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Title: Catalogue of the William Loring Andrews Collection of Early Books in the Library of Yale University
Author: Van Name, Addison
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Catalogue of the William Loring Andrews Collection of Early Books in the Library of Yale University" ***

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(http://www.archive.org/details/toronto), Jason Isbell,

Transcriber's Note: Inconsistencies in hyphenation and spelling found in
the original book have been retained in this version. A list of these
inconsistencies is found at the end of the text.



                   OF THE



                   IN THE


              [Printer's Seal]


              COPYRIGHT, 1913

Printed from type October, 1913. 300 copies


The collection of early printed books presented to the Library of Yale
University in 1894 by Mr. William Loring Andrews, of New York, was
formed to illustrate the first century of printing, which is a better
boundary for the survey than the half-century ending with the year 1500,
more often chosen. The latter, the so-styled cradle period of the art,
is wanting in real definition, being at most a convenient halting place,
not a completed stage, whereas at the middle of the sixteenth century
the printed book of the better class had acquired most of its maturer
features and no longer has for us an unfamiliar look. Designed to serve
as a permanent exhibition, it is a selection rather than a collection,
not large, but wisely chosen, and no less attractive than instructive,
having been formed a quarter of a century ago, at a time when
opportunities were unusually favorable.

The surviving books of the first presses, which are the chief sources of
our knowledge of the early art, are at the same time, when obtainable,
the most efficient teachers. For the illustration of the typography, the
feature of first importance, there is nothing comparable to the open
pages of a representative series of the original books, such as are here
spread out before us. The best of the available substitutes, phototype
reproductions of specimen pages, apart from other limitations, must
always lack the authority and the impressiveness of the originals.

While it is the main office of the present collection to set before the
students of the University as a whole the more general features of the
art of the early printer, a further service which it is prepared to
render must not be overlooked. To such as are prompted to go into the
subject more deeply it offers an excellent body of the original
material upon which any serious study must of necessity be based.

The two fine fifteenth century MSS. at the head of the collection, far
from serving a merely ornamental purpose, like their own illuminated
initials for example, are a needful introduction. It is obvious that
from such sources the first printers got the models of their types, and
the MSS. in which Jenson found the prototypes of his famous roman
characters, which in the judgment of some are still unsurpassed, could
not have been very remote from these. Some of the more striking features
which distinguish the early printed books from the later were not
original with them, but only survivals from the MSS. The abbreviations
and contractions in which both abound were the labor-saving devices of
the copyists, adopted without hesitation by the printers who used the
MSS. as copy and only slowly abandoned. The copyist left spaces in his
MS. for initials to be supplied by the illuminator, without which his
work was not considered complete, and for about a hundred years the
printer continued to do the same. If the copyist saw fit to attach his
name to his work, we look for it at the end of the volume and there also
the printer placed his colophon. Signatures and catchwords, to guide the
binder in the arrangement of the sheets, did not come in with the
printed book, but had long been in use in the MSS.

Although out of the hundreds of presses active during the first century
only a score are here represented, leaving wide gaps in the series, it
is better, because more nearly in the natural line of development, that
the books should be ranged under the country, the locality and the press
to which they severally belong, than that they should be kept in strict
chronological order. A general chronological order underlies the
geographical even where it does not come to the surface. By right of
seniority Germany stands at the head, and Mainz, the birthplace of
printing, is followed by the other German towns in the order of their
press age. Next come the presses of Italy, France, Holland and England,
arranged in like order. To prevent, however, too wide a departure from
the chronological succession which would result from the strict
application of this rule, the later, i.e., the sixteenth century, Venice
and Paris books are separated from the earlier and transferred to the
end of the list, where in point of development they properly belong.
Placed in the order thus indicated, the books, as befits so small a
total, are numbered consecutively in one series. The conspectus, which
brings into one view the titles, dates, places and printers' names, will
serve also as a sufficient index.

While we are here most concerned with the genealogy and family history
of the books, or in other words with their press relationships, the
personal history attaching to them--_habent sua fata libelli_--is not
without interest. The Zeno MS. and the Philo, printed on vellum, are the
dedication copies, not merely set apart, but specially prepared for this
use. In a few of the volumes are found the names or the arms of early
owners. The Livy MS. and one-half of the printed books are from the
library, dispersed in 1886, of Michael Wodhull (1740-1816) of Thenford,
Northamptonshire, the first translator into English verse of all the
extant works of Euripides, the most assiduous and painstaking and in
some departments of bibliography the best equipped among the book
collectors of his day. It was his custom (well illustrated in the
present collection) to enter on the fly-leaf of each purchase the source
and the cost, adding as a separate item the binding, often by Roger
Payne, and to affix his name and the date. His _visé_ "Collat: &
complet:" is seldom wanting and often bibliographical notes and
references to authorities are added. Justinian's _Novellae_, printed by
Schoeffer, and all the Aldine press books save one are from the library
gathered at Syston Park, Lincolnshire, by Sir John Thorold and his son,
Sir John Hayford Thorold, between 1775 and 1831 and sold in 1884.

One valued mark of ownership, common to all the volumes, is the _ex
libris_ of the lover of choice books who united them in one family, not
again to be separated, and gave them into the keeping of the University

The accompanying list of Authorities, as will be apparent, is intended
to supply merely the details necessary to complete the references of the

Acknowledgments are due from the compiler to his associates in the
Library and the University for assistance in the catalogue.

ADDISON VAN NAME, _Librarian Emeritus_.

Yale University Library, September, 1913.


Ames, J. Typographical antiquities, or, History of printing in
    England, Scotland and Ireland, enlarged by T.F. Dibdin. 4 v. 4^o.
    Lond., 1810-19.

Blades, W. The life and typography of William Caxton. 2 v. 4^o. Lond.,

British Museum. Catalogue of books printed in the XVth century now in
    the British Museum. Pt. i, ii. 4^o. Lond., 1908-12.

Brown, H.F. The Venetian printing press. 4^o. N.Y. and Lond., 1891.

Brunet, J.C. Manuel du libraire. 5^e éd. 6 v. 8^o. Paris, 1860-5.

Burger, K. Deutsche und italienische Inkunabeln. Lief. i-ix. f^o.
    Berlin, 1892-1912.

Campbell, M.F.A.G. Annales de l'imprimerie néerlandaise au XV^e siècle.
    8^o. La Haye, 1874-90.

Claudin, A. The first Paris press: an account of the books printed for
    G. Fichet and J. Heynlin in the Sorbonne 1470-72. [Bibl. Soc.
    Illust. Monogr. vi.] 4^o. Lond., 1897.

Copinger, W.A. Incunabula Biblica. 4^o. Lond., 1892.

---- Supplement to Hain's Repertorium bibliographicum. 2 pt. in 3 v.
    8^o. Lond., 1895-1902.

Crevenna, P.A. Bolongaro. Catalogue des livres de la bibliothèque de M.
    Pierre-Antoine Bolongaro-Crevenna. 5 v. 8^o. Amsterdam, 1789.

De Vinne, T.L. Notable printers of Italy during the fifteenth century.
    4^o. New York, 1910.

Didot, A. Firmin. Alde Manuce et l'Hellénisme à Venise. 8^o. Paris,

Duff, E. Gordon. A century of the English book trade. 4^o. Lond., 1905.

---- Hand-lists of English printers 1501-1556. Pt. i, ii. 4^o. Lond.,

Hain, L. Repertorium bibliographicum. 2 v. in 4 pt. 8^o. Stuttgart,

Le Long, J. Bibliotheca sacra, continuata ab A.G. Masch. 2 pt. in 5 v.
    4^o. Halae, 1778-90.

Morgan, J. Pierpont. Catalogue of manuscripts and early printed books
    now forming a portion of the library of J. Pierpont Morgan. 3 v.
    f^o. Lond., 1907.

Panzer, G.W. Annales typographici ab artis inventae origine ad annum
    MDXXXVI. 11 v. 4^o. Norimbergae, 1793-1803.

Pellechet, M. Catalogue général des incunables des bibliothèques
    publiques de France. T. i-iii. 8^o. Paris, 1897-1909.

Philippe, J. Origine de l'imprimerie à Paris. 8^o. Paris, 1885.

Pollard, A.W. An essay on colophons. [Caxton Club]. 4^o. Chicago, 1905.

Proctor, R. An index to the early printed books in the British Museum.
    8^o. Lond., 1898.

---- The printing of Greek in the fifteenth century. [Bibl. Soc. Illust.
    Monogr. viii]. 4^o. Lond., 1900.

Quaritch, B., _ed._ Contributions toward a dictionary of English
    book-collectors. Pt. i-xiii. 8^o. Lond., 1892-9.

Renouard, A.A. Annales de l'imprimerie des Alde. 3^e éd. 8^o. Paris,

---- Annales de l'imprimerie des Estienne. 2^e éd. 8^o. Paris, 1843.

Ricci, Seymour de. Catalogue raisonné des premières impressions de
    Mayence (1445-1467). [Veröff. der Gutenberg-Gesellseh. viii-ix].
    4^o. Mainz, 1911.

---- A census of Caxtons. [Bibl. Soc. Illust. Monogr. xvi]. 4^o. Lond.,




 1. ZENO. Vita Caroli Zeni                                                  1
 2. LIVIUS. Historiarum libri I-X                                           3


 1. BIBLIA LATINA               Mainz        J. Fust & P.           1462   5
 2. JUSTINIANUS. Novellae          "         P. Schoeffer           1477   6
 3. ISIDORUS. Etymologiae       [Strassburg] [J. Mentelin]      [c. 1473]  8
 4. GESTA ROMANORUM             [Cologne]    [U. Zell]          [c. 1473] 10
 5. GREGORIUS I. Homiliae       [Augsburg]   [G. Zainer]            1473  11
 6. PSALTERIUM LATINUM             "              "             [c. 1473] 12
 7. MODUS perveniendi ad
      sapientiam                   "              "             [c. 1473] 13
 8. HUGO. De arrha animae          "              "                 1473  13
      poenitentia               Venice       Wendelin of Speier     1472  14
10. VALLA. Elegantiae linguae
      Latinae                      "         N. Jenson              1471  15
11. PLINIUS. Naturalis historia    "              "                 1472  17
      compendiosa doctrina         "              "                 1476  19
13. DULLAERT. Quaestiones super              F. Renner & Nicolas
      Aristotelem de anima         "            of Frankf.          1473  21
14. ARISTOTELES. De animalibus     "         John of Cologne &
                                                J. Manthen          1476  22
15. UBERTINUS. Arbor vitae
      crucifixae Jesu              "         A. de Bonetis          1485  23
16. ALBERTIS. De amoris
      remedio                   [Florence]                          1471  24
17. AESOPUS. Vita et fabulae    [Milan]      Bonus Accursius    [c. 1480] 26
18. OVIDIUS. Metamorphoses      Parma        A. Portilia            1480  28
19. PIUS II. De duobus          [Paris]      [Friburger, Gering
      amantibus                                 & Crantz]          [1472] 28
20. PIUS II. De curialium
      miseria                      "              "                [1472] 29
21. PLATO. Epistolae               "              "                [1472] 30
22. MAGNI. Sophologium             "         Crantz, Gering &       1477  32
23. HIERONYMUS. Vaderboeck      [Zwolle]     P. van Os              1490  33
24. HIGDEN. Polychronicon       Westminster  W. Caxton             [1482] 34
25. ORDINARY of Christians      London       W. de Worde            1506  38
26. INTRATIONES                    "         R. Pynson              1510  40
27. PLUTARCHUS. Moralia         Venice       Aldus Manutius         1509  41
28. SCRIPTORES rei rusticae        "              "                 1514  43
29. CICERO. Rhetorica              "         Andrea d'Asola         1521  45
30. CELSUS. De medicina            "              "                 1528  47
31. CICERO. Epistolae ad
      Atticum                      "         Aldi filii             1540  47
32. CICERO. Orationes              "              "                 1546  49
33. PTOLEMAEUS. Planisphaerium     "         Paulus Manutius        1558  50
34. LIVIUS. Historiae Romanae      "              "                 1572  51
35. BIBLIA LATINA                Paris       Vidua Th. Kerver       1549  52
36. PHILO. De divinis decem        "         C. Stephanus           1554  55


1. ZENO, JACOPO. Vitæ, morum, rerumque gestarum Caroli Zeni libri X.

Fine white vellum, 192 leaves, in 19 quires of ten leaves each and two
additional leaves at the end, the last of which is blank. Signed on the
lower inner angle of the last page of each quire by a letter (A-T) which
is repeated at the point directly facing it on the first page of the next
quire. Leaves four to seven of the first quire and all of quires three to
eight, a total of sixty-four leaves, have 28 lines to the page, the rest
27 lines. Ruled on one side only with a hard point. Leaf 10-1/2 × 7 in.,
text-page 7 × 3-3/4 in.

Written in regular Italian minuscules of the 15th century, formed on the
models of the 11th and 12th centuries.

The subject of the memoir is the distinguished Venetian Admiral Carlo
Zeno (1334-1418), brother of Nicolo and Antonio, reputed discoverers of
America. His biographer, Jacopo Zeno (1417-1481), Bishop of Feltre and
Belluno, and later of Padua, was his grandson. The work is dedicated to
Pius II. in honor of his recent elevation to the papal throne, and since
this is evidently the dedication copy, the accession of Enea Silvio
Piccolomini in August, 1458, fixes approximately the date of the MS. In
April, 1460, Jacopo Zeno was translated to the see of Padua.

The execution and the decoration of the MS. are in keeping with its
special use. The gratulatory preface occupying ten pages is introduced
by the following heading in letters of burnished gold:

ANTISTITIS PRAEFATIO: [G]LORIOSA.... The ornamentation of the ten-line
illuminated initial G is of the interlaced style, and a border of
similar pattern surrounds the entire page, enclosing on the front margin
vignettes--a vase, two rabbits and a stork--and at the foot the
Piccolomini arms, supported by kneeling angels and surmounted by the
papal keys and tiara. Each of the ten books has a heading in burnished
gold in which the dedication to Pius II. is repeated, and an initial of
like character to that of the preface, with a marginal ornament. The
occasional marginal subject-headings and the book-number at the top of
each leaf are likewise in gold.

The Latin text has thus far been printed only in Muratori's Rerum
Italicarum Scriptores (of which a new edition is now in progress), vol.
xix, Milan, 1731, from a MS. then, and still, preserved in the library
of the Episcopal Seminary at Padua. This MS., the only one which he was
able to discover, Muratori describes in the following language: "Codex
autem Patavinus quamquam pervetustus a non satis docto Librario
profectus est ac proinde occurrunt ibi quaedam parum castigata, quaedam
etiam plane vitiata. Mutilus praeterea est in fine, ubi non multa quidem
sed tamen aliqua desiderantur." Muratori's text breaks off in the middle
of a sentence at the end of the nineteenth (i.e. the last full) quire of
our MS., and accordingly lacks only the seventeen lines contained on the
next leaf, which is the last. If, as seems quite possible, the quiring
of the two MSS. is the same, the loss of the single unprotected leaf at
the end is the more readily explained.

In 1591 there was published at Bergamo an abridged Italian version, made
from an illuminated MS. which had once belonged to the famous library of
Matthias Corvinus, but was then in the possession of Caterino Zeno,
governor of Bergamo. It had been among the spoils carried to
Constantinople after the capture of Buda by the Turks in 1526. There,
seven years later, it had been bought and carried back to Italy by
Caterino's father, the younger Nicolo, who, in 1558, first gave to the
world the narrative of his ancestors' voyages. For no better reasons
than that the Paduan MS. also was illuminated in gold and colors, and
that it had been bought twenty-five years before (c. 1700) in Venice
where this branch of the Zeno family had become extinct, Muratori was
inclined to identify it with the Corvinus MS. The relations between Pius
II. and the king of Hungary, who was his ally in the proposed crusade
against the Turks upon which he was just embarking when overtaken by
death, and to whom the 48,000 ducats which he left behind him were sent
in aid of the prosecution of war, suggest another possibility. It may be
safely assumed that between the present MS., given only an opportunity
to acquire it, and any other copy the king's choice could not have

The MS. is in 18th-century Italian binding, red morocco, gilt edges.
Sold with other MSS. from the library of the Trivulzio family of Milan
at Leavitt's auction, New York City, November, 1886.

2. LIVIUS, TITUS. Historiarum Romanarum libri I-X. Late 15th century.

Vellum. 336 leaves, the last blank. 34 quires all having ten leaves,
except the 17th and 34th which have eight each. 31 lines to the page;
catchword placed at right angles with the last line of the quire; ruled
on both sides with plummet. Leaf 14-1/2 × 10 in., text-page 9 × 6 in.

Written in very regular, bold Italian minuscules of the period of the

The first page of the preface is surrounded by an illuminated border in
gold and colors in the Renaissance style of ornament, into which are
introduced the Caraccioli arms belonging to the distinguished Neapolitan
family of that name. The initial F on this page is historiated with a
view of Rome, and each of the ten books has an eight-line initial of
dull gold on a background of red, blue and green, with marginal

From the close agreement, even in punctuation, between this MS. and the
edition printed at Milan in 1495 by Ulrich Scinzenzeler for Alexander
Minutianus, and from other features which forbid the supposition that
one is taken directly from the other, we must conclude that they both
reproduce a common ancestor.

This MS. of the first Decade of Livy is in unusually fine preservation,
and is bound in russia extra, with broad borders of gold and gilt
marbled edges.

Brought from Palermo by Dr. Anthony Askew (1722-1772), it was sold with
his collection of MSS. in 1785. Michael Wodhull, Esq., of Thenford,
Northamptonshire, who gave seven guineas for the volume at "White's
sale" in March, 1798, added to his customary entry of these details on
the fly-leaf this note: "This appears to be the very Book which I saw
Sir W. Burrell purchase at Dr. Askew's manuscript Auction (No. 482) for
thirty-two guineas; in Sir W. Burrell's Auction, May, 1796, it is said
to have gone for about five (No. 657). The note in _Bib. Askev.
manuscripta_ is: 'Ex Panormo in Sicilia hunc cod. adduxit secum Cl.
Askevius.' & '300 annor. MSS. longe pulcherrimus.'"

At the sale of the Wodhull library in January, 1886, the Livy MS. and
the greater part of the 15th-century books hereinafter described were
acquired by the donor of the collection, William Loring Andrews, M.A.,
of New York City.


1. BIBLIA LATINA. Moguntiae, Johannes Fust et Petrus Schoeffer, 14
    August, 1462.

[Folio. 481 leaves, 2 columns, 48 lines to the column, gothic letter,
without signatures, catchwords or pagination.]

Leaves 204, 205 containing Judith xiv. 17--Esther iv. 4.

     _Fol. 204^b, col. 1_ (red): expl_icit_ liber iudith secundu_m_
     ieronimu_m_. Incipit p_r_ologus in libru_m_ hester. _Col. 2_ (red):
     Explicit p_r_olog_us_. Incip. liber hester. Hain *3050. Pellechet
     2281. Copinger 4. Brit. Mus. 15th cent., I, p. 22. Burger pl. 74.
     De Ricci 79.

Five-line initial of prologue and fourteen-line initial I of Esther i. 1
supplied in colors. Heading of leaf in alternate red and blue capitals.
Initial-strokes in red on text capitals. Measurement 16-1/4 × 11-1/2 in.

The fourth printed Bible, and the first in which place, printers' names
and date are given. These details, which are wanting in so many of the
books of the early printers, Fust and Schoeffer--and Schoeffer when he
carried on the business alone--rarely failed to add to anything large
enough to be called a book that came from their press. This is their
fifth book and the colophon attached to the first, the famous Psalter of
1457, was repeated in them all, with no essential change beyond the
date, and continued to do duty for ten years longer. In the present
Bible among the typographical differences found in the copies are three
varieties of the colophon, two of which however are identical in
language and differ only in the printers' use of contractions and
capitals. The more common of the forms affirms that: "This present work
by the ingenious invention of printing or stamping letters without any
scratching of the pen has been thus fashioned in the city of Mainz and
to the worship of God has been diligently brought to completion by
Johann Fust citizen and Peter Schoeffer clerk of the same diocese in the
year of the Lord 1462, on the eve of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary."

In Seymour de Ricci's "Catalogue raisonné des premières impressions de
Mayence (1445-1467)," Mainz, 1911, 61 known copies of this Bible, 36 of
them on vellum, are enumerated and 41 copies which cannot now be traced.
The fragment in our possession is entered (No. 115) as one leaf only,
instead of two.

The second dated Bible, the eleventh in the series of printed Bibles,
was that of Sweynheym and Pannartz, Rome, 1471; the third was a reprint
by Schoeffer in 1472 of the present edition, page for page, line for
line and in the same type.

2. JUSTINIANUS. Novellae constitutiones, sive Authenticum. Consuetudines
    feudorum. Codicis libri X-XII. Moguntiae, Petrus Schoeffer, 21
    August, 1477.

_Fol. 1^a._ [Text (red)]: In no_m_i_n_e d_omi_ni n_ost_ri ih_es_u
chr_ist_i. de heredib_us_ et falcidia _con_st_ituti_o prima si heres
legata soluere noluerit Incipit co_n_stitutio Imp_er_atoris Iustiniani.
a. Ioha_n_ni p_a_pe secu_n_do. [Commentary]: [I]N nomine d_omi_ni.
Iustinianus opus suu_m_ laudabile deo attribuit. _Fol. 169^b._ Explicit
liber aute_n_ticor_um_. _Fol. 170^a._ [Text (red)]: Incipiu_n_t
_con_suetudines feudor_um_. _Fol. 206^a._ [Text (red)]: Codicis d_omi_ni
iustiniani sacratissimi principis perpetui augusti repetite
p_re_lectionis incipit liber decimus. _Fol. 300^b_, COLOPHON (red): Anno
incarnac_i_o_n_is d_omi_nice .M.cccc.lxxvii. xii. kale_n_dis septembrijs!
Sanctissimo in chr_ist_o patre ac d_omi_no, d_omi_no Sixto p_a_pa .iiii.
po_n_tifice maximo. Illustrissimo noblissime domus austrie d_omi_no,
d_omi_no Friderico Romanorum Imp_er_atore inuictissimo, monarchie
chr_is_tiane d_omi_nis! Reuerendissimo deoq_ue_ amabili in Chr_ist_o
p_at_re ac d_omi_no, d_omi_no Diethero archip_re_sule Maguntino; in
ciuitate Maguncia impressorie artis inue_n_trice atq_ue_ elimatrice
p_ri_ma .x. collac_i_onu_m_ triu_m_q_ue_ libroru_m_ Codicu_m_ opus
egregiu_m_, Petrus Schoiffer de Gernsheim, glorioso faue_n_te deo suis
consignando scutis, feliciter finiuit. [PRINTER'S DEVICE in red.]

     Folio. 1. Novellae: quires [1^{10}, 2^8, 3-6^{10}, 7-8^6, 9^{10},
     10^8, 11-12^{10}, 13^8, 14^{10}, 15^8, 16^6, 17-18^{10}, 19^{10-1}
     (the blank second leaf cut away)], 169 leaves. 2. Consuetudines
     feudorum: quires [1-3^{10}, 4^6], 36 leaves. 3. Codicis libri
     X-XII: quires [1^8, 2^{10}, 3-5^8, 6^{10}, 7^8, 8^4, 9-10^{10},
     11^{10+1} (the additional leaf prefixed)], 95 leaves. In all 300
     leaves, two columns of text and two of commentary, 51 lines of text
     and 66 of commentary to the column, gothic letter, without printed
     signatures, catchwords or pagination. Two- to six-line spaces, some
     with guide-letters, left for capitals. Two pinholes, the use of
     which Schoeffer was thought to have abandoned a little earlier than
     the date of this volume. Titles and colophon printed in red. The
     text type is that of the Bible of 1462. Hain *9623. Brit. Mus. 15th
     cent., I, p. 33 (IC. 217).

The first page of each of the three works is ornamented with a floral
scroll border in colors. At the head of the several books are thirteen
initials in gold and colors. Chapter initials in alternate red and blue;
initial-strokes in red in both text and commentary.

The present volume agrees in contents with the fifth and last volume of
the Corpus juris as it is found arranged in the medieval MSS., except
for the omission of the Institutiones, already sufficiently accessible
in separate editions, of which no less than fifty were printed in the
15th century, the first of them by Schoeffer himself in 1468. The first
three volumes of the Corpus were occupied by the Digests, the fourth by
the Codex lib. i-ix. The last three books of the Codex relate mainly to
public law and having lost much of their importance were transferred to
the fifth volume.

That the order of the three parts in the present copy, viz. 1. Novellae,
2. Consuetudines, 3. Codex lib. x-xii, is that intended by the printer,
is clear both from the position and from the language of the
colophon--the position because the colophon is attached to the Codex,
and the language because it describes the volume as consisting of "the
ten Collations and the three books of the Codes." The Novellae were
usually divided by the commentators into nine Collations, perhaps, as
Savigny suggests, to parallel the first nine books of the Codex.
Sometimes, however, as in the present case, the Consuetudines feudorum
were joined with them and reckoned as a tenth collation. Notwithstanding
these plain indications, in the copy described by Hain *9623, and in the
British Museum copy (as at present, though not as originally, bound),
the Codex x-xii is placed between the Novellae and the Consuetudines,
thus removing the colophon from its natural place at the end of the
volume. In the first edition of these works, printed by Vitus Puecher,
Rome, 1476, they were placed in the order last named, but the colophon
was there attached to the Consuetudines.

After the death of his father-in-law and partner Fust, late in 1466 or
early in 1467, Schoeffer conducted the press alone until his death in
1502. After 1478, however, his activity as a printer was much

The present large and fine copy (leaf 15-3/4 × 11-1/4 in.), with the
manuscript signatures still in part preserved, is from the library of
Sir John Hayford Thorold (1773-1831) of Syston Park, Lincolnshire, sold
in December, 1884. In the Meerman sale at the Hague, 1824, this same
copy, bound as at present in russia gilt, sold for 64 florins.

3. ISIDORUS HISPALENSIS. Etymologiarum libri XX. [Strassburg, Johann
    Mentelin, c. 1473.]

other letters to the same and two replies; tabula generalis.] _Fol. 3^b,
_Fol. 27^b, col. 1_: INCIPIVNT CAPITVLA LIBRI QVARTI. _Fol. 27^b, col.
2_: PREFACIO. [D]Omino et filio syseputo ysidor_us_..... INCIPIT LIBER

     Folio. Quires [1-13^{10}, 14^{12}], 142 leaves, the first blank, 2
     columns, 51 lines to the column, without signatures, catchwords,
     pagination, printer's name, place or date. Gothic lower-case type,
     roman capitals. Book and chapter headings printed wholly in
     majuscules. Large woodcut diagrams. Three-to nine-line spaces left
     for chapter and book initials, also spaces for occasional Greek
     words (mostly left unsupplied) and for small diagrams. Two
     pinholes, which in Mentelin's use point to a date not later than
     1473. Hain *9270. Brit. Mus. 15th cent., I, p. 57 (IC. 586). Burger
     pl. 170.

On the first page large illuminated initial with floral border ornament,
and similar initials at the head of the several books. Chapter initials
supplied in red or blue; initial-strokes in red throughout the volume.
Blank first leaf wanting.

Incorporated with the present edition of the Etymologiae by way of
supplement, though not named in the table of contents, is an earlier
treatise of Isidore's entitled _De natura rerum_, written at the request
of Sisebut, king of the Visigoths, 612-621, and dedicated to him. It
contains the sum of the physical philosophy of his time, and, being
largely astronomical, is sometimes found in the MSS. under the title
_Liber de astronomia_. In order to bring it into immediate connection
with the corresponding section of the Etymologiae, it is placed
immediately after the third book (devoted to the _quadrivium_, the last
division of which is astronomy) and given irregularly the heading "Liber
quartus," the regular _Liber quartus (De medicina)_ beginning twenty
pages later. Two of the 48 chapters of which it is composed are wanting
here, but by the subdivision of other chapters the number is raised to
58. Zainer of Augsburg, the printer of the first edition of the
Etymologiae, dated 19 November, 1472, followed it the next month with an
edition of _De responsione mundi et astrorum ordinatione ad Sesibutum
regem_, which is the work in question under another title. Printed with
the same type and the same number of lines to the page, it was in effect
treated as a supplement to the Etymologiae.

According to the testimony of a fellow printer, de Lignamine, in the
"Chronica summorum Pontificum," Rome, 1474, Mentelin as early as 1458
was printing at Strassburg 300 sheets a day. The third Latin Bible
(1460-1461) and the first German Bible came from his press, but the
first work to which he affixed his name and a date was the _Speculum
historiale_ of Vincent of Beauvais in 1473. He died in 1478.

The Wodhull copy, bought at "Hayes's sale" in 1794 for £5.5s., and bound
in russia gilt, with Wodhull arms on side, by Mrs. Weir for £1.2s. Leaf
15-3/4 × 11 in.

4. GESTA ROMANORUM. [Cologne, Ulrich Zell, c. 1473.]

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2^a_: Ex gestis romanor_um_ hystorie no_ta_biles:
de vitijs v_ir_tutibusq_ue_ tracta_n_tes: cu_m_ applicac_i_onib_us_
moralizatis et misticis: Incipiunt feliciter. _Fol. 160^b, col. 1_,
COLOPHON: Ex gestis ro_ma_no_rum_ cu_m_ plurib_u_s applicatis historijs:
de v_ir_tutib_us_ et vitijs mistice ad intellectum tra_n_ssum_p_tis
Recollectorij finis est feliciter. LAVS. DEO. _Fol. 160^b, col. 2_:
Incipiu_n_t tituli numerorum om_n_i_u_m capitulo_rum_ et exemplo_rum_.
_Fol. 163^a_: Tabula o_mn_i_u_m exe_m_plo_rum_ _et_ capitulo_rum_
op_er_is præcedentis. sec_un_d_u_m ordine_m_ alphabeti. _Fol. 170^a_:
Explicit tabula. _Fol. 170^b, blank._

     Folio. 170 leaves in seventeen quires of ten leaves each, 2
     columns, 36 lines to the column, gothic letter, without signatures,
     catchwords, pagination, place, printer's name or date. Two- to
     five-line spaces left for capitals. One pinhole in side margin,
     others possibly cut away in binding. Hain 7734, Pellechet 5247.
     Brit. Mus. 15th cent., I, p. 196 (IB. 2994).

On fol. 2^a and 163^a five-line initials in blue with graceful pen
decoration in red. Initials of chapters and morals supplied in alternate
red and blue. Paragraph-marks and initial-strokes in red; headings
underlined in red. Blank first leaf wanting.

This edition of the Gesta contains 181 chapters and appears to have been
preceded only by another undated edition printed at Utrecht by Ketelaer
and Leempt, in long lines, with 152 chapters and no index.

Ulrich Zell was the first printer of Cologne. His first dated book was
issued in 1466 and he continued to print quite up to the close of the
fifteenth century. Nearly all his books are, like the present, without
place, date or printer's name. Of the 177 books which he is known to
have printed, the British Museum possesses 123.

The Wodhull copy, bound in russia, gilt edges. Leaf 10-3/4 × 7-1/2 in.
Mem. on fly-leaf: "Pateson's Auction. £5.5s; washing, cleaning, mending
and binding by Roger Payne £1.2s.6d. M. Wodhull, May 25th, 1786."

5. GREGORIUS I. Homiliæ XL super Evangeliis. [Augsburg, Günther Zainer.]
    28 August, 1473.

_Fol. 1^a_: Ordo .xl. omeliaru_m_ beati gregorij pape ad secundinu_m_
episcopum Thauronitaru_m_. _Fol. 1^b_: SEQVITVR EPISTOLA
[R]Euerendissimo et sa_n_ctissimo frati secundino coepiscopo.
Gregori_us_ seruus seruoru_m_ dei. _Fol. 2^a_: EXPLICIT EPISTOLA INCIPIT
EWANGELIVM. S. LVCAM.... Omelia prima beati Gregorij pape. _Fol. 141^b_,
COLOPHON: Adeptus est finis amba_rum_ parciu_m_ omelia_rum_ beatissimi
gregorii pape vrbis rome jn die s_an_cti hermetis sub Anno d_omi_ni M
cccc lxxiij. _Fol. 142^a_: _Table of the homilies in the order of the
liturgical year._

     Folio. Quires [1-13^{10}, 14^{12}], 142 leaves, 33 lines to the
     page, gothic letter, without signatures, catchwords, pagination,
     place or printer's name. Two- and three-line spaces left for
     capitals, which are supplied in red. Paragraph-marks and
     initial-strokes in red. Hain *7948, Pellechet 5366. Brit. Mus. 15th
     cent., II, p. 319 (IB. 5457).

Gregory's Homilies, of which this is the first edition, and the three
next following works bound with it, are from the press of Günther
Zainer, of Reutlingen, the first printer of Augsburg. All are in the
same type, the heavy-faced gothic of his second font, are rubricated by
the same hand, and though two of them are undated, were all evidently
printed at about the same time. He was the first printer in Germany to
make use of roman type, of which the earliest example seems to have been
his "Calendarium pro anno 1472." He died in 1478, ten years after the
appearance of his first dated book.

The Wodhull copy, bound by Roger Payne in russia gilt. Leaf 12 × 8-1/4
in. Mem. on fly-leaf: "Payne's sale. £2.12.6, binding and restoring
17s.6d. These four pieces were taken out of old monastic binding. M.
Wodhull, Jan. 5th, 1795."

6. PSALTERIUM LATINUM. [Augsburg, Günther Zainer, c. 1473.]

_Fol. 1^a_: Prologus beati jeronimi p_re_sbiteri in psalteriu_m_ q_uo_d
ipse de hebraico transtulit in latinu_m_ [E]Vsebius jeronim_us_
soffronio suo salutem. _Fol. 1^b_: Explicit p_ro_logus beati jeronimi.
Incipit psalterium Psalmos dauid primus. _Fol. 51^a_: Canticu_m_ Ysaie
capitulo lxxij (_sic_), _followed by cantica of Hezekiah, Hannah, Moses
(2), Habakkuk_. _Fol. 54^a_, COLOPHON: Explicit tra_ns_lacio
soli_lo_q_ui_oru_m_ siue psalterij beatissimi Ieronimi eusebii
p_resbiteri_ q_uo_d ad peti_ci_one_m_ soffronij tra_n_stulit ut in
ep_isto_la_m_ ante psalteriu_m_ imp_re_ssa p_rae_mittit_ur_ _etc._

     Folio. Quires [1-5^{10}, 6^4], 54 leaves, 33 lines to the page,
     gothic letter, without signatures, catchwords, pagination, place,
     printer's name or date. Two- to four-line spaces left for initials,
     which are supplied in red. Paragraph-marks and initial-strokes in
     red. Hain *13470. Brit. Mus. 15th cent., II, p. 320 (IB. 5560).

Jerome's final translations of the Old Testament books direct from the
Hebrew were all adopted into the received Latin version, the Vulgate,
except this of the Psalms. Here his earlier revision of the old Italic
version on the basis of the Septuagint had become so firmly established
in liturgical use that the translation from the Hebrew, though more
exact, could not displace it. This appears to be the first printed

Bound with No. 5. Gregorii Homiliæ.


_Fol. 1^a_: [S]Entite de do_m_ino in bo_n_itate e_t_ in simplicitate
cordis q_uae_rite illu_m_. _Fol. 2^a_: Explicit prologus Incipit modus
ad summam p_er_veniendi sapienciam. _Fol. 24^a, l. 33_, END: sibi sparso
diuinit_us_ in ip_sum_ ardentissime se extendit _etc._ _Fol. 24^b,

     Folio. Quires [1-2^{10}, 3^4], 24 leaves, 33 lines to the page,
     gothic letter, without signatures, catchwords or pagination, place,
     printer's name or date. Two- to four-line spaces left for capitals,
     which are supplied in red. Initial-strokes in red. Hain *11490.
     Brit. Mus. 15th cent., II, p. 320 (IB. 5531).

Bound with No. 5. Gregorii Homiliae.

8. HUGO de SANCTO VICTORE. Soliloquium de arrha animae. [Augsburg,
    Günther Zainer.] 12 October, 1473.

_Fol. 1^a_: Incipit soliloquium beatissimi Augustini episcopi yponensi
(_sic_) de arra anime. _Fol. 7^b_, END: Rapt_us_ est finis hui_us_
tractat_us_ August_in_i de arra ani_m_e. feria t_er_cia post festu_m_
s_an_cti Dyonisy Anno d_omi_ni lxxiij _etc._ _Fol. 8, blank._

     Folio. 8 leaves, the last blank, 33 lines to the page, gothic
     letter, without place or printer's name. Three-line space for first
     initial and initial-strokes supplied in red. Blank last leaf
     wanting. Hain *2021. Pellechet 1525. Brit. Mus. 15th cent., p. 319
     (IB. 5451).

The author of the work here directly ascribed to St. Augustine was the
mystic theologian Hugo de Sancto Victore (1097-1140), member of the
Canons Regular of St. Augustine and head of the abbey school of St.
Victor, near Paris. From his familiarity with the writings of Augustine
and likeness to his spirit, he was styled _Alter Augustinus_, a title
which furnishes a plausible but not wholly satisfactory explanation of
the confusion in the present case. For among the spurious writings which
have been put under Augustine's name more than one has been borrowed
from this author. For example, chapters 5-10 of the _Liber de diligendo
Deo_ are taken almost word for word from the present treatise.

In the present edition of this soliloquy cast in the form of a dialogue
the interlocutors are _Augustinus_ and _Anima_ (both names always
printed in capitals); in a Strassburg edition of about the same date,
_Hugo_ and _anima sua_; in the collected edition of Hugo's works, _homo_
and _anima_.

Bound with No. 5. Gregorii Homiliae.

9. CARACCIOLUS, ROBERTUS, de Licio. Opus quadragesimale quod de
    poenitentia dictum est. Venetiis, Wendelinus de Spira, 20 July, 1472.

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2^a_: Hec est tabula omniu_m_ sermonu_m_
contentorum hoc in uolumine. _Fol. 3^a_: Sacre theologie magistri necnon
sacri eloquij preconis celeberrimi fratris Roberti de Litio ordinis
Minor_um_ professoris op_us_ quadragesimale p_er_utilissimum quod de
penitentia dictum est. Feliciter incipit. _Fol. 267^a_, COLOPHON:

    Vendelinus ego gentis _co_gnomine spiere!
    Roberti haec caste purgata uolumi_n_a pressi!
    Sedis apostolice Romano praeside Sixto
    Magnanimo _et_ uenetum Nicolao pr_in_cipe Truno

_Fol. 267^b, 268, blank._ _Fol. 269^a_: Sermo i_n_ festo
a_n_nu_n_tiat_i_o_n_is u_ir_ginis marie _et_ eiusdem Roberti cum tribus
(_sic_) aliis sermonib_us_ seque_n_tib_us_. s. de p_re_destinato
nume_ro_ damnator_um_ _et_ de cathenis. _Fol. 289^b_: Finis triu_m_
sermonu_m_ Fratris Roberti... _Fol. 290, blank._

     Quarto. Quires [1-7^{10}, 8^{12}, 9-11^{10}, 12^8, 13-15^{10},
     16^8, 17-27^{10}, 28-30^6, 31^4], 290 leaves, 1, 268, 290 blank, 40
     lines to the page, gothic letter, without signatures, catchwords
     or pagination. Two- to seven-line spaces with guide-letters left
     for initials. Two pinholes on side. Initials and paragraph-marks
     supplied in red. Blank leaf 268 wanting. Hain-Copinger 4424.
     Pellechet 3244. Proctor 3524.

Wendelin of Speier succeeded in 1470 to the press established in 1469 by
his brother John, the first printer of Venice, who lived to complete
only four books. Gothic type was introduced into Italy by Wendelin.

Roberto Caraccioli, born at Lecce in 1425, was bishop of his native city
from 1484 to 1495. The great reputation which these sermons enjoyed is
attested by the fact that four editions, three of them printed in
Venice, appeared in 1472, and four more in 1473, one of which was
Wendelin's second edition, an exact reprint of the present.

The Wodhull copy, bought at the sale of the library of Samuel Tyssen, in
1801, for £1.1s., bound in russia gilt, with Wodhull arms on side, at a
further cost of 19 shillings. Leaf 10-1/8 × 7-1/2 in.

10. VALLA, LAURENTIUS. Elegantiae linguae Latinae. Venetiis, Nicolaus
    Jenson, 1471.

_Fol. 1^a_: LAVRENTII VALLENSIS ELega_n_tia_rum_ co_m_pendiosæ
collectio_n_is in ordinem alphabeti directæ principium. _Fol. 9^a,
_Fol. 201, 202, blank._

     Quarto. Quires [1^8, 2^{12}, 3-4^{10}, 5^{12}, 6-7^{10}, 8^{12},
     9^{14}, 10-11^{10}, 12^{12}, 13^8, 14^6, 15-19^{10}, 20^8], 202
     leaves, the last two blank, roman letter, 39 lines to the page,
     without signatures, catchwords or pagination. Two- to six-line
     spaces left for capitals and spaces also for Greek words, to be
     supplied in manuscript. Two pinholes on side. The type is Jenson's
     first font. Hain 15802. Proctor 4071.

At the head of the first page is a large initial of the interlaced vine
pattern in gold and colors, with a border of the same pattern enclosing
the entire page. The remaining five books, the prefatory epistle and the
supplement _De ego, mei et sui_ are introduced by initials of the same
size and style. Alternate red and blue capitals at the head of chapters,
paragraph-marks also in red and blue.

A few of the spaces left for Greek words are filled in manuscript, but
more are left vacant. When Jenson later in the same year printed
Cicero's Letters, he was provided with Greek type. The blank fol. 9^a is
occupied by a transcript in an early hand of the greater part of lib. i,
cap. iv (_De ficu_), from a MS. the readings of which differ materially
from the printed text.

For the purposes of the index the six books have been divided into a
continuous series of 479 chapters, designated in the margins of the text
by manuscript roman numerals, but in the index by printed numerals. The
references are not, as in later editions, to book and chapter, but to
chapters only. The index, alphabetized by the first letter of the word
only, printed on different paper and forming a separate quire, is here
placed at the beginning of the volume; but traces of earlier manuscript
signatures still remaining, bear witness to a former order in which the
text preceded the index, as is still the case in some copies of this

Most of Jenson's early books were folios. But notwithstanding the size
of the leaf (13 × 8 in.), this is a quarto, as both the direction of the
chain-lines and the position of the water-mark prove. However, because
of the limitations of the early presses, it was doubtless printed on
half-sheets, folio-wise, two pages at most at one impression.

Of the twenty-four 15th-century editions of the _Elegantiae_ the three
earliest, one of which was Jenson's, were printed in 1471.

Although the tradition that Nicolas Jenson, master of the mint at Tours,
was sent by Charles VII. in 1458 to Mainz to learn the secrets of the
newly discovered art of printing is otherwise unsupported and, in view
of the manner in which the invention was afterwards carried to France as
well as to other countries by private initiative, improbable, he was
already a master of the art, wherever and however acquired, when he
established in 1470 the press which held the leading place at Venice
until his death in 1480.

The present exceptionally fine copy of the _Elegantiae_, bound in citron
morocco, with gold borders and gilt edges, is the Wodhull copy, bought
in 1786 of Payne for £10.10s.

11. PLINIUS SECUNDUS, C. Naturalis historia. Venetiis, Nicolaus Jenson,

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2^a_: CAIVS PLYNIVS MARCO SVO SALVTEM. _Fol.
Iohannis andreæ episcopi aleriensis ad pontificem summum Paulum secundum
uenetum epistola. _Fol. 356^a_: Hereneus lugdunensis episcopus: item
Iustinus ex philosopho martyr: item cum diuo Hieronymo Eusebius
cæsariensis: serio posteritatem adiurarunt: ut eorum descripturi opera
conferrent diligenter exemplaria: et sollerti studio emendarent. Idem
ego tum in cæteris libris omnibus tum maxime i_n_ Plynio ut fiat;
uehementer obsecro: obtestor: atq_ue_ adiuro: ne ad priora menda: _et_
tenebras i_n_extricabiles tanti sudoris opus relabat_ur_. Instauratu_m_
aliqua_n_tulu_m_ sub romano po_n_tifice maximo Paulo secu_n_do ueneto.
_Fol. 356^b, blank._

     Folio. Quires [1^{12}, 2^8, 3-8^{10}, 9^{12}, 10-15^{10}, 16^8,
     17-27^{10}, 28^6, 29-30^{10}, 31-35^8, 36^{12}, 37^8], 356 leaves,
     first blank, 50 lines to the page, roman letter, without
     signatures, catchwords or pagination. Two- to twelve-line spaces
     left for capitals, with guide-letters; also spaces for occasional
     Greek words. Greek type sparingly used, oftener transliteration in
     roman. Two pinholes. Hain *13089. Proctor 4087. Morgan Cat. II, p.
     39, n. 297.

The rubrication of the present copy is not only elaborate but also of
unusual merit. The first of the twelve-line initials of the thirty-seven
books is finely illuminated in gold and colors. The others, in the
outlines of which grotesque features are occasionally introduced, are
set off by skilful pen-work, harmonizing in general effect, but
carefully avoiding repetition in details. The chapter initials also, a
thousand or more in number, in alternate red and blue, or red and green,
have much variety and grace. The initial L, for example, occurring
twenty-eight times in the first book, is never repeated in the same form
and color. The blank fol. 3^b is occupied by the name Jesus in very
large and ornate characters, in different colors, surrounded by scroll
and figure decoration. The Bagneri arms, included in the ornamentation
of the first initial, point to an early ownership of the volume, and the
arms of the Antella family of Florence at the foot of the first page, to
a later ownership.

The introductory epistle of the younger Pliny, describing his uncle's
manner of life, was addressed to his friend Macer, who here becomes
Marcus by the easy transposition of Macro to Marco. Less easily
explained is the substitution in the dedication of Domitian for his
brother Titus Vespasian, to whom Pliny dedicated the work.

Two editions of the _Naturalis Historia_ preceded this, the first
printed by John of Speier in 1469, with a five years' privilege from the
Venetian senate, which expired at his death in 1470, the second by
Sweynheym and Pannartz, Rome, 1470. With the first of these, Jenson's
edition agrees in the number of pages and of lines to the page. From the
second he reprinted the letter addressed by the editor Johannes Andreas,
Bishop of Aleria, to his patron Pope Paul II., and the earnest appeal
for care on the part of any who should reprint his Pliny, "_ne ad priora
menda et tenebras inextricabiles tanti sudoris opus relabatur_." Fifteen
more editions were printed before the close of the 15th century.
Jenson's Pliny is generally regarded as the finest production of his
press. The type is his first font.

The Wodhull copy, bought of Thomas Payne, book-seller, in 1791 for
£12.12s., and bound by Roger Payne in russia gilt, with Wodhull arms on
side, at the additional cost of £1. Leaf 15-1/4 × 10-1/4 in.

12. NONIUS MARCELLUS. De compendiosa doctrina. Venetiis, Nicolaus
    Jenson, 1476.

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2-20, alphabetical index._ _Fol. 21, blank._

     Folio. Sign. a-c^{10}, d-y^8, z^{12}, 194 leaves, 1 and 21 blank,
     34 lines to the page, roman letter, without catchwords or
     pagination. Seven- and eight-line spaces left for capitals, some
     with guide-letters. The type is Jenson's first roman trimmed or
     recast the second time on a slightly smaller body. Greek words as a
     rule printed with Greek type, not transliterated. Hain 11901.
     Proctor 4098.

On the first page of text a large initial S in gold on a panel of color,
with marginal decoration. Other large chapter initials in red and blue
alternately. Numerous paragraph-marks in alternate red and blue. Blank
first leaf wanting.

The index, which occupies the first nineteen leaves, is alphabetized as
far as the second letter of the word. The references are by roman
numerals to the leaves (not pages) of the work, which themselves have
only manuscript foliation in arabic figures.

The first edition of Nonius was printed at Rome in 1470 by Lauer; the
second, in 1471, was without place or name. Jenson's edition, which is
the third, borrowed from both of these but added also something of
value. The correct title, _De compendiosa doctrina_, first appears here.
The usual title, _De proprietate sermonum_, belongs strictly to the
first chapter. As in all the early editions, the third chapter is
lacking, having been discovered later and first included in the 1513
edition of Aldus. Jenson's Greek type long remained in favor for
incidental use in Latin books after it had been displaced in Greek books
by Aldine types.

The Wodhull copy, "Payne's sale, £5.5s., January, 1792." Bound by Roger
Payne in red morocco, gilt edges. Leaf 11 × 8 in.

13. DULLAERT, JOHANNES, de Janduno or Gandavo. Quaestiones super tres
    libros Aristotelis de anima. Venetiis, Franciscus de Hailbrun et
    Nicolaus de Franckfordia socii, 1473.

_Fol. 1^a, blank._ _1^b_: Tabula q_ue_stio_n_u_m_ d_omi_ni Joh_ann_is de
Janduno sup_er_ tres libros de anima Aristotelis. _Fol. 2^a_: [I]Nest
enim me_n_tib_us_ hominu_m_ Veri boni naturalis inserta cupiditas. _Fol.
92^b_, COLOPHON: Expliciunt questiones d_omi_ni Joh_ann_is de Janduno
sup_er_ tres libros de a_n_i_m_a Ar_istotelis_ i_m_presse Venetijs p_er_
Franciscu_m_ de Hailbrun _et_ Nicolau_m_ de Franckfordia socios.

     Folio. Quires [1-8^{10}, 9^{12}], 92 leaves, 2 columns, 71 lines to
     the column, gothic letter, without signatures, catchwords or
     pagination. Six- to twelve-line spaces left for capitals. Two
     pinholes. Arabic figures used to the exclusion of roman numerals
     not only in table of contents, but throughout the text to mark
     subdivisions of the argument or individual books of a treatise.
     Hain 7458. Burger pl. 99.

On first page of text a twenty-four line initial illuminated in gold and
colors, with border ornament. Book and chapter initials in alternate red
and blue. Arabic numerals, which made their first appearance in printed
books in 1470, were very sparingly used even at a considerably later
date than 1473.

The author, commonly known as Johannes de Gandavo (Ghent), of the early
part of the 14th century, wrote commentaries also on other works of
Aristotle. Of the present work five editions, of which this is the
first, were printed at Venice in the 15th century.

Franz Renner of Heilbronn conducted a press at Venice from 1471 to 1483,
having as partner from 1473 to 1477 Nicolas of Frankfort. The present
volume is printed in a small round-faced gothic type, the second of the
nine fonts which he used.

The Wodhull copy, bought at the Maffei Pinelli sale, London, 1789, for
£1.13s. Bound in hf. vellum. Leaf 16-3/4 × 11-1/2 in.

14. ARISTOTELES. Libri de animalibus interprete Theodoro Gaza. Venetiis,
    Johannes de Colonia sociusque Johannes Manthen, 1476.

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2^a_: THEODORI: GEAECI: THESSALONICENSIS:
COLOPHON: Finiunt libri de animalibus Aristotelis interprete Theodoro
Gaze. V. clarissimo: quos Ludouicus podocatharus Cyprius ex Archetypo
ipsius Theodori fideliter _et_ dilige_n_ter auscultauit: _et_ formulis
imprimi curauit Venetiis per Iohannem de Colonia sociu_m_q_ue_ eius
Iohanne_m_ ma_n_the_n_ de Gherretze_m_. Anno domini .M.CCCC.LXXVI. _Fol.
251^a_: Tabula cartarum secundum ordinem ponendarum. _Fol. 251^b, 252,

     Folio. Sign. a-b^{10}, c-d^8, e^{10}, f^8, g^{10}, h^8, i^{10},
     k^8, l-t^{10}, u^8, x^{10}, aa-dd^{10}, ee^8, ff^6. 252 leaves, the
     first and the last blank, roman letter, 35 lines to the page,
     without pagination. Two- to seven-line spaces left for initials,
     with guide-letters. Hain *1699. Proctor 4312. Morgan Cat., II, p.
     48, n. 313. Burger pl. 199.

The border surrounding the first page of text, and eighteen initials of
the several books, are illuminated in gold and colors. Chapter initials
supplied in red and blue alternately.

Printed signatures, which appear to have been first introduced by
Zarotto of Milan in 1470, and a register of sheets, first used by John
of Cologne in 1475, are both found in this volume. The register, which
may give only the number of sheets in each of the quires, or the first
word of each sheet of the quire, is here of the latter kind.
Unfortunately two sheets escaped registration and the words are supplied
in manuscript.

Three separate treatises of Aristotle are contained in this volume:
Historia de animalibus libri ix; De partibus animalium libri iv; De
generatione animalium libri v.

Theodore Gaza, the translator, was a learned Greek from Thessalonica,
who took up his residence in Italy on the capture of his native city by
the Turks. The translation was made at the instance of Nicolas V., who
had invited him to Rome in 1450, but was first printed in the present
edition (Venice, 1476) and dedicated in a flattering epistle of eleven
pages to the reigning pope, Sixtus IV. The fifty scudi which the pope
sent in acknowledgment of the dedication copy Gaza is said to have
thrown in disgust into the Tiber. It is interesting to note in this
connection that while the Venice editions of 1492 and 1498 retain the
name of Sixtus IV. in the dedication, Aldus after having omitted the
epistle altogether in his 1504 edition, in that of 1513 quietly
substituted the name of Nicolas V., the earlier and worthier patron,
without a word of change in the language of the dedication itself. Later
editions have followed the example of Aldus.

John of Cologne, established as a printer at Venice as early as 1471,
was associated 1472-1473 with Wendelin of Speier, whose business and
types he took over in 1474. He had as partner, 1474-1480, John Manthen,
and in 1480, Nicolas Jenson. The type of the _Aristotle_ is a close
imitation of the first font of John and Wendelin of Speier.

The Wodhull copy, bought at the Pinelli sale for £2.12s.6d. Bound in hf.
vellum. Leaf 12 × 8-1/4 in.

15. UBERTINUS DE CASALI. Arbor vitae crucifixae Jesu. Venetiis, Andreas
    de Bonetis de Papia, 12 March, 1485.

Explicit p_ri_mus p_ro_logus. Incipit secu_n_dus. _Fol. 5^a, col. 2_:
Explicit p_ro_logus secundus. Incipit liber primus. _Fol. 248^b, col.
2_, COLOPHON: Liber qui intitulatur Arbor uite crucifixe Iesu
deuotissimi fratris Vbertini de Casali ordinis minoru_m_ felicit_er_
explicit. Impressus Venetiis p_er_ Andrea_m_ de Bonettis de Papia. Anno
.M.CCCC.LXXXV. Die.xii.Martii. Ioa_n_ne Mocenico inclyto principe
regnante. _Fol. 249^a_: Tabula capitulo_rum_. _Fol. 249^b, col. 2_:
Registrum. _Fol. 250, blank._

     Folio. Sign. a-z^8, A^8, B^{12}, C-G^8, H^6. 250 leaves, 1, 204,
     250 blank, 2 columns and head-line, 58 lines to the column, roman
     letter. The head-lines give the subject, book and chapter numbers.
     Eight-line spaces left for the initials of the five books and
     three-line spaces, some with guide-letters, for the chapter
     initials, both supplied in red. Blank first and last leaves
     wanting. Hain *4551. Pellechet 3331. Proctor 4816.

Bound in olive green morocco with gold borders and gilt edges.
Book-stamp of J. Richard, D.M., on first and last leaf of text, and
book-plate of another owner, Jules Frayssenet, of Fleurance, printed on
full leaf inserted between the fly-leaves, front and back, and the text.
Leaf 10-1/4 × 7-3/4 in.

Andreas de Bonetis, of Pavia, printed at Venice from 1483 to 1487.

16. ALBERTIS, LEO BAPTISTA DE. De amoris remedio. 1471.


     Quarto. Quires [1^8, 2^{12}], 20 leaves, 25 lines to the page,
     roman letter, without signatures, catchwords, pagination, place or
     printer's name. Two- to six-line spaces left for initials, but the
     present copy is without rubrication. Hain *422. Panzer iii. 82, 69;
     iv. 5, 16. Pellechet 268. Proctor 7346.

Notwithstanding the Latin title, the work itself is wholly in Italian
and both in the MSS. and in later printed editions is found also under
the title _Deifira ossia del mal principiato amore_. A companion volume
by the same author, with the Latin title _De amore liber_, and the
Italian, _Ecatomfilea ossia del vero amore_, was printed the same year,
in the same type, the same number of leaves and lines to the page. Still
another work in the same type and form and apparently of the same date,
entitled _Historieta amorosa fra Leonora de' Bardi e Hippolito
Bondelmonti_, is attributed on good evidence to De Albertis. Copies of
all three works, printed alike on vellum and bound together in one
volume, formerly in the Mac-Carthy Collection (Catalogue, Paris, 1815,
no. 3595), are now in the Bibliothèque Nationale (_Vélins_ 1964). In the
present copy of _De amoris remedio_ the manuscript signatures _b_ and
_c_, partly cut away, point to an earlier binding, in which the
_Historieta_ consisting of only twelve leaves may possibly have formed
the signature _a_.

Panzer was disposed to identify the peculiar roman type of these volumes
with that used by the fourth printer of Venice, Clemente of Padua,
between whom and Zarotto of Milan, Hain was later in doubt. But Proctor
was convinced that the small group of books to which these belong,
nearly all of them connected in some way with Florence, were the
productions of the first, so far unidentified, press of that city. The
date they bear (1471) places them among the earliest books printed in
the Italian language. Witness the following first editions: Petrarch's
Canzoniere, 1470; Il Decamerone, 1471; La Divina Commedia, 1472.

The present copy, bound in blue morocco, with the crest of the Marquis
of Blandford on side, was sold in his (White Knights) sale in 1819 for
£2. Leaf 9-1/4 × 6-3/4 in.

From the Syston Park sale, December, 1884, with book-plate and the
monogram (J.H.T.) of Sir John Hayford Thorold.

17. AESOPUS. Vita et fabulae græce. Vita et fabulae latine. Fabulae
    selectae græce et latine. [Milan], Bonus Accursius, c. 1480.

_Part I._ _Fol. 1^a_: Bonus Accursius Pisanus doctissimo sapientissimo
ducali quæstori Iohanni Francisco turriano salutem plurimam dicit. _Fol.
ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΙΣ. _Fol. 33^a_: ΑΙΣΩΠΟΥ ΜΥΘΟΙ. _Fol. 70^a_:
Τελος των του Αισωπου Μυθων. _Part II._ _Fol. 1^a_: Vita Aesopi
fabulatoris clarissimi e græco latina p_er_ Rynucium facta ad
Reuere_n_dissimu_m_ Patre_m_ Dominu_m_ Antonium tituli Sancti Chrysogoni
Presbyteru_m_ Cardinalem _et_ primo prohoemium. _Fol. 32^b_: FINIS.
_Fol. 33^a_: Argumentum fabula_rum_ Aesopi e græco i_n_ latinu_m_. _Fol.
59^b_: Finis. Vita Aesopi per Rynucium thettalum traducta. Verum quoniam
ab eo non nulla fueru_n_t praetetermissa (_sic_): fortassis q_ui_a
græcus eius codex esset minus emendatus: Ego Bonus accursius Pisanus:
eadem in ea omnia correxi; _et_ emendaui. _Fol. 60, blank._ _Part III._
_Fol. 1^a, blank._ _Fol. 1^b_: Bonus Accursius Pisanus doctissimo ac
sapientissimo ducali Quæstori Iohanni francisco Turriano salutem
plurimam dicit. _Fol. 2^a, col. 1_: ΜΥΘΟΙ ΑΙΣΩΠΟΥ, _col. 2_:
Fabulae Aesopi. _Fol. 38^a, col. 1_: ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΣΩΠΟΥ
ΜΥΘΩΝ. _Col. 2_: FINIS AESOPI FABVLARVM. Bonus Accursius pisanus
impressit: qui non doctorum hominum sed rudium ac puerorum gratia hunc
laborem suscepit.

     Quarto. Pt. I, sign. [A-H^8, I^6] not printed, but stamped
     irregularly on the extreme lower margin and partially cut away in
     the binding, 70 leaves. Pt. II, sign, a-g^8, and four unsigned
     leaves at the end, 60 leaves. Pt. III, sign. a-b^8, C-D^8, E^6, 38
     leaves, the Greek text and the word-for-word Latin translation in
     two parallel columns. Both the Greek and the Latin have 25 lines to
     the page or column. Two- to five-line spaces for capitals, with
     guide-letters, in both texts, but no rubrication. Two pinholes.
     Hain *265+272. Pellechet 185+192. Proctor, Printing of Greek in the
     15th cent., p. 60.

This is the first printed edition of any of the Greek classics, and the
third book printed entirely in Greek, or in Greek with a Latin
translation; the first being the Grammar of Lascaris, Milan, 1476, and
the second the Lexicon of Crastonus not later than 1478. All three were
printed with the same font of Greek type made by, or under the
supervision of, Demetrius Damilas, the son of Milanese parents settled
in Crete. Bonus Accursius was rather the publisher than the actual
printer, who in the case of the Lascaris was Dionysius Paravisinus, and
in the case of the Crastonus and the Aesop, probably the brothers de
Honate, who at that date were the possessors of the peculiar roman type
used in the Latin translations. After the Aesop this particular font of
Greek type next appeared in the first edition of Homer, printed at
Florence in 1488 by Bartolommeo di Libri, and in three of his subsequent
books, once at Rome early in the 16th century, after which it disappears

In the present edition the Fabulae græce number 147, the Fabulae latine
100, the Fabulae selectae 62. The translator, Rinuccio d'Arezzo, who
dedicates his work to Cardinal Antonio Cerdano, tells him in closing
that he sends all that have come into his hands, though probably not all
that Aesop wrote, since while they stand in alphabetical order, some
letters are wanting and others have not their full quota. Not all copies
have all the three parts, nor are they always bound in the same order.
The present copy, though in all respects complete, is bound irregularly,
as follows: 1. Fabulae selectae. 2. Fabulae græce. 3. Vita Aesopi græce.
4. Vita et fabulae latine. On the verso of the last blank leaf is
written in an early hand "olim fuit _Reverendissimi_ m_agistri_ georgii
de casali."

Mr. Wodhull paid "Edwards" for this copy, in 1799, £14.14s. Bound by
Mrs. Weir in green morocco extra, gilt edges. Leaf 9 × 6 in.

18. OVIDIUS NASO, PUBLIUS. Metamorphoses. Parma, Andreas Portilia, 15
    May, 1480.

_Fol. 1, blank_, _2^a_: TABVLAE F∀BVLARVM (_sic_) OVIDII
METAMORPHOSEOS. _Fol. 6^a_: Domitius Calderinus Veronensis. [D]E Ouidii
uita nihil a nobis i_n_ hoc loco scribe_n_du_m_ _est_. _Fol. 7^a_: P.
COLOPHON: FINIS Impressum Parmæ Opera Et Impensis Andre_æ_ Portili_æ_
.M.CCCC.LXXX. Idibus Maiis Ioanne Galeazio Maria Mediolani Illustrissimo
Duce Regna_n_te Fœliciter. _Fol. 188, blank._

     Folio. Sign. a^6, b-q^8, r^{10}, s-y^8, z^6, &^6. 188 unnumbered
     leaves, the first and last blank, 40 lines to the page, roman
     letter. Three- to eight-line spaces, with guide-letters, left for
     the initials of the fifteen books. Hain *12160.

First initial of each book supplied in red; heading of each book and
each fable underlined in red; initial-strokes in every verse and
paragraph-marks in red. Without the last blank leaf.

Andreas Portilia was the first printer at Parma, where his press was
established in 1472 and continued, with two brief transfers to Bologna
and Reggio, till 1486.

Mr. Wodhull's copy, for which he paid, at the sale of Dr. Chauncy's
library in 1790, £2. Bound in red morocco, with rich gold tooling on
back and sides, and book-plate of Charles Chauncy, M.D. (1706-1777).
Leaf 12 × 8 in.

19. PIUS II. (AENEAS SILVIUS PICCOLOMINI). De duobus amantibus. [Paris,
    Michael Friburger, Ulric Gering and Martin Crantz, 1472.]

_Fol. 1_: Aeneæ siluii poætæ laureati, in hystoria_m_ de duobus
ama_n_tibus p_r_æfatio prima ad perq_uam_ generosum milite_m_ Casparem
Slik fœliciter incipit. _Fol. 2^b_: Aeneæ siluii in hystoria_m_ de
duobus ama_n_tibus p_rae_fatio secunda ad Martinu_m_ Sozinu_m_,
Senensem, iuris utriusque p_er_spicacissimum interpretem iocunde
incipit. _Fol. 4^a_: Aeneæ siluii de duobus ama_n_tibus hystoria
perq_uam_ iocunde incipit! _Fol. 44^b_: Vale. ex Vienna quinto nonas
Iulii. anno Millesimo quadringentesimo quadragesimo quarto; COLOPHON:
Aene_æ_ Siluii po_æ_te laureati de duobus ama_n_tibus eurialo _et_
lucresia, finit fœlicit_er_. _Fol. 45, 46, blank._

     Quarto. Quires [1-4^{10}, 5^6], 46 leaves, the last two blank, 23
     lines to the page, roman letter, without signatures, catchwords,
     pagination, place, printer's name or date. Two- to six-line spaces
     left for capitals. Claudin XIX. Pellechet 147. Hain 216.

Large initial on first page supplied in blue and gold, with pen
ornamentation in red and blue. Other capitals and the paragraph-marks in
alternate red and blue. Last blank leaf wanting.

This and the two next works of the present list bound with it were
printed at the first Paris press, a private press set up in the Sorbonne
in 1470 by Johann Heynlin, Prior, and Guillaume Fichet, Librarian, of
the University, and maintained by them until April, 1473. During these
three years twenty-two books were printed, all in the same roman type,
copied from the _Cæsar_ of Sweynheym and Pannartz, Rome, 1469. In only
two of them are the actual printers, Friburger and his associates,

To the twenty-eight 15th-century editions--not to speak of the
translations--of this novel described by Hain, Copinger's Supplement
adds half as many more. The present edition is perhaps the third.
Claudin, who makes it the nineteenth in the list of the Sorbonne books,
could trace but four copies. This makes a fifth.

The three books from the Sorbonne press are bound in one volume, red
morocco, gilt edges, with book-plate of Sir William Burrell. It passed
from his possession some years before his death and was bought by
Michael Wodhull at Payne's sale April 7, 1789, for £4.4s. The binder,
possibly mistaking the date of the author's subscription (Vienna, 1444)
for that of the printing, has placed it on the back of the volume. Leaf
7-3/4 × 5-1/4 in.

20. PIUS II. (AENEAS SILVIUS PICCOLOMINI). De curialium miseria. [Paris,
    Michael Friburger, Ulric Gering and Martin Crantz, 1472.]

_Fol. 1^a_: Aeneæ Siluii poætæ laureati (cui _et_ pro pontificali
dignitate Pio nomen est) in disputatione_m_ de curialiu_m_ miseria ad
perspicacissimu_m_ iurisconsultu_m_ Iohanne_m_ Ech, serenissimi
diuiq_ue_ principis, Alberti, cæsaris inuictissimi! Alberti quoque
austriæ ducies inclyti consiliariu_m_ atq_ue_ oratore_m_ præfacio
fœliciter incipit; _Fol. 34^a_: Vale uir (nisi ex curialibus unus
esses) meo iudicio prudens; COLOPHON: Aeneæ Siluii de curialiu_m_
miseria disputatio finem habet fœlicem; _Fol. 35, 36, blank._

     Quarto. Quires [1-3^{10}, 4^6], 36 leaves, the last two blank, 23
     lines to the page, roman letter, without signatures, catchwords,
     pagination, place, printer's name or date. Two- and six-line spaces
     left for capitals. Claudin XX. Pellechet 132. Hain 198.

First initial rubricated in the same style and by the same hand as in
the _De duobus amantibus_. Other capitals and paragraph-marks in red and
blue alternately. Initial-strokes in yellow. At the bottom of fol. 29^a
a line accidentally dropped by the compositor is supplied in manuscript
by a contemporary hand, viz., "non te uolunt. Quida_m_ uero pote_n_tes
sunt! ac ex." Both the recto and the verso of the leaf have the full
complement of 23 lines but there is a hiatus in the text. The copies in
the Bibliothèque Nationale, and the Bibliothèque Mazarine, Paris, have
the line supplied in manuscript in like manner, but instead of _uero_
read _non_, which does not suit the context.

According to Claudin this is the twentieth book printed at the Sorbonne
press. To the five copies known to him this adds a sixth.

Bound with No. 19. De duobus amantibus.

21. PLATO. Epistolae. [Paris, Michael Friburger, Ulric Gering and Martin
    Crantz, 1472.]

_Fol. 1^a_: Ad prudentem _et_ magnificum uirum Cosma_m_ de medicis
florentinu_m_, Leonardi Aretini clarissimi oratoris, in ep_isto_las
plato_n_is quas ex græcis latinas fecit! p_rae_fatio; _Fol. 52^a_,

    Discite rectores diuinitus, ore platonis!
    Quid uos, q_ui_d ciues reddat in urbe bonos;

     Quarto. Quires [1-4^{10}, 5^8, 6^2, 7^2], 52 leaves, 23 lines to
     the page, roman letter, without signatures, catchwords, pagination,
     place, printer's name or date. Three- to five-line spaces left for
     capitals. The first initial supplied in blue and red, other
     capitals in blue and red alternately. Initial strokes in yellow.
     Claudia XIV. Philippe VII. Crevenna 1523. Hain 13066.

Leonardo Bruni, often called Leonardo Aretini from his birthplace
Arezzo, translated five of the dialogues of Plato in addition to the

The first notice of this edition is found in the _Catalogue
Bolongaro-Crevenna_ (Amst., 1789), where it is described as containing
52 printed leaves. It appears from the price-list printed after the sale
in 1790 that it had not been sold, but was "retenu, faute de commissions
ou de concurrence," and was still obtainable at the price of 15 florins.
No trace of it has since been found and Panzer and Hain were able only
to copy the catalogue description. Philippe (1885) described Heynlin's
copy, which is preserved in the library of the University of Basel, as
consisting of one first blank leaf, forty-nine printed leaves and two
blank leaves at the end. Claudin (1898), with a second copy discovered
meantime in the Bibliothèque d'Angers at his command, finds one first
blank and forty-nine printed leaves, and remarks that the two blank
leaves placed by Philippe at the beginning [should be _end_] are only
independent fly-leaves. Our copy has fifty-two printed leaves and no
blanks and no occasion for them, since the printed leaves, of
themselves, form complete quires. Claudin's collation, which gives both
the quires and a register of the first words of each quire, shows that
both his copies lack the sixth quire of our copy, composed like the
seventh of only two leaves and beginning "_sibus interdixistis_." There
is moreover still unexplained and not easily explainable in the
descriptions of both the Basel and Angers copies the presence of a
troublesome first blank leaf and the absence of another leaf of text, in
addition to the lacking sixth quire. It follows that, at least until the
Crevenna copy, which appears to have been in agreement with ours, comes
to light again, this must remain the only complete copy known.

Bound with Nos. 19 and 20, from the same press.

22. MAGNI, JACOBUS [Jacques Le Grand]. Sophologium. Paris, Martin
    Crantz, Ulric Gering and Michael Friburger, 1 June, 1477.

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2^a_: Sequitur tabula capituloru_m_ Sophologij.
_Fol. 5^a_: Doctissimi atq_ue_ excellentissimi patris: sacraru_m_
litteraru_m_ doctoris deuotissimi: fratris Iacobi magni: religionis
fratru_m_ heremitaru_m_: sancti Augustini sophologiu_m_ incipit. Cuius
p_ri_ncipalis intentio est inducere legentis animu_m_ ad sapientie
amorem. _Fol. 218^a_: Jacobi Magni sophologium finit feliciter. _Fol.
218^b_: Epigramma ad huius operis conspectore_m_ [five distichs.]
COLOPHON: Anno do_mi_ni millesimo .cccc.lxxvij. die .i. mensis Iunij.
Impressum fuit istud sophologium parisius p_er_ Martinu_m_ crantz.
Vdalricu_m_ gering, et Michaele_m_ friburger.

     Quarto. Sign. a-x^{10}, y^8, 218 leaves, the first blank, 32 lines
     to the page, gothic lower-case type, roman capitals. Two- to
     six-line spaces with guide-letters left for initials. Hain 10478.

Border ornamentation in color on fol. 5^a. Initials at the head of the
first four of the ten books in dull gold and color; those of the
remaining books in color only. Chapter initials and paragraph-marks in
alternate red and blue. Blank first leaf wanting. The bottom line of
fol. 116^b which had been accidentally moved across to the foot of fol.
115^a (the companion page on the imposing stone) is supplied in
manuscript where it was lacking and the misplaced line of print is

On the discontinuance of the Sorbonne press in 1473, the printers,
Crantz, Gering, and Friburger, moved into the neighboring Rue
Saint-Jacques and set up a press, with new type, on their own account.
An edition of the Sophologium had been one of the last books printed at
the old press. A second edition was issued from the new press in 1475,
of which the present edition is, in type, number of pages and lines, an
exact reprint, but has printed signatures and is a quarto while that was
a folio. Caxton's "Book of Good Manners," printed in 1487, was a
translation of "Le livre des bonnes meurs," another work by the same

The present copy, bound in green morocco with gold borders and gilt
edges, is from the Syston Park library, sold in December, 1884. Leaf
10-3/4 × 7-1/4 in.

23. HIERONYMUS. Vaderboeck. [Zwolle], Peter van Os, 1 April, 1490.

_Fol. 1^a_, TITLE: DIt boeck is ghenomet. dat vader boeck. dat in den
latijne is ghehieten Vitas patru_m_. inhoudende dye historien en_de_
legenden der heyligher vaderen die hare leue_n_ in stre_n_gher
penitencie ouerghebracht hebbe_n_ Ouergheset in goeder versta_n_delre
duytscer sprake. [Rest of page occupied by two woodcuts.] _Fol. 1^b_:
[H]Ier beghint die tafele va_n_ desen boecke dat ghehieten is dat va
(_sic_) vader boeck. _Fol. 4^b_: Hier eyndet die tafef (_sic_) van den
boecke..... _Fol. 5^a_: [Woodcut of the Annunciation, which is repeated
on the verso of the leaf.] _Fol. 6^a_: Hier beghinnet dat eerste deel
va_n_ desen boecke dat ghenoemet is Vitaspatrum in latijne. _Fol.
165^b_, COLOPHON: Hier eyndet dat derde deel va_n_ desen boecke van den
wo_n_derlijke wercken en_de_ goede exempele_n_ en_de_ goede leri_n_ghen
der heigher (_sic_) vadere_n_ so als die heylige leraer Jeronim_us_ vut
de_n_ griecke_n_ in den latine ghetoge_n_ heeft Ouergheset in goeder
v_er_standelre duytscer spraken om salicheit alre goeder kersten
me_n_scen. Ghedruct bi mi Peter va_n_ Os In de_n_ iare ons heren Mcccc
en_de_ xc. den eersten dach va_n_ den April. [PRINTER'S DEVICE,
(shields of Zwolle and of the printer combined).] _Fol. 166, blank._

     Folio. Sign. A^4, a^8, b-z^6, A^4, B-D^6, 166 leaves, the last
     blank, 6-165 numbered i-clx. 2 columns, 36 lines to the column,
     gothic letter. Two- to six-line spaces left for capitals. The first
     initial of the title is a ten-line ornamental woodcut D. The two
     woodcuts on the title-page are printed from sections cut from the
     blocks of the Latin Biblia Pauperum, that on the left (Descent of
     the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost) from the central panel of
     sign. p., that on the right (Jacob's dream), from the right-hand
     panel of the sign. t. Other sections of these blocks were used in
     like manner in other books of van Os. In place of blank fol. 5 cut
     away, is inserted a full page woodcut of the Annunciation, printed
     on both sides of the leaf, on paper unlike any other used in the
     book. Campbell 938. Proctor 9135.

Prologue initial on fol. 6^a supplied in blue with pen ornamentation in
red. Chapter initials and paragraph-marks in alternate red and blue.
Initial-strokes in red. Blank last leaf wanting.

Bound by Alfred Matthews in three-quarter levant morocco with blind
tooling, gilt edges. Leaf 10-1/2 × 8 in.

Peter van Os, of Breda, was actively engaged in printing at Zwolle from
1479 till the end of the century, except for the three years 1481-1484.

The English translation of the "Vitas Patrum," which was the closing
labor of Caxton's life, was printed in 1495 by Wynken de Worde with this
colophon: "Thus endyth the moost vertuouse hystorye of the deuoute and
right renowned lyues of holy faders lyuynge in deserte, worthy of
remembraunce to all wel dysposed persons which hath be_n_ translated
oute of Frenche into Englisshe by William Caxton of Westmynstre late
deed and fynysshed at the laste daye of hys lyff."

24. HIGDEN, RANULPH. Polychronicon, translated into English by Trevisa
    and continued by Caxton. [Westminster]. William Caxton, [1482].

_Fol. 1, blank._ _Fol. 2^a_: Prohemye. [G]Rete thankynges lawde &
honoure we merytoryously ben bounde to yelde and offre vnto wryters of
hystoryes, whiche gretely haue prouffyted oure mortal lyf, that shewe
vnto the reders and herers by the ensamples of thynges passyd, what
thynge is to be desyred. [Fol. 4-20, alphabetical table; 21, blank;
22-24, dialogue between the Clerke and the Lorde on translation,
Trevisa's epistle to Lord Berkeley; 25, blank.] _Fol. 26^a_:
Prolicionycion. Prefacio prima ad historiam. [A]Fter solempne and wyse
wryters of Arte and of scyence.... _Fol. 389^b_: God be thanked of al
his dedes. This translacion is ended on a thursdaye the eyghtenth daye
of Apryll the yere of our lord a thousand thre hondred and .lvij. The
xxxj yere of Kyng Edward the thyrd after the Conquest of Englond, the
yere of my lordes age Syr thomas lord of berkley that made me make this
translacion fyue and thyrtty. [390^a, Caxton's epilogue to Trevisa;
390^b, blank.] _Fol. 391^a_: Jncipit Liber vltimus. _Fol. 449^a_: Ended
the second day of Juyll the xxij yere of the regne of kynge Edward the
fourth & of the Incarnacion of oure lord a thousand foure score and
tweyne. Fynysshed per Caxton. _Fol. 449^b, 450, blank._

     Folio. Sign. a-b^8, C^4, 1-28^8, [28*^2], 29-48^8, 49^4, 50^8,
     52-55^8, 450 leaves, of which five (a, 1; 1, 1; 1, 5; 28*,2; 55, 8)
     are blank. The folios of sign. 1,2-55,7 are numbered 1-ccccxxviii
     (blanks 1, 5 and 28*,2 counted as iv and ccxxvi), with many errors
     which are mostly corrected on the following leaves, but in the case
     of fol. ccxli on the verso of the same leaf. There is, however, no
     clx, and ccccxiii is duplicated, errors which balance each other
     and do not disturb the final numeration. The omission of a
     signature 51 is accidental, the text continuing without a break.
     The purpose of the unsigned single sheet following sign. 28,
     consisting of one printed and one blank leaf, was evidently to
     carry the last remaining leaf of the fourth book and thereby make
     possible a division of the volume at this point into two nearly
     equal parts. Advantage has apparently been taken of this division
     to bind the Grenville copy (Brit. Mus. IB. 55060) in two volumes.
     Wynkyn de Worde, who reprinted the Polychronicon in 1495, followed
     in this particular Caxton's example and in order to begin the fifth
     book with a new signature left at the end of the fourth book nearly
     a whole leaf blank, though he separated the other books by a blank
     space of no more than three or four lines. Caxton's use of arabic
     figures for signatures was confined to the years 1481-1483; after
     that date he used letters only. The first few chapter-headings of
     each book have Latin ordinals (Capitulum primum, secundum, etc.)
     which are soon dropped for arabic figures. Gothic letter, Caxton's
     fourth font, forty lines to the page, with headline. Two- to
     seven-line spaces left for chapter and book initials, which are
     supplied in red. Chapter-headings underlined in red. Blades ii,
     172. Ames-Dibdin i, 138. Seymour de Ricci p. 60.

Seventy-two leaves, including the five blanks, are wanting in this copy,
viz.: sign. a-C; 1, 1, 4, 5, 8; 2, 1, 4, 5; 3, 2; 4, 1; 27, 3; [28*,2];
44, 7; 50-55. The lacking parts comprise the first twenty leaves
(Prohemye and alphabetical index), the last forty leaves (Caxton's
eighth book), and twelve intermediate leaves. Of these the Proheyme is
supplied in facsimile and sign. 4, 1 in manuscript. What is possibly an
original impression of Caxton's large device is placed at the end of the
volume. This was used by Caxton only during his last years, 1487-91, and
by Wynkyn de Worde, into whose hands the original block passed, in his
folios for thirty years longer. From one of the latter this may have
been taken, possibly from the Polychronicon of 1495, where the other
side of the leaf it occupied was blank, as is the case here also.

Trevisa's translation of Higden was completed, according to the best
MSS., in 1387, not in 1357 as stated on fol. 389^b. (In 1357 the 18th of
April fell on Tuesday, not Thursday, and Thomas Lord Berkeley was then
in the fifth, not the thirty-fifth year of his age.) Caxton was himself
the translator of twenty-two of the one hundred books which he printed
and it was therefore not strange that Trevisa's English should have been
in his hands, as the proem states, "a lytel embelysshed fro tholde
makyng." In what these embellishments consisted is partially explained
in the epilogue: "Therfore I William Caxton a symple persone haue
endeuoyred me to wryte fyrst ouer all the sayd book of proloconycon, and
somewhat haue chaunged the rude and old Englyssh, that is to wete
certayn wordes, which in these dayes [1482] be neyther usyd ne
understanden". He went however further than this and so changed the
inflections and orthography that the language is no longer of the
fourteenth but rather of the fifteenth century. But in no other way
could it have been made to harmonize with his proposed continuation,
concerning which he proceeds to say: "and also am auysed to make another
booke after this sayd werke whiche shal be sett here after the same, And
shal haue his chapytres and his table a parte. For I dar not presume to
sette my book ne ioyne hit to his, for dyuerse causes". Accordingly he
begins his "Liber ultimus" with a new signature, preceded by a blank
page. His "table" nevertheless is combined with that of the preceding
seven books in one alphabet. Wynkyn de Worde's edition has a more
elaborate index of ninety pages in which each of the eight books is
indexed in a separate alphabet.

Apart from the interest attaching to this "Liber ultimus" as the only
original work of any length from Caxton's pen, the Polychronicon is next
to the Golden Legend his largest book, and in the Prohemye they are
grouped together as the "twoo bookes notable" which treat of history. It
happens also, probably because of larger editions printed, that of these
two books many more copies have survived than of any of his other books,
about one-fourth of which are now represented only by single copies. Of
the Polychronicon, Seymour de Ricci's "Census of Caxtons" (1909)
enumerates forty known copies (very few of them entirely complete),
evenly divided between public and private libraries. To this list he
adds, under the heading "Present owners untraced," forty-eight copies
(nos. 41-88) which appeared at sales between 1698 and 1901, some of them
possibly identical with copies already described as "known." In this
second division is found the present copy (no. 79), purchased by the
donor of this collection at the Smets sale, New York, May, 1868, in calf
binding, with the name of the owner "A.A. Smets, Savannah, May 28, 1836"
on the fly-leaf. It was at once sent to Francis Bedford for binding,
with instructions to have the "inlaying, repairing etc. done over in
the very best manner, by the best restorer in France or England." Bound
in brown morocco, richly blind-tooled, with Tudor rose, fleur-de-lis and
acorn emblems. Leaf 10-1/4 × 7-1/2 in. The Smets fly-leaf and the
original instructions sent to Mr. Bedford with the volume and returned
by him with an added note over his own signature, laid in.

Other copies of the Polychronicon which have passed through Mr.
Bedford's hands have been bound in the same style, among them the
Menzies copy, sold New York, November, 1876, which de Ricci wrongly
conjectured might be identical with the Smets.

25. ORDINARY OF CHRISTIAN MEN. London, Wynkyn de Worde, 1506.

_Fol. 1^a._ TITLE: Thordinary of Crysten men [woodcut below.] _Fol.
1^b-4^b, table of contents._ _Fol. 5^a_ [woodcut above]: Here begynneth
a notable treatyse and ful necessarye to all crysten men for to knowe &
it is named the Ordynary of Crystyens or of crysten men. _Fol. 217^b_:
Here endeth the book named the ordynarye of crysten men newely hystoryed
and translated out of Frensshe in to Englysshe. Enprynted in the cyte of
London in the Fletestrete in the sygne of y^e sonne by Wnykyn de worde.
y^e yere of our lorde .M.CCCCC.vi. _Fol. 218^a, title repeated over
woodcut._ _Fol. 218^b_, [PRINTER'S DEVICE]

     Quarto. Sign. Aa^4, A^6, B^4, C-X, AA-NN^{8, 4 (altern.)}, OO^6,
     PP^{5}+{1}. 218 leaves, gothic letter, 34 lines (marginal citations
     60 lines) to the page, without foliation. Title cut in large
     lower-case letters on block 2 × 4 in. Five- and six-line initials
     at the head of the larger divisions of the text. Ten woodcuts, one
     repeated. The final blank PP. 6 has been replaced by an independent
     leaf having on the one side the title repeated with woodcut, and on
     the other the printer's device, either of which may in the binding
     be made the recto. The device is the first of his so-called
     "Sagittarius" forms, and the one most commonly used from 1506 to
     1518. Ames-Dibdin, ii, p. 103. Morgan Cat. iii, p. 214, n. 743.

The present copy lacks the first four leaves, containing the title and
the table of contents; but both the title and the woodcut accompanying
it are repeated elsewhere in the volume, the title on fol. 218^a, the
woodcut on fol. 87^a.

Of the French original, _L'ordinaire des chrestiens_, at least six
editions were printed before 1500, the earliest apparently at Rouen, c.
1487. In them it is stated that the writing was commenced 22 May, 1467
and finished (_consommé_) 22 May, 1469. The corresponding dates in the
prologue and epilogue of the translation are "fyrst begonne to be
wryten" 14 Jan., 1467, "fyrst consumed" 14 Jan., 1500. The confusion,
common to both the French and the English of the 15th century, in the
derivatives of _consummare_ and _consumere_ relieves the translator,
Andrew Chertsey, from the appearance of an over-literal translation, but
the change in the date of the completed work can hardly be in the
direction of accuracy.

The woodcuts which appeared in the first edition of the "Ordinary"
printed in 1502 are in this second edition replaced by others of
different design and better execution, borrowed mainly from "The crafte
to lyve well and to dye well", printed by de Worde in 1505 and like the
present work translated by Chertsey from a French original, _L'art de
bien vivre et de bien mourir_. Two of these illustrations, "Temptation
to Impatience" (fol. 73^b) and "Soul leaving the Body" (fol. 218^a), are
copied from the early block-book _Ars moriendi_.

Bound by Alfred Matthews in blind-tooled crimson morocco, with inside
gold borders and gilt edges. Leaf 8-1/4 × 5-3/4 in.

Wynkyn de Worde, Caxton's assistant, was a native of Wörth, Alsace. He
came into possession of his master's printing materials on his death in
1491 and continued to occupy his house in Westminster until 1500 when he
moved to Fleet Street within the city. In the number of his books,
almost eight hundred, he surpassed all the early printers, but many of
them were works of small size and consequence. Some of his largest and
finest books were reprints of Caxton's folios. Mention has been made of
his use of Caxton's original device without addition. In all of his own
various devices also, the place of honor in the center is given to
Caxton's initials and cipher, plainly as a mark of loyalty to the
master, not an advertisement of himself as the successor.

26. INTRATIONES. London, Richard Pynson, 28 Feb. 1510.

_Fol. 1^a_, TITLE: INtrationu_m_ excellentissimus liber perq_uam_
necessarius o_mn_ibus leg_is_ hominib_us_: fere in se continens o_mn_em
medullam diversa_rum_ materia_rum_ ac pl_ac_ito_rum_ tam realiu_m_,
personalium, q_uam_ mixt_orum_. Necno_n_ multorum breuium tam
executionu_m_ q_uam_ aliorum valde vtilium illis hunc librum inspecturis
aut inscrutandis. Que quide_m_ supradicta facilit_er_ possunt inveniri
p_er_ indice_m_ alphabeticu_m_ p_er_uigila_n_ti studio co_n_fectu_m_ &
p_er_ ordine_m_ l_itte_raru_m_ redactu_m_... _Fol. 1^b_, [Full page
woodcut of the king's arms crowned, supported by a dragon and a
greyhound, with a portcullis on either side and a rose and two angels
above.] _Fol. 2^a_: Intrationu_m_ libri Index Alphabetic_us_. _Fol.
10^b_: Finis tabule Intrationum. _Fol. 193^a_, COLOPHON: Explicit opus
excellentissimu_m_ & perutile in se continens multas materias o_mn_ibus
leg_is_ ho_min_ib_us_ p_er_q_uam_ necessarias nouiter Impressum,
correctum, emendatum, & no_n_ minimo labore reuisum London_i_ in vico
vulgariter nu_n_cupato Fletstrete in officina ere ac impensis honesti
viri Ricardi Pynson Regis Impressoris moram suam trahentis sub signo
diui Georgii Anno n_ost_re redemptionis .M.CCCCC.x. Die vero vltima
Mensis Februarii. _Fol. 193^b_, [PRINTER'S DEVICE.] _Fol. 194, blank._

     Folio. Sign. Aa^6, Bb^4, a-z, &, 9, A-E^6, F^4. 194 leaves, the
     last blank, 11-193 numbered i-clxxxv, but with the omission of li
     and liv and other irregularities. Gothic letter, 54 lines to the
     page, with marginal side-headings. The title, occupying seventeen
     lines of bold heavy-faced type, is printed in red and black and in
     the form of an inverted triangle. The _Index Alphabeticus_ is
     introduced by a ten-line initial A with a rose above and a
     portcullis below the middle bar, found also in the same printer's
     Sarum missal of 1520. The other divisions of the index have mostly
     four-line woodcut initials, some of grotesque pattern. Five-line
     space with guide-letter for the first initial of the text.
     Ornaments of four patterns, repeated singly or in combination, are
     used to lengthen out the frequent short end lines of paragraphs in
     order to give more solidity to the appearance of the page. Three of
     the same ornaments are found also on the title-page of Whitinton's
     _Vulgaria_, printed by W. de Worde in 1521. Ames-Dibdin ii, 441.

In the present copy the index (sign. Aa. 2-6, Bb. 1-4) is separated from
the title (Aa. 1) and placed at the end of the volume. Name of _Johēs
Coningesby_ written in a sixteenth century hand on the first page of
both text and index. The device is the fourth of Pynson's seven devices
and was in use 1496-1513. Allusion is made in the colophon to an earlier
edition, no copy of which appears to be known. The work was reprinted by
Henry Smythe, London, 1546.

Richard Pynson, a Norman by birth, established himself in London about
1490, taking over, as there is good reason to believe, the business of
Machlinia, a printer of law books, for which his knowledge of
Norman-French especially fitted him. In 1508 he was made Printer to the
King and in that year also he printed two books in roman type, the first
use of that character in England. He is known to have printed at least
371 books, a much smaller number than de Worde, but as a rule larger and
more important books. He is regarded as the best English printer of his
time and the _Liber Intrationum_ is one of his finest books.

Bound in red velvet, with silk linings and gilt edges. Leaf 12-3/4 ×
9-1/4 in.

From the Syston Park library, with the book-plate and monogram of Sir
John Henry Thorold.

27. PLUTARCHUS. Moralia Graece. Venetiis, in ædibus Aldi et Andreæ
    soceri, 1509.

TITLE: PLVTARCHI OPVSCVLA. LXXXXII. Index Moralium omnium, & eorum quæ
in ipsis tractantur, habetur in hoc quaternione. Numerus autem
Arithmeticus remittit lectorem ad semipagina_m_, ubi tractantur
singula. [Aldine anchor]. _P. 1050_, COLOPHON: Venetiis, in ædibus Aldi
& Andreæ Asulani Soceri. mense Martio. M. D. IX. [Blank leaf with anchor
on verso.]

     Quarto. Sign. *, a-z, &, aa-zz, aaa-sss^8, ttt^6. 8 unnumbered
     preliminary leaves (sign * not included in register on p. 1050)
     containing title, dedicatory epistle of Aldus to Jacopo Antiquario,
     index, four couplets of Jerome Aleander, preface of the editor
     Demetrius Doukas (all except title and dedication in Greek); 1050
     numbered pages of Greek text, final blank leaf with anchor on
     verso. The type is Aldus's fourth Greek font, 46 lines to the page,
     five- to eight-line spaces left for initials. The _semipagina_ (the
     equivalent of our _page_) to which the index directs the reader,
     shows that _pagina_ still had its older meaning _leaf_, and
     incidentally that the numbering of the page instead of the leaf was
     an innovation. The anchor and dolphin device, the symbol of the
     motto _Festina lente_, which first appeared in the Dante of 1502,
     is here in its first form, but of the larger size suitable for
     folios and enclosed in double lines, on the title-page without
     name, but on the last leaf with the addition ALDVS.MA.RO. Although
     on the evidence of the chain-lines and the water-mark technically a
     quarto, the volume on account of its unusual size was doubtless
     printed like a folio on half sheets. Renouard, p. 55. Firmin-Didot,
     p. 317.

Plutarch's _Moralia_ belongs to that imposing series of first editions
of the Greek classics which among all the services of Aldus Manutius to
the revival of learning are perhaps his best title to enduring fame.
When he set up his press in 1495 five in all, and but one, Homer, of the
first rank, had been printed. When he died twenty years later his first
editions outnumbered those of all his contemporaries put together, and
the rank was even more significant than the number, for among them were
included Aristotle, Plato, Thucydides, Herodotus, Aristophanes,
Sophocles, Euripides, Pindar and Demosthenes. The Plutarch was printed
from MSS. still preserved in the library of St. Mark.

The Greek type of Aldus was a new departure, based on the cursive or
business handwriting of his day in distinction from the older book-hand
which had served as the model for the first Greek fonts. It gained
immediate popularity and for more than two hundred years, either
directly or through fonts based upon it, dominated the Greek printing
of Europe. At length, mainly because of the ligatures and contractions,
it was supplanted by type of more open and regular forms.

In 1508 Aldus took as partner his father-in-law, Andrea Torresano
d'Asola, a Venetian printer who in 1480 had taken over the business of
Nicolas Jenson. The imprint which had hitherto been _apud Aldum_ or _in
aedibus Aldi_ now became _in aedibus Aldi et Andreae soceri_. After the
death of Aldus in 1515 the press was conducted without change of name by
the surviving partner until his own death in 1529.

Thick paper copy. Leaf 10-3/4 × 7 in. On p. 1050 is written _Collegii
Societatis Jesu Embricae 1605_.

From the library of Sir J.H. Thorold of Syston Park, with book-plate.
Bound by R. Storr, Grantham, in red morocco, gilt edges, with anchor on
sides. The "Dictionary of English Book-collectors," pt. 2, calls
attention to the Aldine anchor (made more realistic by an end of rope
cable twisted about it) stamped by the Grantham bookbinders Messrs.
Storr & Ridge upon many of the Thorold books, "not only those bound by
themselves, but also those bound by far better men." Examples of both
kinds are found in the present collection.

As an illustration of the first Greek type of Aldus there is joined to
this collection a finely executed manuscript facsimile on vellum of his
_Musaeus_ of 1495, his second book (preceded by the Grammar of
Lascaris), but the first in which the font appeared in its completed
state. From the Syston Park library. Bound by Bozérian Jeune, in blue
morocco extra.

28. SCRIPTORES REI RUSTICAE. Venetiis, in ædibus Aldi et Andreae soceri,

III. L. IVNII MODERATI COLVMELLAE LIB. XII. Eiusdem de arboribus liber
separatus ab alijs, quare autem id factum fuerit: ostenditur in
epistola ad lectorem. PALLADII LIB. XIIII. De duobus dierum generibus:
simulq_ue_ de umbris, et horis, quæ apud Palladium, in alia epistola ad
lectorem. Georgij Alexandrini enarrationes priscarum dictionum, quæ in
his libris Catonis: Varronis: Columellæ. [Aldine anchor]. Hos libros
Pontificis etiam Leonis decreto, nequis alius usquam locorum impune
imprimat, cautum est. _Fol. 308^a_: COLOPHON: VENETIIS IN AEDIBVS ALDI
ET ANDREAE SOCERI MENSE MAIO M.D.XIIII. [Aldine anchor on verso].

     Quarto. Sign. *, aa, bb^8, cc^{10}, a-h^8, i^4, k-z, A-Q^8. 8
     unnumbered preliminary leaves containing title, privilege of Leo X.
     countersigned by P. Bembo, papal secretary, preface of the editor,
     Fra Giocondo, addressed to Leo X., _Aldus lectori_ (two epistles,
     the first relating to the position of the _De arboribus_ of
     Columella, an independent treatise, in previous editions inserted
     in his _De re rustica_ as liber lii, but here correctly placed
     after that work, the second, to the hours of Palladius, varying in
     length with the seasons, and the use of the gnomon in determining
     them), _errata_; 26 unnumbered leaves (preceded by a second title
     with anchor and mention of the privileges of Alexander VI., Julius
     II. and Leo. X.) containing explanations of unfamiliar words and
     table of contents, last leaf blank; 308 numbered leaves of text,
     Sign. * is not included in the register on fol. 308^a and being
     followed by a second title-page its absence, if accidentally
     omitted, might pass unnoticed. Italic letter, 39 lines to the page,
     six- to seven-line spaces with guide-letters left for the initials
     of the thirty books, which in the present copy are supplied in gold
     and colors. Numerous paragraph-marks in alternate red and blue.
     Ruled in red. Renouard, p. 66. Firmin-Didot, p. 370.

The italic type of Aldus, a cursive or semi-cursive roman, the
counterpart of his cursive Greek, was modeled as he himself informs us
on the handwriting of Petrarch _a lettra per lettra_. It first appeared
in the Vergil of 1501, the first of his octavo series of classics and
only three months later, as was but just, in _Le cose volgari_ of
Petrarch. It had at the outset, corresponding to the Greek ligatures,
many double letters and even groups of three cast on the same body,
which were for the most part eliminated later by Paulus Manutius.
Originally it consisted only of lower-case letters and borrowed the
capitals of the roman font, using for economy of space small capitals
which DeVinne points out as the useful invention of Aldus. Aldus was
sensible of the deficiency and the last clause of his will was a request
to his partner, Andrea, to have suitable capitals made by the celebrated
engraver, Giulio Campagnola. It was, however, not until 1558 that they
were finally supplied by Paulus, in connection with a new italic font.
What has now ceased to be anything more than a useful auxiliary type was
by Aldus employed as a text type, a chief recommendation being that it
was more condensed than the roman and enabled him to greatly reduce the
price of his books by making an octavo do the work of a quarto or folio.
In 1501 he printed six, and in 1502 eleven octavos, whereas all his
earlier books, with one unimportant exception, had been of the larger

In 1496 the Venetian Senate granted to Aldus protection for his Greek
type and the books printed with it for the period of twenty years, and
in 1502 a like privilege covering both his italic and Greek type for ten
years. A similar grant made by Alexander VI. in 1502 was renewed by
Julius II. in January, 1513, for fifteen years and confirmed by his
successor, Leo X., in December of the same year.

From the library of Robert Samuel Turner, sold in 1888.

Bound in red morocco extra, with gold tooling in the Grolier style,
edges gilt over red. Leaf 8-1/2 × 5-1/4 in. Book-stamp on verso of last
leaf: "Ex libris J.B.P.H. Caqué, D.M. Rem. 1775".

29. CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. Rhetorica. Venetiis, in ædibus Aldi et
    Andreae soceri, 1521.

lib. IIII. M.T. Ciceronis de inuentione lib. II. Eiusdem de oratore ad
Quintum fratrem lib. III. Eiusdem de claris oratoribus, q_ui_ dicitur
Brutus lib. I. Eiusdem Orator ad Brutum lib. I. Eiusdem Topica ad
Trebatium lib. I. Eiusdem oratoriæ partitiones lib. I. Eiusdem de optimo
genere oratorum præfatio quædam. Index rerum notabilium, quæ toto opere
continentur, per ordinem alphabeti. [Aldine anchor] Hos libros etiam
Pontificum Alexandri, Iulij, ac Leonis demum decretis, neq_u_is alius
usquam locorum impune imprimat, cautum est. _Fol. 245^a_, COLOPHON:
[Blank leaf with anchor on verso].

     Quarto. Sign. *, **, a-k^8, l^4, m-z, A-G^8, H^{10}. 16 unnumbered
     preliminary leaves, containing preface by Aldus addressed to Andrea
     Navagero and alphabetical index (the blank last leaf wanting in
     this copy); 245 numbered leaves of text and final blank leaf with
     anchor. Sign. * and ** have eight leaves each, not ten as stated in
     the register on p. 245. Italic letter, 39 lines to the page, three-
     to seven-line spaces with guide-letters left for initials. The
     anchor is of the second, somewhat ungraceful, pattern in use
     1519-1524, after which there was for some years a return to the
     first form. Renouard, p. 93.

Reprinted, with only the addition of the index, from the 1514 edition of
Aldus. In the preface is found the often quoted inscription placed over
the door of Aldus to discourage the idle visitor: _Quisquis es: rogat te
Aldus etiam: atque etiam: ut, si quid est, quod a se velis: perpaucis
agas_, etc. The edition of 1533, with the imprint _in ædibus haeredum
Aldi Manutii Romani & Andreae Asulani Soceri_ and a short preface by
Paulus Manutius (it was his first book as director of the press) is also
essentially unchanged, but his edition of 1546, in octavo, was
thoroughly revised in text and accompanied by a folio volume of variorum

Bound by Roger Payne, in blue morocco, gilt edges, with cipher of Sir
Mark Masterman Sykes on back, at whose sale in 1824 it brought
£1.11s.6d. The Syston Park copy with book-plate, and monogram of Sir
John Hayford Thorold. Leaf 8-1/2 × 5-1/4 in.

    medicina. Venetiis, in ædibus Aldi et Andreæ soceri, 1528.

[Aldine anchor] Venetorum decreto, ne quis aliquo in loco Venetæ
ditionis hos libros imprimat, impressosue alibi uendat, cautum est.

     Quarto. 8 preliminary unnumbered leaves containing title,
     dedicatory epistle of the editor, Giovanni Baptista Egnazio, to
     Cardinal Hercules Gonzaga and index; 164 numbered leaves of text
     (fol. 148 blank). Italic letter, three- to seven-line spaces with
     guide-letter left for initials. Renouard, p. 105.

The _De Medicina_ of Celsus is the second and only surviving part of his
Encyclopædia entitled _Artes_, in five divisions. The first division,
_De Agricultura_, consisted of five books, so that the sixth book of
_Artes_ was at the same time the first of _De Medicina_.

The Syston Park copy, uncut. Bound by Roger Payne in red morocco. Leaf
9 × 5-1/2 in.

31. CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. Epistolæ ad Atticum, ad M. Brutum, ad
    Quintum fratrem. Venetiis, apud Aldi filios, 1540.

Quintu_m_ fratrem, summa diligentia castigatæ, ut in ijs menda, quæ
plurima erant, paucissima jam supersint. PAVLI MANVTII IN EASDEM
EPISTOLAS Scholia, quibus abditi locorum sensus ostenduntur, cum
explicatione castigationum, quæ in his epistolis pene innumerabilis
factæ sunt. [Aldine anchor] PAVLVS MANVTIVS ALDI F. VENETIIS, M.D.XL.
AVGVSTO. [Aldine anchor on verso]

     Octavo. 2 preliminary leaves containing title and dedication by
     Paulus Manutius to Guillaume Pellicier, Bishop of Montpellier, 331
     numbered leaves of text, 10 unnumbered leaves of translations of
     the Greek passages, conjectural emendations which the editor "would
     not hesitate to adopt it he should ever find an ancient MS. to
     confirm them" and a final leaf with colophon and anchor. The
     Scholia, 24 unnumbered leaves, have a separate title, with notice
     of copyright granted by Paul III. (the fourth pope to grant this
     privilege) and the Venetian senate; colophon and anchor repeated on
     last leaf. Italic letter, 30 lines to the page, five-line spaces
     with guide-letters left for initials. Renouard, p. 120.

Except for the interval 1533-6 the press was inactive from 1529 to 1540,
on account of dissensions between the heirs of Andrea and Aldus. The
partnership having been dissolved the press was reopened in 1540 by the
sons of Aldus (_apud Aldi filios_) under the direction of the youngest,
Paulus Manutius (1512-74), who restored and added to its lustre. Of
Cicero, his favorite author, he revised the entire text and printed
repeated editions of some of the works: e.g. of the _Epistolae ad
Atticum, ad M. Brutum, ad Quintum fratrem_ not less than ten, of which
this is the first. The brief scholia he expanded later into full and
valuable commentaries, on the Letters to Atticus in 1547, on the Letters
to Brutus and Quintus in 1557.

It was Petrarch who in 1345 discovered in a Verona MS. the long lost
Letters to Atticus, Brutus and Quintus and copied them with his own
hand. Both the MS. and Petrarch's copy are lost. But of the MS. another
transcript, procured by Petrarch's friend Salutati in 1389, is preserved
in the Laurentian Library, and of the Petrarch copy we have here a
replica in the type which Aldus characterized as _manum mentiens_.

From the Syston Park library, with book-plate. Bound by Roger Payne, in
blue morocco, gilt edges. Leaf 6-1/2 × 4 in.

32. CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS. Orationes. Venetiis, apud Aldi filios, 1546.


     Octavo. 4 unnumbered preliminary leaves, containing title and
     preface of Paulus Manutius addressed to Cardinal Benedetto Accolto,
     303 numbered leaves of text and a final leaf with register and
     colophon on the recto and anchor on the verso. Italic letter, 30
     lines to the page, five-line spaces with guide-letters left for
     initials. Renouard, p. 136.

The second edition of the Orations printed by Paulus, vol. I only (II,
III wanting), on large paper. Renouard (who knew of no complete copy of
the three volumes l.p.) remarks, p. 141, on the too elongated form of
most of the Aldine large paper octavos, in which all the increased space
is at the bottom. In the present copy it is divided between the bottom
and the outer margin, the inner margin and the top having no increase of
width--an arrangement well adapted for marginal annotations and perhaps
designed for that use. An early owner of this copy has in fact added to
the printed title (_Orationum Pars I_) with a pen the word _Commentata_,
but proceeded no further with his plan than simply to underscore a
number of words on the first three pages, leaving the margins untouched.

The most important of the commentaries of Paulus was that on the
Orations, completed not long before his death and printed by his son
Aldus in 1578-9 in three folio volumes.

From the Syston Park library, with book-plate and the monogram of Sir
J.H. Thorold. Bound in red morocco, gilt edges, with Aldine anchor in
gold on sides. Leaf 8 × 5-1/4 in.

33. PTOLEMAEUS, CLAUDIUS. Planisphærium. JORDANUS NEMORANUS. Planisphærium.
    Venetiis, [apud Paulum Manutium], 1558.

uniuersa Scenographices ratio quam breuissime traditur, ac
demonstrationibus confirmatur. [Aldine anchor] VENETIIS, M.D.LVIII.

     Quarto (not octavo, as described by Renouard). _Part 1._ 4
     unnumbered preliminary leaves containing title and dedicatory
     preface of Commandino to Cardinal Rainuccio Farnese, 37 numbered
     leaves of text (1-25 Ptolemy, 26-37 Jordanus), final blank leaf
     with anchor on verso. _Part 2._ 28 numbered leaves of commentary,
     with separate title, anchor both on title and on verso of last
     leaf. Text in roman, 25 lines to the page; commentary in italic, 34
     lines to the page. Many woodcut diagrams. Both text and commentary
     are introduced by a seven-line woodcut initial belonging to a
     mythological series found in other books of Paulus of this period,
     C picturing Calypso bidding adieu to Ulysses, I, Juno seated on a
     car drawn by peacocks. The original italic font of Aldus, the
     so-called _Aldino_ type, which appears to have passed into the
     possession of the Torresani relatives at about this date, is here
     replaced by a new font having a perceptibly larger face, though
     only a slightly larger body (20 lines of the new equalling 21 of
     the old) and consequently showing less white between the lines.
     Renouard, p. 173.

In 1554 the subscription assumed the new form _apud Paulum Manutium Aldi
F._, showing that Paulus had acquired his brothers' rights in the press.
At the same time he returned to the earlier and simpler form of the
anchor with the name _Aldus_, instead of the _Aldi filii_ and the
ornamental border in use since 1546. Sometimes, as in the present
volume, the subscription is omitted altogether and the anchor with the
name Aldus alone used. Here moreover the place and date appear only on
the title-page and the colophon is dropped as no longer useful.

The original Greek text of Ptolemy's Planisphere is lost. To the present
Latin translation, made by an unknown hand from the Arabic, is appended
(fol. 25) this subscription: _Facta est translatio haec Tolosae Cal.
Iunii Anno Domini MCXLIIII_. The revival of the study of the Greek
mathematicians in the sixteenth century was largely due to the admirable
translations and commentaries of Federigo Commandino of Urbino
(1509-75). This edition of Ptolemy's Planisphere still remains the best.
In the same year Paulus printed _Archimedis Opera nonnulla a Federico
Commandino Vrbinate nuper in latinum conversa et commentariis

Uncut copy, bound in blue morocco, with vellum fly-leaves. Leaf 8-3/4 ×
6-1/2 in. From the Syston Park library with book-plate and monogram of
Sir John Hayford Thorold.

34. LIVIUS, TITUS. Historiarum ab urbe condita libri. Venetiis, in
    ædibus Manutianis, 1572.

TITLE: T.LIVII PATAVINI, Historiarum ab urbe condita, LIBRI. QVI.
quibus ijdem libri, atque epitomae partim emendantur, partim etiam
explanantur, Ab Auctore multis in partibus aucta. [Printer's device]
VENETIIS ∞ DLXXII. In Aedibus Manutianis.

     Folio. Part 1. 48 unnumbered preliminary leaves containing title,
     preface of Sigonius, _Veterum scriptorum de T. Liuio testimonia ab
     Aldo Manutio Paulli F. Aldi N. collecta, Libri primi epitome, Rerum
     et vocum apud T. Liuium index copiosissimus_; 399 numbered leaves
     of text (blank last leaf wanting). Part 2. _Caroli Sigonii
     Scholia_, with separate title and device, 109 numbered leaves and
     blank end leaf. Part 3. _Caroli Sigonii Livianorum Scholiorum
     aliquot Defensiones adversus Glareanum et Robortellum_, with
     separate title and device, 52 numbered pages. Roman character,
     except _epitomae_ i-xlv and _index_ which are in the italic type of
     the Ptolemy commentary, and the preface which is a large and
     unusual italic, first found in a notice prefixed to the _Medici
     antiqui_ of 1547, once as a text type in 1550, afterwards only in
     an occasional preface or title-page. Like the smaller italic of
     Paulus it is provided with capitals. The large woodcut initials of
     the several books belong to the mythological series found in the
     Ptolemy but are here much worn. Renouard, p. 215.

Editions of Livy with the Scholia of Sigonius were issued from the
Aldine press in 1555, 1566, 1572 and 1592. This third edition is
distinguished from those which preceded it by some additions to the
Scholia and an appendix in which the editor defends his views on the
chronology of Livy against the attacks of two opponents. But
typographically it is inferior to the second edition as the second was
inferior to the first, which alone was printed under the active
supervision of Paulus. In 1561 he went to Rome to undertake the
direction of a press which Pius IV. was about to establish and died
there in 1574, having made only one brief visit to Venice in the
intervening thirteen years. In his absence the Venice press, when not
inactive or leased, was mainly in the charge of his son, the younger
Aldus (1547-97), who in spite of the promise of his early years failed
both as a scholar and as a printer to sustain the reputation of his
father and grandfather. To the present edition Aldus contributed the
_Veterum scriptorum de T. Liuio testimonia_, and he is also
unquestionably responsible for the large and strange device which
replaces the simple anchor for which his father had shown so marked a
preference. It consists of the arms granted to Paulus in 1571 by the
Emperor Maximilian II. (in which the Aldine anchor occupies a
subordinate place) surrounded by a border of heavy ornament with the
addition: _Ex privilegio Maximiliani II. Imp. Caes. Aug._ When his
father's death had made him the head of the press he continued for some
years to employ the same device. For the Livy of 1592, much inferior to
the present edition, and of interest only as showing the decline into
which the Aldine press, and the Italian presses in general, had fallen
at the end of the sixteenth century, he was only indirectly responsible.
He left Venice in 1585 and spent the last years of his life at Rome, as
professor of belles-lettres and joint director of the Vatican press.

35. BIBLIA LATINA. Parisiis, Yolande Bonhomme, vidua Thielmanni Kerver,
    August 14, 1549.

TITLE: Biblia sacra, integru_m_ vtriusq_ue_ testame_n_ti corpus
co_m_plecte_n_s, dilige_n_ter recognita et eme_n_data. Cu_m_
concorda_n_tijs simul et argume_n_tis: cu_m_q_ue_ iuris canoni_c_i
allegationib_us_ passim adnotatis. Insup_er_ i_n_ calce eiusde_m_ annexe
su_n_t no_m_i_nu_m Hebraico_rum_, Chaldeo_rum_, atq_ue_ Greco_rum_
interp_re_tatio_n_es. Huic editio_n_i adiect_us_ e_st_ Index re_rum_ et
sente_n_tia_rum_ vetr_is_ _et_ noui testame_nti_. [Printer's device
(shield bearing the initials T.K. suspended from a tree and supported by
two unicorns, with name THIELMAN.KERVER. at foot), both the title and
the device framed in a woodcut border]. _Fol. 562^a_, COLOPHON:
Parisijs, ex officina libraria yola_n_de bonhomme, Uidue spectabilis
viri Thielmanni Keruer, sub signo vnicornis in vico sancti Jacobi vbi et
venundatur. Absolutum Anno domini Millesimo quingentesimo quadragesimo
nono Decimo nono Calendas Septembris. [Printer's device on verso].

     Octavo. Sign. A^8, B^4, a-z, aa-zz, A-Y^8, Z^6, aaa-eee^8. 602
     leaves, comprising 12 preliminary unnumbered leaves containing
     title, _Ad divinarum literarum verarumque divitiarum amatores
     exhortatio, Librorum ordo, Biblie summarium_. Gabriel Bruno's
     _Tabula alphabetica historiarum_; fol. i-cccccxx, text; 30
     unnumbered leaves _Index rerum et sententiarum_; 40 unnumbered
     leaves _Interpretationes nominum Hebraicorum_, etc. Very small
     gothic letter, double columns, 58 lines to the column. Six- to
     eight-line woodcut initials of the several books, the unicorns of
     Kerver's device appearing in that of Gen. i. Le Long-Masch iii, 2,

The octavo Latin Bibles of the Kerver press, fifteen editions of which
appeared between 1508 and 1560, were closely patterned after Froben's
edition, Basel, 1591 (the first Bible printed in octavo form), both as
regards the text, based on the "Fontibus ex Græcis" editions, 1478 ff.,
and the introductory and supplementary matter of various origin
accompanying it. The earliest of these supplements, _Interpretationes
nominum Hebraicorum_, an etymological index of Hebrew proper names,
appeared first in the Bible of Sweynheym and Pannartz, Rome, 1471, and
was reprinted without change in most of the editions previous to 1515.
In the Complutensian Polyglot it underwent revision and the revised form
appears in all the editions of Yolande Bonhomme, with due
acknowledgment to Cardinal Ximenes. The _Index rerum et sententiarum_,
however, announced in the title as a new addition to this edition (as it
had been also announced in the edition of 1546, not mentioned by Masch
and Copinger, of which this is an exact duplicate) was borrowed from the
Bible of Robert Stephens, Paris, 1534, without acknowledgment, perhaps
in order the better to escape the suspicion of heresy attached to his
work. In Copinger's chronological table of the printed editions of the
Latin Bible during the 15th and 16th centuries (_Incunabula Biblica_, p.
207) this is no. 339, total number 562.

The Kerver press was less celebrated for its Bibles than for liturgical
works, and for the books of private devotion (_Horae, Heures_) of which
Brunet (_Manuel_, v, col. 1614-27) enumerates no less than fifty-six,
printed by Thielmann, his widow, or his sons, between 1497 and 1571. The
wood-engravings with which they were illustrated were repeated in the
successive editions and occasionally also in the Bibles. Two of these
borrowed cuts are found in the present edition, facing the Old and the
New Testament. The first represents the Expulsion from the Garden, but
the verse printed underneath (Gen. ii. 7) calls for the Creation of
Adam, which in Yolande's editions of 1526 and 1534 is actually present,
while here another engraving has been substituted, but the verse left
standing. Facing the New Testament, under the heading _Jesu Christi
secundum carnem genealogia_, is a genealogical tree springing from "the
root of Jesse."

Following the usual alphabetical order of the signatures (A-Z, aaa-eee),
the _Index rerum et sententiarum_ (sign. U-Z) is here placed before the
_Interpretationes_ (sign. aaa-eee). This is contrary to the direction of
the _Collectio codicum_ found on the last leaf of the _Index_ (Z6),
where the order prescribed is A-T, aaa-eee, U-Z, which is further
supported by the colophon and printer's device on Z6. The _Index_ as the
latest supplement was meant to stand at the end of the volume.

Bound in oak boards covered with stamped leather, brass corners and
bosses, gilt gauffred edges. Around the central boss of the back cover
is stamped the date A.D. 1571, and on the front cover, in corresponding
position and order, the initials F E P L P F.

From the Osterley Park sale, May, 1885, with the book-plate of Victor
Albert George Child Villiers, Earl of Jersey. Leaf 6-1/2 × 4-1/2 in.

36. PHILO JUDÆUS. De divinis decem oraculis. Lutetiæ, apud Carolum
Stephanum, 1554.

TITLE: Philonis Iudæi DE DIVINIS DECEM oraculis, quæ summa sunt legum
capita Liber, Iohanne Væuræo interprete. [Printer's device] LVTETIAE,
Apud Carolum Stephanum, Typographum Regium. M.D.LIIII.

     Octavo. 72 numbered pages, followed by one leaf _Ad lectorem_ and
     one blank. Pp. 3-6, dedication by the translator to Charles de
     Guise, Cardinal de Lorraine, Archbishop of Reims, to whom was also
     dedicated the first edition of the works of Philo in Greek, printed
     by Turnebus, Paris 1552. Printed on vellum. On p. 7 a beautiful
     seven-line engraved initial R. The device is that chosen by the
     printer's brother Robert, the olive tree and the motto _Noli altum
     sapere_, without the addition _sed time_.

Renouard, _Annales de l'impr. des Estienne_, 2^e éd., p. 106; adds to
his description of the volume the following note: "Dédié au cardinal de
Lorraine, pour lequel il en fut tiré sur vélin un exemplaire que depuis
l'on a vu relié en maroq. jaune ancien, avec une tête en or sur la
couverture. Il a passé dans une Bibliothèque inconnue." The present copy
answers completely to this description and is without doubt the
dedication copy in question. The binding (17th cent.) is yellow morocco,
browned by age, gilt edges, with a medallion head in gold embossed on
the back cover. Within are written names of former owners; on the title
page _N. Tetel_, _1644 datum Remis_ and _Claude Henry Corrard_; on the
cover linings _ex Libris Claudii Tetel ad Mussey_(?); _Ce livre
appartient à m^{lle} Jean Collot_.

By an oversight Renouard omitted this volume from his list (p. 271) of
"Editions Stéphaniennes dont on connoit un on plusieurs exemplaires
imprimés sur vélin." It increases the number to twenty-three, seventeen
of them printed by the first Henri and only six by his descendants.

Charles Estienne (1504?-1564), a member of a second remarkable family of
scholar-printers of the sixteenth century, whose history forms so
interesting a parallel to that of Aldus and his descendants, though he
does not rank with his brother Robert, or Robert's son the second Henry,
certainly brought no discredit on the family name. He was educated as a
physician, but when Robert withdrew to Geneva to escape the persecutions
of the Sorbonne, he took charge of the Paris press and conducted it with
ability from 1551 to 1561, printing one hundred volumes and receiving
the appointment of king's printer. Aside from this attractive volume no
vellum copy of his books is known.

From the Wodhull sale, with the Wodhull arms stamped in gold on the
front cover. Mem. within: "Payne's sale. £3 3s. M. Wodhull, Apr. 14^{th}
1792. Collat & complet." On the last blank leaf is entered the date
"Oct. 17^{th} 1808," a record possibly of a later "visitation." Similar
dates, some years later than the date of purchase are found on the end
leaves of other Wodhull books. Leaf 7 × 4-1/2 in.

Transcriber's Note:

The following inconsistencies found in the text have been retained:

head-line / headline
Homiliæ / Homiliae (in referring to the same book)
De Vinne / DeVinne
Prohemye / Proheyme

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