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Title: Illustrated Catalogue of the Collections Obtained from the Indians of New Mexico in 1880 - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 429-466
Author: Stevenson, James, 1840-1888
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue of the Collections Obtained from the Indians of New Mexico in 1880 - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 429-466" ***

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by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at
http://gallica.bnf.fr)



[Transcriber's Note:

Punctuation in catalog entries has been silently regularized.
Other errors are noted at the end of the text.]


       *       *       *       *       *


 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION--BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.

             ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE
                     OF THE
     COLLECTIONS OBTAINED FROM THE INDIANS
                       OF
              NEW MEXICO IN 1880.

                       BY

                JAMES STEVENSON.


       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION                                   429
Collections from Cuyamunque                    435
  Articles of stone                            435
    Rubbing stones                             435
  Articles of clay                             436
Collections from Nambé                         436
  Articles of stone                            436
  Articles of clay                             437
Collections from Pojuaque                      438
  Articles of stone                            438
  Articles of clay                             439
  Articles of bone and horn                    440
Collections from Old Pojuaque                  441
  Articles of stone                            441
  Articles of clay                             441
Collections from Santa Clara                   441
  Articles of stone                            441
  Articles of clay                             443
    Polished black ware                        443
    Black or brown ware                        447
    Whitened ware with colored decorations     449
  Vegetal substances                           449
Collections from Tesuque                       450
  Articles of stone                            450
  Articles of clay                             450
Collections from Turquoise Mine                450
Collections from Santo Domingo                 450
  Articles of stone                            450
  Articles of clay                             451
Collections from Jémez                         452
  Articles of stone                            452
  Articles of clay                             452
  Miscellaneous articles                       454
Collections from Silla                         454
  Articles of stone                            454
  Articles of clay                             454
  Miscellaneous                                455
Collections from San Juan                      456
  Articles of stone                            456
  Articles of clay                             456
    Polished black ware                        456
    Brown and black ware                       457
    White ware with decorations                457
  Miscellaneous articles                       458
Collection from Santa Ana                      458
  Articles of stone                            458
  Articles of clay                             458
Collection from Sandia, N. Mex.                458
Collection from Cochití                        459
  Articles of stone                            459
  Articles of clay                             459
  Miscellaneous articles                       460
Collections from San Ildefonso                 460
  Articles of stone                            460
  Articles of clay                             461
    Red ware with decorations in black         462
    Red and brown ware without decorations     463
    Black polished ware                        463
    Black ware not polished                    463
  Miscellaneous articles                       464
Collections from Taos                          464
  Articles of stone                            464
  Articles of clay                             464
    White and red ware with decorations        465


ILLUSTRATIONS.

Fig.
698.--Pojuaque pitcher                         440
699.--Santa Clara polished black ware          443
700.--Santa Clara polished black ware          444
701.--Santa Clara bowl                         445
702.--Santa Clara image                        445
703.--Santa Clara meal basket                  446
704.--Santa Clara pipe                         446
705.--Santa Clara canteen                      447
706.--Santa Clara canteen                      449
707.--Santo Domingo tinaja                     451
708.--Jémez water vase                         453
709.--Silla water vessel                       455
710.--The blanket weaver                       454
711.--San Juan water vessel                    457
712.--San Ildefonso water vessel               461
713.--Taos polishing stone                     464
714.--Taos vessel                              465


  [Illustration:

  MAP OF THE PROVINCE OF TUSAYAN, ARIZONA
  Surveyed by A. L. WEBSTER 1881]


       *       *       *       *       *


    ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE COLLECTIONS
    OBTAINED FROM THE INDIANS OF NEW MEXICO
                    IN 1880.

              By James Stevenson.


       *       *       *       *       *


INTRODUCTION.


It is thought best that I should give, in connection with the catalogue
of collections made by the party under my charge in 1880-'81, a brief
statement in relation to the collections described in the catalogues,
and the information obtained in regard to the Pueblo tribes.

Our explorations during the field season of 1880 and 1881 were
restricted to the Pueblo tribes located along the Rio Grande and its
tributaries in New Mexico. The chief object in view was to secure as
soon as possible all the ethnological and archaeological data obtainable
before it should be lost to science by the influx of civilized
population which is being rapidly thrown into this region by the
extension of railroads into and through it. Not only are the
architectural remains being rapidly destroyed and archaeological
specimens collected and carried away by travelers, excursionists, and
curiosity hunters, but the ancient habits and customs of these tribes
are rapidly giving way and falling into disuse before the influence of
eastern civilization.

Our party, consisting, besides myself, of Mr. Galbraith, archaeologist,
Mr. Morancy, assistant, and Mr. J. K. Hillers, photographer, proceeded
to Santa Fé, N. Mex., where an outfit was secured for the season's work.
From here we proceeded to Taos, one of the most extensive pueblos in the
Rio Grande region. This village is situated on the Rio Taos a few miles
from the Rio Grande, and just under the shadow of the Taos Mountains. It
comprises two large sections, one on each side of the Rio Taos. These
are compactly built and each six stories high. The industrial pursuits
of these Indians are principally pastoral and agricultural, they having
a good market for their products in the Mexican village of Fernandez de
Taos, containing a population of about 4,000 Mexicans and eastern
people.

The party spent several days here making investigations and collections.
The collection made was small but quite varied and novel, though few of
the articles obtained were of their own manufacture.

Quite a number of stone implements were secured, among which were some
stone knives, pipes, a number of rude stone axes and hammers, arrow
smoothers, &c. The pottery obtained here is chiefly of the common type
and resembles that from San Juan, from whence in all probability it was
received by exchange and barter. Earthenware, so far as I can learn, is
not now made in Taos, except by a few families where a Taos Indian has
married a woman from San Juan or some other tribe where the manufacture
of pottery is carried on. If this industry was ever, practiced by the
Taos Indians it must have been at a remote period; in fact there seems
to be no tradition of it now among them.

From here we went next to the pueblo of San Juan, situated on the left
bank of the Rio Grande, about 50 miles south of Taos. At this pueblo a
collection was made of stone implements, articles of clay, &c. These
specimens are not quite so representative as those from some of the
more southern pueblos, the village being situated on one of the military
wagon roads, over which many Europeans pass, and hence frequently
visited; many of the most valuable specimens of implements and pottery
have been bartered away; however, those we obtained display quite
fully all the industries of the people of this pueblo. This collection
consists of a number of fine stone mortars, pestles, arrow and spear
heads, also several polishing stones. Quite a number of small animal
forms carved out of stone were also secured. At this pueblo many
specimens of the black polished ware peculiar to a few of the tribes
in the Rio Grande Valley were collected.

From San Juan we proceeded to Santa Clara, situated a few miles below
on the right bank of the Rio Grande. This pueblo proved to be so
interesting in its surroundings that some time was spent here in
making investigations. We found the people extensively engaged in the
manufacture of that black polished pottery of which so little has been
known heretofore, especially in regard to the process of baking and
coloring it, which is fully described in the text accompanying the
catalogue of last year in this volume. The larger portion of the
specimens of earthenware obtained here was of this kind, though several
specimens of the red and some few of the ornamented class were also
secured.

Most of the pottery manufactured at this village is the black polished
ware. That of the decorated class is ornamented with the juice of
_Cleome integrifolia_, which is fixed in the ware in the process of
burning. Mineral substances, so far as I could learn, are not used by
the Indians of Santa Clara in decorating their pottery.

Among the specimens are a number of interesting stone implements, nearly
all of an older kind than any made by this people at the present day.

During our stay at this pueblo some interesting archaeological
discoveries were made of which a brief mention in this connection may
not be out of place, and which will certainly prove of great interest
to future investigators. Between the Rio Grande and Valle Mountains,
commencing about 12 miles below, or south, of Santa Clara, and extending
south, to within ten miles of Cochití, a distance of about 65 miles,
is an extensive area, the intermediate elevated portion of which
is composed of a yellowish volcanic tufa, of coarse texture and
sufficiently soft and yielding to be readily worked or carved with rude
stone implements. Over this entire area there are irregular elevations,
somewhat circular in outline, from 50 to 200 feet in height, the faces
of which have been worn away by the elements, and are in nearly all
instances perpendicular. These consecutive elevations extend back from
the Rio Grande from five to fifteen miles. Over this whole expanse of
country, in the faces of these cliffs, we found an immense number of
cavate dwellings, cut out by the hand of man. We made no attempt to
count the number of these curious dwellings, dug like hermit cells out
of the rock, but they may be estimated with safety among the thousands.
I made many inquiries of the neighboring tribes in regard to the history
of these dwellings, but could elicit no information from any of them.
The response was invariably, "they are very old and the people who
occupied them are gone."

An inspection of a portion of this area revealed a condition of things
which I have no doubt prevails throughout. The dwellings were found in
the faces of the cliffs, about 20 feet apart in many instances, but the
distances are irregular. A careful examination satisfied me that they
were excavated with rude stone implements resembling adzes, numbers of
which were found here, and which were probably used by fastening one end
to a handle.

The doorways, which are square, were first cut into the face of the wall
to a depth of about one foot, and then the work of enlarging the room
began. The interiors of the rooms are oval in shape, about 12 feet in
diameter, and only of sufficient height to enable one to stand upright.

The process, from the evidences shown inside, of carving out the
interior of the dwelling was by scraping grooves several inches deep and
apart, and breaking out the intermediate portion; in this way the work
progressed until the room reached the desired size. Inside of these
rooms were found many little niches and excavated recesses used for
storing household ornaments, the larger ones probably supplying the
place of cupboards. Near the roofs of many of the caves are mortises,
projecting from which, in many instances, were found the decayed ends of
wooden beams or sleepers, which were probably used, as they are now in
the modern Pueblo dwellings, as poles over which to hang blankets and
clothing, or to dry meat. These dwellings were without fireplaces; but
the evidences of fire were plainly visible at the side of each cave,
and in none of those visited did we find any orifice for the egress of
the smoke but the small doorway. On the outside or in front of these
singular habitations are rows of holes mortised into the face of the
cliffs about the doors. It is quite evident that these were for the
insertion of beams of wood (for forming booths or shelters in the
front), as ends of beams were found sticking there, which, in their
sheltered position and in this dry climate, may have been preserved for
centuries.

Upon the top of the mesa of which these cliffs are the exposed sides we
found the ruins of large circular buildings made of square stones 8 by
12 inches in size. The walls of some of these structures remain standing
to the height of ten or twelve feet, and show that from four to five
hundred people can find room within each inclosure. One of these
buildings was rectangular and two were round structures. The latter were
about 100 and 150 feet in diameter, the rectangular one about 300 feet
square. Many small square rooms were constructed in the interior from
large cut bricks of the tufa of which the bluffs are composed. These
rooms all opened toward the center of the large inclosure, which has
but one general doorway. From these ruins we secured great quantities
of pottery, arrow and spear heads, knives, grinding-stones,
arrow-smoothers, and many of the small flint adzes, which were
undoubtedly used for making the blocks for the structures on the
mesa and for excavating the cave dwellings. Among the débris in the
dwellings are found corncobs and other evidences of the food used by the
inhabitants. This certainly indicates that the people who occupied these
singular dwellings were agricultural.

The faces of some of the more prominent cliffs contained as many as
three rows of chambers one above the other; the débris at the foot,
sometimes 200 feet deep, covered up at least two rows of these chambers.

Along the edges of the cliffs and over the rocky surface of the mesa
are winding footpaths from 3 to 10 inches deep, worn by the feet of the
inhabitants. Some of these paths showed perceptible foot-prints where it
was inconvenient for those following the path to do otherwise than tread
in the footsteps of their predecessors.

In our limited investigations we were unable to discover any evidence of
burial customs. No graves could be found, and nothing of human remains.

The southern portion of this area seems to have been most densely
populated. Some of the protected walls in the neighborhood retain
hieroglyphics in abundance. These resemble the picture writing of the
present Indians of that region. Many interesting specimens of the art of
this ancient people can be seen in the images of wild animals scattered
over various spots. Many of them are cut in full relief out of the tufa
and are always in some natural attitude, and can always be identified
where the weather has not destroyed the original form. The most
prominent are two mountain lions, side by side and life size.

Further examinations will reveal much more of value and interest in
connection with this very inviting locality.

Mr. Galbraith, who accompanied my party, spent some time examining this
region and made collections here.

The next pueblo visited was San Ildefonso, about five miles below Santa
Clara, on the opposite bank of the Rio Grande. But few specimens were
obtained here. The people of this pueblo devote their time chiefly
to agricultural and pastoral pursuits, and have almost abandoned the
manufacture of pottery, that in use by them at the present time being
mostly obtained from neighboring tribes.

From San Ildefonso we proceeded to Nambé, a pueblo which has become
almost extinct. The remnant of this people is situated about 25 miles
above Ildefonso, on Nambé Creek, and not far from the base of the
mountains. The people of Nambé have several times in years past moved
their pueblo higher up the stream, the valley of which furnishes them
fine agricultural and grazing grounds. They make very little pottery,
but we found stored in many of the houses of the village great
quantities of stone implements, principally large metates and
grinding-stones. We also found many specimens of interest among the
ruins of old Nambé and Pojuaque, as well as the remains of pottery in
such quantities as to show that in the past the manufacture of pottery
had been carried on quite extensively. In this vicinity I made
arrangements with one of the employés of the party, who had resided
many years at Santa Fé, to make excavations and collections from the
old sites of Nambé, Pojuaque, and Cuyamunque, in which he was quite
successful.

From the pueblos north of Santa Fé we traveled direct to Cochití,
27 miles southwest of Santa Fé. This village is situated on the right
bank of the Rio Grande and about three miles from Peña Blanca, a small
Mexican town opposite. Here a very interesting collection was secured
consisting mostly of pottery, many of the vessels simulating animal
forms, variously ornamented with representations of some varieties of
the flora of the locality. A few stone implements were also obtained
here.

We next visited Jémez, situated on the Rio Jémez. From thence we went
to Silla and Santa Ana. At each of these villages representative
collections were made, all of which are referred to in detail in the
catalogue.

The next villages visited were Santo Domingo and Sandia, on the Rio
Grande. Some characteristic specimens were obtained at each of these
pueblos. The method of their manufacture and the manner of using them
are generally the same as in most of the other pueblos.

A small collection of rude stone hammers was obtained from the turquois
mine in the Cerrillo Mountains, about 25 miles from Santa Fé.

The products of this celebrated mine, which were objects of traffic
all over New Mexico, as well as contiguous countries, probably formed
one inducement which led to the Spanish conquest of this region. The
turquoises from this mine have always been valued as ornaments by the
Indians of New Mexico, and carried far and wide for sale by them.
The mine was worked in a most primitive manner with these rude stone
hammers, a number of which were secured. The collections are all now
in the National Museum for study and inspection.

The following sketch is introduced here to show the method of using the
batten stick represented in Fig. 546. There is not a family among the
Pueblos or Navajos that does not possess the necessary implements for
weaving blankets, belts and garters. Figs. 500-502 will convey an idea
of the variety in design and coloring which prevails in this class of
Indian fabrics, while Fig. 710 represents a blanket weaver at work. The
picture is taken from a photograph made on the spot by Mr. Hillers, and
is colored in accordance with the actual colors of the yarns and threads
used in its manufacture.

The particular class of blankets represented in this illustration is
woven in the estufas, and is used almost exclusively in sacred dances
and ceremonies of the tribe, all other garments being made in the houses
or in the open air. The Navajos are celebrated for their skill as
blanket weavers, and the Mokis are equally skilled in the manufacture
of a finer class of the same article, which is much sought after by the
surrounding tribes for ornamental purposes in sacred and other dances.

The vertical threads, as shown in the figure, are the warp threads; the
coarser thread which is inserted transversely between these is the yarn
or weft. The three rods in the center of the blanket are lease rods,
which are introduced among the threads of the warp to separate them and
thus facilitate the insertion of the weft thread. These rods are each
passed in front of one warp thread and behind another, alternately,
across the whole warp, and between each rod the threads are brought from
the back of one to the front of the next, and _vice versa_. The bar held
in hands of the weaver serves as a batten for driving or beating the
weft thread into the angle formed by the crossed warp threads.

This loom resembles in principle the ancient Egyptian, Grecian, and
French looms which are described on pages 55 to 62 of "The History and
Principles of Weaving by Hand and Power," by A. Barlow, London, 1878,
and on pages 41 to 45 of the "Treatise on Weaving and Designing of
Textile Fabrics," by Thomas E. Ashenhurst, Bradford, England, 1881.
See also pp. 200 to 208, Vol. II, of the "Cotton Manufacture of Great
Britain," by A. Ure, London, 1861.



COLLECTIONS FROM CUYAMUNQUE.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

_RUBBING STONES._

(Used as rubbers in grinding corn on metates.)

1-3. 1, (46506); 2, (46507); 3, (46517). Basalt.

4, (46510). Sandstone.

5, (46512). Conglomerate.

6-9. 6, (46513); 7, (46514); 8, (46515); 9, (46516). Mica schist.

10-11. 10, (46518); 11, (46529). Of hornblende schist; these are
  elongate and intended to be used with both hands.

12-13. 12, (46508); 13, (46567). Quartzite metates.

14-15. 14, (46509); 15, (46511). Sandstone metates, the latter but
  little used and almost flat.

16, (46551). Rubbing stone of andesite.

17-24. 17, (46555); 18, (46556); 19, (46557); 20, (46558); 21, (46561);
  22, (46563); 23, (46569); 24, (46559). Small smoothing stone mostly of
  quartzite, one or two only of basalt. These are bowlders weighing from
  one to three pounds, rounded by natural agencies, and selected by the
  natives to be used for smoothing and polishing purposes. When much
  used they are worn down flat on one side, the side used being worn
  off, just as the rubbing stone in the old process of preparing paint.

25-26. 25, (46519); 26, (46520). Unfinished celts of basalt.

27, (46521). Crude hoe or adze of mica schist.

28, (46522). Schist stone with groove for smoothing arrow shaft, and
  hole for rounding point.

29-31. 29, (46523); 30, (46524); 31, (46525). Crude stone implements,
  supposed to be used for digging.

32-34. 32, (46526); 33, (46527); 34, (46528). Very crude stone
  implements, probably used for pounding.

35, (46530). Double-handled baking stone; basalt. The use of stones of
  this kind will be more particularly noticed hereafter.

36, (46531). Broken rounded mortar; basalt.

37, (47532). A small, oblong, mortar-shaped vessel of lava. The width
  three inches, length when unbroken was probably four and a half
  inches; width of inside two inches, length probably three and
  one-fourth inches, depth of cavity three-fourths of an inch. On the
  portion remaining there are four feet; originally there were doubtless
  six. On one side is a projection or handle similar in form and size to
  the feet. 38-54. 38, (46533); 39, (46534); 40, (46535); 41, (46536);
  42, (46537); 43, (46538); 44, (46539); 45, (46550); 46, (46552); 47,
  (46553); 48, (46554); 49, (46560); 50, (46562); 51, (46565); 52,
  (46566); 53, (46568); 54, (47571). Pounding or hammer stones, some
  of them simple cobble stones, others with marks of slight preparation
  for use by chipping off or rubbing down prominences.

55, (46540). Sandstone with smoothed surface and groove for smoothing
  arrow shafts.

56-64. 56, (46541); 57, (46542); 58, (46543); 59, (46544); 60, (46545);
  61, (46546); 62, (46547); 63, (46548); 64, (46564). Small stones,
  chiefly quartz, basalt, and agate, used for smoothing and polishing
  pottery.

65-68. 65, (46570); 66, (46572); 67, (46573); 68, (46574). Broken
  rubbers for metates.

69, (46988). Spear head. Basalt.

70, (46989). Arrow head. Obsidian.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

(Only one perfect specimen obtained.)

71, (46575). A bowl.

72, (46718). Fragments of ancient pottery.



COLLECTIONS FROM NAMBÉ.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

73-78. 73, (46577); 74, (46578); 75, (46579); 76, (46580); 77, (46581);
  78, (46583). Quartzite rubbing stones of an elongate form.

79, (46582). Similar to the last group, but appears to have been used as
  a pestle as well as a rubber.

80-85. 80, (46584); 81, (46585); 82, (49586); 83, (46587); 84, (46588);
  85, (46589). Pounding stones, chiefly of quartzite. These are quite
  regularly formed, cylindrical or spindle-shaped, with blunt or
  squarely docked ends, from four to seven inches long and two to
  three inches in diameter, used chiefly in pounding mesquite beans.

86-89. 86, (46590); 87, (46591); 88, (46592); 89, (46593). Round,
  flattened, or disk-shaped quartzite pounders, medium and small sizes.

90-91. 90, (46596); and 91, (46597). Pounders similar to the preceding
  group, but smaller.

92, (46594). A flat or disk-shaped polishing stone of quartzite.

93, (46595). An oblong rectangular quartzite pounding stone.

94-105. 94, (46598); 95, (46599); 96, (46600); 97, (46601); 98, (46602);
  99, (46603); 100, (46604); 101, (46605); 102, (46606); 103, (46607);
  104, (46608); 105, (46609). Small irregular stones of jasper and
  basalt used in shaping and polishing pottery.

106, (46610). Elongate, well-worn, sandstone meal rubber or rubber for
  metate.

107, (46611). A stone bowl or basin made from an oblong, somewhat
  oval-shaped quartzite slab, and used for pounding and grinding
  mesquite beans. The length is 19 inches, greatest width 10 inches,
  depth of depression 2 inches.

108, (46612). Rather large disk-shaped smoothing stone of basalt.

109-114. 109, (46719); 110, (46720); 111, (46721); 112, (46722); 113,
  (46723); and 114, (46724). Rubbers for metates of the usual form,
  mostly of basalt, well worn, and most of them broken.

115-131. 115, (46725); 116, (46726); 117, (46728); 118, (46729); 119,
  (46732); 120, (46733); 121, (46734); 122, (46735); 123, (46739); 124,
  (46740); 125, (46741); 126, (46742); 127, (46743); 128, (46744); 129,
  (46749); 130, (46750); 131, (46761). Crude pounding stones, mostly
  simple cobble stones, more or less worn by use.

132-150. 132, (46727); 133, (46730); 134, (46731); 135, (46736); 136,
  (46737); 137, (46738); 138, (46745); 139, (46746); 140, (46747); 141,
  (46748); 142, (46751); 143, (46752); 144, (46753); 145, (46754); 146,
  (46755); 147, (46756); 148, (46757); 149, (46758); 150, (46759). Small
  and mostly polished smoothing stones, used chiefly in polishing
  pottery; all well worn; of jasper, quartzite; or basalt.

151, (46760). A broken grooved ax of basalt.

152, (47051). A very large metate, twenty-four inches long and fifteen
  inches wide, much worn, the middle of the curve being three and
  one-half inches below the surface.

153, (47048). Ax with groove on one edge.

154, (47049). Hammer with broad annular groove.

155, (47050). Hammer with lateral notches.

156, (47051). Ax, broken.

157, (48052). Grooved hammer.

158, (47056). Half of a large mortar, much worn.

159, (47058). Metate.

160, (47059). A small mortar, probably used for grinding and pounding
  chili (pepper).


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

Articles of clay from this pueblo, which are but few in number, are
either of polished black ware or unpolished of the natural _tierra
amarilla_ or yellow earth, color, but more or less blackened by use.
This ware is of precisely the same character and quality as the black
pottery from Santa Clara. The pitchers, cups, and basins are evidently
modeled after introduced patterns from civilized nations. All are
without ornamentation.

161, (47033). Tinaja or olla, with narrow neck; _tierra amarilla_,
  blackened.

162, (47032). Tinaja or olla, rather small, polished black ware.

163-164. 163, (47034); 164, (47035). Pitchers of the ordinary form with
  handle and spout, about half-gallon size, polished black ware.

165, (47036). Small olla, yellow ware.

166, (47037). Small olla-shaped bowl; yellow ware.

167, (47038). A cup without handle.

168-171. 168, (47039); 169, (47040); 170, (47041); 171, (47042). Cups
  with handle similar in form and size to the ordinary white stone-china
  coffee cups; yellow-ware.

172, (47043). Cup similar in form and size to the preceding, but of
  polished black ware.

173, (47044). Small cup without handle; polished black ware.

174, (47045). Small cooking pot with handle; polished black ware.

175, (47046). A pear-shaped water vessel with two loop handles placed
  opposite each other near the mouth.

176, (47047). A large, polished black ware basin of the usual washbasin
  form, but with undulate border.

177, (47060). Small bowl, black polished ware.



COLLECTIONS FROM POJUAQUE.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

178-189. 178, (46613); 179, (46614); 180, (46615); 181, (46616); 182,
  (46617); 183, (46618); 184, (46619); 185, (46620); 186, (46621); 187,
  (46622); 188, (46657); 189, (46658). Hammers with groove around the
  middle. In 46618 the groove is double. They are of quartzite, lava,
  greenstone, metamorphic rock and basalt.

190-202. 190, (46623); 191, (46624); 192, (46625); 193, (46627); 194,
  (46639); 195, (46640); 196, (46641); 197, (46642); 198, (46644); 199,
  (45645); 200, (46646); 201, (46647); 202, (46648). Small
  smoothing-stones.

203, (46626). A triangular pounding stone.

204-212. 204, (46628); 205, (46629); 206, (46630); 207, (46631); 208,
  (46632); 209, (46633); 210, (46634); 211, (46650); 212, (46632). Oval
  pounding-stones made out of rolled pebbles or bowlders.

213, (46635). Elongate slender implements of basalt, probably used in
  molding pottery, especially the larger flaring bowls. 214, (46636).
  A smaller implement of similar form used as a polisher for particular
  vessels.

215-216. 215, (46637); 216, (46638). Flat stones with straight groove
  for smoothing arrow-shafts.

217, (46643). An unfinished ax of basalt.

218, (46651). A mortar for pounding and grinding mesquite beans.

219, (46653). Rude, partially grooved ax.

220, (46654). Small quartzite pestle.

221, (46659). A very regular, much-worn basaltic metate.

222, (47926). A large, well-worn metate.

223-226. 223, (46660); 224, (47927); 225, (47928); 226, (47929). Rubbing
  stones for metate.

227-228. 227, (47930); 228, (47931). Broken hatchets with annular groove
  near the hammer end.

229-232. 229, (47932); 230, (47933); 231, (47934); 232, (47935). Rude
  hatchets or digging implements notched on the side.

233-234. 233, (47936); 234, (47937). Hammers or pounding-stones with
  groove around the middle.

235-248. 235, (47938); 236, (47939); 237, (47944); 238, (47951); 239,
  (47952); 240, (47953); 241, (47954); 242, (47955); 243, (47956); 244,
  (47958); 245, (47959); 246, (47963); 247, (47964); 248, (47965).
  Pounding-stones.

249-255. 249, (47940); 250, (47941); 251, (47942); 252, (47943); 253,
  (47960); 254, (47961); 255, (47962). Small smoothing-stones.

256, (47945). Quartz pestle.

257, (47946). Stone for crushing and grinding mesquite beans.

258-261. 258, (47947); 259, (47948); 260, (47949); 261, (47950). Small
  disk-shaped hammer-stones with finger pits or depressions usually on
  both sides.

262-265. 262, (47966); 263, (47967); 264, (47968); 265, (47969). Stones
  with flat surface and a single straight groove for polishing or
  straightening arrow-shafts.

266-267. 266, (47971); 267, (47972). Similar stones, with two and three
  grooves, used for same purpose.

268, (47970). Piece of soap-stone used for moulding bullets.

269, (47974). Rude mortar for grinding paint.

270, (47973). Muller for grinding paint in the paint mortar.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These are few and simple and chiefly of the yellow micaceous ware,
some of it blackened by use so that the original color cannot now be
observed. Some of the pieces are of red ware with ornamentations.

273-274. 273, (47431); 274, (47432). Pottery moulds for bottoms of
  vessels.

275, (47434). A pitcher-shaped teapot of red micaceous ware, with
  handle; a row of projecting points around the middle, one-half of
  these (those on one side) having the tips notched. There is a
  triangular spout in front, the opening to it being through numerous
  small round holes forming a strainer. Capacity about three pints.
  (Fig. 698.)

  [Illustration: Fig. 698. 47434]

276, (47435). Small pitcher-shaped cooking pot with handle and crenulate
  margin.

277-278. 277, (47436); 278, (47437). Small plain bowls used in cooking.

279, (47438). A small boat-shaped bowl resembling a pickle dish.

280, (47439). A small, polished black olla.

281, (47440). A small flat flaring bowl of red ware, with simple,
  narrow, inner marginal black band and an inner sub-marginal line of
  triangular points with dots between them.

282, (47441). Small image of a quadruped, very rude; impossible to
  determine the animal intended; white ware with undulate black lines.

283, (47442). Image of a small bird with wings spread; white ware with
  black lines.

284, (47443). Small bowl of white ware, ornamented with red triangles
  and squares bordered by black lines.

285, (47444). Specimen of the paint used by the Indians to ornament
  themselves in their dances.


ARTICLES OF BONE AND HORN.

271, (46656). Corn-husker; handle of antelope-horn and point of iron.

272, (48047). Implement of horn, perforated for straightening
  arrow-shafts.



COLLECTIONS FROM OLD POJUAQUE.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

286-288. 286, (46661); 287, (46662); 288, (46714). Fragments of metates.

289, (46663). Large, very regularly shaped and much worn metate.

290-296. 290, (46664); 291, (46665); 292, (46666); 293, (46667); 294,
  (46668); 295, (46669); 296, (46670). Rubbing stones for metates,
  mostly broken.

297-319. 297, (46671); 298, (46672); 299, (46673); 300, (46674); 301,
  (46675); 302, (46676); 303, (46677); 304, (46678); 305, (46679); 306,
  (46683); 307, (46684); 308, (46695); 309, (46690); 310, (46680); 311,
  (46701); 312, (46702); 313, (46705); 314, (46709); 315, (46710); 316,
  (46711); 317, (46712); 318, (46713); 319, (46715). Smoothing stones.

320-335. 320, (46681); 321, (46682); 322, (46685); 323, (46686); 324,
  (46687); 325, (46688); 326, (46689); 327, (46690); 328, (46691); 329,
  (46692); 330, (46693); 331, (46694); 332, (46699); 333, (46704); 334,
  (46706); 335, (46707). Hammers or pounding stones, mostly rude and
  simple, showing but little preparation.

336-338. 336, (46697); 337, (46698); 338, (46700). Rude unpolished
  celts.

339, (46703). A sharpening stone. Slate.

340, (46708). Grooved stones for polishing arrow-shafts.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These consist of only a few fragments of ancient ornamented pottery.

341-342. 341, (46716); 342, (46717). Fragments of pottery from the ruins
  of the old pueblo.



COLLECTIONS FROM SANTA CLARA.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

343-349. 343, (46762); 344, (46763); 345, (46764); 346, (47535); 347,
  (47552); 348, (47563); 349, (47564). Metates or grinding stones.

350, (46765). Blocks of stone from the walls of a ruined pueblo,
  (Liparito or Mesa.)

351-352. 351, (46767); 352, (46780). Rude hatchets or digging stones,
  notched at the sides and one end, more or less chipped.

353, (46781). Stone hammer, regular in form, grooved, and more than
  usually slender and pointed.

354-355. 354, (46782); 355, (46787). Pounding stones, chipped and
  notched at the sides.

356-357. 356, (46792); 357, (46793). Rounded pounding stones with finger
  pits.

358-359. 358, (46794); 359, (46799). Spherical stones used for
  casse-têtes, or in common parlance, slung-shot.

300-378. 360, (46800); 361, (46801); 362, (46802); 363, (46815); 364,
  (46828); 365, (46830); 366, (46832); 367, (46834); 368, (46841); 369,
  (46873); 370, (46881); 371, (46896); 372, (46965); 373, (47565); 374,
  (47679); 375, (47689); 376, (47693); 377, (47701); 378, (47707). Rude
  hammer-stones, some with notches at the sides, others without; none
  grooved.

379-381. 379, (46803); 380, (46812); 381, (46814). Rubbing stones for
  metate; mostly broken.

382, (46813). A rude, broken axe.

383-384. 383, (46824); 384, (46825). Smoothing stones used in making and
  polishing pottery.

385, (46826). Grooved stone for polishing arrow-shafts.

386, (46827). Fragments of pestles.

387-392. 387, (46831); 388, (46833); 389, (46842); 390, (46843); 391,
  (46963); 392, (46982). Smoothing stones.

393-396. 393, (46844); 394, (46864); 395, (47694); 396, (47700). Rubbing
  or smoothing stones.

397-398. 397, (46865); 398, (46868). Stone balls used as slung-shot.

399-400. 399, (46869); 400, (46871). Small, round hammer stones.

401, (47714). A rudely carved stone, probably intended to represent some
  animal.

402-404. 402, (46872); 403, (46882); 404, (46895). Grooved hammers.

405, (46983). Large pounding stone.

406-407. 406, (46985); 407, (46986). Bottles containing chips and flakes
  of obsidian and agate, from ancient pueblo on mesa.

408, (47987). Collection of 10 stones used in smoothing pottery.

409, (47536). Collection of 67 stones used in smoothing pottery.

410, (47537). Twenty-one stone chips and flakes.

411, (47538). Eight hammer stones and chips.

412-413. 412, (47539); 413, (47549). Grinding or rubbing stones for
  metate.

414, (47551). Stone mortar.

415-416. 415, (47553); 416, (47559). Rubbing stones for metate.

417-418. 417, (47560); 418, (47562). Pounding stones.

419, (47680). Large metate.

420-421. 420, (47681); 421, (47688). Rubbing stones for metate.

422, (46990). Grooved hammer.

423, (47709). Round pounding stone.

424, (47710). Chips and flakes of agate and jasper (one box).

425, (47711). Smoothing stones for pottery.

426, (47713). Chips and flakes of obsidian (one box).

427, (47715). Flakes and arrow heads of obsidian.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These consist of vessels of pottery, a few clay images, and two or
three clay pipes. The pottery (with the exception of one or two pieces
obtained from other pueblos) is all black ware, some of which is quite
well polished. Some of the ollas are quite large, the form shown in fig.
699 (46993), predominating; others with rather high neck which is marked
with sharp, oblique ridges, as shown in fig. 700 (47023).

  [Illustration: Fig. 699. 46993]

_POLISHED BLACK WARE._

428, (46993). Olla shown in fig. 699. The somewhat peculiar form of the
  body, the sharp curve at the shoulder and straight line in the lower
  half, is the point to which attention is more particularly called, as
  this appears to be the principal type form of these vessels, with this
  pueblo.

429, (46994). A jar-shaped olla.

430-433. 430, (46995); 431, (47023); Fig. 700. 432, (47024); 433,
  (47147). These are well shown in fig. 700. The oblique lines on the
  neck indicate sharp external ridges. The lip is also usually undulate
  or crenate. The size is from medium to large, varying in capacity from
  one to three or four gallons.

434, (46996). A large pitcher, lower part of the body much inflated,
  neck rather narrow and encircled by a sharp undulate ridge, handle
  and spout of the usual form; capacity about two gallons. Coarse brown
  micaceous ware blackened by fire.

435-437. 435, (46997); 436, (46999); 437, (47008). Small flat
  olla-shaped bowls.

438, 439. 438, (47002); 439, (47014). Small tinajas with angular
  shoulders.

  [Illustration: Fig. 700. 47023]

440, (47019). A rather small flaring bowl with flat bottom, ornamented
  with oval depressions on the inner surface; the margin is distinctly
  and somewhat regularly heptagonal.

441-448. 441, (47029); 442, (47123); 443, (47137); 444, (47141); 445,
  (47142); 446, (47143); 447, (47143a); 448, (47150). Large tinajas most
  of which are similar in form to that shown in figure 699 (46993);
  Nos. (47133) and (46137) being the only exception; they are more
  jar-shaped.

449, (47030). A broken tinaja.

450, (47085). A flaring, flat-bottomed, bowl or dish, similar to number
  (47019) except that the inner ornamental depressions are spirally
  arranged.

451, (47109.) A jar or tinaja similar in form to (46993) fig. 699,
  except that the neck is longer and the lip flaring and undulate.

  [Illustration: Fig. 701. 47120]

452-454. 452, (47112); 453, (47127); 454, (47494). Small pitcher,
  probably a toy, with handle and a long lip projecting backwards as
  well as in front.

455-457. 455, (47517); 456, (47115); 457, (47132). Flat-bottomed flaring
  bowls or dishes similar in form to 450, (47019), but without the inner
  indentation.

  [Illustration: Fig. 702. 47123]

458, (47120). A flat-bottomed flaring bowl ornamented internally with
  spiral ridges and undulated margin shown in fig. 701.

459, (47123). An image of a person in a worshiping attitude, probably
  intended to represent a Catholic priest chanting. See fig. 702.

460-461. 460, (47134); 461, (47504). Flat-bottomed fan-shaped dishes.

462, (47088). Tea-pot with ordinary handle and spout, copied after the
  ordinary tea-pot of civilized life.

463, (47116). Basin-like dish, with numerous slightly elevated lines
  internally.

464, (47136). A duck, small and rude.

465, (47481). An urn-shaped vase with long neck, and without handles.
  Quite small, scarcely above toy size.

466, (47482). A pottery meal basket used in religious ceremonies and
  dances; shown in fig. 703. Although differing materially from the Zuñi
  sacred meal baskets, yet, as is shown in the figure, the pyramidal
  elevations on the margin are retained.

  [Illustration: Fig. 703. 47482]

  [Illustration: Fig. 704. 47492]

467-468. 467, (47483); 468, (47487). Tinajas, usually with the lip
  margin undulate.

469, (47492). Pipe, ornamented on the side with an indented line
  terminating in an arrow-point, probably denoting lightning; fig. 704.

470, (47493). Pipe, small, cylindrical, slightly hexagonal.

471, (47496). A singular canteen or water vessel shown in fig. 705.

472-477. 472, (47497); 473, (47500); 474, (47506); 475, (47507); 476,
  (47519); 477, (47516). Pottery moccasins, small toy size.

478, (47498). A squat-shaped olla used as a bowl.

479-480. 479, (47501); 480, (47138). A water vessel precisely of the
  form and ornamentation shown in fig. 700, but with a handle on each
  side.

481, (47503). Pitcher without spout.

482, (47502). Earth used for whitening in the manufacture of pottery.

483, (47510). Plain bowl.

484, (47512). Plain bowl.

485, (47527). Well formed bowl with foot or pedestal.

  [Illustration: Fig. 705. 47496]

486-489. 486, (47001); 487, (47716); 488, (47028); 489, (47717). Flaring
  bowls with undulate margins.

490, (47718). Bowl similar in form to the preceding one, but much
  larger.

_BLACK OR BROWN WARE._

(Blackened by use on the fire; not polished.)

This ware, when first made and before use, varies in shade from dark
earth color to reddish-brown, but the soot, smoke, and fire, when in
use, soon darken it; hence it is usually described as black ware. The
articles are used for cooking purposes, such as pots--which are usually
pot-shaped--some without handles and some with a handle on one side,
bowls, &c. The pots vary in capacity from a pint to a little over a
gallon.

491-517. 491, (46998); 492, (47000); 493, (47003); 494, (47004); 495,
  (47010); 496, (47011); 497, (47015); 498, (47021); 499, (47026); 500,
  (47089); 501, (47100); 502, (47104); 503, (47108); 504, (47119); 505,
  (47126); 506, (47128); 507, (47488); 508, (47489); 509, (47499); 510,
  (47505); 511, (47508); 512, (47511); 513, (47521); 514, (47523); 515,
  (47528); 516, (47529); 517, (47531). Cooking vessels shaped much like
  the ordinary pot, without handles and without legs.

518-533. 518, (47007); 519, (47012); 520, (47017); 521, (47018); 522,
  (47020); 523, (47022); 524, (47025); 525, (47092); 526, (47096); 527,
  (47101); 528, (47111); 529, (47117); 530, (47121); 531, (47124); 532,
  (47515); 533, (47522). Cooking vessels with handle on one side
  resembling pitchers.

534-540. 534, (47005); 535, (47009); 536, (47016); 537, (47107); 538,
  (47129); 539, (47148); 540, (47006). Toy bowls.

541, (47013). A double-mouthed canteen.

542, (47027). A bowl with handle on one side used for cooking purposes.

543-544. 543, (47086); 544, (47090). Globular paint cups, small.

545-546. 545, (47087); 546, (47091). Pipes of the ordinary form, _Tierra
  amarilla_.

547-549. 547, (47093); 548, (47097); 549, (47098). Images similar to
  that shown in fig. 702.

550, (47094). Double paint-cup.

551, (47095). Imitation in pottery of a Derby, or some round-crowned,
  straight-rimmed hat.

552-555. 552, (47099); 553, (47102); 554, (47118); 555, (47122). Small,
  somewhat boat-shaped dishes; that is, dishes slightly oval with the
  margin flared at the ends: used as soap dishes.

556, (47103). Small image of a person bearing something on each arm.

557, (47105). A gourd-shaped pipe.

558-559. 558, (47106); 559, (47490). Bowls with legs; margin undulate.

560, (47110). Pottery basket with handle, with smooth margin and without
  ornamentation.

561, (47113). Globular cooking-pot.

562, (47114). Skillet with handle and feet.

563, (47130). Toy cooking vessels.

564-565. 564, (47131); 565, (47139). Sitting images wearing something
  like a crown on the head.

566. Sitting image with representations of feathers on the head.

567-568. 567, (47145); 568, (47146). Images.

569-570. 569, (47151); 570, (47300). Fragments of pottery from the mesa.

571-572. 571, (47479); 572, (47532). Doubled-bellied bottles used as
  water vessels.

573, (47491). Small cup with handle.

574, (47495). Image with horns.

575, (47507). Bowl with straight side and flat bottom.

576-577. 576, (47509); 577, (47533). Toy bowls.

578, (47514). Plain bowl with foot or pedestal.

579, (47513). Small pitcher with handle and spout; ordinary form in
  civilized life.

580, (47520). Tinaja.

581-583. 581, (47525); 582, (47526); 583, (47530). Potter's clay of the
  kind used in making the preceding vessels.

_WHITENED WARE WITH COLORED DECORATIONS._

There are but few specimens of this ware, which are chiefly important
from the fact that the material is of that firm, close, and superior
quality that characterizes the ancient pottery of that region. The
decorations and general appearance also ally it to the ancient ware.

584, (47476). A turnip-shaped canteen; the only opening being a small
  hole in the top of the handle, which arises from the top in the form
  of a semicircular loop. Decorations consist of three bands around the
  upper half, the first alternate white and black squares, the second a
  plain red band, and the third or lower like the first. Capacity about
  three quarts. (Fig. 706.)

  [Illustration: Fig. 706. 47476]

585, (47477). A bowl decorated internally with a submarginal band
  consisting of a vine and leaf; externally with a band of small
  pear-shaped figures; all in black.

586, (47478). Canteen of the usual form.

587, (47480). Turnip-shaped canteens; small, circular mouth at the
  center on top; on each side a knob.


VEGETAL SUBSTANCES.

587½, (46829). Spinning top copied from the ordinary top of civilized
  life.



COLLECTIONS FROM TESUQUE.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

588, (47061). Large regular metate, not much worn.

589, (47063). Metate with legs, regularly oblong, not much worn.

590, (47062). Stone axe and chisel combined.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

691, (47064). Medium-sized tinaja of the usual form, quite regular and
  symmetrical, white ware with decorations; zigzag band around the neck;
  body divided into compartments with a large three-leaved figure in
  each.

592, (47065). Tinaja similar in form and size to the preceding; black
  polished ware.



COLLECTIONS FROM TURQUOISE MINE.


This collection, which is a small one, consists, with the exception of
  some bows, arrows and quivers, of stone hammers only, which were used
  for mining purposes.

593-594. 593, (47066); 594, (47082). Mining stone-hammers; are large and
  roughly hewn, usually with an imperfect groove around the middle.

595, (47083). Bows, arrows and beaded quiver.

596, (47084). Bows, arrows and plain quiver.

597, (48048). Bird snares.



COLLECTIONS FROM SANTO DOMINGO.


The collection from this pueblo consists chiefly of pottery belonging to
  the white decorated variety with ornamentation in black. But few
  articles of stone were obtained.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

598-599. 598, (47182); 599, (47185). Stone hatchets with broad annular
  groove near the blunt end.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

600, (47154). Medium-sized tinaja, much, ornamented with vines and
  birds; body with a broad belt of Greek frets with leaf ornaments above
  and below.

601, (47155). Similar in every respect to the preceding except that the
  neck has on it only figures of the cactus leaf.

602, (47157). Tinaja, medium size; zigzag band around the neck, body
  ornamented with triangles and curved twigs with pinnate leaves.

603, (47156). Large tinaja with scalloped band around the neck; a broad
  belt of straight lines and crescents on the body.

604, (47158). Large tinaja shown in Fig. 707.

  [Illustration: Fig. 707. 47158]

605, (47159). Water vessel somewhat in the form of a teapot, with
  short, straight, cylindrical spout, open on the top, and a transverse
  loop handle. Ornamented with bands of small triangles.

606, (47223). Similar to preceding, except that the handle is not
  transverse and the figures are chiefly large stars.

607, (47160). A cup-shaped ladle with handle like ordinary teapot; birds
  and triangles internally, zigzag lines externally.

608, (47161). Bowl; a double-scalloped, ornamental, broad marginal band
  and a cross ornament internally. No external ornamentation.

609, (47162). Bowl; crenate marginal band and square central figure
  internally; external surface plain.

610-617 610, (47163); 611, (47164); 612, (47165); 613, (47166); 614,
  (47167); 615, (47168); 616, (47169); 617, (47170). Small saucer-shaped
  bowls ornamented on the inside only, chiefly with crenate marginal
  bands and leaf figures. In one 615, (47168), there is the figure of a
  deer and of a long-billed bird.

618, (47171). Pitcher with handle and lip usual form, undulate margin,
  ornamentation as on the neck of (47158), Fig. 707.

619, (47222). Similar in every respect to 618, (47171), except that the
  handle is twisted.

620, (47172). Basket-shaped water vessel with handle, three-leaved
  figures.

621, (47173). Small jar with handle on the side, leaf figures.

622-623. 622, (47174); 623, (47175). Small barrel-shaped jars with
  diamond figures.

624-626. 624, (47176); 625, (47178); 626, (47179). Double-bellied water
  bottles, the first with birds and triangles, the second with triangles
  and diamonds, and the third with flower and leaf ornaments.

627, (47177). Pottery moccasins with leaf and flower ornamentation.

628-629. 628, (47180); 629, (47181). Small bowl-shaped cups with handle;
  ornamentation chiefly triangles.



COLLECTIONS FROM JÉMEZ.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

630-635. 630, (47209); 631, (47211); 632, (47212); 633, (47279); 634,
  (47280); 635, (47281). Stone hatchets with imperfect grooves.

636, (42282). Square block of stone with grooves lengthwise and
  crosswise on one face, used to polish arrow shafts.

637-638. 637, (47051); 638, (47053). Broken rubbers for metates.

639, (48034). Rude stone pounders.

640, (48038). Pestle.

641, (48059). A celt of jasper.

642-643. 642, (48060); 643, (48061). Smoothing stones.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These are mostly white ware with ornamentation in black and red; there
are a few black specimens.

644-646. 644, (47186); 645, (47187); 646, (47188). Specimens of clay
  used in making pottery.

647-648. 647, (47216); 648, (47220). Bricks from an old Spanish wall.

649-655. 649, (47189); 650, (47190); 651, (47191); 652, (47193);
  653, (47194); 654, (47195); 655, (47198). Small jar-shaped tinajas.
  The ornamentation consists of heavy waved lines on the body and
  interrupted straight lines, triangles and narrow simple or scalloped
  bands on the neck.

656, (47192). A medium-sized tinaja, swollen at the shoulder and of
  the form shown in Fig. 372. The upper part is ornamented with a broad
  belt of animal figures, deer and birds, separated from each other by a
  triangle between each, two, with the elongate point directed upwards.
  Middle surrounded by a belt of oblique broken lines.

657, (47196). Olla of the usual form; ornamentation, a vine, leaves and
  birds.

658, (47197). Medium-sized, jar-shaped olla, with undulate margin and
  ornamentation as shown in Fig. 708.

  [Illustration: Fig. 708. 47197]

659, (47199). Olla with zigzag band around the neck and four dentate
  bands around the body.

660-665. 660, (47200); 661, (47201); 662, (47202); 663, (47203);
  664, (47204); 665, (47215). Canteens of the usual form with two loop
  handles; upper half ornamented. Chief figures, triangles, stars, and
  birds.

666, (47205). Tinaja with handle on the side, ornamentation delicate and
  decidedly neat; zigzag and dotted lines, long pinnate leaf, flowers,
  &c.

667, (48062). Fragments of pottery from ruins (7 pieces.)

668, (47206). Water vessel resembling in form a tinaja, but with small
  orifice; ornamented with slender vines and leaves.

669, (47207). Biscuit-shaped bowl; triangular figures on external
  surface similar to those so common on Zuñi bowls.

670, (47208). Small regularly-shaped bowl; triangular figures.

671, (47213). Tinaja with handle; resembling in form and ornamentation,
  the pitchers found at Cañon de Chelley.

672, (47214). Olla with crenate margin; external decorations elks and
  birds.

673, (47278). Small tinaja with a kind of scroll figure around the body.

674-675. 674, (47276); 675, (47277). Small unburned and unadorned
  tinajas.


MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES.

676, (48050). Wooden image decorated with feathers (presented by Mrs.
  T. Stevenson).

677, (47221). Specimen of the matting used in building.



COLLECTIONS FROM SILLA.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

678, (47224). Small square mortar of lava.

679-680. 679, (47242); 680, (47255). Stone hatchets rather well formed
  with blunt poll, distinct annular groove, and tapering blade; chiefly
  of basalt, three of metamorphic rock.

681-682. 681, (47256); 682, (47258). Smoothing stones.

683-684. 683, (47259); 684, (47260). Stone hammers with groove.

685-686. 685, (47261); 686, (47263). Pounding stones.

687, (47262). Small oval mortar (lava.)


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

(White ware with red and black decorations.)

688, (47225). Small toy tinaja, a narrow scalloped band at the margin
  and near the bottom, crescents between.

689, (47227). Tinaja with small orifice, duck figure in red.

690, Water vessel in form of a duck; orifice on the back, wings formed
  into loop handles. Red and black decorations.

691, (47228). Water vessel in form of a duck; orifice over the neck,
  loop handle on the back.

692-693. 692, (47237); 693, (47239). Water vessels in form of a duck,
  without handles.

  [Illustration: Fig. 710. THE BLANKET WEAVER.]

694-696. 694, (47229); 695, (47230); 696, (47232). Animal images; first
  probably a Rocky Mountain sheep; the other two probably dogs. Very
  rude ornamentation without design.

697, (47236). Water vessel of the form and ornamentation shown in Fig.
  709.

  [Illustration: Fig. 709. 47236]

698, (47238). Medium-sized tinaja with leaf ornaments.

699, (47294). Tinaja with figures like those common on the Zuñi ollas.

700, (47818). Water vessel in the form of a horse, white ware
  ornamented.

701, (47820). Dog's head, plain.


MISCELLANEOUS.

702, (47264). Specimens of mineral paint. (Ochre or clay-stone.)

703-705. 703, (47265); 704, (47267); 705, (47268). Turquoise drills.

706, (47266). Block of wood to be used in connection with the turquoise
  drill. Has a simple pit in the center in which the apex of the drill
  turns.

707, (47269). Wooden war-club of hard oak with serpentine line and arrow
  point (as on pipe, Fig. 704), cut on one side.

708, (47270). Bow, arrows, and quiver.

709, (47819). Leather bag adorned with feathers, with pebbles inside,
  used as a rattle in dances.

710, (47234). Tortoise shell with pendent rattles, used us a dance
  ornament.

711, (47235). A gourd with pebbles inside, used as a rattle.



COLLECTIONS FROM SAN JUAN.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

712, (47760). Flat rubbing or smoothing stone of slate.

713-714. 713, (47762); 714, (47763). Stone hatchets notched at the
  sides.

715, (47764). Small hammer notched at the sides.

716-717. 716, (47765); 717, (47766). Stone candlesticks, the former with
  circular base, body hemispherical, with hole in the top. The other
  (from the altar of the Catholic Church) with square base, the stand
  short, circular, with moldings.

718, (47767). Square, flat mortar.

719-724. 719, (47768); 720, (47769); 721, (47770); 722, (47799); 723,
  (47783); 724, (47776.) Pounding stones.

725-733. 725, (47771); 726, (47774); 727, (47777); 728, (47778); 729,
  (47782); 730, (47785); 731, (47787); 732, (47790); 733, (47792).
  Stones with grooves or notches.

734-742. 734, (47772); 735, (47775); 736, (47779); 737, (47781); 738,
  (47784); 739, (47786); 740, (47789); 741, (47793); 742, (47796). Stone
  hammers, some grooved, others not.

743-747. 743, (47773); 744, (47788); 745, (47797); 746, (47798); 747,
  (47808). Smoothing or polishing stones.

748, (47800). A collection of fifty smoothing stones used in polishing
  pottery.

749-750. 749, (47803); 750, (47804). Small paint mortars.

751, (47805). Scraper and polisher.

752, (47806). Rude animal image, (quadruped).

753, (47807). Hammer.

754, (47809). Hornstone triangular knife.

755, (47810). Collection Of nine stone implements.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

The collection of pottery made at this pueblo presents quite a
variety of articles, such as the ordinary clay vessels, bowls, tinajas,
water vessels, &c., of black, polished black, brown, mostly without
ornamentation, and white ornamented ware, images, pipes, moccasins, &c.

_POLISHED BLACK WARE._

756, (47720). A bowl with indented lines and areas internally.

757-758. 757, (47732); 758, (47742). Globular water vessels with loop
  handles.

759-761. 759, (47733); 760, (47745); 761, (47750). Small tinajas.

762-764. 762, (47735); 763, (47748); 764, (47749). Flat dish-shaped
  bowls.

765, (47737). A canteen made upon the same plan as that shown in fig.
  706, (47476); that is, with opening only at the top of the
  loop-handle. The body is crock-shaped with top flat.

766, (47752). Small image.

767-768. 767, (47753); 768, (47759). Straight cylindrical pipes.

769-770. 769, (47754); 770, (47755). Moccasins.

771, (47757). Small dish.

772, (47758). Pipe precisely the same in ornamentation as that shown in
  fig. 704.

_BROWN AND BLACK WARE._

The black are only cooking vessels, not polished, but colored chiefly by
use in cooking; the rest are brown.

773, (47726). A very regularly formed teapot with handle and spout,
  similar to, and evidently modeled after, those used in civilized life.

774, (47728). Sugar bowl with lid, ordinary form.

775-777. 775, (47772); 776, (47739); 777, (47741). Bowls with feet.

778, (47731). Water vessel in the form of a ring, orifice on the outer
  surface.

779-781. 779, (47734); 780, (47736); 781, (47744). Cooking pots without
  handles.

782, (47738). Cooking pot with handle, regular pitcher form.

783, (47740). Canteen without handles.

784-785. 784, (47746); 785, (47747.) Small (toy) bowls.

786-787. 786, (47751); 787, (47756). Small (toy) tinajas.

_WHITE WARE WITH DECORATIONS._

But few specimens; ornamentation simple and in black.

788, (47721). Bowl; internally an undulate marginal band, externally a
  middle band of diamonds and ovals.

  [Illustration: Fig. 711. 47723]

789, (47730). Bowl; broad inner marginal band of outline blocks
  alternating with snake-like figures, external marginal band of
  outline leaves.

790, (47722). Canteen of the usual form with knobs at the sides.

791, (47723). Small tinaja shown in Fig. 711.

792, (47725). Small tinaja with cross on the neck and a double scalloped
  middle band.

793, (47724). Water vessel in the form of a duck, loop-handle on the
  back; plain.

794, (47719). Small tinaja.

795, (47727). Canteen of usual form, knob handles, with circle and
  square.


MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES.

796, (47811). Head mats of corn-husks, ring-shaped and painted.

797, (47812). Arrow-points, chips, flakes, &c.

798, (47813). Young otter skin.

799, (47814). A scarf to be worn over the shoulder while dancing; with
  long beaded streamers and tassels.

800, (47815). Medicine bag.

801, (47801). Pottery spindle whirl, simple small disk with hole in the
  middle.



COLLECTION FROM SANTA ANA.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

802-804. 802, (47284); 803, (47285); 804, (47286). Stone hatchets with
  groove.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These consist of white ornamented ware.

805, (47287). Animal image, probably a fawn, handle on the back.

806-809. 806, (47290); 807, (47291); 808, (47292); 809, (47293). Small
  tinajas with decorations in black. The figures are the same as those
  found on Zuñi pottery--scrolls, triangles, scalloped lines and birds,
  but no antelopes or deer.



COLLECTION FROM SANDIA, N. MEX.


810-811. 810, (47240); 811, (47241). Biscuit-shaped unburnt bowls.



COLLECTION FROM COCHITI.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

812-815. 812, (47901); 813, (47905); 814, (47474); 815, (47475).
  Hat-shaped lava stones used in cooking bread; they are heated and
  placed on top of the cake. This is an old custom almost entirely
  abandoned, and now practiced only by a few families of this pueblo.

816-818. 816, (47906); 817, (47907); 818, (47909). Regularly formed
  pestles.

819-820. 819, (47908); 820, (47910). Pounding stones with groove.

821-822. 821, (47911); 822, (47919). Grooved hatchets or axes.

823-824. 823, (47920); 824, (47923). Smoothing stones.

825, (47924). A collection of 20 smoothing stones.

826, (47925). Seven oval segments or disks of gourd, regularly cut and
  edged for scraping and smoothing pottery.

827-828. 827, (47470); 828, (47471). Hatchets or pounders (for it is
  doubtful to which class they belong), with handle yet attached. The
  second was probably used as a hatchet, the first more likely as a
  pounder.

829, (47472). Well-shaped hatchets.

830, (47473). Lava mortar.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These, with only one or two exceptions, consist of white decorated ware;
the bottoms are polished red as usual, but the decorations are in black.

831-832. 831, (47273); 832, (47274). Canteens with loop handles on
  the side, the first with a star or rosette ornament in the top and
  scalloped line around the middle, second with triangular figures.

833, (47275). Plain unburnt tinaja.

834, (47288). Image, duck's body with cow's head.

835, (47289). Duck image. This and also the preceding with loop handle
  on the back and trident figures on the sides.

836, (47295). Pitcher-shaped cup, with handle, ornamentation, oblique
  dashes.

837, (47296). Deep, olla-shaped bowl; anvil-shaped figures on the
  outside.

838, (47297). Small canteen, loop-handles at the sides, central star
  ornament.

839-840. 839, (47445); 840, (47446). Bowls adorned with sprigs and
  flowers internally and stars externally; quite neat.

841-844. 841, (47447); 842, (47448); 843, (47449); 844, (47460). Bowls;
  most of them with a narrow dotted marginal band externally and
  internally. 841, (47447) has a central star inside and a band of
  triangles on the outside. 842, (47448) with no other ornamentation.
  843, (47449) and 844, (47460) with animal figures on the inner face.

845, (47461). A biscuit-shaped bowl, with vertical ridges on the
  external surface.

845½, (47462). Water vessels, the body shaped as the ordinary tinaja,
  surmounted with outstretched arms and human head, the orifice through
  the mouth. Scroll ornaments.

846, (47463). Canteen of the usual form with loop handles and leaf
  ornaments.

847-848. 847, (47464); 848, (47466). Duck images used as water vessels.

849, (47465). Water vessel; animal image somewhat resembling a fish, but
  was probably intended for a duck; loop handle on the back and at each
  side.

850, (47468). Gourd-shaped water vessel with animal head at the apex, as
  in Fig. 709.

851, (47467). Toy cooking vessel of unadorned brown ware.

852, (47816). Large tinaja of white painted ware, with lid much like
  Fig. 651, (39533), plate 81.


MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES.

853, (47301). Specimen of dried melon; is twisted like a rope.

854, (47392). Fox skin.

855, (47303). Brick from a wall.

856, (47304). Copper cannon ball scarcely one inch in diameter.

857, (47305). Copper kettle with handle.

858, (48049). A musical instrument.



COLLECTIONS FROM SAN ILDEFONSO.


The collections from this pueblo were the largest made during the
year 1880, consisting of pottery of different kinds, black and brown
painted ware, stone implements and wooden utensils.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

858½-861. 858½, (47976); 859, (47977); 860, (48031); 861, (48044).
  Lava mortars.

862, (48032). Mortar with three cavities.

863, (47978). Pestle and rubber combined.

864-867. 864, (47979); 865, (47985); 866, (47017); 867, (48025). Rubbers
  for metates, of regular form.

868-877. 868, (47986); 869, (47999); 870, (48000); 871, (48010); 872,
  (48013); 873, (48015); 874, (48016); 875, (48026); 876, (48033); 877,
  (48039). Pounding stones.

878, (47987). Paint muller.

879-880. 879, (47988); 880, (48045). Pestles.

881-883. 881, (47989); 882, (48028); 883, (48029). Grooved hammers.

884-887. 884, (47990); 885, (47996); 886, (47998); 887, (48030).
  Hatchets with grooves or notches.

888-892. 888, (47997); 889, (48001); 890, (48009); 891, (48040); 892,
  (48043). Smoothing stones.

893, (48014). Round stone used as slung shot.

894, (48027). Chisel.


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These consist of painted white ware with decorations in black; polished
black ware and black and brown ware.

The white pottery resembles very closely, in the forms, color, and
ornamentation, that from Taos and Cochiti, the white in all these being
of a creamy color.

  [Illustration: Fig. 712. 47326]

895-897. 895, (47319); 896, (47321); 897, (47325). Medium-sized
  hemispherical bowls, ornamented, on the inside only, with star figures
  or rosettes and triangles.

898-899. 898, (47320); 899, (47324). Similar bowls with similar
  ornamentation both internally and externally.

900, (47323). Bowl of similar form and size; only decoration a broad
  external marginal band with oval spaces in it.

901, (47322). Small bowl with decorations on the inner surface only.

902-903. 902, (47326); 903, (47327). Medium-sized olla-shaped bowls not
  adorned internally; marginal line of dots externally. Latter with
  zigzag belt; former with serpents, crosses, and figure of bottle on
  a stand; Fig. 712.

904, (47329). Large tinaja with cover. Vines and leaves on the neck, and
  around the body a broad belt of figures resembling fringed medicine
  bags.

905-906. 905, (47334); 906, (47336). Canteens of the usual form, with
  loop handles at the sides; the first ornamented with the common
  central star and triangles, the second has no central figure.
  Posterior Half with interlaced figure.

907, (47335). Globular canteens; side handles; cactus leaves and simple
  broad bands.

905, (47337). Flower-pot precisely of the usual form, with hole in the
  bottom, grooved outline, dentate bands.

909-916. 909, (47351); 910, (47354); 911, (47359); 912, (47360); 913,
  (47361); 914, (47362); 915, (47363); 916, (47364.) Small bowls with
  decorations on the inner face.

917, (47373). Small pitcher; handle broken off.

918, (47387). A bowl of peculiar and significant ornamentation.

919-920. 919, (47389); 920, (47390). Bowls ornamented on the inner face
  only.

921-922. 921, (47391); 922, (47392). Straight-sided or crock-shaped,
  deep bowls, with foot. First with a zigzag submarginal band on the
  inner side and a zigzag line and dots around the body on the outside.
  The latter with a dotted inner marginal band, a vine and leaves around
  the outside.

923-925. 923, (47399); 924, (47400); 925, (47401). Pear-shaped or
  conical water-vessels, with animal heads at the apex; decorations
  simple.

926-927. 926, (47414); 927, (47415). Olla-shaped bowls, of medium size,
  ornamented internally and externally.

928, (47416). Basin-shaped bowl, with foot, ornamented internally and
  externally.

929, (47426). Bird image.

_RED WARE WITH DECORATIONS IN BLACK._

930, (47328). Medium-sized tinaja, bead figures or necklace around the
  neck, zigzag band on the shoulders, sprig, double looped and serrate
  triangular figures on the body.

931, (47331). Small tinaja; undulate marginal band, tear-drops on the
  neck, large band divided into triangles pointing alternately up and
  down, fitting into the spaces, each with two oval, red spaces.

932, (47333). Small tinaja, with alternating triangles base to base on
  both neck and body, those on the body with circular spaces.

933, (47338). Flower-pot of the ordinary form, with undulate margin,
  zigzag submarginal band, belt of flower ornaments on the body.

934, (47340). Bowl with a belt of anvil-shaped figures on the outside.

935, (47352). Bowl decorated on the inside, outside plain.

936, (47355). Bowl with vine externally and internally.

_RED AND BROWN WARE WITHOUT DECORATIONS._

937-939. 937, (47339); 938, (47358); 939, (47379). Plain bowls.

940, (47353). Olla-shaped bowl with undulate margin.

941-942. 941, (47370); 942, (47375). Small tinajas.

943, (47372). Bottle with square groove around the middle.

944, (47376). Oval dish.

945-946. 945, (47377); 946, (47378). Flat circular dishes.

947, (47397). A rather large, regular-shaped fruit jar with margin
  expanded horizontally.

948-953. 948, (47404); 949, (47405); 950, (47406); 951, (47409); 952,
  (47410); 953, (47411). Bird images.

954-956. 954, (47407); 955, (57408); 956, (47413). Images of the human
  form, first with hat on, second apparently praying, third with arms
  extended and sash crossing in front from each shoulder.

957, (47424). Images of the human form.

958, (47403). Basket-shaped, toy water-vessel with loop handle.

_BLACK POLISHED WARE._

959-961. 959, (47341); 960, (47350); 961, (47417). Bowls.

962-963. 962, (47356); 963, (47357). Dishes with undulate edge.

964-965. 964, (47365); 965, (47366). Toy bowls.

966-967. 966, (47380); 967, (47386). Small basket-shaped vessels with
  handles across the top.

968, (47388). Oblong dish.

969, (47393). Basin with foot and undulate margin.

970, (47394). Toy jar.

971-972. 971, (47395); 972, (47396). Toy pottery kegs, the latter with a
  handle.

973, (47402). Duck-shaped water-vessel.

974, (47412). Two-headed bird image.

975, (47418). Small paint cup.

976-977. 976, (47419); 977, (47420). Bowls with arched handle.

978-979. 978, (47427); 979, (47430). Toy dishes.

_BLACK WARE NOT POLISHED._

980-982. 980, (47367); 981, (47369); 982, (47371). Cooking pots.


MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES.

983, (47318). Ox cart, "_carreta_."

984, (47425). Arrow straightener of bone; (a piece of bone with round
  holes in it).



COLLECTIONS FROM TAOS.


The collections made from this pueblo were quite extensive and varied.


ARTICLES OF STONE.

985-997. 985, (47846); 986, (47848); 987, (47852); 988, (47854); 989,
  (47856); 990, (47858); 991, (47863); 992, (47873); 993, (47875); 994,
  (47879); 995, (47880); 996, (47883); 997, (47887). Stone hatchets
  grooved.

998-1004. 998, (47847); 999, (47853); 1000, (47861); 1001, (47864);
  1002, (47876); 1003, (47878); 1004, (47882). Rounding stones.

1005-1014 1005, (47855); 1006, (47860); 1007, (47866); 1008, (47869);
  1009, (47880); 1010, (47871); 1011, (47872); 1012, (47877); 1013,
  (47881); 1014, (47884). Stone hammers very rude, sometimes with a
  groove, but generally with simply a notch at each side.

1015, (47859). Rude stone knife.

1016-1021. 1016, (47862); 1017, (47865); 1018, (47867); 1019, (47868);
  1020, (47885); 1021, (47886). Rubbing and polishing stones.

1022, (47874). Grooved stone for polishing arrow-shafts (Fig. 713).

  [Illustration: Fig. 713.]


ARTICLES OF CLAY.

These are chiefly vessels of brown and black ware, some two or three
pieces only being ornamented ware.

1023-1027. 1023, (47821); 1024, (47822); 1025, (47828); 1026, (47829);
  1027, (47833). Brown ware, pitcher shaped vessels with handle, used as
  cooking vessels.

1028-1032. 1028, (47823); 1029, (47824); 1030, (47825); 1031, (47826);
  1032, (47827). Cooking pots, brown ware, smoke stained.

1033, (47830). Olla of unburned ware.

1034, (47831). Bowl with handle, black ware.

1035, (47832). Teapot of the ordinary form, polished black ware.

1036, (47834). Small globular olla with undulate margin, of polished
  black ware.

1037, (47835). Water bottle with four loop handles, brown ware.

1038-1041. 1038, (47836); 1039, (47839); 1040, (47839); 1041, (47845).
  Small spherical ollas of brown ware.

1042, (47840). Small bowl of black polished ware.

1043, (47841). A globular water vessel with a ridge around the middle;
  polished black ware.

1044, (47842). Dish of polished black ware.

_WHITE AND RED WARE WITH DECORATIONS._

1045, (47844). A singular-shaped bowl shown in Fig. 714. The outside is
  red but the inside is painted white; ornamentation in black.

  [Illustration: Fig. 714. 47844]

1046, (47843). A bottle-shaped canteen with animal head, flower and
  serrated ornamentation. Red ware.

1047, (47838). Large tinaja, white ware with black ornamentation, sprigs
  and triangles.

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Errata noted by transcriber:

[List of Illustrations]
710.--The blanket weaver    454
  _text reads "434"_
turquois
  _normal spelling for this publication_
short, circular, with moldings.
  _text reads ".?"_





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue of the Collections Obtained from the Indians of New Mexico in 1880 - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-81, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 429-466" ***

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search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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