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´╗┐Title: 'Return Loads' to Increase Transport Resources by Avoiding Waste of Empty Vehicle Running.
Author: United States. Council of National Defense. Highway Transport Committee
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "'Return Loads' to Increase Transport Resources by Avoiding Waste of Empty Vehicle Running." ***

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       *       *       *       *       *

                          AUGUST 1, 1918

                          BULLETIN NO. 3
                          (FOR SHIPPERS)

                          "RETURN LOADS"


                         WASHINGTON, D.C.



  "_The Council of National Defense approves the widest possible
  use of the motor truck as a transportation agency, and requests
  the State Councils of Defense and other State authorities to
  take all necessary steps to facilitate such means of
  transportation, removing any regulations that tend to restrict
  and discourage such use._"



                         WASHINGTON, D.C.

                      "SHORT-HAUL" PROBLEM.

To increase the highways transport resources as one of the means of
strengthening the entire transportation system of the country, and for
the purpose of avoiding the waste incurred by running transport
vehicles empty, return-load bureaus are established. These bureaus are
a means of bringing together the shipper having goods to move and the
operator of an empty vehicle which is possibly running to the point
for which the goods to be shipped are destined.

With the cooperation of State councils of defense, chambers of
commerce, local war boards, and other organizations the Council of
National Defense, through its Highways Transport Committee and its
State Councils Section, is building up a system for the efficient
utilization of the highways of the country as a means of strengthening
the Nation's transportation resources and affording merchants and
manufacturers relief from necessary railroad embargoes and delays due
to freight congestion.

State Highways Transport Committees are being organized in all States
of the Union. The primary functions of the State Highways Transport
bodies are the development of the five outstanding activities to which
instant attention is being given by the Highways Transport Committee
of the National Council of Defense, as follows:

Return Load Bureaus, Rural Express, Cooperation with Federal Railroad
Administration, Educational, Transport Operating Efficiency.

These activities encompass, briefly, and in the order named, the

Elimination of empty running of trucks by bringing together shipper
and truck owner in such way as to provide full loads wherever

Rapid development, over fixed routes, of daily power-vehicle service,
with definite schedules of stops and charges and provision made for
gathering shipments both on outgoing and incoming trips.

Substitution of adequate truck service that the intracity and
short-haul service of rail carriers may be relieved and partially
supplanted; the relief of congested terminals, and an effective
store-door delivery plan.

Organization of a campaign to place highways transport work throughout
the States in its proper light before the public, that the support of
the people in favor of national policies may be made certain. To this
end an outstanding feature of the work will be enlistment of the
support of all users of highways transport.

Making transportation more efficient through encouragement of such use
of highways transport as will eliminate making trips with part loads,
the loss of time in loading and unloading, and unnecessary delays in
the handling of receipts.

By taking part of the burden of the "short haul" off the railroads and
placing it on motor trucks operating over the highways, millions of
tons of merchandise and materials are transported satisfactorily and
the railroads are given much needed relief. The motive power and cars
thus freed from short-haul work can be employed in very important
long-distance service. The Railroad Administration has indorsed motor
transportation for this work and reported that this form of relief
will make it possible for the railroads to operate more effectively
under the present traffic congestion; hence shippers using the
highways are assisting in the solution of transportation problems and
rendering a patriotic service. It is also to be noted that if shippers
use the highways for short hauls and thus relieve the railroads of a
burden, they assist in improving general conditions so that they will
indirectly benefit by having more prompt service on long-distance

Dependability of Highways Transportation Proven.

The practicability and dependability of highway haulage between
neighboring cities has been demonstrated fully. Hundreds of local and
intercity motor express lines are in successful operation in widely
scattered sections of the country. The return-load bureau system has
been installed in England, where it is now considered unpatriotic to
run a truck without a load. Manchester, England, for example, and all
the surrounding cities were among the first to start return-load
bureaus and have reciprocal arrangements whereby they exchange
information regarding available trucks and loads.

Much of the short-haul freight is carried on the highways by motor
trucks. It is picked up at the door of the shipper and delivered at
the door of the consignee, entailing only two handlings. It is
delivered the same day it is shipped, which for certain commodities is
the rapidity of transport desired. Frequently after motor trucks
deliver a load, they return empty, whereas there are shippers who
would avail themselves of the opportunity to send a load on such a
truck to its home town. On the other hand, the truck owner would like
to obtain a return load because the charge for it would reduce his own
haulage cost. To bring the shipper and truck owner together serves the
interests of both, hence the return-load bureaus are of mutual
benefit. These bureaus are nonmoney-making patriotic organizations
deserving of the support of shippers whom they serve unselfishly.

Return-Load Bureaus Listed in Telephone Directories.

In many cities the telephone companies have listed the return-load
bureaus under the title "Return loads" in the local directories. By
calling "Return loads" or the telephone number of the bureau, shippers
can learn where trucks may be obtained to carry loads to points which
the shipper wishes to reach quickly. In many cities there are motor
express lines operating on daily schedule over regular routes, but
there are also many companies, firms, and individuals that own trucks
which stand idle part of the time. The return-load bureaus list these
trucks and can place them at the service of the shippers on short

There may be many transportation problems confronting shippers,
especially during the winter period, when it is difficult for the
railroads to operate at maximum efficiency due to weather conditions.
There is, however, no period in the year when the judicious use of the
highways can not be of service both to the country and its shippers.
It is suggested that a contact be made with the traffic manager of the
local return-load bureau and the possibilities of this type of
transportation studied. Preparedness is proportionately of as much
benefit to the individual as to the Nation, and if consideration is
now given by the shippers to the few problems that may be confronting
them in connection with highway transportation, they will be in a
position to profit by this form of transportation when the needs

It is the purpose of the Highways Transport Committee to bring about
as quickly as possible an organization of return-load bureaus in all
States where it will be beneficial to establish reciprocal relations.
In the meantime shipments can be made over those routes which have
been designated for highway transportation. Motor trucks are a part of
the transportation equipment of every community, and to increase their
transport capacity they should operate continuously under full loads
as far as possible. This is also in the interests of conservation, in
that they do not "wear the road without the load," and effect a saving
of the equipment and incidental supplies. Shippers can be of
considerable assistance in making efficient this war-time measure by
cooperating with the return-load bureaus. Shippers are urged to give
as much advance notice as possible, so that the bureaus may notify
those in other cities in time to arrange for loads for motor trucks on
return trips.

Since transportation problems have greatly multiplied, due to the
demands made upon the railways, waterways, etc., the one source left
open for quick expansion is the highway. Manufacturers, merchants, and
others interested in the shipment of materials and supplies of all
kinds should give this form of transportation careful consideration
and encourage the work of return-load bureaus. Shippers should realize
the vital importance of patronizing these bureaus, which are so
unselfishly rendering a great service, as the expenses of each bureau
are cared for by the local community or organization where the bureau
is located.

In many cases highway transportation costs less than rail express
rates, while in some cases it is slightly in excess, but, regardless
of rates, highway transportation is a war-time measure. Shippers
derive great benefits from the quick movement of merchandise by rail
over long distances, due to the relief the railroads receive as the
result of short hauls being taken care of by motor trucks. Shippers
thus directly assist in the solution of their own transportation
problems by using the highways.

       *       *       *       *       *

We are always interested in receiving suggestions regarding the
operation of return-load bureaus, or suggested need for such a bureau
where one is not already to be found. These communications should
properly be directed to the highways transport committee of the State
council of defense, or to the Highways Transport Committee, Council of
National Defense, 944 Munsey Building, Washington, D.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

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