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´╗┐Title: Return-Loads Bureaus To Save Waste In Transportation
Author: United States. Council of National Defense. Highway Transport Committee
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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APRIL 2, 1918                                           BULLETIN NO. 1

RETURN-LOADS BUREAUS
TO SAVE WASTE IN TRANSPORTATION

HIGHWAYS TRANSPORT COMMITTEE
COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE
WASHINGTON, D. C.

RESOLUTION PASSED BY THE COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE.

_"The Council of National Defense approves the widest possible use of
the motor truck as a transportation agency, and requests the State
Councils of Defense and other State authorities to take all necessary
steps to facilitate such means of transportation, removing any
regulations that tend to restrict and discourage such use."_

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1918



COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE.
HIGHWAYS TRANSPORT COMMITTEE.
WASHINGTON, D. C.



RETURN-LOAD BUREAUS TO SAVE WASTE IN TRANSPORTATION.


RELIEF FROM RAILROAD DELAYS AND EMBARGOES.

Through the cooperation of State Councils of Defense, Chambers of
Commerce, local War Boards, and Motor Clubs, the Council of National
Defense, through its Highways Transport Committee and its State Councils
Section is building up a system for more efficient utilization of the
highways of the country as a means of affording merchants and
manufacturers relief from railroad embargoes and delays due to freight
congestion.

This system already is in successful operation in Connecticut and is
being extended throughout the country.

The purpose is to take some of the burden of the short haul off the
railroads and put it on motor trucks operating over the highways. Very
considerable quantities of merchandise and materials of all kinds are
now being carried by trucks operated by private concerns in their own
businesses and by motor express and haulage companies. In a majority of
cases, however, these trucks, after delivering a load, return empty,
whereas there are shippers who would be glad to avail themselves of the
opportunity to send a load back on such a truck to its home town if they
knew it was going back empty. On the other hand, the truck owner would
be equally glad to secure a return load because the charge made for
hauling it would reduce his own haulage cost.

To bring the shipper and truck owner together serves the interests of
both. It doubles the efficiency of the motor truck, enables business men
to make prompt shipments or secure deliveries in a day instead of
several, relieves the railroads of much short-haul freight, and thereby
releases cars for necessary long-distance haulage of munitions,
equipment, and other supplies for our Army in France, and for
foodstuffs, fuel, etc., for the civilian population at home.


CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE BRING SHIPPER AND TRUCK OWNER TOGETHER.

The logical agency for bringing the two interests together is the local
business men's organization in each locality--the Chamber of Commerce,
Board of Trade, or by whatever name it is known. They are in direct
touch with the manufacturers and merchants in their respective
communities, they know the present difficulties of shipping and they
have the facilities for most quickly and systematically putting the
shipper in touch with the man who has the facility for haulage.

The method of doing this is by the establishment of a Return-Loads
Bureau--an information department that acts as a clearing house for this
particular purpose. Once initiated, the work of such a bureau can, in
most cities, be carried on by a single employee of the Chamber, probably
in addition to his other duties. If necessary or desirable, a small
charge can be made to the truck owner or the shipper for the service to
cover whatever expense may be involved in starting and maintaining the
bureau. But the plan affords an opportunity to be of such additional
service to members of the organization and to business interests of the
city generally that the increased support which may be gained through it
should offset the cost incurred. Apart from this is the opportunity it
presents to be of patriotic service to our country by increasing its
transportation facilities at a time when the safety of the Nation
depends absolutely upon transportation.

Shortage of railroad cars and locomotives created a shortage of coal
during the winter. Lack of coal slowed down production of steel, which
in turn delayed ship construction. Insufficient coal for bunkering ships
created a critical congestion of freight in Atlantic port terminals and
in railroad yards hundreds of miles inland. A certain part of this
congestion was due to short-haul shipments of freight within cities and
originating in near-by points, 10, 20, or 50 miles from the cities. Much
of this short-haul freight can be carried on the highways by motor
trucks. It can be picked up at the door of the shipper and delivered at
the door of the consignee, entailing only two handlings. It can be
delivered the same day it is shipped, whereas the same shipment by rail
would require several days if not a week or more. And the shipment can
go forward by motor when a rail freight and express embargo precludes
shipment by rail at all.


DEPENDABILITY OF MOTOR-TRUCK HAULAGE PROVEN.

The practicability and dependability of motor-truck haulage not only
within cities but between neighboring cities have been demonstrated
fully. Hundreds of local and intercity motor express lines are in
successful operation in widely scattered sections of the country. The
Return-Load Bureau system has been installed in England, where it is now
considered unpatriotic to run a truck without a load. Manchester,
England, for example, and all the surrounding cities have their
Return-Load Bureaus and have reciprocal arrangements whereby they
exchange information regarding available trucks and loads. Consequently,
any Chamber of Commerce in a city whose merchants are adversely affected
by rail embargoes and delays, freight congestion, or lack of sufficient
and direct rail transportation, and where there is any considerable
number of motor trucks, will not be embarking upon a doubtful experiment
in establishing such a bureau.


NO RESPONSIBILITY ASSUMED.

A Return-loads Bureau can be established by a Chamber of Commerce
without creating any legal liability to the shipper or assuming any
other responsibility. The function pure and simple is to advise the
shipper where and when a truck can be obtained to haul his goods and to
advise the truck owner where a load can be obtained. It has been found
in England that very often, when such a relationship has been
established between the shipper and the truck owner, an arrangement is
made between them for regular service, and they do not need to call on
the bureau for further assistance, thus lightening the work to be
performed by the Chamber.

It is left entirely to the shipper and the truck operator to make their
own agreement as to the rate to be paid for haulage, liability of the
truck owner or driver for safety of the goods in transit, and so forth.
It is expected, however, that the Chamber of Commerce will exercise
reasonable judgment and precaution, inquiring into the reliability of
truck drivers and endeavoring to correct any abuses that may arise.


HOW TO START A RETURN-LOADS BUREAU.

No difficulty and no great amount of work are involved in establishing a
Return-Loads Bureau. All that is necessary is to follow the example of
Connecticut where through the initiative of the State Council of
Defense, Return-Loads Bureaus have been established in 15 cities. The
Council addressed letters to the Chambers of Commerce, inviting their
cooperation in the movement. Return post cards were printed and mailed
to motor-truck owners in the different cities. On the reverse side of
the cards was a brief questionnaire to be filled out by the truck owner
stating whether or not he would carry "back loads" for reasonable
compensation, whether he would rent his truck at full capacity or
partial capacity, number of trucks owned, number of hours a day or days
a week the truck would be available under the return-loads plan, its
capacity in tons, etc. As these reply cards came back, they were filed
in a 3 by 5 card index drawer, arranged by cities and by routes out of
the respective cities. It developed from this canvass that there were in
the 15 cities more than 700 trucks of 1-ton capacity or more available
for such service and that they operated over 49 main routes.

Names and addresses of truck owners may be obtained from the automobile
registration bureau in the office of the secretary of state or the
commissioner of motor vehicles, as the case may be.


DUPLICATE RECORDS IN NEIGHBORING CITIES.

Duplicates of this master file were furnished by the State Council of
Defense in Connecticut to the Chamber of Commerce in each of the 15
cities, together with a map showing the location of each Return-Loads
Bureau and all of the truck routes, numbered serially. Thus, the head of
the bureau in each city knows just what trucks are available in the
other cities and the routes over which they operate.

It is desirable that the State Council of Defense, where one exists,
should indorse this movement, but it is not necessary that the Chamber
of Commerce in any city should wait for it to do so. It is perfectly
feasible for the Chamber to initiate the work itself in its own
community and then propose to similar chambers in neighboring cities to
do likewise and establish an exchange of information.

Having ascertained what trucks are available for hauling, the next move
is for the Return-Loads Bureau to circularize the merchants,
manufacturers, and other business enterprises in the community, advising
them of the establishment of the bureau and asking them to report to it
whenever they have any goods or materials which they wish to have
hauled, either within the city or to near-by cities or villages. These
reports may be made by telephone or on postal cards. Blank cards of a
size (as 3 by 5 inches) suitable for filing may be supplied to shippers
in quantity by the bureau for the purpose.


LIST RETURN-LOADS BUREAU IN TELEPHONE DIRECTORY.

The telephone company should be asked to list the Return-Loads Bureau
under the title "Return Loads" in the local directory and truck owners
and shippers be notified that by calling "Return Loads" or the telephone
number of the bureau they can learn where a load may be obtained to
carry back to the city from which the truck brought a load or where a
truck can be obtained to carry the goods the shipper desires delivered.

Publicity should be given in all the local newspapers and in those of
neighboring cities of the establishment of the bureau, so that all
interests may immediately begin making use of the facilities afforded.

It will be found that there are two classes of business to be handled by
the bureau--regular and irregular. In many cities there are motor
express lines operating on daily schedule over regular routes and there
are shippers who have regular shipments to make. Having brought these
together once, further service of the bureau will be unnecessary so far
as these particular parties are concerned. Then there are many
companies, firms or individuals that own trucks which they use only in
their own business but which stand idle part of the time or which from
time to time deliver a load in a neighboring city and return home empty.
There are also shippers who have depended on the railroad but in
emergency wish to make a quick shipment. It will be necessary to keep a
daily record of these and cross off the truck or the shipment as soon as
it is learned that the truck has gone back to its home city and is no
longer available or the shipment has been completed.


INTERCHANGE INFORMATION ON IRREGULAR WORK.

A system of daily interchange of information regarding this irregular
service should be arranged with bureaus in other cities, so that a truck
operator in Hartford, for example, who has a load to haul to New Haven
can learn from the bureau in Hartford before starting where and on what
day or at what time he can secure a load in New Haven to take back to
Hartford. He may find that by delaying his own shipment a day or by
making it a day earlier he can get a return load, whereas otherwise he
might have to return light. Shippers, therefore, should be urged to give
as much advance notice as possible of shipments they wish to make.

Within a short time this system will extend to long distances. Recently
a company in New York called up the Chamber of Commerce (before any
Return-Loads Bureau was established there) and stated it intended to
send a motor truck to Vermont to bring back some machinery and wanted to
know where a load could be secured to take to Vermont or at least a
considerable part of the way. Another company called up and said it had
a truck coming from Philadelphia with a load and wanted to get a load
going back. Motor express lines are already operating on daily schedule
between New York and Philadelphia, between Hartford and New York, and
between Boston and Hartford.

It is the purpose of the Highways Transport Committee to bring about,
just as quickly as possible, the organization of Return-Loads Bureaus in
all the cities where it will be beneficial and to establish reciprocal
relations among them on the plan of the Connecticut system.


SECURE COOPERATION OF MOTOR-TRUCK DEALERS.

Motor-truck dealers can be of great assistance to the Chambers of
Commerce in promoting this movement and in helping to get the bureaus
started. They are in direct touch with truck owners, know the routes
over which trucks are operated, condition of the roads, railroad
shipping difficulties, etc. It is recommended that the Chambers of
Commerce call on them to appoint a representative committee from among
them to cooperate with it. They can furnish a great deal of useful
information and will be a valuable factor in disseminating information
regarding the work of the bureau and making it 100 per cent useful.



(Copy of a bulletin is reprinted below, which was issued to its members
by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Riggs Building,
Washington, D. C.)

MOTOR-TRUCK TRANSPORTATION.

RETURN-LOAD BUREAU.


The motor truck is a part of the transportation equipment in every
community. Its use more nearly to capacity will help solve local
problems.

More complete use means loads both ways. A motor truck usually carries a
good load to its destination, whether the destination is in the same
community or in another city. Too often, however, the truck makes the
return trip with no load. Every time this occurs there is waste of at
least half the capacity of a truck to do work in transportation.

Owners of trucks do not wish half the earning power of their vehicles to
be lost. Manufacturers and merchants with goods piled up and awaiting
shipment do not like to see empty trucks pass their doors. Both need a
local clearing house for information about the trucks that are available
and the shipments that are ready--i. e., to bring together loads and
empty trucks.

Such a clearing house the local commercial organization can easily
provide. It will not ordinarily entail any special expense. It will
promote cooperation in the community. It will render a very real service
for which business men will be thoroughly grateful.

Return-Load Bureau is a convenient name for a clearing house. The bureau
should ascertain the established lines of trucks that run regularly on
fixed routes and the part of their capacity that is not being utilized.
It should then obtain information from all owners of trucks used for
private hauling, getting statements about the capacity of each truck,
how far its capacity is used, between what points the capacity is
unused, if the unused capacity can be made available for other persons
at a reasonable price, etc. Besides gathering this information the
bureau can make known to everyone that whenever a truck is to make a
trip without a load the bureau will respond to a telephone inquiry by
endeavoring to give the name of a person who wants to send a load over
the route in question. Efforts can be made also to have drivers who
bring loads by truck from other points telephone to the bureau in order
to get return loads.

At the same time the bureau can enlist the cooperation of business men
who may have shipments to make.

In order that any driver or other person from out of town may quickly
ascertain if there is a return load for him, each bureau should be
specially listed in the telephone directory.

With incidental questions the bureau will not usually need to deal. For
example, it can leave the compensation that is to be paid to negotiation
between the parties.

In England Return-Load Bureaus have proved of great assistance. They
have been most developed in the United States by commercial
organizations in Connecticut. Experience has demonstrated that the
assistance they can render is very real and important, and that they can
be organized advantageously in many communities where they have not as
yet been tried.





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