 926.
     part, role, cue; province, function, lookout, department,
capacity, sphere, orb, field, line; walk, walk of life; beat, round,
routine; race, career.
     office, place, post, chargeship^, incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c
     vocation, calling, profession, cloth, faculty; industry, art;
industrial arts; craft, mystery, handicraft; trade &c (commerce) 794.
     exercise; work &c (action) 680; avocation; press of business &c
(activity) 682.
V. pass one's time in, employ one's time in, spend one's time in;
employ oneself in, employ oneself upon; occupy oneself with, concern
oneself with; make it one's business &c n.; undertake &c 676; enter a
profession; betake oneself to, turn one's hand to; have to do with &c
(do) 680.
     office, place, post, chargeship^, incumbency, living; situation,
berth, employ; service &c (servitude) 749; engagement; undertaking &c
     drive a trade; carry on a trade, do a trade, transact a trade,
carry on business, do business, transact business &c n.; keep a shop;
ply one's task, ply one's trade; labor in one's vocation; pursue the
even tenor of one's way; attend to business, attend to one's work.
     officiate, serve, act; act one's part, play one's part; do duty;
serve the office of, discharge the office of, perform the office of,
perform the duties of, perform the functions of; hold an office, fill
an office, fill a place, fill a situation; hold a portfolio, hold a
place, hold a situation.
     be about, be doing, be engaged in, be employed in, be occupied
with, be at work on; have one's hands in, have in hand; have on one's
hands, have on one's shoulders; bear the burden; have one's hands full
&c (activity) 682.
     be in the hands of, be on the stocks, be on the anvil; pass
through one's hands.
Adj. businesslike; workaday; professional; official, functional; busy
&c (actively employed) 682; on hand, in hand, in one's hands; afoot; on
foot, on the anvil; going on; acting.
Adv. in the course of business, all in one's day's work; professionally
&c Adj..
Phr. a business with an income at its heels [Cowper]; amoto quaeramus
seria ludo [Lat.] [Horace]; par negotiis neque supra [Lat.] [Tacitus].

626. Plan -- N. plan, scheme, design, project; proposal, proposition,
suggestion; resolution, motion; precaution &c (provision) 673; deep-
laid plan &c (premeditated) 611; system &c (order) 58; organization &c
(arrangement) 60; germ &c (cause) 153.
     sketch, skeleton, outline, draught, draft, ebauche [Fr.],
brouillon [Fr.]; rough cast, rough draft, draught copy; copy; proof,
     drawing, scheme, schematic, graphic, chart, flow chart
(representation) 554.
     forecast, program, programme, prospectus; carte du pays [Fr.];
card; bill, protocol; order of the day, list of agenda; bill of fare &c
(food) 298; base of operations; platform, plank, slate [U.S.], ticket
     role; policy &c (line of conduct) 692.
     contrivance, invention, expedient, receipt, nostrum, artifice,
device; pipelaying [U.S.]; stratagem &c (cunning) 702; trick &c
(deception) 545; alternative, loophole; shift &c (substitute) 147; last
shift &c (necessity) 601.
     measure, step; stroke, stroke of policy; master stroke; trump
card, court card; cheval de bataille [Fr.], great gun; coup, coup
d'etat [Fr.]; clever stroke, bold stroke, good move, good hit, good
stroke; bright thought, bright idea.
     intrigue, cabal, plot, conspiracy, complot^, machination; subplot,
underplot^, counterplot.
     schemer, schemist^, schematist^; strategist, machinator; projector,
artist, promoter, designer &c v.; conspirator; intrigant &c (cunning)
702 [Obs.].
V. plan, scheme, design, frame, contrive, project, forecast, sketch;
devise, invent &c (imagine) 515; set one's wits to work &c 515; spring
a project; fall upon, hit upon; strike out, chalk out, cut out, lay
out, map out; lay down a plan; shape out a course, mark out a course;
predetermine &c 611; concert, preconcert, preestablish; prepare &c 673;
hatch, hatch a plot concoct; take steps, take measures.
     cast, recast, systematize, organize; arrange &c 60; digest,
     plot; counter-plot, counter-mine; dig a mine; lay a train;
intrigue &c (cunning) 702.
Adj. planned &c v.; strategic, strategical; planning &c v.; prepared,
in course of preparation &c 673; under consideration; on the tapis^, on
the carpet, on the floor.

627. Method [Path.] -- N. method, way, manner, wise, gait, form, mode,
fashion, tone, guise; modus operandi, MO; procedure &c (line of
conduct) 692.
     path, road, route, course; line of way, line of road; trajectory,
orbit, track, beat, tack.
     steps; stair, staircase; flight of stairs, ladder, stile; perron^.
     bridge, footbridge, viaduct, pontoon, steppingstone, plank,
gangway; drawbridge; pass, ford, ferry, tunnel; pipe &c 260.
     door; gateway &c (opening) 260; channel, passage, avenue, means of
access, approach, adit^; artery, lane, loan [Scot.], alley, aisle,
lobby, corridor; back-door, back-stairs; secret passage; covert way;
     roadway, pathway, stairway; express; thoroughfare; highway;
turnpike, freeway, royal road, coach road; broad highway, King's
highway, Queen's highway; beaten track, beaten path; horse road, bridle
road, bridle track, bridle path; walk, trottoir^, footpath, pavement,
flags, sidewalk; crossroad, byroad, bypath, byway; cut; short cut &c
(mid-course) 628; carrefour^; private road, occupation road; highways
and byways; railroad, railway, tram road, tramway; towpath; causeway;
canal &c (conduit) 350; street &c (abode) 189; speedway.
     adv.. how; in what way, in what manner; by what mode; so, in this
way, after this fashion.
     one way or another, anyhow; somehow or other &c (instrumentality)
631; by way of; via; in transitu &c 270 [Lat.]; on the high road to.
Phr. hae tibi erunt artes [Lat.].

628. Mid-course -- N. middle course, midcourse; mean &c 29; middle &c
68; juste milieu [Fr.], mezzo termine [It], golden mean, ariston metron
[Gr.], aurea mediocritas [Lat.].
     straight &c (direct) 278, straight course, straight path; short
cut, cross cut; great circle sailing.
     neutrality; half measure, half and half measures; compromise.
V. keep in a middle course, preserve a middle course, preserve an even
course, go straight &c (direct) 278.
     go halfway, compromise, make a compromise.
Adj. straight &c (direct) 278.
Phr. medium tenuere beati [Lat.].

629. Circuit -- N. circuit, roundabout way, digression, detour,
circumbendibus, ambages^, loop; winding &c (circuition) 311 [Obs.];
zigzag &c (deviation) 279.
V. perform a circuit; go round about, go out of one's way; make a
detour; meander &c (deviate) 279.
     lead a pretty dance; beat about the bush; make two bites of a
Adj. circuitous, indirect, roundabout; zigzag &c (deviating) 279;
Adv. by a side wind, by an indirect course; in a roundabout way; from
pillar to post.

630. Requirement -- N. requirement, need, wants, necessities;
necessaries, necessaries of life; stress, exigency, pinch, sine qua
non, matter of necessity; case of need, case of life or death.
     needfulness, essentiality, necessity, indispensability, urgency.
     requisition &c (request) 765, (exaction) 741; run upon; demand,
call for.
     charge, claim, command, injunction, mandate, order, precept.
     desideratum &c (desire) 865; want &c (deficiency) 640.
V. require, need, want, have occasion for; not be able to do without,
not be able to dispense with; prerequire^.
     render necessary, necessitate, create a, necessity for, call for,
put in requisition; make a requisition &c (ask for) 765, (demand) 741.
     stand in need of; lack &c 640; desiderate^; desire &c 865; be
necessary &c Adj.
Adj. required &c v.; requisite, needful, necessary, imperative,
essential, indispensable, prerequisite; called for; in demand, in
     urgent, exigent, pressing, instant, crying, absorbing.
     in want of; destitute of &c 640.
Adv. ex necessitate rei &c (necessarily) 601 [Lat.]; of necessity.
Phr. there is no time to lose; it cannot be spared, it cannot be
dispensed with; mendacem memorem esse oportet [Lat.] [Quintilian];
necessitas non habet legem [Lat.]; nec tecum possum trivere nec sine te
[Lat.] [Martial].

1. Actual Subservience

631. Instrumentality -- N. instrumentality; aid &c 707; subservience,
subserviency; mediation, intervention, medium, intermedium^, vehicle,
hand; agency &c 170.
     minister, handmaid; midwife, accoucheur [Fr.], accoucheuse [Fr.],
obstetrician; gobetween; cat's-paw; stepping-stone.
     opener &c 260; key; master key, passkey, latchkey; open sesame;
passport, passe-partout, safe-conduct, password.
     instrument &c 633; expedient &c (plan) 626; means &c 632.
V. subserve, minister, mediate, intervene; be instrumental &c adj.;
pander to; officiate; tend.
Adj. instrumental; useful &c 644; ministerial, subservient,
mediatorial^; intermediate, intervening; conducive.
Adv. through, by, per; whereby, thereby, hereby; by the agency of &c
170; by dint of; by virtue of, in virtue of; through the medium of &c
n.; along with; on the shoulders of; by means of &c 632; by the aid of,
with the aid of &c (assistance) 707.
     per fas et nefas [Lat.], by fair means or foul; somehow, somehow
or other; by hook or by crook.

632. Means -- N. means, resources, wherewithal, ways and means; capital
&c (money) 800; revenue; stock in trade &c 636; provision &c 637; a
shot in the locker; appliances &c (machinery) 633; means and
appliances; conveniences; cards to play; expedients &c (measures) 626;
two strings to one's bow; sheet anchor &c (safety) 666; aid &c 707;
medium &c 631.
V. find means, have means, possess means &c n..
Adj. instrumental &c 631; mechanical &c 633.
Adv. by means of, with; by what means, by all means, by any means, by
some means; wherewith, herewith, therewith; wherewithal.
     how &c (in what manner) 627; through &c (by the instrumentality
of) 631; with the aid of, by the aid of &c (assistance) 707; by the
agency of &c 170

633. Instrument -- N. machinery, mechanism, engineering.
     instrument, organ, tool, implement, utensil, machine, engine,
lathe, gin, mill; air engine, caloric engine, heat engine.
     gear; tackle, tackling, rig, rigging, apparatus, appliances;
plant, materiel; harness, trappings, fittings, accouterments; barde^;
equipment, equipmentage^; appointments, furniture, upholstery; chattels;
paraphernalia &c (belongings) 780.
     mechanical powers; lever, leverage; mechanical advantage; crow,
crowbar; handspike^, gavelock^, jemmy^, jimmy, arm, limb, wing; oar,
paddle; pulley; wheel and axle; wheelwork, clockwork; wheels within
wheels; pinion, crank, winch; cam; pedal; capstan &c (lift) 307; wheel
&c (rotation) 312; inclined plane; wedge; screw; spring, mainspring;
can hook, glut, heald^, heddle^, jenny, parbuckle^, sprag^, water wheel.
     handle, hilt, haft, shaft, heft, shank, blade, trigger, tiller,
helm, treadle, key; turnscrew, screwdriver; knocker.
     hammer &c (impulse) 276; edge tool &c (cut) 253; borer &c 262;
vice, teeth, &c (hold) 781; nail, rope &c (join) 45; peg &c (hang) 214;
support &c 215; spoon &c (vehicle) 272; arms &c 727; oar &c
(navigation) 267; cardiograph, recapper^, snowplow, tenpenny^,
Adj. instrumental &c 631; mechanical, machinal^; brachial [Med.].

634. Substitute -- N. substitute &c 147; deputy &c 759; badli^.

635. Materials -- N. material, raw material, stuff, stock, staple;
adobe, brown stone; chinking; clapboard; daubing; puncheon; shake;
shingle, bricks and mortar; metal; stone; clay, brick crockery &c 384;
compo, composition; concrete; reinforced concrete, cement; wood, ore,
     materials; supplies, munition, fuel, grist, household stuff
pabulum &c (food) 298; ammunition &c (arms) 727; contingents; relay,
reinforcement, reenforcement^; baggage &c (personal property) 780; means
&c 632; calico, cambric, cashmere.
Adj. raw &c (unprepared) 674; wooden &c n.; adobe.

636. Store -- N. stock, fund, mine, vein, lode, quarry; spring; fount,
fountain; well, wellspring; milch cow.
     stock in trade, supply; heap &c (collection) 72; treasure;
reserve, corps de reserve, reserved fund, nest egg, savings, bonne
bouche [Fr.].
     crop, harvest, mow, vintage.
     store, accumulation, hoard, rick, stack; lumber; relay &c
(provision) 637.
     storehouse, storeroom, storecloset^; depository, depot, cache,
repository, reservatory^, repertory; repertorium^; promptuary^,
warehouse, entrepot [Fr.], magazine; buttery, larder, spence^; garner,
granary; cannery, safe-deposit vault, stillroom^; thesaurus; bank &c
(treasury) 802; armory; arsenal; dock; gallery, museum, conservatory;
menagery^, menagerie.
     reservoir, cistern, aljibar^, tank, pond, mill pond; gasometer^.
     budget, quiver, bandolier, portfolio; coffer &c (receptacle) 191.
     conservation; storing &c v.; storage.
V. store; put by, lay by, set by; stow away; set apart, lay apart;
store treasure, hoard treasure, lay up, heap up, put up, garner up,
save up; bank; cache; accumulate, amass, hoard, fund, garner, save.
     reserve; keep back, hold back; husband, husband one's resources.
     deposit; stow, stack, load; harvest; heap, collect &c 72; lay in
store &c Adj.; keep, file (papers); lay in &c (provide) 637; preserve
&c 670.
Adj. stored &c v.; in store, in reserve, in ordinary; spare,
Phr. adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit [Lat.].

637. Provision -- N. provision, supply; grist, grist for the mill;
subvention &c (aid) 707; resources &c (means) 632; groceries, grocery.
     providing &c v.; purveyance; reinforcement, reenforcement^;
     provender &c (food) 298; ensilage; viaticum.
     caterer, purveyor, commissary, quartermaster, manciple^, feeder,
batman, victualer, grocer, comprador [Sp.], restaurateur; jackal,
pelican; sutler &c (merchant) 797 [Obs.].
     grocery shop, grocery store.
V. provide; make provision, make due provision for; lay in, lay in a
stock, lay in a store.
     supply, suppeditate^; furnish; find, find one in; arm.
     cater, victual, provision, purvey, forage; beat up for; stock,
stock with; make good, replenish; fill, fill up; recruit, feed.
     have in store, have in reserve; keep, keep by one, keep on foot,
keep on hand; have to fall back upon; store &c 636; provide against a
rainy day &c (economy) 817.

638. Waste -- N. consumption, expenditure, exhaustion; dispersion &c
73; ebb; leakage &c (exudation) 295; loss &c 776; wear and tear; waste;
prodigality &c 818; misuse &c 679; wasting &c v.; rubbish &c (useless)
     mountain in labor.
V. spend, expend, use, consume, swallow up, exhaust; impoverish; spill,
drain, empty; disperse &c 73.
     cast away, fool away, muddle away, throw away, fling away, fritter
away; burn the candle at both ends, waste; squander &c 818.
     waste its sweetness on the desert air [Gray]; cast one's bread
upon the waters, cast pearls before swine; employ a steam engine to
crack a nut, waste powder and shot, break a butterfly on a wheel; labor
in vain &c (useless) 645; cut blocks with a razor, pour water into a
     leak &c (run out) 295; run to waste; ebb; melt away, run dry, dry
Adj. wasted &c v.; at a low ebb.
     wasteful &c (prodigal) 818; penny wise and pound foolish.
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas [Lat.]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle
[Fr.]; idly busy rolls their world away [Goldsmith].

639. Sufficiency -- N. sufficiency, adequacy, enough, withal,
satisfaction, competence; no less; quantum sufficit [Lat.], Q.S.
     mediocrity &c (average) 29.
     fill; fullness &c (completeness) 52; plenitude, plenty; abundance;
copiousness &c adj.; amplitude, galore, lots, profusion; full measure;
good measure pressed down and running, over.
     luxuriance &c (fertility) 168; affluence &c (wealth) 803; fat of
the land; a land flowing with milk and honey; cornucopia; horn of
plenty, horn of Amalthaea; mine &c (stock) 636.
     outpouring; flood &c (great quantity) 31; tide &c (river) 348;
repletion &c (redundancy) 641; satiety &c 869.
V. be sufficient &c adj.; suffice, do, just do, satisfy, pass muster;
have enough &c n.; eat.
     one's fill, drink one's fill, have one's fill; roll in, swim in;
wallow in &c (superabundance) 641; wanton.
     abound, exuberate, teem, flow, stream, rain, shower down; pour,
pour in; swarm; bristle with; superabound.
     render sufficient &c adj.; replenish &c (fill) 52.
Adj. sufficient, enough, adequate, up to the mark, commensurate,
competent, satisfactory, valid, tangible.
     measured; moderate &c (temperate) 953.
     full, &c (complete) 52; ample; plenty, plentiful, plenteous;
plenty as blackberries; copious, abundant; abounding &c v.; replete,
enough and to spare, flush; choke-full, chock-full; well-stocked, well-
provided; liberal; unstinted, unstinting; stintless^; without stint;
unsparing, unmeasured; lavish &c 641; wholesale.
     rich; luxuriant &c (fertile) 168; affluent &c (wealthy) 803;
wantless^; big with &c (pregnant) 161.
     unexhausted^, unwasted^; exhaustless, inexhaustible.
Adv. sufficiently, amply &c Adj.; full; in abundance &c n.. with no
sparing hand; to one's heart's content, ad libitum, without stint.
Phr. cut and come again [Crabbe]; das Beste ist gut genug [G.].

640. Insufficiency -- N. insufficiency; inadequacy, inadequateness;
incompetence &c (impotence) 158; deficiency &c (incompleteness) 53;
imperfection &c 651; shortcoming &c 304; paucity; stint; scantiness &c
(smallness) 32; none to spare, bare subsistence.
     scarcity, dearth; want, need, lack, poverty, exigency; inanition,
starvation, famine, drought.
     dole, mite, pittance; short allowance, short commons; half
rations; banyan day.
     emptiness, poorness &c adj.; depletion, vacancy, flaccidity; ebb
tide; low water; a beggarly account of empty boxes [Romeo and Juliet];
indigence &c 804; insolvency &c (nonpayment) 808.
V. be insufficient &c adj.; not suffice &c 639; come short of &c 304;
run dry.
     want, lack, need, require; caret; be in want &c (poor) 804, live
from hand to mouth.
     render insufficient &c Adj.; drain of resources, impoverish &c
(waste) 638; stint &c (begrudge) 819; put on short allowance.
     do insufficiently &c adv.; scotch the snake.
Adj. insufficient, inadequate; too little &c 32; not enough &c 639;
unequal to; incompetent &c (impotent) 158; weighed in the balance and
found wanting; perfunctory &c (neglect) 460; deficient &c (incomplete)
53; wanting, &c v.; imperfect &c 651; ill-furnished, ill-provided, ill-
stored, ill-off.
     slack, at a low ebb; empty, vacant, bare; short of, out of,
destitute of, devoid of, bereft of &c 789; denuded of; dry, drained.
     unprovided, unsupplied^, unfurnished; unreplenished, unfed^;
unstored^, untreasured^; empty-handed.
     meager, poor, thin, scrimp, sparing, spare, stinted; starved,
starving; halfstarved, famine-stricken, famished; jejune.
     scant &c (small) 32; scarce; not to be had, not to be had for love
or money, not to be had at any price; scurvy; stingy &c 819; at the end
of one's tether; without resources &c 632; in want &c (poor) 804; in
debt &c 806.
Adv. insufficiently &c adj.; in default of, for want of; failing.
Phr. semper avarus eget [Lat.] [Horace].

641. Redundancy -- N. redundancy, redundance^; too much, too many;
superabundance, superfluity, superfluence^, saturation; nimiety^,
transcendency, exuberance, profuseness; profusion &c (plenty) 639;
repletion, enough in all conscience, satis superque [Lat.], lion's
share; more than enough &c 639; plethora, engorgement, congestion,
load, surfeit, sickener^; turgescence &c (expansion) 194 [Obs.];
overdose, overmeasure^, oversupply, overflow; inundation &c (water) 348;
     accumulation &c (store) 636; heap &c 72; drug, drug in the market;
glut; crowd; burden.
     excess; surplus, overplus^; epact^; margin; remainder &c 40;
duplicate; surplusage^, expletive; work of supererogation; bonus,
     luxury; intemperance &c 954; extravagance &c (prodigality) 818;
exorbitance, lavishment^.
     pleonasm &c (diffuseness) 573; too many irons in the fire;
embarras de richesses [Fr.].
V. superabound, overabound^; know no bounds, swarm; meet one at every
turn; creep with, crawl with, bristle with; overflow; run over, flow
over, well over, brim over; run riot; overrun, overstock, overlay,
overcharge, overdose, overfeed, overburden, overload, overdo,
overwhelm, overshoot the mark &c (go beyond) 303; surcharge,
supersaturate, gorge, glut, load, drench, whelm, inundate, deluge,
flood; drug, drug the market; hepatize^.
     choke, cloy, accloy^, suffocate; pile up, lay on thick; impregnate
with; lavish &c (squander) 818.
     send coals to Newcastle, carry coals to Newcastle, carry owls to
Athens^; teach one's grandmother to suck eggs; pisces natare docere
[Lat.]; kill the slain, gild refined gold, gild the lily, butter one's
bread on both sides, put butter upon bacon; employ a steam engine to
crack a nut &c (waste) 638.
     exaggerate &c 549; wallow in roll in &c (plenty) 639; remain on
one's hands, hang heavy on hand, go a begging.
Adj. redundant; too much, too many; exuberant, inordinate,
superabundant, excessive, overmuch, replete, profuse, lavish; prodigal
&c 818; exorbitant; overweening; extravagant; overcharged &c v.;
supersaturated, drenched, overflowing; running over, running to waste,
running down.
     crammed to overflowing, filled to overflowing; gorged, ready to
burst; dropsical, turgid, plethoric; obese &c 194.
     superfluous, unnecessary, needless, supervacaneous^, uncalled for,
to spare, in excess; over and above &c (remainder) 40; de trop [Fr.];
adscititious &c (additional) 37; supernumerary &c (reserve) 636; on
one's hands, spare, duplicate, supererogatory, expletive; un peu fort
Adv. over, too, over and above; overmuch, too much; too far; without
measure, beyond measure, out of measure; with a to spare; over head and
ears; up to one's eyes, up to one's ears; extra; beyond the mark &c
(transcursion) 303; acervatim [Lat.].
Phr. it never rains but it pours; fortuna multis dat nimium nulli satis
2. Degree of Subservience

642. Importance -- N. importance, consequence, moment, prominence,
consideration, mark, materialness.
     import, significance, concern; emphasis, interest.
     greatness &c 31; superiority &c 33; notability &c (repute) 873;
weight &c (influence) 175; value &c (goodness) 648; usefulness &c 644.
     gravity, seriousness, solemnity; no joke, no laughing matter;
pressure, urgency, stress; matter of life and death.
     memorabilia, notabilia^, great doings; red-letter day.
     great thing, great point; main chance, the be all and the end all
[Macbeth]; cardinal point; substance, gist &c (essence) 5; sum and
substance, gravamen, head and front; important part, principal part,
prominent part, essential part; half the battle; sine qua non; breath
of one's nostrils &c (life) 359; cream, salt, core, kernel, heart,
nucleus; keynote, keystone; corner stone; trump card &c (device) 626;
salient points.
     top sawyer, first fiddle, prima donna [Sp.], chief; triton among
the minnows; 'it' [U.S.].
V. be important &c adj., be somebody, be something; import, signify,
matter, boot, be an object; carry weight &c (influence) 175; make a
figure &c (repute) 873; be in the ascendant, come to the front, lead
the way, take the lead, play first fiddle, throw all else into the
shade; lie at the root of; deserve notice, merit notice, be worthy of
notice, be worthy of regard, be worthy of consideration.
     attach importance to, ascribe importance to, give importance to &c
n.; value, care for, set store upon, set store by; mark &c 550; mark
with a white stone, underline; write in italics, put in italics, print
in italics, print in capitals, print in large letters, put in large
type, put in letters.
     of gold; accentuate, emphasize, lay stress on.
     make a fuss about, make a fuss over, make a stir about, make a
piece of work about [Fr.], make much ado about; make much ado of, make
much of.
Adj. important; of importance &c n.; momentous, material; to the point;
not to be overlooked, not to be despised, not to be sneezed at;
egregious; weighty &c (influential) 175; of note &c (repute) 873;
notable, prominent, salient, signal; memorable, remarkable;
unforgettable; worthy of remark, worthy of notice; never to be
forgotten; stirring, eventful.
     grave, serious, earnest, noble, grand, solemn, impressive,
commanding, imposing.
     urgent, pressing, critical, instant.
     paramount, essential, vital, all-absorbing, radical, cardinal,
chief, main, prime, primary, principal, leading, capital, foremost,
overruling; of vital importance &c in the front rank, first-rate;
superior &c 33; considerable &c (great) 31; marked &c v.; rare &c 137.
     significant, telling, trenchant, emphatic, pregnant; tanti [Lat.].
Adv. materially &c adj.; in the main; above all, kat' exochin [Gr.],
par excellence, to crown all, to beat all.
Phr. expende Hannibalem! [Lat.] [Juvenal].

643. Unimportance -- N. unimportance, insignificance, nothingness,
     triviality, levity, frivolity; paltriness &c adj.; poverty;
smallness &c 32; vanity &c (uselessness) 645; matter of indifference &c
866; no object.
     nothing, nothing to signify, nothing worth speaking of, nothing
particular, nothing to boast of, nothing to speak of; small matter, no
great matter, trifling matter &c adj.; mere joke, mere nothing; hardly
anything; scarcely anything; nonentity, small beer, cipher; no great
shakes, peu de chose [Fr.]; child's play, kinderspiel.
     toy, plaything, popgun, paper pellet, gimcrack, gewgaw, bauble,
trinket, bagatelle, Rickshaw, knickknack, whim-wham, trifle, trifles
light as air; yankee notions [U.S.].
     trumpery, trash, rubbish, stuff, fatras^, frippery; leather or
prunello; chaff, drug, froth bubble smoke, cobweb; weed; refuse &c
(inutility) 645; scum &c (dirt) 653.
     joke, jest, snap of the fingers; fudge &c (unmeaning) 517;
fiddlestick^, fiddlestick end^; pack of nonsense, mere farce.
     straw, pin, fig, button, rush; bulrush, feather, halfpenny,
farthing, brass farthing, doit^, peppercorn, jot, rap, pinch of snuff,
old son; cent, mill, picayune, pistareen^, red cent [U.S.].
     minutiae, details, minor details, small fry; dust in the balance,
feather in the scale, drop in the ocean, flea-bite, molehill.
     nine days' wonder, ridiculus mus [Lat.]; flash in the pan &c
(impotence) 158; much ado about nothing &c (overestimation) 482.
V. be unimportant &c adj.; not matter &c 642; go for nothing, matter
nothing, signify nothing, matter little, matter little or nothing; not
matter a straw &c n.. make light of &c (underestimate) 483; catch at
straws &c (overestimate) 482.
Adj. unimportant; of little account, of small account, of no account,
of little importance, of no importance &c 642; immaterial; unessential,
nonessential; indifferent.
     subordinate &c (inferior) 34; mediocre &c (average) 29; passable,
fair, respectable, tolerable, commonplace; uneventful, mere, common;
ordinary &c (habitual) 613; inconsiderable, so-so, insignificant,
     trifling, trivial; slight, slender, light, flimsy, frothy, idle;
puerile &c (foolish) 499; airy, shallow; weak &c 160; powerless &c 158;
frivolous, petty, niggling; piddling, peddling; fribble^, inane,
ridiculous, farcical; finical, finikin^; fiddle-faddle, fingle-fangle^,
namby-pamby, wishy-washy, milk and water.
     poor, paltry, pitiful; contemptible &c (contempt) 930; sorry,
mean, meager, shabby, miserable, wretched, vile, scrubby, scrannel^,
weedy, niggardly, scurvy, putid^, beggarly, worthless,
twopennyhalfpenny, cheap, trashy, catchpenny, gimcrack, trumpery; one-
horse [U.S.].
     not worth the pains, not worth while, not worth mentioning, not
worth speaking of, not worth a thought, not worth a curse, not worth a
straw &c n.; beneath notice, unworthy of notice, beneath regard,
unworthy of regard, beneath consideration, unworthy of consideration;
de lana caprina [It]; vain &c (useless) 645.
Adv. slightly &c adj.; rather, somewhat, pretty well, tolerably.
     for aught one cares.
Int. no matter!, pish!, tush!, tut!, pshaw!^, pugh!, pooh, pooh-pooh!,
fudge!, bosh!, humbug!, fiddlestick^, fiddlestick end!^, fiddlededee!,
never mind!, n'importe! [Fr.], what signifies it, what boots it, what
of it, what of that, what matter, what's the odds, a fig for', stuff!,
nonsense!, stuff and nonsense,
Phr. magno conatu magnas nugas [Lat.]; le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle
[Fr.]; it matters not, it does not signify; it is of no consequence, it
is of no importance; elephantus non capit murem [Lat.]; tempete dans un
verre d'eau [Fr.].

644. Utility -- N. utility; usefulness &c adj.; efficacy, efficiency,
adequacy; service, use, stead, avail; help &c (aid) 707; applicability
&c adj.; subservience &c (instrumentality) 631; function &c (business)
625; value; worth &c (goodness) 648; money's worth; productiveness &c
168; cui bono &c (intention) 620 [Lat.]; utilization &c (use) 677; step
in the right direction.
     common weal; commonwealth public good, public interest;
utilitarianism &c (philanthropy) 910.
V. be useful &c adj.; avail, serve; subserve &c (be instrumental to)
631; conduce &c (tend) 176; answer, serve one's turn, answer a purpose,
serve a purpose.
     act a part &c (action) 680; perform a function, discharge a
function &c; render a service, render good service, render yeoman's
service; bestead^, stand one in good stead be the making of; help &c
     bear fruit &c (produce) 161; bring grist to the mill; profit,
remunerate; benefit &c (do good) 648.
     find one's account in, find one's advantage in; reap the benefit
of &c (be better for) 658.
     render useful &c (use) 677.
Adj. useful; of use &c n.; serviceable, proficuous^, good for;
subservient &c (instrumental) 631; conducive &c (tending) 176;
subsidiary &c (helping) 707.
     advantageous &c (beneficial) 648; profitable, gainful,
remunerative, worth one's salt; valuable; prolific &c (productive) 168.
     adequate; efficient, efficacious; effective, effectual; expedient
&c 646.
     applicable, available, ready, handy, at hand, tangible;
commodious, adaptable; of all work.
Adv. usefully &c adj.; pro bono publico [Lat.].

645. Inutility -- N. inutility; uselessness &c adj.; inefficacy^,
futility; ineptitude, inaptitude; unsubservience^; inadequacy &c
(insufficiency) 640; inefficiency, &c (incompetence) 158;
unskillfulness &c 699; disservice; unfruitfulness &c
(unproductiveness).. 169; labor in vain, labor lost, labor of Sisyphus;
lost trouble, lost labor; work of Penelope; sleeveless errand, wild
goose chase, mere farce.
     tautology &c (repetition) 104; supererogation &c (redundancy) 641.
     vanitas vanitatum [Lat.], vanity, inanity, worthlessness,
nugacity^; triviality &c (unimportance) 643.
     caput mortuum [Lat.], waste paper, dead letter; blunt tool.
     litter, rubbish, junk, lumber, odds and ends, cast-off clothes;
button top; shoddy; rags, orts^, trash, refuse, sweepings, scourings,
offscourings^, waste, rubble, debris, detritus; stubble, leavings;
broken meat; dregs &c (dirt) 653; weeds, tares; rubbish heap, dust
hole; rudera^, deads^.
     fruges consumere natus [Lat.] [Horace].
     &c (drone) 683
V. be useless &c adj.; go a begging &c (redundant) 641; fail &c 732.
     seek after impossibilities, strive after impossibilities; use vain
efforts, labor in vain, roll the stone of Sisyphus, beat the air, lash
the waves, battre l'eau avec un baton [Fr.], donner un coup d'epee dans
l'eau [Fr.], fish in the air, milk the ram, drop a bucket into an empty
well, sow the sand; bay the moon; preach to the winds, speak to the
winds; whistle jigs to a milestone; kick against the pricks, se battre
contre des moulins [Fr.]; lock the stable door when the steed is
stolen, lock the barn door after the horse is stolen &c (too late) 135;
hold a farthing candle to the sun; cast pearls before swine &c (waste)
638; carry coals to Newcastle &c (redundancy) 641; wash a blackamoor
white &c (impossible) 471.
     render useless &c adj.; dismantle, dismast, dismount, disqualify,
disable; unrig; cripple, lame &c (injure) 659; spike guns, clip the
wings; put out of gear.
Adj. useless, inutile, inefficacious, futile, unavailing, bootless;
inoperative &c 158; inadequate &c (insufficient) 640; inservient^,
unsubservient; inept, inefficient &c (impotent) 158; of no avail &c
(use) 644; ineffectual &c (failure) 732; incompetent &c (unskillful)
699; stale, flat and unprofitable; superfluous &c (redundant) 641;
dispensable; thrown away &c (wasted) 638; abortive &c (immature) 674.
     worthless, valueless, priceless; unsalable; not worth a straw &c
(trifling) 643, dear at any price.
     vain, empty, inane; gainless^, profitless, fruitless;
unserviceable, unprofitable; ill-spent; unproductive &c 169; hors de
combat [Fr.]; effete, past work &c (impaired) 659; obsolete &c (old)
124; fit for the dust hole; good for nothing; of no earthly use; not
worth having, not worth powder and shot; leading to no end, uncalled
for; unnecessary, unneeded.
Adv. uselessly &c adj.; to little purpose, to no purpose, to little or
no purpose.
Int. cui bono? [Lat.]; what's the good!,
Phr. actum ne agas [Lat.]; chercher une aiguille dans une botte de foin
[Fr.]; tanto buon che val niente [It].

646. [Specific subservience.] Expedience -- N. expedience, expediency;
desirableness, desirability &c adj.; fitness &c (agreement) 23; utility
&c 644; propriety; opportunism; advantage.
     high time &c (occasion) 134.
V. be expedient &c adj.; suit &c (agree) 23; befit; suit the time,
befit the time, suit the season, befit the season, suit the occasion,
befit the occasion.
     conform &c 82.
Adj. expedient; desirable, advisable, acceptable; convenient; worth
while, meet; fit, fitting; due, proper, eligible, seemly, becoming;
befitting &c v.; opportune &c (in season) 134; in loco; suitable &c
(accordant) 23; applicable &c (useful) 644.
Adv. in the right place; conveniently &c adj..
Phr. operae pretium est [Lat.].

647. Inexpedience -- N. inexpedience, inexpediency; undesirableness,
undesirability &c adj.; discommodity^, impropriety; unfitness &c
(disagreement) 24; inutility &c 645; disadvantage.
V. be inexpedient &c adj.; come amiss &c (disagree) 24; embarrass &c
(hinder) 706; put to inconvenience; pay too dear for one's whistle.
Adj. inexpedient, undesirable; unadvisable, inadvisable; objectionable;
inapt, ineligible, inadmissible, inconvenient; incommodious,
discommodious^; disadvantageous; inappropriate, unfit &c (inconsonant)
     ill-contrived, ill-advised; unsatisfactory; unprofitable &c;
unsubservient &c (useless) 645; inopportune &c (unseasonable) 135; out
of place, in the wrong place; improper, unseemly.
     clumsy, awkward; cumbrous, cumbersome; lumbering, unwieldy, hulky^;
unmanageable &c (impracticable) 704; impedient &c (in the way) 706
     unnecessary &c (redundant) 641.
Phr. it will never do.

648. [Capability of producing good. Good qualities.] Goodness -- N.
goodness &c adj.; excellence, merit; virtue &c 944; value, worth,
     super-excellence, supereminence; superiority &c 33; perfection &c
650; coup de maitre [Fr.]; masterpiece, chef d'ouvre [Fr.], prime,
flower, cream, elite, pick, A 1, nonesuch, nonpareil, creme de la
creme, flower of the flock, cock of the roost, salt of the earth;
champion; prodigy.
     tidbit; gem, gem of the first water; bijou, precious stone, jewel,
pearl, diamond, ruby, brilliant, treasure; good thing; rara avis
[Lat.], one in a thousand.
     beneficence &c 906; good man &c 948.
V. be beneficial &c adj.; produce good, do good &c 618; profit &c (be
of use) 644; benefit; confer a benefit &c 618.
     be the making of, do a world of good, make a man of.
     produce a good effect; do a good turn, confer an obligation;
improve &c 658.
     do no harm, break no bones.
     be good &c adj.; excel, transcend &c (be superior) 33; bear away
the bell.
     stand the proof, stand the test; pass muster, pass an examination.
     challenge comparison, vie, emulate, rival.
Adj. harmless, hurtless^; unobnoxious^, innocuous, innocent,
     beneficial, valuable, of value; serviceable &c (useful) 644;
advantageous, edifying, profitable; salutary &c (healthful) 656.
     favorable; propitious &c (hope-giving) 858; fair.
     good, good as gold; excellent; better; superior &c 33; above par;
nice, fine; genuine &c (true) 494.
     best, choice, select, picked, elect, recherche, rare, priceless;
unparagoned^, unparalleled &c (supreme) 33; superlatively &c 33; good;
bully [Slang], crackajack [Slang], giltedged; superfine,
superexcellent^; of the first water; first-rate, first-class; high-
wrought, exquisite, very best, crack, prime, tiptop, capital, cardinal;
standard &c (perfect) 650; inimitable.
     admirable, estimable; praiseworthy &c (approve) 931; pleasing &c
829; couleur de rose [Fr.], precious, of great price; costly &c (dear)
814; worth its weight in gold, worth a Jew's eye; priceless,
invaluable, inestimable, precious as the apple of the eye.
     tolerable &c (not very good) 651; up to the mark, unexceptionable,
unobjectionable; satisfactory, tidy.
     in good condition, in fair condition; fresh; sound &c (perfect)
Adv. beneficially &c adj.; well &c 618.
Phr. Jewels five words long [Tennyson]; long may such goodness live!
[Rogers]; the luxury of doing good [Goldsmith].

649. [Capability of producing evil. Bad qualities.] Badness -- N.
hurtfulness &c adj.; virulence.
     evil doer &c 913; bane &c 663; plague spot &c (insalubrity) 657;
evil star, ill wind; hoodoo; Jonah; snake in the grass, skeleton in the
closet; amari aliquid [Lat.], thorn in the side.
     malignity; malevolence &c 907; tender mercies [Iron.].
     ill-treatment, annoyance, molestation, abuse, oppression,
persecution, outrage; misusage &c 679; injury &c (damage) 659; knockout
drops [U.S.].
     badness &c adj.; peccancy^, abomination; painfulness &c 830;
pestilence &c (disease) 655; guilt &c 947; depravity &c 945.
V. be hurtful &c adj.; cause evil, produce evil, inflict evil, work
evil, do evil &c 619; damnify^, endamage^, hurt, harm; injure &c
(damage) 659; pain &c 830.
     wrong, aggrieve, oppress, persecute; trample upon, tread upon,
bear hard upon, put upon; overburden; weigh down, weigh heavy on;
victimize; run down; molest &c 830.
     maltreat, abuse; ill-use, ill-treat; buffet, bruise, scratch,
maul; smite &c (scourge) 972; do violence, do harm, do a mischief;
stab, pierce, outrage.
     do mischief, make mischief; bring into trouble.
     destroy &c 162.
Adj. hurtful, harmful, scathful^, baneful, baleful; injurious,
deleterious, detrimental, noxious, pernicious, mischievous, full of
mischief, mischief-making, malefic, malignant, nocuous, noisome;
prejudicial; disserviceable^, disadvantageous; wide-wasting.
     unlucky, sinister; obnoxious; untoward, disastrous.
     oppressive, burdensome, onerous; malign &c (malevolent) 907.
     corrupting &c (corrupt) &c 659; virulent, venomous, envenomed,
corrosive; poisonous &c (morbific) 657 [Obs.]; deadly &c (killing) 361;
destructive &c (destroying) 162; inauspicious &c 859.
     bad, ill, arrant, as bad as bad can be, dreadful; horrid,
horrible; dire; rank, peccant, foul, fulsome; rotten, rotten at the
     vile, base, villainous; mean &c (paltry) 643; injured &c;
deteriorated &c 659; unsatisfactory, exceptionable indifferent; below
par &c (imperfect) 651; illcontrived, ill-conditioned; wretched, sad,
grievous, deplorable, lamentable; pitiful, pitiable, woeful &c
(painful) 830.
     evil, wrong; depraved &c 945; shocking; reprehensible &c
(disapprove) 932.
     hateful, hateful as a toad; abominable, detestable, execrable,
cursed, accursed, confounded; damned, damnable; infernal; diabolic &c
(malevolent) 907.
     unadvisable &c (inexpedient) 647; unprofitable &c (useless) 645;
incompetent &c (unskillful) 699; irremediable &c (hopeless) 859.
Adv. badly &c adj.; wrong, ill; to one's cost; where the shoe pinches.
Phr. bad is the best: the worst come to the worst; herba mala presto
cresco [Lat.]; wrongs unredressed or insults unavenged [Wordsworth].

650. Perfection -- N. perfection; perfectness &c adj.; indefectibility^;
impeccancy^, impeccability.
     pink, beau ideal, phenix, paragon; pink of perfection, acme of
perfection; ne plus ultra [Lat.]; summit &c 210.
     cygne noir [Fr.]; philosopher's stone; chrysolite, Koh-i-noor.
     model, standard, pattern, mirror, admirable Crichton; trump, very
prince of.
     masterpiece, superexcellence &c (goodness) 648 [Obs.];
transcendence &c (superiority) 33.
V. be perfect &c adj.; transcend &c (be supreme) 33.
     bring to perfection, perfect, ripen, mature; complete &c 729; put
in trim &c (prepare) 673; maturate.
Adj. perfect, faultless; indefective^, indeficient^, indefectible;
immaculate, spotless, impeccable; free from imperfection &c 651;
unblemished, uninjured &c 659; sound, sound as a roach; in perfect
condition; scathless^, intact, harmless; seaworthy &c (safe) 644; right
as a trivet; in seipso totus teres atque rotundus [Lat.] [Horace];
consummate &c (complete) 52; finished &c 729.
     best &c (good) 648; model, standard; inimitable, unparagoned^,
unparalleled &c (supreme) 33; superhuman, divine; beyond all praise &c
(approbation) 931; sans peur et sans reproche [Fr.].
Adv. to perfection; perfectly &c adj.; ad unguem [Lat.]; clean, clean
as a whistle.
Phr. let us go on unto perfection [Hebrews vi, 1]; the perfection of
art is to conceal art [Quintilian].

651. Imperfection -- N. imperfection; imperfectness &c adj.;
deficiency; inadequacy &c (insufficiency) 640; peccancy &c (badness)
649 [Obs.]; immaturity &c 674.
     fault, defect, weak point; screw loose; flaw &c (break) 70; gap &c
198; twist &c 243; taint, attainder; bar sinister, hole in one's coat;
blemish &c 848; weakness &c 160; half blood; shortcoming &c 304;
drawback; seamy side.
     mediocrity; no great shakes, no great catch; not much to boast of;
one-horse shay.
V. be imperfect &c adj.; have a defect &c n.; lie under a disadvantage;
spring a leak.
     not pass muster, barely pass muster; fall short &c 304.
Adj. imperfect; not perfect &c 650; deficient, defective; faulty,
unsound, tainted; out of order, out of tune; cracked, leaky; sprung;
warped &c (distort) 243; lame; injured &c (deteriorated) 659; peccant
&c (bad) 649; frail &c (weak) 160; inadequate &c (insufficient) 640;
crude &c (unprepared) 674; incomplete &c 53; found wanting; below par;
short-handed; below its full strength, under its full strength, below
its full complement.
     indifferent, middling, ordinary, mediocre; average &c 29; so-so;
coucicouci, milk and water; tolerable, fair, passable; pretty well,
pretty good; rather good, moderately good; good; good enough, well
enough, adequate; decent; not bad, not amiss; inobjectionable^,
unobjectionable, admissible, bearable, only better than nothing.
     secondary, inferior; second-rate, second-best; one-horse [U.S.].
Adv. almost &c; to a limited extent, rather &c 32; pretty, moderately,
passing; only, considering, all things considered, enough.
Phr. surgit amari aliquid [Lat.].

652. Cleanness -- N. cleanness, cleanliness &c adj.; purity; cleaning
&c v.; purification, defecation &c v.; purgation, lustration^;
detersion^, abstersion^; epuration^, mundation^; ablution, lavation^,
colature^; disinfection &c v.; drainage, sewerage.
     lavatory, laundry, washhouse^; washerwoman, laundress, dhobi^,
laundryman, washerman^; scavenger, dustman^, sweep; white wings brush
[U.S.]; broom, besom^, mop, rake, shovel, sieve, riddle, screen, filter;
     napkin, cloth, maukin^, malkin^, handkerchief, towel, sudary^;
doyley^, doily, duster, sponge, mop, swab.
     cover, drugget^.
     wash, lotion, detergent, cathartic, purgative; purifier &c v.;
disinfectant; aperient^; benzene, benzine benzol, benolin^; bleaching
powder, chloride of lime, dentifrice, deobstruent^, laxative.
V. be clean, render clean &c adj.; clean, cleanse; mundify^, rinse,
wring, flush, full, wipe, mop, sponge, scour, swab, scrub, brush up.
     wash, lave, launder, buck; absterge^, deterge^; decrassify^; clear,
purify; depurate^, despumate^, defecate; purge, expurgate, elutriate
[Chem], lixiviate^, edulcorate^, clarify, refine, rack; filter,
filtrate; drain, strain.
     disinfect, fumigate, ventilate, deodorize; whitewash; castrate,
     sift, winnow, pick, weed, comb, rake, brush, sweep.
     rout out, clear out, sweep out &c; make a clean sweep of.
Adj. clean, cleanly; pure; immaculate; spotless, stainless, taintless;
trig; without a stain, unstained, unspotted, unsoiled, unsullied,
untainted, uninfected; sweet, sweet as a nut.
     neat, spruce, tidy, trim, gimp, clean as a new penny, like a cat
in pattens; cleaned &c v.; kempt^.
     abstergent^, cathartic, cleansing, purifying.
Adv. neatly &c adj.; clean as a whistle.

653. Uncleanness -- N. uncleanness &c adj.; impurity; immundity^,
immundicity^; impurity &c 961 [of mind]. defilement, contamination &c
v.; defoedation^; soilure^, soiliness^; abomination; leaven; taint,
tainture^; fetor &c 401 [Obs.].
     decay; putrescence, putrefaction; corruption; mold, must, mildew,
dry rot, mucor, rubigo^.
     slovenry^; slovenliness &c adj.; squalor.
     dowdy, drab, slut, malkin^, slattern, sloven, slammerkin^,
slammock^, slummock^, scrub, draggle-tail, mudlark^, dust-man, sweep;
     dirt, filth, soil, slop; dust, cobweb, flue; smoke, soot, smudge,
smut, grit, grime, raff^; sossle^, sozzle^.
     sordes^, dregs, grounds, lees; argol^; sediment, settlement
heeltap^; dross, drossiness^; mother^, precipitate, scoriae, ashes,
     recrement^, slag; scum, froth.
     hogwash; ditchwater^, dishwater, bilgewater^; rinsings,
cheeseparings; sweepings &c (useless refuse) 645; offscourings^,
outscourings^; off scum; caput mortuum [Lat.], residuum, sprue, fecula
[Lat.], clinker, draff^; scurf, scurfiness^; exuviae [Lat.], morphea;
fur, furfur^; dandruff, tartar.
     riffraff; vermin, louse, flea, bug, chinch^.
     mud, mire, quagmire, alluvium, silt, sludge, slime, slush, slosh,
sposh [U.S.].
     spawn, offal, gurry [U.S.]; lientery^; garbage, carrion; excreta &c
299; slough, peccant humor, pus, matter, suppuration, lienteria^;
faeces, feces, excrement, ordure, dung, crap [Vulg.], shit [Vulg.];
sewage, sewerage; muck; coprolite; guano, manure, compost.
     dunghill, colluvies^, mixen^, midden, bog, laystall^, sink, privy,
jakes; toilet, john, head; cess^, cesspool; sump, sough, cloaca,
latrines, drain, sewer, common sewer; Cloacina; dust hole.
     sty, pigsty, lair, den, Augean stable^, sink of corruption; slum,
V. be unclean, become unclean &c adj.; rot, putrefy, ferment, fester,
rankle, reek; stink &c 401; mold, molder; go bad &c adj.. render
unclean &c adj.; dirt, dirty; daub, blot, blur, smudge, smutch^, soil,
smoke, tarnish, slaver, spot, smear; smirch; begrease^; dabble,
drabble^, draggle, daggle^; spatter, slubber; besmear &c, bemire,
beslime^, begrime, befoul; splash, stain, distain^, maculate, sully,
pollute, defile, debase, contaminate, taint, leaven; corrupt &c
(injure) 659; cover with dust &c n.; drabble in the mud^; roil.
     wallow in the mire; slobber, slabber^.
Adj. dirty, filthy, grimy; unclean, impure; soiled &c v.; not to be
handled with kid gloves; dusty, snuffy^, smutty, sooty, smoky; thick,
turbid, dreggy; slimy; mussy [U.S.].
     slovenly, untidy, messy, uncleanly.
     [of people] unkempt, sluttish, dowdy, draggle-tailed; uncombed.
     unscoured^, unswept^, unwiped^, unwashed, unstrained, unpurified^;
squalid; lutose^, slammocky^, slummocky^, sozzly^.
     nasty, coarse, foul, offensive, abominable, beastly, reeky,
reechy^; fetid &c 401.
     [of rotting living matter] decayed, moldy, musty, mildewed, rusty,
moth-eaten, mucid^, rancid, weak, bad, gone bad, etercoral^,
lentiginous^, touched, fusty, effete, reasty^, rotten, corrupt, tainted,
high, flyblown, maggoty; putrid, putrefactive, putrescent, putrefied;
saprogenic, saprogenous^; purulent, carious, peccant; fecal, feculent;
stercoraceous^, excrementitious^; scurfy, scurvy, impetiginous^; gory,
bloody; rotting &c v.; rotten as a pear, rotten as cheese.
     crapulous &c (intemperate) 954 [Obs.]; gross &c (impure in mind)
961; fimetarious^, fimicolous^.
Phr. they that touch pitch will be defiled [Much Ado About Nothing].

654. Health -- N. health, sanity; soundness &c adj.; vigor; good
health, perfect health, excellent health, rude health, robust health;
     mens sana in corpore sano [Lat.]; Hygeia^; incorruption,
incorruptibility; good state of health, clean bill of health; eupepsia^;
euphoria, euphory^; St.
     Anthony's fire^.
V. be in health &c adj.. bloom, flourish.
     keep body and soul together, keep on one's legs; enjoy good
health, enjoy a good state of health; have a clean bill of health.
     return to health; recover &c 660; get better &c (improve) 658;
take a new lease of life, fresh lease of life; recruit; restore to
health; cure &c (restore) 660; tinker.
Adj. healthy, healthful; in health &c n.; well, sound, hearty, hale,
fresh, green, whole; florid, flush, hardy, stanch, staunch, brave,
robust, vigorous, weatherproof.
     unscathed, uninjured, unmaimed^, unmarred, untainted; sound of wind
and limb, safe and sound.
     on one's legs; sound as a roach, sound as a bell; fresh as a
daisy, fresh as a rose, fresh as April^; hearty as a buck; in fine
feather, in high feather; in good case, in full bloom; pretty bobbish^,
tolerably well, as well as can be expected.
     sanitary &c (health-giving) 656; sanatory &c (remedial) 662
Phr. health that snuffs the morning air [Grainger]; non est vivere sed
valere vita [Lat.] [Martial].

655. Disease -- N. disease; illness, sickness &c adj.; ailing &c; all
the ills that flesh is heir to [Hamlet]; morbidity, morbosity^;
infirmity, ailment, indisposition; complaint, disorder, malady;
distemper, distemperature^.
     visitation, attack, seizure, stroke, fit.
     delicacy, loss of health, invalidation, cachexy^; cachexia [Med.],
atrophy, marasmus^; indigestion, dyspepsia; decay &c (deterioration)
659; decline, consumption, palsy, paralysis, prostration.
     taint, pollution, infection, sepsis, septicity^, infestation;
epidemic, pandemic, endemic, epizootic; murrain, plague, pestilence,
     sore, ulcer, abscess, fester, boil; pimple, wen &c (swelling) 250;
carbuncle, gathering, imposthume^, peccant humor, issue; rot, canker,
cold sore, fever sore; cancer, carcinoma, leukemia, neoplastic disease,
malignancy, tumor; caries, mortification, corruption, gangrene,
sphacelus^, sphacelation^, leprosy; eruption, rash, breaking out.
     fever, temperature, calenture^; inflammation.
     ague, angina pectoris [Lat.], appendicitis; Asiatic cholera^,
spasmodic cholera; biliary calculus, kidney stone, black death, bubonic
plague, pneumonic plague; blennorrhagia^, blennorrhoea^; blood
poisoning, bloodstroke^, bloody flux, brash; breakbone fever^, dengue
fever, malarial fever, Q-fever; heart attack, cardiac arrest,
cardiomyopathy [Med.]; hardening of the arteries, arteriosclerosis,
atherosclerosis; bronchocele [Med.], canker rash, cardialgia [Med.],
carditis [Med.], endocarditis [Med.]; cholera, asphyxia; chlorosis,
chorea, cynanche^, dartre [Fr.]; enanthem^, enanthema^; erysipelas;
exanthem^, exanthema; gallstone, goiter, gonorrhea, green sickness;
grip, grippe, influenza, flu; hay fever, heartburn, heaves, rupture,
hernia, hemorrhoids, piles, herpes, itch, king's evil, lockjaw;
measles, mumps^, polio; necrosis, pertussis, phthisis^, pneumonia,
psora^, pyaemia^, pyrosis [Med.], quinsy, rachitis^, ringworm, rubeola,
     Vitus's dance, scabies, scarlatina, scarlet fever, scrofula,
seasickness, struma^, syntexis^, tetanus, tetter^, tonsillitis,
tonsilitis^, tracheocele [Med.], trachoma, trismus [Med.], varicella
[Med.], varicosis [Med.], variola [Med.], water qualm, whooping cough;
yellow fever, yellow jack.
     fatal disease &c (hopeless) 859; dangerous illness, galloping
consumption, churchyard cough; general breaking up, break up of the
     [Disease of mind] idiocy &c 499; insanity &c 503.
     martyr to disease; cripple; the halt the lame and the blind;
valetudinary^, valetudinarian; invalid, patient, case; sickroom, sick-
     [Science of disease] pathology, etiology, nosology^.
     [Veterinary] anthrax, bighead; blackleg, blackquarter^; cattle
plague, glanders^, mange, scrapie, milk sickness; heartworm, feline
leukemia, roundworms; quarter-evil, quarter-ill; rinderpest.
     [disease-causing agents] virus, bacterium, bacteria.
     [types of viruses] DNA virus; RNA virus.
     [RNA viruses] rhinovirus; rhabdovirus; picornavirus.
     [DNA viruses] herpesvirus; cytomegalovirus, CMV; human
immunodefficiency virus, HIV.
V. be ill &c adj.; ail, suffer, labor under, be affected with, complain
of, have; droop, flag, languish, halt; sicken, peak, pine; gasp.
     keep one's bed; feign sickness &c (falsehood) 544.
     lay by, lay up; take a disease, catch a disease &c n., catch an
infection; break out.
Adj. diseased; ailing &c v.; ill, ill of; taken ill, seized with;
indisposed, unwell, sick, squeamish, poorly, seedy; affected with
illness, afflicted with illness; laid up, confined, bedridden,
invalided, in hospital, on the sick list; out of health, out of sorts;
under the weather [U.S.]; valetudinary^.
     unsound, unhealthy; sickly, morbid, morbose^, healthless^, infirm,
chlorotic [Med.], unbraced^.
     drooping, flagging, lame, crippled, halting.
     morbid, tainted, vitiated, peccant, contaminated, poisoned, tabid^,
mangy, leprous, cankered; rotten, rotten to the core, rotten at the
core; withered, palsied, paralytic; dyspeptic; luetic^, pneumonic,
pulmonic [Med.], phthisic^, rachitic; syntectic^, syntectical^; tabetic^,
     touched in the wind, broken-winded, spavined, gasping; hors de
combat &c (useless) 645 [Fr.].
     weakly, weakened &c (weak) 160; decrepit; decayed &c
(deteriorated) 659; incurable &c (hopeless) 859; in declining health;
cranky; in a bad way, in danger, prostrate; moribund &c (death) 360.
     morbific &c 657 [Obs.]; epidemic, endemic; zymotic^.

656. Salubrity -- N. salubrity; healthiness &c adj.. fine air, fine
climate; eudiometer^.
     [Preservation of health] hygiene; valetudinarian,
valetudinarianism; sanitarian; sanitarium, sanitOrium.
V. be salubrious &c adj.; agree with; assimilate &c 23.
Adj. salubrious, salutary, salutiferous^; wholesome; healthy, healthful;
sanitary, prophYlactic, benign, bracing, tonic, invigorating, good for,
nutritious; hygeian^, hygienic.
     innoxious^, innocuous, innocent; harmless, uninjurious,
     sanative &c (remedial) 662; restorative &c (reinstate) 660; useful
&c 644.

657. Insalubrity -- N. insalubrity; unhealthiness &c adj.; nonnaturals^;
plague spot; malaria &c (poison) 663; death in the pot, contagion;
Adj. insalubrious; unhealthy, unwholesome; noxious, noisome; morbific^,
morbiferous^; mephitic, septic, azotic^, deleterious; pestilent,
pestiferous, pestilential; virulent, venomous, envenomed; poisonous,
toxic, toxiferous^, teratogenic; narcotic.
     contagious, infectious, catching, taking, epidemic, zymotic^;
     innutritious^, indigestible, ungenial; uncongenial &c (disagreeing)
     deadly &c (killing) 361.

658. Improvement -- N. improvement; amelioration, melioration;
betterment; mend, amendment, emendation; mending &c v.; advancement;
advance &c (progress) 282; ascent &c 305; promotion, preferment;
elevation &c 307; increase &c 35; cultivation, civilization; culture,
march of intellect; menticulture^; race-culture, eugenics.
     reform, reformation; revision, radical reform; second thoughts,
correction, limoe labor [Lat.], refinement, elaboration; purification
&c 652; oxidation; repair &c (restoration) 660; recovery &c 660.
     revise, new edition.
     reformer, radical.
V. improve; be better, become better, get better; mend, amend.
     advance &c (progress) 282; ascend &c 305; increase &c 35;
fructify, ripen, mature; pick up, come about, rally, take a favorable
turn; turn over a new leaf, turn the corner; raise one's head, sow
one's wild oats; recover &c 660.
     be better &c adj., be improved by; turn to right account, turn to
good account, turn to best account; profit by, reap the benefit of;
make good use of, make capital out of; place to good account.
     render better, improve, mend, amend, better; ameliorate,
meliorate; correct; decrassify^.
     improve upon, refine upon; rectify; enrich, mellow, elaborate,
     promote, cultivate, advance, forward, enhance; bring forward,
bring on; foster &c 707; invigorate &c (strengthen) 159.
     touch up, rub up, brush up, furbish up, bolster up, vamp up,
brighten up, warm up; polish, cook, make the most of, set off to
advantage; prune; repair &c (restore) 660; put in order &c (arrange)
     review, revise; make corrections, make improvements &c n.; doctor
&c (remedy) 662; purify, &c 652.
     relieve, refresh, infuse new blood into, recruit.
     reform, remodel, reorganize; new model.
     view in a new light, think better of, appeal from Philip drunk to
Philip sober.
     palliate, mitigate; lessen an evil &c 36.
Adj. improving &c v.; progressive, improved &c v.; better, better off,
better for; all the better for; better advised.
     reformatory, emendatory^; reparatory &c (restorative) 660 [Obs.];
remedial &c 662.
     corrigible, improvable; accultural^.
Adv. on consideration, on reconsideration, on second thoughts, on
better advice; ad melius inquirendum [Lat.].
Phr. urbent latericiam invenit marmoream reliquit [Lat.].

659. Deterioration -- N. deterioration, debasement; wane, ebb;
recession &c 287; retrogradation &c 283 [Obs.]; decrease &c 36.
     degeneracy, degeneration, degenerateness; degradation;
depravation, depravement; devolution; depravity &c 945; demoralization,
retrogression; masochism.
     impairment, inquination^, injury, damage, loss, detriment,
delaceration^, outrage, havoc, inroad, ravage, scath^; perversion,
prostitution, vitiation, discoloration, oxidation, pollution,
defoedation^, poisoning, venenation^, leaven, contamination, canker,
corruption, adulteration, alloy.
     decline, declension, declination; decadence, decadency^; falling
off &c v.; caducity^, decrepitude.
     decay, dilapidation, ravages of time, wear and tear; corrosion,
erosion; moldiness, rottenness; moth and rust, dry rot, blight,
marasmus^, atrophy, collapse; disorganization; delabrement &c
(destruction). 162; aphid, Aphis, plant louse, puceron^; vinefretter^,
     wreck, mere wreck, honeycomb, magni nominis umbra [Lat.]; jade,
plug, rackabones [U.S.], skate [U.S.]; tackey^, tacky [U.S.].
V. be worse, be deteriorated, become worse, become deteriorated &c
Adj.; have seen better days, deteriorate, degenerate, fall off; wane &c
(decrease) 36; ebb; retrograde &c 283, decline, droop; go down &c
(sink) 306; go downhill, go from bad to worse, go farther and fare
worse; jump out of the frying pan into the fire.
     run to seed, go to seed, run to waste swale^, sweal^; lapse, be the
worse for; sphacelate: break^, break down; spring a leak, crack, start;
shrivel &c (contract) 195; fade, go off, wither, molder, rot, rankle,
decay, go bad; go to decay, fall into decay; fall into the sear and
yellow leaf, rust, crumble, shake; totter, totter to its fall; perish
&c 162; die &c 360.
     [Render less good] deteriorate; weaken &c 160; put back, set back;
taint, infect, contaminate, poison, empoison^, envenom, canker, corrupt,
exulcerate^, pollute, vitiate, inquinate^; debase, embase^; denaturalize,
denature, leaven; deflower, debauch, defile, deprave, degrade;
ulcerate; stain &c (dirt) 653; discolor; alloy, adulterate,
sophisticate, tamper with, prejudice.
     pervert, prostitute, demoralize, brutalize; render vicious &c 945.
     embitter, acerbate, exacerbate, aggravate.
     injure, impair, labefy^, damage, harm, hurt, shend^, scath^, scathe,
spoil, mar, despoil, dilapidate, waste; overrun; ravage; pillage &c
     wound, stab, pierce, maim, lame, surbate^, cripple, hough^,
hamstring, hit between wind and water, scotch, mangle, mutilate,
disfigure, blemish, deface, warp.
     blight, rot; corrode, erode; wear away, wear out; gnaw, gnaw at
the root of; sap, mine, undermine, shake, sap the foundations of, break
up; disorganize, dismantle, dismast; destroy &c 162.
     damnify &c (aggrieve) 649 [Obs.]; do one's worst; knock down; deal
a blow to; play havoc with, play sad havoc with, play the mischief
with, play the deuce with, play the very devil with, play havoc among,
play sad havoc among, play the mischief among, play the deuce among,
play the very devil among; decimate.
Adj. unimproved &c (improve) &c 658; deteriorated &c v.; altered,
altered for the worse; injured &c v.; sprung; withering, spoiling &c
v.; on the wane, on the decline; tabid^; degenerate; marescent^; worse;
the worse for, all the worse for; out of repair, out of tune; imperfect
&c 651; the worse for wear; battered; weathered, weather-beaten; stale,
passe, shaken, dilapidated, frayed, faded, wilted, shabby, secondhand,
threadbare; worn, worn to a thread, worn to a shadow, worn to the
stump, worn to rags; reduced, reduced to a skeleton; far gone; tacky
     decayed &c v.; moth-eaten, worm-eaten; mildewed, rusty, moldy,
spotted, seedy, time-worn, moss-grown; discolored; effete, wasted,
crumbling, moldering, rotten, cankered, blighted, tainted; depraved &c
(vicious) 945; decrepid^, decrepit; broke, busted, broken, out of
commission, hors de combat [Fr.], out of action, broken down; done,
done for, done up; worn out, used up, finished; beyond saving, fit for
the dust hole, fit for the wastepaper basket, past work &c (useless)
     at a low ebb, in a bad way, on one's last legs; undermined,
deciduous; nodding to its fall &c (destruction) 162; tottering &c
(dangerous) 665; past cure &c (hopeless) 859; fatigued &c 688;
retrograde &c (retrogressive) 283; deleterious &c 649.
Phr. out of the frying pan into the fire; agrescit medendo [Lat.]; what
a falling off was there! [Hamlet].

660. Restoration -- N. restoration, restoral; reinstatement,
replacement, rehabilitation, reestablishment, reconstitution,
reconstruction; reproduction &c 163; renovation, renewal; revival,
revivessence^, reviviscence^; refreshment &c 689; resuscitation,
reanimation, revivification, reviction^; Phenix; reorganization.
     renaissance, second youth, rejuvenescence^, new birth;
regeneration, regeneracy^, regenerateness^; palingenesis^, reconversion.
     redress, retrieval, reclamation, recovery; convalescence;
resumption, resumption; sanativeness^.
     recurrence &c (repetition) 104; rechauffe [Fr.], rifacimento [It].
     cure, recure^, sanation^; healing &c v.; redintegration^;
rectification; instauration^.
     repair, reparation, remanufacture; recruiting &c v.;
cicatrization; disinfection; tinkering.
     reaction; redemption &c (deliverance) 672; restitution &c 790;
relief &c 834.
     tinker, cobbler; vis medicatrix &c (remedy) 662 [Obs.].
V. return to the original state; recover, rally, revive; come come to,
come round, come to oneself; pull through, weather the storm, be
oneself again; get well, get round, get the better of, get over, get
about; rise from one's ashes, rise from the grave; survive &c (outlive)
110; resume, reappear; come to, come to life again; live again, rise
     heal, skin over, cicatrize; right itself.
     restore, put back, place in statu quo [Lat.]; reinstate, replace,
reseat, rehabilitate, reestablish, reestate^, reinstall.
     reconstruct, rebuild, reorganize, reconstitute; reconvert; renew,
renovate; regenerate; rejuvenate.
     redeem, reclaim, recover, retrieve; rescue &c (deliver) 672.
     redress, recure^; cure, heal, remedy, doctor, physic, medicate;
break of; bring round, set on one's legs.
     resuscitate, revive, reanimate, revivify, recall to life;
reproduce &c 163; warm up; reinvigorate, refresh &c 689.
     make whole, redintegrate^; recoup &c 790; make good, make all
square; rectify, correct; put right, put to rights, set right, set to
rights, set straight; set up; put in order &c (arrange) 60; refit,
recruit; fill up, fill up the ranks; reinforce.
     repair; put in repair, remanufacture, put in thorough repair, put
in complete repair; retouch, refashion, botch^, vamp, tinker, cobble; do
up, patch up, touch up, plaster up, vamp up; darn, finedraw^,
heelpiece^; stop a gap, stanch, staunch, caulk, calk, careen, splice,
bind up wounds.
Adj. restored &c v.; redivivus [Lat.], convalescent; in a fair way;
none the worse; rejuvenated.
     restoring &c v.; restorative, recuperative; sanative, reparative,
sanatory^, reparatory^; curative, remedial.
     restorable, recoverable, sanable^, remediable, retrievable,
Adv. in statu quo [Lat.]; as you were.
     phr.. revenons a nos moutons [Fr.]; medecin [Fr.], gueris-toi toi-
meme [Fr.]; vestigia nulla retrorsum [Lat.] [Horace].

661. Relapse -- N. relapse, lapse; falling back &c v.; retrogradation
&c (retrogression) 283 [Obs.]; deterioration &c 659.
     [Return to, or recurrence of a bad state] backsliding,
recidivation^; recidivism, recidivity^; recrudescence.
V. relapse, lapse; fall back, slide back, sink back; return; retrograde
&c 283; recidivate; fall off again &c 659.

662. Remedy -- N. remedy, help, cure, redress; medicine, medicament;
diagnosis, medical examination; medical treatment; surgery; preventive
     [medical devices] clinical thermometer, stethoscope, X-ray
     anthelmintic [Med.]; antidote, antifebrile [Med.], antipoison^,
counterpoison^, antitoxin, antispasmodic; bracer, faith cure, placebo;
helminthagogue^, lithagogue^, pick-meup, stimulant, tonic; vermifuge,
prophylactic, corrective, restorative; sedative &c 174; palliative;
febrifuge; alterant^, alterative; specific; antiseptic, emetic,
analgesic, pain-killer, antitussive [Med.], antiinflammatory [Med.],
antibiotic, antiviral [Med.], antifungal [Med.], carminative; Nepenthe,
     cure, treatment, regimen; radical cure, perfect cure, certain
cure; sovereign remedy.
     examination, diagnosis, diagnostics; analysis, urinalysis, biopsy,
     medicine, physic, Galenicals^, simples, drug, pharmaceutical,
prescription, potion, draught, dose, pill, bolus, injection, infusion,
drip, suppository, electuary^; linctus^, lincture^; medicament;
     nostrum, receipt, recipe, prescription; catholicon^, panacea,
elixir, elixir vitae, philosopher's stone; balm, balsam, cordial,
theriac^, ptisan^.
     agueweed^, arnica, benzoin, bitartrate of potash, boneset^,
calomel, catnip, cinchona, cream of tartar, Epsom salts [Chem];
feverroot^, feverwort; friar's balsam, Indian sage; ipecac, ipecacuanha;
jonquil, mercurous chloride, Peruvian bark; quinine, quinquina^;
sassafras, yarrow.
     salve, ointment, cerate, oil, lenitive, lotion, cosmetic; plaster;
epithem^, embrocation^, liniment, cataplasm^, sinapism^, arquebusade^,
traumatic, vulnerary, pepastic^, poultice, collyrium^, depilatory;
emplastrum^; eyewater^, vesicant, vesicatory [Med.].
     compress, pledget^; bandage &c (support) 215.
     treatment, medical treatment, regimen; dietary, dietetics; vis
medicatrix^, vis medicatrix naturae [Lat.]; medecine expectante [Fr.];
bloodletting, bleeding, venesection [Med.], phlebotomy, cupping,
sanguisae, leeches; operation, surgical operation; transfusion,
infusion, intravenous infusion, catheter, feeding tube; prevention,
preventative medicine, immunization, inoculation, vaccination, vaccine,
shot, booster, gamma globulin.
     pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutics; pharmacopoeia, formulary;
acology^, Materia Medica [Lat.], therapeutics, posology^; homeopathy,
allopathy^, heteropathy [Med.], osteopathy, hydropathy [Med.]; cold
water cure; dietetics; surgery, chirurgery [Med.], chirurgy^; healing
art, leechcraft^; orthopedics, orthopedy^, orthopraxy^; pediatrics;
dentistry, midwifery, obstetrics, gynecology; tocology^; sarcology^.
     hospital, infirmary; pesthouse^, lazarhouse^; lazaretto; lock
hospital; maison de sante [Fr.]; ambulance.
     dispensary; dispensatory^, drug store, pharmacy, apothecary,
druggist, chemist.
     Hotel des Invalides; sanatorium, spa, pump room, well; hospice;
Red Cross.
     doctor, physician, surgeon; medical practitioner, general
practitioner, specialist; medical attendant, apothecary, druggist;
leech; osteopath, osteopathist^; optometrist, ophthalmologist;
internist, oncologist, gastroenterologist; epidemiologist [Med.],
public health specialist; dermatologist; podiatrist; witch doctor,
shaman, faith healer, quack, exorcist; Aesculapius^, Hippocrates, Galen;
accoucheur [Fr.], accoucheuse [Fr.], midwife, oculist, aurist^;
operator; nurse, registered nurse, practical nurse, monthly nurse,
sister; nurse's aide, candystriper; dresser; bonesetter; pharmaceutist^,
pharmacist, druggist, chemist, pharmacopolist^.
V. apply a remedy &c n.; doctor, dose, physic, nurse, minister to,
attend, dress the wounds, plaster; drain; prevent &c 706; relieve &c
834; palliate &c 658; restore &c 660; drench with physic; bleed, cup,
let blood; manicure.
     operate, excise, cut out; incise.
Adj. remedial; restorative &c 660; corrective, palliative, healing;
sanatory^, sanative; prophylactic, preventative, immunizing;
salutiferous &c (salutary) 656 [Obs.]; medical, medicinal; therapeutic,
chirurgical [Med.], epulotic^, paregoric, tonic, corroborant,
analeptic^, balsamic, anodyne, hypnotic, neurotic, narcotic, sedative,
lenitive, demulcent^, emollient; depuratory^; detersive^, detergent;
abstersive^, disinfectant, febrifugal^, alterative; traumatic,
     allopathic^, heteropathic^, homeopathic, hydropathic [Med.];
anthelmintic [Med.]; antifebrile [Med.], antiluetic^; aperient^,
chalybeate^, deobstruent^, depurative^, laxative, roborant^.
     dietetic, alimentary; nutritious, nutritive; peptic; alexipharmic^,
alexiteric^; remediable, curable.
Phr.. aux grands maux les grands remedes [Fr.]; Dios que da la llaga da
la medicina [Sp.]; para todo hay remedio sino para la muerte [Sp.];
temporis ars medicina fere est [Lat.] [Ovid]; the remedy is worse than
the disease [Dryden]; throw physic to the dogs, I'll none of it

663. Bane -- N. bane, curse; evil &c 619; hurtfulness &c (badness) 649
[Obs.]; painfulness &c (cause of pain) 830; scourge &c (punishment)
975; damnosa hereditas [Lat.]; white elephant.
     sting, fang, thorn, tang, bramble, brier, nettle.
     poison, toxin; teratogen; leaven, virus venom; arsenic; antimony,
tartar emetic; strychnine, nicotine; miasma, miasm^, mephitis^, malaria,
azote^, sewer gas; pest.
     [poisonous substances, examples] Albany hemp^, arsenious oxide,
arsenious acid; bichloride of mercury; carbonic acid, carbonic gas;
choke damp, corrosive sublimate, fire damp; hydrocyanic acid, cyanide,
Prussic acid, hydrogen cyanide; marsh gas, nux vomica [Lat.], ratsbane^.
     [poisonous plants] hemlock, hellebore, nightshade, belladonna,
henbane, aconite; banewort^, bhang, ganja^, hashish; Upas tree.
     [list of poisonous substances] Toxline (online).
     rust, worm, helminth [Med.], moth, moth and rust, fungus, mildew;
dry rot; canker, cankerworm; cancer; torpedo; viper &c (evil doer) 913;
demon &c 980.
     [Science of poisons] toxicology.
Adj. baneful &c (bad) 649; poisonous &c (unwholesome) 657.
     phr.. bibere venenum in auro [Lat.].
3. Contingent Subservience

664. Safety -- N. safety, security, surety, impregnability;
invulnerability, invulnerableness &c adj.; danger past, danger over;
storm blown over; coast clear; escape &c 671; means of escape; blow
valve, safety valve, release valve, sniffing valve; safeguard,
     guardianship, wardship, wardenship; tutelage, custody,
safekeeping; preservation &c 670; protection, auspices.
     safe-conduct, escort, convoy; guard, shield &c (defense) 717;
guardian angel; tutelary god, tutelary deity, tutelary saint; genius
     protector, guardian; warden, warder; preserver, custodian, duenna
[Sp.], chaperon, third person.
     watchdog, bandog^; Cerberus; watchman, patrolman, policeman; cop
[Slang], dick [Slang], fuzz [Slang], smokey [Slang], peeler [Slang],
zarp [Slang]; sentinel, sentry, scout &c (warning) 668; garrison;
     [Means of safety] refuge &c, anchor &c 666; precaution &c
(preparation) 673; quarantine, cordon sanitaire [Fr.].
     [Sense of security]. confidence &c 858
V. be safe &c adj.; keep one's head above water, tide over, save one's
bacon; ride out the storm, weather the storm; light upon one's feet,
land on one's feet; bear a charmed life; escape &c 671.
     make safe, render safe &c Adj.; protect; take care of &c (care)
459; preserve &c 670; cover, screen, shelter, shroud, flank, ward;
guard &c (defend) 717; secure &c (restrain) 751; entrench, intrench^,
fence round &c (circumscribe) 229; house, nestle, ensconce; take charge
     escort, convoy; garrison; watch, mount guard, patrol.
     make assurance doubly sure &c (caution) 864; take up a loose
thread; take precautions &c (prepare for) 673; double reef topsails.
     seek safety; take shelter, find shelter &c 666.
Adj. safe, secure, sure; in safety, in security; on the safe side;
under the shield of, under the shade of, under the wing of, under the
shadow of one's wing; under cover, under lock and key; out of danger,
out of the woods, out of the meshes, out of harm's way; unharmed,
unscathed; on sure ground, at anchor, high and dry, above water;
unthreatened^, unmolested; protected &c v.; cavendo tutus [Lat.];
panoplied &c (defended) 717 [Obs.].
     snug, seaworthy; weatherproof, waterproof, fireproof.
     defensible, tenable, proof against, invulnerable; unassailable,
unattackable, impenetrable; impregnable, imperdible^; inexpugnable;
     safe and sound &c (preserved) 670; scathless &c (perfect) 650;
unhazarded^; not dangerous &c 665.
     unthreatening, harmless; friendly (cooperative) 709.
     protecting, protective &c v.; guardian, tutelary; preservative &c
670; trustworthy &c 939.
Adv. ex abundanti cautela [Lat.]; with impunity.
Phr. all's well; salva res est [Lat.]; suave mari magno [Lat.]; a
couvert [Fr.]; e terra alterius spectare laborem [Lat.] [Lucretius];
Dieu vous garde [Fr.].

665. Danger -- N. danger, peril, insecurity, jeopardy, risk, hazard,
venture, precariousness, slipperiness; instability &c 149;
defenselessness &c adj., exposure &c (liability) 177; vulnerability;
vulnerable point, heel of Achilles^; forlorn hope &c (hopelessness) 859.
     [Dangerous course] leap in the dark &c (rashness) 863; road to
ruin, faciles descensus Averni [Lat.] [Vergil], hairbreadth escape.
     cause for alarm; source of danger &c 667.
     rock ahead [Approach of danger], breakers ahead; storm brewing;
clouds in the horizon, clouds gathering; warning &c 668; alarm &c 669.
     [Sense of danger] apprehension &c 860.
V. be in danger &c adj.; be exposed to danger, run into danger, incur
danger, encounter danger &c n.; run a risk; lay oneself open to &c
(liability) 177; lean on a broken reed, trust to a broken reed; feel
the ground sliding from under one, have to run for it; have the chances
against one, have the odds against one, face long odds; be in deep
trouble, be between a rock and a hard place.
     hang by a thread, totter; sleep on a volcano, stand on a volcano;
sit on a barrel of gunpowder, live in a glass house.
     bring in danger, place in danger, put in danger, place in
jeopardy, put in jeopardy &c n.; endanger, expose to danger, imperil;
jeopard^, jeopardize; compromise; sail too near the wind &c (rash) 863.
     adventure, risk, hazard, venture, stake, set at hazard; run the
gauntlet &c (dare) 861; engage in a forlorn hope.
     threaten danger &c 909; run one hard; lay a trap for &c (deceive)
Adj. in danger &c n.; endangered &c v.; fraught with danger; dangerous,
hazardous, perilous, parlous, periculous^; unsafe, unprotected &c (safe,
protect) &c 664; insecure.
     untrustworthy; built upon.sand, on a sandy basis; wildcat.
     defenseless, fenceless, guardless^, harborless; unshielded;
vulnerable, expugnable^, exposed; open to &c (liable) 177.
     aux abois [Fr.], at bay; on the wrong side of the wall, on a lee
shore, on the rocks.
     at stake, in question; precarious, critical, ticklish; slippery,
slippy; hanging by a thread &c v.; with a halter round one's neck;
between the hammer and the anvil, between Scylla and Charybdis, between
a rock and a hard place, between the devil and the deep blue sea,
between two fires; on the edge of a precipice, on the brink of a
precipice, on the verge of a precipice, on the edge of a volcano; in
the lion's den, on slippery ground, under fire; not out of the wood.
     unwarned, unadmonished, unadvised, unprepared &c 674; off one's
guard &c (inexpectant) 508 [Obs.].
     tottering; unstable, unsteady; shaky, top-heavy, tumbledown,
ramshackle, crumbling, waterlogged; helpless, guideless^; in a bad way;
reduced to the last extremity, at the last extremity; trembling in the
balance; nodding to its fall &c (destruction) 162.
     threatening &c 909; ominous, illomened; alarming &c (fear) 860;
     adventurous &c (rash) 863, (bold) 861.
Phr. incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim [Lat.]; nam tua res
agitur paries dum proximus ardet [Lat.].

666. [Means of safety.] Refuge -- N. refuge, sanctuary, retreat,
fastness; acropolis; keep, last resort; ward; prison &c 752; asylum,
ark, home, refuge for the destitute; almshouse^; hiding place &c
(ambush) 530; sanctum sanctorum &c (privacy) 893 [Lat.].
     roadstead, anchorage; breakwater, mole, port, haven; harbor,
harbor of refuge; seaport; pier, jetty, embankment, quay.
     covert, cover, shelter, screen, lee wall, wing, shield, umbrella;
barrier; dashboard, dasher [U.S.].
     wall &c (inclosure) 232; fort &c (defense) 717.
     anchor, kedge; grapnel, grappling iron; sheet anchor, killick^;
mainstay; support &c 215; cheek &c 706; ballast.
     jury mast; vent-peg; safety valve, blow-off valve; safety lamp;
lightning rod, lightning conductor; safety belt, airbag, seat belt;
antilock brakes, antiskid tires, snow tires.
     means of escape &c (escape) 671; lifeboat, lifejacket, life buoy,
swimming belt, cork jacket; parachute, plank, steppingstone; emergency
     safeguard &c (protection) 664.
V. seek refuge, take refuge, find refuge &c n.; seek safety, find
safety &c 664; throw oneself into the arms of; break for taller timber
     create a diversion.
Phr. any port in a storm; bibere venenum in auro [Lat.]; valet anchora

667. [Source of danger.] Pitfall -- N. rocks, reefs, coral reef, sunken
rocks, snags; sands, quicksands; syrt^, syrtis^; Goodwin sands, sandy
foundation; slippery ground; breakers, shoals, shallows, bank, shelf,
flat, lee shore, ironbound coast; rock ahead, breakers ahead.
     precipice; maelstrom, volcano; ambush &c 530; pitfall, trapdoor;
trap &c (snare) 545.
     sword of Damocles; wolf at the door, snake in the grass, death in
the pot; latency &c 526.
     ugly customer, dangerous person, le chat qui dort [Fr.];
firebrand, hornet's nest.
Phr. latet anquis in herba [Lat.] [Vergil]; proximus ardet Ucalegon
[Lat.] [Vergil].

668. Warning -- N. warning, early warning, caution, caveat; notice &c
(information) 527; premonition, premonishment^; prediction &c 511;
contraindication, lesson, dehortation^; admonition, monition; alarm &c
     handwriting on the wall, mene mene tekel upharsin, red flag,
yellow flag; fog-signal, foghorn; siren; monitor, warning voice,
Cassandra^, signs of the times, Mother Cary's chickens^, stormy petrel,
bird of ill omen, gathering clouds, clouds in the horizon, death watch.
     watchtower, beacon, signal post; lighthouse &c (indication of
locality) 550.
     sentinel, sentry,, watch, watchman; watch and ward; watchdog,
bandog^, housedog^; patrol, patrolman, vedette^, picket, bivouac, scout,
spy, spial^; undercover agent, mole, plainclothesman; advanced guard,
rear guard; lookout.
     cautiousness &c 864.
     monitor, guard camera, radar, AWACS, spy satellite, spy-in-the-
sky, U2 plane, spy plane.
V. warn, caution; forewarn, prewarn^; admonish, premonish^; give notice,
give warning, dehort^; menace &c (threaten) 909; put on one's guard;
sound the alarm &c 669; croak.
     beware, ware; take warning, take heed at one's peril; keep watch
and ward &c (care) 459.
Adj. warning &c v.; premonitory, monitory, cautionary; admonitory,
admonitive^; sematic [Biol.].
     warned, forewarned &c v.; on one's guard &c (careful) 459,
(cautious) 864.
Adv. in terrorem [Lat.] &c (threat) 909.
Int. beware!, ware!, take care!, look out!, fore (golf), mind what you
are about!, take care what you are about!, mind!,
Phr. ne reveillez pas le chat qui dort [Fr.], don't wake a sleeping
cat; foenum habet in cornu [Lat.]; caveat actor; le silence du people
est la legon des rois [Fr.]; verbum sat sapienti [Lat.], a word to the
wise is sufficient; un averti en vaut deux [Fr.].

669. [Indication of danger.] Alarm -- N. alarm; alarum, larum^, alarm
bell, tocsin, alerts, beat of drum, sound of trumpet, note of alarm,
hue and cry, fire cross, signal of distress; blue lights; war-cry, war-
whoop; warning &c 668; fogsignal, foghorn; yellow flag; danger signal;
red light, red flag; fire bell; police whistle.
     false alarm, cry of wolf; bug-bear, bugaboo.
V. give the alarm, raise the alarm, sound the alarm, turn in the alarm,
beat the alarm, give an alarm, raise an alarm, sound an alarm, turn in
an alarm, beat an alarm &c n.; alarm; warn &c 668; ring the tocsin;
battre la generale [Fr.]; cry wolf.
Adj. alarming &c v..
Int. sauve qui peut! [Fr.], every man for himself! [Fr.Tr.]; qui vive?

670. Preservation -- N. preservation; safe-keeping; conservation &c
(storage) 636; maintenance, support, susteritation^, conservatism; vis
conservatrix^; salvation &c (deliverance) 672.
     [Means of preservation] prophylaxis; preserver, preservative,
additive; antibiotics, antifungals [Med.], biocide; hygiastics^,
hygiantics^; cover, drugget^; cordon sanitaire [Fr.]; canning; ensilage;
tinned goods, canned goods.
     [Superstitious remedies] snake oil, spider webs, cure-all;
laetrile; charm &c 993.
V. preserve, maintain, keep, sustain, support, hold; keep up, keep
alive; refrigerate, keep on ice; not willingly let die; bank up; nurse;
save, rescue; be safe, make safe &c 664; take care of &c (care) 459;
guard &c (defend) 717.
     stare super antiquas vias [Lat.] [Bacon]; hold one's own; hold
one's ground, stand one's ground &c (resist) 719.
     embalm, cure, salt, pickle, season, kyanize^, bottle, pot, tin,
can; sterilize, pasteurize, radiate; dry, lyophilize [Chem], freeze-
dry, concentrate, evaporate; freeze, quick-freeze, deep-freeze; husband
&c (store) 636.
Adj. preserving &c v.; conservative; prophylactic; preservatory^,
preservative; hygienic.
     preserved &c v.; unimpaired, unbroken, uninjured, unhurt,
unsinged^, unmarred; safe, safe and sound; intact, with a whole skin.
Phr. nolumus leges Angliae mutari [Lat.].

671. Escape -- N. escape, scape; avolation^, elopement, flight; evasion
&c (avoidance) 623; retreat; narrow escape, hairbreadth escape; close
call; come off, impunity.
     [Means of escape] loophole &c (opening) 260; path &c 627; refuse
&c 666; vent, vent peg; safety valve; drawbridge, fire escape.
     reprieve &c (deliverance) 672; liberation &c 750.
     refugee &c (fugitive) 623.
V. escape, scape; make one's escape, effect one's escape, make good
one's escape; break jail; get off, get clear off, get well out of;
echapper belle [Fr.], save one's bacon, save one's skin; weather the
storm &c (safe) 664; escape scot-free.
     elude &c, make off &c (avoid) 623; march off &c (go away) 293;
give one the slip; slip through the hands, slip through the fingers;
slip the collar, wriggle out of prison, break out, break loose, break
loose from prison; break away, slip away, get away; find vent, find a
hole to creep out of.
     disappear, vanish.
Adj. escaping, escaped &c v.. stolen away, fled.
Phr. the bird has flown the coop.

672. Deliverance -- N. deliverance, extrication, rescue; reprieve,
reprieval^; respite; liberation &c 750; emancipation; redemption,
salvation; riddance; gaol delivery; redeemableness^.
V. deliver, extricate, rescue, save, emancipate, redeem, ransom; bring
off, bring through; tirer d'affaire [Fr.], get the wheel out of the
rut, snatch from the jaws of death, come to the rescue; rid; retrieve
&c (restore) 660; be rid of, get rid of.
Adj. saved &c v.. extricable, redeemable, rescuable.
Int. to the rescue!,


673. Preparation -- N. preparation; providing &c v.; provision,
providence; anticipation &c (foresight) 510; precaution,
preconcertation^, predisposition; forecast &c (plan) 626; rehearsal,
note of preparation.
     [Putting in order] arrangement &c 60; clearance; adjustment &c 23;
tuning; equipment, outfit, accouterment, armament, array.
     ripening &c v.; maturation, evolution; elaboration, concoction,
digestion; gestation, batching, incubation, sitting.
     groundwork, first stone, cradle, stepping-stone; foundation,
scaffold &c (support) 215; scaffolding, echafaudage [Fr.].
     [Preparation of men] training &c (education) 537; inurement &c
(habit) 613; novitiate; cooking [Preparation of food], cookery;
brewing, culinary art; tilling, plowing, [Preparation of the soil],
sowing; semination^, cultivation.
     [State of being prepared] preparedness, readiness, ripeness,
mellowness; maturity; un impromptu fait a loisir [Fr.].
     [Preparer] preparer, trainer; pioneer, trailblazer; avant-courrier
[Fr.], avant-coureur [Fr.]; voortrekker [Afrik.]; sappers and miners,
pavior^, navvy^; packer, stevedore; warming pan.
V. prepare; get ready, make ready; make preparations, settle
preliminaries, get up, sound the note of preparation.
     set in order, put in order &c (arrange) 60; forecast &c (plan)
626; prepare the ground, plow the ground, dress the ground; till the
soil, cultivate the soil; predispose, sow the seed, lay a train, dig a
mine; lay the groundwork, fix the groundwork, lay the basis, fix the
basis, lay the foundations, fix the foundations; dig the foundations,
erect the scaffolding; lay the first stone &c (begin) 66.
     roughhew; cut out work; block out, hammer out; lick into shape &c
(form) 240.
     elaborate, mature, ripen, mellow, season, bring to maturity;
nurture &c (aid) 707; hatch, cook, brew; temper, anneal, smelt;
barbecue; infumate^; maturate.
     equip, arm, man; fit-out, fit up; furnish, rig, dress, garnish,
betrim^, accouter, array, fettle, fledge; dress up, furbish up, brush
up, vamp up; refurbish; sharpen one's tools, trim one's foils, set,
prime, attune; whet the knife, whet the sword; wind up, screw up;
adjust &c (fit) 27; put in trim, put in train, put in gear, put in
working order, put in tune, put in a groove for, put in harness; pack.
     train &c (teach) 537; inure &c (habituate) 613; breed; prepare for
&c; rehearse; make provision for; take steps, take measures, take
precautions; provide, provide against; beat up for recruits; open the
door to &c (facilitate) 705.
     set one's house in order, make all snug; clear the decks, clear
for action; close one's ranks; shuffle the cards.
     prepare oneself; serve an apprenticeship &c (learn) 539; lay
oneself out for, get into harness, gird up one's loins, buckle on one's
armor, reculer pour mieux sauter [Fr.], prime and load, shoulder arms,
get the steam up, put the horses to.
     guard against, make sure against; forearm, make sure, prepare for
the evil day, have a rod in pickle, provide against a rainy day,
feather one's nest; lay in provisions &c 637; make investments; keep on
     be prepared, be ready &c adj.; hold oneself in readiness, keep
one's powder dry; lie in wait for &c (expect) 507; anticipate &c
(foresee) 510; principiis obstare [Lat.]; veniente occurrere morbo
Adj. preparing &c v.; in preparation, in course of preparation, in
agitation, in embryo, in hand, in train; afoot, afloat; on foot, on the
stocks, on the anvil; under consideration &c (plan) 626; brewing,
batching, forthcoming, brooding; in store for, in reserve.
     precautionary, provident; preparative, preparatory; provisional,
inchoate, under revision; preliminary &c (precedent) 62.
     prepared &c v.; in readiness; ready, ready to one's band, ready
made, ready cut and dried: made to one's hand, handy, on the table; in
gear; in working order, in working gear; snug; in practice.
     ripe, mature, mellow; pukka^; practiced &c (skilled) 698; labored,
elaborate, highly-wrought, smelling of the lamp, worked up.
     in full feather, in best bib and tucker; in harness, at harness;
in the saddle, in arms, in battle array, in war paint; up in arms;
armed at all points, armed to the teeth, armed cap a pie; sword in
hand; booted and spurred.
     in utrumque paratus [Lat.], semper paratus [Lat.]; on the alert &c
(vigilant) 459; at one's post.
Adv. in preparation, in anticipation of; against, for; abroach^.
Phr. a bove majori discit arare minor [Lat.]; looking before and after
[Hamlet], si vis pacem para bellum [Lat.].

674. Nonpreparation -- N. non-preparation, absence of preparation, want
of preparation; inculture^, inconcoction^, improvidence.
     immaturity, crudity; rawness &c adj.; abortion; disqualification.
     [Absence of art] nature, state of nature; virgin soil, unweeded
garden; neglect &c 460.
     rough copy &c (plan) 626; germ &c 153; raw material &c 635.
     improvisation &c (impulse) 612.
V. be unprepared &c adj.; want preparation, lack preparation; lie
fallow; s'embarquer sans biscuits [Fr.]; live from hand to mouth.
     [Render unprepared] dismantle &c (render useless) 645; undress &c
     extemporize, improvise, ad lib.
Adj. unprepared &c (prepare); &c; 673; without preparation &c 673;
incomplete &c 53; rudimental, embryonic, abortive; immature, unripe,
kachcha^, raw, green, crude; coarse; rough cast, rough hewn; in the
rough; unhewn^, unformed, unfashioned^, unwrought, unlabored^, unblown,
uncooked, unboiled, unconcocted, unpolished.
     unhatched, unfledged, unnurtured^, unlicked^, untaught, uneducated,
uncultivated, untrained, untutored, undrilled, unexercised; deckle-
edged^; precocious, premature; undigested, indigested^; unmellowed^,
unseasoned, unleavened.
     unrehearsed, unscripted, extemporaneous, improvised, spontaneous,
ad lib, ad libitem [Lat.].
     fallow; unsown, untilled; natural, in a state of nature;
undressed; in dishabille, en deshabille [Fr.].
     unqualified, disqualified; unfitted; ill-digested; unbegun,
unready, unarranged^, unorganized, unfurnished, unprovided, unequipped,
untrimmed; out of gear, out of order; dismantled &c v.. shiftless,
improvident, unthrifty, thriftless, thoughtless, unguarded; happy-go-
lucky; caught napping &c (inexpectant) 508 [Obs.]; unpremeditated &c
Adv. extempore &c 612.

675. Essay -- N. essay, trial, endeavor, attempt; aim, struggle,
venture, adventure, speculation, coup d'essai [Fr.], debut; probation
&c (experiment) 463.
V. try, essay; experiment &c 463; endeavor, strive; tempt, attempt,
make an attempt; venture, adventure, speculate, take one's chance,
tempt fortune; try one's fortune, try one's luck, try one's hand; use
one's endeavor; feel one's way, grope one's way, pick one's way.
     try hard, push, make a bold push, use one's best endeavor; do
one's best &c (exertion) 686.
Adj. essaying &c v.; experimental &c 463; tentative, empirical,
Adv. experimentally &c adj.; on trial, at a venture; by rule of thumb.
     if one may be so bold.
Phr. aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat.] [Ovid]; chi non s'arrischia
non guadagna [Fr.].

676. Undertaking -- N. undertaking; compact &c 769; adventure, venture;
engagement &c (promise) 768; enterprise, emprise^; pilgrimage; matter in
hand &c (business ) 625; move; first move &c (beginning) 66.
V. undertake; engage in, embark in; launch into, plunge into;
volunteer; apprentice oneself to; engage &c (promise) 768; contract &c
769; take upon oneself, take upon one's shoulders; devote oneself to &c
(determination) 604.
     take up, take in hand; tackle; set about, go about; set to, fall
to, set to work; launch forth; set up shop; put in hand, put in
execution; set forward; break the neck of a business, be in, for; put
one's hand to, put one's foot in; betake oneself to, turn one's hand
to, go to do; begin one's &c 66; broach one's, institute one's &c
(originate) 153; put one's hand to the plow, lay one's hand to the
plow, put one's shoulder to the wheel.
     have in hand &c (business) 625; have many irons in the fire &c
(activity) 682.
Adj. undertaking &c v.; on the anvil &c 625.
Int. here goes!,

677. Use -- N. use; employ, employment; exercise, exercitation^;
application, appliance; adhibition^, disposal; consumption; agency &c
(physical) 170; usufruct; usefulness &c 644; benefit; recourse, resort,
     [Conversion to use] utilization, service, wear.
     [Way of using] usage.
V. use, make use of, employ, put to use; put in action, put in
operation, put in practice; set in motion, set to work.
     ply, work, wield, handle, manipulate; play, play off; exert,
exercise, practice, avail oneself of, profit by, resort to, have
recourse to, recur to, take betake oneself to; take up with, take
advantage of; lay one's hands on, try.
     render useful &c 644; mold; turn to account, turn to use; convert
to use, utilize; work up; call into play, bring into play; put into
requisition; call forth, draw forth; press into service, enlist into
the service; bring to bear upon, devote, dedicate, consecrate, apply,
adhibit^, dispose of; make a handle of, make a cat's-paw of.
     fall back upon, make a shift with; make the most of, make the best
     use up, swallow up; consume, absorb, expend; tax, task, wear, put
to task.
Adj. in use; used &c v.; well-worn, well-trodden.
     useful &c 644; subservient &c (instrumental) 631.

678. Disuse -- N. forbearance, abstinence; disuse; relinquishment &c
782; desuetude &c (want of habit) 614; disusage^.
V. not use; do without, dispense with, let alone, not touch, forbear,
abstain, spare, waive, neglect; keep back, reserve.
     lay up, lay by, lay on the shelf, keep on the shelf, lay up in
ordinary; lay up in a napkin; shelve; set aside, put aside, lay aside;
disuse, leave off, have done with; supersede; discard &c (eject) 297;
dismiss, give warning.
     throw aside &c (relinquish) 782; make away with &c (destroy) 162;
cast overboard, heave overboard, throw overboard; cast to the dogs,
cast to the winds; dismantle &c (Render useless) 645.
     lie unemployed, remain unemployed &c adj.
Adj. not used &c v.; unemployed, unapplied, undisposed of, unspent,
unexercised, untouched, untrodden, unessayed^, ungathered^, unculled;
uncalled for, not required.
     disused &c v.; done with.

679. Misuse -- N. misuse, misusage, misemployment^, misapplication,
     abuse, profanation, prostitution, desecration; waste &c 638.
V. misuse, misemploy, misapply, misappropriate.
     desecrate, abuse, profane, prostitute: waste &c 638; overtask,
overtax, overwork: squander &c 818.
     cut blocks with a razor, employ a steam engine to crack a nut;
catch at a straw.
Adj. misused &c v..
Phr. ludere cum sacris [Lat.].


1. Simple voluntary Action

680. Action -- N. action, performance; doing, &c v.; perpetration;
exercise, excitation; movement, operation, evolution, work; labor &c
(exertion) 686; praxis, execution; procedure &c (conduct) 692;
handicraft; business &c 625; agency &c (power at work) 170.
     deed, act, overt act, stitch, touch, gest transaction^, job,
doings, dealings, proceeding, measure, step, maneuver, bout, passage,
move, stroke, blow; coup, coup de main, coup d'etat [Fr.]; tour de
force &c (display) 882; feat, exploit; achievement &c (completion) 729;
handiwork, workmanship; manufacture; stroke of policy &c (plan) 626.
     actor &c (doer) 690.
V. do, perform, execute; achieve &c (complete) 729; transact, enact;
commit, perpetrate, inflict; exercise, prosecute, carry on, work,
practice, play.
     employ oneself, ply one's task; officiate, have in hand &c
(business) 625; labor &c 686; be at work; pursue a course; shape one's
course &c (conduct) 692.
     act, operate; take action, take steps; strike a blow, lift a
finger, stretch forth one's hand; take in hand &c (undertake) 676; put
oneself in motion; put in practice; carry into execution &c (complete)
729; act upon.
     be an actor &c 690; take a part in, act a part in, play a part in,
perform a part in; participate in; have a hand in, have a finger in the
pie; have to do with; be a party to, be a participator in; bear a hand,
lend a hand; pull an oar, run in a race; mix oneself up with &c
(meddle) 682.
     be in action; come into operation &c (power at work) 170.
Adj. doing &c v.; acting; in action; in harness; on duty; in operation
&c 170.
Adv. in the act, in the midst of, in the thick of; red-handed, in
flagrante delicto [Lat.]; while one's hand is in.
Phr. action is eloquence [Coriolanus]; actions speak louder than words;
actum aiunt ne agas [Terence]; awake, arise, or be forever fall'n
[Paradise Lost]; dii pia facta vident [Lat.] [Ovid]; faire sans dire
[Fr.]; fare fac [It]; fronte capillata post est occasio calva [Lat.];
our deeds are sometimes better than our thoughts [Bailey]; the great
end of life is not knowledge but action [Huxley]; thought is the soul
of act [R.
     Browning]; vivre-ce nest pas respirer c'est agir [Fr.]; we live in
deeds not years [Bailey].

681. Inaction -- N. inaction, passiveness, abstinence from action;
noninterference, nonintervention; Fabian policy, conservative policy;
neglect &c 460.
     inactivity &c 683; rest &c (repose) 687; quiescence &c 265; want
of occupation, inoccupation^; idle hours, time hanging on one's hands,
dolce far niente [It]; sinecure, featherbed, featherbedding, cushy job,
no-show job; soft snap, soft thing.
V. not do, not act, not attempt; be inactive &c 683; abstain from
doing, do nothing, hold, spare; not stir, not move, not lift a finger,
not lift a foot, not lift a peg; fold one's arms, fold one's hands;
leave alone, let alone; let be, let pass, let things take their course,
let it have its way, let well alone, let well enough alone; quieta non
movere [Lat.]; stare super antiquas vias [Lat.]; rest and be thankful,
live and let live; lie rest upon one's oars; laisser aller [Fr.], faire
[Fr.]; stand aloof; refrain &c (avoid) 623, keep oneself from doing;
remit one's efforts, relax one's efforts; desist &c (relinquish) 624;
stop &c (cease) 142; pause &c (be quiet) 265.
     wait, lie in wait, bide one's time, take time, tide it over.
     cool one's heels, kick one's heels; while away the time, while
away tedious hours; pass the time, fill up the time, beguile the time;
talk against time; let the grass grow under one's feet; waste time &c
(inactive) 683.
     lie by, lie on the shelf, lie in ordinary, lie idle, lie to, lie
fallow; keep quiet, slug; have nothing to do, whistle for want of
     undo, do away with; take down, take to pieces; destroy &c 162.
Adj. not doing &c v.; not done &c v.; undone; passive; unoccupied,
unemployed; out of employ, out of work; fallow; desaeuvre [Fr.].
Adv. re infecta [Lat.], at a stand, les bras croisis [Fr.], with folded
arms; with the hands in the pockets, with the hands behind one's back;
pour passer le temps [Fr.].
Int. so let it be!, stop!, &c 142; hands off!,
Phr. cunctando restituit rem [Lat.], If it ain't broke don't fix it
[Bert Lance]; stare decisis [Lat.], let the decision stand;

682. Activity -- N. activity; briskness, liveliness &c adj.; animation,
life, vivacity, spirit, dash, energy; snap, vim.
     nimbleness, agility; smartness, quickness &c adj.; velocity, &c
274; alacrity, promptitude; despatch, dispatch; expedition; haste &c
684; punctuality &c (early) 132.
     eagerness, zeal, ardor, perfervidum aingenium [Lat.], empressement
[Fr.], earnestness, intentness; abandon; vigor &c (physical energy)
171; devotion &c (resolution) 604; exertion &c 686.
     industry, assiduity; assiduousness &c adj.; sedulity;
laboriousness; drudgery &c (labor) 686; painstaking, diligence;
perseverance &c 604.1; indefatigation^; habits of business.
     vigilance &c 459; wakefulness; sleeplessness, restlessness;
insomnia; pervigilium^, insomnium^; racketing.
     movement, bustle, stir, fuss, ado, bother, pottering, fidget,
fidgetiness; flurry &c (haste) 684.
     officiousness; dabbling, meddling; interference, interposition,
intermeddling; tampering with, intrigue.
     press of business, no sinecure, plenty to do, many irons in the
fire, great doings, busy hum of men, battle of life, thick of the
     housewife, busy bee; new brooms; sharp fellow, sharp blade;
devotee, enthusiast, zealot, meddler, intermeddler, intriguer,
busybody, pickthank^; hummer, hustler, live man [U.S.], rustler [U.S.].
V. be active &c adj.; busy oneself in; stir, stir about, stir one's
stumps; bestir oneself, rouse oneself; speed, hasten, peg away, lay
about one, bustle, fuss; raise up, kick up a dust; push; make a push,
make a fuss, make a stir; go ahead, push forward; fight one's way,
elbow one's way; make progress &c 282; toll &c (labor) 686; plod,
persist &c (persevere) 604.1; keep up the ball, keep the pot boiling.
     look sharp; have all one's eyes about one &c (vigilance) 459;
rise, arouse oneself, hustle, get up early, be about, keep moving,
steal a march, kill two birds with one stone; seize the opportunity &c
134, lose no time, not lose a moment, make the most of one's time, not
suffer the grass to grow under one's feet, improve the shining hour,
make short work of; dash off; make haste &c 684; do one's best take
pains &c (exert oneself) 686; do wonders, work wonders.
     have many irons in the fire, have one's hands full, have much on
one's hands; have other things to do, have other fish to fry; be busy;
not have a moment to spare, not have a moment that one can call one's
     have one's fling, run the round of; go all lengths, stick at
nothing, run riot.
     outdo; overdo, overact, overlay, overshoot the mark; make a toil
of a pleasure.
     have a hand in &c (act in) 680; take an active part, put in one's
oar, have a finger in the pie, mix oneself up with, trouble, one's head
about, intrigue; agitate.
     tamper with, meddle, moil; intermeddle, interfere, interpose;
obtrude; poke one's nose in, thrust one's nose in.
Adj. active, brisk, brisk as a lark, brisk as a bee; lively, animated,
vivacious; alive, alive and kicking; frisky, spirited, stirring.
     nimble, nimble as a squirrel; agile; light-footed, nimble-footed;
featly^, tripping.
     quick, prompt, yare^, instant, ready, alert, spry, sharp, smart;
fast &c (swift) 274; quick as a lamplighter, expeditious; awake, broad
awake; go-ahead, live wide-awake &c (intelligent) 498 [U.S.].
     forward, eager, strenuous, zealous, enterprising, in earnest;
resolute &c 604.
     industrious, assiduous, diligent, sedulous, notable, painstaking;
intent &c (attention) 457; indefatigable &c (persevering) 604.1;
unwearied; unsleeping^, never tired; plodding, hard-working &c 686;
businesslike, workaday.
     bustling; restless, restless as a hyena; fussy, fidgety,
pottering; busy, busy as hen with one chicken.
     working, at work, on duty, in harness; up in arms; on one's legs,
at call; up and doing, up and stirring.
     busy, occupied; hard at work, hard at it; up to one's ears in,
full of business, busy as a bee, busy as a one-armed paperhanger.
     meddling &c v.; meddlesome, pushing, officious, overofficious^,
     astir, stirring; agoing^, afoot; on foot; in full swing; eventful;
on the alert, &c (vigilant) 459.
Adv. actively &c adj.; with life and spirit, with might and main &c
686, with haste &c 684, with wings; full tilt, in mediis rebus [Lat.].
Int. be alive, look alive, look sharp!, move on, push on!, keep
moving!, go ahead!, stir your stumps!, age quod agis! [Lat.], jaldi!^,
karo!^, step lively!,
Phr. carpe diem [Lat.], seize the day; &c (opportunity) 134 nulla dies
sine linea [Lat.] [Pliny]; nec mora nec requies [Lat.] [Vergil]; the
plot thickens; No sooner said than done &c (early) 132; veni vidi vici
[Lat.] [Suetonius]; catch a weasel asleep; abends wird der Faule
fleissig [G.]; dictum ac factum [Lat.] [Terence]; schwere Arbeit in der
Jugend ist sanfte Ruhe im Alter [G.], hard work in youth means soft
rest in age; the busy hum of men [Milton].

683. Inactivity -- N. inactivity; inaction &c 681; inertness &c 172;
obstinacy &c 606.
     lull &c (cessation) 142; quiescence &c 265; rust, rustiness.
     idleness, remissness &c adj.; sloth, indolence, indiligence^;
dawdling &c v.. ergophobia^, otiosity^.
     dullness &c adj.; languor; segnity^, segnitude^; lentor^;
sluggishness &c (slowness) 275; procrastination &c (delay) 133; torpor,
torpidity, torpescence^; stupor &c (insensibility) 823; somnolence;
drowsiness &c adj.; nodding &c v.; oscitation^, oscitancy^;
pandiculation^, hypnotism, lethargy; statuvolence heaviness^, heavy
     sleep, slumber; sound sleep, heavy sleep, balmy sleep; Morpheus;
Somnus; coma, trance, ecstasis^, dream, hibernation, nap, doze, snooze,
siesta, wink of sleep, forty winks, snore; hypnology^.
     dull work; pottering; relaxation &c (loosening) 47; Castle of
     [Cause of inactivity] lullaby, sedative, tranquilizer, hypnotic,
sleeping pill, relaxant, anaesthetic, general anaesthetic &c 174;
     [person who is inactive] idler, drone, droil^, dawdle, mopus^; do-
little faineant [Fr.], dummy, sleeping partner; afternoon farmer;
truant &c (runaway) 623; bummer^, loafer, goldbrick, goldbicker,
lounger, lazzarone [It]; lubber, lubbard^; slow coach &c (slow.) 275;
opium eater, lotus eater; slug; lag^, sluggard, slugabed; slumberer,
dormouse, marmot; waiter on Providence, fruges consumere natus [Lat.].
V. be inactive &c adj.; do nothing &c 681; move slowly &c 275; let the
grass grow under one's feet; take one's time, dawdle, drawl, droil^,
lag, hang back, slouch; loll, lollop^; lounge, poke, loaf, loiter; go to
sleep over; sleep at one's post, ne battre que d'une aile [Fr.].
     take it easy, take things as they come; lead an easy life,
vegetate, swim with the stream, eat the bread of idleness; loll in the
lap of luxury, loll in the lap of indolence; waste time, consume time,
kill time, lose time; burn daylight, waste the precious hours.
     idle away time, trifle away time, fritter away time, fool away
time; spend time in, take time in; peddle, piddle; potter, pudder^,
dabble, faddle fribble^, fiddle-faddle; dally, dilly-dally.
     sleep, slumber, be asleep; hibernate; oversleep; sleep like a top,
sleep like a log, sleep like a dormouse; sleep soundly, heavily; doze,
drowze^, snooze, nap; take a nap &c n.; dream; snore one's best; settle
to sleep, go to sleep, go off to sleep; doze off, drop off; fall
asleep; drop asleep; close the eyes, seal up the eyes, seal up eyelids;
weigh down the eyelids; get sleep, nod, yawn; go to bed, turn; get some
z's, stack z's [Coll.].
     languish, expend itself, flag, hang fire; relax.
     render idle &c adj.; sluggardize^; mitigate &c 174.
Adj. inactive; motionless &c 265; unoccupied &c (doing nothing) 681;
     indolent, lazy, slothful, idle, lusk^, remiss, slack, inert,
torpid, sluggish, otiose, languid, supine, heavy, dull, leaden,
lumpish^; exanimate^, soulless; listless; drony^, dronish^; lazy as
Ludlam's dog.
     dilatory, laggard; lagging &c v.; slow &c 275; rusty, flagging;
lackadaisical, maudlin, fiddle-faddle; pottering &c v.; shilly-shally
&c (irresolute) 605.
     sleeping, &c v.; asleep; fast asleep, dead asleep, sound asleep;
in a sound sleep; sound as a top, dormant, comatose; in the arms of
Morpheus, in the lap of Morpheus.
     sleepy, sleepful^; dozy^, drowsy, somnolent, torpescent^, lethargic,
lethargical^; somnifacient^; statuvolent^, statuvolic^; heavy, heavy with
sleep; napping; somnific^, somniferous; soporous^, soporific,
soporiferous^; hypnotic; balmy, dreamy; unawakened, unawakened.
     sedative &c 174.
Adv. inactively &c adj.; at leisure &c 685.
Phr. the eyes begin to draw straws; bankrupt of life yet prodigal of
ease [Dryden]; better 50 years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay
[Tennyson]; idly busy rolls their world away [Goldsmith]; the mystery
of folded sleep [Tennyson]; the timely dew of sleep [Milton]; thou
driftest gently down the tides of sleep [Longfellow]; tired Nature's
sweet restorer, balmy sleep [Young].

684. Haste -- N. haste, urgency; despatch, dispatch; acceleration,
spurt, spirt^, forced march, rush, dash; speed, velocity &c 274;
precipitancy, precipitation, precipitousness &c adj.; impetuosity;
brusquerie^; hurry, drive, scramble, bustle, fuss, fidget, flurry,
flutter, splutter.
V. haste, hasten; make haste, make a dash &c n.; hurry on, dash on,
whip on, push on, press on, press forward; hurry, skurry^, scuttle
along, barrel along, bundle on, dart to and fro, bustle, flutter,
scramble; plunge, plunge headlong; dash off; rush &c (violence) 173;
     bestir oneself &c (be active) 682; lose no time, lose not a
moment, lose not an instant; make short work of; make the best of one's
time, make the best of one's way.
     be precipitate &c adj.; jump at, be in haste, be in a hurry &c n.;
have no time, have not a moment to lose, have not a moment to spare;
work against time.
     quicken &c 274; accelerate, expedite, put on, precipitate, urge,
whip; railroad.
Adj. hasty, hurried, brusque; scrambling, cursory, precipitate,
headlong, furious, boisterous, impetuous, hotheaded; feverish, fussy;
     in haste, in a hurry &c n.; in hot haste, in all haste;
breathless, pressed for time, hard pressed, urgent.
Adv. with haste, with all haste, with breathless speed; in haste &c
adj.; apace &c (swiftly) 274; amain^; all at once &c (instantaneously)
113; at short notice &c; immediately &c (early) 132; posthaste; by
cable, by express, by telegraph, by forced marches.
     hastily, precipitately &c adj.; helter-skelter, hurry-skurry^,
holus-bolus; slapdash, slap-bang; full-tilt, full drive; heels over
head, head and shoulders, headlong, a corps perdu [Fr.].
     by fits and starts, by spurts; hop skip and jump.
Phr. [panic] sauve qui peut [Fr.], every man for himself [Fr.Tr.],
devil take the hindmost, no time to be lost; no sooner said than done
&c (early) 132; a word and a blow; haste makes waste, maggiore fretta
minore atto [It]; ohne Hast aber ohne Rast [G.], [Goethe's motto];
stand not upon the order of your going but go at once [Macbeth]; swift,
swift, you dragons of the night [Cymbeline].

685. Leisure -- N. leisure; convenience; spare time, spare hours, spare
moments; vacant hour; time, time to spare, time on one's hands;
holiday, relaxation &c (rest) 687; otium cum dignitate [Lat.] [Cicero],
     no hurry; no big rush; no deadline.
V. have leisure &c n.; take one's time, take one's leisure, take one's
ease; repose &c 687; move slowly &c 275; while away the time &c
(inaction) 681; be master of one's time, be an idle man.
Adj. leisure, leisurely; slow &c 275; deliberate, quiet, calm,
undisturbed; at leisure, at one's ease, at loose ends, at a loose end.
Adv. unhurriedly, deliberately, without undue haste; anytime.
Phr. time hanging heavy on one's hands; eile mit Weile [G.].

686. Exertion -- N. exertion, effort, strain, tug, pull, stress, throw,
stretch, struggle, spell, spurt, spirt^; stroke of work, stitch of work.
     a strong pull a long pull and a pull all together; dead lift;
heft; gymnastics; exercise, exercitation^; wear and tear; ado; toil and
trouble; uphill work, hard work, warm work; harvest time.
     labor, work, toil, travail, manual labor, sweat of one's brow,
swink^, drudgery, slavery, fagging^, hammering; limae labor [Lat.];
industry, industriousness, operoseness^, operosity^.
     trouble, pains, duty; resolution &c 604; energy &c (physical) 171.
V. exert oneself; exert one's energies, tax one's energies; use
     labor, work, toil, moil, sweat, fag, drudge, slave, drag a
lengthened chain, wade through, strive, stretch a long arm; pull, tug,
ply; ply the oar, tug at the oar; do the work; take the laboring oar
bestir oneself (be active) 682; take trouble, trouble oneself.
     work hard; rough it; put forth one's strength, put forth a strong
arm; fall to work, bend the bow; buckle to, set one's shoulder to the
wheel &c (resolution) 604; work like a horse, work like a cart horse,
work like a galley slave, work like a coal heaver; labor day and night,
work day and night; redouble one's efforts; do double duty; work double
hours, work double tides; sit up, burn the candle at both ends; stick
to &c (persevere) 604.1; work one's way, fight one's way, lay about
one, hammer at.
     take pains; do one's best, do one's level best, do one's utmost;
give one hundred percent, do the best one can, do all one can, do all
in one's power, do as much as in one lies, do what lies in one's power;
use one's best endeavor, use one's utmost endeavor; try one's best, try
one's utmost; play one's best card; put one's best leg foremost, put
one's right leg foremost; have one's whole soul in his work, put all
one's strength into, strain every nerve; spare no efforts, spare no
pains; go all lengths; go through fire and water &c (resolution) 604;
move heaven and earth, leave no stone unturned.
Adj. laboring &c v.. laborious, operose^, elaborate; strained; toilsome,
troublesome, wearisome; uphill; herculean, gymnastic, palestric^.
     hard-working, painstaking; strenuous, energetic.
     hard at work, on the stretch.
Adv. laboriously &c adj.; lustily; pugnis et calcibus [Lat.]; with
might and main, with all one's might, with a strong hand, with a sledge
hammer, with much ado; to the best of one's abilities, totis viribus
[Lat.], vi et armis [Lat.], manibus pedibusque [Lat.], tooth and nail,
unguibus et rostro [Lat.], hammer and tongs, heart and soul; through
thick and thin &c (perseverance) 604.1.
     by the sweat of one's brow, suo Marte.
Phr. aide-toi le ciel t'aidera [Fr.]; and still be doing, never done
[Butler]; buen principio la mitad es hecha [Sp.]; cosa ben fatta e'
fatta due volie [It]; it is better to wear out than to rust out [Bp.
     Hornel]; labor omnia vincit [Lat.] [Vergil]; labor, wide as the
earth, has its summit in Heaven [Carlyle]; le travail du corps delivre
des peines de l'esprit [Fr.]; manu forti [Lat.]; ora et labora [Lat.].

687. Repose -- N. repose, rest, silken repose; sleep &c 683.
     relaxation, breathing time; halt, stay, pause &c (cessation) 142;
     day of rest, dies non, Sabbath, Lord's day, holiday, red-letter
day, vacation, recess.
V. repose; rest, rest and be thankful; take a rest, take one's ease,
take it easy.
     relax, unbend, slacken; take breath &c (refresh) 689; rest upon
one's oars; pause &c (cease) 142; stay one's hand.
     lie down; recline, recline on a bed of down, recline on an easy
chair; go to rest, go to bed, go to sleep &c 683.
     take a holiday, shut up shop; lie fallow &c (inaction) 681.
Adj. reposing &c v. [of people]; relaxed &c v.; unstrained.
     [of materials and people] unstressed.
Adv. at rest.
Phr. The best of men have ever loved repose [Thompson]; to repair our
nature with comforting repose [Henry VIII].

688. Fatigue -- N. fatigue; weariness &c 841; yawning, drowsiness &c
683; lassitude, tiredness, fatigation^, exhaustion; sweat; dyspnoea.
     anhelation, shortness of breath; faintness; collapse, prostration,
swoon, fainting, deliquium [Lat.], syncope, lipothymy^; goneness^.
V. be fatigued &c adj.; yawn &c (get sleepy) 683; droop, sink, flag;
lose breath, lose wind; gasp, pant, puff, blow, drop, swoon, faint,
     fatigue, tire, weary, irk, flag, jade, harass, exhaust, knock up,
wear out, prostrate.
     tax, task, strain; overtask, overwork, overburden, overtax,
Adj. fatigued, tired &c v.; weary &c 841; drowsy &c 683; drooping &c
v.; haggard; toilworn^, wayworn:, footsore, surbated^, weather-beaten;
faint; done up, used up, knocked up; bushed [U.S.]; exhausted,
prostrate, spent; overtired, overspent, overfatigued; unrefreshed^,
     worn, worn out; battered, shattered, pulled down, seedy, altered.
     breathless, windless; short of breath, out of breath, short of
wind; blown, puffing and blowing; short-breathed; anhelose^; broken
winded, short-winded; dyspnaeal^, dyspnaeic^.
     ready to drop, all in, more dead than alive, dog-weary, walked off
one's legs, tired to death, on one's last legs, played out, hors de
combat [Fr.].
     fatiguing &c v.; tiresome, irksome, wearisome; weary, trying.

689. Refreshment -- N. bracing &c v.; recovery of strength,
recuperation &c 159; restoration, revival &c 660; repair, refection,
refocillation^, refreshment, regalement^, bait; relief &c 834.
     break, spell.
     refreshment stand; refreshments; [Refreshments], ice cream, cold
soda, soda pop, hot dogs (food).
V. brace &c (strengthen) 159; reinvigorate; air, freshen up, refresh,
recruit; repair &c (restore) 660; fan, refocillate^; refresh the inner
     breathe, respire; drink in the ozone; take a break, take a
breather, take five, draw breath, take a deep breath, take breath,
gather breath, take a long breath, regain breath, recover breath; get
better, raise one's head; recover one's strength, regain one's
strength, renew one's strength &c 159; perk up, get one's second wind.
     come to oneself &c (revive) 660; feel refreshed, feel like a giant
Adj. refreshing &c v.; recuperative &c 660.
     refreshed &c v.; untired^, unwearied.

690. Agent -- N. doer, actor, agent, performer, perpetrator, operator;
executor, executrix; practitioner, worker, stager.
     bee, ant, working bee, termite, white ant; laboring oar, servant
of all work, factotum.
     workman, artisan; craftsman, handicraftsman; mechanic, operative;
working man; laboring man; demiurgus, hewers of wood and drawers of
water, laborer, navvy^; hand, man, day laborer, journeyman, charwoman,
hack; mere tool &c 633; beast of burden, drudge, fag; lumper^,
     maker, artificer, artist, wright, manufacturer, architect,
builder, mason, bricklayer, smith, forger, Vulcan; carpenter; ganger,
platelayer; blacksmith, locksmith, sailmaker, wheelwright.
     machinist, mechanician, engineer.
     sempstress^, semstress^, seamstress; needlewoman^, workwoman;
tailor, cordwainer^.
     minister &c (instrument) 631; servant &c 746; representative &c
(commissioner) 758, (deputy) 759.
     coworker, party to, participator in, particeps criminis [Lat.],
dramatis personae [Lat.]; personnel.
Phr. quorum pars magna fui [Lat.] [Vergil]; faber est quisque fortunae
suae [Lat.].

691. Workshop -- N. workshop, workhouse, workplace, shop, place of
business; manufactory, mill, plant, works, factory; cabinet, studio;
office, branch office bureau, atelier.
     [specific types of workplace: list], hive, hive of industry;
nursery; hothouse, hotbed; kitchen; mint, forge, loom; dock, dockyard;
alveary^; armory; laboratory, lab, research institute; refinery;
cannery; power plant; beauty parlor; beehive, bindery, forcing pit,
nailery^, usine^, slip, yard, wharf; foundry, foundery^; furnace;
vineyard; crucible, alembic, caldron, matrix.
Adj. at work, at the office, at the shop; working.

2. Complex Voluntary Action

692. Conduct -- N. conduct [actions of an individual agent]; behavior;
deportment, comportment; carriage, maintien^, demeanor, guise, bearing,
manner, observance.
     dealing, transaction &c (action) 680; business &c 625.
     tactics, game, game plan, policy, polity; generalship,
statesmanship, seamanship; strategy, strategics^; plan &c 626.
     management; husbandry; housekeeping, housewifery; stewardship;
menage; regime; economy, economics; political economy; government &c
(direction) 693.
     execution, manipulation, treatment, campaign, career, life,
course, walk, race, record.
     course of conduct, line of conduct, line of action, line of
proceeding; role; process, ways, practice, procedure, modus operandi,
MO, method of operating; method &c; path &c 627.
V. transact [cause to occur], execute; despatch, dispatch; proceed
with, discharge; carry on, carry through, carry out, carry into effect,
put into effect; work out; go through, get through; enact; put into
practice; do &c 680; officiate &c 625.
     bear oneself, behave oneself, comport oneself, demean oneself,
carry oneself, conduct oneself, acquit oneself.
     run a race, lead a life, play a game; take a course, adopt a
course; steer one's course, shape one's course; play one's paint, play
one's cards, shift for oneself; paddle one's own canoe; bail one's own
     conduct; manage, supervise &c (direct) 693.
     participate &c 680.
     deal with, have to do with; treat, handle a case; take steps, take
Adj. conducting &c v.. strategical, businesslike, practical, executive.

693. Direction -- N. direction; management, managery^; government,
gubernation^, conduct, legislation, regulation, guidance; bossism
[U.S.]; legislature; steerage, pilotage; reins, reins of government;
helm, rudder, needle, compass; guiding star, load star, lode star, pole
star; cynosure.
     supervision, superintendence; surveillance, oversight; eye of the
master; control, charge; board of control &c (council) 696; command &c
(authority) 737.
     premiership, senatorship; director &c 694; chair, portfolio.
     statesmanship; statecraft, kingcraft^, queencraft^.
     ministry, ministration; administration; stewardship, proctorship^;
     [person who directs] director &c 694.
V. direct, manage, govern, conduct; order, prescribe, cut out work for;
bead, lead; lead the way, show the way; take the lead, lead on;
regulate, guide, steer, pilot; tackle, take the helm, be at the helm;
have the reins, handle the reins, hold the reins, take the reins;
drive, tool.
     superintend, supervise; overlook, control, keep in order, look
after, see to, legislate for; administer, ministrate^; matronize^; have
the care of, have the charge of; be in charge of, have charge of, take
the direction; boss, boss one around; pull the strings, pull the wires;
rule &c (command) 737; have the direction, hold office, hold the
portfolio; preside, preside at the board; take the chair, occupy the
chair, be in the chair; pull the stroke oar.
Adj. directing &c v.; hegemonic.
Adv. at the helm, at the head of.

694. Director -- N. director, manager, governor, rector, comptroller.
     superintendent, supervisor, straw boss; intendant; overseer,
overlooker^; supercargo^, husband, inspector, visitor, ranger, surveyor,
aedile^; moderator, monitor, taskmaster; master &c 745; leader,
ringleader, demagogue, corypheus, conductor, fugleman^, precentor^,
bellwether, agitator; caporal^, choregus^, collector, file leader,
flugelman^, linkboy^.
     guiding star &c (guidance) 693; adviser &c 695; guide &c
(information) 527; pilot; helmsman; steersman, steermate^; wire-puller.
     driver, whip, Jehu, charioteer; coachman, carman, cabman;
postilion, vetturino^, muleteer, arriero^, teamster; whipper in.
     head, head man, head center, boss; principal, president, speaker;
chair, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson; captain &c (master) 745;
superior; mayor &c (civil authority) 745; vice president, prime
minister, premier, vizier, grand vizier, eparch^.
     officer, functionary, minister, official, red-tapist^, bureaucrat;
man in office, Jack in office; office bearer; person in authority &c
     statesman, strategist, legislator, lawgiver, politician, statist^,
statemonger^; Minos, Draco; arbiter &c (judge) 967; boss [U.S.],
political dictator.
     board &c (council) 696.
     secretary, secretary of state; Reis Effendi; vicar &c (deputy)
759; steward, factor; agent &c 758; bailiff, middleman; foreman, clerk
of works; landreeve^; factotum, major-domo^, seneschal, housekeeper,
shepherd, croupier; proctor, procurator.
Adv. ex officio.

695. Advice -- N. advice, counsel, adhortation^; word to the wise;
suggestion, submonition^, recommendation, advocacy; advisement.
     exhortation &c (persuasion) 615; expostulation &c (dissuasion)
616; admonition &c (warning) 668; guidance &c (direction) 693.
     instruction, charge, injunction, obtestation^; Governor's message,
President's message; King's message, Queen's speech; message, speech
from the throne.
     adviser, prompter; counsel, counselor; monitor, mentor, Nestor,
magnus Apollo [Lat.], senator; teacher &c 540.
     guide, manual, chart &c (information) 527.
     physician, doctor, leech^, archiater^.
     arbiter &c (judge) 967.
     reference, referment^; consultation, conference, pourparler.
V. advise, counsel; give advice, give counsel, give a piece of advice
[Fr.]; suggest, prompt, submonish^, recommend, prescribe, advocate;
exhort &c (persuade) 615.
     enjoin, enforce, charge, instruct, call; call upon &c (request)
765; dictate.
     expostulate &c (dissuade) 616; admonish &c (warn) 668.
     advise with; lay heads together, consult together; compare notes;
hold a council, deliberate, be closeted with.
     confer, consult, refer to, call in; take advice, follow advice; be
advised by, have at one's elbow, take one's cue from.
Adj. recommendatory; hortative &c (persuasive) 615; dehortatory &c
(dissuasive) 616 [Obs.]; admonitory &c (warning) 668.
Int. go to!,
Phr. give every man thine ear but few thy voice [Hamlet]; I pray thee
cease thy counsel [Much Ado About Nothing]; my guide, philosopher, and
friend [Pope]; 'twas good advice and meant, my son be good [Crabbe];
verbum sat sapienti [Lat.], a word to the wise is sufficient; vive
memor leti [Lat.]; we, ask advice but we mean approbation [Colton].

696. Council -- N. council, committee, subcommittee, comitia [Lat.],
court, chamber, cabinet, board, bench, staff.
     senate, senatus [Lat.], parliament, chamber of deputies,
directory, reichsrath [G.], rigsdag, cortes [Sp.], storthing^,
witenagemote^, junta, divan, musnud^, sanhedrim; classis^; Amphictyonic
council^; duma [Rus.], house of representatives; legislative assembly,
legislative council; riksdag^, volksraad [G.], witan^, caput^,
consistory, chapter, syndicate; court of appeal &c (tribunal) 966;
board of control, board of works; vestry; county council, local board.
     audience chamber, council chamber, state chamber.
     cabinet council, privy council; cockpit, convocation, synod,
congress, convention, diet, states-general.
     [formal gathering of members of a council: script] assembly,
caucus, conclave, clique, conventicle; meeting, sitting, seance,
conference, convention, exhibition, session, palaver, pourparler,
durbar^, house; quorum; council fire [U.S.], powwow [U.S.], primary
     meeting, assemblage &c 72.
     [person who is member of a council] member; senator; member of
parliament, M.P.; councilor, representative of the people; assemblyman,
congressman; councilman, councilwoman, alderman, freeholder.
V. assemble, gather together, meet (assemblage) 72; confer, caucus,
hold council; huddle [Coll.].
Adj. senatorial, curule^; congressional, parliamentary; legislative,
law-making; regulatory; deliberative.

697. Precept -- N. precept, direction, instruction, charge; prescript,
prescription; recipe, receipt; golden rule; maxim &c 496.
     rule, canon, law, code, corpus juris [Lat.], lex scripta [Lat.],
act, statute, rubric, stage direction, regulation; form, formula,
formulary; technicality; canon law; norm.
     order &c (command) 741.

698. Skill -- N. skill, skillfulness, address; dexterity,
dexterousness; adroitness, expertness &c adj.; proficiency, competence,
technical competence, craft, callidity^, facility, knack, trick,
sleight; mastery, mastership, excellence, panurgy^; ambidexterity,
ambidextrousness^; sleight of hand &c (deception) 545.
     seamanship, airmanship, marksmanship, horsemanship; rope-dancing.
     accomplishment, acquirement, attainment; art, science;
technicality, technology; practical knowledge, technical knowledge.
     knowledge of the world, world wisdom, savoir faire [Fr.]; tact;
mother wit &c (sagacity) 498; discretion &c (caution) 864; finesse;
craftiness &c (cunning) 702; management &c (conduct) 692; self-help.
     cleverness, talent, ability, ingenuity, capacity, parts, talents,
faculty, endowment, forte, turn, gift, genius; intelligence &c 498;
sharpness, readiness &c (activity) 682; invention &c 515; aptness,
aptitude; turn for, capacity for, genius for; felicity, capability,
curiosa felicitas [Lat.], qualification, habilitation.
     proficient &c 700.
     masterpiece, coup de maitre [Fr.], chef d'euvre [Fr.], tour de
force; good stroke &c (plan) 626.
V. be skillful &c adj.; excel in, be master of; have a turn for &c n..
know what's what, know a hawk from a handsaw, know what one is about,
know on which side one's bread is buttered, know what's o'clock; have
cut one's eye teeth, have cut one's wisdom teeth.
     see one's way, see where the wind lies, see which way the wind
blows; have all one's wits about one, have one's hand in; savoir vivre
[Fr.]; scire quid valeant humeri quid ferre recusent [Lat.].
     look after the main chance; cut one's coat according to one's
cloth; live by one's wits; exercise one's discretion, feather the oar,
sail near the wind; stoop to conquer &c (cunning) 702; play one's cards
well, play one's best card; hit the right nail on the head, put the
saddle on the right horse.
     take advantage of, make the most of; profit by &c (use) 677; make
a hit &c (succeed) 731; make a virtue of necessity; make hay while the
sun shines &c (occasion) 134.
Adj. skillful, dexterous, adroit, expert, apt, handy, quick, deft,
ready, gain; slick, smart &c (active) 682; proficient, good at, up to,
at home in, master of, a good hand at, au fait, thoroughbred, masterly,
crack, accomplished; conversant &c (knowing) 490.
     experienced, practiced, skilled, hackneyed; up in, well up in; in
practice, in proper cue; competent, efficient, qualified, capable,
fitted, fit for, up to the mark, trained, initiated, prepared, primed,
     clever, cute, able, ingenious, felicitous, gifted, talented,
endowed; inventive &c 515; shrewd, sharp, on the ball &c (intelligent)
498; cunning &c 702; alive to, up to snuff, not to be caught with
chaff; discreet.
     neat-handed, fine-fingered, nimble-fingered, ambidextrous, sure-
footed; cut out for, fitted for.
     technical, artistic, scientific, daedalian^, shipshape; workman-
like, business-like, statesman-like.
Adv. skillfully &c adj.; well &c 618; artistically; with skill, with
consummate skill; secundum artem [Lat.], suo Marte; to the best of
one's abilities &c (exertion) 686.
Phr. ars celare artem [Lat.]; artes honorabit [Lat.]; celui qui veut
celui-la peut [Fr.]; c'est une grande habilite que de savoir cacher
sonhabilite [Fr.]; expertus metuit [Lat.] [Horace]; es bildet ein
Talent sich in der Stille sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt
[G.]; heart to conceive, the understanding to direct, or the hand to
execute; [Junius]; if you have lemons, make lemonade.

699. Unskillfulness -- N. unskillfulness &c adj.; want of skill &c 698;
incompetence, incompentency^; inability, infelicity, indexterity^,
inexperience; disqualification, unproficiency^; quackery.
     folly, stupidity &c 499; indiscretion &c (rashness) 863;
thoughtlessness &c (inattention) 458 (neglect) 460; sabotage.
     mismanagement, misconduct; impolicy^; maladministration; misrule,
misgovernment, misapplication, misdirection, misfeasance; petticoat
     absence of rule, rule of thumb; bungling &c v.; failure &c 732;
screw loose: too many cooks.
     blunder &c (mistake) 495; etourderie gaucherie [Fr.], act of
folly, balourdise^; botch, botchery^; bad job, sad work.
     sprat sent out to catch a whale, much ado about nothing, wild-
goose chase.
     bungler &c 701; fool &c 501.
V. be unskillful &c adj.; not see an inch beyond one's nose; blunder,
bungle, boggle, fumble, botch, bitch, flounder, stumble, trip; hobble
&c 275; put one's foot in it; make a mess of, make hash of, make sad
work of; overshoot the mark.
     play tricks with, play Puck, mismanage, misconduct, misdirect,
misapply, missend.
     stultify oneself, make a fool of oneself, commit oneself; act
foolishly; play the fool; put oneself out of court; lose control, lose
control of oneself, lose one's head, lose one's cunning.
     begin at the wrong end; do things by halves &c (not complete) 730;
make two bites of a cherry; play at cross purposes; strain at a gnat
and swallow a camel &c (caprice) 608; put the cart before the horse;
lock the stable door when the horse is stolen &c (too late) 135.
     not know what one is about, not know one's own interest, not know
on which side one's bread is buttered; stand in one's own light,
quarrel with one's bread and butter, throw a stone in one's own garden,
kill the goose which lays the golden eggs, pay dear for one's whistle,
cut one's own throat, bum one's fingers; knock one's head against a
stone wall, beat one's head against a stone wall; fall into a trap,
catch a Tartar, bring the house about one's ears; have too many eggs in
one basket (imprudent) 863, have too many irons in the fire.
     mistake &c 495; take the shadow for the substance &c (credulity)
486; bark up the wrong tree; be in the wrong box, aim at a pigeon and
kill a crow; take the wrong pig by the tail, get the wrong pig by the
tail, get the wrong sow by the ear, get the dirty end of the stick; put
the saddle on the wrong horse, put a square peg into a round hole, put
new wine into old bottles.
     cut blocks with a razor; hold a farthing candle to the sun &c
(useless) 645; fight with a shadow, grasp at a shadow; catch at straws,
lean on a broken reed, reckon without one's host, pursue a wild goose
chase; go on a fool's goose chase, sleeveless errand; go further and
fare worse; lose one's way, miss one's way; fail &c 732.
Adj. unskillful &c 698; inexpert; bungling &c v.; awkward, clumsy,
unhandy, lubberly, gauche, maladroit; left-handed, heavy-handed;
slovenly, slatternly; gawky.
     adrift, at fault.
     inapt, unapt; inhabile [Fr.]; untractable^, unteachable; giddy &c
(inattentive) 458; inconsiderate &c (neglectful) 460; stupid &c 499;
inactive &c 683; incompetent; unqualified, disqualified, ill-qualified;
unfit; quackish; raw, green, inexperienced, rusty, out of practice.
     unaccustomed, unused, untrained &c 537, uninitiated, unconversant
&c (ignorant) 491 [Obs.]; shiftless; unstatesmanlike.
     unadvised; ill-advised, misadvised; ill-devised, ill-imagined,
ill-judged, ill-contrived, ill-conducted; unguided, misguided;
misconducted, foolish, wild; infelicitous; penny wise and pound foolish
&c (inconsistent) 608.
Phr. one's fingers being all thumbs; the right hand forgets its
cunning; il se noyerait dans une goutte d'eau [Fr.]; incidit in Scyllam
qui vult vitare Charybdim [Lat.]; out of the frying pan into the fire;
non omnia possumus omnes [Lat.] [Vergil].

700. Proficient -- N. proficient, expert, adept, dab; dabster^,
crackerjack; connoisseur &c (scholar) 492; master, master hand; prima
donna [Sp.], first fiddle, top gun, chef de cuisine, top sawyer;
protagonist; past master; mahatma.
     picked man; medallist, prizeman^.
     veteran; old stager, old campaigner, old soldier, old file, old
hand; man of business, man of the world.
     nice hand, good hand, clean hand; practiced hand, experienced eye,
experienced hand; marksman; good shot, dead shot, crack shot;
ropedancer, funambulist^, acrobat; cunning man; conjuror &c (deceiver)
548; wizard &c 994.
     genius; mastermind, master head, master spirit.
     cunning blade, sharp blade, sharp fellow; jobber; cracksman &c
(thief) 792 [Obs.]; politician, tactician, strategist.
     pantologist^, admirable Crichton, Jack of all trades; prodigy of

701. Bungler -- N. bungler; blunderer, blunderhead^; marplot, fumbler,
lubber, duffer, dauber, stick; bad hand, poor hand, poor shot;
     no conjurer, flat, muff, slow coach, looby^, lubber, swab; clod,
yokel, awkward squad, blanc-bec; galoot^.
     land lubber; fresh water sailor, fair weather sailor; horse
marine; fish out of water, ass in lion's skin, jackdaw in peacock's
feathers; quack &c (deceiver) 548; lord of misrule.
     sloven, slattern, trapes^.
     amateur, novice, greenhorn (learner) 541.
Phr. il n'a pas invente' la poudre [Fr.]; he will never set the Thames
on fire; acierta errando [Lat.]; aliquis in omnibus nullus in singulis

702. Cunning -- N. cunning, craft; cunningness^, craftiness &c adj.;
subtlety, artificiality; maneuvering &c v.; temporization;
     chicane, chicanery; sharp practice, knavery, jugglery^; concealment
&c 528; guile, doubling, duplicity &c (falsehood) 544; foul play.
     diplomacy, politics; Machiavelism; jobbery, backstairs influence.
     art, artifice; device, machination; plot &c (plan) 626; maneuver,
stratagem, dodge, sidestep, artful dodge, wile; trick, trickery &c
(deception) 545; ruse, ruse de guerre [Fr.]; finesse, side blow, thin
end of the wedge, shift, go by, subterfuge, evasion; white lie &c
(untruth) 546; juggle, tour de force; tricks of the trade, tricks upon
travelers; espieglerie [Fr.]; net, trap &c 545.
     Ulysses, Machiavel, sly boots, fox, reynard; Scotchman; Jew,
Yankee; intriguer, intrigant^; floater [U.S.], Indian giver [U.S.],
keener [U.S.], repeater [U.S.].
V. be cunning &c adj.; have cut one's eyeteeth; contrive &c (plan) 626;
live by one's wits; maneuver; intrigue, gerrymander, finesse, double,
temporize, stoop to conquer, reculer pour mieux sauter [Fr.],
circumvent, steal a march upon; overreach &c 545; throw off one's
guard; surprise &c 508; snatch a verdict; waylay, undermine, introduce
the thin end of the wedge; play a deep game, play tricks with; ambiguas
in vulgum spargere voces [Lat.]; flatter, make things pleasant; have an
ax to grind.
     dodge, sidestep, bob and weave.
Adj. cunning, crafty, artful; skillful &c 698; subtle, feline, vulpine;
cunning as a fox, cunning as a serpent; deep, deep laid; profound;
designing, contriving; intriguing &c v.; strategic, diplomatic,
politic, Machiavelian, timeserving^; artificial; tricky, tricksy^; wily,
sly, slim, insidious, stealthy; underhand &c (hidden) 528; subdolous^;
deceitful &c 545; slippery as an eel, evasive &c 623; crooked; arch,
pawky^, shrewd, acute; sharp, sharp as a tack, sharp as a needle^;
canny, astute, leery, knowing, up to snuff, too clever by half, not to
be caught with chaff.
     tactful, diplomatic, politic; polite &c 894.
Adv. cunningly &c adj.; slyly, slily^, on the sly, by a side wind.
Phr. diamond cut diamond; a' bis ou a blanc [Fr.]; fin contre fin
[Fr.]; something is rotten in the state of Denmark [Hamlet].

703. Artlessness -- N. artlessness &c adj.; nature, simplicity;
innocence &c 946; bonhomie, naivete, abandon, candor, sincerity;
singleness of purpose, singleness of heart; honesty &c 939; plain
speaking; epanchement [Fr.].
     rough diamond, matter of fact man; le palais de verite [Fr.];
enfant terrible [Fr.].
V. be artless &c adj.; look one in the face; wear one's heart upon his
sleeves for daws to peck at^; think aloud; speak out, speak one's mind;
be free with one, call a spade a spade.
Adj. artless, natural, pure, native, confiding, simple, lain,
inartificial^, untutored, unsophisticated, ingenu^, unaffected, naive;
sincere, frank; open, open as day; candid, ingenuous, guileless;
unsuspicious, honest &c 939; innocent &c 946; Arcadian^; undesigning,
straightforward, unreserved, aboveboard; simple-minded, single-minded;
frank-hearted, open-hearted, single-hearted, simple-hearted.
     free-spoken, plain-spoken, outspoken; blunt, downright, direct,
matter of fact, unpoetical^; unflattering.
Adv. in plain words, in plain English; without mincing the matter; not
to mince the matter &c (affirmation) 535.
Phr. Davus sum non Oedipus [Lat.] [Terence]; liberavi animam meam
[Lat.]; as frank as rain on cherry blossoms [E.B.


1. Conditional Antagonism

704. Difficulty -- N. difficulty; hardness &c adj.; impracticability &c
(impossibility) 471; tough work, hard work, uphill work; hard task,
Herculean task, Augean task^; task of Sisyphus, Sisyphean labor, tough
job, teaser, rasper^, dead lift.
     dilemma, embarrassment; deadlock; perplexity &c (uncertainty) 475;
intricacy; entanglement, complexity &c 59; cross fire; awkwardness,
delicacy, ticklish card to play, knot, Gordian knot, dignus vindice
nodus [Lat.], net, meshes, maze; coil &c (convolution) 248; crooked
path; involvement.
     nice point, delicate point, subtle point, knotty point; vexed
question, vexata quaestio [Lat.], poser; puzzle &c (riddle) 533;
paradox; hard nut to crack, nut to crack; bone to pick, crux, pons
asinorum [Lat.], where the shoe pinches.
     nonplus, quandary, strait, pass, pinch, pretty pass, stress,
brunt; critical situation, crisis; trial, rub, emergency, exigency,
     scrape, hobble, slough, quagmire, hot water, hornet's nest; sea of
troubles, peck of troubles; pretty kettle of fish; pickle, stew,
imbroglio, mess, ado; false position.
     set fast, stand, standstill; deadlock, dead set.
     fix, horns of a dilemma, cul de sac [Fr.]; hitch; stumbling block
&c (hindrance) 706.
     [difficult person] crab; curmudgeon.
V. be difficult &c adj.; run one hard, go against the grain, try one's
patience, put one out; put to one's shifts, put to one's wit's end; go
hard with one, try one; pose, perplex &c (uncertain) 475; bother,
nonplus, gravel, bring to a deadlock; be impossible &c 471; be in the
way of &c (hinder) 706.
     meet with difficulties; labor under difficulties; get into
difficulties; plunge into difficulties; struggle with difficulties;
contend with difficulties; grapple with difficulties; labor under a
disadvantage; be in difficulty &c adj.. fish in troubled waters, buffet
the waves, swim against the stream, scud under bare poles.
     Have much ado with, have a hard time of it; come to the push, come
to the pinch; bear the brunt.
     grope in the dark, lose one's way, weave a tangled web, walk among
     get into a scrape &c n.; bring a hornet's nest about one's ears;
be put to one's shifts; flounder, boggle, struggle; not know which way
to turn &c (uncertain) 475; perdre son Latin [Fr.]; stick at, stick in
the mud, stick fast; come to a stand, come to a standstill, come to a
deadlock; hold the wolf by the ears, hold the tiger by the tail.
     render difficult &c adj.; enmesh, encumber, embarrass, ravel,
entangle; put a spoke in the wheel &c (hinder) 706; lead a pretty
Adj. difficult, not easy, hard, tough; troublesome, toilsome, irksome;
operose^, laborious, onerous, arduous, Herculean, formidable; sooner
said than done; more easily said than done, easier said than done.
     difficult to deal with, hard to deal with; ill-conditioned,
crabbed, crabby; not to be handled with kid gloves, not made with rose
     awkward, unwieldy, unmanageable; intractable, stubborn &c
(obstinate) 606; perverse, refractory, plaguy^, trying, thorny, rugged;
knotted, knotty; invious^; pathless, trackless; labyrinthine &c
(convoluted) 248; intricate, complicated &c (tangled) 59; impracticable
&c (impossible) 471; not feasible &c 470; desperate &c (hopeless) 859.
     embarrassing, perplexing &c (uncertain) 475; delicate, ticklish,
critical; beset with difficulties, full of difficulties, surrounded by
difficulties, entangled by difficulties, encompassed with difficulties.
     under a difficulty; in a box; in difficulty, in hot water, in the
suds, in a cleft stick, in a fix, in the wrong box, in a scrape &c n.,
in deep water, in a fine pickle; in extremis; between two stools,
between Scylla and Charybdis; surrounded by shoals, surrounded by
breakers, surrounded by quicksands; at cross purposes; not out of the
     reduced to straits; hard pressed, sorely pressed; run hard;
pinched, put to it, straitened; hard up, hard put to it, hard set; put
to one's shifts; puzzled, at a loss, &c (uncertain) 475; at the end of
one's tether, at the end of one's rope, at one's wit's end, at a
nonplus, at a standstill; graveled, nonplused, nonplussed, stranded,
aground; stuck fast, set fast; up a tree, at bay, aux abois [Fr.],
driven into a corner, driven from pillar to post, driven to extremity,
driven to one's wit's end, driven to the wall; au bout de son Latin;
out of one's depth; thrown out.
     accomplished with difficulty; hard-fought, hard-earned.
Adv. with difficulty, with much ado; barely, hardly &c adj.; uphill;
against the stream, against the grain; d rebours [Fr.]; invita Minerva
[Lat.]; in the teeth of; at a pinch, upon a pinch; at long odds,
against long odds.
Phr. ay there's the rub [Hamlet]; hic labor hoc opus [Lat.] [Vergil];
things are come to a pretty pass, ab inconvenienti [Lat.]; ad astra per
aspera [Lat.]; acun chemin de fleurs ne conduit a la gloire [Fr.].

705. Facility -- N. facility, ease; easiness &c adj.; capability;
feasibility &c (practicability) 470; flexibility, pliancy &c 324;
smoothness &c 255.
     plain sailing, smooth sailing, straight sailing; mere child's
play, holiday task; cinch [U.S.].
     smooth water, fair wind; smooth royal road; clear coast, clear
stage; tabula rasa [Lat.]; full play &c (freedom) 748.
     disencumbrance^, disentanglement; deoppilation^; permission &c 760.
     simplicity, lack of complication.
V. be easy &c adj.; go on smoothly, run smoothly; have full play &c n.;
go on all fours, run on all fours; obey the helm, work well.
     flow with the stream, swim with the stream, drift with the stream,
go with the stream, flow with the tide, drift with the tide; see one's
way; have all one's own way, have the game in one's own hands; walk
over the course, win at a canter; make light of, make nothing of, make
no bones of.
     be at home in, make it look easy, do it with one's eyes closed, do
it in one's sleep &c (skillful) 698.
     render easy &c adj.; facilitate, smooth, ease; popularize;
lighten, lighten the labor; free, clear; disencumber, disembarrass,
disentangle, disengage; deobstruct^, unclog, extricate, unravel; untie
the knot, cut the knot; disburden, unload, exonerate, emancipate, free
from, deoppilate^; humor &c (aid) 707; lubricate &c 332; relieve &c 834.
     leave a hole to creep out of, leave a loophole, leave the matter
open; give the reins to, give full play, give full swing; make way for;
open the door to, open the way, prepare the ground, smooth the ground,
clear the ground, open the way, open the path, open the road; pave the
way, bridge over; permit &c 760.
Adj. easy, facile; feasible &c (practicable) 470; easily managed,
easily accomplished; within reach, accessible, easy of access, for the
million, open to.
     manageable, wieldy; towardly^, tractable; submissive; yielding,
ductile; suant^; pliant &c (soft) 324; glib, slippery; smooth &c 255; on
friction wheels, on velvet.
     unembarrassed, disburdened, unburdened, disencumbered,
unencumbered, disembarrassed; exonerated; unloaded, unobstructed,
untrammeled; unrestrained &c (free) 748; at ease, light.
     [able to do easily] at home with; quite at home; in one's element,
in smooth water; skillful &c 698; accustomed &c 613.
Adv. easily &c adj.; readily, smoothly, swimmingly, on easy terms,
Phr. touch and go.

2. Active Antagonism

706. Hindrance -- N. prevention, preclusion, obstruction, stoppage;
embolus, embolism [Med.]; infarct [Med.]; interruption, interception,
interclusion^; hindrance, impedition^; retardment^, retardation;
embarrassment, oppilation^; coarctation^, stricture, restriction;
restraint &c 751; inhibition &c 761; blockade &c (closure) 261.
     interference, interposition; obtrusion; discouragement,
     impediment, let, obstacle, obstruction, knot, knag^; check, hitch,
contretemps, screw loose, grit in the oil.
     bar, stile, barrier; [barrier to vehicles] turnstile, turnpike;
gate, portcullis.
     beaver dam; trocha^; barricade &c (defense) 717; wall, dead wall,
sea wall, levee breakwater, groyne^; bulkhead, block, buffer; stopper &c
263; boom, dam, weir, burrock^.
     drawback, objection; stumbling-block, stumbling-stone; lion in the
path, snag; snags and sawyers.
     encumbrance, incumbrance^; clog, skid, shoe, spoke; drag, drag
chain, drag weight; stay, stop; preventive, prophylactic; load, burden,
fardel^, onus, millstone round one's neck, impedimenta; dead weight;
lumber, pack; nightmare, Ephialtes^, incubus, old man of the sea;
     difficulty &c 704; insuperable &c 471; obstacle; estoppel [Law];
ill wind; head wind &c (opposition) 708; trammel, tether &c (means of
restraint) 752; hold back, counterpoise.
     [person who hinders] damper, wet blanket, hinderer, marplot,
killjoy; party pooper [Coll.]; party crasher, interloper.
     trail of a red herring; opponent &c 710.
V. hinder, impede, filibuster [U.S.], impedite^, embarrass.
     keep off, stave off, ward off; obviate; avert, antevert^; turn
aside, draw off, prevent, forefend, nip in the bud; retard, slacken,
check, let; counteract, countercheck^; preclude, debar, foreclose, estop
[Law]; inhibit &c 761; shackle &c (restrain) 751; restrict.
     obstruct, stop, stay, bar, bolt, lock; block, block up; choke off;
belay, barricade; block the way, bar the way, stop the way; forelay^;
dam up &c (close) 261; put on the brake &c n.; scotch the wheel, lock
the wheel, put a spoke in the wheel; put a stop to &c 142; traverse,
contravene; interrupt, intercept; oppose &c 708; hedge in, hedge round;
cut off; inerclude^.
     interpose, interfere, intermeddle &c 682.
     cramp, hamper; clog, clog the wheels; cumber; encumber, incumber;
handicap; choke; saddle with, load with; overload, lay; lumber,
trammel, tie one's hands, put to inconvenience; incommode, discommode;
discompose; hustle, corner, drive into a corner.
     run foul of, fall foul of; cross the path of, break in upon.
     thwart, frustrate, disconcert, balk, foil; faze, feaze^, feeze
[U.S.]; baffle, snub, override, circumvent; defeat &c 731; spike guns
&c (render useless) 645; spoil, mar, clip the wings of; cripple &c
(injure) 659; put an extinguisher on; damp; dishearten &c (dissuade)
616; discountenance, throw cold water on, spoil sport; lay a wet
blanket, throw a wet blanket on; cut the ground from under one, take
the wind out of one's sails, undermine; be in the way of, stand in the
way of; act as a drag; hang like a millstone round one's neck.
Adj. hindering &c v.; obstructive, obstruent^; impeditive^, impedient^;
intercipient^; prophylactic &c (remedial) 662; impedimentary.
     in the way of, unfavorable; onerous, burdensome; cumbrous,
cumbersome; obtrusive.
     hindered &c v.; windbound^, waterlogged, heavy laden; hard pressed.
     unassisted &c (assist) &c 707; single-handed, alone; deserted &c
Phr. occurrent nubes [Lat.].

707. Aid -- N. aid, aidance^; assistance, help, opitulation^, succor;
support, lift, advance, furtherance, promotion; coadjuvancy &c
(cooperation) 709 [Obs.].
     patronage, championship, countenance, favor, interest, advocacy.
     sustentation, subvention, alimentation, nutrition, nourishment;
eutrophy; manna in the wilderness; food &c 298; means &c 632.
     ministry, ministration; subministration^; accommodation.
     relief, rescue; help at a dead lift; supernatural aid; deus ex
machina [Lat.].
     supplies, reinforcements, reenforcements^, succors, contingents,
recruits; support &c (physical) 215; adjunct, ally &c (helper) 711.
V. aid, assist, help, succor, lend one's aid; come to the aid &c n..
of; contribute, subscribe to; bring aid, give aid, furnish aid, afford
aid, supply aid &c n.; give a helping hand, stretch a hand, lend a
helping hand, lend a hand, bear a helping hand, hold out a hand, hold
out a helping hand; give one a life, give one a cast, give one a turn;
take by the hand, take in tow; help a lame dog over a stile, lend wings
     relieve, rescue; set up, set agoing^, set on one's legs; bear
through, pull through; give new life to, be the making of; reinforce,
reenforce, recruit; set forward, put forward, push forward; give a
lift, give a shove, give an impulse to; promote, further, forward,
advance expedite, speed, quicken, hasten.
     support, sustain, uphold, prop, hold up, bolster.
     cradle, nourish; nurture, nurse, dry nurse, suckle, put out to
nurse; manure, cultivate, force; foster, cherish, foment; feed the
flame, fan the flame.
     serve; do service to, tender to, pander to; administer to,
subminister to^, minister to; tend, attend, wait on; take care of &c
459; entertain; smooth the bed of death.
     oblige, accommodate, consult the wishes of; humor, cheer,
     second, stand by; back, back up; pay the piper, abet; work for,
make interest for, stick up for, take up the cudgels for; take up the
cause of, espouse the cause of, adopt the cause of; advocate, beat up
for recruits, press into the service; squire, give moral support to,
keep in countenance, countenance, patronize; lend oneself to, lend
one's countenance to; smile upon, shine upon; favor, befriend, take in
hand, enlist under the banners of; side with &c (cooperate) 709.
     be of use to; subserve &c (instrument) 631; benefit &c 648; render
a service &c (utility) 644; conduce &c (tend) 176.
Adj. aiding &c v.; auxiliary, adjuvant, helpful; coadjuvant &c 709
[Obs.]; subservient, ministrant, ancillary, accessory, subsidiary.
     at one's beck, at one's beck and call; friendly, amicable,
favorable, propitious, well-disposed; neighborly; obliging &c
(benevolent) 906.
Adv. with the aid, by the aid of &c; on behalf of, in behalf of; in aid
of, in the service of, in the name of, in favor of, in furtherance of;
on account of; for the sake of, on the part of; non obstante [Lat.].
Int. help!, save us!, to the rescue!,
Phr. alterum alterius auxilio eget [Lat.] [Sallust]; God befriend us as
our cause is just [Henry IV]; at your service.

708. Opposition -- N. opposition, antagonism; oppugnancy^, oppugnation^;
impugnation^; contrariety; contravention; counteraction &c 179;
     cross fire, undercurrent, head wind.
     clashing, collision, conflict.
     competition, two of a trade, rivalry, emulation, race.
     absence of aid &c 708; resistance &c 719; restraint &c 751;
hindrance &c 706.
V. oppose, counteract, run counter to; withstand &c (resist) 719;
control &c (restrain) 751; hinder &c 706; antagonize, oppugn, fly in
the face of, go dead against, kick against, fall afoul of, run afoul
of; set against, pit against; face, confront, cope with; make a stand,
make a dead set against; set oneself against, set one's face against;
protest against, vote against, raise one's voice against; disfavor,
turn one's back upon; set at naught, slap in the face, slam the door in
one's face.
     be at cross purposes; play at cross purposes; counterwork^,
countermine; thwart, overthwart^; work against, undermine.
     stem, breast, encounter; stem the tide, breast the tide, stem the
current, stem the flood; buffet the waves; beat up against, make head
against; grapple with; kick against the pricks &c (resist) 719; contend
&c 720; do battle with &c (warfare) 722, do battle against.
     contradict, contravene; belie; go against, run against, beat
against, militate against; come in conflict with.
     emulate &c (compete) 720; rival, spoil one's trade.
Adj. opposing, opposed &c v.; adverse, antagonistic; contrary &c 14; at
variance &c 24; at issue, at war with.
     unfavorable, unfriendly; hostile, inimical, cross, unpropitious.
     in hostile array, front to front, with crossed bayonets, at
daggers drawn; up in arms; resistant &c 719.
     competitive, emulous.
Adv. against, versus, counter to, in conflict with, at cross purposes.
     against the grain, against the current, against the stream,
against the wind, against the tide; with a headwind; with the wind
ahead, with the wind in one's teeth.
     in spite, in despite, in defiance; in the way, in the teeth of, in
the face of; across; athwart, overthwart^; where the shoe pinches; in
spite of one's teeth.
     though &c 30; even; quand meme [Fr.]; per contra.
Phr. nitor in adversum [Lat.].

709. Cooperation -- N. cooperation; coadjuvancy^, coadjutancy^;
coagency^, coefficiency^; concert, concurrence, complicity,
participation; union &c 43; additivity, combination &c 48; collusion.
     association, alliance, colleagueship^, joint stock, copartnership^;
cartel; confederation &c (party) 712; coalition, fusion; a long pull a
strong pull and a pull all together; logrolling, freemasonry.
     unanimity &c (assent) 488; esprit de corps, party spirit;
clanship^, partisanship; concord &c 714.
     synergy, coaction^.
V. cooperate, concur; coact^, synergize.
     conduce &c 178; combine, unite one's efforts; keep together, draw
together, pull together, club together, hand together, hold together,
league together, band together, be banded together; pool; stand
shoulder to shoulder, put shoulder to shoulder; act in concert, join
forces, fraternize, cling to one another, conspire, concert, lay one's
heads together; confederate, be in league with; collude, understand one
another, play into the hands of, hunt in couples.
     side with, take side with, go along with, go hand in hand with,
join hands with, make common cause with, strike in with, unite with,
join with, mix oneself up with, take part with, cast in one's lot with;
join partnership, enter into partnership with; rally round, follow the
lead of; come to, pass over to, come into the views of; be in the same
boat, row in the same boat; sail in the same boat; sail on the same
     be a party to, lend oneself to; chip in; participate; have a hand
in, have a finger in the pie; take part in, bear part in; second &c
(aid) 707; take the part of, play the game of; espouse a cause, espouse
a quarrel.
Adj. cooperating &c v.; in cooperation &c n., in league &c (party) 712;
coadjuvant^, coadjutant^; dyed in the wool; cooperative; additive;
participative; coactive^, synergetic, synergistic.
     favorable to &c 707; unopposed &c 708.
Adv. as one &c (unanimously) 488; shoulder to shoulder;
synergistically; cooperatively.
Phr. due teste valgono piu che una sola [It].

710. Opponent -- N. opponent, antagonist, adversary; adverse party,
opposition; enemy &c 891; the other side; assailant.
     oppositionist, obstructive; brawler, wrangler, brangler^,
disputant; filibuster [U.S.], obstructionist.
     malcontent; Jacobin, Fenian; demagogue, reactionist^.
     rival, competitor.
     bete noir [Fr.].

711. Auxiliary -- N. auxiliary; recruit; assistant; adjuvant, adjutant;
ayudante^, coaid^; adjunct; help, helper, help mate, helping hand;
midwife; colleague, partner, mate, confrere, cooperator; coadjutor,
coadjutrix^; collaborator.
     ally; friend &c 890, confidant, fidus Achates [Lat.], pal, buddy,
alter ego.
     [criminal law] confederate; accomplice; complice; accessory,
accessory after the fact; particeps criminis [Lat.]; socius criminis
     aide-de-camp, secretary, clerk, associate, marshal; right-hand,
right-hand man, Friday, girl Friday, man Friday, gopher, gofer; candle-
holder, bottle-holder; handmaid; servant &c 746; puppet, cat's-paw,
     tool, dupe, stooge, ame damnee [Fr.]; satellite, adherent.
     votary; sectarian, secretary; seconder, backer, upholder, abettor,
advocate, partisan, champion, patron, friend at court, mediator; angel
(theater, entertainment).
     friend in need, Jack at a pinch, deus ex machina [Lat.], guardian
angel, tutelary genius.

712. Party -- N. party, faction, side, denomination, communion, set,
crew, band.
     horde, posse, phalanx; family, clan, &c 166; team; tong.
     council &c 696.
     community, body, fellowship, sodality, solidarity; confraternity;
familistere^, familistery^; brotherhood, sisterhood.
     knot, gang, clique, ring, circle, group, crowd, in-crowd; coterie,
club, casino^; machine; Tammany, Tammany Hall [U.S.].
     corporation, corporate body, guild; establishment, company;
copartnership^, partnership; firm, house; joint concern, joint-stock
company; cahoot, combine [U.S.], trust.
     society, association; institute, institution; union; trades union;
league, syndicate, alliance, Verein [G.], Bund [G.], Zollverein [G.],
combination; Turnverein [G.]; league offensive and defensive, alliance
offensive and defensive; coalition; federation; confederation,
confederacy; junto, cabal, camarilla^, camorra^, brigue^; freemasonry;
party spirit &c (cooperation) 709.
     Confederates, Conservatives, Democrats, Federalists, Federals,
Freemason, Knight Templar; Kuklux, Kuklux Klan, KKK; Liberals,
Luddites, Republicans, Socialists, Tories, Whigs &c staff; dramatis
personae [Lat.].
V. unite, join; club together &c (cooperate) 709; cement a party, form
a party &c n.; associate &c (assemble) 72; enleague^, federalize, go
Adj. in league, in partnership, in alliance &c n.. bonded together,
banded together, linked &c (joined) 43, joined together; embattled;
confederated, federative, joint.
Adv. hand in hand, side by side, shoulder to shoulder, en masse, in the
same boat.

713. Discord -- N. disagreement &c 24; discord, disaccord^, dissidence,
dissonance; jar, clash, shock; jarring, jostling &c v.; screw loose.
     variance, difference, dissension, misunderstanding, cross
purposes, odds, brouillerie [Fr.]; division, split, rupture,
disruption, division in the camp, house divided against itself,
disunion, breach; schism &c (dissent) 489; feud, faction.
     quarrel, dispute, tiff, tracasserie^, squabble, altercation, barney
[Slang], demel_e, snarl, spat, towrow^, words, high words; wrangling &c
v.; jangle, brabble^, cross questions and crooked answers, snip-snap;
family jars.
     polemics; litigation; strife &c (contention) 720; warfare &c 722;
outbreak, open rupture, declaration of war.
     broil, brawl, row, racket, hubbub, rixation^; embroilment,
embranglement^, imbroglio, fracas, breach of the peace, piece of work
[Fr.], scrimmage, rumpus; breeze, squall; riot, disturbance &c
(disorder) 59; commotion &c (agitation) 315; bear garden, Donnybrook,
Donnybrook Fair.
     subject of dispute, ground of quarrel, battle ground, disputed
point; bone of contention, bone to pick; apple of discord, casus belli
[Lat.]; question at issue &c (subject of inquiry) 461; vexed question,
vexata quaestio [Lat.], brand of discord.
     troublous times^; cat-and-dog life; contentiousness &c adj.; enmity
&c 889; hate &c 898; Kilkenny cats; disputant &c 710; strange
V. be discordant &c adj.; disagree, come amiss &c 24; clash, jar,
jostle, pull different ways, conflict, have no measures with,
misunderstand one another; live like cat and dog; differ; dissent &c
489; have a bone to pick, have a crow to pluck with.
     fall out, quarrel, dispute; litigate; controvert &c (deny) 536;
squabble, wrangle, jangle, brangle^, bicker, nag; spar &c (contend) 720;
have words &c n.. with; fall foul of.
     split; break with, break squares with, part company with; declare
war, try conclusions; join issue, put in issue; pick a quarrel, fasten
a quarrel on; sow dissension, stir up dissension &c n.; embroil,
entangle, disunite, widen the breach; set at odds, set together by the
ears; set against, pit against.
     get into hot water, fish in troubled waters, brawl; kick up a row,
kick up a dust; turn the house out of window.
Adj. discordant; disagreeing &c v.; out of tune, ajar, on bad terms,
dissentient &c 489; unreconciled, unpacified; contentious &c 720.
     quarrelsome, unpacific^; gladiatorial, controversial, polemic,
disputatious; factious; litigious, litigant; pettifogging.
     at odds, at loggerheads, at daggers drawn, at variance, at issue,
at cross purposes, at sixes and sevens, at feud, at high words; up in
arms, together by the ears, in hot water, embroiled.
     torn, disunited.
Phr. quot homines tot sententiae [Lat.] [Terence]; no love lost between
them, non nostrum tantas componere lites [Lat.] [Vergil]; Mars gravior
sub pace latet [Lat.] [Claudius].

714. Concord -- N. concord, accord, harmony, symphony; homologue;
agreement &c 23; sympathy, empathy &c (love) 897; response; union,
unison, unity; bonds of harmony; peace &c 721; unanimity &c (assent)
488; league &c 712; happy family.
     rapprochement; reunion; amity &c (friendship) 888; alliance,
entente cordiale [Fr.], good understanding, conciliation, peacemaker;
intercessor, mediator.
V. agree &c 23; accord, harmonize with; fraternize; be concordant &c
adj.; go hand in hand; run parallel &c (concur) 178; understand one
another, pull together &c (cooperate) 709; put up one's horses
together, sing in chorus.
     side with, sympathize with, go with, chime in with, fall in with;
come round; be pacified &c 723; assent &c 488; empathize with, enter
into the ideas of, enter into the feelings of; reciprocate.
     hurler avec les loups [Fr.]; go with the stream, swim with the
     keep in good humor, render accordant, put in tune; come to an
understanding, meet halfway; keep the peace, remain at peace.
Adj. concordant, congenial; agreeing &c v.; in accord &c n.;
harmonious, united, cemented; banded together &c 712; allied; friendly
&c 888; fraternal; conciliatory; at one with; of one mind &c (assent)
     at peace, in still water; tranquil &c (pacific) 721.
Adv. with one voice &c (assent) 488; in concert with, hand in hand; on
one's side.
Phr. commune periculum concordiam parit [Lat.].

715. Defiance -- N. defiance; daring &c v.; dare; challenge, cartel^;
threat &c 909; war cry, war whoop.
     chest-beating, chest-thumping; saber rattling.
V. defy, dare, beard; brave &c (courage) 861; bid defiance to; set at
defiance, set at naught; hurl defiance at; dance the war dance, beat
the war drums; snap the fingers at, laugh to scorn; disobey &c 742.
     show fight, show one's teeth, show a bold front; bluster, look
big, stand akimbo, beat one's chest; double the fist, shake the fist;
threaten &c 909.
     challenge, call out; throw down the gauntlet, fling down the
gauntlet, fling down the gage, fling down the glove, throw down the
Adj. defiant; defying &c v.. with 'with arms akimbo'.
Adv. in defiance of, in the teeth of; under one's very nose.
Int. do your worst!, come if you dare!, come on!, marry come up!, hoity
Phr. noli me tangere [Lat.]; nemo me impune lacessit [Lat.]; don't
tread on me; don't you dare; don't even think of it; Go ahead, make my
day! [Dirty Harry].

716. Attack -- N. attack; assault, assault and battery; onset,
onslaught, charge.
     aggression, offense; incursion, inroad, invasion; irruption;
outbreak; estrapade^, ruade^; coupe de main, sally, sortie, camisade^,
raid, foray; run at, run against; dead set at.
     storm, storming; boarding, escalade^; siege, investment,
obsession^, bombardment, cannonade.
     fire, volley; platoon fire, file fire; fusillade; sharpshooting,
broadside; raking fire, cross fire; volley of grapeshot, whiff of the
grape, feu d'enfer [Fr.].
     cut, thrust, lunge, pass, passado^, carte and tierce [Fr.], home
thrust; coupe de bec [Fr.]; kick, punch &c (impulse) 276.
     battue^, razzia^, Jacquerie, dragonnade^; devastation &c 162;
eboulement [Fr.].
     assailant, aggressor, invader.
     base of operations, point of attack; echelon.
V. attack, assault, assail; invade; set upon, fall upon; charge,
impugn, break a lance with, enter the lists.
     assume the offensive, take the offensive; be the aggressor, become
the aggressor; strike the first blow, draw first blood, throw the first
stone at; lift a hand against, draw the sword against; take up the
cudgels; advance against, march against; march upon, harry; come on,
show fight.
     strike at, poke at, thrust at; aim a blow at, deal a blow at; give
one a blow, fetch one a blow, fetch one a kick, give one a kick; have a
cut at, have a shot at, take a cut at, take a shot at, have a fling at,
have a shy at; be down upon, pounce upon; fall foul of, pitch into,
launch out against; bait, slap on the face; make a thrust at, make a
pass at, make a set at, make a dead set at; bear down upon.
     close with, come to close quarters; bring to bay.
     ride full tilt against; attack tooth and nail, go at hammer and
     let fly at, dash at, run a tilt at, rush at, tilt at, run at, fly
at, hawk at, have at, let out at; make a dash, make a rush at; strike
home; drive one hard; press one hard; be hard upon, run down, strike at
the root of.
     lay about one, run amuck.
     aim at, draw a bead on [U.S.].
     fire upon, fire at, fire a shot at; shoot at, pop at, level at,
let off a gun at; open fire, pepper, bombard, shell, pour a broadside
into; fire a volley, fire red-hot shot; spring a mine.
     throw a stone, throw stones at; stone, lapidate^, pelt; hurl at,
hurl against, hurl at the head of; rock beset [U.S.], besiege,
beleaguer; lay siege to, invest, open the trenches, plant a battery,
sap, mine; storm, board, scale the walls.
     cut and thrust, bayonet, butt; kick, strike &c (impulse) 276; whip
&c (punish) 972.
     [attack verbally] assail, impugn; malign (detract) 934.
     bomb, rocket, blast.
Adj. attacking &c v.; aggressive, offensive, obsidional^.
     up in arms.
Adv. on the offensive.
Int. up and at them!
Phr. the din of arms, the yell of savage rage, the shriek of agony, the
groan of death [Southey]; their fatal hands no second stroke intend
[Paradise Lost]; thirst for glory quells the love of life [Addison].

717. Defense -- N. defense, protection, guard, ward; shielding &c v.;
propugnation^, preservation &c 670; guardianship.
     area defense; site defense.
     self-defense, self-preservation; resistance &c 719.
     safeguard &c (safety) 664; balistraria^; bunker, screen &c
(shelter) 666; camouflage &c (concealment) 530; fortification;
munition, muniment^; trench, foxhole; bulwark, fosse^, moat, ditch,
entrenchment, intrenchment^; kila^; dike, dyke; parapet, sunk fence,
embankment, mound, mole, bank, sandbag, revetment; earth work, field-
work; fence, wall dead wall, contravallation^; paling &c (inclosure)
232; palisade, haha, stockade, stoccado^, laager^, sangar^; barrier,
barricade; boom; portcullis, chevaux de frise [Fr.]; abatis, abattis^,
abbatis^; vallum^, circumvallation^, battlement, rampart, scarp; escarp^,
counter-scarp; glacis, casemate^; vallation^, vanfos^.
     buttress, abutment; shore &c (support) 215.
     breastwork, banquette, curtain, mantlet^, bastion, redan^, ravelin^;
vauntmure^; advance work, horn work, outwork; barbacan^, barbican;
redoubt; fort-elage [Fr.], fort-alice; lines.
     loophole, machicolation^; sally port.
     hold, stronghold, fastness; asylum &c (refuge) 666; keep, donjon,
dungeon, fortress, citadel, capitol, castle; tower of strength, tower
of strength; fort, barracoon^, pah^, sconce, martello tower^, peelhouse^,
blockhouse, rath^; wooden walls.
     [body armor] bulletproof vest, armored vest, buffer, corner stone,
fender, apron, mask, gauntlet, thimble, carapace, armor, shield,
buckler, aegis, breastplate, backplate^, cowcatcher, face guard,
scutum^, cuirass, habergeon^, mail, coat of mail, brigandine^, hauberk,
lorication^, helmet, helm, bassinet, salade^, heaume^, morion^, murrion^,
armet^, cabaset^, vizor^, casquetel^, siege cap, headpiece, casque,
pickelhaube, vambrace^, shako &c (dress) 225.
     bearskin; panoply; truncheon &c (weapon) 727.
     garrison, picket, piquet; defender, protector; guardian &c
(safety) 664; bodyguard, champion; knight-errant, Paladin; propugner^.
     bulletproof window.
     hardened site.
V. defend, forfend, fend; shield, screen, shroud; engarrison^; fend
round &c (circumscribe) 229; fence, entrench, intrench^; guard &c (keep
safe) 664; guard against; take care of &c (vigilance) 459; bear
harmless; fend off, keep off, ward off, beat off, beat back; hinder &c
     parry, repel, propugn^, put to flight; give a warm reception to
[Iron.]; hold at bay, keep at bay, keep arm's length.
     stand on the defensive, act on the defensive; show fight; maintain
one's ground, stand one's ground; stand by; hold one's own; bear the
brunt, stand the brunt; fall back upon, hold, stand in the gap.
Adj. defending &c v.; defensive; mural^; armed, armed at all points,
armed cap-a-pie, armed to the teeth; panoplied^; iron-plated, ironclad;
loopholed, castellated, machicolated^, casemated^; defended &c v.; proof
     armored, ballproof^, bulletproof; hardened.
Adv. defensively; on the defense, on the defensive; in defense; at bay,
pro aris et focis [Lat.].
Int. no surrender!,
Phr. defense not defiance; Dieu defend le droit [Fr.]; fidei defensor
[Lat.], defender of the faith.

718. Retaliation -- N. retaliation, reprisal, retort, payback; counter-
stroke, counter-blast, counterplot, counter-project; retribution, lex
talionis [Lat.]; reciprocation &c (reciprocity) 12.
     tit for tat, give and take, blow for blow, quid pro quo, a Roland
for an Oliver, measure for measure, diamond cut diamond, the biter bit,
a game at which two can play; reproof valiant, retort courteous.
     recrimination &c (accusation) 938; revenge &c 919; compensation &c
30; reaction &c (recoil) 277.
V. retaliate, retort, turn upon; pay, pay off, pay back; pay in one's
own coin, pay in the same coin; cap; reciprocate &c 148; turn the
tables upon, return the compliment; give a quid pro quo &c n., give as
much as one takes, give as good as one gets; give and take, exchange
fisticuffs; be quits, be even with; pay off old scores.
     serve one right, be hoist on one's own petard, throw a stone in
one's own garden, catch a Tartar.
Adj. retaliating &c v.; retaliatory, retaliative; talionic^.
Adv. in retaliation; en revanche.
Phr. mutato nomine de te fabula narratur [Lat.] [Horace]; par pari
refero [Lat.] [Terence]; tu quoque [Lat.], you too; you're another; suo
sibi gladio hunc jugulo [Lat.]; a beau jeu beau retour [Fr.]; litem _ç
     lite resolvit [Lat.] [Horace].

719. Resistance -- N. resistance, stand, front, oppugnation^;
oppugnancy^; opposition &c 708; renitence^, renitency; reluctation^,
recalcitration^; kicking &c v.. repulse, rebuff.
     insurrection &c (disobedience) 742; strike; turn out, lock out,
barring out; levee en masse [Fr.], Jacquerie; riot &c (disorder) 59.
V. resist; not submit &c 725; repugn^, reluct, reluctate^, withstand;
stand up against, strive against, bear up under, bear up against, be
proof against, make head against; stand, stand firm, stand one's
ground, stand the brunt of, stand out; hold one's grounds, hold one's
own, hold out, hold firm.
     breast the wave, breast the current; stem the tide, stem the
torrent; face, confront, grapple with; show a bold front &c (courage)
861; present a front; make a stand, take one's stand.
     kick, kick against; recalcitrate^, kick against the pricks; oppose
&c 708; fly in the face of; lift the hand against &c (attack) 716; rise
up in arms &c (war) 722; strike, turn out; draw up a round robin &c
(remonstrate) 932; revolt &c (disobey) 742; make a riot.
     prendre le mors aux dents [Fr.], take the bit between the teeth;
sell one's life dearly, die hard, keep at bay; repel, repulse.
Adj. resisting &c v.; resistive, resistant; refractory &c (disobedient)
742; recalcitrant, renitent; up in arms.
     repulsive, repellant.
     proof against; unconquerable &c (strong) 159; stubborn,
unconquered; indomitable &c (persevering) 604.1; unyielding &c
(obstinate) 606.
Int. hands off!, keep off!,

720. Contention -- N. contention, strife; contest, contestation^;
struggle; belligerency; opposition &c 708.
     controversy, polemics; debate &c (discussion) 476; war of words,
logomachy^, litigation; paper war; high words &c (quarrel) 713; sparring
&c v.. competition, rivalry; corrivalry^, corrivalship^, agonism^,
concours^, match, race, horse racing, heat, steeple chase, handicap;
regatta; field day; sham fight, Derby day; turf, sporting, bullfight,
tauromachy^, gymkhana^; boat race, torpids^.
     wrestling, greco-roman wrestling; pugilism, boxing, fisticuffs,
the manly art of self-defense; spar, mill, set-to, round, bout, event,
prize fighting; quarterstaff, single stick; gladiatorship^, gymnastics;
jiujitsu, jujutsu, kooshti^, sumo; athletics, athletic sports; games of
skill &c 840.
     shindy^; fracas &c (discord) 713; clash of arms; tussle, scuffle,
broil, fray; affray, affrayment^; velitation^; colluctation^, luctation^;
brabble^, brigue^, scramble, melee, scrimmage, stramash^, bushfighting^.
     free fight, stand up fight, hand to hand, running fight.
     conflict, skirmish; rencounter^, encounter; rencontre^, collision,
affair, brush, fight; battle, battle royal; combat, action, engagement,
joust, tournament; tilt, tilting [Mediev.]; tournay^, list; pitched
     death struggle, struggle for life or death, life or death
struggle, Armageddon^.
     hard knocks, sharp contest, tug of war.
     naval engagement, naumachia^, sea fight.
     duel, duello [It]; single combat, monomachy^, satisfaction, passage
d'armes [Fr.], passage of arms, affair of honor; triangular duel;
hostile meeting, digladiation^; deeds of arms, feats of arms; appeal to
arms &c (warfare) 722.
     pugnacity; combativeness &c adj.; bone of contention &c 713.
V. contend; contest, strive, struggle, scramble, wrestle; spar, square;
exchange blows, exchange fisticuffs; fib^, justle^, tussle, tilt, box,
stave, fence; skirmish; pickeer^; fight &c (war) 722; wrangle &c
(quarrel) 713.
     contend with &c, grapple with, engage with, close with, buckle
with, bandy with, try conclusions with, have a brush &c n.. with, tilt
with; encounter, fall foul of, pitch into, clapperclaw^, run a tilt at;
oppose &c 708; reluct.
     join issue, come to blows, go to loggerheads, set to, come to the
scratch, exchange shots, measure swords, meet hand to hand; take up the
cudgels, take up the glove, take up the gauntlet; enter the lists;
couch one's lance; give satisfaction; appeal to arms; &c (warfare) 722.
     lay about one; break the peace.
     compete with, cope with, vie with, race with; outvie^, emulate,
rival; run a race; contend for &c, stipulate for, stickle for; insist
upon, make a point of.
Adj. contending &c v.; together by the ears, at loggerheads.
     at war.
     at issue.
     competitive, rival; belligerent; contentious, combative,
bellicose, unpeaceful^; warlike &c 722; quarrelsome &c 901; pugnacious;
pugilistic, gladiatorial; palestric^, palestrical^.
Phr. a verbis ad verbera [Lat.]; a word and a blow; a very pretty
quarrel as it stands [Sheridan]; commune periculum concordiam parit
[Lat.]; lis litem generat [Lat.].

721. Peace -- N. peace; amity &c (friendship) 888; harmony &c (concord)
714; tranquility, calm &c (quiescence) 265; truce, peace treaty, accord
&c (pacification) 723; peace pipe, pipe of peace, calumet of peace.
     piping time of peace, quiet life; neutrality.
     [symbol of peace] dove of peace, white dove.
     [person who favors peace] dove.
     pax Romana [Lat.]; Pax Americana [Lat.].
V. be at peace; keep the peace &c (concord) 714.
     make peace &c 723.
Adj. pacific; peaceable, peaceful; calm, tranquil, untroubled, halcyon;
bloodless; neutral.
Phr. the storm blown over; the lion lies down with the lamb; all quiet
on the Potomac; paritur pax bello [Lat.] [Nepos]; peace hath her
victories no less renowned than war [Milton]; they make a desert and
they call it peace.

722. Warfare -- N. warfare; fighting &c v.; hostilities; war, arms, the
sword; Mars, Bellona, grim visaged war, horrida bella [Lat.];
     appeal to arms, appeal to the sword; ordeal of battle; wager of
battle; ultima ratio regum [Lat.], arbitrament of the sword.
     battle array, campaign, crusade, expedition, operations;
mobilization; state of siege; battlefield, theater of operations &c
(arena) 728; warpath.
     art of war, tactics, strategy, castrametation^; generalship;
soldiership; logistics; military evolutions, ballistics, gunnery;
     gunpowder, shot.
     battle, tug of war &c (contention) 720; service, campaigning,
active service, tented field; kriegspiel [G.], Kriegsspiel [G.]; fire
cross, trumpet, clarion, bugle, pibroch^, slogan; war-cry, war-whoop;
battle cry, beat of drum, rappel, tom-tom; calumet of war; word of
command; password, watchword; passage d-armes [Fr.].
     war to the death, war to the knife; guerre a mort [Fr.], guerre a
outrance [Fr.]; open war, internecine war, civil war.
V. arm; raise troops, mobilize troops; raise up in arms; take up the
cudgels &c 720; take up arms, fly to arms, appeal to arms, fly to the
sword; draw the sword, unsheathe the sword; dig up the hatchet, dig up
the tomahawk; go to war, wage war, let slip the dogs of war [Julius
Caesar]; cry havoc; kindle the torch of war, light the torch of war;
raise one's banner, raise the fire cross; hoist the black flag; throw
away, fling away the scabbard; enroll, enlist; take the field; take the
law into one's own hands; do battle, give battle, join battle, engage
in battle, go to battle; flesh one's sword; set to, fall to, engage,
measure swords with, draw the trigger, cross swords; come to blows,
come to close quarters; fight; combat; contend &c 720; battle with,
break a lance with.
     [pirates engage in battle] raise the jolly roger, run up the jolly
     serve; see service, be on service, be on active service; campaign;
wield the sword, shoulder a musket, smell powder, be under fire; spill
blood, imbrue the hands in blood; on the warpath.
     carry on war, carry on hostilities; keep the field; fight the good
fight; fight it out, fight like devils, fight one's way, fight hand to
hand; sell one's life dearly; pay the ferryman's fee.
Adj. contending, contentious &c 720; armed, armed to the teeth, armed
cap-a-pie; sword in hand; in arms, under arms, up in arms; at war with;
bristling with arms; in battle array, in open arms, in the field;
embattled; battled.
     unpacific^, unpeaceful^; belligerent, combative, armigerous^,
bellicose, martial, warlike; military, militant; soldier-like,
     chivalrous; strategical, internecine.
Adv. flagrante bello [Lat.], in the thick of the fray, in the cannon's
mouth; at the sword's point, at the point of the bayonet.
Int. vae victis! [Lat.], to arms!, to your tents O Israel!,
Phr. the battle rages; a la guerre comme a la guerre [Fr.]; bis peccare
in bello non licet [Lat.]; jus gladii [Lat.]; my voice is still for war
[Addison]; 'tis well that war is so terrible, otherwise we might grow
fond of it [Robert E.
     Lee]; my sentence is for open war [Milton]; pride, pomp, and
circumstance of glorious war [Othello]; the cannons have their bowels
full of wrath [King John]; the cannons aspit forth their iron
indignation [King John]; the fire-eyed maid of smoky war [Henry IV];
silent leges inter arma [Lat.] [Cicero]; si vis pacem para bellum

723. Pacification -- N. pacification, conciliation; reconciliation,
reconcilement; shaking of hands, accommodation, arrangement,
adjustment; terms, compromise; amnesty, deed of release.
     peace offering; olive branch; calumet of peace, preliminaries of
     truce, armistice; suspension of arms, suspension of hostilities,
stand-down; breathing time; convention; modus vivendi [Lat.]; flag of
truce, white flag, parlementaire [Fr.], cartel^.
     hollow truce, pax in bello [Lat.]; drawn battle.
V. pacify, tranquilize, compose; allay &c (moderate) 174; reconcile,
propitiate, placate, conciliate, meet halfway, hold out the olive
branch, heal the breach, make peace, restore harmony, bring to terms.
     settle matters, arrange matters, accommodate matters, accommodate
differences; set straight; make up a quarrel, tantas componere lites
[Lat.]; come to an understanding, come to terms; bridge over, hush up;
make it, make matters up; shake hands; mend one's fences [U.S.].
     raise a siege, lift a siege; put up the sword, sheathe the sword;
bury the hatchet, lay down one's arms, turn swords into plowshares;
smoke the calumet of peace, close the temple of Janus; keep the peace
&c (concord) 714; be pacified &c; come round.
Adj. conciliatory; composing &c v.; pacified &c v..
Phr. requiescat in pace [Lat.].

724. Mediation -- N. mediation, mediatorship^, mediatization^;
intervention, interposition, interference, intermeddling, intercession;
arbitration; flag of truce &c 723; good offices, peace offering;
parley, negotiation; diplomatics^, diplomacy; compromise &c 774.
     [person who mediates] mediator, arbitrator, intercessor,
peacemaker, makepeace^, negotiator, go-between; diplomatist &c
(consignee) 758; moderator; propitiator; umpire.
V. mediate, mediatize^; intercede, interpose, interfere, intervene; step
in, negotiate; meet halfway; arbitrate; magnas componere lites [Lat.].
     bargain &c 794
Adj. mediatory.

725. Submission -- N. submission, yielding; nonresistance; obedience &c
     surrender, cession, capitulation, resignation; backdown^.
     obeisance, homage, kneeling, genuflexion^, courtesy, curtsy,
kowtow, prostration.
V. succumb, submit, yeild, bend, resign, defer to.
     lay down one's arms, deliver up one's arms; lower colors, haul
down colors, strike one's flag, strike colors.
     surrender, surrender at discretion; cede, capitulate, come to
terms, retreat, beat a retreat; draw in one's horns &c (humility) 879;
give way, give round, give in, give up; cave in; suffer judgment by
default; bend, bend to one's yoke, bend before the storm; reel back;
bend down, knuckle down, knuckle to, knuckle under; knock under.
     eat dirt, eat the leek, eat humble pie; bite the dust, lick the
dust; be at one's feet, fall at one's feet; craven; crouch before,
throw oneself at the feet of; swallow the leek, swallow the pill; kiss
the rod; turn the other cheek; avaler les couleuvres [Fr.], gulp down.
     obey &c 743; kneel to, bow to, pay homage to, cringe to, truckle
to; bend the neck, bend the knee; kneel, fall on one's knees, bow
submission, courtesy, curtsy, kowtow.
     pocket the affront; make the best of, make a virtue of necessity;
grin and abide, grin and bear it, shrug the shoulders, resign oneself;
submit with a good grace &c (bear with) 826.
Adj. surrendering &c v.; submissive, resigned, crouching; downtrodden;
down on one's marrow bones; on one's bended knee; unresistant,
unresisting, nonresisting; pliant &c (soft) 324; undefended.
     untenable, indefensible; humble &c 879.
Phr. have it your own way; it can't be helped; amen &c (assent) 488; da
locum melioribus [Lat.]; tempori parendum [Lat.].

726. Combatant -- N. combatant; disputant, controversialist, polemic,
litigant, belligerent; competitor, rival, corrival^; fighter, assailant;
champion, Paladin; mosstrooper^, swashbuckler fire eater, duelist,
bully, bludgeon man, rough.
     prize fighter, pugilist, boxer, bruiser, the fancy, gladiator,
athlete, wrestler; fighting-cock, game-cock; warrior, soldier, fighting
man, Amazon, man at arms, armigerent^; campaigner, veteran; swordsman,
sabreur^, redcoat, military man, Rajput.
     armed force, troops, soldiery, military forces, sabaoth^, the army,
standing army, regulars, the line, troops of the line, militia,
yeomanry, volunteers, trainband, fencible^; auxiliary, bersagliere^,
brave; garde-nationale, garde-royale [Fr.]; minuteman [U.S.]; auxiliary
forces, reserve forces; reserves, posse comitatus [Lat.], national
guard, gendarme, beefeater; guards, guardsman; yeomen of the guard,
life guards, household troops.
     janissary; myrmidon; Mama, Mameluke; spahee^, spahi^, Cossack,
Croat, Pandoz.
     irregular, guerilla, partisan, condottiere^; franctireur [Fr.],
tirailleur^, bashi-bazouk; [guerilla organization names: list],
vietminh, vietcong; shining path; contras; huk, hukbalahap.
     mercenary, soldier of fortune; hired gun, gunfighter, gunslinger;
bushwhacker, free lance, companion; Hessian.
     hit man torpedo, soldier.
     levy, draught; Landwehr [G.], Landsturm [G.]; conscript, recruit,
cadet, raw levies.
     infantry, infantryman, private, private soldier, foot soldier;
Tommy Atkins^, rank and file, peon, trooper, sepoy^, legionnaire,
legionary, cannon fodder, food for powder; officer &c (commander) 745;
subaltern, ensign, standard bearer; spearman, pikeman^; spear bearer;
halberdier^, lancer; musketeer, carabineer^, rifleman, jager [G.],
sharpshooter, yager^, skirmisher; grenadier, fusileer^; archer, bowman.
     horse and foot; horse soldier; cavalry, horse, artillery, horse
artillery, light horse, voltigeur [Fr.], uhlan, mounted rifles,
dragoon, hussar; light dragoon, heavy dragoon; heavy; cuirassier [Fr.];
Foot Guards, Horse Guards.
     gunner, cannoneer, bombardier, artilleryman^, matross^; sapper,
sapper and miner; engineer; light infantry, rifles, chasseur [Fr.],
zouave; military train, coolie.
     army, corps d'armee [Fr.], host, division, battalia^, column, wing,
detachment, garrison, flying column, brigade, regiment, corps,
battalion, sotnia^, squadron, company, platoon, battery, subdivision,
section, squad; piquet, picket, guard, rank, file; legion, phalanx,
cohort; cloud of skirmishers.
     war horse, charger, destrier.
     marine, man-of-war's man &c (sailor) 269; navy, wooden walls,
naval forces, fleet, flotilla, armada, squadron.
     [ships of war] man-of-war; destroyer; submarine; minesweeper;
torpedo-boat, torpedo-destroyer; patrol torpedo boat, PT boat; torpedo-
catcher, war castle, H.M.S.; battleship, battle wagon, dreadnought,
line of battle ship, ship of the line; aircraft carrier, carrier.
     flattop [Coll.]; helicopter carrier; missile platform, missile
boat; ironclad, turret ship, ram, monitor, floating battery; first-
rate, frigate, sloop of war, corvette, gunboat, bomb vessel; flagship,
guard ship, cruiser; armored cruiser, protected cruiser; privateer.
     [supporting ships] tender; store ship, troop ship; transport,
catamaran; merchant marine.

727. Arms -- N. arm, arms; weapon, deadly weapon; armament, armaments,
armature; panoply, stand of arms; armor &c (defense) 717; armory &c
(store) 636; apparatus belli [Lat.].
     ammunition; powder, powder and shot; cartridge; ball cartridge,
cartouche, fireball; villainous saltpeter [Henry IV]; dumdum bullet.
     explosive; gunpowder, guncotton; mercury fulminate; picrates;
pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN.
     high explosive; trinitrotoluene, TNT; dynamite, melinite^, cordite,
lyddite, plastic explosive, plastique; pyroxyline^.
     [knives and swords: list] sword, saber, broadsword, cutlass,
falchion^, scimitar, cimeter^, brand, whinyard, bilbo, glaive^, glave^,
rapier, skean, Toledo, Ferrara, tuck, claymore, adaga^, baselard^,
Lochaber ax, skean dhu^, creese^, kris, dagger, dirk, banger^, poniard,
stiletto, stylet^, dudgeon, bayonet; sword-bayonet, sword-stick; side
arms, foil, blade, steel; ax, bill; pole-ax, battle-ax; gisarme^,
halberd, partisan, tomahawk, bowie knife^; ataghan^, attaghan^,
yataghan^; yatacban^; assagai, assegai^; good sword, trusty sword, naked
sword; cold steel.
     club, mace, truncheon, staff, bludgeon, cudgel, life preserver,
shillelah, sprig; hand staff, quarter staff; bat, cane, stick, knuckle
duster; billy, blackjack, sandbag, waddy^.
     gun, piece [Fr.]; firearms; artillery, ordnance; siege train,
battering train; park, battery; cannon, gun of position, heavy gun,
field piece [Fr.], mortar, howitzer, carronade^, culverin^, basilisk;
falconet, jingal^, swivel, pederero^, bouche a feu [Fr.]; petard,
torpedo; mitrailleur [Fr.], mitrailleuse [Fr.]; infernal machine;
smooth bore, rifled cannon, Armstrong gun^, Lancaster gun, Paixhan gun,
Whitworth gun, Parrott gun, Krupp gun, Gatling gun, Maxim gun, machine
gun; pompom^; ten pounder.
     small arms; musket, musketry, firelock^, fowling piece [Fr.],
rifle, fusil^, caliver^, carbine, blunderbuss, musketoon^, Brown Bess,
matchlock, harquebuss^, arquebus, haguebut^; pistol, postolet^; petronel;
small bore; breach-loader, muzzle-loader; revolver, repeater; Minis
rifle, Enfield rifle, Flobert rifle, Westley Richards rifle, Snider
rifle, Martini-Henry rifle, Lee-Metford rifle, Lee-Enfield rifle,
Mauser rifle, magazine rifle; needle gun, chassepot^; wind gun, air gun;
automatic gun, automatic pistol; escopet^, escopette^, gunflint, gun-
lock; hackbut^, shooter, shooting iron [U.S.], six-shooter [U.S.],
shotgun; Uzzi, assault rifle, Kalashnikov.
     bow, crossbow, balister^, catapult, sling; battering ram &c
(impulse) 276; gunnery; ballistics &c (propulsion) 284.
     missile, bolt, projectile, shot, ball; grape; grape shot, canister
shot, bar shot, cannon shot, langrel shot^, langrage shot^, round shot,
chain shot; balista^, ballista^, slung shot, trebucbet^, trebucket^;
bullet, slug, stone, brickbat, grenade, shell, bomb, carcass, rocket;
congreve^, congreve rocket^; shrapnel, mitraille [Fr.]; levin bolt^,
levin brand^; thunderbolt.
     pike, lance, spear, spontoon^, javelin, dart, jereed^, jerid^,
arrow, reed, shaft, bolt, boomerang, harpoon, gaff; eelspear^, oxgoad^,
weet-weet, wommerah^; cattle prod; chemical mace.
Phr. en flute; nervos belli pecuniam infinitam [Lat.].

728. Arena -- N. arena, field, platform; scene of action, theater;
walk, course; hustings; stare, boards &c (playhouse) 599; amphitheater;
Coliseum, Colosseum; Flavian amphitheater, hippodrome, circus, race
course, corso [Sp.], turf, cockpit, bear garden, playground, gymnasium,
palestra, ring, lists; tiltyard^, tilting ground; Campus Martins, Champ
de Allars^; campus [U.S.].
     boxing ring, canvas.
     theater of war, seat of war; battle-field, battle-ground; field of
battle, field of slaughter; Aceldama^, camp; the enemy's camp; trusting
place &c (place of meeting) 74.


729. Completion -- N. completion, accomplishment, achievement,
fulfillment; performance, execution; despatch, dispatch; consummation,
culmination; finish, conclusion; close &c (end) 67; terminus &c
(arrival) 292; winding up; finale, denouement, catastrophe, issue,
upshot, result; final touch, last touch, crowning touch, finishing
touch, finishing stroke; last finish, coup de grace; crowning of the
edifice; coping-stone, keystone; missing link &c 53; superstructure, ne
plus ultra [Lat.], work done, fait accompli [Fr.].
     elaboration; finality; completeness &c 52.
V. effect, effectuate; accomplish, achieve, compass, consummate, hammer
out; bring to maturity, bring to perfection; perfect, complete;
     do, execute, make; go through, get through; work out, enact; bring
about, bring to bear, bring to pass, bring through, bring to a head.
     despatch, dispatch; knock off, finish off, polish off; make short
work of; dispose of, set at rest; perform, discharge, fulfill, realize;
put in practice, put in force; carry out, carry into effect, carry into
execution; make good; be as good as one's word.
     do thoroughly, not do by halves, go the whole hog; drive home; be
in at the death &c (persevere) 604.1; carry through, play out, exhaust;
fill the bill [U.S.].
     finish, bring to a close &c (end) 67; wind up, stamp, clinch,
seal, set the seal on, put the seal; give the final touch &c n.. to;
put the last, put the finishing hand to, put the finishing touches on;
crown, crown all; cap.
     ripen, culminate; come to a head, come to a crisis; come to its
end; die a natural death, die of old age; run its course, run one's
race; touch the goal, reach the goal, attain the goal; reach &c
(arrive) 292; get in the harvest.
Adj. completing, final; concluding, conclusive; crowning &c v.;
     done, completed &c v.; done for, sped, wrought out; highly wrought
&c (preparation) 673; thorough &c 52; ripe &c (ready) 673.
Adv. completely &c (thoroughly) 52; to crown all, out of hand.
Phr. the race is run; actum est [Lat.]; finis coronat opus [Lat.];
consummatum est [Lat.]; c'en est fait [Fr.]; it is all over; the game
is played out, the bubble has burst; aussitot dit aussitot fait [Fr.];
aut non tentaris aut perfice [Lat.] [Ovid].

730. Noncompletion -- N. noncompletion, nonfulfillment; shortcoming &c
304; incompleteness &c 53; drawn battle, drawn game; work of Penelope.
     nonperformance, inexecution^; neglect &c 460.
V. not complete &c 729; leave unfinished &c adj., leave undone, drop,
put down; neglect &c 460; let alone, let slip; lose sight of (forget)
     fall short of &c 304; do things by halves, parboil, scotch the
snake not lull it; hang fire; be slow to; collapse &c 304.
     drop out.
Adj. not completed &c v.; incomplete &c 53; uncompleted, unfinished,
unaccomplished, unperformed, unexecuted; sketchy, addle.
     in progress, in hand; ongoing, going on, proceeding; on one's
hands; on the anvil; in the fire, in the oven.
     parboiled, half-baked.
Adv. re infecta [Lat.].

731. Success -- N. success, successfulness; speed; advance &c
(progress) 282.
     trump card; hit, stroke, score; lucky hit, fortunate hit, good
hit, good stroke; direct hit, bull's eye; goal, point, touchdown; home
run, homer, hole-in-one, grand slam; killing [make money], windfall
bold stroke, master stroke; ten strike [U.S.]; coup de maitre [Fr.],
checkmate; half the battle, prize; profit &c (acquisition) 775.
     continued success; good fortune &c (prosperity) 734; time well
     advantage over; upper hand, whip hand; ascendancy, mastery;
expugnation^, conquest, victory, subdual^; subjugation &c (subjection)
     triumph &c (exultation) 884; proficiency &c (skill) 698.
     conqueror, victor, winner; master of the situation, master of the
position, top of the heap, king of the hill; achiever, success, success
V. succeed; be successful &c adj.; gain one's end, gain one's ends;
crown with success.
     gain a point, attain a point, carry a point, secure a point, win a
point, win an object; get there [U.S.]; manage to, contrive to;
accomplish &c (effect) (complete) 729; do wonders, work wonders; make a
go of it.
     come off well, come off successful, come off with flying colors;
make short work of; take by storm, carry by storm; bear away the bell;
win one's wings, win one's spurs, win the battle; win the day, carry
the day, gain the day, gain the prize, gain the palm; have the best of
it, have it all one's own way, have the game in one's owns hands, have
the ball at one's feet, have one on the hop; walk over the course;
carry all before one, remain in possession of the field; score a
     speed; make progress &c (advance) 282; win one's way, make one's
way, work one's way, find one's way; strive to some purpose; prosper &c
734; drive a roaring trade; make profit &c (acquire) 775; reap the
fruits, gather the fruits, reap the benefit of, reap the harvest;
strike oil [U.S.], gain a windfall; make one's fortune, get in the
harvest, turn to good account; turn to account &c (use) 677.
     triumph, be triumphant; gain a victory, obtain a victory, gain an
advantage; chain victory to one's car; nail a coonskin to the wall.
     surmount a difficulty, overcome a difficulty, get over a
difficulty, get over an obstacle &c 706; se tirer d'affaire [Fr.]; make
head against; stem the torrent, stem the tide, stem the current;
weather the storm, weather a point; turn a corner, keep one's head
above water, tide over; master; get the better of, have the better of,
gain the better of, gain the best of, gain the upper hand, gain the
ascendancy, gain the whip hand, gain the start of; distance; surpass &c
(superiority) 33.
     defeat, conquer, vanquish, discomfit; euchre; overcome, overthrow,
overpower, overmaster, overmatch, overset^, override, overreach; outwit,
outdo, outflank, outmaneuver