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Title: Pitman's Commercial Spanish Grammar (2nd ed.)
Author: Toledano, C. A.
Language: English
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              PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR

                             BY

                       C. A. TOLEDANO

                            1917



                          PREFACE

With the best intention of justifying Messrs. PITMAN'S confidence in
entrusting me with the compilation of a Spanish Grammar to form part of
the series of "Commercial Grammars," I set to work to produce a book
which, while avoiding pedantry and the agglomeration of superfluous and
intricate rules which puzzle the student, should equally avoid falling
into the extreme of coarseness which debases the subject under study, or
the scrappiness resulting in gaps that perplex and discourage him. I
have tried to be brief and clear in the rules given.

The vocabulary has been chosen carefully, avoiding the artificiality of
too much commercial technology, but keeping constantly in view the
object of the Series, viz., to produce grammars specially suitable for
students preparing for a commercial career.

Whether I have succeeded in my efforts it is for the public to judge. I
can only say that, after more than twenty-five years' teaching of
Spanish in all its stages, privately, at the Manchester University and
in the large classes of our public Institutions, I have tried my best to
give the fruits of my experience to any interested young people who may
be eager to learn a language beautiful, noble, and most useful.

I do not claim to have reached perfection. I only trust the book, such
as it presents itself, will be of real help to the student.

C.A. TOLEDANO.

MANCHESTER, 1911.



                      COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR



                              ALPHABET.

A (_a_)     G (_ge_)     M (_eme_)   Rr (_erre_)
B (_be_)    H (_hache_)  N (_ene_)   S (_ese_)
C (_ce_)    I (_i_)      Ñ (_eñe_)   T (_te_)
Ch (_che_)  J (_jota_)   O (_o_)     U (_u_)
D (_de_)    K (_ka_)     P (_pe_)    V (_ve_)
E (_e_)     L (_ele_)    Q (_cu_)    X (_equis_)
F (_efe_)   Ll (_elle_)  R (_ere_)   Y (_y griega_ or _ye_)
Z (_zeta_)

K (_ka_) and W (_doble ve_) are only found in foreign words
used in Spanish.


                       PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS.

_a_ as English a in f_a_ther
_e_[1]   "     a "  f_a_te[2]
_i_      "     i "  magaz_i_ne
_o_[1]   "     o "  n_o_te[2]
_u_      "     u "  r_u_le

These five sounds _never_ vary, except that they are a little longer
when they are stressed and shorter when they are not, as Yo amo (I
love),[3] Amigo (friend), El cielo (heaven), Celeste (heavenly), Un
recibo (a receipt), Interés (interest), Yo como (I eat), Contar (to
count), Un buque (a ship), Una butaca (an armchair).

_Y_ is considered a vowel in the conjunction _y_ (and), and at the end
of a word, as Rey (king), Hoy (to-day).

[Footnote 1: _E_ and _o_ are sounded a little more open when they form
a diphthong with _i_ and when they precede _r_ followed by a consonant
or _r_ or _l_ final, as Fernando (Ferdinand), Un tercio (a third), El
tercer año (the third year), Porfiar (to insist), Amor (love), Español
(Spanish).]

[Footnote 2: The _a_ and _o_ of "fate" and "note" are not _pure vowel
sounds_. In English the a is distinctly pronounced a-ee and o is
pronounced o-oo.

In Spanish the first part _only_ of the two sounds is permissible.]

[Footnote 3: The examples given with their English equivalents should be
learnt.


                    DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS.

There are no Diphthongs or Triphthongs in the English sense of two or
three vowels meeting in one syllable and blending into a different
sound, as "pause," "plough."

Every vowel is pronounced separately and each with its alphabetical
sound, only the two or three vowels occurring in one syllable are
pronounced rapidly, as Pausa (pause), Reino (kingdom), Cuenta (account),
Buey (ox).

_A, E_ and _O_ never form diphthongs together. They may form diphthongs
and triphthongs only in combination with _I_ and _U_.


                            CONSONANTS.

The Consonants are pronounced as in English with the following
exceptions:

B is pronounced much more lightly than in English, with no pressure of
the lips, as Libro (book), Brevedad (brevity).

C before _E_ and _I_--_th_ in "theatre," as La Cena (the supper), La
Cerveza (the beer). Otherwise pronounced _K_ as in English, as Caja
(case, box), Color (colour), Cúbico (cubic).

Ch _always_ as _ch_ in "church" (never hard as in "monarch"), as
Chocolate (chocolate), Charla (prattle).

D at the end of a word or after a vowel is pronounced very softly and
lightly, with a tinge of _th_ in "they," as Madrid, Amado (loved),
Encarnado (red).

G before _E_ and _I_ is pronounced guttural, as El general (the
general), El giro (the draft, bill). This sound is equal to _ch_ in the
Scotch word "loch." In all other cases G is pronounced hard, as in the
English word "gay"; as Gato (cat), Gobierno (government), Gusto
(pleasure, taste).

H is a mute letter. (Although in Andalusia it is aspirated in certain
words.)

J is always guttural, as Juan (John), Jornalero (day labourer), Junio
(June), Reloj (watch, clock).

Ll--_ly_, stronger than _li_ in "pavilion," as Belleza (beauty), Folleto
(leaflet).

Ñ--ny, stronger than _ni_ in "pinion," as Niño (child), Caña (cane), El
otoño (autumn).

Q is only used before _ue_ and _ui_ (and the _u_ is then _mute_), as
Querido (dear, beloved), Yo quiero (I want).

R as in English, but it is always rolled, as Caro (dear, expensive),
Pérdida (loss). At the beginning of a word or when preceded by a
consonant it is rolled more strongly, as La rosa (the rose), Deshonra
(dishonour).

Rr always rolled strongly, as Carro (cart), El ferrocarril (the
railway).

S always pronounced as _s_ in "soap," and never as in "as" or "sure."

T as in "tea," but never as _t_ in "nation." It must be pronounced
softly, not explosive, as Fortuna (fortune), Cuatro (four).

V is pronounced much more lightly than in English, as Vino (wine), Vivir
(to live). By the common people _V_ is often confounded with _B_, but
educated Spaniards will always make the proper distinction.

Y--Spanish _I_.

Z--_th_ in "theatre," as Zarazas (cotton prints), Zorra (fox).

NOTE.--In modern Spanish Z is not used before _E_ or _I_, its place
being supplied by _C_.


                    RULES ON PRONUNCIATION.

RULE I.--Every letter is pronounced. There are no mute letters as _b_ in
"lamb" or _n_ in "autumn."

EXCEPTIONS--_H_ is not sounded as already explained in the alphabet. _U_
is not sounded in the following syllables: _que, qui, gue_ and _gui_, as
Quedar (to remain), Quinta (villa), Guerra (war), Águila (eagle), unless
the _u_ in _gue_ and _gui_ has the diaeresis, as Argüir (to argue),
Vergüenza (shame).

RULE II.--No consonant is doubled except C and N. _C_ is found doubled
in words like Acceder (to accede) when one _C_ is hard--_k_ and the
other soft--_th_.

_N_ is found doubled in words having the prefix _in_, as Innoble
(ignoble), Innavegable (unnavigable). Also in Perenne (perennial) and a
very few more words.

_Ll_ and _Rr_ are treated as single letters.

RULE III.--The _stress of the voice_ falls on the last syllable but one
in all words ending in a vowel or _S_ or _N_; otherwise it falls on the
last syllable, as Una factura (an invoice), Facturas (invoices), Hermano
(brother), Cartas (letters), Ellos tienen (they have), Azul (blue),
Abril (April), Labor (labour), Feliz (happy).

In diphthongs and triphthongs the stress is not on _i_ or _u_, but falls
on _a_, _e_ or _o_, as Reina (queen), Gracia (grace), Igual (equal),
Cielo (heaven).

When the diphthong is formed by _i_ and _u_ the last one bears the
stress, as Un viudo (a widower), La ciudad (the city), Luisa (Louise).

The numerous exceptions to the above rule are all marked by the written
accent (´), as Facturó (he invoiced), Escribirá (he will write), Háblame
(speak to me), Inglés (English), Alemán (German), Útil (useful), Jóvenes
(young men).

The stress of the voice should fall _distinctly_ on the proper syllable
according to the above rule, and the attention of the student must be
earnestly called to this very important point.

A word in the plural maintains the stress on the same syllable as in its
singular, as El océano (the ocean), Océanos (oceans), Cálculo
(calculation), Cálculos (calculations), Inglés (Englishman), Ingleses
(Englishmen); except Carácter (character), Caracteres (characters),
Régimen (regime or rule), Regímenes (regimes or rules)--the latter
hardly ever used in the plural.


                                 SIGNS.

                          The Written Accent.

The only accent in Spanish is (´). It is used--

(1) To mark the exceptions to the _Rule of Stress_.

(2) To distinguish between two meanings of the same word, as El (the),
Él (he); De (of), Que él dé (that he may give); Se (3rd person reflexive
pronoun, "himself," etc.), Yo sé (I know); Más (more), Mas (but).

(3) In the following words established by use, as "ó" or "ú" (or),
"é" (and), "á" (to).[4]

(4) In some words when used interrogatively, as Quién? (who?), Qué?
(what?), Cuál? (which?), Cúyo? (whose?), Dónde? (where?).

(5) On _I_ and _U_ when they occur together with _A, E_ or _O_, the _I_
or _U_ not belonging to the same syllable, viz., not forming diphthong
with _A, E_ or _O_, as Filosofía (philosophy), El continúa (he
continues).

(6) On _I_ following _U_ when the _I_ does not form a diphthong, but
stands as a separate syllable, as Concluído (concluded), Imbuído
(imbued).

(7) On Éste (this), Ése and Aquél (that) when these words are stressed.

[Footnote 4: According to the last edition of the Grammar of the
Spanish Academy, these words may now be written without the accent.]


                       Crema (Diaeresis).

The diaeresis is placed over _u_ in "güe" and "güi" when the _u_ is to
be sounded.[5]

[Footnote 5: In poetry also to divide an ordinary diphthong into two
syllables for the sake of rhythm.]

                            Tilde.

The tilde (~) is used on the letter _N_ to turn it into _Ñ_, as Mañana
(morning) (in old Spanish spelt Mannana).


             Notes of Interrogation and Exclamation.

These are used in Spanish both at the beginning and at the end of the
question or exclamation, as ¿Qué quiere V.? (what do you want?),
¡Cuántos sufrimientos! (how much suffering!). Note that at the beginning
they are reversed.

The other signs of punctuation are used as in English.

Capital letters are used as in English with the following exceptions--

(1) Adjectives of nationality are written with small letters, as Un
libro inglés (an English book).

(2) Days of the week generally (and sometimes the months of the year)
are written with small letters.


                DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES.

After the first syllable each succeeding one _commences with a
consonant_, as a-for-tu-na-da-men-te (fortunately), except when a
prefix occurs before a primitive word,[6] as Organizar (to organise).

[Footnote 6: A few minor exceptions will be learnt by practice.]

Des-or-ga-ni-zar (to disorganise).

When two consonants occur together one letter belongs to one syllable
and the other to the next, as--

Ac-ci-den-te (accident) Pe-ren-ne (perennial) Tem-po-ral-men-te
(temporarily) In-me-dia-to (immediate)

EXCEPTION--_bl, br, pl, pr, cl, cr, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr_ and _tr_ are not
divided, as--

A-blan-dar (to soften)
Li-bro (book)
A-pla-zar (to postpone)
A-pre-ciar (to appreciate)
De-cla-mar (to declaim)
De-cre-tar (to decree)
A-me-dren-tar (to frighten)
Con-fla-gra-ción (conflagration)
Re-fren-dar (to countersign)
A-glo-me-rar (to agglomerate)
A-gran-dar (to enlarge)
En-con-trar (to meet)

If any of these combinations occur together with a third consonant, this
of course will belong to the previous syllable, as

Em-bro-llar (to entangle).

If four consonants come together, two belong to the first syllable and
two to the next, as Obs-tru-ir (to obstruct).

_Ll_ and _Rr_, being treated as single letters, must not be divided,
as--

Ba-lle-na (whale)
Una ca-lle (a street)
A-lla-nar (to level)
Tie-rra (earth)



                            LESSON I.

                          THE ARTICLE.


The =Definite Article= in Spanish is

=El= before a masculine[7] noun singular
=La=  "       feminine[7]    "    "


[Footnote 7: Spanish nouns are all masculine or feminine. There are no
_neuter nouns_.]

as--

El hombre (the man)--La mujer (the woman)
El libro (the book)--La pluma (the pen)


El recibo (the receipt)--La cuenta (the account)

=Los= before a masculine noun plural
=Las=    "     feminine    "    "

as--

Los muchachos (the boys)--Las señoras (the ladies)
Los géneros (the goods)--Las facturas (the invoices)
Los lápices (the pencils)--Las cartas (the letters).

The =Indefinite Article= is--


=Un= before a masculine noun singular
=Una=     "   feminine    "     "

as--

Un amigo (a friend)--Una amiga (a lady-friend)
Un padre (a father)--Una madre (a mother)


The Indefinite Article has no plural, but the Spanish plural forms
"unos" (masc.) and "unas" (fem.) translate the English words "some" or
"any," as Unos hermanos (some brothers), Unas hermanas (some sisters),
Unos tinteros (some inkstands), Unas mesas (some tables). (The Spanish
words "Algunos," "Algunas," are also used for the same purpose.)

NOTE 1.--Before a feminine noun _singular_ commencing with _a_ or _ha_
use =El= and =Un= instead of _La_ and _Una_ if such nouns are _stressed
on the first syllable_, as El águila (the eagle), El agua (the water),
El alma (the soul). (The plural is regular, as Las águilas (the
eagles).)

NOTE 2.--The Definite Article has a "neuter form" which is =Lo=. _It
cannot be used before a noun_ but before other parts of speech used to
represent an abstract idea, as Yo amo lo bello (I love the beautiful,
viz., all that which is beautiful), Lo sublime (the sublime, viz., all
that which is sublime).


                          REGULAR VERBS.

_1st Conjugation_. Hablar (to speak). _Pres. Part._ Hablando (speaking).
_Past Part._ Hablado (spoken).

_Present Tense, Indicative Mood_.


Yo hablo (I speak)                 Nosotros (_m._) hablamos (we speak)
                                   Nosotras (_f._) hablamos (we speak)

Tú hablas[8] (thou speakest)       Vosotros (_m._) habláis (you speak)
                                   Vosotras (_f._) habláis (you speak)

Él _or_ Ella habla (he or she speaks) Ellos (_m._) hablan (they speak)
                                      Ellas (_f._) hablan (they speak)
Usted habla (you speak)[9].           Ustedes hablan (you speak).[9]

[Footnote 8: The second person is only used in the familiar style,
practically when in English the 2nd person would be addressed as "John"
or "Frank" and not as "Mr. Smith" or "Mr. Brown."]

[Footnote 9: This is called the polite way of addressing and is the
form in use. Note that the verb after it is in the _3rd person_,
because "Usted," "Ustedes" (which can be abbreviated as V. Vs.) are
contractions of Vuestra merced (your grace), Vuestras mercedes (your
graces). V. ama = your grace _loves_.]

_2nd Conjugation_. Temer (to fear).
_Pres. Part._ Temiendo.    _Past Part_. Temido.

_Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood_.

Yo temo         Nosotros (_m._) temenos
                Nosotras (_f._) temenos

Tú temes        Vosotros (_m._) teméis
                Vosotras (_f._) teméis

Él teme         Ellos (_m._) temen
Ella teme       Ellas (_f._) temen

V. teme         Vs. temen

_3rd Conjugation_. Partir (to depart, to set out).
_Pres. Part._ Partiendo.    _Past Part_. Partido.

_Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood_.

Yo parto       Nosotros (_m._) partimos
               Nosotras (_f._) partimos

Tú partes      Vosotros (_m._) partís
               Vosotras (_f._) partís

Él parte       Ellos (_m._) parten
Ella parte     Ellas (_f._) parten

V. parte       Vs. parten



     VOCABULARY.

=á=, to, at
=amar=[10], to love
=el árbol=, the tree
=las botas=, the boots
=el capitán=, the captain
=la camisa=, the shirt
=la casaca=[11], the coat
=comprar=, to buy
=la flor=, the flower
=el hombre=, the man
=el hermano=, the brother
=la hermana=, the sister
=el joven=, the young man
=la joven=, the young woman
=el lápiz=, the pencil
=el libro=, the book
=la madre=, the mother
=mas=, but
=más=, more
=la mujer=, the woman
=nosotros tenemos=, we have
=el oro=, gold
=el padre=, the father
=los pantalones=, the trousers
=el papel=, the paper
=para=, for
=la plata=, silver
=la pluma=, the pen
=el sombrero=, the hat
=él tiene=, he has
=V. tiene=, you (_sing._) have
=Vs. tienen=, you (_pl._) have
=la tinta=, the ink
=el tintero=, the inkstand
=*tener=,[10] to have, to possess
=yo tengo=, I have
=el viejo=, the old man
=la vieja=, the old woman
=la virtud=, virtue

[Footnote 10: The verbs given in this vocabulary and the following are
regular (i.e., they are conjugated respectively as the model verbs
given) _unless they are marked with an asterisk_.]

[Footnote 11: _Or_ americana, _more used now_.]


                             EXERCISE 1 (1).

Translate into English--

1. El hombre tiene una pluma.

2. La mujer tiene un libro.

3. ¿Tiene el padre un sombrero?

4. Nosotros tenemos el tintero del (of the) joven.

5. V. tiene el papel y (and) el lápiz de la madre.

6. Vs. tienen la tinta y el papel.

7. Las hermanas aman.

8. El oro y la plata son preciosos (are precious) mas la virtud es (is)
más preciosa.

9. La vieja y la joven compran flores (flowers).

10. V. vende sombreros.

11. Vs. tienen las cartas.

12. ¿Compra[12] V. los pantalones?

13. El Señor (Mr.) Brown es hermano de Juan (John).

14. El sombrero, la americana, y las botas son míos (mine).

15. ¿Habla V.?

16. ¿Teme ella?

17. Ellos parten.

18. V. parte.

19. Nosotros compramos géneros (goods) y vendemos flores.

[Footnote 12: The auxiliary "Do" and "Did," used in English in
interrogative and negative sentences, are not translated in Spanish.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (2).

Translate into Spanish--

1. The father, the mother, and the brother.

2. A pencil, a pen, and an inkstand.

3. The old man and the old woman.

4. A hat and some boots.

5. The shirt and the trousers.

6. I buy the tree.

7. He sells some flowers (flores).

8. I fear.

9. He fears.

10. We sell.

11. We set out.

12. You (_sing._) set out.

13. I buy.

14. He sells.

15. The brother and the sister sell.

16. They speak to the (al) man.

17. We set out for London (Londres).

18. The old woman has the hat.

19. The old man has the flower.

20. Who (quién) has the ink and a pen?

21. The father has the coat.

22. Gold is precious (es precioso) but virtue is more precious
(preciosa).

23. I sell paper to the woman.

24. You (_sing._) fear.

25. You (_plu._) buy some flowers.

26. She speaks to the sister.

27. The father and the mother of the captain.



                             LESSON II.
                         (Lección segunda.)

                       THE ARTICLE (_contd._).


The definite article _El_ is contracted with the preposition _de_ (of or
from) into =Del= and with the preposition _A_, into _al_ as--

Del extranjero: Of _or_ from the foreigner.
Al caballero español: To the Spanish gentleman.

These are the only contractions that occur in Spanish; with the other
prepositions the article simply follows, as--

By, for, with, in, on, without, behind, the father:
Por, Para, Con, En, Sobre, Sin, Tras, el padre.

The following are the _principal cases_ in which the definite article is
used in Spanish and not in English--

1. Before nouns taken in a general sense, as--

El oro y la plata: Gold and silver.
Los hombres ó las mujeres: Men or women.

2. Before titles denoting dignity and profession,[13] as--

El Señor Fulano: Mr. So-and-So.
El Rey Jorge V.: King George V.
El Profesor Rosales: Professor Rosales.

The only exception is "Don" (Mr.), only used before Christian names, as
Don Francisco (Mr. Francis).

3. Generally before each of several nouns following each other when they
are material possessions, as--

La casa y el jardín de mi hijo: My son's[14] house and garden.
Las puertas y las ventanas de mi casa: The doors and windows of my
house.

But--

La diligencia, devoción, y virtud de mi primo: the diligence, devotion
and virtue of my cousin.

4. Before a proper noun qualified by an adjective, as--

El valiente Juan: Brave John.[15]

The following are the principal cases in which the indefinite article is
used in English and not in Spanish--

1. Before a noun following the verb "to be," or other similar verbs,
as--

Es capitán[16]: He is a captain.
Soy francés: I am a Frenchman.
Se hizo actor: He became an actor.
Le elegimos miembro de esta sociedad: We elect him a member of this
society.
Fué elegido miembro: He was elected a member.

2. After "what" used in exclamations, as: Qué hermosa vista: What a fine
view!

3. Before "hundred" and "thousand": 100--ciento, 1,000--mil.

[Footnote 13: Except when vocative, viz., calling a person or as an
exclamation.]

[Footnote 14: The 's = possessive does not exist in Spanish. "My son's
house" must always be translated as "the house of my son."]

[Footnote 15: Except when vocative, viz., calling a person or as an
exclamation.]

[Footnote 16: Except, of course, when we particularize, as--Es un capitán
que conocí en Paris: He is a captain I knew in Paris.]


            _Imperfect Tense,[17] Indicative Mood_.

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|   =Hablar=.         |     =Temer=.             |  =Partir=.          |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Yo hablaba           |    Yo temía              | Yo partía           |
|  (I spoke), etc.    |      (I feared), etc.    |   (I departed),etc. |
|Tú hablabas          |    Tú temías             | Tú partías          |
|Él _or_ Ella         |    Él _or_ Ella          | Él _or_ Ella        |
|  hablaba            |      temía               |   partía            |
|Nosotros) hablábamos |    Nosotros) temíamos    | Nosotros) partíamos |
|Nosotras)            |    Nosotras)             | Nosotras)           |
|Vosotros) hablabais  |    Vosotros) temíais     | Vosotros) partíais  |
|Vosotras)            |    Vosotras)             | Vosotras)           |
|Ellos) hablaban      |    Ellos) temían         | Ellos) partían      |
|Ellas)               |    Ellas)                | Ellas)              |
|V. hablaba (you      |    V. temía (you         | V. partía (you      |
|  (_s._) spoke)      |      (_s._) feared)      |   (_s._) parted)    |
|Vs. hablaban (you    |    Vs. temían (you       | Vs. partían (you    |
|  (_pl._) spoke)     |      (_pl._) feared)     |   (_pl._) parted)   |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+


            _Past Definite,[17] Indicative Mood_.

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|    =Hablar=.       |        =Temer=.         |      =Partir=.        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Hablé[18]           |    Temí[18]             |   Partí[18]           |
|  (I spoke), etc.   |      (I feared), etc.   |     (I departed), etc.|
|Hablaste            |     Temiste             |   Partiste            |
|Habló               |     Temió               |   Partió              |
|Hablamos            |     Temimos             |   Partimos            |
|Hablasteis          |     Temisteis           |   Partisteis          |
|Hablaron            |     Temieron            |   Partieron           |
|                    |                         |                       |
|V. habló            |     V. temió            |   V. partió           |
|Vs. hablaron        |     Vs. temieron        |   Vs. partieron       |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 17: The Imperfect tense describes a past action or state _in
progress_; the Past Definite narrates _an event_. Ex.: I met (_past def._)]
Charles, who wore (_imp._) a black hat: Encontré á Carlos quien llevaba
sombrero negro.]

[Footnote 18: The Subject-Pronoun may be left understood, and is generally
omitted unless special stress is laid upon it.]


     VOCABULARY.

=alemán=[19], German
=beber=, to drink
=bien=, well
=café=, coffee
=cerveza=, beer
=clavel=, carnation
=cliente=, client, customer
=comer=, to eat
=escribir=[20], to write
=estudiar=, to study
=exportar=, to export
=extranjero=, foreigner
=ferretería=, ironware
=grande= (_pl._ =grandes=), large
=hijo=, son
=hija=, daughter
=italiano=, Italian
=jardinero=, gardener
=leer=, to read
=mañana=, morning, to-morrow
=manzana=, apple
=máquina=, machine
=mesa=, table
=mi=, my
=mucho= (_m._), much
=mucha= (_f._), much
=muy=, very
=pera=, pear
=pero=, but
=pobre=, poor
=¿qué?= what?
=que=, that, who, which
=rosa=, rose
=su=, his, her, their
=su ... de V=., your
=té=, tea
=el ... de V=., your
=vino=, wine
=violeta=, violet

[Footnote 19: Adjectives of nationality are written with small letters.]

[Footnote 20: Past Participle is "Escrito," otherwise regular.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (3).

Translate into English--

1. Mi hermano habla español (_or_ castellano).

2. V. no habla francés.

3. ¿Habla bien el alemán el primo de su amigo de V. (your friend)?

4. No, Señor, el primo de mi amigo no habla bien el alemán pero habla
muy bien el inglés.

5. ¿Cómo está (how is) su hermana de V.?

6. Está muy bien, gracias (thank you).

7. ¿Compra V. papel y tinta?

8. Sí, Señor, y compro lápices y plumas.

9. ¿Quién (who) compra zarazas (prints) y géneros blancos (whites)?

10. El comerciante (merchant) que vino (came) de la Habana.

11. ¿Quién vende máquinas y ferretería?

12. Nosotros exportamos máquinas muy buenas al extranjero (abroad).

13. Estos géneros son para los clientes de V. que parten mañana.

14. ¿Ha hablado V. con Don Francisco?

15. Sí, Señor, le hablé en la ciudad (in town).

16. Las rosas, los claveles y las violetas del jardinero.

17. El amor y respeto de mi hijo y de mi hija.

18. Juan es francés y yo soy inglés.

19. Le han elegido miembro de esta (this) sociedad.

20. Las hermosas rosas sobre la mesa.

21. V. tiene mil libras (£1,000) y yo tengo ciento.


                            EXERCISE 2 (4).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Do you speak Spanish?

2. No, but I speak Italian well.

3. Do your customers buy (any) goods?

4. They buy machines and ironware, but my correspondent in Havana buys
prints in very large quantities (cantidades).

5. Who sells paper and ink?

6. The old man sells them (los vende).

7. Who writes a letter?

8. I write letters.

9. Who drinks wine?

10. I do not drink wine.

11. Do you drink beer?

12. I do not drink beer but I like (me gustan) coffee and tea.

13. Poor John is my friend.

14. What a beautiful (hermosa) rose!

15. Do your brothers study French?

16. Yes, and they study German.

17. Who studies Italian?

18. My sister-in-law studies Italian and French.

19. The merchant (comerciante) was elected a member of your society.

20. Mr. Brown is a captain.

21. John set out for America.

22. I like (me gusta) to study foreign languages (lenguas extranjeras).



                              LESSON III.
                          (Lección tercera.)

                               THE NOUN.


The noun in Spanish has only two genders.

=Nouns= denoting =male= beings are =Masculine=.
   "       "     =female=  "    "  =Feminine=.

When there is no real gender, nouns are called masculine or feminine
according to their terminations.

GENERAL RULE.--All nouns that terminate in _a, ión, d_, also abstract
nouns ending in _ez_, are feminine, as--

La villa: The town. La nación[21]: The nation.
La ciudad: The city or large town. La honradez: Honesty.
The other terminations are masculine.

There are many exceptions to the above rule, principally in nouns ending
in _E_.[22]

[Footnote 21: English words ending in "tion" end in _ción_ in Spanish.
(Note the accent.)]

[Footnote 22: Appendix I--for reference only at this stage.]


=Formation of the Plural of Nouns=.

Nouns ending in a vowel which is not _stressed_ and also nouns ending in
_E_ bearing the stress, add =S= to form the plural.

All others add =Es=.

EXCEPTIONS--

1. Nouns ending in _Z_ in the _sing._ change it into =Ces=.
2. Nouns ending in _S_ do not change _unless the last syllable_ is
stressed.


EXAMPLES--

El amo: The master. Los amos: The masters.
El cuñado: The brother-in-law. Los cuñados: The brothers-in-law.
La cuñada: The sister-in-law. Las cuñadas: The sisters-in-law.
El yerno: The son-in-law. Los yernos: The sons-in-law.
La nuera: The daughter-in-law. Las nueras: The daughters-in-law.
El árbol: The tree. Los árboles: The trees.
El examen: The examination. Los exámenes: The examinations.
El lápiz: The pencil. Los lápices: The pencils.
El ómnibus: The omnibus. Los ómnibus: The omnibuses.
El jabalí: The boar. Los jabalíes: The boars.


3. Nouns ending in _Y_ add =Es=, as--

El rey: The king. Los reyes: The kings.
La ley: The law. Las leyes: The laws.

4. The following add only =S= to form the plural--

Papá, Mamá, Bajá (a pasha), Sofá (sofa).[23]

[Footnote 23: Words ending in accented vowels are very few and the rule
for those ending in _á, ó, ú_ is not very strict.]


=Compound Nouns= form their plural according to sense, as--

Hijodalgo (a gentleman by birth), literally, "son of something"; _Plu._,
Hijosdalgo (literally, "sons of something ").
Ferrocarril (railway), literally, "iron railroad"; _Plu._, Ferrocarriles
(literally, "iron railroads").

Such nouns are rare.[24]

[Footnote 24: A verb as a component part does not change, as El
portabandera (the standard-bearer), Los portabanderas (the
standard-bearers).]


=Haber= (to have), auxiliary.[25]      =Tener= (to have, to possess).

[Footnote 25: Viz. used only before the past participle of another verb,
as (Yo) he hablado (I have spoken).]

_Pres. Part._, Habiendo.              _Pres. Part._, Teniendo.
_Past Part._, Habido.                 _Past Part._, Tenido.

_Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood._           _Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood._

He (I have), etc.                     Tengo (I have, I possess), etc.
Has                                   Tienes
Ha                                    Tiene
Hemos                                 Tenemos
Habéis                                Tenéis
Han                                   Tienen

_Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood._         _Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood._

Había (I had), etc.                   Tenía (I had, I possessed, etc.)
Habías                                Tenías
Había                                 Tenía
Habíamos                              Teníamos
Habíais                               Teníais
Habían                                Tenían

_Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood._       _Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood._

Hube (I had), etc.                    Tuve (I had, I possessed), etc.
Hubiste                               Tuviste
Hubo                                  Tuvo
Hubimos                               Tuvimos
Hubisteis                             Tuvisteis
Hubieron                              Tuvieron


     VOCABULARY.

=allí=, there
=aquí=, here
=buscar=[26], to look for
=caballo=, horse
=caja=, box, case
=el capital=, the capital, money
=la capital=, the capital, town
=comprender=, to understand
=copiador=, copybook
=creer=, to believe, to think
=dependiente=, clerk
=factura=, invoice
=fardo=, bale
=Francés=, Frenchman
=girar=, to draw, (a bill of exchange)
=el idioma=, the language
=Inglés=, Englishman
=inteligencia=, intelligence
=mal=, badly
=muselina=, muslin
=nunca=, never
=país=, country
=pequeño=, little (_adj._)
=poco=, little (_adv._ and _subs._)
=el porta-ramillete= _or_ =florero=, the flower-stand
=¿quién?= who? whom?
=seda=, silk
=socio=, partner
=solamente=, only
=sólo=, (_adv._) only
=el tema=, the exercise

[Footnote 26: Changes _c_ into _qu_ before _e_; otherwise regular.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (5).

Translate into English--

1. ¿Comprende V. el español?

2. No, Señor, estudio el portugués y mi hermano comprende el español
perfectamente (perfectly).

3. ¿Quien escribe cartas?

4. Los comerciantes escriben cartas y sus dependientes escriben las
facturas y algunas cosas más.

5. Mi socio ha girado una letra (bill) desde (from) Viena (Vienna.)

6. París, Berlín, Roma, y Petrograd son las capitales de Francia,
Alemania, Italia y Rusia.

7. ¿Cómo se llaman (what are the names of) las capitales de España y
Portugal? Madrid y Lisboa.

8. ¿Ha estado (been) V. en Holanda?

9. No Señor, nunca he estado en aquel país.

10. En este tema hay palabras que no se dan (are not given) en el
vocabulario.

11. ¿Cuáles (which) son? Holanda, Portugal etcétera.

12. Estas se dejan (are left) á la inteligencia de Vs.

13. ¿No creen Vs. que son muy fáciles de comprender? (to understand).

14. Sí, Señor, V. tiene razón[27] (you are right).

15. Entonces, debemos (we must) continuar la lección.

16. Muy bien.

17. Debemos leer buenos libros y hablar en el idioma que estudiamos.

[27] Lit. "you have reason."


                            EXERCISE 2 (6).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Do you study German?

2. We study French and Italian, but my cousin studies English.

3. Does he understand English?

4. He understands English perfectly (perfectamente), but he speaks
Spanish badly.

5. Does your sister speak Italian?

6. No, she speaks only English.

7. What does the Englishman buy?

8. He buys a horse from the (al)[28] Frenchman.

9. My cousin sold (past. def.) his horse to Peter (Pedro).

10. John looks for his book and his paper.

11. The copy book is (está) on the table.

12. Henry (Enrique) must (debe) copy some letters.

13. Who copies the letters here?

14. Peter copies them (las copia).[29]

15. Has Henry much paper?

16. Yes, he has much paper but little ink.

17. The roses and violets are in the flower-stand.

18. The merchant has received (recibido) four bales of silk
handkerchiefs (pañuelo) and three cases of prints and muslins.

[Footnote 28: "To buy from" is translated by "Comprar á."]

[Footnote 29: The object pronoun precedes the verb in the indicative
mood.]



                           LESSON IV.
                       (Lección cuarta.)

                        THE ADJECTIVE.


The Adjective in Spanish agrees with the noun it qualifies, in gender
and number, as--

El periódico italiano: The Italian newspaper.
La prensa americana: The American press.

It generally _follows the nouns_ as in the above examples, although
exceptions will be found, _e.g._, when the adjective recalls to our mind
a quality which _is already known to belong to it_, it generally
precedes the noun, as--

He visto sus hermosas flores: I have seen his beautiful flowers.[30]
Adjectives form their plural in the same way as nouns.

[Footnote 30: His flowers are known (or supposed) to be beautiful, before
we say it.]

=Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives=.

Adjectives ending in _O_ change _O_ into =A=, as--

El sombrero blanco: The white hat.
La casaca blanca: The white coat.

Adjectives of NATIONALITY which end in a consonant add =A= to form the
feminine, as--

El sastre francés: The French tailor.
La modista francesa: The French milliner.

Adjectives ending in _N_ add =A= for the feminine, as--

Un hombre socarrón: A sly or cunning man.
Una sonrisa socarrona: A cunning smile.

EXCEPT Joven (young), Común (common), and Ruin (base, sordid), which do
not change for the feminine.

Adjectives ending in _or_ add =A= to form the feminine, as--

Un comerciante emprendedor: An enterprising merchant.
Una casa emprendedora: An enterprising firm.

EXCEPT =Comparative= adjectives ending in _or_, as Mejor (better), Peor
(worse), which do not change for the feminine.

There are a very few adjectives ending in _ete_ and _ote_. These change
into =eta= and =ota= for the feminine.

Other adjectives do not change.


+------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+
|         Ser[31] (to be).     |        Estar[32] (to be).             |
+------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+
|_Pres. Part._, Siendo (being) | _Pres. Part._,     | Estando (being)  |
|_Past Part._, Sido (been)     | _Past Part._,      | Estado (been)    |
+------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+
|_Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood_.   | _Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood_.           |
|Soy (I am), etc.   Somos      | Estoy (I am), etc. | Estamos          |
|Eres               Sois       | Estás              | Estáis           |
|Es                 Son        | Está               | Están            |
+------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+
|_Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood_  | _Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood_.         |
|Era (I was), etc.   Éramos    | Estaba (I was) etc.| Estábamos        |
|Eras                Erais     | Estabas            | Estabais         |
|Era                 Eran      | Estaba             | Estaban          |
+------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+
|_Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood.|   _Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood._     |
|Fuí (I was), etc.  Fuimos     | Estuve (I was), etc.| Estuvimos       |
|Fuiste             Fuisteis   | Estuviste           | Estuvisteis     |
|Fué                Fueron     | Estuvo              | Estuvieron      |
+------------------------------+---------------------+-----------------+

[Footnote 31: =Ser= is used--

(1) To form the Passive voice as, Le amo (I love him), Soy amado de él
(I am loved by him).

(2) To denote an inherent quality, viz., forming part and parcel with
the subject, as Este hombre es hábil (this man is clever).]


[Footnote 32: Estar is used--

(1) To denote state in locality, viz., _to be in a place_, as Estoy aquí
(I am here), Manchester está en Inglaterra (Manchester is in England)

(2) To denote condition (as opposed to an inherent quality), as Este
hombre está cansado (this man is tired).]


     VOCABULARY.

=activo=, active
=ahora=, now
=un año=, a year
=aquel, ese= (_m._), that
=aquella, esa= (_f._), that
=bayeta=, baize
=célebre=, celebrated
=cima=, top
=criados=, men-servants
=criadas=, maid-servants
=el día=, the day
=ejército=, army
=encuadernado=, bound, (of books)
=escritorio=, writing-desk
=los fósforos=, the matches
=Gales=, Wales
=juventud=, youth, young age.
=el lacre=, the sealing-wax
=lectura=, reading
=limpiar=, to clean
=limpio=, clean
=mayormente=, especially
=médico=, doctor
=el monte=, the mountain
=la nieve=, the snow
=por tanto=, therefore
=puerta=, door
=siempre=, always
=sincero=, sincere
=soldado=, soldier
=terciopelo=, velvet
=vela=, candle
=ventana=, window


                            EXERCISE 1 (7).

Translate into English--

1. Pedro es médico.[33] Él es buen médico.

2. Era un célebre médico de la ciudad de París.

3. Juan está[34] cansado y yo estoy enfermo.

4. La lectura es útil[33] siempre y mayormente en la juventud.

5. Aquel tintero es[33] de V.

6. Este es un libro famoso[33] y está muy bien encuadernado.[34]

7. Mi hermano es soldado.[35]

8. Se ha alistado (he has enlisted) en el ejército inglés por cinco
(five) años.

9. El Monte Snowdon está[36] en Gales.

10. La ciudad del Cairo está[36] en Egipto.

11. Las cimas de algunos montes están[37] cubiertas (covered) siempre de
nieve.

12. ¿Siempre?

13. Sí, siempre.

14. Estos tinteros son limpiados todos los días (every day) por los
dependientes ó por las criadas.

15. Estos tinteros están limpios ahora y siempre.

16. Aquella ventana está rota (broken).

17. Mi hermano está escribiendo.

18. Es necesario.

[Footnote 33: Quality.]

[Footnote 34: A condition.]

[Footnote 35: A quality (for the time being).]

[Footnote 36: State in locality.]

[Footnote 37: A condition.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (8).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Who is a good clerk?

2. My brother-in-law is a good clerk but he is tired of working (de
trabajar).[38]

3. The windows and doors are clean.

4. Yes, they are cleaned every (cada) morning by the servants.

5. He is speaking to his French friend.

6. He is writing a letter to his mother.

7. They are looking for some handkerchiefs.

8. Have the merchants sold the velvet and the baize?

9. Yes, they sold them (los vendieron) yesterday (ayer); also the muslin
and prints.

10. Who bought them? (las compró).

11. The Germans are a very active and hard-working (trabajador) nation,
and they deserve (merecen) therefore our sincere admiration.

12. Where are the sealing-wax, the candle and the matches?

13. Here they are on the writing-desk.

14. Does the clerk understand German?

15. Yes, very well.

16. My partner and I will dine at (en) the Royal Hotel (Fonda Real).

[Footnote 38: After a preposition the verb is in the infinitive mood.]



                               LESSON V.
                           (Lección quinta.)

                       THE ADJECTIVE (_Contd._).


=COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES=.


The =positive degree= expresses the quality without any further idea of
comparison, as Feliz (happy), Rico (rich).

+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
|     _Comparative_.               |      _Superlative Relative_.     |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+
|Más feliz que (happier than).     | El más feliz (the happiest).     |
|Menos feliz que (less happy than).| El menos feliz (the least happy).|
|Tan rico como (as or so rich as). |                                  |
+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+


EXAMPLES--

Mi tío es más pobre que su hermano: My uncle is poorer than his brother.
Su mujer es menos rica que él: His wife is less rich than he.
Soy tan feliz como V.: I am as happy as you.
No es tan amable como su primo: He is not so amiable as his cousin.


_Superlative Absolute_.

EXAMPLES--

Muy largo: Very long. Muy corto: Very short.

Another way to form the Superlative Absolute[39] is by adding =ísimo=
instead of using _muy_. If the adjective ends in a vowel, this is elided
before adding _ísimo_.

[Footnote 39: More rarely used and much more emphatic.]

EXAMPLES--

Estas frutas son muy maduras: These fruits are very ripe.
Estas frutas son madurísimas: These fruits are very ripe indeed.
Estos tenderos son muy ricos: These shopkeepers are very rich.
Aquellos son riquísimos: Those (others) are very rich indeed.

Before adding _ísimo_, adjectives ending in

_ble_ change it into =bil=, as Amable, amabilísimo.
_co_ " " =qu=, as Rico, riquísimo.
_go_ " " =gu=, as Largo, larguísimo.

Adjectives of more than three syllables ending in _ble_, adjectives
ending in two vowels, or in one vowel accented, should always take =muy=
and not add _ísimo_ for the Superlative Absolute.

Besides the regular forms of the Comparative and Superlative degrees,
there are the following irregular forms--

Mejor (better). Óptimo (very
good or best). Peor (worse). Pésimo (very bad or worst). Mayor (larger).
Máximo (very large or largest). Menor (smaller). Mínimo (very small or
smallest). Superior (higher). Supremo (very high or highest). Inferior
(lower). Ínfimo (very low or lowest).

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                    _Future Tense,[40] Indic. Mood._                |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
|      Hablar.          |      Temer.          |       Partir        |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Hablaré               | Temeré               | Partiré             |
|  (I shall speak)      |  (I shall fear)      |  (I shall depart)   |
| Hablarás              |  Temerás             | Partirás            |
|  (thou wilt speak)    |  (thou wilt fear)    |  (thou wilt depart) |
| Hablará               | Temerá               | Partirá             |
| (he/she will speak)   |  (he/she will fear)  | (he/she will depart)|
| Hablaremos            | Temeremos            | Partiremos          |
|  (we shall speak)     |  (we shall fear)     |  (we shall depart)  |
| Hablaréis             | Temeréis             | Partiréis           |
|  (you will speak)     |  (you will fear)     |  (you will depart)  |
| Hablarán              | Temerán              | Partirán            |
|  (they will speak)    |  (they will fear)    |  (they will depart) |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                       _Conditional Mood_.[40]                      |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
|      Hablar.          |      Temer.          |       Partir        |
|--------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Hablaría              | Temería              | Partiría            |
|  (I should speak)     |  (I should fear)     |  (I should depart)  |
| Hablarías             | Temerías             | Partirías           |
|  (thou wouldst speak) |  (thou wouldst fear) |  (thou wouldst...)  |
| Hablaría              | Temería              | Partiría            |
| (he/she would speak)  |  (he/she would fear) |  (he/she would...)  |
| Hablaríamos           | Temeríamos           | Partiríamos         |
|  (we should speak)    |  (we should fear)    |  (we should depart) |
| Hablaríais            | Temeríais            | Partiríais          |
|  (you would speak)    |  (you would fear)    |  (you would depart) |
| Hablarían             | Temerían             | Partirían           |
|  (they would speak)   |  (they would fear)   |  (they would depart)|
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 40: The Future Tense Indicative Mood and the Conditional
Mood are formed from the Infinitive Mood by adding to the Infinitive
the terminations: _é, ás, á, emos, éis, án_ for the future; and _ía,
ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían_ for the conditional mood.]


     VOCABULARY.

=alguno,-a=,[41] some or any (_s._)
=algunos,-as=,[42] some or any (_pl._)
=amarillo=, yellow
=barba, barbas=, beard
=barbilla, barba=, chin
=blanco=, white
=boca=, mouth
=cabello=, hair
=cabeza=, head
=café, castaño=, brown, (dyed)
=cepillo=, brush
=cualquiera= (_s._),[43] any (affirmative)
=cualesquiera= (_pl._)  any (affirmative)
=dientes=, teeth
=dinero=, money
=encarnado=, red
=escoba=, broom
=estampar=, to print (calico)
=la frente=, the forehead
=lengua=, tongue
=malo=,[44] bad, wicked
=manteca=, butter
=moreno=, brown, (natural colour)
=(la) nariz=, nose
=necesitar=, to want, to need, to be in want of.
=ninguno,-a= (_s._) any (after a negative)
=ningunos,-as= (_pl._) any (after a negative)
=el ojo=, the eye.
=padres=,[45] parents
=percal=, calico
=queremos=, we want
*=querer=, to want, to wish to have
=ellos quieren=, they want
=yo quiero=, I want
=V. quiere=, you want
=regla=, ruler
=si=, if
=la tez=, complexion
=un poco de=,[46] a little, some, or any
=verde=, green

[Footnote 41: Before a masculine noun "Alguno" and "Ninguno" drop the
_o_, as Algún dinero (some money). The feminine "Alguna" and "Ninguna"
never changes.]

[Footnote 42: Also _unos, unas_.]

[Footnote 43: "Cualquiera" generally drops the _a_ before a noun, as
Cualquier libro (any book).]

[Footnote 44: Before a masculine noun it drops the _o_, as Un mal
muchacho (a bad boy). The feminine is always "mala."]

[Footnote 45: The masculine plural includes the plural of both genders,
as Los padres (the parents, father and mother), Los hermanos (the
brothers or the brother(s) and sister(s).)]

[Footnote 46: Used for both genders, as Un poco de vino (a little wine),
Un poco de cerveza (a little beer).]


                            EXERCISE 1 (9).

Translate into English--

1. Los percales estampados y los blancos están todos prontos para el
vapor (steamer) que partirá mañana.

2. Necesitamos bayeta verde, amarilla y encarnada.

3. Aquí tenemos una buena partida (lot) de zarazas café.

4. Hemos hablado á una Señora de tez morena, cabeza hermosa y ojos
inteligentes.

5. La frente, la boca, y la nariz forman parte de la cara (face).

6. La barba ó barbilla es el remate (end) de la cara.

7. También se llama barba ó barbas el pelo (hair) que crece (grows) en
ella (on it) á los hombres.

8. Tengo un poco de dinero y algunos libros.

9. Tenemos algunas cajas de pañuelos.

10. El mal muchacho no tiene ninguna gana (inclination, desire) de
estudiar.

11. Ningunos padres quieren comprar malos libros para sus hijos
(children).

12. Si tiene V. algún azúcar (sugar) yo lo compraré.

13. ¿Quiere su hermano (de V.) vender algunos libros?

14. No, no quiere vender ningunos de sus libros.

15. Mi cuñado no necesita comprar libros; tiene muchísimos, algunos
viejos (old), otros nuevos (new), y tres ó cuatro (three or four)
novísimos,[47] uno de ellos (of them) es bonísimo.[47]

16. Cualquier libro es útil.

[Footnote 47: Adjectives containing _ie_ or _ue_ change them into _e_
and _o_ before adding _ísimo_, as Nuevo, novísimo; cierto, certísimo.]



                            EXERCISE 2 (10).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I have some money.

2. What goods do you want (wish to have)?

3. I want some brown prints and some red calico.

4. I have no (not any) red calico, but I must buy some (debo
comprar).[48]

5. Do you want to sell me any? (venderme).

6. There are (hay) many inkstands in this shop (tienda); do you want
any? (quiere V. alguno? or algunos?).

7. Yes, I want some (alguno or algunos).

8. Have you any[49] bread (pan)?

9. Yes, I have some bread and cheese (tengo pan y queso).

10. Any book will be useful.

11. The teeth and the tongue are inside (dentro de) the mouth.

12. The teeth want great attention.

13. Yes, they must always be clean.

14. We want to study Spanish because it is (es) very necessary in
commerce (en el comercio).

15. If you study with attention you will soon (pronto) speak and write
Spanish very well.

16. John speaks French very badly but he is studying it (lo está
estudiando) with much attention.

17. Do you understand this lesson?

18. Yes, I understand this lesson well; it is not very difficult.

19. No lesson is difficult if we study with care (con cuidado).


[Footnote 48: "Some" and "any," following a verb and referring to a
singular noun previously mentioned, are not to be translated.]

[Footnote 49: "Some" and "any" are generally not translated when they
are not used in a _partitive sense, i.e._, with an idea of a limited
quantity.]



                               LESSON VI.
                            (Lección sexta.)

                            CARDINAL NUMBERS.


Uno,[50] una                      1  Cuarenta                        40
Dos                               2  Cuarenta y uno _or_ Cuarentiuno 41
Tres                              3     etc.                       etc.
Cuatro                            4  Cincuenta                       50
Cinco                             5  Sesenta                         60
Seis                              6  Setenta                         70
Siete                             7  Ochenta                         80
Ocho                              8  Noventa                         90
Nueve                             9  Ciento[52]                     100
Diez                             10  Ciento y uno _or_ Cientiuno    101
Once                             11  Ciento y dos _or_ Cientidós,   102
Doce                             12      etc.                      etc.
Trece                            13  Ciento diez                    110
Catorce                          14  Doscientos,-as                 200
Quince                           15  Trescientos,-as                300
Diez y seis _or_ Dieciséis       16  Cuatrocientos,-as              400
Diez y siete _or_ Diecisiete     17  Quinientos,-as                 500
Diez y ocho _or_ Dieciocho       18  Seiscientos,-as                600
Diez y nueve _or_ Diecinueve     19  Setecientos,-as                700
Veinte                           20  Ochocientos,-as                800
Veinte y uno _or_ Veintiuno[51]  21  Novecientos,-as                900
Veinte y dos _or_ Veintidós,     22  Mil                          1,000
    etc.                       etc.  Dos mil, etc.                2,000
Treinta                          30  Cien[53] mil               100,000
Treinta y uno _or_ Treintiuno,   31  Cien mil y uno             100,001
    etc.                       etc.  Cien mil y diez            100,010
                                     Un millón                1,000,000

[Footnote 50: When immediately preceding a noun, "uno" becomes "un"]

[Footnote 51: "Ciento" becomes "cien." ("Cien" is found instead of
"ciento," even standing alone.)]

[Footnote 52: The duplicate forms are common to all the tens.]

[Footnote 53: "Ciento" drops the _to_ also before "mil"; and of course
before "millón" (a noun).]


The conjunction "and" is always used between tens and units, as--

Veinte y una or veintiuna manzanas (21 apples).

But it is generally omitted between hundreds and tens, as--

Doscientas treinta peras (230 pears).

"Ciento" and "mil" are not preceded by "uno" except in 101,000, 201,000,
etc., to avoid ambiguity, as--

Doscientos mil soldados (200,000 soldiers).
Doscientas y un mil millas (201,000 miles).

"One million inhabitants" is translated by Un millón _de_ habitantes.
(_Note_.--The _de_ cannot be omitted.)

In the case of more than one million the word "millón" must be
plural--millones, as--

Cien millones de hombres (one hundred million men).

As will have been observed, besides "uno," "doscientos," "trescientos,"
etc., change the _os_ into =as= for the feminine.



_Future Tense,  Indicative Mood._
+-----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+
|Haber.[54]       |Tener.[54]      |Ser.[55]       | Estar.         |
|Habré (I shall   |Tendré (I shall |Seré (I shall  | Estaré (I shall|
|have, etc.,      |have, etc.,     |be, etc.)      | be, etc.)      |
|auxiliary, to    |denoting        |(See foot-note,| (See foot-note,|
|be used with     |possession)     |Lesson IV.)    | Lesson IV.)    |
|past participles)|                |               |                |
|Habrás           |Tendrás         |Serás          | Estarás        |
|Habrá            |Tendrá          |Será           | Estará         |
|Habremos         |Tendremos       |Seremos        | Estaremos      |
|Habréis          |Tendréis        |Seréis         | Estaréis       |
|Habrán           |Tendrán         |Serán          | Estarán        |
+-----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+

_Conditional Mood._
+-----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+
|Habría (I        |Tendría (I      |Sería          | Estaría        |
|(I should  have, | (I should have,| (I should be) | (I should be)  |
|  etc.)          |  etc.)         |               |                |
|Habrías          |Tendrías        |Serías         | Estarías       |
|Habría           |Tendría         |Sería          | Estaría        |
|Habríamos        |Tendríamos      |Seríamos       | Estaríamos     |
|Habríais         |Tendríais       |Seríais        | Estaríais      |
|Habrían          |Tendrían        |Serían         | Estarían       |
+-----------------+----------------+---------------+----------------+

[Footnote 54: The Future Indic. and the Cond. mood of "Haber" and
"Tener" are formed irregularly from the Infinitive mood, the _e_ after
the root _Hab_ being dropped, and after the root _Ten_ being changed
to d.]

[Footnote 55: For reference only--
     _Ser_ (and not _Estar_) must be used:

      (1) Before nouns;             (3) When denoting possession;
      (2) When used impersonally;   (4) Before Feliz, Infeliz, Rico,
                                        Pobre.]


     VOCABULARY.

=acabar de=,[56] to have just
=almacén=, warehouse
=aprender=, to learn
=ayudar=, to help
=bañar=, to wet, to bathe, to water
=bicicleta=, bicycle
=certísimo=, most certain
=discípulo=, pupil
=disfrutar=, to enjoy
=él es, ella es=,[57] it is
=ello= (_neuter_),[57] it
=este= (_m._), =esta= (_f._), this
=esto= (_neuter_),[58] this
=estos= (_m._), =estas= (_f._), these
=la fecha=, the date
=la gente=, the people
=hermosamente=, beautifully
=importancia=, importance
=La India=, India
=libre=, free
=maestro=, master, teacher
=la mayor parte=, most, the majority
=el mes=, the month
=mismo=, same
=novísimo=, brand new
=otro=, other, another
=el Sena=,[59] River Seine
=el Tajo=, River Tagus
=el Támesis=, River Thames
=también=, also, too
=tienda=, shop
=ventaja=, advantage


[Footnote 56: Followed by the verb in the infinitive mood, as Acabar de
escribir (to have just written).]

[Footnote 57: "It" (subject) is most generally left understood, as "It
is useful" (Él, ella, _or_ ello) es útil.]

[Footnote 58: Referring to a whole statement, as Esto _or_ ello es
justo. This or it (what you have just said) is right.]

[Footnote 59: Names of rivers are masculine because the word "río"
(river) is understood.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (11).

Translate into English--

1. La India es una posesión inglesa de grande importancia.

2. El Sena es un río de Francia[60] y el Támesis es un río de
Inglaterra.

3. Toledo, ciudad interesantísima de España bañada por el Tajo.

4. La mayor parte de estos Españoles comen en esta fonda.

5. Este año las tiendas están hermosamente decoradas.

6. Es certísimo que los almacenes y las tiendas de esta calle disfrutan
de grandes ventajas.

7. ¿De quién es esta regla? Es mía.

8. ¿En que fecha escribió V. la carta?

9. La escribí (I wrote it) ayer.

10. Juan acaba de comprar una bicicleta novísima.

11. Yo acabo de comprar cepillos de dientes y de cabello.

12. La criada compró esta mañana una escoba.

13. Necesitamos comprar manteca pero no la compramos porque no queremos
gastar dinero.

14. La mayor parte de la gente no quiere gastarlo (to spend it).

15. ¿Es bueno este vino?

16. Es muy bueno y también no es caro.

[Footnote 60: Names of countries should not take the article (the rule
is not very strict, however). EXCEPTIONS: La India, El Perú, El Japón
(Japan).]


                            EXERCISE 2 (12).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Foreigners in England enjoy many advantages.

2. Yes, because England is a free country.

3. Englishmen also enjoy the same advantages in other free countries.

4. Does the teacher help his pupils?

5. He does (Sí, Señor), but the pupils must study and learn their
lessons well and work diligently (diligentemente).[61]

6. This morning I was writing a letter when my sister spoke of the
bicycle (which [62]) she wants to buy.

7. Did you sell the muslins and prints (which) you bought last year (el
año pasado)?

8. The merchant has drawn a bill at three months' date for (por) the
velvets (which [62]) he sold to the Spanish customer.

9. Little and good is better than much and bad.

10. John is a partner in that firm (casa).

11. It is necessary to work.

12. This is George's beautiful garden.

13. It is a large garden with many flowers, roses, carnations, violets
and other plants (plantas).

14. Who is here?

15. Charles and Henry are here.


[Footnote 61: To form an adverb from an adjective add _mente_ as you add
"ly" in English. If the adjective changes for the feminine add _mente_
to the feminine form, as rico (_m._), rica (_f._)--ricamente (richly).]

[Footnote 62: Cannot be left understood in Spanish.]



                             LESSON VII.
                         (Lección séptima.)

                   ORDINAL NUMBERS AND FRACTIONS.


+-------------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Primero[63]               1st  |Décimo sexto, etc.       16th|
|Segundo                   2nd  |Vigésimo                 20th|
|Tercero                   3rd  |Trigésimo                30th|
|Cuarto                    4th  |Cuadragésimo             40th|
|Quinto                    5th  |Quincuagésimo            50th|
|Sexto                     6th  |Sexagésimo               60th|
|Séptimo (Sétimo)          7th  |Septuagésimo             70th|
|Octavo                    8th  |Octogésimo               80th|
|Noveno (Nono)             9th  |Nonagésimo               90th|
|Décimo                    10th |Centésimo               100th|
|Décimo primero, Décimo         |Ducentésimo             200th|
|  primo, Undécimo,             |Tricentésimo            300th|
|  Onceno                  11th |Cuadrigentésimo         400th|
|Décimo segundo, duodécimo,     |Quingentésimo           500th|
|  Doceno                  12th |Sexcentésimo            600th|
|Décimo tercero, décimo         |Septingentésimo         700th|
|  tercio, Treceno         13th |Octingentésimo          800th|
|Décimo cuarto,                 |Novingentésimo          900th|
|   catorceno              14th |Milésimo              1,000th|
|Décimo quinto,                 |Millonésimo       1,000,000th|
|  quinceno                15th |Postrero, ultimo         Last|
+-------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

[Footnote 63: Ordinal adjectives agree in gender and number with the
noun they accompany or for which they stand. Final _o_ changes into _a_
for the feminine, and the plural is formed by adding _s_.]

"Primero," "tercero," and "Postrero" drop the =O= before a masculine
noun singular,[64] as--

El primer pedido: The first order.
El tercer lote: The third lot.
El postrer envío: The last shipment.

But--

La primera entrega (_fem._): The first delivery.

[Footnote 64: Eight words in all present this peculiarity, viz., uno,
alguno, ninguno, bueno, malo, primero, tercero, postrero (these last
two not always).]

After "vigésimo" ordinal numbers are generally substituted by cardinal
numbers, as--

La página veintidós: Page 22nd.

Dates are expressed by cardinal numbers instead of ordinal, as--

Madrid, 20 (de) Agosto (de) 1911: Madrid, 20th of August, 1911.

EXCEPTION: El primero, as--

El 1° (primero) de Septiembre (1st September).

Numbers following names of kings, etc., are ordinal up to the tenth;
then generally cardinal, as--

Felipe II. (segundo): Philip II.
Alfonso XIII. (trece): Alphonso XIII.

Fractional numbers up to 1/10th are the same as ordinal numbers,
except--

(Un) medio: one half.
Un tercio (_not_ tercero): one-third.

From 1/11th upwards, fractions are formed from cardinal numbers adding
to them the termination =avo=, as--

Un dieciseisavo[65]: 1/16.

_Un_ need not be used before the fractions 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, preceded by
an integer, as--

Uno y cuarto: One and a quarter.
Cuatro y tercio: Four and a third.
La mitad: The half.
La tercera parte: The 3rd part.
La cuarta parte: The 4th part.
La duodécima parte: The 12th part.

[Footnote 65: If the cardinal number ends in a vowel, this is elided, as
veinte--un veintavo (1/20th). If it ends in _ce_ the _c_ is changed into
_z_ as, doce--un dozavo (1/12th).]


Collective Numbers.

Un par: A pair.                 Una treintena: A set of 30.[66]
Una decena (half a score).[66]  Una centena: A set of 100.[66]
Una docena (a dozen).[66]       Un centenar: A set of 100.[66]
Una veintena: A score.[66]      Un ciento: A set of 100.[66]
                                Un millar: A set of 1,000.[66]


[Footnote 66: Also the number approximately, as: Una treintena de
libros: (about 30 books).]


_Subjunctive Mood,[67] Present Tense_.
+---------------------+--------------------+----------------------+
|     =Hablar=.       |    =Temer=.        |     =Partir=.        |
+---------------------+--------------------+----------------------+
|Que yo hable (That I |Que tema (that I may|Que parta (that I may |
|     may or shall    |     or shall fear).|     or shall depart).|
|     speak).         |                    |                      |
| "  tu hables        | "  temas           | "  partas            |
| "  él hable         | "  tema            | "  parta             |
| "  nosotros hablemos| "  temamos         | "  partamos          |
| "  vosotros habléis | "  temáis          | "  partáis           |
| "  ellos hablen     | "  teman           | "  partan            |
+---------------------+--------------------+----------------------+

[Footnote 67: This tense is formed from the first person singular of the
present indicative by changing the last vowel into =e= for the 1st
conjugation and into =a= for the 2nd and 3rd conjugations. These remain
the ruling vowels throughout the tense.

N.B.--The Subjunctive Mood occurs only in dependent sentences when the
action is not expressed in a positive manner but is doubtful or merely
contingent.]


     VOCABULARY.

=actual=, present
=al por mayor, por menor=, wholesale, retail
=arroz=, rice
=artículo=, article
=asociación de obreros=, trade union
=blanquear=, to bleach
=ya caigo=, I understand, I see
=colocar=, to place
=*conseguir=, to get
=consignación=, consignment
=contenido=, contents
=decadencia=, decadence
=delegado=, delegate
=demasiado=, too, too much
=difícil=, difficult
=driles labrados=, figured drills
=driles lisos=, plain drills
=entrar á reinar=, to begin to reign
=escoger, *elegir=, to choose, to select
=extraño=, strange, queer, funny
=el germen=, the germ
=grueso=, thick, stout
=hallar=, to find
=ilustrado=, enlightened
=incluyendo=, enclosing
=limitar=, to limit
=mientrastanto=, meanwhile
=*obtener=, to get
=peso=, weight
=poder=, power
=podríamos=, we should be able to, might, could
=próximo=, next
=rebaja=, abatement
=rebajar, *reducir=, reduce, to abate
=reducción=, abatement, reduction
=reunión=, meeting
=*salir=, to come, to go, out
=*salir en=, to come to
=solo= (_adj._), alone
=sólo, solamente= (_adv._), only
=sujeto á=, subject to
=sumar=, to add
=tocino=, bacon
=tomar=, to take
=varios=, several
=verificarse=, to take place[68]
=*verse obligado á=, to be compelled to[69]

[Footnote 68: Lit.: _to verify itself_.]

[Footnote 69: Lit.: _to see oneself obliged_.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (13).

Translate into English--

1. ¿Cuál envío han recibido Vs.?

2. Nos han llegado el primero y el cuarto, pero el tercer lote no ha
llegado todavía.

3. El postrer hombre á entrar en la reunión fué el delegado de la
asociación de obreros.

4. ¿(A) cuánto por libra cuesta este tocino?

5. Al por menor sale en seis peniques y cuarto, pero al por mayor
podríamos darlo á cinco y tercio ó talvez un poquito menos, digamos
(say) cinco y cinco dieciseisavos.

6. ¿Puede V. sumar tres dozavos y siete quinzavos?

7. Sí, Señor, esto hace ciento veintinueve cientiochentavos.

8. ¡Qué fracción tan extraña!

9. Lo es en efecto pero se da (it is given)[70] sólo por ejemplo.

10. ¡Ah, ya caigo!

11. Felipe II entró á reinar en 1556. Ningún soberano (sovereign) de
Europa podía competir en poder y en Estados con él, pero ya desde ese
tiempo se observan (are observed)[70] los gérmenes de la decadencia que
se verificó después.

12. Alfonso XIII actual rey de España es un monarca ilustrado y
constitucional.

13. La nueva España espera mucho de él.

14. El primero y el quince de cada (each) mes, la Compañía efectúa
(effects) sus pagos.

15. Hoy estamos á (to-day is) cinco de Junio de 1911.

[Footnote 70: The verb with SE is _reflexive_ or _passive_: se da, _it
gives itself_ or _it is given_; se observan, _they observe themselves_
or _are observed_.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (14).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I shall be compelled (me veré obligado á) to abandon this
undertaking. It is too difficult.

2. We received a consignment of rice, but the price demanded (pedido),
2-15/16d. a lb., is too dear; we shall never be able (nunca podremos) to
get it; a better quality (calidad), whiter and stouter, was placed at
2-29/32d. but (sólo) a few days ago (hace algunos días).

3. If you cannot sell your plain and figured drills at the figures
quoted it will be necessary to abate the price.

4. I shall accept those bleached linens subject to an abatement of 5 per
cent.

5. We shall consult our partners; meanwhile let us leave (dejemos)[71]
the matter in abeyance (en suspenso).


6. He has chosen several designs (diseños, dibujos) for his lot of
prints, but he finds that three of them are wrong (están equivocados).

7. Some firms always give wrong (falsos, inexactos) weights in their
declarations.

8. He ordered the wrong article (un ... por otro).

9. You are wrong (V. se equivoca), it is the right (justo, exacto)
article.

10. This cloth is finished on the wrong side (al revés).

11. We received your favour (su atenta) of 10th instant (del corriente),
enclosing copy of your previous letter 1st ult. (p°, p°.) and have taken
note of its contents.

12. By next mail (mala) we shall send you all the details required (que
Vs. necesitan).

[Footnote 71: The Imperative Mood is like the Pres. Subj., except in the
2nd Person.]



                                LESSON VIII.
                             (Lección octava.)

                             PERSONAL PRONOUNS.


We shall divide the Personal Pronouns into Subject Pronouns and Object
Pronouns.[72]

[Footnote 72: Grammarians often give the names--
          Nominative case for the Subject pronouns
          Accusative " " " Direct object pronouns
          Dative " " " Indirect object pronouns]

+----------------------------------------------------+
|                    Subject Pronouns.               |
+--------------------------+-------------------------+
|Yo (I)                    |Nosotros,-as (we)        |
|Tú (thou)                 |Vosotros,-as (you)       |
|Él (he, or it, _m._)      |Ellos,-as (they)         |
|Ella (she, or it, _f._)   |Ello (_neuter_),         |
|                          |(it, referring to a      |
|                          |  whole statement)       |
+--------------------------+-------------------------+

Instead of "Tú" or "Vosotros,-as," =V=. and =Vs=. are used in general
conversation as already stated (the verb following in the 3rd person).

N.B.--These pronouns are left understood when no emphasis is required or
where no ambiguity is possible, as--

(Yo) compro las telas: I buy the cloths.
(Él) gira las letras y firma las cartas: He draws the bills and signs
the letters.
(Ella) ha tenido una entrevista con su abogado: She has had an interview
with her barrister, lawyer or solicitor.

But--

Yo he comprado la partida de ferretería y quincalla y no V.: _I_ have
bought the lot of ironware and small ware and not _you_.


=Object Pronouns=.

These are divided into two classes--1. =Disjunctive=, viz., following a
preposition--

  Mí (me)               Nosotros-as (us)
  Tí (thee)             Vosotros-as (you)
  Él (him, it, _m._)    Ellos-as (them)
  Ella (her, it, _f._)  Ello (_neuter_) (it, referring
                               to a whole statement)
  V. (you, sing.)       Vs. (you, pl.)


EXAMPLES--

Ellos hablan de mí: They speak of me.
Nosotros trabajamos para él: We work for him.
Ella confía en tí, en V.: She trusts thee, you.
V. se declara contra ellos: You declare against them.

2. =Conjunctive=, viz., _direct_ or _indirect object_ of verb (without a
preposition).

  Él me[73] ama (he loves me)        Él nos ama (he loves us)
  Él te ama (he loves thee)          Él os ama (he loves you)
  Él lo _or_ le ama (he loves        Él los ama (he loves them,
          him, it, _m._)                _m._)
  Él la ama (he loves her,           Él las ama (he loves them,
          or it, _f._)                  _f._)

[Footnote 73: N.B.--In the conjunctive form the 1st and 2nd persons are
the same for both direct and indirect objects, but the 3rd pers.
differs.]


EXAMPLES of _Indirect Object_--

Él me da       he gives me (to me)
Él te da       he gives thee (to thee)
Él le da       he gives him (to him), her (to her), it (to it)
Él nos da      he gives us (to us)
Él os da       he gives you (to you)
Él les da      he gives them (to them, _m._ and _f._)


The direct and indirect object of verb may also be rendered by the
pronoun in the Disjunctive form preceded by =á=, as--

á mí            me _or_ to me        direct and indirect object
á tí            thee _or_ to thee       "    "      "       "
á él            him _or_ to him,        "    "      "       "
                  it _(m.) or_          "    "      "       "
                  to it _(m.)_          "    "      "       "
á ella          her _or_ to her,        "    "      "       "
                  it _(f.) or_          "    "      "       "
                  to it _(f.)_          "    "      "       "
á nosotros-as   us _or_ to us           "    "      "       "
á vosotros-as   you _or_ to you         "    "      "       "
á ellos         them _or_               "    "      "       "
                  to them _(m.)_        "    "      "       "
á ellas         them _or_               "    "      "       "
                  to them _(f.)_        "    "      "       "


We have then a double form for the pronouns used as direct and indirect
object of verb--one Conjunctive, the other Disjunctive.

The =Conjunctive= form is that in general use.

The =Disjunctive= form is employed when emphasis or distinctness is
required. It is seldom used alone,[74] Spaniards preferring to use it as
a repetition after having used the Conjunctive form, as--

Él me ama á mí: He loves _me_.

Él nos vende á nosotros géneros estampados y á V.
géneros de fantasía: He sells to _us_ printed cloth and to _you_
fancies.

Yo le quiero ver á él y no á ella: I wish to see _him_ and
not _her_.

Déle V. el dinero á él y los libros á ella.
Give _him_ the money and _her_ the books.

Dé V. el dinero á él y los libros á ella.
Give _him_ the money and _her_ the books.

[Footnote 74: In sentences like "Le pagarán más que á mí" (they will pay
_him_ more than _me_), "me pagarán" is understood after _que_.]


     VOCABULARY.

=acero=, steel
=antes=, before--in point of time
=asunto= (_not_ =sujeto=), the subject-matter
=Bolsa=, the Exchange
=calcular=, to calculate
=celebrarse=, to be celebrated, to take place
=compañía anónima=, limited company
=*concebir=, to conceive
=conjunción=, conjunction
=desfavorable=, unfavourable
=donde=, where
=emisión=, issue, of loans, etc.
=emplearse=, to be employed, to be used
=espalda=, shoulder (back)
=explicar= to explain
=explanar= to explain
=falta de aceptación=, non-acceptance
=falta de pago=, non-payment
=la frase=, the phrase, sentence
=ganancias y pérdidas=, profits and losses
=el gerente=, the manager
=*gobernar=, to govern
=*haber=, there to be[75]
=hay=, there is[75]
=hay=, there are
=el hecho=, the fact
=la ley=, the law
=llamar=, to call
=más adelante=, later on
=la mente=, the mind
=los negocios=, the business
=Pascua=, Easter
=posición=, position
=proyecto=, scheme, plan
=pues, entonces=, then
=regresar=, to come or go back
=*saber=, to know
=la semana pasada=, last week
=sírvase V=., please
=tenga la bondad de=, please
=tratar=, to try
=*valer=, to be worth
=valor=, courage
=*volver=, to turn, to go back, to turn back

[Footnote 75: As an impersonal verb, "haber" makes "hay" instead of "ha"
in the Pres. Indicative.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (15).

Translate into English--

1. ¿Usamos nunca el modo subjuntivo en una frase principal?

2. No, Señor, aunque hay quien lo diga (some who say so).

3. ¿Dónde lo empleamos pues?

4. En frases dependientes de ciertos verbos y conjunciones.

5. ¿Y cómo sabemos que después de éstos se debe emplear el verbo (must
be used) en subjuntivo?

6. Porque entonces la acción del verbo es representada[76] sólo como
concebida en la mente y no se habla de ella como de un hecho.

7. ¿Nos explicará V. esta regla otra vez más adelante?

8. Sí. No hago más que introducir (I only introduce) el asunto.

9. Tan pronto como (as soon as) volvemos la espalda, nuestros negocios
principian á sufrir.

10. Un caballero no hace nunca nada en espalda de otro, sino que (but)
habla claro, y tiene el valor de sus opiniones.

11. ¿Cuándo regresará el gerente del Banco?

12. Estará de vuelta (he will be back) hoy en quince.

13. Debe asistir á (attend) la reunión de Directores que se celebrará en
Londres á primeros del mes que viene (at the beginning of next month).

14. El mercado de Coloniales (Colonial produce) carece de (lacks)
animación.

15. Carecemos de noticias del vapor en que van los granos (carrying the
grain).

16. ¿Cómo han salido Vs. de aquella especulación en las minas de cobre
(copper mines)?

17. Hemos salido muy mal, la relación semestral (half-yearly report) de
la compañía hace constar (shows) una situación muy desfavorable y no
habrá dividendo este año.

18. Talvez se remedien las cosas (things) el año próximo.

19. Hay que esperarlo (let us hope so).

[Footnote 76: _Or_ se representa.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (16).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We beg to confirm (confirmamos)[77] our cable (cable) of last week.

2. They calculated their profits and losses.

3. I calculate upon doing it (cuento con hacerlo) before Easter.

4. This is not calculated to produce (no se cree que esto producirá) any
bad impression.

5. He called him to his house.

6. We take the liberty to call your attention to the position of your
account (nos tomamos la libertad de dirigir ...).

7. The creditors were called (convocados) to a meeting.

8. I was called away (tuve que ausentarme).

9. I shall call at (pasaré por) the exchange.

10. All the old issues were called in (se recogieron).

11. The "Shannon" will call at (hará escala en) Cádiz.

12. They will make a call (pedirán una cuota) of £1 per share.

13. This steel is worth much less than that.

14. It is not worth (no vale la pena de) buying.

15. This limited company is worth (posee) £50,000.

16. This scheme is worthy of study (merece ser estudiado).

17. Please protest the bill in case of non-acceptance and then again for
non-payment.

18. The law of supply and demand (demanda y oferta) governs the markets
of the world (mundo).

19. The deeds (las actas) were all signed by a notary (notario).

20. Kindly take due note (debida _or_ buena nota) of our signature at
foot (firma al pie).

21. All our efforts (esfuerzos) have been of no avail (en balde, en
vano).

22. In vain (en balde, en vano) we tried.

[Footnote 77: Do not translate "beg" before an infinitive.



                              LESSON IX.
                          (Lección novena.)

                     PERSONAL PRONOUNS (_contd._).


Pronouns in the Disjunctive form occupy the same position in the
sentence as they do in English.

Pronouns in the Conjunctive form precede the verb, as--

Él los compró: He bought them.

Yo le mostraré á V. mi libro mayor y mi diario: I shall show you my
ledger and journal or day-book.

Mi cajero les pagará lo que les debo: My cashier will pay you what I owe
you.

Nos ha exhibido su libro de facturas: He showed us his invoice book.

Me cedió los valores y efectos en cartera: He made over to me his stock
of securities and bills.

El corredor le vió en la agencia de los vapores: The broker saw him at
the steamship agent's.


EXCEPTIONS--

1. When a sentence begins with a verb, especially if the sentence is a
long one, the Conjunctive pronoun _may_ follow the verb, _except when
this is in the Subjunctive Mood_, as--

Bonificóle esta cantidad en cuenta corriente para no perder el cliente:
He credited him the amount in A/c current in order not to lose his
customer.

N.B.--Students should not indulge in this liberty until they have
acquired practice in the language. In conversation this change seldom
occurs. When the change is used the Subject Pronoun is generally left
understood.

2. When the verb is in the Infinitive Mood, Gerund, or Imperative
Mood,[78] the Conjunctive Pronoun _must_ follow, and is joined to the
verb to form one word: as--


Lo mejor con estos géneros es venderlos en subasta:
The best thing with these goods is to sell them by auction.

Abandonándole la ganancia acabaremos con el asunto:
By giving up the profit to him, we shall end the matter.

Refiéralos V. á los armadores: Refer them to the shipowners.

Hágannos Vs. esta bonificación: Make us this allowance.

Cárguenos en cuenta este renglón: Debit this line to our account.

Abónenle la suma que reclama: Credit him with the amount he claims.

[Footnote 78: By Imperative Mood, we mean Imperative Mood Affirmative.
In Spanish there is no imperative mood negative, its place being taken by
the Present Subjunctive, as--

     Háblale tú: Speak to him.
     No le hables tú: Do not speak to him.]


If two Conjunctive pronouns meet, contrary to the English general rule,
the pronoun which stands as indirect object precedes the pronoun
standing as direct object,[79] as--

Ellos nos lo garantizan: They guarantee it to us.

If these two pronouns are both in the 3rd person, the indirect object is
changed into =Se=, as--

Nosotros se lo vendimos: We sold it to him.
V. se lo mandó (á ella)[80]: You sent it to her.
Nosotros se lo aconsejamos (á ellos)[80]: We gave them that advice.
Yo se lo digo (á V.)[80]: I tell it to you.

[Footnote 79: Combinations of _me_ and _te_ are _very rare_, and then _te_
precedes whether direct or indirect object, the context clearly showing
the meaning. In such cases it is better, however, to use a disjunctive
form, for the indirect object, as--

     Él te da á mí: He gives thee to me.
     Él me da á tí: He gives me to thee.]

[Footnote 80: _Á él, á ella, á V._, etc., may be added for clearness, when
otherwise ambiguity might occur.]


     VOCABULARY.

=administrador=, manager (of a branch house, etc.)
=arancel=, custom-house tariff
=aviso=, advice, notice
=confianza=, trust, confidence
=constantemente=, constantly
=conveniente=, convenient, suitable
=correo=, post, post office
=*dar aviso=, to inform, to give notice to leave
=*dar aviso de despedida=, to give notice of dismissal
=de moda=, fashionable
=devolver=, to give or send back
=efectuar=, to effect
=favorable=, favourable
=fijar=, to fix
=holgazán, haragán=, lazy
=honrar=, to honour
=indicar=, to indicate, to point out
=largo=, long
=noticia, noticias=, news
=*poner en condiciones=, to enable
=por=, _or_ =de, su cuenta=, on his account
=el sobre=, the envelope
=tomar nota=, to take note, to notice
=venta=, sale


                            EXERCISE 1 (17).

Translate into English--

1. Me aprecia. Te necesita. Le manda. Lo cree. Nos halla. Os busca.

2. Son géneros de moda, los vende muy bien.

3. Son buenas plumas, las usamos constantemente.

4. Me escribe que te envía los sobres.

5. Le indica el medio más conveniente.

6. Nos honra con (with) su confianza.

7. Os fija sus límites.

8. Les da su cotización.

9. Creernos.

10. Mandarnos los presupuestos (estimates).

11. Venderles á crédito.

12. Dándonos sus instrucciones tan claras, nos pone en condiciones de
servirle á toda su satisfacción (his entire satisfaction).

13. Dígannos Vs. (tell us) la verdad.

14. Él me lo escribió.

15. Nosotros te lo mandaremos.

16. Él nos lo explicó.

17. Yo os lo enviaré.

18. Se lo escribiremos á él.

19. Se lo explicaremos á ella.

20. Compraron los géneros y se los vendieron á ellos.

21. Vendieron las telas y se las mandaron á ellas.

22. ¿Me lo dice V. (do you say) á mí?

23. Sí, Señor, se lo digo á V. mismo (I say it to you yourself)

24. Yo mismo lo mandé.

25. V. mismo me lo ha escrito.

26. Nosotros mismos no podríamos (could not) hacerlo mejor.

27. Él me lo dió (gave) á mí, y yo se lo entregué á él.

28. Su socio es mejor que él, y él es mejor que ella.


                            EXERCISE 2 (18).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Did you see (vió V.) the new Custom House tariff?

2. Yes, I saw (ví) it.

3. It is more favourable to us than the old.

4. We sent it to the manager of our Liverpool branch (sucursal).

5. We sent it to him yesterday; he will return it to us after he has
read it (después que lo haya leído).

6. Did you give (dió V.) it (_m._) to me or to him?

7. I gave (dí) it to you, not to him.

8. Well (bien)! he says (dice) that he will not give it to me until you
tell him to do so (hasta que V. se lo diga).

9. He took it with him, and we took it with us.

10. I shall take it (_f._) with me.[81]

11. Take it with thee.[81]

12. It is a long letter, but it is necessary to write it to-day.

13. Writing it to-day you are in time (á tiempo) for the post.

14. Mr. So-and-So gave more money to you than to me.

15. We have taken notice of it.

16. Take due notice of the contents (del contenido) of the letter.

17. Give him notice (aviso) of the sales you effected on (por) his
account.

18. There is nothing worthy of notice (no hay nada de particular) in our
market to-day.

19. I gave him notice because he is very lazy.

20. This circumstance (circunstancia) must have escaped your notice
(debe habérsele pasado por alto).

21. Do not take any notice of him (no le haga V. caso).

22. I gave notice to my landlord (propietario).

[Footnote 81: See next note.]



                             LESSON X.
                         (Lección décima.)

                        REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.


These pronouns are not, of course, used as subject of the verb. They are
used as the object of the verb when this and the subject are the same.

They are the same as the other personal pronouns, as--

               Conjunctive form.   Disjunctive form.

    myself             me                mí
    thyself            te                tí

EXCEPTION--
3rd person for both genders & numbers:
                       se                sí


EXAMPLES--

Él se ama: He loves himself.

Ella se atribuye la culpa: She attributes the fault to herself.

María habla siempre de sí[82]: Mary is always talking about herself.

Nosotros nos divertimos al mismo tiempo que hacemos negocios: We enjoy
ourselves at the same time as we do business.

Ellos se respetan á sí y á otros también: They respect themselves and
others too.

_Mismo-a,-os,-as_, may be added to the disjunctive form for emphasis,
as--

María habla siempre de sí misma: Mary always speaks of herself.

Ella se atribuye la culpa: She attributes the fault to herself.

Ella se atribuye la culpa á sí: She attributes the fault to herself.
(more emphatic).

Ella se atribuye la culpa á sí misma: She attributes the fault to
herself (still more emphatic).

[Footnote 82: After _con_ (with) _si_ becomes Sigo; same change with
_mí_ and _tí_: conmigo, contigo, consigo, written in one word.]


The pronoun =Se= with any verb in the 3rd pers. sing. or plural may be
used to form the passive voice, as--

Se ha cerrado el almacén: The warehouse has been closed.

Se han encaminado las reclamaciones á la Compañía de Seguros[83]:
The claims have been referred to the Insurance Company.

[ootnote 83: This form is preferable when the "doer" is not mentioned.]

=Se= followed by a verb in the 3rd pers. sing.[84] translates the
English "one," "people," "they" (_indefinite_), as the French "on" and
the German "man," as---

Se dice que habrá un alza[85] en el mercado: They say, _or_ it is said,
that there will be a rise in the market.

Se cree que no habrá Reforma Arancelaria en Inglaterra: People think,
_or_ it is thought, that there will not be Tariff Reform in England.

En la vejez se goza el fruto de una juventud laboriosa: In old age one
enjoys the fruits of active youth _or_ The fruits of active youth are
enjoyed in old age.

[Footnote 84: Or we can use the 3rd pers. plur. of the verb without the
pronoun.]

[Footnote 85: Or "una alza" (both used).]


As will be seen, this is really a form of the passive voice rendered by
"se," as "se goza" instead of "es gozado." But there are more typical
examples, as--

Los géneros se han fabricado en Irlanda y se los ha (_not_ han) plegado
como lienzos irlandeses: The goods were made in Ireland and they folded
them as Irish Linens.

A Conjunctive Reflexive Pronoun, whether direct or indirect object,
always precedes any other conjunctive pronoun, as---

Yo me lo reservo: I reserve it for myself.
Nosotros nos lo guardamos: We keep it for ourselves.
Se me dice: It is said to me (it says itself to me).
Se les venden las telas: The cloths are sold to them.
Nosotros nos le confiamos: We entrust ourselves to him.
Vosotros os les empeñasteis en £1,000: You pledged yourselves to them
for £1,000.


_Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense_.[86]
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|     =Hablar=.         |     =Temer=.       |      =Partir=.        |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Que yo hablase (that   |Temiese (that I     |Partiese (that I might,|
|   I might, should or  |  might, should, or |  should or would      |
|   would speak, etc.)  |  would fear, etc.) |  depart, etc.)        |
| "  tú hablases        |Temieses            |Partieses              |
| "  él hablase         |Temiese             |Partiese               |
| "  nosotros hablásemos|Temiésemos          |Partiésemos            |
| "  vosotros hablaseis |Temieseis           |Partieseis             |
| "  ellos hablasen     |Temiesen            |Partiesen              |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 86: This tense is formed from the Past Def. by changing the
termination _ron_ of the 3rd pers. pl. into _se, ses, se, semos, seis
sen_, in all the three conjugations.]


     VOCABULARY.

=en la actualidad, al momento=, at present
=á menudo=, often
=acostumbrarse=, to accustom oneself
=admitir=, to acknowledge
=aparecer=, to appear
=aplicarse=, to apply oneself
=ayuda=, help
=boletín=, form, slip, price list
=caucho seco=, dry rubber
=cebada y avena=, barley and oats
=cifras=, figures
=la compra=, the purchase
=*contar (con)=, to count, to rely on
=la costumbre=, custom
=cualquiera=, any (_affirm._)
=cuidadosamente=, carefully
=declararse en quiebra=, to file one's petition in bankruptcy
=dedicarse=, to devote oneself
=dirigirse=, to address oneself
=escribirse=, to write to each other, to one another
=escuchar=, to listen to
=exacto=, exact, accurate
=firmeza=, firmness
=industria azucarera=, sugar industry
=los informes=, information
=lisonjearse=, to flatter oneself
=llamarse=, to be called
=el montaje=, the erection of machinery, etc.
=*moverse=, to be moved, driven (machinery)
=operadores=, dealers (on 'Change)
=partida=, lot (of goods)
=perfeccionar=, to perfect, improve (machinery)
=*reconocer=, to acknowledge
=recursos=, means
= respetar=, to respect
=sección=, section
=tacharse=, to censure, to blame, oneself
=tejidos=, textiles, cloths
=últimamente=, lately
=únicamente=, solely, only


                            EXERCISE 1 (19).

Translate into English--

1. Nos dirigimos á Vs. por informes sobre la casa cuyo (whose) nombre
aparece en el boletín adjunto.

2. Se aplicaron á la industria azucarera y consiguieron buenos
resultados.

3. Me he acostumbrado á este trabajo.

4. Te has dedicado al comercio.

5. Tiene mucha opinión de sí (mismo).

6. Cuenta (he relies) consigo únicamente.

7. Se debe pensar á sí y también á los otros.

8. Estos tejidos se llaman "uniones."

9. Las dos casas se escriben[87] en francés.

10. Estos tornos y estas sierras mecánicas (these lathes and sawing
machines) se mueven por motor eléctrico.

11. Se los ha perfeccionado mucho últimamente.

12. ¿Se envían las máquinas en secciones?

13. Sí, Señor, y se las marca cuidadosamente para facilitar el montaje.

14. Se dice que llegaron grandes partidas de Cebada y Avena, ¿piensa V.
que influirán en los precios?

15. Así se cree.

16. Entonces resultará (or resultará pues) alguna ventaja para los
consumidores (consumers).

17. No puedo tacharme de imprevidencia (want of foresight) por no
haberme abastecido (supplied, stocked) á tiempo, pues (because) carecía
de los recursos necesarios para hacerlo (to do so).

[Footnote 87: Reflexive Pronouns in the plural are also Reciprocal.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (20).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I flatter myself that you will be pleased with (le gustarán) my
purchases seeing (visto) the firmness of prices at present.

2. We consider ourselves lucky (dichosos de) not to have listened to
their advice (consejo).

3. He is always speaking of himself and of his business.

4. He found himself a loser (á perder).

5. They declared themselves bankrupts (they filed their petition in
bankruptcy).

6. They wrote to each other often.

7. He respects himself.

8. He himself respects old customs.

9. We acknowledge we are wrong.

10. We acknowledge receipt of your favour (acusamos recibo de).

11. We shall gratefully acknowledge (agradeceremos infinito) any help
you may render (preste) to our friend.

12. We hope you will be very accurate in your figures.

13. The output (producto) for the first two months of the current year
was 18,668 lbs. dry rubber.

14. The bill market (los cambios) was very firm to-day but there was
little doing (poco se hizo).

15. Dealers were reluctant (se mostraron contrarios) to do business in
the securities.

16. Rubber shares were lifeless (muy desanimadas), but prices were
maintained (se mantuvieron).



                             LESSON XI.
                     (Lección décima primera.)

                POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.


A Possessive Adjective _accompanies a noun_; a Possessive pronoun
_stands for a noun_.

The =Possessive Adjectives= are--

+-------------------------+----------------------------+
|Mi (_m._ & _f., sing._)  |my                          |
|Mis (_m._ & _f., plu._)  |my                          |
|Tu (_m._ & _f., sing._)  |thy                         |
|Tus (_m._ & _f., plu._)  |thy                         |
|Su (_m._ & _f., sing._)  |his, her, its, one's, their,|
|                         | your, (_polite_)           |
|Sus (_m._ & _f., plu._)  |his, her, its, one's, their,|
|                         | your, (_polite_)           |
|Nuestro-a, os-a          |our                         |
|Vuestro-a, os-as         |your (_familiar_)           |
+-------------------------+----------------------------+


EXAMPLES--

Mi embarque: My shipment.
Nuestro arreglo: Our arrangement.
Su sinceridad: His, her, or their sincerity.
Tu beneficio: Thy benefit.
Sus fondos: His funds, capital.


_De él, de ella, de ellos, de V._, etc., may be added for the sake of
clearness, but are not needed when the sense is clear without them.[88]

In the 3rd person (but not in the 1st and 2nd) instead of "su ... de
él," "su ... de V.," etc., we may say "el ... de él," "el ... de V.,"
etc.


[Footnote 88: "De V." is added also for politeness ("V." being a title in
itself--your grace).]


The =Possessive Pronouns= are--

El mío, la mía, los míos, las mías (mine).
El tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas (thine).
El suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas (his, hers, theirs, yours,
_polite_).
El nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras (ours).
El vuestro, la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras (yours _familiar_).

The Possessive Pronoun must be preceded by the definite article except
when it follows the verb "to be" ("Ser") and ownership is asserted.


EXAMPLES--

Su casa es más importante que la mía: His firm is more important than
mine.

V. ha acabado su trabajo, pero yo no he principiado el mío: You have
finished your work, but I have not started mine.

Estos títulos y acciones son míos: These bonds and shares are mine
(viz., belong to me).[89]

[Footnote 89: If the intention is only _to distinguish_ between one
object and another the article is maintained; as, Estas son mis acciones,
_aquellas_ son las de V. (these are my shares, _those_ are yours).]


=Possessive Adjectives Emphatic=. If any emphasis is placed on the
possessive adjectives, the forms of the possessive pronouns are used,
_following the noun_, as--

Quiero la maleta mía y no la de su amigo: I want _my_ portmanteau, not
your friend's.

"A friend of mine," "a customer of yours" will be translated "un amigo
de los míos," "un cliente de los suyos," or also "un amigo mío," "un
cliente suyo," without the preposition _de_.

The Possessive Pronoun preceded by the neuter article =lo= denotes
"property in general," as--

Lo mío (mine--that which is mine).
Lo nuestro (ours--that which belongs to us).
Lo suyo _or_ lo propio (one's own property).
Lo ajeno (other people's property (that which belongs to others)).

In addressing a person translate "my," etc., by "mío," etc., as--

Amigo mío: My friend.
Muy Señor mío (usual introduction to a Spanish letter).

But if the noun is qualified by an adjective, both "mi" and "mío" are
used ("mi" is more general), as Mi querido amigo (my dear friend).


+----------------------------------------------------------------+
|   _Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense (2nd Form)_.[90]          |
+------------------------+------------------+--------------------+
|     Hablar.            |      Temer.      |    Partir.         |
+------------------------+------------------+--------------------+
| Que yo hablara         |Temiera           |Partiera Partieras  |
|  "  tu hablaras        |Temieras          |Partiera            |
|  "  el hablara         |Temiera           |Partiéramos         |
|  "  nosotros habláramos|Temiéramos        |Partierais          |
|  "  vosotros hablarais |Temierais         |Partieran           |
|  "  ellos-as hablaran  |Temieran          |                    |
+------------------------+------------------+--------------------+

[Footnote 90: Used just the same as the 1st form; but it may also be
used instead of the Conditional Mood.]

+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------+
|             _Subjunctive Mood, Future Tense_.[91]               |
+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------+
|Que yo hablare (that I |Temiere (that I    |Partiere (that I     |
|    shall speak, etc.) |  shall fear, etc.)|  shall depart, etc.)|
| "  tú hablares        |Temieres           |Partieres            |
| "  él hablare         |Temiere            |Partiere             |
| "  nosotros habláremos|Temiéremos         |Partiéremos          |
| "  vosotros hablareis |Temiereis          |Partiereis           |
| "  ellos-as hablaren  |Temieren           |Partieren            |
+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------+

[Footnote 91: Refers to a future doubtful action; little used. Its place
is generally supplied by the Present Subjunctive, and, after _si_ (if),
by the Present Indicative.]


     VOCABULARY.

=*atenerse á= to adhere to
=*adherir  á= to adhere to
=ajustar=, to adjust
=apresurarse á=, to hasten to.
=asegurar=, to secure
=avería=, average (damage by sea-water, etc.)
=buque=, ship
=buque de vapor=, steamer
=buque de vela=, sailing vessel
=cabida=, room, space
=codiciar=, to covet
=deber=, to owe, must
=debido á=, owing to
=dirección=, address
=encaminar=, to forward
=hierro=, iron
=mensual=, monthly
=mercado de granos=, grain market
=muestra=, sample
=petición=, request
=pormenores, detalles=, particulars, details
=por tanto=, =por eso=, therefore
=proporcionado=, =adecuado=,  adequate
=puerto=, port
=relación=, report
=representante=, representative
=resto, restante=, remainder
=resultado=, result
=riesgo=, risk
(=á= _or_ =por) saldo=, (in) settlement
=satisfecho=, satisfied
=siguiente=, following
=someter=, to submit
=(la) sucursal=, branch house
=surtido=, assortment, selection
=vigas=, beams


                            EXERCISE 1 (21).

Translate into English--

1. Su representante de V. me ha sometido sus (his) muestras y dentro de
pocos días haré un surtido.

2. En seno (herewith) les enviamos nuestro precio corriente.

3. Sírvase V. consignar los géneros á la orden mía y no á la (orden) del
Sr. Fulano, como lo hacía V. antes.

4. Su casa y la mía están ambas (both) interesadas en esta especulación.

5. Les embarcaremos sus vigas de hierro por el próximo vapor y las
(vigas) de su sucursal de Rosario con el buque siguiente.

6. Nuestro buque de vela el "Nerón" saldrá (will leave) en breve
(shortly).

7. Queremos lo nuestro pero no codiciamos lo ajeno.

8. Nuestro catálogo contiene todos los pormenores necesarios.

9. Debemos su nombre de V. al Sr. Fulano.

10. Nos tomamos la libertad de solicitar sus apreciables órdenes.

11. Á nuestro parecer (in our opinion) su clientela de V. es mejor que
la suya de él.


                            EXERCISE 2 (22).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We beg (tenemos el gusto de) to inform you that your order has been
placed at your prices owing to the fall experienced (que tuvimos) in our
market.

2. In our monthly report, which we beg to enclose, we have stated
(consignado) the present position of our grain market.

3. Please forward the enclosed letters to their address.

4. Our risk would be great and therefore we must adhere to our request
of an adequate commission.

5. The average having been adjusted we now hasten to enclose our cheque
for £59 16s. 9d. in settlement of your claim as per statement enclosed.

6. Trusting (en la confianza que) you will be satisfied with (con _or_
de) this result, we are, yours faithfully (somos de Vs. attos. y
S.S.Q.B.S.M.[92]).

7. We have secured room for the remainder of your machinery in the
steamer leaving (que saldrá de) our port on the 10th prox.

[Footnote 92: Atentos y seguros servidores (que besan sus manos). The
words in brackets are not used in South America and some Spanish firms
also omit them. Instead of q.b.s.m., Spaniards have lately adopted:
q.e.s.m. (que _estrechan_ sus manos).]



                               LESSON XII.
                       (Lección décima segunda.)

                 DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.


A demonstrative adjective _accompanies_ a noun and a demonstrative
pronoun _stands for_ a noun.

The =Demonstrative Adjectives= are--

+----------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Este, esta (this).    |Estos, estas[93] (these).                |
|Ese, esa (that).      |Esos, esas_[93]_ (those--near to the     |
|                      |    person addressed).                   |
|Aquel, aquella (that).|Aquellos, aquellas (those--removed       |
|                      |    from both speaker and addressee).    |
+----------------------+-----------------------------------------+

[Footnote 93: Sometimes "estotro," "estotra," "esotro," "esotra," but
these and other forms are obsolete.]

The difference between _Ese_ and _Aquel_ is not strictly observed.
However, in cases like "this box," "that table," "that cupboard yonder,"
use _ese_ for the nearer of the two removed from the speaker: "Esta
caja," "esa mesa," "aquel armario."


The =Demonstrative Pronouns= are the same as the above, with the
addition of--

Neuter form Esto, eso, aquello[94] (this, that). This has no plural and
is used--

1. In reference to a whole sentence, as--

El mercado del algodón está muy abatido; esto me desanima: The cotton
market is very flat; this disconcerts me.

2. In reference to something pointed at, without referring to what the
thing is,[95] as--

¿Qué es eso? What is that? (thing there, whatever it may be.)

_Este, ese, aquel_, etc., are accented when a stress is placed on them;
_Éste_ is also used for "the latter" and _Aquél_ for "the former."[96]

Instead of _ese_, etc., _aquel_, etc., before _que_ and _de_, the
definite article is generally used, as--

El aumento de precio de hoy y el[97] que tuvimos ayer: The increase in
price to-day and that we had yesterday.

La remesa anterior y la que haremos hoy: The previous shipment and that
we are sending to-day.

El flete del aceite y el de los vinos: The freight on oil, and that on
wine.

Mis documentos y los de mi jefe: My documents and those of my chief
(employer).

Lo que (instead of "aquello que") escribo es la pura verdad: That which
(what) I write is the honest truth.

[Footnote 94: "Eso" and "aquello" are used practically
indiscriminately.]

[Footnote 95: French "ceci," "cela."]

[Footnote 96: Esto es--namely, that is ...]

[Footnote 97: It might appear to be an abbreviation of "aquel," but it
is not] so.


A preposition may precede _que_, as--

¿Qué libro es ese? Es el en que escribimos ayer: What book is that? It
is that in which we wrote yesterday.

¿Qué carta quiere V.? La á que me referí ayer: What letter do you want?
That to which I referred yesterday.

¿Qué plumas son estas? Son las con que yo escribía: What pens are these?
They are those with which I wrote.


_Esta_ translates the commercial phrase, "our place," "our market."

_Esa_ translates the commercial phrase, "your place," "your market."

As--

El mercado en esta está muy flojo: The market here is very slack.

Nos dicen los armadores que el cargamento llegará á esa el 15 del mes
entrante: The shipowners inform us that the cargo will reach your town
on the 15th prox.


+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                _Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense_.                   |
+-------------------+-----------------+---------------+---------------+
|   =Haber=.        |   =Tener=.      |   =Ser=.      |   =Estar=.    |
+-------------------+-----------------+---------------+---------------+
|Que yo haya (that I|Tenga (that I    |Sea (that I    |Esté (that I   |
|   may have, etc.) |  may have, etc.)|  may be, etc.)|  may be, etc.)|
| "  tú hayas       |Tengas           |Seas           |Estés          |
| "  el haya        |Tenga            |Sea            |Esté           |
| "  nosotros       |Tengamos         |Seamos         |Estemos        |
|      hayamos      |                 |               |               |
| "  vosotros       |Tengáis          |Seáis          |Estéis         |
|      hayáis       |                 |               |               |
| "  ellos hayan    |Tengan           |Sean           |Estén          |
+-------------------+-----------------+---------------+---------------+


     VOCABULARY.

=á ese respecto=, in that respect
=acusar=, to accuse, to show
=al menos=, at least
=barca á motor= motor-boat
=barca automóvil= motor-boat
=carriles, rieles, railes=, rails
=competidor, contrincante=, competitor, neighbour[98]
=condiciones=, terms
=contra=, against
=deprimir=, to depress
=descarga=, discharge, the discharging
=desgracia=, misfortune
=días de estadía=, lay days
=dificultad=, difficulty
=elevar=, to raise, to enhance
=está visto=, it is obvious
=evitar=, to avoid
=fletar=, to freight
=mar alborotada=, heavy sea
=mercado algodonero=, cotton market
=mina de carbón=, colliery
=*ofrecer=, to offer
=oscilación=, uncertainty, wavering, ups and downs
=perturbar=, to disturb
=sorprendente=, surprising
=suma redonda=, lump sum
=*volcar=, to capsize, to overturn

[Footnote 98: Neighbour, _person living near_: vecino.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (23).

Translate into English--

1. Debido á la última baja que se ha verificado en este mercado, podemos
ofrecerles una reducción de diez por ciento en los precios de esos
géneros.

2. Está visto que el gobierno de aquella república no sólo no se ocupa
de elevar el crédito sino que tiene la desgracia de deprimirlo y de
perturbar el mercado bursátil (the money market).

3. Se ha repetido en ésta la oscilación que hubo en la semana pasada.

4. Los consolidados (the consolidated) han abierto á 82 y la Renta
Italiana á 101, habiendo bajado más tarde aquéllos á 81 1/2 y ésta á
100.

5. El Amortizable 5% (the 5% Redeemable) subió hasta (to) 103.

6. La revista del mercado algodonero acusa una baja en los futures y la
de la Bolsa un alza en todos los valores extranjeros.

7. Esto es muy natural, aquéllo es sorprendente.

8. Yo le digo ésto: lo haré.

9. Eso me conviene.


                            EXERCISE 2 (24).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We shall ship these iron beams and those steel rails by a sailing
vessel which we intend to (intentamos) freight at (por) a lump sum, with
at least ten lay days for discharging.

2. This will avoid any (toda) difficulty in that respect.

3. A German motor-boat was making this week a trial run (excursión de
prueba) in a (con la) heavy sea when she capsized (y se volcó).

4. The net profits of this year show (muestran, acusan) an increase of
£1,000.

5. The working (la explotación) of those collieries has resulted in a
loss.

6. Messrs. Brown & Co. of your city (de esa) have sent their agent over
(aquí) to make considerable purchases.

7. We hastened to submit to them our best terms offering a credit of
nine months against their acceptances.

8. These terms are better than those of our competitors. This is
certain.



                              LESSON XIII.
                       (Lección décima tercera.)

                           RELATIVE PRONOUNS.


+------------+-----------+------------------------------------+
|   _Sing._  |  _Plu._   |                                    |
+------------+-----------+------------------------------------+
|Quien       |Quienes    |(who, whom)                         |
|El cual     |Los cuales |(who, whom _or_ which)              |
|La cual     |Las cuales |                                    |
|Que         |           |(that)                              |
|Cuyo        |Cuyos      |(whose, _or_ of which (denoting     |
|Cuya        |Cuyas      | possession))                       |
+------------+-----------+------------------------------------+

_Quien_ is used for persons only.
_El cual_ and _que_ are used for persons and things.


EXAMPLES--

El agente á quien (_or_ al cual) hemos escrito: The agent to whom we
have written.

¿Son aquéllas las partidas de azúcares de las cuales me habló V. ayer?
Are those the lots of sugar of which you spoke to me yesterday?

Me acuerdo de las personas y las cosas que V. ha mencionado: I remember
the people and things that you mentioned.

El buque cuya tripulación ha desembarcado: The ship whose crew has
landed.

El comerciante á cuyo hijo hemos conocido: The merchant whose son we
have known.

_Que_ is used very often instead of _quien_ and _el cual. Que_ is to be
preferred when the clause following is a mere complement of the
principal clause (preceding), and _Quien_ or _El cual_ only when the
following clause is considered not less in importance than the clause
preceding, viz., when it introduces _a new idea,[99] as--

¿Ha visto V. al viajante que nos visitó esta mañana?
Have you seen the traveller who called on us this morning?

He conocido al banquero quien era hombre muy juicioso
y prudente: I knew the banker who was a very wise and
prudent man.

[Footnote 99: This is practically saying: after a comma, only the use
of the comma is so arbitrary that we preferred to explain the rule
fully.]


After _ser_ and a noun or pronoun, translate "who" by _quien_, as--

Es él (Carlos) quien me lo ha dicho: It is he (Charles) who told it to
me.


After a preposition translate "whom" by _quien_ (pl., _quienes_)[100],
and "which" by _el cual (la cual_, etc.).

[Footnote 100: "Que" is found but rarely.]


EXCEPTION--

After _á, con, de, en_, we can also translate "which" equally well by
_que_, or _el que, la que, los que, las que_.[101]

[Footnote 101: "Que" or "El que" is found also after other prepositions
but rarely.]


"Which" relating to a whole sentence is _lo cual_ or _lo que_
(naturally, because a whole sentence has no gender).

Instead of _cuyo_ we may use _de quien, del cual, de que, del que_, as--

El buque, la tripulación del cual, de que, _or_ del que ha desembarcado:
The ship whose crew has landed.

El comerciante al hijo de quien, _or_ del cual hemos conocido: The
merchant whose son we have known.

"He who" is translated by _aquel que, el que_,[102] also _quien_.

"She who" is translated by _aquella que, la[102] que_, also _quien_.

"Those who" is translated by _aquellos que, los[102] que_, also
_quienes_.

[Footnote 102: See Lesson XII.]


=Relative Pronouns= cannot be left out, understood, in Spanish, as--

El hombre á quien, _or_ que ví: The man I saw.

Expressions as "The man I spoke to" must, of course, be rendered "The
man to whom I spoke" (El hombre á quien hablé).

Expressions as "I recommend you Messrs. So-and-So than which no better
firm exists," are rendered "Le recomiendo á V. la casa de los Srs.
Fulanos de Tal que no la hay mejor (_or_ de la cual, _or_ de la que no
hay otra mejor)".


+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
|               _Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense_.                  |
+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------+
|   =Haber=.        |  =Tener=.     |  =Ser=.       |  =Estar=.       |
|Que yo hubiese     |Tuviese (that I|Fuese (that I  |Estuviese (that I|
|   (that I might,  |  might, would,|  might, would,|  might, would,  |
|   would, or should|  or should    |  or should    |  or should      |
|   have, etc.)     |  have, etc.)  |  be, etc.)    |  be, etc.)      |
| "  tú hubieses    |Tuvieses       |Fueses         |Estuvieses       |
| "  él hubiese     |Tuviese        |Fuese          |Estuviese        |
| "  nosotros       |Tuviésemos     |Fuésemos       |Estuviésemos     |
|      hubiésemos   |               |               |                 |
| "  vosotros       |Tuvieseis      |Fueseis        |Estuvieseis      |
|      hubieseis    |               |               |                 |
| "  ellos hubiesen |Tuviesen       |Fuesen         |Estuviesen       |
+-------------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------+


     VOCABULARY.

=amargo=, bitter
=armador de buques=, shipowner
=arreglar=, to arrange
=el bien=, the good
=buque, barco, navio=, boat
=cauto=, cautious
=*conocer=, to know through the senses, to be acquainted with
=deuda=, debt
=doloroso=, painful
=endosar=, to endorse
=enseñar=, to teach, to show
=esperar=, to expect, to hope, to wait
=estadísticas=, statistics
=falta=, want, absence of
=flojo=, slack
=fundar=, to found
=gratitud=, gratitude
=*hacer mención=, to mention
=herida=, wound, sting
=informar (de)=, to inform  of, to acquaint with
=llevar chasco=, to be disappointed, to be baffled
=*negar=, to deny
=periódico=, newspaper
=premio=, reward, prize, premium
=robar=, to rob, to steal
=simpático=, pleasant, winsome, taking
=*tener empeño=, to be earnest, anxious about anything


                            EXERCISE 1 (25).

Translate into English--

1. El hombre que me habló no es el á quien hemos escrito.

2. Hé aquí (here is) el libro que me enseñó esta regla.

3. He escrito al hombre que nos endosó la letra.

4. He comprado el periódico que contiene aquellas estadísticas.

5. He arreglado con el negociante quien (_or_ el cual) parece hombre muy
simpático.

6. El corredor, quien (_or_ el cual) tiene mucho empeño en concluir la
transacción, me vino á ver otra vez (again) esta mañana.

7. El capital, el cual se ha destinado á la explotación de las minas, es
intangible (cannot be touched).

8. El hombre á quien (_or_ al cual) me refiero es armador de buques.

9. El negociante de quien (_or_ del cual) le hablaba es integérrimo
(most upright).

10. El asunto á que me refería (_or_ de que trataba).

11. La pluma con que escribía y con la cual (_or_ con la que) puede
escribir V.

12. La mina en que (_or_ en la cual) fundaba sus esperanzas.

13. El dinero sobre el cual contaba.

14. Los géneros para los cuales se dió (was given) la orden.

15. ¿Es él quien lo quiere y á cuyo hijo (_or_ al hijo de quien) V.
conoce?


                            EXERCISE 2 (26).

Translate into Spanish--

1. He who robs you of (roba) money robs you of little, but he who denies
you a debt of well-deserved gratitude robs you of more, which is
obvious.

2. Those who deny this (nieguen, (_subj._)) have not experienced how
(cuán) painful is the sting of ingratitude.

3. Those who do good should do it expecting ingratitude for (por) their
reward, then they will not be disappointed.

4. It is a truth than which no bitterer exists.

5. The steamer I have bought is a first-class boat.

6. The little (pequeña) house I paid for.

7. The firm I made mention of enjoys good credit.

8. I wonder (me pregunto yo) if this is the engineer whose son is a
lawyer.

9. Their market is very slack at present, which accounts for (explica)
the want of their remittances.

10. I acquainted them with all the facts, which made them very cautious.

11. We are acquainted with Mr. McIntyre (conocemos al), who is a
Scotchman.

12. He is only an acquaintance (un conocido _or_ un conocimiento).



                              LESSON XIV.
                       (Lección décima cuarta.)

                INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES.


These are the same as the relative pronouns, only they are written with
an accent--

¿Quién,-es? (who, whom?)
¿Cuál,-es? (which?)
¿Qué? (what?)
¿Cúyo,-a,-os,-as? (whose?)
¿De quién,-es[103]? (whose?)
¿Cuánto,-a,-os,-as? (how much, how many?)

[Footnote 103: "De quién" is more usual than "Cúyo" in interrogations.]


_Cuál_ when interrogative is used without the definite article which
must accompany it when it is a relative pronoun. _Quién_, interrogative,
is never an adjective.


EXAMPLES--

¿Quién vino a verme? Who came to see me?

¿Cuál arreglo le gusta á V. más? Which arrangement do you prefer?

¿Cúyo es este lápiz?         Whose is this pencil? _or_ Whose
¿Cúyo lápiz es este?         pencil is this?
¿De quién es este lápiz?

¿De quién recibió V. la consignación de madera? From whom did you
receive the consignment of timber?

¿A quiénes nos refieren Vs. para informes? To whom do you refer us for
information?

¿Cuánto me cobrará V.? How much will you charge me?

_Cuál_ (which) is often used instead of the English "what", as--

¿Cuáles son sus intenciones? What are your intentions?

_Qué_ is used in exclamatory sentences--"what a", as--

¡Qué lástima! What a pity!
¡Qué bonitos paños! What nice suitings![104]

[Footnote 104: Before an adjective without a noun following "qué"
translates the English "how":--¡Qué bonito! how nice!]

An emphatic _tan_ or _más_ may be inserted, thus--

¡Qué paño tan bonito! What a very nice suiting!
¡Qué hombre más rico! What a very rich man!

_Cuál_ is used in exclamatory clauses instead of _cómo_ (how), as--

¡Cuál le han reducido las desgracias! How (_or_ to what a state)
     misfortunes have reduced him!
¡Cuál la ví! How (_or_ in what a state) did I see her!

_Cuánto_ is also used in exclamations, as--

¡Cuánto le agradezco su amabilidad! How much obliged I am for your
kindness!

_Cual_ without article and without accent is used for "as," as--

Una casa (tal) cual yo la deseaba: A house (such) as I liked.

Such expressions as "He wrote me a letter, which letter I still
possess," are translated "Me escribió una carta, cuya carta aun tengo."


_Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense (2nd form)_.

+-----------------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+
     =Haber=.           |  =Tener=.   | =Ser=.    | =Estar=.    |
+-----------------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+
|Que yo hubiera         |Tuviera      |Fuera      |Estuviera    |
| "  tú hubieras        |Tuvieras     |Fueras     |Estuvieras   |
| "  él hubiera         |Tuviera      |Fuera      |Estuviera    |
| "  nosotros hubiéramos|Tuviéramos   |Fuéramos   |Estuviéramos |
| "  vosotros hubierais |Tuvierais    |Fuerais    |Estuvierais  |
| "  ellos hubieran     |Tuvieran     |Fueran     |Estuvieran   |
+-----------------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+


_Subjunctive Mood, Future Tense._


+-----------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+
|Que yo hubiere (that   |Tuviere (that |Fuere (that |Estuviere     |
|    I shall have,      | I shall have,| I shall be,| (that I shall|
|    etc.)              | etc.)        | etc.)      | be, etc.)    |
| "  tú hubieres        |Tuvieres      |Fueres      |Estuvieres    |
| "  él hubiere         |Tuviere       |Fuere       |Estuviere     |
| "  nosotros hubiéremos|Tuviéremos    |Fuéremos    |Estuviéremos  |
| "  vosotros hubiereis |Tuviereis     |Fuereis     |Estuviereis   |
| "  ellos hubieren     |Tuvieren      |Fueren      |Estuvieren    |
+-----------------------+--------------+------------+--------------+


_Imperative Mood_. (This mood is used to command or beg.)

+--------+---------------------------------+---------------------------+
|Hablar  |Habla[105](speak thou, _sing_.)  |Hablad (speak you, _plu._) |
|Temer   |Teme      (fear    "          )  |Temed  (fear   "         ) |
|Partir  |Parte     (depart  "          )  |Partid (depart "         ) |
|Haber   |Hé[106]   (have    "          )  |Habed  (have   "         ) |
|Tener   |Ten       (  "     "          )  |Tened  ( "     "         ) |
|Ser     |Sé        (be      "          )  |Sed    (be     "         ) |
|Estar   |Está      ( "      "          )  |Estad  ( "     "         ) |
+--------+---------------------------------+---------------------------+

[Footnote 105: The Imperative Mood has only a separate form for the 2nd
pers. sing. and plu. It has no 1st pers. sing. and the 1st pers. pl. and
3rd pers. sing. and pl. are taken from the Pres. Subj.

The 2nd pers. pl. is derived from the Infinitive Mood by changing the
final _r_ into _d_--no exception.

The 2nd pers. sing. is the same as the _3rd pers. sing. of the Pres.
Indicative_, with a few exceptions (among which are Haber, Tener, Ser).]

[Footnote 106: Given as a form only, as Haber has no Imperative Mood in
modern Spanish, except in Héme, héte, héle, aquí, etc. (here I am, here
thou art, here he is, etc.), and in some other rare cases.

N.B.--In Spanish there is no imperative negative, the Pres. Subj.
negative being used instead, as--

        =Hablar=. No hables (do not (thou) speak).
                  No habléis (do not (you) speak).]


     VOCABULARY.

=*acordarse=, to remember
=me acuerdo=, I remember
=se acuerda=, he remembers
=cartera=, pocket-book, portfolio
=contestar á, responder á=, to answer
=*decir=, to say
=*devolver=, to return, give back
=devuelto=, given back
=devuelvo=, I return, give back
=digo=, I say
=dice=, he says
=dije=, I said
=dijo=, he said
=disgustado=, annoyed, disgusted, displeased
=flojedad=, slackness
=*hacer escala=, to call at (steamers)
=mucho me gusta=, I am very glad
=negativa=, refusal
=notas (billetes) de banco=, bank notes
=*oir=, to hear
=*perder=, to lose
=perdiendo=, losing
=*querer=, to want, to be willing to have
=quiero=, I want, I am willing to have
=quiere=, he wants, he is willing to have
=responder=,[107] to answer
=*seguir=, to continue
=sorpresa=, surprise

[Footnote 107: "Responder"; past part., "respuesto"--otherwise regular.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (27).

Translate into English--

1. ¿Quién respeta las leyes?

2. ¿Cuáles leyes?

3. Las de este país. ¿Qué dice V.?

4. Lo que V. oye (you hear).

5. Estos pañuelos y zarazas son cuales V. deseaba.

6. Mucho me gusta saberlo.

7. ¡Qué hermosas telas! ¡y baratas!

8. ¡Cuánto pide V. por ellas?

9 ¿Cuántos dividendos ha pagado esa Compañía? Tres.

10. ¿Cuántos dijo V. (did you say)?

11. Tres ó cuatro, no me acuerdo exactamente.

12. ¿Cúya cartera es esta?

13. Es la cartera de mi hermano, cuya cartera, como V. habrá sabido, la
perdió con £500 en notas de banco y le fué devuelta.

14. ¿De quién es el cargamento cuyo conocimiento ha llegado?

15. Es mío.

16. ¿Qué libro es este? Es el mío.

17. Ha seguido la flojedad en los valores, perdiendo mucho el
amortizable.

18. Hubo pocas (few) transacciones en general.

19. ¡Cuál lo hallamos!

20. ¡Absolutamente desanimado! ¡Qué lastima!


                            EXERCISE 2 (28).

Translate into Spanish--

1. What reduction can you make?

2. Twopence a yard.

3. Which of the two will you have (quiere V.)?

4. What orders did you give?

5. Whose goods are these?

6. What a surprise!

7. How much money did you receive?

8. How many lots of white shirting have you placed?

9. Did you answer all his letters?

10. If we bought (si comprásemos) the (colonial) produce dearer than the
figure you indicated we should have to answer for it (seríamos
responsables).

11. The cotton prints and union drills we sent you will answer your
requirements (corresponderán a sus necesidades).

12. Mr. Pérez seems annoyed by your refusal.

13. I am very sorry (lo siento mucho _or_ infinito) but it is not my
fault.

14. I could not accept the rebate under (en) the circumstances.

15. Has the steamer called at Málaga?

16. I believe she has (que sí).



                              LESSON XV.
                      (Lección décima quinta.)

                 INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.


(Those marked with an asterisk are Pronouns only.)

Alguno, *alguien (pronounced álguien), (some, somebody, anybody)
*Algo, alguna cosa (something, anything)
*Uno-a,-os-as (one, a person, some, some persons)
Uno á otro (one another, each other)
Uno ú otro (one or the other, either)
Uno y otro, ambos, entrambos (both)
Ni uno ni otro (neither the one nor the other)
Ni uno (not a single one)
Los otros, los demás (the others)
Mismo (same, self)
Cierto-a,-os-as (a certain, certain)
Cada (each)
*Cada uno, *cada cual (each, each one)
Otro (other, another[108])
Todo (all, everything, every)
Todos (everybody, all)
Poco (little)
Pocos (few)
Unos pocos, unos cuantos (a few)
Mucho-a,-os-as (much, many)
Varios (several)
Cualquiera (_sing._), Cualesquiera (_pl._), (any, whichever)
*Quienquiera (_sing._), quienesquiera (_pl._), (any, whoever, whomever)
*Cualquiera cosa (anything, whatever)
Propio-a, os-as (own, self, same)
Tal (_sing._), tales (_pl._ such a, such)
*Fulano, zutano, mengano (So-and-So)
Cuanto (todo lo que), (all that which)
Cuantos (todos los que), (all those who)
Ninguno (no one, nobody, not any)
*Nada (nothing), *nadie (no one, nobody)
*Quien ... quien, *cual ... cual (some ... some)

[Footnote 108: "Another" is "otro," not "un otro."]


_Cada_ is an adjective only, as--

Cada huelga de obreros daña la industria nacional: Each workmen's strike
injures national industry.

_Alguien, algo, cada, nada, nadie_ are invariable, and the verb
accompanying them is always singular, as--

Alguien hizo un error de pluma: Somebody made a slip of the pen.

Algo es mejor que el dinero, el honor: There is something better than
money, honour.

¿Hay algo peor que la ingratitud? Is there anything worse than
ingratitude?

Nada es absolutamente perfecto y nadie es infalible: Nothing is
absolutely perfect and nobody is infallible.

Further difference in meaning between _alguien_ and _alguno_--

_Alguien_ refers to persons only, and cannot be followed by _de_.
_Alguno_ to persons or things, and may be followed by _de_,[109] as--

Alguien _or_ Alguno se ha quejado: Somebody has complained.

Quiere naranjas y melocotones y yo tengo algunos: He wants oranges and
peaches, and I have some.

Alguno de ellos lo hará: Someone amongst them will do it.

The English "any," "anything," are translated by _alguno, alguna cosa
(algo)_ when interrogative; _ninguno, ninguna cosa (nada)_ when
negative; and _cualquiera, cualquiera cosa_ when affirmative, as--

¿Quiere V. algún refresco ó algo que comer? Do you want any
refreshments[110] or anything to eat?

No quiero ningunos Holandillos: I do not want any Hollands.

Cualquier(a) muchacho de escuela echaría de ver que estas Batistas
Victoria son más ordinarias: Any schoolboy could see that these Victoria
Lawns are of lower quality.

_Alguno_ and _Ninguno_ are left understood oftener than in English, as--

¿Comprará V. (algunos) títulos de la nueva emisión? Will you buy any
stock of the new issue?

Él no pide consejos: He does not ask any advice.

When _nadie_ and _ninguno_, or any other =negative word=, as the adverb
_nunca_ (never), etc., precede a verb, no other negative is required;
but when they =follow= it, =no= (not) must precede the verb, as: No he
visto á nadie _or_ á nadie he visto: I have seen nobody.

[Footnote 109: Same difference between _nadie_ and _ninguno_.]

[Footnote 110: In Spanish the singular is found instead of the plural,
as: ¿Tiene V. algún libro que prestarme? (have you any books to lend
me?).]


Verbs ending in _car_ or _gar_ change the _c_ and _g_ into =qu= and =gu=
respectively before =e=, as--

+------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
|                  |  =Embarcar=[111]    |  =Cargar=[111]      |
|                  |(to embark, to ship) |   (to load)         |
|  _Past Def._     |Embarqué             |Cargué               |
|  _Pres. Subj._   |Embarque,-ques, que, |Cargue,-gues,-gue,   |
|                  |-quemos,-quéis,-quen.|-guemos,-guéis,-guen.|
+------------------+---------------------+---------------------+

[Footnote 111: The primary parts (except, of course, the Infinitive) will
be omitted in future _when they are regular_. The derivative parts will
also be omitted when they are _regularly formed from their primary
parts_ according to the rules given. See synopsis at the end of the
book.]


     VOCABULARY.

=agricola=, agricultural
=amontonar=, to pile up
=apertura=, opening
=bajar=, to lower, to go or come down
=bonito=, pretty
=comarca=, region, district (of a country)
=detenidamente=, at length
=duplicar=, to double, to duplicate
=exigua=, slight, trifling
=fábricas de algodón=, cotton mills
=géneros alimenticios=, food stuffs
=*hacer caso=, to take notice
=hilador=, spinner
=impuesto=, tax
=(la) incertidumbre=, uncertainty
=industria=, industry
=legislatura=, parliamentary session
=ligero=, light (_adj._), slight, small
=limitación=, curtailment
=(la) luz=, light (_n._)
=*mantener=, to hold up, to maintain
=mejora=, improvement
=ministerio=, ministry
=obligaciones=, debentures
=olvidar=, to forget
=para que=, so that
=patria=, country, fatherland
=preferible=, preferable
=*prevalecer, reinar=, to prevail, to rule
=subir=, to go or come up
=tejedor=, weaver
=timbre=, stamp
=tomar la delantera á=, to take the start on.
=trigo=, wheat
=varios=, several
=vinícola=, wine (_adj._)


                            EXERCISE 1 (29).

Translate into English--

1. Alguien pretende que se duplicará el impuesto del timbre sobre las
acciones y obligaciones de las compañías anónimas y que habrá algunos
que protestarán enérgicamente.

2. Algo hay de eso y uno y otro partido político se interesan de la
cuestión pero ni uno de los periódicos locales echa luz sobre las
intenciones del ministerio.

3. Los demás proyectos de ley con ciertas modificaciones se presentarán
(will be introduced) en esta misma legislatura, y cada uno se discutirá
detenidamente.

4. Se anuncian varias empresas industriales en grande escala.

5. Cuanto se hace es poco cuando se piensa en lo que se debería hacer
para que nuestros competidores no nos tomen la delantera.

6. Cualquiera echa de ver (can see) eso.

7. Cuantos hay que miran al verdadero interés de su patria deben olvidar
sus propios intereses en favor del fomento de la industria vinícola y
agrícola de esta comarca.

8. Cada casa tiene su sistema propio.

9. Yo no imito á Fulano, Zutano y Mengano, soy cauto y evito los
riesgos.

10. Negocio papel extranjero, pero sólo letras bancarias, ó de firmas de
primera clase y con dos endosos, nada más.


                            EXERCISE 2 (30).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Somebody thinks that the imports of food-stuffs will increase.

2. Some wheat buyers take little notice of the higher American cable
advices (las subidas que se han telegrafiado desde América).

3. Weavers and spinners are all holding up their prices.

4. Each week shows an improvement.

5. We hear the same reports (noticias) from all quarters (partes).

6. Neither of these machines will suit (conviene á) our requirements.

7. We accept these bills but refuse the others.

8. Anybody who has his own interests at heart will contribute to the
realisation of the scheme.

9. I did all I could (podía) so that nothing should be lost (no se
perdiera nada).

10. Some say the market will go up, some say it will go down, and such
is the position that one does not know (no sabe) what to do.

11. Anything is preferable to this uncertainty.

12. I have not seen anything so pretty before.

13. Mail advices (los anuncios por la mala) from America report an
abnormal (anormal) curtailment of production in the United States Cotton
Mills.

14. They cannot take the risk of piling up stocks when the demand is so
slight (exigua).

15. Foreign Bourses.--Berlin. A weak tone ruled at the opening. During
the later dealings (operaciones posteriores) a slight (ligera)
improvement was noticeable (se observó).



                              LESSON XVI.
                        (Lección décima sexta.)

                               THE VERB.


The verb is a word by which we affirm something. It is the essential
word in a sentence: without it (expressed or understood) no sentence can
be construed.

Verbs are divided into Auxiliary, Transitive and Intransitive.


The Auxiliary verbs in Spanish are: Haber, Tener, Ser, Estar.

_Haber_ is a true auxiliary because it helps to form compound
tenses[112] but it presents the following peculiarities--

1. It is used as an impersonal verb (as well as the verb _hacer_ which
is given here for the sake of completeness) for expressions of time,
as--

Dos años ha (_or_ ha dos años) _or_ hace dos años la exportación de los
Caldos españoles estaba muy floreciente: Two years ago the exportation
of Spanish wines and oils was very flourishing.

Ha dos años (_or_ hace dos años) que la casa Guillermo Fernandez y Cía
está establecida en La Coruña como Comisionistas: The firm, G.F. & Co.,
has been established in Corunna as Commission Agents these last two
years.

¿Cuanto tiempo ha (_or_ hace) que estudia V. el castellano? How long
have you been studying Spanish?

[Footnote 112: The Past Part. following "haber" IS ALWAYS INVARIABLE.]


2. It is also used impersonally as "there to be" (French, "y avoir"),
as--

Hay mucha pimienta, clavos, y canela en el mercado de Londres: There are
much pepper, cloves, and cinnamon in the London market.

Sí, hubo muchas especias el año pasado también: Yes, there were many
spices last year also.

Cuando estaba en El Cairo había miedo de que estallara algún motín: When
I was in Cairo there was the fear of some riots breaking out.

(N.B.--Impersonal verbs are only used in the 3rd pers. singular.)

In English we have "there is" and "there are," because "there to be" is
not used impersonally, the meaning being, e.g., "a man is there"; "two
men are there." In Spanish, however, _haber_ is used impersonally and
both "there is a man" and "there are two men" are translated "Hay un
hombre," "Hay dos hombres."

It will be noticed that _Haber_ used for "there to be" makes _Hay_
instead of _Ha_ for the present indicative. All its other tenses remain
unchanged: _había, hubo, habrá, habría_, etc.

_Hay que_ followed by an Infinitive (French "il faut"), it is necessary
to ..., as--

Hay que tener mucho cuidado: It is necessary to be very careful. I, you,
etc., must be very careful.

_Tener_ is generally a =principal= (viz., not an auxiliary) verb, used
to denote possession; but it is used sometimes as an =auxiliary= instead
of _haber_, as--

Tengo recibido su catálogo ilustrado y lista (or boletín) de precios: I
have received your illustrated catalogue with price list.

Tenemos recibida[113] su apreciable carta de 20 del que rige (or del
corriente): We have received your favour of the 20th inst.

¿Tiene V. recibidas las cotizaciones? Have you received the quotations?

Los presupuestos, que tenemos recibidos del Trapiche para nuestro
Ingenio de la Habana: The estimates which we have received for the Sugar
Mill for our Factory in Havana.

In all the preceding examples _tener_ used instead of _haber_ introduces
an additional idea of "=possession=".

"He recibido su carta" might be followed, in Spanish, by "pero la he
perdido" (but I have lost it). "Tengo recibida su carta" implies that
the receiver holds it now.

[Footnote 113: The Past Part. following "tener" agrees in gender and
number with the _direct object_.]


Sometimes this idea of possession is very distantly implied, as--

¿Qué me dice V.? tengo leído ese proyecto de Ley: What are you talking
about? I have read that (Parliamentary) Bill.

Meaning that the effect of the reading is extant in the mind.

Colloquially the people will use _tener_ for _haber_ without any
allusion to possession, but this should be avoided.


     VOCABULARY.

=anteayer=, the day before yesterday
=apresurar=, to hasten, to urge (_a._)
=apresurarse=, to hasten (_n._)
=apresurarse con sus órdenes=, to rush one's orders
=árbol de eje=, axle shaft
=cámara de comercio=, chamber of commerce
=cigüeña, árbol de cigüeña, cigüeñal=, crank-shaft
=compañía de ferrocarril=, railway company
=con manchas=, (designs)--spot
=con puntitas, con bolitas=, (designs) spot
=contestar=, to answer, to reply
=cuadritos=, (designs) checks
=cuenta simulada=, pro forma account
=culpa=, blame, fault
=daño=, damage, injury, breakdown
=de buena tinta=, from a good source
=derecho=, right
=duda=, doubt
=equivocarse=, to be mistaken
=existencias=, stocks of goods
=expedidor=, sender
=fecha de=, dated
=listados=, (designs) striped
=á listas, á rayas=, (designs) striped
=malcontento=, uneasiness, discontent
=mundial=, world (_adj._)
=próximamente=, about, approximately
=pues=, well
=redactar=, to write out
=repentinamente=, suddenly
=representación exclusiva=, sole agency
=responsabilidad=, responsibility
=retardar=, to delay, to be delayed
=*romperse=, to break (_n._)
=roto=, broken
=todavía=, yet
=vivir=, to live, to reside
=ya=, already


                            EXERCISE 1 (31).

Translate into English--

1. En la Asociación de Agricultores de España (Society of Spanish
Agriculturists) dará mañana viernes á las seis y media de la tarde una
conferencia (lecture) el ilustrado Sr. Fulano.

2. ¿Como mañana? ya la ha dado esta mañana.

3. No sabía que la había dado ya.

4. Pues tengo esta noticia de buena tinta y no hay duda que así es.

5. Tenemos recibida su estimada, fecha de anteayer.

6. Mucho tiempo ha que tengo proyectadas estas empresas.

7. Habrá un mes que me escribió y no le he contestado todavía.

8. La Cámara de Comercio de Londres votó, después de larga discusión,
una protesta contra el nuevo Tratado de Comercio con Cuba y redactó una
petición que será dirigida al gobierno.

9. El vapor inglés "Raleigh" que sale para Montevideo ha recibido un
marconigrama anunciando que reina allí el malcontento político.

10. El aviador acaba de batir el "record" mundial de velocidad y
distancia recorriendo (covering) ciento veintidós kilómetros en hora y
media, á saber (namely) próximamente 80 kilómetros por hora.

11. No se equivoca V. en la interpretación de lo que hemos escrito
acerca de las facturas simuladas.

12. El árbol de eje y el cigüeñal se han roto.


                            EXERCISE 2 (32).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Have you obtained the sole agency for (de) that firm?

2. Not yet, but I hope to get it.

3. How long have you been living in England?

4. Two weeks ago prices were so high that buyers were rushing their
orders; now they have suddenly fallen to an unprecedented level (nivel
sin precedente).

5. He has examined the samples and found that the designs of the light
grounds (fondos claros) are not as ordered.

6. He also complains of the checks and stripes.

7. The spot muslins have been delayed owing to a breakdown in the works
(la fábrica).

8. The senders are trying to throw the blame on (á) the Railway Company,
but we have no right of claim (derecho de reclamar) against the latter
(ésta); it is they who (son ellos quienes) must indemnify us for the
loss.

9. It is a well-founded (bien establecida) and respectable firm and they
will not deny their responsibility--there is no doubt about (de) that.

10. Is it long since you received their last (última) letter?

11. Have they been long established? (Hace mucho tiempo que....)

12. They have been for 15 years.

13. Our friends have large stocks but they say the market is looking up
(mejorando).



                              LESSON XVII.
                       (Lección décima séptima.)

                           "SER" AND "ESTAR."


=Ser= is used as a true auxiliary, when it forms the passive voice.

=Estar= is an auxiliary when it forms the progressive tenses, as

Estoy escribiendo (I am writing).
Estaba escribiendo (he was writing).

The difficulty in the employment of _ser_ and _estar_ is, by some,
unduly magnified. Others give the following rule--

_Ser_ denotes a permanent state.
_Estar_ "temporary"

This rule should not be adopted because often it would not apply, as the
following two examples will show--

Él es soldado porque se ha alistado por dos años: He is a soldier as he
has enlisted for two years.

Aquellos montes están eternamente cubiertos de nieve: Those mountains
are perpetually covered with snow.

The following simple and true rules will enable the student to
understand the difference between _ser_ and _estar_ and to apply them
correctly.


_Ser_ is used--

1. To form the Passive Voice, as--

El cartero trajo las cartas--_Active_: The postman brought the letters.

La carta fué traída[114] por el cartero--_Passive[115]_: The letter was
brought by the postman.

[Footnote 114: The Past Part. following "Ser" and "Estar" agrees in
gender and number with the subject of these verbs.]

[Footnote 115: Este cuarto es barrido todos los días (this room is swept
every day) is passive voice, because we speak of the _action_ of sweeping,
viz., somebody sweeps the room every day. Este cuarto está barrido--no
voice; "barrido" is used as an adjective to denote _state_ or
_condition_.]

2. To denote an inherent[116] quality, as--

La nieve es blanca: Snow is white.
El hombre es mortal: Man is mortal.

[Footnote 116: Inherence = a fixed state of being in another body. A
quality may be inherent "for the time being," as: Juan se ha alistado por
dos años, entonces _es soldado_: John has enlisted for two years, then he
is a soldier.]


_Estar_ is used to denote--

1. State in locality, viz., to be in a place, as--

Estoy aquí I am here.
Londres está en Inglaterra: London is in England.

2. A condition, as--

Estoy candado: I am tired.
Está enfermo: He is ill.


SUPPLEMENTARY RULES.

_Ser_ must be used--

1. Before any noun (even if an adjective or article intervenes), as--

Soy negociante: I am a merchant.

Es un corredor de cambios bien conocido: He is a well-known exchange
broker.

Son buenos valores: They are good securities.

2. When "to be" is used to denote possession, as--

Los trapiches son de estos fabricantes: The sugar mills belong to these
makers.

3. When "to be" us used impersonally, as--

Es necesario tomar medidas legales: It is necessary to take legal
proceedings.

4. Before the words "Feliz," "Infeliz," "Pobre," and "Rico."[117]

[Footnote 117: These are not, strictly speaking, "inherent qualities,"
but they are spoken of as such.]


_Estar_ must, of course, be always used before Present Participles,[118]
as--

Está activando sus esfuerzos: He is making still further efforts.
Estamos extendiendo nuestras relaciones: We are extending our connection.

[Footnote 118: A Pres. Part. can only express a condition, not a
quality.]



Verbs ending in _cer_, _cir_, _ger_ and _gir_ change the _c_ into =z=
and the _g_ into =j= before _a_ or _o_ as--


+----------------------+-----------------------+
|    =Vencer= (to win) |  =Dirigir= (to direct)|
+----------------------+-----------------------+
|_Pres. Indic._,  venzo|    dirijo             |
|_Pres. Subj._,   venza|    dirija             |
+----------------------+-----------------------+

Verbs ending in _guir_ and _quir_ change the _gu_ into =g= and the _qu_
into =c= before _a_ or _o_, as--

+-------------------------+-------------------------+
|       =Distinguir=      |   =Delinquir=[119]      |
|       (to distinguish)  |(to commit a delinquency)|
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
|_Pres. Indic._,  Distingo|   Delinco               |
|_Pres. Subj._,   Distinga|   Delinca               |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+

[Footnote 119: The only verb ending in _quir_.]


     VOCABULARY.

=acabar de=, to have just
=accesorio=, accessory
=activo y pasivo=, assets and liabilities
=antiguo=, old, ancient
=avería=, particular, particular average
=balance=, balance, balance sheet
=bastar=, to suffice, to be enough
=biela=, connecting rod
=caldera=, boiler
=cilindros=, cylinders
=citar=, to quote, to mention a passage
=*convenir=, to agree, to suit
=cotizar=, to quote prices
=cuenta de ganancias y pérdidas=, profit and loss account
=dejar=, to leave, to let
=disposición (á su)=, (at your) disposal
=durar=, to last
=el engranaje=, the gearing
=entregar=, to deliver
=equipo=, equipment
=es decir, ó sea= viz., namely
=á saber= viz., namely
=franco de porte=, carriage paid
=grifo=, cock (machinery)
=hasta la fecha=, (made up) to date
=huelga=, strike
=imprevisto=, unforseen
=á la izquierda=, to the left
=llegar á ser=, to become, to contrive to be
=*mantenerse=, to be maintained
=máquina=, machine, engine
=mercerizar=, to mercerize
=para con=, towards
=transporte seguido=, carriage forward
=porte pagadero al destino=, carriage forward
=presentar=, to present
=proveer=, to provide
=provisto (proveído)=, provided
=semejante=, similar
=*sentir=, to be sorry, to feel
=sin embargo=, however
=soportes, coginetes=, bearings
=tornillos=, screws
=transporte pagado=, carriage paid
=tubos=, tubes
=válvula=, valve
=el volante=, the fly-wheel
=y pico= (=veinte y pico=, etc.), odd, (twenty odd, etc.)


                            EXERCISE 1 (33).

Translate into English--

1. La marca (the make) de estas máquinas y calderas es una de las más
antiguas.

2. Son fabricadas en Inglaterra por los Srs. Fulano y Cía.

3. Están aquí para su inspección y están todas provistas de sus
accesorios: cilindros, volantes, bielas, soportes, engranajes, válvulas
y tornillos.

4. ¿No se fabrican también en Francia máquinas semejantes?

5. Sí, Señor, estas á la izquierda son francesas y son buenas máquinas.

6. Es cierto sin embargo que las inglesas son mejores y que están en
primera línea en la industria mundial.

7. Los Srs. Fulano y Cía. han llegado á ser los primeros entre los
constructores que han comprendido que se podían entregar máquinas
excelentes á un precio relativamente bajo.

8. Para no citar más que un ejemplo de la importancia de esta casa
basta decir que son suyas las 1,000 máquinas y
pico que se han exportado últimamente para Italia y la Argentina.

9. Soy feliz de saberlo.

10. Son fabricantes ricos y al mismo tiempo generosos para con los que
son pobres é infelices.

11. Compraré diez fardos de Estampados Mercerizados si me los deja V. á
5-3/16 d. por yarda.

12. Está bien; ¡está convenido!


                            EXERCISE 2 (34).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We have just received your Price List, but we are sorry to say your
prices are too dear.

2. The cylinders and boilers are now ready.

3. Every engine is sent out with its complete equipment, viz., tubes,
valves, cocks, etc.

4. The Directors are preparing a balance sheet to be laid before (para
presentar á) the company at the next ordinary general meeting.

5. It will show the assets and liabilities and a profit and loss account
made up to date.

6. There will also be a report on the position and transactions of the
company.

7. It is your action which has done us more harm (daño) than anything
else (cualquier otra cosa[120]).

8. It is we (somos nosotros) who are tired of our agreement (convenio).

9. The goods are at your disposal.

10. We think the shares will be inactive (flojas).

11. The demand for steel, iron and copper was very steady (firme) but it
is probable that it will not last.

12. Are you rich? No, I am poor but I am happy.

13. Our quotations will be maintained except in case of strikes or other
unforeseen circumstances.

14. The four bales of linens will be delivered to you carriage paid, but
the boilers and (y sus) accessories you will receive (los recibirán)
carriage forward.

15. The whole (todo) will be insured with particular average.

[Footnote 120: Or: _=que nada más=_.]



                              LESSON XVIII.
                        (Lección décima octava.)

                            TRANSITIVE VERBS.


A verb is Transitive when its action passes from the subject of the
action to the object.

=Transitive Verbs= are divided into--

=1. Active= (when the subject of the verb stands for the doer or agent
of the action), as--

Renovamos nuestros ofrecimientos de servicios: We renew our offers of
services.

=2. Passive= (when the subject of the verb stands for the real object of
the action, viz., when it suffers the action instead of doing it), as--

Los ofrecimientos de sus servicios nos fueron renovados en su último
escrito: His offers of services were renewed to us in his last letter.

The Passive voice in Spanish is formed with the verb _ser_ as above, or
by using the =active voice= with the pronoun _se_, as--

Se nos renovaron los ofrecimientos de sus servicios: His offers, etc.

Active verbs become reflexive when their subject and object are the same
person or thing, as--

Nos lisonjeamos poderlos servir por lo mejor de sus intereses: We
flatter ourselves that we can serve them to the best of their interests.


Reflexive verbs in the plural are also reciprocal, as--

Nos comprendemos: We understand each other.

Nos escribimos muy frecuentemente: We write to each other very
frequently.

"Uno á otro" and "los unos á los otros" may be added for greater
clearness, as--

Procuramos convencernos (á nosotros mismos). We try to convince
ourselves (each other).

Procuramos convencernos (el uno al otro). We try to convince ourselves
(each other).

The direct object of a transitive verb,[121] if a proper name of a
person or place, must be preceded by _á_, as--

Vimos al Señor Guillermo: We saw Mr. William.
Visitamos á Francia[122]: We visited France.

[Footnote 121: With the exception of "Tener."]

[Footnote 122: But not geographical names preceded by the article, as:
Avistamos La Habana (we sighted Havana).]


Á is also generally used before any noun =indicating= a person,[123]
as--

Empleamos á este corresponsal: We employ this correspondent.

[Footnote 123: This part of the rule is not very strict, as we find it
sometimes omitted before persons, and at others used before names of
things, as: El hecho precedió á la palabra (the action preceded the
word).]


But _á_ should be avoided whenever it would engender confusion, or when
the verb governs an accusative and a dative at the same time, as--

Enviamos nuestro dependiente: We send our clerk.

Recomendamos el Sr. Pérez á nuestro fabricante: We recommend Mr. Pérez
to our manufacturer.

Á is also omitted when the noun following it does not refer to a
particular individual, but to =any= individual of a certain class, as--

Busco criado: I am looking for a servant.

Juan no quiere socios en su empresa: John does not want any partners in
his undertaking.


Verbs whose root ends in _ll_ or _ñ_ take =e= and =o= instead of _ie_
and _io_, as--

+------------------------------+-------------------------------+
|         =Bullir= (to boil).  |  =Gruñir= (to growl, grumble).|
+------------------------------+-------------------------------+
|_Pres. Part._, Bullendo       |Gruñendo                       |
|_Past Def._    Bulló, bulleron|Gruñó, gruñeron[124]           |
+------------------------------+-------------------------------+

[Footnote 124: The Imperf. and Fut. Subj. follow the Past Def.]

Verbs in whose conjugations _i_ should come =unstressed= between two
vowels change the unstressed _i_ into =y=, as--

+----------------------------------+
|        =Creer= (to believe).     |
+----------------------------------+
|_Pres. Part._, Creyendo.          |
|_Past Def._,   Creyó ... creyeron.|
+----------------------------------+

But the _Imperf. Indic._: creía, creías, creía, creíamos, creíais,
creían.

Verbs ending in _zar_ change the _z_ into =c= before =e= (because, with
very few exceptions, _z_ is not used in modern Spanish before _e_ or
_i_), as--

+---------------------------------------------------------+
|      =Gozar= (to enjoy).                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
|_Pres. Subj._, Goce, goces, goce, gocemos, gocéis, gocen.|
|_Past. Def._,  Gocé ...                                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------+


     VOCABULARY.

=abedul=, birch
=abeto=, fir
=adjunto=, herewith
=agradable=, agreeable, pleasant
=arpillera=, bagging
=asegurar=, to insure
=atribuir=, to attribute
=el billar=, billiards
=bola=, ball
=calzado=, footwear
=camas, armazones de cama=, bedsteads
=carne seca=, jerked beef
=chalecos=, vests
=consignación=, consignment
=correas=, belts, belting (machinery)
=corresponsal=, correspondent
=egoísta=, selfish
=encaminar=, to forward
=entrar en el dique=, to dock (ships)
=fresno=, ash
=garbanzos=, Spanish or chick peas
=á grande velocidad=, by passenger train
=guisantes=, green peas
=habas=, broad beans
=haya=, beech
=hortalizas=, green vegetables
=instruir=, to instruct
=judías=, French beans
=latón=, brass
=la leche=, the milk
=loza=, crockery
=á pequeña velocidad=, by slow train
=pino=, pine
=plomo=, lead
=porcelana=, china
=productos químicos=, chemicals
=roble, encina=, oak
=rotura=, breakage
=semestre=, half-year
=suprimir=, to suppress, to leave out
=tacos=, billiard-cues
=el viaje=, the journey
=zinc=, zinc


                            EXERCISE 1 (35).

Translate into English--

1. Estimamos en mucho á nuestros corresponsales y los servimos de la
mejor manera posible.

2. Comunica el capitán del vapor "Ríos" que el jueves, al medio día, se
hallaba á seiscientas millas de Veracruz, sin novedad (all well).

3. Hoy publica la Gaceta dos cuadros estadísticos (statistical tables)
formados por la Dirección general (Board) del Instituto Geográfico y
Estadístico, que expresan el movimiento de pasajeros por mar habido en
nuestro puerto durante el semestre pasado, y por los cuales se viene en
conocimiento (we can see) de la emigración é inmigración española.

4. Desde el día 1° de Enero próximo satisfará (will pay) el calzado
extranjero 10% más de derecho de importación.

5. Una comisión de Agricultores de Valencia visitó ayer tarde (yesterday
evening) al Presidente del Consejo (the Premier) para pedirle que se
suprima el impuesto sobre el transporte de hortalizas que establece la
nueva ley.

6. Tiñendo estas telas con anilina se aumenta el coste de seis céntimos
por metro.

7. Bulleron[125] la leche y la esterilizaron.

8. Gocemos de las libertades á que tenemos derecho pero no abusemos de
ellas.

9. Ellos creyeron lo que les dijimos (we said to them) y ya no nos
atribuyen intenciones egoístas.

10. El Sr. Moreno sale para un viaje de negocios y visitará á Santo
Domingo y la Habana.

11. He visto los Alpes y el Pirineo pero no el Himalaya.

12. He visitado á España.

[Footnote 125: "To boil" is generally _hervir_. Bullir is given as an
example of the conjugation.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (36).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Kindly see Mr. Marino and inform him that we shall soon send him a
consignment of timber, consisting of ash, beech, birch, fir, pine and
oak.

2. We shall instruct our correspondent at Bilbao to forward to Vitoria
the brass, lead, tin (estaño), and zinc he holds (tiene) at our
disposal.

3. By the boat (steamer) leaving (que sale) this week, we shall ship to
your consignment the bagging, belting, and bedsteads.

4. The "María" docked yesterday with a cargo of broad beans, French
beans, green peas, and Spanish or chick peas.

5. She also brings a parcel of jerked beef and canned tongues (lenguas
en latas).

6. I have a friend who is a dealer in billiard tables, balls and cues.

7. The candles and chemicals have been despatched last week.

8. We flatter ourselves that we shall shortly be able to write to each
other pleasanter letters.

9. We have insured the china and crockery free of particular average
(franco de), but we insured them against breakage at a (al) premium of
4%.

10. Herewith please find claim (reclamo) for loss through (por) damage
in your last shipment of clocks and watches.

11. Please send by slow train the coats, vests, and trousers and, by
passenger train, the remainder of the articles.



                              LESSON XIX.
                        (Lección décima nona.)

                          INTRANSITIVE VERBS.


Intransitive verbs express a state, as "to live," "to sleep," or an
action that does not go beyond the doer, as "to go," "to walk."

The Spanish language abounds in Intransitive Pronominal verbs, i.e.,
verbs conjugated, same as the reflexive verbs, with a double pronoun =of
the same person= all through, as--


=Quejarse= (to complain).

_Pres. Indic._, Yo me quejo, tú te quejas, él se queja, nosotros nos
quejamos, vosotros os quejáis, ellos se quejan.

_Fut. Indic._, Yo me quejaré, tú te quejarás, él se quejará, etc.

These, of course, must not be confused with the Reflexive verbs. In the
reflexive verb, we have an action that passes from the doer and falls on
the doer itself, as--

Yo me amo: I love myself.

Whilst in a neuter pronominal the action =does not go beyond the doer=.

=Intransitive Pronominal Verbs= are of three kinds--

1. Those which are always pronominal, as--

+----------------------------+------------------------------+
|Quejarse (to complain)      |Jactarse (to boast)           |
|Avergonzarse (to be ashamed)|Maravillarse[126] (to wonder) |
|Alegrarse[126] (to rejoice) |Proponerse[126] (to intend, to|
|Arrepentirse (to repent)    |  purpose)                    |
|Hacerse[126], volverse[126] |Desanimarse[126] (to feel     |
|  (to become)               |  discouraged)                |
+----------------------------+------------------------------+

[Footnote 126: Some of these verbs may be also Transitive verbs with a
modified meaning, as: Alegrar (to gladden), Maravillar (to surprise),
Proponer (to propose). Here the pronominal form marks the difference
between Transitive and Intransitive.]

2. A few which, when used pronominally, have their meaning intensified
or more or less modified, as--

+------------------------+----------------------------------+
|Ir (to go)              |Irse (to go away)                 |
|Reir (to laugh)         |Reírse (to laugh at = suggesting  |
|                        |  scorn)                          |
|Entender (to understand)|Entenderse de paños (to be a judge|
|                        |  of cloths)                      |
|Dormir (to sleep)       |Dormirse (to fall asleep)         |
|Correr (to run)         |Correrse (to  make  a slip of the |
|                        |  tongue).                        |
+------------------------+----------------------------------+

3. Many which may be used pronominally or otherwise without any
appreciable or definable modification of meaning, as--

Estar, estarse (to be)
Quedar, quedarse (to remain)
Casar (_con_), casarse (_con_), (to marry)
Pensar, pensarse (to think)
Yo pienso, _or_ me pienso que sí (I think so)
Me escapó de la memoria _or_ (it escaped my memory).
Se me escapó de la memoria (it escaped my memory).

In the case of this third kind, students should not indulge freely in
the pronominal form, but should wait until they see it in the reading
of good books, because, although the meaning is practically the same in
all cases, still there are "finesses" of shade which practice alone can
teach.


=Irregular Verbs=.

We shall give only those Primary Tenses which are irregular and the
Derivative Tenses when they are not formed regularly from the Primary
Tenses from which they are derived[127]--

[Footnote 127: For Primary and Derivative Tenses see Synopsis at the
end.]

+---------------+--------------------------------------------+
|               |    =Pensar= (to think).[128]               |
|_Pres. Indic._,|Pienso-as-a, pensamos, pensáis, piensan.    |
|_Pres. Subj._, |Piense-es-e, pensemos, penséis, piensen.    |
|_Imperative_,  |Piensa, pensad (_reg._).                    |
+---------------+--------------------------------------------+
|               |    =Acordar= (to agree).[128]              |
|_Pres. Indic._,|Acuerdo-as-a, acordamos, acordáis, acuerdan.|
|_Pres. Subj._, |Acuerde-es-e, acordemos, acordéis, acuerden.|
|_Imperative_,  |Acuerda, acordad (_reg._).                  |
+---------------+--------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 128: And its group; see Appendix VI.]


     VOCABULARY.

=agitarse=, to agitate (_n._)
=algo=, something, anything (_interrog._)
=amenaza=, threat
=anticipación=, anticipation
=anticipar=, to anticipate
=anticipo=, advance
=arduo=, arduous, difficult
=baja=, decline
=bajo cubierta=, underdeck
=botones=, buttons
=callar=, to be silent, to abstain from saying
=camaradas=, comrades
=cepillo=, brush
=cinta=, ribbon
=cortarse=, to cut oneself, to stop short
=damascos=, damasks
=definitivo=, definite
=descuidar=, to neglect
=ejecutar=, to execute
=encaje de cortinas=, curtain lace
=espantarse=, to be frightened
=estiva=, stowage
=*imponer=, to impose
=impuesto=, imposed
=lienzo adamascado=, diaper
=pasas=, raisins
=patronos=, masters, employers of workmen
=prisa=, haste, hurry
=*producir=, to produce
=produje=, I produced
=produjeron=, they produced
=razón= (=á razón de=), at the rate of
=reglamento=, regulations
=sobre cubierta=, on deck
=sobre estadías=, demurrage
=sobrecargarse=, to overload oneself
=tonelada=, ton
=*traer=, to bring, to carry
=traje=, I brought, I carried
=tranquilo=, quiet
=uvas=, grapes
=vista= (=á la=), at sight


                            EXERCISE 1 (37).

Translate into English--

1. Nuestros obreros se quejan del nuevo reglamento impuesto por los
Patronos.

2. No se avergüenzan de decir que se arrepienten de no haber declarado
la huelga hace quince días y se alegran que sus camaradas en Francia se
agitan por el día de trabajo de ocho horas.

3. Este problema se va haciendo cada día mas arduo.

4. Voy á escribir una carta y después me iré.

5. ¿Porqué ríe V.?

6. Se ríe de mí sin duda porque no me espanto por sus amenazas, pero yo
sé bien lo que me hago (what I do) y V. no sabe lo que se dice.

7. Este fabricante se entiende muy bien de paños.

8. Nunca he visto á un hombre activo dormirse en medio de su trabajo.

9. Quédese V. aquí, estése tranquilo y no piense á nada, su primo se
acuerda con V., me pienso verle esta tarde, y tal vez llegaremos á un
acuerdo común y definitivo.

10. No deseo que piense V. que descuido la ejecución de sus órdenes á la
mayor brevedad (as soon as possible).

11. Con la prisa me he corrido y he dicho algo que habría debido callar.

12. Después de haber principiado á hablar muy bien se cortó y no pudo
hallar palabras para continuar.


                            EXERCISE 2 (38).

Translate into Spanish--

1. You have anticipated my wishes.

2. A further (nueva) decline in prices is anticipated (se prevé).

3. We overloaded ourselves with stocks in anticipation (en la esperanza)
of large orders.

4. To pay in anticipation.

5. Thanking you in anticipation (anticipando las gracias, _or_
agradeciéndoles de antemano) we remain.

6. The news from the East (Levante) produced a bad effect on the market.

7. To this effect (con este fin) I wrote him to draw (que girase) at
sight.

8. Our efforts have all been to no effect (en balde).

9. His plans have been carried into effect (llevados á cabo).

10. The sailing vessel (velero) carried 800 tons of grapes and raisins,
600 under and 200 on deck.

11. She used 5 lay days in loading (la carga), having therefore 3 days
left (quedándole), so that (así que) we do not think we shall have to
pay demurrage.

12. The captain paid for stowage at the rate of 1s. per ton.

13. The advance on account (á cuenta) of freight is £120.

14. I wonder if everything will be in order? (¿Estará todo en orden?)

15. I send you several patterns of curtain-lace, damasks, diapers,
ribbons, buttons, and brushes.



                              LESSON XX.
                         (Lección vigésima.)

                          IMPERSONAL VERBS.


Impersonal verbs are those which are only conjugated in the 3rd pers.
sing, of all the tenses.[129]

[Footnote 129: They are so called because they have no person or thing
as their subject.]

The principal =Impersonal Verbs= are--

Llover-llueve (to rain, it rains)
Granizar (to hail)
Helar-hiela (to freeze, it freezes)
Lloviznar (to drizzle)
Nevar-nieva (to snow, it snows)
Relampaguear (to lighten)
Tronar-truena (to thunder, it thunders)
Alborear (to dawn)
Amanecer (to dawn)
Anochecer (to grow dark)

The subject (generally understood) of Impersonal verbs is _ello_.
Sometimes we find the words _Dios_ or _el día_ expressed as subjects,
as--

Amanecerá Dios y veremos: Let us wait for the morning and then we shall
see.

Amaneció el día: The day dawned.

_Amanecer_ and _anochecer_ may be used as personal verbs, as--

Amanecimos en Madrid y anochecimos en Guadalajara: We were in Madrid at
daybreak and at nightfall in Guadalajara.

Tú anocheciste bueno y amaneciste malo: You passed the night well, but
you had a bad morning.

Many ordinary verbs are used sometimes impersonally, as--


Bastar (to suffice).
Convenir (to suit).
Parecer (to appear).
Faltar[130] (to be wanting).
Hacer falta (to be wanted).
Suceder[131] (to happen).

[Footnote 130: As a personal verb, it means also "to fail."]

[Footnote 131: As a personal verb, it means also "to succeed."]


EXAMPLES--

Basta ganar la vida: It is enough to earn a living.

No conviene explotar esta mina: It does not pay to exploit this mine.

No parece justo que se aprovechen de este modo: It does not seem right
that they should take advantage in this way.

Falta hacer algunos arreglos: Some arrangements are still wanting.

Sucedió que se declaró en quiebra: It happened that he filed his
petition in bankruptcy.


In the sentences:

Me bastan diez libras: £10 are enough for me.
Me parecen justas sus razones: His reasons seem to me to be right.
Le sucedieron muchas desgracias: Many misfortunes happened to him.

the verb is =personal=, and this accounts for its being in the plural.
In "me bastan diez libras," "diez libras" is the subject.

The verb is impersonal when referring to a whole statement, as--

(Ello) es necesario: It is necessary.

Of _Haber_ and _Hacer_ as impersonal verbs, we have treated in Lesson
VIII and Lesson XVI.

We add here that _Hacer_ is used impersonally before certain nouns to
denote the state of the weather or of the temperature, as--

Hace calor, frío, lluvia, viento, sol, etc.: It is warm, cold, rainy,
windy, sunny, etc.

_Valer_ used impersonally = "to be better," as--

Más vale así: It is better so.

Expressions like "¿Qué se dirá?" or "¿qué dirán?" (What will people
say?) may also be called impersonal uses of the verb.


+--------------------+----------------------------------------+
|             =Irregular Verbs= (_contd._).                   |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------+
|              =Andar= (to walk, to go).                      |
|_Past Def._,   |  Anduve,-iste,-uvo,-uvimos-uvisteis-uvieron.|
+--------------------+----------------------------------------+
|              =Dar= (to give).                               |
|_Pres. Indic._,|  Doy,[132] das, da, damos, dais, dan.       |
|_Pres. Subj._, |  Dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den.             |
|_Past Def._,   |  Dí, diste, dió, dimos, disteis, dieron.    |
+--------------------+----------------------------------------+

[Footnote 132: Only 6 verbs in Spanish do not end in _o_ in the 1st pers.
sing., pres. indic., viz., Doy (I give), Soy (I am), Estoy (I am), Voy
(I see), He (I have), Sé (I know).]


     VOCABULARY.

=algo=, somewhat
=asunto=, matter
=calor=, heat
=carranclanes, guingas=, ginghams
=cerrar el trato=, to conclude the bargain
=cheques=, cheques
=circular=, to circulate, to go round
=cobrar=, to collect (money)
=comprometer=, to compromise
=costa=, coast
=cuesta=, slope
=cuidar=, to take care
=cuidarse=, to take care of oneself
=decididamente=, decidedly
=decidir=, to decide
=después=, afterwards
=drogas=, drysalteries
=durante=, during
=faltar, hacer falta=, to be wanting, to be wanted
=el fin=, the end
=fustanes=, fustians
=gasa=, gauze
=gastos=, expenditure
=ingresos netos=, net revenue
=jamón=, ham
=letras=, bills of exchange
=maíz=, maize
=malbaratar=, to undersell
=mantas con franjas=, fringed blankets
=mercería=, haberdashery
=paseo=, promenade, walk, stroll
=puerto=, port, harbour
=recursos=, means
=*reducir=, to reduce
=reduje=, etc., I reduced, etc.
=reduzco, reduces=, etc., I reduce, etc.
=*seguir=, to follow, to continue
=sigo, sigues=, etc., I follow, etc.
=el temporal=, the storm
=*valer más=, to be preferable
=vencer=, to fall due
=vidriado=, glassware


                            EXERCISE 1 (39).

Translate into English--

1. Amaneció el día hermoso pero algo frío.

2. Hizo más calor después y por la tarde hizo _or_ sopló (blew) viento
fuerte.

3. Anocheció cuando aun no habíamos llegado, pero como hacía luna el
paseo siguió siendo (continued to be) agradable.

4. Ayer llovió, granizó, nevó y lloviznó sucesivamente todo el santo día
(the livelong day).

5. Me parece que no le conviene de cerrar el trato con el banco bajo
estas condiciones.

6. Me hace falta dinero pues es menester (it is necessary)
proporcionarme (to get) el importe que me falta para completar las
£1,000 que vencen el 15 del corriente.

7. Más vale aceptar las condiciones del banco que tener que malbaratar
los géneros.

8. Ande V. con cuidado (be careful) no sea (lest) que vaya V. á
comprometer su crédito.

9. Reina por estas costas muy violento temporal á cuya consecuencia ha
resultado el vapor "Juan" con el árbol de la hélice (shaft of the screw)
roto, por lo cual hubo de ser traído á remolque á (to be towed into)
este puerto.

10. El "Juan" navegaba con rumbo á (was bound for) Cádiz.

11. Los modernos medios de fabricación de que disponemos, el
abaratamiento (cheapening) de la mano de obra (labour) y las
facilitaciones de que disfrutamos (we enjoy) merced á (thanks to)
nuestros cuantiosos (abundant) recursos, nos permiten, ahora más que
nunca, realizar nuestras ventas en condiciones que no cabe competencia
posible (which preclude ...).

12. Hemos asegurado buenas partidas de fustanes, mantas con franjas,
gasas, y carranclanes.


                            EXERCISE 2 (40).

Translate into Spanish--

1. San Paulo (Brazilian) Railway.--The net revenue for the half-year
from the main line (línea principal) amounted to £607,297 as against
(contra) £743,077 in 1909.

2. The expenditure in England and the Interest on Stores (sobre los
depósitos) reduce the amount to £594,714.

3. The Stock Exchange (la Bolsa) will be closed from this evening (esta
tarde) until next Monday morning.

4. The turnover (giro) of the day's transactions has been small.

5. Sentiment turned somewhat bearish (hubo disposición á la baja)
during the forenoon (la mañana), but became (se volvió) decidedly
bullish (á la alza) towards the end of the day.

6. The following figures show the amount of bills and cheques which
passed through the banker's clearing-house (por el banco de liquidación)
during the week ended April 12th (que acabó el 12 de abril).

7. We must not attach (atribuir) too much importance to the rumours (los
rumores, las especies) which are circulating in the market.

8. You should take care that the bales are properly (bien) packed.

9. I was ignorant of the fact that (no sabía que) he had been declared a
bankrupt.

10. I shall do all that depends on me (de mí dependa) to collect the
money in full (por entero).

11. As far as we are concerned (en cuanto á nosotros), we have decided
not to take (dar) any steps in the matter.

12. We do not wish to throw good money after bad (echar la soga tras el
caldero).[133]

13. We shall invoice by next mail your glassware and haberdashery.

14. Ham is a drug in the market (no tiene salida).

15. A good business is done at present in drysalteries.

16. A good crop of maize is announced from Cape Town (desde el Cabo).

[Footnote 133: Lit.: to throw the rope after the pail.]



                              LESSON XXI.
                     (Lección vigésima primera.)

                   DEFECTIVE AND PRONOMINAL VERBS.


=Defective Verbs= are those only certain parts of which are in use, the
rest having never existed in the language or having died out of it.

The principal ones are--

_Soler_. "To be wont," "to be accustomed to." Used in the pres. indic.,
Suelo, sueles, suele, solemos, soleis, suelen; in the imperf. indic.,
Solía, solías, etc.; and in the pres. perf., He solido, has solido,
etc., as--

En su juventud solía trabajar con ahinco--ahora ya ha aflojado un poco:
When he was young he used to work with fervour, now he begins to flag a
little.

_Yacer_. "To lie"; generally on tombstones, as: Aquí yace: Here lies.

(In poetry, but seldom in prose, it is found conjugated throughout.)

_Salve_ and _Vale_ used in the Imperative for "Hail!" and "Farewell!"

_Placer_ (to please). Generally used in "Plegue á Dios" (may it please
God) and "Pluguiera (pluguiese) á Dios" (might it please God).

It is still used also in the 3rd pers. of Pres. Indic., Imperf. Indic,
and Past Def. (the Past Def. is "Plugo").


EXAMPLES--

Mucho me place: It pleases me much.

Plegue á Dios que no se declare la huelga: May it please God that a
strike is not declared.

_Abolir_ (to abolish) is irregular like "mover" (viz., changes _o_ into
_ue_ when stressed). Its irregular parts are however never used, and are
substituted by giving a different turn to the sentence, as--

Digo que =se debe abolir= _instead of_ =se abuela=: I say that it must
be abolished.

_Atañer_ (to bear upon) is only used in the 3rd pers., as--

Lo que atañe al asunto: What bears on the subject.

Las noticias que atañen a nuestro proyecto: The news that bears on our
scheme.

_Concerner_ (to concern) is only used in the pres.
participle--concerniendo (concerning) and in the 3rd persons, as:
concierne (it concerns), etc.

=Pronominal Verbs= are verbs conjugated throughout with a double pronoun
of the same person, as--

_Amarse_--Yo me amo, tú te amas, el se ama, nosotros nos amamos,
vosotros os amais, ellos se aman.

These are--

1. Reflexive Verbs (when the action falls back on the subject. See
Lesson XVIII), as--Yo me amo: I love myself.

N.B.--The second pronoun must be direct object. If the second pronoun
is indirect object, the verb is called Transitive Pronominal, as--

Procurarse una clientela: To get a _clientèle_ (a connection).

2. Intransitive Pronominal Verbs (see Lesson XIX).

3. Intransitive Verbs made Pronominal from verbs ordinarily transitive
(see Lesson XIX), as--

Hacerse, Volverse: To become.

La competencia se ha hecho imposible: Competition has become impossible.

4. The 3rd pers. pronominal forms the Passive Voice, same as the verb
_ser_, as--

La sabiduría se alaba _or_ es alabada: Wisdom is praised.

N.B.--If the doer is expressed after using _ser_ it may be preceded by
_de_ or _por_, as--

La sabiduría es alabada de _or_ por todos[134]: Wisdom is praised by
all.

[Footnote 134: When the verb does not mean a physical action _de_ is
preferable.]

If it is expressed after using _se_, =Por= must be used, as--

La sabiduría se alaba por todos: Wisdom is praised by all. (Grammar of
the Academy.)

Pronominal Verbs are used in Spanish very frequently in conjunction with
the article to avoid the use of the possessive adjective before parts of
the body, or articles of dress,[135] as--

Me he quebrado la pierna: I broke my leg.

Se ha dañado los ojos, _or_ la vista: He has damaged his eyes or
eyesight.


[Footnote 135: The article is most generally substituted for the
possessive pronoun referring to parts of the body or articles of dress,
whenever this can be done _without producing ambiguity_, as--

     Me dió la mano: He gave me his hand.
     Tiene los ojos azules: His eyes are blue.
     Le cogí el brazo: I caught his arm.
     Me duele la cabeza: My head aches.
     Me lastiman las botas: My boots hurt me.]


=Irregular Verbs= (_contd._).

+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|               =Entender=[136] (to understand).                  |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|_Pres. Indic._,| Entiendo-es-e, entendemos, entendéis, entienden.|
|_Pres. Subj._, | Entienda-as-a, entendamos, entendáis, entiendan.|
|_Imper. Mood_, | Entiende, entended (_reg._).                    |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 136: And its group (see Appendix IV)]

+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                  Mover[137] (to move).              |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
|_Pres. Indic._,| Muevo-es-e, movemos, movéis, mueven.|
|_Pres. Subj._, |Mueva-as-a, movamos, mováis, muevan. |
|_Imper. Mood_, |Mueve, moved (_reg._).               |
+-----------------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 137: And its group (see Appendix IV)]


     VOCABULARY.

=acusar recibo=, to acknowledge receipt
=ascensor=, lift, hoist
=bien estar=, well being
=colección=, collection, set of samples
=confiar á=, to entrust
=confiar en=, to trust in
=corresponder á las necesidades=, to meet the requirements
=corriente, el que rige=, inst.
=cucharas=, spoons
=cuchillo=, knife
=cueros=, hides
=*deshacerse=, to get rid of
=deshecho=, got rid of
=distrito=, district
=empacar=, to pack
=empaqué, etc=., I packed, etc.
=*establecerse=, to establish oneself
=me establezco, etc=., I establish myself, etc.
=fantasías=, fancies
=herramientas=, tools
=manga=, sleeve
=*manifestar=, to inform, to say by letter
=manifiesto, etc=., I inform, etc.
=moeres=, mohair
=nanquines=, nankeens
=pieles=, skins
=planchas de hierro=, sheet iron
=principio=, beginning
=telas para trajes= (=de Señora=), dress goods
=tenedores=, forks
=*torcer=, to twist
=tuerzo, etc=., I twist, etc.
=vale=, farewell, adieu
=viajante=, traveller (commercial)
=viajar=, to travel
=vivamente=, earnestly, vividly


                            EXERCISE 1 (41).

Translate into English--

1. Sin ningunas de sus gratas á que referirnos dirigimos á Vs. la
presente para manifestarles que estando muy á corto (short) de fondos
nos hemos visto precisados (we have been obliged) á girar á su cargo (on
you) por el saldo de nuestra factura de Planchas de Hierro y
Herramientas.

2. ¡Plegue á Dios que nuestros buenos deseos tengan pleno cumplimiento
(may be fully realised)!

3. ¿Quiere V. encargarse (take charge) de ese asunto?

4. Mucho me place (with much pleasure).

5. Se dice que pronto se abolirá esta ley.

6. Tendré mucho gusto que sea abolida (_not_ se abuela).

7. Todo lo que atañe al desarrollo de la agricultura ó que concierne el
bien estar general del país me interesa vivamente.

8. La honradez (honesty) es alabada de (_or_ por) todos pero nunca se
alaba tanto como por los de manga ancha (those who themselves are not
over-scrupulous).

9. El comerciante después de haberse muy bien establecido se consumió el
capital en especulaciones bursátiles.

10. Nos hemos deshecho de los cuchillos, tenedores y cucharas sin tanta
pérdida como temíamos.

11. El cajero bajando en el ascensor se ha torcido el pie y se está en
casa guardando cama (in bed).

12. ¿Entiende V. las razones porque ha de subir el cambio?

13. Para que las entienda debo leer la revista de la Bolsa (Exchange
Review).

14. Entienda V. que esto no ha de hacerse otra vez. ¡Entendido!


                            EXERCISE 2 (42).

Translate into Spanish--

1. With reference to your esteemed order of 1st inst. for skins and
hides, we understand exactly what you want, but we much regret to say
that we are unable to get in (obtenerlos) at your limit.

2. We acknowledge receipt of your favour (apreciable) of the 1st inst.
with note of purchase we are to make on (de _or_ por) your account, and
we shall report thereon (contestaremos, relataremos) by our next.

3. We have picked up (escogido) a few suitable clearing lines (saldos),
which are awaiting shipment (se embarcarán) by next steamer.

4. Stripes and checks.--Owing to a breakdown in the works these will not
be ready for (antes de) another fortnight.

5. The goods were packed according to (de conformidad con) your
instructions, but we take no responsibility for sending them (haberlos
mandado) in bales instead of cases as usual (como de costumbre).

6. We hand (pasamos) you enclosed the invoice amounting to (importando
en, ascendiendo a) £155 6s. 7d. to the debit of your account, value
(valor al) 15th inst.

7. We can assure you that any (cualesquiera) orders entrusted to our
care (que se nos confíen) will receive careful attention.

8. Our traveller will be in your district by the beginning of September,
and he will have much pleasure in waiting upon you (en visitarles) with
our full (completa) collection of dress goods and fancies.

9. We hasten to offer you a lot of cheap mohairs and nankeens and hope
they will meet your requirements.

          Hoping to receive a favourable reply,
                            Yours faithfully,
                                          SMITH AND Co.

    Prices are (van _or_ están) marked on (en) the samples.
                                      S. & Co. (Vale).[138]

[Footnote 138: Used instead of initialling a postscriptum.]



                              LESSON XXII.
                     (Lección vigésima segunda.)

                               THE MOODS.


Mood is that form or modification of the Verb which marks the mode in
which an action is viewed or stated.


There are =5= moods in Spanish: one the Infinitive and =4= Finite, viz.,
the Indicative, Conditional, Subjunctive, and Imperative.


The =Infinitive Mood= (Modo Infinitivo) represents the action or state
of being without any reference to time or person. The present and past
participles are parts of the Infinitive Mood.

The Infinitive Mood may be used in the capacity of a noun either as
Subject or Object of the sentence. It is then generally (but not
necessarily) accompanied by the def. article, as--

El leer es útil: To read is useful.
Me es necesario el leer: It is necessary for me to read.

The form of the Pres. Part. used in this capacity in English is
inadmissible in Spanish, e.g., we could never say "leyendo" for "el
leer" (or "la lectura").

The Infinitive Mood preceded by _á_ may have a passive meaning, as--

Una consignación á hacer _or also_ á hacerse (á ser hecha): A shipment
to be made.

The Infinitive Mood preceded by _á_ may be used instead of the Finite
Mood introduced by "if," as--

Á saber yo que V. era accionista de aquella compañía, le habría
comunicado luego aquella relación: If I had known (or had I known) that
you were a shareholder in that society, I would have sent you at once
that report.
The =Present Participle= after "to be" is used in both languages to form
the continuous or progressive tenses; in Spanish this happens much less
frequently than in English, and only with verbs whose action implies
=duration of time= and besides when it is spoken of as =actually in
progress=. This form is never possible with the verb "to go," and is
very rarely found with "to come," as--

Miro aquellas Mantas y Terlices que me gustan: I am looking at those
Blankets and Tickings which I like.

Grita: He is shouting.

Nos escribe continuamente: He is continually writing us.

Hoy como con el arquitecto: To-day I am dining with the architect.

Estoy haciendo mi correspondencia, no puedo dejar el despacho: I am
writing my correspondence, I cannot leave the office.

A =Preposition= before a Pres. Part. is either translated by a
preposition followed by the Infinitive Mood or by the Pres. Part.
without a Preposition, as--

Al ir _(or _yendo) á la Bolsa; On going to the Exchange.

EXCEPTION--

After _en_ we find the Pres. Part. used with the following meaning--e.g.

En acabando saldré: As soon as I have finished, I shall go out.

"I, acting as trustee," is translated "Yo, procediendo como síndico";
but "I wrote to the party acting as umpire" would be "Escribí á la
persona que funcionaba (_not_ funcionando) de árbitro."

After "Intentar,"[139] "Ver," "Oir," "Sentir," and "Simular" the
Infinitive only can be used in Spanish, as--

[Footnote 139: Or verbs of similar meaning.

     Intento (_or_ pienso) hipotecar la casa: I intend mortgaging the
     house.
     Le veo pasar: I see him passing.
     "My coming," "my going," etc., are translated: "El venir _or_ el
     haber venido yo," etc.]

The Past Part. may be used in an absolute manner, as--

Entregada la carta se fué: The letter (being) delivered, he went.

Sellados los sobres, los echó al correo: Having sealed the envelopes he
posted them.


     VOCABULARY.

=abogado=, lawyer, barrister
=bombas de aire=, air pumps
=*contribuir=, to contribute
=contribuyo, etc=., I contribute
=convenio=, agreement
=desperdiciar=, to waste
=diseño=, design
=embajador=, ambassador
=empeños=, obligations, engagements
=estación, temporada=, season
=Estados Unidos=, United States
=excelentemente=, excellently
=forma=, shape
=forros=, linings
=gorras=, caps
=*hacer frente=, to face, to meet (bills, etc.)
=honrar=, to honour
=locomotora=, locomotive
=malgastar=, to waste, to squander
=Navidad=, Christmas
=necesitar, desear=, to require
=paso= step
=*poner en conocimiento=, to inform
=ponerse de acuerdo=, to agree
=pormenores=, particulars
=presupuesto=, estimate
=proyectar=, to project, to plan
=representar=, to represent, to act for
=rizo del ala=, curl of the brim (of a hat)
=secretario=, secretary
=senado=, senate
=someter=, to submit
=supondré, etc=., I shall suppose, etc.
=*suponer=, to suppose
=supongo, etc=., I suppose, etc.
=supuse, etc=., I supposed, etc.
=tarea=, task
=tratado de arbitraje=, arbitration treaty
=varar=, to ground (a ship)
=variedad=, variety
=vendré, etc=., I shall come, etc.
=vengo, vienes, etc=., I come, etc.
=*venir=, to come
=vine, etc=., I came, etc.


                            EXERCISE 1 (43).

Translate into English--

1. El escribir concisa y claramente contribuye al buen éxito (success)
de una casa comercial.

2. Quedan muchos pasos á dar.

3. Á suponer yo que no honrara sus aceptaciones no le habría concedido
el crédito.

4. ¿Qué hace V.?

5. Estoy escribiendo un presupuesto para una locomotora y cuatro bombas
de aire que se piden para Chile; en acabando mi tarea saldré (I shall
come out) con V.

6. Debemos escribir al abogado que representa al Sr. Fulano para ponerle
en conocimiento de los pormenores que puedan interesarle.

7. Sí, Señor, pensaba hacerlo mañana.

8. Siento tener que informar á V. que he encontrado al Sr. Smith y le he
oído decir que no puede hacer frente á sus empeños.

9. Ejecutada esta primera orden, y pagada que sea (once paid) le
manifestaré claramente que no me conviene continuar bajo estas
condiciones.

10. Se asegura que el secretario del departamento de Estado y el
embajador de Inglaterra se han puesto de acuerdo, hace poco, sobre los
principales puntos del tratado de arbitraje proyectado por el Presidente
de los Estados Unidos.

11. Se supone que dicho (said) convenio será sometido al senado antes de
Navidad.

12. Se han recibido noticias de haber naufragado (shipwrecked) un buque
en la costa de Marruecos (Morocco) y de haber varado otro en Almería.


                            EXERCISE 2 (44).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I do not consider (no creo que) I have been fairly (equitativamente
_or_ bien) treated.

2. Silk and Cotton Linings.--We note (nos enteramos de) your complaints
but you know they were bought as job lots (imperfectos) and in buying
such lots, one has to put up with (conformarse con) some
imperfections (defectos, imperfecciones).

3. The hats and caps have turned out (salido) excellently.

4. The former (aquéllos) are exactly of the shape and curl you require
and the latter (éstas) include (abarcan) a large variety of designs.

5. They will reach you (le llegarán) in plenty of time (con bastante
anticipación) for the coming (entrante) season.

6. Please report (hacer sus comentos) on samples as soon as received
(luego que las reciban).

7. Reading good papers is necessary to keep oneself posted up
(mantenerse al corriente), but reading the sensational news (noticias
sensacionales) of a certain press (prensa) is wasting one's time.

8. Are you going to Spain this year?

9. I do not think so, my correspondent is coming to England.

10. We shall write to the gentleman acting as secretary to send us (que
nos envíe) a copy of the report.

11. Did you hear him saying that?

12. I regret having to inform you that once I have paid what I owe (to
owe = deber), I shall not continue my transactions with your firm.



                              LESSON XXIII.
                     (Lección vigésima tercera.)

                        THE MOODS (_contd._).


The =Indicative Mood= (Modo Indicativo) is that form of the verb that
expresses the action in a =positive manner=, as a =fact=.

The =Conditional Mood= (Modo Condicional)[140] affirms like the
Indicative Mood in a positive manner, =but subject to a condition=.

The =Imperative Mood= is used to command or to beg. This mood has only
one tense and one distinct form of person: the second, as--

Habla tú: Speak thou.
Hablad vosotros:  Speak ye _or_ you.

The 1st pers. sing, does not occur and the other persons are taken from
the Present Subjunctive.[141]

In the 3rd person (and sometimes even the 1st plural) the pres. subj.
may take the place of the Imperative used affirmatively. This becomes
apparent by the use of _Que_, which precedes the Subjunctive and when an
object pronoun occurs in the sentence, as--

Escríbalo él _or_ Que lo escriba él: Let him write it.

There is no Imperative Mood negative in Spanish.[142]

[Footnote 140: English form: (auxiliary) should + verb for 1st persons;
(auxiliary) would + verb for 2nd and 3rd persons.]

[Footnote 141: With only one exception--
     =Ir= (to go). 1st pers. pl., Pres. Subj.--Vayamos. 1st pers. pl.,
     Imperative--Vayamos _or_ vamos (more used).]

[Footnote 142: It is borrowed entirely from the Pres. Subjunctive, as:
No hables, no hable, no hablemos, no habléis, no hablen. The difference
is of course, only apparent in the 2nd person.]


=The Subjunctive Mood=.

This mood offers some difficulty to English students; this arises from
the fact that in English this mode of viewing the action of the verb is
often rendered by the indicative mood or by the semi-auxiliary verbs
"may," "might," "should," "would."

=Note=.--The Spanish rule on the Subjunctive mood must be therefore
applied irrespective of the English construction.

GENERAL RULE.

The Subjunctive Mood can only be used in dependent clauses, as--

Yo quiero que él venga: I wish him to come.
Yo quiero que él vaya: I wish him to go.

And then, only when, by reason of what precedes in the Principal Clause,
the action of the Subordinate verb is not expressed in a positive manner
(i.e., as a fact) but as merely contingent (i.e., only conceived in the
mind), as--

Yo declare que él vino (_or_ vendría): I say that he came
  _or_ that he would come.
Yo espero que él venga: I hope that he may come.
Yo esperaba que él viniese: I hoped that he might, _or_
  would come.

SPECIAL RULES.

I. A verb in a dependent clause is placed (generally) in the Subjunctive
Mood after verbs expressing an action, or emotion of the mind, when the
subjects of the principal and of the subordinate verbs are different.

EXAMPLES of principal verbs which govern the following verb in the
Subjunctive Mood--

aconsejar (to advise)
alegrarse de que (to be glad that)
avergonzarse de que (to be ashamed that)
conceder (to grant)
conseguir (to obtain)
desear (to desire)
esperar (to hope)
evitar (to avoid)
impedir (to hinder)
mandar (to order)
querer (to wish)
rogar (to ask, to beg)
sentir (to regret)
temer (to fear)
confiar en que (to trust)

N.B.--(_a_) If the 2nd verb should have the same subject, use the
Infinitive Mood, as--

Deseo que venga:  I wish him to come.
Deseo venir: I wish to come.

(_b_) After verbs expressing joy, shame, sorrow, or fear, the Indicative
may be used instead of the Subjunctive.

(_c_) After "mandar" (to order) the subordinate verb is often in the
Infinitive instead of the Subjunctive, as--

Mándele V. que lo haga: Order him to do it.
Mándeselo V. hacer: Order him to do it.


     VOCABULARY.

=agradar, favorecer=, to oblige
=almacenero, dependiente de almacén=, warehouseman
=celebrar=, to be glad of
=colorido=, colouring
=*complacer=, to oblige
=complazco, etc=., I oblige, etc.
=(el) cortapluma=, penknife
=cortésmente=, politely
=coste flete y seguro=, cost, freight and insurance
=*dar las gracias=, to hank
=demora=, delay
=*demostrar confianza=, to show confidence
=deplorar=, to deplore
=dictados=, dictates
=en seguida=, at once
=franco de avería particular=, free of particular average
=*hacer una remesa=, to send a remittance
=intereses=, interests
=justificarse=, to justify oneself
=mucho=, much, exceedingly, greatly
=navajas de afeitar=, razors
=obrar=, to act
=patines=, skates
=primer dependiente=, chief clerk
=propio=, own
=*rogar=, to beg, to request
=ruego, etc=., I beg, etc.
=sin novedad=, safe and sound
=tela para pantalones=, trousering
=tijeras=, scissors


                            EXERCISE 1 (45).

Translate into English--

1. En nuestra anterior les rogámos[143] nos enviasen una muestra de las
telas de nuestros competidores.

2. Celebraremos mucho que encuentren ventaja en el cambio de vía (route)
que hemos adoptado para sus envíos.

3. Siento haber hecho este error y siento también que mi primer
dependiente no me lo haya hecho observar.

4. Me avergüenzo que por culpa de un dependiente de almacén negligente
haya recibido V. un género por otro (the wrong goods).

5. Nunca me avergüenzo de hablar á las claras (openly, clearly).

6. No podemos ni deberíamos querer impedir á los otros que piensen como
quieran; lo que sí debemos hacer es aconsejar á todos que obren según
los dictados de su propia conciencia.

7. Lo que me esté bien (is my duty) hacer lo haré.

8. Espero me mande pronto los coloridos para las telas para pantalones.

9. Deploro que él quiera justificarse con argumentos que se quiebran de
sutiles (which do not stand the light of day).

10. Explícate para que te entienda.

11. No te justifiques con malas razones (by quibbling).

12. Explíqueme V. de que se trata (what it is about).

13. No le explique V. más de lo necesario.

[Footnote 143: The 1st pers. plural Past Definite of the 1st Conjugation
may take an accent to distinguish it from the Present Indicative.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (46).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We should like to do more business with your firm.

2. You would greatly oblige (us) by sending us a remittance.

3. He would do well to write it to them.

4. Let him write at once.

5. We hope you may arrive safe and sound, and we advise you to take care
of yourself.

6. From what we can gather (por lo que tenemos entendido) the firm is
doing a successful (buenos) business.

7. We trust this information will be of service (de utilidad) to you.

8. The documents appear to be in order and we hope there will be no
difficulty.

9. We are glad the goods have arrived before the time stipulated
(estipulado).

10. We do not want you to lose any money; on the contrary, we wish you
to realise a substantial (buena) profit.

11. Tell the clerk to write more politely.

12. Order them to do it quickly.

13. I may come (es posible que venga) to-morrow.

14. We notice (observamos) that the Razors, Scissors, Penknives and
Skates are ready to be shipped, and trust (confiamos) that, as announced
(nos anunciaron Vs.), they will come to hand (llegaran á manos) without
delay.

15. We thank you for the confidence you have shown in us which we hope
to justify and you may be sure that we shall do our best for (por) your
interests.

16. I request you kindly to insure the cargo against total loss or
f.p.a.[144]

17. Sell at 21s. c.i.f.[145]

[Footnote 144: Free of particular average.]

[Footnote 145: Cost, insurance, freight.]



                              LESSON XXIV.
                      (Lección vigésima cuarta.)

                   THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD (_contd._).


II. The Subjunctive Mood is used after Impersonal verbs, as

Es menester que lo haga: It is needful that he does it.
Es necesario que lo haga: It is necessary that he does it.


EXCEPTIONS--

1. When the Impersonal Verb expresses certainty, as--

Es cierto que lo hará: It is certain that he will do it.

2. When the dependent verb has not its own subject, both the following
constructions are correct--

Es necesario hacerlo: It must be done
Es necesario que se haga: It must be done

III. The Subjunctive Mood is used after the following locations---

Antes que (before)
En caso que (in case)
De miedo que (lest)
Por más que (however much, although)
Sin que (without)
Para que (so that)
Á menos que (unless)
Salvo que (except that)
Con tal que (provided that)
Sea que (whether ... or)
Aunque (even if)


IV. The Subjunctive Mood is generally used after the following
locations, when the action refers to future time, but the Indicative is
used when the action refers to the past or present--

Después que (after)
Aunque (although)
De modo que (so that)
No obstante que (notwithstanding)
Cuandoquiera que (whenever)
Hasta que (until)
Luego que (as soon as)
Quienquiera que (whoever)
Comoquiera que (however)
Cualquiera que (whichever, whoever)
Dondequiera que (wherever)
El 1°, 2°, 3°, etc., que (the 1st 2nd 3rd, etc., that)
El único que (the only one that)
El solo que (the only one that)
El último que (the last that)
Nada que (nothng that)
Ninguo, nadie que (no one that)
El mejor (or any other superlative) que (the best etc., that)


E.g.--

Escribió de modo que su padre quedó contento: He wrote so that his
father remained content.

Escriba V. de modo que su padre quede contento: Write so that your
father may remain content.

Le pagué aunque no hizo su trabajo: I paid him, although he did not do
his work.

No le pagaré aunque haga su trabajo: I shall not pay him although he may
do his work.


The above rules have liberties and exceptions to be learnt by practice,
generally turning on whether the action is intended to be alluded to =as
a fact= or as =a mere conception=.


V. The Subjunctive Mood is used after _cuando, así como, luego que_ and
similar expressions when the action of the verb refers =to the future=,
as--

Lo haré cuando tenga tiempo: I shall do it when I have time.

N.B.--The Future Subjunctive is often used in this case.


VI. The Subjunctive Mood is used after _si_ (conditional _if_) when the
context requires the following verb in the past form, as--

Lo haría si tuviese (tuviera) dinero: I should do it if I had money.

N.B.--If the context requires the verb in the present form, the
Indicative Present must be used, as--

Lo hago si tengo tiempo: I do it if I have time.

Lo haré si tengo tiempo: I shall do it if I have time.

When, as in the latter example a future time is indicated, the Future
Subjunctive may be used instead of the Pres. Indicative, as--

Lo haré si tuviere tiempo: I shall do it if (ever) I have time.


VII. After _como_ the Subjunctive Mood is used idiomatically but not
necessarily, as--

Como le vió le habló: As soon as he saw him he spoke to him.

Como le viese le habló: On seeing him he spoke to him.


VIII. After _creer, pensar, opinar,_ and similar verbs, the following
verb is generally in the Indicative; but after _no creer,_ etc., the
verb is in the Subjunctive mood. After _creer,_ etc., used
interrogatively, the verb may be Indicative or Subjunctive.


     VOCABULARY.

=abacá=, Manilla hemp
=calcetines=, half-hose, socks
=cáñamo=, hemp
=cancelar=, to cancel
=coger=, to catch
*=conseguir=, to succeed in
=contado (al)=, (in) cash
=dificultad=, difficulty
=un dineral=, a mint of money
=encogerse=, to shrink
=equivocarse=, to be mistaken
=la gente=, the people
=mecanismo=, mechanism, contrivance
=medias=, stockings, hose
=ocurrir=, to happen
=perfeccionar=, to perfect
=persona=, person
=por mas que=, however much, whatever
*=probar=, to prove, to attempt, to try
=pruebo, etc=., I try, etc.
*=reconvenir=, to reprimand
=repasar=, to look over
*=saber=, to know
=se, sabes, sabe, etc=., I know, etc.
=sepa, sepas, sepa, etc=., I may know,
*=ser menester=, to be necessary
=telefonear=, to telephone
=trabajo=, work
=yute=, jute


                             EXERCISE 1 (47).

Translate into English--

1. Es conveniente (proper) y aun absolutamente necesario que se acabe
esta cuestión.

2. Es cierto que se acabará.

3. Es posible que suba el mercado; tal vez suba más de lo que se crea.

4. Es el único cliente que no haya pagado su factura.

5. Es menester pues escribirle y apremiarle para que cumpla con su deber
(to fulfil his duty).

6. Antes que escriba V., repase sus libros para que no haya miedo de que
haya ocurrido alguna equivocación (mistake).

7. Á menos que pague le citaremos ante los Tribunales (we shall summon
him) de miedo que otros sean pagados con nuestro dinero.

8. Por más que V. diga, las medias, calcetines, y guantes no son iguales
á las muestras que sirvieron de base (as a basis) al contrato.

9. Sin que V. me lo diga lo haré, salvo que intervenga algun
contratiempo (any hitch should happen) y con tal que, ínterin (in the
meantime) llegue su remesa.

10. Sea que llegue, sea que no, V. debería hacerlo aunque le fuese en
ello todo su capital (all your capital were at stake).

11. Telefonee V. cuando quiera.

12. Celebrare lo haga luego que le sea posible.

13. Así como sepa algo le telefoneare.

14. Enviaría las zarazas si estuviese seguro que no me viniera (_imp.
subj._ of venir) después con quejas.

15. No creo que cueste muy cara esta seda.

16. No me parece que salio ventajosa aquella transacción.


                            EXERCISE 2 (48).

Translate into Spanish--

1. It is impossible for us to obtain the goods.

2. He spoke as if he were sure of it.

3. I may (es posible que) accept your price, provided you pay cash.

4. It is certain the white shirtings have shrunk too much in bleaching
(en el blanqueo).

5. He insisted until he paid him something and now he will continue to
insist until he pays him something more.

6. The foreign correspondent (el corresponsal de lenguas extranjeras)
did his work so that his employer was satisfied.

7. Write clearly so that people may read your writing (su letra) without
difficulty.

8. Whenever I spoke to him he was very polite, therefore, I shall put
(diré) a word in his favour whenever I can do so.

9. I reprimanded him notwithstanding that he was my son, and I shall do
so whenever it is necessary in spite of his being now a man.

10. The first to come was the office-boy (muchacho, hortera [joc.]), and
he will be the last to go (á salir).

11. The first firm that attempts it will burn its fingers (se cogerá los
dedos).

12. He was the only one who understood us.

13. He is not the only one who is mistaken.

14. They will not be the only persons who will be mistaken.

15. Whoever succeeds in perfecting this contrivance will be sure to make
(es seguro que hará) a mint of money.

16. We shall be thankful if you will cancel our order for flax, hemp,
Manilla hemp and jute.



                              LESSON XXV.
                      (Lección vigésima quinta.)

                              THE TENSES.


The Tenses in Spanish being mostly used as in English, we shall only
call attention to such of the principal differences between the two
languages as have not yet been treated.

=Present--=

The English emphatic Present, "I do say," must be expressed by "Lo digo
en efecto," "lo digo de veras," "lo digo sí."

"I do" with a verb understood after, as "Do you understand? I do" is
translated by "Sí," "Sí, señor," or "Sí entiendo."

"Are you an engineer? Yes, I am"; "He is generous with me, and I am with
him"; "He is my surety, and I am his"; must be translated by "Es V.
ingeniero? Sí, lo soy"; "Es generoso conmigo y yo lo soy con él"; "Él es
mi fiador y yo lo soy suyo."


=Past--=

The English language has one form of Simple Past--I wrote.

In Spanish this is translated by--

Yo escribía (Imperf. Indic.) or

Yo escribí (Past Definite), according to sense.

It is most important to learn the difference between the Imperfect
Indicative and the Past Definite (or Preterite), because these two
tenses admit of no compromise in Spanish.

The =Imperfect Indicative=[146] _describes_ an action or state which was
_present_ when another past action took place, or another past state
existed.

[Footnote 146: Or Descriptive Past.]

The =Past Definite= or =Preterite=[147] _narrates_ an event.[148]

[Footnote 147: Or Narrating Past (this is why it is often called the
Historical Past).]

[Footnote 148: "Napoleon I died in 1821" is an event. "I fell" is
grammatically also an event.]

Consequently, it will be understood that whilst the Past Def. refers to
"one point of time" or "several =separate= points of time," the
Imperfect embraces a whole indefinite period.

The following examples will show clearly the different functions of
these two tenses--

Le escribí una vez (_or_ dos o tres veces) mientras él viajaba en
Argentina: I wrote to him once (or two or three times) whilst he
travelled[149] in Argentina.

[Footnote 149: Travelled--was travelling, but notice that in Spanish we
would also have the progressive form--"estaba viajando."]

Encontré á Luis, quien llevaba levita negra: I met Louis, who wore[150]
a black frock-coat.

[Footnote 150: Wore--was wearing. Here in Spanish the progressive form
"estaba llevando" would not be admissible because there is _no real
progressive action_.]

Hacía grandes negocios cuando residía en Chile: I had a large business
when I resided in Chili.

Los Cartagineses eran un pueblo comercial y emprendedor: The
Carthagenians were a commercial and enterprising people.

Él estaba allí cuando yo llegué: He was there when I arrived.

Él leía al entrar yo en el bufete del abogado: He was reading when I
entered the lawyer's office.

En Inglaterra trabajaba[151] ocho horas cada día: In England I worked
(used to work) eight hours a day.

[Footnote 151: As will be seen, the English "was" followed by a pres.
part. or the expression "used to be" may always be rendered by the
Spanish Imperfect, but the Spanish progressive form also exists:
"Estaba leyendo" (he was reading), and "used to" has its equivalent
"solía":--"Solía trabajar 8 horas" (he used to work 8 hours).]

Cada mes recibiamos nuestro sueldo: Each month we received (used to
receive) our pay.

Ayer cerré el contrato: Yesterday I signed the contract.

Las pipas de vino resultaron averiadas: The casks of wine were damaged.

Trabajé en Inglaterra 5 años[152]; Viví dos años en Londres y tres en
Manchester: I worked 5 years in England; I lived two years in London and
three in Manchester.

[Footnote 152: This _is_ "a period of time," but it is _definite_.]

As will be seen in all the examples of the Imperfect, the action or
state is described as "existing in the past."


     VOCABULARY.

=abarrotado=, glutted, cram full
=acorazado=, iron-clad
=ajo=, garlic
=alerta=, on the alert, on the look out
=brisa=, breeze
=cebollas=, onions
=conducta=, conduct, behaviour
=contrabando=, contraband
=cosecha=, harvest, harvest-time, crop
*=dar en el clavo=, to hit it
=dátiles=, dates
=encogido=, shrivelled, shrunk
=fruta=, fruit
=granadas=, pomegranates
=guardias aduaneras=, custom house officials
=higos=, figs
=inmaturo=, verde, unripe
=limones=, lemons
=llevar=, to carry, to wear
=matute=, smuggling
=mirar=, to look
=moscatel=, muscatel grapes
=naranja=, orange
¡=ojo=! attention!
=olvidar=, to forget
=pasas de Corinto=, currants
=podrido=, rotten
=por decirlo así=, so to say, as it were
*=querer decir=, to mean
=recobrar=, to recover
=reprensible=, objectionable
=resumir=, to recapitulate, to state briefly
=sinnúmero=, a large number, innumerable
=travesía=, journey by sea



                            EXERCISE 1 (49).

Translate into English--

1. Cuando yo era más joven y me gustaba viajar, hacía la travesía de
Liverpool á Las Palmas todos los años.

2. Estuve allí la última vez en 1905 principalmente para recobrar mi
salud, pero como viaje de negocios también tuvo muy buen éxito.

3. No había entonces como la hay hoy en día tanta competencia en ese
comercio.

4. Cuando llegó el buque á La Coruña había un sinnúmero de guardias
aduaneras alerta, pues se decía que llevaba muchos géneros de
contrabando.

5. ¿Qué quiere decir género de matute?

6. De matute es lo mismo que de contrabando y matutero ó contrabandista
es el que introduce tales géneros.

7. No sabía esta palabra antes, pero ya no la olvidaré.

8. ¿Ha aprendido V. bien la diferencia entre el preterito y el
imperfecto?

9. Perfectamente y voy á resumírsela en dos palabras--El uno es pasado,
pasado y nada más, el otro es un presente de lo pasado por decirlo así;
¡mire V.! "Encontré á Carlos": pasado absoluto; "Llevaba sombrero
blanco"; pasado _hoy_, presente _entonces_; ¿qué le parece á V.?

10. Me parece que V. ha dado en el clavo y estoy satisfecho.

11. Y ahora ¡ojo! en la aplicación y ¡no olvidar!


                            EXERCISE 2 (50).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I believe his behaviour is most (muy) objectionable.

2. And I do also.

3. Did you receive the B/L for the cargo (cargamento) of oranges and
grapes from Seville?

4. I did; and I expect a good parcel (partida) of muscatels from
Valencia as well.

5. Are these the lemons, onions and pomegranates you were expecting?

6. They are.

7. I am sorry they were delayed so long because now the market is
glutted with fruit.

8. He is my friend and I am his.

9. We received this year three cargoes of bananas from the Canary
Islands (Islas Canarias). Six were consigned to us last year, but we
used to receive many more when we sent our traveller in those islands at
harvest time.

10. Ten thousand boxes of currants, 3,000 of figs, and 4,561 of dates
were sold by auction.

11. There had not been such large quantities offered for a long time
(hacía mucho tiempo que).

12. The iron-clad "Achilles" left yesterday for Vigo. The sea was
perfectly calm although a light breeze blew, _or_ was blowing (soplaba
_not_ estaba soplando), from the S.W. (sudoeste).

13. The commission-agent (comisionista) went by the three o'clock train.

14. When I went to say good-bye to him (para despedirme de 61) he was
writing (escribía _or_ estaba escribiendo) a letter.

15. The cargo was examined and it was found that some of the fruit was
unripe, some shrivelled or frost-bitten (tomada por la escarcha), and a
parcel of garlic was rotten and had to be destroyed.



                              LESSON XXVI.
                       (Lección vigésima sexta.)

                         THE TENSES (_contd._).


Uses of the Past Definite (or Preterite) and the Present Perfect (as: Yo
he comprado: I have bought).

According to the English rule, the Past Def. (or Preterite) should be
used to narrate events which happened in the past, in a period of time
which does not include the present moment as--

Yo lo compre el ano pasado: I bought it last year.

The Present Perfect (called in Spanish Preterito Compuesto) should be
used when the period of time includes the present moment, as--

He fletado muchos buques: I have chartered many ships.

By following this rule students will always be correct, but we must
notice that in Spanish we find the "Preterito compuesto" often used
instead of the Past Definite--

1. When the period, although entirely past, is not defined, as--

Le ha facturado la quincalla: He invoiced him the smallware.

2. When although entirely past and definite, it is very recent, as--Se
lo he dicho hace un momento: I told him a moment ago.

N.B.--Plegue a Dios que el año que hoy empieza sea mas feliz que lo ha
sido el pasado: May it please God that the year which commences to-day
may be happier than the last has been (Grammar of the Academy).[153]

[Footnote 153: Here the Present Perfect is used in both languages,
because _the effects reach up to the present moment_.]

The English Compound Past--"I had spoken"--is rendered by "yo había
hablado" or "yo hube hablado."

"Yo había hablado" is in general use.

"Yo hube hablado" is used only after _cuando, luego que, inmediatamente
que_; viz., when the action is represented as _immediately_ preceding
another.

N.B.--The Past Def. Simple may always take its place.

Cuando hube declarado mis intenciones, Cuando declaré mis intenciones,
se convenció--When I declared my intentions, he was convinced.

The =Future Indicative=, (as well as the =Conditional Mood=) are used in
Spanish oftener than in English to denote probability, as--

Habrá 20 hombres aquí: I dare say there are 20 men here.

¿Le habré dado este derecho? Have I, perchance, given him this right?

¿Tendría miedo talvez? Was he afraid, perhaps?

The =Future Progressive=, is not used in Spanish when its place may be
taken by the ordinary Future Simple, as--

Le escribire mañana: I shall be writing him to-morrow.

But--

Cuando él venga yo estare escribiendo: When he comes I shall be writing.

The =Present Subjunctive= in Spanish refers to time present or future;
for time future, its place may be taken by the future Subj. (little
used).[154]

[Footnote 154: Except after "cuando" (but not in conversation), as--Se
lo diré cuando venga _or_ cuando viniere: I shall tell it him when he
comes. The Fut. Subj. is also used (not in conversation) after _si_
instead of Pres. Indic., as--Le serviré si la ocasión se ofrece _or_ se
ofreciere: I shall serve him if the occasion presents itself.]


=Use of Tenses of the Subjunctive Mood=.

The verb in the Subj. Mood is put in the Present tense when the
preceding verb is in the Pres. Indic., Future Indic. (simple) or
Imperative, as--

Quiero que él lo haga: I want him to do it.
Querré " " ": I shall want " ""
Quiere tú " " ": Want (thou) " ""

Otherwise the verb in the Subjunctive is in the Imperfect tense.

N.B.--When the preceding verb is in the "preterito compuesto," e.g., "he
dicho," when "he dicho" stands exactly for the English "I have told," it
governs the Pres. Subj., as--

Le he dicho que se vaya: I have told him to go.

But if it stands for the English "I told," it governs the Imperfect
Subj., as

Le dije (he dicho) que se fuese: I told him to go.

When the preceding verb is in the Future Perfect, the verb in the
Subjunctive may be put in the Present when its action does not refer to
the past, as--

Habré querido que trabaje hoy o mañana: I shall have (may have) wanted
him to work to-day or to-morrow.


     VOCABULARY.

=*adquirir=, to acquire
=alquilar=, to rent, to hire, to take or give on lease
=arado=, plough
=boni cación, rebaja=, allowance
=cargar=, to charge
=ceder=, to yield, to sell, to cede, to warrant make over
=cédula de aduana=, custom house
=colmo=, climax, record
=color firme, sólido=, fast colour
=contrarrestar=, to check
=de otra manera=, otherwise
=desarrollar=, to develop
=empréstito=, loan
=época=, epoch, period, time
=explotar=, to exploit, to work
=igualar, hermanar=, to match
=*invertir=, to invest (money)
=justificar=, to justify, to warrant
=material rodante=, rolling stock (railway)
=no bien=, as soon a                       |
=pana (acordonada)=, cords  (corduroy)
=perspectivas=, prospects
=piezas de repuesto=, spare pieces (machinery)
=puros, cigarros, tabacos=, cigars
=quinta=, villa
=rastrillos=, harrows
=rechazar=, to reject
=reja=, ploughshare
=revocar=,  contramandar, to countermand
*=tener cuenta=, to pay, viz., to be advantageous
=terreno=, land
=traspaso=, goodwill
=trilladora=,  threshing-machine



                            EXERCISE 1 (51).

Translate into English--

1. Le he dado ayer las Cédulas de Aduana.

2. Le hemos cedido el traspaso de aquel negocio por £500.

3. Le he dicho que los fondos (stocks), obligaciones, ú otros valores
cualesquiera (whatsoever) han de depositarse en manos seguras.

4. Yo le había explicado que la Compañía se había constituído para
comprar, alquilar (take on lease) ó adquirir de otra manera y explotar y
desarrollar cualesquier minas ó terrenos metalíferos; pero no bien le
hube anunciado (_or_ le anuncié) que se trataba de terrenos situados en
el Asia Menor, se rehusó á tomar las acciones que le había ofrecido.

5. Es que tendría sus razones.

6. Había unos cincuenta puros en aquella caja.

7. Deseo que V. invierta su dinero en esta empresa como deseaba el ano
pasado que V. lo invirtiese en el Empréstito del Gobierno Austríaco
(Austrian).

8. Le diré que se apresure a despachar los arados con sus rejas y piezas
de repuesto, los rastrillos, y las trilladoras.

9. Tal vez mi socio le habra dicho que lo haga.

10. Sí, le ha escrito ayer que no retardase el embarque pues hacen mucha
falta, hemos excedido la época fijada para la entrega y no nos tendría
cuenta que la Sociedad Agrícola nos los rechazara.


                            EXERCISE 2 (52).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We wrote them nothing to warrant such action.

2. I warranted him (garantizar) this would not be repeated.

3. The cloth was warranted fast colour.

4. He resorted to extreme means in order to bring about (llegar á) a
solution of the difficulty.

5. In the past year the climax of prosperity was reached.

6. Large orders for railway rolling stock were countermanded on account
of (á causa de) the feared political complications.

7. Velvet and Cord manufacturers have curtailed their production with a
view (á fin de) to check the downward (á la baja) tendency of prices.

8. I matched his sample and I secured the order.

9. Did you hear from your traveller lately?

10. They charged us too much, we can buy on spot (en el mercado) much
cheaper.

11. Spot cotton (el algodón disponible) was quoted yesterday one point
higher than the day before, but futures declined (bajaron) 3/32

12. Perhaps there are better prospects of the growing crop (nueva
cosecha) at present.

13. Do not be long (no tarde V.) in making up your mind (decidirse de)
one way or the other.

14. No, I shall soon decide what to do, but I must have a little time
for reflection. I cannot bind myself on the spot (al punto).

15. Some of the prints have grease spots (manchas de aceite) and we must
refuse to accept them unless under (a menos que nos haga) a reasonable
allowance.

16. He has a villa in a delightful spot (sitio) in the country (campo).



                              LESSON XXVII.
                      (Lección vigesima séptima.)

                          THE AUXILIARY VERBS.


_Tener_ and _haber_ are used for the English "to have," followed by an
infinitive, as--

Tienen que acabar el trabajo para fines de Enero: They have to finish
the work for the end of January.

Hemos de seguir los consejos de los peritos en la materia: We have to
follow the advice of those expert in the matter.

In such cases _Tener_ is followed by _que_ and _Haber_ by _de_.[155] The
former indicates compulsion or necessity, the latter a moral or
self-imposed duty.

_Haber de_ translates also "to be to,"[155] as--

¿Quién ha de hacer este viaje? Who is to go on this journey?

_Tener de_ is used in threats--

Tengo de llevarlo ante el tribunal: I shall take him before the court.

"Tener que hacer, que escribir, que comer" and similar expressions
translate also "to have something to do, to write, to eat," as--

Hoy tengo que hacer: To-day I have something to do, I am busy.

Tengo mucho que hacer: I have much to do.

Tenemos que comer por todo el día: We have something to eat which will
suffice for the whole day.

_Haber_ is used as a principal verb instead of _Tener_ in--

Haber menester de algo: To need something.

He aquí el muchacho, etc.[156]: Here is the boy (behold the boy here,
etc.).

Héme aquí _or_ héteme[157] aquí, etc.: Here I am (behold me here, etc.).

It also survives in some legal phrases, as--

Fué habido el reo: The culprit was captured.

Los hijos habidos en su primera mujer: The children by his first wife.

And in some idioms, as--

Allá se las haya: That is his business.

Habérselas con uno: To dispute with anybody.

_Tener_ translates the English "to be" in such phrases as--

Tener hambre, sed, sueño, calor, frío, vergüenza, and miedo: To be
hungry, thirsty, sleepy, warm, cold, ashamed, and afraid.

Also speaking of age--

Tengo veinte años: I am twenty years old.

[Footnote 155: In all these cases _deber_ may be used instead.]

[Footnote 156: _He_--imperative mood of _haber_.]

[Footnote 157: The _te_ is the "ethical dative" (which is much more used
in Spanish than in English).]


And in--

Tener razón: To be right.

And--

No tener razón _or_ Dejar de tener razón: To be wrong.

We said that the past participle when used with _Tener_ agrees with the
direct object, as--

Tengo leídas las cartas: I have read the letters.

But when there is no direct object, of course the past participle
remains invariable, as--

Tengo entendido que....[158]: I have heard that....

[Footnote 158: This use of _tener_ for _haber_, especially with no
direct obj. following is in general to be avoided; in this example,
however, "tengo entendido," the phrase has more force than "he
entendido." It implies that the mind is full with the effect of the
communication.]

+------------------------------------------------------------------+
|      =Conocer= (to know)[159]                                    |
|   (changes _c_ into =zc= before _a_ or _o_).                     |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
|_Pres. Indic._, conozco.                                          |
|_Pres. Subj._,  conozca-as-a-amos-áis-an.                         |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
|       =Hacer= (to do or make).                                   |
+--------------------+---------------------------------------------+
|_Past Part._,  |Hecho.                                            |
|_Pres. Indic._,|Hago.                                             |
|_Past Def._,   |Hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron.|
|_Fut. Indic._, |Haré, harás, hará, haremos, haréis, harán.        |
|_Imp. Mood_,   |Haz, haced (_reg._).                              |
+--------------------+---------------------------------------------+

[Footnote 159: Model verb for all those ending in _cer_ or _cir_
preceded by a vowel, except _cocer_ (conj. like _mover_), _mecer_
(_reg._) and _hacer_. (Those ending in _ducir_ are further irreg. in the
Past Definite.)


     VOCABULARY.

=abrigar=, to shelter, to nourish (the hope)
=acciones preferentes=, preference shares
=agudo=, sharp, keen
=aplazar=, to postpone
=asistir=, to assist, to attend
=atendible=, plausible
=atrasado=, overdue
=caldos=, wines and oils (collectively)
=consabido=, in question, aforesaid
=cuenta de venta=, account sale
=dedicarse=, to devote oneself
=dejar sin efecto=, to cancel
=delicado de salud=, in indifferent health
=desfavorable, contrario=, unfavourable, adverse
=*deshacerse de=, to part with
=domicilio=, registered office of a company, also residence
=en este momento=, at the present moment
=ensayo=, trial, venture
=equidad=, fair dealing
=*haber menester=, to need
=indemnización=, indemnity
=junta de acreedores=, meeting of creditors
=liquidar=, to liquidate, to settle, to clear off goods, etc.
=mediería, artículos de punto=, hosiery
=pagaré=, promissory note, note of hand
=palacio=, palace
=plazo=, term
=respiro=, breath, breathing time, days of grace for payment, delay
=retirar=, to withdraw
(los) =reunidos=, those present
=*tener en cuenta=, to take into consideration
=trabajar, *ir, á porfía=, to vie with each other
=trámites de la ley=, legal means
=viaje de ida=, outward voyage
=viaje de vuelta=, inward voyage


                            EXERCISE 1 (53).

Translate into English--

1. Tengo que hacer hoy y no podré dedicarme á la correspondencia.

2. Si V. no quiere liquidar el consabido asunto tendré de apelar á los
trámites de la ley.

3. V. no habrá menester de tanto pues abrigo las mejores intenciones y
lo que pido es sólo unas pocas semanas de respiro.

4. He aquí pues lo que se ha de hacer, V. me firmará un pagaré para fin
de Febrero y queda entendido que no concederé después ninguna extensión
del plazo.

5. Si entonces V. no satisface su deuda mi abogado dará los pasos
necesarios y V. será responsable de (liable for) los gastos y perjuicios
habidos y por haber (damages accrued and to accrue).

6. La Compañía Nacional de Transportes (carriage) ha instalado su
domicilio en el nuevo Palacio de la Libertad.

7. Dicha Sociedad tiene un capital de un millón de pesetas; la mitad en
acciones preferentes y la mitad en ordinarias.

8. Se ha verificado la junta de acreedores del Sr.... á la cual no
asistió el principal interesado por encontrarse delicado de salud.

9. Los reunidos han decidido aplazar dicha junta hasta el 20 del
corriente.

10. Fundándose en atendibles razones nuestro corresponsal deja sin
efecto el pedido que nos había confiado.


                            EXERCISE 2 (54).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We shall have to take in the hosiery although it is slightly (un
poquito) overdue.

2. We have to give the example of fair dealing ourselves.

3. Who is to decide on the subject of the indemnity due to the captain
of the ship?

4. If we want to withdraw the goods without producing (presentar) a B/L.
we shall have to sign an indemnity (indemnidad).

5. We have received the account sale for our wines and oils and regret
the venture has not turned out as well as we expected.

6. We found a great difficulty in parting with our surplus (excesivas)
stock, of which we had to dispose (disponer) at prices very much
reduced.

7. We are unable to inform you to what extent (hasta qué punto) you may
calculate on (contar con) our remittance, as much will depend on
circumstances over which we have no control (independientes de nuestra
voluntad).

8. The rate (el tipo) of the insurance premium is 6/-per cent. on the
outward and 5/-per cent. on the homeward voyage.

9. I very much question the advisability (dudo mucho la ventaja) of
putting prices up at the present moment when so many adverse
circumstances have to be taken into consideration.

10. As a matter of fact (en efecto) most of us (la mayor parte de
nosotros) think it would be better to reduce them somewhat (algo) now
that competition is so keen.

11. They vie with each other in cutting prices down (reducir) with the
result that profits are ridiculously low (irrisorios).



                              LESSON XXVIII.
                       (Lección vigésima octava.)

                               THE ADVERBS.


Adverbs are used to modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

The following are the principal Spanish adverbs--

Abajo (below)
Además (besides)
Adelante, delante (before, in point of place)
Ahora (now)
*Alrededor, *entorno (around)
Amenudo, á menudo (often)
*Antes (before, in point of time)
Antes, antes bien (rather)
Anoche (last night)
Anteanoche (the night before last)
Apenas, así que (as soon as)
Aquí, acá (here, hither)
Allí, allá (there, thither)
De aquí, de allí (hence, thence)
Aun, todavía (still, yet)
Ayer (yesterday)
Anteayer (the day before yesterday)
Bastante (sufficiently)
Bien (well)
*Cerca (near)
*Debajo (under)
*Por debajo (underneath)
Demasiado (too, too much)
*Dentro (within)
*Después (after, afterwards)
*Detrás (behind)
Donde[160] (where)
En breve (shortly)
*Encima (upon, above)
*Enfrente (opposite)
Entonces (then)
*Fuera (outside)
Hacia (towards)
Hacia adelante (forwards)
Hacia abajo (downwards)
Hasta (till, until)
Hoy (to-day)
*Junto (next)
*Lejos (far)
Luego (presently, soon, then)
Mañana (to-morrow)
Mal (badly)
Más (more)
Mejor (better)
Menos (less)
Mientras (whilst)
Mientras tanto (in the meantime)
Mucho (much)
Muy[161] (very)
Nunca, jamás (never)
Ni ... ni ... (neither ... nor ...)
Ni tampoco (not either)
Peor (worse)
Pronto (soon)
Tal vez, acaso, quizá, quizás (perhaps)
Tan, así (so)
Tanto (so much)
Tarde (late)
Temprano (early)
Ya[162] (already)


[Footnote 160: After verbs of motion also "á donde." After verbs of rest
also "en donde."]

[Footnote 161: Used as in English, but always _muy_ before a past part.,
as: Muy apreciado (much esteemed). Such phrases as "He is rich but not
very" are translated "Es rico pero no mucho _or_ tanto."]

[Footnote 162: _Ya_ is also used for "now." "Ya no"--no longer.]

Those marked with an asterisk may govern a noun or pronoun through the
preposition _de_ with the exception of _junto_, which governs these
words through _á_.

Adverbs may be formed from adjectives as in English.

The English termination _ly_ is rendered by =mente= _added to the
feminine form_ of the adjective, when this changes for the feminine.

Adverbs are compared like the adjectives, but the superlative relative
of adverbs is formed with _lo más_, and _lo menos_, as--

Es el más rico: He is the richest.

Esta adornado lo más ricamente posible: It is ornamented in the richest
manner possible.

Es el menos exacto: He is the least exact.

Cotice lo menos que pueda: Quote the least you can.

Besides the primitive adverbs given in our list, there are many
adverbial locutions--

á toda prisa (with all speed).
á la española (in the Spanish fashion).
á troche y moche, á trochimoche (in a slipshod way).
con blandura (gently).
de mala gana (unwillingly).
de vez (_or_ de cuando) en cuando (from time to time).
tal cual vez (once in a while).
un si es, no es (ever so little).

When an adverb is followed by a verb in English _que_ must be inserted
in Spanish before a finite mood and _de_ before an infinitive, as--

Después de venir (after coming).

Después que vino (after he came).

The phrases "I say so," " I think it is (so)," "I do not think so," are
rendered "Digo que si" (or "lo digo"), "Creo que sí" (or "lo creo"),
"Creo que no" (or "no lo creo").

Some adjectives are used adverbially, as in English, without the
addition of _mente_, as--

Vender barato, caro (to sell cheap, dear).

Hablar alto, bajo (to speak loud, low).

When two or more adverbs ending in _mente_ occur in the same sentence,
the termination is added only to the last, as--

Escribe clara,[163] concisa[163] y elegantemente: He writes clearly,
concisely and elegantly.

[Footnote 163: Notice "clara" and "concisa" in the feminine.]


     =Caer= (to fall).

_Pres. Ind._,  Caigo --   --   --   --   --
_Pres. Subj._, Caiga, caigas, caiga, caigamos, caigáis, caigan.


     VOCABULARY.

=á duras penas=, with great difficulty
=á la larga=, m the long run
=á medida que=, in proportion as
=á mejor andar=, at best
=á plazos=, in instalments
=ajeno=, averse
=apagado= extinguished, dull (colours)
=*asentar=, to book (an order)
=chillones=, gaudy, screaming (colours)
=claro=, light (colours)
=claro y redondo= (quite clearly)
=columna=, column
=con el corazón en la mano=, quite candidly
=confeccionar=, to make up
=*confesar=, to confess
=conservas alimenticias=, preserves
=definir=, to define (also to settle)
=dificultad=, difficulty
=ensayo=, trial, proof, venture
=escoger=, to choose
=exceder=, to exceed
=facilidad=, ease, facility
=fijo=, fixed, firm
=fondos=, grounds (pictures, cloth)
=gana= (=de buena, de mala=), willingly, unwillingly
=ganga=, a bargain
=langosta=, lobster
=mariscos=, shell-fish
=muestrarios=, pattern cards, sets
=oscuro=, dark
=paquete=, packet, parcel
=*(no) poder menos de ..=., not to be able to help
=puntos=, points, spots (in prints)
=restos=, remnants
=sacar=, to pull out, to get out, to get back
=sardinas=, sardines
=satines brochados=, brocaded satins
=serie=, series
=sin mirar á gastos=, regardless of expense
=sobrio=, quiet (colour)
=solidez=, solidity
=tomar á mal=, to take amiss
=vivo=, vivid, bright (colours)


                            EXERCISE 1 (55).

Translate into English--

1. Tiene V. (there is) tanta variedad de dibujos que verdaderamente
cuesta dificultad (it is difficult) el escoger entre diseños con flores,
con puntos, con rayas, y cuadritos.

2. Con facilidad sin embargo (however) podrá V. hacer un surtido entre
las dos series que le enviamos, de fondos claros y oscuros, y de colores
vivos, chillones, sobrios, y apagados.

3. Desde algún tiempo á esta parte tratan Vs. los negocios tan á
trochimoche que ya no sabemos á que atenernos (what to think of it).

4. Hago esta consignación de mala gana y le confieso claro y redondo que
siguiendo V. á vender tan barato y á plazos tan largos no me tendrá
cuenta hacerle otros envíos sino por su propia cuenta ó contra pedidos
fijos de los clientes.

5. Clara y concisamente es como se deben escribir las cartas
comerciales.

6. Á la par que Vs. (same as yourselves) no somos ajenos á la idea de
hacer algún ensayo en la importación de langosta, mariscos, sardinas, y
conservas alimenticias, pero debemos ir á medias en cualquiera
transacción que se decida.

7. Creo que á duras penas sacará su dinero y á mejor andar tendrá que
perder todo su trabajo.

8. Á medida que aumenten los ingresos se aumentarán los dividendos.

9. Recibirá V. en paquete asegurado los nuevos muestrarios que se han
confeccionado sin mirar á gastos.

10. Estos restos son una verdadera ganga y además, podrá V. pagarlos al
contado ó á plazos largos (easy) como más le convenga.

11. Dejaremos en suspenso su reclamo hasta definirlo personalmente en su
próximo viaje á Inglaterra.

12. No puede menos de admitir (to admit) que á la larga esto no puede
convenirme, y espero que V. no lo tome á mal que se lo exponga con el
corazón en la mano.


                            EXERCISE 2 (56).

Translate into Spanish--

1. After writing you by last mail we are informed by the maker of the
Brown Linens (lienzos morenos) that he will be able to book your order
which will be delivered before the end of next month.

2. The Brocaded Satins will range between (costarán desde) 4d. and 5d. a
yard, and we shall ship them within six weeks but only after receiving
your letter confirming them.

3. These shapes are not worn (gastan, llevan) outside England.

4. Not far from here and next to the Bank there is the Insurance Office,
which is much admired for its solidity and fine appearance.

5. It cost £20,000 and they never thought it would exceed half that
amount.

6. Perhaps it is too large an outlay (gasto) for the Company, but there
was no money wasted.

7. The columns in the porch have cost so much because they are of the
best Carrara marble (mármol).

8. Whilst we admit that the prints sent may have been just a little bit
(un si es no es) off shade (diferentes al color pedido) your claim is
quite out of the question.

9. Towards the beginning of the autumn our Mr. So-and-So will make a
trip (hará un viaje) to your place, and he will have the honour of
waiting upon you (de visitarles) with our latest novelties (novedades).

10. You do not understand how it is possible that your neighbours are
able to undersell you (vender más bajo que V.), nor can we make it out
(explicárnoslo) either.



                              LESSON XXIX.
                       (Lección vigésima nona.)

                           THE PREPOSITIONS.


Prepositions join words together to mark certain relations between them.

The principal prepositions are--

Á (at, to)
Ante (before--in point of place)
Bajo (under)
Con (with)
Contra, en contra de (against)
De (of, from)
Desde (since, from)
En (in)
Entre (between, among)
Hacia (towards)
Hasta (till, as far as, even)
Para (for the purpose of, for, in order to)
Por (for, by, because of)
Según (according to)
Sin (without)
Sobre (upon)
Tras, tras de (behind)
Para con (una persona),[164] (towards, with, a person)

[Footnote 164: "Fué muy generoso para conmigo": He was very generous
with me.]


Many verbs take in Spanish a different preposition than in English. Some
verbs take a preposition in one language and none in the other, as--

Depender de una promesa: To depend on a promise.
Convenir en una transacción: To agree to a compromise.
Confiar en un desconocido: To trust a perfect stranger.
Regalarle un cheque: To present him with a cheque.

The use of the correct preposition according to the verb it follows is
best learnt by practice. In the second part of the grammar, the student
will be helped with a list of the most characteristic differences
between the two languages. The Spanish construction is not quite so
rigid in this respect as is the English.

Difference between _de_ and _desde_ both translating "from"--=De= mark
the origin only, as:

Esta seda viene de Italia: This silk comes from Italy--it is Italian
silk.


=Desde= calls attention to distance of time or space, as--

Desde el 1° de Enero se estableció en comercio por cuenta propia: From
the 1st of January, he started in business on his own account.

He viajado desde Londres hasta Calcuta en tantos días: I travelled from
London to Calcutta in so many days.


The chief difficulty in the employment of the Spanish prepositions is
the use of _Por_ and _Para_--

=Por= is used--

1. To denote agency = by[165]; as--

Es tenido en gran cuenta por sus amigos: He is thought much of by his
friends.

Este establecimiento fué fundado por mi bisabuelo: This establishment
was founded by my great-grandfather.

[Footnote 165: After the passive voice of verbs denoting mental action
when formed by _ser_, _Por_ is elegantly substituted by _De_, as: Son
amados por _or_ de sus padres (they are loved by their parents). But: Se
aman por sus padres.]

2. To denote the _motive_ of an action, as--

Lo hizo por envidia: He did it for (out of) envy.

3. To denote equivalency of any kind, as--

Cinco peniques por libra: Fivepence for a pound--per pound.

Trocar un producto por otro: To exchange one product for another.

Considerar á uno bueno por £1,000: To consider somebody as good for
£1,000.

Por mejor le envié yo como viajante: I sent you to travel, holding you
for a better man.

Tienda por tienda, prefiero esta: Of the two shops I prefer this.

4. To denote distribution, as--

Vinieron cinco por cinco: They came five by five.

=Para= is used--

1. To denote the object of an action (generally "to" or "in order to"),
as--

Trabajo para ganarme la vida: I work to (in order to) earn my living.

2. To denote destination (or direction), as--

El tren sale para Valencia: The train leaves for Valencia.

Esta cédula es para el Sr. Fulano: This warrant is for Mr. So-and-So.

Voy para casa: I am going towards home.

Many idiomatic uses of _Por_ and _Para_ must be learnt by practice.


     VOCABULARY.

=abogar=, to plead
=acceder=, to accede
=afanarse=, to exert oneself, to take much trouble
=ahorrar=, to save
=ajuste=, adjustment
=á la verdad=, really
=altos hornos=, blast furnaces, foundries
=amarillo=, yellow, buff
=amistad=, friendship
=aparentar=, to show outwardly
=aprovecharse=, to take advantage of, to avail oneself
=aproximarse=, to approach, to draw near
=automóvil=, motor-car
=azadas=, hoes
=azadones=, pick-axes
=azuelas=, adzes
=bultos=, packages
=cizallas=, shears
=croquis=, sketch
=diseñador=, draughtsman
=*disponer=, to dispose, to arrange
=echar al correo=, to (throw into the) post
=empeoramiento=, deterioration
=en blanco=, blank
=estancia=, stay
=(un) fardín, un cuarto=, a farthing, a trifling amount
=*forzar=, to force, to strain
=hachuelas=, hatchets
=hilar=, to spin
=largo de talle=, full, complete
=lingotes de hierro=, pig-iron
=martillo=, hammer
=molestia=, trouble
=moratoria=, extension of time (for payment)
=palas=, shovels
=para= (=estar=), (to be) on the point of ...
=picos=, picks
=plomo=, slate, lead colour
=por= (=estar por escribir=), to be (yet) unwritten
=previsión=, foresight
=los síntomas=, the symptoms
=suspender los pagos=, to stop payments
=tejer=, to weave
=tenazas=, tongs
=textil=, textile
=*trocar=, to barter, to exchange
=yerno, hijo político=, son-in-law


                            EXERCISE 1. (57)

Translate into English--

1. De España nos vienen las ricas uvas y las jugosas (juicy) naranjas,
además de minerales--de hierro y cobre.

2. El viaje por mar desde España á Inglaterra tarda de cuatro á seis
días.

3. Desde el año 1900 hasta el 1910 aumentó mucho la población del Reino
Unido.

4. Los Altos Hornos de Bilbao se han construido para la producción de
lingotes de hierro.

5. La Sociedad reúne poderosos elementos (commands great resources) para
la fabricación de toda clase de maquinaria para la hiladura y la
tejeduría del algodón.

6. Los bultos se embarcaron directamente por los fabricantes mismos.

7. El empaque y el transporte cuestan lo mismo y precio por precio
preferimos ahorrarnos molestias.

8. Por un falso sentido de honor aquella casa forzó su crédito para no
tener que pedir moratorias, dando esto por resultado el empeoramiento de
su posición.

9. Compré un automóvil por £1,000 mas lo troqué con este que vale á la
verdad £1,500 dando sólo £200 por la diferencia.

10. Disponga V. las piezas tantas por parte.

11. Á una veintena por vez colocámos aquellos picos, palas, azadas,
azadones, hachuelas, azuelas, martillos, cizallas, y tenazas.

12. Se presentó por su yerno, abogó por él por una hora larga de talle,
todo por su hija, pues por el chico (young man, lit., child) maldita la
gana que tendría (he would not have liked the idea) de afanarse tanto
por él.

13. Haré por colocar sus driles blancos, plomo, y amarillos (buff) para
los cuales me dió orden verbal su Sr. hijo durante su estancia aquí y
que se despacharán por (_or_ por la vía de) Burdeos y Cartagena.

14. Nuestro mercado sigue muy encalmado sin que por el momento presente
síntomas de mejora.

15. La primera carta está para echarse al correo pero la segunda y la
tercera quedan aun por escribir.


                            EXERCISE 2 (58).

Translate into Spanish--

1. He offers a loan to avoid all risk that the house should fall.

2. It would not be possible for it to fall unless the Textile Bank
should stop payments.

3. His office is opposite ours and we have him thus under our eyes.

4. With all the weight of the evidence (las pruebas) you have collected
(recogido), it would be very risky to proceed against him from such a
distance.

5. Between one thing and the other I did not know what to choose, so I
left them to settle the matter between themselves.

6. These sketches have been made by our draughtsman for our customers,
the owners of the Sugar Mill in Parahyba.

7. He did the work for the pleasure of it but would not (no quiso)
charge a farthing for it.

8. The packets arrived two by two.

9. I accede willingly for the sake of old friendship (por la antigua
amistad que nos une).

10. As the time of the year is drawing near when your firms effect their
purchases in this country, we beg to address you to renew the offer of
our services.

11. We shall be extremely glad if you will avail yourselves of our
offers and send us orders for some of your requirements.

12. The adjustment of the average per S.S. "Nile" is still hanging fire
(todavía pendiente), but we are pushing the Insurance Co. to our utmost
(todo lo posible) for a speedy settlement.

13. For a (para) foreigner he understands English methods very well
indeed.

14. Being (por ser) so young he shows a good deal of (mucho) tact and
foresight.



                              LESSON XXX.
                         (Lección trigésima.)

                 THE CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.


Conjunctions join sentences together; also independent words.

The principal conjunctions are--


*Á menos que (unless)
Á pesar de (in spite of)
Así como (just as)
Así que, de suerte que (so that)
*Afín de que, *Para que (that--in order that)
Aunque, bien que, si bien (although, even if)
*Bien ... bien (whether ... or)
Como (as)
*Con tal que (provided)
Con que (so)
*Cuando (if)
Mas, pero, empero[166] (but)
Sino (but--after a negative[167])
Ni ... ni (neither ... nor)
No sea que* (lest, also perhaps)
No obstante (nevertheless)
Ó ... ó[168] (either ... or)
Ora ... ora[168] (now ... now--with indic. mood)
Porqué, porque (why, because)
Portanto (therefore)
Puesto que[169] (seeing that)
Pues (since)
Que (that)
Si (if, whether)
Sin embargo (however, notwithstanding)
Según (according)
Siquiera (at least, even)
Y[170] (and)
Ya ... ya[171] (whether ... or--with subj. mood)
Ya que (since, seeing that)


[Footnote 166: _Empero_ is used same as _pero_ at the beginning of a
sentence.]

[Footnote 167: Unless a _finite_ verb follows, as: No tengo dinero pero
gozo de buena reputación (I have no money but I enjoy a good reputation).]

[Footnote 168: Before words commencing with _o_ or _ho_, it changes into
_ú_.]

[Footnote 169: In old Spanish it had the meaning of "even if."]

[Footnote 170: Before words commencing with _i_, also _hi_ not followed
by a vowel, use _é_, as: "Padre é hijo," but "Nieve y hielo."]

[Footnote 171: "Ora ... ora" and "ya ... ya" both mean "now ... now"
(with indic. mood), and "whether ... or" (with subj. mood).]


The conjunctions marked with an asterisk are always followed by a verb
in the Subjunctive Mood.

The English "either" is generally left understood, as--

Exportaciones ó importaciones: Either exports or imports.

"Either" following a negative--_tampoco_, as--

No quiero comprar Títulos de Gobierno ni Obligaciones de Ferrocarriles
tampoco: I do not wish to buy Government Stock, nor Railway Stocks
either.


=Interjections=, being mere exclamations, do not stand in grammatical
relation to any other word in the sentence.

They are elliptical sentences, as--

¡Oh! (I am surprised, etc.).

The principal Interjections in Spanish are the following--

caramba, cáspita (these express practically all kinds of emotions)
ay[172] (oh! grief or threat)
bah, ca, quiá (humph!)
ce, hola, ola (I say!)
chito, chitón (shut up!)
cuidado, ¡ojo! (attention! look out!)
ea (come!)
he (hey)
húy (oh! physical pain)
ojalá (oh, that)
por Dios (for heaven's sake)
tate, zape (what! (surprise))
tonterías (nonsense!)
uf (oh! weariness or fatigue)

[Footnote 172: This can govern a noun or pronoun, as--¡Ay de mí! Woe to
me! ¡Ay de Pedro! Woe to Peter!]

As well as _Ah_ or _Ha_, _Oh_ or _O_ as in English, and many words used
as exclamations, as--

¡Silencio! ¡calle! ¡calle la boca (silence! hush! shut your mouth!)
¡vamos! (much used), (come! come now!)
¡que lástima! (what a pity!)
¡poco á poco! (gently, Sir!)
¡héteme[173] aquí! (here I am!)
¡hételos[173] aquí! (here they are, etc.)

[Footnote 173: _Te_--ethical dative.]



+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                =Caber= (to be able to contain = to hold)          |
|                (to be able to be contained = to go in)            |
|_Pres. Indic._, Quepo.                                             |
|_Past Def._,    Cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron. |
|_Fut. Indic._,  Cabré, cabrás, cabrá, cabremos, cabréis, cabrán.   |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+
|               | =Poder= (to be able).                             |
|_Pres. Part._, | Pudiendo.                                         |
|_Pres. Indic._,| Puedo, puedes, puede, ... pueden.                 |
|_Imp. Mood_,   | NONE.                                             |
|_Past Def._,   | Pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron.|
|_Fut. Indic._, | Podré, podrás, podrá, podremos, podréis, podrán.  |
+---------------+---------------------------------------------------+


     VOCABULARY.

=aficionado (á)=, fond of
=aflojar=, to relax
=ansioso=, eager
=*apetecer=, to desire, to covet
=bastante bien=, fairly well
=berzas, coles= (f.), cabbages
=buscar=, to look for, to search
=buscarse=, to bring upon oneself
=cauteloso, cauto=, cautious
=conexiones=, connections, couplings (machinery)
=contrincante=, neighbour, competitor
=detenidamente=, fully
=disturbado, transtornado=, disturbed, upset
=engranajes=, gearings
=escala=, scale
=hortelano=, fruit gardener
=inquilino=, tenant
=ir á=, to lead to
=llantas=, tyres
=*moler=, to grind
=operaciones=, operations, dealings
=perro=, dog
=plaza=, market place, square, place
=*poner al corriente=, to inform
=refrán=, proverb
=repentino=, sudden
=resortes=, springs (mach.)
=sosa=, soda
=tambores=, drums
=traspapelado=, mislaid (of papers)


                            EXERCISE 1 (59).

Translate into English--

1. Á menos que los giros vengan acompañados de los conocimientos y
facturas comerciales y consulares (invoices and consular invoices) no
los recogeremos.

2. Le remito poder en forma (regular power of attorney) para que V.
pueda representarme y hacer mis veces ahí.

3. Cuando me pague lo que me debe veremos lo que proceda hacer (what
ought to be done).

4. V. no hace mención en su atenta de los engranajes, conexiones,
llantas y resortes de nuestro pedido 2 del que rige, no sea que se haya
traspapelado nuestra orden.

5. Para comprar barato no hay sino que pagar puntualmente sus facturas.

6. Aunque es hombre muy difícil de tratar, sus órdenes son muy
apetecidas de los fabricantes porque su palabra una vez empenada
(pledged) es oro molido (as good as gold).

7. Aunque me pagara más no se lo daría pues ya tengo empeñada mi
palabra.

8. Así como le vió le puso al corriente de las circunstancias.

9. Con tal que el mercado afloje un tantico procuraré plazar su orden
para 50 tambores de sosa, á su límite.

10. Con que nuestros contrincantes se porten con lealtad no tenemos
derecho de quejarnos de su competencia.

11. Según lo prueba la experiencia más vale ir cautelosos en aquellos
mercados.

12. No deseo buscarme molestias ni meterme en camisa de once varas
(meddle in other people's business).

13. Hace como el perro del hortelano que no come las berzas ni las deja
comer.

14. ¡Caramba! ¿Se viene V. con refranes en una gramática comercial?

15. ¡Calle, hombre! Todos los caminitos van á la plaza (all roads lead
to Rome); los españoles son muy aficionados á los refranes.


                            EXERCISE 2 (60).

Translate into Spanish--

1. These 200 pieces will not go in that case, it is too small.

2. I do not think they will, either.

3. I cannot say anything before I see the result, but I shall be able to
tell you something definite to-morrow.

4. Not being able to compete, he has withdrawn from the market.

5. I could not confirm the agreement last week.

6. I believe I could buy a parcel of wheat cheaper to-day unless there
should be a sudden rise.

7. In spite of all his efforts, he was obliged to file his petition.

8. Although the market here is firm, we have hopes (esperamos) that
prices will relax in view of the bearish tone (tendencia á la baja)
shown in the Liverpool market yesterday.

9. The enclosed pattern is rather (algo) poor; still, as it appears to
sell well in Central Africa, I should be glad if you would see your way
(decidirse) to manufacture it at our price.

10. The new presses (prensas) work fairly well; there is, however, room
(lugar) for improvement, and our engineer will write you fully on some
proposed modifications.

11. He signed the documents without even (siquiera) reading them, so
upset was he by the news the mail had just brought him; therefore we
shall be obliged if you will kindly send them back for his perusal and
return (para que los examine y se los envíe otra vez).

12. Provided you take a lease of these premises (tome en arriendo este
local) for a period of ten years, I shall make the necessary
alterations, since I am very eager to have you as a tenant.

13. Although the demand for money is no longer so strong, the market is
still under the control (dominio) of the Bank of England, to which it is
now indebted for (debe) a considerable amount, and dealings are but on a
comparatively small scale.



                                PART II



                              LESSON XXXI.
                     (Lección trigésima primera.)

                              THE ARTICLE.


The =Definite Article= is used in Spanish and not in English (besides
rules given in Lesson II)--

1.  Before the seasons of the year--

+------------------------------------------------+
|La primavera (spring)       El otoño (autumn)   |
|El verano (summer)          El invierno (winter)|
|                                                |
|And the four cardinal points:                  |
|                                                |
|El norte (North)            El este (East)      |
|El sur (South)              El oeste (West)     |
+------------------------------------------------+

2. Before the hour of the day (with the words _hora, horas,_
understood), as--

Es la una: It is one o'clock.
Son las dos y cuarto: It is a quarter past two.
Son las tres y cinco:  It is five minutes past three.
Son las cuatro menos diez:  It is ten minutes to four.
Las cinco y media:  Half-past five.

3. Optionally, before the proper name of a woman used colloquially, as--

La Maria (Mary, our Mary).

4. Optionally, before the days of the week, especially when preceded by
"on" in English, as--

Vendré el sábado: I shall come on Saturday.

5. Before the names of the following countries--

El Perú, La India, El Japón.

And some towns to be learnt by practice, as--

La Coruña, El Havre, El Cairo, El Ferrol, etc.

Although found sometimes before the names of countries in general, this
example should not be followed.

The Definite Article is used in English and not in Spanish--

1. Before numbers following names of sovereigns, etc., as--

Carlos I (primero), Charles I (the first)
Alfonso XIII (trece), Alphonso XIII (the thirteenth)

2. In titles of books, headings, etc., as--Historia de la Inquisición
(The History of the Inquisition).

3. Before words in apposition, as--Madrid, capital de España (Madrid,
the capital of Spain).

But--

Alfonso el Sabio (Alphonso the Wise)
Juana la Loca (Jane the Mad)
because these are "titles."

The =Indefinite Article= is used in English and not in Spanish
(besides rules in Lesson II)--

1. Before words in apposition, as--
Rubio y Cía., casa importantísima de la Habana: Rubio
& Co., a most important firm in Havana.

2. In titles of books, headings, etc., as--
Lista de los géneros pedidos: A list of goods required.

3.  In "such a," "so ... a," as--
Tal amigo:  Such a friend.
Tan buen amigo:  So good a friend, such a good friend.

4.  In "a half" (medio), "a quarter" (cuarto), "a third"
(tercio), in the case of an integer preceding, as--
Uno y medio (1-1/2)              Cinco y tercio (penknife/3)
Dos y cuarto (2-1/4)

Occasionally the article is omitted before other fractions.

5.  Before _otro_, as--
Otra quiebra:   Another bankruptcy.

Before weights and measures the definite article is used in Spanish
instead of the indefinite used in English, as--

Dos chelines la libra:  Two shillings a pound.
Cinco pesetas el metro _or_ por metro: 5 pesetas a metre.

The =Definite Article= is omitted before _casa_ and _palacio_ when they
are spoken of as places usually frequented by the person in question--

Iré á casa del ingeniero: I shall go to the engineer's house.
El Rey volvió ayer a palacio:  The King returned yesterday to the palace.

The article must not be employed before a noun used after a preposition
in an adjectival capacity, as--

Una viga de hierro (_not_ del hierro): An iron beam.

The tendency of the Spanish language is to omit the indefinite article
whenever, by such omission the sense is not obscure, as--

Tengo intención de marcharme: I have a mind to go.
Vino con dolor de cabeza: He came with a headache.
Le dió cuenta de lo sucedido: He gave him an account of
all that had happened.
Este caballero tiene mucho _or_ grande ingenio: This
gentleman has a great talent.

The =Neuter= article _lo_ cannot precede a noun used _as such,_ but it
may (elegantly) precede a noun used adjectively, as--

Todo me gusta en el, lo amigo, lo ciudadano, lo caballero:

I like everything in him: the friend, the citizen, the gentleman.



     VOCABULARY.

administrador, manager
anteriormente, previously
anunciar, to advertise
apacible, mild
armadura, frame, framing (mach.)
atajo, short cut
buen éxito, success
comprometerse, to undertake
edificio, building
empresa, undertaking
experimentar, to experience
grabados (géneros), embossed (goods)
hilado, yarn
intentar,*tener intención, to intend
junto á, coupled with
práctico, practical
*proponerse, to have in view
(á) rayas, striped (goods)
recto, straightforward
riqueza, wealth
sencillo, plain
suceder, to succeed, to happen
tenedores, holders (of securities, etc.)
tratar, to conduct (business)
vara, Spanish yard.



                            EXERCISE 1 (61).

Translate into English--

1. Eran las doce y media del domingo antepasado (before last), apacible
dia, que, aunque estamos en otoño, parecía mas dia de primavera, la
Maria me acompañaba, aquella Señora del Perú que ha viajado tanto en la
India y el Japón y cuyo marido y el mio eran tan amigos.

2. Íbamos a casa de la Señora.

3. La Coruña es ciudad de Galicia.

4. Carlos V., Emperador de Alemania es el mismo monarca que reinó en
España con el título de Carlos I desde 1517 á 1551.

5. Luis XIV de Francia no tenía sino cinco años de edad cuando sucedió á
su padre Luis XIII en 1643.

6. El principio de su reinado fué dirigido por Mazarín, italiano muy
fino (shrewd), y astuto conocedor de los hombres.

7. ¿Qué dice ese papel?

8. Lista de los accesorios que se dan con cada máquina.

9. Tan ventajosas condiciones no se hallan en ningunas otras Compañias
para el seguro de la vida.

10. Tales administradores, valen un tesoro (are worth their weight in
gold); de ellos depende el buen éxito de las empresas.

11. Otro dependiente como el Sr. Arboleda no lo hallarán entre mil.

12. Estos cuadritos y rayas cuestan 45 céntimos el metro, y estos
mercerizados y grabados valen 40 céntimos la vara.

13. ¿Qué es la vara?

14. Es medida española que equivale á =835= milimetros y 9 décimas ó
cerca de =33= pulgadas inglesas.



                            EXERCISE 2 (62).

Translate into Spanish--

1. An "iron framing" is a framing made of iron, but a "steam engine"
(máquina a vapor) is an engine moved by steam.

2. I had the intention of giving more such examples but I believe one is
enough.

3. In the construction of this building the architect had in view both
the beautiful and the practical.

4. Yes, see how (cuán) elegant and at the same time how solid these
columns are!

5. Business conducted through us (por nuestro medio) is different from
the many advertised systems and promised short cuts to wealth which are
dangled before the eyes of the (con que se deslumbra al) public.

6. Our plan is a plain (sencillo), straightforward method of operating
by which we undertake to implicitly carry out (cumplir con) the
instructions of our customers.

7. Our best advice and service are always at your command (a su
disposición).

8. "Kaffirs" have resorted to (han llegado) a state of idleness
(inercia) coupled with steadily (más y más) sagging (aflojados) prices.

9. Holders of spot cotton have again experienced quite a brisk inquiry
(una demanda muy activa) from spinners, who have freely (abundantemente)
covered forward sales (para sus entregas futuras) of yarn.

10. They also took up large lines (grandes cantidades) of cotton
previously contracted for (contratadas).

11. The total turnover (las ventas totales) was not quite as good as
expected.



                              LESSON XXXII.
                      (Lección trigéima segunda.)

                               THE NOUN.


1. The gender of names of countries, provinces, and towns is according
to their termination (Lesson III), but those ending in _d_ are generally
masculine.

Exceptions are found, the names "ciudad" or "pueblo" being then
understood.

2. Names of trees are masculine, those of fruits are feminine.

EXCEPTIONS--

+--------------------------------+----------------------------+
|La higuera (the fig-tree)       |El melocotón (the peach)    |
|La palma (the palm-tree)        |El albérchigo (the peach)   |
|La viña (the vine-tree)         |El durazno (the apricot)    |
|El dátil (the date)             |El albaricoque (the apricot)|
|El pistacho (the pistachio-nut) |El mango (the mango)        |
|El higo (the fig)               |                            |
+--------------------------------+----------------------------+

And a few more.

3. A masculine article is used with other parts of speech whole
sentences used substantively, as--

Quiero un sí ó un no claro: I want a clear (decisive) yes or no.

El aprender es útil: Learning is useful.

El que lo haya hecho sin consultarme no puede serme de grande gusto:
That he did it without consulting me is certainly not pleasing to me.

A list of principal exceptions to the rule given on Spanish gender by
termination is given in Appendix I.

To the rules for the formation of the plural (Lesson III) we shall add--

1. Family names ending in _z_ unstressed do not change--

Juan Fernández              But--El Sr. Ruiz
Los Señores Fernández         Los Señores Ruices

2.  The names of the vowels pluralize in _es_--
Las aes, las ees, las íes, las oes, las úes.

3. Some Latin words used in Spanish, as--Accessit, déficit, fiat,
ultimatum, agnus dei, etc., do not change for the plural,
except--Album--álbumes.

For other peculiarities of number see Appendix II. Collective nouns in
Spanish are generally followed by the verb in the singular, as--La gente
piensa: People think.

But after a collective noun, indefinite in its meaning, the verb may
follow in the plural, as--Una cantidad de géneros se vendió, _or_
vendieron en subasta: A quantity of goods was or were sold by auction.

N.B.--The tendency of the language is in favour of the singular.

=Poner= (to put, to place).

_Past Part.,_    Puesto.
_Pres. Indic.,_  Pongo.[174]
_Imper. Mood,_   Pon ... poned ...[175]
_Past Def.,_     Puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron.
_Future Indic.,_ Pondré, pondras, pondrá, pondremos, pondéis, pondrán.

=Querer= (to want a thing or person, to love a person, to be willing).

_Pres. Indic.,_ Quiero, quieres, quiere,--,--, quieren. [176]
_Past   Def.,_  Quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron.
_Fut. Indic., _Querré,   querrás,  querrá, querremos,  querréis, querrán.

[Footnote 174: Verbs which are irregular in the Pres. Indic. 1st person
singular only, have the same irregularity in the present subj. all
through.]

[Footnote 175: The 1st person pi. and 3rd pers. sing. and pl. of the
Imperative Mood are taken from the Subj. Mood.]

[Footnote 176: Verbs which in the pres. indic. are irregular in the 1st,
2nd and 3rd pers. sing. and 3rd pers. pl. have the same irregularities in
the pres. subj. in the same persons.]


=Saber= (to know).

_Pres. Indic., _Sé, . . .
_Pres. Subj., _Sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan.
_Past Def., _Supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron.
_Fut. Indic., _Sabré, sabrás, sabrá, sabremos, sabréis, sabrán.

     VOCABULARY.

=apuro=, straits, embarrassment
=armas blancas=, side arms
=armas de fuego=, fire-arms
=*atravesar=, to traverse, to cross
=campos=, fields
=cierre=, lock-out
=compensar=, to compensate, to make good
=*darse a partido=, to yield, to submit
=disturbio=, disturbance
=enfurecido, furioso=, furious (enfuriated)
=enseñanza=, teaching
=*escarmentar=, to take warning
=fracaso=, failure
=la fuente=, the fountain, source
=fuerza motriz=, motive power
=fundarse en=, to base upon
=huelga=, strike (of workmen)
=huerta=, orchard
=infinidad (una)=, an infinite number
=interior=, interior, inland
=limitar=, to confine, to limit
=mejorar=, to improve
=minero=, miner
=obrero=, workman
=orillas=, banks of a river
=palmera=, date palm
=población=, villa, town
=póliza de seguro=, insurance policy
=prescindir de=, to dispense with
=regadío=, irrigation
=rieles=, rails
=tal cual= (of goods), as they are, as they were
=tomar en consideración=,  to take into consideration, to entertain
=turba=, crowd (motley)
=virtualmente=, practically, virtually


                            EXERCISE 1 (63).

Translate into English--

1. La palmera., el pistacho, y la higuera crecen en Andalucía pero los
dátiles, los pistachos y los higos que se venden en el mercado inglés
provienen principalmente de Berberia, de Grecia y Esmirna (Smyrna).

2. En los recientes disturbios en la provincia de Champaña muchas viñas
se han destruido por las turbas enfurecidas.

3. Explíqueme V. el cómo y el cuando del asunto (all about the affair) y
luego (then) considerare yo el pro y el contra.

4. Á mi no me importa el que dirán (what people will say).

5. La industria del hierro es una de las principales fuentes de riqueza
del Reino Unido.

6. Las máquinas de toda especie, los buques de vapor, los rieles de
ferrocarriles, las herramientas mecánicas y agrícolas, las armas
blancas y de fuego y una infinidad de otros objetos se deben á esa
industria.

7. En el norte de Espana, especialmente en Bilbao se trabaja el hierro
en grande escala.

8. El río que atraviesa dicha población presta (gives) fuerza motriz á
varias fábricas situadas en sus orillas, y sirve también al regadío de
los campos y huertas.

9. Escarmentados por el fracaso de la huelga de los mineros, los obreros
hiladores se dieron á partido admitiendo las condiciones ofrecidas por
los patronos, evitando así el cierre.

10. Patronos y obreros deberían trabajar armoniosamente y fundados en la
justicia; el capital y el trabajo no pueden prescindir el uno del otro.


                            EXERCISE 2 (64).

Translate into Spanish--

1. The steamer ran aground on the Spanish coast but the crew were saved.

2. People are apt to forget (se olvida facilmente de) the teachings of
history (historia).

3. His action has put me in a serious embarrassment.

4. I put it as a condition that the bills be drawn against delivery of
B/L and insurance policy.

5. They placed all their trust in their agent.

6. I do not mean to say that they wanted to deceive him.

7. When prices improve we shall be willing (estaremos dispuestos) to
sell.

8. I do not know what effect this had on the market.

9. If I knew, I should be able to act accordingly (de conformidad).

10. I do not think he knows (_subj._) what suits him best.

11. The Directors are not in the least (absolutamente) disposed to
launch upon (lanzarse a) a large foreign trade, so that the operations
of the concern (compañía _or_ casa) remain confined practically to the
inland market.

12. We received a claim on our last shipment but we refused to
(rehusamos de) entertain it as the goods were jobs (géneros imperfectos)
and were sold as they were with all faults (imperfecciones).

13. We are sorry our customers should have suffered any loss, but we
cannot make it good, and we shall stand our ground (insistiremos en
eso).



                              LESSON XXXIII.
                      (Lección trigésima tercera.)

                AUGMENTATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE TERMINATIONS


(see also Appendix IV).

Examples in English--

Ball, balloon
Book, booklet
Lad, laddie
Man, manikin

These terminations are frequent in Spanish, especially the diminutive.

_On_ (_m._), _ona_ (_f._)[177] denote augmentation, as--

Libro, book
Librón, large book

[Footnote 177: Feminine nouns, however, generally take =on= and become
masculine, as--

   Un mujerón: A tall woman.
   Except when ambiguity might arise, as:

   Un muchachón: A tall or big boy Una muchachona: A tall or big girl.]


_ito_ (_m._), _ita_ (_f._), _ico_ (_m._), _ica_ (_f._)

Denote diminution (to which an idea of endearment is always attached
which is natural in Spanish when speaking of little objects in the
ordinary way.)

If for any reason disparagement or insignificance is suggested then
_illo, illa, uelo, uela_, are used instead.

Other terminations less used are _azo, acho, onazo, achón, ote, astro,
aco_, and a few others (augmentative, suggesting (generally)
disparagement); _ete, in, ino, itito, itico, itillo_, and a few others
(diminutive). If a noun ends in a vowel, this is elided[178] before
adding the termination.

[Footnote 178: If a noun ends in _n_ (except proper names like "Juan")
or _r, ito, ico, illo, uelo_, change into =cito, cico, cillo, zuelo=. If
a noun of one syllable ends in a consonant, or a noun of two syllables
ends in _e_ or _ío_, or contains a diphthong, _ito, ico_, etc., change
into =ecito, ecico=, etc. If a noun of one syllable ends in a vowel,
_ito, ico_, etc., become =ececito, ececico=, etc. Other slight changes
occur also.]


The Augmentative and Diminutive terminations have no determinate
meaning: they are vague and indefinite and consequently when preciseness
is required we must use the adjectives "grande," "pequeño," etc. (which
can be employed conjointly with the terminations), as--

Me dió dos librones gruesos y tres libritos delgados: He gave me two
heavy big books and three small ones.

Students should use the terminations _on_ and _ito_ but no others until
they become familiar with them with reading, as they cannot be used
indiscriminately with all nouns.

The termination _azo_ serves also to indicate an injury or explosion
from a weapon, as--

Un sablazo (a sabre-cut)
Un puñetazo (a blow with the fist)
Un navajazo (a stab with a knife)
Un cañonazo (a cannon-shot)

With some weapons some other terminations are used--

Una cuchillada (same as navajazo)
Una paliza (a thrashing with a stick)


=Traer= (to bring).

_Pres. Part._, Trayendo (_i_ unstressed between two vowels always
changes into _y_).
_Pres. Indic._, Traigo.
_Past Def._, Traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron.


     VOCABULARY.

=actitud=, actitude
=agiotista=, stock-jobber
=alejarse=, to go away
=aludir á=, to allude, to hint
=apurado de dinero=, short of money
=apurar=, to purify, to exhaust
=calcular=, to calculate, to reckon
=callar=, to keep silent, to omit speaking
=cambiar=, to change, to alter
=consignar=, to consign, to record
=contrato social=, articles of partnership
=cordobán=, morocco leather
=despacio=, slowly
=despreciable=, despicable
=dinero efectivo=, cash
=discutir=, to discuss
=especulación=, speculation, venture
=garrote=, cudgel, stick
=*impedir=, to hinder, to preclude
=ladrón=, thief
=(el) matiz=, shade
=*mover=, to move, to actuate
=mozalbete=, beardless youth
=*quebrantamiento=, breakage, break down
=reflejo=, reflection
=*seguir=, to pursue
=sin ton ni son=, without rhyme or reason
=sombrero de copa=, silk hat
=vejete=, diminutive old man
=vocablo=, vocable, word


                            EXERCISE 1 (65).

Translate into English--

1. El agiotista que V. ve allí, aquel hombrón con el sombrerote de copa,
ha hecho un fortunazo en sus especulaciones bursátiles (stock exchange
speculations).

2. Aquel vejete que le acompaña con ese mozalbete su hijo me ha vendido
una partidilla de Cordobán muy baratita.

3. Librazo, libraco, librote, libracho son todos variaciones de "libro,"
como también librito, librillo, libreto, librete, libretín, librejo que
son sus formas diminutivas.

4. Libreta es diminutive de "libra"; se usa también por pan de una
libra; "libreto" es el de una ópera; el cuadernito de papel de fumar es
"librillo."

5. Estas graduaciones ó matices del sentido se deben aprender con la
práctica y se deben usar naturalmente sin afectación como reflejo del
profundo conocimiento de la lengua, y no copiados de un diccionario "sin
ton ni son" como se dice en español.

6. Por ejemplo, "librazo, libracho, y librote" se refieren más al
aspecto del libro. "Libracos" mas a los despreciables por su contenido.

7. También se debe notar que algunas terminaciones convienen á ciertos
vocablos y á otros no, por ejemplo hay "libraco" y "pajarraco" pero esta
terminación no puede tomarla el sustantivo "hombre."

8. En fin con lo dicho y con lo consignado en el apéndice IV el
estudiante tiene bastante por ahora.

9. Con la República en Portugal acabadita de proclamar, nos vemos
apuradillos de dinero pues los clientes portugueses van despacito en sus
remesas.

10. Callandito se vino el ladronzuelo y se alejó sin ser visto.

11. Cuchilladas, pistolazos, revolveradas, y aún garrotazos son raros en
Inglaterra; el Inglés se bate a puñetazo limpio (with his fist) cuando
es de la hampa (a rough), y cuando es caballero no se bate aunque si
llega el caso es muy capaz de dar muy buena cuenta de sí.


                            EXERCISE 2 (66).

Translate into Spanish--

1. If you cannot command (no puede disponer de) cash, we shall have to
alter our price lists as our prices will have to be reckoned on a
different basis; they will be a little dearer.

2. I am bound to say that there is some very strong opinion on this side
(de este lado) against the course your Government intends to pursue in
the matter.

3. The situation has been complicated by the breakdown of the
arrangement we had made with our carriers (agentes de transporte).

4. I believe that the reason actuating Mr. Melero's attitude (mueve al
Sr. M. en su) towards us, a reason which he hinted more than once in his
correspondence, is that his articles of partnership with his friends in
Rosario preclude him from entertaining (tomar en consideración) any new
ventures.

5. At the monthly meeting of the Council of the Chamber of Commerce
(Consejo de la Cámara de Comercio) the Japanese tariff was discussed on
a (tras) communication from the Board of Trade ("Board of Trade,"
Ministerio de Comercio).



                              LESSON XXXIV.
                      (Lección trigésima cuarta.)

                             THE ADJECTIVE.


The position of qualifying adjectives is generally after the noun,
especially

1. Those denoting physical qualities, as--

Un hombre ciego: A blind man.
Una mesa redonda: A round table.
Paño negro:  Black cloth.

2. Those denoting nationality, as--

Quincalla inglesa:  British hardware.

3. Those derived from verbs, as--

Mercancía averiada: Damaged goods.

The above rule is subject to many exceptions for the sake of euphony or
to give more than the ordinary prominence to the adjective or the noun;
however, the following rule will be found a reliable general one, and it
is in fact the informing principle of all special rules given in the
various grammars--

An adjective used as an epithet should precede the noun; if used as a
distinguishing word it should follow.

By an adjective used as an epithet, we mean one calling to mind a
quality known (or supposed) to belong to the noun, as--

No perdió el aliento el valiente general: The brave general did not lose
courage.

By a distinguishing word we mean one used to indicate the quality of a
noun as compared with another of the same species, as--

Quiero comprar maquinaria barata: I wish to buy cheap machinery.

The Partitive Adjectives "some" and "any" are left out in translation
when they do not convey the idea of limited quantity. When they do,
"algún," "un poco de" (_sing._), "algunos" and "unos" (_pl._) are used.

"Un poco de" and "unos" convey the idea of a more limited quantity or
number than "alguno" and "algunos."

The following few examples are calculated to make it clear as regards
the various shades of meaning--

¿Tiene V. alfombras? Have you any carpets?

Tengo algún azúcar para vender: I have some sugar to sell.

¿Quiere V. un poco de papel? Will you have some paper?

Yo tengo algunas obligaciones: I have some debentures.

He recibido algunos cigarros, le reservaré unas cajas de los mejores: I
received some cigars; I shall reserve for you some boxes of the best
quality.

One adjective preceding two or more nouns agrees in gender and number
with the first only, as--

La nueva caldera y accesorios gustó (_or_ gustaron) mucho al cliente:
The new boiler and accessories pleased the customer very much.

N.B.--If a verb intervenes the adjective is generally plural, and in
case of different genders is pl. masc., as--

Adjuntos remitimos factura y conocimiento: Enclosed we send invoice and
bill of lading.

When the adjective follows two or more nouns, it is put in the plural,
as--

El trigo y el maíz están sostenidos: Wheat and maize are firm.

If the nouns are of different genders, the adjective is pl. masc., as--

El encaje y las guarniciones han salido caros: The lace and trimmings
came out dear.


EXCEPTION--

When all the several nouns preceding the adjective are in the plural,
and all referring to things (not persons), the adjective _may_ be made
to agree in gender with the noun last mentioned, as--

Los tornillos y las tuercas están bien ajustados (_or_ ajustadas): The
screws and nuts are well adjusted. It is better to avoid this
construction

(1) By saying "las tuercas y los tornillos están bien ajustados."

(2) By using an adjective having the same termination for masculine and
feminine.

(3) By giving a different turn to the sentence, as: "Son de buen ajuste".

Adjectives that qualify the fem. _nada_ (nothing) are always used in the
masculine--

Nada bueno espero de él: I expect nothing good from him.

Adjectives referring to titles of individuals are placed in the gender
of the persons bearing those titles, as--

V. (contraction of Vuestra Merced) es muy buen amigo: You are a very
good friend.

Adjectives of colour derived from a noun, as "violeta" (violet), "rosa"
(pink), "chocolate" (chocolate), etc., do not take the mark of the
plural, the words "color de" being understood before them, as--

Guantes crema: Cream gloves.



=Valer= (to be worth).

_Pres. Indic._, Valgo.
_Fut. Indic._, Valdré, valdrás, valdrá, valdremos, valdréis, valdrán.
_Imper. Mood_, Val _or_ vale....


     VOCABULARY.

=aceite=, oil
=aflojar=, to slacken
=ajuste de averia=, average adjustment
=almacenes fiscales=, bonded ware houses
=carne en salmuera=, pickled beef
=comarca=, region
=conceder=, to grant, to allow
=cosecha=, crop, harvest
=cueros=, hides
=exiguo=, small, insignificant, slender
=incluir=, to include, to enclose
=incluso=, included
=incluyendo=, including
=íntegro=, upright, integer, whole
=interino=, interim
=juicioso=, sensible
=linones, olanes=, lawns
=manteca de puerco, lardo=, lard
=pieles=, skins
=productos accesorios=, by-products
=sebo=, tallow
=tarjeta=, card
=tasajo=, jerked beef
=tierno=, tender
=viajante=, commercial traveller[179]

[Footnote 179: Traveller (passenger, tourist)--Viajero.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (67).

Translate into English--

1. Benéficas lluvias han caído en toda la comarca, y las tiernas plantas
prometen abundante cosecha si siguen favorables las condiciones
climatológicas (climatic).

2. Las compras baratas no resultan siempre lo que se llama "gangas"
(bargains) pues es necesario también que sean de calidad conveniente y
adecuada para el mercado á que se las destine.

3. He recibido una consignación de carne en salmuera, lenguas en latas
(canned tongues), tasajo, sebo, margarina, manteca de puerco (_or_
lardo), y productos accesorios que espero poder colocar bien.

4. Me enviaron también un poco de aceite de margarina, heces de sebo
(tallow greaves), hueso molido (bone-meal) y tripas de buey (ox casings)
baratas.

5. ¿Ha vendido V. algo de estas?

6. No, pero he vendido un poco de sebo.

7. ¿ No ha recibido V. cueros y pieles?

8. No, estos no pertenecen á mi ramo de negocios (line of business).

9. Ha entrado mucho té este mes en los almacenes fiscales y además algún
café de Costa Rica.

10. La magnífica colección de muestras y tarjetas para reclamo
(advertisement) que nos trajo ese viajante nos han gustado muchísimo.

11. El ajuste de avería y el cheque por la indemnización concedida van
inclusos.

12. Tanto los provechos como las pérdidas son exiguos (_or_ exiguas).

13. No hay nada (de) extraordinario en que afloje el mercado.

14. V. es hombre integro y su Señora es mujer juiciosa.

15. Le tomaré algunas piezas de prueba de estos linones rosa y crema
pero nada de estos estampados chocolate.


                            EXERCISE 2 (68).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We have to acknowledge the receipt of your esteemed letter of the 1st
inst., which brought us £640 on L. & Sons, payable August 10th.

2. Carried forward (á la vuelta). Brought forward (de la vuelta).

3. Brown sugars have been rather brisk for some time (desde algún
tiempo).

4. The manufacturer has discontinued making the old article.

5. The Directors of the Z Company announce an interim (provisorio)
dividend for the first six months of the current year at the rate of 10
per cent. per annum.

6. Reuter's Paris correspondent telegraphs that earnest representations
are being made by the British Chamber of Commerce in Paris to the French
Customs Administration (Administración de Aduanas) concerning the recent
change in the classification of yarns wound on bobbins (en bobinas), a
matter which seriously affects Lancashire interests.

7. The great object (objeto principal) the meeting had in view was the
promotion of further (el abrir nuevas vías al) progress and (y á la)
civilisation. That necessarily implied fewer appeals to the arbitrament
of the sword (que deberían disminuir los casos de apelar á la espada)
and (y ser) more frequent appeals to the remedy of reason.



                              LESSON XXXV.
                      (Lección trigésima quinta.)

                        THE ADJECTIVE (_contd._).


=Degrees of Comparison=.

"As ... as" and "so ... as" are translated "tan ... como," "as much ...
as" and "so much ... as" are translated "tanto-a,-os-as ... como" or
"cuanto."

N.B.--_Cuan_ may be used instead of _como_ before an adjective as--

Tan razonable en precio cuan apreciado por la buena calidad: As
reasonable in price as it is appreciated for its good quality.

"The more ... the more" is translated "cuanto más ... tanto más"; also
"más ... más" (without the article).

"Than whom," "than which" is translated as follows--

Sedas floreadas italianas que no las hay mejores en el mercado: Italian
flowered silks, than which there are no better on the market.

Adjectives ending in _io_ (not _ío_) drop the whole diphthong before
adding _ísimo_, as--

Amplio--Amplísimo (very ample).

EXCEPT Agrio--Agriísimo (very sour).

Those ending in _z_ change of course the _z_ into c, as--

Feliz--felicísimo[180] (very happy).

[Footnote 180: _Z_ should not occur before _e_ and _i_ in modern Spanish.]

The irregular superlatives _óptimo, pésimo, máximo, mínimo, ínfimo_ and
_supremo_ are used very sparingly, but they are found both as
superlative absolute and superlative relative, as--

Esta es una cantidad ínfima: It is an infinitesimal amount.

El precio mínimo[181]: The minimum price.

[Footnote 181: Although improperly, we often find "más mínimo" (más
ínfimo, etc.).]

El supremo bien de la vida es hacer á otros felices: The highest
blessing of life is to make others happy.

The irregular comparatives _mejor_ and _peor_ are in general use.

_Mayor_ and _menor_ refer more generally to age (older, elder, and
younger).

"_Inferior_" and "_superior_" are generally used as their English
equivalents.

The expressions "a larger building," "a higher tree," etc., are
generally rendered "un edificio más grande," "un árbol más alto," etc.

Irregular superlatives--

Acre (sour) Acérrimo
Amigo (friendly) Amicísimo
Antiguo (ancient) Antiquísimo
Áspero (harsh) Aspérrimo
Benéfico (beneficent) Beneficentísimo
Benévolo (benevolent) Benevolentísimo
Célebre (celebrated) Celebérrimo
Fiel (faithful) Fidelísimo
Íntegro (upright) Integérrimo
Libre (free), Libérrimo
Magnífico (magnificent) Magnificentísimo
Mísero (miserable) Misérrimo
Munífico (munificent) Munificentísimo
Pobre (poor), Paupérrimo, _and_ Pobrísimo (more used)
Sabio (wise) Sapientísimo
Sagrado (holy) Sacratísimo
Salubre (healthy) Salubérrimo
Simple (simple) Simplicísimo
--Ubérrimo (most fruitful)

Some of the best modern authors write "buenísimo," "nuevísimo," etc.,
regularly without substituting the diphthong by the pure vowel, as
"bonísimo," "novísimo," notwithstanding the shifting of the stress.[182]

[Footnote 182: See Note 47.]

Substantives used as adjectives admit of comparison, as--

Es tan caballero _or_ más caballero que sus contrincantes: He is as (or
more) gentlemanly as (than) his neighbours (competitors).

"Than" followed by a number, unless the sentence be negative, is
translated by _de_.

"Than" followed by a finite verb is _de lo que_, as--

Cumple más de lo que promete: He accomplishes more than he promises.

But--

Hablar Español es más difícil que escribirlo: To speak Spanish is more
difficult than to write it.

The following expressions are translated--

Él le lleva seis años: He is older than you by six years.

Esta tela cuesta cinco peniques menos la yarda: This cloth is cheaper by
five pence a yard.

Esta casa es diez años más antigua: This firm is older by ten years.

Es tan poderoso que domina el mercado: He is so powerful as to control
the market.

=Ver= (to see).
_Past Part._, Visto.
_Pres. Indic._, Veo[183] ...

[Footnote 183: It forms the pres. subj., Vea, veas, etc.
_Imperf. Indic._, Veía, veías, veía, veíamos, veíais, veían.]


     VOCABULARY.

=acaudalado=, rich, wealthy
=*advertir=, to notice
=alcalde=, mayor
=alfombrada=, carpeting
=añadir=, to add
=apagarse=, to go out (fire)
=atraicionar=, to betray
=boticario=, chemist
=caja fuerte=, safe
=calorífero=, stove
=carbón (de piedra)=, coal
=carbón (vegetal)=, charcoal
=carpeta=, writing-pad
=casillero=, pigeon-holes
=certificar=,  to  certify, to register (in the post)
=chimenea=, chimney
=contestar=, to answer
=echar al correro=, to post
=ensartar=, to string (beads), to file (papers)
=escaño=, stool
=estante=, book-shelf
=franqueo=, postage
=guardafuego=, fender
=guardapapeles, ensartapapeles=, paper files
=humear=, to smoke (chimney)
=lacre=, sealing wax
=legajo=, bundle (of papers)
=librarse=, to get rid of
=mano de papel secante=, quire of blotting-paper
=pupitre=, writing desk
=sello=, seal
=el sobre=, the envelope
=sujeta papeles=, paper fasteners


                           EXERCISE 1 (69).

Translate into English--

1. La casa de Rioja a y Cía. es tan respetable por su buena fama (name)
como por lo acaudalados que son sus propietarios.

2. Sí, es más estimada que cualquiera otra.

3. Dicen que tiene más de £150,000 de capital.

4. Es muy rica en efecto, pero no creo que su capital ascienda á más que
£100,000.

5. Cuanto más corriente en sus tratos es un negociante, tanto mejor le
resultan sus transacciones.

6. Estas son alfombradas de Bruselas que no las hay mejores en todo el
mundo.

7. Tenemos un campo (field) amplísimo para nuestras operaciones, las
cuales hasta aquí han tenido felicísimo resultado.

8. Nuestros géneros son todos de óptima calidad y á precios ínfimos.

9. Es de interés supremo para nosotros el dar los mejores productos á
precios mínimos.

10. La cantidad máxima no ha de exceder 500 kilógramos.

11. El hermano mayor es notario y alcalde del pueblo, el menor es
boticario.

12. La ciudad de Cádiz es antiquísima; fundóse en el siglo XV antes de
la era vulgar por los Fenicios.

13. El clima de Valparaíso es salubírrimo.

14. Fidelísimo criado, no quiso atraicionar á su amo que había sido
beneficentísimo para con él.

15. Euclides fué celebérrimo geómetra.


                            EXERCISE 2 (70).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I wish to straighten (poner en orden) the desk on (en) my table.

2. My pad is full of papers; I must get rid (librarme) of them.

3. Will you put all those answered letters in that shelf; You will find
the pigeon-holes alphabetically arranged, put each letter in the proper
bundle.

4. These others are filed away in that letter-file, alphabetically also.

5. Put the file in the safe; we always keep it under lock and key (bajo
llave).

6. Now give me a quire of blotting-paper, pens, nibs (puntitas),
paper-fasteners and the stamp-rack (porta-estampillas).

7. These envelopes go into the waste-paper basket (cestilla).

8. Fetch that stool, please; place it before that desk (banco).

9. See to the (hacer atención al) fire, it is going out, poke it
(removerlo) a little and add some coal.

10. This is the coal scuttle (caja del carbón), the shovel (la pala) and
the poker (atizador) are near the fender.

11. Hot-water pipes (tubos) are preferable to fires or stoves.

12. Yes, our chimney always smokes; it is a nuisance (¡que fastidio!
¡que barbaridad!).

13. Post these letters. Stamp them (póngales los sellos) and notice
there are some to be registered (para certificar).

14. Do not forget to put the stamp of the firm (casa).

15. If any weigh in excess (demasiado), it does not matter (no importa);
put the excess postage.

16. Seal that envelope; here are the seal and sealing-wax.



                              LESSON XXXVI.
                       (Lección trigésima sexta.)

                        THE ADJECTIVE (_contd_.).


The adjective _grande_ (great, large) may _precede_ or follow a noun.

If it precedes it _may_ drop the final syllable. When _grande_ (or
_gran_) precedes it generally refers more to quality than to size, but
this rule is not strict _at all_, as much is left to the tone of the
voice and also to gesture.

When "Santo" means "holy" it is always written in full.
When "Santo" means "saint" it drops the "to" before the name following.

EXCEPTIONS--

Santo Tomás (or Tomé), Santo Domingo, and Santo Torribio.

But--La isla de San Tomás (the Island of St. Thomas, West Indies).

Some adjectives alter their meaning according as they precede or follow
a noun, as--

Cierto hombre: A certain man. (Not "un cierto.")
Una noticia cierta: A certain (sure) news.

Un pobre escritor: A poor writer--of little worth.
Un escritor pobre: An impecunious writer.

Un simple favor: A simple favour.
Un favor simple: A simple favour.

Un simple soldado: A simple (plain) soldier.
Un hombre simple: A simple man, a simpleton.

"One" and "ones" after an adjective are always left untranslated. "Man"
and "woman" in the majority of cases are also omitted, as--

Tengo algunos buenos: I have some good ones.
Un francés, una francesa: A Frenchman, a Frenchwoman.

Numeral adjectives used for measurement are translated as follows--

Una plataforma de 30 pies de largo y seis pies de ancho (_also_ de 30
pies por seis): A platform 30 feet long by six feet wide.

Este tanque tiene 16 pies de profundidad: This tank is 16 feet deep.

"In" after a superlative relative is rendered by _de_, as--

Es el negociante más próspero de la ciudad: He is the most successful
merchant in the city.

The proportional adjectives are--

El doble (the double)
El triple (3 fold)
El cuádruplo (4 fold)
El quíntuple (5 fold)
El séxtuple (6 fold)
El décuplo (10 fold)
El céntuplo (100 fold)
Siete veces tanto (7 fold)
Ocho veces tanto (8 fold). Etc., etc.

The adjective is used also adverbially, oftener in Spanish than in
English, as--

Hablar claro, alto, bajo, fuerte: To speak clearly, loudly, softly,
strongly.

Comprar caro, barato: To buy dear, cheap.

Ir derecho: To go straight.

Tener fuerte: To hold fast.

Exclamó ufano, cortés, enfadado, bondadoso: He proudly, courteously,
angrily, kindly exclaimed.

Justo ha llegado una carta: A letter has just arrived.

Adjectives have a governing power through a preposition and then the
preposition to be used belongs to the "idiom" of the language. Practice
will make perfect.

The following are some examples in which the construction differs from
the English--

Afable á, _or_ con, _or_ para con todos: Affable to all.
Agradecido á los beneficios: Grateful for the favours.
Agudo de ingenio: Sharp-witted.
Ajeno de la verdad: Foreign to truth.
Alegre de cascos: Light-headed.
Blanco de tez: fair-complexioned.
Cargado de espaldas: Round-shouldered.
Codicioso, deseoso de dinero: Greedy, wishing for money.
Cercano á su fin: Nearing his end.
¡Desdichado de mí!: Unhappy me!
Difícil de comprender: Hard to understand.
Dotado de buenas partes: Endowed with good parts.
Duro de cabeza (de mollera), de corazón: Hard-headed, hard-hearted.
Evidente para todo el mundo: Evident to all.
Fácil de explicar: Easy to explain.
Falto de juicio: Lacking in judgment.
Hermoso de ver: Beautiful to see.
Lleno de cerveza, de vino: Full of (or with) beer, wine.
Mayor _or_ Menor de edad: Of age, under age.
Pequeño de tamano: Small in size.
Rico de virtudes: Rich in virtues.
Seco (enjuto) de carnes: Spare in flesh.
Sorprendido de la noticia: Surprised at the news.
Tardo á comprender: Slow in understanding.
Triste de aspecto: Sad in countenance.


     VOCABULARY.

=á la par=, at the same time
=las Antillas=, the West Indies
=atropellar por=, to infringe,
   to trample upon, also to run down (vehicles, etc.)
=blando=, gentle, soft
=chaconada=, jacconet
=ciencia=, science, wisdom
=corto=, short, brief
=desarme=, disarmament
=deseoso=, wishful, eager
=dique=, dock
=doctrina=, doctrine, knowledge
=equivocarse=, to make a mistake
=fletar=, to freight, to charter
=forros estampados=, printed linings
=hidalguía=, chivalry, nobleness, gentlemanly principles
=imponerse á=, to command
=inconveniencia=, unsuitability, impropriety
=el inconveniente=, inconvenience
=ladrillos refractarios=, firebricks
=lástima=, pity, compassion
=nivel=, level
=principal=, principal, chief, leading
=quejarse (de)=, to complain
=responsable=, responsible
=rizados, crespolinas=, crimps
=tío=, uncle, also a coarse fellow[184]
*=tropezar=, to stumble
=ufano=, proud, full of dignity
=velero=, sailing vessel, sailer

[Footnote 184: Also used before names instead of "Señor" among country
folks.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (71).

Translate into English--

1. Gran lastima es, si lastima grande que las grandes naciones no se
pongan de acuerdo para proclamar el desarme general.

2. Santa vida fué la de San Francisco de Asis.

3. Aun los racionalistas respetan a este Santo como también a la
profunda doctrina de Santo Tom as de Aquino.

4. Ciertos nombres se imponen al respeto universal.

5. Es cosa cierta que la virtud puede ser patrimonio del hombre pobre
como del rico.

6. Pobre excusa seria el pretender haberlo hecho por un simple favor
pues esto no convencería a los hombres más simples.

7. El hombre más sabio del mundo puede equivocarse alguna vez, llegue á
donde llegare su ciencia (however great, etc.)

8. Si V. me diera el doble, el triple, el quintuple, y aun seis, diez ó
cien veces tanto, no cometería esa indelicadeza, atropellando por las
leyes de la hidalguía y del honor.

9. El orador habla claro, metafórico, alto, bajo, fuerte, y blando según
lo exija el argumento y las circunstancias pero se le demanda que tenga
por bianco (to have for his aim) la virtud y el progreso.

10. Ande V. derecho y tenga fuerte que no vaya (lest you) á tropezar y á
caerse.

11. Cortés y ufano á la par, repuso: "soy pobre mas soy honrado."

12. Justo lo que debía contestar.

13. Los estudiantes más agudos de ingenio son á veces un tantico alegres
de cascos.

14. No importa (never mind), son todos deseosos de aprender y afables
con su profesor que además de ser cojo de un pie ya está cercano á su
fin.

15. Este tío es duro de cabeza aunque sea dotado de buenas partes.


                            EXERCISE 2 (72).

Translate into Spanish--

1. We are open (dispuestos) to charter a small steamer or a sailing
vessel for St. Thomas in the West Indies.

2. We can offer you a small one for a voyage out and home (de ida y
vuelta).

3. The heating surface (superficie de caldeo) is (es de) 20' X 15'.

4. These warehouses are 30' long, 20' wide (de ancho) and 15 feet high
(de alto).

5. Some are built with stone and mortar (son de mampostería), others
with firebricks, and they are the best in the docks.

6. Last week nothing was doing (no se hacía) on 'Change, but' to-day
leading operators are distinctly bullish (trabajan distintamente por la
alza) and have acquired a further large holding (y se han afianzado
mucho más), being more convinced than ever that prices will climb[185]
(subirán) to a much higher level.

7. Meanwhile the market is getting dangerously overbought (el exceso de
compras en el mercado se hace peligroso).

8. He gave me too short a notice (aviso) and the consequence was 20
bales were short shipped (no se expidieron).

9. He now complains of being short of (que le faltan) printed linings,
jacconets and crimps, also of short measure (de falta de medida) in some
of the cloth invoiced.

10. Their orders fall short (son mucho menos) of what we expected.

11. We have run short of (se nos ha acabado) the raw material.

12. Our correspondents are short-staffed (no tienen bastante personal),
hence their delaying often to send out (y por tanto a menudo retardan el
envío de) our invoices, which is a great inconvenience.

[Footnote 185: To climb--_Trepar_.]



                              LESSON XXXVII.
                      (Lección trigésima séptima.)

                               THE PRONOUN.


The pronouns _Nos_ and _Vos_ are used for the 1st and 2nd person
_singular_, respectively, in poetry and high-flown prose.

_Nos_ is used in Royal decrees; and _Vos_ often to translate the French
"vous" and English "you" in novels. They require the verb in the plural
and any occurring adjective in the singular, masculine or feminine
according to the sex represented--

Nos el Rey somos justo: We the King are just.

Vos Doña Catalina sois generosa: You, Lady Catherine, are generous.

A subject pronoun following "to be" and preceding a relative may be
followed by a verb in the 1st or 3rd person, as--

Soy yo quien giré _or_ giró aquella letra: It is I who drew that bill.

Two or more personal pronouns used as subjects of one verb require the
verb in the plural, and in the 1st person in preference to the 2nd and
3rd, and 2nd in preference to 3rd, as--

Yo y tú (_or_ yo y él) vamos; tú y él vais.

A conjunctive pronoun should precede the verb in the Indic. Cond. and
Subj. moods, but with the verb in the Indic. or Cond. mood a great
latitude is allowed for the sake of euphony or emphasis. The principal
idea is to give thereby more prominence to the verb, as--

Entreguéle los bultos, acordéle toda facilidad para el pago y quise
acabarlo todo amistosamente.

The conjunctive pronouns _lo, le_, are both used for "him," "it" (_m._),
(direct object); the second is more generally used for a person, but no
distinction is strictly observed.

_Lo_ (not _le_) should however be used for "it," referring to a whole
statement.

_Lo_ translates often the English "so," as--

Lo digo: I say it, I say so.

Ya lo creo: I should think so.

The conjunctive dative (indirect object) should be _le_ for both genders
(_sing._). _La_ instead of _le_ for the feminine is however permissible
and is used by the best writers.

_Les_ instead of _los_ is often found in the accusative (direct object),
masculine plural, but this should not be imitated.

When a conjunctive pers. pronoun follows the verb, the subject pronoun
must also follow, as--

Dígolo yo (_not_ yo dígolo): I say so.

Otherwise the position of the subject pronoun in relation to the verb is
very arbitrary, the general practice being, of course, to put it before
unless the sentence is interrogative.

The conj. pronouns _nos_ and _os_ following a verb in the Imperative
mood require the elision of the _s_ and _d_ termination of the verb,
as--

Escribámonos: Let us write to each other.

Escribíos: Write to each other.

Conjunctive pronouns are used to substitute the possessive adjective
before parts of the body or articles of dress, as--

Me quebré el brazo: I broke my arm.

Se lastimó el dedo: He hurt his finger.

Se puso el sombrero: He put on his hat.

Also--

Me han impuesto una multa sobre los géneros: They have inflicted a fine
on my goods.

And in all similar cases when by doing this the possessive may be
avoided without creating confusion.

A somewhat similar use of these pronouns is the "ethical" dative, as--

Póngame aquí un clavo: Put me a nail here.

Castígueme este muchacho para que aprenda: Punish this boy (for me) so
that he may learn.

Córteme el pelo á este muchacho: Cut this boy's hair.

This "ethical dative" shows the person _interested in the action. Its
use is much more frequent in Spanish than in English.


=Conducir= (model verb for all ending in _ducir_; to conduct, to lead).

_Pres. Indic._, Conduzco----------

_Pres. Subj._, Conduzca, conduzcas, conduzca, conduzcamos, conduzcáis,
conduzcan.

_Past Def._, Conduje, condujiste, condujo, condujimos, condujisteis,
condujeron.[186]

[Footnote 186: Not "condujieron." Imp. Subj., of course, Condujese, etc.]


     VOCABULARY.

=abordar=, to board, to accost, to approach
=*abrir agua=, to spring a leak
=ajeno=, belonging to others, outward
*=andar en cuestiones=, to dispute
=barrica=, cask
=cabo=, corporal
=¿cómo no?= yes, of course I will
*=cubrir (p.p. cubierto)=, to cover
*=dar dos pasos=, to take a stroll
*=dar la lengua=, to chat, to parley
=despejar=, to clear
=devanarse los sesos=, to rack one's brains
=difunto=, late, deceased
=estallar=, to burst, to explode, to break out
=formal=, formal, respectable
*=ir repitiendo, etc=., to keep repeating, etc.
=jefe del despacho=, manager
=llevarse bien=, to get on well together
=lograr=, to contrive, to attain
=machacar=, to hammer, to insist
=mandato=, order, injunction
=melindroso=, squeamish, very particular
=multa=, fine, penalty
=Noruego=,   Norwegian
=peligro=, danger
=remolcar=, to tow
=sacar en limpio=, to make out
¡=santo y bueno=!   that is all very well
=sargento=, sergeant
=transportar=, to transport, to convey
=tul bordado=, embroidered tulle
=vender gato por liebre=, to cheat
¡=vaya=! come (exclam.)


                            EXERCISE 1 (73)

Translate into English--

1. ¿Vió V. á la Señora (the wife) del Coronel?

2. Víla ayer y la dí el recado del Sr. Mayor.

3. ¿Este cabo se lleva bien con sus soldados?

4. Lo creo, me lo ha dicho el sargento.

5. Bueno fuera írselo repitiendo al jefe para que abrevie, si puede ser.

6. Á mi no me cuente para nada (do not take me into account), valdríale
mejor verse con (see) el jefe del despacho.

7. Á él le gusta dar la lengua, vaya á hablarle.

8. No le conozco, V. se hace cargo (you understand) que me resulta
dificultoso el abordarle, y lo mismo da (it is the same) hablar con V.

9. V. se equivoca, va mucho de Pedro á Pedro (there is a great
difference between the two) y en cuanto á su timidez no sea V.
melindroso y tenga presente que el que no se atreve no pasa la mar
(nothing venture, nothing have).

10. Para no andar en más cuestiones seguiré su mandato (I shall do as
you tell me).

11. ¡Que tenga V. buena suerte!

12. Me devané los sesos procurando sacar en limpio lo que quería decir
la carta pero no me fué posible y dí al diablo con el hato y el garabato
(I gave up the whole confounded thing) como se suele decir.

13. Me puse el sombrero y me fuí para dar dos pasos y despejarme la
cabeza.

14. Sr. Juan, V. machaca desde muchos días sobre que le debo dar alguna
orden á Don José, pues para darles gusto á ambos salúdemele V. mucho
(give him my kind regards), en su primera carta y dígale que me envíe
luego 500 piezas de tul bordado repetición de mi pedido anterior, mismos
matices.


                            EXERCISE 2 (74).

Translate into Spanish--

1. It is I who conveyed (trasmitir) that information to him.

2. The goods were conveyed by the Ship Canal (el canal marítimo).

3. Have you made it clear (lo ha explicado claramente) that the risk
will be covered whether the casks travel by steamer or other conveyance
(medio de trasporte)?

4. Our agent contrived to get the fine refunded (hacerse refundir); he
wrote us so.

5. The vessel sprang a leak and was in danger but she spoke (habló con
la bocina á) a Norwegian steamer, who gave her assistance and towed her
to (al) Havre.

6. The conditions you have put forth (presentado) are altogether
unacceptable.

7. Put him in the way (muéstrele V. el modo) of conducting his business
without depending on (de) outward assistance.

8. He conducted his late employer's (jefe) business quite
satisfactorily.

9. Had I feared he would not conduct his own affairs properly (bien) I
should not have financed (comanditado) him.

10. He puts a wrong construction to my words (interpreta mal).

11. He owes us some money and keeps putting us off (y nos va dando
largas).

12. He has put off his journey (diferido, aplazado).

13. If you wish me to do business with your goodselves (su estimada
casa) you must put me on (concederme) the best possible terms.

14. The alarming news from India has put our market out of gear
(descompuesto).

15. Mr. Núñez was dreadfully put out (terriblemente desconcertado) by
the news that the revolution had broken out in Ecuador.

16. We must put up with (soportar) some inconvenience.

17. We shall put an end to (acabaremos) this exercise.



                           LESSON XXXVIII.
                     (Lección trigésima octava.)

                       THE PRONOUN. (_contd._).


Such expressions as "I did it myself," "You write it yourself," "we
spoke to him himself," are translated "Yo mismo lo hice," "V. mismo lo
escribe," "Le hablamos á él mismo."

Notice the following idiomatic uses of _Lo, La, Los, Las_ with the verbs
_haber_ and _hacer_--

¿Hay dinero? Is there money?--Sí, lo hay: Yes, there is some.

¿Hay pasividades? Are there any liabilities?--Sí, las hay: Yes, there
are some.

¿Hace dos días? Is it two days ago?--No, no los hace: No, it is not.

¿Hace una semana? Is it a week ago?--Sí, la hace: Yes, it is.

¿Hace falta escribir? Is it necessary to write?--La hace, mucho: Yes,
very necessary.

In the case of two verbs governing each other as "ir á ver" (to go and
see), "mandar hacer" (to have made), etc., a conjunctive pronoun,
occurring, may be taken by either verb, as--

Irle á ver _or_ ir á verle: To go and see him.

Mandarlo hacer _or_ Mandar hacerlo: To have it made.

An object pronoun _after a preposition_ may often be either ordinary or
reflexive as in English, as--

Los abogados han zanjado el asunto entre sí _or_ entre ellos: The
lawyers compromised the matter amongst themselves (or them).

Of course _él, ella, ellos, ellas_, cannot be used with reference to
"V." "Vs."--

Vs. lo han arreglado entre sí _or_ entre Vs. (_but not_ entre ellos):
You have arranged it between yourselves.


=Demonstrative Pronouns=.

Old Spanish forms now obsolete or seldom used--

Aqueste, etc., aquese, etc., for este, ese, etc.

Estotro, esotro, etc., for este otro, ese otro, etc.

The English expressions "I have not seen him these three months," etc.,
should be translated "Hace _or_ ha tres meses que no le veo," "Hace _or_
ha tres meses que no le he visto," "No le he visto (_or_ no le veo)
desde hace tres meses," "Hace (_or_ ha) tres meses desde que le ví la
última vez."

"I have been writing these three hours," is translated "Hace tres horas
que escribo (estoy escribiendo)," "Escribo" (estoy escribiendo) desde
hace tres horas.


=Relative Pronouns=.

_Cuyo_ in reality a relative possessive pronoun is often used as a pure
relative instead of _el cual_ followed by a noun, as--

Lo dí a un cliente, cuyo cliente lo pasó á un amigo de él:

I gave it to a customer which customer handed it to a friend of his.

The correct grammatical construction would be "el cual cliente"; but
however much some grammarians disclaim this employment of _cuyo_, it is
in the language and found in the best books and therefore must be
accepted.


=Indefinite Pronouns=.

The Indefinite Pronouns _algo_ and _nada_ followed by an adjective,
generally (but not necessarily) take =de= before the adjective, as--

Tengo algo (de) bueno: I have something good.
No tengo nada (de) bueno: I have nothing good.

_Un nada_ is used as a noun, as--

Un nada le asusta: A nothing frightens him.

_La nada_--nothingness.


+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|              =Sentir= (to feel, to regret).                          |
|_Pres. Part._, |Sintiendo.                                            |
|_Pres. Indic._,|Siento, sientes, siente ... sienten.                  |
|_Pres. Subj._, |Sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientan.  |
|_Past Def._,   | --   --   --    sintió    --   --   --     sintieron.|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|              =Pediz= (to ask, to request).                           |
|_Pres. Part._, |Pidiendo.                                             |
|_Pres. Indic._,|Pido, pides, pide   --  --  --  --  piden.            |
|_Pres. Subj._, |Pida, pidas, pida, pidamos, pidáis, pidan.            |
|_Past Def._,   | --  --  --  pidió   --   --   --   pidieron.         |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|              =Dormir= (to sleep).[187]                               |
|_Pres. Part._, |Durmiendo.                                            |
|_Pres. Ind._,  |Duermo, duermes, duerme ... duermen.                  |
|_Pres. Subj._, |Duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmáis, duerman.  |
|_Past  Def._,  | --   --   --    durmió    --   --   --     durmieron.|
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+


[Footnote 187: "Morir" is conjugated like "dormir," but has its past part.
"muerto." N.B.--"Muerto" is also a double form of the past part. of
"matar" (to kill), as--Le han muerto: They have killed him.]


     VOCABULARY.

=adeudar=, to debit, to pay (duty)
=atrasado=, in arrears, behind
=ce por be=, with all particulars, minutely
=chapas=, plates
*=contar=, to count, to relate
=discreto=, sensible, judicious, discreet
=dispensar=, to excuse
=echar á perder=, to spoil, to wreck
=empeoramiento=, turn for the worse
*=estar en poco de=, to be within an inch of
=grano de anis=, a trifling matter
*=hacer de las suyas=, to play one's pranks
*=hacer el obsequio=, to do the favour
=informe=, report
=mandar buscar=, to send for
=obligar=, to compel
*=obtener=, to obtain, to bring about
=pesado=, heavy
=quehaceres=, occupations, business
=reglamento=, regulation, bye-laws
=remesa=, remittance, shipment
=revista=, review
=rodajas (de goma)=, rubber heels (revolving)
=tacones (de goma)=, rubber heels (shaped)
=taller=, workshop
=tonto=, simpleton, foolish
=tornillos=, screws


                            EXERCISE 1 (75).

Translate into English--

1. Yo mismo escribo al Sr. Mendoza para decirle que puede hacer sus
pedidos á Vs. directamente pues, por mi parte no tengo inconveniente en
que así se haga.

2. Si dicho Señor envía pedidos ¿hace falta avisarle á V.?

3. Sí, la hace, y les ruego tengan la bondad de decírmelo á fin de poner
á Vs. en conocimiento de las condiciones en que deben hacerse las
remesas, etc.

4. ¿Hace ocho días que Ilegó el informe de la comisión?

5. Creo que no los hace todavía.

6. Tengo los muestrarios aquí, voy á dárselos á V.

7. Se los voy á devolver en seguida.

8. Nuestro agente y los corresponsales arreglarán esto entre ellos (_or_
entre sí).

9. Hace tres meses que no recibimos las revistas semanales de ese
mercado, las hemos pedido continuamente y siempre en balde.

10. Nuestros aduaneros cobran todo el peso (charge full weight) por sus
tacones y rodajas como si fuera goma solamente siendo así que vienen
juntos con sus chapas y tornillos, cuyos hierros, claro es, no debían
(deberían) adeudar el mismo derecho.

11. No sucedió nada de extraordinario para justificar su acción que en
poco estuvo de echarlo todo á perder.

12. Hágame V. el obsequio de contármelo todo, pues no es ningún grano de
anís.

13. Sentarse[188] pues y se lo contaré ce por be.

14. Dispense V. que le haya hecho esperar, tuve que despachar á mi
chauffeur.

15. Es V. muy dueño, pero acuérdese V. que primero los quehaceres y
después los placeres.

16. V. es hombre discrete y lo que es yo, soy un pobre ton to.

17. Vamos é ver de que se trata.

18. ¿Ha hecho V. alguna de las suyas?

[Footnote 188: Notice the Imperative Infinitive.]


                            EXERCISE 2 (76).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I regret having left the newspapers at the workshop, but I shall send
for them.

2. He regretted the turn for the worse in the market which compelled him
to request us to ask our friend for a guarantee.

3. English manufacturers are not asleep.

4. They have been asleep for many years but now they are wide awake (se
han despertado bien) to the necessity of adopting up-to-date methods
(modernos, á la altura de los tiempos) and adapting themselves to the
requirements of the consumers.

5. Manufacturers are selling every day but usually (generalmente) in
small lots.

6. Shirting makers want more money and find difficulty in getting it.

7. Dhooties (dhooties) and jacconets are now so well sold that producers
(productores) will only book (aceptan órdenes) at good prices.

8. Heavy textiles (telas) are too stiff for general attention (demasiado
firmes para atraer á los compradores) but makers are not hungry for
(ansiosos de obtener) orders.

9. Indian business was barely (apenas) of normal dimensions
(proporciones).

10. Will you set the books on that shelf (estante) and set (colocar)
those papers in order?

11. The term you have set me (fijado) is too short.

12. They ought to set a (dar) good example.

13. He set about it (puso mano á la obra) at once.

14. Setting aside the (prescindiendo del) fact that he is behind with
his payments, he does us great harm by running down (desacreditando) our
goods.

15. Winter has set in (principiado) and heavy cloths are in great
request.

16. I have set my mind on (me he decidido á) this venture.

17. A movement has been set on foot (iniciado) to bring about the
revision of the bye-laws.



                              LESSON XXXIX.
                       (Lección trigésima nona.)

                               THE VERB.


All intransitive verbs in Spanish are conjugated with the auxiliary verb
_haber_, as--

Ha venido: He has or is come.

A verb that governs an infinitive through a certain preposition, as--

Convenimos en hacerlo: We agreed upon doing it.

should drop the preposition when a finite verb follows.

N.B.--Many such verbs, however, may preserve the preposition even before
a finite mood, as--

Convenimos que, _or_ en que, lo hiciesen: We agreed that they should do
it.

When the subject of a verb is a collective noun, the verb is placed in
the singular (see Lesson XXXII for exception).

When a compound subject _follows_ the verb, this may agree in number and
person with the first subject only, as--

Nos ha llegado la circular y los impresos que la acompañaban: We
received the circular and the printed matter which accompanied it.

The ambiguity between a Reflexive verb plural and a Reciprocal verb is
avoided thus--

Se comprometen á sí (á sí mismos--emphatic): They commit themselves.

Se comprometen el uno al ótro, _or_ los unos á los otros: They commit
each other.

A Reflexive verb is that in which the second pronoun of the same person
as the subject, is the _direct object_ of the action, as--

Ellos se comprometen: They commit themselves.

But when the second pronoun stands for the indirect object, the verb is
only intransitive pronominal, as--

Él se procuró un empleo: He procured for himself an employment.


=The Passive Voice=.

The Passive voice formed with _ser_ occurs much less in Spanish than in
English.

When the "doer" is not expressed the active voice with _se_ generally
takes its place, as--

Los niños se aman _or_ Se ama[189] á los niños: Children are loved.

[Footnote 189: Notice Sing. number.]

When the "doer" is mentioned the following construction is often used--

Á estos niños los aman sus padres: These children are loved by their
parents.

The English present participle used substantively is rendered in Spanish
by a noun or by the infinitive mood of the verb generally preceded by
the definite article, as--

El cambio de las condiciones: The changing of the terms.
El cambiar las condiciones: The changing of the terms.

Su comunicación á las autoridades de la Aduana,
El escribir _or_ el haber escrito él á las autoridades de la Aduana:
His writing to the custom-house authorities.

El vender á crédito á largos plazos no es un principio sano:
Selling on credit with long terms is not a sound practice.

Prefiero comprar disponible (_or_ las compras de disponible):
I prefer spot buying.

=_The English gerund following "by" is translated by the gerund without
preposition or by the infinitive preceded by _con_, as--_=

Depositando (_or_ con depositar) sus acciones se puso en perfecta regla:
By depositing his shares, he put himself in order.

The Spanish verbal forms ending in _ante_ and _iente_, as: Amante
(lover), tratante (dealer), dependiente (clerk), etc., used to be termed
"present participles," and the analogous forms "amando" (loving),
"tratando" (treating), "dependiendo" (depending), etc., "gerunds," but
this has now taken the place of both forms, used as verbs, and the forms
in _ante_ and _iente_ are classed as other parts of speech, according to
their meaning, as--

Amante de la música (_adj._): Fond of music.
Un tratante en trigos (_noun_): A dealer in wheat.
Un dependiente de comercio (_noun_): A commercial clerk.
Durante la exposicion (_prep._): During the exhibition.
Mediante su ayuda (_prep._):  By means of his help.
No obstante que vino (_conj._): Notwithstanding his coming.
¡Corriente! (_interj._): All right! done!

=Huir= (to flee).[190]

_Pres. Indic._, Huyo, huyes, huye ... huyen. _Pres. Subj._, Huya, huyas,
huya, huyamos, huyáis, huyan.

[Footnote 190: Model for all verbs ending in "uir" (with "u" sounded).]


     VOCABULARY.

=acabado=, finish (cloth)
=acudir=, to have recourse, to attend, to run to
=á las claras=, plainly, clearly
=apresto=, size, also finish (cloth)
=aprovecharse=, to take advantage
=bomba de doble efecto=, double-acting pump
=burlarse=, to make fun of, to trifle with
=chucherías=, pretty trifles
*=convenir en=, to agree to
=engañifas=, tricks
=escandaloso=, scandalous, shocking
=granjearse=, to win over
*=hacer ver=, to show
*=herir=, to wound, to cut (fig.)
=mediar=, to come between, to intervene, to take place in the meantime
*=no tener pelo de tonto=, not to be a simpleton
=quitar=, to take away
*=reducir á un mínimo=, to reduce to a minimum, to minimise
*=saber á punto fijo=, to know for certain
=sospechar=, to suspect
=suave=, soft, mellow, gentle
=subsanar=, to correct, to rectify
=tacto=, feel (_n._), touch (_n._)
=voluntad=, will, goodwill, favour


                            EXERCISE 1 (77).

Translate into English--

1. Á mí no me venga con estas engañifas que no tengo pelo de tonto.

2. Me hace regalos de algunas chucherías para granjearse mi voluntad y
aprovecharse después.

3. ¿Sabe V. á punto fijo que son estas sus intenciones?

4. Mediaron algunas cosillas que me han hecho sospechar algo de eso y de
mí nadie se burla.

5. V. debe de equivocarse y sólo por sospechas no debe quitarle su
amistad.

6. Estas hermosas calderas de alta presión las han construido en
Inglaterra y estas bombas de doble efecto las han importado de los
Estados Unidos.

7. El conceder él mayores facilidades á los compradores le ha hecho
conseguir una extensa clientela.

8. Con uniformarse á mis disposiciones (orders, instructions) él
cumplirá con su deber y yo quedaré mas contento.

9. No soy amante de disputas, mis dependientes podrán asegurarle que
durante mi larga carrera y no obstante que no faltaron ocasiones, no
acudí una sola vez á los Tribunales.


                            EXERCISE 2 (78).

Translate into Spanish--

1. The long and short of the matter is that (en pocas palabras) we had
agreed he was to do it.

2. This is nothing short of dishonesty (esto se llama falta de honradez,
nada menos).

3. No matter what he will say (diga lo que dijere) I am sure he will
have to pay.

4. The estimate and the sketches attached reached us just in (á) time.

5. The cloth was run (plegada) in pieces of 20 yds. exactly, the
consequence being that some pieces were found by the customer to be with
cuts (cortes).

6. It is of no use (es inútil) our struggling any longer (por más
tiempo) against adversity.

7. Your writing in that strain (en aquel tono) shows plainly that their
action has cut you to the quick (profundamente).

8. By selling in time he managed (logró) to minimise the loss.

9. The shocking abuses that existed under the monarchy are being (se
van) corrected by the Republican Government.

10. We shall show them that our firm is not to be trifled with.

11. These stuffs are too heavily sized and the finish is not
sufficiently mellow.

12. Their feel is not clothy (no tienen bastante cuerpo al tacto).

13. This defect will be made right in future deliveries.



                              LESSON XL.
                      (Lección cuadragéseima.)

                        THE VERB (_contd._).


As in English, several past participles may be used with an active
meaning, as--

Un hombre leído: A well-read man (for a man who has read much and well).

The following are some examples--

Agradecido (grateful)
Atrevido (bold, daring)
Bien hablado (a courteous speaker)
Callado (taciturn)
Cansado (tiresome)
Comedido (thoughtful, considerate)
Corrido[191] (acute, artful)
Divertido (amusing)
Entendido (experienced, conversant)
Experimentado (experienced, expert)
Sufrido (patient)

[Footnote 191: With a passive meaning it is "abashed."]

=The Tenses=.

The periphrastic or progressive conjugation: "I am buying," "I was
selling," "I shall be buying," etc., exists in Spanish with the
following differences from English:--

In the present and the past it is used, but only when the action
embraces a certain length of time, otherwise the simple form "I buy," "I
sold" _(imperf. indic.)_ must be used, as--

Fulano se arrojaba por la ventana (_not_ se estaba arrojando).

The Spanish Academy gives this example as of an action more or less
instantaneous: So-and-So was throwing himself out of the window.

The periphrastic form is inadmissible unless one is _actually engaged_
in the action, as:

Hoy como con mi amigo (_not_ "estoy comiendo," because not actually
engaged in the action): To-day I am dining with my friend.

In the future this construction is permissible only in such cases as--

Cuando venga mañana, yo estaré escribiendo: To-morrow when he comes, I
shall be writing.

The periphrastic form never happens with the verb _ir_ (to go), and
seldom with _venir_ (to come).

The English present perfect (preterite compuesto) "I have done" is often
used in Spanish for the past definite "I did," when the period of time
in which the action took place is not specified.

The Spanish Academy gives--

Siempre que he ido á Madrid he visitado el Prado _for_ Whenever I went
to Madrid I visited the Prado.

We even find "ayer he hecho esto ó aquello" for "yesterday I did this or
that," and this is accounted for by the "nearness" of the period
elapsed. Although colloquially this does not sound at all so badly as in
English, well-educated Spaniards will take care to avoid it.

The second or bye-form of the imperfect subjunctive may be used also for
the conditional mood, as--

Se lo diera si lo tuviese _instead of_ se lo daría, etc.: I should give
it to him if I had it.

It is also found (in books, not in conversation) for the compound
imperfect indicative, especially after _que_, as--

Los consejos que le diera (_for_ que le había dado): The advice which I
had given him.

In old Spanish, and even now in poetry, we find it used for every one of
the compound past tenses.


=General Observations=.

The verb "to come" should be rendered in Spanish by _ir_ when the person
is not in the place in question at the time of speaking or writing, as--

¿Quiere V. venir aquí á mi casa mañana? Will you come here to my house
to-morrow?

Hoy estoy indispuesto pero mañana iré á verle: To-day I am unwell (out
of sorts), but to-morrow I shall come to see you.

La vi escribir: I saw her writing; viz., I saw her write.

La vi escribiendo: I saw her writing; viz., whilst she was writing.

The emphatic word in an English sentence is often and more elegantly
translated by a paraphrase in Spanish--

¿Es verdad que ha comprado los géneros? _Has_ he bought the goods?

¿Es él quien ha comprado los géneros? Has _he_ bought the goods?

¿De veras ha comprado los géneros? Has he _bought_ the goods?

¿Pues son los géneros lo que ha comprado? Has he bought _the goods_?

Esta transacción hubo de arruinarle: This transaction was within an ace
of ruining him.

"I believe myself to be clever," etc., is not translated "Yo me creo ser
hábil," but "Yo me creo (_or_ considero) hábil," or "Yo creo ser hábil,"
or "Creo que soy hábil."


=Decir (to say, to tell)=.

_Pres. Part_., Diciendo. _Past Part_., Dicho.
_Pres.  Indic_., Digo, dices, dice,--,--, dicen.
_Pres. Subj_., Diga, digas, diga, digamos, digáis, digan.
_Imp. Mood_, Dí ...
_Past Def. Indic_., Dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron.
_Future Indic_., Diré, dirás, dirá, diremos, diréis, dirán.


     VOCABULARY.

=agrupación=, group, muster
=aislado=, isolated, hedged in
=alcalde=, mayor
=arreglo amistoso=, friendly understanding
=capataz=, foreman
=carta de naturaleza=, certificate of naturalization
=cifras=, figures
*=dar pasos=, to take steps
=dedicarse=, to devote oneself
=derechos protectores=, protective duties
=diputación= provincial, provincial council
=elaborar=, to elaborate
=genio=, temper
=inquietarse=, to feel uneasy
*=no tenerlas todas consigo=, to feel uneasy
*=irse en rodeos=, to beat about the bush
=labor indígena=, native labour
=pequeñeces=, trifling matters
=perspectivas=, prospects
=plan=, plan[192] (idea)
=proyecto=, project, scheme
=repasar=, to go through
=resultado=, result
=(de) resultas de=, in consequence of, as a result of
=vecino=, inhabitant, ratepayer[193]
=vuelta de correo (á), (by) return of post

[Footnote 192: Plan, sketch = "Plano."]

[Footnote 193: Vecino = ratepayer who has acquired certain rights after
a certain period of residence.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (79).

Translate into English--

1. Las leyes de España declaran: Son españoles todas las personas
nacidas en territorio español, los hijos de padre ó madre españoles
aunque hayan nacido fuera de España, y los extranjeros que hayan
obtenido del Gobierno Español carta de naturaleza, ó sean vecinos de
cualquier pueblo de España.

2. Añaden que los extranjeros pueden establecerse y dedicarse libremente
á sus profesiones en territorio español; pero ningún extranjero puede
ejercer en España cargo alguno que represente autoridad.

3. Los miembros del Concejo ó cabildo ó ayuntamiento ó corporación
municipal se llaman Concejales ó regidores.

4. En España el alcalde de Madrid es nombrado libremente por el
Gobierno; el alcalde de las localidades cuya población no baje de 6,000
habitantes es nombrado por el Gobierno de entre los concejales, los
demás alcaldes son nombrados por el voto de su compañeros concejales.

5. Los cargos concejiles son gratuitos.

6. La Diputación Provincial es la agrupación de los varios municipios de
cada provincia, y se reúne dos veces al año en la capital de la
provincia.


                            EXERCISE 2 (80).

Translate into Spanish--

1. The foreman is grateful for his master's kindness.

2. The Director is elaborating a bold scheme for establishing, in a
foreign country hedged in by protective duties, a factory worked by
native labour under an English manager (gerente) and experienced English
instructors.

3. If this plan reaches concretion (se verifica) he will be going abroad
shortly, when he will find that his agents will be taking already the
preliminary steps.

4. The Director himself is coming towards us, he will tell you more
about it.

5. I am going to attend to several trifling matters which however want
looking after (hay que cuidar).

6. Whenever (siempre que) I decided on (he decidido) a thing, I have
always acted on my decision (la he puesto en ejecución).

7. I tell you if I had a larger stock, I should feel rather uneasy at
(con) the prospects of the market.

8. Come and see me to-morrow at my office and we shall come (llegaremos)
to a friendly understanding without beating about the bush.

9. He told me the figures did not compare well with (no eran buenas en
comparación de) those of last year.

10. Please go through the accounts again and tell me the result by
return of post.

11. Short reckonings make long friends (las cuentas claras y el
chocolate espeso).

12. He lost money as a result of his bad temper.



                              LESSON XLI.
                   (Lección cuadragésima primera.)

                          THE VERB (_contd._).


_Ser_ and _Estar_. Such expressions as "Smoking is prohibited," etc.,
are translated either "Es prohibido fumar" or "Está prohibido fumar."
Both translations are grammatically correct ("Está prohibido fumar" is
the general expression in this particular case).

If we say "Es prohibido fumar," we are referring to the "doer" of the
action: "Es prohibido _por la ley, por la policia, por los jefes_, etc.,
etc."--a case of passive voice.

If we say "Está prohibido fumar" we have no "doer" in our mind, but only
the thing itself = a case of "a condition of things" resulting from the
action (the prohibition).


=EXAMPLE--=

El fumar es prohibido por el jefe, por esto está prohibido fumar en
nuestro despacho: Smoking is prohibited by our employer (viz., our
employer prohibits smoking), therefore it is not allowed in our office.

_The above example is given for the sake of illustration by contrast; in
practice, of course, such oddities are avoided._

The English expressions, "It is I, you, he, we, they, who ..." must be
rendered in Spanish by "Soy yo, es V., somos nosotros, etc., quien _or_
quienes ..."; i.e., the English impersonal "it is" must be made
personal in Spanish.

We said that verbs may have a different government in the two languages,
as--

Colgar de un clavo: To hang on a nail.

Entrar en una casa: To enter a house.

This, one of the points for which rules cannot be laid, belongs to the
idiom of the language, and practice is the only master (see Appendix V
for a list of the most conspicuous differences) In reading, together
with the meaning of a verb, _ascertain its government._

Some peculiarities of Spanish verbs--

_Acabar de_, followed by an infinitive, translates the English "to have
just," followed by a past participle, as--

Acaba de flotarse una sociedad: A company has just been floated.

_Acertar á_, followed by an infinitive, translates "to happen," as--

Acertaron á pasar cuando ella estaba asomada á la ventana: They happened
to pass when she was looking out of the window.

Acertó a ser viernes aquel día: That day happened to be a Friday.

_Alegrarse de, Celebrar_--"to be glad to," "to rejoice at."

Me alegro mucho de la noticia; Celebro mucho la noticia: I am glad of
the news.

(Before an infinitive _de_ is omitted after "alegrarse," as: Me alegro
decirle: I am glad to tell you.)

_Caber_ (see Lesson XXX) is used figuratively in many locutions--

No cabe en nosotros tal acción: We are not capable of such an action.

No cabe en sí de gozo: He is beside himself with joy.

Le cupo el premio gordo: it was his lot or luck to get the chief prize.

No se puede saber lo que le cabrá á uno en suerte: One cannot know what
one's lot will be.

Esta tela es de calidad que no cabe más: This cloth is perfection
itself.

No caber en sí: To be puffed up with pride.



=Ir= (to go).

_Pres. Part._, Yendo.[194]
_Pres. Indic._, Voy, vas, va, vamos, vais, van.
_Pres. Subj._, Vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan.
_Imper. Mood_, Ve ... vayamos _or_ vamos ...
_Imperf. Indic._, Iba, ibas, iba, íbamos, ibais, iban.
_Past Def. Indic._, Fuí, fuiste, fué, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron.

[Footnote 194: No word in Spanish commences with "ie." Hence the change
into "ye."]


=Oir= (to hear).

_Pres. Indic._, Oigo.

Salir (to go out).

_Pres. Indic._, Salgo.
_Pres. Subj._, Salga, salgas, salga, salgamos, salgáis, salgan.
_Imp. Mood_, Sal . . .
_Fut. Indic._, Saldré, saldrás, saldrá, saldremos, saldréis, saldrán.


     VOCABULARY.

=arrancar=, to wrench, to squeeze out
=biblioteca=, public library
=codicia=, greed, covetousness
*=darsele á uno de una cosa=,  to matter
=desgraciado=,  unfortunate
=deslumbrar=, to dazzle
=factura simulada=, pro forma invoice
=fiesta del comercio=, bank holiday
=fomento=, development, encouragement
*=hacer impresión=, to impress
=hacienda=, finance, property
=(no) perdonar nada=, to leave no stone unturned
=próxima=, near, approaching
*=regir=, to rule, to govern, to control
=sacar=, to pull out, to get out
=sin perjuicio de=, excepting
*=tener a su cargo=, to have in charge
*=tener en poco=, to think little of


                            EXERCISE 1 (81).

Translate into English--

1. El Gobierno en España se compone de ocho ministerios.

2. El Ministerio de Estado trata de las relaciones de España con los
demás Estados y corresponde al "Foreign Office" inglés.

3. El de Gracia y Justicia tiene á su cargo todos los asuntos relativos
á la Administración de Justicia y alorden eclesiástico.

4. El de la Guerra que es lo mismo que nuestro "War Office."

5. El de Hacienda, el Ministerio de Marina, el Ministerio de la
Gobernación (Ministry of the Interior) que vigila y dirige todos los
negocios y asuntos propios del Gobierno y administración civil del
Estado, así generales como locales, sin perjuicio de las atribuciones de
los ayuntamientos y Diputaciones provinciales, el Ministerio de Fomento
(Ministry of P. Works) que rige todo lo relative á la agricultura,
industria, comercio, obras, públicas, montes (forests), minas, y
estadísticas.

6. Este corresponde más ó menos al inglés "Board of Trade;" y el
Ministerio de Instrucción Pública y Bellas Artes que tiene á su cargo
cuanto se refiere á la enseñanza, bellas artes, archivos, bibliotecas, y
museos, y que representa aproximadamente al "Board of Education."


                            EXERCISE 2 (82).

Translate into Spanish--

1. It is I who shall leave for Paris (saldré para) now that the matter
is arranged.

2. I am going out as I hear somebody calling me.

3. Go, but do not be long.

4. Yesterday you went for a few minutes but it was an hour before you
returned (no volvió antes de).

5. We have just heard of his approaching visit to England.

6. It happened to be on a bank holiday and our offices (oficinas) were
of course closed on that day.

7. We shall be glad if you will kindly instruct (dé instrucciones á)
your cashier to pay our account.

8. We have the pleasure of enclosing the pro forma invoices.

9. I am incapable of so much greed.

10. I am sorry to have to tell you that the cargo by the s.s. "Maria"
was lost through the vessel stranding (por haber varado) on (en) the
Spanish coast.

11. Coming back from having seen (á vuelta de haber visto) the machine
working (en función) he told us how favourably impressed he had been.

12. He was dazzled by the brilliant prospects set before him.

13. This is nothing to me.

14. There is nothing or very little to be got out of that firm.

15. I have left no stone unturned to squeeze something out of this
unfortunate business but it has been of no avail.

16. He thinks nothing of our work.



                              LESSON XLII.
                   (Lección cuadragésima segunda.)

                          THE VERB (_contd_.).


_Caer_ has several idiomatic uses--

Este vestido le cae bien: This dress fits her well.
Caer en gracia: To fall into the good graces of one.
La puerta cae á oriente: The door is on the east side.
Ya caigo, ya caigo en ello: Now I understand.
Caerse redondo: To fall flat.


_Dar_--

Dar en el clavo (= acertar): To hit it.
Dar por concedido, dar de barato: To grant for the sake of argument.
Lo doy por bueno: I consider it as good.
Dar los naipes: To deal cards.
Dar la enhorabuena, el pésame, los buenos días: To congratulate, to
     condole with, to wish good day.
Dar la hora: To strike the hour.
Dar en caprichos: To give oneself up to whims.
Dar en un error: To incur an error.
Darse preso: To give oneself up.
Darse al estudio: To apply or devote oneself to study.
Dar á creer: To make believe.
Dar con una persona: To come across a person.
No se me da nada: I do not care a bit.
Ahí me las den todas: I do not care a bit.

Many other idioms are formed with _dar_ for which a good dictionary
should be consulted.


_Dejar de_--to cease from, to omit, to fail to.

Dejemos de hablar: Let us cease talking.
Dejó de hacerme la remesa que me había prometido: He omitted to send me
     the remittance he promised me.
No dejaré de ejecutar su orden: I shall not fail to execute your order.


_Echar_ (to throw) forms also many idioms for which the dictionary
should be consulted--

Echar á correr, á reir, etc.: To start running, laughing, etc.
Echar á perder: To spoil, to ruin.
Echar de beber: To pour out drink.
Echar de ver: To perceive, to notice.
Esto se echa de ver: This is obvious.
Echar menos or de menos: To miss, to feel the want of.
Echar la llave, el cerrojo, la tranca: To lock, to bolt, to bar (the
     door).
Echar la culpa: To lay the blame.
Echar mano: To lay hold, to lay hands upon.
Echar un cigarillo, un puro: To smoke a cigarette, a cigar.


_Estar_--"to be."

Estar en que: To be of opinion.
Estar por: To be in favour of.
Estar para: To be on the point of.
Estar por hacer: To be yet to be done.


_Faltar_--"to fail," "to be wanting."

Faltó a la promesa: He failed to his promise.
Me faltan cinco duros: I am short of five dollars.
N.B.--"Me hacen falta cinco duros" is "I need five dollars."

_Guardarse de_--"to take care" (to guard against).

It carries with it a negative meaning.

Me guardaré bien de hacerlo: I shall take care _not_ to do it. ("I shall
take care to do it" would be translated "cuidaré de hacerlo.")

_Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse, Llegar á ser_, translate the English "to
become," when this is not rendered by turning the English adjective into
a verb, as--

Se hizo todo un inglés: He became quite an Englishman.
Se puso colorado: He became red in the face.
Se volvió loco de contento: He became mad with joy.
Llegó á ser famoso: He became famous.
Se enriqueció: He became rich.


_Hacer_ (_or mandar_) _hacer una cosa_--"to have a thing done."

Me hice enviar los bultos: I had the packages sent to me.
Hice escribir una carta: I had a letter written.


_Llevar_--"to carry," "to wear."
Llevar á mal: To take amiss.
Llevarse bien con todos: To get on with everybody.
Llevarse chasco: To be disappointed.
Llévese V. estos valores: Take these securities with you.

_Meter bulla_--"to make a noise," "to shout," "to clamour."

_Volver_ (to return, i.e., to come or go again) is used before an
infinitive to denote a repetition of its action--

Volver á decir: To say again.
Decir otra vez: To say again.
Decir de nuevo: To say again.


     VOCABULARY.

=abonar=, to speak for a person, to recommend
=actas=, deeds (writings)
=amén de=, besides
=apenas=, barely, scarcely
*=arrepentirse=, to repent
=bergantín=, brig
=concluir un trato=, to strike a bargain
=contramaestre de filatura=, master spinner
=conveniente para=, becoming
=cregüelas=, osnaburgs
=crespones=, crêpons
*=dar cuenta=, to report
=destajista=, contractor
=discutir=, to discuss
=dobladillo de ojo (con)=, hemstitched
=empeñar=, to engage
=en regla=, in order
=escrito=, writing (_n._), letter
*=exponerse á=, to expose oneself to, to encounter
=fidedigno=, trustworthy
=fracasar=, to fall through
=goleta=, schooner
=hundimiento=, subsidence
=pañuelos de luto=, black-bordered handkerchiefs
*=poner pleito=, to bring an action
=posición=, position, standing
*=probar fortuna=, to try one's luck
=proceder= (_n_.), proceeding, behaviour
=redactar=, to draw up (deeds), to write out
=repulgados, dobladillados=, hemmed
=suelo=, ground, soil
=telas rizadas=, crimps
=vencer=, to win, to fall due


                            EXERCISE 1 (83).

Translate into English--

1. En contestación á su estimada carta pésanos (we are sorry) deberles
notificar que hasta ahora no hemos podido dar con los crespones que nos
han pedido.

2. Obra en nuestro poder su apreciable del 3 del que rige con orden para
cregüelas, pañuelos de algodón de luto, dobladillados (_or_ repulgados)
y pañuelos de lino con dobladillo de ojo, y no dejaremos de darles
cuenta detallada de lo que hayamos hecho, en nuestro próximo escrito.

3. El destajista echó a construir pero abandonó la obra á medio hacer.

4. Estamos en que se arrepintió de su contrato y nuestros Directores
están por ponerle pleito.

5. Escriben de Brasil que les hace falta un contramaestre de filatura.

6. Conozco á un joven que debería ser competente pero me guardaré de
empeñarle sin obtener informes fidedignos que le abonen.

7. De resultas de un hundimiento en el suelo sufrió daños de importancia
el cuerpo del edificio amén de haberse caído la chimenea.

8. La goleta y el bergantín temen exponerse al fuerte viento.


                            EXERCISE 2 (84).

Translate into Spanish--

1. He wants to make us believe that the price at which he sold them
barely covers his cost.

2. I do not care whether he gains or loses; I have ceased to take an
interest in his affairs.

3. Now I understand, and I shall not fail to take care not to do it in
future.

4. He started laughing, and there the matter ended (así se acabó la
cosa).

5. He was on the point of striking a bargain with him, but it fell
through at the last moment and now everything is to be discussed again.

6. He failed to present himself at the creditors' meeting, and he has
therefore forfeited (perdido) his right of opposition (de oponerse).

7. He became very cautious after the experience he had.

8. He became very rich by his fortunate deals (especulaciones) in
railway shares.

9. The bill falls due on the 15th inst.

10. This proceeding is not becoming a firm of your standing.

11. The deeds are not in order: please do not take amiss my requesting
you to have them drawn up again.

12. I expected to see him, but I was disappointed.

13. Do not clamour so much, and try your luck again.



                             LESSON XLIII.
                    (Lección cuadragésima tercera.)

                         THE VERB (_contd._).


The English verbs "shall," "will," "should," "would," "may," "might,"
when used as auxiliary verbs (viz., as mere signs of the future tense,
conditional or subjunctive moods respectively) are rendered by the
corresponding terminations of the Spanish verb[195]--

I shall go: Iré.
Thou wilt go: Irás.
We should go: Iríamos.
You would go: Vs. irían.
I hope he may succeed: Deseo que tenga buen éxito.
I wished he might come: Deseaba que viniese.

[Footnote 195: "Shall," "should," "will," "would," are also rendered by
the Subjunctive Mood when according to the Spanish rules the verb should
be Subjunctive. Example--

     It is (was) possible that he will (would) have to work late:
        Es (era) posible que tenga (tuviese) que trabajar tarde.]


When they are used as principal verbs they are translated by _Deber_
(shall, should), _Querer_ (will and would), and _Poder_ (may and might),
as--

You shall go: V. debe ir.
You may speak: V. puede hablar.
I will not buy more: No quiero comprar más.
You should accept our terms: Vs. deberían[196] aceptar nuestras
     condiciones.

We would willingly see that done: Quisiéramos mucho verlo hacer.

[Footnote 196: The Imperfect Indicative _debía, podía, quería,_ is often
used for "debería," "podría," and "querría." This occurs also with other
verbs, colloquially: Yo se lo daba si estuviese aquí _for_ Yo selo daría
si estuviese aquí.]


"Can" is translated by the pres. or future of _Poder_--

I can do it now: Puedo hacerlo ahora.
I can do it next month: Puedo _or_ Podré hacerlo el mes próximo.

"Could" is translated by the imperfect indicative or the conditional
mood of _Poder_--

I did it whenever I could: Lo hacía siempre que podía.
I could do it if I had the necessary means: Podría hacerlo si tuviese
los medics necesarios.

"Would," meaning "used to," is, of course, translated by the imperfect
indicative--

When he was in Paris he would sit in the cafés for hours: Cuando estaba
en Paris se pasaba horas enteras en los cafés.

"Should he do," etc., is translated "if he should do," etc. (si lo
hiciese).[197]

"If I were to go" is translated "if I went" (si fuese).

[Footnote 197: After _si_ (if--Conditional) the verb is present
indicative or imperfect subjunctive (see Lesson XXIV).]


"Can" is translated by _saber_ when the faculty expressed is the result
of _learning_, as--

Can you play the piano? ¿Sabe V. tocar el pianoforte?

"To be to," "to have to" are translated by _Tener que, Haber de_ or
_Deber_ (see Lesson XXVII), as--

Who is to write out that invoice? ¿Quién ha de (debe) escribir aquella
    factura?
I have to be very careful: He de ser muy cuidadoso.
I shall have to work hard: Tendró que trabajar fuerte.

"Let" as a principal verb is translated by _dejar_ or _permitir;_ as an
auxiliary it corresponds to the Spanish imperative mood--

Let him speak: Déjele V. hablar, or Permítale V. que hable.
Let him ask for it and we shall give it to him: Pídalo (_or_ que lo
pida) y se lo daremos.

"To let (or hire) a house"--"alquilar (una casa)"--I have let my house:
He alquilado mi casa.


     VOCABULARY.

=abogar por=, to plead for
=acoger=, to receive
=agasajar=, to welcome
=apurar=, to clear up, to investigate
=arrancar=, to wrench, to pull out, also to date from
*=atender á=, to attend
=clases nocturnas=, evening classes
=condiciones=, terms
*=convenir en=, to agree, to acquiesce
=cruzados=, twills[198]
=culpado=, at fault
*=despedir=, to dismiss
=desteñido=, faded
=detallado=, detailed, circumstantial
=estrenar=, to use or wear a thing for the first time
=estrenarse=, to commence, to make a start
=farditos=, trusses[199]
=fiados, book debts
=el idioma, la lengua=, language
=malversar=, to embezzle
=nansús=, nainsooks
=negociado=, division (Gov. Office)
=oportunidad=,, opportunity, chance
=pagaré=, promissory note, bill
=parte=, report
=perfeccionar=, to perfect
=por poder=, per pro
=tiro, largura=, length
=tomar vuelo=, to develop, to increase

[Footnote 198: Also Aterlizados, asargados, diagonales.]

[Footnote 199: Small bales.]


                            EXERCISE 1 (85).

Translate into English--

1. Quiso acogerme generosamente en su casa, en donde fuí atendido y
agasajado durante el tiempo de mi estancia en X.

2. Le agradecería de veras una orden pues aun no me he estrenado hoy, y
V. debería dármela pues me la tiene prometida.

3. Los cruzados y los nansús se han puesto en farditos y estos se han
empacado cada cuatro en un fardo.

4. Avisamos á Vs. el envío por correo, de cortes (cuttings) de toda la
serie y observarán que son telas de muy buena vista (very sightly) y se
pueden pedir en cualquier tiro.

5. Les aconsejamos no tarden en colocar sus pedidos para lo que
necesiten.

6. Este negocio tomará mucho vuelo con el tiempo (in time).

7. Arrancan de muchos años los abuses que se cometen en ese Negociado.

8. Se han malversado cantidades de importancia.

9. El Ministro está ocupado en apurar los hechos, estando decidido á
castigar severamente á los que resultarán culpados.


                            EXERCISE 2 (86).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I shall make out a list of my book debts.

2. You would break (faltaría á) your word if you did not plead for him.

3. He should explain his conduct, otherwise he will be dismissed.

4. We shall oblige (contentar) him, but it must be under certain
conditions.

5. He is sending me to the Court (Tribunal) that I may watch (seguir)
that interesting case (proceso).

6. He sent his nephew here that he might learn our business methods
(métodos comerciales) and perfect his knowledge of the English language.

7. You may see for yourself (V. mismo) that the state of the market will
not justify (no justifica) buying (el comprar) at present.

8. They might be a little easier in their dealings.

9. Can you claim an indemnity for non-fulfilment of contract?

10. They could square up the account by signing[200] promissory notes at
4 and 6 months' time.

11. They ought to forewarn their agents.

12. He would insist on saying we were in the wrong.

13. Should they acquiesce to the terms of the arrangements, we authorise
you to sign it per pro.

14. Had he known the cloth was faded he would not have taken receipt of
(admitido) the bale.

15. Mr. Gómez is to visit the Estate (terreno) and send a circumstancial
report.

16. I shall let him attend (asistir á) the evening classes at the
Manchester School of Technology.

17. It is only fair that (es muy justo que) he should have a chance of
mastering (aprender á fondo) the art of spinning and weaving.

18. If he would only devote (si á lo menos dedicase) his attention (to
it).

[Footnote 200: See page 162.]



                              LESSON XLIV.
                    (Lección cuadragésima cuarta.)

                               THE ADVERB.


The natural position of the adverb is after the verb, as--

El convendría de muy buena gana: He would willingly consent.

But a great liberty is allowed in this respect, as--

Seguramente firmaría el endoso: He would certainly sign the endorsement.

Siempre se lo voy repitiendo: I keep always repeating it to him.

_Mucho_ is the only adverb which does not generally admit of "very" for
the superlative; it takes _ísimo_ instead. However "muy mucho" is found,
especially when used jocularly.

To the adverbs given in Lesson XXVIII we add the following adverbs and
adverbial locutions--

Á la noche (at night)
Á manos llenas (profusely)
Á ojos cegarritas (blindly)
Á ojos vistas (obviously)
Á pie juntillas (firmly)
Á rienda suelta (recklessly)
Á todo escape (at full speed)
Ayer tarde _or_ por la tarde (yesterday evening)
Cuanto antes (as soon as possible)
De buena, mala gana (willingly, unwillingly)
De buenas á buenas (willingly)
De buenas á primeras (at first sight, straight away)
De hoy en quince (to-day fortnight)
Hoy hace quince días (just a fortnight ago)
De propósito (on purpose)
De tiempo en tiempo (from time to time)
Día sí, y otro no (every other day)
Mañana por la mañana (to-morrow morning)
Nunca jamás (never--emphatic)
Para siempre jamás (for ever and ever)
Pasado mañana (the day after to-morrow)
Por mal (bien) que (however badly (well))
Por poco (nearly, but for little)
Tal cual vez (once in a while)

EXAMPLES--

Nunca jamás en la vida he hecho esto: _Never_ in my life have I done
this.

Por poco se rompió la cabeza: He nearly broke his head.
Por mal que le salga: Badly as it may turn out for him.

Adverbs ending in _mente_ are often substituted by _con_ with a noun,
as--

Con lujo--lujosamente (luxuriantly).
Con dificultad--difícilmente (with difficulty).

This, of course, is found also in English but is more frequently done in
Spanish.

_Recientemente_ is generally abbreviated into _recién_ before a past
participle, as--

El recién llegado (the newly arrived).
El recién venido (the newly arrived).
El recién nacido (the new born).

_Aquí, acá, allí, allá._

_Aquí_ and _allí_ are more circumscribed than _acá_ and _allá_--

Venga acá cuando necesite algo: Come here when you want anything.
Allá, en su tierra esto se hace: There in your country this is done.
Aquí estoy y aquí me quedo: Here I am, and here I remain.
Ponga este paquete allí: Put this packet there.

_Ahí_--there (near the person spoken to[201]) also means your city, your
country, there (in correspondence).

[Footnote 201: Rule not strictly observed.]

Si los precios ahí son razonables podrá hacerse mucho negocio: If prices
over there are reasonable, a large business can be done.

_Por ahí_ = about.

¿Cuántos había? ¿40? Por ahí: How many were there? 40? About that
number.


_No_ is used often redundantly--

Mejor es sufrir que no hacer sufrir: It is better to suffer than to make
others suffer.

Temo que no llegue demasiado temprano[202]: I am afraid he will arrive
too early.

[Footnote 202: This sentence is ambiguous, because it might mean the
opposite: Temo que no llegue demasiado temprano sino demasiado tarde.
The tone of the voice must be relied upon or a different construction
must be used.]


=Venir (to come)=.

_Pres. Part., _Viniendo.
_Pres. Indic., _Vengo, vienes, viene,--,--, vienen.
_Pres. Subj., _Venga, vengas, venga, vengamos, vengáis, vengan.
_Imper. Mood, _Ven ...
_Past Def., _Vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron.
_Fut. Indic., _Vendré, vendrás, vendrá, vendremos, vendréis, vendrán;


     VOCABULARY.

=á ciegas, á ojos cegarritas=, blindly
=agotar=, to drain, to exhaust
=al amor de=, near, beside
=aparentar=, to appear
=basto=, common, inferior, coarse
=de bien á mejor=, better and better
=cabal=, upright, just
=de cabo á rabo=, from top to bottom rom end to end
=el efectivo=, the cash, the money
=en efectivo, en metálico=, in cash
=enterarse=, to get to know
=escuchar=, to listen
=esquela=, note
=etiqueta=, rótulo, ticket, label
=hombre llano=, sincere, rough-and-ready man
=loza=, crockery
=medida=, measurement
=medrar=, to prosper
*=ponerse á sus anchas=, to make oneself comfortable
=porcelana=, china
=quebranto=, mishap, misfortune, loss
*=salir en=, to come up to
=silla=, chair
=solicitado=, sought after
=un si es no es=, just a trifle
*=venir á menos=, to come down in the world, to decline
=vidriado=, glassware


                            EXERCISE 1 (87).

Translate into English--

1. Desde nuestra última revista no se puede decir que haya habido mucha
variación en nuestro mercado aunque se nota algo más de firmeza y los
precios aparentan ser un si es no es más caros.

2. Siempre solicitados los géneros bastos á precios baratos.

3. Entregué la esquela al anciano señor quien, sentado al amor del
fuego, la leyó de cabo á rabo y, como hombre llano que es me dijo de
buenas á primeras que no queriendo obrar á ciegas, daría su contestación
en un par (couple) de días.

4. ¿Sabía V. que la casa Fernández había venido tan á menos?

5. No, no me había enterado, la tuve siempre por casa fabricante de
loza, porcelana, y vidriado, cuyos negocios iban de bien á mejor.

6. Medraron al principio pero ya han decaído mucho.

7. Lo siento de veras. Es muy de deplorar porque el Sr. Fernández es
hombre muy cabal.

8. Invirtió una porción de dinero en el ferrocarril aereo (overhead) de
N.; eso también le causó algún quebranto.

9. Pobrecito, no le faltaba más (that was the last stroke).

10. ¡Qué[203] barato es esto!

[Footnote 203: Qué before an adjective = how. (Cuán can also be used.)]


                            EXERCISE 2 (88).

Translate into Spanish--

1. I would gladly accede to your request if it were in my power.

2. We are always impressing upon (llamando la atención de) our
warehousemen the importance of marking the measurement on the tickets.

3. Besides being loose (fugitives) colours they are not half so (nada
tan) bright as they should be.

4. They advertise profusely and from time to time they issue new
illustrated catalogues.

5. Soon (cuanto antes) they will start (principiarán á) issuing them in
foreign languages.

6. I never saw a better kept set of books (libros).

7. I was nearly caught in the India Rubber boom, but fortunately I
managed to get off (pude librarme) without burning my fingers (cogerme
los dedos).

8. Come here, my friend, and listen to me.

9. Here in England things are managed (se hacen) on a different basis
altogether (de una manera enteramente distinta).

10. Take that chair there and make yourself comfortable.

11. How much do you require (le hace falta), £100?

12. About that.

13. I was afraid (que no) you were going to ask me for more and that
would have drained all our available (que tenemos) cash.

14. How much will the packages come to?

15. Say (digamos) £100 averaging one with the other (calculando uno con
otro).



                              LESSON XLV.
                    (Lección cuadragésima quinta.)

                           THE PREPOSITION.


One word should not be used in Spanish governed by two different
prepositions, as--

He is an admirer of and a contributor to the "Times": Es admirador del
"Times" y colabora en ese periódico.

The man I spoke with and wrote to: El hombre con quien hablé y al cual
escribí.


However, we find the same construction as in English in cases of
_antithesis_, as--

Con ó sin él: With or without him.

El billete cuesta 20 pesetas desde ó hasta Madrid: The ticket is 20
ptas. from or to Madrid.


The Spanish Academy condemns this use, however.

As will have been noticed before, a preposition governing a word cannot
be used _after_ the word it governs, as--

The work[204] which I referred to: La obra á la cual referí.

[Footnote 204: Work, artistic, literary, scientific--"obra." Work,
manual, or mental--"trabajo."]


The preposition _con_ followed by an infinitive translates the English
"by," followed by the present participle--

Con enseñar se aprende: By teaching one learns.


The preposition _desde_ refers to "distance of time or space," as--

He marchado desde mi casa: I walked from my house.

However, _desde_ may be used instead of _de_ before names of countries
or cities--

Me escribieron desde Barcelona: They wrote me from Barcelona.


_Para_ may be used together with _con_ = "towards"--

Fué muy bueno conmigo, para mí, _or_ para conmigo.

"_En_ acabando[205] lo haré" has the meaning of "I shall do it as soon
as I have finished."

[Footnote 205: _En_ is the only preposition which may govern a pres.
participle, generally with the meaning given above.]


We add the following idiomatic uses of _Por_ and _Para_ to what we said
about these two prepositions in Lesson XXIX:

_Por_ may translate "on behalf of," "for the sake of," "in favour of,"
"during," "through"--

Habló por el proyecto de ley: He spoke in favour of the bill.
Se presentó por la casa: He appeared on behalf of the firm.
Por la paz y buena armonía concedemos lo que V. pide: For the sake of
     peace we allow what you ask.
Les sirvió por cinco años: He served them during five years.
Trabaja por la mañana: He works during (in) the morning.
Vino por París: He came through Paris.
Cotizar por un artículo: To quote for an article.
Yo por mí (_or_ por mi parte) prefiero comprar al contado: I, for one,
     prefer to buy for cash.
Por[206] rico que sea, no tendrá suficientes recursos: No matter how
     rich he is, he will not have sufficient means.
Es demasiado avaro por ser tan rico: for such a rich man, he is too
     miserly.
Caro por caro prefiero géneros ingleses: If I have to pay a dear price,
     I prefer English goods.
Por sí ó por no: In any case, should it be so or not.
Ir (venir) por: To go (come) for.
Enviar por el médico: To send for the doctor.
Por holgazán perdió el empleo: He lost his employment through laziness.
Por bién ó por mal: Willy-nilly.
Vendré por la Navidad: I shall come by Christmas.
Por si acaso: In case that.

[Footnote 206: _Por_ has always this meaning before an adjective or
adverb.]


No sirve para más: He is good for nothing else.
Venir para la Pentecostés: To come for Whitsuntide.
Esto no es para menos: The thing (or occasion) is worth it.
Para español (_or_ por ser español) es muy alto: He is very tall for a
     Spaniard.
Tener grande consideración para este hombre: To have great respect for
     this man.
Dar pedidos para ferretería, ollería, y maquinaría: To give orders for
     ironware, hollow-ware and machinery.
Es demasiado avaro para ser tan rico: He is too miserly to be so rich.

_Sin_--"without"--

Poseía £10,000 sin los bienes raíces que heredó de su padre:
He owned £10,000 besides the real property he inherited from his father.

_Según_--"according to"--

Según y como: That depends.

_So_ instead of _bajo_ is used in the following expressions--

So capa de: Under the cloak of.

So pretexto de: Under the pretext of.

And in a few other such phrases.


     VOCABULARY.

=acabado, aderezo=, finish (cloth)
=acolchados=, quiltings
=admitir=, to admit, to accept
=agente exclusivo=, sole agent
=alfombradas=, carpetings
=á no ser así=, were it not so, otherwise
=anclar=, to anchor
=arreglo=, agreement
=bajista=, bearish (exchange)
=cablegrama=, cablegram, cable
=capataz=, foreman
=conceder=, to grant
=coquillos=, jeans
=disposición=, disposition, disposal
=empeñarse=, to pledge oneself
=en su ramo=, in your line
=exclusividad=, exclusive sale
=fama=, fame, reputation, name
=frazadas de algodón=, cotton blankets
=lento=, remiss
=nombrar=, to appoint
=palo de mesana=, mizzen mast
=palo mayor=, main mast
=por escrito=, in writing
=postergar=, to put off, to delay
=proveerse=, to supply oneself
=tapetes=, carpet rugs
*=tener inconveniente=, to have an objection
=tomar en consideración=, to take into consideration, to entertain
=trinquete=, foremast


                            EXERCISE 1 (89).

Translate into English--

1. Con ser abiertamente (manifestly) bajista la especulación, las
acciones mineras se han sostenido.

2. Desde Barcelona ha llegado un radiograma avisando que había anclado
en ese puerto el vapor "Cibeles" con el trinquete roto y el palo mayor y
el de mesana también dañados.

3. El jefe es muy bondadoso para con sus empleados.

4. Dos cajas de coquillos y una de pañuelos de andrinópolis (turkey red)
nos vinieron por Burdeos (Bordeaux), los acolchados, las alfombradas,
los tapetes y las frazadas de algodón se embarcaron por mar.

5. Por la buena fama de su casa no debería postergar por más tiempo el
pago.

6. Por sí ó por no mejor sería proveerse.

7. El capataz fué al Director por órdenes.

8. Por bien ó por mal tendrá que admitir los géneros pues se han
fabricado por su cuenta y tenemos su orden por escrito para ellos.

9. Se alarmó mucho, pues el asunto no era para menos.

10. Para género de algodón el acabado (or aderezo) es todo lo que se
puede desear.

11. Por ser género de algodón esta tela es de muy buena vista.

12. Es demasiado barato para ser de lana.

13. Si desea V. obtener órdenes debe tener mucha consideración para los
corresponsales.

14. No puedo prometerle entrega para 1° de Junio exactamente, pero haré
por efectuarla por esa fecha.

15. ¿Conoce V. el refrán: "No hay mal que por bien no venga"? (It is an
ill wind that blows nobody good.)


                            EXERCISE 2 (90).

Translate into Spanish--

1. This sample looks very nice for an imitation.

2. It being in your line, I thought I ought to give you the first chance
(hacerle la primera oferta) in case it would tempt you (por si acaso le
animara á comprar).

3. To begin with you would have to engage the cloth to us (darnos la
exclusividad).

4. I have no objection provided you guarantee a certain turnover
(venta).

5. He was appointed sole agent for the whole of Mexico through the
recommendation of his brother-in-law, and his agreement with the firm is
for 3 years certain (fijos).

6. That will bring him (le producirá) £500 a year if it brings him a
penny (por lo menos).

7. Being such an important concern (casa) they do not pay their staff
very handsomely (generosamente).

8. They are too remiss with (en) their payments to be such important
people.

9. I very nearly pledged myself to grant him the exclusive sale of my
article.

10. These are his instructions for the disposal of his goods

11. However clear they may be, we must have his cable confirmed by a
letter.

12. Therefore we cannot entertain your offer for the present.

13. It cannot be helped, otherwise (Tenga paciencia, si fuese posible)
we would do everything for you.



                              LESSON XLVI.
                     (Lección cuadragésima sexta.)

                       THE PREPOSITION (_contd._)


To the uses of _Por_ must be added the following (optional)--

After the following verbs:

Agradecer (por) el favor: To be grateful or to be thankful for the
favour.

Aguardar _or_ esperar (por) alguno: To wait for somebody.

Pedir (por) una cosa: To ask for (request) something.

Preguntar (por) una cosa: To ask for (to inquire about) something.

He pagado por él cinco chelines _or_ lo he pagado cinco chelines: I paid
five shillings for it.

Buscar (por) alguno ó alguna cosa: To look for somebody or something.

Dispensar (por) el error: To excuse the error.

Further uses of the Spanish prepositions different from the English, and
forming idioms--

A caballo (on horseback)
Á ciegas (blindly)
Á consecuencia de esto (in consequence of this)
Á deshora (inopportunely)
Á duras penas (with great efforts)
Á esconditas (covertly)
Á fe de caballero (upon the word of a gentleman)
Á gatas (on all fours)
Á hurtadillas (stealthily)
Á la española (in the Spanish fashion)
Á la mesa (at table)
Al antojo de uno (after one's fancy)
Á la tarde (in the afternoon)
A la verdad (in truth)
Al descuido y con cuidado (studiously careless)
Á lo largo del río (along the river)
Á lo que parece (to all appearances)
Hecho a máquina (made by machinery)
Á pie (on foot)
Á poco de escribir (shortly after having commenced writing)
Á propósito (opportunely, à propos)
Á regañadientes (reluctantly)
Á saberlo yo (had I known it)
Á sangre fría (in cold blood)
Á sus anchas, anchuras (at one's ease)
A tiro de cañón (within cannon shot)
Es más hábil que yo, con mucho (he is cleverer than I by far)
Con ser amigo y todo (although he be a friend)
Contra el norte (facing the north)
De año en ano (from year to year)
De balde (for nothing, gratis)
De bóbilis (without effort)
De broma (in jest)
De buenas á buenas (willingly)
De buenas  a primeras  (straight away)
De capa caída (crestfallen)
De contado (of course)
De día, etc. (by day, etc.)
De jaleo (on the spree)
De luto (in mourning)
De mejor en mejor (from better to better)
¡Ay _or_ Infeliz de mí! (woe to me!)
De miedo (through fear)
Anteojos de oro (gold spectacles)
De patitas (on shanks' pony)
De peor en peor (from  bad to worse)
De perillas (venir) (quite opportunely, à propos)
El picaruelo de Perico (that young rascal Perico)
De pies á cabeza (from head to foot)
De puntillas (on tiptoe)
De repente (suddenly)
Del todo (at all)
De veras (in truth)
Dos á dos (two by two)
Está en casa (he is at home)
En estas condiciones (under these conditions)
En señal de aprecio (as a mark of esteem)
Entrecano (gray-haired)
Entre dos aguas (doubtful, perplexed)
Entre la espada y la pared (between the devil and the deep sea)
Nos dió 5 pesetas para repartir entre yo[207] y mi hermano
  (he gave us 5 pesetas to be divided between my brother and me)
Hasta la vista (good-bye for the present)
Hasta los animales tienen gratitud (even animals feel gratitude)
Sobre las diez (at about ten o'clock)
Tiene sobre los treinta (he is about thirty years old)
Sobre más 6 menos (a little more or less)
Tras la pérdida el escarnio (besides the loss the scoffing)

[Footnote 207: _Entre_ is generally followed by the nominative case
unless it means "to" as--Dijo entre sí. He said to himself.]

About different prepositions used in Spanish and English after certain
verbs, see also Appendix V.

The following are the principal compound prepositions--

Acerca de (relating to, concerning)
Á despecho de (in spite of)
Á pesar de (in spite of)
Antes de (before--in point of time)
Cerca de (near)
Junto á (near)
Conforme á (according to)
Con respecto á (with respect to)
Respecto de (with respect to)
Debajo de (under)
Dentro de (inside)
Después de (after)
Encima de (on, or over)
En cuanto á (as to)
En frente de (opposite)
Frente á (opposite)
En lugar de (instead of)
En vez de (opposite)


     VOCABULARY.

=acordonado=, corded
=agujas=, needles
=alechugado=, frilled
=alemaniscos=, linen damasks
=alfileres=, pins
=antojo=, whim, caprice
=árbitro=, arbitrator
=arreglado=, reasonable (price)
=arrollar=, to roll
=batas=, wrappers (ladies')
=bodega=, cellar, also hold (ship)
=chales=, shawls
=dedales=, thimbles
=desinteresarse=, to abandon
*=desplegar=, to unfold
=dictamen=, award, decision
=entrepuentes=, between decks
=festoneados=,  scalloped
=gratificación=, gratuity
=guarniciones, adornos=, trimmings
=lanillas para banderas=, buntings
=listados de algodón=, cotton stripes
=logro=, attainment
=ovillos de algodón=, cotton balls
=pañol, carbonera=, bunker (ships')
=pintura=, paint
=rehusar=, to decline
=sábanas=, bed sheets
=subasta=, auction
=tablillas=, boards
=tablones=, planks
=terliz=, ticking
=terreno=, land, property
=trencilla=, braid


                            EXERCISE 1 (91).

Translate into English--

1. Agradezco (por) el interés demostrado á mi amigo y la actividad
desplegada en facilitarle el logro de sus fines.

2. Hemos dado diez mil duros por este terreno y no lo hemos pagado
demasiado caro.

3. No puede V. rehusar los alemaniscos y quedarse con los géneros para
sábanas y los terlices, á su antojo.

4. Á la verdad las agujas y alfileres han resultado algo caros como
también los dedales pero las trencillas, guarniciones, y ovillos de
algodón son á precio muy arreglado.

5. Vino muy á deshora y á poco de haberse sentado nos declaró que no
esperaría.

6. Estos chales á 4 chelines y estos listados de algodón á 5 peniques la
yarda son de balde, no lo decimos de broma.

7. Accedió á nuestra propuesta de buenas á buenas y de buenas á primeras
nos depositó la suma de 1,000 francos.

8. Los fondos austríacos van de peor en peor y por eso está nuestro
parroquiano de capa caída.

9. En tales condiciones preferimos desinteresarnos del proyecto.

10. Estuvimos entre dos aguas por algún tiempo, pero una vez puestos
entre la espada y la pared (once we are so hard pressed) no nos queda
más sino hablar claro, y ¡lo dicho!


                            EXERCISE 2 (92).

Translate into Spanish--

1. They await the result of the inquiry (información).

2. We forward you the papers relating to the Arbitrator's award.

3. He paid for the Buntings 5d. a yard.

4. In consequence of your having outstepped (excedido) our instructions,
we must decline all responsibility with respect to delivery.

5. We have put boards inside the pieces according to our usual custom;
we did not know you wanted them rolled.

6. Our new offices will be next to the Oil and Paint Stores (almacén),
and opposite the General Post Office (casa de correos).

7. The planks used under the bales for dunnage (la estiva) were sold
almost for nothing, in spite of our request to hold them at our
disposal.

8. The steamer can carry 4,000 bales a little more or less if she fills
her holds and takes cargo between decks.

9. She will take that quite easily and a few hundred bales more in her
bunkers.

10. As a mark of our appreciation (estima) we authorize a gratuity to
the Captain of £5.

11. The salvage (salvamento) has been sold partly by auction and partly
by private treaty.

12. To all appearances the corded and frilled wrappers are superior to
the scalloped.



                            LESSON XLVII.
                  (Lección cuadragiésima séptima.)

                          THE CONJUNCTION.


_Si_ (if and whether).

_Si_ used for "whether" may be followed by a verb in any mood and tense
as in English--

No sé si habrá buena cosecha este año: I do not know whether there will
be a good crop this year.

No pudo, _or_ supo, decirme si me entregaría los pagarés para la fecha
convenida: He could not tell me whether he would be able to hand me the
promissory notes for the date agreed upon.

_Si_ used as the conditional "if," is followed by the verb in the
present indicative or imperfect subjunctive, as--

Si viene hoy le pagaré: If he comes to-day, I shall pay him.

Si viene mañana le pagaré[208]: If he comes to-morrow I shall pay him.

Le dije que si viniese le pagaría: I told him that if he came I should
pay him.

[Footnote 208: When the action refers to the future the "future
subjunctive" may be used instead, but this is rarely done. _It
emphasises the uncertainty._]


The sense will determine the tense to be used.

Notice the following idiomatic uses of _si_ (not conditional)--

Si soy (fuí) malo!  Well, I am (was) wicked!
¡Si será (sería) tan necia!  Can (could) she be so foolish!
¿Si vendría?  I wonder will he come!
¡Si se lo había dicho yo mil veces! But I had told him so many times!

Other idiomatic uses of this _si_ will be learnt by practice (all more
or less pleonastic as in the above examples).

We have said that "but" is translated by _sino_ after a negative unless
a finite verb follows. Therefore, "Not to buy but to sell" is translated
"No comprar sino vender."

After a negative a finite verb may be preceded by _sino que_ instead of
_pero_ in cases like the following examples--

No compró sino que vendió: He did not buy but (on the contrary) he sold.
No sólo que es barato sino que es de muy buena calidad:
Not only is it cheap, but it is (also) of a very good quality.

_Ni ... ni_--"neither ... nor" (same as all negative words) when
following a verb requires _No_ to precede the verb, as--

No acepta ni esto ni aquello: He accepts neither this nor that.

But--Ni esto ni aquello quiere aceptar.

_Pues_--"seeing that" or "since" is used often for "then," "but," "well"
(used as an interjection).

Pues que lo haga: Let him do it then.

Quiso desobedecerme, pues vera su falta: He _would_ disobey me, but he
will see his fault.

Pues (_or_ pues bien) ¡que hay ahora! Well! what is the matter now?

We shall conclude the lesson with the different meanings of _Ya_
(sometimes used also redundantly). They are given for the sake of
completeness although _Ya_ in its different uses belongs to different
parts of speech--

Ya lo ha hecho: He has done it already.
Ya lo hará:  He will do it yet.
Ya no se hace esto: This is done no longer.
Ya consienten, ya rehusan: Now they consent, now they refuse.
Ya consientan, ya rehusen:  Whether they consent, etc.
Haré cuanto quieras si ya no me pides lo imposible:
I shall do anything you wish if you do not ask (unless you ask) me
  for impossibilities.
Ya que escribió: Since (seeing that) he wrote.
Ya ve V.: You see now.
Ya voy:  I am coming.
Ya se ve: It is evident.
Ya, ya: Yes, of course.


     VOCABULARY.

*=abolir=, to abolish
*=advertir=, to warn
=alegar=, to allege
=al revés=, on the wrong side
=barnices=, varnishes
=barrica=, cask
=batista de algodón=, cambric
=baúl=, trunk
=betunes=, blacking
=bicicleta=, bicycle
=botines=, boots
=bramante=, twine
=bufandas=, mufflers
=buje=, hub
=cerradura=, lock
=chanclos=, goloshes
=cintos de seda=, silk sashes
=cinturones de cuero=, leather belts
=colchas de plumón=, down quilts
=consignatario=, consignee
=ejecutar=, to execute, to put through
*=hacer escala=, to call at (ships)
=llantas=, tyres
=maleta=, portmanteau
=mango=, handle
=marca=, brand, mark
=merma=, loss, leakage, shortage
=muebles de bejuco=, rattan furniture
=niquelado=, nickel-plated
*=perder cuidado=, not to worry
=rayos=, rays, spokes (wheels)
=reborde=, rim, flange
=remolacha=, beetroot
=rezumar=, to leak
=tejido elástico=, webbing
=zapatos=, shoes


                            EXERCISE 1 (93).

Translate into English--

1. No sé si habrá vapor de la Trasatlántica en fecha conveniente.

2. Si lo hay lo preferiré.

3. Esos vapores arrancan (start) de Liverpool y hacen escalas en varios
puertos.

4. Ignoraba si habría servicio mensual en la línea de Canarias.

5. Mandé quinientas piezas Batista de algodón si la hubiese en
existencia.

6. Quiero un baúl y una buena maleta de piel de Rusia con cerradura
niquelada si las hay (_or_ hubiere).

7. Pierda V. Cuidado ¡si las hay de toda especie!

8. ¿Si me venderá esos muebles de bejuco?

9. ¿Cómo no? si ya se lo tiene prometido.

10. El comercio del caucho se ha desarrollado mucho, se usa ahora en
grande escala no sólo para llantas neumáticas de bicicletas y otras
piezas (parts) sino también para gomas de automóviles.

11. No sólo tengo que cambiar el mango de mi bicicleta sino reemplazar
los rebordes y componer el buje y algunos rayos de la rueda.

12. No es posible hallar botines de señoras y zapatos más elegantes que
los de nuestra marca, ni se pueden conseguir más baratos en parte
alguna.

13. Pues que me facture esos bramantes (twine) y ese yute y cáñamo.

14. Ya he colocado un pedido para bufandas y ya veré si me tiene cuenta
pero no mande barnices ni betunes pues ya no trato en estos artículos.

15. Ya, ya. V. se ha dedicado ya á los géneros en pieza, si no me
engaño, pues V. ya dice una cosa ya otra.

16. ¡Señor Juan! Ya voy (I am coming).


                            EXERCISE 2 (94).

Translate into Spanish--

1. Whether he puts through my order for leather belts and silk sashes or
not, I do not much mind, but if he should oblige me, I would do him a
good turn (le haría algún servicio) if the opportunity presents itself.

2. If the webbing and down quilts are good, I shall not begrudge (no me
pesará) the advance in price.

3. Can it be true (si) that the gate or octroi duty (el impuesto de
consumos) is going to be abolished in Spain?

4. Well (pues) the Government has presented a bill to that effect and I
hope we shall soon see the octroi offices (fielatos) abolished.

5. The broker was warned that the quality was only fair average
(mediana).

6. Beetroot has been largely planted in the province of Granada and is
now in great request for the sugar industry.

7. We strove hard (nos hemos esforzado mucho) to introduce the new brand
and we have gained our point[209] at last.

8. The cloth was folded on the wrong side and we anticipate some
difficulty on that score (por esta razón).

9. The consignees claim shortage (indemnización por falta de contenido).

10. They allege that the casks were leaking and that there was
consequently a loss of thirty gallons (galones).

[Footnote 209: To gain one's point: Salir con la suya.]



                                   VOCABULARY.

                               I. SPANISH-ENGLISH.

=A=

=abacá=, Manilla hemp
=abajo=, below
=abaratamiento=, cheapening
=abarcar=, to embrace, to include
=abarrotado=, glutted, cram full
=abastecerse=, to supply oneself
=abasto=, supply
=abedul=, birch
=abeto=, fir
=ablandar=, to soften
=abogado=, lawyer, solicitor, barrister
=abogar=, to plead
=abolir=, to abolish
=abonar=, to speak for, to recommend, to credit
=abordar=, to accost, to approach, to board
=abrigar=, to shelter, to cherish (hope)
=abril=, April
=abrir=, to open
=abrir agua=, to leak
=absolutamente=, absolutely
=abuso=, abuse
=acá, aquí=, here
=acabado=, finish (cloth)
=acabar=, to finish
=acabar de ..=., to have just
=acaudalado=, rich, wealthy
=acceder=, to accede
=accidente=, accident
=acciones=, actions, shares
=acciones preferences=, preference shares
=accionista=, shareholder
=aceite=, oil
=acerca de=, relating to
=acero=, steel
=acertar á=, to happen, to contrive
=acoger=, to admit, to receive
=acolchado=, quilting
=aconsejar=, to advise, to counsel
=acorazado=, iron-clad
=acordar=, to agree
=acordarse=, to remember
=acordonado=, corded
=acreditar=, to credit
=actas=, acts, deeds
=actitud=, attitude
=active=, active
=activo y pasivo=, assets and liabilities
=actual=, present, current, instant (month)
=acudir=, to attend, to have recourse to
=acusar=, to accuse, to show
=adecuado, proporcionado=, adequate
=aderezo=, finish (cloth)
=adeudar=, to debit
=adherir á=, to adhere to
=adjunto=, enclosed, herewith
=administrador=, manager (of a branch house, etc.)
=admitir=, to admit, to accept, to acknowledge
=adornos=, trimmings
=adquirir=, to acquire
=á duras penas=, with great effort
=advertir=, to notice, to warn
=aéreo=, overhead
=afanarse=, to exert oneself, to take much trouble
=aficionado á=, fond of
=aflojar=, to relax
=afortunadamente=, fortunately
=agasajar=, to welcome
=agencia=, agency
=agiotista=, stock-jobber
=aglomerar=, to agglomerate
=Agosto=, August
=agotar=, to drain, to exhaust
=agradable=, agreeable, pleasant
=agradar=, to oblige
=agradecer=, to thank, to be obliged for
=agrandar=, to enlarge
=agrícola=, agricultural
=agrio=, sour
=agrupación=, group, muster
=agua=, water
=agudo=, sharp, keen
=águila=, eagle
=aguja=, needle
=ahí=, there
=ahora=, now
=ahorrar=, to save, to economise
=aislado=, hedged in, isolated
=(lo) ajeno=, other people's property
=ajeno á=, averse to, foreign to
=ajo=, garlic
=ajustar=, to adjust
=ajuste=, adjustment
=á la larga=, in the long run
=á la verdad=, in truth
=albaricoque=, apricot
=alborear=, to dawn
=alcalde=, mayor
=alcista=, bull, bullish (exch.)
=alechugado=, frilled
=alegar=, to allege
=alegrar=, to gladden
=alegrarse=, to rejoice
=alejarse=, to go away
=alemanisco=, linen damask
=alerta=, alert
=alfiler=, pin
=alfombra=, carpet
=algo=, something, anything, somewhat, rather
=algodón=, cotton
=algodón disponible=, spot cotton
=algodonero (mercado)=, cotton market
=alguno=, some, any
=aliento=, courage
=alistar=, to enlist
=allá, allí=, there
=allanar=, to level, to facilitate
=allí, allá=, there
=alma=, soul
=almacén=, warehouse
=almacenero=, warehouseman
=almacenes fiscales=, bonded warehouses
=al menos=, at least
=alquilar=, to rent, to hire, to give or take on lease
=al revés=, on the wrong side
=altos hornos=, blast furnaces, foundry
=aludir á=, to allude, to hint
=un alza=, a rise (price)
=una alza=, a rise (price)
=amabilidad=, kindness
=amanecer=, to dawn
=amar=, to love
=amargo=, bitter
=amarillo=, yellow, buff
=ambos=, both
=á medida que=, in proportion as
=amedrentar=, to frighten
=á mejor andar=, at best
=amén de=, besides
=á menos que=, unless
=á menudo=, often               i
=americana=, coat, jacket
=amigo=, friend
=amistad=, friendship
=amistoso=, friendly
=amo=, master
=amontonar=, to heap up, to pile up
=amor=, love
=amplio=, ample
=añadir=, to add
=ancho=, width, wide
=anclar=, to anchor
=andar=, to walk, to go
=Andrinópolis (pañuelos de)=, Turkey red (handkerchiefs)
=año=, year
=anochecer=, to grow dark
=ansioso de=, anxious, eager to
=anteayer=, the day before yesterday
=anterior=, anterior, previous
=antes (de)=, before (time), formerly
=anticipatión=, anticipation
=anticipo=, advance
=antiguo=, ancient, old
=antojo=, caprice, whim
=anular=, cancelar, to cancel
=anunciar=, to advertise
=apacible=, mild (colour)
=apagado=, extinguished, quiet
=apagarse=, to go out (fire)
=aparecer=, to appear, to make one's appearance
=aparentar=, to show outwardly
=apelar=, to appeal
=apenas=, scarcely
=apertura=, opening
=á pesar de=, in spite of
=apetecer=, to desire, to covet
=aplazar=, to postpone
=á plazos=, by instalments
=apreciar=, to appreciate
=aprender=, to learn
=apremiar=, to press, to urge
=apresto=, finish (cloth)
=apresurar=, to hasten (_a_), to urge
=apresurarse=, to hasten (_n_)
=aprovecharse=, to take advantage, to avail oneself of
=aproximarse=, to approach, to draw near
=apurar=, to exhaust, to investigate, to purify
=apuro=, embarrassment
=aquel, that
=aquí=, here
=arado=, plough
=arancel=, Custom House tariff
=árbitro=, arbiter, umpire
=árbol=, tree
=árbol de eje=, axle-shaft
=archivos=, archives
=arduo=, arduous, difficult
=argüir=, to argue
=armadores=, shipowners
=armadura=, frame, framing (mach.)
=armario=, cupboard
=armas blancas=, side-arms
=armas de fuego=, fire-arms
=armazón de cama=, bedstead
=arpillera=, bagging
=arquitecto=, architect
=arrancar=, to squeeze out, to wrench, to start from
=arreglado=, reasonable
=arreglar=, to arrange, to settle
=arreglo=, arrangement
=arrepentirse=, to repent
=arriesgado=, dangerous
=arrollar=, to roll
=arroz=, rice
=asamblea=, meeting
=asargado=, twill
=ascensor=, lift, hoist
=asegurar=, to insure, to secure
=asentar=, to seat, to book (orders)
=asistir=, to assist, to attend
=asociación de obreros=, trade union
=asunto=, subject, matter, question, affair
=atajo=, short cut
=atañer=, to bear upon
=atención=, attention
=atender á=, to attend
=atendible=, plausible
=atenta (su)=, (your) favour
=aterlizado=, twill
=atizador=, poker
=atraer=, to attract
=atraicionar=, to betray
=atrasado=, overdue
=atravesar=, to cross
=atrevido=, bold, daring
=atribución=, attribution
=atribuir=, to attribute
=atropellar por=, to infringe, to run down
=aumento=, increase
=aunque=, although, even if
=automóvil=, motor-car
=avaro, avariento=, miser, miserly
=avena=, oats
=averia=, average, damage
=avergonzarse=, to be ashamed
=aviso=, advice, notice
=avistar=, to sight
=ayer=, yesterday
=ayudar=, to help
=azadas=, hoes
=azadones=, pick-axes
=azúcar=, sugar
=azuelas=, adzes
=azul=, blue


=B=

=baja=, decline, fall (in prices, etc.)
=bajá=, pasha
=bajar=, to go, to come down
=bajista=, bear, bearish (exch.)
=bajo cubierta=, under deck
=balde (de)=, gratis, for nothing
=balde (en)=, in vain, of no avail
=ballena=, whale
=bañar=, to wet, to bathe, to water
=banco=, bank, bench, desk
=banco de liquidación=, clearing-house
=barato=, cheap
=barba, barbas=, beard
=barbilla, barba=, chin
=barco, navío, buque=, ship, boat
=barniz=, varnish
=barrer=, to sweep
=barrica=, cask
=base=, basis
=bastante bien=, pretty well
=bastar=, to suffice, to be enough
=basto=, coarse, common, inferior
=bata=, wrap
=batista, batiste=, lawn
=baúl=, trunk
=bayeta=, baize
=beber=, to drink
=belleza=, beauty
=beneficio=, benefit
=benéfico=, beneficent
=benévolo=, benevolent
=bergantín=, brig
=berzas=, cabbages
=betún=, blacking
=biblioteca=, library
=bicicleta=, bicycle
=biela=, connecting rod
=bien=, well
=(el) bien=, (the) good
=bien estar=, well-being
=billar=, billiards
=bisabuelo=, great grandfather
=blanco=, white
=blanco (_n_)=, aim
=blando=, gentle, soft
=blanquear=, to bleach
=bobina=, bobbin
=boca=, mouth
=bocina=, megaphone
=bodega=, cellar, hold (ship)
=bola=, ball
=boletín=, form, slip, price list
=bolsa=, Exchange, Bourse
=bombas de aire=, air pumps
=bondadoso=, kind
=bonificar=, to make an allowance, a rebate
=bonito=, pretty
=bordado=, embroidered
=botas=, boots
=boticario=, chemist
=botines=, boots
=botón=, button
=bramante=, twine
=brazo=, arm
=brevedad=, brevity, shortness
=(á la mayor) brevedad=, as soon as possible
=brisa=, breeze
=brochado=, brocade
=buey=, ox
=bufanda=, muffler
=bufete de abogado=, lawyer's office
=buje=, hub
=bullir=, to boil
=bultos=, packages
=buque, barco, navío=, ship, boat
=buque á motor=, automóvil, motor-boat
=buque de vapor=, steamer
=buque de vela=, sailing vessel
=burlarse=, to make fun of, to trifle with
=bursátil (mercado)=, money market
=buscar=, to look for, to search
=buscarse=, to bring upon oneself


=C=

=cabal=, just, upright
=caballero=, señor, gentleman
=caballo=, horse
=caber=, to be able to contain, to be able to be contained
=cabeza=, head
=cabida=, room, space
=cable=, cable
=cablegrama=, cablegram
=cabo=, corporal, end
=cada=, each, every
=caer=, to fall
=caída=, fall (_n._)
=café, coffee
=café, castaño=, brown (dyed)
=caja=, case, box
=cajero=, cashier
=calcetines, socks, half hose
=calcular, to calculate
=cálculo=, calculation
=caldera=, boiler
=caldero=, small cauldron, bucket
=caldos=, wines and oils (collectively)
=calidad=, quality
=callar=, to be silent, to abstain from saying
=calle=, street
=calor=, heat, warmth
=calorífero=, stove
=calzado=, footwear
=cama=, bed, bedstead
=cambiar=, to alter, to exchange
=cambio, los cambios=, change; the Bill Market
=camisa=, shirt
=(el) campo=, (the) country, (the) countryside
=campo=, field
=caña=, cane
=cáñamo=, hemp
=cancelar, anular=, to cancel
=canela=, cinnamon
=cansar=, to tire
=cantidad=, quantity (also amount)
=capataz=, foreman
=el capital=, the capital (money)
=la capital=, the capital (town)
=capitán=, captain
=cara=, face
=carbón (de piedra)=, coal
=carbón (vegetal)=, charcoal
=carbonera, pañol=, bunker
=carecer (de)=, to lack
=cargamento=, cargo
=cargar=, to load, to debit
=carne, carne seca=, flesh, meat, jerked beef
=carne en salmuera=, pickled beef
=caro=, dear, expensive
=carpeta=, writing pad
=carranclanes, guingas=, ginghams
=carril=, rail
=carriles, rieles, railes=, rails
=carro=, cart
=carta=, letter
=cartera=, pocket-book, portfolio
=cartero=, postman
=casa=, house, firm
=casaca=, coat, jacket
=casar=, to marry
=casarse=, to marry
=casillero=, pigeon-holes
=castaño, café=, brown (dyed)
=castellano=, Castillian, Spanish
=castigar=, to punish, to chastise
=catálogo=, catalogue
=caucho, goma elástica=, rubber
=cauteloso=, cautious
=cauto=, cautious
=cebada=, barley
=cebolla=, onion
=ceder=, to cede, to yield, to make over
=cédula=, warrant
=celebrar=, to be glad of
=celebrarse=, to be celebrated, to take place (meetings, etc.)
=célebre=, celebrated
=celeste=, heavenly, sky-blue
=cena=, supper
=cepillo=, brush, _also_ plane
=cerca de=, near (_prep._)
=cercano=, near (_adj._)
=cerradura=, lock
=cerrar=, to close, to shut
=cerrar (con llave)=, to lock
=cerrar el trato=, to conclude the bargain
=certificar=, to certify, to register (letters, etc.)
=cerveza=, beer
=cestilla=, waste-paper basket
=ciego=, blind
=cielo=, heaven, sky
=cien, ciento=, hundred
=ciencia=, science, wisdom
=cierre=, lock-out
=cierto=, certain
=cifras=, figures
=cigarros, tabacos, puros=, cigars
=cigüeñal=, crank shaft
=cilindro=, cylinder, roller
=cima=, top
=cinta=, ribbon
=cinto=, sash
=cinturón=, belt
=circular=, to circulate, to go round
=citar=, to quote, to cite, to mention a passage, etc.
=citar ante los tribunales=, to summon
=ciudad=, city
=cizallas=, shears
=claramente=, clearly
=claras (a las)=, openly, clearly
=claro=, clear, clearly, light (colour)
=claro y redondo=, quite openly
=clavel=, carnation
=clavos=, nails, cloves
=cliente=, client, customer
=clientela=, custom, _clientèle_, connection
=clima (el)=, climate
=climatológico=, climatic
=cobrar=, to charge, to collect (money)
=cobre=, copper
=cocer=, to bake, to cook
=codicia=, greed
=codiciar=, to covet
=coger=, to catch, to capture
=col=, cabbage
=colcha de plumón=, down quilt
=colección=, collection, set (of patterns)
=colgar=, to hang
=colmo=, climax, record
=colocar=, to place
=coloniales=, colonial produce
=color firme, sólido=, fast colour
=color falso, fugitive=, loose colour
=coloridos=, colourings
=columna=, column
=comanditar=, to finance
=comarca=, region, district (of a country)
=comedido=, considerate, thoughtful
=comenzar=, empezar, to commence
=comer=, to eat
=comercial=, commercial
=comerciante=, negociante, merchant
=comercio=, commerce, trade
=comisionista=, commission agent
=como, ¿cómo?= as, how?
=compañía anónima (por acciones)=, limited company
=compensar=, to compensate, to make good
=competidor, contrincante=, competitor, neighbour
=complacer, agradar, favorecer=, to oblige
=completo=, complete, full
=compra=, purchase
=comprar=, to buy
=comprender=, entender, to understand
=comprometerse=, to compromise, to commit oneself, to prejudice, to
   undertake
=común=, common
=concebir=, to conceive
=conceder=, to grant
=concejo, cabildo, ayuntamiento, municipality
=concerner=, to concern
=concisamente=, concisely
=condiciones=, terms
=conducir=, to lead
=conducta=, conduct, behaviour
=con el corazón en la mano=, quite candidly
=conexiones=, connections, couplings
=confeccionar=, to make up
=conferencia=,  lecture
=confesar=, to confess
=confianza=, confidence, trust
=confiar (á)=, to entrust
=confiar (en)=, to trust
=(de) conformidad (con)=, in accordance with, agreeable to
=conforme a=, according to
=conocer=, to know a person, an object
=conocimiento, conocido=, acquaintance
=conocimiento=, bill of lading
=consabido=, in question
=conseguir, obtener=, to get, to obtain, to succeed in
=consejo=, advice
=conservas alimenticias=, preserves
=considerar=, to consider
=consignación=, consignment
=consignar=, to consign, to record
=consignatario=, consignee
=consumidor=, consumer
=contado (al)=, (for) cash
=con tal que=, provided that
=contar=, to count, to relate
=contar con=, to calculate, to reckon upon
=(el) contenido=, the contents
=contentar=, to oblige
=contento=, content, contentment
=contestar, responder=, to answer, to reply
=continuamente=,,  continually
=continuar=, to continue
=contra, en contra de=, against
=contrabando=, contraband
=contramaestre de filatura=, master spinner
=contramandar, revocar=, to countermand, to revoke
=contrario=, unfavourable, contrary, adverse
=contratiempo=, hitch
=contrato=, contract, written agreement
=contribuir=, to contribute
=contrincante, competidor=, competitor, neighbour
=convencer=, to convince
=conveniente=, convenient, suitable
=convenio=, agreement
=convenir=, to agree, to suit
=convocar=, to call together (to a meeting)
=copa, sombrero de=, silk hat
=copiador=, copy book
=coquillos=, jeans
=cordobán=, morocco leather
=correas=, belts (machine), belting
=corredor=, broker
=correo=, the post
=correr=, to run
=correrse=, to make a slip of the tongue
=correspondencia=, correspondence
=corresponder a las necesidades=, to meet the requirements
=corresponsal=, correspondent
=corrido=, acute, artful
=corriente=, current, inst.
=cortapluma=, penknife
=cortarse=, to cut oneself, to stop short (in middle of speech)
=corte=cutting
=cortésmente=, politely, courteously
=corto=, brief, short
=cosa=, thing
=cosecha=, harvest, crop, harvest time
=costa=, coast
=coste, flete y seguro (c.f.s.)=, c.i.f., cost, insurance, freight
=costumbre=, custom, habit
=cotización=, quotation
=cotizar=, to quote (prices)
=crédito=, credit
=creer=, to believe, to think
=cregüelas=, osnaburgs
=crema=, cream
=crespolinas=, crimps
=criada=, maidservant
=criado=, manservant
=croquis=, sketch
=cruzados=, twills
=cuadritos=, checks
=cuadro=, picture, table (figures)
=cualquiera=, any _(affirm.)_
=cualquiera=, whoever, whichever
=cuando=, when
=cuandoquiera (que)=, whenever
=cuantioso=, abundant, ample
=cuarto=, apartment, room, quarter
=cuarto=, fardín, farthing, a trifling amount
=cúbico=, cubic
=cubrir, cubierto=, cover, covered
=cucharas=, spoons
=cuchilla=, knife
=cuenta=, account, statement
=cuenta de venta=, account sales
=cuenta simulada, pro= forma account
=cueros=, hides
=cuerpo=, body
=cuesta=, slope
=cuestión=, question
=cuidadosamente=, carefully
=cuidar=, to take care
=cuidarse=, to take care of oneself
=culpa=, fault, blame
=culpado=, at fault
=cumplir (con)=, to fulfil, to accomplish
=cuñada=, sister-in-law
=cuñado=,  brother-in-law
=cuota=, quota
=cuyo=, whose


=CH=

=chaconadas=, jaconets
=chal=, shawl
=chaleco=, vest, waistcoat
=charla=, prattle, gossip
=chanclos=, goloshes
=chapa=, plate (metal)
=chelín=, shilling
=cheque=, cheque
=chillones=, gaudy (colours)
=chimenea=, chimney
=chocolate=, chocolate
=chucherías=, pretty trifles


=D=

=damasco=, damask
=dañar=, to damage
=daño=, damage, injury, breakdown
=dar=, to give
=dar aviso al proprietario=, to give notice to leave
=dar cuenta=, to report
=dar en el clavo=, to hit it
=dar las gracias=, to give thanks
=darse á partido=, to yield, to submit
=dátiles=, dates
=debajo (de)=, under
=deber=, to owe, must
=debido á=, owing to
=de buena tinta (tener)=, from a good source (to have)
=decadencia=, decadence
=decididamente=, decidedly
=decidir, decidirse=, to decide, to make up one's mind
=decir=, to say, to tell
=declamar=, to declaim
=declarar=, to declare
=declararse en quiebra=, to file one's petition in bankruptcy
=decretar=, to decree
=dedal=, thimble
=dedicarse=, to devote oneself
=defecto=, defect, imperfection
=definir=, to define, also to settle
=definitivo=, definite
=dejar=, to leave, to let
=dejar sin efecto=, to cancel (orders, etc.)
=delegado=, delegate
=delicado  de  salud=, in indifferent  health
=delinquir=, to commit a delinquency
=demanda y oferta=, supply and  demand
=demandar=, to demand
=demasiado=, too, too much
=de miedo que=, lest
=de modo que=, so that
=demora=, delay
=demostrar confianza á=, to show confidence in
=dentro (de)=, inside, within
=depender (de)=, to depend (upon)
=dependiente=, clerk
=deplorar=, to deplore
=depósito=, deposit, depôt,  store
=deprimir=, to depress
=derecho=, right, straight, customs, duty
=desanimado=, lifeless, stagnant (market)
=desanimar (se)=, to disconcert, to feel discouraged
=desarme=, disarmament
=desarrollar=, to develop
=descarga=, discharge, unloading
=descomponer=, to put out of gear
=desconcertar=, to put out, to upset
=descuidar=, to neglect
=desdichado=, unfortunate, unhappy
=desear=, to wish
=desembarcar=, to load
=deseoso=, eager, wishful
=desfavorable=, unfavourable
=desgracia=,  misfortune
=deshacerse (de)=, to get rid of
=deshonra=, dishonour
=desinteresarse=, to abandon
=deslumbrar=, to dazzle
=despacho, escritorio, oficina=, office
=despacio=, slowly
=despedida (aviso de)=, dismissal   (notice of)
=despejar=, to clear
=desperdiciar=, to waste
=despertar=, to wake up
=desplegar=, to unfold
=despreciable=, despicable
=después=, after, afterwards
=destajista=, contractor
=desteñir=, to fade
=detalles=, details
=detenidamente=, at length
=detallado=, detailed
=detrás=, behind
=deuda=, debt
=devanarse los sesos=, to rack one's brains
=devoción=, devotion
=devolver=, to return, to give or send back
=(el) día=, the day
=diagonales=, twills
=diario=, day book
=días de estadía=, lay days
=días de contra estadía=, days of demurrage
=dibujos, diseños=, designs
=diccionario=, dictionary
=dichoso=, lucky
=Diciembre=, December
=dictamen=, award, decision
=dientes=, teeth
=diferente=, different
=diferir=, to defer, to postpone
=difícil=, difficult
=dificultad=, difficulty, also objection
=difunto=, late, deceased
=diligencia=, diligence
=diligentemente=,  diligently
=(un) dineral=, (a) mint of money
=dinero=, money
=dinero efectivo=, cash, ready money
=Dios=, God
=dique=, dock
=dirección=, address, direction
=dirigir=, to direct
=dirigirse=, to address oneself
=discípulo=, pupil
=discreto=, discreet, sensible
=disculpar=, to excuse
=discutir=, to discuss
=diseños, dibujos=, designs
=diseñador=, draughtsman
=disfrutar (de)=, to enjoy
=disgustado=, annoyed, disgusted, displeased
=dispensar=, to excuse
=disponer=, to dispose, to arrange
=disponible=, available, spot (cotton)
=disposición=, disposition, disposal, instruction
=distinguir=, to distinguish
=distinto=, different
=distrito=, district
=disturbado=, disturbed, upset
=disturbio=, disturbance
=divertirse=, to enjoy oneself
=doblar, duplicar=, to double, to duplicate
=dobladillado=, hemmed
=con dobladillo de ojo=, hemstitched
=docena=, dozen
=doctrina=, doctrine, knowledge
=documento=, document
=doler=, to hurt, to ache, to pain
=dolor=, pain, sorrow
=dolor de cabeza=, headache
=doloroso=, painful
=domicilio=, residence, registered office of a company
=Domingo=, Sunday
=dominio=, dominion, control
=donde (¿dónde?)=, where
=dondequiera que=, wherever
=dormir=, to sleep
=dormirse=, to fall asleep
=dril=, drill
=duda=, doubt
=dudar=, to doubt, to question
=duplicar, doblar=, to duplicate, to double
=durante=, during
=durar=, to last


=E=

=echar=, to throw, to cast
=echar á perder=, to spoil, to ruin, to wreck
=echar al correo=, to post
=edificio=, local, building
=efectuar=, to effect
=ejecutar=, to execute
=ejército=, army
=elaborar=, to elaborate
=elegantemente=, elegantly, stylishly
=elegir, escoger=, to choose, to select
=elevar=, to raise, to enhance, to put up
=embajador=, ambassador
=embarcar=, to embark, to ship
=embarque=, shipment
=embrollar=, to entangle, to cheat
=emisión=, issue
=emitir=, to issue
=empacar=, to pack
=empeñar=, to engage, to pawn, to pledge
=empeño (tener)=, to be earnest, anxious about anything
=empeños=, obligations, engagements
=empeoramiento=, turn for the worse, deterioration
=empezar, comenzar=, to commence
=emplear=, to employ
=emplearse=, to be employed, used for
=emprendedor=, enterprising
=empresa=, undertaking, concern, enterprise
=empréstito=, loan
=en breve=, shortly
=encaje=, lace
=encaminar=, to forward
=encargarse (de)=, to take charge
=encarnado=, red
=en caso que=, in case
=encina, roble=, oak
=encojerse=, to shrink
=encojido=, shrunk, shrivelled
=en contra de=, against
=encontrar=, to meet, to find
=encuadernar=, to bind (books)
=endosar=, to endorse
=en efectivo, en metálico=, in cash
=Enero=, January
=enfadado=, angry
=enfermo, malo=, ill
=enfurecido=, furious, infuriated
=engañifa=, trick
=engranaje=, gearing
=en latas=, canned
=en regla=, in order
=ensartapapeles=, file
=ensartar=, to file papers, to string beads
=ensayo=, trial, proof, venture
=en seguida=, at once
=enseñanza=, teaching
=enseñar=, to teach, to show
=entender, comprender=, to understand
=entenderse de=, to be a judge of
=enterarse=, to get to know
=entero (por)=, in full
=entonces=, then, at that time
=entrante, próximo=, next
=entrar (en)=, to enter
=entre=, between, amongst
=entrega=, delivery
=entregar=, to deliver, to hand (personally)
=entrepuentes=, between decks
=enviar, mandar=, to send
=envidia=, envy
=envió=, shipment
=época=, epoch, time, period
=equidad=, equity, fairness, fair dealing
=equipo=, equipment
=equitativo=, fair
=equivocación=, mistake
=equivocarse=, to make a mistake, to be mistaken
=error=, mistake, error
=escala=, ladder, scale
=escala (hacer)=, to call at (steamers)
=escandaloso=, scandalous, shocking
=escaño=, stool
=escapar, huir=, to escape
=escarcha (tornado por la)=, frost-bitten
=escarmentar=, to take warning
=escoba=, broom
=escoger, elegir=, to choose, to select
=escribir (se)=, to write, to write to each other
=escrito=, letter, writing (_n_.)
=escritor=, writer
=escritorio=, writing desk, office
=escuchar=, to listen
=es decir, á saber=, viz.
=ese, a, o=, that
=esfuerzo=, effort
=espada=, sword
=espalda=, shoulder
=espaldas=, back
=español=, Spanish
=espantarse=, to be frightened
=especias=, spices
=especie=, species, kind, rumour, news
=especulación=, deal, speculation
=esperar=, to hope, to wait for, to expect
=espeso=, thick
=esposo-a=, husband, wife
=esquela=, note
=establecer (se)=, to establish, to establish oneself
=estación, temporada=, season
=estadística=,  statistics
=estallar=, to break out, to burst
=estampar=, to print (cloth)
=estancia=, stay
=estante=, bookshelf
=estaño=, tin
=estar, estarse=, to be
=este,-a,-o=, this
=este=, east
=estima=, appreciation, esteem
=estiva=, stowage
=estrenar=, to use or wear for the first time
=estrenarse=, to make a start
=estudiar=, to study
=estufa=, stove
=eternamente=, eternally, for ever
=etiqueta=, ticket, label
=evitar=, to avoid
=exacto=, exact, accurate
=examen=, examination
=exceder=, to exceed, to overstep
=exclusive=, exclusive, sole
=exhibir=, to show, to exhibit
=exigir=, to require
=exiguo=, slender, slight, small
=existencias=, stocks
=éxito=, result
=éxito (bueno, malo)=, success, failure
=expedidor=, sender
=experimentar=, to experience, to experiment
=experto=, experienced
=explicar, explanar=, to explain
=explotar=, to exploit, to work (mines, etc.)
=exponerse á=, to encounter, to expose oneself to
=exportación=, export, exportation
=exportador=, exporter, shipper
=extender=, to extend, to stretch
=extranjero=, foreigner, foreign, _also_ abroad
=extraño=, strange, queer


=F=

=fábrica de algodón=, cotton mill
=fabricante=, manufacturer
=facilidad=, ease, facility
=factura=, invoice
=facturar=, to invoice
=falta=, want, absence of, fault, blame
=falta de aceptación, de pago=, non-acceptance, non-payment
=faltar=, to be wanting, to be necessary, to fail
=fama=, fame, reputation, name
=famoso=, famous
=fantasías=, fancies
=fardín, cuarto=, farthing, a trifling amount
=fardito=, truss
=fardo=, bale
=favorable=, favourable
=favorecer=, to oblige
=Febrero=, February
=fecha=, date
=fecha de=, dated
=feliz=, happy
=ferretería=, ironware
=ferrocarril=, railway
=festoneado=, scalloped
=fiador=, surety
=fiados=, book debts
=fidedigno=, trustworthy
=fiel=, faithful
=fielato=, octroi office
=fiesta del comercio=, bank holiday
=fijar=, to fix
=fijo=, fixed, firm
=filosofía=, philosophy
=firma=, signature
=firmar=, to sign
=firmeza=, firmness
=(el) fin=, the end
=fino=, shrewd
=fletar=, to charter, to freight
=flete=, freight
=flojedad=, slackness
=flojo=, slack
=flor=, flower
=floreciente=, flourishing
=folleto=, leaflet
=fomento=, development, encouragement
=fonda=, hotel, hotel
=fondo=, bottom, ground (colour)
=fondos=, funds, capital
=forma=, shape
=formal=, formal, respectable
=forro=, lining
=fortuna=, fortune
=forzar=, to force, to strain
=fósforos=, matches
=fracasar=, to fall through
=fracaso=, failure
=franco de averia particular=, f.p.a. (free particular average)
=franco de porte, tra(n)sporte pagado=, carriage paid
=franja=, fringe
=franqueo=, postage
=frase=, phrase, sentence
=frazada=, blanket
=frecuentemente=, frequently
=(la) frente=, forehead
=(el) frente=, front
=fresno=, ash
=frío= (_adj_. and _n_), cold
=fruta=, fruit
=fruto=, fruit of labour, etc.
=fuente=, fountain, source
=fuerte=, strong, fast, firm
=fuerza motriz=, motive power
=fugitivo= loose (colours)
=fulano=, so and so
=funcionar de, proceder (como)=, to act as
=fundar=, to found
=furioso=, furious
=fustán=, fustian


=G=

=galón=, gallon
=gana=, inclination, desire
=gana, de buena, mala=, willingly, unwillingly
=ganancias y pérdidas=, profit and loss
=ganar=, to gain, to earn
=ganga=, a bargain, cheap lot
=garabato=, clothes hook
=garantizar=, to guarantee, to warrant
=garbanzos=, Spanish peas
=garrote=, stick, cudgel
=gastar=, to spend, to spoil; also to wear (usually)
=gato=, cat, jack (machinery)
=general=, general
=géneros=, goods
=géneros alimenticios=, food-stuffs
=géneros imperfectos=, jobs
=generoso=, generous
=genio=, temper
=gente (la)=, people
=gerente=, manager
=girar=, to draw (a bill), to turn
=giro=, bill,  draft,  also turnover
=gobernar=, to govern
=gobierno=, government
=goleta=, schooner
=goma elástica, caucho=, rubber
=gorra (gorro)=, cap
=gorrión=, sparrow
=gozar=, to enjoy
=grabado=, embossed
=gracia=, grace,  gracefulness
=graduación=, gradation, degree
=granadas=, pomegranates
=grande (gran)=, great, large
=grande velocidad (á)=, by fast train
=granizar=, to hail
=granjearse=, to win over
=granos, mercado de=, grain, grain market
=gratificación=, gratuity
=gratitud=, gratitude
=gratuito=, gratuitous, honorary
=grifo=, cock (machinery)
=gris=, grey
=grito=, cry, shout
=grueso=, thick
=gruñir=, to  growl, to  grumble, to grunt
=guante=, glove
=guardafuego=, fender
=guardapapeles=, file
=guardar=, to keep
=guardar cama=, to lie in bed
=guardias aduaneras=, custom house officials
=guarnición=, trimming
=guerra=, war
=guingas, carranclanes=, ginghams
=guisantes=, green peas
=gustar=, to please
=gustar (á uno)=, to like


=H=

=habas=, broad beans
=haber=, to have, there to be
=haber menester=, to need
=habérselas con uno=, to dispute, to wrangle, to vie with
=hábil=, clever
=habitantes=, inhabitants
=hablar=, to speak
=hacer=, to do, to make
=hacer caso=, to take notice
=hacer constar=, to show, to demonstrate
=hacer falta=, to be wanted
=hacer frente=, to face, to meet (bills, etc.)
=hacerse=, to become
=hacer una remesa=, to send a remittance
=hachuelas (hachas)=, hatchets (axes)
=hacienda=, property, shop, stores
=hallar, encontrar=, to find
=hambre=, hunger
=hampa=, vagabonds (company of)
=hasta que=, until
=hasta la fecha=, to date
=hasta que punto=, to what extent
=hato=, wearing apparel, bundle of clothes
=hay=, there is, there are
=haya=, beech
=heces de sebo=, tallow, greaves
=hecho=, fact, action
=helar=, to freeze
=(la= _or_ =el) hélice=, the screw (of a boat)
=herida=, wound, sting
=herir=, to wound, to cut (fig.)
=hermano=, brother
=hermosamente=, beautifully
=hermoso=, beautiful, fine, handsome
=herramientas=, tools
=hervir=, to boil
=hidalguía=, nobleness, chivalry
=hielo=, escarcha, frost
=hierro=, iron
=higos=, figs
=higuera=, fig tree
=hija política, nuera=, daughter-in-law
=hijo=, son
=hijodalgo=, gentleman by birth, squire
=hijo político, yerno=, son-in-law
=hilador=, spinner
=hilados=, yarn
=hilar=, to spin
=hinchazón=, boom
=hipoteca, mortgage
=hipotecar=, to mortgage
=historia=, history
=holandas=, hollands
=holgazán=, lazy
=hombre=, man
=hombre llano=, rough-and-ready man
=honor=, honour
=honradez=, honesty
=honrar=, to honour
=hora=, hour
=hortelano= (fruit) gardener
=hortera=, office boy (jocularly)
=hoy=, to-day
=huelga=, strike
=huerta=, orchard
=hueso=, bone
=huir, escapar=, to flee, to escape
=humear=, to smoke (of a chimney)
=hundimiento=, subsidence


=I=

=el idioma=, the language
=igual=, equal
=igualar=, to equal, to match
=ilustrado=, enlightened
=ilustrar=, to illustrate
=ilustre=, illustrious
=impedir=, to hinder
=imperfectos=, job lots
=imponer=, to impose, also to inform
=importaciones=, imports
=importancia=, importance, amount
=importar=, to matter
=importar (en)=, to amount to
=importe=, amount
=imprimir (impreso)=, to print (printed)
=imprevidencia=, want of foresight
=imprevisto=, unforeseen
=impuesto=, tax
=impuesto de consumos=, octroi duties
=incertidumbre=, uncertainty
=incluir=, to enclose, to include
=inconveniencia=, unsuitability, impropriety
=inconveniente=, inconvenience
=indemnidad=, indemnity, signed guarantee
=indemnización=, indemnity (compensation for loss)
=indicar=, to indicate, to point out
=indígena=, native
=industria=, industry
=inercia=, idleness, inertia
=infeliz=, unhappy
=ínfimo=, infinitesimal
=infinidad=, an infinite number
=informe=, report
=informes=, information(s), references
=informar (de)=, to inform of, to acquaint with
=ingeniero=, engineer
=ingratitud=, ingratitude
=ingresos netos=, net revenue
=inmaturo, verde=, unripe
=inmediato=, immediate
=innavegable=, unnavigable
=innoble=, ignoble
=inquilino=, tenant
=inquietarse=, to feel uneasy
=integro=, integer, whole, upright
=inteligencia=, intelligence
=intención=, intention
=intentar=, to intend
=interés=, interest
=interesante=, interesting
=ínterin (en el)=, in the meantime
=interino=, interim
=interior=, interior, inland
=intervista=, interview
=interpretar=, to interpret
=invertir=, to invest (money)
=invierno=, winter
=ir=, to go, to lead to
=irrisorio=, laughable, absurd, ridiculously low (of prices)
=irse=, to go away
=isla=, island
=izquierda=, left


=J=

=jabalí=, boar
=jactarse=, to boast
=jamón=, ham
=jardín=, garden
=jardinero=, gardener
=jefe=, employer, chief
=jornalero=, day-labourer
=joven=, young, young man, young woman
=judías=, French beans
=Jueves=, Thursday
=jugoso=, juicy
=juicioso=, judicious, wise
=Julio=, July
=Junio=, June
=junta de acreedores=,  meeting  of creditors
=junto á=, near to, coupled with
=justificar=, to justify, to warrant
=justificarse=, to justify oneself
=justo=, right, just, fair
=jute, yute=, jute
=juventud=, youth, young age


=L=

=la labor=, labour
=laborioso=, laborious, hard-working
=labrado=, figured--brocaded
=lacre=, sealing-wax
=lado=, side
=ladrillos refractarios=, fire bricks
=ladrón=, thief
=lana=, wool
=langosta=, lobster
=lanillas para banderas=, bunting
=lápiz=, pencil
=lardo=, lard
=largo=, long
=largo de talle=, abundant, full
=largura=, length
=lástima=, pity
=latón=, brass
=lección=, lesson
=la leche=, milk
=lectura=, reading
=leer=, to read
=legajo=, bundle (of papers)
=legislatura=, (parliamentary) session
=lejos=, far away
=lengua=, tongue, language
=lento=, slow, remiss
=letra=, bill of exchange, handwriting
=levita=, frock-coat
=la ley=, the law
=libra=, pound sterling, pound weight
=librarse=, to get rid of
=libre=, free
=libro=, book
=libro de facturas=, invoice book
=libro mayor=, ledger
=liebre=, hare
=lienzos=, linens
=lienzos adamascados=, diapers
=lienzos morenos=, brown (unbleached) linens
=ligero=, slight, light
=limitación=, curtailment, limitation
=limitar=, to limit
=límite=, limit
=limones=, lemons
=limpiar=, to clean
=limpio=, clean
=lingotes de hierro=, pig-iron
=lino=, flax
=linón, olán=, lawn
=liquidar=, to liquidate, to settle, to clear off (goods)
=líquido, neto=, nett
=liso=, plain, smooth
=lisonjearse=, to flatter oneself
=lista, boletín=, price list
=listados=, striped (goods)
=el local=, the building, the premises
=loco=, mad
=locomotora=, locomotive
=lograr=, to contrive, to attain
=logro=, attainment
=el lote, la partida=, lot
=loza=, crockery
=luchar=, to fight, to struggle against
=luego=, at once, then
=luego que=, as soon as
=en lugar de=, instead of
=Lunes=, Monday
=luto=, mourning


=LL=

=llamar=, to call
=llamarse (me llamo)=, to be called (my name is)
=llantas=, tyres
=llegar=, to arrive
=llegar á ser=, to become, to contrive to be
=lleno=, full
=llevar=, to carry, to wear, to take
=llevar á cabo=, to carry into effect
=llevar chasco=, to be disappointed, to be baffled
=llevarse bien=, to get on well
=llover=, to rain
=lloviznar=, to drizzle
=lluvia=, rain


=M=

=maceta, portaramillete (portarramillete),  florero=, flower-stand
=machacar=, to hammer, to insist
=madera=, timber, wood
=madre=, mother
=maestro=, teacher, master
=maíz=, maize
=mal=, badly
=mala, correo=, post
=malbaratar=, to undersell
=malcontento=, uneasiness, discontent
=maleta=, portmanteau
=malgastar=, to waste, to squander
=malo=, bad, wicked, _also_ ill
=malversar=, to embezzle
=mampostería=, masonry
=mancha=, spot, stain
=mandar=, to order, to send
=mandar buscar=, to send for
=mandato=, order (injunction)
=manga=, sleeve (_also_ hose, pump)
=de manga ancha=, not over-scrupulous
=mango=, handle
=manifestar=, to manifest, to inform, to say (in a letter)
=mano=, hand, quire
=mano de obra=, labour
=manta=, blanket
=manteca= (S. America, =mantequilla=), butter
=manteca de puerco=, lard
=mantener=, to maintain, to hold up
=mantenerse=, to maintain oneself, to be maintained
=manzana=, apple
=mañana=, to-morrow, the morning
=máquina á =vapor, steam engine
=maquinaria=, machinery
=mar alborotada=, heavy sea
=maravillar=, to surprise
=maravillarse=, to wonder
=marca=, mark, brand
=marcharse=, to go away
=margarina=, margarine
=marido=, husband
=mariscos=, shell fish
=mármol=, marble
=martes=, Tuesday
=martillos=, hammers
=Marzo=, March
=mas=, but
=más=, more
=más adelante=, later on
=material rodante=, rolling-stock
=(el) matiz=, shade of colour
=matute=, smuggling
=Mayo=, May
=mayor=, larger
=mayormente=, especially
=(la) mayor parte=, most
=mecanismo=, mechanism, contrivance (machinery of the law, etc.)
=mecer=, to stir (a liquid), to rock (acradle, etc.)
=mediana=, average
=mediar=, to intervene
=medias=, hose, stockings
=médico=, doctor, physician
=medida=, measure
=mediería=, hosiery
=medio=, half, means
=medrar=, to prosper
=mejor=, better
=mejora, mejoría=, improvement, looking up (market)
=mejorar=, to improve
=melindroso=, squeamish, very particular
=melocotones=, peaches
=mención (hacer)=, to mention
=mencionar=, to mention
=menester=, necessary, needful
=menor=, smaller
=mensual=, monthly
=(la) mente=, the mind
=mercado=, market
=mercancía=, merchandise, goods
=merced á=, thanks to
=mercería=, haberdashery
=merma=, leakage
=mes=, month
=mesa=, table
=método=, method
=metro=, metre
=miedo=, fear
=miembro=, member
=mientras=,  while
=mientras tanto=, meanwhile
=miércoles=, Wednesday
=mil=, thousand
=milla=, mile
=millón=, million
=mina de carbón=, coal-mine, colliery
=minero=, miner
=mínimo=, minimum
=ministro-erio=, minister, ministry
=mirar=, to look
=mismo=, same, self
=la mitad=, the half
=modista=, milliner
=modo=, way, manner
=moer=, mohair
=moler=, to grind
=montaje=, mounting (machinery)
=monte, montaña=, mount, mountain
=moratoria, moratorium=, time extension for payment
=moreno=, brown, natural colour
=moroso, lento=, remiss, slow (in payments)
=mortal=, mortal
=mostrar=, to show
=motín=, riot
=mover=, to move
=mozalbete=, beardless youth
=muchacho=, boy, lad
=mucho=, much, exceedingly, greatly
=muebles de bejuco=, rattan furniture
=muestra=, sample
=muestrarios=, pattern cards, sets
=mujer=, woman, wife
=multa=, a fine, penalty
=mundial=, world (_adj_.)
=mundo=, world
=todo el mundo=, everybody
=muselina=, muslin
=museo=, museum
=muy=, very


=N=

=nación=, nation
=nada=,  nothing
=nanquín, mahón=, nankeen
=nansú=, nainsook
=naranjas=, oranges
=nariz=, nose
=naufragar (se)=, to wreck (to be shipwrecked)
=navaja de afeitar=, razor
=Navidad=, Christmas
=navío, barco, buque=, ship, boat
=necesario=, necessary
=necesitar=, to want, to need
=negar=, to deny
=negarse=, to refuse
=negativa=, refusal
=negociado=, division (gov. office)
=negociante=, merchant
=negocio(s)=, business
=negro=, black
=neto, líquido=, nett
=neumático=, pneumatic
=nevar=, to snow
=nieve=, snow
=ninguno=, no one, any (after _neg_.)
=niño=, child
=niquelado=, nickel-plated
=nivel=, level
=no bien=, as soon as
=noche=, evening, night
=nombrar=, to appoint
=nombre=, name
=no obstante=, notwithstanding
=norte=, north
=no sea que=, lest
=notas de banco=, bank notes
=noticia(s)=, news
=Noviembre=, November
=novísimo=, brand new
=nuera, hija política=, daughter-in-law
=nuevo=, new
=numero=, number
=nunca=, ever, never


=O=

=objeto=, object
=obligación=, bond, debenture, obligation.
=obligar=, to compel
=obligarse=, to bind oneself
=obrar=, to operate, to work, to act
=obrero=, workman
=obsequio=, favour
=observar=, to observe, to remark, to notice
=obstruir=, to obstruct
=obtener, conseguir=, to get, to obtain, to succeed in.
=ocasión=, occasion
=océano=, ocean
=Octubre=, October
=ocurrir=, to occur, to happen
=oeste=, west
=oficina, escritorio, despacho=, office
=ofrecer=, to offer
=ofrecimiento=, offer
=oir=, to hear
¡=ojo=! attention, look out
=el ojo=, the eye
=olanes, linones=, lawns
=ollería=, hollow-ware
=olvidar (se)=, to forget
=ómnibus=, omnibus
=operaciones=, dealings, operations
=operadores=, dealers (on 'Change), operators
=oponerse=, to oppose
=oportunidad=, opportunity, chance
=óptimo=, very good, excellent
=orden=, order
=ordinario=, ordinary
=organizar=, to organize
=orilla=, bank (river), selvedge
=oro=, gold
=otoño=, autumn
=otro=, other
=ovillo (de algodón)=, ball (of cotton)


=P=

=padre=, father
=padres=, parents
=pagadero=, payable
=pagar=, to pay
=pagaré=, promissory note, note of hand
=página=, page
=paila, tacho=, pan (sugar manuf.)
=país=, country (nation)
=pájaro=, bird
=palabra=, word
=palacio=, palace
=palas=, shovels, spades
=palmera=, date-palm
=palo de mesana=, mizzen mast
=palo mayor=, main mast
=pan=, bread, loaf
=pana=, velveteen
=pana acordonada=, cords, corduroy
=paño=, cloth, suiting
=pañol, carbonera=, bunker
=pantalones=, trousers
=pañuelo=, handkerchief
=papel=, paper
=papel secante=, blotting-paper
=paquete=, packet, parcel
=par=, pair, couple
=á la par=, at the same time
=para, por=, for
=para con=, towards
=para que=, so that
=parecer=, to appear, to seem
=el parte=, the report
=la parte=, the part
=partida=, lot, parcel (of goods)
=partir=, to depart, to set out
=pasar=, to pass, to hand
=pasar por=, visitar, to call at
=pasársele por alto á uno=, to escape one's notice.
=pasas (de Corinto)=, raisins, currants
=Pascua=,   Easter
=paseo=, promenade, walk, stroll
=el pasivo, pasividades=, liabilities
=paso=, step
=dar pasos=, to take steps
=patines=, skates
=patria=, country, fatherland
=patronos=, masters (of workmen)
=pausa=, pause
=paz=, peace
=pedido=, order
=pedir=, to ask, to demand
=peligro=, danger
=peligroso, arriesgado=, dangerous
=pelo=, hair
=penique=, penny
=pensar (se)=, to think
=Pentecostés=, Whitsuntide
=(á) pequeña velocidad=, (by) slow train
=pequeñeces=, trifles
=pequeño=, small, little (_adj_.)
=pera=, pear
=percal=, calico
=perder=, to lose
=pérdida=, loss
=perenne=, perennial
=perfeccionar=, to perfect
=perfectamente=, perfectly
=perfecto=, perfect
=periódico=, newspaper
=perito=, expert
=perjuicios=, damages
=pero=, but
=perro=, dog
=perspectivas=, prospects
=perturbar=, to disturb
=pesado=, heavy
=peso=, weight
=pésimo=, very bad
=petición=, request, petition
=picos=, picks
=(al) pie=, (at) foot
=piel=, skin
=pierna=, leg
=piezas de repuesto=, spare pieces (machinery)
=pimienta=, pepper
=pino=, pine
=pintura=, paint
=pipa=, cask, pipe
=pistola=, pistol
=placer=, to please, pleasure
=plan=, plan (idea)
=planchas de hierro=, sheet iron
=plano=, plan (sketch)
=planta=, plant
=plata=, silver
=plaza=, market-place, square, place (town)
=plazo=, term
=plegar=, to fold
=plomo=, lead (slate-colour)
=pluma=, pen
=población=, villa, town
=pobre=, poor
=poco=, little (_adv_. and _subs_.)
=poder=, to be able
=poder= (_n_.), power, power of attorney
=(no) poder menos de=, not to be able to help ...
=poderoso=, powerful
=podrido=, rotten
=póliza de seguro=, insurance policy
=poner=, to put, to place
=poner al corriente=, to inform
=poner en conocimiento=, to inform, to acquaint with
=poner en condiciones=, to enable
=poner pleito=, to bring an action
=por, para=, for
=porcelana=, china
=por decirlo así=, so to say, as it were
=por de contado=, of course
=porfiar=, to insist
=por más que=, however much, although
=(al) por mayor, por menor=, wholesale, retail
=pormenores=, particulars, details
=porta estampillas=, stamp-rack
=portabandera=, standard-bearer
=portanto=, therefore
=portaramillete (portarramillete) maceta=, flower-stand
=porte pagadero al destine, tra(n)sporte seguido=, carriage forward
=portes, franqueo=, postage
=pórtico=, porch
=poseer=, to possess, to be worth
=posición=, position, standing
=postergar=, to delay, to put off
=práctico=, practical
=preceder=, to precede
=precio=, price
=precioso=, precious
=preferible=, preferable
=preliminar=, preliminary
=premio=, reward, prize, premium
=prescindir de=, to dispense with
=presentar=, to present, to lay before, to produce, to introduce
   one person to another
=prestar=, to lend, to render (help)
=presupuesto=, estimate
=prevalecer, reinar=, to prevail, to rule
=prever=, to foresee, to anticipate
=previsión=, foresight
=prima=, premium
=primavera=, spring
=primer dependiente=, chief clerk
=primo-a=, cousin
=principal=, principal, chief, leading
=principiar=, to commence
=principio=, beginning
=prisa=, speed, haste, hurry
=probar=, to try, to prove, to attempt
=proceso=, process, case, lawsuit
=producir=, to produce
=producto=, product, produce, output
=productos accesorios=, bye-products
=productos químicos=, chemicals
=profesor=, professor
=prohibir=, to prohibit
=pronto=, quick, speedy, soon
=propietario=, landlord, owner
=propio=, own
=proponer=, to propose
=proponerse=, to intend, to purpose
=proporcionado, adecuado=, adequate
=proveer= (_p.p._), =provisto (proveído)=, to provide
=provisorio=, interim
=próximamente=, about, approximately (also shortly)
=próximo=, next
=proyecto=, scheme, plan, project
=proyecto de ley=, parliamentary bill
=prudente=, prudent
=pruebas=, proofs, trials, evidence
=publicar=, to publish
=pueblo=, people, town, village
=puerco=, pig
=puerta=, door
=puerto=, port, harbour
=pues=, then, well...
=puntitas=, pen-nibs
=(al) punto=, (on) the spot
=puntos=, points, dots, spots (in prints)
=pupitre=, desk
=puros, tabacos, cigarros=, cigars


=Q=

=que=, that, who, which
=¿que?= what?
=quebrantamiento=, breakdown
=quebranto=, mishap, misfortune, loss
=quedar(se)=, to remain
=quehaceres=, business, occupations
=queja=, complaint
=quejarse=, to complain
=querer=, to want, to wish to have
=querer decir=, to mean
=querido=, beloved, dear
=queso=, cheese
=quiebra=, bankruptcy
=quien=, who, whom
=quienquiera (que)=, whoever
=quincalla=, smallware
=quinta=, villa
=quitar=, to take away


=R=

=radiograma=, wireless
=ramo=, branch, line (of business)
=rastrillos=, harrows
=rayas=, stripes
=rayos=, spokes, rays
=razón=, reason
=a razón de=, at the rate of
=tener razón=, to be right
=reanudar=, to resume
=rebaja, reducción=, abatement, reduction, rebate
=reborde=, rim, flange
=rechazar=, to reject, to discard
=recibir=, to receive
=recibo=, receipt, reception
=reclamación, reclamo=, claim
=reclamar=, to claim
=reclamo=, advertisement
=recobrar=, to recover
=recoger=, to gather, to collect, to take up
=recomendar=, to recommend
=reconocer, admitir=, to acknowledge
=reconvenir=, to scold
=recto=, straightforward, straight
=recursos=, means, resources
=redactar=, to draw up (deeds)
=redondo=, round
=reducción, rebaja=, reduction, abatement,  rebate
=reducir=, to reduce
=referir=, to refer
=reflejo=, reflection
=reforma arancelaria=, tariff reform
=refrán=, proverb
=refrendar=, to countersign
=refresco=, refreshment
=refundir=, to refund
=regadío=, irrigation
=regalar=, to present
=régimen=, rule, regime
=regir=, to rule
=regla=, rule, ruler
=en regla=, in order
=reglamentos=, regulations, bye-laws
=regresar=, to come back
=rehusar, negarse á=, to refuse
=reina=, queen
=reinar=, to reign, to rule, to prevail
=reino=, kingdom
=reir=, to laugh
=reírse=, to laugh at, to mock
=rejas=, ploughs
=relación=,   report
=relampaguear=,  to lighten
=reloj=, watch, clock
=remesa=, remittance, also shipment
=remitir=, to remit, to send
=remolacha=, beetroot
=remolcar, traer a remolque=, to tow, to take in tow
=remover=, to remove, to stir, to poke (the fire)
=renglón=, line
=reo=, culprit
=reparar=, to notice
=repasar=, to go over, to look over
=repentino=, sudden
=repetir=, to repeat
=reprensible=, objectionable
=representación exclusiva=, sole agency
=representante=, representative, agent
=representar=, to represent, to act for
=requerir=, to require
=repulgado, dobladillado=, hemmed
=reservar=, to reserve
=residir=, to reside
=resortes=, springs
=con respecto á, respecto de=, with respect to
=respetar=, to respect
=respeto=, respect
=respire=, breath, breathing-time
=responder=, to answer
=responsible=, responsible (liable for)
=resto, restante=, remainder
=restos=, remnants
=resultado=, result
=resumir=, to recapitulate, to state briefly
=retardar=, to delay, to be delayed
=(los) reunidos=, those present
=reunión=, meeting
=al revés=, on the wrong side
=revista=, review
=revocar, contramandar=, to revoke, to countermand
=rey=, king
=rezumar=, to leak
=ricamente=, richly
=rico=, rich
=riesgo=, risk
=río=, river
=riqueza=, wealth
=rizados, crespolinas=, crimps
=rizo (del ala)=, curl (of the brim of a hat)
=robar=, to rob, to steal
=roble, encina=, oak
=rodajas de goma=, rubber heels (revolving)
=rogar=, to ask, to beg, to require
=rollo=, roll
=romperse= (_p. p._, =roto=), to break
=rosa=, rose, pink
=rotura=, breakage
=ruin=, base, sordid
=rumbo=, course (of a ship)
=rumor, especie=, rumour


=S=

=sábado=, Saturday
=sábana=, sheet (bed)
=(á) saber, es decir, viz=.
=saber=, to know (through the mind), to know by heart
=sabio=, wise
=sacar=, to draw out, to get or pull out,
   to derive, to get back (one's money)
=saldo=, settlement, clearing line
=salir=, to come out, to go out (up)
=salir en=, to come up to (amount)
=salubre=, healthy
=salvamento=, salvage
¡=salve=! hail!
=santo=, holy, saint
=sardinas=, sardines
=sargento=, sergeant
=sastre=, tailor
=satines brochados=, brocaded satins
=satisfecho=, satisfied
=sea que=, whether
=sebo (heces de)=, tallow (greaves)
=secretario=, secretary
=sed=, thirst
=seda=, silk
=según=, according to
=seguir=, to continue, to follow
=seguro=, sure, insurance
=sellar=, to seal
=sello=, seal, postage-stamp
=semana=, week
=semejante=, similar
=semestre=, half-year
=Senado=, Senate
=señal=, sign, mark
=sencillo=, plain, simple
=señor=, gentleman
=señora=, lady
=sentir=, to feel, to be sorry
=ser=, to be
=(la) serie=, series
=ser menester=, to be necessary
=servicio=, service
=servir=, to serve
=Setiembre=, September
=si=, if
=sí=, oneself
=sí=, yes
=silla=, chair
=siempre= always
=sierra mecánica=, sawing machine
=(un) si es no es=, just a little bit, ever so little
=siguiente=, following
=simpático=, pleasant, winsome, taking
=simple=, single, simple, plain
=sin, sin que=, without
=sinceridad=, sincerity
=sincere=, sincere
=síndico=, trustee
=sin embargo=, notwithstanding however
=sin mirar a gastos=, regardless of expense
=sin novedad=, safely, all well, safe and sound
=(un) sinnúmero=, a large number, innumerable
=sin precedente=, unprecedented
=(los) síntomas=, symptoms
=sitio=, spot, place
=sobre=, on, upon
=sobre= (_n._), envelope
=sobrecargarse=, to overload oneself
=sobre cubierta=, on deck
=sobrestadía=, demurrage
=sobrios=, quiet (colours)
=socarrón=, sly, cunning
=sociedad=, society
=sociedad anónima= _or_ =por acciones=, limited company
=socio=, partner
=soda, sosa=, soda
=sofá=, sofa, couch
=soga=, rope
=sol=, sun
=solamente, sólo=, only (_adv_.)
=soldado=, soldier
=soler=, to be wont, to be accustomed to
=solicitar=, to solicit
=solidez=, solidity
=solo=, only (_adj_.)
=sombrero=, hat
=sombrero de copa=, silk hat
=someter=, to submit
=sonrisa=, smile
=soplar=, to blow
=soportar=, to put up with
=soportes=, bearings
=sorprendente=, surprising
=sorpresa=, surprise
=sosa, soda=, soda
=sospechar=, to suspect
=su=, his, her, its, their, your
=suave=, soft, mellow, gentle
=(en) subasta=, (by) auction
=subir=, to go, to come, up
=subsanar=, to correct
=suceder=, to happen, to succeed
=sucursal=, branch house
=sueldo=, salary, wages
=suelo=, ground (soil)
=sueño=, sleep
=suerte=, fortune, luck
=sufrimiento=, suffering
=sufrir=, to suffer
=sujetapapeles=, paper fasteners
=suma=, sum, addition
=sumar=, to add
=suma redonda=, lump sum
=superficie=, surface
=suponer=, to suppose
=suprimir=, to suppress
=sur, sud=, south
=surtido=, assortment, selection
=suspender los pagos=, to stop payments
=(en) suspense=, (in) abeyance


=T=

=tabacos, cigarros, puros=, cigars
=tablilla=, board
=tablón=, plank
=tacharse=, to blame or censure oneself
=tacho, paila, pan= (sugar manuf.)
=tacones=, heels
=tacos=, cues (billiard)
=tacto=, feel, touch, tact
=tal=, such
=tal cual=, as it is
=talvez=, perhaps
=taller=, workshop
=también=, also, too, as well
=tambor=, drum (machinery, etc.)
=tampoco=, neither, either (after _neg_.)
=tan .... como=, so, as .... as
=tapete=, carpet, rug
=tarde=, afternoon, evening, late
=tardo=, slow
=tarea=, task
=tarjeta=, card
=tasajo=, jerked beef
=té=, tea
=tejedor=, weaver
=tejer=, to weave
=tejido elástico=, webbing
=tejidos=, textiles, cloths
=tela=, cloth
=telar=, loom
=telas para trajes (de señora)=, dress goods
=telas para pantalones=, trouserings
=telefonear=, to telephone
=tema= (_m._), the exercise
=tema= (_f._), the fear
=temporada, estación=, season
=temporal=, tormenta, storm
=temporalmente=, temporarily
=temprano=, early
=tenazas=, tongs
=tendero=, shopkeeper
=tenedores=, forks, holders
=tener=, to have, to hold
=tener cuenta=, to pay (to be advantageous)
=tener en cuenta=, to take into consideration, to bear in mind
=tercio=, third
=terciopelo=, velvet
=terliz=, ticking
=terreno=, land, estate
=tesoro=, treasure
=textil=, textile
=(la) tez=, complexion
=tienda=, shop
=tierno=, tender
=tijeras=, scissors
=timbre=, stamp
=tinta=, ink
=tintero=, inkstand
=tío,-a=, uncle, aunt
=tiro, largura=, length
=títulos=, bonds
=tocino=, bacon
=todavía=, yet, still
=todo,-a,-os,-as=, all, every
=tomar=, to take
=tomar a mal=, to take amiss
=tomar la delantera=, to take the start on
=tomar vuelo=, to develop, to increase
=tonelada=, ton
=tonto=, simpleton, foolish
=torcer=, to twist
=tormenta=, temporal, storm
=tornillos=, screws
=torno=, lathe
=trabajador=, hard-working
=trabajar=, to work
=trabajar, ir, á porfía=, to vie with
=trabajo=, work
=traer=, to bring, to carry
=traer á remolque (remolcar)=, to tow, to take in tow
=trámites (de la ley)=, routine of the law, legal means
=tranquilo=, quiet, calm
=transportar=, to transport, to convey
=tra(n)sporte pagado (franco de porte)=, carriage paid
=tra(n)sporte seguido, porte pagadero al destino=, carriage forward
=trapiche=, sugar mill
=trasmitir=, to convey
=traspapelado=, mislaid (of a paper)
=traspaso=, goodwill (of a business)
=Tratado de arbitraje=, Arbitration Treaty
=tratar=, to conduct (business), to treat, to try, to endeavour
=travesía=, journey by sea (crossing)
=tren=, train
=trencilla=, braid
=tribunal=, court
=trigo=, wheat
=trilladores=, threshing (machines)
=trinquete=, foremast
=tripas de buey=, ox-casings
=tripulación=, crew
=triste=, sad
=trocar=, to exchange
=tronar=, to thunder
=tropezar=, to stumble
=tubo=, pipe
=tuercas=, nuts (mach.)
=turba=, crowd (motley)


=U=

=ufano=, proud
=últimamente=, lately
=únicamente=, solely, only
=útil=, useful
=utilidad=, utility, usefulness, service, profit
=uvas=, grapes


=V=

=vacío=, empty
¡=vale=! farewell!
=valer=, to be worth
=valer la pena=, to be worth while
=valer más=, to be preferable
=valiente=, brave
=valor=, value, worth, courage
=valores=, securities
=válvula=, valve
=vapor=, steamer
=vara=, Spanish yard
=varar=, to ground (ships)
=variedad=, variety
=varios=, several
=vecino=, neighbour, inhabitant, ratepayer
=veintena=, score
=vejez=, old age
=vela=, candle, sail
=velero=, sailing vessel
=vencer=, to win, to fall due
=vender=, to sell
=venir=, to come
=venir á menos=, to come down in the world, to decline
=venta=, sale
=ventaja=, advantage
=ventana=, window
=ver=, to see
=verano=, summer
=verdad=, truth
=verde=, green
=vergüenza=, shame
=verificarse=, to take place
=vez, veces=, time, times
=en vez de=, instead of
=vía=, way, route, via
=viajador=, traveller, navigator
=viajante=, traveller (commercial)
=viajar=, to travel
=viaje de ida=, outward journey (trip)
=viaje de vuelta=, homeward journey (trip)
=viajero=, traveller, tourist, etc.
=vida=, life, living
=vidriado=, glass ware
=viejo=, old
=viento=, wind
=Viernes=, Friday
=viga=, beam
=vigilar=, to watch over
=villa, población=, town
=viñas=, vineyards
=vinícola=, wine (_adj._)
=vino=, wine
=violeta=, violet
=virtualmente=, practically
=virtud=, virtue
=visitar=, to visit, to call upon, to wait upon
=vista=, sight, view
=á la vista=, at sight
=visto que=, seeing that
=viudo=, widower
=vivamente=, vividly, earnestly
=vivir=, to live, to reside
=vivo=, alive, lively, vivid, bright (colour)
=vocablo, palabra=, word
=vocabulario=, vocabulary
=volante=, fly-wheel
=volar=, to fly
=volcar=, to capsize
=voluntad=, will, goodwill
=volver=, to turn, to go, to come back
=volverse=, to become
=á la vuelta=, carried forward
=de la vuelta=, brought forward


=Y=

=ya=, already, now, yet, etc.
=yacer=, to lie
=yerno, hijo político=, son-in-law
=y pico (20 y pico, etc.)=, odd (20 odd, etc.)
=yute, jute=, jute


=Z=

=zanjar=, to compromise
=zapatos=, shoes
=zarazas=, cotton prints
=zinc=, zinc
=zorra=, fox



                                II. ENGLISH-SPANISH.


=A=

=to abandon=,   abandonar, desinteresarse
=abatement=, rebaja, reducción
=(in) abeyance=, (en) suspenso
=to be able=, poder
=to abolish=, abolir
=about=, próximamente, aproximadamente
=abroad=, al extranjero
=absence of=, falta de
=absolutely=, absolutamente
=absurd=, irrisorio
=abundant=, cuantioso, largo de talle
=abuse=, abuso
=to accede=, acceder
=accident=, accidente
=to accomplish=, cumplir
=according to=, según, conforme á
=to accost=, abordar
=account sales=, cuenta de venta
=accurate=, exacto
=to accuse=, acusar
=to be accustomed=, soler
=to ache=, doler
=acute, artful=, corrido
=to acknowledge=, reconocer, admitir
=to acknowledge receipt=, acusar recibo
=to acquaint with=, informar, poner en conocimiento
=acquaintance=, conocimiento, conocido
=to acquire=, adquirir
=to act=, obrar
=to act as=, funcionar de, proceder como
=to act for=, representar
=action=, acción
=active=, activo
=acts=, actas
=to add=, añadir
=to add=, sumar
=addition=, suma
=address=, dirección
=to address oneself (to)=, dirigirse (á)
=adequate=, adecuado, proporcionado
=to adhere=, adherir
=to adjust=, ajustar
=adjustment=, ajuste
=to admit=, admitir, acoger
=advance=, anticipo
=advantage=, ventaja
=to take advantage=, aprovecharse
=to be advantageous=, tener cuenta
=adverse=, contrario
=to advertise=, anunciar
=advertisement=, anuncio, reclamo
=advice=, aviso, consejo
=to advise=, avisar
=adzes=, azuelas
=affair=, asunto
=after=, después
=afternoon=, tarde
=against=, contra, en contra de
=agency (sole)=, agencia, representación exclusiva
=to agglomerate=, aglomerar
=to agree=, convenir, acordar
=agreeable=, agradable
=agreement=, contrato, convenio, arreglo
=agricultural=, agrícola
=aim=, blanco
=air pumps=, bombas de aire
=alert=, alerta
=alive=, vivo
=to allege=, alegar
=to allude to, to hint=, aludir a
=to make an allowance=, bonificar
=already=, ya
=also=, también
=to alter=, cambiar
=although=, aunque, por más que
=altogether, quite=, de todo punto
=always=, siempre
=ambassador=, embajador
=amount=, importe, cantidad
=to amount to=, importar en
=ample=, amplio, cuantioso
=to anchor=, anclar
=ancient=, antiguo
=angry=, enfadado
=annoyed=, disgustado
=to answer=, contestar, responder
=anterior=, anterior
=to anticipate=, prever
=anticipation=, anticipatión
=anxious to=, ansioso de
=to be anxious to=, tener empeño
=anyone=, alguno
=anything=, algo
=apartment=, cuarto
=to appeal=, apelar
=to appear=, aparecer, parecer
=apple=, manzana
=to appoint=, nombrar
=to appreciate=, apreciar
=appreciation=, estima
=to approach=, aproximarse, abordar
=approximately=, próximamente
=April=, Abril
=arbiter=, árbitro
=Arbitration Treaty=, Tratado de Arbitraje
=architect=, arquitecto
=archive=, archive
=arduous=, arduo
=to argue=, argüir
=arm=, brazo
=army=, ejército
=to arrange=, arreglar, disponer
=arrangement=, arreglo
=to arrive=, llegar
=ash=, fresno
=as it is=, tal cual
=as it were=, por decirlo así
=to ask=, pedir, rogar
=assets and liabilities=, active y pasivo
=to assist=, asistir
=as soon as=, no bien, luego que
=as soon as possible=, á la mayor brevedad
=assortment=, surtido
=as well=, también
=at best=, á mejor andar
=at foot=, al pie
=at least=, al menos
=at length=, detenidamente
=at once=, en seguida, luego
=at sight=, á la vista
=to attain=, lograr
=attainment=, logro
=to attempt=, probar
=to attend=, asistir, atender á
=attention=, atención
=attention=! ¡ojo! ¡atención!
=at the rate of=, á razón de
=attitude=, actitud
=to attract=, atraer
=to attribute=, atribuir
=attribution=, atribución
=(by) auction=, (en) subasta
=August=, Agosto
=autumn=, otoño
=to avail oneself of=, aprovecharse de
=available=, disponible
=average=, mediano, término medio, avería
=free of particular average=, franco de avería particular
=averse to=, ajeno á
=to avoid=, evitar
=award=, dictamen
=axe=, hacha
=axle-shaft=, árbol de eje


=B=

=back=, espalda
=bacon=, tocino
=bad=, malo
=very bad=, pésimo
=badly=, mal
=to be baffled=, llevar chasco
=bagging=, arpillera
=baize=, bayeta
=to bake=, cocer
=ball=, bola
=ball (of cotton)=, ovillo (de algodón)
=bank=, banco
=bank holiday=, fiesta del comercio
=bank notes=, billetes, notas de banco
=bank (river)=, orilla
=bankruptcy=, quiebra
=bargain (cheap purchase)=, ganga
=barley=, cebada
=barrister=, abogado
=base=, sordid, ruin
=basis=, base
=to bathe=, bañar
=batiste=, batista
=to be=, estar, estarse, ser
=beam=, viga
=beard=, barba, barbas
=beardless youth=, mozalbete
=bearings=, soportes, cojinetes
=to bear in mind=, tener en cuenta
=bearish, bear= (exch.), bajista
=beautiful=, hermoso
=beauty=, belleza
=to become=, hacerse, volverse, llegar á ser
=bed, bedstead=, cama, armazón de cama
=beech=, haya
=beef (jerked)=, carne (seca)
=beer=, cerveza
=beetroot=, remolacha
=before (time)=, antes (de)
=before (place)=, ante, delante de
=to beg=, rogar
=beginning=, principio
=behaviour=, conducta
=behind=, detrás
=to believe=, creer
=beloved=, querido
=below=, abajo
=belt=, cinturón
=belting (machinery)=, correas
=bench=, banco
=beneficent=, benéfico
=benefit=, beneficio
=besides=, amén de
=to betray=, atraicionar
=better=, mejor
=between, amongst=, entre
=between decks=, entrepuentes
=bicycle=, bicicleta
=bill=, giro
=billiards=, billar
=bill market=, los cambios
=bill of exchange=, letra
=bill of lading=, conocimiento
=to bind (books)=, encuadernar
=to bind oneself=, obligarse
=birch=, abedul
=black=, negro
=blacking=, betún
=blame=, culpa
=to blame oneself=, tacharse
=blanket=, manta, frazada
=blast furnace=, altos hornos
=blind=, ciego
=blotting paper=, papel secante
=to blow=, soplar
=blue=, azul
=boar=, jabalí
=board=, tablilla
=to board=, abordar
=boat=, buque, navío, barco
=bobbin=, bobina
=body=, cuerpo
=to boil=, hervir, bullir
=boiler=, caldera
=bold, daring=, atrevido
=bond=, obligación, título
=bonded warehouses=, almacenes fiscales
=bone=, hueso
=to book (orders)=, asentar
=book=, libro
=book debts=, fiados
=book-shelf=, estante
=boom=, hinchazón
=boot=, bota
=boots=, botines
=both=, ambos
=bourse=, bolsa
=box=, caja
=boy=, muchacho
=braid=, trencilla
=branch=, ramo
=branch house=, sucursal
=brand=, marca
=brand new=, novísimo
=bread=, pan
=breakdown=, quebrantamiento, daño
=to break out=, estallar
=breath=, respiro
=breathing-time=, respiro
=breeze=, brisa
=brevity=, brevedad
=brief=, corto
=brig=, bergantín
=to bring=, traer
=to bring an action=, poner pleito
=to bring upon oneself=, buscarse
=brisk=, activo, animado
=broad beans=, habas
=brocade=, brocado, tela labrada
=broker=, corredor
=broom=, escoba
=brother=, hermano
=brother-in-law=, cuñado
=brought forward=, de la vuelta
=brown=, moreno
=brush=, cepillo
=bucket=, cubo, caldero
=building=, edificio, local
=bullish, bull (exch.)=, alcista
=bundle (of papers)=, legajo (de papeles)
=bunker=, carbonera, pañol
=bunting=, lanillas para banderas
=to burst=, estallar
=business=, negocio, negocios
=business (occupations)=, quehaceres
=but=, pero, mas
=butter=, manteca, mantequilla (S. America)
=button=, botón
=bye-law=, reglamento
=bye-products=, productos  accesorios


=C=

=cabbages=, berzas, coles
=cable=, cable
=cablegram=, cablegrama
=to calculate=, calcular
=to calculate on=, contar con
=calculation=, cálculo
=calico=, percal
=to call=, llamar
=to be called=, llamarse
=to call at=, hacer escala (ships), pasar por, visitar
=to call together=, convocar
=to be called=, llamarse
=calm=, tranquilo
=to cancel=, anular
=candidly=, con el corazón en la mano
=candle=, vela
=cane=, caña
=canned=, en latas
=cap=, gorra, gorro
=caprice, whim=, antojo
=to capsize=, volcar
=captain=, capitán
=to capture=, coger
=card=, tarjeta
=care=, cuidado
=to take care=, cuidar
=carefully=, cuidadosamente
=cargo=, cargamento
=carnation=, clavel
=carpet=, alfombra, tapete
=carriage forward=, tra(n)sporte seguido,
   porte pagadero al destino
=carriage paid=, tra(n)sporte pagado, franco de porte
=carried forward=, á la vuelta
=to carry=, llevar, traer
=to carry into effect=, llevar á cabo
=cart=, carro
=case=, caja
=case, lawsuit=, proceso
=in case=, en caso que
=cash=, dinero efectivo
=for cash=, al contado
=in cash=, en efectivo, en metálico
=cashier=, cajero
=cask=, barrica, pipa
=to cast=, echar
=castillian=, castellano
=cat=, gato
=catalogue=, catálogo
=to catch=, coger
=cauldron (small)=, caldero
=cautious=,  cauteloso,  cauto
=to cede=, ceder
=to be celebrated=, celebrarse
=celebrated=, célebre
=cellar=, bodega
=to censure, to blame, oneself=, tacharse
=certain=, cierto
=to certify=, certificar
=chair=, silla
=change=, cambio
=to change=, cambiar
=charcoal=, carbón vegetal
=to charge=, cobrar
=to take charge=, encargarse
=to charter=, fletar
=cheap=, barato
=cheapening=, abarata miento
=cheese=, queso
=chemicals=, productos químicos
=chemist=, boticario
=cheque=, cheque
=to cherish (the hope)=, abrigar
=chief=, principal
=child=, niño
=chimney=, chimenea
=chin=, barba, barbilla
=chivalry=, hidalguía
=chocolate=, chocolate
=to choose=, escoger, elegir
=Christmas=, Navidad
=cigars=, cigarros, puros, tabacos
=cinnamon=, canela
=to circulate=, circular
=to cite=, citar
=city=, ciudad
=claim=, reclame, reclamación
=to claim=, reclamar
=clean=, limpio
=to clean=, limpiar
=clear=, claro
=to clear=, despejar
=clearing-house=, banco de liquidación
=clearing-line=, saldo
=clearly=, claramente, claro
=clerk (chief)=, dependiente (primer)
=clever=, hábil
=client=, cliente
=climate=, el clima
=climatic=, climatológico
=climax=, colmo
=clock=, reloj
=cloth=, tela, tejido, paño
=cloves=, clavos
=coal=, carbón de piedra
=coal-mine=, mina de carbón
=coarse=, basto
=coast=, costa
=coat=, americana, casaca
=cock (machinery)=, grifo
=coffee=, café
=cold=, frío
=to collect (money)=, recoger, cobrar
=collection=, colección
=colliery=, mina de carbón
=colonial produce=, coloniales
=colour (fast, loose)=, color (sólido, firme, falso, fugitivo)
=colourings=, coloridos
=column=, columna
=to come=, venir
=to come back=, regresar, volver
=to come down=, bajar
=to come down in the world=, venir á menos
=to come out=, salir
=to come up to (an amount)=, salir en
=to commence=, comenzar, empezar, principiar, estrenarse
=commerce=, comercio
=commercial=, comercial
=commission agent=, comisionista
=to commit oneself=, comprometerse
=common=, común, basto
=company (limited)=, compañia anónima, por acciones
=to compel=, obligar
=to compensate=, compensar
=competitor=, competidor, contrincante
=to complain=, quejarse
=complete=, completo
=complexion=, la tez
=to compromise=, zanjar, comprometer
=to conceive=, concebir
=to concern=, concerner
=concern=, empresa
=concisely=, concisamente
=to conclude (a bargain)=, concluir, cerrar (un trato)
=conduct=, conducta
=to conduct (business)=, tratar
=to confess=, confesar
=confidence=, confianza
=connecting rod=, biela
=connection=, conexión
=connection=, _clientéle_, clientela
=to consider=, considerar
=considerate, thoughtful=, comedido
=to consign=, consignar
=consignee=, consignatario
=consignment=, consignación
=consumer=, consumidor
=contain, to be able to=, _or_ =to be able
   to be contained=, caber
=content, contentment=, contento
=contents=, contenido
=continually=, continuamente
=to continue=, continuar, seguir
=contraband=, contrabando
=contract=, contrato
=contractor=, destajista
=contrary=, contrario
=to contribute=, contribuir
=contrivance=, mecanísmo, medio
=to contrive to be=, llegar á ser
=to contrive=, lograr
=control=, dominio
=convenient=, conveniente
=to convey=, tra(n)sportar, transmitir
=to convince=, convencer
=to cook=, cocer
=copper=, cobre
=copy book=, copiador
=corded=, acordonado
=cords, corduroy=, pana acordonada
=corporal=, cabo
=to correct=, subsanar, corregir
=correspondence=, correspondencia
=correspondent=, corresponsal
=cost, insurance and freight (C.I.F.)=, costo,
   flete y seguro (C.F.S.)
=cotton (spot)=, algodón disponible
=cotton market=, mercado algodonero
=cotton mill=, fábrica de algodón
=cotton prints=, zarazas
=to counsel=, aconsejar
=to count=, contar
=to countermand=, contramandar, revocar
=to countersign=, refrendar
=country=, país, patria, campo
=couple=, par
=coupled with=, junto á
=couplings=, conexiones
=courage, valor=, aliento, ánimo
=course (of ship)=, rumbo
=of course=, por de contado
=court=, tribunal
=courteously=,  cortésmente
=cousin=, primo
=to cover=, cubrir
=covered=, cubierto
=to covet=, codiciar
=cram full=, abarrotado
=crank-shaft=, árbol de cigüeñal
=cream=, crema
=credit=, crédito
=to credit=, abonar, acreditar
=creditors' meeting=, junta de acreedores
=crew=, tripulación
=crimps=, crespolinas, rizados
=crockery=, loza
=crop=, cosecha
=to cross=, atravesar, cruzar
=crowd (motley)=, turba
=cry=, grito
=cubic=, cúbico
=cudgel=, garrote
=cue (billiards)=, taco
=culprit=, reo
=cupboard=, armario
=curl (of hat brim)=, rizo (del ala)
=currant=, pasas de Corinto
=current=, actual, corriente
=curtailment=, limitación
=custom=, costumbre
=customer=, cliente
=custom house official=, guardia aduanera
=custom house tariff=, arancel
=customs=, derechos
=to cut=, cortar
=to cut (fig.)=, herir
=cutting=, corte
=cylinder=, cilindro


=D=

=damage=, avería, daño, perjuicio
=to damage=, dañar
=damask=, damasco
=danger=, peligro
=dangerous=, arriesgado peligroso
=daring, bold=, atrevido
=date=, fecha
=date palm=, palmera
=to date, up to date=, hasta la fecha
=dated=, fecha de
=dates=, dátiles
=daughter-in-law=, nuera, hija política
=to dawn=, alborear, amanecer
=day=, día
=lay day=, día de estadía
=days of demurrage=, días de contraestadía
=day before yesterday=, anteayer
=day book=, diario
=to dazzle=, deslumbrar
=dealers=, operadores
=fair dealing=, equidad
=deal=, especulación
=to deal=, tratar
=dealings=, operaciones
=dear=, caro, querido
=debenture=, obligación
=to debit=, adeudar, cargar, debitar
=debt=, deuda
=decadence=, decadencia
=deceased=, difunto
=December=, Diciembre
=to decide=, decidir, decidirse
=decidedly=, decididamente
=decision=, decisión, dictamen
=below deck=, bajo cubierta
=on deck=, sobre cubierta
=to declaim=, declamar
=to declare=, declarar
=decline=, baja
=to decline=, venir á menos
=to decree=, decretar
=deeds=, hechos
=deeds (law)=, actas
=defect=, defecto
=to defer=, diferir
=to define=, definir
=definite=, definitivo
=degree=, grado, graduación
=delay=, demora
=to delay=, demorar, postergar
=delegate=, delegado
=to commit a delinquency=, delinquir
=to deliver=, entregar
=delivery=, entrega
=to demand=, pedir, demandar
=demurrage=, sobrestadía
=to deny=, negar
=to depend on=, depender de
=to deplore=, deplorar
=depôt=, depósito
=to depress=, deprimir
=to derive=, sacar
=design=, dibujo, diseño
=desire=, gana, deseo
=to desire=, apetecer, desear
=desk=, pupitre, banco
=writing desk=, escritorio
=despicable=, despreciable
=detailed=, detallado
=details=, detalles, pormenores, particulares
=deterioration=, empeoramiento
=to develop=, desarrollar, tomar vuelo
=development=, desarrollo, fomento
=to devote oneself=, dedicarse
=devotion=, devoción
=diapers=, lienzos adamascados
=dictionary=, diccionario
=different=, diferente, distinto
=difficult=, difícil, arduo
=difficulty=, dificultad
=diligence=, diligencia
=to direct=, dirigir
=disappointed (to be)=, llevar chasco
=disarmament=, desarme
=to discard=, rechazar
=to discharge=, descargar
=to disconcert=, desanimar
=to feel discouraged=, desanimarse
=discreet=, discreto
=to discuss=, discutir
=disgusted=, disgustado
=dishonour=, deshonra
=to dispense with=, prescindir de
=displeased=, disgustado
=to dispose=, disponer
=to distinguish=, distinguir
=district=, distrito
=disturbance=, disturbio
=disturbed=, perturbado, disturbado
=division (Govt. office)=, negociado
=to do=, hacer
=dock=, dique
=doctor=, médico
=doctrine=, doctrina
=document=, documento
=dog=, perro
=door=, puerta
=dot=, punto
=doubt=, duda
=down quilt=, colcha de plumón
=dozen=, docena
=draft=, giro
=to drain=, agotar
=draughtsman=, diseñador
=to draw a bill=, girar
=to draw near=, aproximarse
=to draw out=, sacar
=to draw up (deeds)=, redactar
=dress goods=, telas para trajes
=drill=, dril
=to drizzle=, lloviznar
=drum (machinery)=, tambor
=to duplicate=, duplicar
=during=, durante


=E=

=each=, cada
=eager=, ansioso, deseoso
=eagle=, águila
=early=, temprano
=to earn=, ganar
=to be earnest=, tener empeño
=earnestly=, vivamente
=ease=, facilidad
=east=, este
=Easter=, Pascua
=to eat=, comer
=to economise=, ahorrar, economizar
=to effect=, efectuar
=effort=, esfuerzo
=with great effort=, á duras penas
=either= (after _negative_), tampoco
=to elaborate=, elaborar
=elegantly=, elegantemente
=to embark=, embarcar
=embarrassment=, embarazo apuro
=to embezzle=, malversar
=embossed=, grabado
=to embrace=, abrazar, abarcar
=embroidered=, bordado
=to employ=, emplear
=to be employed=, emplearse
=employer=, jefe
=empty=, vacío
=to enable=, poner en condiciones
=to enclose=, incluir, adjuntar
=enclosed=, adjunto
=to encounter=, exponerse á, arrostrar
=encouragement=, fomento, estímulo
=end=, cabo, fin
=to endeavour, to treat, to try=, tratar
=to endorse=, endosar
=to engage=, empeñar
=engagement=, empeño
=engine=, máquina
=engineer=, ingeniero
=to enhance=, elevar
=to enjoy=, gozar, disfrutar de
=to enjoy oneself=, divertirse
=to enlarge=, agrandar
=enlightened=, ilustrado
=to enlist=, alistar
=to be enough=, bastar
=to entangle=, embrollar
=to enter=, entrar en
=enterprise=, empresa
=enterprising=, emprendedor
=to entrust=, confiar á
=envy=, envidia
=epoch=, época
=equal=, igual
=to equal=, igualar
=equipment=, equipo
=equity=, equidad
=error=, error
=to escape=, escapar
=to escape one's notice=, pasársele por alto á uno
=especially=, mayormente
=to establish=, establecer
=to esteem=, estimar
=eternally=, eternamente
=this evening=, esta tarde
=ever=, nunca
=for ever=, eternamente
=every=, cada
=everybody=, todo el mundo, todos
=exact=, exacto
=examination=, examen
=to exceed=, exceder
=exceedingly=, mucho
=excellent, very good=, óptimo
=to exchange=, trocar, cambiar
=exclusive=, exclusivo
=to excuse=, dispensar, disculpar
=to execute=, ejecutar
=exercise (gram.)=, tema (el)
=to exert oneself=, afanarse
=to exhaust=, apurar, agotar
=to exhibit=, exhibir
=to expect=, esperar
=to experience=, experimentar
=experienced=, experto
=to experiment=, experimentar
=expert=, perito
=to explain=, explicar, explanar
=to exploit=, explotar
=export=, exportación
=exporter=, exportador
=to expose oneself to=, exponerse á, arrostrar
=to extend=, extender
=extension of time for payment=, moratorium, moratoria
=extinguished=, apagado
=eye=, ojo


=F=

=face=, cara
=to face=, hacer frente
=to facilitate=, allanar
=facility=, facilidad
=fact=, hecho
=to fade=, desteñir
=to fail=, faltar
=failure=, éxito malo
=failure=, fracaso
=fair=, equitativo, justo
=fairness=, equidad
=faithful=, fiel
=to fall=, caer
=fall= (_n._), caída, baja
=to fall due=, vencer
=to fall through=, fracasar
=fame=, fama
=famous=, famoso
=fancies=, fantasías
=far away=, lejos
=farewell=! ¡vale!
=farthing=, fardín
=by fast train=, á grande velocidad
=father=, padre
=fatherland=, patria
=fault=, falta
=at fault=, culpado
=favour=, obsequio
=favourable=, favorable
=fear=, miedo, tema (_f._)
=February=, Febrero
=feel=, tacto
=to feel=, sentir
=fender=, guardafuego
=few=, pocos, (-as)
=field=, campo
=fig-tree=, higuera
=to fight=, batirse, luchar, pelear
=figured=, labrado
=figures=, cifras
=file=, ensartapapeles, guardapapeles
=to file (papers), to string (beads)=, ensartar
=to file a petition in bankruptcy=, declararse en quiebra
=to finance=, comanditar
=to find=, encontrar, hallar
=fine=, hermoso
=fine= (_n._), multa
=finish=, acabado, apresto, aderezo
=to finish=, acabar
=fir=, abeto
=fire-arms=, armas de fuego
=firebricks=, ladrillos refractarios
=firm, fast, strong=, fuerte
=firm=, casa
=firm= (_adj._), firme, fijo
=firmness=, firmeza
=to fix=, fijar
=fixed=, fijo
=to flatter oneself=, lisonjearse
=flange=, reborde
=flax=, lino
=flourishing=, floreciente
=flower=, flor
=flower-stand=, portaramillete (portarramillete), maceta, florero
=to fly=, volar
=fly-wheel=, volante
=to fold=, plegar
=to follow=, seguir
=fond of=, aficionado á
=food-stuffs=, géneros alimenticios
=foolish=, tonto
=at foot=, al pie
=footwear=, calzado
=for=, para, por
=to force=, forzar
=forehead=, la frente
=foreign=, extranjero
=foreign to=, ajeno á
=foreigner=, extranjero
=foreman=, capataz
=foremast=, trinquete
=fork=, tenedor
=form=, boletín, forma
=formal=, formal
=formerly=, antes
=fortunately=, afortunadamente
=fortune=, fortuna, suerte
=to forward=, encaminar
=to found=, fundar
=foundry=, altos hornos
=fountain=, fuente
=fox=, zorra
=frame,-ing (mach.)=, armadura
=free=, libre
=free of particular average (F.P.A.)=, franco de avería particular
=to freeze=, helar
=freight=, flete
=to freight=, fletar
=French beans=, judías
=frequently=, frecuentemente
=Friday=, viernes
=friend=, amigo
=friendly=, amistoso
=friendship=, amistad
=to frighten=, amedrentar
=to be frightened=, espantarse
=frilled=, alechugado
=fringe=, franja
=frock coat=, levita
=front=, el frente
=frost=, hielo, escarcha
=frost-bitten=, tornado por la escarcha
=fruit=, fruta
=fruit= (of labour), fruto
=full=, lleno
=in full=, entero (por)
=funds=, fondos
=furious=, enfurecído, furioso
=furniture=, muebles
=blast furnace=, altos hornos
=fustian=, fustán


=G=

=to gain=, ganar
=gallon=, galón
=garden=, jardín
=gardener=, jardinero, hortelano
=to gather=, recoger
=gaudy= (colour), chillón
=gearing=, engranaje
=general=, general
=generous=, generoso
=gentle=, blando, suave
=gentleman=, señor
=gentleman by birth=, hidalgo (hijodalgo)
=to get=, conseguir, obtener
=to get back= (money), sacar
=to get on well=, llevarse bien
=to get out=, sacar
=to get to know=, enterarse
=ginghams=, guingas, carranclanes
=to give=, dar
=to give back=, devolver
=to give on lease=, alquilar
=to give thanks=, dar las gracias
=to gladden=, alegrar
=glassware=, vidriado
=glove=, guante
=glutted=, abarrotado
=to go=, ir, andar
=to go away=, marcharse, alejarse
=God=, Dios
=to go down=, bajar
=gold=, oro
=goloshes=, chanclos
=good=, bueno, el bien
=goods=, géneros
=goods, merchandise=, mercancía
=goodwill=, voluntad
=goodwill= (of a business), traspaso
=to go out=, salir
=to go out (fire)=, apagarse
=to go over=, repasar
=to go round=, circular
=gossip=, charla
=to govern=, gobernar
=government=, gobierno
=grace, gracefulness=, gracia
=gradation=, gradación
=grain=, grano
=grain market=, mercado de granos
=to grant=, conceder
=grape=, uva
=gratis=, de balde
=gratitude=, gratitud
=gratuitous=, gratuito
=gratuity=, gratificación
=great=, gran, grande
=great grandfather=, bisabuelo
=greatly=, mucho
=greed=, codicia
=green=, verde
=green peas=, guisantes
=grey=, gris
=to grind=, moler
=ground=, suclo
=group=, grupo, agrupación
=to grow dark=, anochecer
=to guarantee=, garantir, garantizar


=H=

=to hail=, granizar
=hail=! ¡salve!
=hair=, cabello=, pelo
=half=, medio=, la mitad
=ham=, jamón
=to hammer=, machacar
=hammers=, martillos
=hand=, mano
=to hand=, pasar, entregar
=handkerchief=, pañuelo
=handle=, mango
=to hang=, colgar
=to happen=, ocurrir, suceder, acertar á
=harbour=, puerto
=hard=, duro
=hare=, liebre
=harrows=, rastrillos
=harvest, harvest time=, cosecha
=haste=, prisa
=to hasten=, apresurar (se)
=hat=, sombrero
=hatchets=, hachuelas
=to have=, tener, haber
=to have just=, acabar de
=head=, cabeza
=headache=, dolor de cabeza
=health (indifferent)=, delicado de salud
=healthy=, salubre
=to heap up=, amontar
=to hear=, oir
=heat=, calor
=heaven=, cielo
=heavy=, pesado
=heavy sea=, mar alborotada
=hedged in=, aislado
=heels=, tacones
=to help=, asistir, ayudar
=help (not to be able to)=, no poder menos de
=hemmed=, dobladillado, repulgado
=hemp, Manilla hemp=, cáñamo, abacá
=hemstitched=, con dobladilla de ojo
=her=, su
=here=, aquí, acá
=herewith=, adjunto
=hides=, cueros
=to hinder=, impedir
=to hint, to allude=, aludir á
=to hire=, alquilar
=his=, su
=history=, historia
=to hit it=, dar en el clavo
=hitch=, contratiempo
=hoist=, ascensor
=hold (ship)=, bodega
=to hold=, tener
=to hold up=, mantener
=holder=, tenedor
=hollow-ware=, ollería
=holy, saint=, santo
=honesty=, honradez
=honorary=, honorario, gratuito
=honour=, honor
=to honour=, honrar
=hook (clothes)=, garabato
=horse=, caballo
=hose=, manga
=hose (half)=, medias, calcetines
=hosiery=, mediería
=hotel=, fonda, hotel
=hour=, hora
=house, firm=, casa
=house (branch)=, sucursal
=hub=, buje
=hundred=, cien, ciento
=hurry=, prisa
=to hurt=, doler
=husband=, marido, esposo


=I=

=if=, si
=idleness, inertia=, inercia
=ignoble=, innoble
=ill=, enfermo, malo
=to illustrate=, ilustrar
=illustrious=, ilustre
=immediate=, inmediato
=imperfection=, defecto
=importance=, importancia
=imports=, importaciones
=to impose=, imponer
=impropriety=, inconveniencia
=to improve=, mejorar
=improvement=, mejora, mejoría
=in case=, en caso que
=inclination=, gana
=to include=, incluir, abarcar
=inconvenience=, inconveniente
=to increase=, aumentar, tomar vuelo
=indemnity=, indemnización
=to indicate=, indicar
=industry=, industria
=inferior=, inferior, basto
=an infinite number=, una infinidad
=infinitesimal=, ínfimo
=to inform=, imponer, informar
=information=, informes
=to infringe=, atropellar por
=in full=, por entero
=infuriated=, enfurecido
=ingratitude=, ingratitud
=inhabitants=, habitantes, vecinos
=injunction=, mandato
=injury=, daño
=ink=, tinta
=inkstand=, tintero
=in order=, en regla, de conformidad
=in proportion as=, á medida que
=inside=, dentro de
=to insist=, insistir, porfiar, machacar
=by instalments=, á plazos
=instant (month)=, actual, corriente
=instead of=, en lugar de, en vez de
=instruction=, disposición, instrucción
=insurance=, seguro
=insurance policy=, póliza de seguro
=to insure=, asegurar
=intelligence=, inteligencia
=to intend=, proponerse, intentar
=intention=, intención
=interest=, interés
=interesting=, interesante
=interim=, provisorio, interino
=interior=, interior
=to interpret=, interpretar
=to intervene=, intervenir, mediar
=interview=, intervista
=in the long run=, á la larga
=to introduce (one to another)=, presentar
=in truth=, á la verdad
=in vain=, en balde
=to invest=, invertir (dinero)
=to investigate=, averiguar, apurar
=to invoice=, facturar
=invoice=, factura
=invoice book=, libro de facturas
=irrigation=, regardío
=iron=, hierro
=iron-clad=, acorazado
=iron, pig=, lingotes de hierro
=ironware=, ferretería
=island=, isla
=isolated=, aislado
=to issue=, emitir, publicar
=its=, su


=J=

=Jack (machinery)=, gato
=jacket=, americana, chaqueta, casaca
=jaconets=, chaconadas
=January=, Enero
=jeans=, coquillos
=jerked beef=, carne seca, tasajo
=jobs=, géneros imperfectos
=journey (by sea)=, travesía
=homeward journey=, viaje de vuelta
=outward journey=, viaje de ida
=judicious=, juicioso
=juicy=, jugoso
=July=, Julio
=June=, Junio
=just=, justo, cabal
=just a little bit=, un si es no es
=jute=, jute, yute
=to justify=, justificar


=K=

=keen=, agudo
=kind=, bondadoso
=kindness=, amabilidad
=king=, rey
=kingdom=, reino
=knife=, cuchillo
=to know (a person, thing)=, conocer
=to know (by heart)=, saber
=knowledge=, conocimiento, doctrina


=L=

=label=, etiqueta, rótulo
=labour=, labor, mano de obra
=laborious=, laborioso
=lace=, encaje
=to lack=, carecer, faltar
=lad=, muchacho
=lady=, señora
=land=, terreno
=landlord=, propietario
=language=, el idioma, la lengua
=lard=, lardo, manteca de puerco
=large=, grande
=large number=, (un) sinnúmero
=larger=, mayor
=to last=, durar
=late (deceased)=, difunto
=late=, tarde
=lately=, últimamente
=later=, más adelante
=lathe=, torno
=to laugh, to laugh at=, reirse
=law=, ley
=lawns=, linones, olanes, batistas
=lawsuit=, proceso
=lawyer=, abogado
=to lay before one=, presentar
=lay days=, días de estadía
=lazy=, holgazán
=lead=, plomo
=to lead=, conducir
=to leak=, abrir agua, rezumar
=leakage=, merma
=to learn=, aprender
=to leave=, dejar
=ledger=, libro mayor
=left=, izquierda
=leg=, pierna
=legal means=, trámites de la ley
=lemon=, limón
=to lend=, prestar
=lesson=, lección
=lest=, no sea que, de miedo que
=to let=, dejar
=letter=, carta, escrito
=level=, nivel
=to level=, allanar
=liabilities=, pasivo, pasividades
=liable for=, responsable
=library=, biblioteca
=to lie in bed=, guardar cama
=life=, vida
=lifeless=, desanimado
=lift=, ascensor
=light (colour)=, claro
=to lighten=, relampaguear
=to like=, gustar á uno
=limit=, límite
=to limit=, limitar
=limitation=, limitación
=limited company=, sociedad  anónima, por acciones
=line=, línea
=line (of business)=, ramo
=linen damask=, alemanisco
=linens=, lienzos
=linens (unbleached)=, lienzos morenos
=lining=, forro
=to liquidate=, liquidar
=to listen=, escuchar
=little=, poco (_adv._), pequeño (_adj._)
=to live=, vivir
=lively=, vivo
=living=, vida
=to load=, cargar
=loaf=, pan
=loan=, empréstito
=lobster=, langosta
=lock=, cerradura
=to lock=, cerrar con llave
=lock-out=, cierre
=locomotive=, locomotora
=long=, largo
=to look=, mirar
=to look for=, buscar, apetecer
=looking up (market)=, haber mejora en
=look out=! ¡ojo!, atención!
=to look over=, repasar
=loom=, telar
=loose colours=, colores fugitives
=to lose=, perder
=loss=, pérdida quebranto
=lot=, partida
=cheap lot=, ganga
=job lot=, imperfectos
=to love=, amar
=love=, amor
=luck=, suerte
=lucky=, dichoso, afortunado
=lump sum=, suma redonda


=M=

=machine=, máquina
=machinery=, maquinaria
=mad=, loco
=maidservant=, criada
=to maintain (oneself)=, mantener (se)
=maize=, maíz
=to make=, hacer
=to make a mistake=, equivocarse
=to make a slip of the tongue=, correrse
=to make a start=, principiar, estrenarse
=main mast=, palo mayor
=to make fun of=, burlarse
=to make good=, compensar
=to make one's appearance=, aparecer
=to make over=, ceder
=to make up=, confeccionar
=to make up one's mind=, decidir (se)
=man=, hombre
=manager=, gerente, administrador
=to manifest=, manifestar
=manner=, manera, modo
=manservant=, criado
=manufacturer=, fabricante
=marble=, mármol
=March=, Marzo
=margarine=, margarina
=mark=, marca, señal
=market=, mercado
=market-place=, plaza
=to marry=, casar (se) con
=masonry=, mampostería
=master=, amo, maestro
=master spinner=, contramaestre de filatura
=to match=, igualar
=matches=, fósforos
=matter=, asunto
=to matter=, importar
=May=, mayo
=mayor=, alcalde
=means=, medio
=in the meantime=, en el ínterin
=meanwhile=, mientras tanto
=measure=, medida
=meat=, carne
=mechanism=, mecanísmo
=to meet=, encontrar
=to meet (bills)=, hacer frente
=to meet requirements=, corresponder á las necesidades
=meeting=, reunión, junta, mitín
=megaphone=, bocina
=mellow=, suave
=member=, miembro
=to mention=, citar, mencionar, hacer mención
=merchandise, goods=, mercancía
=merchant=, comerciante, negociante
=method=, método
=metre=, metro
=mild=, apacible
=mile=, milla
=milk=, la leche
=milliner=, modista
=million=, millón
=mind=, la mente
=miner=, minero
=minimum=, mínimo
=minister=, ministro
=ministry=, ministerio
=mint of money=, dineral
=miser, miserly=, avaro, avariento
=misfortune=, desgracia, quebranto
=mishap=, quebranto, contratiempo
=mislaid (of a paper)=, traspapelado
=mistake=,  equivocación,  error
=mizzen mast=, palo de mesana
=to mock=, reírse
=mohair=, moer
=Monday=, lunes
=money=, dinero
=money market=, mercado bursátil
=month=, mes
=monthly=, mensual
=moratorium=, moratoria
=more=, más
=morning=, mañana
=morocco leather=, cordobán
=mortgage=, hipoteca
=to mortgage=, hipotecar
=mother=, madre
=motive power=, fuerza motriz
=motor-car=, automóvil
=motor-boat=, barca á motor, automóvil
=mountain=, monte, montaña
=mounting (machinery)=, montaje
=mourning=, luto
=mouth=, boca
=to move=, mover
=much=, mucho
=muffler=, bufanda
=municipality=, concejo, cabildo, ayuntamiento, corporación
=museum=, museo
=muslin=, muselina
=must=, deber
=muster=, agrupación


=N=

=nail=, clavo
=nainsook=, nansú
=name=, nombre, fama
=nankeen=, nanquín
=nation=, nación, país
=native=, indígena
=near= (_adj._), cercano
=near to=, junto a, cerca de
=necessary=, necesario
=to be necessary=, ser menester
=to need=, haber menester, precisar
=needle=, aguja
=neighbour=, competitor, contrincante, vecino, prójimo
=neither=, tampoco
=net=, neto, líquido
=net revenue=, ingresos netos
=new=, nuevo
=news=, noticias
=newspaper=, periódico
=next=, próximo
=nickel-plated=, niquelado
=night, evening=, noche
=nobleness=, hidalguía nobleza
=non-acceptance=, falta de aceptación
=no one=, ninguno
=north=, norte
=nose=, nariz
=note=, esquela, nota
=note of hand=, pagaré
=nothing=, nada
=for nothing=, de balde
=notice=, aviso
=notice (of dismissal)=, aviso de despedida
=to notice=, advertir, reparar
=notwithstanding=, no obstante, sin embargo
=November=, Noviembre
=now=, ahora
=number=, número
=nuts (mach.)=, tuercas


=O=

=oak=, roble, encina
=oats=, avena
=object=, objeto
=objection=, dificultad
=objectionable=, reprensible
=obligation=, empeño, obligación
=to oblige=, complacer, agradar, contentar
=to observe=, observar
=to obstruct=, obstruir
=to obtain=, conseguir, obtener
=occasion=, ocasión
=occupations=, quehaceres
=to occur=, ocurrir
=ocean=, océano
=October=, Octubre
=Octroi duties=, impuesto de consumos
=octroi office=, fielato
=odd (20 odd)=, y pico (veinte y pico)
=of course=, por de contado
=offer=, ofrecimiento, oferta
=to offer=, ofrecer
=office=, oficina, despacho
=office (lawyer's)=, bufete (de abogado)
=office boy (jocularly)=, hortera
=of no avail=, de balde
=often=, á menudo
=oil=, aceite
=old=, viejo, antiguo
=old age=, vejez
=omnibus=, ómnibus
=on=, sobre
=on deck=, sobre cubierta
=onion=, cebolla
=only= (_adj._), solo
=only= (_adv._), sólo, solamente
=to open=, abrir
=opening=, apertura
=openly=, á las claras, claro y redondo
=to operate=, obrar
=operations=, operaciones
=operator=, operador
=opportunity=, oportunidad
=to oppose=, oponerse á
=orange=, naranja
=orchard=, huerta, huerto
=to order=, mandar, pedir
=order=, orden, pedido, encargo
=ordinary=, ordinario
=to organise=, organizar
=osnaburgs=, cregüelas
=other=, otro
=other people's property=, (lo) ajeno
=output=, producto
=overdue=, atrasado
=overhead=, aereo
=to overload oneself=, sobrecargarse
=to overstep=, exceder
=to owe=, deber
=owing to=, debido á
=own=, propio
=ox=, buey
=ox casings=, tripas, de buey


=P=

=to pack=, empacar
=packages=, bultos
=packet=, paquete
=page=, página
=pain=, dolor
=to pain=, doler
=painful=, doloroso
=paint=, pintura
=pair=, par
=palace=, palacio
=pan (sugar manuf.)=, tacho, paila
=paper=, papel
=paper fasteners=, sujetapapeles
=parcel=, paquete, partida
=parents=, padres
=parliamentary bill=, proyecto de ley
=parliamentary session=, legislatura
=part=, la parte
=partner=, socio
=pasha=, bajá
=to pass=, pasar
=pattern sets or cards=, muestrarios
=to pawn=, empeñar
=pause=, pausa
=to pay=, pagar
=to pay (to be advantageous)=, tener cuenta
=payable=, pagadero
=peace=, paz
=peaches=, melocotones
=pen=, pluma
=penalty=, multa
=pencil=, lápiz
=penknife=, cortapluma
=pen-nibs=, puntitas
=penny=, penique
=people=, gente, pueblo
=pepper=, pimienta
=perennial=, perenne
=perfect=, perfecto
=to perfect=, perfeccionar
=perfectly=, perfectamente
=perhaps=, talvez
=petition=, petición
=phrase=, frase
=philosophy=, filosofía
=physician=, médico
=pickled beef=, carne en salmuera
=picks=, picos
=pig=, puerco
=pig-iron=, lingotes de hierro
=pigeon-holes=, casillero
=pin=, alfiler
=pine=, pino
=pink (col.)=, rosa
=pipe=, tubo, pipa
=pistol=, pistola
=to place=, colocar, poner
=place=, plaza, sitio
=plain=, sencillo, simple
=plan (idea)=, plan, proyecto
=plan (sketch)=, piano
=plane=, cepillo
=plank=, tablón
=plant=, planta
=plate (metal)=, chapa
=plausible=, atendible
=pleasant, winsome, taking=, simpático
=to please=, gustar, placer
=pleasure=, placer
=pledge=, empeñar
=plough=, arado
=pneumatic=, neumático
=pocket-book=, cartera
=point=, punto
=to point out=, indicar
=to poke (fire)=, remover
=poker=, atizador
=politely=, cortésmente
=pomegranates=, granadas
=poor=, pobre
=porch=, pórtico
=port=, puerto
=portfolio=, cartera
=portmanteau=, maleta
=position=, posición
=possess=, poseer
=post=, correo, mala
=to post=, echar al correo
=postage=, franqueo, portes
=postman=, cartero
=to postpone=, aplazar, diferir
=pound=, libra
=power of attorney=, poder
=powerful=, poderoso
=practical=, práctico
=practically=, virtualmente
=to precede=, preceder
=precious=, precioso
=preferable=, preferible
=preference shares=, acciones preferentes
=to prejudice=, comprometer
=preliminary=, preliminar
=premium=, premio, prima
=present=, actual, presente
=to present=, presentar, regalar
=those present=, los reunidos
=preserves=, conservas alimenticias
=to press=, apremiar
=pretty=, bonito
=to prevail=, prevalecer, reinar
=previous=, anterior
=price=, precio
=price list=, boletín, lista
=principal=, principal
=to print, printed=, imprimir, impreso
=cotton prints=, zarazas, estampados
=prize=, premio
=to produce=, presentar, producir
=product=, producto
=professor=, profesor
=profit and loss=, ganancias y pérdidas
=pro forma account=, cuenta simulada
=to prohibit=, prohibir
=project=, proyecto
=promenade=, paseo
=promissory note=, pagaré
=property=, hacienda, propiedad
=to propose=, proponer
=proof=, ensayo, prueba
=prospects=, perspectivas
=to prosper=, medrar
=proud=, ufano
=to prove=, probar
=proverb=, refrán
=to provide=, proveer
=provided that=, con tal que
=prudent=, prudente
=to punish, to chastise=, castigar
=pupil=, discípulo
=to purchase=, comprar
=to purify, to exhaust, to investigate=, apurar
=to purpose=, proponerse
=to put=, poner
=to put off=, postergar
=to put out=, desconcertar
=to put out of gear=, descomponer
=to put up=, llevar
=to put up with=, soportar


=Q=

=quality=, calidad
=quantity=, cantidad
=quarter=, cuarto
=queen=, reina
=queer=, extraño
=question=, cuestión, asunto
=in question=, consabido
=to question=, dudar, preguntar
=quick=, pronto
=quiet=, tranquilo, sobrio, apagado (colour)
=quilting=, acolchado
=quire=, mano
=quite candidly=, con el corazón en la mano
=quota=, cuota
=quotation=, cotización, (cita)
=to quote=, citar, cotizar


=R=

=to rack one's brains=, devanarse los sesos
=rails=, carriles, rieles, railes
=railway=, ferrocarril
=rain=, lluvia
=to rain=, llover
=raisins=, pasas
=ratepayer=, contribuyente, vecino
=rattan furniture=, muebles de bejuco
=rays=, rayos
=razor=, navaja de afeitar
=to read=, leer
=reading=, lectura
=ready=, pronto, listo
=ready money=, dinero efectivo
=reason=, razón
=reasonable=, razonable, arreglado
=rebate=, rebaja, reducción
=to make a rebate=, bonificar
=to recapitulate=, resumir
=receipt=, recibo
=to receive=, acoger, recibir
=reception=, recibo
=to recommend=, recomendar, abonar
=record=, colmo
=to record=, consignar
=to have recourse=, acudir á
=to recover=, recobrar
=red=, encarnado, rojo
=to reduce=, reducir
=reduction=, rebaja, reducción
=to refer=, referir
=references=, informes
=to reflect=, reflexionar
=reflection=, reflejo
=refreshment=, refresco
=to refund=, refundir
=refusal=, negativa
=to refuse=, rehusar, negarse á
=regardless of expense=, sin mirar á gastos
=region=, comarca
=to register (letters, etc.)=, certificar
=registered office (of a firm)=, domicilio
=regulations=,  reglamentos
=to reign=, reinar
=to reject=, rechazar
=to rejoice=, alegrarse
=to relate=, contar, dar cuenta
=relating to=, acerca de
=to remain=, quedar
=remainder=, resto, restante
=to remark=, observar
=remiss=, lento, moroso
=to remit, to send=, remitir
=remittance=, remesa
=remnants=, restos
=to remove=, remover, quitar
=to render help=, prestar ayuda
=to rent=, alquilar
=to repeat=, repetir
=to repent=, arrepentirse
=to reply=, contestar, responder
=report=, informe, parte, relación
=to report=, dar cuenta
=to represent=, representar
=representative=, representante
=reputation=, fama
=request=, petición
=to require=, requerir, exigir
=requirements=, necesidades
=to reserve=, reservar
=to reside=, residir, vivir
=residence=, domicilio
=resources=, recursos
=respect=, respeto
=to respect=, respetar
=respectable=, formal, respetable
=with respect to=, con respecto á, respecto de
=result=, resultado
=to resume=, reanudar
=retail=, al por menor
=to return=, devolver, regresar
=revenue=, ingresos
=review=, revista
=to revoke=, revocar
=reward=, premio
=ribbon=, cinta
=rice=, arroz
=rich, richly=, rico, acaudalado, ricamente
=to get rid of=, librarse, deshacerse de
=ridiculously low (of prices)=, irrisorio
=right=, derecho, justo
=to be right=, tener razón
=rim=, reborde
=riot=, motín
=rise=, alza, aumento
=risk=, riesgo, peligro
=risky=, arriesgado, peligroso
=river=, río
=to rob=, robar
=to rock (a cradle)=, mecer
=roll=, rollo
=to roll=, arrollar
=roller=, cilindro
=room=, cuarto, cabida
=rope=, soga
=rose=, rosa
=rotten=, podrido
=rough and ready man=, hombre llano
=round=, redondo
=route=, vía
=rubber=, caucho, goma elástica
=rubber heels (revolving)=, rodajas de goma
=rug=, tapete
=to ruin=, echar á perder, arruinar
=to rule=, regir, gobernar, dominar, reinar
=rule=, regla, régimen
=ruler=, regla
=rumour=, rumor, especie
=to run=, correr
=to run down=, atropellar
=to run to=, acudir á


=S=

=sad=, triste
=safely=, sin novedad, á salvamento
=sail=, vela
=sailing vessel=, velero=, buque=, de vela
=saint, holy=, santo
=salary=, sueldo
=sale=, venta
=salvage=, salvamento
=same=, mismo
=sardines=, sardinas
=sash=, cinto
=satins (brocaded)=, satines (brochados)
=satisfied=, satisfecho
=Saturday=, Sábado
=to save=, ahorrar
=sawing machine=, sierra mecánica
=to say=, decir, manifestar
=scalloped=, festoneado
=scandalous=, escandaloso
=scarcely=, apenas
=schooner=, goleta
=science=, ciencia
=scissors=, tijeras
=to scold=, reconvenir
=score=, veintena
=screw (of a boat)=, hélice (el _or_ la)
=screws=, tornillos
=not over-scrupulous=, de manga ancha
=scuttle=, caja de carbón
=seal=, sello
=to seal=, sellar
=sealing-wax=, lacre
=to search=, buscar
=season=, estación, temporada
=to seat=, asentar
=secretary=, secretario
=to secure=, asegurar
=securities=, valores
=to see=, ver
=seeing that=, visto que
=to seem=, parecer
=to select=, elegir, escoger
=selection=, surtido
=to sell=, vender
=selvedge=, orilla
=senate=, senado
=to send=, enviar, mandar, remitir
=to send back=, devolver
=to send a remittance=, hacer una remesa
=to send for=, mandar buscar
=sensible=, discreto, juicioso
=sentence=, frase
=September=, Setiembre
=sergeant=, sargento
=series=, la serie
=to serve=, servir
=service=, servicio, utilidad
=session (parliamentary)=, legislatura
=to set out=, partir
=set of patterns=, muestrario
=to settle=, arreglar, definir, liquidar
=settlement=, saldo
=several=, varios
=shade (of colour)=, el matiz
=shame=, vergüenza
=shape=, forma
=share=, acción
=shareholder=, accionista
=sharp=, agudo
=shawl=, chal
=shears=, cizallas
=sheet (bed)=, sábana
=shell-fish=, mariscos
=to shelter=, abrigar
=shilling=, chelín
=ship=, barco, buque, navío
=to ship=, embarcar
=shipment=, remesa, embarque
=shipowners=, armadores
=shipper=, exportador
=shirt=, camisa
=shocking=, escandaloso
=shoes=, zapatos
=shop=, tienda
=shopkeeper=, tendero
=short=, corto
=short cut=, atajo
=shortly=, en breve=, próximamente
=shoulder=, espalda
=shout=, grito
=shovel=, pala
=to show=, mostrar, acusar, exhibir, hacer constar, enseñar
=shrewd=, fino
=to shrink=, encojerse
=shrivelled=, encojido
=shrunk=, encojido
=side=, lado
=side arms=, armas blancas
=sight=, vista
=to sight=, avistar
=sign=, señal
=to sign=, firmar
=signature=, firma
=signed guarantee=, indemnidad
=to be silent=, callarse
=silk=, seda
=silk hat=, sombrero de copa
=silver=, plata
=similar=, semejante
=simpleton=, tonto, necio
=sincere=, sincero
=sincere man=, hombre llano
=sincerity=, sinceridad
=single, simple, plain=, simple
=sister-in-law=, cuñada
=skates=, patines
=sketch=, croquis
=skin=, piel
=sky=, cielo
=sky-blue=, azul celeste
=slack=, flojo
=slackness=, flojedad
=slate colour=, plomo
=sleep=, sueño
=to sleep=, dormir
=slender=, exiguo
=slight=, exiguo, ligero
=slip=, boletín, volante
=slope=, cuesta
=slow=, lento, moroso, tardo
=by slow train=, á pequeña velocidad
=slowly=, despacio
=sly=, socarrón
=small=, pequeño, exiguo
=smaller=, menor
=smallware=,  quincalla
=smile=, sonrisa
=to smoke (of a chimney)=, humear
=smooth=, liso
=smuggling=, matute
=to snow=, nevar
=snow=, nieve
=so and so=, fulano
=so, as ... as=, tan ... como
=society=, sociedad
=socks=, calcetines
=soda=, soda, sosa
=sofa=, el sofá
=soft=, blando, suave
=to soften=, ablandar
=soil=, suelo
=soldier=, soldado
=sole=, exclusivo
=solely=, únicamente
=to solicit=, solicitar
=solicitor=, abogado (procurador legal)
=solidity=, solidez
=some=, algún, alguno, algunos, unos
=something=, algo
=somewhat=, algo
=soon=, pronto
=sordid=, ruin
=sorrow=, dolor
=to be sorry=, sentir
=so that=, de modo que, para que
=so to say=, por decirlo así
=sour=, agrio
=source=, fuente, manantial
=source (to have from a good)=, tener de buena tinta
=south=, sur, sud
=space=, cabida
=spades=, palas
=Spanish=, español
=Spanish peas=, garbanzos
=spare pieces (machinery)=, piezas de repuesto
=sparrow=, gorrión
=to speak=, hablar
=to speak for=, abonar
=species=, especie
=speculation=, especulación
=speed=, prisa
=speedy=, pronto
=to spend=, gastar
=spices=, especias
=to spin=, hilar
=spinner=, hilador
=in spite of=, á pesar de
=to spoil=, gastar, echar á perder
=spoon=, cuchara
=spokes=, rayos
=spot=, mancha, punto, sitio
=spot cotton=, algodón disponible
=spring=, resorte
=spring (season)=, primavera
=squeamish=, melindroso
=to squeeze out=, exprimir, arrancar
=squire=, hijodalgo, hidalgo
=stain=, mancha
=stamp=, timbre
=stamp-rack=, porta-estampillas
=stamps (postage)=, sellos
=standard-bearer=,  porta-bandera
=standing=, posición
=to start from=, arrancar de
=statement=, cuenta
=statistics=, estadísticas
=stay=, estancia
=to steal=, robar
=steam-engine=, máquina á vapor
=steamer=, buque de vapor, vapor
=steel=, acero
=step=, paso
=stick=, garrote
=still=, todavía
=sting=, herida (fig.)
=to stir=, remover
=stockings=, medias
=stock-jobber=, agiotista
=stocks=, existencias
=stool=, escaño
=to stop payment=, suspender los pagos
=to stop short in the middle of one's speech=, cortarse
=stores=, depósitos, almacenes
=storm=, temporal, tormenta
=stove=, estufa, calorífero
=stowage=, estiva
=straight=, derecho
=straightforward=, recto, leal
=to strain=, forzar
=strange=, extraño
=street=, calle
=to stretch=, extender
=strike=, huelga
=striped goods=, listados
=stripes=, rayas
=stroll=, paseo
=strong, fast, firm=, fuerte
=to struggle against=, luchar
=to study=, estudiar
=to stumble=, tropezar
=subject=, asunto
=to submit=, someter
=subsidence=, hundimiento
=to succeed=, suceder
=to succeed in=, conseguir, obtener
=success=, buen éxito
=such, such a=, tal
=sudden=, repentino
=to suffer=, sufrir
=suffering=, sufrimiento
=to suffice=, bastar
=sugar=, azúcar
=sugar mill=, trapiche
=suitings=, paños
=sum=, suma
=summer=, verano
=to summon=, citar ante los tribunales
=sun=, sol
=Sunday=, domingo
=supper=, cena
=to suppose=, suponer
=to suppress=, suprimir
=supply and demand=, demanda y oferta
=to supply oneself=, abastecerse
=surety=, fiador
=surface=, superficie
=to surprise=, maravillar
=surprising=, sorprendente
=to suspect=, sospechar
=to sweep=, barrer
=sword=, espada
=symptoms=, síntomas


=T=

=table=, mesa
=table (of figures)=, cuadro
=tact=, tacto
=tailor=, sastre
=to take=, tomar
=to take amiss=, tomar á mal
=to take away=, quitar
=to take care (of oneself)=, cuidar(se)
=to take charge=, encargarse
=to take into consideration=, tener en cuenta
=to take into tow=, traer á remolque, remolcar
=to take much trouble=, afanarse
=to take notice=, hacer caso
=to take on lease=, alquilar, tomar en arriendo
=to take place=, verificarse
=to take steps=, dar pasos
=to take the start=, tomar la delantera
=to take up=, recoger
=tallow greaves=, heces de sebo
=tariff reform=, reforma arancelaria
=task=, tarea
=tax=, impuesto
=tea=, té
=to teach=, enseñar
=teaching=, enseñanza
=teeth=, dientes
=to telephone=, telefonear
=to tell=, decir
=temper=, genio
=temporarily=, temporalmente
=tenant=, inquilino
=tender=, tierno
=term=, plazo
=terms=, condiciones
=textile=, textil
=textiles=, tejidos
=to thank=, agradecer
=thanks to ... =, merced á ...
=that=, ese,-a,-o, aquel-lla-llo, que
=their=, su
=then=, entonces, luego, pues
=there=, allá, allí, ahí
=therefore=, portanto
=there is=, =there are=, hay
=there to be=, haber
=thick=, grueso, espeso
=thief=, ladrón
=thimble=, dedal
=thing=, cosa
=to think=, creer, pensar
=third= (_frac_.), tercio
=thirst=, sed
=this=, este,-a,-o
=thousand=, mil
=threshing machines=, trilladores
=to throw=, echar
=to thunder=, tronar
=Thursday=, jueves
=ticket, etiqueta=, rótulo
=ticking=, terliz
=timber=, madera
=time=, tiempo, época
=at the same time=, al mismo tiempo, á la par que
=tin=, estaño
=to tire=, cansar
=to-day=, hoy
=ton=, tonelada
=tongs=, tenazas
=tongue=, lengua
=too (also)=, también
=too, too much=, demasiado
=tools=, herramientas
=top=, cima
=touch=, tacto
=to tow=, traer á remolque, remolcar
=towards=, para con, hacia
=to what extent?=,  ¿hasta qué punto?
=town=, ciudad, población, villa, pueblo
=trade=, comercio
=trade union=, asociación de obreros
=train=, tren
=to transport=, tra(n)sportar
=to travel=, viajar
=traveller= (commercial), viajante
=traveller= (tourist, etc.), viajero
=treasure=, tesoro
=to treat=, =to try=, =to endeavour=, tratar
=tree=, árbol
=trial=, prueba, ensayo
=trick=, engañifa
=trifles=, pequeñeces
=to trifle with=, burlarse
=trifling amount=, una friolera
=trimmings=, guarniciones, adornos
=trouserings=, telas para pantalones
=trousers=, pantalones
=trunk=, baúl
=truss=, fardito
=trust=, confianza
=trustworthy=, fidedigno
=to trust=, confiar
=trustee=, síndico
=truth=, verdad
=to try=, probar, tratar
=Tuesday=, martes
=Turkey red handkerchiefs=, pañuelos de Andrinópolis
=turn for the worse=, empeoramiento
=to turn=, volver
=turnover=, giro
=twill=, asargado, cruzado, aterlizado, diagonal
=twine=, bramante
=to twist=, torcer
=tyres=, llantas


=U=

=umpire=, árbitro
=uncertainty=, incertidumbre
=uncle=, tío
=under=, debajo de
=to undersell=, malbaratar
=to understand=, comprender, entender
=to undertake=, comprometerse, emprender
=undertaking=, empresa
=uneasiness=, malcontento
=unfavorable=, desfavorable
=to unfold=, desplegar
=unforeseen=, imprevisto
=unhappy, unfortunate=, desdichado, infeliz
=unless=, á menos que
=unloading=, descarga
=unnavigable=, innavegable
=unprecedented=, sin precedente
=unripe=, inmaturo, verde
=unsuitability=, inconveniencia
=until=, hasta que
=unwillingly=, de mala gana
=upon=, sobre
=upright=, íntegro, cabal
=to upset=, desconcertar
=to urge=, apremiar, apresurar
=to use for the first time=, estrenar
=useful=, útil
=usefulness=, utilidad
=utility=, utilidad


=V=

=vagabonds, (company of)=, hampa
=value=, valor
=valve=, válvula
=variety=, variedad
=varnish=, el barniz
=velvet=, terciopelo
=velveteen=, pana
=venture=, ensayo
=very=, muy
=vest=, chaleco
=via=, vía
=to vie with=, trabajar, ir, á porfía, habérselas con
=view=, vista
=villa=, quinta
=village=, pueblo
=vineyards=, viñas
=violet=, violeta
=virtue=, virtud
=to visit=, visitar
=vivid=, vivo
=vividly=, vivamente
=viz=., es decir, á saber
=vocabulary=, vocabulario


=W=

=wages=, sueldo
=waistcoat=, chaleco
=to wait for=, esperar
=to wait upon=, visitar
=to wake up=, despertar
=walk=, paseo
=to walk=, andar
=to want=, necesitar, querer
=to be wanted=, hacer falta
=to be wanting=, faltar
=want of foresight=, imprevidencia
=war=, guerra
=warehouse=, almacén
=warehouseman=, almacenero, dependiente de almacén
=to warn=, advertir
=to take warning=, escarmentar
=warrant=, cédula
=to warrant=, justificar
=to waste=, desperdiciar, malgastar
=waste-paper basket=, cestilla
=watch=, reloj
=to watch over=, vigilar
=water=, agua
=way=, manera, modo, vía
=wealth=, riqueza
=wealthy=, acaudalado
=to wear=, gastar, llevar
=to wear for the first time=, estrenar
=wearing apparel=, vestidos, ropa, hato
=to weave=, tejer
=weaver=, tejedor
=webbing=, tejido elástico
=Wednesday=, miércoles
=week=, semana
=weight=, peso
=to welcome=, agasajar
=well=, bien, pues
=west=, oeste
=to wet=, bañar
=whale=, ballena
=what=, qué (_inter_.), lo que
=wheat=, trigo
=when=, cuando
=whenever=, cuandoquiera
=where=, donde
=wherever=, dondequiera
=whether=, si, sea que
=which=, que, el cual
=whichever=, cualquiera
=while=, mientras
=whim=, antojo
=Whitsuntide=, Pentecostés
=white=, blanco
=who=, que, quien, el cual
=whoever=, quienquiera, cualquiera
=wholesale=, al por mayor
=whom=, quien
=whose=, cuyo
=wicked=, malo
=widower=, víudo
=width=, anchura, ancho
=wife=, mujer, esposa
=will=, voluntad
=to win=, vencer
=to win over=, granjearse
=wind=, viento
=window=, ventana
=wine=, vino
=wine (_adj_.)=, vinícolo
=winsome=, simpático
=winter=, invierno
=wireless=, radiograma
=wise=, juicioso, sabio
=to wish=, desear
=to wish to have=, querer
=wishful=, deseoso
=with great effort=, á duras penas
=within=, dentro de
=without=, sin, sin que
=woman=, mujer
=to wonder=, maravillarse
=to be wont=, soler
=wood=, madera
=wool=, lana
=word=, palabra, vocablo
=to work=, trabajar, obrar
=to work (mines)=, explotar
=workman=, obrero, operario
=workshop=, taller
=world=, mundo
=world (_adj_.)=, mundial
=worth=, valor
=to be worth=, poseer, valer
=to be worth while=, valer la pena
=wound=, herida
=to wound=, herir
=wrap=, bata
=wreck=, naufragar
=to wreck=, echar á perder
=to wrench=, arrancar
=to write=, escribir
=to write to each other=, escribirse
=writer=, escritor
=writing (_n_.)=, letra, escríto
=writing desk=, escritorio
=writing pad=, carpeta
=written agreement=, contrato
=to wrangle with someone=, habérselas con uno
=on the wrong side=, al revés


=Y=

=yard=, yarda
=yard (Spanish)=, vara
=yarn=, hilado
=year=, año
=yellow=, amarillo
=yes=, sí
=yesterday=, ayer
=yet=, todavía, aun
=to yield, to submit=, ceder, darse á partido
=young=, joven
=young age=, juventud
=young man, woman=, joven
=youth=, juventud


=Z=

=zinc=, zinc



                              APPENDIX I

PRINCIPAL EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE ON SPANISH GENDER BY TERMINATION


1. Words of Greek etymology ending in _ma_--

El dilema (the dilemma)
El diploma (the diploma)
El epigrama (the epigram)
El problema (the problem)
El síntoma (the symptom)
El telegrama (the telegram)

etc., etc.

But La amalgama (the amalgamation)
La diadema (the diadem)
La estratagema (the stratagem)
La proclama (the proclamation)

2.  Most of the compound nouns (very few in number)--

El cortaplumas (the penknife)
El guardacosta (the coasting-vessel)
El paraguas (the umbrella)
El tirabala (the popgun)

3.  El día (the day)

El Etna (Etna (volcano))
El mapa (the map)
El sofá (the sofa)
El Volga [210] (the Volga)
And all words ending in accented _a_.

[Footnote 210: And all rivers and mountains ending in _a_.]

4.  Masculine nouns ending in _d_--

El adalid (the warrior or chieftain)
El ardid (the trick)
El ataúd (coffin)
El césped (the turf, lawn)
El sud (the south)

5.  Masculine nouns ending in _ión_--

El embrión (the embryo)
El gorrión (the sparrow)
El morrión (parts of an armour)
El sarampión (measles)

6.  Feminine nouns ending in _i_ or _y_--

La diócesi (the diocese)
La grey (the flock)
La ley (the law)
La metrópoli (the metropolis)

Almost all.

7.  Feminine noun ending in _j_--
La troj (the granary)

8.  Feminine nouns ending in _l_--

La cal (lime)
La capital (capital--town)
La cárcel (prison)
La col (cabbage)
La miel (honey)
La piel (skin)
La sal (salt)
La señal (signal)
La vocal (vowel)

And a few more.

9. Feminine nouns ending in _n_--

La cargazón (the load)
La crin (the horsehair)
La desazón (the ailment)
La imagen (the image)
La razón (the reason)
La sinrazón (the injustice)
La sartén (the frying-pan)
La sien (the temple)

Almost all.

10. Feminine nouns ending in _o_--

La mano (the hand)

Only word, excepting "nao" (ship), now obsolete, and "seo" (cathedral),
little used.

11. Feminine nouns ending in _r_--

La flor (the flower)
La labor (the needlework)
La segur (the axe)

Almost all.

12. Feminine nouns ending in _s_--

La bilis (the bile)
La crisis (the crisis)
La elipsis (ellipsis)
La lis (fleur-de-lis)
La mies (the crop)
La perífrasis (the periphrase)
La tos (the cough)

And a few others.

13. Feminine noun ending in _u_--

La tribu (the tribe)

14. Feminine nouns ending in _z_--

La codorniz (the partridge)
La cerviz (the cervix)
La cruz (the cross)
La coz (the back-kick)
La luz (the light)
La nariz (the nose)
La nuez (the nut)
La pez (the pitch)
La voz (the voice)
La raíz (the root)
La tez (the complexion)
La vez (the time, once, etc., etc.)

And a few others less important.

15. Feminine nouns ending in _e_. (This is the most numerous list of
exceptions)--

Las aves (the birds)
La barbarie (the barbarity)
La base (the basis)
La calle (the street)
La carne (the flesh)
La fiebre (the fever)
La fuente (the fountain)
El hambre (_f._), (the hunger)
La mente (the mind)
La noche (the night)
La parte (the part)
La quiete (the quiet)
La sangre (the blood)
La serpiente (the serpent)
La torre (the tower)

Besides the masculine and feminine genders, some nouns are called: de
género común, epiceno, and ambiguo. The noun is called "de género común"
(common gender) when with the same termination it may indicate both a
male and female being by using a different article--

Un--una albacea (an executor, executrix)
Un--una artista (an artist, artiste)
Un--una Belga[211] (a Belgian)
Un--una idiota (an idiot)
Un--una indígena (a native)
Un--una mártir (a martyr)
Un--una reo (a culprit)
Un--una culpable (a culprit)
Un--una gimnasta (a gymnast)
Un--una homicida (a murderer, a murderess)
Un--una suicida (one who commits suicide)
Un--una testigo (a witness)

[Footnote 211: And so all nouns of nationality ending in _a_ or _e_.]

The noun is called Epicene when, with the same termination and the same
article, it indicates both male and female--

El águila (the eagle--male and female)
El buitre (the vulture--male and female)
El avestruz (the ostrich--male and female)
La rata (the rat--male and female)

Distinction would be made by adding "macho" or "hembra."

El águila macho (the eagle--male)
El avestruz hembra (the ostrich--female)

N.B.--Most of the names of animals belong to this class.

The term "ambiguo" is applied to nouns which are masculine or feminine,
with different meaning, or the gender of which is not well defined--

            Análasis (analysis), doubtful gender
El aroma (the aroma)                  La aroma (the acacia flower)
La _or_ el arte (the art)             Los _or_ Las artes
Las bellas artes                      (the arts, generally _fem_.)
 (the fine arts, always _fem_.)
La barba (the beard)                  El barba (a character in Spanish
                                      plays)
El cabecilla (chieftain or ringleader La cabecilla (the little head)
  of rebels)
El calavera (the madcap)              La calavera (the skull)
El canal (the canal)                  La canal (the gutter)
El capital (money)                    La capital (the town)
El cólera (cholera)                   La cólera (wrath)
El cometa (comet)                     La cometa (the kite, _toy_)
El corte (the cut)                    La corte (the court)
El cura (the priest)                  La cura (the cure)
El doblez (the fold)                  La doblez (duplicity)
El _or_ la dote (dowry), generally    Las dotes (good parts, gifts),
  _fem_. in the _pl_. always _fem_.
El fantasma (the phantom)             La fantasma (the bogie-man)
El frente (the front)                 La frente (the forehead)
El haz (the sheaf)                    La haz (face, surface)
Lente (lenses), doubtful gender
La orden (command, order for          El orden (order); as, buen orden
  goods, etc.)                          (good order)
Las sagradas órdenes (holy orders)    Las varias órdenes (various religious
                                         orders)
El parte (report)                     La parte (part)
El pendiente (ear-ring)               La pendiente (slope)
El pez (fish)                         La pez (pitch)
El tema (exercise, theme)             La tema (fear, obstinacy)
Tilde (~), doubtful gender


"Mar" (sea) is either Masc. or fem., but names of particular seas are
all masculine--

El mar rojo (the Red Sea)
El mar Caspio (the Caspian Sea)

The compounds of "mar" are feminine--

Baja mar (low sea)
Pleamar (high water)

The following masculine nouns have their equivalent feminine formed by
inflexion.

N.B.--We omit those in which the inflexion consists of the change of the
last vowel to _a_, or the addition of _a_, as--

El autor, la autora (the author, authoress)
El holgazán, la holgazana (the lazy man, lazy woman)
El primo, la prima (the cousin, _masc._ and _fem._)
El vecino, la vecina (the neighbour, _masc._ and _fem._)

El abad (abbot)               La abadesa (abbess)
El actor (actor)              La actriz (actress)
El barón (baron)              La baronesa (baroness)
El canónigo (canon)           La canonesa (canoness)
El cantor (singer)            La cantatriz (singer)
El conde (count)              La condesa (countess)
El diacono (deacon)           La diaconisa (deaconess)
El duque (duke)               La duquesa (duchess)
El elector (elector)          La electriz (electress)
El emperador (emperor)        La emperatriz (empress)
El filósofo (philosopher)     La filosofesa (philosopher)
El gallo (cock)               La gallina (hen)
El héroe (hero)               La heroína (heroine)
El poeta (poet)               La poetisa (poetess)
El principe (prince)          La princesa (princess)
El profeta (prophet)          La profetisa (prophetess)
El rey (king)                 La reina (queen)
El sacerdote (priest)         La sacerdotisa (priestess)
El vizconde (viscount)        La vizcondesa (viscountess)
El Zar (czar)                 La Zarina (czarina)

Notice also--

El asistente (assistant)      La asistenta (assistant)
El infante (child under 7;    La infanta (child; Span. Royal
  also Span., Royal Prince)     Princess)
El pariente (relative)        La parienta (relative)
El presidente (president)     La presidenta (president)
El sirviente (manservant)    La sirvienta (maidservant)

There are only a few more of this class.

N.B.--

Un abogado makes in the fem. Una muger abogado
Un médico    "    "    "    "    "     médico
Un comadrón  "    "    "    "    comadre (midwife)

The following nouns of persons and animals have two different forms to
represent the two sexes--

El buey (ox)                          La vaca (cow)
El caballo (stallion)                 La yegua (mare)
El carnero (ram)                      La oveja (ewe)
El fraile (friar)                     La soror (sister)
El hombre (man)                       La muger (woman)
El macho cabrío or cabrón (he-goat)   La cabra (she-goat)
El marido (husband)                   La muger (the wife)
El padre (father)                     La madre (mother)
El padrastro (step-father)            La madrastra (step-mother)
El padrino (god-father)               La madrina (god-mother)
El toro (bull)                        La vaca (cow)
El yerno (son-in-law)                 La nuera (daughter-in-law)

Many names of animals are either common, as--

El ánade, la ánade (the duck)
El liebre, la liebre (the hare)
El tigre, la tigre (the tiger, tigress)

Or they change _o_ of the masculine into _a_ or add _a_, to form the
feminine, as--

Un ganso (a gander)                Una gansa (a goose)
Un león (the lion)                 Una leona (a lioness)
Un mulo (a mule)                   Una mula (a she-mule)
Un pollino (an ass)                Una pollina (a she-ass)

Most are epicene as already stated (p. 246).



                              APPENDIX II

SPANISH COMMON NOUNS, IN ORDINARY USE, WHICH ARE USED ONLY IN THE PLURAL

Afueras (environs)
Aguaderas (frames to carry water)
Albricias (reward for good news--also used as interjection: joy! joy!!)
Andas (stretcher, also frame for carrying an image)
Calendas (calends)
Calzoncillos (drawers)
Carnestolendas (carnival)
Celos (jealously--"Celo"--zeal)
Hacer cosquillas (to tickle)
Despabilladoras (snuffers)
Enaguas (skirt)
Fauces (gullet)
Modales (manners)
Mientes--also Mente (the mind)
Parrillas (gridiron)
Puches (sort of fritters)
Tenazas (tongs, pincers)
Tijeras (scissors)
Tinieblas (utter darkness)
Víveres (victuals)
Zaragüelles (kind of breeches)

Note the following--

Á ciegas (blindly)
Á ojos cegarritas (blindly)
Á horcajadas (astride)
Á hurtadillas (on the sly)
Á sabiendas (knowingly)
De puntillas (on tiptoe)
Á tientas (groping)
De bóbilis bóbilis (without toil)
De bruces (on all fours)
En ayunas (fasting)
En volandas (in the air, off one's feet)

The following plurals, besides the ordinary, have also a different
meaning from the singular--

El alfiler (pin)              Los alfileres (pins, pin-money)
El día (day)                  Los días (days, birthday)
La esposa (wife)              Las esposas (wives, handcuffs)
El grillo (the cricket)       Los grilles (crickets, shackles)
La letra (letter)             Las letras (letters--literary knowledge)
El padre (father)             Los padres[212] (fathers, parents)

[Footnote 212: In the same manner all masculine plurals include also the
plurals of both genders, as: Hermanos (brothers, also brothers and
sisters).]

We make the following remarks on the plural of compound words.

The elements which concur to the formation of compound nouns are--

    A                                           B
Verbs                                        Adjectives
Prepositions                                 Nouns
Adverbs                                      Participles
Conjunctions                                 Pronouns
Prefixes


GENERAL RULE--

The elements in A are invariable except:

Un bullebulle (busybody), Unos bullebulles
Un quehacer (occupation), Unos quehaceres
Pasapasa (sleight of hand), Pasapasas (sleight of hand tricks)

The elements in B take the mark of the plural:

Alzacuello (minister's collar) Alzacuellos
Alzapaño (curtain hook), Alzapañios
Andaniño (child's cart), Andaniñios
Antepasado (ancestor), Antepasados
Ave María (a prayer), Ave Marías
Cualquiera (whatever), Cualesquiera
Entremetido (intruder, busybody), Entremetidos
Gentilhombre (man of gentle birth), Gentileshombres
Guardafuego (fire-guard), Guardafuegos
Hijodalgo (squire), Hijosdalgo
Pasamano (handrail, lace-edgings), Pasamanos
Pasatiempo (pastime), Pasatiempos
Picaparte (latch or latchkey), Picapartes
Pisaverde (beau), Pisaverdes
Portaestandarte (standard bearer), Portaestandartes
Portafusil (musket-sling), Portafusiles
Puercoespín (porcupine), Puercosespines
Quienquiera (whoever), Quienesquiera
Quitasol (parasol), Quitasoles
Ricahembra (woman of gentle birth), Ricashembras
Sobrecama (counterpane), Sobrecamas
Sobredicho (aforesaid), Sobredichos
Tapaboca (slap on the mouth), Tapabocas
Tirabotón (button-hook), Tirabotones

N.B.--When the second of the two words commences with _r_ this letter
should be doubled--

Ropa (clothes), guardarropa (wardrobe), guardarropas (pl.)

In compound nouns (very rare) formed of two nouns of which the first
stands as an adjective to the second, the first noun remains invariable,
the second only taking the mark of the plural--

Ferrocarril (railway), Ferrocarriles
Madreselva (honeysuckle), Madreselvas

In the following compound nouns formed of an adjective and a noun, the
adjective remains invariable in the plural, as--

Bajamar (low tide), Bajamares
Bajorelieve (bas-relief), Bajorelieves
Belladona (belladonna), Belladonas
Blancomanjar (blanc-mange), Blancomanjares
Plenamar (full tide), Plenamares
Salvoconducto (safe conduct), Salvoconductos
Salvaguardia (safeguard), Salvaguardias
Santa Bárbara (powder magazine), Santa Bárbaras

In compound nouns formed of two words, the first of which has suffered
the loss or change of a letter, this first component remains
invariable--

(N.B.--Many such words are found in Spanish.)

Artimaña (trick), Artimañas
Barbicano (white-bearded man), Barbicanos
Barbilindo (beardless man), Barbilindos
Boquirrubio (rosy-lipped), Boquirrubios
Cojitranco (lame fellow--disparagingly), Cojitrancos
Cuellierguido (stiff-necked man), Cuellierguidos
Gallipavo (turkey), Gallipavos
Manirroto (spendthrift), Manirrotos
Marisabidilla (blue stocking), Marisabidillas
Ojinegro (black-eyed), Ojinegros
Ojizarco (blue-eyed), Ojizarcos
Patizambo (bandy-legged), Patizambos
Pechicolorado (robin redbreast), Pechicolorados
Pleamar (high tide), Pleamares
Tragicomedia (tragi-comedy), Tragicomedias
Viandante (wayfarer), Viandantes

The following make their plural as follows--

Bancarrota (bankruptcy), Bancarrotas
Coliflor (cauliflower), Coliflores
Dares y tomares (wrangling), used only in _pl._
Dimes y diretes (ifs, ands and buts), used only in _pl._
Don Diego de noche (four o'clocks--flower), Don Diegos de noche
Maritornes (ill-shaped woman), Maritornes
Parabién (compliment), Parabienes
Vaivén (vibration), Vaivenes

The following are examples of the large class of nouns (compound) formed
with a verb or adverb and a plural noun and which are used for both
numbers--

Azotacalles (idler)
Buscavidas (pryer)
Cortaplumas (penknife)
Chupaflores (humming-bird)
Destripaterrones (navvy)
Lavamanos (wash-hand stand)
Limpiabotas (boot-black)
Matamoros (boaster)
Mondadientes (toothpick)
Papahueros (ninny)
Papamoscas (ninny)
Papanatas  (ninny)
Paracaídas (parachute)
Paraguas (umbrella)
Pelagatos (ragamuffin)
Pintamonas (slap-dasher or bad partner)
Sacacorchos (corkscrew)
Salvavidas (life-boats)
Sepancuantos (slap or blow)

The following also are used for both numbers without alteration--

Correveidile (tale-bearer)
Hazmereir (laughing-stock)
Metomentodo (busybody)
Paternoster (Lord's Prayer)
Quitaipón (ornament for headstall of draught beasts)
Sábelotodo (presumptious man)
Sinvergüenza (barefaced man)



                              APPENDIX III

PRINCIPAL NAMES OF COUNTRIES, TOWNS, ETC., (WITH CORRESPONDING SPANISH
ADJECTIVES)


Abisinia (abisinio), Abyssinia
Adrianópolis, Adrianopole
África (africano), Africa
Álava (alaveño, alavés), Alava
Albania (albanés), Albania
Alcalá de Henares (complutense), Alcalá
Alemania (alemán), Germany
Alicante (alicantino), Alicante
Alsacia (alsaciano), Alsatia
Amberes, Antwerp
América (americano), America
Andalucía (andaluz), Andalusia
Antillas (antillano), West Indies
Arabia (árabe, arábigo), Arabia
Aragón (aragonés), Arragon
Argel (argelino), Algiers
Argentina (argentine), Argentine
Armenia (armenio), Armenia
Asia (asiático), Asia
Atenas (ateniense), Athens
Austria (austríaco), Austria
Ávila (abulense), Avila
Barcelona (barcelonés), Barcelona
Basilea, Basle
Baviera (bávaro), Bavaria
Belén, Bethlehem
Bélgica (belga, bélgico), Belgium
Bilbao (bilbaíno), Bilbao
Bohemia (bohemo), Bohemia
Bolivia (boliviano), Bolivia
Bolonia (boloñés), Bologna
Brasil (brasileño), Brazil
Bretaña (bretón), Brittany
Brujas, Bruges
Bruselas, Brussels
Buenos Aires (bonaerense, porteño), Buenos Aires
Bulgaria (búlgaro), Bulgaria
Burdeos, Bordeaux
Burgos (burgalés), Burgos
Cádiz (gaditano), Cadiz
Calabria (calabrés), Calabria
Caldea (caldeo), Chaldaea
Canadá (canadiense), Canada
Canarias (canario), Canary Islands
Caracas (caraqueño), Caracas
Cartago (cartaginés), Carthage
Castilla (castellano), Castille
Cataluña (catalán), Catalonia
Cerdeña (sardo), Sardinia
Chile (chileno), Chili
China (chino), China
Colombia (colombiano), Colombia
Copenhague, Copenhagen
Córdoba (cordobés), Cordova
Córcega (corso), Corsica
Corfú (corfiota), Corfu
Dardanelos, Dardenelles
Dinamarca (danés, dinamarqués), Denmark
Dresde, Dresden
Ecuador (ecuatoriano), Equador
Egipto (egipcio), Egypt
Escocia (escocés), Scotland
Esmirna, Smyrna
España (español), Spanish
Estocolmo, Stockholm
Etiopia (etíope), Ethiopia
Europa (europeo), European
Extremadura (extremeño) Extremadura
Fenicia (fenicio), Phoenician
Filipinas (filipino), Philippine Islands
Flandes (flamenco), Flanders
Florencia (florentino), Florentine
Francia (francés), France
Gales (galés), Wales
Galicia (gallego), Galicia (Spain)
Gascuña (gascón), Gascony
Génova (genovés), Genoa
Gibraltar (gibraltareño), Gibraltar
Ginebra (ginebrino), Geneva
Gran Bretaña (británico), Great Britain
Granada (granadino), Granada
Grecia (griego), Greece
Guadalajara (guadalajareño), Guadalajara
Guatemala (guatemalteco), Guatemala
Guipúzcoa (guipuzcoano), Guipuzcoa
Habana (habanero, habano), Havannah
Holanda (holandés), Holland
Honduras (hondureño), Honduras
Hungría (húngaro), Hungary
India (indios), India
Inglaterra (inglés), England
Irlanda (irlandés), Ireland
Italia (italiano), Italy
Japón (japonés), Japan
La Mancha (manchego), La Mancha
León (leonés), Leon (Spain)
Lieja, Liège
Lima (limeño), Lima
Liorna (liornés), Leghorn
Lisboa (lisbonense), Lisbon
Lombardia (lombardo), Lombardy
Londres (londinense), London
Macedonia (macedonio), Macedonia
Madrid (madrileño), Madrid
Málaga (malagueño), Malaga
Malta (maltés), Malta
Mallorca (mallorquín), Majorca
Maracaibo (maracaibero), Maracaibo
Marruecos (marroquí), Morocco
Marsella (marsellés), Marseilles
Menorca (menorquín), Minorca
Méjico (mejicano), Mexico
Murcia (murciano), Murcia
Nápoles (napolitano), Naples
Navarra (navarro), Navarre
Normandia (normando), Normandy
Noruega (noruego), Norway
Pamplona (pamplonés), Pamplona
Paraguay (paraguayano), Paraguay
Paris (parisiense), Paris
Persia (persa _or_ persiano), Persia
Perú (peruano), Peru
Piamonte (piamontés), Piedmont
Polonia (polaco), Poland
Portugal (portugués), Portugal
Puerto Rico (portorriqueño), Porto Rico
Roma (romano), Rome
Rumania (rumano), Roumania
Rusia (ruso), Russia
Saboya (saboyardo), Savoy
Sajonia (sajón), Saxony
Salamanca (salmantino, salamanques), Salamanca
Salvador (salvadoreño), Salvador
San Sebastian (donostiarra), San Sebastian
Serbia (serbio), Serbia
Sevilla (sevillano), Seville
Sicilia (siciliano), Sicily
Suecia (sueco), Sweden
Suiza (suizo), Switzerland
Tetuán (tetuaní), Tetuan
Troya (troyano), Troy
Túnez (tunecino), Tunis
Turquía (turco), Turkey
Uruguay (uruguayano), Uruguay
Valencia (valenciano), Valencia
Valladolid (valisoletano), Valladolid
Varsovia (varsoviano), Warsaw
Vascongadas, Provincias (vascongado, vascuence), Basque Provinces
Venecia (veneciano), Venice
Venezuela (venezolano), Venezuela
Vera Cruz (veracruzano), Vera Cruz
Viena (vienés), Vienna
Vigo (vigués), Vigo
Vitoria (vitoriano), Vitoria
Yucatán (yucateco), Yucatan
Zaragoza (zaragozano), Zaragoza



                          APPENDIX IV

               AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES[213]

[Footnote 213: The terminations _ón_ and _ito_ or _ico_ may be taken by
practically all nouns (avoiding cacophony, as: Pantalonón,
habitacionóna, etc.); the others may not and consequently should not be
used by students, until learnt by practice.]

Bestiecita (little beast)
Bestiezuela (little beast) (disparaging)
Chiquito (little child)
Chiquitín (little child)
Florecita (little flower)
Florecilla (little flower) (insignificant)
Hombrón (big, tall man)
Hombrote (big, tall man) (disparaging)
Hombracho (big, tall man) (disparaging)
Hombrachón (big, tall man) (disparaging)
Hombrazo (big, tall man) (disparaging)
Hombronazo (big, tall man) (disparaging)
Juanito (little John)
Labradorcito (little labourer)
Lagarto--Lagartija (little lizard)
Lío--Liecito (little bundle)
Librón (large, big book)
Librazo (large, big book) (disparaging)
Libracho (large, big book) (disparaging)
Librote (large, big book) (disparaging)
Llavín (little key, latchkey)
Manuel--Manolo (little Manuel)
Manuel--Manolito (little Manuel)
Madrecita (little mother)
Madrecica (little mother)
Pajarraco (big bird) (disparaging)
Papelón (large paper)
Plazoleta (little square)
Reinecita (little queen)
Tamborcito[214] (little drum)
Tamborcico (little drum)

[Footnote 214: _Ito_ is more Castillian. _Ico_ is more Aragonese. They
are both used.]

We repeat that the peculiarity of Augmentative and Diminutive
terminations (with the exception of the Augment. _on_, which denotes
only increase) is that besides the idea of increase or diminution a
further disparaging or endearing meaning is implied although not
_distinctly defined_.

These terminations in many cases substitute the use of adjectives to
great advantage, and are largely used by Spaniards, especially the
diminutives which, for this reason, should be carefully noticed.

A diminutive noun can also be further qualified by an adjective, as--

Mi padre me regaló este gracioso librito: My father made me a
present of this pretty little book.

Diminutives can be made of Augmentatives and vice-versa--

Escoba (broom), Escobilla, Escobillón
Sala (drawing-room), Salón, Saloncillo

If a masculine noun ends in _a_ its diminutive also ends in _a_--

Un drama (drama), Un dramita
Un poema (poem), Un poemita

But not nouns that indicate male persons--

Papá (Papa), Papaíto

Although _ón_ and _ote_ are generally augmentative terminations, in the
following words and a few more, they are used as diminutives--

Calle (street)                 Callejón (narrow street, alley)
Carro (cart)                   Carretón (little cart)
Isla (island)                  Islote (little barren island)
Torre (tower)                  Torrejón (turret)


Besides Augmentative and Diminutive terminations, there are some
terminations which, without indicating increase or decrease, are used to
indicate disparagement pure and simple--

Calducho (bad broth)
Gentualla (mob)
Gentuza (insignificant people)
Libraco (nasty book)
Madrastra (step-mother)
Medicastro (bad doctor)
Mujeruca (old wife, gossip)
Poetastro (bad poet)


The Augmentative and Diminutive terminations (especially the latter) are
found added to adjectives and, although more rarely, to other parts of
speech also. They must be learnt by practice, however, as they cannot be
used indiscriminately.

EXAMPLES--

El picarillo (picaruelo) quiere el otro cuello que es más blanquito: The
little rogue wants the other collar which is nice and clean (lit.,
whiter).

Como me gusta la blanca nieve acabadita de caer: How pretty is the snow
just newly fallen.

Mira á aquella chica tan bien vestidita de azul: Look at that little
girl so prettily dressed in blue

Vino callandito: He came in as quietly as a mouse.

Vive cerquita de nuestra casa: He lives quite close to our house.

Poquito á poco hila la vieja el copo (proverb): Little by little the old
woman spins her distaff (Slow and sure wins the race)

Translation of the English "ish" after colours--

Amarillento (yellowish)
Azulado (bluish)
Azulino (bluish)
Blanquecino (whitish)
Morenito (brownish)
Que tira á moreno (brownish)
Negruzco (blackish)
Pardusco (greyish)
Que tira á pardo ó gris (greyish)
Rojizo (reddish)
Verdoso (greenish)
Verdusco (greenish)

Notice also--

Anaranjado (orange-coloured)
Avellanado (nut-coloured, tawny)
Celeste (sky-blue)
Dorado (golden)
Pajizo (straw-coloured)
Perlino (pearl-coloured)
Plateado (silvery)
Rosado (rose-coloured, pink, rosy)
Terreo (ashen-pale)
Trigueño (brown, wheat-coloured)



                               APPENDIX V

VERBS WHICH DIFFER IN REGIMEN FROM THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. EXTRACTED
FROM THE GENERAL LIST OF THE GRAMMAR OF THE SPANISH ACADEMY[215]

[Footnote 215: This list is comprehensive, but not exhaustive; some of
these verbs, besides the preposition given, may be followed by others.
Practice in reading is the best master.]

Abordar (una nave) á (_or_ con) otra: To board (a ship).
Abrasarse en deseos: To be burning with desire.
Abundar de (_or_ en) riquezas: To abound with riches.
Abusar de la amistad: To abuse friendship.
Acertar con la casa: To find the right house.
Adelantarse á otros: To take the start on others.
Admirarse de un suceso: To wonder at an event.
Aficionarse á alguna cosa: To grow fond of anything.
Alejarse de su tierra: To depart from one's country.
Alimentarse con (_or_ de) yerbas: To feed on vegetables.
Anticiparse á otro: To forestall another.
Apiadarse con los pobres: To have pity on the poor.
Aportar á Barcelona: To put into Barcelona.
Apreciar en mucho: To appreciate highly.
Arder de cólera: To burn with anger.
Armarse de paciencia: To arm oneself with patience.
Arrimarse á la pared: To lean against the wall.
Arrostrar (con (_or_ por)) los peligros: To face the dangers.
Atender (á) los negocios: To attend to business.
Aventajarse á otros: To excel others.

Bañar con (de _or_ en) lágrimas: To bathe with tears.
Barbear con la pared: To run against the wall.
Brindar á la salud de alguno: To drink the health of someone.
Brindar con regalos: To give presents.
Burlarse de algo:  To laugh at something.

Caber de pies: There to be standing room.
Calificar de docto:  To call one learned.
Cambiar una cosa con (_or_ por) otra: To exchange one thing for another.
Campar por su respeto: To keep to oneself.
Carecer de medios: To lack means.
Casar _or_ casarse con alguno: To marry someone.
Cesar de correr: To cease running.
Cifrar su dicha en la virtud: To make one's happiness consist in virtue.
Clavar á (_or_ en) la pared: To nail on the wall.
Cojear del pie derecho:  To limp with the right foot.
Colgar de un clavo: To hang on a nail.
Colmar de mercedes: To load with benefits.
Comerciar con su crédito: To trade on one's credit.
Comprar de (_or_ á) una persona: To buy from someone.
Comprar al fiado: To buy on credit.
Comprometerse á pagar: To undertake to pay.
Confiar en (_or_ de) alguno: To trust anybody.
Conservarse con (_or_ en) salud: To keep in good health.
Contar con su auxilio: To count on his help.
Contravenir á la ley: To contravene the law.
Convenir al enfermo: To suit the patient.
Correr con los gastos: To undertake the expense.
Cortar por lo sano: To cut short (an argument, etc.).
Cumplir á uno hacer una cosa: To be one's duty to do something.
Chancearse con alguno: To joke with someone.

Dañarse del pecho: To injure one's chest.
Dar con la carga en el suelo: To throw down the load.
Dar con quien lo entiende: To come across someone who understands it.
Dar contra un poste: To knock against a post.
Dar de barato: To grant for argument's sake.
Darse por vencido: To give it up.
Decir bien una cosa con otra: To match well together.
Decir para sí: To say to oneself.
Dejar de escribir: To cease writing, to fail to write.
Demandar ante el juez (_or_ en juicio): To summon.
Depender de alguno: To be dependent on someone.
Desayunarse con chocolate: To breakfast on chocolate.
Desconfiar de alguno: To mistrust one.
Descuidarse de (_or_ en) su obligación: To neglect one's duty.
Desfallecer de ánimo: To lose courage.
Deshacerse de los géneros: To get rid of the goods.
Detestar de la mentira: To hate lying.
Disfrutar de buena renta: To enjoy a good income.
Doblar por un difunto: To sound the death knell.
Dudar de alguna cosa: To doubt something.

Echar en tierra: To throw on the ground.
Echar de casa: To turn out of the house.
Echar de ver una cosa: To perceive (realise) a thing.
Echarla de rico: To assume airs of a rich man.
Embelesarse con alguna cosa: To go into raptures over anything.
Embutir de algodón: To stuff with cotton.
Enajenarse de alguna cosa: To do away with anything.
Encargarse de algún negocio: To undertake a business.
Encontrarse con un amigo: To meet a friend.
Encuadernar á la rústica, en pasta: To bind in paper covers, in boards.
Escarmentar con la desgracia: To take warning from misfortune.
Esmerarse en alguna cosa: To take pains with anything.

Fiarse á (de, en) alguno: To trust in anyone.
Firmar de propria mano: To sign with one's own hand.
Forrar de (con, en) pieles: To line with skins.
Fumar en pipa: To smoke the pipe.

Girar á cargo de alguno: To draw on someone.
Girar sobre París: To draw on Paris.
Guardarse de alguno: To guard against anybody.
Gustar de bromas: To be fond of joking.

Habérselas con otros: To wrangle, to have a bone to pick, to vie with
Hacer de galán en un drama: To take the part of principal actor in a drama.
Herir de muerte: To wound fatally.
Hincarse de rodillas: To fall on one's knees.
Hocicar con (contra, en) alguna cosa: To run against anything.

Igualar (igualarse) á (_or_ con) otro: To equal another, to match.
Indemnizar del perjuicio: To indemnify for the loss.
Influir con el jefe: To influence the chief.
Insistir en (sobre) una cosa: To insist on something.
Inspirar una idea á alguno: To inspire anybody with an idea.
Inundar de (_or_ en) agua: To flood with water.

Librar á cargo de un banquero: To draw on a banker.
Librar una letra sobre Paris: To draw a bill on Paris.
Lindar (una tierra) con otra: To border on another.
Llegar á la posada: To reach the inn.
Llevarse bien con el vecino: To get on well with the neighbour.
Llover á cantaros: To rain in bucketfuls.

Maravillarse con (_or_ de) una noticia: To be surprised at some news.
Marcar á fuego: To brand.
Mejorar de condición: To improve in condition.
Mejorar en tercio y quinto: To improve greatly.

Oler á rosas: To smell of roses.

Parecerse á otro: To be similar to another.
Pensar en (sobre) alguna cosa: To think of something.
Pensar para sí: To think to oneself.
Perecerse de risa: To die with laughter.
Pintar de azul: To paint blue.
Poblar de árboles: To plant with trees.
Ponerse á escribir: To commence writing.
Prescindir de una cosa: To dispense with anything.
Presumir de rico: To feign riches.
Proveer á la necesidad pública: To provide the needs of the public.

Quedar á deber: To remain owing.
Quedarse con lo ajeno: To keep other people's property.

Rebosar de alegría: To teem with joy.
Recibir á cuenta: To receive on account.
Recibir de criado: To admit as a servant.
Recibir por esposa: To receive as a wife.
Reclamar á fulano: To claim from so and so.
Responder á la pregunta: To answer the question.
Reventar de risa: To burst with laughter.
Rodear de una pared: To surround with a wall.

Saber á vino: To taste of wine.
Salirse con la suya: To have one's own way.
Salvarse á nado: To save oneself by swimming.
Sentarse á la mesa: To sit down at table.
Soñar con ladrones: To dream of thieves.
Suplicar (apelar) de la sentencia: To appeal against the sentence.

Tachar de ligero: To tax one with levity.
Tener á menos hablar á uno: Not to deign to speak to one.
Tenerse de pie: To stand on foot.
Teñir de (en) negro: To dye black.
Tomar á pecho: To take to heart.
Tomar hacia la derecha: To turn to the right.
Trabajar á destajo: To do work by the job.
Trabarse de palabras: To quarrel.
Transportar á lomo: To carry on one's back.

Varar en la playa: To run aground.
Velar á los muertos: To watch over the dead.
Vengarse de una ofensa: To avenge an insult.
Vengarse en el ofensor: To avenge oneself on the offender.
Venir á casa: To come home.
Ver de hacer algo: To try and do something.
Vestir á la moda: To dress in the fashion.
Vestir de máscara: To dress in fancy dress.
Vestirse de paño: To dress in cloth.
Vivir á su gusto: To live after one's taste.


         CONJUGATION OF THE REGULAR AND AUXILIARY VERBS

The Simple tenses only are given--Compound tenses are formed with the
verb "haber" followed by the past participle.

+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Infinitive      |            |            |             |            |
|  Mood.          | Hablar     | Temer      | Partir      | Tener      |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Pres. Part.     | Hablando   | Temiendo   | Partiendo   | Teniendo   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Past Part.      | Hablado    | Temido     | Partido     | Tenido     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Indic. Pres.    | Hablo      | Temo       | Parto       | Tengo      |
|                 | Hablas     | Temes      | Partes      | Tienes     |
|                 | Habla      | Teme       | Parte       | Tiene      |
|                 | Hablamos   | Tememos    | Partimos    | Tenemos    |
|                 | Habláis    | Teméis     | Partís      | Tenéis     |
|                 | Hablan     | Temen      | Parten      | Tienen     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Indic. Imperf.  | Hablaba    | Temía      | Partía      | Tenía      |
|                 | Hablabas   | Temías     | Partías     | Tenías     |
|                 | Hablaba    | Temía      | Partía      | Tenía      |
|                 | Hablábamos | Temíamos   | Partíamos   | Teníamos   |
|                 | Hablabais  | Temíais    | Partíais    | Teníais    |
|                 | Hablaban   | Temían     | Partían     | Tenían     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
|Past Def.        | Hablé      | Temí       | Partí       | Tuve       |
|                 | Hablaste   | Temiste    | Partiste    | Tuviste    |
|                 | Habló      | Temió      | Partió      | Tuvo       |
|                 | Hablámos   | Temimos    | Partímos    | Tuvimos    |
|                 | Hablasteis | Temisteis  | Partisteis  | Tuvisteis  |
|                 | Hablaron   | Temieron   | Partieron   | Tuvieron   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Future          | Hablaré    | Temeré     | Partiré     | Tendré     |
|                 | Hablarás   | Temerás    | Partirás    | Tendrás    |
|                 | Hablará    | Temerá     | Partirá     | Tendrá     |
|                 | Hablaremos | Temeremos  | Partiremos  | Tendremos  |
|                 | Hablaréis  | Temeréis   | Partiréis   | Tendréis   |
|                 | Hablarán   | Temerán    | Partirán    | Tendrán    |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Conditional.    | Hablaría   | Temería    | Partiría    | Tendría    |
|                 | Hablarías  | Temerías   | Partirías   | Tendrías   |
|                 | Hablaría   | Temería    | Partiría    | Tendría    |
|                 | Hablaríamos| Temeríamos | Partiríamos | Tendríamos |
|                 | Hablaríais | Temeríais  | Partiríais  | Tendríais  |
|                 | Hablarían  | Temerían   | Partirían   | Tendrían   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Pres.     | Hable      | Tema       | Parta       | Tenga      |
|                 | Hables     | Temas      | Partas      | Tengas     |
|                 | Hable      | Tema       | Parta       | Tenga      |
|                 | Hablemos   | Temamos    | Partamos    | Tengamos   |
|                 | Habléis    | Temáis     | Partáis     | Tengáis    |
|                 | Hablen     | Teman      | Partan      | Tengan     |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Imperf.   | Hablase    | Temiese    | Partiese    | Tuviese    |
|(1st form)       | Hablases   | Temieses   | Partieses   | Tuvieses   |
|                 | Hablase    | Temiese    | Partiese    | Tuviese    |
|                 | Hablásemos | Temiésemos | Partiésemos | Tuviésemos |
|                 | Hablaseis  | Temieseis  | Partieseis  | Tuvieseis  |
|                 | Hablasen   | Temiesen   | Partiesen   | Tuviesen   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Imperf.   | Hablara    | Temiera    | Partiera    | Tuviera    |
|(2nd form)       | Hablaras   | Temieras   | Partieras   | Tuvieras   |
|                 | Hablara    | Temiera    | Partiera    | Tuviera    |
|                 | Habláramos | Temiéramos | Partiéramos | Tuviéramos |
|                 | Hablarais  | Temierais  | Partierais  | Tuvierais  |
|                 | Hablaran   | Temieran   | Partieran   | Tuvieran   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Future.   | Hablare    | Temiere    | Partiere    | Tuviere    |
|                 | Hablares   | Temieres   | Partieres   | Tuvieres   |
|                 | Hablare    | Temiere    | Partiere    | Tuviere    |
|                 | Habláremos | Temiéremos | Partiéremos | Tuviéremos |
|                 | Hablareis  | Temiereis  | Partiereis  | Tuviereis  |
|                 | Hablaren   | Temieren   | Partieren   | Tuvieren   |
|----------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Imperative.     | Habla      | Teme       | Parte       | Ten        |
|                 | Hable      | Tema       | Parta       | Tenga      |
|                 | Hablemos   | Temamos    | Partamos    | Tengamos   |
|                 | Hablad     | Temed      | Partid      | Tened      |
|                 | Hablen     | Teman      | Partan      | Tengan     |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+

Auxiliary Verbs

+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Infinitive      |                |               |               |
| Mood.           | Haber          | Ser           | Estar         |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Pres. Part.     | Habiendo       | Siendo        | Estando       |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Past Part.      | Habido         | Sido          | Estado        |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Indic. Pres.    | He             | Soy           | Estoy         |
|                 | Has            | Eres          | Estás         |
|                 | Ha             | Es            | Está          |
|                 | Hemos          | Somos         | Estamos       |
|                 | Habéis         | Sois          | Estáis        |
|                 | Han            | Son           | Estan         |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Indic. Imperf.  | Había          | Era           | Estaba        |
|                 | Habías         | Eras          | Estabas       |
|                 | Había          | Era           | Estaba        |
|                 | Habíamos       | Éramos        | Estábamos     |
|                 | Habíais        | Erais         | Estabais      |
|                 | Habían         | Eran          | Estaban       |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Past Def.       | Hube           | Fuí           | Estuve        |
|                 | Hubiste        | Fuiste        | Estuviste     |
|                 | Hubo           | Fué           | Estuvo        |
|                 | Hubimos        | Fuimos        | Estuvimos     |
|                 | Hubisteis      | Fuisteis      | Estuvisteis   |
|                 | Hubieron       | Fueron        | Estuvieron    |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Future          | Habré          | Seré          | Estaré        |
|                 | Habrás         | Serás         | Estarás       |
|                 | Habrá          | Será          | Estará        |
|                 | Habremos       | Seremos       | Estaremos     |
|                 | Habréis        | Seréis        | Estaréis      |
|                 | Habran         | Serán         | Estarán       |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Conditional.    | Habría         | Sería         | Estaría       |
|                 | Habrías        | Serías        | Estarías      |
|                 | Habría         | Sería         | Estaría       |
|                 | Habríamos      | Seríamos      | Estaríamos    |
|                 | Habríais       | Seríais       | Estaríais     |
|                 | Habrían        | Serían        | Estarían      |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Pres.     | Haya           | Sea           | Esté          |
|                 | Hayas          | Seas          | Estés         |
|                 | Haya           | Sea           | Esté          |
|                 | Hayamos        | Seamos        | Estemos       |
|                 | Hayáis         | Seáis         | Estéis        |
|                 | Hayan          | Sean          | Estén         |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Imperf.   | Hubiese        | Fuese         | Estuviese     |
| (1st form)      | Hubieses       | Fueses        | Estuvieses    |
|                 | Hubiese        | Fuese         | Estuviese     |
|                 | Hubiésemos     | Fuesemos      | Estuviesemos  |
|                 | Hubieseis      | Fueseis       | Estuvieseis   |
|                 | Hubiesen       | Fuesen        | Estuviesen    |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Imperf.   | Hubiera        | Fuera         | Estuviera     |
| (2nd form)      | Hubieras       | Fueras        | Estuvieras    |
|                 | Hubiera        | Fuera         | Estuviera     |
|                 | Hubiéramos     | Fueramos      | Estuvieramos  |
|                 | Hubierais      | Fuerais       | Estuvierais   |
|                 | Hubieran       | Fueran        | Estivieran    |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Subj. Future    | Hubiere        | Fuere         | Estuviere     |
|                 | Hubieres       | Fueres        | Estuvieres    |
|                 | Hubiere        | Fuere         | Estuviere     |
|                 | Hubiéremos     | Fuéremos      | Estuviéremos  |
|                 | Hubiereis      | Fuereis 	   | Estuviereis   |
|                 | Hubieren       | Fueren        | Estuvieren    |
|------------------------------------------------------------------|
| Imperative      | Hé             | Sé            | Está          |
|                 | Haya           | Sea           | Esté          |
|                 | Hayamos        | Seamos        | Estemos       |
|                 | Hayed          | Sed           | Estad         |
|                 | Hayan          | Sean          | Estén         |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "SER" AND "ESTAR" (for easy reference).

Ser is used--
  i. To form the Passive Voice.
 ii. To denote an inherent quality.

Estar is used--
  i. To denote state in locality, viz., "to be" in a place.
 ii. To denote condition (as opposed to inherent quality).

SUPPLEMENTARY RULES.

Use Ser--
    i. Before a noun (even if an adjective or an article intervenes).
   ii. When "to be" is used impersonally.
  iii. When "to be" denotes possession.
   iv. Before _pobre_, _rico_, _felis_, and _infeliz_.



                            =APPENDIX VI=

PRINCIPAL VERBS, THE LAST ROOT VOWEL OF WHICH CHANGES INTO A DIPHTHONG
WHEN THE STRESS OF THE VOICE FALLS ON IT, AS---


=Pensar= (to think).

_Pres. Ind._, Pienso, piensas, piensa,--,--, piensan.
_Pres. Subj._, Piense, pienses, piense,--,--, piensen.
_Imperative_, Piensa, piense,--,--, piensen.


=Entender= (to understand).

_Pres. Ind._, Entiendo, entiendes, entiende,--,--, entienden.
_Pres. Subj._, Entienda, entiendas, entienda,--,--, entiendan.
_Imperative_, Entiende, entienda,--,--, entiendan.


=Sentir= (to feel).

_Pres. Ind._, Siento, sientes, siente,--,--, sienten.
_Pres. Subj._, Sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos,[217] sintáis,[217]
sientan.
_Imperative_, Siente, sienta, sintamos,[217]--, sientan.


=Acordar= (to agree).

_Pres. Ind._, Acuerdo, acuerdas, acuerda,--,--, acuerdan.
_Pres. Subj._, Acuerde, acuerdes, acuerde,--,--, acuerden.
_Imperative_, Acuerda, acuerde,--,--, acuerden.


=Mover= (to move).

_Pres. Ind._, Muevo, mueves, mueve,--,--, mueven.
_Pres. Subj._, Mueva, muevas, mueva,--,--, muevan.
_Imperative_, Mueve, mueva,--,--, muevan.


=Dormir= (to sleep).[216]

_Pres. Ind._, Duermo, duermes, duerme,--,--, duermen.
_Pres. Subj._, Duerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos,[217] durmáis,[217]
duerman.
_Imperative_, Duerme, duerma, durmamos,[217]--, duerman.

[Footnote 216: _Morir_ (to die) is the only verb conjugated like
_Dormir_; but past part. _Muerto_.]

[Footnote 217: Notice the additional irregularities.]



Principal Verbs conjugated like "Pensar"--

Acertar (to hit the mark)
Acrecentar (to increase)
Alentar (to encourage)
Apretar (to squeeze)
Arrendar (to lease, to hire)
Asentarse (to sit down)
Aterrar (to pull down)
Atravesar (to cross)

Calentar (to warm)
Cegar (to blind)
Cerrar (to shut, to close)
Comendar (to commend)
Comenzar (to begin)
Confesar (to confess)

Desmembrar (to dismember)
Despertar (to awake)

Empedrar (to pave)
Empezar (to begin)
Encerrar (to shut in)
Enmendar (to correct)

Gobernar (to govern)

Manifestar (to manifest)
Mentar (to mention)

Negar (to deny)

Plegar (to fold)

Quebrar (to break)

Recomendar (to recommend)
Reventar (to burst)

Temblar (to tremble)
Tentar (to tempt, to attempt)
Tropezar (to stumble)


Principal Verbs conjugated like "Entender"--

Ascender (to go up)
Atender (to attend)

Condescender (to condescend)
Contender (to contend)

Defender (to defend)
Descender (to descend)

Encender (to light)
Extender (to extend)

Perder (to lose)

Tender (to stretch)

Verter (to shed, to spill)


Principal Verbs conjugated like "Sentir"--

Adherir[218] (to adhere)
Adquirir[218] (to acquire)
Advertir[218] (to notice, to warn)
Arrepentirse (to repent)
Asentir (to assent)

Consentir (to consent)

Erguir (to erect, to raise)

Hervir (to boil)

Mentir (to lie)

[Footnote 218: And all in _erir, irir, ertir_.]


Principal Verbs conjugated like "Acordar"--

Acostarse (to go to bed)
Almorzar (to breakfast)
Apostar (to bet)
Aprobar (to approve)
Avergonzarse (to be ashamed)

Colgar (to hang)
Consolar (to comfort)
Contar (to relate)
Costar (to cost)

Encontrar (to meet)

Forzar (to force)

Hollar (to tread)

Mostrar (to show)

Poblar (to people)
Probar (to prove)

Recordar (to remind, to remember)
Renovar (to renew)
Rodar (to roll)
Rogar (to pray)

Soldar (to solder)
Soltar (to loosen)
Sonar (to sound)
Soñar (to dream)

Tostar (to toast)
Trocar (to exchange, to barter)

Volar (to fly)


Principal Verbs conjugated like "Mover"--

Absolver (_And all in _olver_) (to absolve)

Cocer (to bake, to cook)

Demoler (to demolish)
Doler (to ache)

Moler (to grind)
Morder (to bite)

Oler (to smell)[219]

[Footnote 219: _Huelo_, etc., (because no words begin with _ue_).]

Promover (to promote)

Soler (to be accustomed)

Torcer (to twist)



LIST OF PRINCIPAL VERBS CONJUGATED LIKE "PEDIR"--

Ceñir (And all in _eñir_) (to gird)
Competir (to compete)
Concebir (to conceive)
Corregir (to correct)

Derretir (to melt)

Elegir (to elect, to select)
Embestir (to run down, to assail)

Freir (to fry)

Gemir (to moan)

Impedir (to prevent)

Medir (to measure)

Regir (to rule, to govern)
Reir (to laugh)
Repetir (to repeat)

Seguir (to follow)
Servir (to serve)

Vestir (to dress, to clothe)


END



==================================================
Transcriber's note: The edition of  this book that
was used to produce the document is as follows:
==================================================

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR

BY

C. A. TOLEDANO

LATE LECTURER IN THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY, MANCHESTER; EXTERNAL EXAMINER,
UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM; H.M. ASSISTANT INSPECTOR FOR SPANISH; SPANISH
MASTER AT THE MANCHESTER MUNICIPAL SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, MANCHESTER
ATHENAEUM, ETC.

_SECOND EDITION REVISED AND ENLARGED_

LONDON

SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD., 1 AMEN CORNER, E. C. BATH, NEW YORK AND
MELBOURNE _UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME_

2s 6d net

=PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL FRENCH GRAMMAR=. By F.W.M DRAPER, M A. (Cantab.),
_Licencié ès Lettres_.

=ITALIAN=. By LUIGI RICCI, AND =GERMAN=. By JETHRO BITHELL



=KEY TO COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR=

In crown 8vo, cloth, 66 pp, 2s. net.

For Complete List of Pitman's Language Text-books, see Catalogue
contained at the end of this book.

PRINTED BY SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD, LONDON, BATH, NEW YORK AND
MELBOURNE

A MI SEÑOR PADRE,

--LO QUE PUEDO _Reprinted_, 1917





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