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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 4 - "Bulgaria" to "Calgary"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 4 - "Bulgaria" to "Calgary"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text. Volume and page numbers have been
incorporated into the text of each page as: v.04 p.0001.

In the article CALCITE, negative Miller Indices, e.g. "1-bar" in the
original are shown as "-1".

In the article CALCULATING MACHINES, [Integral,a:b] indicates a definite
integral between lower limit a and upper limit b. [Integral] by itself
indicates an indefinite integral. [=x] and [=y] represent x-bar and y-bar
in the original.

[v.04 p.0773]

BULGARIA (_continued from part 3_)

... the mean interval being 60 m.; the summits are, as a rule, rounded, and
the slopes gentle. The culminating points are in the centre of the range:
Yumrukchál (7835 ft.), Maragudúk (7808 ft.), and Kadimlía (7464 ft.). The
Balkans are known to the people of the country as the _Stara Planina_ or
"Old Mountain," the adjective denoting their greater size as compared with
that of the adjacent ranges: "Balkán" is not a distinctive term, being
applied by the Bulgarians, as well as the Turks, to all mountains. Closely
parallel, on the south, are the minor ranges of the Sredna Gora or "Middle
Mountains" (highest summit 5167 ft.) and the Karaja Dagh, enclosing
respectively the sheltered valleys of Karlovo and Kazanlyk. At its eastern
extremity the Balkan chain divides into three ridges, the central
terminating in the Black Sea at Cape Eminé ("Haemus"), the northern forming
the watershed between the tributaries of the Danube and the rivers falling
directly into the Black Sea. The Rhodope, or southern group, is altogether
distinct from the Balkans, with which, however, it is connected by the
Malka Planina and the Ikhtiman hills, respectively west and east of Sofia;
it may be regarded as a continuation of the great Alpine system which
traverses the Peninsula from the Dinaric Alps and the Shar Planina on the
west to the Shabkhana Dagh near the Aegean coast; its sharper outlines and
pine-clad steeps reproduce the scenery of the Alps rather than that of the
Balkans. The imposing summit of Musallá (9631 ft.), next to Olympus, the
highest in the Peninsula, forms the centre-point of the group; it stands
within the Bulgarian frontier at the head of the Mesta valley, on either
side of which the Perin Dagh and the Despoto Dagh descend south and
south-east respectively towards the Aegean. The chain of Rhodope proper
radiates to the east; owing to the retrocession of territory already
mentioned, its central ridge no longer completely coincides with the
Bulgarian boundary, but two of its principal summits, Sytké (7179 ft.) and
Karlyk (6828 ft.), are within the frontier. From Musallá in a westerly
direction extends the majestic range of the Rilska Planina, enclosing in a
picturesque valley the celebrated monastery of Rila; many summits of this
chain attain 7000 ft. Farther west, beyond the Struma valley, is the
Osogovska Planina, culminating in Ruyen (7392 ft.). To the north of the
Rilska Planina the almost isolated mass of Vitosha (7517 ft.) overhangs
Sofia. Snow and ice remain in the sheltered crevices of Rhodope and the
Balkans throughout the summer. The fertile slope trending northwards from
the Balkans to the Danube is for the most part gradual and broken by hills;
the eastern portion known as the _Delí Orman_, or "Wild Wood," is covered
by forest, and thinly inhabited. The abrupt and sometimes precipitous
character of the Bulgarian bank of the Danube contrasts with the swampy
lowlands and lagoons of the Rumanian side. Northern Bulgaria is watered by
the Lom, Ogust, Iskr, Vid, Osem, Yantra and Eastern Lom, all, except the
Iskr, rising in the Balkans, and all flowing into the Danube. The channels
of these rivers are deeply furrowed and the fall is rapid; irrigation is
consequently difficult and navigation impossible. The course of the Iskr is
remarkable: rising in the Rilska Planina, the river descends into the basin
of Samakov, passing thence through a serpentine defile into the plateau of
Sofia, where in ancient times it formed a lake; it now forces its way
through the Balkans by the picturesque gorge of Iskretz. Somewhat similarly
the Deli, or "Wild," Kamchik breaks the central chain of the Balkans near
their eastern extremity and, uniting with the Great Kamchik, falls into the
Black Sea. The Maritza, the ancient _Hebrus_, springs from the slopes of
Musallá, and, with its tributaries, the Tunja and Arda, waters the wide
plain of Eastern Rumelia. The Struma (ancient and modern Greek _Strymon_)
drains the valley of Kiustendil, and, like the Maritza, flows into the
Aegean. The elevated basins of Samakov (lowest altitude 3050 ft.), Trn
(2525 ft.), Breznik (2460 ft.), Radomir (2065 ft.), Sofia (1640 ft.), and
Kiustendil (1540 ft.), are a peculiar feature of the western highlands.

[Illustration]

_Geology._--The stratified formation presents a remarkable variety, almost
all the systems being exemplified. The Archean, composed of gneiss and
crystalline schists, and traversed by eruptive veins, extends over the
greater part of the Eastern Rumelian plain, the Rilska Planina, Rhodope,
and the adjacent ranges. North of the Balkans it appears only in the
neighbourhood of Berkovitza. The other earlier Palaeozoic systems are
wanting, but the Carboniferous appears in the western Balkans with a
continental _facies_ (Kulm). Here anthracitiferous coal is found in beds of
argillite and sandstone. Red sandstone and conglomerate, representing the
Permian system, appear especially around the basin of Sofia. Above these,
in the western Balkans, are Mesozoic deposits, from the Trias to the upper
Jurassic, also occurring in the central part of the range. The Cretaceous
system, from the infra-Cretaceous Hauterivien to the Senonian, appears
throughout the whole extent of Northern Bulgaria, from the summits of the
Balkans to the Danube. Gosau beds are found on the southern declivity of
the chain. Flysch, representing both the Cretaceous and Eocene systems, is
widely distributed. The Eocene, or older Tertiary, further appears with
nummulitic formations on both sides of the eastern Balkans; the Oligocene
only near the Black Sea coast at Burgas. Of the Neogene, or younger
Tertiary, the Mediterranean, or earlier, stage appears near Pleven (Plevna)
in the Leithakalk and Tegel forms, and between Varna and Burgas with beds
of spaniodons, as in the Crimea; the Sarmatian stage in the plain of the
Danube and in the districts of Silistria and Varna. A rich mammaliferous
deposit (_Hipparion_, _Rhinoceros_, _Dinotherium_, _Mastodon_, &c.) of this
period has been found near Mesemvria. Other Neogene strata occupy a more
limited space. The Quaternary era is represented by the typical loess,
which covers most of the Danubian plain; to its later epochs belong the
alluvial deposits of the riparian districts with remains of the _Ursus_,
_Equus_, &c., found in bone-caverns. Eruptive masses intrude in the Balkans
and Sredna Gora, as well as in the Archean formation of the southern [v.04
p.0774] ranges, presenting granite, syenite, diorite, diabase,
quartz-porphyry, melaphyre, liparite, trachyte, andesite, basalt, &c.

_Minerals._--The mineral wealth of Bulgaria is considerable, although, with
the exception of coal, it remains largely unexploited. The minerals which
are commercially valuable include gold (found in small quantities), silver,
graphite, galena, pyrite, marcasite, chalcosine, sphalerite, chalcopyrite,
bornite, cuprite, hematite, limonite, ochre, chromite, magnetite, azurite,
manganese, malachite, gypsum, &c. The combustibles are anthracitiferous
coal, coal, "brown coal" and lignite. The lignite mines opened by the
government at Pernik in 1891 yielded in 1904 142,000 tons. Coal beds have
been discovered at Trevna and elsewhere. Thermal springs, mostly
sulphureous, exist in forty-three localities along the southern slope of
the Balkans, in Rhodope, and in the districts of Sofia and Kiustendil;
maximum temperature at Zaparevo, near Dupnitza, 180.5° (Fahrenheit), at
Sofia 118.4°. Many of these are frequented now, as in Roman times, owing to
their valuable therapeutic qualities. The mineral springs on the north of
the Balkans are, with one exception (Vrshetz, near Berkovitza), cold.

_Climate._--The severity of the climate of Bulgaria in comparison with that
of other European regions of the same latitude is attributable in part to
the number and extent of its mountain ranges, in part to the general
configuration of the Balkan Peninsula. Extreme heat in summer and cold in
winter, great local contrasts, and rapid transitions of temperature occur
here as in the adjoining countries. The local contrasts are remarkable. In
the districts extending from the Balkans to the Danube, which are exposed
to the bitter north wind, the winter cold is intense, and the river,
notwithstanding the volume and rapidity of its current, is frequently
frozen over; the temperature has been known to fall to 24° below zero.
Owing to the shelter afforded by the Balkans against hot southerly winds,
the summer heat in this region is not unbearable; its maximum is 99°. The
high tableland of Sofia is generally covered with snow in the winter
months; it enjoys, however, a somewhat more equable climate than the
northern district, the maximum temperature being 86°, the minimum 2°; the
air is bracing, and the summer nights are cool and fresh. In the eastern
districts the proximity of the sea moderates the extremes of heat and cold;
the sea is occasionally frozen at Varna. The coast-line is exposed to
violent north-east winds, and the Black Sea, the [Greek: pontos axeinos] or
"inhospitable sea" of the Greeks, maintains its evil reputation for storms.
The sheltered plain of Eastern Rumelia possesses a comparatively warm
climate; spring begins six weeks earlier than elsewhere in Bulgaria, and
the vegetation is that of southern Europe. In general the Bulgarian winter
is short and severe; the spring short, changeable and rainy; the summer
hot, but tempered by thunderstorms; the autumn (_yasen_, "the clear time")
magnificently fine and sometimes prolonged into the month of December. The
mean temperature is 52°. The climate is healthy, especially in the
mountainous districts. Malarial fever prevails in the valley of the
Maritza, in the low-lying regions of the Black Sea coast, and even in the
upland plain of Sofia, owing to neglect of drainage. The mean annual
rainfall is 25-59 in. (Gabrovo, 41-73; Sofia, 27-68; Varna, 18-50).

_Fauna._--Few special features are noticeable in the Bulgarian fauna. Bears
are still abundant in the higher mountain districts, especially in the
Rilska Planina and Rhodope; the Bulgarian bear is small and of brown
colour, like that of the Carpathians. Wolves are very numerous, and in
winter commit great depredations even in the larger country towns and
villages; in hard weather they have been known to approach the outskirts of
Sofia. The government offers a reward for the destruction of both these
animals. The roe deer is found in all the forests, the red deer is less
common; the chamois haunts the higher regions of the Rilska Planina,
Rhodope and the Balkans. The jackal (_Canis aureus_) appears in the
district of Burgas; the lynx is said to exist in the Sredna Gora; the wild
boar, otter, fox, badger, hare, wild cat, marten, polecat (_Foetorius
putorius_; the rare tiger polecat, _Foetorius sarmaticus_, is also found),
weasel and shrewmouse (_Spermophilus citillus_) are common. The beaver
(Bulg. _bebr_) appears to have been abundant in certain localities, _e.g._
Bebrovo, Bebresh, &c., but it is now apparently extinct. Snakes (_Coluber
natrix_ and other species), vipers (_Vipera berus_ and _V. ammodytes_), and
land and water tortoises are numerous. The domestic animals are the same as
in the other countries of southeastern Europe; the fierce shaggy grey
sheep-dog leaves a lasting impression on most travellers in the interior.
Fowls, especially turkeys, are everywhere abundant, and great numbers of
geese may be seen in the Moslem villages. The ornithology of Bulgaria is
especially interesting. Eagles (_Aquila imperialis_ and the rarer _Aquila
fulva_), vultures (_Vultur monachus_, _Gyps fulvus_, _Neophron
percnopterus_), owls, kites, and the smaller birds of prey are
extraordinarily abundant; singing birds are consequently rare. The
lammergeier (_Gypaëtus barbatus_) is not uncommon. Immense flocks of wild
swans, geese, pelicans, herons and other waterfowl haunt the Danube and the
lagoons of the Black Sea coast. The cock of the woods (_Tetrao urogallus_)
is found in the Balkan and Rhodope forests, the wild pheasant in the Tunja
valley, the bustard (_Otis tarda_) in the Eastern Rumelian plain. Among the
migratory birds are the crane, which hibernates in the Maritza valley,
woodcock, snipe and quail; the great spotted cuckoo (_Coccystes
glandarius_) is an occasional visitant. The red starling (_Pastor roseus_)
sometimes appears in large flights. The stork, which is never molested,
adds a picturesque feature to the Bulgarian village. Of fresh-water fish,
the sturgeon (_Acipenser sturio_ and _A. huso_), sterlet, salmon (_Salmo
hucho_), and carp are found in the Danube; the mountain streams abound in
trout. The Black Sea supplies turbot, mackerel, &c.; dolphins and flying
fish may sometimes be seen.

_Flora._--In regard to its flora the country may be divided into (1) the
northern plain sloping from the Balkans to the Danube, (2) the southern
plain between the Balkans and Rhodope, (3) the districts adjoining the
Black Sea, (4) the elevated basins of Sofia, Samakov and Kiustendil, (5)
the Alpine and sub-Alpine regions of the Balkans and the southern mountain
group. In the first-mentioned region the vegetation resembles that of the
Russian and Rumanian steppes; in the spring the country is adorned with the
flowers of the crocus, orchis, iris, tulip and other bulbous plants, which
in summer give way to tall grasses, umbelliferous growths, _dianthi_,
_astragali_, &c. In the more sheltered district south of the Balkans the
richer vegetation recalls that of the neighbourhood of Constantinople and
the adjacent parts of Asia Minor. On the Black Sea coast many types of the
Crimean, Transcaucasian and even the Mediterranean flora present
themselves. The plateaus of Sofia and Samakov furnish specimens of
sub-alpine plants, while the vine disappears; the hollow of Kiustendil,
owing to its southerly aspect, affords the vegetation of the Macedonian
valleys. The flora of the Balkans corresponds with that of the Carpathians;
the Rila and Rhodope group is rich in purely indigenous types combined with
those of the central European Alps and the mountains of Asia Minor. The
Alpine types are often represented by variants: _e.g._ the _Campanula
alpina_ by the _Campanula orbelica_, the _Primula farinosa_ by the _Primula
frondosa_ and _P. exigua_, the _Gentiana germanica_ by the _Gentiana
bulgarica_, &c. The southern mountain group, in common, perhaps, with the
unexplored highlands of Macedonia, presents many isolated types, unknown
elsewhere in Europe, and in some cases corresponding with those of the
Caucasus. Among the more characteristic genera of the Bulgarian flora are
the following:--_Centaurea_, _Cirsium_, _Linaria_, _Scrophularia_,
_Verbascum_, _Dianthus_, _Silene_, _Trifolium_, _Euphorbia_, _Cytisus_,
_Astragalus_, _Ornithogalum_, _Allium_, _Crocus_, _Iris_, _Thymus_,
_Umbellifera_, _Sedum_, _Hypericum_, _Scabiosa_, _Ranunculus_, _Orchis_,
_Ophrys_.

_Forests._--The principal forest trees are the oak, beech, ash, elm,
walnut, cornel, poplar, pine and juniper. The oak is universal in the
thickets, but large specimens are now rarely found. Magnificent forests of
beech clothe the valleys of the higher Balkans and the Rilska Planina; the
northern declivity of the Balkans is, in general, well wooded, but the
southern slope is bare. The walnut and chestnut are mainly confined to
eastern Rumelia. Conifers (_Pinus silvestris_, _Picea excelsa_, _Pinus
laricis_, _Pinus mughus_) are rare in the Balkans, but abundant in the
higher regions of the southern mountain group, where the _Pinus peuce_,
otherwise peculiar to the Himalayas, also flourishes. The wild lilac forms
a beautiful feature in the spring landscape. Wild fruit trees, such as the
apple, pear and plum, are common. The vast forests of the middle ages
disappeared under the supine Turkish administration, which took no measures
for their protection, and even destroyed the woods in the neighbourhood of
towns and highways in order to deprive brigands of shelter. A law passed in
1889 prohibits disforesting, limits the right of cutting timber, and places
the state forests under the control of inspectors. According to official
statistics, 11,640 sq. m. or about 30% of the whole superficies of the
kingdom, are under forest, but the greater portion of this area is covered
only by brushwood and scrub. The beautiful forests of the Rila district are
rapidly disappearing under exploitation.

_Agriculture._--Agriculture, the main source of wealth to the country, is
still in an extremely primitive condition. The ignorance and conservatism
of the peasantry, the habits engendered by widespread insecurity and the
fear of official rapacity under Turkish rule, insufficiency of
communications, want of capital, and in some districts sparsity of
population, have all tended to retard the development of this most
important industry. The peasants cling to traditional usage, and look with
suspicion on modern implements and new-fangled modes of production. The
plough is of a primeval type, rotation of crops is only partially
practised, and the use of manure is almost unknown. The government has
sedulously endeavoured to introduce more enlightened methods and ideas by
the establishment of agricultural schools, the appointment of itinerant
professors and inspectors, the distribution of better kinds of seeds,
improved implements, &c. Efforts have been made to improve the breeds of
native cattle and horses, and stallions have been introduced from Hungary
and distributed throughout the country. Oxen and buffaloes are the
principal animals of draught; the buffalo, which was apparently introduced
from Asia in remote times, is much prized by the peasants for its patience
and strength; it is, however, somewhat delicate and requires much care. In
[v.04 p.0775] the eastern districts camels are also employed. The Bulgarian
horses are small, but remarkably hardy, wiry and intelligent; they are as a
rule unfitted for draught and cavalry purposes. The best sheep are found in
the district of Karnobat in Eastern Rumelia. The number of goats in the
country tends to decline, a relatively high tax being imposed on these
animals owing to the injury they inflict on young trees. The average price
of oxen is £5 each, draught oxen £12 the pair, buffaloes £14 the pair, cows
£2, horses £6, sheep, 7s., goats 5s., each. The principal cereals are
wheat, maize, rye, barley, oats and millet. The cultivation of maize is
increasing in the Danubian and eastern districts. Rice-fields are found in
the neighbourhood of Philippopolis. Cereals represent about 80% of the
total exports. Besides grain, Bulgaria produces wine, tobacco, attar of
roses, silk and cotton. The quality of the grape is excellent, and could
the peasants be induced to abandon their highly primitive mode of
wine-making the Bulgarian vintages would rank among the best European
growths. The tobacco, which is not of the highest quality, is grown in
considerable quantities for home consumption and only an insignificant
amount is exported. The best tobacco-fields in Bulgaria are on the northern
slopes of Rhodope, but the southern declivity, which produces the famous
Kavala growth, is more adapted to the cultivation of the plant. The
rose-fields of Kazanlyk and Karlovo lie in the sheltered valleys between
the Balkans and the parallel chains of the Sredna Gora and Karaja Dagh.
About 6000 lb of the rose-essence is annually exported, being valued from
£12 to £14 per lb. Beetroot is cultivated in the neighbourhood of Sofia.
Sericulture, formerly an important industry, has declined owing to disease
among the silkworms, but efforts are being made to revive it with promise
of success. Cotton is grown in the southern districts of Eastern Rumelia.

Peasant proprietorship is universal, the small freeholds averaging about 18
acres each. There are scarcely any large estates owned by individuals, but
some of the monasteries possess considerable domains. The large
_tchifliks_, or farms, formerly belonging to Turkish landowners, have been
divided among the peasants. The rural proprietors enjoy the right of
pasturing their cattle on the common lands belonging to each village, and
of cutting wood in the state forests. They live in a condition of rude
comfort, and poverty is practically unknown, except in the towns. A
peculiarly interesting feature in Bulgarian agricultural life is the
_zadruga_, or house-community, a patriarchal institution apparently dating
from prehistoric times. Family groups, sometimes numbering several dozen
persons, dwell together on a farm in the observance of strictly communistic
principles. The association is ruled by a house-father (_domakin_,
_stareïshina_), and a house-mother (_domakinia_), who assign to the members
their respective tasks. In addition to the farm work the members often
practise various trades, the proceeds of which are paid into the general
treasury. The community sometimes includes a priest, whose fees for
baptisms, &c., augment the common fund. The national aptitude for
combination is also displayed in the associations of market gardeners
(_gradinarski druzhini_, _taifi_), who in the spring leave their native
districts for the purpose of cultivating gardens in the neighbourhood of
some town, either in Bulgaria or abroad, returning in the autumn, when they
divide the profits of the enterprise; the number of persons annually thus
engaged probably exceeds 10,000. Associations for various agricultural,
mining and industrial undertakings and provident societies are numerous:
the handicraftsmen in the towns are organized in _esnafs_ or gilds.

_Manufactures._--The development of manufacturing enterprise on a large
scale has been retarded by want of capital. The principal establishments
for the native manufactures of _aba_ and _shayak_ (rough and fine
homespuns), and of _gaitan_ (braided embroidery) are at Sliven and Gabrovo
respectively. The Bulgarian homespuns, which are made of pure wool, are of
admirable quality. The exportation of textiles is almost exclusively to
Turkey: value in 1806, £104,046; in 1898, £144,726; in 1904, £108,685.
Unfortunately the home demand for native fabrics is diminishing owing to
foreign competition; the smaller textile industries are declining, and the
picturesque, durable, and comfortable costume of the country is giving way
to cheap ready-made clothing imported from Austria. The government has
endeavoured to stimulate the home industry by ordering all persons in its
employment to wear the native cloth, and the army is supplied almost
exclusively by the factories at Sliven. A great number of small
distilleries exist throughout the country; there are breweries in all the
principal towns, tanneries at Sevlievo, Varna, &c., numerous corn-mills
worked by water and steam, and sawmills, turned by the mountain torrents,
in the Balkans and Rhodope. A certain amount of foreign capital has been
invested in industrial enterprises; the most notable are sugar-refineries
in the neighbourhood of Sofia and Philippopolis, and a cotton-spinning mill
at Varna, on which an English company has expended about £60,000.

_Commerce._--The usages of internal commerce have been considerably
modified by the development of communications. The primitive system of
barter in kind still exists in the rural districts, but is gradually
disappearing. The great fairs (_panaïri_, [Greek: panêgureis]) held at
Eski-Jumaia, Dobritch and other towns, which formerly attracted multitudes
of foreigners as well as natives, have lost much of their importance; a
considerable amount of business, however, is still transacted at these
gatherings, of which ninety-seven were held in 1898. The principal seats of
the export trade are Varna, Burgas and Baltchik on the Black Sea, and
Svishtov, Rustchuk, Nikopolis, Silistria, Rakhovo, and Vidin on the Danube.
The chief centres of distribution for imports are Varna, Sofia, Rustchuk,
Philippopolis and Burgas. About 10% of the exports passes over the Turkish
frontier, but the government is making great efforts to divert the trade to
Varna and Burgas, and important harbour works have been carried out at both
these ports. The new port of Burgas was formally opened in 1904, that of
Varna in 1906.

In 1887 the total value of Bulgarian foreign commerce was £4,419,589. The
following table gives the values for the six years ending 1904. The great
fluctuations in the exports are due to the variations of the harvest, on
which the prosperity of the country practically depends:--

  Year.   Exports.     Imports.     Total.

             £             £           £
  1899    2,138,684    2,407,123    4,545,807
  1900    2,159,305    1,853,684    4,012,989
  1901    3,310,790    2,801,762    6,112,552
  1902    4,147,381    2,849,059    7,996,440
  1903    4,322,945    3,272,103    7,595,048
  1904    6,304,756    5,187,583   11,492,339

The principal exports are cereals, live stock, homespuns, hides, cheese,
eggs, attar of roses. Exports to the United Kingdom in 1900 were valued at
£239,665; in 1904 at £989,127. The principal imports are textiles, metal
goods, colonial goods, implements, furniture, leather, petroleum. Imports
from the United Kingdom in 1900, £301,150; in 1904, £793,972.

The National Bank, a state institution with a capital of £400,000, has its
central establishment at Sofia, and branches at Philippopolis, Rustchuk,
Varna, Trnovo and Burgas. Besides conducting the ordinary banking
operations, it issues loans on mortgage. Four other banks have been founded
at Sofia by groups of foreign and native capitalists. There are several
private banks in the country. The Imperial Ottoman Bank and the Industrial
Bank of Kiev have branches at Philippopolis and Sofia respectively. The
agricultural chests, founded by Midhat Pasha in 1863, and reorganized in
1894, have done much to rescue the peasantry from the hands of usurers.
They serve as treasuries for the local administration, accept deposits at
interest, and make loans to the peasants on mortgage or the security of two
solvent landowners at 8%. Their capital in 1887 was £569,260; in 1904,
£1,440,000. Since 1893 they have been constituted as the "Bulgarian
Agricultural Bank"; the central direction is at Sofia. The post-office
savings bank, established 1896, had in 1905 a capital of £1,360,560.

There are over 200 registered provident societies in the country. The legal
rate of interest is 10%, but much higher rates are not uncommon.

Bulgaria, like the neighbouring states of the Peninsula, has adopted the
metric system. Turkish weights and measures, however, are still largely
employed in local commerce. The monetary unit is the _lev_, or "lion" (pl.
_leva_), nominally equal to the franc, with its submultiple the _stotinka_
(pl. _-ki_), or centime. The coinage consists of nickel and bronze coins
(2½, 5, 10 and 20 _stotinki_) and silver coins [v.04 p.0776] (50
_stotinki_; 1, 2 and 5 _leva_). A gold coinage was struck in 1893 with
pieces corresponding to those of the Latin Union. The Turkish pound and
foreign gold coins are also in general circulation. The National Bank
issues notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 _leva_, payable in gold. Notes
payable in silver are also issued.

_Finance._--It is only possible here to deal with Bulgarian finance prior
to the declaration of independence in 1908. At the outset of its career the
principality was practically unencumbered with any debt, external or
internal. The stipulations of the Berlin Treaty (Art. ix.) with regard to
the payment of a tribute to the sultan and the assumption of an "equitable
proportion" of the Ottoman Debt were never carried into effect. In 1883 the
claim of Russia for the expenses of the occupation (under Art. xx. of the
treaty) was fixed at 26,545,625 fr. (£1,061,820) payable in annual
instalments of 2,100,000 fr. (£84,000). The union with Eastern Rumelia in
1885 entailed liability for the obligations of that province consisting of
an annual tribute to Turkey of 2,951,000 fr. (£118,040) and a loan of
3,375,000 fr. (£135,000) contracted with the Imperial Ottoman Bank. In 1888
the purchase of the Varna-Rustchuk railway was effected by the issue of
treasury bonds at 6% to the vendors. In 1889 a loan of 30,000,000 fr.
(£1,200,000) bearing 6% interest was contracted with the Vienna Länderbank
and Bankverein at 85½. In 1892 a further 6% loan of 142,780,000 fr.
(£5,711,200) was contracted with the Länderbank at 83, 86 and 89. In 1902 a
5% loan of 106,000,000 fr. (£4,240,000), secured on the tobacco dues and
the stamp-tax, was contracted with the Banque de l'État de Russie and the
Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas at 81½, for the purpose of consolidating
the floating debt, and in 1904 a 5% loan of 99,980,000 fr. (£3,999,200) at
82, with the same guarantees, was contracted with the last-named bank
mainly for the purchase of war material in France and the construction of
railways. In January 1906 the national debt stood as follows:--Outstanding
amount of the consolidated loans, 363,070,500 fr. (£14,522,820); internal
debt, 15,603,774 fr. (£624,151); Eastern Rumelian debt, 1,910,208
(£76,408). In February 1907 a 4½% loan of 145,000,000 fr. at 85, secured on
the surplus proceeds of the revenues already pledged to the loans of 1902
and 1904, was contracted with the Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas
associated with some German and Austrian banks for the conversion of the
loans of 1888 and 1889 (requiring about 53,000,000 fr.) and for railway
construction and other purposes. The total external debt was thus raised to
upwards of 450,000,000 fr. The Eastern Rumelian tribute and the rent of the
Sarambey-Belovo railway, if capitalized at 6%, would represent a further
sum of 50,919,100 fr. (£2,036,765). The national debt was not
disproportionately great in comparison with annual revenue. After the union
with Eastern Rumelia the budget receipts increased from 40,803,262 leva
(£1,635,730) in 1886 to 119,655,507 leva (£4,786,220) in 1904; the
estimated revenue for 1905 was 111,920,000 leva (£4,476,800), of which
41,179,000 (£1,647,160) were derived from direct and 38,610,000
(£1,544,400) from indirect taxation; the estimated expenditure was
111,903,281 leva (£4,476,131), the principal items being: public debt,
31,317,346 (£1,252,693); army, 26,540,720 (£1,061,628); education,
10,402,470 (£416,098); public works, 14,461,171 (£578,446); interior,
7,559,517 (£302,380). The actual receipts in 1905 were 127,011,393 leva. In
1895 direct taxation, which pressed heavily on the agricultural class, was
diminished and indirect taxation (import duties and excise) considerably
increased. In 1906 direct taxation amounted to 9 fr. 92 c., indirect to 8
fr. 58 c., per head of the population. The financial difficulties in which
the country was involved at the close of the 19th century were attributable
not to excessive indebtedness but to heavy outlay on public works, the
army, and education, and to the maintenance of an unnecessary number of
officials, the economic situation being aggravated by a succession of bad
harvests. The war budget during ten years (1888-1897) absorbed the large
sum of 275,822,017 leva (£11,033,300) or 35.77% of the whole national
income within that period. In subsequent years military expenditure
continued to increase; the total during the period since the union with
Eastern Rumelia amounting to 599,520,698 leva (£23,980,800).

_Communications._--In 1878 the only railway in Bulgaria was the
Rustchuk-Varna line (137 m.), constructed by an English company in 1867. In
Eastern Rumelia the line from Sarambey to Philippopolis and the Turkish
frontier (122 m.), with a branch to Yamboli (66 m.), had been built by
Baron Hirsch in 1873, and leased by the Turkish government to the Oriental
Railways Company until 1958. It was taken over by the Bulgarian government
in 1908 (see _History_, below). The construction of a railway from the
Servian frontier at Tzaribrod to the Eastern Rumelian frontier at Vakarel
was imposed on the principality by the Berlin Treaty, but political
difficulties intervened, and the line, which touches Sofia, was not
completed till 1888. In that year the Bulgarian government seized the short
connecting line Belovo-Sarambey belonging to Turkey, and railway
communication between Constantinople and the western capitals was
established. Since that time great progress has been made in railway
construction. In 1888, 240 m. of state railways were open to traffic; in
1899, 777 m.; in 1902, 880 m. Up to October 1908 all these lines were
worked by the state, and, with the exception of the Belovo-Sarambey line
(29 m.), which was worked under a convention with Turkey, were its
property. The completion of the important line Radomir-Sofia-Shumen
(November 1899) opened up the rich agricultural district between the
Balkans and the Danube and connected Varna with the capital. Branches to
Samovit and Rustchuk establish connexion with the Rumanian railway system
on the opposite side of the river. It was hoped, with the consent of the
Turkish government, to extend the line Sofia-Radomir-Kiustendil to Uskub,
and thus to secure a direct route to Salonica and the Aegean. Road
communication is still in an unsatisfactory condition. Roads are divided
into three classes: "state roads," or main highways, maintained by the
government; "district roads" maintained by the district councils; and
"inter-village roads" (_mezhduselski shosseta_), maintained by the
communes. Repairs are effected by the _corvée_ system with requisitions of
material. There are no canals, and inland navigation is confined to the
Danube. The Austrian _Donaudampschiffahrtsgesellschaft_ and the Russian
_Gagarine_ steamship company compete for the river traffic; the grain trade
is largely served by steamers belonging to Greek merchants. The coasting
trade on the Black Sea is carried on by a Bulgarian steamship company; the
steamers of the Austrian Lloyd, and other foreign companies call at Varna,
and occasionally at Burgas.

The development of postal and telegraphic communication has been rapid. In
1886, 1,468,494 letters were posted, in 1903, 29,063,043. Receipts of posts
and telegraphs in 1886 were £40,975, in 1903 £134,942. In 1903 there were
3261 m. of telegraph lines and 531 m. of telephones.

_Towns._--The principal towns of Bulgaria are Sofia, the capital (Bulgarian
_Sredetz_, a name now little used), pop. in January 1906, 82,187;
Philippopolis, the capital of Eastern Rumelia (Bulg. _Plovdiv_), pop.
45,572; Varna, 37,155; Rustchuk (Bulg. _Russé_), 33,552; Sliven, 25,049;
Shumla (Bulg. _Shumen_), 22,290; Plevna (Bulg. _Pleven_), 21,208;
Stara-Zagora, 20,647; Tatar-Pazarjik, 17,549; Vidin, 16,168; Yamboli (Greek
_Hyampolis_), 15,708; Dobritch (Turkish _Hajiolu-Pazarjik_), 15,369;
Haskovo, 15,061; Vratza, 14,832; Stanimaka (Greek _Stenimachos_), 14,120;
Razgrad, 13,783; Sistova (Bulg. _Svishtov_), 13,408; Burgas, 12,846;
Kiustendil, 12,353; Trnovo, the ancient capital, 12,171. All these are
described in separate articles.

_Population._--The area of northern Bulgaria is 24,535 sq. m.; of Eastern
Rumelia 12,705 sq. m.; of united Bulgaria, 37,240 sq. m. According to the
census of the 12th of January 1906, the population of northern Bulgaria was
2,853,704; of Eastern Rumelia, 1,174,535; of united Bulgaria, 4,028,239 or
88 per sq. m. Bulgaria thus ranks between Rumania and Portugal in regard to
area; between the Netherlands and Switzerland in regard to population: in
density of population it may be compared with Spain and Greece.

The first census of united Bulgaria was taken in 1888: it gave the total
population as 3,154,375. In January 1893 the population was 3,310,713; in
January 1901, 3,744,283.

The movement of the population at intervals of five years has been as
follows:--

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  | Year. |  Marriages.  |  Births  |  Still-  | Deaths. | Natural    |
  |       |              |(living). |  born.   |         |Increase.[1]|
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  | 1882  |    19,795    |  74,642  |   300    |  38,884 |   35,758   |
  | 1887  |    20,089    |  83,179  |   144    |  39,396 |   43,783   |
  | 1892  |    27,553    | 117,883  |   321    | 103,550 |   14,333   |
  | 1897  |    29,227    | 149,631  |   858    |  90,134 |   59,497   |
  | 1902  |    36,041    | 149,542  |   823    |  91,093 |   58,449   |
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------

[1] Excess of births over deaths.

The death-rate shows a tendency to rise. In the five years 1882-1886 the
mean death-rate was 18.0 per 1000; in 1887-1891, 20.4; in 1892-1896, 27.0;
in 1897-1902, 23.92. Infant mortality is high, especially among the
peasants. As the less healthy infants rarely survive, the adult population
is in general robust, hardy and long-lived. The census of January 1901
gives 2719 persons of 100 years and upwards. Young men, as a rule, marry
betore the age of twenty-five, girls before eighteen. The number of
illegitimate births is inconsiderable, averaging only 0.12 of the total.
The population according to sex in 1901 is given as 1,909,567 males and
1,834,716 females, or 51 males to 49 females. A somewhat similar disparity
may be observed in the other countries of the Peninsula. Classified
according to occupation, 2,802,603 persons, or 74.85% of the population,
are engaged in agriculture; 360,834 in various productive industries;
118,824 in the service of the government or the exercise of liberal
professions, and 148,899 in commerce. The population according to race
cannot be stated with absolute accuracy, but it is approximately shown by
the census of 1901, which gives the various nationalities according to
language as follows:--Bulgars, 2,888,219; Turks, 531,240; Rumans, 71,063;
Greeks, 66,635; Gipsies (Tziganes), 89,549; Jews (Spanish speaking),
33,661; Tatars, [v.04 p.0777] 18,884; Armenians, 14,581; other
nationalities, 30,451. The Bulgarian inhabitants of the Peninsula beyond
the limits of the principality may, perhaps, be estimated at 1,500,000 or
1,600,000, and the grand total of the race possibly reaches 5,500,000.

_Ethnology._--The Bulgarians, who constitute 77.14% of the inhabitants of
the kingdom, are found in their purest type in the mountain districts, the
Ottoman conquest and subsequent colonization having introduced a mixed
population into the plains.

The devastation of the country which followed the Turkish invasion resulted
in the extirpation or flight of a large proportion of the Bulgarian
inhabitants of the lowlands, who were replaced by Turkish colonists. The
mountainous districts, however, retained their original population and
sheltered large numbers of the fugitives. The passage of the Turkish armies
during the wars with Austria, Poland and Russia led to further Bulgarian
emigrations. The flight to the Banat, where 22,000 Bulgarians still remain,
took place in 1730. At the beginning of the 19th century the majority of
the population of the Eastern Rumelian plain was Turkish. The Turkish
colony, however, declined, partly in consequence of the drain caused by
military service, while the Bulgarian remnant increased, notwithstanding a
considerable emigration to Bessarabia before and after the Russo-Turkish
campaign of 1828. Efforts were made by the Porte to strengthen the Moslem
element by planting colonies of Tatars in 1861 and Circassians in 1864. The
advance of the Russian army in 1877-1878 caused an enormous exodus of the
Turkish population, of which only a small proportion returned to settle
permanently. The emigration continued after the conclusion of peace, and is
still in progress, notwithstanding the efforts of the Bulgarian government
to arrest it. In twenty years (1879-1899), at least 150,000 Turkish
peasants left Bulgaria. Much of the land thus abandoned still remains
unoccupied. On the other hand, a considerable influx of Bulgarians from
Macedonia, the vilayet of Adrianople, Bessarabia, and the Dobrudja took
place within the same period, and the inhabitants of the mountain villages
show a tendency to migrate into the richer districts of the plains.

The northern slopes of the Balkans from Belogradchik to Elena are inhabited
almost exclusively by Bulgarians; in Eastern Rumelia the national element
is strongest in the Sredna Gora and Rhodope. Possibly the most genuine
representatives of the race are the Pomaks or Mahommedan Bulgarians, whose
conversion to Islam preserved their women from the licence of the Turkish
conqueror; they inhabit the highlands of Rhodope and certain districts in
the neighbourhood of Lovtcha (Lovetch) and Plevna. Retaining their
Bulgarian speech and many ancient national usages, they may be compared
with the indigenous Cretan, Bosnian and Albanian Moslems. The Pomaks in the
principality are estimated at 26,000, but their numbers are declining. In
the north-eastern district between the Yantra and the Black Sea the
Bulgarian race is as yet thinly represented; most of the inhabitants are
Turks, a quiet, submissive, agricultural population, which unfortunately
shows a tendency to emigrate. The Black Sea coast is inhabited by a variety
of races. The Greek element is strong in the maritime towns, and displays
its natural aptitude for navigation and commerce. The Gagäuzi, a peculiar
race of Turkish-speaking Christians, inhabit the littoral from Cape Eminé
to Cape Kaliakra: they are of Turanian origin and descend from the ancient
Kumani. The valleys of the Maritza and Arda are occupied by a mixed
population consisting of Bulgarians, Greeks and Turks; the principal Greek
colonies are in Stanimaka, Kavakly and Philippopolis. The origin of the
peculiar Shôp tribe which inhabits the mountain tracts of Sofia, Breznik
and Radomir is a mystery. The Shôps are conceivably a remnant of the
aboriginal race which remained undisturbed in its mountain home during the
Slavonic and Bulgarian incursions: they cling with much tenacity to their
distinctive customs, apparel and dialect. The considerable Vlach or Ruman
colony in the Danubian districts dates from the 18th century, when large
numbers of Walachian peasants sought a refuge on Turkish soil from the
tyranny of the boyars or nobles: the department of Vidin alone contains 36
Ruman villages with a population of 30,550. Especially interesting is the
race of nomad shepherds from the Macedonian and the Aegean coast who come
in thousands every summer to pasture their flocks on the Bulgarian
mountains; they are divided into two tribes--the Kutzovlachs, or "lame
Vlachs," who speak Rumanian, and the Hellenized Karakatchans or "black
shepherds" (compare the Morlachs, or Mavro-vlachs, [Greek: mauroi blaches],
of Dalmatia), who speak Greek. The Tatars, a peaceable, industrious race,
are chiefly found in the neighbourhood of Varna and Silistria; they were
introduced as colonists by the Turkish government in 1861. They may be
reckoned at 12,000. The gipsies, who are scattered in considerable numbers
throughout the country, came into Bulgaria in the 14th century. They are
for the most part Moslems, and retain their ancient Indian speech. They
live in the utmost poverty, occupy separate cantonments in the villages,
and are treated as outcasts by the rest of the population. The Bulgarians,
being of mixed origin, possess few salient physical characteristics. The
Slavonic type is far less pronounced than among the kindred races; the
Ugrian or Finnish cast of features occasionally asserts itself in the
central Balkans. The face is generally oval, the nose straight, the jaw
somewhat heavy. The men, as a rule, are rather below middle height,
compactly built, and, among the peasantry, very muscular; the women are
generally deficient in beauty and rapidly grow old. The upper class, the
so-called _intelligenzia_, is physically very inferior to the rural
population.

_National Character._--The character of the Bulgarians presents a singular
contrast to that of the neighbouring nations. Less quick-witted than the
Greeks, less prone to idealism than the Servians, less apt to assimilate
the externals of civilization than the Rumanians, they possess in a
remarkable degree the qualities of patience, perseverance and endurance,
with the capacity for laborious effort peculiar to an agricultural race.
The tenacity and determination with which they pursue their national aims
may eventually enable them to vanquish their more brilliant competitors in
the struggle for hegemony in the Peninsula. Unlike most southern races, the
Bulgarians are reserved, taciturn, phlegmatic, unresponsive, and extremely
suspicious of foreigners. The peasants are industrious, peaceable and
orderly; the vendetta, as it exists in Albania, Montenegro and Macedonia,
and the use of the knife in quarrels, so common in southern Europe, are
alike unknown. The tranquillity of rural life has, unfortunately, been
invaded by the intrigues of political agitators, and bloodshed is not
uncommon at elections. All classes practise thrift bordering on parsimony,
and any display of wealth is generally resented. The standard of sexual
morality is high, especially in the rural districts; the unfaithful wife is
an object of public contempt, and in former times was punished with death.
Marriage ceremonies are elaborate and protracted, as is the case in most
primitive communities; elopements are frequent, but usually take place with
the consent of the parents on both sides, in order to avoid the expense of
a regular wedding. The principal amusement on Sundays and holidays is the
_choró_ ([Greek: choros]), which is danced on the village green to the
strains of the _gaida_ or bagpipe, and the _gûsla_, a rudimentary fiddle.
The Bulgarians are religious in a simple way, but not fanatical, and the
influence of the priesthood is limited. Many ancient superstitions linger
among the peasantry, such as the belief in the vampire and the evil eye;
witches and necromancers are numerous and are much consulted.

_Government._--Bulgaria is a constitutional monarchy; by Art. iii. of the
Berlin Treaty it was declared hereditary in the family of a prince "freely
elected by the population and confirmed by the Sublime Porte with the
assent of the powers." According to the constitution of Trnovo, voted by
the Assembly of Notables on the 29th of April 1879, revised by the Grand
Sobranye on the 27th of May 1893, and modified by the proclamation of a
Bulgarian kingdom on the 5th of October 1908, the royal dignity descends in
the direct male line. The king must profess the Orthodox faith, only the
first elected sovereign and his immediate heir being released from this
obligation. The legislative power is vested in the king in conjunction with
the [v.04 p.0778] national assembly; he is supreme head of the army,
supervises the executive power, and represents the country in its foreign
relations. In case of a minority or an interregnum, a regency of three
persons is appointed. The national representation is embodied in the
Sobranye, or ordinary assembly (Bulgarian, _S[)u]branïe_, the Russian form
_Sobranye_ being usually employed by foreign writers), and the Grand
Sobranye, which is convoked in extraordinary circumstances. The Sobranye is
elected by manhood suffrage, in the proportion of 1 to 20,000 of the
population, for a term of five years. Every Bulgarian citizen who can read
and write and has completed his thirtieth year is eligible as a deputy.
Annual sessions are held from the 27th of October to the 27th of December.
All legislative and financial measures must first be discussed and voted by
the Sobranye and then sanctioned and promulgated by the king. The
government is responsible to the Sobranye, and the ministers, whether
deputies or not, attend its sittings. The Grand Sobranye, which is elected
in the proportion of 2 to every 20,000 inhabitants, is convoked to elect a
new king, to appoint a regency, to sanction a change in the constitution,
or to ratify an alteration in the boundaries of the kingdom. The executive
is entrusted to a cabinet of eight members--the ministers of foreign
affairs and religion, finance, justice, public works, the interior,
commerce and agriculture, education and war. Local administration, which is
organized on the Belgian model, is under the control of the minister of the
interior. The country is divided into twenty-two departments (_okr[)u]g_,
pl. _okr[)u]zi_), each administered by a prefect (_uprávitel_), assisted by
a departmental council, and eighty-four sub-prefectures (_okolía_), each
under a sub-prefect (_okoliiski natchálnik_). The number of these
functionaries is excessive. The four principal towns have each in addition
a prefect of police (_gradonatchalnik_) and one or more commissaries
(_pristav_). The gendarmery numbers about 4000 men, or 1 to 825 of the
inhabitants. The prefects and sub-prefects have replaced the Turkish
_mutessarifs_ and _kaimakams_; but the system of municipal government, left
untouched by the Turks, descends from primitive times. Every commune
(_obshtina_), urban or rural, has its _kmet_, or mayor, and council; the
commune is bound to maintain its primary schools, a public library or
reading-room, &c.; the kmet possesses certain magisterial powers, and in
the rural districts he collects the taxes. Each village, as a rule, forms a
separate commune, but occasionally two or more villages are grouped
together.

_Justice._--The civil and penal codes are, for the most part, based on the
Ottoman law. While the principality formed a portion of the Turkish empire,
the privileges of the capitulations were guaranteed to foreign subjects
(Berlin Treaty, Art. viii.). The lowest civil and criminal court is that of
the village kmet, whose jurisdiction is confined to the limits of the
commune; no corresponding tribunal exists in the towns. Each sub-prefecture
and town has a justice of the peace--in some cases two or more; the number
of these officials is 130. Next follows the departmental tribunal or court
of first instance, which is competent to pronounce sentences of death,
penal servitude and deprivation of civil rights; in specified criminal
cases the judges are aided by three assessors chosen by lot from an
annually prepared panel of forty-eight persons. Three courts of appeal sit
respectively at Sofia, Rustchuk and Philippopolis. The highest tribunal is
the court of cassation, sitting at Sofia, and composed of a president, two
vice-presidents and nine judges. There is also a high court of audit
(_vrkhovna smetna palata_), similar to the French _cour des comptes._ The
judges are poorly paid and are removable by the government. In regard to
questions of marriage, divorce and inheritance the Greek, Mahommedan and
Jewish communities enjoy their own spiritual jurisdiction.

_Army and Navy._--The organization of the military forces of the
principality was undertaken by Russian officers, who for a period of six
years (1879-1885) occupied all the higher posts in the army. In Eastern
Rumelia during the same period the "militia" was instructed by foreign
officers; after the union it was merged in the Bulgarian army. The present
organization is based on the law of the 1st of January 1904. The army
consists of: (1) the active or field army (_deïstvuyushta armia_), divided
into (i.) the active army, (ii.) the active army reserve; (2) the reserve
army (_reservna armia_); (3) the _opltchenïe_ or militia; the two former
may operate outside the kingdom, the latter only within the frontier for
purposes of defence. In time of peace the active army (i.) alone is on a
permanent footing.

The peace strength in 1905 was 2500 officers, 48,200 men and 8000 horses,
the active army being composed of 9 divisions of infantry, each of 4
regiments, 5 regiments of cavalry together with 12 squadrons attached to
the infantry divisions, 9 regiments of artillery each of 3 groups of 3
batteries, together with 2 groups of mountain artillery, each of 3
batteries, and 3 battalions of siege artillery; 9 battalions of engineers
with 1 railway and balloon section and 1 bridging section. At the same date
the army was locally distributed in nine divisional areas with headquarters
at Sofia, Philippopolis, Sliven, Shumla, Rustchuk, Vratza, Plevna,
Stara-Zagora and Dupnitza, the divisional area being subdivided into four
districts, from each of which one regiment of four battalions was recruited
and completed with reservists. In case of mobilization each of the nine
areas would furnish 20,106 men (16,000 infantry, 1200 artillery, 1000
engineers, 300 divisional cavalry and 1606 transport and hospital services,
&c.). The war strength thus amounted to 180,954 of the active army and its
reserve, exclusive of the five regiments of cavalry. In addition the 36
districts each furnished 3 battalions of the reserve army and one battalion
of opltchenïe, or 144,000 infantry, which with the cavalry regiments (3000
men) and the reserves of artillery, engineers, divisional cavalry, &c.
(about 10,000), would bring the grand total in time of war to about 338,000
officers and men with 18,000 horses. The men of the reserve battalions are
drafted into the active army as occasion requires, but the militia serves
as a separate force. Military service is obligatory, but Moslems may claim
exemption on payment of £20; the age of recruitment in time of peace is
nineteen, in time of war eighteen. Each conscript serves two years in the
infantry and subsequently eight years in the active reserve, or three years
in the other corps and six years in the active reserve; he is then liable
to seven years' service in the reserve army and finally passes into the
opltchenïe. The Bulgarian peasant makes an admirable soldier--courageous,
obedient, persevering, and inured to hardship; the officers are painstaking
and devoted to their duties. The active army and reserve, with the
exception of the engineer regiments, are furnished with the .315"
Mannlicher magazine rifle, the engineer and militia with the Berdan; the
artillery in 1905 mainly consisted of 8.7- and 7.5-cm. Krupp guns (field)
and 6.5 cm. Krupp (mountain), 12 cm. Krupp and 15 cm. Creuzot (Schneider)
howitzers, 15 cm. Krupp and 12 cm. Creuzot siege guns, and 7.5 cm. Creuzot
quick-firing guns; total of all description, 1154. Defensive works were
constructed at various strategical points near the frontier and elsewhere,
and at Varna and Burgas. The naval force consisted of a flotilla stationed
at Rustchuk and Varna, where a canal connects Lake Devno with the sea. It
was composed in 1905 of 1 prince's yacht, 1 armoured cruiser, 3 gunboats, 3
torpedo boats and 10 other small vessels, with a complement of 107 officers
and 1231 men.

_Religion._--The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an
indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic
continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages. It
was, however, declared schismatic by the Greek patriarch of Constantinople
in 1872, although differing in no point of doctrine from the Greek Church.
The Exarch, or supreme head of the Bulgarian Church, resides at
Constantinople; he enjoys the title of "Beatitude" (_negovo Blazhenstvo_),
receives an annual subvention of about £6000 from the kingdom, and
exercises jurisdiction over the Bulgarian hierarchy in all parts of the
Ottoman empire. The exarch is elected by the Bulgarian episcopate, the Holy
Synod, and a general assembly (_obshti sbor_), in which the laity is
represented; their choice, before the declaration of Bulgarian
independence, was subject to the sultan's approval. The occupant of the
dignity is titular metropolitan of a Bulgarian diocese. The organization of
the church within the principality was regulated [v.04 p.0779] by statute
in 1883. There are eleven eparchies or dioceses in the country, each
administered by a metropolitan with a diocesan council; one diocese has
also a suffragan bishop. Church government is vested in the Holy Synod,
consisting of four metropolitans, which assembles once a year. The laity
take part in the election of metropolitans and parish priests, only the
"black clergy," or monks, being eligible for the episcopate. All
ecclesiastical appointments are subject to the approval of the government.
There are 2106 parishes (_eporii_) in the kingdom with 9 archimandrites,
1936 parish priests and 21 deacons, 78 monasteries with 184 monks, and 12
convents with 346 nuns. The celebrated monastery of Rila possesses a vast
estate in the Rilska Planina; its abbot or _hegumen_ owns no spiritual
superior but the exarch. Ecclesiastical affairs are under the control of
the minister of public worship; the clergy of all denominations are paid by
the state, being free, however, to accept fees for baptisms, marriages,
burials, the administering of oaths, &c. The census of January 1901 gives
3,019,999 persons of the Orthodox faith (including 66,635 Patriarchist
Greeks), 643,300 Mahommedans, 33,663 Jews, 28,569 Catholics, 13,809
Gregorian Armenians, 4524 Protestants and 419 whose religion is not stated.
The Greek Orthodox community has four metropolitans dependent on the
patriarchate. The Mahommedan community is rapidly diminishing; it is
organized under 16 muftis who with their assistants receive a subvention
from the government. The Catholics, who have two bishops, are for the most
part the descendants of the medieval Paulicians; they are especially
numerous in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis and Sistova. The Armenians
have one bishop. The Protestants are mostly Methodists; since 1857 Bulgaria
has been a special field of activity for American Methodist missionaries,
who have established an important school at Samakov. The Berlin Treaty
(Art. V.) forbade religious disabilities in regard to the enjoyment of
civil and political rights, and guaranteed the free exercise of all
religions.

_Education._--No educational system existed in many of the rural districts
before 1878; the peasantry was sunk in ignorance, and the older generation
remained totally illiterate. In the towns the schools were under the
superintendence of the Greek clergy, and Greek was the language of
instruction. The first Bulgarian school was opened at Gabrovo in 1835 by
the patriots Aprilov and Neophyt Rilski. After the Crimean War, Bulgarian
schools began to appear in the villages of the Balkans and the
south-eastern districts. The children of the wealthier class were generally
educated abroad. The American institution of Robert College on the Bosporus
rendered an invaluable service to the newly created state by providing it
with a number of well-educated young men fitted for positions of
responsibility. In 1878, after the liberation of the country, there were
1658 schools in the towns and villages. Primary education was declared
obligatory from the first, but the scarcity of properly qualified teachers
and the lack of all requisites proved serious impediments to educational
organization. The government has made great efforts and incurred heavy
expenditure for the spread of education; the satisfactory results obtained
are largely due to the keen desire for learning which exists among the
people. The present educational system dates from 1891. Almost all the
villages now possess "national" (_narodni_) primary schools, maintained by
the communes with the aid of a state subvention and supervised by
departmental and district inspectors. The state also assists a large number
of Turkish primary schools. The penalties for non-attendance are not very
rigidly enforced, and it has been found necessary to close the schools in
the rural districts during the summer, the children being required for
labour in the fields.

The age for primary instruction is six to ten years; in 1890, 47.01% of the
boys and 16.11% of the girls attended the primary schools; in 1898, 85% of
the boys and 40% of the girls. In 1904 there were 4344 primary schools, of
which 3060 were "national," or communal, and 1284 denominational (Turkish,
Greek, Jewish, &c.), attended by 340,668 pupils, representing a proportion
of 9.1 per hundred inhabitants. In addition to the primary schools, 40
infant schools for children of 3 to 6 years of age were attended by 2707
pupils. In 1888 only 327,766 persons, or 11% of the population, were
literate; in 1893 the proportion rose to 19.88%; in 1901 to 23.9%.

In the system of secondary education the distinction between the classical
and "real" or special course of study is maintained as in most European
countries; in 1904 there were 175 secondary schools and 18 gymnasia (10 for
boys and 8 for girls). In addition to these there are 6 technical and 3
agricultural schools; 5 of pedagogy, 1 theological, 1 commercial, 1 of
forestry, 1 of design, 1 for surgeons' assistants, and a large military
school at Sofia. Government aid is given to students of limited means, both
for secondary education and the completion of their studies abroad. The
university of Sofia, formerly known as the "high school," was reorganized
in 1904; it comprises 3 faculties (philology, mathematics and law), and
possesses a staff of 17 professors and 25 lecturers. The number of students
in 1905 was 943.

POLITICAL HISTORY

The ancient Thraco-Illyrian race which inhabited the district between the
Danube and the Aegean was expelled, or more probably absorbed, by the great
Slavonic immigration which took place at various intervals between the end
of the 3rd century after Christ and the beginning of the 6th. The numerous
tumuli which are found in all parts of the country (see Herodotus v. 8) and
some stone tablets with bas-reliefs remain as monuments of the aboriginal
population; and certain structural peculiarities, which are common to the
Bulgarian and Rumanian languages, may conceivably be traced to the
influence of the primitive Illyrian speech, now probably represented by the
Albanian. The Slavs, an agricultural people, were governed, even in those
remote times, by the democratic local institutions to which they are still
attached; they possessed no national leaders or central organization, and
their only political unit was the _pleme_, or tribe. They were considerably
influenced by contact with Roman civilization. It was reserved for a
foreign race, altogether distinct in origin, religion and customs, to give
unity and coherence to the scattered Slavonic groups, and to weld them into
a compact and powerful state which for some centuries played an important
part in the history of eastern Europe and threatened the existence of the
Byzantine empire.

_The Bulgars._--The Bulgars, a Turanian race akin to the Tatars, Huns,
Avars, Petchenegs and Finns, made their appearance on the banks of the
Pruth in the latter part of the 7th century. They were a horde of wild
horsemen, fierce and barbarous, practising polygamy, and governed
despotically by their _khans_ (chiefs) and _boyars_ or _bolyars_ (nobles).
Their original abode was the tract between the Ural mountains and the
Volga, where the kingdom of Great (or Black) Bolgary existed down to the
13th century. In 679, under their khan Asparukh (or Isperikh), they crossed
the Danube, and, after subjugating the Slavonic population of Moesia,
advanced to the gates of Constantinople and Salonica. The East Roman
emperors were compelled to cede to them the province of Moesia and to pay
them an annual tribute. The invading horde was not numerous, and during the
next two centuries it became gradually merged in the Slavonic population.
Like the Franks in Gaul the Bulgars gave their name and a political
organization to the more civilized race which they conquered, but adopted
its language, customs and local institutions. Not a trace of the Ugrian or
Finnish element is to be found in the Bulgarian speech. This complete
assimilation of a conquering race may be illustrated by many parallels.

_Early Dynasties._--The history of the early Bulgarian dynasties is little
else than a record of continuous conflicts with the Byzantine emperors. The
tribute first imposed on the Greeks by Asparukh was again exacted by Kardam
(791-797) and Krum (802-815), a sovereign noted alike for his cruelty and
his military and political capacity. Under his rule the Bulgarian realm
extended from the Carpathians to the neighbourhood of Adrianople; Serdica
(the present Sofia) was taken, and the valley of the Struma conquered.
Prêslav, the Bulgarian capital, was attacked and burned by the emperor
Nicephorus, but the Greek army on its return was annihilated in one of the
Balkan passes; the emperor was slain, and his skull was converted by Krum
into a goblet. The reign of Boris (852-884) is memorable [v.04 p.0780] for
the introduction of Christianity into Bulgaria. Two monks of Salonica, SS.
Cyril and Methodius, are generally reverenced as the national apostles; the
scene of their labours, however, was among the Slavs of Moravia, and the
Bulgars were evangelized by their disciples. Boris, finding himself
surrounded by Christian states, decided from political motives to abandon
paganism. He was baptized in 864, the emperor Michael III. acting as his
sponsor. It was at this time that the controversies broke out which ended
in the schism between the Churches of the East and West. Boris long wavered
between Constantinople and Rome, but the refusal of the pope to recognize
an autocephalous Bulgarian church determined him to offer his allegiance to
the Greek patriarch. The decision was fraught with momentous consequences
for the future of the race. The nation altered its religion in obedience to
its sovereign, and some of the boyars who resisted the change paid with
their lives for their fidelity to the ancient belief. The independence of
the Bulgarian church was recognized by the patriarchate, a fact much dwelt
upon in recent controversies. The Bulgarian primates subsequently received
the title of patriarch; their see was transferred from Prêslav to Sofia,
Voden and Prespa successively, and finally to Ochrida.

_The First Empire._--The national power reached its zenith under Simeon
(893-927), a monarch distinguished in the arts of war and peace. In his
reign, says Gibbon, "Bulgaria assumed a rank among the civilized powers of
the earth." His dominions extended from the Black Sea to the Adriatic, and
from the borders of Thessaly to the Save and the Carpathians. Having become
the most powerful monarch in eastern Europe, Simeon assumed the style of
"Emperor and Autocrat of all the Bulgars and Greeks" (_tsar i samodrzhetz
vsêm Blgarom i Grkom_), a title which was recognized by Pope Formosus.
During the latter years of his reign, which were spent in peace, his people
made great progress in civilization, literature nourished, and Prêslav,
according to contemporary chroniclers, rivalled Constantinople in
magnificence. After the death of Simeon the Bulgarian power declined owing
to internal dissensions; the land was distracted by the Bogomil heresy (see
BOGOMILS), and a separate or western empire, including Albania and
Macedonia, was founded at Ochrida by Shishman, a boyar from Trnovo. A
notable event took place in 967, when the Russians, under Sviatoslav, made
their first appearance in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian tsar, Boris II., with the
aid of the emperor John Zimisces, expelled the invaders, but the Greeks
took advantage of their victory to dethrone Boris, and the first Bulgarian
empire thus came to an end after an existence of three centuries. The
empire at Ochrida, however, rose to considerable importance under Samuel,
the son of Shishman (976-1014), who conquered the greater part of the
Peninsula, and ruled from the Danube to the Morea. After a series of
campaigns this redoubtable warrior was defeated at Bêlasitza by the emperor
Basil II., surnamed Bulgaroktonos, who put out the eyes of 15,000 prisoners
taken in the fight, and sent them into the camp of his adversary. The
Bulgarian tsar was so overpowered by the spectacle that he died of grief. A
few years later his dynasty finally disappeared, and for more than a
century and a half (1018-1186) the Bulgarian race remained subject to the
Byzantine emperors.

_The Second Empire._--In 1186, after a general insurrection of Vlachs and
Bulgars under the brothers Ivan and Peter Asên of Trnovo, who claimed
descent from the dynasty of the Shishmanovtzi, the nation recovered its
independence, and Ivan Asên assumed the title of "Tsar of the Bulgars and
Greeks." The seat of the second, or "Bulgaro-Vlach" empire was at Trnovo,
which the Bulgarians regard as the historic capital of their race. Kaloyan,
the third of the Asên monarchs, extended his dominions to Belgrade, Nish
and Skopïe (Uskub); he acknowledged the spiritual supremacy of the pope,
and received the royal crown from a papal legate. The greatest of all
Bulgarian rulers was Ivan Asên II. (1218-1241), a man of humane and
enlightened character. After a series of victorious campaigns he
established his sway over Albania, Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace, and
governed his wide dominions with justice, wisdom and moderation. In his
time the nation attained a prosperity hitherto unknown: commerce, the arts
and literature flourished; Trnovo, the capital, was enlarged and
embellished; and great numbers of churches and monasteries were founded or
endowed. The dynasty of the Asêns became extinct in 1257, and a period of
decadence began. Two other dynasties, both of Kuman origin, followed--the
Terterovtzi, who ruled at Trnovo, and the Shishmanovtzi, who founded an
independent state at Vidin, but afterwards reigned in the national capital.
Eventually, on the 28th June 1330, a day commemorated with sorrow in
Bulgaria, Tsar Michael Shishman was defeated and slain by the Servians,
under Stephen Urosh III., at the battle of Velbûzhd (Kiustendil). Bulgaria,
though still retaining its native rulers, now became subject to Servia, and
formed part of the short-lived empire of Stephen Dushan (1331-1355). The
Servian hegemony vanished after the death of Dushan, and the Christian
races of the Peninsula, distracted by the quarrels of their petty princes,
fell an easy prey to the advancing might of the Moslem invader.

_The Turkish Conquest._--In 1340 the Turks had begun to ravage the valley
of the Maritza; in 1362 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1382 Sofia. In
1366 Ivan Shishman III., the last Bulgarian tsar, was compelled to declare
himself the vassal of the sultan Murad I., and to send his sister to the
harem of the conqueror. In 1389 the rout of the Servians, Bosnians and
Croats on the famous field of Kossovo decided the fate of the Peninsula.
Shortly afterwards Ivan Shishman was attacked by the Turks; and Trnovo,
after a siege of three months, was captured, sacked and burnt in 1393. The
fate of the last Bulgarian sovereign is unknown: the national legend
represents him as perishing in a battle near Samakov. Vidin, where Ivan's
brother, Strazhimir, had established himself, was taken in 1396, and with
its fall the last remnant of Bulgarian independence disappeared.

The five centuries of Turkish rule (1396-1878) form a dark epoch in
Bulgarian history. The invaders carried fire and sword through the land;
towns, villages and monasteries were sacked and destroyed, and whole
districts were converted into desolate wastes. The inhabitants of the
plains fled to the mountains, where they founded new settlements. Many of
the nobles embraced the creed of Islam, and were liberally rewarded for
their apostasy; others, together with numbers of the priests and people,
took refuge across the Danube. All the regions formerly ruled by the
Bulgarian tsars, including Macedonia and Thrace, were placed under the
administration of a governor-general, styled the beylerbey of Rum-ili,
residing at Sofia; Bulgaria proper was divided into the sanjaks of Sofia,
Nikopolis, Vidin, Silistria and Kiustendil. Only a small proportion of the
people followed the example of the boyars in abandoning Christianity; the
conversion of the isolated communities now represented by the Pomaks took
place at various intervals during the next three centuries. A new kind of
feudal system replaced that of the boyars, and fiefs or _spahiliks_ were
conferred on the Ottoman chiefs and the renegade Bulgarian nobles. The
Christian population was subjected to heavy imposts, the principal being
the _haratch_, or capitation-tax, paid to the imperial treasury, and the
tithe on agricultural produce, which was collected by the feudal lord.
Among the most cruel forms of oppression was the requisitioning of young
boys between the ages of ten and twelve, who were sent to Constantinople as
recruits for the corps of janissaries. Notwithstanding the horrors which
attended the Ottoman conquest, the condition of the peasantry during the
first three centuries of Turkish government was scarcely worse than it had
been under the tyrannical rule of the boyars. The contemptuous indifference
with which the Turks regarded the Christian _rayas_ was not altogether to
the disadvantage of the subject race. Military service was not exacted from
the Christians, no systematic effort was made to extinguish either their
religion or their language, and within certain limits they were allowed to
retain their ancient local administration and the jurisdiction of their
clergy in regard to inheritances and family affairs. At the time of the
conquest certain towns and villages, known as the _voïnitchki sela_,
obtained important privileges which were not infringed till the 18th
century; on condition of [v.04 p.0781] furnishing contingents to the
Turkish army or grooms for the sultan's horses they obtained exemption from
most of the taxes and complete self-government under their _voïvodi_ or
chiefs. Some of them, such as Koprivshtitza in the Sredna Gora, attained
great prosperity, which has somewhat declined since the establishment of
the principality. While the Ottoman power was at its height the lot of the
subject-races was far less intolerable than during the period of decadence,
which began with the unsuccessful siege of Vienna in 1683. Their rights and
privileges were respected, the law was enforced, commerce prospered, good
roads were constructed, and the great caravans of the Ragusan merchants
traversed the country. Down to the end of the 18th century there appears to
have been only one serious attempt at revolt--that occasioned by the
advance of Prince Sigismund Báthory into Walachia in 1595. A kind of
guerilla warfare was, however, maintained in the mountains by the
_kaiduti_, or outlaws, whose exploits, like those of the Greek _klepkts_,
have been highly idealized in the popular folk-lore. As the power of the
sultans declined anarchy spread through the Peninsula. In the earlier
decades of the 18th century the Bulgarians suffered terribly from the
ravages of the Turkish armies passing through the land during the wars with
Austria. Towards its close their condition became even worse owing to the
horrors perpetrated by the Krjalis, or troops of disbanded soldiers and
desperadoes, who, in defiance of the Turkish authorities, roamed through
the country, supporting themselves by plunder and committing every
conceivable atrocity. After the peace of Belgrade (1737), by which Austria
lost her conquests in the Peninsula, the Servians and Bulgarians began to
look to Russia for deliverance, their hopes being encouraged by the treaty
of Kuchuk Kaïnarji (1774), which foreshadowed the claim of Russia to
protect the Orthodox Christians in the Turkish empire. In 1794 Pasvanoglu,
one of the chiefs of the Krjalis, established himself as an independent
sovereign at Vidin, putting to flight three large Turkish armies which were
despatched against him. This adventurer possessed many remarkable
qualities. He adorned Vidin with handsome buildings, maintained order,
levied taxes and issued a separate coinage. He died in 1807. The memoirs of
Sofronii, bishop of Vratza, present a vivid picture of the condition of
Bulgaria at this time. "My diocese," he writes, "was laid desolate; the
villages disappeared--they had been burnt by the Krjalis and Pasvan's
brigands; the inhabitants were scattered far and wide over Walachia and
other lands."

_The National Revival._--At the beginning of the 19th century the existence
of the Bulgarian race was almost unknown in Europe, even to students of
Slavonic literature. Disheartened by ages of oppression, isolated from
Christendom by their geographical position, and cowed by the proximity of
Constantinople, the Bulgarians took no collective part in the
insurrectionary movement which resulted in the liberation of Servia and
Greece. The Russian invasions of 1810 and 1828 only added to their
sufferings, and great numbers of fugitives took refuge in Bessarabia,
annexed by Russia under the treaty of Bucharest. But the long-dormant
national spirit now began to awake under the influence of a literary
revival. The precursors of the movement were Paisii, a monk of Mount Athos,
who wrote a history of the Bulgarian tsars and saints (1762), and Bishop
Sofronii, whose memoirs have been already mentioned. After 1824 several
works written in modern Bulgarian began to appear, but the most important
step was the foundation, in 1835, of the first Bulgarian school at Gabrovo.
Within ten years at least 53 Bulgarian schools came into existence, and
five Bulgarian printing-presses were at work. The literary movement led the
way to a reaction against the influence and authority of the Greek clergy.
The spiritual domination of the Greek patriarchate had tended more
effectually than the temporal power of the Turks to the effacement of
Bulgarian nationality. After the conquest of the Peninsula the Greek
patriarch became the representative at the Sublime Porte of the
_Rûm-millet_, the Roman nation, in which all the Christian nationalities
were comprised. The independent patriarchate of Trnovo was suppressed; that
of Ochrida was subsequently Hellenized. The Phanariot clergy--unscrupulous,
rapacious and corrupt--succeeded in monopolizing the higher ecclesiastical
appointments and filled the parishes with Greek priests, whose schools, in
which Greek was exclusively taught, were the only means of instruction open
to the population. By degrees Greek became the language of the upper
classes in all the Bulgarian towns, the Bulgarian language was written in
Greek characters, and the illiterate peasants, though speaking the
vernacular, called themselves Greeks. The Slavonic liturgy was suppressed
in favour of the Greek, and in many places the old Bulgarian manuscripts,
images, testaments and missals were committed to the flames. The patriots
of the literary movement, recognizing in the patriarchate the most
determined foe to a national revival, directed all their efforts to the
abolition of Greek ecclesiastical ascendancy and the restoration of the
Bulgarian autonomous church. Some of the leaders went so far as to open
negotiations with Rome, and an archbishop of the Uniate Bulgarian church
was nominated by the pope. The struggle was prosecuted with the utmost
tenacity for forty years. Incessant protests and memorials were addressed
to the Porte, and every effort was made to undermine the position of the
Greek bishops, some of whom were compelled to abandon their sees. At the
same time no pains were spared to diffuse education and to stimulate the
national sentiment. Various insurrectionary movements were attempted by the
patriots Rakovski, Panayot Khitoff, Haji Dimitr, Stephen Karaja and others,
but received little support from the mass of the people. The recognition of
Bulgarian nationality was won by the pen, not the sword. The patriarchate
at length found it necessary to offer some concessions, but these appeared
illusory to the Bulgarians, and long and acrimonious discussions followed.
Eventually the Turkish government intervened, and on the 28th of February
1870 a firman was issued establishing the Bulgarian exarchate, with
jurisdiction over fifteen dioceses, including Nish, Pirot and Veles; the
other dioceses in dispute were to be added to these in case two-thirds of
the Christian population so desired. The election of the first exarch was
delayed till February 1872, owing to the opposition of the patriarch, who
immediately afterwards excommunicated the new head of the Bulgarian church
and all his followers. The official recognition now acquired tended to
consolidate the Bulgarian nation and to prepare it for the political
developments which were soon to follow. A great educational activity at
once displayed itself in all the districts subjected to the new
ecclesiastical power.

_The Revolt of 1876._--Under the enlightened administration of Midhat Pasha
(1864-1868) Bulgaria enjoyed comparative prosperity, but that remarkable
man is not remembered with gratitude by the people owing to the severity
with which he repressed insurrectionary movements. In 1861, 12,000 Crimean
Tatars, and in 1864 a still larger number of Circassians from the Caucasus,
were settled by the Turkish government on lands taken without compensation
from the Bulgarian peasants. The Circassians, a lawless race of
mountaineers, proved a veritable scourge to the population in their
neighbourhood. In 1875 the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina produced
immense excitement throughout the Peninsula. The fanaticism of the Moslems
was aroused, and the Bulgarians, fearing a general massacre of Christians,
endeavoured to anticipate the blow by organizing a general revolt. The
rising, which broke out prematurely at Koprivshtitza and Panagurishté in
May 1876, was mainly confined to the sanjak of Philippopolis. Bands of
bashi-bazouks were let loose throughout the district by the Turkish
authorities, the Pomaks, or Moslem Bulgarians, and the Circassian colonists
were called to arms, and a succession of horrors followed to which a
parallel can scarcely be found in the history of the middle ages. The
principal scenes of massacre were Panagurishté, Perushtitza, Bratzigovo and
Batak; at the last-named town, according to an official British report,
5000 men, women and children were put to the sword by the Pomaks under
Achmet Aga, who was decorated by the sultan for this exploit. Altogether
some 15,000 persons were massacred in the [v.04 p.0782] district of
Philippopolis, and fifty-eight villages and five monasteries were
destroyed. Isolated risings which took place on the northern side of the
Balkans were crushed with similar barbarity. These atrocities, which were
first made known by an English journalist and an American consular
official, were denounced by Gladstone in a celebrated pamphlet which
aroused the indignation of Europe. The great powers remained inactive, but
Servia declared war in the following month, and her army was joined by 2000
Bulgarian volunteers. A conference of the representatives of the powers,
held at Constantinople towards the end of the year, proposed, among other
reforms, the organization of the Bulgarian provinces, including the greater
part of Macedonia, in two vilayets under Christian governors, with popular
representation. These recommendations were practically set aside by the
Porte, and in April 1877 Russia declared war (see RUSSO-TURKISH WARS, and
PLEVNA). In the campaign which followed the Bulgarian volunteer contingent
in the Russian army played an honourable part; it accompanied Gourko's
advance over the Balkans, behaved with great bravery at Stara Zagora, where
it lost heavily, and rendered valuable services in the defence of Shipka.

_Treaties of San Stefano and Berlin._--The victorious advance of the
Russian army to Constantinople was followed by the treaty of San Stefano
(3rd March 1878), which realized almost to the full the national
aspirations of the Bulgarian race. All the provinces of European Turkey in
which the Bulgarian element predominated were now included in an autonomous
principality, which extended from the Black Sea to the Albanian mountains,
and from the Danube to the Aegean, enclosing Ochrida, the ancient capital
of the Shishmans, Dibra and Kastoria, as well as the districts of Vranya
and Pirot, and possessing a Mediterranean port at Kavala. The Dobrudja,
notwithstanding its Bulgarian population, was not included in the new
state, being reserved as compensation to Rumania for the Russian annexation
of Bessarabia; Adrianople, Salonica and the Chalcidian peninsula were left
to Turkey. The area thus delimited constituted three-fifths of the Balkan
Peninsula, with a population of 4,000,000 inhabitants. The great powers,
however, anticipating that this extensive territory would become a Russian
dependency, intervened; and on the 13th of July of the same year was signed
the treaty of Berlin, which in effect divided the "Big Bulgaria" of the
treaty of San Stefano into three portions. The limits of the principality
of Bulgaria, as then defined, and the autonomous province of Eastern
Rumelia, have been already described; the remaining portion, including
almost the whole of Macedonia and part of the vilayet of Adrianople, was
left under Turkish administration. No special organization was provided for
the districts thus abandoned; it was stipulated that laws similar to the
organic law of Crete should be introduced into the various parts of Turkey
in Europe, but this engagement was never carried out by the Porte. Vranya,
Pirot and Nish were given to Servia, and the transference of the Dobrudja
to Rumania was sanctioned. This artificial division of the Bulgarian nation
could scarcely be regarded as possessing elements of permanence. It was
provided that the prince of Bulgaria should be freely elected by the
population, and confirmed by the Sublime Porte with the assent of the
powers, and that, before his election, an assembly of Bulgarian notables,
convoked at Trnovo, should draw up the organic law of the principality. The
drafting of a constitution for Eastern Rumelia was assigned to a European
commission.

_The Constitution of Trnovo._--Pending the completion of their political
organization, Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia were occupied by Russian troops
and administered by Russian officials. The assembly of notables, which met
at Trnovo in 1879, was mainly composed of half-educated peasants, who from
the first displayed an extremely democratic spirit, in which they proceeded
to manipulate the very liberal constitution submitted to them by Prince
Dondukov-Korsakov, the Russian governor-general. The long period of Turkish
domination had effectually obliterated all social distinctions, and the
radical element, which now formed into a party under Tzankoff and
Karaveloff, soon gave evidence of its predominance. Manhood suffrage, a
single chamber, payment of deputies, the absence of property qualification
for candidates, and the prohibition of all titles and distinctions, formed
salient features in the constitution now elaborated. The organic statute of
Eastern Rumelia was largely modelled on the Belgian constitution. The
governor-general, nominated for five years by the sultan with the
approbation of the powers, was assisted by an assembly, partly
representative, partly composed of _ex-officio_ members; a permanent
committee was entrusted with the preparation of legislative measures and
the general supervision of the administration, while a council of six
"directors" fulfilled the duties of a ministry.

_Prince Alexander._--On the 29th of April 1879 the assembly at Trnovo, on
the proposal of Russia, elected as first sovereign of Bulgaria Prince
Alexander of Battenberg, a member of the grand ducal house of Hesse and a
nephew of the tsar Alexander II. Arriving in Bulgaria on the 7th of July,
Prince Alexander, then in his twenty-third year, found all the authority,
military and civil, in Russian hands. The history of the earlier portion of
his reign is marked by two principal features--a strong Bulgarian reaction
against Russian tutelage and a vehement struggle against the autocratic
institutions which the young ruler, under Russian guidance, endeavoured to
inaugurate. Both movements were symptomatic of the determination of a
strong-willed and egoistic race, suddenly liberated from secular
oppression, to enjoy to the full the moral and material privileges of
liberty. In the assembly at Trnovo the popular party had adopted the
watchword "Bulgaria for the Bulgarians," and a considerable anti-Russian
contingent was included in its ranks. Young and inexperienced, Prince
Alexander, at the suggestion of the Russian consul-general, selected his
first ministry from a small group of "Conservative" politicians whose views
were in conflict with those of the parliamentary majority, but he was soon
compelled to form a "Liberal" administration under Tzankoff and Karaveloff.
The Liberals, once in power, initiated a violent campaign against
foreigners in general and the Russians in particular; they passed an alien
law, and ejected foreigners from every lucrative position. The Russians
made a vigorous resistance, and a state of chaos ensued. Eventually the
prince, finding good government impossible, obtained the consent of the
tsar to a change of the constitution, and assumed absolute authority on the
9th of May 1881. The Russian general Ernroth was appointed sole minister,
and charged with the duty of holding elections for the Grand Sobranye, to
which the right of revising the constitution appertained. So successfully
did he discharge his mission that the national representatives, almost
without debate, suspended the constitution and invested the prince with
absolute powers for a term of seven years (July 1881). A period of Russian
government followed under Generals Skobelev and Kaulbars, who were
specially despatched from St Petersburg to enhance the authority of the
prince. Their administration, however, tended to a contrary result, and the
prince, finding himself reduced to impotence, opened negotiations with the
Bulgarian leaders and effected a coalition of all parties on the basis of a
restoration of the constitution. The generals, who had made an unsuccessful
attempt to remove the prince, withdrew; the constitution of Trnovo was
restored by proclamation (19th September 1883), and a coalition ministry
was formed under Tzankoff. Prince Alexander, whose relations with the court
of St Petersburg had become less cordial since the death of his uncle, the
tsar Alexander II., in 1881, now incurred the serious displeasure of
Russia, and the breach was soon widened by the part which he played in
encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians.

_Union with Eastern Rumelia._--In Eastern Rumelia, where the Bulgarian
population never ceased to protest against the division of the race,
political life had developed on the same lines as in the principality.
Among the politicians two parties had come into existence--the
Conservatives or self-styled "Unionists," and the Radicals, derisively
called by their opponents [v.04 p.0783] "Kazioni" or treasury-seekers; both
were equally desirous of bringing about the union with the principality.
Neither party, however, while in power would risk the sweets of office by
embarking in a hazardous adventure. It was reserved for the Kazioni, under
their famous leader Zakharia Stoyánoff, who in early life had been a
shepherd, to realize the national programme. In 1885 the Unionists were in
office, and their opponents lost no time in organizing a conspiracy for the
overthrow of the governor-general, Krstovitch Pasha. Their designs were
facilitated by the circumstance that Turkey had abstained from sending
troops into the province. Having previously assured themselves of Prince
Alexander's acquiescence, they seized the governor-general and proclaimed
the union with Bulgaria (18th September). The revolution took place without
bloodshed, and a few days later Prince Alexander entered Philippopolis amid
immense enthusiasm. His position now became precarious. The powers were
scandalized at the infraction of the Berlin Treaty; Great Britain alone
showed sympathy, while Russia denounced the union and urged the Porte to
reconquer the revolted province--both powers thus reversing their
respective attitudes at the congress of Berlin.

_War with Servia._--The Turkish troops were massed at the frontier, and
Servia, hoping to profit by the difficulties of her neighbour, suddenly
declared war (14th November). At the moment of danger the Russian officers,
who filled all the higher posts in the Bulgarian army, were withdrawn by
order of the tsar. In these critical circumstances Prince Alexander
displayed considerable ability and resource, and the nation gave evidence
of hitherto unsuspected qualities. Contrary to general expectation, the
Bulgarian army, imperfectly equipped and led by subaltern officers,
successfully resisted the Servian invasion. After brilliant victories at
Slivnitza (19th November) and Tsaribrod, Prince Alexander crossed the
frontier and captured Pirot (27th November), but his farther progress was
arrested by the intervention of Austria (see SERVO-BULGARIAN WAR). The
treaty of Bucharest followed (3rd of March 1886), declaring, in a single
clause, the restoration of peace. Servia, notwithstanding her aggression,
escaped a war indemnity, but the union with Eastern Rumelia was practically
secured. By the convention of Top-Khané (5th April) Prince Alexander was
recognized by the sultan as governor-general of eastern Rumelia; a personal
union only was sanctioned, but in effect the organic statute disappeared
and the countries were administratively united. These military and
diplomatic successes, which invested the prince with the attributes of a
national hero, quickened the decision of Russia to effect his removal. An
instrument was found in the discontent of several of his officers, who
considered themselves slighted in the distribution of rewards, and a
conspiracy was formed in which Tzankoff, Karaveloff (the prime minister),
Archbishop Clement, and other prominent persons were implicated. On the
night of the 21st of August the prince was seized in his palace by several
officers and compelled, under menace of death, to sign his abdication; he
was then hurried to the Danube at Rakhovo and transported to Russian soil
at Reni. This violent act met with instant disapproval on the part of the
great majority of the nation. Stamboloff, the president of the assembly,
and Colonel Mutkuroff, commandant of the troops at Philippopolis, initiated
a counter-revolution; the provisional government set up by the conspirators
immediately fell, and a few days later the prince, who had been liberated
by the Russian authorities, returned to the country amid every
demonstration of popular sympathy and affection. His arrival forestalled
that of a Russian imperial commissioner, who had been appointed to proceed
to Bulgaria. He now committed the error of addressing a telegram to the
tsar in which he offered to resign his crown into the hands of Russia. This
unfortunate step, by which he ignored the suzerainty of Turkey, and
represented Bulgaria as a Russian dependency, exposed him to a stern
rebuff, and fatally compromised his position. The national leaders, after
obtaining a promise from the Russian representative at Sofia that Russia
would abstain from interference in the internal affairs of the country,
consented to his departure; on the 8th of September he announced his
abdication, and on the following day he left Bulgaria.

_The Regency._--A regency was now formed, in which the prominent figure was
Stamboloff, the most remarkable man whom modern Bulgaria has produced. A
series of attempts to throw the country into anarchy were firmly dealt
with, and the Grand Sobranye was summoned to elect a new prince. The
candidature of the prince of Mingrelia was now set up by Russia, and
General Kaulbars was despatched to Bulgaria to make known to the people the
wishes of the tsar. He vainly endeavoured to postpone the convocation of
the Grand Sobranye in order to gain time for the restoration of Russian
influence, and proceeded on an electoral tour through the country. The
failure of his mission was followed by the withdrawal of the Russian
representatives from Bulgaria. The Grand Sobranye, which assembled at
Trnovo, offered the crown to Prince Valdemar of Denmark, brother-in-law of
the tsar, but the honour was declined, and an anxious period ensued, during
which a deputation visited the principal capitals of Europe with the
twofold object of winning sympathy for the cause of Bulgarian independence
and discovering a suitable candidate for the throne.

_Prince Ferdinand._--On the 7th of July 1887, the Grand Sobranye
unanimously elected Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, a grandson,
maternally, of King Louis Philippe. The new prince, who was twenty-six
years of age, was at this time a lieutenant in the Austrian army.
Undeterred by the difficulties of the international situation and the
distracted condition of the country, he accepted the crown, and took over
the government on the 14th of August at Trnovo. His arrival, which was
welcomed with enthusiasm, put an end to a long and critical interregnum,
but the dangers which menaced Bulgarian independence were far from
disappearing. Russia declared the newly-elected sovereign a usurper; the
other powers, in deference to her susceptibilities, declined to recognize
him, and the grand vizier informed him that his presence in Bulgaria was
illegal. Numerous efforts were made by the partisans of Russia to disturb
internal tranquillity, and Stamboloff, who became prime minister on the 1st
of September, found it necessary to govern with a strong hand. A raid led
by the Russian captain Nabokov was repulsed; brigandage, maintained for
political purposes, was exterminated; the bishops of the Holy Synod, who,
at the instigation of Clement, refused to pay homage to the prince, were
forcibly removed from Sofia; a military conspiracy organized by Major
Panitza was crushed, and its leader executed. An attempt to murder the
energetic prime minister resulted in the death of his colleague, Beltcheff,
and shortly afterwards Dr Vlkovitch, the Bulgarian representative at
Constantinople, was assassinated. While contending with unscrupulous
enemies at home, Stamboloff pursued a successful policy abroad. Excellent
relations were established with Turkey and Rumania, valuable concessions
were twice extracted from the Porte in regard to the Bulgarian episcopate
in Macedonia, and loans were concluded with foreign financiers on
comparatively favourable terms. His overbearing character, however,
increased the number of his opponents, and alienated the goodwill of the
prince.

In the spring of 1893 Prince Ferdinand married Princess Marie-Louise of
Bourbon-Parma, whose family insisted on the condition that the issue of the
marriage should be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith. In view of the
importance of establishing a dynasty, Stamboloff resolved on the unpopular
course of altering the clause of the constitution which required that the
heir to the throne should belong to the Orthodox Church, and the Grand
Sobranye, which was convoked at Trnovo in the summer, gave effect to this
decision. The death of Prince Alexander, which took place in the autumn,
and the birth of an heir, tended to strengthen the position of Prince
Ferdinand, who now assumed a less compliant attitude towards the prime
minister. In 1894 Stamboloff resigned office; a ministry was formed under
Dr Stoïloff, and Prince Ferdinand inaugurated a policy of conciliation
towards Russia with a view to obtaining his recognition by the powers. A
Russophil [v.04 p.0784] reaction followed, large numbers of political
refugees returned to Bulgaria, and Stamboloff, exposed to the vengeance of
his enemies, was assassinated in the streets of Sofia (15th July 1895).

The prince's plans were favoured by the death of the tsar Alexander III. in
November 1894, and the reconciliation was practically effected by the
conversion of his eldest son, Prince Boris, to the Orthodox faith (14th
February 1896). The powers having signified their assent, he was nominated
by the sultan prince of Bulgaria and governor-general of Eastern Rumelia
(14th March). Russian influence now became predominant in Bulgaria, but the
cabinet of St Petersburg wisely abstained from interfering in the internal
affairs of the principality. In February 1896 Russia proposed the
reconciliation of the Greek and Bulgarian churches and the removal of the
exarch to Sofia. The project, which involved a renunciation of the exarch's
jurisdiction in Macedonia, excited strong opposition in Bulgaria, and was
eventually dropped. The death of Princess Marie-Louise (30th January 1899),
caused universal regret in the country. In the same month the Stoïloff
government, which had weakly tampered with the Macedonian movement (see
MACEDONIA) and had thrown the finances into disorder, resigned, and a
ministry under Grekoff succeeded, which endeavoured to mend the economic
situation by means of a foreign loan. The loan, however, fell through, and
in October a new government was formed under Ivanchoff and Radoslavoff.
This, in its turn, was replaced by a _cabinet d'affaires_ under General
Petroff (January 1901).

In the following March Karaveloff for the third time became prime minister.
His efforts to improve the financial situation, which now became alarming,
proved abortive, and in January 1902 a Tzankovist cabinet was formed under
Daneff, who succeeded in obtaining a foreign loan. Russian influence now
became predominant, and in the autumn the grand-duke Nicholas, General
Ignatiev, and a great number of Russian officers were present at the
consecration of a Russian church and monastery in the Shipka pass. But the
appointment of Mgr. Firmilian, a Servian prelate, to the important see of
Uskub at the instance of Russia, the suspected designs of that power on the
ports of Varna and Burgas, and her unsympathetic attitude in regard to the
Macedonian Question, tended to diminish her popularity and that of the
government. A cabinet crisis was brought about in May 1903, by the efforts
of the Russian party to obtain control of the army, and the Stambolovists
returned to power under General Petroff. A violent recrudescence of the
Macedonian agitation took place in the autumn of 1902; at the suggestion of
Russia the leaders were imprisoned, but the movement nevertheless gained
force, and in August 1903 a revolt broke out in the vilayet of Monastir,
subsequently spreading to the districts of northern Macedonia and
Adrianople (see MACEDONIA). The barbarities committed by the Turks in
repressing the insurrection caused great exasperation in the principality;
the reserves were partially mobilized, and the country was brought to the
brink of war. In pursuance of the policy of Stamboloff, the Petroff
government endeavoured to inaugurate friendly relations with Turkey, and a
Turco-Bulgarian convention was signed (8th April 1904) which, however,
proved of little practical value.

The outrages committed by numerous Greek bands in Macedonia led to
reprisals on the Greek population in Bulgaria in the summer of 1906, and
the town of Anchialo was partially destroyed. On the 6th of November in
that year Petroff resigned, and Petkoff, the leader of the Stambolovist
party, formed a ministry. The prime minister, a statesman of undoubted
patriotism but of overbearing character, was assassinated on the 11th of
March 1907 by a youth who had been dismissed from a post in one of the
agricultural banks, and the cabinet was reconstituted under Gudeff, a
member of the same party.

_Declaration of Independence._--During the thirty years of its existence
the principality had made rapid and striking progress. Its inhabitants,
among whom a strong sense of nationality had grown up, were naturally
anxious to escape from the restrictions imposed by the treaty of Berlin.
That Servia should be an independent state, while Bulgaria, with its
greater economic and military resources, remained tributary to the Sultan,
was an anomaly which all classes resented; and although the Ottoman
suzerainty was little more than a constitutional fiction, and the tribute
imposed in 1878 was never paid, the Bulgarians were almost unanimous in
their desire to end a system which made their country the vassal of a
Moslem state notorious for its maladministration and corruption. This
desire was strengthened by the favourable reception accorded to Prince
Ferdinand when he visited Vienna in February 1908, and by the so-called
"Geshoff incident," _i.e._ the exclusion of M. Geshoff, the Bulgarian
agent, from a dinner given by Tewfik Pasha, the Ottoman minister for
foreign affairs, to the ministers of all the sovereign states represented
at Constantinople (12th of September 1908). This was interpreted as an
insult to the Bulgarian nation, and as the explanation offered by the grand
vizier was unsatisfactory, M. Geshoff was recalled to Sofia. At this time
the bloodless revolution in Turkey seemed likely to bring about a
fundamental change in the settled policy of Bulgaria. For many years past
Bulgarians had hoped that their own orderly and progressive government,
which had contrasted so strongly with the evils of Turkish rule, would
entitle them to consideration, and perhaps to an accession of territory,
when the time arrived for a definite settlement of the Macedonian Question.
Now, however, the reforms introduced or foreshadowed by the Young Turkish
party threatened to deprive Bulgaria of any pretext for future
intervention; there was nothing to be gained by further acquiescence in the
conditions laid down at Berlin. An opportunity for effective action
occurred within a fortnight of M. Geshoff's recall, when a strike broke out
on those sections of the Eastern Rumelian railways which were owned by
Turkey and leased to the Oriental Railways Company. The Bulgarians alleged
that during the strike Turkish troops were able to travel on the lines
which were closed to all other traffic, and that this fact constituted a
danger to their own autonomy. The government therefore seized the railway,
in defiance of European opinion, and in spite of the protests of the
suzerain power and the Oriental Railways Company. The bulk of the Turkish
army was then in Asia, and the new régime was not yet firmly established,
while the Bulgarian government were probably aware that Russia would not
intervene, and that Austria-Hungary intended to annex Bosnia and
Herzegovina, and thus incidentally to divert attention from their own
violation of the treaty of Berlin. On the 5th of October Prince Ferdinand
publicly proclaimed Bulgaria, united since the 6th of September 1885
(_i.e._ including Eastern Rumelia), an independent kingdom. This
declaration was read aloud by the king in the church of the Forty Martyrs
at Trnovo, the ancient capital of the Bulgarian tsars. The Porte
immediately protested to the powers, but agreed to accept an indemnity. In
February 1909 the Russian government proposed to advance to Bulgaria the
difference between the £4,800,000 claimed by Turkey and the £1,520,000
which Bulgaria undertook to pay. A preliminary Russo-Turkish protocol was
signed on the 16th of March, and in April, after the final agreement had
been concluded, the independence of Bulgaria was recognized by the powers.
Of the indemnity, £1,680,000 was paid on account of the Eastern Rumelian
railways; the allocation of this sum between Turkey and the Oriental
railways was submitted to arbitration. (See TURKEY: _History_.)

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

_Language._--The Bulgarian is at once the most ancient and the most modern
of the languages which constitute the Slavonic group. In its groundwork it
presents the nearest approach to the old ecclesiastical Slavonic, the
liturgical language common to all the Orthodox Slavs, but it has undergone
more important modifications than any of the sister dialects in the
simplification of its grammatical forms; and the analytical character of
its development may be compared with that of the neo-Latin and Germanic
languages. The introduction of the definite article, which appears in the
form of a suffix, and the almost total disappearance of the ancient
declensions, for which the use of [v.04 p.0785] prepositions has been
substituted, distinguish the Bulgarian from all the other members of the
Slavonic family. Notwithstanding these changes, which give the language an
essentially modern aspect, its close affinity with the ecclesiastical
Slavonic, the oldest written dialect, is regarded as established by several
eminent scholars, such as [vS]afa[vr]ik, Schleicher, Leskien and Brugman,
and by many Russian philologists. These authorities agree in describing the
liturgical language as "Old Bulgarian." A different view, however, is
maintained by Miklosich, Kopitar and some others, who regard it as "Old
Slovene." According to the more generally accepted theory, the dialect
spoken by the Bulgarian population in the neighbourhood of Salonica, the
birthplace of SS. Cyril and Methodius, was employed by the Slavonic
apostles in their translations from the Greek, which formed the model for
subsequent ecclesiastical literature. This view receives support from the
fact that the two nasal vowels of the Church-Slavonic (the greater and
lesser _ûs_), which have been modified in all the cognate languages except
Polish, retain their original pronunciation locally in the neighbourhood of
Salonica and Castoria; in modern literary Bulgarian the _rhinesmus_ has
disappeared, but the old nasal vowels preserve a peculiar pronunciation,
the greater _ûs_ changing to _[)u]_, as in English "but," the lesser to
_[)e]_, as in "bet," while in Servian, Russian and Slovene the greater _ûs_
becomes _[=u]_ or _[=o]_, the lesser _e_ or _ya_. The remnants of the
declensions still existing in Bulgarian (mainly in pronominal and adverbial
forms) show a close analogy to those of the old ecclesiastical language.

The Slavonic apostles wrote in the 9th century (St Cyril died in 869, St
Methodius in 885), but the original manuscripts have not been preserved.
The oldest existing copies, which date from the 10th century, already
betray the influence of the contemporary vernacular speech, but as the
alterations introduced by the copyists are neither constant nor regular, it
is possible to reconstruct the original language with tolerable certainty.
The "Old Bulgarian," or archaic Slavonic, was an inflexional language of
the synthetic type, containing few foreign elements in its vocabulary. The
Christian terminology was, of course, mainly Greek; the Latin or German
words which occasionally occur were derived from Moravia and Pannonia,
where the two saints pursued their missionary labours. In course of time it
underwent considerable modifications, both phonetic and structural, in the
various Slavonic countries in which it became the liturgical language, and
the various MSS. are consequently classified as "Servian-Slavonic,"
"Croatian-Slavonic," "Russian-Slavonic," &c., according to the different
recensions. The "Russian-Slavonic" is the liturgical language now in
general use among the Orthodox Slavs of the Balkan Peninsula owing to the
great number of ecclesiastical books introduced from Russia in the 17th and
18th centuries; until comparatively recent times it was believed to be the
genuine language of the Slavonic apostles. Among the Bulgarians the spoken
language of the 9th century underwent important changes during the next
three hundred years. The influence of these changes gradually asserts
itself in the written language; in the period extending from the 12th to
the 15th century the writers still endeavoured to follow the archaic model,
but it is evident that the vernacular had already become widely different
from the speech of SS. Cyril and Methodius. The language of the MSS. of
this period is known as the "Middle Bulgarian"; it stands midway between
the old ecclesiastical Slavonic and the modern speech.

In the first half of the 16th century the characteristic features of the
modern language became apparent in the literary monuments. These features
undoubtedly displayed themselves at a much earlier period in the oral
speech; but the progress of their development has not yet been completely
investigated. Much light may be thrown on this subject by the examination
of many hitherto little-known manuscripts and by the scientific study of
the folk-songs. In addition to the employment of the article, the loss of
the noun-declensions, and the modification of the nasal vowels above
alluded to, the disappearance in pronunciation of the final vowels
_yer-golêm_ and _yer-malúk_, the loss of the infinitive, and the increased
variety of the conjugations, distinguish the modern from the ancient
language. The suffix-article, which is derived from the demonstrative
pronoun, is a feature peculiar to the Bulgarian among Slavonic and to the
Rumanian among Latin languages. This and other points of resemblance
between these remotely related members of the Indo-European group are
shared by the Albanian, probably the representative of the old Illyrian
language, and have consequently been attributed to the influence of the
aboriginal speech of the Peninsula. A demonstrative suffix, however, is
sometimes found in Russian and Polish, and traces of the article in an
embryonic state occur in the "Old Bulgarian" MSS. of the 10th and 11th
centuries. In some Bulgarian dialects it assumes different forms according
to the proximity or remoteness of the object mentioned. Thus _zhena-ta_ is
"the woman"; _zhena-va_ or _zhena-sa_, "the woman close by"; _zhena-na_,
"the woman yonder." In the borderland between the Servian and Bulgarian
nationalities the local use of the article supplies the means of drawing an
ethnological frontier; it is nowhere more marked than in the immediate
neighbourhood of the Servian population, as, for instance, at Dibra and
Prilep. The modern Bulgarian has admitted many foreign elements. It
contains about 2000 Turkish and 1000 Greek words dispersed in the various
dialects; some Persian and Arabic words have entered through the Turkish
medium, and a few Rumanian and Albanian words are found. Most of these are
rejected by the purism of the literary language, which, however, has been
compelled to borrow the phraseology of modern civilization from the
Russian, French and other European languages. The dialects spoken in the
kingdom may be classed in two groups--the eastern and the western. The main
point of difference is the pronunciation of the letter _yedvoïno_, which in
the eastern has frequently the sound of _ya_, in the western invariably
that of _e_ in "pet." The literary language began in the western dialect
under the twofold influence of Servian literature and the Church Slavonic.
In a short time, however, the eastern dialect prevailed, and the influence
of Russian literature became predominant. An anti-Russian reaction was
initiated by Borgoroff (1818-1892), and has been maintained by numerous
writers educated in the German and Austrian universities. Since the
foundation of the university of Sofia the literary language has taken a
middle course between the ultra-Russian models of the past generation and
the dialectic Bulgarian. Little uniformity, however, has yet been attained
in regard to diction, orthography or pronunciation.

The Bulgarians of pagan times are stated by the monk Khrabr, a contemporary
of Tsar Simeon, to have employed a peculiar writing, of which inscriptions
recently found near Kaspitchan may possibly be specimens. The earliest
manuscripts of the "Old Bulgarian" are written in one or other of the two
alphabets known as the glagolitic and Cyrillic (see SLAVS). The former was
used by Bulgarian writers concurrently with the Cyrillic down to the 12th
century. Among the orthodox Slavs the Cyrillic finally superseded the
glagolitic; as modified by Peter the Great it became the Russian alphabet,
which, with the revival of literature, was introduced into Servia and
Bulgaria. Some Russian letters which are superfluous in Bulgarian have been
abandoned by the native writers, and a few characters have been restored
from the ancient alphabet.

_Literature._--The ancient Bulgarian literature, originating in the works
of SS. Cyril and Methodius and their disciples, consisted for the most part
of theological works translated from the Greek. From the conversion of
Boris down to the Turkish conquest the religious character predominates,
and the influence of Byzantine literature is supreme. Translations of the
gospels and epistles, lives of the saints, collections of sermons, exegetic
religious works, translations of Greek chronicles, and miscellanies such as
the _Sbornik_ of St Sviatoslav, formed the staple of the national
literature. In the time of Tsar Simeon, himself an author, considerable
literary activity prevailed; among the more remarkable works of this period
was the _Shestodnev_, or Hexameron, of John the exarch, an account of the
creation. A little later the heresy of the Bogomils gave an impulse to
controversial writing. The principal champions of orthodoxy were St Kosmâs
and the monk Athanas of Jerusalem; among the Bogomils the _Questions of St
Ivan Bogosloff_, a work containing a description of the beginning and the
end of the world, was held in high esteem. Contemporaneously with the
spread of this sect a number of apocryphal works, based on the Scripture
narrative, but embellished with Oriental legends of a highly imaginative
character, obtained great popularity. Together with these religious
writings works of fiction, also of Oriental origin, made their appearance,
such as the life of Alexander the Great, the story of Troy, the tales of
_Stephanit and Ichnilat_ and _Barlaam and Josaphat_, the latter founded on
the biography of Buddha. These were for the most part reproductions or
variations of the fantastical romances which circulated through Europe in
the middle ages, and many of them have left traces in the national legends
and folk-songs. In the 13th century, under the Asên dynasty, numerous
historical works or chronicles (_lêtopisi_) were composed. State records
appear to have existed, but none of them have been preserved. With the
Ottoman conquest literature disappeared; the manuscripts became the food of
moths and worms, or fell a prey to the fanaticism of the Phanariot clergy.
The library of the patriarchs of Trnovo was committed to the flames by the
Greek metropolitan Hilarion in 1825.

The monk Païsii (born about 1720) and Bishop Sofronii (1739-1815) have
already been mentioned as the precursors of the literary [v.04 p.0786]
revival. The _Istoria Slaveno-Bolgarska_ (1762) of Païsii, written in the
solitude of Mount Athos, was a work of little historical value, but its
influence upon the Bulgarian race was immense. An ardent patriot, Païsii
recalls the glories of the Bulgarian tsars and saints, rebukes his
fellow-countrymen for allowing themselves to be called Greeks, and
denounces the arbitrary proceedings of the Phanariot prelates. The _Life
and Sufferings of sinful Sofronii_ (1804) describes in simple and touching
language the condition of Bulgaria at the beginning of the 19th century.
Both works were written in a modified form of the church Slavonic. The
first printed work in the vernacular appears to have been the
_Kyriakodromion_, a translation of sermons, also by Sofronii, published in
1806. The Servian and Greek insurrections quickened the patriotic
sentiments of the Bulgarian refugees and merchants in Rumania, Bessarabia
and southern Russia, and Bucharest became the centre of their political and
literary activity. A modest _bukvar_, or primer, published at Kronstadt by
Berovitch in 1824, was the first product of the new movement. Translations
of the Gospels, school reading-books, short histories and various
elementary treatises now appeared. With the multiplication of books came
the movement for establishing Bulgarian schools, in which the monk Neophyt
Rilski (1793-1881) played a leading part. He was the author of the first
Bulgarian grammar (1835) and other educational works, and translated the
New Testament into the modern language. Among the writers of the literary
renaissance were George Rakovski (1818-1867), a fantastic writer of the
patriotic type, whose works did much to stimulate the national zeal, Liuben
Karaveloff (1837-1879), journalist and novelist, Christo Boteff
(1847-1876), lyric poet, whose ode on the death of his friend Haji Dimitr,
an insurgent leader, is one of the best in the language, and Petko
Slaveikoff (died 1895), whose poems, patriotic, satirical and erotic,
moulded the modern poetical language and exercised a great influence over
the people. Gavril Krstovitch, formerly governor-general of eastern
Rumelia, and Marin Drinoff, a Slavist of high repute, have written
historical works. Stamboloff, the statesman, was the author of
revolutionary and satirical ballads; his friend Zacharia Stoyanoff (d.
1889), who began life as a shepherd, has left some interesting memoirs. The
most distinguished Bulgarian man of letters is Ivan Vazoff (b. 1850), whose
epic and lyric poems and prose works form the best specimens of the modern
literary language. His novel _Pod Igoto_ (Under the Yoke) has been
translated into several European languages. The best dramatic work is
_Ivanko_, a historical play by Archbishop Clement, who also wrote some
novels. With the exception of Zlatarski's and Boncheff's geological
treatises and contributions by Georgieff, Petkoff, Tosheff and Urumoff to
Velnovski's _Flora Bulgarica_, no original works on natural science have as
yet been produced; a like dearth is apparent in the fields of philosophy,
criticism and fine art, but it must be remembered that the literature is
still in its infancy. The ancient folk-songs have been preserved in several
valuable collections; though inferior to the Servian in poetic merit, they
deserve scientific attention. Several periodicals and reviews have been
founded in modern times. Of these the most important are the
_Perioditchesko Spisanie_, issued since 1869 by the Bulgarian Literary
Society, and the _Sbornik_, a literary and scientific miscellany, formerly
edited by Dr Shishmanoff, latterly by the Literary Society, and published
by the government at irregular intervals.

AUTHORITIES.--C.J. Jire[vc]ek, _Das Furstenthum Bulgarien_ (Prague, 1891),
and _Cesty po Bulharsku_ (Travels in Bulgaria), (Prague, 1888), both works
of the first importance; Léon Lamouche, _La Bulgarie dans le passé et le
présent_ (Paris, 1892); Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, _Die
Volkswirthschaftliche Entwicklung Bulgarians_ (Leipzig, 1891); F. Kanitz,
_Donau-Bulgarien und der Balkan_ (Leipzig, 1882); A.G. Drander, _Événements
politiques en Bulgarie_ (Paris, 1896); and _Le Prince Alexandre de
Battenberg_ (Paris, 1884); A. Strausz, _Die Bulgaren_ (Leipzig, 1898); A.
Tuma, _Die östliche Balkanhalbinsel_ (Vienna, 1886); A. de Gubernatis, _La
Bulgarie et les Bulgares_ (Florence, 1899); E. Blech, _Consular Report on
Bulgaria in 1889_ (London, 1890); _La Bulgarie contemporaine_ (issued by
the Bulgarian Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture), (Brussels, 1905).
Geology: F. Toula, _Reisen und geologische Untersuchungen in Bulgarien_
(Vienna, 1890); J. Cviji['c], "Die Tektonik der Balkanhalbinsel," in _C.R.
IX. Cong. géol. intern. de Vienne_, pp. 348-370, with map, 1904. History:
C.J. Jire[vc]ek, _Geschichte der Bulgaren_ (Prague, 1876); (a summary in
_The Balkans_, by William Miller, London, 1896); Sokolov, _Iz drevneì
istorii Bolgar_ (Petersburg, 1879); Uspenski, _Obrazovanïe vtorago
Bolgarskago tsarstva_ (Odessa, 1879); _Acta Bulgariae ecclesiastica_,
published by the South Slavonic Academy (Agram, 1887). Language: F.
Miklosich, _Vergleichende Grammatik_ (Vienna, 1879); and _Geschichte d.
Lautbezeichnung im Bulgarischen_ (Vienna, 1883); A. Leskien, _Handbuch d.
altbulgarischen Sprache_ (with a glossary), (Wiemar, 1886); L. Miletich,
_Staroblgarska Gramatika_ (Sofia, 1896); _Das Ostbulgarische_ (Vienna,
1903); Labrov, _Obzor zvulkovikh i formalnikh osobenostei Bolgarskago
yezika_ (Moscow, 1893); W.R. Morfill, _A Short Grammar of the Bulgarian
Language_ (London, 1897); F. Vymazal, _Die Kunst die bulgarische Sprache
leicht und schnell zu erlernen_ (Vienna, 1888). Literature: L.A.H. Dozon,
_Chansons populaires bulgares inédites_ (with French translations), (Paris,
1875); A. Strausz, _Bulgarische Volksdichtungen_ (translations with a
preface and notes), (Vienna and Leipzig, 1895); Lydia Shishmanov, _Légendes
religieuses bulgares_ (Paris, 1896); Pypin and Spasovich, _History of the
Slavonic Literature_ (in Russian, St Petersburg, 1879), (French
translation, Paris, 1881); Vazov and Velitchkov, _Bulgarian Chrestomathy_
(Philippopolis, 1884); Teodorov, _Blgarska Literatura_ (Philippopolis,
1896); Collections of folk-songs, proverbs, &c., by the brothers Miladinov
(Agram, 1861), Bezsonov (Moscow, 1855), Kachanovskiy (Petersburg, 1882),
Shapkarev (Philippopolis, 1885), Iliev (Sofia, 1889), P. Slaveïkov (Sofia,
1899). See also _The Shade of the Balkans_, by Pencho Slaveïkov, H. Bernard
and E.J. Dillon (London, 1904).

(J. D. B.)

BULGARIA, EASTERN, formerly a powerful kingdom which existed from the 5th
to the 15th century on the middle Volga, in the present territory of the
provinces of Samara, Simbirsk, Saratov and N. Astrakhan, perhaps extending
also into Perm. The village Bolgari near Kanzañ, surrounded by numerous
graves in which most interesting archaeological finds have been made,
occupies the site of one of the cities--perhaps the capital--of that
extinct kingdom. The history, _Tarikh Bulgar_, said to have been written in
the 12th century by an Arabian cadi of the city Bolgari, has not yet been
discovered; but the Arabian historians, Ibn Foslan, Ibn Haukal, Abul Hamid
Andalusi, Abu Abdallah Harnati, and several others, who had visited the
kingdom, beginning with the 10th century, have left descriptions of it. The
Bulgars of the Volga were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated
Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements. In the 5th century they attacked
the Russians in the Black Sea prairies, and afterwards made raids upon the
Greeks. In 922, when they were converted to Islam, Ibn Foslan found them
not quite nomadic, and already having some permanent settlements and houses
in wood. Stone houses were built soon after that by Arabian architects. Ibn
Dasta found amongst them agriculture besides cattle breeding. Trade with
Persia and India, as also with the Khazars and the Russians, and
undoubtedly with Biarmia (Urals), was, however, their chief occupation,
their main riches being furs, leather, wool, nuts, wax and so on. After
their conversion to Islam they began building forts, several of which are
mentioned in Russian annals. Their chief town, Bolgari or Velikij Gorod
(Great Town) of the Russian annals, was often raided by the Russians. In
the 13th century it was conquered by the Mongols, and became for a time the
seat of the khans of the Golden Horde. In the second half of the 15th
century Bolgari became part of the Kazañ kingdom, lost its commercial and
political importance, and was annexed to Russia after the fall of Kazañ.

(P. A. K.)

BULGARUS, an Italian jurist of the 12th century, born at Bologna, sometimes
erroneously called Bulgarinus, which was properly the name of a jurist of
the 15th century. He was the most celebrated of the famous "Four Doctors"
of the law school of that university, and was regarded as the Chrysostom of
the Gloss-writers, being frequently designated by the title of the "Golden
Mouth" (_os aureum_). He died in 1166 A.D., at a very advanced age. Popular
tradition represents all the Four Doctors (Bulgarus, Martinus Gosia, Hugo
de Porta Ravennate and Jacobus de Boragine) as pupils of Irnerius (_q.v._),
but while there is no insuperable difficulty in point of time in accepting
this tradition as far as regards Bulgarus, Savigny considers the general
tradition inadmissible as regards the others. Martinus Gosia and Bulgarus
were the chiefs of two opposite schools at Bologna, corresponding in many
respects to the Proculians and Sabinians of Imperial Rome, Martinus being
at the head of a school which accommodated the law to what his opponents
styled the equity of "the purse" (_aequitas bursalis_), whilst Bulgarus
adhered more closely to the letter of the law. The school of Bulgarus
ultimately prevailed, and it numbered amongst its adherents Joannes
Bassianus, Azo and Accursius, each of whom in his turn exercised a
commanding influence over the course of legal studies at Bologna. Bulgarus
took the leading part amongst the Four Doctors at the diet of Roncaglia in
1158, and was one of the most trusted advisers of the emperor Frederick I.
His most celebrated work is his commentary _De Regulis Juris_, which was at
one time printed amongst the writings of Placentius, but has been properly
reassigned to its true author by Cujacius, upon the internal evidence
contained in the additions annexed to it, which are undoubtedly from the
pen of Placentinus. This [v.04 p.0787] _Commentary_, which is the earliest
extant work of its kind emanating from the school of the Gloss-writers, is,
according to Savigny, a model specimen of the excellence of the method
introduced by Irnerius, and a striking example of the brilliant results
which had been obtained in a short space of time by a constant and
exclusive study of the sources of law.

BULL, GEORGE (1634-1710), English divine, was born at Wells on the 25th of
March 1634, and educated at Tiverton school, Devonshire. He entered Exeter
College, Oxford, in 1647, but had to leave in 1649 in consequence of his
refusal to take the oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth. He was ordained
privately by Bishop Skinner in 1655. His first benefice held was that of St
George's near Bristol, from which he rose successively to be rector of
Suddington in Gloucestershire (1658), prebendary of Gloucester (1678),
archdeacon of Llandaff (1686), and in 1705 bishop of St David's. He died on
the 17th of February 1710. During the time of the Commonwealth he adhered
to the forms of the Church of England, and under James II. preached
strenuously against Roman Catholicism. His works display great erudition
and powerful thinking. The _Harmonia Apostolica_ (1670) is an attempt to
show the fundamental agreement between the doctrines of Paul and James with
regard to justification. The _Defensio Fidei Nicenae_ (1685), his greatest
work, tries to show that the doctrine of the Trinity was held by the
ante-Nicene fathers of the church, and retains its value as a
thorough-going examination of all the pertinent passages in early church
literature. The _Judicium Ecclesiae Catholicae_ (1694) and _Primitiva et
Apostolica Traditio_ (1710) won high praise from Bossuet and other French
divines. Following on Bossuet's criticisms of the _Judicium_, Bull wrote a
treatise on _The Corruptions of the Church of Rome_, which became very
popular.

The best edition of Bull's works is that in 7 vols., published at Oxford by
the Clarendon Press, under the superintendence of E. Burton, in 1827. This
edition contains the _Life_ by Robert Nelson. The _Harmonia, Defensio_ and
_Judicium_ are translated in the Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology
(Oxford, 1842-1855).

BULL, JOHN (c. 1562-1628), English composer and organist, was born in
Somersetshire about 1562. After being organist in Hereford cathedral, he
joined the Chapel Royal in 1585, and in the next year became a Mus. Bac. of
Oxford. In 1591 he was appointed organist in Queen Elizabeth's chapel in
succession to Blitheman, from whom he had received his musical education.
In 1592 he received the degree of doctor of music at Cambridge University;
and in 1596 he was made music professor at Gresham College, London. As he
was unable to lecture in Latin according to the foundation-rules of that
college, the executors of Sir Thomas Gresham made a dispensation in his
favour by permitting him to lecture in English. He gave his first lecture
on the 6th of October 1597. In 1601 Bull went abroad. He visited France and
Germany, and was everywhere received with the respect due to his talents.
Anthony Wood tells an impossible story of how at St Omer Dr Bull performed
the feat of adding, within a few hours, forty parts to a composition
already written in forty parts. Honourable employments were offered to him
by various continental princes; but he declined them, and returned to
England, where he was given the freedom of the Merchant Taylors' Company in
1606. He played upon a small pair of organs before King James I. on the
16th of July 1607, in the hall of the Company, and he seems to have been
appointed one of the king's organists in that year. In the same year he
resigned his Gresham professorship and married Elizabeth Walter. In 1613 he
again went to the continent on account of his health, obtaining a post as
one of the organists in the arch-duke's chapel at Brussels. In 1617 he was
appointed organist to the cathedral of Notre Dame at Antwerp, and he died
in that city on the 12th or 13th of March 1628. Little of his music has
been published, and the opinions of critics differ much as to its merits
(see Dr Willibald Nagel's _Geschichte der Musik in England_, ii. (1897), p.
155, &c.; and Dr Seiffert's _Geschichte der Klaviermusik_ (1899), p. 54,
&c.). Contemporary writers speak in the highest terms of Bull's skill as a
performer on the organ and the virginals, and there is no doubt that he
contributed much to the development of harpsichord music. Jan Swielinck
(1562-1621), the great organist of Amsterdam, did not regard his work on
composition as complete without placing in it a canon by John Bull, and the
latter wrote a fantasia upon a fugue of Swielinck. For the ascription to
Bull of the composition of the British national anthem, see NATIONAL
ANTHEMS. Good modern reprints, _e.g._ of the Fitzwilliam _Virginal-Book_,
"The King's Hunting Jig," and one or two other pieces, are in the
repertories of modern pianists from Rubinstein onwards.

BULL, OLE BORNEMANN (1810-1880), Norwegian violinist, was born in Bergen,
Norway, on the 5th of February 1810. At first a pupil of the violinist
Paulsen, and subsequently self-taught, he was intended for the church, but
failed in his examinations in 1828 and became a musician, directing the
philharmonic and dramatic societies at Bergen. In 1829 he went to Cassel,
on a visit to Spohr, who gave him no encouragement. He now began to study
law, but on going to Paris he came under the influence of Paganini, and
definitely adopted the career of a violin virtuoso. He made his first
appearance in company with Ernst and Chopin at a concert of his own in
Paris in 1832. Successful tours in Italy and England followed soon
afterwards, and he was not long in obtaining European celebrity by his
brilliant playing of his own pieces and arrangements. His first visit to
the United States lasted from 1843 to 1845, and on his return to Norway he
formed a scheme for the establishment of a Norse theatre in Bergen; this
became an accomplished fact in 1850; but in consequence of harassing
business complications he went again to America. During this visit
(1852-1857) he bought 125,000 acres in Potter county, Pennsylvania, for a
Norwegian colony, which was to have been called Oleana after his name; but
his title turned out to be fraudulent, and the troubles he went through in
connexion with the undertaking were enough to affect his health very
seriously, though not to hinder him for long from the exercise of his
profession. Another attempt to found an academy of music in Christiania had
no permanent result. In 1836 he had married Alexandrine Félicie Villeminot,
the grand-daughter of a lady to whom he owed much at the beginning of his
musical career in Paris; she died in 1862. In 1870 he married Sara C.
Thorpe of Wisconsin; henceforth he confined himself to the career of a
violinist. He died at Lysö, near Bergen, on the 17th of August 1880. Ole
Bull's "polacca guerriera" and many of his other violin pieces, among them
two concertos, are interesting to the virtuoso, and his fame rests upon his
prodigious technique. The memoir published by his widow in 1886 contains
many illustrations of a career that was exceptionally brilliant; it gives a
picture of a strong individuality, which often found expression in a
somewhat boisterous form of practical humour.

There is a fountain and portrait statue to his memory in the Ole Bulls
Plads in Bergen.

BULL, (1) The male of animals belonging to the section _Bovina_ of the
family _Bovidae_ (_q.v._), particularly the uncastrated male of the
domestic ox (_Bos taurus_). (See CATTLE.) The word, which is found in M.E.
as _bole, bolle_ (cf. Ger. _Bulle_, and Dutch _bul_ or _bol_), is also used
of the males of other animals of large size, _e.g._ the elephant, whale,
&c. The O.E. diminutive form _bulluc_, meaning originally a young bull, or
bull calf, survives in bullock, now confined to a young castrated male ox
kept for slaughter for beef.

On the London and New York stock exchanges "bull" and "bear" are
correlative technical slang terms. A "bull" is one who "buys for a rise,"
_i.e._ he buys stocks or securities, grain or other commodities (which,
however, he never intends to take up), in the hope that before the date on
which he must take delivery he will be able to sell the stocks, &c., at a
higher price, taking as a profit the difference between the buying and
selling price. A "bear" is the reverse of a "bull." He is one who "sells
for a fall," _i.e._ he sells stock, &c., which he does not actually
possess, in the hope of buying it at a lower price before the time at which
he has contracted to deliver (see ACCOUNT; STOCK EXCHANGE). The word
"bull," according to the _New English Dictionary_, was used in this sense
as early as the beginning of the 18th century. The origin of the use is not
known, though it is tempting to connect it with the fable of the frog and
the bull.

[v.04 p.0788] The term "bull's eye" is applied to many circular objects,
and particularly to the boss or protuberance left in the centre of a sheet
of blown glass. This when cut off was formerly used for windows in small
leaded panes. The French term _oeil de boeuf_ is used of a circular window.
Other circular objects to which the word is applied are the centre of a
target or a shot that hits the central division of the target, a
plano-convex lens in a microscope, a lantern with a convex glass in it, a
thick circular piece of glass let into the deck or side of a ship, &c., for
lighting the interior, a ring-shaped block grooved round the outer edge,
and with a hole through the centre through which a rope can be passed, and
also a small lurid cloud which in certain latitudes presages a hurricane.

(2) The use of the word "bull," for a verbal blunder, involving a
contradiction in terms, is of doubtful origin. In this sense it is used
with a possible punning reference to papal bulls in Milton's _True
Religion_, "and whereas the Papist boasts himself to be a Roman Catholick,
it is a mere contradiction, one of the Pope's Bulls, as if he should say a
universal particular, a Catholick schismatick." Probably this use may be
traced to a M.E. word _bul_, first found in the _Cursor Mundi_, c. 1300, in
the sense of falsehood, trickery, deceit; the _New English Dictionary_
compares an O.Fr. _boul_, _boule_ or _bole_, in the same sense. Although
modern associations connect this type of blunder with the Irish, possibly
owing to the many famous "bulls" attributed to Sir Boyle Roche (_q.v._),
the early quotations show that in the 17th century, when the meaning now
attached to the word begins, no special country was credited with them.

(3) _Bulla_ (Lat for "bubble"), which gives us another "bull" in English,
was the term used by the Romans for any boss or stud, such as those on
doors, sword-belts, shields and boxes. It was applied, however, more
particularly to an ornament, generally of gold, a round or heart-shaped box
containing an amulet, worn suspended from the neck by children of noble
birth until they assumed the _toga virilis_, when it was hung up and
dedicated to the household gods. The custom of wearing the bulla, which was
regarded as a charm against sickness and the evil eye, was of Etruscan
origin. After the Second Punic War all children of free birth were
permitted to wear it; but those who did not belong to a noble or wealthy
family were satisfied with a bulla of leather. Its use was only permitted
to grown-up men in the case of generals who celebrated a triumph. Young
girls (probably till the time of their marriage), and even favourite
animals, also wore it (see Ficoroni, _La Bolla d' Oro_, 1732; Yates,
_Archaeological Journal_, vi., 1849; viii., 1851). In ecclesiastical and
medieval Latin, _bulla_ denotes the seal of oval or circular form, bearing
the name and generally the image of its owner, which was attached to
official documents. A metal was used instead of wax in the warm countries
of southern Europe. The best-known instances are the papal _bullae_, which
have given their name to the documents (bulls) to which they are attached.
(See DIPLOMATIC; SEALS; CURIA ROMANA; GOLDEN BULL.)

BULLER, CHARLES (1806-1848), English politician, son of Charles Buller (d.
1848), a member of a well-known Cornish family (see below), was born in
Calcutta on the 6th of August 1806; his mother, a daughter of General
William Kirkpatrick, was an exceptionally talented woman. He was educated
at Harrow, then privately in Edinburgh by Thomas Carlyle, and afterwards at
Trinity College, Cambridge, becoming a barrister in 1831. Before this date,
however, he had succeeded his father as member of parliament for West Looe;
after the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832 and the consequent
disenfranchisement of this borough, he was returned to parliament by the
voters of Liskeard. He retained this seat until he died in London on the
29th of November 1848, leaving behind him, so Charles Greville says, "a
memory cherished for his delightful social qualities and a vast credit for
undeveloped powers." An eager reformer and a friend of John Stuart Mill,
Buller voted for the great Reform Bill, favoured other progressive
measures, and presided over the committee on the state of the records and
the one appointed to inquire into the state of election law in Ireland in
1836. In 1838 he went to Canada with Lord Durham as private secretary, and
after rendering conspicuous service to his chief, returned with him to
England in the same year. After practising as a barrister, Buller was made
judge-advocate-general in 1846, and became chief commissioner of the poor
law about a year before his death. For a long time it was believed that
Buller wrote Lord Durham's famous "Report on the affairs of British North
America." However, this is now denied by several authorities, among them
being Durham's biographer, Stuart J. Reid, who mentions that Buller
described this statement as a "groundless assertion" in an article which he
wrote for the _Edinburgh Review_. Nevertheless it is quite possible that
the "Report" was largely drafted by Buller, and it almost certainly bears
traces of his influence. Buller was a very talented man, witty, popular and
generous, and is described by Carlyle as "the genialest radical I have ever
met." Among his intimate friends were Grote, Thackeray, Monckton Milnes and
Lady Ashburton. A bust of Buller is in Westminster Abbey, and another was
unveiled at Liskeard in 1905. He wrote "A Sketch of Lord Durham's mission
to Canada," which has not been printed.

See T. Carlyle, _Reminiscences_ (1881); and S.J. Reid, _Life and Letters of
the 1st earl of Durham_ (1906).

BULLER, SIR REDVERS HENRY (1839-1908), British general, son of James
Wentworth Buller, M.P., of Crediton, Devonshire, and the descendant of an
old Cornish family, long established in Devonshire, tracing its ancestry in
the female line to Edward I., was born in 1839, and educated at Eton. He
entered the army in 1858, and served with the 60th (King's Royal Rifles) in
the China campaign of 1860. In 1870 he became captain, and went on the Red
River expedition, where he was first associated with Colonel (afterwards
Lord) Wolseley. In 1873-74 he accompanied the latter in the Ashantee
campaign as head of the Intelligence Department, and was slightly wounded
at the battle of Ordabai; he was mentioned in despatches, made a C.B., and
raised to the rank of major. In 1874 he inherited the family estates. In
the Kaffir War of 1878-79 and the Zulu War of 1879 he was conspicuous as an
intrepid and popular leader, and acquired a reputation for courage and
dogged determination. In particular his conduct of the retreat at Inhlobane
(March 28, 1879) drew attention to these qualities, and on that occasion he
earned the V.C.; he was also created C.M.G. and made lieutenant-colonel and
A.D.C. to the queen. In the Boer War of 1881 he was Sir Evelyn Wood's chief
of staff; and thus added to his experience of South African conditions of
warfare. In 1882 he was head of the field intelligence department in the
Egyptian campaign, and was knighted for his services. Two years later he
commanded an infantry brigade in the Sudan under Sir Gerald Graham, and was
at the battles of El Teb and Tamai, being promoted major-general for
distinguished service. In the Sudan campaign of 1884-85 he was Lord
Wolseley's chief of staff, and he was given command of the desert column
when Sir Herbert Stewart was wounded. He distinguished himself by his
conduct of the retreat from Gubat to Gakdul, and by his victory at Abu Klea
(February 16-17), and he was created K.C.B. In 1886 he was sent to Ireland
to inquire into the "moonlighting" outrages, and for a short time he acted
as under-secretary for Ireland; but in 1887 he was appointed
quartermaster-general at the war office. From 1890 to 1897 he held the
office of adjutant-general, attaining the rank of lieutenant-general in
1891. At the war office his energy and ability inspired the belief that he
was fitted for the highest command, and in 1895, when the duke of Cambridge
was about to retire, it was well known that Lord Rosebery's cabinet
intended to appoint Sir Redvers as chief of the staff under a scheme of
reorganization recommended by Lord Hartington's commission. On the eve of
this change, however, the government was defeated, and its successors
appointed Lord Wolseley to the command under the old title of
commander-in-chief. In 1896 he was made a full general.

In 1898 he took command of the troops at Aldershot, and when the Boer War
broke out in 1899 he was selected to command the South African Field Force
(see TRANSVAAL), and landed [v.04 p.0789] at Cape Town on the 31st of
October. Owing to the Boer investment of Ladysmith and the consequent
gravity of the military situation in Natal, he unexpectedly hurried thither
in order to supervise personally the operations, but on the 15th of
December his first attempt to cross the Tugela at Colenso (see LADYSMITH)
was repulsed. The government, alarmed at the situation and the pessimistic
tone of Buller's messages, sent out Lord Roberts to supersede him in the
chief command, Sir Redvers being left in subordinate command of the Natal
force. His second attempt to relieve Ladysmith (January 10-27) proved
another failure, the result of the operations at Spion Kop (January 24)
causing consternation in England. A third attempt (Vaalkrantz, February
5-7) was unsuccessful, but the Natal army finally accomplished its task in
the series of actions which culminated in the victory of Pieter's Hill and
the relief of Ladysmith on the 27th of February. Sir Redvers Buller
remained in command of the Natal army till October 1900, when he returned
to England (being created G.C.M.G.), having in the meanwhile slowly done a
great deal of hard work in driving the Boers from the Biggarsberg (May 15),
forcing Lang's Nek (June 12), and occupying Lydenburg (September 6). But
though these latter operations had done much to re-establish his reputation
for dogged determination, and he had never lost the confidence of his own
men, his capacity for an important command in delicate and difficult
operations was now seriously questioned. The continuance, therefore, in
1901 of his appointment to the important Aldershot command met with a
vigorous press criticism, in which the detailed objections taken to his
conduct of the operations before Ladysmith (and particularly to a message
to Sir George White in which he seriously contemplated and provided for the
contingency of surrender) were given new prominence. On the 10th of October
1901, at a luncheon in London, Sir Redvers Buller made a speech in answer
to these criticisms in terms which were held to be a breach of discipline,
and he was placed on half-pay a few days later. For the remaining years of
his life he played an active part as a country gentleman, accepting in
dignified silence the prolonged attacks on his failures in South Africa;
among the public generally, and particularly in his own county, he never
lost his popularity. He died on the 2nd of June 1908. He had married in
1882 Lady Audrey, daughter of the 4th Marquess Townshend, who survived him
with one daughter.

A _Memoir_, by Lewis Butler, was published in 1909.

BULLET (Fr. _boulet_, diminutive of _boule_, ball). The original meaning (a
"small ball") has, since the end of the 16th century, been narrowed down to
the special case of the projectile used with small arms of all kinds,
irrespective of its size or shape. (For details see AMMUNITION; GUN; RIFLE,
&c.)

BULL-FIGHTING, the national Spanish sport. The Spanish name is
_tauromaquia_ (Gr. [Greek: tauros], bull, and [Greek: machê], combat).
Combats with bulls were common in ancient Thessaly as well as in the
amphitheatres of imperial Rome, but probably partook more of the nature of
worrying than fighting, like the bull-baiting formerly common in England.
The Moors of Africa also possessed a sport of this kind, and it is probable
that they introduced it into Andalusia when they conquered that province.
It is certain that they held bull-fights in the half-ruined Roman
amphitheatres of Merida, Cordova, Tarragona, Toledo and other places, and
that these constituted the favourite sport of the Moorish chieftains.
Although patriotic tradition names the great Cid himself as the original
Spanish bull-fighter, it is probable that the first Spaniard to kill a bull
in the arena was Don Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, who about 1040, employing the
lance, which remained for centuries the chief weapon used in the sport,
proved himself superior to the flower of the Moorish knights. A spirited
rivalry in the art between the Christian and Moorish warriors resulted, in
which even the kings of Castile and other Spanish princes took an ardent
interest. After the Moors were driven from Spain by Ferdinand II.,
bull-fighting continued to be the favourite sport of the aristocracy, the
method of fighting being on horseback with the lance. At the time of the
accession of the house of Austria it had become an indispensable accessory
of every court function, and Charles V. ensured his popularity with the
people by killing a bull with his own lance on the birthday of his son,
Philip II. Philip IV. is also known to have taken a personal part in
bull-fights. During this period the lance was discarded in favour of the
short spear (_rejoncillo_), and the leg armour still worn by the
_picadores_ was introduced. The accession of the house of Bourbon witnessed
a radical transformation in the character of the bullfight, which the
aristocracy began gradually to neglect, admitting to the combats
professional subordinates who, by the end of the 17th century, had become
the only active participants in the bull-ring. The first great professional
_espada_ (_i.e._ swordsman, the chief bull-fighter, who actually kills the
bull) was Francisco Romero, of Ronda in Andalusia (about 1700), who
introduced the _estoque_, the sword still used to kill the bull, and the
_muleta_, the red flag carried by the _espada_ (see below), the spear
falling into complete disuse.

For the past two centuries the art of bull-fighting has developed gradually
into the spectacle of to-day. Imitations of the Spanish bull-fights have
been repeatedly introduced into France and Italy, but the cruelty of the
sport has prevented its taking firm root. In Portugal a kind of
bull-baiting is practised, in which neither man nor beast is much hurt, the
bulls having their horns truncated and padded and never being killed. In
Spain many vain attempts have been made to abolish the sport, by Ferdinand
II. himself, instigated by his wife Isabella, by Charles III., by Ferdinand
VI., and by Charles IV.; and several popes placed its devotees under the
ban of excommunication with no perceptible effect upon its popularity.
Before the introduction of railways there were comparatively few bull-rings
(_plazas de toros_) in Spain, but these have largely multiplied in recent
years, in both Spain and Spanish America. At the present day nearly every
larger town and city in Spain has its _plaza de toros_ (about 225
altogether), built in the form of the Roman circuses with an oval open
arena covered with sand, surrounded by a stout fence about 6 ft. high.
Between this and the seats of the spectators is a narrow passage-way, where
those bull-fighters who are not at the moment engaged take their stations.
The _plazas de toros_ are of all sizes, from that of Madrid, which holds
more than 12,000 spectators, down to those seating only two or three
thousand. Every bull-ring has its hospital for the wounded, and its chapel
where the _toreros_ (bull-fighters) receive the Holy Eucharist.

The bulls used for fighting are invariably of well-known lineage and are
reared in special establishments (_vacádas_), the most celebrated of which
is now that of the duke of Veragua in Andalusia. When quite young they are
branded with the emblems of their owners, and later are put to a test of
their courage, only those that show a fighting spirit being trained
further. When full grown, the health, colour, weight, character of horns,
and action in attack are all objects of the keenest observation and study.
The best bulls are worth from £40 to £60. About 1300 bulls are killed
annually in Spain. Bull-fighters proper, most of whom are Andalusians,
consist of _espadas_ (or _matadores_), _banderilleros_ and _picadores_, in
addition to whom there are numbers of assistants (_chulos_), drivers and
other servants. For each bull-fight two or three _espadas_ are engaged,
each providing his own quadrille (_cuadrilla_), composed of several
_banderilleros_ and _picadores_. Six bulls are usually killed during one
_corrida_ (bull-fight), the _espadas_ engaged taking them in turn. The
_espada_ must have passed through a trying novitiate in the art at the
royal school of bull-fighting, after which he is given his _alternativa_,
or licence.

The bull-fight begins with a grand entry of all the bull-fighters with
_alguaciles_, municipal officers in ancient costume, at the head, followed,
in three rows, by the _espadas, banderilleros, picadores, chulos_ and the
richly caparisoned triple mule-team used to drag from the arena the
carcasses of the slain bulls and horses. The greatest possible brilliance
of costume and accoutrements is aimed at, and the picture presented is one
of dazzling colour. The _espadas_ and _banderilleros_ wear short jackets
and small-clothes of satin richly embroidered in gold and silver, with
[v.04 p.0790] light silk stockings and heelless shoes; the _picadores_
(pikemen on horseback) usually wear yellow, and their legs are enclosed in
steel armour covered with leather as a protection against the horns of the
bull.

The fight is divided into three divisions (_suertes_). When the opening
procession has passed round the arena the president of the _corrida_,
usually some person of rank, throws down to one of the _alguaciles_ the key
to the _toril_, or bull-cells. As soon as the supernumeraries have left the
ring, and the _picadores_, mounted upon blindfolded horses in wretched
condition, have taken their places against the barrier, the door of the
_toril_ is opened, and the bull, which has been goaded into fury by the
affixing to his shoulder of an iron pin with streamers of the colours of
his breeder attached, enters the ring. Then begins the _suerte de picar_,
or division of lancing. The bull at once attacks the mounted _picadores_,
ripping up and wounding the horses, often to the point of complete
disembowelment. As the bull attacks the horse, the _picador_, who is armed
with a short-pointed, stout pike (_garrocha_), thrusts this into the bull's
back with all his force, with the usual result that the bull turns its
attention to another _picador_. Not infrequently, however, the rush of the
bull and the blow dealt to the horse is of such force as to overthrow both
animal and rider, but the latter is usually rescued from danger by the
_chulos_ and _banderilleros_, who, by means of their red cloaks (_capas_),
divert the bull from the fallen _picador_, who either escapes from the ring
or mounts a fresh horse. The number of horses killed in this manner is one
of the chief features of the fight, a bull's prowess being reckoned
accordingly. About 6000 horses are killed every year in Spain. At the sound
of a trumpet the _picadores_ retire from the ring, the dead horses are
dragged out, and the second division of the fight, the _suerte de
banderillear_, or planting the darts, begins. The _banderillas_ are barbed
darts about 18 in. long, ornamented with coloured paper, one being held in
each hand of the bull-fighter, who, standing 20 or 30 yds. from the bull,
draws its attention to him by means of violent gestures. As the bull
charges, the _banderillero_ steps towards him, dexterously plants both
darts in the beast's neck, and draws aside in the nick of time to avoid its
horns. Four pairs of _banderillas_ are planted in this way, rendering the
bull mad with rage and pain. Should the animal prove of a cowardly nature
and refuse to attack repeatedly, _banderillas de fuego_ (fire) are used.
These are furnished with fulminating crackers, which explode with terrific
noise as the bull careers about the ring. During this division numerous
manoeuvres are sometimes indulged in for the purpose of tiring the bull
out, such as leaping between his horns, vaulting over his back with the
_garrocha_ as he charges, and inviting his rushes by means of elaborate
flauntings of the cloak (_floréos_, flourishes).

Another trumpet-call gives the signal for the final division of the fight,
the _suerte de matár_ (killing). This is carried out by the _espada_,
alone, his assistants being present only in the case of emergency or to get
the bull back to the proper part of the ring, should he bolt to a distance.
The _espada_, taking his stand before the box of the president, holds aloft
in his left hand sword and _muleta_ and in his right his hat, and in set
phrases formally dedicates (_brinde_) the death of the bull to the
president or some other personage of rank, finishing by tossing his hat
behind his back and proceeding bareheaded to the work of killing the bull.
This is a process accompanied by much formality. The _espada_, armed with
the _estoque_, a sword with a heavy flat blade, brings the bull into the
proper position by means of passes with the _muleta_, a small red silk flag
mounted on a short staff, and then essays to kill him with a single thrust,
delivered through the back of the neck close to the head and downward into
the heart. This stroke is a most difficult one, requiring long practice as
well as great natural dexterity, and very frequently fails of its object,
the killing of the bull often requiring repeated thrusts. The stroke
(_estocada_) is usually given _á volapié_ (half running), the _espada_
delivering the thrust while stepping forward, the bull usually standing
still. Another method is _recibiéndo_ (receiving), the _espada_ receiving
the onset of the bull upon the point of his sword. Should the bull need a
_coup de grâce_, it is given by a _chulo_, called _puntilléro_, with a
dagger which pierces the spinal marrow. The dead beast is then dragged out
of the ring by the triple mule-team, while the _espada_ makes a tour of
honour, being acclaimed, in the case of a favourite, with the most
extravagant enthusiasm. The ring is then raked over, a second bull is
introduced, and the spectacle begins anew. Upon great occasions, such as a
coronation, a _corrida_ in the ancient style is given by amateurs, who are
clad in gala costumes without armour of any kind, and mounted upon steeds
of good breed and condition. They are armed with sharp lances, with which
they essay to kill the bull while protecting themselves and their steeds
from his horns. As the bulls in these encounters have not been weakened by
many wounds and tired out by much running, the performances of the
gentlemen fighters are remarkable for pluck and dexterity.

See Moratin, _Origen y Progeso de las Fiestas de Toros_; Bedoya's _Historia
del Toreo_; J.S. Lozano, _Manual de Tauromaquia_ (Seville, 1882); A.
Chapman and W.T. Buck, _Wild Spain_ (London, 1893).

BULLFINCH (_Pyrrhula vulgaris_), the ancient English name  given to a bird
belonging to the family _Fringillidae_ (see FINCH), of a bluish-grey and
black colour above, and generally of a bright tile-red beneath, the female
differing chiefly in having its under-parts chocolate-brown. It is a shy
bird, not associating with other species, and frequents well-wooded
districts, being very rarely seen on moors or other waste lands. It builds
a shallow nest composed of twigs lined with fibrous roots, on low trees or
thick underwood, only a few feet from the ground, and lays four or five
eggs of a bluish-white colour speckled and streaked with purple. The young
remain with their parents during autumn and winter, and pair in spring, not
building their nests, however, till May. In spring and summer they feed on
the buds of trees and bushes, choosing, it is said, such only as contain
the incipient blossom, and thus doing immense injury to orchards and
gardens. In autumn and winter they feed principally on wild fruits and on
seeds. The note of the bullfinch, in the wild state, is soft and pleasant,
but so low as scarcely to be audible; it possesses, however, great powers
of imitation, and considerable memory, and can thus be taught to whistle a
variety of tunes. Bullfinches are very abundant in the forests of Germany,
and it is there that most of the piping bullfinches are trained. They are
taught continuously for nine months, and the lesson is repeated throughout
the first moulting, as during that change the young birds are apt to forget
all that they have previously acquired. The bullfinch is a native of the
northern countries of Europe, occurring in Italy and other southern parts
only as a winter visitor. White and black varieties are occasionally met
with; the latter are often produced by feeding the bullfinch exclusively on
hempseed, when its plumage gradually changes to black. It rarely breeds in
confinement, and hybrids between it and the canary have been produced on
but few occasions.

BULLI, a town of Camden county, New South Wales, Australia, 59 m. by rail
S. of Sydney. Pop. (1901) 2500. It is the headquarters of the Bulli Mining
Company, whose coal-mine on the flank of the Illawarra Mountains is worked
by a tunnel, 2 m. long, driven into the heart of the mountain. From this
tunnel the coal is conveyed by rail for 1½ m. to a pier, whence it is
shipped to Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane by a fleet of steam colliers. The
beautiful Bulli Pass, 1000 ft. above the sea, over the Illawarra range, is
one of the most attractive tourist resorts in Australia.

BULLINGER, HEINRICH (1504-1575), Swiss reformer, son of Dean Heinrich
Bullinger by his wife Anna (Wiederkehr), was born at Bremgarten, Aargau, on
the 18th of July 1504. He studied at Emmerich and Cologne, where the
teaching of Peter Lombard led him, through Augustine and Chrysostom, to
first-hand  study of the Bible. Next the writings of Luther and Melanchthon
appealed to him. Appointed teacher (1522) in the cloister school of Cappel,
he lectured on Melanchthon's _Loci Communes_ (1521). He heard Zwingli at
Zürich in 1527, and next year accompanied him to the disputation at Berne.
He was made pastor of Bremgarten in 1529, and married Anna Adlischweiler, a
nun, by whom he had eleven children. After the battle [v.04 p.0791] of
Cappel (11th of October 1531), in which Zwingli fell, he left Bremgarten.
On the 9th of December 1531 he was chosen to succeed Zwingli as chief
pastor of Zürich. A strong writer and thinker, his spirit was essentially
unifying and sympathetic, in an age when these qualities won little
sympathy. His controversies on the Lord's Supper with Luther, and his
correspondence with Lelio Sozini (see SOCINUS), exhibit, in different
connexions, his admirable mixture of dignity and tenderness. With Calvin he
concluded (1549) the _Consensus Tigurinus_ on the Lord's Supper. The
(second) Helvetic Confession (1566) adopted in Switzerland, Hungary,
Bohemia and elsewhere, was his work. The volumes of the _Zurich Letters_,
published by the Parker Society, testify to his influence on the English
reformation in later stages. Many of his sermons were translated into
English (reprinted, 4 vols., 1849). His works, mainly expository and
polemical, have not been collected. He died at Zürich on the 17th of
September 1575.

See Carl Pestalozzi, _Leben_ (1858); Raget Christoffel, _H. Bullinger_
(1875); Justus Heer, in Hauck's _Realencyklopadie_ (1897).

(A. GO.*)

BULLION, a term applied to the gold and silver of the mines brought to a
standard of purity. The word appears in an English act of 1336 in the
French form "puissent sauvement porter à les exchanges ou bullion ...
argent en plate, vessel d'argent, &c."; and apparently it is connected with
_bouillon_, the sense of "boiling" being transferred in English to the
melting of metal, so that _bullion_ in the passage quoted meant
"melting-house" or "mint." The first recorded instance of the use of the
word for precious metal as such in the mass is in an act of 1451. From the
use of gold and silver as a medium of exchange, it followed that they
should approximate in all nations to a common degree of fineness; and
though this is not uniform even in coins, yet the proportion of alloy in
silver, and of carats alloy to carats fine in gold, has been reduced to
infinitesimal differences in the bullion of commerce, and is a prime
element of value even in gold and silver plate, jewelry, and other articles
of manufacture. Bullion, whether in the form of coins, or of bars and
ingots stamped, is subject, as a general rule of the London market, not
only to weight but to assay, and receives a corresponding value.

BULLOCK, WILLIAM (c. 1657-c. 1740), English actor, "of great glee and much
comic vivacity," was the original Clincher in Farquhar's _Constant Couple_
(1699), Boniface in _The Beaux' Stratagem_ (1707), and Sir Francis Courtall
in Pavener's _Artful Wife_ (1717). He played at all the London theatres of
his time, and in the summer at a booth at Bartholomew Fair. He had three
sons, all actors, of whom the eldest was Christopher Bullock (c.
1690-1724), who at Drury Lane, the Haymarket and Lincoln's Inn Fields
displayed "a considerable versatility of talent." Christopher created a few
original parts in comedies and farces of which he was the author or
adapter:--_A Woman's Revenge_ (1715); _Slip_; _Adventures of Half an Hour_
(1716); _The Cobbler of Preston_; _Woman's a Riddle_; _The Perjurer_
(1717); and _The Traitor_ (1718).

BULLROARER, the English name for an instrument made of a small flat slip of
wood, through a hole in one end of which a string is passed; swung round
rapidly it makes a booming, humming noise. Though treated as a toy by
Europeans, the bullroarer has had the highest mystic significance and
sanctity among primitive people. This is notably the case in Australia,
where it figures in the initiation ceremonies and is regarded with the
utmost awe by the "blackfellows." Their bullroarers, or sacred "tunduns,"
are of two types, the "grandfather" or "man tundun," distinguished by its
deep tone, and the "woman tundun," which, being smaller, gives forth a
weaker, shriller note. Women or girls, and boys before initiation, are
never allowed to see the tundun. At the Bora, or initiation ceremonies, the
bullroarer's hum is believed to be the voice of the "Great Spirit," and on
hearing it the women hide in terror. A Maori bullroarer is preserved in the
British Museum, and travellers in Africa state that it is known and held
sacred there. Thus among the Egba tribe of the Yoruba race the supposed
"Voice of Oro," their god of vengeance, is produced by a bullroarer, which
is actually worshipped as the god himself. The sanctity of the bullroarer
has been shown to be very widespread. There is no doubt that the rhombus
[Greek: rhombos] which was whirled at the Greek mysteries was one. Among
North American Indians it was common. At certain Moqui ceremonies the
procession of dancers was led by a priest who whirled a bullroarer. The
instrument has been traced among the Tusayan, Apache and Navaho Indians
(J.G. Bourke, _Ninth Annual Report of Bureau of Amer. Ethnol._, 1892),
among the Koskimo of British Columbia (Fr. Boas, "Social Organization, &c.,
of the Kwakiutl Indians," _Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1895_),
and in Central Brazil. In New Guinea, in some of the islands of the Torres
Straits (where it is swung as a fishing-charm), in Ceylon (where it is used
as a toy and figures as a sacred instrument at Buddhist festivals), and in
Sumatra (where it is used to induce the demons to carry off the soul of a
woman, and so drive her mad), the bullroarer is also found. Sometimes, as
among the Minangkabos of Sumatra, it is made of the frontal bone of a man
renowned for his bravery.

See A. Lang, _Custom and Myth_ (1884); J.D.E. Schmeltz, _Das Schwirrholz_
(Hamburg, 1896); A.C. Haddon, _The Study of Man_, and in the _Journ.
Anthrop. Instit._ xix., 1890; G.M.C. Theal, _Kaffir Folk-Lore_; A.B. Ellis,
_Yoruba-Speaking Peoples_ (1894); R.C. Codrington, _The Melanesians_
(1891).

BULL RUN, a small stream of Virginia, U.S.A., which gave the name to two
famous battles in the American Civil War.

(1) The first battle of Bull Run (called by the Confederates Manassas) was
fought on the 21st of July 1861 between the Union forces under
Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell and the Confederates under General Joseph
E. Johnston. Both armies were newly raised and almost untrained. After a
slight action on the 18th at Blackburn's Ford, the two armies prepared for
a battle. The Confederates were posted along Bull Run, guarding all the
passages from the Stone Bridge down to the railway bridge. McDowell's
forces rendezvoused around Centreville, and both commanders, sensible of
the temper of their troops, planned a battle for the 21st. On his part
McDowell ordered one of his four divisions to attack the Stone Bridge, two
to make a turning movement via Sudley Springs, the remaining division
(partly composed of regular troops) was to be in reserve and to watch the
lower fords. The local Confederate commander, Brigadier-General P.G.T.
Beauregard, had also intended to advance, and General Johnston, who arrived
by rail on the evening of the 20th with the greater part of a fresh army,
and now assumed command of the whole force, approved an offensive movement
against Centreville for the 21st; but orders miscarried, and the Federal
attack opened before the movement had begun. Johnston and Beauregard then
decided to fight a defensive battle, and hurried up troops to support the
single brigade of Evans which held the Stone Bridge. Thus there was no
serious fighting at the lower fords of Bull Run throughout the day.

[Illustration]

The Federal staff was equally inexperienced, and the divisions [v.04
p.0792] engaged in the turning movement met with many unnecessary checks.
At 6 A.M., when the troops told off for the frontal attack appeared before
the Stone Bridge, the turning movement was by no means well advanced. Evans
had time to change position so as to command both the Stone Bridge and
Sudley Springs, and he was promptly supported by the brigades of Bee,
Bartow and T.J. Jackson. About 9.30 the leading Federal brigade from Sudley
Springs came into action, and two hours later Evans, Bee and Bartow had
been driven off the Matthews hill in considerable confusion. But on the
Henry House hill Jackson's brigade stood, as General Bee said to his men,
"like a stone wall," and the defenders rallied, though the Federals were
continually reinforced. The fighting on the Henry House hill was very
severe, but McDowell, who dared not halt to re-form his enthusiastic
volunteers, continued to attack. About 1.30 P.M. he brought up two regular
batteries to the fighting line; but a Confederate regiment, being mistaken
for friendly troops and allowed to approach, silenced the guns by close
rifle fire, and from that time, though the hill was taken and retaken
several times, the Federal attack made no further headway. At 2.45 more of
Beauregard's troops had come up; Jackson's brigade charged with the
bayonet, and at the same time the Federals were assailed in flank by the
last brigades of Johnston's army, which arrived at the critical moment from
the railway. They gave way at once, tired out, and conscious that the day
was lost, and after one rally melted away slowly to the rear, the handful
of regulars alone keeping their order. But when, at the defile of the Cub
Run, they came under shell fire the retreat became a panic flight to the
Potomac. The victors were too much exhausted to pursue, and the U.S.
regulars of the reserve division formed a strong and steady rearguard. The
losses were--Federals, 2896 men out of about 18,500 engaged; Confederates,
1982 men out of 18,000.

(2) The operations of the last days of August 1862, which include the
second battle of Bull Run (second Manassas), are amongst the most
complicated of the war. At the outset the Confederate general Lee's army
(Longstreet's and Jackson's corps) lay on the Rappahannock, faced by the
Federal Army of Virginia under Major-General John Pope, which was to be
reinforced by troops from McClellan's army to a total strength of 150,000
men as against Lee's 60,000. Want of supplies soon forced Lee to move,
though not to retreat, and his plan for attacking Pope was one of the most
daring in all military history. Jackson with half the army was despatched
on a wide turning movement which was to bring him via Salem and
Thoroughfare Gap to Manassas Junction in Pope's rear; when Jackson's task
was accomplished Lee and Longstreet were to follow him by the same route.
Early on the 25th of August Jackson began his march round the right of
Pope's army; on the 26th the column passed Thoroughfare Gap, and Bristoe
Station, directly in Pope's rear, was reached on the same evening, while a
detachment drove a Federal post from Manassas Junction. On the 27th the
immense magazines at the Junction were destroyed. On his side Pope had soon
discovered Jackson's departure, and had arranged for an immediate attack on
Longstreet. When, however, the direction of Jackson's march on Thoroughfare
Gap became clear, Pope fell back in order to engage him, at the same time
ordering his army to concentrate on Warrenton, Greenwich and Gainesville.
He was now largely reinforced. On the evening of the 27th one of his
divisions, marching to its point of concentration, met a division of
Jackson's corps, near Bristoe Station; after a sharp fight the Confederate
general, Ewell, retired on Manassas. Pope now realized that he had
Jackson's corps in front of him at the Junction, and at once took steps to
attack Manassas with all his forces. He drew off even the corps at
Gainesville for his intended battle of the 28th; McDowell, however, its
commander, on his own responsibility, left Ricketts's division at
Thoroughfare Gap. But Pope's blow was struck in the air. When he arrived at
Manassas on the 28th he found nothing but the ruins of his magazines, and
one of McDowell's divisions (King's) marching from Gainesville on Manassas
Junction met Jackson's infantry near Groveton. The situation had again
changed completely. Jackson had no intention of awaiting Pope at Manassas,
and after several feints made with a view to misleading the Federal scouts
he finally withdrew to a hidden position between Groveton and Sudley
Springs, to await the arrival of Longstreet, who, taking the same route as
Jackson had done, arrived on the 28th at Thoroughfare Gap and, engaging
Ricketts's division, finally drove it back to Gainesville. On the evening
of this day Jackson's corps held the line Sudley Springs-Groveton, his
right wing near Groveton opposing King's division; and Longstreet held
Thoroughfare Gap, facing Ricketts at Gainesville. On Ricketts's right was
King near Groveton, and the line was continued thence by McDowell's
remaining division and by Sigel's corps to the Stone Bridge. At
Centreville, 7 m. away, was Pope with three divisions, a fourth was
north-east of Manassas Junction, and Porter's corps at Bristoe Station.
Thus, while Ricketts continued at Gainesville to mask Longstreet, Pope
could concentrate a superior force against Jackson, whom he now believed to
be meditating a retreat to the Gap. But a series of misunderstandings
resulted in the withdrawal of Ricketts and King, so that nothing now
intervened between Longstreet and Jackson; while Sigel and McDowell's other
division alone remained to face Jackson until such time as Pope could bring
up the rest of his scattered forces. Jackson now closed on his left and
prepared for battle, and on the morning of the 29th the Confederates,
posted behind a high railway embankment, repelled two sharp attacks made by
Sigel. Pope arrived at noon with the divisions from Centreville, which, led
by the general himself and by Reno and Hooker, two of the bravest officers
in the Union army, made a third and most desperate attack on Jackson's
line. The latter, repulsing it with difficulty, carried its counter-stroke
too far and was in turn repulsed by Grover's brigade of Hooker's division.
Grover then made a fourth assault, but was driven back with terrible loss.
The last assault, gallantly delivered by two divisions under Kearny and
Stevens, drove the Confederate left out of its position; but a Confederate
counter-attack, led by the brave Jubal Early, dislodged the assailants with
the bayonet.

In the meanwhile events had taken place near Groveton which were, for
twenty years after the war, the subject of controversy and recrimination
(see PORTER, FITZ-JOHN). When Porter's and part of McDowell's corps, acting
on various orders sent by Pope, approached Gainesville from the south-east,
Longstreet had already reached that place, and the Federals thus
encountered a force of unknown strength at the moment when Sigel's guns to
the northward showed him to be closely engaged with Jackson. The two
generals consulted, and McDowell marched off to join Sigel, while Porter
remained to hold the new enemy in check. In this he succeeded; Longstreet,
though far superior in numbers, made no forward move, and his advanced
guard alone came into action. On the night of the 29th Lee reunited the
wings of his army on the field of battle. He had forced Pope back many
miles from the Rappahannock, and expecting that the Federals would retire
to the line of Bull Run before giving battle, he now decided to wait for
the last divisions of Longstreet's corps, which were still distant. But
Pope, still sanguine, ordered a "general pursuit" of Jackson for the 30th.
There was some ground for his suppositions, for Jackson had retired a short
distance and Longstreet's advanced guard had also fallen back. McDowell,
however, who was in general charge of the Federal right on the 30th, soon
saw that Jackson was not retreating and stopped the "pursuit," and the
attack on Jackson's right, which Pope had ordered Porter to make, was
repulsed by Longstreet's overwhelming forces. Then Lee's whole line, 4 m.
long, made its grand counter-stroke (4 P.M.). There was now no hesitation
in Longstreet's attack; the Federal left was driven successively from every
position it took up, and Longstreet finally captured Bald Hill. Jackson,
though opposed by the greater part of Pope's forces, advanced to the
Matthews hill, and his artillery threatened the Stone Bridge. The Federals,
driven back to the banks of Bull Run, were only saved by the gallant
defence of the Henry House hill by the Pennsylvanian division of Reynolds
and the regulars [v.04 p.0793] under Sykes. Pope withdrew under cover of
night to Centreville. Here he received fresh reinforcements, but Jackson
was already marching round his new right, and after the action of Chantilly
(1st of September) the whole Federal army fell back to Washington. The
Union forces present on the field on the 29th and 30th numbered about
63,000, the strength of Lee's army being on the same dates about 54,000.
Besides their killed and wounded the Federals lost very heavily in
prisoners.

BULLY (of uncertain origin, but possibly connected with a Teutonic word
seen in many compounds, as the Low Ger. _bullerjaan_, meaning "noisy"; the
word has also, with less probability, been derived from the Dutch _boel_,
and Ger. _Buhle_, a lover), originally a fine, swaggering fellow, as in
"Bully Bottom" in _A Midsummer Night's Dream_, later an overbearing
ruffian, especially a coward who abuses his strength by ill-treating the
weak; more technically a _souteneur_, a man who lives on the earnings of a
prostitute. The term in its early use of "fine" or "splendid" survives in
American slang.

BÜLOW, BERNHARD ERNST VON (1815-1879), Danish and German statesman, was the
son of Adolf von Bülow, a Danish official, and was born at Cismar in
Holstein on the 2nd of August 1815. He studied law at the universities of
Berlin, Göttingen and Kiel, and began his political career in the service
of Denmark, in the chancery of Schleswig-Holstein-Lauenburg at Copenhagen,
and afterwards in the foreign office. In 1842 he became councillor of
legation, and in 1847 Danish _chargé d'affaires_ in the Hanse towns, where
his intercourse with the merchant princes led to his marriage in 1848 with
a wealthy heiress, Louise Victorine Rücker. When the insurrection broke out
in the Elbe duchies (1848) he left the Danish service, and offered his
services to the provisional government of Kiel, an offer that was not
accepted. In 1849, accordingly, he re-entered the service of Denmark, was
appointed a royal chamberlain and in 1850 sent to represent the duchies of
Schleswig and Holstein at the restored federal diet of Frankfort. Here he
came into intimate touch with Bismarck, who admired his statesmanlike
handling of the growing complications of the Schleswig-Holstein Question.
With the radical "Eider-Dane" party he was utterly out of sympathy; and
when, in 1862, this party gained the upper hand, he was recalled from
Frankfort. He now entered the service of the grand-duke of
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and remained at the head of the grand-ducal
government until 1867, when he became plenipotentiary for the two
Mecklenburg duchies in the council of the German Confederation (Bundesrat),
where he distinguished himself by his successful defence of the medieval
constitution of the duchies against Liberal attacks. In 1873 Bismarck, who
was in thorough sympathy with his views, persuaded him to enter the service
of Prussia as secretary of state for foreign affairs, and from this time
till his death he was the chancellor's most faithful henchman. In 1875 he
was appointed Prussian plenipotentiary in the Bundesrat; in 1877 he became
Bismarck's lieutenant in the secretaryship for foreign affairs of the
Empire; and in 1878 he was, with Bismarck and Hohenlohe, Prussian
plenipotentiary at the congress of Berlin. He died at Frankfort on the 20th
of October 1879, his end being hastened by his exertions in connexion with
the political crisis of that year. Of his six sons the eldest, Bernhard
Heinrich Karl (see below), became chancellor of the Empire.

See the biography of H. von Petersdorff in _Allgemeine deutsche
Biographie_, Band 47, p. 350.

BÜLOW, BERNHARD HEINRICH KARL MARTIN, PRINCE VON (1849- ), German
statesman, was born on the 3rd of May 1849, at Klein-Flottbeck, in
Holstein. The Bülow family is one very widely extended in north Germany,
and many members have attained distinction in the civil and military
service of Prussia, Denmark and Mecklenburg. Prince Bülow's great-uncle,
Heinrich von Bülow, who was distinguished for his admiration of England and
English institutions, was Prussian ambassador in England from 1827 to 1840,
and married a daughter of Wilhelm von Humboldt (see the letters of
Gabrielle von Bülow). His father, Bernhard Ernst von Bülow, is separately
noticed above.

Prince Bülow must not be confused with his contemporary Otto v. Bülow
(1827-1901), an official in the Prussian foreign office, who in 1882 was
appointed German envoy at Bern, from 1892 to 1898 was Prussian envoy to the
Vatican, and died at Rome on the 22nd of November 1901.

Bernhard von Bülow, after serving in the Franco-Prussian War, entered the
Prussian civil service, and was then transferred to the diplomatic service.
In 1876 he was appointed attaché to the German embassy in Paris, and after
returning for a while to the foreign office at Berlin, became second
secretary to the embassy in Paris in 1880. From 1884 he was first secretary
to the embassy at St Petersburg, and acted as _chargé d'affaires_; in 1888
he was appointed envoy at Bucharest, and in 1893 to the post of German
ambassador at Rome. In 1897, on the retirement of Baron Marshall von
Bieberstein, he was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs (the
same office which his father had held) under Prince Hohenlohe, with a seat
in the Prussian ministry. The appointment caused much surprise at the time,
as Bülow was little known outside diplomatic circles. The explanations
suggested were that he had made himself very popular at Rome and that his
appointment was therefore calculated to strengthen the loosening bonds of
the Triple Alliance, and also that his early close association with
Bismarck would ensure the maintenance of the Bismarckian tradition. As
foreign secretary Herr von Bülow was chiefly responsible for carrying out
the policy of colonial expansion with which the emperor had identified
himself, and in 1899, on bringing to a successful conclusion the
negotiations by which the Caroline Islands were acquired by Germany, he was
raised to the rank of count. On the resignation of Hohenlohe in 1900 he was
chosen to succeed him as chancellor of the empire and president of the
Prussian ministry.

The _Berliner Neueste Nachrichten_, commenting on this appointment, very
aptly characterized the relations of the new chancellor to the emperor, in
contrast to the position occupied by Bismarck. "The Germany of William
II.," it said, "does not admit a Titan in the position of the highest
official of the Empire. A cautious and versatile diplomatist like Bernhard
von Bülow appears to be best adapted to the personal and political
necessities of the present situation." Count Bülow, indeed, though, like
Bismarck, a "realist," utilitarian and opportunist in his policy, made no
effort to emulate the masterful independence of the great chancellor. He
was accused, indeed, of being little more than the complacent executor of
the emperor's will, and defended himself in the Reichstag against the
charge. The substance of the relations between the emperor and himself, he
declared, rested on mutual good-will, and added: "I must lay it down most
emphatically that the prerogative of the emperor's personal initiative must
not be curtailed, and will not be curtailed, by any chancellor.... As
regards the chancellor, however, I say that no imperial chancellor worthy
of the name ... would take up any position which in his conscience he did
not regard as justifiable." It is clear that the position of a chancellor
holding these views in relation to a ruler so masterful and so impulsive as
the emperor William II. could be no easy one; and Bülow's long continuance
in office is the best proof of his genius. His first conspicuous act as
chancellor was a masterly defence in the Reichstag of German action in
China, a defence which was, indeed, rendered easier by the fact that Prince
Hohenlohe had--to use his own words--"dug a canal" for the flood of
imperial ambition of which warning had been given in the famous "mailed
fist" speech. Such incidents as this, however, though they served to
exhibit consummate tact and diplomatic skill, give little index to the
fundamental character of his work as chancellor. Of this it may be said, in
general, that it carried on the best traditions of the Prussian service in
whole-hearted devotion to the interests of the state. The accusation that
he was an "agrarian" he thought it necessary to rebut in a speech delivered
on the 18th of February 1906 to the German Handelstag. He was an agrarian,
he declared, in so far as he came of a land-owning family, and was
interested in the prosperity of agriculture; but as chancellor, whose
function it is to watch over the welfare [v.04 p.0794] of all classes, he
was equally concerned with the interests of commerce and industry
(_Kölnische Zeitung_, Feb. 20, 1906). Some credit for the immense material
expansion of Germany under his chancellorship is certainly due to his zeal
and self-devotion. This was generously recognized by the emperor in a
letter publicly addressed to the chancellor on the 21st of May 1906,
immediately after the passage of the Finance Bill. "I am fully conscious,"
it ran, "of the conspicuous share in the initiation and realization of this
work of reform... which must be ascribed to the statesmanlike skill and
self-sacrificing devotion with which you have conducted and promoted those
arduous labours." Rumours had from time to time been rife of a "chancellor
crisis" and Bülow's dismissal; in the _Berliner Tageblatt_ this letter was
compared to the "Never!" with which the emperor William I. had replied to
Bismarck's proffered resignation.

On the 6th of June 1905 Count Bülow was raised to the rank of prince
(_Fürst_), on the occasion of the marriage of the crown prince. The
coincidence of this date with the fall of M. Delcassé, the French minister
for foreign affairs--a triumph for Germany and a humiliation for
France--was much commented on at the time (see _The Times_, June 7, 1905);
and the elevation of Bismarck to the rank of prince in the Hall of Mirrors
at Versailles was recalled. Whatever element of truth there may have been
in this, however, the significance of the incident was much exaggerated.

On the 5th of April 1906, while attending a debate in the Reichstag, Prince
Bülow was seized with illness, the result of overwork and an attack of
influenza, and was carried unconscious from the hall. At first it was
thought that the attack would be fatal, and Lord Fitzmaurice in the House
of Lords compared the incident with that of the death of Chatham, a
compliment much appreciated in Germany. The illness, however, quickly took
a favourable turn, and after a month's rest the chancellor was able to
resume his duties. In 1907 Prince Bülow was made the subject of a
disgraceful libel, which received more attention than it deserved because
it coincided with the Harden-Moltke scandals; his character was, however,
completely vindicated, and the libeller, a journalist named Brand, received
a term of imprisonment.

The parliamentary skill of Prince Bülow in holding together the
heterogeneous elements of which the government majority in the Reichstag
was composed, no less than the diplomatic tact with which he from time to
time "interpreted" the imperial indiscretions to the world, was put to a
rude test by the famous "interview" with the German emperor, published in
the London _Daily Telegraph_ of the 28th of October 1908 (see WILLIAM II.,
German emperor), which aroused universal reprobation in Germany. Prince
Bülow assumed the official responsibility, and tendered his resignation to
the emperor, which was not accepted; but the chancellor's explanation in
the Reichstag on the 10th of November showed how keenly he felt his
position. He declared his conviction that the disastrous results of the
interview would "induce the emperor in future to observe that strict
reserve, even in private conversations, which is equally indispensable in
the interest of a uniform policy and for the authority of the crown,"
adding that, in the contrary case, neither he nor any successor of his
could assume the responsibility (_The Times_, Nov. 11, 1908, p. 9). The
attitude of the emperor showed that he had taken the lesson to heart. It
was not the imperial indiscretions, but the effect of his budget proposals
in breaking up the Liberal-Conservative _bloc_, on whose support he
depended in the Reichstag, that eventually drove Prince Bülow from office
(see GERMANY: _History_). At the emperor's request he remained to pilot the
mutilated budget through the House; but on the 14th of July 1909 the
acceptance of his resignation was announced.

Prince Bülow married, on the 9th of January 1886, Maria Anna Zoe Rosalia
Beccadelli di Bologna, Princess Camporeale, whose first marriage with Count
Karl von Dönhoff had been dissolved and declared null by the Holy See in
1884. The princess, an accomplished pianist and pupil of Liszt, was a
step-daughter of the Italian statesman Minghetti.

See J. Penzler, _Graf Bülows Reden nebst urkundlichen Beiträgen zu seiner
Politik_ (Leipzig, 1903).

BÜLOW, DIETRICH HEINRICH, FREIHERR VON (1757-1807), Prussian soldier and
military writer, and brother of General Count F.W. Bülow, entered the
Prussian army in 1773. Routine work proved distasteful to him, and he read
with avidity the works of the chevalier Folard and other theoretical
writers on war, and of Rousseau. After sixteen years' service he left
Prussia, and endeavoured without success to obtain a commission in the
Austrian army. He then returned to Prussia, and for some time managed a
theatrical company. The failure of this undertaking involved Bülow in heavy
losses, and soon afterwards he went to America, where he seems to have been
converted to, and to have preached, Swedenborgianism. On his return to
Europe he persuaded his brother to engage in a speculation for exporting
glass to the United States, which proved a complete failure. After this for
some years he made a precarious living in Berlin by literary work, but his
debts accumulated, and it was under great disadvantages that he produced
his _Geist des Neueren Kriegssystems_ (Hamburg, 1799) and _Der Feldzug
1800_ (Berlin, 1801). His hopes of military employment were again
disappointed, and his brother, the future field marshal, who had stood by
him in all his troubles, finally left him. After wandering in France and
the smaller German states, he reappeared at Berlin in 1804, where he wrote
a revised edition of his _Geist des Neueren Kriegssystems_ (Hamburg, 1805),
_Lehrsätze des Neueren Kriegs_ (Berlin, 1805), _Geschichte des Prinzen
Heinrich von Preussen_ (Berlin, 1805), _Neue Taktik der Neuern wie sie sein
sollte_ (Leipzig, 1805), and _Der Feldzug 1805_ (Leipzig, 1806). He also
edited, with G.H. von Behrenhorst (1733-1814) and others, _Annalen des
Krieges_ (Berlin, 1806). These brilliant but unorthodox works,
distinguished by an open contempt of the Prussian system, cosmopolitanism
hardly to be distinguished from high treason, and the mordant sarcasm of a
disappointed man, brought upon Bülow the enmity of the official classes and
of the government. He was arrested as insane, but medical examination
proved him sane and he was then lodged as a prisoner in Colberg, where he
was harshly treated, though Gneisenau obtained some mitigation of his
condition. Thence he passed into Russian hands and died in prison at Riga
in 1807, probably as a result of ill-treatment.

In Bülow's writings there is evident a distinct contrast between the spirit
of his strategical and that of his tactical ideas. As a strategist (he
claimed to be the first of strategists) he reduces to mathematical rules
the practice of the great generals of the 18th century, ignoring
"friction," and manoeuvring his armies _in vacuo_. At the same time he
professes that his system provides working rules for the armies of his own
day, which in point of fact were "armed nations," infinitely more affected
by "friction" than the small dynastic and professional armies of the
preceding age. Bülow may therefore be considered as anything but a reformer
in the domain of strategy. With more justice he has been styled the "father
of modern tactics." He was the first to recognize that the conditions of
swift and decisive war brought about by the French Revolution involved
wholly new tactics, and much of his teaching had a profound influence on
European warfare of the 19th century. His early training had shown him
merely the pedantic _minutiae_ of Frederick's methods, and, in the absence
of any troops capable of illustrating the real linear tactics, he became an
enthusiastic supporter of the methods, which (more of necessity than from
judgment) the French revolutionary generals had adopted, of fighting in
small columns covered by skirmishers. Battles, he maintained, were won by
skirmishers. "We must organize disorder," he said; indeed, every argument
of writers of the modern "extended order" school is to be found _mutatis
mutandis_ in Bülow, whose system acquired great prominence in view of the
mechanical improvements in armament. But his tactics, like his strategy,
were vitiated by the absence of "friction," and their dependence on the
realization of an unattainable standard of bravery.

See von Voss, _H. von Bülow_ (Köln, 1806); P. von Bülow, _Familienbuch der
v. Bülow_ (Berlin, 1859); Ed. von Bülow, _Aus dem Leben Dietrichs v.
Bülow_, also _Vermischte Schriften aus dem Nachlass von Behrenhorst_
(1845); Ed. von Bülow and von Rüstow, _Militärische und vermischte
Schriften von Heinrich Dietrich v. Bülow_ (Leipzig, 1853); Memoirs by
Freiherr v. Meerheimb in _Allgemeine deutsche [v.04 p.0795] Biographie_,
vol. 3 (Leipzig, 1876), and "Behrenhorst und Bülow" (_Historische
Zeitschrift_, 1861, vi.); Max Jähns, _Geschichte der Kriegswissenschaften_,
vol. iii. pp. 2133-2145 (Munich, 1891); General von Cämmerer (transl. von
Donat), _Development of Strategical Science_ (London, 1905), ch. i.

BÜLOW, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, FREIHERR VON, count of Dennewitz (1755-1816),
Prussian general, was born on the 16th of February 1755, at Falkenberg in
the Altmark; he was the elder brother of the foregoing. He received an
excellent education, and entered the Prussian army in 1768, becoming ensign
in 1772, and second lieutenant in 1775. He took part in the "Potato War" of
1778, and subsequently devoted himself to the study of his profession and
of the sciences and arts. He was throughout his life devoted to music, his
great musical ability bringing him to the notice of Frederick William II.,
and about 1790 he was conspicuous in the most fashionable circles of
Berlin. He did not, however, neglect his military studies, and in 1792 he
was made military instructor to the young prince Louis Ferdinand, becoming
at the same time full captain. He took part in the campaigns of 1792-93-94
on the Rhine, and received for signal courage during the siege of Mainz the
order _pour le mérite_ and promotion to the rank of major. After this he
went to garrison duty at Soldau. In 1802 he married the daughter of Colonel
v. Auer, and in the following year he became lieutenant-colonel, remaining
at Soldau with his corps. The vagaries and misfortunes of his brother
Dietrich affected his happiness as well as his fortune. The loss of two of
his children was followed in 1806 by the death of his wife, and a further
source of disappointment was the exclusion of his regiment from the field
army sent against Napoleon in 1806. The disasters of the campaign aroused
his energies. He did excellent service under Lestocq's command in the
latter part of the war, was wounded in action, and finally designated for a
brigade command in Blücher's force. In 1808 he married the sister of his
first wife, a girl of eighteen. He was made a major-general in the same
year, and henceforward he devoted himself wholly to the regeneration of
Prussia. The intensity of his patriotism threw him into conflict even with
Blücher and led to his temporary retirement; in 1811, however, he was again
employed. In the critical days preceding the War of Liberation he kept his
troops in hand without committing himself to any irrevocable step until the
decision was made. On the 14th of March 1813 he was made a
lieutenant-general. He fought against Oudinot in defence of Berlin (see
NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS), and in the summer came under the command of
Bernadotte, crown prince of Sweden. At the head of an army corps Bülow
distinguished himself very greatly in the battle of Gross Beeren, a victory
which was attributed almost entirely to his leadership. A little later he
won the great victory of Dennewitz, which for the third time checked
Napoleon's advance on Berlin. This inspired the greatest enthusiasm in
Prussia, as being won by purely Prussian forces, and rendered Bülow's
popularity almost equal to that of Blücher. Bülow's corps played a
conspicuous part in the final overthrow of Napoleon at Leipzig, and he was
then entrusted with the task of evicting the French from Holland and
Belgium. In an almost uniformly successful campaign he won a signal victory
at Hoogstraaten, and in the campaign of 1814 he invaded France from the
north-west, joined Blücher, and took part in the brilliant victory of Laon
in March. He was now made general of infantry and received the title of
Count Bülow von Dennewitz. In the short peace of 1814-1815 he was at
Konigsberg as commander-in-chief in Prussia proper. He was soon called to
the field again, and in the Waterloo campaign commanded the IV. corps of
Blücher's army. He was not present at Ligny, but his corps headed the flank
attack upon Napoleon at Waterloo, and bore the heaviest part in the
fighting of the Prussian troops. He took part in the invasion of France,
but died suddenly on the 25th of February 1816, a month after his return to
the Königsberg command.

See _General Graf Bülow von Dennewitz, 1813-1814_ (Leipzig, 1843);
Varnhagen von Ense, _Leben des G. Grafen B. von D._ (Berlin, 1854).

BÜLOW, HANS GUIDO VON (1830-1894), German pianist and conductor, was born
at Dresden, on the 8th of January 1830. At the age of nine he began to
study music under Friedrich Wieck as part of a genteel education. It was
only after an illness while studying law at Leipzig University in 1848 that
he determined upon music as a career. At this time he was a pupil of Moritz
Hauptmann. In 1849 revolutionary politics took possession of him. In the
Berlin _Abendpost_, a democratic journal, the young aristocrat poured forth
his opinions, which were strongly coloured by Wagner's _Art and
Revolution_. Wagner's influence was musical no less than political, for a
performance of _Lohengrin_ under Liszt at Weimar in 1850 completed von
Bülow's determination to abandon a legal career. From Weimar he went to
Zürich, where the exile Wagner instructed him in the elements of
conducting. But he soon returned to Weimar and Liszt; and in 1853 he made
his first concert tour, which extended from Vienna to Berlin. Next he
became principal professor of the piano at the Stern Academy, and married
in his twenty-eighth year Liszt's daughter Cosima. For the following nine
years von Bülow laboured incessantly in Berlin as pianist, conductor and
writer of musical and political articles. Thence he removed to Munich,
where, thanks to Wagner, he had been appointed _Hofkapellmeister_ to Louis
II., and chief of the Conservatorium. There, too, he organized model
performances of _Tristan_ and _Die Meistersinger_. In 1869 his marriage was
dissolved, his wife subsequently marrying Wagner, an incident which, while
preventing Bülow from revisiting Bayreuth, never dimmed his enthusiasm for
Wagner's dramas. After a temporary stay in Florence, Bülow set out on tour
again as a pianist, visiting most European countries as well as the United
States of America, before taking up the post of conductor at Hanover, and,
later, at Meiningen, where he raised the orchestra to a pitch of excellence
till then unparalleled. In 1885 he resigned the Meiningen office, and
conducted a number of concerts in Russia and Germany. At Frankfort he held
classes for the higher development of piano-playing. He constantly visited
England, for the last time in 1888, in which year he went to live in
Hamburg. Nevertheless he continued to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic
Concerts. He died at Cairo, on the 13th of February 1894. Bülow was a
pianist of the highest order of intellectual attainment, an artist of
remarkably catholic tastes, and a great conductor. A passionate hater of
humbug and affectation, he had a ready pen, and a biting, sometimes almost
rude wit, yet of his kindness and generosity countless tales were told. His
compositions are few and unimportant, but his annotated editions of the
classical masters are of great value. Bülow's writings and letters (_Briefe
und Schriften_), edited by his widow, have been published in 8 vols.
(Leipzig, 1895-1908).

BULRUSH, a name now generally given to _Typha latifolia_, the reed-mace or
club-rush, a plant growing in lakes, by edges of rivers and similar
localities, with a creeping underground stem, narrow, nearly flat leaves, 3
to 6 ft. long, arranged in opposite rows, and a tall stem ending in a
cylindrical spike, half to one foot long, of closely packed male (above)
and female (below) flowers. The familiar brown spike is a dense mass of
minute one-seeded fruits, each on a long hair-like stalk and covered with
long downy hairs, which render the fruits very light and readily carried by
the wind. The name bulrush is more correctly applied to _Scirpus
lacustris_, a member of a different family (Cyperaceae), a common plant in
wet places, with tall spongy, usually leafless stems, bearing a tuft of
many-flowered spikelets. The stems are used for matting, &c. The bulrush of
Scripture, associated with the hiding of Moses, was the _Papyrus_ (_q.v._),
also a member of the order Cyperaceae, which was abundant in the Nile.

BULSTRODE, SIR RICHARD (1610-1711), English author and soldier, was a son
of Edward Bulstrode (1588-1659), and was educated at Pembroke College,
Cambridge; after studying law in London he joined the army of Charles I. on
the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642. In 1673 he became a resident agent
of Charles II. at Brussels; in 1675 he was knighted; then following James
II. into exile he died at St Germain on the 3rd of October 1711. Bulstrode
is chiefly known by his _Memoirs and Reflections upon the Reign and
Government of King Charles I. and King Charles II._, published after his
death in 1721. He also [v.04 p.0796] wrote _Life of James II._, and
_Original Letters written to the Earl of Arlington_ (1712). The latter
consists principally of letters written from Brussels giving an account of
the important events which took place in the Netherlands during 1674.

His second son, WHITELOCKE BULSTRODE (1650-1724), remained in England after
the flight of James II.; he held some official positions, and in 1717 wrote
a pamphlet in support of George I. and the Hanoverian succession. He
published _A Discourse of Natural Philosophy_, and was a prominent
Protestant controversialist. He died in London on the 27th of November
1724.

BULWARK (a word probably of Scandinavian origin, from _bol_ or _bole_, a
tree-trunk, and _werk_, work, in Ger. _Bollwerk_, which has also been
derived from an old German _bolen_, to throw, and so a machine for throwing
missiles), a barricade of beams, earth, &c., a work in 15th and 16th
century fortifications designed to mount artillery (see BOULEVARD). On
board ship the term is used of the woodwork running round the ship above
the level of the deck. Figuratively it means anything serving as a defence.

BUMBOAT, a small boat which carries vegetables, provisions, &c., to ships
lying in port or off the shore. The word is probably connected with the
Dutch _bumboat_ or _boomboot_, a broad Dutch fishing-boat, the derivation
of which is either from _boom_, cf. Ger. _baum_, a tree, or from _bon_, a
place in which fish is kept alive, and _boot_, a boat. It appears first in
English in the Trinity House By-laws of 1685 regulating the scavenging
boats attending ships lying in the Thames.

BUMBULUM, BOMBULUM or BUNIBULUM, a fabulous musical instrument described in
an apocryphal letter of St Jerome to Dardanus,[1] and illustrated in a
series of illuminated MSS. of the 9th to the 11th century, together with
other instruments described in the same letter. These MSS. are the _Psalter
of Emmeran_, 9th century, described by Martin Gerbert,[2] who gives a few
illustrations from it; the Cotton MS. _Tiberius C. VI._ in the British
Museum, 11th century; the famous _Boulogne Psalter_, A.D. 1000; and the
_Psalter of Angers_, 9th century.[3] In the Cotton MS. the instrument
consists of an angular frame, from which depends by a chain a rectangular
metal plate having twelve bent arms attached in two rows of three on each
side, one above the other. The arms appear to terminate in small
rectangular bells or plates, and it is supposed that the standard frame was
intended to be shaken like a sistrum in order to set the bells jangling.
Sebastian Virdung[4] gives illustrations of these instruments of Jerome,
and among them of the one called bumbulum in the Cotton MS., which Virdung
calls _Fistula Hieronimi_. The general outline is the same, but instead of
metal arms there is the same number of bent pipes with conical bore.
Virdung explains, following the apocryphal letter, that the stand
resembling the draughtsman's square represents the Holy Cross, the
rectangular object dangling therefrom signifies Christ on the Cross, and
the twelve pipes are the twelve apostles. Virdung's illustration, probably
copied from an older work in manuscript, conforms more closely to the text
of the letter than does the instrument in the Cotton MS. There is no
evidence whatever of the actual existence of such an instrument during the
middle ages, with the exception of this series of fanciful pictures drawn
to illustrate an instrument known from description only. The word
_bombulum_ was probably derived from the same root as the [Greek:
bombaulios] of Aristophanes (_Acharnians_, 866) ([Greek: bombos] and
[Greek: aulos]), a comic compound for a bag-pipe with a play on [Greek:
bombulios], an insect that hums or buzzes (see BAG-PIPE). The original
described in the letter, also from hearsay, was probably an early type of
organ.

(K. S.)

[1] _Ad Dardanum, de diversis generibus musicorum instrumentorum._

[2] _De Cantu et Musica Sacra_ (1774).

[3] For illustrations see _Annales archéologiques_, iii. p. 82 et seq.

[4] _Musica getutscht und aussgezogen_ (Basle, 1511).

BUN, a small cake, usually sweet and round. In Scotland the word is used
for a very rich spiced type of cake and in the north of Ireland for a round
loaf of ordinary bread. The derivation of the word has been much disputed.
It has been affiliated to the old provincial French _bugne_, "swelling," in
the sense of a "fritter," but the _New English Dictionary_ doubts the usage
of the word. It is quite as probable that it has a far older and more
interesting origin, as is suggested by an inquiry into the origin of hot
cross buns. These cakes, which are now solely associated with the Christian
Good Friday, are traceable to the remotest period of pagan history. Cakes
were offered by ancient Egyptians to their moon-goddess; and these had
imprinted on them a pair of horns, symbolic of the ox at the sacrifice of
which they were offered on the altar, or of the horned moon-goddess, the
equivalent of Ishtar of the Assyro-Babylonians. The Greeks offered such
sacred cakes to Astarte and other divinities. This cake they called _bous_
(ox), in allusion to the ox-symbol marked on it, and from the accusative
_boun_ it is suggested that the word "bun" is derived. Diogenes Laertius
(c. A.D. 200), speaking of the offering made by Empedocles, says "He
offered one of the sacred liba, called a _bouse_, made of fine flour and
honey." Hesychius (c. 6th century) speaks of the _boun_, and describes it
as a kind of cake with a representation of two horns marked on it. In time
the Greeks marked these cakes with a cross, possibly an allusion to the
four quarters of the moon, or more probably to facilitate the distribution
of the sacred bread which was eaten by the worshippers. Like the Greeks,
the Romans eat cross-bread at public sacrifices, such bread being usually
purchased at the doors of the temple and taken in with them,--a custom
alluded to by St Paul in I Cor. x. 28. At Herculaneum two small loaves
about 5 in. in diameter, and plainly marked with a cross, were found. In
the Old Testament a reference is made in Jer. vii. 18-xliv. 19, to such
sacred bread being offered to the moon goddess. The cross-bread was eaten
by the pagan Saxons in honour of Eoster, their goddess of light. The
Mexicans and Peruvians are shown to have had a similar custom. The custom,
in fact, was practically universal, and the early Church adroitly adopted
the pagan practice, grafting it on to the Eucharist. The _boun_ with its
Greek cross became akin to the Eucharistic bread or cross-marked wafers
mentioned in St Chrysostom's _Liturgy_. In the medieval church, buns made
from the dough for the consecrated Host were distributed to the
communicants after Mass on Easter Sunday. In France and other Catholic
countries, such blessed bread is still given in the churches to
communicants who have a long journey before they can break their fast. The
Holy Eucharist in the Greek church has a cross printed on it. In England
there seems to have early been a disposition on the part of the bakers to
imitate the church, and they did a good trade in buns and cakes stamped
with a cross, for as far back as 1252 the practice was forbidden by royal
proclamation; but this seems to have had little effect. With the rise of
Protestantism the cross bun lost its sacrosanct nature, and became a mere
eatable associated for no particular reason with Good Friday. Cross-bread
is not, however, reserved for that day; in the north of England people
usually crossmark their cakes with a knife before putting them in the oven.
Many superstitions cling round hot cross buns. Thus it is still a common
belief that one bun should be kept for luck's sake to the following Good
Friday. In Dorsetshire it is thought that a cross-loaf baked on that day
and hung over the chimneypiece prevents the bread baked in the house during
the year from "going stringy."

BUNBURY, HENRY WILLIAM (1750-1811), English caricaturist, was the second
son of Sir William Bunbury, 5th baronet, of Mildenhall, Suffolk, and came
of an old Norman family. He was educated at Westminster school and St
Catharine's Hall, Cambridge, and soon showed a talent for drawing, and
especially for humorous subjects. His more serious efforts did not rise to
a high level, but his caricatures are as famous as those of his
contemporaries Rowlandson and Gillray, good examples being his "Country
Club" (1788), "Barber's Shop" (1811) and "A Long Story" (1782.) He was a
popular character, and the friend of most of the notabilities of his day,
whom he never offended by attempting political satire; and his easy
circumstances and social position (he was colonel of the West Suffolk
Militia, and was appointed equerry to the duke of York in 1787) enabled him
to exercise his talents in comfort.

[v.04 p.0797] His son Sir HENRY EDWARD BUNBURY, Bart. (1778-1860), who
succeeded to the family title on the death of his uncle, was a
distinguished soldier, and rose to be a lieutenant-general; he was an
active member of parliament, and the author of several historical works of
value; and the latter's second son, Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, also a
member of parliament, was well known as a geographer and archaeologist, and
author of a _History of Ancient Geography._

BUNBURY, a seaport and municipal town of Wellington county, Western
Australia, 112 m. by rail S. by W. of Perth. Pop. (1901) 2455. The harbour,
known as Koombanah Bay, is protected by a breakwater built on a coral reef.
Coal is worked on the Collie river, 30 m. distant, and is shipped from this
port, together with tin, timber, sandal-wood and agricultural produce.

BUNCOMBE, or BUNKUM (from Buncombe county, North Carolina, United States),
a term used for insincere political action or speaking to gain support or
the favour of a constituency, and so any humbug or clap-trap. The phrase
"to talk for (or to) Buncombe" arose in 1820, during the debate on the
Missouri Compromise in Congress; the member for the district containing
Buncombe county confessed that his long and much interrupted speech was
only made because his electors expected it, and that he was "speaking for
Buncombe."

BUNCRANA, a market-town and watering-place of Co. Donegal, Ireland, in the
north parliamentary division on the east shore of Lough Swilly, on the
Londonderry & Lough Swilly & Letterkenny railway. Pop. (1901) 1316. There
is a trade in agricultural produce, a salmon fishery, sea fisheries and a
manufacture of linen. The town is beautifully situated, being flanked on
the east and south by hills exceeding 1000 ft. The picturesque square keep
of an ancient castle remains, but the present Buncrana Castle is a
residence erected in 1717. The golf-links are well known.

BUNDABERG, a municipal town and river port of Cook county, Queensland,
Australia, 10 m. from the mouth of the river Burnett, and 217 m. by rail N.
by W. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901) 5200. It lies on both sides of the river,
and connexion between the two ports is maintained by road and railway
bridges. There are saw-mills, breweries, brickfields and distilleries in
the town, and numerous sugar factories in the vicinity, notably at
Millaquin, on the river below the town. There are wharves on both sides of
the river, and the staple exports are sugar, golden-syrup and timber. The
climate is remarkably healthy.

BUNDELKHAND, a tract of country in Central India, lying between the United
and the Central Provinces. Historically it includes the five British
districts of Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur and Banda, which now form
part of the Allahabad division of the United Provinces, but politically it
is restricted to a collection of native states, under the Bundelkhand
agency. There are 9 states, 13 estates and the pargana of Alampur belonging
to Indore state, with a total area of 9851 sq. m. and a total population
(1901) of 1,308,326, showing a decrease of 13% in the decade, due to the
effects of famine. The most important of the states are Orchha, Panna,
Samthar, Charkhari, Chhatarpur, Datia, Bijawar and Ajaigarh. A branch of
the Great Indian Peninsula railway traverses the north of the country. A
garrison of all arms is stationed at Nowgong.

The surface of the country is uneven and hilly, except in the north-east
part, which forms an irregular plain cut up by ravines scooped out by
torrents during the periodical rains. The plains of Bundelkhand are
intersected by three mountain ranges, the Bindhachal, Panna and Bander
chains, the highest elevation not exceeding 2000 ft. above sea-level.
Beyond these ranges the country is further diversified by isolated hills
rising abruptly from a common level, and presenting from their steep and
nearly inaccessible scarps eligible sites for castles and strongholds,
whence the mountaineers of Bundelkhand have frequently set at defiance the
most powerful of the native states of India. The general slope of the
country is towards the north-east, as indicated by the course of the rivers
which traverse or bound the territory, and finally discharge themselves
into the Jumna.

The principal rivers are the Sind, Betwa, Ken, Baighin, Paisuni, Tons,
Pahuj, Dhasan, Berma, Urmal and Chandrawal. The Sind, rising near Sironj in
Malwa, marks the frontier line of Bundelkhand on the side of Gwalior.
Parallel to this river, but more to the eastward, is the course of the
Betwa. Still farther to the east flows the Ken, followed in succession by
the Baighin, Paisuni and Tons. The Jumna and the Ken are the only two
navigable rivers. Notwithstanding the large number of streams, the
depression of their channels and height of their banks render them for the
most part unsuitable for the purposes of irrigation,--which is conducted by
means of _jhils_ and tanks. These artificial lakes are usually formed by
throwing embankments across the lower extremities of valleys, and thus
arresting and accumulating the waters flowing through them. Some of the
tanks are of great capacity; the Barwa Sagar, for instance, is 2½ m. in
diameter. Diamonds are found, particularly near the town of Panna, in a
range of hills called by the natives Band-Ahil.

The mines of Maharajpur, Rajpur, Kimera and Gadasia have been famous for
magnificent diamonds; and a very large one dug from the last was kept in
the fort of Kalinjar among the treasures of Raja Himmat Bahadur. In the
reign of the emperor Akbar the mines of Panna produced diamonds to the
amount of £100,000 annually, and were a considerable source of revenue, but
for many years they have not been so profitable.

The tree vegetation consists rather of jungle or copse than forest,
abounding in game which is preserved by the native chiefs. There are also
within these coverts several varieties of wild animals, such as the tiger,
leopard, hyena, wild boar, _nilgái_ and jackal.

The people represent various races. The Bundelas--the race who gave the
name to the country--still maintain their dignity as chieftains, by
disdaining to cultivate the soil, although by no means conspicuous for
lofty sentiments of honour or morality. An Indian proverb avers that "one
native of Bundelkhand commits as much fraud as a hundred Dandis" (weighers
of grain and notorious rogues). About Datia and Jhansi the inhabitants are
a stout and handsome race of men, well off and contented. The prevailing
religion in Bundelkhand is Hinduism.

The earliest dynasty recorded to have ruled in Bundelkhand were the
Garhwas, who were succeeded by the Parihars; but nothing is known of
either. About A.D. 800 the Parihars are said to have been ousted by the
Chandels, and Dangha Varma, chief of the Chandel Rajputs, appears to have
established the earliest paramount power in Bundelkhand towards the close
of the 10th century A.D. Under his dynasty the country attained its
greatest splendour in the early part of the 11th century, when its raja,
whose dominions extended from the Jumna to the Nerbudda, marched at the
head of 36,000 horse and 45,000 foot, with 640 elephants, to oppose the
invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni. In 1182 the Chandel dynasty was overthrown by
Prithwi Raj, the ruler of Ajmer and Delhi, after which the country remained
in ruinous anarchy until the close of the 14th century, when the Bundelas,
a spurious offshoot of the Garhwa tribe of Rajputs, established themselves
on the right bank of the Jumna. One of these took possession of Orchha by
treacherously poisoning its chief. His successor succeeded in further
aggrandizing the Bundela state, but he is represented to have been a
notorious plunderer, and his character is further stained by the
assassination of the celebrated Abul Fazl, the prime minister and historian
of Akbar. Jajhar Singh, the third Bundela chief, unsuccessfully revolted
against the court of Delhi, and his country became incorporated for a short
time with the empire. The struggles of the Bundelas for independence
resulted in the withdrawal of the royal troops, and the admission of
several petty states as feudatories of the empire on condition of military
service. The Bundelas, under Champat Rai and his son. Chhatar Sal, offered
a successful resistance to the proselytizing efforts of Aurangzeb. On the
occasion of a Mahommedan invasion in 1732, Chhatar Sal asked and obtained
the assistance of the Mahratta Peshwa, whom he adopted as his son, giving
him a third of his dominions. The Mahrattas gradually extended their
influence over Bundelkhand, [v.04 p.0798] and in 1792 the peshwa was
acknowledged as the lord paramount of the country. The Mahratta power was,
however, on the decline; the flight of the peshwa from his capital to
Bassein before the British arms changed the aspect of affairs, and by the
treaty concluded between the peshwa and the British government, the
districts of Banda and Hamirpur were transferred to the latter. Two chiefs
then held the ceded districts, Himmat Bahadur, the leader of the Sanyasis,
who promoted the views of the British, and Shamsher, who made common cause
with the Mahrattas. In September 1803, the united forces of the English and
Himmat Bahadur compelled Shamsher to retreat with his army. In 1809
Ajaigarh was besieged by a British force, and again three years later
Kalinjar was besieged and taken after a heavy loss. In 1817, by the treaty
of Poona, the British government acquired from the peshwa all his rights,
interests and pretensions, feudal, territorial or pecuniary, in
Bundelkhand. In carrying out the provisions of the treaty, an assurance was
given by the British government that the rights of those interested in the
transfer should be scrupulously respected, and the host of petty native
principalities in the province is the best proof of the sincerity and good
faith with which this clause has been carried out. During the mutiny of
1857, however, many of the chiefs rose against the British, the rani of
Jhansi being a notable example.

BUNDI, or BOONDEE, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency, lying
on the north-east of the river Chambal, in a hilly tract historically known
as Haraoti, from the Hara sept of the great clan of Chauhan Rajputs, to
which the maharao raja of Bundi belongs. It has an area of 2220 sq. m. Many
parts of the state are wild and hilly, inhabited by a large Mina
population, formerly notorious as a race of robbers. Two rivers, the
Chambia and the Mej, water the state; the former is navigable by boats. In
1901 the population was 171,227, showing a decrease of 42% due to the
effects of famine. The estimated revenue is £46,000, the tribute £8000.
There is no railway, but the metalled road from Kotah to the British
cantonment of Deoli passes through the state. The town of Bundi had a
population in 1901 of 19,313. A school for the education of boys of high
rank was opened in 1897.

The state of Bundi was founded about A.D. 1342 by the Hara chief Rao Dewa,
or Deoraj, who captured the town from the Minas. Its importance, however,
dates from the time of Rao Surjan, who succeeded to the chieftainship in
1554 and by throwing in his lot with the Mahommedan emperors of Delhi
(1569) received a considerable accession of territory. From this time the
rulers of Bundi bore the title of rao raja. In the 17th century their power
was curtailed by the division of Haraoti into the two states of Kotah and
Bundi; but they continued to play a prominent part in Indian history, and
the title of maharao raja was conferred on Budh Singh for the part played
by him in securing the imperial throne for Bahadur Shah I. after the death
of Aurangzeb in 1707. In 1804 the maharao raja Bishan Singh gave valuable
assistance to Colonel Monson in his disastrous retreat before Holkar, in
revenge for which the Mahratas and Pindaris continually ravaged his state
up to 1817. On the 10th of February 1818, by a treaty concluded with Bishan
Singh, Bundi was taken under British protection. In 1821 Bishan Singh was
succeeded by his son Ram Singh, who ruled till 1889. He is described as a
grand specimen of the Rajput gentleman, and "the most conservative prince
in conservative Rajputana." His rule was popular and beneficent; and though
during the mutiny of 1857 his attitude was equivocal, he continued to enjoy
the favour of the British government, being created G.C.S.I. and a
counsellor of the empire in 1877 and C.I.E. in 1878. He was succeeded by
his son Raghubir Singh, who was made a K.C.S.I. in 1897 and a G.C.I.E. in
1901.

BUNER, a valley on the Peshawar border of the North-West Frontier Province
of India. It is a small mountain valley, dotted with villages and divided
into seven sub-divisions. The Mora Hills and the Ilam range divide it from
Swat, the Sinawar range from Yusafzai, the Guru mountains from the Chamla
valley, and the Duma range from the Puran Valley. It is inhabited by the
Iliaszai and Malizai divisions of the Pathan tribe of Yusafzais, who are
called after their country the Bunerwals. There is no finer race on the
north-west frontier of India than the Bunerwals. Simple and austere in
their habits, religious and truthful in their ways, hospitable to all who
seek shelter amongst them, free from secret assassinations, they are bright
examples of the Pathan character at its best. They are a powerful and
warlike tribe, numbering 8000 fighting men. The Umbeyla Expedition of 1863
under Sir Neville Chamberlain was occasioned by the Bunerwals siding with
the Hindostani Fanatics, who had settled down at Malka in their territory.
In the end the Bunerwals were subdued by a force of 9000 British troops,
and Malka was destroyed, but they made so fierce a resistance, in
particular in their attack upon the "Crag" picket, that the Indian medal
with a clasp for "Umbeyla" was granted in 1869 to the survivors of the
expedition. The government of India refrained from interfering with the
tribe again until the Buner campaign of 1897 under Sir Bindon Blood. Many
Bunerwals took part in the attack of the Swatis on the Malakand fort, and a
force of 3000 British troops was sent to punish them; but the tribe made
only a feeble resistance at the passes into their country, and speedily
handed in the arms demanded of them and made complete submission.

BUNGALOW (an Anglo-Indian word from the Hindustani _bangl[=a]_, belonging
to Bengal), a one-storeyed house with a verandah and a projecting roof, the
typical dwelling for Europeans in India; the name is also used for similar
buildings which have become common for seaside and summer residences in
America and Great Britain. Dak or dawk bungalows (from _dak_ or _dawk_, a
post, a relay of men for carrying the mails, &c.) are the government
rest-houses established at intervals for the use of travellers on the high
roads of India.

BUNGAY, a market-town in the Lowestoft parliamentary division of Suffolk,
England; 113 m. N.E. from London on a branch from Beccles of the Great
Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 3314. It is picturesquely placed in a deep
bend of the river Waveney, the boundary with Norfolk. Of the two parish
churches that of St Mary has a fine Perpendicular tower, and that of Holy
Trinity a round tower of which the lower part is Norman. St Mary's was
attached to a Benedictine nunnery founded in 1160. The ruins of the castle
date from 1281. They are fragmentary though massive; and there are traces
of earth-works of much earlier date. The castle was a stronghold of the
powerful family of Bigod, being granted to Roger Bigod, a Norman follower
of the Conqueror, in 1075. A grammar school was founded in 1592. There are
large printing-works, and founding and malting are prosecuted. There is a
considerable carrying trade on the Waveney.

BUNION (a word usually derived from the Ital. _bugnone_, a swelling, but,
according to the _New English Dictionary_, the late and rare literary use
of the word makes an Italian derivation unlikely; there is an O. Eng. word
"bunny," also meaning a swelling, and an O. Fr. _buigne_, modern _bigne_,
showing a probable common origin now lost, cf. also "bunch"), an inflamed
swelling of the _bursa mucosa_, the sac containing synovial fluid on the
metatarsal joint of the big toe, or, more rarely, of the little toe. This
may be accompanied by corns or suppuration, leading to an ulcer or even
gangrene. The cause is usually pressure; removal of this, and general
palliative treatment by dressings, &c. are usually effective, but in severe
and obstinate cases a surgical operation may be necessary.

BUNKER HILL, the name of a small hill in Charlestown (Boston),
Massachusetts, U.S.A., famous as the scene of the first considerable
engagement in the American War of Independence (June 17, 1775). Bunker Hill
(110 ft.) was connected by a ridge with Breed's Hill (75 ft.), both being
on a narrow peninsula a short distance to the north of Boston, joined by a
causeway with the mainland. Since the affair of Lexington (April 19, 1775)
General Gage, who commanded the British forces, had remained inactive at
Boston awaiting reinforcements from England; the headquarters of the
Americans were at Cambridge, with advanced posts occupying much of the 4 m.
separating [v.04 p.0799] Cambridge from Bunker Hill. When Gage received his
reinforcements at the end of May, he determined to repair his strange
neglect by which the hills on the peninsula had been allowed to remain
unoccupied and unfortified. As soon as the Americans became aware of Gage's
intention they determined to frustrate it, and accordingly, on the night of
the 16th of June, a force of about 1200 men, under Colonel William Prescott
and Major-General Israel Putnam, with some engineers and a few field-guns,
occupied Breed's Hill--to which the name Bunker Hill is itself now
popularly applied--and when daylight disclosed their presence to the
British they had already strongly entrenched their position. Gage lost no
time in sending troops across from Boston with orders to assault. The
British force, between 2000 and 3000 strong, under (Sir) William Howe,
supported by artillery and by the guns of men-of-war and floating batteries
stationed in the anchorage on either side of the peninsula, were fresh and
well disciplined. The American force consisted for the most part of
inexperienced volunteers, numbers of whom were already wearied by the
trench work of the night. As communication was kept up with their camp the
numbers engaged on the hill fluctuated during the day, but at no time
exceeded about 1500 men. The village of Charlestown, from which a galling
musketry fire was directed against the British, was by General Howe's
orders almost totally destroyed by hot shot during the attack. Instead of
attempting to cut off the Americans by occupying the neck to the rear of
their position, Gage ordered the advance to be made up the steep and
difficult ascent facing the works on the hill. Whether or not in
obedience--as tradition asserts--to an order to reserve fire until they
could see the whites of their assailants' eyes, the American volunteers
with admirable steadiness waited till the attack was on the point of being
driven home, when they delivered a fire so sustained and deadly that the
British line broke in disorder. A second assault, made like the first, with
the precision and discipline of the parade-ground met the same fate, but
Gage's troops had still spirit enough for a third assault, and this time
they carried the position with the bayonet, capturing five pieces of
ordnance and putting the enemy to flight. The loss of the British was 1054
men killed and wounded, among whom were 89 commissioned officers; while the
American casualties amounted to 420 killed and wounded, including General
Joseph Warren, and 30 prisoners. (See AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.)

The significance of the battle of Bunker Hill is not, however, to be gauged
by the losses on either side, heavy as they were in proportion to the
numbers engaged, nor by its purely military results, but by the moral
effect which it produced; and when it is considered from this standpoint
its far-reaching consequences can hardly be over-estimated. "It roused at
once the fierce instinct of combat in America ..., and dispelled ... the
almost superstitious belief in the impossibility of encountering regular
troops with hastily levied volunteers ... No one questioned the conspicuous
gallantry with which the provincial troops had supported a long fire from
the ships and awaited the charge of the enemy, and British soldiers had
been twice driven back in disorder before their fire."[1] The pride which
Americans naturally felt in such an achievement, and the self-confidence
which it inspired, were increased when they learnt that the small force on
Bunker Hill had not been properly reinforced, and that their ammunition was
running short before they were dislodged from their position.[2] Had the
character of the fighting on that day been other than it was; had the
American volunteers been easily, and at the first assault, driven from
their fortified position by the troops of George III., it is not impossible
that the resistance to the British government would have died out in the
North American colonies through lack of confidence in their own power on
the part of the colonists. Bunker Hill, whatever it may have to teach the
student of war, taught the American colonists in 1775 that the odds against
them in the enterprise in which they had embarked were not so overwhelming
as to deny them all prospect of ultimate success.

In 1843 a monument, 221 ft. high, in the form of an obelisk, of Quincy
granite, was completed on Breed's Hill (now Bunker Hill) to commemorate the
battle, when an address was delivered by Daniel Webster, who had also
delivered the famous dedicatory oration at the laying of the corner-stone
in 1825. Bunker Hill day is a state holiday.

See R. Frothingham, _The Centennial: Battle of Bunker Hill_ (Boston, 1895),
and _Life and Times of Joseph Warren_ (Boston, 1865); Boston City Council,
_Celebration of Centen. Aniv. of Battle of Bunker Hill_ (Boston, 1875);
G.E. Ellis, _Hist. of Battle of Bunker's_ (Breed's) _Hill_ (Boston, 1875);
S. Sweet, _Who was the Commander at Bunker Hill?_ (Boston, 1850); W.E.H.
Lecky, _History of England in the Eighteenth Century_, vol. iii (London,
1883); Sir George O. Trevelyan, _The American Revolution_ (London, 1899);
Fortescue, _History of the British Army_, vol. iii. pp. 153 seq. (London,
1902).

(R. J. M.)

[1] W.E.H. Lecky, _History of England in the Eighteenth Century_, iii. 428.

[2] General Gage's despatch. _American Remembrancer_, 1776, part 11, p.
132.

BUNN, ALFRED (1796-1860), English theatrical manager, was appointed
stage-manager of Drury Lane theatre, London, in 1823. In 1826 he was
managing the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, and in 1833 he undertook the joint
management of Drury Lane and Covent Garden, London. In this undertaking he
met with vigorous opposition. A bill for the abolition of the patent
theatres was passed in the House of Commons, but on Bunn's petition was
thrown out by the House of Lords. He had difficulties first with his
company, then with the lord chamberlain, and had to face the keen rivalry
of the other theatres. A longstanding quarrel with Macready resulted in the
tragedian assaulting the manager. In 1840 Bunn was declared a bankrupt, but
he continued to manage Drury Lane till 1848. Artistically his control of
the two chief English theatres was highly successful. Nearly every leading
English actor played under his management, and he made a courageous attempt
to establish English opera, producing the principal works of Balfe. He had
some gift for writing, and most of the libretti of these operas were
translated by himself. In _The Stage Before and Behind the Curtain_ (3
vols., 1840) he gave a full account of his managerial experiences. He died
at Boulogne on the 20th of December 1860.

BUNNER, HENRY CUYLER (1855-1896), American writer, was born in Oswego, New
York, on the 3rd of August 1855. He was educated in New York City. From
being a clerk in an importing house, he turned to journalism, and after
some work as a reporter, and on the staff of the _Arcadian_ (1873), he
became in 1877 assistant editor of the comic weekly _Puck_. He soon assumed
the editorship, which he held until his death in Nutley, N.J., on the 11th
of May 1896. He developed _Puck_ from a new struggling periodical into a
powerful social and political organ. In 1886 he published a novel, _The
Midge_, followed in 1887 by _The Story of a New York House_. But his best
efforts in fiction were his short stories and sketches--_Short Sixes_
(1891), _More Short Sixes_ (1894), _Made in France_ (1893), _Zadoc Pine and
Other Stories_ (1891), _Love in Old Cloathes and Other Stories_ (1896), and
_Jersey Street and Jersey Lane_ (1896). His verses--_Airs from Arcady and
Elsewhere_ (1884), containing the well-known poem, _The Way to Arcady;
Rowen_ (1892); and _Poems_ (1896), edited by his friend Brander
Matthews--display a light play of imagination and a delicate workmanship.
He also wrote clever _vers de société_ and parodies. Of his several plays
(usually written in collaboration), the best was _The Tower of Babel_
(1883).

BUNSEN, CHRISTIAN CHARLES JOSIAS, BARON VON (1791-1860), Prussian
diplomatist and scholar, was born on the 25th of August 1791 at Korbach, an
old town in the little German principality of Waldeck. His father was a
farmer who was driven by poverty to become a soldier. Having studied at the
Korbach grammar school and Marburg university, Bunsen went in his
nineteenth year to Göttingen, where he supported himself by teaching and
later by acting as tutor to W.B. Astor, the American merchant. He won the
university prize essay of the year 1812 by a treatise on the _Athenian Law
of Inheritance_, and a few months later the university of Jena granted him
the honorary degree of doctor of philosophy. During 1813 he travelled with
Astor in South Germany, and then turned to the study of the religion, laws,
language and literature of the Teutonic [v.04 p.0800] races. He had read
Hebrew when a boy, and now worked at Arabic at Munich, Persian at Leiden,
and Norse at Copenhagen. At the close of 1815 he went to Berlin, to lay
before Niebuhr the plan of research which he had mapped out. Niebuhr was so
impressed with Bunsen's ability that, two years later, when he became
Prussian envoy to the papal court, he made the young scholar his secretary.
The intervening years Bunsen spent in assiduous labour among the libraries
and collections of Paris and Florence. In July 1817 he married Frances
Waddington, eldest daughter and co-heiress of B. Waddington of Llanover,
Monmouthshire.

As secretary to Niebuhr, Bunsen was brought into contact with the Vatican
movement for the establishment of the papal church in the Prussian
dominions, to provide for the largely increased Catholic population. He was
among the first to realize the importance of this new vitality on the part
of the Vatican, and he made it his duty to provide against its possible
dangers by urging upon the Prussian court the wisdom of fair and impartial
treatment of its Catholic subjects. In this object he was at first
successful, and both from the Vatican and from Frederick William III., who
put him in charge of the legation on Niebuhr's resignation, he received
unqualified approbation. Owing partly to the wise statesmanship of Count
Spiegel, archbishop of Cologne, an arrangement was made by which the thorny
question of "mixed" marriages (_i.e._ between Catholic and Protestant)
would have been happily solved; but the archbishop died in 1835, the
arrangement was never ratified, and the Prussian king was foolish enough to
appoint as Spiegel's successor the narrow-minded partisan Baron Droste. The
pope gladly accepted the appointment, and in two years the forward policy
of the Jesuits had brought about the strife which Bunsen and Spiegel had
tried to prevent. Bunsen rashly recommended that Droste should be seized,
but the _coup_ was so clumsily attempted, that the incriminating documents
were, it is said, destroyed in advance. The government, in this _impasse_,
took the safest course, refused to support Bunsen, and accepted his
resignation in April 1838.

After leaving Rome, where he had become intimate with all that was most
interesting in the cosmopolitan society of the papal capital, Bunsen went
to England, where, except for a short term as Prussian ambassador to
Switzerland (1830-1841), he was destined to pass the rest of his official
life. The accession to the throne of Prussia of Frederick William IV., on
June 7th, 1840, made a great change in Bunsen's career. Ever since their
first meeting in 1828 the two men had been close friends and had exchanged
ideas in an intimate correspondence, published under Ranke's editorship in
1873. Enthusiasm for evangelical religion and admiration for the Anglican
Church they held in common, and Bunsen was the instrument naturally
selected for realizing the king's fantastic scheme of setting up at
Jerusalem a Prusso-Anglican bishopric as a sort of advertisement of the
unity and aggressive force of Protestantism. The special mission of Bunsen
to England, from June to November 1841, was completely successful, in spite
of the opposition of English high churchmen and Lutheran extremists. The
Jerusalem bishopric, with the consent of the British government and the
active encouragement of the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of
London, was duly established, endowed with Prussian and English money, and
remained for some forty years an isolated symbol of Protestant unity and a
rock of stumbling to Anglican Catholics.

During his stay in England Bunsen had made himself very popular among all
classes of society, and he was selected by Queen Victoria, out of three
names proposed by the king of Prussia, as ambassador to the court of St
James's. In this post he remained for thirteen years. His tenure of the
office coincided with the critical period in Prussian and European affairs
which culminated in the revolutions of 1848. With the visionary schemes of
Frederick William, whether that of setting up a strict episcopal
organization in the Evangelical Church, or that of reviving the defunct
ideal of the medieval Empire, Bunsen found himself increasingly out of
sympathy. He realized the significance of the signs that heralded the
coming storm, and tried in vain to move the king to a policy which would
have placed him at the head of a Germany united and free. He felt bitterly
the humiliation of Prussia by Austria after the victory of the reaction;
and in 1852 he set his signature reluctantly to the treaty which, in his
view, surrendered the "constitutional rights of Schleswig and Holstein."
His whole influence was now directed to withdrawing Prussia from the
blighting influence of Austria and Russia, and attempting to draw closer
the ties that bound her to Great Britain. On the outbreak of the Crimean
War he urged Frederick William to throw in his lot with the western powers,
and create a diversion in the north-east which would have forced Russia at
once to terms. The rejection of his advice, and the proclamation of
Prussia's attitude of "benevolent neutrality," led him in April 1854 to
offer his resignation, which was accepted.

Bunsen's life as a public man was now practically at an end. He retired
first to a villa on the Neckar near Heidelberg and later to Bonn. He
refused to stand for a seat, in the Liberal interest, in the Lower House of
the Prussian diet, but continued to take an active interest in politics,
and in 1855 published in two volumes a work, _Die Zeichen der Zeit: Briefe,
&c._, which exercised an immense influence in reviving the Liberal movement
which the failure of the revolution had crushed. In September 1857 Bunsen
attended, as the king's guest, a meeting of the Evangelical Alliance at
Berlin; and one of the last papers signed by Frederick William, before his
mind gave way in October, was that which conferred upon him the title of
baron and a peerage for life. In 1858, at the special request of the regent
(afterwards the emperor) William, he took his seat in the Prussian Upper
House, and, though remaining silent, supported the new ministry, of which
his political and personal friends were members.

Literary work was, however, his main preoccupation during all this period.
Two discoveries of ancient MSS. made during his stay in London, the one
containing a shorter text of the _Epistles of St Ignatius_, and the other
an unknown work _On all the Heresies_, by Bishop Hippolytus, had already
led him to write his _Hippolytus and his Age: Doctrine and Practice of Rome
under Commodus and Severus_ (1852). He now concentrated all his efforts
upon a translation of the Bible with commentaries. While this was in
preparation he published his _God in History_, in which he contends that
the progress of mankind marches parallel to the conception of God formed
within each nation by the highest exponents of its thought. At the same
time he carried through the press, assisted by Samuel Birch, the concluding
volumes of his work (published in English as well as in German) _Egypt's
Place in Universal History_--containing a reconstruction of Egyptian
chronology, together with an attempt to determine the relation in which the
language and the religion of that country stand to the development of each
among the more ancient non-Aryan and Aryan races. His ideas on this subject
were most fully developed in two volumes published in London before he
quitted England--_Outlines of the Philosophy of Universal History as
applied to Language and Religion_ (2 vols., 1854).

In 1858 Bunsen's health began to fail; visits to Cannes in 1858 and 1859
brought no improvement, and he died on November 28th, 1860. One of his last
requests having been that his wife would write down recollections of their
common life, she published his _Memoirs_ in 1868, which contain much of his
private correspondence. The German translation of these _Memoirs_ has added
extracts from unpublished documents, throwing a new light upon the
political events in which he played a part. Baron Humboldt's letters to
Bunsen were printed in 1869.

Bunsen's English connexion, both through his wife (d. 1876) and through his
own long residence in London, was further increased in his family. He had
ten children, including five sons, Henry (1818-1855), Ernest (1810-1903),
Karl (1821-1887), Georg (1824-1896) and Theodor (1832-1892). Of these Karl
(Charles) and Theodor had careers in the German diplomatic service; and
Georg, who for some time was an active politician in Germany, eventually
retired to live in London; Henry, who was an English clergyman, became a
naturalized Englishman, [v.04 p.0801] and Ernest, who in 1845 married an
Englishwoman, Miss Gurney, subsequently resided and died in London. The
form of "de" Bunsen was adopted for the surname in England. Ernest de
Bunsen was a scholarly writer, who published various works both in German
and in English, notably on Biblical chronology and other questions of
comparative religion. His son, Sir Maurice de Bunsen (b. 1852), entered the
English diplomatic service in 1877, and after a varied experience became
minister at Lisbon in 1905.

See also L. von Ranke, _Aus dem Briefwechsel Friedrich Wilhelms IV. mit
Bunsen_ (Berlin, 1873). The biography in the 9th edition of this
encyclopaedia, which has been drawn upon above, was by Georg von Bunsen.

BUNSEN, ROBERT WILHELM VON (1811-1899), German chemist, was born at
Göttingen on the 31st of March 1811, his father, Christian Bunsen, being
chief librarian and professor of modern philology at the university. He
himself entered the university in 1828, and in 1834 became _Privat-docent_.
In 1836 he became teacher of chemistry at the Polytechnic School of Cassel,
and in 1839 took up the appointment of professor of chemistry at Marburg,
where he remained till 1851. In 1852, after a brief period in Breslau, he
was appointed to the chair of chemistry at Heidelberg, where he spent the
rest of his life, in spite of an urgent invitation to migrate to Berlin as
successor to E. Mitscherlich. He retired from active work in 1889, and died
at Heidelberg on the 16th of August 1899. The first research by which
attention was drawn to Bunsen's abilities was concerned with the cacodyl
compounds (see ARSENIC), though he had already, in 1834, discovered the
virtues of freshly precipitated hydrated ferric oxide as an antidote to
arsenical poisoning. It was begun in 1837 at Cassel, and during the six
years he spent upon it he not only lost the sight of one eye through an
explosion, but nearly killed himself by arsenical poisoning. It represents
almost his only excursion into organic chemistry, and apart from its
accuracy and completeness it is of historical interest in the development
of that branch of the science as being the forerunner of the fruitful
investigations on the organo-metallic compounds subsequently carried out by
his English pupil, Edward Frankland. Simultaneously with his work on
cacodyl, he was studying the composition of the gases given off from blast
furnaces. He showed that in German furnaces nearly half the heat yielded by
the fuel was being allowed to escape with the waste gases, and when he came
to England, and in conjunction with Lyon Playfair investigated the
conditions obtaining in English furnaces, he found the waste to amount to
over 80%. These researches marked a stage in the application of scientific
principles to the manufacture of iron, and they led also to the elaboration
of Bunsen's famous methods of measuring gaseous volumes, &c., which form
the subject of the only book he ever published (_Gasometrische Methoden_,
1857). In 1841 he invented the carbon-zinc electric cell which is known by
his name, and which conducted him to several important achievements. He
first employed it to produce the electric arc, and showed that from 44
cells a light equal to 1171.3 candles could be obtained with the
consumption of one pound of zinc per hour. To measure this light he
designed in 1844 another instrument, which in various modifications has
come into extensive use--the grease-spot photometer. In 1852 he began to
carry out electrolytical decompositions by the aid of the battery. By means
of a very ingenious arrangement he obtained magnesium for the first time in
the metallic state, and studied its chemical and physical properties, among
other things demonstrating the brilliance and high actinic qualities of the
flame it gives when burnt in air. From 1855 to 1863 he published with
Roscoe a series of investigations on photochemical measurements, which W.
Ostwald has called the "classical example for all future researches in
physical chemistry." Perhaps the best known of the contrivances which the
world owes to him is the "Bunsen burner" which he devised in 1855 when a
simple means of burning ordinary coal gas with a hot smokeless flame was
required for the new laboratory at Heidelberg. Other appliances invented by
him were the ice-calorimeter (1870), the vapour calorimeter (1887), and the
filter pump (1868), which was worked out in the course of a research on the
separation of the platinum metals. Mention must also be made of another
piece of work of a rather different character. Travelling was one of his
favourite relaxations, and in 1846 he paid a visit to Iceland. There he
investigated the phenomena of the geysers, the composition of the gases
coming off from the fumaroles, their action on the rocks with which they
came into contact, &c., and on his observations was founded a noteworthy
contribution to geological theory. But the most far-reaching of his
achievements was the elaboration, about 1859, jointly with G.R. Kirchhoff,
of spectrum analysis, which has put a new weapon of extraordinary power
into the hands both of chemists and astronomers. It led Bunsen himself
almost immediately to the isolation of two new elements of the alkali
group, caesium and rubidium. Having noticed some unknown lines in the
spectra of certain salts he was examining, he set to work to obtain the
substance or substances to which these were due. To this end he evaporated
large quantities of the Dürkheim mineral water, and it says much both for
his perseverance and powers of manipulation that he dealt with 40 tons of
the water to get about 17 grammes of the mixed chlorides of the two
substances, and that with about one-third of that quantity of caesium
chloride was able to prepare the most important compounds of the element
and determine their characteristics, even making goniometrical measurements
of their crystals.

Bunsen founded no school of chemistry; that is to say, no body of chemical
doctrine is associated with his name. Indeed, he took little or no part in
discussions of points of theory, and, although he was conversant with the
trend of the chemical thought of his day, he preferred to spend his
energies in the collection of experimental data. One fact, he used to say,
properly proved is worth all the theories that can be invented. But as a
teacher of chemistry he was almost without rival, and his success is
sufficiently attested by the scores of pupils who flocked from every part
of the globe to study under him, and by the number of those pupils who
afterwards made their mark in the chemical world. The secret of this
success lay largely in the fact that he never delegated his work to
assistants, but was constantly present with his pupils in the laboratory,
assisting each with personal direction and advice. He was also one of the
first to appreciate the value of practical work to the student, and he
instituted a regular practical course at Marburg so far back as 1840.
Though alive to the importance of applied science, he considered truth
alone to be the end of scientific research, and the example he set his
pupils was one of single-hearted devotion to the advancement of knowledge.

See Sir Henry Roscoe's "Bunsen Memorial Lecture," _Trans. Chem. Soc._,
1900, which is reprinted (in German) with other obituary notices in an
edition of Bunsen's collected works published by Ostwald and Bodenstein in
3 vols. at Leipzig in 1904.

BUNTER, the name applied by English geologists to the lower stage or
subdivision of the Triassic rocks in the United Kingdom. The name has been
adapted from the German _Buntsandstein, Der bunte Sandstein_, for it was in
Germany that this continental type of Triassic deposit was first carefully
studied. In France, the Bunter is known as the _Grès bigarré_. In northern
and central Germany, in the Harz, Thuringia and Hesse, the Bunter is
usually conformable with the underlying Permian formation; in the
south-west and west, however, it transgresses on to older rocks, on to Coal
Measures near Saarbruck, and upon the crystalline schists of Odenwald and
the Black Forest.

The German subdivisions of the Bunter are as follows:--(1) _Upper
Buntsandstein_, or _Röt_, mottled red and green marls and clays with
occasional beds of shale, sandstone, gypsum, rocksalt and dolomite. In
Hesse and Thuringia, a quartzitic sandstone prevails in the lower part. The
"Rhizocorallium Dolomite" (_R. Jenense_, probably a sponge) of the latter
district contains the only Bunter fauna of any importance. In Lorraine and
the Eifel and Saar districts there are micaceous clays and sandstones with
plant remains--the _Voltzia_ sandstone. The lower beds in the Black Forest,
Vosges, Odenwald and Lorraine very generally contain strings of dolomite
and carnelian--the so-called "Carneol bank." (2) _Middle
Buntsandstein-Hauptbuntsandstein_ (900 ft.), the bulk [v.04 p.0802] of this
subdivision is made up of weakly-cemented, coarse-grained sandstones,
oblique lamination is very prevalent, and occasional conglomeratic beds
make their appearance. The uppermost bed is usually fine-grained and bears
the footprints of _Cheirotherium_. In the Vosges district, this subdivision
of the Bunter is called the _Grès des Vosges, _or the _Grès principal_,
which comprises: (i.) red micaceous and argillaceous sandstone; (ii.) the
_conglomérat principal_; and (iii.) _Grès bigarré principal_ (=_grès des
Vosges_, properly so-called). (3) _Lower Buntsandstein_, fine-grained
clayey and micaceous sandstones, red-grey, yellow, white and mottled. The
cement of the sandstones is often felspathic; for this reason they yield
useful porcelain clays in the Thuringerwald. Clay galls are common in the
sandstones of some districts, and in the neighbourhood of the Harz an
oolitic calcareous sandstone, _Rogenstein_, occurs. In eastern Hesse, the
lowest beds are crumbly, shaly clays, _Brockelschiefern_.

The following are the subdivisions usually adopted in England:--(1) Upper
Mottled Sandstone, red variegated sandstones, soft and generally free from
pebbles. (2) Bunter Pebble Beds, harder red and brown sandstones with
quartzose pebbles, very abundant in some places. (3) Lower Mottled
Sandstone, very similar to the upper division. The Bunter beds occupy a
large area in the midland counties where they form dry, healthy ground of
moderate elevation (Cannock Chase, Trentham, Sherwood Forest, Sutton
Coldfield, &c.). Southward they may be followed through west Somerset to
the cliffs of Budleigh Salterton in Devon; while northward they pass
through north Staffordshire, Cheshire and Lancashire to the Vale of Eden
and St Bees, reappearing in Elgin and Arran. A deposit of these rocks lies
in the Vale of Clwyd and probably flanks the eastern side of the Pennine
Hills, although here it is not so readily differentiated from the Keuper
beds. The English Bunter rests with a slight unconformity upon the older
formations. It is generally absent in the south-eastern counties, but
thickens rapidly in the opposite direction, as is shown by the following
table:--

  +----------------+----------------+---------------------+
  | Lancashire and |                | Leicestershire and  |
  |  W. Cheshire.  | Staffordshire. |    Warwickshire.    |
  +----------------+----------------+---------------------+
  |(1)   500 ft.   |   50-200 ft.   |       Absent        |
  |(2) 500-750 ft. |  100-300 ft.   |      0-100 ft.      |
  |(3) 200-500 ft. |    0-100 ft.   |       Absent        |
  +----------------+----------------+---------------------+

The material forming the Bunter beds of England came probably from the
north-west, but in Devonshire there are indications which point to an
additional source.

In the Alpine region, most of the Trias differs markedly from that of
England and northern Germany, being of distinctly marine origin; here the
Bunter is represented by the _Werfen beds_ (from Werfen in Salzburg) in the
northern Alps, a series of red and greenish-grey micaceous shales with
gypsum, rock salt and limestones in the upper part; while in the southern
Alps (S. Tirol) there is an upper series of red clays, the _Campil beds_,
and a lower series of thin sandstones, the _Seis beds_. Mojsisovics von
Mojsvar has pointed out that the Alpine Bunter belongs to the single zone
of _Natica costata_ and _Tirolites cassianus_.

Fossils in the Bunter are very scarce; in addition to the footprints of
_Cheirotherium_, direct evidence of amphibians is found in such forms as
_Trematosaurus_ and _Mastodonsaurus. Myophoria costata_ and _Gervillea
Murchisoni_ are characteristic fossils. Plants are represented by _Voltzia_
and by equisetums and ferns.

In England, the Bunter sandstones frequently act as valuable reservoirs of
underground water; sometimes they are used for building stone or for
foundry sand. In Germany some of the harder beds have yielded building
stones, which were much used in the middle ages in the construction of
cathedrals and castles in southern Germany and on the Rhine. In the
northern Eifel region, at Mechernich and elsewhere, this formation contains
lead ore in the form of spots and patches (_Knotenerz_) in the sandstone;
some of the lead ore was worked by the Romans.

For a consideration of the relationship of the Bunter beds to formations of
the like age in other parts of the world, see TRIASSIC SYSTEM.

(J. A. H.)

BUNTING, JABEZ (1779-1858), English Wesleyan divine, was born of humble
parentage at Manchester on the 13th of May 1779. He was educated at
Manchester grammar school, and at the age of nineteen began to preach,
being received into full connexion in 1803. He continued to minister for
upwards of fifty-seven years in Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Liverpool,
London and elsewhere. In 1835 he was appointed president of the first
Wesleyan theological college (at Hoxton), and in this position he succeeded
in materially raising the standard of education among Wesleyan ministers.
He was four times chosen to be president of the conference, was repeatedly
secretary of the "Legal Hundred," and for eighteen years was secretary to
the Wesleyan Missionary Society. Under him Methodism ceased to be a society
based upon Anglican foundation, and became a distinct church. He favoured
the extension of lay power in committees, and was particularly zealous in
the cause of foreign missions. Bunting was a popular preacher, and an
effective platform speaker; in 1818 he was given the degree of M.A. by
Aberdeen University, and in 1834 that of D.D. by Wesleyan University of
Middletown, Conn., U.S.A. He died on the 16th of June 1858. His eldest son,
William Maclardie Bunting (1805-1866), was also a distinguished Wesleyan
minister; and his grandson Sir Percy William Bunting (b. 1836), son of T.P.
Bunting, became prominent as a liberal nonconformist and editor of the
_Contemporary Review_ from 1882, being knighted in 1908.

See _Lives_ of Jabez Bunting (1859) and W.M. Bunting (1870) by Thomas
Percival Bunting.

BUNTING, properly the common English name of the bird called by Linnaeus
_Emberiza miliaria_, but now used in a general sense for all members of the
family _Emberizidae_, which are closely allied to the finches
(_Fringillidae_), though, in Professor W.K. Parker's opinion, to be easily
distinguished therefrom--the _Emberizidae_ possessing what none of the
_Fringillidae_ do, an additional pair of palatal bones,
"palato-maxillaries." It will probably follow from this diagnosis that some
forms of birds, particularly those of the New World, which have hitherto
been commonly assigned to the latter, really belong to the former, and
among them the genera _Cardinalis_ and _Phrygilus_. The additional palatal
bones just named are also found in several other peculiarly American
families, namely, _Tanagridae_, _Icteridae_ and _Mniotiltidae_--whence it
may be perhaps inferred that the _Emberizidae_ are of Transatlantic origin.
The buntings generally may be also outwardly distinguished from the finches
by their angular gape, the posterior portion of which is greatly deflected;
and most of the Old-World forms, together with some of those of the New
World, have a bony knob on the palate--a swollen outgrowth of the dentary
edges of the bill. Correlated with this peculiarity the maxilla usually has
the tomia sinuated, and is generally concave, and smaller and narrower than
the mandible, which is also concave to receive the palatal knob. In most
other respects the buntings greatly resemble the finches, but their eggs
are generally distinguishable by the irregular hair-like markings on the
shell. In the British Islands by far the commonest species of bunting is
the yellow-hammer (_E. citrinella_), but the true bunting (or corn-bunting,
or bunting-lark, as it is called in some districts) is a very well-known
bird, while the reed-bunting (_E. schoeniclus_) frequents marshy soils
almost to the exclusion of the two former. In certain localities in the
south of England the cirl-bunting (_E. cirlus_) is also a resident; and in
winter vast flocks of the snow-bunting (_Plectrophanes nivalis_), at once
recognizable by its pointed wings and elongated hind-claws, resort to our
shores and open grounds. This last is believed to breed sparingly on the
highest mountains of Scotland, but the majority of the examples which visit
us come from northern regions, for it is a species which in summer inhabits
the whole circumpolar area. The ortolan (_E. hortulana_), so highly prized
for its delicate flavour, occasionally appears in England, but the British
Islands seem to lie outside its proper range. On the continent of Europe,
in Africa and throughout Asia, many other species are found, while in
America the number belonging to the family cannot at present be computed.
The beautiful and melodious cardinal (_Cardinalis virginianus_), commonly
called the Virginian nightingale, must be included in this family.

(A. N.)

BUNTING (a word of doubtful origin, possibly connected with _bunt_, to
sift, or with the Ger. _bunt_, of varied colour), a loosely woven woollen
cloth for making flags; the term is also used of a collection of flags, and
particularly those of a ship.

[v.04 p.0803] BUNYAN, JOHN (1628-1688), English religious writer, was born
at Elstow, about a mile from Bedford, in November 1628. His father, Thomas
Bunyan,[1] was a tinker, or, as he described himself, a "brasier." The
tinkers then formed a hereditary caste, which was held in no high
estimation. Bunyan's father had a fixed residence, and was able to send his
son to a village school where reading and writing were taught.

The years of John's boyhood were those during which the Puritan spirit was
in the highest vigour all over England; and nowhere had that spirit more
influence than in Bedfordshire. It is not wonderful, therefore, that a lad
to whom nature had given a powerful imagination and sensibility which
amounted to a disease, should have been early haunted by religious terrors.
Before he was ten his sports were interrupted by fits of remorse and
despair; and his sleep was disturbed by dreams of fiends trying to fly away
with him. As he grew older his mental conflicts became still more violent.
The strong language in which he described them strangely misled all his
earlier biographers except Southey. It was long an ordinary practice with
pious writers to cite Bunyan as an instance of the supernatural power of
divine grace to rescue the human soul from the lowest depths of wickedness.
He is called in one book the most notorious of profligates; in another, the
brand plucked from the burning. Many excellent persons, whose moral
character from boyhood to old age has been free from any stain discernible
to their fellow-creatures, have, in their autobiographies and diaries,
applied to themselves, and doubtless with sincerity, epithets as severe as
could be applied to Titus Oates or Mrs Brownrigg. It is quite certain that
Bunyan was, at eighteen, what, in any but the most austerely puritanical
circles, would have been considered as a young man of singular gravity and
innocence. Indeed, it may be remarked that he, like many other penitents
who, in general terms, acknowledge themselves to have been the worst of
mankind, fired up, and stood vigorously on his defence, whenever any
particular charge was brought against him by others. He declares, it is
true, that he had let loose the reins on the neck of his lusts, that he had
delighted in all transgressions against the divine law, and that he had
been the ringleader of the youth of Elstow in all manner of vice. But when
those who wished him ill accused him of licentious amours, he called on God
and the angels to attest his purity. No woman, he said, in heaven, earth or
hell, could charge him with having ever made any improper advances to her.
Not only had he been strictly faithful to his wife; but he had, even before
his marriage, been perfectly spotless. It does not appear from his own
confessions, or from the railings of his enemies, that he ever was drunk in
his life. One bad habit he contracted, that of using profane language; but
he tells us that a single reproof cured him so effectually that he never
offended again. The worst that can be laid to his charge is that he had a
great liking for some diversions, quite harmless in themselves, but
condemned by the rigid precisians among whom he lived, and for whose
opinion he had a great respect. The four chief sins of which he was guilty
were dancing, ringing the bells of the parish church, playing at tipcat and
reading the history of Sir Bevis of Southampton. A rector of the school of
Laud would have held such a young man up to the whole parish as a model.
But Bunyan's notions of good and evil had been learned in a very different
school; and he was made miserable by the conflict between his tastes and
his scruples.

When he was about seventeen the ordinary course of his life was interrupted
by an event which gave a lasting colour to his thoughts. He enlisted in the
Parliamentary army,[2] and served during the Decisive campaign of 1645. All
that we know of his military career is, that, at the siege of some town,[3]
one of his comrades, who had marched with the besieging army instead of
him, was killed by a shot. Bunyan ever after considered himself as having
been saved from death by the special interference of Providence. It may be
observed that his imagination was strongly impressed by the glimpse which
he had caught of the pomp of war. To the last he loved to draw his
illustrations of sacred things from camps and fortresses, from guns, drums,
trumpets, flags of truce, and regiments arrayed each under its own banner.
His Greatheart, his Captain Boanerges and his Captain Credence are
evidently portraits, of which the originals were among those martial saints
who fought and expounded in Fairfax's army.

In 1646 Bunyan returned home and married about two years later. His wife
had some pious relations, and brought him as her only portion some pious
books. His mind, excitable by nature, very imperfectly disciplined by
education, and exposed to the enthusiasm which was then epidemic in
England, began to be fearfully disordered. The story of the struggle is
told in Bunyan's _Grace Abounding_.

In outward things he soon became a strict Pharisee. He was constant in
attendance at prayers and sermons. His favourite amusements were, one after
another, relinquished, though not without many painful struggles. In the
middle of a game at tipcat he paused, and stood staring wildly upwards with
his stick in his hand. He had heard a voice asking him whether he would
leave his sins and go to heaven, or keep his sins and go to hell; and he
had seen an awful countenance frowning on him from the sky. The odious vice
of bell-ringing he renounced; but he still for a time ventured to go to the
church tower and look on while others pulled the ropes. But soon the
thought struck him that, if he persisted in such wickedness, the steeple
would fall on his head; and he fled in terror from the accursed place. To
give up dancing on the village green was still harder; and some months
elapsed before he had the fortitude to part with his darling sin. When this
last sacrifice had been made, he was, even when tried by the maxims of that
austere time, faultless. All Elstow talked of him as an eminently pious
youth. But his own mind was more unquiet than ever. Having nothing more to
do in the way of visible reformation, yet finding in religion no pleasures
to supply the place of the juvenile amusements which he had relinquished,
he began to apprehend that he lay under some special malediction; and he
was tormented by a succession of fantasies which seemed likely to drive him
to suicide or to Bedlam. At one time he took it into his head that all
persons of Israelite blood would be saved, and tried to make out that he
partook of that blood; but his hopes were speedily destroyed by his father,
who seems to have had no ambition to be regarded as a Jew. At another time
Bunyan was disturbed by a strange dilemma: "If I have not faith, I am lost;
if I have faith, I can work miracles." He was tempted to cry to the puddles
between Elstow and Bedford, "Be ye dry," and to stake his eternal hopes on
the event. Then he took up a notion that the day of grace for Bedford and
the neighbouring villages was past; that all who were to be saved in that
part of England were already converted; and that he had begun to pray and
strive some months too late. Then he was harassed by doubts whether the
Turks were not in the right and the Christians in the wrong. Then he was
troubled by a maniacal impulse which prompted him to pray to the trees, to
a broomstick, to the parish bull.

As yet, however, he was only entering the valley of the shadow of death.
Soon the darkness grew thicker. Hideous forms floated before him. Sounds of
cursing and wailing were in his ears. His way ran through stench and fire,
close to the mouth of the bottomless pit. He began to be haunted by a
strange curiosity about the unpardonable sin, and by a morbid longing to
commit it. But the most frightful of all the forms which [v.04 p.0804] his
disease took was a propensity to utter blasphemy, and especially to
renounce his share in the benefits of the redemption. Night and day, in
bed, at table, at work, evil spirits, as he imagined, were repeating close
to his ear the words, "Sell him, sell him." He struck at the hobgoblins; he
pushed them from him; but still they were ever at his side. He cried out in
answer to them, hour after hour, "Never, never; not for thousands of
worlds; not for thousands." At length, worn out by this long agony, he
suffered the fatal words to escape him, "Let him go if he will." Then his
misery became more fearful than ever. He had done what could not be
forgiven. He had forfeited his part of the great sacrifice. Like Esau, he
had sold his birthright; and there was no longer any place for repentance.
"None," he afterwards wrote, "knows the terrors of those days but myself."
He has described his sufferings with singular energy, simplicity and
pathos. He envied the brutes; he envied the very stones on the street, and
the tiles on the houses. The sun seemed to withhold its light and warmth
from him. His body, though cast in a sturdy mould, and though still in the
highest vigour of youth, trembled whole days together with the fear of
death and judgment. He fancied that this trembling was the sign set on the
worst reprobates, the sign which God had put on Cain. The unhappy man's
emotion destroyed his power of digestion. He had such pains that he
expected to burst asunder like Judas, whom he regarded as his prototype.

Neither the books which Bunyan read, nor the advisers whom he consulted,
were likely to do much good in a case like his. His small library had
received a most unseasonable addition, the account of the lamentable end of
Francis Spira. One ancient man of high repute for piety, whom the sufferer
consulted, gave an opinion which might well have produced fatal
consequences. "I am afraid," said Bunyan, "that I have committed the sin
against the Holy Ghost." "Indeed," said the old fanatic, "I am afraid that
you have."

At length the clouds broke; the light became clearer and clearer; and the
enthusiast who had imagined that he was branded with the mark of the first
murderer, and destined to the end of the arch-traitor, enjoyed peace and a
cheerful confidence in the mercy of God. Years elapsed, however, before his
nerves, which had been so perilously overstrained, recovered their tone.
When he had joined a Baptist society at Bedford, and was for the first time
admitted to partake of the eucharist, it was with difficulty that he could
refrain from imprecating destruction on his brethren while the cup was
passing from hand to hand. After he had been some time a member of the
congregation he began to preach; and his sermons produced a powerful
effect. He was indeed illiterate; but he spoke to illiterate men. The
severe training through which he had passed had given him such an
experimental knowledge of all the modes of religious melancholy as he could
never have gathered from books; and his vigorous genius, animated by a
fervent spirit of devotion, enabled him not only to exercise a great
influence over the vulgar, but even to extort the half-contemptuous
admiration of scholars. Yet it was long before he ceased to be tormented by
an impulse which urged him to utter words of horrible impiety in the
pulpit.[4] Bunyan was finally relieved from the internal sufferings which
had embittered his life by sharp persecution from without. He had been five
years a preacher when the Restoration put it in the power of the Cavalier
gentlemen and clergymen all over the country to oppress the dissenters. In
November 1660 he was flung into Bedford gaol; and there he remained, with
some intervals of partial and precarious liberty, during twelve years. The
authorities tried to extort from him a promise that he would abstain from
preaching; but he was convinced that he was divinely set apart and
commissioned to be a teacher of righteousness, and he was fully determined
to obey God rather than man. He was brought before several tribunals,
laughed at, caressed, reviled, menaced, but in vain. He was facetiously
told that he was quite right in thinking that he ought not to hide his
gift; but that his real gift was skill in repairing old kettles. He was
compared to Alexander the coppersmith. He was told that if he would give up
preaching he should be instantly liberated. He was warned that if he
persisted in disobeying the law he would be liable to banishment, and that
if he were found in England after a certain time his neck would be
stretched. His answer was, "If you let me out to-day, I will preach again
to-morrow." Year after year he lay patiently in a dungeon, compared with
which the worst prison now to be found in the island is a palace.[5] His
fortitude is the more extraordinary because his domestic feelings were
unusually strong. Indeed, he was considered by his stern brethren as
somewhat too fond and indulgent a parent. He had four small children, and
among them a daughter who was blind, and whom he loved with peculiar
tenderness. He could not, he said, bear even to let the wind blow on her;
and now she must suffer cold and hunger; she must beg; she must be beaten;
"yet," he added, "I must, I must do it."

His second wife, whom he had married just before his arrest, tried in vain
for his release; she even petitioned the House of Lords on his behalf.
While he lay in prison he could do nothing in the way of his old trade for
the support of his family. He determined, therefore, to take up a new
trade. He learned to make long-tagged thread laces; and many thousands of
these articles were furnished by him to the hawkers. While his hands were
thus busied he had other employments for his mind and his lips. He gave
religious instruction to his fellow-captives, and formed from among them a
little flock, of which he was himself the pastor. He studied indefatigably
the few books which he possessed. His two chief companions were the Bible
and Fox's _Book of Martyrs_. His knowledge of the Bible was such that he
might have been called a living concordance; and on the margin of his copy
of the _Book of Martyrs_ are still legible the ill-spelt lines of doggerel
in which he expressed his reverence for the brave sufferers, and his
implacable enmity to the mystical Babylon.

Prison life gave him leisure to write, and during his first imprisonment he
wrote, in addition to several tracts and some verse, _Grace Abounding to
the Chief of Sinners_, the narrative of his own religious experience. The
book was published in 1666. A short period of freedom was followed by a
second offence and a further imprisonment. Bunyan's works were coarse,
indeed, but they showed a keen mother wit, a great command of the homely
mother tongue, an intimate knowledge of the English Bible, and a vast and
dearly bought spiritual experience. They therefore, when the corrector of
the press had improved the syntax and the spelling, were well received.

Much of Bunyan's time was spent in controversy. He wrote sharply against
the Quakers, whom he seems always to have held in utter abhorrence. He
wrote against the liturgy of the Church of England. No two things,
according to him, had less affinity than the form of prayer and the spirit
of prayer. Those, he said with much point, who have most of the spirit of
prayer are all to be found in gaol; and those who have most zeal for the
form of prayer are all to be found at the alehouse. The doctrinal Articles,
on the other hand, he warmly praised and defended. The most acrimonious of
all his works is his _Defence of Justification by Faith_, an answer to what
Bunyan calls "the brutish and beastly latitudinarianism" of Edward Fowler,
afterwards bishop of Gloucester, an excellent man, but not free from the
taint of Pelagianism.

Bunyan had also a dispute with some of the chiefs of the sect to which he
belonged. He doubtless held with perfect sincerity [v.04 p.0805] the
distinguishing tenet of that sect, but he did not consider that tenet as
one of high importance, and willingly joined in communion with pious
Presbyterians and Independents. The sterner Baptists, therefore, loudly
pronounced him a false brother. A controversy arose which long survived the
original combatants. The cause which Bunyan had defended with rude logic
and rhetoric against Kiffin and Danvers has since been pleaded by Robert
Hall with an ingenuity and eloquence such as no polemical writer has ever
surpassed.

During the years which immediately followed the Restoration, Bunyan's
confinement seems to have been strict. But as the passions of 1660 cooled,
as the hatred with which the Puritans had been regarded while their reign
was recent gave place to pity, he was less and less harshly treated. The
distress of his family, and his own patience, courage and piety, softened
the hearts of his judges. Like his own Christian in the cage, he found
protectors even among the crowd at Vanity Fair. The bishop of the diocese,
Dr Barlow, is said to have interceded for him. At length the prisoner was
suffered to pass most of his time beyond the walls of the gaol, on
condition, as it should seem, that he remained within the town of Bedford.

He owed his complete liberation to one of the worst acts of one of the
worst governments that England has ever seen. In 1671 the Cabal was in
power. Charles II. had concluded the treaty by which he bound himself to
set up the Roman Catholic religion in England. The first step which he took
towards that end was to annul, by an unconstitutional exercise of his
prerogative, all the penal statutes against the Roman Catholics; and in
order to disguise his real design, he annulled at the same time the penal
statutes against Protestant nonconformists. Bunyan was consequently set at
large.[6] In the first warmth of his gratitude he published a tract, in
which he compared Charles to that humane and generous Persian king, who,
though not himself blest with the light of the true religion, favoured the
chosen people, and permitted them, after years of captivity, to rebuild
their beloved temple.

Before he left his prison he had begun the book which has made his name
immortal.[7] The history of that book is remarkable. The author was, as he
tells us, writing a treatise, in which he had occasion to speak of the
stages of the Christian progress. He compared that progress, as many others
had compared it, to a pilgrimage. Soon his quick wit discovered innumerable
points of similarity which had escaped his predecessors. Images came
crowding on his mind faster than he could put them into words, quagmires
and pits, steep hills, dark and horrible glens, soft vales, sunny pastures,
a gloomy castle, of which the courtyard was strewn with the skulls and
bones of murdered prisoners, a town all bustle and splendour, like London
on the Lord Mayor's Day, and the narrow path, straight as a rule could make
it, running on up hill and down hill, through city and through wilderness,
to the Black River and the Shining Gate. He had found out, as most people
would have said, by accident, as he would doubtless have said, by the
guidance of Providence, where his powers lay. He had no suspicion, indeed,
that he was producing a masterpiece. He could not guess what place his
allegory would occupy in English literature; for of English literature he
knew nothing. Those who suppose him to have studied the _Faery Queen_ might
easily be confuted, if this were the proper place for a detailed
examination of the passages in which the two allegories have been thought
to resemble each other. The only work of fiction, in all probability, with
which he could compare his _Pilgrim_ was his old favourite, the legend of
Sir Bevis of Southampton. He would have thought it a sin to borrow any time
from the serious business of his life, from his expositions, his
controversies and his lace tags, for the purpose of amusing himself with
what he considered merely as a trifle. It was only, he assures us, at spare
moments that he returned to the House Beautiful, the Delectable Mountains
and the Enchanted Ground. He had no assistance. Nobody but himself saw a
line till the whole was complete. He then consulted his pious friends. Some
were pleased. Others were much scandalized. It was a vain story, a mere
romance, about giants, and lions, and goblins, and warriors, sometimes
fighting with monsters, and sometimes regaled by fair ladies in stately
palaces. The loose atheistical wits at Will's might write such stuff to
divert the painted Jezebels of the court; but did it become a minister of
the gospel to copy the evil fashions of the world? There had been a time
when the cant of such fools would have made Bunyan miserable. But that time
was past; and his mind was now in a firm and healthy state. He saw that in
employing fiction to make truth clear and goodness attractive, he was only
following the example which every Christian ought to propose to himself;
and he determined to print.

The _Pilgrim's Progress_ was published in February 1678. Soon the
irresistible charm of a book which gratified the imagination of the reader
with all the action and scenery of a fairy tale, which exercised his
ingenuity by setting him to discover a multitude of curious analogies,
which interested his feelings for human beings, frail like himself, and
struggling with temptations from within and from without, which every
moment drew a smile from him by some stroke of quaint yet simple
pleasantry, and nevertheless left on his mind a sentiment of reverence for
God and of sympathy for man, began to produce its effect. In puritanical
circles, from which plays and novels were strictly excluded, that effect
was such as no work of genius, though it were superior to the _Iliad_, to
_Don Quixote_ or to _Othello_, can ever produce on a mind accustomed to
indulge in literary luxury. A second edition came out in the autumn with
additions; and the demand became immense. The eighth edition, which
contains the last improvements made by the author, was published in 1682,
the ninth in 1684, the tenth in 1685. The help of the engraver had early
been called in; and tens of thousands of children looked with terror and
delight on execrable copperplates, which represented Christian thrusting
his sword into Apollyon, or writhing in the grasp of Giant Despair. In
Scotland, and in some of the colonies, the _Pilgrim_ was even more popular
than in his native country. Bunyan has told us, with very pardonable
vanity, that in New England his dream was the daily subject of the
conversation of thousands, and was thought worthy to appear in the most
superb binding. He had numerous admirers in Holland, and amongst the
Huguenots of France.

He continued to work the gold-field which he had discovered, and to draw
from it new treasures, not indeed with quite such ease and in quite such
abundance as when the precious soil was still virgin, but yet with success,
which left all competition far behind. In 1680 appeared the _Life and Death
of Mr Badman_; in 1684 the second part of the _Pilgrim's Progress_. In 1682
appeared the _Holy War_, which if the _Pilgrim's Progress_ did not exist,
would be the best allegory that ever was written.

Bunyan's place in society was now very different from what it had been.
There had been a time when many dissenting ministers, who could talk Latin
and read Greek, had affected to treat him with scorn. But his fame and
influence now far exceeded theirs. He had so great an authority among the
Baptists that he was popularly called Bishop Bunyan. His episcopal
visitations were annual. From Bedford he rode every year to London, and
preached there to large and attentive congregations. From London he went
his circuit through the country, animating the zeal of his brethren,
collecting and distributing alms and making up quarrels. The magistrates
seem in general to have given him little trouble. But there is reason to
believe that, in the year 1685, he was in some danger of again occupying
his old quarters in Bedford gaol. In that year the rash and wicked
enterprise of Monmouth gave the government a pretext for prosecuting the
nonconformists; and scarcely one eminent divine of the Presbyterian.
Independent [v.04 p.0806] or Baptist persuasion remained unmolested. Baxter
was in prison: Howe was driven into exile: Henry was arrested.

Two eminent Baptists, with whom Bunyan had been engaged in controversy,
were in great peril and distress. Danvers was in danger of being hanged;
and Kiffin's grandsons were actually hanged. The tradition is that, during
those evil days, Bunyan was forced to disguise himself as a wagoner, and
that he preached to his congregation at Bedford in a smock-frock, with a
cart-whip in his hand. But soon a great change took place. James II. was at
open war with the church, and found it necessary to court the dissenters.
Some of the creatures of the government tried to secure the aid of Bunyan.
They probably knew that he had written in praise of the indulgence of 1672,
and therefore hoped that he might be equally pleased with the indulgence of
1687. But fifteen years of thought, observation and commerce with the world
had made him wiser. Nor were the cases exactly parallel. Charles was a
professed Protestant; James was a professed Papist. The object of Charles's
indulgence was disguised; the object of James's indulgence was patent.
Bunyan was not deceived. He exhorted his hearers to prepare themselves by
fasting and prayer for the danger which menaced their civil and religious
liberties, and refused even to speak to the courtier who came down to
remodel the corporation of Bedford, and who, as was supposed, had it in
charge to offer some municipal dignity to the bishop of the Baptists.

Bunyan did not live to see the Revolution.[8] In the summer of 1688 he
undertook to plead the cause of a son with an angry father, and at length
prevailed on the old man not to disinherit the young one. This good work
cost the benevolent intercessor his life. He had to ride through heavy
rain. He came drenched to his lodgings on Snow Hill, was seized with a
violent fever, and died in a few days (August 31). He was buried in Bunhill
Fields; and many Puritans, to whom the respect paid by Roman Catholics to
the reliques and tombs of saints seemed childish or sinful, are said to
have begged with their dying breath that their coffins might be placed as
near as possible to the coffin of the author of the _Pilgrim's Progress_.

The fame of Bunyan during his life, and during the century which followed
his death, was indeed great, but was almost entirely confined to religious
families of the middle and lower classes. Very seldom was he during that
time mentioned with respect by any writer of great literary eminence. Young
coupled his prose with the poetry of the wretched D'Urfey. In the
_Spiritual Quixote_, the adventures of Christian are ranked with those of
Jack the Giant-Killer and John Hickathrift. Cowper ventured to praise the
great allegorist, but did not venture to name him. It is a significant
circumstance that, for a long time all the numerous editions of the
_Pilgrim's Progress_ were evidently meant for the cottage and the servants'
hall. The paper, the printing, the plates, were all of the meanest
description. In general, when the educated minority and the common people
differ about the merit of a book, the opinion of the educated minority
finally prevails. The _Pilgrim's Progress_ is perhaps the only book about
which the educated minority has come over to the opinion of the common
people.

The attempts which have been made to improve and to imitate this book are
not to be numbered. It has been done into verse; it has been done into
modern English. The Pilgrimage of Tender Conscience, the Pilgrimage of Good
Intent, the Pilgrimage of Seek Truth, the Pilgrimage of Theophilus, the
Infant Pilgrim, the Hindoo Pilgrim, are among the many feeble copies of the
great original. But the peculiar glory of Bunyan is that those who most
hated his doctrines have tried to borrow the help of his genius. A Catholic
version of his parable may be seen with the head of the virgin in the
title-page. On the other hand, those Antinomians for whom his Calvinism is
not strong enough, may study the Pilgrimage of Hephzibah, in which nothing
will be found which can be construed into an admission of free agency and
universal redemption. But the most extraordinary of all the acts of
Vandalism by which a fine work of art was ever defaced was committed in the
year 1853. It was determined to transform the _Pilgrim's Progress_ into a
Tractarian book. The task was not easy; for it was necessary to make two
sacraments the most prominent objects in the allegory, and of all Christian
theologians, avowed Quakers excepted, Bunyan was the one in whose system
the sacraments held the least prominent place. However, the Wicket Gate
became a type of baptism, and the House Beautiful of the eucharist. The
effect of this change is such as assuredly the ingenious person who made it
never contemplated. For, as not a single pilgrim passes through the Wicket
Gate in infancy, and as Faithful hurries past the House Beautiful without
stopping, the lesson which the fable in its altered shape teaches, is that
none but adults ought to be baptized, and that the eucharist may safely be
neglected. Nobody would have discovered from the original _Pilgrim's
Progress_ that the author was not a Paedobaptist. To turn his book into a
book against Paedobaptism, was an achievement reserved for an
Anglo-Catholic divine. Such blunders must necessarily be committed by every
man who mutilates parts of a great work, without taking a comprehensive
view of the whole.

(M.)

The above article has been slightly corrected as to facts, as compared with
its form in the 9th edition. Bunyan's works were first partially collected
in a folio volume (1692) by his friend Charles Doe. A larger edition (2
vols., 1736-1737) was edited by Samuel Wilson of the Barbican. In 1853 a
good edition (3 vols., Glasgow) was produced by George Offer. Southey's
edition (1830) of the _Pilgrim's Progress_ contained his _Life_ of Bunyan.
Since then various editions of the _Pilgrim's Progress_, many illustrated
(by Cruikshank, Byam Shaw, W. Strang and others), have appeared. An
interesting life by "the author of _Mark Rutherford_" (W. Hale White) was
published in 1904. Other lives are by J.A. Froude (1880) in the "English
Men of Letters" series, and E. Venables (1888); but the standard work on
the subject is _John Bunyan; his Life, Times and Work_ (1885), by the Rev.
J. Brown of Bedford. A bronze statue, by Boehm, was presented to the town
by the duke of Bedford in 1874.

[1] The name, in various forms as Buignon, Buniun, Bonyon or Binyan,
appears in the local records of Elstow and the neighbouring parishes at
intervals from as far back as 1199. They were small freeholders, but all
the property except the cottage had been lost in the time of Bunyan's
grandfather. Bunyan's own account of his family as the "meanest and most
despised of all the families of the land" must be put down to his habitual
self-depreciation. Thomas Bunyan had a forge and workshop at Elstow.

[2] There is no direct evidence to show on which side he fought, but the
balance of probability justifies this view.

[3] There is no means of identifying the place besieged. It has been
assumed to be Leicester, which was captured by the Royalists in May 1645,
and recovered by Fairfax in the next month.

[4] Bunyan had joined, in 1653, the nonconformist community which met under
a certain Mr Gifford at St John's church, Bedford. This congregation was
not Baptist, properly so called, as the question of baptism, with other
doctrinal points, was left open. When Bunyan removed to Bedford in 1655, he
became a deacon of this church, and two years later he was formally
recognized as a preacher, his fame soon spreading through the neighbouring
counties. His wife died soon after their removal to Bedford, and he also
lost his friend and pastor, Mr Gifford. His earliest work was directed
against Quaker mysticism and appeared in 1656. It was entitled _Some Gospel
Truths Opened_; it was followed in the same year by a second tract in the
same sense, _A Vindication of Gospel Truths_.

[5] He was not, however, as has often been stated, confined in the old gaol
which stood on the bridge over the Ouse, but in the county gaol.

[6] His formal pardon is dated the 13th of September 1672; but five months
earlier he had received a royal licence to preach, and acted for the next
three years as pastor of the nonconformist body to which he belonged, in a
barn on the site of which stands the present Bunyan Meeting.

[7] It is now generally supposed that Bunyan wrote his _Pilgrim's
Progress_, not during his twelve years' imprisonment, but during a short
period of incarceration in 1675, probably in the old gaol on the bridge.

[8] He had resumed his pastorate in Bedford after his imprisonment of 1675,
and, although he frequently preached in London to crowded congregations,
and is said in the last year of his life to have been, of course
unofficially, chaplain to Sir John Shorter, lord mayor of London, he
remained faithful to his own congregation.

BUNZLAU, a town of Germany, in Prussian Silesia, on the right bank of the
Bober, 27 m. from Liegnitz on the Berlin-Breslau railway, which crosses the
river by a great viaduct. Pop. (1900) 14,590. It has a handsome market
square, an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and monuments to the
Russian field marshal Kutusov, who died here, and to the poet Martin Opitz
von Boberfeld. The Bunzlau pottery is famous; woollen and linen cloth are
manufactured, and there is a considerable trade in grain and cattle.
Bunzlau (Boleslavia) received its name in the 12th century from Duke
Boleslav, who separated it from the duchy of Glogau. Its importance was
increased by numerous privileges and the possession of extensive mining
works. It was frequently captured and recaptured in the wars of the 17th
century, and in 1739 was completely destroyed by fire. On the 30th of
August 1813 the French were here defeated on the retreat from the Katzbach
by the Silesian army of the allies.

BUONAFEDE, APPIANO (1716-1793), Italian philosopher, was born at Comachio,
in Ferrara, and died in Rome. He became professor of theology at Naples in
1740, and, entering the religious body of the Celestines, rose to be
general of the order. His principal works, generally published under the
assumed name of "Agatopisto Cromazione," are on the history of
philosophy:--_Della Istoria e delle Indole di ogni Filosofia_, 7 vols.,
1772 seq.; and _Della Restaurazione di ogni Filosofia ne' Secoli_, xvi.,
xvii., xviii., 3 vols., 1789 (German trans. by C. Heydenreich). The latter
gives a valuable account of 16th-century Italian philosophy. His other
works are _Istoria critica e filosofica del suicidio_ (1761); _Delle
conquiste celebri esaminate col naturale diritto delle genti_ (1763);
_Storia critica del moderno diritto di natura e delle genti_ (1789); and a
few poems and philosophic comedies.

BUOY (15th century "boye"; through O.Fr. or Dutch, from Lat. _boia_,
fetter; the word is now usually pronounced as "boy," and it has been spelt
in that form; but Hakluyt's [v.04 p.0807] _Voyages_ spells it "bwoy," and
this seems to indicate a different pronunciation, which is also given in
some modern dictionaries), a floating body employed to mark the navigable
limits of channels, their fairways, sunken dangers or isolated rocks, mined
or torpedo grounds, telegraph cables, or the position of a ship's anchor
after letting go; buoys are also used for securing a ship to instead of
anchoring. They vary in size and construction from a log of wood to steel
mooring buoys for battleships or a steel gas buoy.

In 1882 a conference was held upon a proposal to establish a uniform system
of buoyage. It was under the presidency of the then duke of Edinburgh, and
consisted of representatives from the various bodies interested. The
questions of colour, visibility, shape and size were considered, and any
modifications necessary owing to locality. The committee proposed the
following uniform system of buoyage, and it is now adopted by the general
lighthouse authorities of the United Kingdom:--

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

(1) The mariner when approaching the coast must determine his position on
the chart, and note the direction of flood tide. (2) The term
"starboard-hand" shall denote that side which would be on the right hand of
the mariner either going with the main stream of the flood, or entering a
harbour, river or estuary from seaward; the term "port-hand" shall denote
the left hand of the mariner in the same circumstances. (3)[1] Buoys
showing the pointed top of a cone above water shall be called conical (fig.
1) and shall always be starboard-hand buoys, as above defined. (4)[1] Buoys
showing a flat top above water shall be called can (fig. 2) and shall
always be port-hand buoys, as above defined. (5) Buoys showing a domed top
above water shall be called spherical (fig. 3) and shall mark the ends of
middle grounds. (6) Buoys having a tall central structure on a broad face
shall be called pillar buoys (fig. 4), and like all other special buoys,
such as bell buoys, gas buoys, and automatic sounding buoys, shall be
placed to mark special positions either on the coast or in the approaches
to harbours. (7) Buoys showing only a mast above water shall be called
spar-buoys (fig. 5).[2] (8) Starboard-hand buoys shall always be painted in
one colour only. (9) Port-hand buoys shall be painted of another
characteristic colour, either single or parti-colour. (10) Spherical buoys
(fig. 3) at the ends of middle grounds shall always be distinguished by
horizontal stripes of white colour, (11) Surmounting beacons, such as staff
and globe and others,[3] shall always be painted of one dark colour. (12)
Staff and globe (fig. 1) shall only be used on starboard-hand buoys, staff
and cage (fig. 2) on port hand; diamonds (fig. 7) at the outer ends of
middle grounds; and triangles (fig. 3) at the inner ends. (13) Buoys on the
same side of a channel, estuary or tideway may be distinguished from each
other by names, numbers or letters, and where necessary by a staff
surmounted with the appropriate beacon. (14) Buoys intended for moorings
(fig. 6) may be of shape and colour according to the discretion of the
authority within whose jurisdiction they are laid, but for marking
submarine telegraph cables the colour shall be green with the word
"Telegraph" painted thereon in white letters.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

_Buoying and Marking of Wrecks._--(15) Wreck buoys in the open sea, or in
the approaches to a harbour or estuary, shall be coloured green, with the
word "Wreck" painted in white letters on them. (16) When possible, the buoy
should be laid near to the side of the wreck next to mid-channel. (17) When
a wreck-marking vessel is used, it shall, if possible, have its top sides
coloured green, with the word "Wreck" in white letters thereon, and shall
exhibit by day, three balls on a yard 20 ft. above the sea, two placed
vertically at one end and one at the other, the single ball being on the
side nearer to the wreck; in fog a gong or bell is rung in quick succession
at intervals not exceeding one minute (wherever practicable); by night,
three white fixed lights are similarly arranged as the balls in daytime,
but the ordinary riding lights are not shown. (18) In narrow waters or in
rivers and harbours under the jurisdiction of local authorities, the same
rules may be adopted, or at discretion, varied as follows:--When a
wreck-marking vessel is used she shall carry a cross-yard on a mast with
two balls by day, placed horizontally not less than 6 nor more than 12 ft.
apart, and by night two lights similarly placed. When a barge or open boat
only is used, a flag or ball may be shown in the daytime. (19) The position
in which the marking vessel is placed with reference to the wreck shall be
at the discretion of the local authority having jurisdiction. A uniform
system by shape has been adopted by the Mersey Dock and Harbour Board, to
assist a mariner by night, and, in addition, where practicable, a uniform
colour; the fairway buoys are specially marked by letter, shape and colour.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

British India has practically adopted the British system, United States and
Canada have the same uniform system; in the majority of European maritime
countries and China various uniform systems have been adopted. In Norway
and Russia the compass system is used, the shape, colour and surmountings
of the buoys indicating the compass bearing of the danger from the buoy;
this method is followed in the open sea by Sweden. An international uniform
system of buoyage, although desirable, appears impracticable. Germany
employs yellow buoys to mark boundaries of quarantine stations. The
question of shape versus colour, irrespective of size, is a disputed one;
the shape is a better guide at night and colour in the daytime. All
markings (figs. 8, 9, 10 and 11) should be subordinate to the main colour
of the buoy; the varying backgrounds and atmospheric conditions render the
question a complex one.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

London Trinity House buoys are divided into five classes, their use
depending on whether the spot to be marked is in the open sea or otherwise
exposed position, or in a sheltered harbour, or according to the depth of
water and weight of moorings, or the importance of the danger. Buoys are
moored with specially tested cables; the eye at the base of the buoy is of
wrought iron to prevent it becoming "reedy" and the cable is secured to
blocks (see ANCHOR) or mushroom anchors according to the nature of the
ground. London Trinity House buoys are [v.04 p.0808] built of steel, with
bulkheads to lessen the risk of their sinking by collision, and, with the
exception of bell buoys, do not contain water ballast. In 1878 gas buoys,
with fixed and occulting lights of 10-candle power, were introduced. In
1896 Mr T. Matthews, engineer-in-chief in the London Trinity Corporation,
developed the present design (fig. 12). It is of steel, the lower plates
being 5/8 in. and the upper 7/16 in. in thickness, thus adding to the
stability. The buoy holds 380 cub. ft. of gas, and exhibits an occulting
light for 2533 hours. This light is placed 10 ft. above the sea, and, with
an intensity of 50 candles, is visible 8 m. It occults every ten seconds,
and there is seven seconds' visibility, with three seconds' obscuration.
The occultations are actuated by a double valve arrangement. In the body of
the apparatus there is a gas chamber having sufficient capacity, in the
case of an occulting light, for maintaining the flame in action for seven
seconds, and by means of a by-pass a jet remains alight in the centre of
the burner. During the period of three seconds' darkness the gas chamber is
re-charged, and at the end of that period is again opened to the main
burner by a tripping arrangement of the valve, and remains in action seven
seconds. The gas chamber of the buoy, charged to five atmospheres, is
replenished from a steamer fitted with a pump and transport receivers
carrying indicating valves, the receivers being charged to ten atmospheres.
Practically no inconvenience has resulted from saline or other deposits,
the glazing (glass) of the lantern being thoroughly cleaned when
re-charging the buoy. Acetylene, generated from calcium carbide inside the
buoy, is also used. Electric light is exhibited from some buoys in the
United States. In England an automatic electric buoy has been suggested,
worked by the motion of the waves, which cause a stream of water to act on
a turbine connected with a dynamo generating electricity. Boat-shaped buoys
are also used (river Humber) for carrying a light and bell. The Courtenay
whistling buoy (fig. 13) is actuated by the undulating movement of the
waves. A hollow cylinder extends from the lower part of the buoy to still
water below the movement of the waves, ensuring that the water inside keeps
at mean level, whilst the buoy follows the movements of the waves. By a
special apparatus the compressed air is forced through the whistle at the
top of the buoy, and the air is replenished by two tubes at the upper part
of the buoy. It is fitted with a rudder and secured in the usual manner.
Automatic buoys cannot be relied on in calm days with a smooth sea. The nun
buoy (fig. 14) for indicating the position of an anchor after letting go,
is secured to the crown of the anchor by a buoy rope. It is usually made of
galvanized iron, and consists of two cones joined together at the base. It
is painted red for the port anchor and green for the starboard.

Mooring buoys (fig. 6) for battleships are built of steel in four
watertight compartments, and have sufficient buoyancy to keep afloat should
a compartment be pierced; they are 13 ft. long with a diameter of 6½ ft.
The mooring cable (bridle) passes through a watertight 16-in. trunk pipe,
built vertically in the centre of the buoy, and is secured to a "rocking
shackle" on the upper surface of the buoy. Large mooring buoys are usually
protected by horizontal wooden battens and are fitted with life chains.

(J. W. D.)

[1] In carrying out the above system the Northern Lights Commissioners have
adopted a red colour for conical or starboard-hand buoys, and black colour
for can or port-hand buoys, and this system is applicable to the whole of
Scotland.

[2] Useful where floating ice is encountered.

[3] St George and St Andrew crosses are principally employed to surmount
shore beacons.

BUPALUS AND ATHENIS, sons of Archermus, and members of the celebrated
school of sculpture in marble which flourished in Chios in the 6th century
B.C. They were contemporaries of the poet Hipponax (about 540 B.C.), whom
they were said to have caricatured. Their works consisted almost entirely
of draped female figures, Artemis, Fortune, the Graces, whence the Chian
school has been well called a school of Madonnas. Augustus brought many of
the works of Bupalus and Athenis to Rome, and placed them on the gable of
the temple of Apollo Palatinus.

BUPHONIA, in Greek antiquities, a sacrificial ceremony, forming part of the
Diipolia, a religious festival held on the 14th of the month Skirophorion
(June-July) at Athens, when a labouring ox was sacrificed to Zeus Polieus
as protector of the city in accordance with a very ancient custom. The ox
was driven forward to the altar, on which grain was spread, by members of
the family of the Kentriadae (from [Greek: kentron], a goad), on whom this
duty devolved hereditarily. When it began to eat, one of the family of the
Thaulonidae advanced with an axe, slew the ox, then immediately threw away
the axe and fled. The axe, as being polluted by murder, was now carried
before the court of the Prytaneum (which tried inanimate objects for
homicide) and there charged with having caused the death of the ox, for
which it was thrown into the sea. Apparently this is an early instance
analogous to deodand (_q.v._). Although the slaughter of a labouring ox was
forbidden, it was considered excusable in the exceptional circumstances;
none the less it was regarded as a murder.

Porphyrius, _De Abstinentia_, ii. 29; Aelian, _Var. Hist._ viii. 3; Schol.
Aristoph. _Nubes_, 485; Pausanias, i. 24, 28; see also Band, _De
Diipoliorum Sacro Atheniensium_ (1873).

BUR, or BURR (apparently the same word as Danish _borre_, burdock, cf.
Swed. _kard-boore_), a prickly fruit or head of fruits, as of the burdock.
In the sense of a woody outgrowth on the trunk of a tree, or "gnaur," the
effect of a crowded bud-development, the word is probably adapted from the
Fr. _bourre_, a vine-bud.

BURANO, a town of Venetia, in the province of Venice, on an island in the
lagoons, 6 m. N.E. of Venice by sea. Pop. (1901) 8169. It is a fishing
town, with a large royal school of lace-making employing some 500 girls. It
was founded, like all the towns in the lagoons, by fugitives from the
mainland cities at the time of the barbarian invasions. Torcello is a part
of the commune of Burano.

BURAUEN, a town of the province of Leyte, island of Leyte, Philippine
Islands, on the Dagitan river, 21 m. S. by W. of Tacloban, the capital.
Pop. (1903) 18,197. Burauen is situated in a rich hemp-growing region, and
hemp is its only important product. The language is Visayan.

BURBAGE, JAMES (d. 1597), English actor, is said to have been born at
Stratford-on-Avon. He was a member of the earl of Leicester's players,
probably for several years before he is first mentioned (1574) as being at
the head of the company. In 1576, having secured the lease of land at
Shoreditch, Burbage erected there the successful house which was known for
twenty years as _The_ Theatre from the fact that it was the first ever
erected in London. He seems also to have been concerned in the erection of
a second theatre in the same locality, the Curtain, and later, in spite of
all difficulties and a great deal of local opposition, he started what
became the most celebrated home of the rising drama,--the Blackfriars
theatre, built in 1596 near the old Dominican friary.

His son RICHARD BURBAGE (c. 1567-1619), more celebrated than his father,
was the Garrick of the Elizabethan stage, and acted all the great parts in
Shakespeare's plays. He, too, is said to have been born at
Stratford-on-Avon, and made his first appearance at an early age at one of
his father's theatres. He had established a reputation by the time he was
twenty, and in the next dozen years was the most popular English actor, the
"Roscius" of his day. At the time of his father's death, a lawsuit was in
progress against the lessor from whom James Burbage held the land on which
The Theatre stood. This suit was continued by Richard and his brother
Cuthbert, and in 1569 they pulled down the Shoreditch house and used the
materials to erect the Globe theatre, famous for its connexion with
Shakespeare. They occupied it as a summer playhouse, retaining the
Blackfriars, which was roofed in, for winter performances. In this venture
Richard Burbage had Shakespeare and others [v.04 p.0809] as his partners,
and it was in one or the other of these houses that he gained his greatest
triumphs, taking the leading part in almost every new play. He was
specially famous for his impersonation of Richard III. and other
Shakespearian characters, and it was in tragedy that he especially
excelled. Every playwright of his day endeavoured to secure his services.
He died on the 13th of March 1619. Richard Burbage was a painter as well as
an actor. The Felton portrait of Shakespeare is attributed to him, and
there is a portrait of a woman, undoubtedly by him, preserved at Dulwich
College.

BURBOT, or EEL-POUT (_Lota vulgaris_), a fish of the family Gadidae, which
differs from the ling in the dorsal and anal fins reaching the caudal, and
in the small size of all the teeth. It exceeds a length of 3 ft. and is a
freshwater fish, although examples are exceptionally taken in British
estuaries and in the Baltic; some specimens are handsomely marbled with
dark brown, with black blotches on the back and dorsal fins. It is very
locally distributed in central and northern Europe, and an uncommon fish in
England. Its flesh is excellent. The American burbot (_Lota maculosa_) is
coarser, and not favoured for the table.

BURCKHARDT, JAKOB (1818-1897), Swiss writer on art, was born at Basel on
the 25th of May 1818; he was educated there and at Neuchâtel, and till 1839
was intended to be a pastor. In 1838 he made his first journey to Italy,
and also published his first important articles _Bemerkungen über
schweizerische Kathedralen_. In 1839 he went to the university of Berlin,
where he studied till 1843, spending part of 1841 at Bonn, where he was a
pupil of Franz Kugler, the art historian, to whom his first book, _Die
Kunstwerke D. belgischen Städte_ (1842), was dedicated. He was professor of
history at the university of Basel (1845-1847, 1849-1855 and 1858-1893) and
at the federal polytechnic school at Zurich (1855-1858). In 1847 he brought
out new editions of Kugler's two great works, _Geschichte der Malerei_ and
_Kunstgeschichte_, and in 1853 published his own work, _Die Zeit
Constantins des Grossen_. He spent the greater part of the years 1853-1854
in Italy, where he collected the materials for one of his most famous
works, _Der Cicerone: eine Anleitung sum Genuss der Kunstwerke Italiens_,
which was dedicated to Kugler and appeared in 1855 (7th German edition,
1899; English translation of the sections relating to paintings, by Mrs
A.H. Clough, London, 1873). This work, which includes sculpture and
architecture, as well as painting, has become indispensable to the art
traveller in Italy. About half of the original edition was devoted to the
art of the Renaissance, so that Burckhardt was naturally led on to the
preparation of his two other celebrated works, _Die Cultur der Renaissance
in Italien_ (1860, 5th German edition 1896, and English translation, by
S.G.C. Middlemore, in 2 vols., London, 1878), and the _Geschichte der
Renaissance in Italien_ (1867, 3rd German edition 1891). In 1867 he refused
a professorship at Tübingen, and in 1872 another (that left vacant by
Ranke) at Berlin, remaining faithful to Basel. He died in 1897.

See Life by Hans Trog in the _Basler Jahrbuch_ for 1898, pp. 1-172.

(W. A. B. C.)

BURCKHARDT, JOHN LEWIS [JOHANN LUDWIG] (1784-1817), Swiss traveller and
orientalist, was born at Lausanne on the 24th of November 1784. After
studying at Leipzig and Göttingen he visited England in the summer of 1806,
carrying a letter of introduction from the naturalist Blumenbach to Sir
Joseph Banks, who, with the other members of the African Association,
accepted his offer to explore the interior of Africa. After studying in
London and Cambridge, and inuring himself to all kinds of hardships and
privations, Burckhardt left England in March 1809 for Malta, whence he
proceeded, in the following autumn, to Aleppo. In order to obtain a better
knowledge of oriental life he disguised himself as a Mussulman, and took
the name of Sheikh Ibrahim Ibn Abdallah. After two years passed in the
Levant he had thoroughly mastered Arabic, and had acquired such accurate
knowledge of the Koran, and of the commentaries upon its religion and laws,
that after a critical examination the most learned Mussulmans entertained
no doubt of his being really what he professed to be, a learned doctor of
their law. During his residence in Syria he visited Palmyra, Damascus,
Lebanon and thence journeyed via Petra to Cairo with the intention of
joining a caravan to Fezzan, and of exploring from there the sources of the
Niger. In 1812, whilst waiting for the departure of the caravan, he
travelled up the Nile as far as Dar Mahass; and then, finding it impossible
to penetrate westward, he made a journey through the Nubian desert in the
character of a poor Syrian merchant, passing by Berber and Shendi to
Suakin, on the Red Sea, whence he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca by way
of Jidda. At Mecca he stayed three months and afterwards visited Medina.
After enduring privations and sufferings of the severest kind, he returned
to Cairo in June 1815 in a state of great exhaustion; but in the spring of
1816 he travelled to Mount Sinai, whence he returned to Cairo in June, and
there again made preparations for his intended journey to Fezzan. Several
hindrances prevented his prosecuting this intention, and finally, in April
1817, when the long-expected caravan prepared to depart, he was seized with
illness and died on the 15th of October. He had from time to time carefully
transmitted to England his journals and notes, and a very copious series of
letters, so that nothing which appeared to him to be interesting in the
various journeys he made has been lost. He bequeathed his collection of 800
vols. of oriental MSS. to the library of Cambridge University.

His works were published by the African Association in the following
order:--_Travels in Nubia_ (to which is prefixed a biographical memoir)
(1819); _Travels in Syria and the Holy Land_ (1822); _Travels in Arabia_
(1829); _Arabic Proverbs, or the Manners and Customs of the Modern
Egyptians_ (1830); _Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys_ (1831).

BURDEAU, AUGUSTE LAURENT (1851-1894), French politician, was the son of a
labourer at Lyons. Forced from childhood to earn his own living, he was
enabled to secure an education by bursarships at the Lycée at Lyons and at
the Lycée Louis Le Grand in Paris. In 1870 he was at the École Normale
Supérieure in Paris, but enlisted in the army, and was wounded and made
prisoner in 1871. In 1874 he became professor of philosophy, and translated
several works of Herbert Spencer and of Schopenhauer into French. His
extraordinary aptitude for work secured for him the position of _chef de
cabinet _under Paul Bert, the minister of education, in 1881. In 1885 he
was elected deputy for the department of the Rhone, and distinguished
himself in financial questions. He was several times minister, and became
minister of finance in the cabinet of Casimir-Périer (from the 3rd of
November 1893 to the 22nd of May 1894). On the 5th of July 1894 he was
elected president of the chamber of deputies. He died on the 12th of
December 1894, worn out with overwork.

BURDEN, or BURTHEN, (1) (A.S. _byrthen_, from _beran_, to bear), a load,
both literally and figuratively; especially the carrying capacity of a
ship; in mining and smelting, the tops or heads of stream-work which lie
over the stream of tin, and the proportion of ore and flux to fuel in the
charge of a blast-furnace. In Scots and English law the term is applied to
an encumbrance on real or personal property. (2) (From the Fr. _bourdon_, a
droning, humming sound) an accompaniment to a song, or the refrain of a
song; hence a chief or recurrent topic, as "the burden of a speech."

BURDER, GEORGE (1752-1832), English Nonconformist divine, was born in
London on the 5th of June 1752. In early manhood he was an engraver, but in
1776 he began preaching, and was minister of the Independent church at
Lancaster from 1778 to 1783. Subsequently he held charges at Coventry
(1784-1803) and at Fetter Lane, London (1803-1832). He was one of the
founders of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Religious Tract
Society, and the London Missionary Society, and was secretary to the
last-named for several years. As editor of the _Evangelical Magazine_ and
author of _Village Sermons_, he commanded a wide influence. He died on the
29th of May 1832, and a Life (by H. Burder) appeared in 1833.

BURDETT, SIR FRANCIS (1770-1844), English politician, was the son of
Francis Burdett by his wife Eleanor, daughter of William Jones of Ramsbury
manor, Wiltshire, and grandson of [v.04 p.0810] Sir Robert Burdett, Bart.
Born on the 25th of January 1770, he was educated at Westminster school and
Oxford, and afterwards travelled in France and Switzerland. He was in Paris
during the earlier days of the French Revolution, a visit which doubtless
influenced his political opinions. Returning to England he married in 1793
Sophia, daughter of Thomas Coutts the banker, and this lady brought him a
large fortune. In 1796 he became member of parliament for Boroughbridge,
having purchased this seat from the representatives of the 4th duke of
Newcastle, and in 1797 succeeded his grandfather as fifth baronet. In
parliament he soon became prominent as an opponent of Pitt, and as an
advocate of popular rights. He denounced the war with France, the
suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, the proposed exclusion of John Horne
Tooke from parliament, and quickly became the idol of the people. He was
instrumental in securing an inquiry into the condition of Coldbath Fields
prison, but as a result of this step he was for a time prevented by the
government from visiting any prison in the kingdom. In 1797 he made the
acquaintance of Horne Tooke, whose pupil he became, not only in politics,
but also in philology. At the general election of 1802 Burdett was a
candidate for the county of Middlesex, but his return was declared void in
1804, and in the subsequent contest he was defeated. In 1805 this return
was amended in his favour, but as this was again quickly reversed, Burdett,
who had spent an immense sum of money over the affair, declared he would
not stand for parliament again.

At the general election of 1806 Burdett was a leading supporter of James
Paull, the reform candidate for the city of Westminster; but in the
following year a misunderstanding led to a duel between Burdett and Paull
in which both combatants were wounded. At the general election in 1807
Burdett, in spite of his reluctance, was nominated for Westminster, and
amid great enthusiasm was returned at the top of the poll. He took up again
the congenial work of attacking abuses and agitating for reform, and in
1810 came sharply into collision with the House of Commons. A radical named
John Gale Jones had been committed to prison by the House, a proceeding
which was denounced by Burdett, who questioned the power of the House to
take this step, and vainly attempted to secure the release of Jones. He
then issued a revised edition of his speech on this occasion, and it was
published by William Cobbett in the _Weekly Register_. The House voted this
action a breach of privilege, and the speaker issued a warrant for
Burdett's arrest. Barring himself in his house, he defied the authorities,
while the mob gathered in his defence. At length his house was entered, and
under an escort of soldiers he was conveyed to the Tower. Released when
parliament was prorogued, he caused his supporters much disappointment by
returning to Westminster by water, and so avoiding a demonstration in his
honour. He then brought actions against the speaker and the
serjeant-at-arms, but the courts upheld the action of the House. In
parliament Burdett denounced corporal punishment in the army, and supported
all attempts to check corruption, but his principal efforts were directed
towards procuring a reform of parliament, and the removal of Roman Catholic
disabilities. In 1809 he had proposed a scheme of parliamentary reform, and
returning to the subject in 1817 and 1818 he anticipated the Chartist
movement by suggesting universal male suffrage, equal electoral districts,
vote by ballot, and annual parliaments; but his motions met with very
little support. He succeeded, however, in carrying a resolution in 1825
that the House should consider the laws concerning Roman Catholics. This
was followed by a bill embodying his proposals, which passed the Commons
but was rejected by the Lords. In 1827 and 1828 he again proposed
resolutions on this subject, and saw his proposals become law in 1829. In
1820 Burdett had again come into serious conflict with the government.
Having severely censured its action with reference to the "Manchester
massacre," he was prosecuted at Leicester assizes, fined £1000, and
committed to prison for three months. After the passing of the Reform Bill
in 1832 the ardour of the veteran reformer was somewhat abated, and a
number of his constituents soon took umbrage at his changed attitude.
Consequently he resigned his seat early in 1837, but was re-elected.
However, at the general election in the same year he forsook Westminster
and was elected member for North Wiltshire, which seat he retained, acting
in general with the Conservatives, until his death on the 23rd of January
1844. He left a son, Robert, who succeeded to the baronetcy, and five
daughters, the youngest of whom became the celebrated Baroness
Burdett-Coutts. Impetuous and illogical, Burdett did good work as an
advocate of free speech, and an enemy of corruption. He was exceedingly
generous, and spent money lavishly in furthering projects of reform.

See A. Stephens, _Life of Horne Tooke_ (London, 1813); Spencer Walpole,
_History of England_ (London, 1878-1886); C. Abbot, Baron Colchester,
_Diary and Correspondence_ (London, 1861).

(A. W. H.*)

BURDETT-COUTTS, ANGELA GEORGINA BURDETT-COUTTS, BARONESS (1814-1906),
English philanthropist, youngest daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, was born
on the 21st of April 1814. When she was three-and-twenty, she inherited
practically the whole of the immense wealth of her grandfather Thomas
Coutts (approaching two millions sterling, a fabulous sum in those days),
by the will of the duchess of St Albans, who, as the actress Henrietta
Mellon, had been his second wife and had been left it on his death in 1821.
Miss Burdett then took the name of Coutts in addition to her own. "The
faymale heiress, Miss Anjaley Coutts," as the author of the _Ingoldsby
Legends_ called her in his ballad on the queen's coronation in that year
(1837), at once became a notable subject of public curiosity and private
cupidity; she received numerous offers of marriage, but remained resolutely
single, devoting herself and her riches to philanthropic work, which made
her famous for well-applied generosity. In May 1871 she was created a
peeress, as Baroness Burdett-Coutts of Highgate and Brookfield, Middlesex.
On the 18th of July 1872 she was presented at the Guildhall with the
freedom of the city of London, the first case of a woman being admitted to
that fellowship. It was not till 1881 that, when sixty-seven years old, she
married William Lehman Ashmead-Bartlett, an American by birth, and brother
of Sir E.A. Ashmead-Bartlett, the Conservative member of parliament; and he
then took his wife's name, entering the House of Commons as member for
Westminster, 1885. Full of good works, and of social interest and
influence, the baroness lived to the great age of ninety-two, dying at her
house in Stratton Street, Piccadilly, on the 30th of December 1906, of
bronchitis. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.

The extent of her benefactions during her long and active life can only be
briefly indicated; but the baroness must remain a striking figure in the
social history of Victorian England, for the thoughtful and conscientious
care with which she "held her wealth in trust" for innumerable good
objects. It was her aim to benefit the working-classes in ways involving no
loss of independence or self-respect. She carefully avoided taking any side
in party politics, but she was actively interested in phases of Imperial
extension which were calculated to improve the condition of the black
races, as in Africa, or the education and relief of the poor or suffering
in any part of the world. Though she made no special distinction of creed
in her charities, she was a notable benefactor of the Church of England,
building and endowing churches and church schools, endowing the bishoprics
of Cape Town and of Adelaide (1847), and founding the bishopric of British
Columbia (1857). Among her many educational endowments may be specified the
St Stephen's Institute in Vincent Square, Westminster (1846); she started
sewing schools in Spitalfields when the silk trade began to fail; helped to
found the shoe-black brigade; and placed hundreds of destitute boys in
training-ships for the navy and merchant service. She established Columbia
fish market (1869) in Bethnal Green, and presented it to the city, but
owing to commercial difficulties this effort, which cost her over £200,000,
proved abortive. She supported various schemes of emigration to the
colonies; and in Ireland helped to promote the fishing industry by starting
schools, and providing boats, besides [v.04 p.0811] advancing £250,000 in
1880 for supplying seed to the impoverished tenants. She was devoted to the
protection of animals and prevention of cruelty, and took up with
characteristic zeal the cause of the costermongers' donkeys, building
stables for them on her Columbia market estate, and giving prizes for the
best-kept animals. She helped to inaugurate the society for the prevention
of cruelty to children, and was a keen supporter of the ragged school
union. Missionary efforts of all sorts; hospitals and nursing; industrial
homes and refuges; relief funds, &c., found in her a generous supporter.
She was associated with Louisa Twining and Florence Nightingale; and in
1877-1878 raised the Turkish compassionate fund for the starving peasantry
and fugitives in the Russo-Turkish War (for which she obtained the order of
the Medjidieh, a solitary case of its conference on a woman). She relieved
the distressed in far-off lands as well as at home, her helping hand being
stretched out to the Dyaks of Borneo and the aborigines of Australia. She
was a liberal patroness of the stage, literature and the arts, and
delighted in knowing all the cultured people of the day. In short, her
position in England for half a century may well be summed up in words
attributed to King Edward VII., "after my mother (Queen Victoria) the most
remarkable woman in the kingdom."

BURDON-SANDERSON, SIR JOHN SCOTT, Bart. (1828-1905), English physiologist,
was born at West Jesmand, near Newcastle, on the 21st of December 1828. A
member of a well-known Northumbrian family, he received his medical
education at the university of Edinburgh and at Paris. Settling in London,
he became medical officer of health for Paddington in 1856 and four years
later physician to the Middlesex and the Brompton Consumption hospitals.
When diphtheria appeared in England in 1858 he was sent to investigate the
disease at the different points of outbreak, and in subsequent years he
carried out a number of similar inquiries, _e.g._ into the cattle plague
and into cholera in 1866. He became first principal of the Brown
Institution at Lambeth in 1871, and in 1874 was appointed Jodrell professor
of physiology at University College, London, retaining that post till 1882.
When the Waynflete chair of physiology was established at Oxford in 1882,
he was chosen to be its first occupant, and immediately found himself the
object of a furious anti-vivisectionist agitation. The proposal that the
university should spend £10,000 in providing him with a suitable
laboratory, lecture-rooms, &c., in which to carry on his work, was strongly
opposed, by some on grounds of economy, but largely because he was an
upholder of the usefulness and necessity of experiments upon animals. It
was, however, eventually carried by a small majority (88 to 85), and in the
same year the Royal Society awarded him a royal medal in recognition of his
researches into the electrical phenomena exhibited by plants and the
relations of minute organisms to disease, and of the services he had
rendered to physiology and pathology. In 1885 the university of Oxford was
asked to vote £500 a year for three years for the purposes of the
laboratory, then approaching completion. This proposal was fought with the
utmost bitterness by Sanderson's opponents, the anti-vivisectionists
including E.A. Freeman, John Ruskin and Bishop Mackarness of Oxford.
Ultimately the money was granted by 412 to 244 votes. In 1895 Sanderson was
appointed regius professor of medicine at Oxford, resigning the post in
1904; in 1899 he was created a baronet. His attainments, both in biology
and medicine, brought him many honours. He was Croonian lecturer to the
Royal Society in 1867 and 1877 and to the Royal College of Physicians in
1891; gave the Harveian oration before the College of Physicians in 1878;
acted as president of the British Association at Nottingham in 1893; and
served on three royal commissions--Hospitals (1883), Tuberculosis, Meat and
Milk (1890), and University for London (1892). He died at Oxford on the
23rd of November 1905.

BURDWAN, or BARDWAN, a town of British India, in Bengal, which gives its
name to a district and to a division. It has a station on the East Indian
railway, 67 m. N.W. from Calcutta. Pop. (1901) 35,022. The town consists
really of numerous villages scattered over an area of 9 sq. m., and is
entirely rural in character. It contains several interesting ancient tombs,
and at Nawab Hat, some 2 m. distant, is a group of 108 Siva _lingam_
temples built in 1788. The place was formerly very unhealthy, but this has
been to a large extent remedied by the establishment of water-works, a good
supply of water being derived from the river Banka. Within the town, the
principal objects of interest are the palaces and gardens of the maharaja.
The chief educational institution is the Burdwan Raj college, which is
entirely supported out of the maharaja's estate.

The town owes its importance entirely to being the headquarters of the
maharaja of Burdwan, the premier nobleman of lower Bengal, whose rent-roll
is upwards of £300,000. The _raj_ was founded in 1657 by Abu Ra Kapur, of
the Kapur Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants
served in turn the Mogul emperors and the British government. The great
prosperity of the _raj_ was due to the excellent management of Maharaja
Mahtab Chand (d. 1879), whose loyalty to the government--especially during
the Santal rebellion of 1855 and the mutiny of 1857--was rewarded with the
grant of a coat of arms in 1868 and the right to a personal salute of 13
guns in 1877. Maharaja Bijai Chand Mahtab (b. 1881), who succeeded his
adoptive father in 1888, earned great distinction by the courage with which
he risked his life to save that of Sir Andrew Fraser, the
lieutenant-governor of Bengal, on the occasion of the attempt to
assassinate him made by Bengali malcontents on the 7th of November 1908.

The DISTRICT OF BURDWAN lies along the right bank of the river Bhagirathi
or Hugli. It has an area of 2689 sq. m. It is a flat plain, and its scenery
is uninteresting. Chief rivers are the Bhagirathi, Damodar, Ajai, Banka,
Kunur and Khari, of which only the Bhagirathi is navigable by country cargo
boats throughout the year. The district was acquired by the East India
Company under the treaty with Nawab Mir Kasim in 1760, and confirmed by the
emperor Shah Alam in 1765. The land revenue was fixed in perpetuity with
the zemindar in 1793. In 1901 the population was 1,532,475, showing an
increase of 10% in the decade. There are several indigo factories. The
district suffered from drought in 1896-1897. The Eden Canal, 20 m. long,
has been constructed for irrigation. The weaving of silk is the chief
native industry. As regards European industries, Burdwan takes the first
place in Bengal. It contains the great coal-field of Raniganj, first opened
in 1874, with an output of more than three million tons. The Barrakur
ironworks produce pig-iron, which is reported to be as good as that of
Middlesbrough. Apart from Burdwan town and Raniganj, the chief places are
the river-marts of Katwa and Kalna. The East Indian railway has several
lines running through the district.

The DIVISION OF BURDWAN comprises the six districts of Burdwan, Birbhum,
Bankura, Midnapore, Hugli and Howrah, with a total area of 13,949 sq. m.,
and a population in 1901 of 8,240,076.

BUREAU (a Fr. word from _burel_ or _bureau_, a coarse cloth used for
coverings), a writing-table or desk (_q.v._), also in America a low chest
of drawers. From the meaning of "desk," the word is applied to an office or
place of business, and particularly a government department; in the United
States the term is used of certain subdivisions of the executive
departments, as the bureau of statistics, a division of the treasury
department. The term "bureaucracy" is often employed to signify the
concentration of administrative power in bureaux or departments, and the
undue interference by officials not only in the details of government, but
in matters outside the scope of state interference. The word is also
frequently used in the sense of "red-tapism."

BURFORD, a market town in the Woodstock parliamentary division of
Oxfordshire, England, 18 m. W.N.W. of Oxford. Pop. (1901) 1146. It is
pleasantly situated in the valley of the Windrush, the broad, picturesque
main street sloping upward from the stream, beside which stands the fine
church, to the summit of the ridge flanking the valley on the south, along
which runs the high road from Oxford. The church of St John the Baptist has
a nave and aisles, mainly Perpendicular in appearance owing to alterations
in that period, but actually of [v.04 p.0812] earlier construction, the
south aisle flanked by two beautiful chapels and an ornate porch; transepts
and a central tower, and choir with flanking chapels. The massive Norman
tower contrasts strongly with the delicate Perpendicular spire rising upon
it. The church contains many interesting memorials, and, in the nave, a
Perpendicular shrine dedicated to St Peter. Near the church is the
half-ruined priory house, built in the 17th century, and containing much
fine plaster ornament characteristic of the period; a curious chapel
adjoins it. William Lenthall, speaker of the Long Parliament, was granted
this mansion, died here in 1662, and is buried in the church. In the High
Street nearly every house is of some antiquity. The Tolsey or old town hall
is noteworthy among them; and under one of the houses is an Early English
crypt. Burford is mentioned as the scene of a synod in 705; in 752 Cuthred,
king of the West Saxons, fighting for independence, here defeated
Æthelbald, king of Mercia; and in 1649 the town and district were the scene
of victorious operations by Cromwell.

BURG, a town of Germany, in Prussian Saxony, on the river Ihle, and the
railway from Berlin to Magdeburg, 14 m. N.E. of the latter. Pop. (1900)
22,432. It is noted for its cloth manufactures and boot-making, which
afford employment to a great part of its population. The town belonged
originally to the lordship of Querfurt, passed with this into the
possession of the archbishops of Magdeburg in 1496, and was ceded in 1635
with other portions of the Magdeburg territories to Saxony; in 1687 it was
ceded to Brandenburg. It owes its prosperity to the large influx of
industrious French, Palatinate and Walloon refugees, which took place about
the end of the 17th century.

BURGAGE (from Lat. _burgus_, a borough), a form of tenure, both in England
and Scotland, applicable to the property connected with the old municipal
corporations and their privileges. In England, it was a tenure whereby
houses or tenements in an ancient borough were held of the king or other
person as lord at a certain rent. The term is of less practical importance
in the English than in the Scottish system, where it held an important
place in the practice of conveyancing, real property having been generally
divided into feudal-holding and burgage-holding. Since the Conveyancing
(Scotland) Act 1874, there is, however, not much distinction between
burgage tenure and free holding. It is usual to speak of the English
burgage-tenure as a relic of Saxon freedom resisting the shock of the
Norman conquest and its feudalism, but it is perhaps more correct to
consider it a local feature of that general exemption from feudality
enjoyed by the _municipia_ as a relic of their ancient Roman constitution.
The reason for the system preserving for so long its specifically distinct
form in Scottish conveyancing was because burgage-holding was an exception
to the system of subinfeudation which remained prevalent in Scotland when
it was suppressed in England. While other vassals might hold of a graduated
hierarchy of overlords up to the crown, the burgess always held directly of
the sovereign. It is curious that while in England the burgage-tenure was
deemed a species of socage, to distinguish it from the military holdings,
in Scotland it was strictly a military holding, by the service of watching
and warding for the defence of the burgh. In England the franchises enjoyed
by burgesses, freemen and other consuetudinary constituencies in burghs,
were dependent on the character of the burgage-tenure. Tenure by burgage
was subject to a variety of customs, the principal of which was
Borough-English (_q.v._).

See Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_ (1898).

BURGAS (sometimes written _Burghaz_, _Bourgas_ or _Borgas_, and, in the
middle ages, _Pyrgos_), a seaport, and capital of the department of Burgas,
in Bulgaria (Eastern Rumelia), on the gulf of Burgas, an inlet of the Black
Sea, in 42° 27' N. and 27° 35' E. Pop. (1906) 12,846. Burgas is built on a
low foreland, between the lagoons of Ludzha, on the north, and Kara-Yunus,
on the west; it faces towards the open sea on the east, and towards its own
harbour on the south. The principal approach is a broad isthmus on the
north-west, along which runs the railway to Philippopolis and Adrianople.
Despite its small population and the rivalry of Varna and the Turkish port
of Dedeagatch, Burgas has a considerable transit trade. Its fine harbour,
formally opened in 1904, has an average depth of five fathoms; large
vessels can load at the quays, and the outer waters of the gulf are well
lit by lighthouses on the islets of Hagios Anastasios and Megalo-Nisi. In
1904, the port accommodated over 1400 ships, of about 700,000 tons. These
included upwards of 800 Bulgarian and Turkish sailing-vessels, engaged in
the coasting trade. Fuel, machinery and miscellaneous goods are imported,
chiefly from Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom; the
exports include grain, wool, tallow, cheese, butter, attar of roses, &c.
Pottery and pipes are manufactured from clay obtained in the neighbourhood.

BURGDORF (Fr. _Berthoud_), an industrial town in the Swiss canton of Bern.
It is built on the left bank of the Emme and is 14 m. by rail N.E. of Bern.
The lower (or modern) town is connected by a curious spiral street with the
upper (or old) town. The latter is picturesquely perched on a hill, at a
height of 1942 ft. above sea-level (or 167 ft. above the river); it is
crowned by the ancient castle and by the 15th-century parish church, in the
former of which Pestalozzi set up his educational establishment between
1798 and 1804. A large trade is carried on at Burgdorf in the cheese of the
Emmenthal, while among the industrial establishments are railway works, and
factories of cloth, white lead and tinfoil. In 1900 the population was
8404, practically all Protestants and German-speaking. A fine view of the
Bernese Alps is obtained from the castle, while a still finer one may be
enjoyed from the Lueg hill (2917 ft.), north-east of the town. The castle
dates from the days of the dukes of Zäringen (11th-12th centuries), the
last of whom (Berchtold V.) built walls round the town at its foot, and
granted it a charter of liberties. On the extinction (1218) of that dynasty
both castle and town passed to the counts of Kyburg, and from them, with
the rest of their possessions, in 1272 by marriage to the cadet line of the
Habsburgs. By that line they were sold in 1384, with Thun, to the town of
Bern, whose bailiffs ruled in the castle till 1798.

(W. A. B. C.)

BURGEE (of unknown origin), a small three-cornered or swallow-tailed flag
or pennant used by yachts or merchant vessels; also a kind of small coal
burnt in engine furnaces.

BÜRGER, GOTTFRIED AUGUST (1748-1794), German poet, was born on the 1st of
January 1748 at Molmerswende near Halberstadt, of which village his father
was the Lutheran pastor. He was a backward child, and at the age of twelve
was practically adopted by his maternal grandfather, Bauer, at
Aschersleben, who sent him to the _Pädagogium_ at Halle. Hence in 1764 he
passed to the university, as a student of theology, which, however, he soon
abandoned for the study of jurisprudence. Here he fell under the influence
of C.A. Klotz (1738-1771), who directed Bürger's attention to literature,
but encouraged rather than discouraged his natural disposition to a wild
and unregulated life. In consequence of his dissipated habits, he was in
1767 recalled by his grandfather, but on promising to reform was in 1768
allowed to enter the university of Göttingen as a law student. As he
continued his wild career, however, his grandfather withdrew his support
and he was left to his own devices. Meanwhile he had made fair progress
with his legal studies, and had the good fortune to form a close friendship
with a number of young men of literary tastes. In the Göttingen
_Musenalmanach_, edited by H. Boie and F.W. Gotter, Bürger's first poems
were published, and by 1771 he had already become widely known as a poet.
In 1772, through Boie's influence, Bürger obtained the post of "_Amtmann_"
or district magistrate at Altengleichen near Göttingen. His grandfather was
now reconciled to him, paid his debts and established him in his new sphere
of activity. Meanwhile he kept in touch with his Göttingen friends, and
when the "Göttinger Bund" or "Hain" was formed, Bürger, though not himself
a member, kept in close touch with it. In 1773 the ballad _Lenore_ was
published in the _Musenalmanach_. This poem, which in dramatic force and in
its vivid realization of the weird and supernatural remains without a
rival, made his name a household word in Germany. In 1774 Bürger married
Dorette Leonhart, the [v.04 p.0813] daughter of a Hanoverian official; but
his passion for his wife's younger sister Auguste (the "Molly" of his poems
and elegies) rendered the union unhappy and unsettled his life. In 1778
Bürger became editor of the _Musenalmanach_, and in the same year published
the first collection of his poems. In 1780 he took a farm at Appenrode, but
in three years lost so much money that he had to abandon the venture.
Pecuniary troubles oppressed him, and being accused of neglecting his
official duties, and feeling his honour attacked, he gave up his official
position and removed in 1784 to Göttingen, where he established himself as
_Privat-docent_. Shortly before his removal thither his wife died (30th of
July 1784), and on the 29th of June in the next year he married his
sister-in-law "Molly." Her death on the 9th of January 1786 affected him
deeply. He appeared to lose at once all courage and all bodily and mental
vigour. He still continued to teach in Göttingen; at the jubilee of the
foundation of the university in 1787 he was made an honorary doctor of
philosophy, and in 1789 was appointed extraordinary professor in that
faculty, though without a stipend. In the following year he married a third
time, his wife being a certain Elise Hahn, who, enchanted with his poems,
had offered him her heart and hand. Only a few weeks of married life with
his "Schwabenmädchen" sufficed to prove his mistake, and after two and a
half years he divorced her. Deeply wounded by Schiller's criticism, in the
14th and 15th part of the _Allgemeine Literaturzeitung_ of 1791, of the 2nd
edition of his poems, disappointed, wrecked in fortune and health, Bürger
eked out a precarious existence as a teacher in Göttingen until his death
there on the 8th of June 1794.

Bürger's character, in spite of his utter want of moral balance, was not
lacking in noble and lovable qualities. He was honest in purpose, generous
to a fault, tender-hearted and modest. His talent for popular poetry was
very considerable, and his ballads are among the finest in the German
language. Besides _Lenore, Das Lied vom braven Manne, Die Kuh, Der Kaiser
und der Abt_ and _Der wilde Jäger_ are famous. Among his purely lyrical
poems, but few have earned a lasting reputation; but mention may be made of
_Das Blümchen Wunderhold, Lied an den lieben Mond_, and a few love songs.
His sonnets, particularly the elegies, are of great beauty.

Editions of Bürger's _Samtliche Schriften_ appeared at Göttingen, 1817
(incomplete); 1829-1833 (8 vols.), and 1835 (one vol.); also a selection by
E. Grisebach (5th ed., 1894). The _Gedichte_ have been published in
innumerable editions, the best being that by A. Sauer (2 vols., 1884).
_Briefe von und an Burger_ were edited by A. Strodtmann in 4 vols. (1874).
On Bürger's life see the biography by H. Prohle (1856), the introduction to
Sauer's edition of the poems, and W. von Wurzbach, _G.A. Burger_ (1900).

BURGERS, THOMAS FRANÇOIS (1834-1881), president of the Transvaal Republic,
was born in Cape Colony on the 15th of April 1834, and was educated at
Utrecht, Holland, where he took the degree of doctor of theology. On his
return to South Africa he was ordained minister of the Dutch Reformed
Church, and stationed at Hanover in Cape Colony, where he exercised his
ministrations for eight years. In 1862 his preaching attracted attention,
and two years later an ecclesiastical tribunal suspended him for heretical
opinions. He appealed, however, to the colonial government, which had
appointed him, and obtained judgment in his favour, which was confirmed by
the privy council of England on appeal in 1865. On the resignation of M.W.
Pretorius and the refusal of President Brand of the Orange Free State to
accept the office, Burgers was elected president of the Transvaal, taking
the oath on the 1st of July 1872. In 1873 he endeavoured to persuade
Montsioa to agree to an alteration in the boundary of the Barolong
territory as fixed by the Keate award, but failed (see BECHUANALAND). In
1875 Burgers, leaving the Transvaal in charge of Acting-President Joubert,
went to Europe mainly to promote a scheme for linking the Transvaal to the
coast by a railway from Delagoa Bay, which was that year definitely
assigned to Portugal by the MacMahon award. With the Portuguese Burgers
concluded a treaty, December 1875, providing for the construction of the
railway. After meeting with refusals of financial help in London, Burgers
managed to raise £90,000 in Holland, and bought a quantity of railway
plant, which on its arrival at Delagoa Bay was mortgaged to pay freight,
and this, so far as Burgers was concerned, was the end of the matter. In
June 1876 he induced the raad to declare war against Sikukuni (Secocoeni),
a powerful native chief in the eastern Transvaal. The campaign was
unsuccessful, and with its failure the republic fell into a condition of
lawlessness and insolvency, while a Zulu host threatened invasion. Burgers
in an address to the raad (3rd of March 1877) declared "I would rather be a
policeman under a strong government than the president of such a state. It
is you---you members of the raad and the Boers--who have lost the country,
who have sold your independence for a drink." Sir Theophilus Shepstone, who
had been sent to investigate the condition of affairs in the Transvaal,
issued on the 12th of April a proclamation annexing the Transvaal to Great
Britain. Burgers fully acquiesced in the necessity for annexation. He
accepted a pension from the British government, and settled down to farming
in Hanover, Cape Colony. He died at Richmond in that colony on the 9th of
December 1881, and in the following year a volume of short stories,
_Tooneelen uit ons dorp_, originally written by him for the Cape
_Volksblad_, was published at the Hague for the benefit of his family. A
patriot, a fluent speaker both in Dutch and in English, and possessed of
unbounded energy, the failure of Burgers was due to his fondness for large
visionary plans, which he attempted to carry out with insufficient means
(see TRANSVAAL: _History_).

For the annexation period see John Martineau, _The Life of Sir Bartle
Frere_, vol. ii. chap, xviii. (London, 1895).

BURGERSDYK, or BURGERSDICIUS, FRANCIS (1590-1629), Dutch logician, was born
at Lier, near Delft, and died at Leiden. After a brilliant career at the
university of Leiden, he studied theology at Saumur, where while still very
young he became professor of philosophy. After five years he returned to
Leiden, where he accepted the chair of logic and moral philosophy, and
afterwards that of natural philosophy. His _Logic_ was at one time widely
used, and is still valuable. He wrote also _Idea Philosophiae Moralis_
(1644).

BURGES, GEORGE (1786-1864), English classical scholar, was born in India.
He was educated at Charterhouse school and Trinity College, Cambridge,
taking his degree in 1807, and obtaining one of the members' prizes both in
1808 and 1809. He stayed up at Cambridge and became a most successful
"coach." He had a great reputation as a Greek scholar, and was a somewhat
acrimonious critic of rival scholars, especially Bishop Blomfield.
Subsequently he fell into embarrassed circumstances through injudicious
speculation, and in 1841 a civil list pension of £100 per annum was
bestowed upon him. He died at Ramsgate, on the 11th of January 1864. Burges
was a man of great learning and industry, but too fond of introducing
arbitrary emendations into the text of classical authors. His chief works
are: Euripides' _Troades_ (1807) and _Phoenissae_ (1809); Aeschylus'
_Supplices_ (1821), _Eumenides_ (1822) and _Prometheus_ (1831); Sophocles'
_Philoctetes_ (1833); E.F. Poppo's _Prolegomena to Thucydides_ (1837), an
abridged translation with critical remarks; _Hermesianactis Fragmenta_
(1839). He also edited some of the dialogues of Plato with English notes,
and translated nearly the whole of that author and the Greek anthology for
Bohn's Classical library. He was a frequent contributor to the _Classical
Journal_ and other periodicals, and dedicated to Byron a play called _The
Son of Erin_, or, _The Cause of the Greeks_ (1823).

BURGESS, DANIEL (1645-1713), English Presbyterian divine, was born at
Staines, in Middlesex, where his father was minister. He was educated under
Busby at Westminster school, and in 1660 was sent to Magdalen Hall, Oxford,
but not being able conscientiously to subscribe the necessary formulae he
quitted the university without taking his degree. In 1667, after taking
orders, he was appointed by Roger Boyle, first Lord Orrery, to the
headmastership of a school recently established by that nobleman at
Charleville, Co. Cork, and soon after he became private chaplain to Lady
Mervin, near Dublin. There he was [v.04 p.0814] ordained by the local
presbytery, and on returning to England was imprisoned for preaching at
Marlborough. He soon regained his liberty, and went to London, where he
speedily gathered a large and influential congregation, as much by the
somewhat excessive fervour of his piety as by the vivacious illustrations
which he frequently employed in his sermons. He was a master of epigram,
and theologically inclined to Calvinism. The Sacheverell mob gutted his
chapel in 1710, but the government repaired the building. Besides
preaching, he gave instruction to private pupils, of whom the most
distinguished was Henry St John, afterwards Lord Bolingbroke. His son,
Daniel Burgess (d. 1747), was secretary to the princess of Wales, and in
1723 obtained a _regium donum_ or government grant of £500 half-yearly for
dissenting ministers.

BURGESS, THOMAS (1756-1837), English divine, was born at Odiham, in
Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester, and at Corpus Christi College,
Oxford. Before graduating, he edited a reprint of John Burton's
_Pentalogia_. In 1781 he brought out an annotated edition of Richard
Dawes's _Miscellanea Critica_ (reprinted, Leipzig, 1800). In 1783 he became
a fellow of his college, and in 1785 was appointed chaplain to Shute
Barrington, bishop of Salisbury, through whose influence he obtained a
prebendal stall, which he held till 1803. In 1788 he published his
_Considerations on the Abolition of Slavery_, in which he advocated the
principle of gradual emancipation. In 1791 he accompanied Barrington to
Durham, where he did evangelistic work among the poorer classes. In 1803 he
was appointed to the vacant bishopric of St David's, which he held for
twenty years with great success. He founded the Society for Promoting
Christian Knowledge in the diocese, and also St David's College at
Lampeter, which he liberally endowed. In 1820 he was appointed first
president of the recently founded Royal Society of Literature; and three
years later he was promoted to the see of Salisbury, over which he presided
for twelve years, prosecuting his benevolent designs with unwearied
industry. As at St David's, so at Salisbury, he founded a Church Union
Society for the assistance of infirm and distressed clergymen. He
strenuously opposed both Unitarianism and Catholic emancipation. He died on
the 19th of February 1837.

A list of his works, which are very numerous, will be found in his
biography by J.S. Harford (2nd ed., 1841). In addition to those already
referred to may be mentioned his _Essay on the Study of Antiquities_, _The
First Principles of Christian Knowledge_; _Reflections on the Controversial
Writings of Dr Priestley_, _Emendationes in Suidam et Hesychium et alios
Lexicographos Graecos_; _The Bible, and nothing but the Bible, the Religion
of the Church of England_.

BURGESS (Med. Lat. _burgensis_, from _burgus_, a borough, a town), a term,
in its earliest sense, meaning an inhabitant of a borough, one who occupied
a tenement therein, but now applied solely to a registered parliamentary,
or more strictly, municipal voter. An early use of the word was to denote a
member elected to parliament by his fellow citizens in a borough. In some
of the American colonies (_e.g._ Virginia), a "burgess" was a member of the
legislative body, which was termed the "House of Burgesses." Previously to
the Municipal Reform Act 1835, burgess was an official title in some
English boroughs, and in this sense is still used in some of the states of
the United States, as in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. _The
Burgess-roll_ is the register or official list of burgesses in a borough.

BURGH [BOURKE, BURKE], the name of an historic Irish house, associated with
Connaught for more than seven centuries. It was founded by William de
Burgh, brother of Hubert de Burgh (_q.v._). Before the death of Henry II.
(1189) he received a grant of lands from John as lord of Ireland. At John's
accession (1199) he was installed in Thomond and was governor of Limerick.
In 1199-1201 he was supporting in turn Cathal Carrach and Cathal Crovderg
for the native throne, but he was expelled from Limerick in 1203, and,
losing his Connaught, though not his Munster estates, died in 1205. His son
Richard, in 1227, received the land of "Connok" [Connaught], as forfeited
by its king, whom he helped to fight. From 1228 to 1232 he held the high
office of justiciar of Ireland. In 1234 he sided with the crown against
Richard, earl marshal, who fell in battle against him. Dying in 1243, he
was succeeded as lord of Connaught by his son Richard, and then (1248) by
his younger son Walter, who carried on the family warfare against the
native chieftains, and added greatly to his vast domains by obtaining (c.
1255) from Prince Edward a grant of "the county of Ulster," in consequence
of which he was styled later earl of Ulster. At his death in 1271, he was
succeeded by his son Richard as 2nd earl. In 1286 Richard ravaged and
subdued Connaught, and deposed Bryan O'Neill as chief native king,
substituting a nominee of his own. The native king of Connaught was also
attacked by him, in favour of that branch of the O'Conors whom his own
family supported. He led his forces from Ireland to support Edward I. in
his Scottish campaigns, and on Edward Bruce's invasion of Ulster in 1315
Richard marched against him, but he had given his daughter Elizabeth in
marriage to Robert Bruce, afterwards king of Scotland, about 1304.
Occasionally summoned to English parliaments, he spent most of his forty
years of activity in Ireland, where he was the greatest noble of his day,
usually fighting the natives or his Anglo-Norman rivals. The patent roll of
1290 shows that in addition to his lands in Ulster, Connaught and Munster,
he had held the Isle of Man, but had surrendered it to the king.

His grandson and successor William, the 3rd earl (1326-1333), was the son
of John de Burgh by Elizabeth, lady of Clare, sister and co-heir of the
last Clare earl of Hertford (d. 1314). He married a daughter of Henry, earl
of Lancaster, and was appointed lieutenant of Ireland in 1331, but was
murdered in his 21st year, leaving a daughter, the sole heiress, not only
of the de Burgh possessions, but of vast Clare estates. She was married in
childhood to Lionel, son of Edward III., who was recognized in her right as
earl of Ulster, and their direct representative, the duke of York, ascended
the throne in 1461 as Edward IV., since when the earldom of Ulster has been
only held by members of the royal family.

On the murder of the 3rd earl (1333), his male kinsmen, who had a better
right, by native Irish ideas, to the succession than his daughter, adopted
Irish names and customs, and becoming virtually native chieftains succeeded
in holding the bulk of the de Burgh territories. Their two main branches
were those of "MacWilliam Eighter" in southern Connaught, and "MacWilliam
Oughter" to the north of them, in what is now Mayo. The former held the
territory of Clanricarde, lying in the neighbourhood of Galway, and in 1543
their chief, as Ulick "Bourck, _alias_ Makwilliam," surrendered it to Henry
VIII., receiving it back to hold, by English custom, as earl of Clanricarde
and Lord Dunkellin. The 4th earl (1601-1635) distinguished himself on the
English side in O'Neill's rebellion and afterwards, and obtained the
English earldom of St Albans in 1628, his son Ulick receiving further the
Irish marquessate of Clanricarde (1646). His cousin and heir, the 6th earl
(1657-1666) was uncle of the 8th and 9th earls (1687-1722), both of whom
fought for James II. and paid the penalty for doing so in 1691, but the 9th
earl was restored in 1702, and his great-grandson, the 12th earl, was
created marquess of Clanricarde in 1789. He left no son, but the
marquessate was again revived in 1825, for his nephew the 14th earl, whose
heir is the present marquess. The family, which changed its name from
Bourke to de Burgh in 1752, and added that of Canning in 1862, still own a
vast estate in County Galway.

In 1603 "the MacWilliam Oughter," Theobald Bourke, similarly resigned his
territory in Mayo, and received it back to hold by English tenure. In 1627
he was created Viscount Mayo. The 2nd and 3rd viscounts (1629-1663)
suffered at Cromwell's hands, but the 4th was restored to his estates (some
50,000 acres) in 1666. The peerage became extinct or dormant on the death
of the 8th viscount in 1767. In 1781 John Bourke, a Mayo man, believed to
be descended from the line of "MacWilliam Oughter," was created Viscount
Mayo, and four years later earl of Mayo, a peerage still extant. In 1872
the 6th earl was murdered in the Andaman Islands when viceroy of India.

The baronies of Bourke of Connell (1580) and Bourke of Brittas (1618), both
forfeited in 1691, were bestowed on branches [v.04 p.0815] of the family
which has also still representatives in the baronetage and landed gentry of
Ireland.

The lords Burgh or Borough of Gainsborough (1487-1599) were a Lincolnshire
family believed to be descended from a younger son of Hubert de Burgh. The
5th baron was lord deputy of Ireland in 1597, and his younger brother, Sir
John (d. 1594), a distinguished soldier and sailor.

(J. H. R.)

BURGH, HUBERT DE (d. 1243), chief justiciar of England in the reign of John
and Henry III., entered the royal service in the reign of Richard I. He
traced his descent from Robert of Mortain, half brother of the Conqueror
and first earl of Cornwall; he married about 1200 the daughter of William
de Vernon, earl of Devon; and thus, from the beginning of his career, he
stood within the circle of the great ruling families. But he owed his high
advancement to exceptional ability as an administrator and a soldier.
Already in 1201 he was chamberlain to King John, the sheriff of three
shires, the constable of Dover and Windsor castles, the warden of the
Cinque Ports and of the Welsh Marches. He served with John in the
continental wars which led up to the loss of Normandy. It was to his
keeping that the king first entrusted the captive Arthur of Brittany.
Coggeshall is our authority for the tale, which Shakespeare has
immortalized, of Hubert's refusal to permit the mutilation of his prisoner;
but Hubert's loyalty was not shaken by the crime to which Arthur
subsequently fell a victim. In 1204 Hubert distinguished himself by a long
and obstinate defence of Chinon, at a time when nearly the whole of Poitou
had passed into French hands. In 1213 he was appointed seneschal of Poitou,
with a view to the invasion of France which ended disastrously for John in
the next year.

Both before and after the issue of the Great Charter Hubert adhered loyally
to the king; he was rewarded, in June 1215, with the office of chief
justiciar. This office he retained after the death of John and the election
of William, the earl marshal, as regent. But, until the expulsion of the
French from England, Hubert was entirely engaged with military affairs. He
held Dover successfully through the darkest hour of John's fortunes; he
brought back Kent to the allegiance of Henry III.; he completed the
discomfiture of the French and their allies by the naval victory which he
gained over Eustace the Monk, the noted privateer and admiral of Louis, in
the Straits of Dover (Aug. 1217). The inferiority of the English fleet has
been much exaggerated, for the greater part of the French vessels were
transports carrying reinforcements and supplies. But Hubert owed his
success to the skill with which he manoeuvred for the weather-gage, and his
victory was not less brilliant than momentous. It compelled Louis to accept
the treaty of Lambeth, under which he renounced his claims to the crown and
evacuated England. As the saviour of the national cause the justiciar
naturally assumed after the death of William Marshal (1219) the leadership
of the English loyalists. He was opposed by the legate Pandulf (1218-1221),
who claimed the guardianship of the kingdom for the Holy See; by the
Poitevin Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester, who was the young king's
tutor; by the foreign mercenaries of John, among whom Falkes de Bréauté
took the lead; and by the feudal party under the earls of Chester and
Albemarle. On Pandulf's departure the pope was induced to promise that no
other legate should be appointed in the lifetime of Archbishop Stephen
Langton. Other opponents were weakened by the audacious stroke of 1223,
when the justiciar suddenly announced the resumption of all the castles,
sheriffdoms and other grants which had been made since the king's
accession. A plausible excuse was found in the next year for issuing a
sentence of confiscation and banishment against Falkes de Bréauté. Finally
in 1227, Hubert having proclaimed the king of age, dismissed the bishop of
Winchester from his tutorship.

Hubert now stood at the height of his power. His possessions had been
enlarged by four successive marriages, particularly by that which he
contracted in 1221 with Margaret, the sister of Alexander II. of Scotland;
in 1227 he received the earldom of Kent, which had been dormant since the
disgrace of Odo of Bayeux. But the favour of Henry III. was a precarious
foundation on which to build. The king chafed against the objections with
which his minister opposed wild plans of foreign conquest and inconsiderate
concessions to the papacy. They quarrelled violently in 1229, at
Portsmouth, when the king was with difficulty prevented from stabbing
Hubert, because a sufficient supply of ships was not forthcoming for an
expedition to France. In 1231 Henry lent an ear to those who asserted that
the justiciar had secretly encouraged armed attacks upon the aliens to whom
the pope had given English benefices. Hubert was suddenly disgraced and
required to render an account of his long administration. The blow fell
suddenly, a few weeks after his appointment as justiciar of Ireland. It was
precipitated by one of those fits of passion to which the king was prone;
but the influence of Hubert had been for some time waning before that of
Peter des Roches and his nephew Peter des Rievaux. Some colour was given to
their attacks by Hubert's injudicious plea that he held a charter from King
John which exempted him from any liability to produce accounts. But the
other charges, far less plausible than that of embezzlement, which were
heaped upon the head of the fallen favourite, are evidence of an intention
to crush him at all costs. He was dragged from the sanctuary at Bury St
Edmunds, in which he had taken refuge, and was kept in strait confinement
until Richard of Cornwall, the king's brother, and three other earls
offered to be his sureties. Under their protection he remained in
honourable detention at Devizes Castle. On the outbreak of Richard
Marshal's rebellion (1233), he was carried off by the rebels to the Marshal
stronghold of Striguil, in the hope that his name would add popularity to
their cause. In 1234 he was admitted, along with the other supporters of
the fallen Marshal, to the benefit of a full pardon. He regained his
earldom and held it till his death, although he was once in serious danger
from the avarice of the king (1239), who was tempted by Hubert's enormous
wealth to revive the charge of treason.

In his lifetime Hubert was a popular hero; Matthew Paris relates how, at
the time of his disgrace, a common smith refused with an oath to put
fetters on the man "who restored England to the English." Hubert's ambition
of founding a great family was not realized. His earldom died with him,
though he left two sons. In constitutional history he is remembered as the
last of the great justiciars. The office, as having become too great for a
subject, was now shorn of its most important powers and became politically
insignificant.

See Roger of Wendover's _Flores Historiarum_, edited for the English
Historical Society by H.O. Coxe (4 vols., 1841-1844); the _Chronica Majora_
of Matthew Paris, edited by H.R. Luard for the Rolls Series (7 vols.,
1872-1883); the _Histoire des ducs de Normandie_, edited by F. Michel for
the Soc. de l'Hist. de France (Paris, 1840); the _Histoire de Guillaume le
Marechal_, edited by Paul Meyer for the same society (3 vols., Paris, 1891,
&c.); J.E. Doyle's _Official Baronage of England_, ii. pp. 271-274; R.
Pauli's _Geschichte von England_, vol. iii.; W. Stubbs's _Constitutional
History of England_, vol. ii.

(H. W. C. D.)

BURGHERSH, HENRY (1292-1340), English bishop and chancellor, was a younger
son of Robert, Baron Burghersh (d. 1305), and a nephew of Bartholomew, Lord
Badlesmere, and was educated in France. In 1320 owing to Badlesmere's
influence Pope John XXII. appointed him bishop of Lincoln in spite of the
fact that the chapter had already made an election to the vacant bishopric,
and he secured the position without delay. After the execution of
Badlesmere in 1322 Burghersh's lands were seized by Edward II., and the
pope was urged to deprive him; about 1326, however, his possessions were
restored, a proceeding which did not prevent him from joining Edward's
queen, Isabella, and taking part in the movement which led to the
deposition and murder of the king. Enjoying the favour of the new king,
Edward III., the bishop became chancellor of England in 1328; but he failed
to secure the archbishopric of Canterbury which became vacant about the
same time, and was deprived of his office of chancellor and imprisoned when
Isabella lost her power in 1330. But he was soon released and again in a
position of influence. He was treasurer of England from 1334 to 1337, and
high in the favour and often in the company of Edward III.; he was sent on
several important [v.04 p.0816] errands, and entrusted with important
commissions. He died at Ghent on the 4th of December 1340.

The bishop's brother, Bartholomew Burghersh (d. 1355), became Baron
Burghersh on the death of his brother Stephen in 1310. He acted as
assistant to Badlesmere until the execution of the latter; and then,
trusted by Edward III., was constable of Dover Castle and warden of the
Cinque Ports. He filled other important positions, served Edward III. both
as a diplomatist and a soldier, being present at the battle of Crecy in
1346; and retaining to the last the royal confidence, died in August 1355.
His son and successor, Bartholomew (d. 1369), was one of the first knights
of the order of the Garter, and earned a great reputation as a soldier,
specially distinguishing himself at the battle of Poitiers in 1356.

BURGHLEY, WILLIAM CECIL, BARON (1521-1508), was born, according to his own
statement, on the 13th of September 1521 at the house of his mother's
father at Bourne, Lincolnshire. Pedigrees, elaborated by Cecil himself with
the help of Camden, the antiquary, associated him with the Cecils or
Sitsyllts of Altyrennes in Herefordshire, and traced his descent from an
Owen of the time of King Harold and a Sitsyllt of the reign of Rufus. The
connexion with the Herefordshire family is not so impossible as the descent
from Sitsyllt; but the earliest authentic ancestor of the lord treasurer is
his grandfather, David, who, according to Burghley's enemies, "kept the
best inn" in Stamford. David somehow secured the favour of Henry VII., to
whom he seems to have been yeoman of the guard. He was serjeant-at-arms to
Henry VIII. in 1526, sheriff of Northamptonshire in 1532, and a justice of
the peace for Rutland. His eldest son, Richard, yeoman of the wardrobe (d.
1554), married Jane, daughter of William Heckington of Bourne, and was
father of three daughters and Lord Burghley.

William, the only son, was put to school first at Grantham and then at
Stamford. In May 1535, at the age of fourteen, he went up to St John's
College, Cambridge, where he was brought into contact with the foremost
educationists of the time, Roger Ascham and John Cheke, and acquired an
unusual knowledge of Greek. He also acquired the affections of Cheke's
sister, Mary, and was in 1541 removed by his father to Gray's Inn, without,
after six years' residence at Cambridge, having taken a degree. The
precaution proved useless, and four months later Cecil committed one of the
rare rash acts of his life in marrying Mary Cheke. The only child of this
marriage, Thomas, the future earl of Exeter, was born in May 1542, and in
February 1543 Cecil's first wife died. Three years later he married (21st
of December 1546) Mildred, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, who was ranked by
Ascham with Lady Jane Grey as one of the two most learned ladies in the
kingdom, and whose sister, Anne, became the wife of Sir Nicholas, and the
mother of Sir Francis, Bacon.

Cecil, meanwhile, had obtained the reversion to the office of _custos
rotulorum brevium_, and, according to his autobiographical notes, sat in
parliament in 1543; but his name does not occur in the imperfect
parliamentary returns until 1547, when he was elected for the family
borough of Stamford. Earlier in that year he had accompanied Protector
Somerset on his Pinkie campaign, being one of the two "judges of the
Marshalsea," _i.e._ in the courts-martial. The other was William Patten,
who states that both he and Cecil began to write independent accounts of
the campaign, and that Cecil generously communicated his notes for Patten's
narrative, which has been reprinted more than once.

In 1548 he is described as the protector's master of requests, which
apparently means that he was clerk or registrar of the court of requests
which the protector, possibly at Latimer's instigation, illegally set up in
Somerset House "to hear poor men's complaints." He also seems to have acted
as private secretary to the protector, and was in some danger at the time
of the protector's fall (October 1549). The lords opposed to Somerset
ordered his detention on the 10th of October, and in November he was in the
Tower. On the 25th of January 1550 he was bound over in recognizances to
the value of a thousand marks. However, he soon ingratiated himself with
Warwick, and on the 15th of September 1550 he was sworn one of the king's
two secretaries. He was knighted on the 11th of October 1551, on the eve of
Somerset's second fall, and was congratulated on his success in escaping
his benefactor's fate. In April he became chancellor of the order of the
Garter. But service under Northumberland was no bed of roses, and in his
diary Cecil recorded his release in the phrase _ex misero aulico factus
liber et mei juris_. His responsibility for Edward's illegal "devise" of
the crown has been studiously minimized by Cecil himself and by his
biographers. Years afterwards, he pretended that he had only signed the
"devise" as a witness, but in his apology to Queen Mary he did not venture
to allege so flimsy an excuse; he preferred to lay stress on the extent to
which he succeeded in shifting the responsibility on to the shoulders of
his brother-in-law, Sir John Cheke, and other friends, and on his intrigues
to frustrate the queen to whom he had sworn allegiance. There is no doubt
that he saw which way the wind was blowing, and disliked Northumberland's
scheme; but he had not the courage to resist the duke to his face. As soon,
however, as the duke had set out to meet Mary, Cecil became the most active
intriguer against him, and to these efforts, of which he laid a full
account before Queen Mary, he mainly owed his immunity. He had, moreover,
had no part in the divorce of Catherine or in the humiliation of Mary in
Henry's reign, and he made no scruple about conforming to the religious
reaction. He went to mass, confessed, and out of sheer zeal and in no
official capacity went to meet Cardinal Pole on his pious mission to
England in December 1554, again accompanying him to Calais in May 1555. It
was rumoured in December 1554 that Cecil would succeed Sir William Petre as
secretary, an office which, with his chancellorship of the Garter, he had
lost on Mary's accession. Probably the queen had more to do with the
falsification of this rumour than Cecil, though he is said to have opposed
in the parliament of 1555--in which he represented Lincolnshire--a bill for
the confiscation of the estates of the Protestant refugees. But the story,
even as told by his biographer (Peck, _Desiderata Curiosa_, i. 11), does
not represent Cecil's conduct as having been very courageous; and it is
more to his credit that he found no seat in the parliament of 1558, for
which Mary had directed the return of "discreet and good Catholic members."

By that time Cecil had begun to trim his sails to a different breeze. He
was in secret communication with Elizabeth before Mary died, and from the
first the new queen relied on Cecil as she relied on no one else. Her
confidence was not misplaced; Cecil was exactly the kind of minister
England then required. Personal experience had ripened his rare natural
gift for avoiding dangers. It was no time for brilliant initiative or
adventurous politics; the need was to avoid Scylla and Charybdis, and a
_via media_ had to be found in church and state, at home and abroad. Cecil
was not a political genius; no great ideas emanated from his brain. But he
was eminently a safe man, not an original thinker, but a counsellor of
unrivalled wisdom. Caution was his supreme characteristic; he saw that
above all things England required time. Like Fabius, he restored the
fortunes of his country by deliberation. He averted open rupture until
England was strong enough to stand the shock. There was nothing heroic
about Cecil or his policy; it involved a callous attitude towards
struggling Protestants abroad. Huguenots and Dutch Were aided just enough
to keep them going in the struggles which warded danger off from England's
shores. But Cecil never developed that passionate aversion from decided
measures which became a second nature to his mistress. His intervention in
Scotland in 1559-1560 showed that he could strike on occasion; and his
action over the execution of Mary, queen of Scots, proved that he was
willing to take responsibility from which Elizabeth shrank. Generally he
was in favour of more decided intervention on behalf of continental
Protestants than Elizabeth would admit, but it is not always easy to
ascertain the advice he gave. He has left endless memoranda lucidly setting
forth the pros and cons of every course of action; but there are few
indications of the line which he actually recommended when it came to a
decision. How far he was personally responsible for the Anglican
Settlement, the Poor Laws, and the foreign policy of the reign, how far he
was [v.04 p.0817] thwarted by the baleful influence of Leicester and the
caprices of the queen, remains to a large extent a matter of conjecture.
His share in the settlement of 1559 was considerable, and it coincided
fairly with his own somewhat indeterminate religious views. Like the mass
of the nation, he grew more Protestant as time wore on; he was readier to
persecute Papists than Puritans; he had no love for ecclesiastical
jurisdiction, and he warmly remonstrated with Whitgift over his persecuting
Articles of 1583. The finest encomium was passed on him by the queen
herself, when she said, "This judgment I have of you, that you will not be
corrupted with any manner of gifts, and that you will be faithful to the
state."

From 1558 for forty years the biography of Cecil is almost
indistinguishable from that of Elizabeth and from the history of England.
Of personal incident, apart from his mission to Scotland in 1560, there is
little. He represented Lincolnshire in the parliament of 1559, and
Northamptonshire in that of 1563, and he took an active part in the
proceedings of the House of Commons until his elevation to the peerage; but
there seems no good evidence for the story that he was proposed as speaker
in 1563. In January 1561 he was given the lucrative office of master of the
court of wards in succession to Sir Thomas Parry, and he did something to
reform that instrument of tyranny and abuse. In February 1559 he was
elected chancellor of Cambridge University in succession to Cardinal Pole;
he was created M.A. of that university on the occasion of Elizabeth's visit
in 1564, and M.A. of Oxford on a similar occasion in 1566. On the 25th of
February 1571 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Burghley of Burghley[1]
(or Burleigh); the fact that he continued to act as secretary after his
elevation illustrates the growing importance of that office, which under
his son became a secretaryship of state. In 1572, however, the marquess of
Winchester, who had been lord high treasurer under Edward, Mary and
Elizabeth, died, and Burghley succeeded to his post. It was a signal
triumph over Leicester; and, although Burghley had still to reckon with
cabals in the council and at court, his hold over the queen strengthened
with the lapse of years. Before he died, Robert, his only surviving son by
his second wife, was ready to step into his shoes as the queen's principal
adviser. Having survived all his rivals, and all his children except Robert
and the worthless Thomas, Burghley died at his London house on the 4th of
August 1598, and was buried in St Martin's, Stamford.

Burghley's private life was singularly virtuous; he was a faithful husband,
a careful father and a considerate master. A book-lover and antiquary, he
made a special hobby of heraldry and genealogy. It was the conscious and
unconscious aim of the age to reconstruct a new landed aristocracy on the
ruins of the old, and Burghley was a great builder and planter. All the
arts of architecture and horticulture were lavished on Burghley House and
Theobalds, which his son exchanged for Hatfield. His public conduct does
not present itself in quite so amiable a light. As the marquess of
Winchester said of himself, he was sprung from the willow rather than the
oak, and he was not the man to suffer for convictions. The interest of the
state was the supreme consideration, and to it he had no hesitation in
sacrificing individual consciences. He frankly disbelieved in toleration;
"that state," he said, "could never be in safety where there was a
toleration of two religions. For there is no enmity so great as that for
religion; and therefore they that differ in the service of their God can
never agree in the service of their country." With a maxim such as this, it
was easy for him to maintain that Elizabeth's coercive measures were
political and not religious. To say that he was Machiavellian is
meaningless, for every statesman is so more or less; especially in the 16th
century men preferred efficiency to principle. On the other hand,
principles are valueless without law and order; and Burghley's craft and
subtlety prepared a security in which principles might find some scope.

The sources and authorities for Burghley's life are endless. The most
important collection of documents is at Hatfield, where there are some ten
thousand papers covering the period down to Burghley's death; these have
been calendared in 8 volumes by the Hist. MSS. Comm. At least as many
others are in the Record Office and British Museum, the Lansdowne MSS.
especially containing a vast mass of his correspondence; see the catalogues
of Cotton, Harleian, Royal, Sloane, Egerton and Additional MSS. in the
British Museum, and the Calendars of Domestic, Foreign, Spanish, Venetian,
Scottish and Irish State Papers.

Other official sources are the _Acts of the Privy Council_ (vols.
i.-xxix.); Lords' and Commons' Journals, D'Ewes' Journals, Off. Ret.
M.P.'s; Rymer's _Foedera_; Collins's _Sydney State Papers_; Nichols's
_Progresses of Elizabeth_. See also Strype's Works (26 vols.), Parker, Soc.
Publ. (56 vols.); Camden's _Annales_; Holinshed, Stow and Speed's _Chron._;
Hayward's _Annals_; Machyn's _Diary_, Leycester Corr., Egerton Papers
(Camden Soc.). For Burghley's early life, see Cooper's _Athenae Cantab._;
Baker's _St John's Coll., Camb._, ed.  Mayor; _Letters and. Papers of Henry
VIII._; Tytler's _Edward VI._; Nichols's _Lit. Remains of Edward VI._;
Leadam's _Court of Requests, Chron. of Queen Jane_ (Camden Soc.) and
throughout Froude's _Hist._ No satisfactory life of Burghley has yet
appeared; some valuable anonymous notes, probably by Burghley's servant
Francis Alford, were printed in Peck's _Desiderata Curiosa_ (1732), i.
1-66; other notes are in Naunton's _Fragmenta Regalia_. Lives by Collins
(1732), Charlton and Melvil (1738), were followed by Nares's biography in
three of the most ponderous volumes (1828-1831) in the language; this
provoked Macaulay's brilliant but misleading essay. M.A.S. Hume's _Great
Lord Burghley_ (1898) is largely a piecing together of the references to
Burghley in the same author's _Calendar of Simancas MSS._ The life by Dr
Jessopp (1904) is an expansion of his article in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._; it
is still only a sketch, though the volume contains a mass of genealogical
and other incidental information by other hands.

(A. F. P.)

[1] This was the form always used by Cecil himself.

BURGKMAIR, HANS or JOHN (1473-? 1531), German painter and engraver on wood,
believed to have been a pupil of Albrecht Dürer, was born at Augsburg.
Professor Christ ascribes to him about 700 woodcuts, most of them
distinguished by that spirit and freedom which we admire in the works of
his supposed master. His principal work is the series of 135 prints
representing the triumphs of the emperor Maximilian I. They are of large
size, executed in chiaroscuro, from two blocks, and convey a high idea of
his powers. Burgkmair was also an excellent painter in fresco and in
distemper, specimens of which are in the galleries of Munich and Vienna,
carefully and solidly finished in the style of the old German school.

BURGLARY (_burgi latrocinium_; in ancient English law, _hamesucken_[1]), at
common law, the offence of breaking and entering the dwelling-house of
another with intent to commit a felony. The offence and its punishment are
regulated in England by the Larceny Act 1861. The four important points to
be considered in connexion with the offence of burglary are (1) the time,
(2) the place, (3) the manner and (4) the intent. The _time_, which is now
the essence of the offence, was not considered originally to have been very
material, the gravity of the crime lying principally in the invasion of the
sanctity of a man's domicile. But at some period before the reign of Edward
VI. it had become settled that time was essential to the offence, and it
was not adjudged burglary unless committed by night. The day was then
accounted as beginning at sunrise, and ending immediately after sunset, but
it was afterwards decided that if there were left sufficient daylight or
twilight to discern the countenance of a person, it was no burglary. This,
again, was superseded by the Larceny Act 1861, for the purpose of which
night is deemed to commence at nine o'clock in the evening of each day, and
to conclude at six o'clock in the morning of the next succeeding day.

The _place_ must, according to Sir E. Coke's definition, be a
mansion-house, _i.e._ a man's dwelling-house or private residence. No
building, although within the same curtilage as the dwelling-house, is
deemed to be a part of the dwelling-house for the purposes of burglary,
unless there is a communication between such building and dwelling-house
either immediate or by means of a covered and enclosed passage leading from
the one to the other. Chambers in a college or in an inn of court are the
dwelling-house of the owner; so also are rooms or lodgings in a private
house, provided the owner dwells elsewhere, or enters by a different outer
door from his lodger, otherwise the lodger is merely an inmate and his
apartment a parcel of the one dwelling-house.

[v.04 p.0818] As to the _manner_, there must be both a breaking and an
entry. Both must be at night, but not necessarily on the same night,
provided that in the breaking and in the entry there is an intent to commit
a felony. The breaking may be either an actual breaking of any external
part of a building; or opening or lifting any closed door, window, shutter
or lock; or entry by means of a threat, artifice or collusion with persons
inside; or by means of such a necessary opening as a chimney. If an entry
is obtained through an open window, it will not be burglary, but if an
inner door is afterwards opened, it immediately becomes so. Entry includes
the insertion through an open door or window, or any aperture, of any part
of the body or of any instrument in the hand to draw out goods. The entry
may be before the breaking, for the Larceny Act 1861 has extended the
definition of burglary to cases in which a person enters another's dwelling
with intent to commit felony, or being in such house commits felony
therein, and in either case _breaks out_ of such dwelling-house by night.

Breaking and entry must be with the _intent_ to commit a felony, otherwise
it is only trespass. The felony need not be a larceny, it may be either
murder or rape. The punishment is penal servitude for life, or any term not
less than three years, or imprisonment not exceeding two years, with or
without hard labour.

_Housebreaking_ in English law is to be distinguished from burglary, in
that it is not essential that it should be committed at night, nor in a
dwelling-house. It may, according to the Larceny Act 1861, be committed in
a school-house, shop, warehouse or counting-house. Every burglary involves
housebreaking, but every housebreaking does not amount to burglary. The
punishment for housebreaking is penal servitude for any term not exceeding
fourteen years and not less than three years, or imprisonment for any term
not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour.

In the United States the common-law definition of burglary has been
modified by statute in many states, so as to cover what is defined in
England as housebreaking; the maximum punishment nowhere exceeds
imprisonment for twenty years.

AUTHORITIES.--Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_; Stephen,
_History of Criminal Law_; Archbold, _Pleading and Evidence in Criminal
Cases_; Russell, _On Crimes and Misdemeanours_; Stephen, _Commentaries_.

[1] In Scots law, the word _hamesucken_ meant the feloniously beating or
assaulting a man in his own house.

BURGON, JOHN WILLIAM (1813-1888), English divine, was born at Smyrna on the
21st of August 1813, the son of a Turkey merchant, who was a skilled
numismatist and afterwards became an assistant in the antiquities
department of the British Museum. His mother was a Greek. After a few years
of business life, Burgon went to Worcester College, Oxford, in 1841, gained
the Newdigate prize, took his degree in 1845, and won an Oriel fellowship
in 1846. He was much influenced by his brother-in-law, the scholar and
theologian Henry John Rose (1800-1873), a churchman of the old conservative
type, with whom he used to spend his long vacations. Burgon made Oxford his
headquarters, while holding a living at some distance. In 1863 he was made
vicar of St Mary's, having attracted attention by his vehement sermons
against _Essays and Reviews_. In 1867 he was appointed Gresham professor of
divinity. In 1871 he published a defence of the genuineness of the twelve
last verses of St Mark's Gospel. He now began an attack on the proposal for
a new lectionary for the Church of England, based largely upon his
objections to the principles for determining the authority of MS. readings
adopted by Westcott and Hort, which he assailed in a memorable article in
the _Quarterly Review_ for 1881. This, with his other articles, was
reprinted in 1884 under the title of _The Revision Revised_. His
biographical essays on H.L. Mansel and others were also collected, and
published under the title of _Twelve Good Men_ (1888). Protests against the
inclusion of Dr Vance Smith among the revisers, against the nomination of
Dean Stanley to be select preacher in the university of Oxford, and against
the address in favour of toleration in the matter of ritual, followed in
succession. In 1876 Burgon was made dean of Chichester. He died on the 4th
of August 1888. His life was written by Dean E.M. Goulburn (1892). Vehement
and almost passionate in his convictions, Burgon nevertheless possessed a
warm and kindly heart. He may be described as a high churchman of the type
prevalent before the rise of the Tractarian school. His extensive
collection of transcripts from the Greek Fathers, illustrating the text of
the New Testament, was bequeathed to the British Museum.

BURGONET, or BURGANET (from Fr. _bourguignote_, Burgundian helmet), a form
of light helmet or head-piece, which was in vogue in the 16th and 17th
centuries. In its normal form the burgonet was a large roomy cap with a
brim shading the eyes, cheek-pieces or flaps, a comb, and a guard for the
back of the neck. In many cases a vizor, or other face protection, and a
chin-piece are found in addition, so that this piece of armour is sometimes
mistaken for an armet (_q.v._), but it can always be distinguished by the
projecting brim in front. The morion and cabasset have no face, cheek or
neck protection. The typical head-piece of the 17th-century soldier in
England and elsewhere is a burgonet skull-cap with a straight brim,
neck-guard and often, in addition, a fixed vizor of three thin iron bars
which are screwed into, and hang down from, the brim in front of the eyes.

BURGOS, a province of northern Spain; bounded on the N.E. by Biscay and
Álava, E. by Logroño, S.E. by Soria, S. by Segovia, S.W. by Valladolid, W.
by Palencia, and N.W. by Santander. Pop. (1900) 338,828; area, 5480 sq. m.
Burgos includes the isolated county of Treviño, which is shut in on all
sides by territory belonging to Álava. The northern and north-eastern
districts of the province are mountainous, and the central and southern
form part of the vast and elevated plateau of Old Castile. The extreme
northern region is traversed by part of the great Cantabrian chain.
Eastwards are the highest peaks of the province in the Sierra de la Demanda
(with the Cerro de San Millan, 6995 ft. high) and in the Sierra de Neila.
On the eastern frontier, midway between these highlands and the Cantabrian
chain, two comparatively low ranges, running east and west of Pancorbo,
kave a gap through which run the railway and roads connecting Castile with
the valley of the Ebro. This Pancorbo Pass has often been called the "Iron
Gates of Castile," as a handful of men could hold it against an army. South
and west of this spot begins the plateau, generally covered with snow in
winter, and swept by such cold winds that Burgos is considered, with Soria
and Segovia, one of the coldest regions of the peninsula. The Ebro runs
eastwards through the northern half of the province, but is not navigable.
The Douro, or Duero, crosses the southern half, running west-north-west; it
also is unnavigable in its upper valley. The other important streams are
the Pisuerga, flowing south towards Palencia and Valladolid, and the
Arlanzón, which flows through Burgos for over 75m.

The variations of temperature are great, as from 9° to 20° of frost have
frequently been recorded in winter, while the mean summer temperature is
64° (Fahr.). As but little rain falls in summer, and the soil is poor,
agriculture thrives only in the valleys, especially that of the Ebro. In
live-stock, however, Burgos is one of the richest of Spanish provinces.
Horses, mules, asses, goats, cattle and pigs are bred in considerable
numbers, but the mainstay of the peasantry is sheep-farming. Vast ranges of
almost uninhabited upland are reserved as pasture for the flocks, which at
the beginning of the 20th century contained more than 500,000 head of
sheep. Coal, china-clay and salt are obtained in small quantities, but, out
of more than 150 mines registered, only 4 were worked in 1903. The other
industries of the province are likewise undeveloped, although there are
many small potteries, stone quarries, tanneries and factories for the
manufacture of linen and cotton of the coarsest description. The ancient
cloth and woollen industries, for which Burgos was famous in the past, have
almost disappeared. Trade is greatly hindered by the lack of adequate
railway communication, and even of good roads. The Northern railways from
Madrid to the French frontier cross the province in the central districts;
the Valladolid-Bilbao line traverses the Cantabrian mountains, in the
north; and the Valladolid-Saragossa line skirts the Douro valley, in the
south. The only [v.04 p.0819] important town in the province is Burgos, the
capital (pop. 30,167). Few parts of Spain are poorer; education makes
little progress, and least of all in the thinly peopled rural districts,
with their widely scattered hamlets. The peasantry have thus every
inducement to migrate to the Basque Provinces, Catalonia and other
relatively prosperous regions; and consequently the population does not
increase, despite the excess of births over deaths.

BURGOS, the capital formerly of Old Castile, and since 1833 of the Spanish
province of Burgos, on the river Arlanzón, and on the Northern railways
from Madrid to the French frontier. Pop. (1900) 30,167. Burgos, in the form
of an amphitheatre, occupies the lower slopes of a hill crowned by the
ruins of an ancient citadel. It faces the Arlanzón, a broad and swift
stream, with several islands in mid-channel. Three stone bridges lead to
the suburb of La Vega, on the opposite bank. On all sides, except up the
castle hill, fine avenues and public gardens are laid out, notably the
Paseo de la Isla, extending along the river to the west. Burgos itself was
originally surrounded by a wall, of which few fragments remain; but
although its streets and broad squares, such as the central Plaza Mayór, or
Plaza de la Constitucion, have often quite a modern appearance, the city
retains much of its picturesque character, owing to the number and beauty
of its churches, convents and palaces. Unaffected by the industrial
activity of the neighbouring Basque Provinces, it has little trade apart
from the sale of agricultural produce and the manufacture of paper and
leathern goods.

But it is rich in architectural and antiquarian interest. The citadel was
founded in 884 by Diego Rodriguez Porcelos, count of Castile; in the 10th
century it was held against the kings of Leon by Count Fernan Gonzalez, a
mighty warrior; and even in 1812 it was successfully defended by a French
garrison against Lord Wellington and his British troops. Within its walls
the Spanish national hero, the Cid Campeador, was wedded to Ximena of
Oviedo in 1074; and Prince Edward of England (afterwards King Edward I.) to
Eleanor of Castile in 1254. Statues of Porcelos, Gonzalez and the Cid, of
Nuño Rasura and Lain Calvo, the first elected magistrates of Burgos, during
its brief period of republican rule in the 10th century, and of the emperor
Charles V., adorn the massive Arco de Santa Maria, which was erected
between 1536 and 1562, and commemorates the return of the citizens to their
allegiance, after the rebellion against Charles V. had been crushed in
1522. The interior of this arch serves as a museum. Tradition still points
to the site of the Cid's birthplace; and a reliquary preserved in the town
hall contains his bones, and those of Ximena, brought hither after many
changes, including a partial transference to Sigmaringen in Germany.

Other noteworthy buildings in Burgos are the late 15th century Casa del
Cordón, occupied by the captain-general of Old Castile; the Casa de
Miranda, which worthily represents the best domestic architecture of Spain
in the 16th century; and the barracks, hospitals and schools. Burgos is the
see of an archbishop, whose province comprises the diocese of Palencia,
Pamplona, Santander and Tudela. The cathedral, founded in 1221 by Ferdinand
III. of Castile and the English bishop Maurice of Burgos, is a fine example
of florid Gothic, built of white limestone (see ARCHITECTURE, Plate II.
fig. 65). It was not completed until 1567, and the architects principally
responsible for its construction were a Frenchman in the 13th century and a
German in the 15th. Its cruciform design is almost hidden by the fifteen
chapels added at all angles to the aisles and transepts, by the beautiful
14th-century cloister on the north-west and the archiepiscopal palace on
the south-west. Over the three central doorways of the main or western
façade rise two lofty and graceful towers. Many of the monuments within the
cathedral are of considerable artistic and historical interest. The chapel
of Corpus Christi contains the chest which the Cid is said to have filled
with sand and subsequently pawned for a large sum to the credulous Jews of
Burgos. The legend adds that he redeemed his pledge. In the aisleless
Gothic church of Santa Agueda, or Santa Gadéa, tradition relates that the
Cid compelled Alphonso VI. of Leon, before his accession to the throne of
Castile in 1072, to swear that he was innocent of the murder of Sancho his
brother and predecessor on the throne. San Estéban, completed between 1280
and 1350, and San Nicolás, dating from 1505, are small Gothic churches,
each with a fine sculptured doorway. Many of the convents of Burgos have
been destroyed, and those which survive lie chiefly outside the city. At
the end of the Paseo de la Isla stands the nunnery of Santa Maria la Real
de las Huelgas, originally a summer palace (_huelga_, "pleasure-ground") of
the kings of Castile. In 1187 it was transformed into a Cistercian convent
by Alphonso VIII., who invested the abbess with almost royal prerogatives,
including the power of life and death, and absolute rule over more than
fifty villages. Alphonso and his wife Eleanor, daughter of Henry II. of
England, are buried here. The Cartuja de Miraflores, a Carthusian convent,
founded by John II. of Castile (1406-1454), lies 2 m. south-east of Burgos.
Its church contains a monument of exceptional beauty, carved by Gil de
Siloë in the 15th century, for the tomb of John and his second wife,
Isabella of Portugal. The convent of San Pedro de Cardeña, 7 m. south-east
of Burgos, was the original burial-place of the Cid, in 1099, and of
Ximena, in 1104. About 50 m. from the city is the abbey of Silos, which
appears to have been founded under the Visigothic kings, as early as the
6th century. It was restored in 919 by Fernan Gonzalez, and in the 11th
century became celebrated throughout Europe, under the rule of St Dominic
or Domingo. It was reoccupied in 1880 by French Benedictine monks.

The known history of Burgos begins in 884 with the foundation of the
citadel. From that time forward it steadily increased in importance,
reaching the height of its prosperity in the 15th century, when,
alternately with Toledo, it was occupied as a royal residence, but rapidly
declining when the court was finally removed to Madrid in 1560. Being on
one of the principal military roads of the kingdom, it suffered severely
during the Peninsular War. In 1808 it was the scene of the defeat of the
Spanish army by the French under Marshal Soult. It was unsuccessfully
besieged by Wellington in 1812, but was surrendered to him at the opening
of the campaign of the following year.

Of the extensive literature relating to Burgos, much remains unedited and
in manuscript. A general description of the city and its monuments is given
by A. Llacayo y Santa Maria in _Burgos, &c._ (Burgos, 1889). See also
_Architectural, Sculptural and Picturesque Studies in Burgos and its
Neighbourhood_, a valuable series of architectural drawings in folio, by
J.B. Waring (London, 1852). The following are monographs on particular
buildings:--_Historia de la Catedral de Burgos, &c._, by P. Orcajo (Burgos,
1856); _El Castillo de Burgos_, by E. de Oliver-Copons (Barcelona, 1893);
_La Real Cartuja de Miraflores_, by F. Tarin y Juaneda (Burgos, 1896). For
the history of the city see _En Burgos_, by V. Balaguér (Burgos, 1895);
_Burgos en las comunidades de Castilla_ and _Cosas de la vieja Burgos_,
both by A. Salvá (Burgos, 1895 and 1892). The following relate both to the
city and to the province of Burgos:--_Burgos, &c._, by R. Amador de los
Ríos, in the series entitled _España_ (Barcelona, 1888); _Burgos y su
provincia_, anon. (Vitoria, 1898); _Intento de un diccionario biográfico y
bibliográfico de autores de la prov. de Burgos_, by M. Anibarro and M.
Rives (Madrid, 1890).

BURGOYNE, JOHN (1722-1792), English general and dramatist, entered the army
at an early age. In 1743 he made a runaway marriage with a daughter of the
earl of Derby, but soon had to sell his commission to meet his debts, after
which he lived abroad for seven years. By Lord Derby's interest Burgoyne
was then reinstated at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, and in 1758 he
became captain and lieutenant-colonel in the foot guards. In 1758-1759 he
participated in expeditions made against the French coast, and in the
latter year he was instrumental in introducing light cavalry into the
British army. The two regiments then formed were commanded by Eliott
(afterwards Lord Heathfield) and Burgoyne. In 1761 he sat in parliament for
Midhurst, and in the following year he served as brigadier-general in
Portugal, winning particular distinction by his capture of Valencia
d'Alcantara and of Villa Velha. In 1768 he became M.P. for Preston, and for
the next few years he occupied himself chiefly with his parliamentary
duties, in which he was remarkable for his general outspokenness [v.04
p.0820] and, in particular, for his attacks on Lord Clive. At the same time
he devoted much attention to art and drama (his first play, _The Maid of
the Oaks_, being produced by Garrick in 1775), and gambled recklessly. In
the army he had by this time become a major-general, and on the outbreak of
the American War of Independence he was appointed to a command. In 1777 he
was at the head of the British reinforcements designed for the invasion of
the colonies from Canada. In this disastrous expedition he gained
possession of Ticonderoga (for which he was made a lieutenant-general) and
Fort Edward; but, pushing on, was detached from his communications with
Canada, and hemmed in by a superior force at Saratoga (_q.v._). On the 17th
of October his troops, about 3500 in number, laid down their arms. The
success was the greatest the colonists had yet gained, and it proved the
turning-point in the war. The indignation in England against Burgoyne was
great, but perhaps unjust. He returned at once, with the leave of the
American general, to defend his conduct, and demanded, but never obtained,
a trial. He was deprived of his regiment and a governorship which he held.
In 1782, however, when his political friends came into office, he was
restored to his rank, given a colonelcy, and made commander-in-chief in
Ireland and a privy councillor. After the fall of the Rockingham government
in 1783, Burgoyne withdrew more and more into private life, his last public
service being his participation in the impeachment of Warren Hastings. In
his latter years he was principally occupied in literary and dramatic work.
His comedy, _The Heiress_, which appeared in 1786, ran through ten editions
within a year, and was translated into several foreign tongues. He died
suddenly on the 4th of June 1792. General Burgoyne, whose wife died in June
1776 during his absence in Canada, had several natural children (born
between 1782 and 1788) by Susan Caulfield, an opera singer, one of whom
became Field Marshal Sir J.F. Burgoyne. His _Dramatic and Poetical Works_
appeared in two vols., 1808.

See E.B. de Fonblanque, _Political and Military Episodes from the Life and
Correspondence of Right Hon. J. Burgoyne_ (1876); and W.L. Stone, _Campaign
of Lieut.-Gen. J. Burgoyne, &c._ (Albany, N.Y., 1877).

BURGOYNE, SIR JOHN FOX, Bart. (1782-1871), British field marshal, was an
illegitimate son of General John Burgoyne (_q.v._). He was educated at Eton
and Woolwich, obtained his commission in 1798, and served in 1800 in the
Mediterranean. In 1805, when serving on the staff of General Fox in Sicily,
he was promoted second captain. He accompanied the unfortunate Egyptian
expedition of 1807, and was with Sir John Moore in Sweden in 1808 and in
Portugal in 1808-9. In the Corunna campaign Burgoyne held the very
responsible position of chief of engineers with the rear-guard of the
British army (see PENINSULAR WAR). He was with Wellesley at the Douro in
1809, and was promoted captain in the same year, after which he was engaged
in the construction of the lines of Torres Vedras in 1810. He blew up Fort
Concepcion on the river Turones, and was present at Busaco and Torres
Vedras. In 1811 he was employed in the unsuccessful siege of Badajoz, and
in 1812 he won successively the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel,
for his skilful performance of engineer duties at the historic sieges of
Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz. He was present in the same year (1812) at the
siege and battle of Salamanca, and after the battle of Vittoria in 1813 he
became commanding engineer on Lord Wellington's staff. At the close of the
war he received the C.B., a reward which, he justly considered, was not
commensurate with his services. In 1814-1815 he served at New Orleans and
Mobile. Burgoyne was largely employed, during the long peace which followed
Waterloo, in other public duties as well as military work. He sat on
numerous commissions, and served for fifteen years as chairman of the Irish
board of public works. He became a major-general and K.C.B. in 1838, and
inspector-general of fortifications in 1845. In 1851 he was promoted
lieutenant-general, and in the following year received the G.C.B. When the
Crimean War broke out he accompanied Lord Raglan's headquarters to the
East, superintended the disembarkation at Old Fort, and was in effect the
principal engineer adviser to the English commander during the first part
of the siege of Sevastopol. He was recalled early in 1855, and though he
was at first bitterly criticized by the public for his part in the earlier
and unsuccessful operations against the fortress the wisdom of his advice
was ultimately recognized. In 1856 he was created a baronet, and promoted
to the full rank of general. In 1858 he was present at the second funeral
of Napoleon I. as Queen Victoria's representative, and in 1865 he was made
constable of the Tower of London. Three years later, on resigning his post
as inspector-general of fortifications, he was made a field marshal.
Parliament granted him, at the same time, a pension of £1500. He died on
the 7th of October 1871, a year after the tragic death of his only son,
Captain Hugh Talbot Burgoyne, V.C. (1833-1870), who was in command of
H.M.S. "Captain" when that vessel went down in the Bay of Biscay (September
7, 1870).

See _Life and Correspondence of F.M. Sir John Fox Burgoyne_ (edited by
Lt.-Col. Hon. G. Wrottesley, R.E., London, 1873); Sir Francis Head, _A
Sketch of the Life and Death of F.M. Sir John Burgoyne_ (London, 1872);
_Military Opinions of General Sir John Burgoyne_ (ed. Wrottesley, London,
1859), a collection of the most important of Burgoyne's contributions to
military literature.

BURGRAVE, the Eng. form, derived through the Fr., of the Ger. _Burggraf_
and Flem. _burg_ or _burch-graeve_ (med. Lat. _burcgravius_ or
_burgicomes_), _i.e._ count of a castle or fortified town. The title is
equivalent to that of castellan (Lat. _castellanus_) or _châtelain_
(_q.v._). In Germany, owing to the peculiar conditions of the Empire,
though the office of burgrave had become a sinecure by the end of the 13th
century, the title, as borne by feudal nobles having the status of princes
of the Empire, obtained a quasi-royal significance. It is still included
among the subsidiary titles of several sovereign princes; and the king of
Prussia, whose ancestors were burgraves of Nuremberg for over 200 years, is
still styled burgrave of Nuremberg.

BURGRED, king of Mercia, succeeded to the throne in 852, and in 852 or 853
called upon Æthelwulf of Wessex to aid him in subduing the North Welsh. The
request was granted and the campaign proved successful, the alliance being
sealed by the marriage of Burgred to Æthelswith, daughter of Æthelwulf. In
868 the Mercian king appealed to Æthelred and Alfred for assistance against
the Danes, who were in possession of Nottingham. The armies of Wessex and
Mercia did no serious fighting, and the Danes were allowed to remain
through the winter. In 874 the march of the Danes from Lindsey to Repton
drove Burgred from his kingdom. He retired to Rome and died there.

See _Saxon Chronicle_ (Earle and Plummer), years 852-853, 868, 874.

BURGUNDIO, sometimes erroneously styled BURGUNDIUS, an Italian jurist of
the 12th century. He was a professor at the university of Paris, and
assisted at the Lateran Council in 1179, dying at a very advanced age in
1194. He was a distinguished Greek scholar, and is believed on the
authority of Odofredus to have translated into Latin, soon after the
Pandects were brought to Bologna, the various Greek fragments which occur
in them, with the exception of those in the 27th book, the translation of
which has been attributed to Modestinus. The Latin translations ascribed to
Burgundio were received at Bologna as an integral part of the text of the
Pandects, and form part of that known as _The Vulgate_ in distinction from
the Florentine text.

BURGUNDY. The name of Burgundy (Fr. _Bourgogne_, Lat. _Burgundia_) has
denoted very diverse political and geographical areas at different periods
of history and as used by different writers. The name is derived from the
Burgundians (_Burgundi, Burgondiones_), a people of Germanic origin, who at
first settled between the Oder and the Vistula. In consequence of wars
against the Alamanni, in which the latter had the advantage, the
Burgundians, after having taken part in the great invasion of Radagaisus in
407, were obliged in 411 to take refuge in Gaul, under the leadership of
their chief Gundicar. Under the title of allies of the Romans, they
established themselves in certain cantons of the Sequani and of upper
Germany, receiving a part of the lands, houses and serfs that belonged to
the inhabitants. Thus was founded the first kingdom of Burgundy, the
boundaries of which were widened at different times by Gundicar and his son
[v.04 p.0821] Gunderic; its chief towns being Vienne, Lyons, Besançon,
Geneva, Autun and Mâcon. Gundibald (d. 516), grandson of Gunderic, is
famous for his codification of the Burgundian law, known consequently as
_Lex Gundobada, _in French _Loi Gombette_. His son Sigismund, who was
canonized by the church, founded the abbey of St Maurice at Agaunum. But,
incited thereto by Clotilda, the daughter of Chilperic (a brother of
Gundibald, and assassinated by him), the Merovingian kings attacked
Burgundy. An attempt made in 524 by Clodomer was unsuccessful; but in 534
Clotaire (Chlothachar) and his brothers possessed themselves of the lands
of Gundimar, brother and successor of Sigismund, and divided them between
them. In 561 the kingdom of Burgundy was reconstructed by Guntram, son of
Clotaire I., and until 613 it formed a separate state under the government
of a prince of the Merovingian family.

After 613 Burgundy was one of the provinces of the Frankish kingdom, but in
the redistributions that followed the reign of Charlemagne the various
parts of the ancient kingdom had different fortunes. In 843, by the treaty
of Verdun, Autun, Chalon, Mâcon, Langres, &c., were apportioned to Charles
the Bald, and Lyons with the country beyond the Saône to Lothair I. On the
death of the latter the duchy of Lyons (Lyonnais and Viennois) was given to
Charles of Provence, and the diocese of Besançon with the country beyond
the Jura to Lothair, king of Lorraine. In 879 Boso founded the kingdom of
Provence, wrongly called the kingdom of Cisjuran Burgundy, which extended
to Lyons, and for a short time as far as Mâcon (see PROVENCE).

In 888 the kingdom of Juran Burgundy was founded by Rudolph I., son of
Conrad, count of Auxerre, and the German king Arnulf could not succeed in
expelling the usurper, whose authority was recognized in the diocese of
Besançon, Basel, Lausanne, Geneva and Sion. For a short time his son and
successor Rudolph II. (912-937) disputed the crown of Italy with Hugh of
Provence, but finally abandoned his claims in exchange for the ancient
kingdom of Provence, _i.e._ the country bounded by the Rhône, the Alps and
the Mediterranean. His successor, Conrad the Peaceful (93 7-993), whose
sister Adelaide married Otto the Great, was hardly more than a vassal of
the German kings. The last king of Burgundy, Rudolph III. (993-1032), being
deprived of all but a shadow of power by the development of the secular and
ecclesiastical aristocracy--especially by that of the powerful feudal
houses of the counts of Burgundy (see FRANCHE-COMTÉ), Savoy and
Provence--died without issue, bequeathing his lands to the emperor Conrad
II. Such was the origin of the imperial rights over the kingdom designated
after the 13th century as the kingdom of Arles, which extended over a part
of what is now Switzerland (from the Jura to the Aar), and included
Franche-Comté, Lyonnais, Dauphiné, Savoy and Provence.

The name of Burgundy now gradually became restricted to the countship of
that name, which included the district between the Jura and the Saône, in
later times called Franche-Comté, and to the _duchy_ which had been created
by the Carolingian kings in the portion of Burgundy that had remained
French, with the object of resisting Boso. This duchy had been granted to
Boso's brother, Richard the Justiciary, count of Autun. It comprised at
first the countships of Autun, Mâcon, Chalon-sur-Saône, Langres, Nevers,
Auxerre and Sens, but its boundaries and designations changed many times in
the course of the 10th century. Duke Henry died in 1002; and in 1015, after
a war which lasted thirteen years, the French king Robert II. reunited the
duchy to his kingdom, despite the opposition of Otto William, count of
Burgundy, and gave it to his son Henry, afterwards King Henry I. As king of
France, the latter in 1032 bestowed the duchy upon his brother Robert, from
whom sprang that first ducal house of Burgundy which flourished until 1361.
A grandson of this Robert, who went to Spain to fight the Arabs, became the
founder of the kingdom of Portugal; but in general the first Capet dukes of
Burgundy were pacific princes who took little part in the political events
of their time, or in that religious movement which was so marked in
Burgundy, at Cluny to begin with, afterwards among the disciples of William
of St Bénigne of Dijon, and later still among the monks of Cîteaux. In the
12th and 13th centuries we may mention Duke Hugh III. (1162-1193), who
played an active part in the wars that marked the beginning of Philip
Augustus's reign; Odo (Eudes) III. (1193-1218), one of Philip Augustus's
principal supporters in his struggle with King John of England; Hugh IV.
(1218-1272), who acquired the countships of Châlon and Auxonne, Robert II.
(1272-1309), one of whose daughters, Margaret, married Louis X. of France,
and another, Jeanne, Philip of Valois; Odo (Eudes) IV. (1315-1350), who
gained the countship of Artois in right of his wife, Jeanne of France,
daughter of Philip V. the Tall and of Jeanne, countess of Burgundy.

In 1361, on the death of Duke Philip de Rouvres, son of Jeanne of Auvergne
and Boulogne, who had married the second time John II. of France, surnamed
the Good, the duchy of Burgundy returned to the crown of France. In 1363
John gave it, with hereditary rights, to his son Philip, surnamed the Bold,
thus founding that second Capet house of Burgundy which filled such an
important place in the history of France during the 14th and 15th
centuries, acquiring as it did a territorial power which proved redoubtable
to the kingship itself. By his marriage with Margaret of Flanders Philip
added to his duchy, on the death of his father-in-law, Louis of Male, in
1384, the countships of Burgundy and Flanders; and in the same year he
purchased the countship of Charolais from John, count of Armagnac. On the
death of Charles V. in 1380 Philip and his brothers, the dukes of Anjou and
Berry, had possessed themselves of the regency, and it was he who led
Charles VI. against the rebellious Flemings, over whom the young king
gained the victory of Roosebeke in 1382. Momentarily deprived of power
during the period of the "Marmousets'" government, he devoted himself to
the administration of his own dominions, establishing in 1386 an
audit-office (_chambre des comptes_) at Dijon and another at Lille. In 1396
he refused to take part personally in the expedition against the Turks
which ended in the disaster of Nicopolis, and would only send his son John,
then count of Nevers. In 1392 the king's madness caused Philip's recall to
power along with the other princes of the blood, and from this time dates
that hostility between the party of Burgundy and the party of Orleans which
was to become so intense when in May 1404 Duke Philip had been succeeded by
his son, John the Fearless.

In 1407 the latter caused the assassination of his political rival, Louis
of Orleans, the king's brother. Forced to quit Paris for a time, he soon
returned, supported in particular by the gild of the butchers and by the
university. The monk Jean Petit pronounced an apology for the murder
(1408).

The victory of Hasbain which John achieved on the 23rd of September 1408
over the Liégeois, who had attacked his brother-in-law, John of Bavaria,
bishop of Liége, still further strengthened his power and reputation, and
during the following years the struggle between the Burgundians and the
partisans of the duke of Orleans--or Armagnacs, as they were called--went
on with varying results. In 1413 a reaction took place in Paris; John the
Fearless was once more expelled from the capital, and only returned there
in 1418, thanks to the treason of Perrinet Leclerc, who yielded up the town
to him. In 1419, just when he was thinking of making advances towards the
party of the dauphin (Charles VII.), he was assassinated by members of that
party, during an interview between himself and the dauphin at the bridge of
Montereau.

This event inclined the new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, towards an
alliance with England. In 1420 he signed the treaty of Troyes, which
recognized Henry V. as the legitimate successor of Charles VI.; in 1423 he
gave his sister Anne in marriage to John, duke of Bedford; and during the
following years the Burgundian troops supported the English pretender. But
a dispute between him and the English concerning the succession in Hainaut,
their refusal to permit the town of Orleans to place itself under his rule,
and the defeats sustained by them, all combined to embroil him with his
allies, and in 1435 he concluded the treaty of Arras with Charles VII. The
king relieved the duke of all homage for his estates during his lifetime,
[v.04 p.0822] and gave up to him the countships of Mâcon, Auxerre,
Bar-sur-Seine and Ponthieu; and, reserving the right of redemption, the
towns of the Somme (Roye, Montdidier, Péronne, &c.). Besides this Philip
had acquired Brabant and Holland in 1433 as the inheritance of his mother.
He gave an asylum to the dauphin Louis when exiled from Charles VII.'s
court, but refused to assist him against his father, and henceforth rarely
intervened in French affairs. He busied himself particularly with the
administration of his state, founding the university of Dôle, having
records made of Burgundian customs, and seeking to develop the commerce and
industries of Flanders. A friend to letters and the arts, he was the
protector of writers like Olivier de la Marche, and of sculptors of the
school of Dijon. He also desired to revive ancient chivalry as he conceived
it, and in 1429 founded the order of the Golden Fleece; while during the
last years of his life he devoted himself to the preparation of a crusade
against the Turks. Neither these plans, however, nor his liberality,
prevented his leaving a well-filled treasury and enlarged dominions when he
died in 1467.

Philip's successor was his son by his third wife, Isabel of Portugal,
Charles, surnamed the Bold, count of Charolois, born in 1433. To him his
father had practically abandoned his authority during his last years.
Charles had taken an active part in the so-called wars "for the public
weal," and in the coalitions of nobles against the king which were so
frequent during the first years of Louis XI.'s reign. His struggle against
the king is especially marked by the interview at Péronne in 1468, when the
king had to confirm the duke in his possession of the towns of the Somme,
and by a fruitless attempt which Charles the Bold made on Beauvais in 1472.
Charles sought above all to realize a scheme already planned by his father.
This was to annex territory which would reunite Burgundy with the northern
group of her possessions (Flanders, Brabant, &c.), and to obtain the
emperor's recognition of the kingdom of "Belgian Gaul." In 1469 he bought
the landgraviate of Alsace and the countship of Ferrette from the archduke
Sigismund of Austria, and in 1473 the aged duke Arnold ceded the duchy of
Gelderland to him. In the same year he had an interview at Trier with the
emperor Frederick III., when he offered to give his daughter and heiress,
Mary of Burgundy, in marriage to the emperor's son Maximilian in exchange
for the concession of the royal title. But the emperor, uneasy at the
ambition of the "grand-duke of the West," did not pursue the negotiations.

Meanwhile the tyranny of the duke's lieutenant Peter von Hagenbach, who was
established at Ferrette as governor (_grand bailli_ or _Landvogt_) of Upper
Alsace, had brought about an insurrection. The Swiss supported the cause of
their allies, the inhabitants of the free towns of Alsace, and Duke René
II. of Lorraine also declared war against Charles. In 1474 the Swiss
invaded Franche-Comté and achieved the victory of Hericourt. In 1475
Charles succeeded in conquering Lorraine, but an expedition against the
Swiss ended in the defeat of Grandson (February 1476). In the same year the
duke was again beaten at Morat, and the Burgundian nobles had to abandon to
the victors a considerable amount of booty. Finally the duke of Lorraine
returned to his dominions; Charles advanced against him, but on the 6th of
January 1477 he was defeated and killed before Nancy.

By his wife, Isabella of Bourbon, he only left a daughter, Mary, and Louis
XI. claimed possession of her inheritance as guardian to the young
princess. He succeeded in getting himself acknowledged in the duchy and
countship of Burgundy, which were occupied by French garrisons. But Mary,
alarmed by this annexation, and by the insurrection at Ghent (secretly
fomented by Louis), decided to marry the archduke Maximilian of Austria, to
whom she had already been promised (August 1477), and hostilities soon
broke out between the two princes. Mary died through a fall from her horse
in March 1482, and in the same year the treaty of Arras confirmed Louis XI.
in possession of the duchy. Franche-Comté and Artois were to form the dowry
of the little Margaret of Burgundy, daughter of Mary and Maximilian, who
was promised in marriage to the dauphin. As to the lands proceeding from
the succession of Charles the Bold, which had returned to the Empire
(Brabant, Hainaut, Limburg, Namur, Gelderland, &c.), they constituted the
"Circle of Burgundy" from 1512 onward.

We know that the title of duke of Burgundy was revived in 1682 for a short
time by Louis XIV. in favour of his grandson Louis, the pupil of Fénelon.
But from the 16th to the 18th century Burgundy constituted a military
government bounded on the north by Champagne, on the south by Lyonnais, on
the east by Franche-Comté, on the west by Bourbonnais and Nivernais. It
comprised Dijonnais, Autunois, Auxois, and the _pays de la montagne_ or
Country of the Mountain (Châtillon-sur-Seine), with the "counties" of
Chalonnais, Mâconnais, Auxerrois and Bar-sur-Seine, and, so far as
administration went, the annexes of Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and the country
of Gex. Burgundy was a _pays d'états_. The estates, whose privileges the
dukes at first, and later Louis XI., had to swear to maintain, had their
assembly at Dijon, usually under the presidency of the governor of the
province, the bishop of Autun as representing the clergy, and the mayor of
Dijon representing the third estate. In the judiciary point of view the
greater part of Burgundy depended on the parlement of Dijon; but Auxerrois
and Mâconnais were amenable to the parlement of Paris.

See also U. Plancher, _Histoire générale et particulière de Bourgogne_
(Dijon, 1739--1781, 4 vols. 8vo); Courtépée, _Description générale et
particulière du duché de Bourgogne_ (Dijon, 1774-1785, 7 vols. 8vo); O.
Jahn. _Geschichte der Burgundionen_ (Halle, 1874, 2 vols. 8vo); E. Petit de
Vausse, _Histoire des dues de Bourgogne de la race capétienne_ (Paris,
1885-1905, 9 vols. 8vo); B. de Barante, _Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de
la maison de Valois_ (Paris, 1833--1836, 13 vols. 8vo); the marquis Léon
E.S.J. de Laborde, _Les Ducs de Bourgogne: Études sur les lettres, les arts
et l'industrie pendant le XV siècle_ (Paris, 1849-1851, 3 vols. 8vo).

(R. PO.)

BURHANPUR, a town of British India in the Nimar district of the Central
Provinces, situated on the north bank of the river Tapti, 310 m. N.E. of
Bombay, and 2 m. from the Great Indian Peninsula railway station of
Lalbagh. It was founded in A.D. 1400 by a Mahommedan prince of the Farukhi
dynasty of Khandesh, whose successors held it for 200 years, when the
Farukhi kingdom was annexed to the empire of Akbar. It formed the chief
seat of the government of the Deccan provinces of the Mogul empire till
Shah Jahan removed the capital to Aurangabad in 1635. Burhanpur was
plundered in 1685 by the Mahrattas, and repeated battles were fought in its
neighbourhood in the struggle between that race and the Mussulmans for the
supremacy of India. In 1739 the Mahommedans finally yielded to the demand
of the Mahrattas for a fourth of the revenue, and in 1760 the Nizam of the
Deccan ceded Burhanpur to the peshwa, who in 1778 transferred it to
Sindhia. In the Mahratta War the army under General Wellesley, afterwards
the duke of Wellington, took Burhanpur (1803), but the treaty of the same
year restored it to Sindhia. It remained a portion of Sindhia's dominions
till 1860-1861, when, in consequence of certain territorial arrangements,
the town and surrounding estates were ceded to the British government.
Under the Moguls the city covered an area of about 5 sq. m., and was about
10½ m. in circumference. In the _Ain-í-Akbari_ it is described as a "large
city, with many gardens, inhabited by all nations, and abounding with
handicraftsmen." Sir Thomas Roe, who visited it in 1614, found that the
houses in the town were "only mud cottages, except the prince's house, the
chan's and some few others." In 1865-1866 the city contained 8000 houses,
with a population of 34,137, which had decreased to 33,343 in 1901.
Burhanpur is celebrated for its muslins, flowered silks, and brocades,
which, according to Tavernier, who visited it in 1668, were exported in
great quantities to Persia, Egypt, Turkey, Russia and Poland. The gold and
silver wires used in the manufacture of these fabrics are drawn with
considerable care and skill; and in order to secure the purity of the
metals employed for their composition, the wire-drawing under the native
rule was done under government inspection. The town of Burhanpur and its
manufactures were long on the decline, but during recent times have made a
slight recovery. The buildings of interest [v.04 p.0823] in the town are a
palace, built by Akbar, called the Lal Kila or the Red Fort, and the Jama
Masjid or Great Mosque, built by Ali Khan, one of the Farukhi dynasty, in
1588. A considerable number of Boras, a class of commercial Mahommedans,
reside here.

BURI, or BURE, in Norse mythology, the grandfather of Odin. In the creation
of the world he was born from the rocks, licked by the cow Andhumla
(darkness). He was the father of Bor, and the latter, wedded to Bestla, the
daughter of the giant Bolthorn (evil), became the father of Odin, the
Scandinavian Jove.

BURIAL and BURIAL ACTS (in O. Eng. _byrgels_, whence _byriels_, wrongly
taken as a plural, and so Mid. Eng. _buryel_, from O. Eng. _byrgan_,
properly to protect, cover, to bury). The main lines of the law of burial
in England may be stated very shortly. Every person has the right to be
buried in the churchyard or burial ground of the parish where he dies, with
the exception of executed felons, who are buried in the precincts of the
prison or in a place appointed by the home office. At common law the person
under whose roof a death takes place has a duty to provide for the body
being carried to the grave decently covered; and the executors or legal
representatives of the deceased are bound to bury or dispose of the body in
a manner becoming the estate of the deceased, according to their
discretion, and they are not bound to fulfil the wishes he may have
expressed in this respect. The disposal must be such as will not expose the
body to violation, or offend the feelings or endanger the health of the
living; and cremation under proper restrictions is allowable. In the case
of paupers dying in a parish house, or shipwrecked persons whose bodies are
cast ashore, the overseers or guardians are responsible for their burial;
and in the case of suicides the coroner has a similar duty. The expenses of
burial are payable out of the deceased's estate in priority to all other
debts. A husband liable for the maintenance of his wife is liable for her
funeral expenses; the parents for those of their children, if they have the
means of paying. Legislation has principally affected (1) places of burial,
(2) mode of burial, (3) fees for burial, and (4) disinterment.

1. The overcrowded state of churchyards and burial grounds gradually led to
the passing of a group of statutes known as the Burial Acts, extending from
1852 up to 1900. By these acts a general system was set up, the aim of
which was to remedy the existing deficiencies of accommodation by providing
new burial grounds and closing old ones which should be dangerous to
health, and to establish a central authority, the home office (now for most
purposes the Local Government Board) to superintend all burial grounds with
a view to the protection of the public health and the maintenance of public
decency in burials. The Local Government Board thus has the power to obtain
by order in council the closing of any burial ground it thinks fit, while
its consent is necessary to the opening of any new burial ground; and it
also has power to direct inspection of any burial ground or cemetery, and
to regulate burials in common graves in statutory cemeteries and to compel
persons in charge of vaults or places of burial to take steps necessary for
preventing their becoming dangerous or injurious to health. The vestry of
any parish, whether a common-law or ecclesiastical one, was thus authorized
to provide itself with a new burial ground, if its existing one was no
longer available; such ground might be wholly or partly consecrated, and
chapels might be provided for the performance of burial service. The ground
was put under the management of a burial board, consisting of ratepayers
elected by the vestry, and the consecrated portion of it took the place of
the churchyard in all respects. Disused churchyards and burial grounds in
the metropolis may be used as open spaces for recreation, and only
buildings for religious purposes can be built on them (1881, 1884, 1887).
The Local Government Act 1894 introduced a change into the government of
burial grounds (consequent on the general change made in parochial
government) by transferring, or allowing to be transferred, the powers,
duties, property and liabilities of the burial boards in urban districts to
the district councils, and in rural parishes to the parish councils and
parish meetings; and by allowing rural parishes to adopt the Burials Acts,
and provide and manage new burial grounds by the parish council, or a
burial board elected by the parish meeting.

2. The mode of burial is a matter of ecclesiastical cognizance; in the case
of churchyards and elsewhere it is in the discretion of the owners of the
burial ground. The Local Government Board now makes regulations for burials
in burial grounds provided under the Burial Acts; for cemeteries provided
under the Public Health Act 1879. Private cemeteries and burial grounds
make their own regulations. Burial may now take place either with or
without a religious service in consecrated ground. Before 1880 no body
could be buried in consecrated ground except with the service of the
Church, which the incumbent of the parish or a person authorized by him was
bound to perform; but the canons and prayer-book refused the use of the
office for excommunicated persons, _majori excommunicatione_, for some
grievous and notorious crime, and no person able to testify of his
repentance, unbaptized persons, and persons against whom a verdict of _felo
de se_ had been found. But by the Burial Laws Amendment Act 1880, the
bodies of persons entitled to be buried in parochial burial grounds,
whether churchyards or graveyards, may be buried there, on proper notice
being given to the minister, without the performance of the service of the
Church of England, and either without any religious service or with a
Christian and orderly religious service at the grave, which may be
conducted by any person invited to do so by the person in charge of the
funeral. Clergymen of the Church of England are also by the act allowed,
but are not obliged, to use the burial service in any unconsecrated burial
ground or cemetery, or building therein, in any case in which it could be
used in consecrated ground. In cases where it may not be so used, and where
such is the wish of those in charge of the service, the clergy may use a
form of service approved by the bishop without being liable to any
ecclesiastical or temporal penalty. Except as altered by this act, it is
still the law that "the Church knows no such indecency as putting a body
into consecrated ground without the service being at the same time
performed"; and nothing in the act authorizes the use of the service on the
burial of a _felo de se_, which, however, may take place in any way allowed
by the act of 1880. The proper performance of the burial office is provided
for by the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874. Statutory provision is made
by the criminal law in this act for the preservation of order in burial
grounds and protection of funeral services.

3. Fees are now payable by custom or under statutory powers on all burials.
In a churchyard the parson must perform the office of burial for
parishioners, even if the customary fee is denied, and it is doubtful who
is liable to pay it. The custom must be immemorial and invariable. If not
disputed, its payment can be enforced in the ecclesiastical court; if
disputed, its validity must be tried by a temporal court. A special
contract for the payment of an annual fee in the case of a non-parishioner
can be enforced in the latter court. In the case of paupers and shipwrecked
persons the fees are payable by the parish. In other parochial burial
grounds and cemeteries the duties and rights to fees of the incumbents,
clerks and sextons of the parishes for which the ground has been provided
are the same as in burials in the churchyard. Burial authorities may fix
the fees payable in such grounds, subject to the approval of the home
secretary; but the fees for services rendered by ministers of religion and
sextons must be the same in the consecrated as in the unconsecrated part of
the burial ground, and no incumbent of a parish or a clerk may receive any
fee upon burials except for services rendered by them (act of 1900). On
burials under the act of 1880 the same fees are payable as if the burial
had taken place with the service of the Church.

4. A corpse is not the subject of property, nor capable of holding
property. If interred in consecrated ground, it is under the protection of
the ecclesiastical court; if in unconsecrated, it is under that of the
temporal court. In the former case it is an ecclesiastical offence, and in
either case it is a misdemeanour, to disinter or remove it without proper
authority, [v.04 p.0824] whatever the motive for such an act may be. Such
proper authority is (1) a faculty from the ordinary, where it is to be
removed from one consecrated place of burial to another, and this is often
done on sanitary grounds or to meet the wishes of relatives, and has been
done for secular purposes, _e.g._ widening a thoroughfare, by allowing part
of the burial ground (disused) to be thrown into it; but it has been
refused where the object was to cremate the remains, or to transfer them
from a churchyard to a Roman Catholic burial ground; (2) a licence from the
home secretary, where it is desired to transfer remains from one
unconsecrated place of burial to another; (3) by order of the coroner, in
cases of suspected crime. There has been considerable discussion as to the
boundary line of jurisdiction between (1) and (2), and whether the
disinterment of a body from consecrated ground for purposes of
identification falls within, (1) only or within both (1) and (2); and an
attempt by the ecclesiastical court to enforce a penalty for that purpose
without a licence has been prohibited by the temporal court.

See also CHURCHYARD; and, for methods of disposal of the dead, CEMETERY;
CREMATION, and FUNERAL RITES.

AUTHORITIES.--Baker, _Law of Burials_ (6th ed. by Thomas, London, 1898);
Phillimore, _Ecclestastical Law_ (2nd ed., London, 1895); Cripps, _Law of
Church and Clergy_ (6th ed., London, 1886).

(G. G. P.*)

BURIAL SOCIETIES, a form of friendly societies, existing mainly in England,
and constituted for the purpose of providing by voluntary subscriptions,
for insuring money to be paid on the death of a member, or for the funeral
expenses of the husband, wife or child of a member, or of the widow of a
deceased member. (See FRIENDLY SOCIETIES.)

BURIATS, a Mongolian race, who dwell in the vicinity of the Baikal Lake,
for the most part in the government of Irkutsk and the Trans-Baikal
Territory. They are divided into various tribes or clans, which generally
take their names from the locality they frequent. These tribes are
subdivided according to kinship. The Buriats are a broad-shouldered race
inclined to stoutness, with small slanting eyes, thick lips, high
cheekbones, broad and flat noses and scanty beards. The men shave their
heads and wear a pigtail like the Chinese. In summer they dress in silk and
cotton gowns, in winter in furs and sheepskins. Their principal occupation
is the rearing of cattle and horses. The Buriat horse is famous for its
power of endurance, and the attachment between master and animal is very
great. At death the horse should, according to their religion, be
sacrificed at its owner's grave; but the frugal Buriat heir usually
substitutes an old hack, or if he has to tie up the valuable steed to the
grave to starve he does so only with the thinnest of cords so that the
animal soon breaks his tether and gallops off to join the other horses. In
some districts the Buriats have learned agriculture from the Russians, and
in Irkutsk are really better farmers than the latter. They are
extraordinarily industrious at manuring and irrigation. They are also
clever at trapping and fishing. In religion the Buriats are mainly
Buddhists; and their head lama (Khambo Lama) lives at the Goose Lake
(Guisinoe Ozero). Others are Shamanists, and their most sacred spot is the
Shamanic stone at the mouth of the river Angar. Some thousands of them
around Lake Baikal are Christians. A knowledge of reading and writing is
common, especially among the Trans-Baikal Buriats, who possess books of
their own, chiefly translated from the Tibetan. Their own language is
Mongolian, and of three distinct dialects. It was in the 16th century that
the Russians first came in touch with the Buriats, who were long known by
the name of Bratskiye, "Brotherly," given them by the Siberian colonists.
In the town of Bratskiyostrog, which grew up around the block-house built
in 1631 at the confluence of the Angara and Oka to bring them into
subjection, this title is perpetuated. The Buriats made a vigorous
resistance to Russian aggression, but were finally subdued towards the end
of the 17th century, and are now among the most peaceful of Russian
peoples.

See J.G. Gruelin, _Siberia_; Pierre Simon Pallas, _Sammlungen historischer
Nachrichten über die mongolischen Volkerschaften_ (St Petersburg,
1776-1802); M.A. Castrén, _Versuch einer buriatischen Sprachlehre_ (1857);
Sir H.H. Howorth, _History of the Mongols_ (1876-1888).

BURIDAN, JEAN [JOANNES BURIDANUS] (c. 1297-c. 1358), French philosopher,
was born at Béthune in Artois. He studied in Paris under William of Occam.
He was professor of philosophy in the university of Paris, was rector in
1327, and in 1345 was deputed to defend its interests before Philip of
Valois and at Rome. He was more than sixty years old in 1358, but the year
of his death is not recorded. The tradition that he was forced to flee from
France along with other nominalists, and founded the university of Vienna
in 1356, is unsupported and in contradiction to the fact that the
university was founded by Frederick II. in 1237. An ordinance of Louis XI.,
in 1473, directed against the nominalists, prohibited the reading of his
works. In philosophy Buridan was a rationalist, and followed Occam in
denying all objective reality to universals, which he regarded as mere
words. The aim of his logic is represented as having been the devising of
rules for the discovery of syllogistic middle terms; this system for aiding
slow-witted persons became known as the _pons asinorum_. The parts of logic
which he treated with most minuteness are modal propositions and modal
syllogisms. In commenting on Aristotle's _Ethics_ he dealt in a very
independent manner with the question of free will, his conclusions being
remarkably similar to those of John Locke. The only liberty which he admits
is a certain power of suspending the deliberative process and determining
the direction of the intellect. Otherwise the will is entirely dependent on
the view of the mind, the last result of examination. The comparison of the
will unable to act between two equally balanced motives to an ass dying of
hunger between two equal and equidistant bundles of hay is not found in his
works, and may have been invented by his opponents to ridicule his
determinism. That he was not the originator of the theory known as "liberty
of indifference" (_liberum arbitrium indifferentiae_) is shown in G.
Fonsegrive's _Essai sur le libre arbitre_, pp. 119, 199 (1887).

His works are:--_Summula de dialectica_ (Paris, 1487); _Compendium logicae_
(Venice, 1489); _Quaestiones in viii. libros physicorum_ (Paris, 1516); _In
Aristotelis Metaphysica_ (1518); _Quaestiones in x. libros ethicorum
Aristotelis_ (Paris, 1489; Oxford, 1637); _Quaestiones in viii. libros
politicorum Aristotelis_ (1500). See K. Prantl's _Geschichte der Logik_,
bk. iv. 14-38; Stöckl's _Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters_, ii.
1023-1028; Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_, s.v. (1897).

BURKE, EDMUND (1729-1797), British statesman and political writer. His is
one of the greatest names in the history of political literature. There
have been many more important statesmen, for he was never tried in a
position of supreme responsibility. There have been many more effective
orators, for lack of imaginative suppleness prevented him from penetrating
to the inner mind of his hearers; defects in delivery weakened the
intrinsic persuasiveness of his reasoning; and he had not that commanding
authority of character and personality which has so often been the secret
of triumphant eloquence. There have been many subtler, more original and
more systematic thinkers about the conditions of the social union. But no
one that ever lived used the general ideas of the thinker more successfully
to judge the particular problems of the statesman. No one has ever come so
close to the details of practical politics, and at the same time remembered
that these can only be understood and only dealt with by the aid of the
broad conceptions of political philosophy. And what is more than all for
perpetuity of fame, he was one of the great masters of the high and
difficult art of elaborate composition.

A certain doubtfulness hangs over the circumstances of Burke's life
previous to the opening of his public career. The very date of his birth is
variously stated. The most probable opinion is that he was born at Dublin
on the 12th of January 1729, new style. Of his family we know little more
than his father was a Protestant attorney, practising in Dublin, and that
his mother was a Catholic, a member of the family of Nagle. He had at least
one sister, from whom descended the only existing representatives of
Burke's family; and he had at least two brothers, Garret Burke and Richard
Burke, the one older and the other younger than Edmund. The sister,
afterwards Mrs French, was brought up and remained throughout life in the
religious faith of her [v.04 p.0825] mother; Edmund and his brothers
followed that of their father. In 1741 the three brothers were sent to
school at Ballitore in the county of Kildare, kept by Abraham Shackleton,
an Englishman, and a member of the Society of Friends. He appears to have
been an excellent teacher and a good and pious man. Burke always looked
back on his own connexion with the school at Ballitore as among the most
fortunate circumstances of his life. Between himself and a son of his
instructor there sprang up a close and affectionate friendship, and, unlike
so many of the exquisite attachments of youth, this was not choked by the
dust of life, nor parted by divergence of pursuit. Richard Shackleton was
endowed with a grave, pure and tranquil nature, constant and austere, yet
not without those gentle elements that often redeem the drier qualities of
his religious persuasion. When Burke had become one of the most famous men
in Europe, no visitor to his house was more welcome than the friend with
whom long years before he had tried poetic flights, and exchanged all the
sanguine confidences of boyhood. And we are touched to think of the
simple-minded guest secretly praying, in the solitude of his room in the
fine house at Beaconsfield, that the way of his anxious and overburdened
host might be guided by a divine hand.

In 1743 Burke became a student at Trinity College, Dublin, where Oliver
Goldsmith was also a student at the same time. But the serious pupil of
Abraham Shackleton would not be likely to see much of the wild and squalid
sizar. Henry Flood, who was two years younger than Burke, had gone to
complete his education at Oxford. Burke, like Goldsmith, achieved no
academic distinction. His character was never at any time of the academic
cast. The minor accuracies, the limitation of range, the treading and
re-treading of the same small patch of ground, the concentration of
interest in success before a board of examiners, were all uncongenial to a
nature of exuberant intellectual curiosity and of strenuous and
self-reliant originality. His knowledge of Greek and Latin was never
thorough, nor had he any turn for critical niceties. He could quote Homer
and Pindar, and he had read Aristotle. Like others who have gone through
the conventional course of instruction, he kept a place in his memory for
the various charms of Virgil and Horace, of Tacitus and Ovid; but the
master whose page by night and by day he turned with devout hand, was the
copious, energetic, flexible, diversified and brilliant genius of the
declamations for Archias the poet and for Milo, against Catiline and
against Antony, the author of the disputations at Tusculum and the orations
against Verres. Cicero was ever to him the mightiest of the ancient names.
In English literature Milton seems to have been more familiar to him than
Shakespeare, and Spenser was perhaps more of a favourite with him than
either.

It is too often the case to be a mere accident that men who become eminent
for wide compass of understanding and penetrating comprehension, are in
their adolescence unsettled and desultory. Of this Burke is a signal
illustration. He left Trinity in 1748, with no great stock of well-ordered
knowledge. He neither derived the benefits nor suffered the drawbacks of
systematic intellectual discipline.

After taking his degree at Dublin he went in the year 1750 to London to
keep terms at the Temple. The ten years that followed were passed in
obscure industry. Burke was always extremely reserved about his private
affairs. All that we know of Burke exhibits him as inspired by a resolute
pride, a certain stateliness and imperious elevation of mind. Such a
character, while free from any weak shame about the shabby necessities of
early struggles, yet is naturally unwilling to make them prominent in after
life. There is nothing dishonourable in such an inclination. "I was not
swaddled and rocked and dandled into a legislator," wrote Burke when very
near the end of his days: "_Nitor in adversum_ is the motto for a man like
me. At every step of my progress in life (for in every step I was traversed
and opposed), and at every turnpike I met, I was obliged to show my
passport. Otherwise no rank, no toleration even, for me."

All sorts of whispers have been circulated by idle or malicious gossip
about Burke's first manhood. He is said to have been one of the numerous
lovers of his fascinating countrywoman, Margaret Woffington. It is hinted
that he made a mysterious visit to the American colonies. He was for years
accused of having gone over to the Church of Rome, and afterwards
recanting. There is not a tittle of positive evidence for these or any of
the other statements to Burke's discredit. The common story that he was a
candidate for Adam Smith's chair of moral philosophy at Glasgow, when Hume
was rejected in favour of an obscure nobody (1751), can be shown to be
wholly false. Like a great many other youths with an eminent destiny before
them, Burke conceived a strong distaste for the profession of the law. His
father, who was an attorney of substance, had a distaste still stronger for
so vagrant a profession as letters were in that day. He withdrew the annual
allowance, and Burke set to work to win for himself by indefatigable
industry and capability in the public interest that position of power or
pre-eminence which his detractors acquired either by accident of birth and
connexions or else by the vile arts of political intrigue. He began at the
bottom of the ladder, mixing with the Bohemian society that haunted the
Temple, practising oratory in the free and easy debating societies of
Covent Garden and the Strand, and writing for the booksellers.

In 1756 he made his first mark by a satire upon Bolingbroke entitled _A
Vindication of Natural Society_. It purported to be a posthumous work from
the pen of Bolingbroke, and to present a view of the miseries and evils
arising to mankind from every species of artificial society. The imitation
of the fine style of that magnificent writer but bad patriot is admirable.
As a satire the piece is a failure, for the simple reason that the
substance of it might well pass for a perfectly true, no less than a very
eloquent statement of social blunders and calamities. Such acute critics as
Chesterfield and Warburton thought the performance serious. Rousseau, whose
famous discourse on the evils of civilization had appeared six years
before, would have read Burke's ironical vindication of natural society
without a suspicion of its irony. There have indeed been found persons who
insist that the _Vindication_ was a really serious expression of the
writer's own opinions. This is absolutely incredible, for various reasons.
Burke felt now, as he did thirty years later, that civil institutions
cannot wisely or safely be measured by the tests of pure reason. His
sagacity discerned that the rationalism by which Bolingbroke and the
deistic school believed themselves to have overthrown revealed religion,
was equally calculated to undermine the structure of political government.
This was precisely the actual course on which speculation was entering in
France at that moment. His _Vindication_ is meant to be a reduction to an
absurdity. The rising revolutionary school in France, if they had read it,
would have taken it for a demonstration of the theorem to be proved. The
only interest of the piece for us lies in the proof which it furnishes,
that at the opening of his life Burke had the same scornful antipathy to
political rationalism which flamed out in such overwhelming passion at its
close.

In the same year (1756) appeared the _Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin
of our Ideas on the Sublime and Beautiful_, a crude and narrow performance
in many respects, yet marked by an independent use of the writer's mind,
and not without fertile suggestion. It attracted the attention of the
rising aesthetic school in Germany. Lessing set about the translation and
annotation of it, and Moses Mendelssohn borrowed from Burke's speculation
at least one of the most fruitful and important ideas of his own
influential theories on the sentiments. In England the _Inquiry_ had
considerable vogue, but it has left no permanent trace in the development
of aesthetic thought.

Burke's literary industry in town was relieved by frequent excursions to
the western parts of England, in company with William Burke. There was a
lasting intimacy between the two namesakes, and they seem to have been
involved together in some important passages of their lives; but we have
Edmund Burke's authority for believing that they were probably not kinsmen.
The seclusion of these rural sojourns, originally dictated by delicate
health, was as wholesome to the mind as to [v.04 p.0826] the body. Few men,
if any, have ever acquired a settled mental habit of surveying human
affairs broadly, of watching the play of passion, interest, circumstance,
in all its comprehensiveness, and of applying the instruments of general
conceptions and wide principles to its interpretation with respectable
constancy, unless they have at some early period of their manhood resolved
the greater problems of society in independence and isolation. By 1756 the
cast of Burke's opinions was decisively fixed, and they underwent no
radical change.

He began a series of _Hints on the Drama_. He wrote a portion of an
_Abridgment of the History of England_, and brought it down as far as the
reign of John. It included, as was natural enough in a warm admirer of
Montesquieu, a fragment on law, of which he justly said that it ought to be
the leading science in every well-ordered commonwealth. Burke's early
interest in America was shown by an _Account of the European Settlements_
on that continent. Such works were evidently a sign that his mind was
turning away from abstract speculation to the great political and economic
fields, and to the more visible conditions of social stability and the
growth of nations. This interest in the concrete phenomena of society
inspired him with the idea of the _Annual Register_ (1759), which he
designed to present a broad grouping of the chief movements of each year.
The execution was as excellent as the conception, and if we reflect that it
was begun in the midst of that momentous war which raised England to her
climax of territorial greatness in East and West, we may easily realize how
the task of describing these portentous and far-reaching events would be
likely to strengthen Burke's habits of wide and laborious observation, as
well as to give him firmness and confidence in the exercise of his own
judgment. Dodsley gave him £100 for each annual volume, and the sum was
welcome enough, for towards the end of 1756 Burke had married. His wife was
the daughter of a Dr Nugent, a physician at Bath. She is always spoken of
by his friends as a mild, reasonable and obliging person, whose amiability
and gentle sense did much to soothe the too nervous and excitable
temperament of her husband. She had been brought up, there is good reason
to believe, as a Catholic, and she was probably a member of that communion
at the time of her marriage. Dr Nugent eventually took up his residence
with his son-in-law in London, and became a popular member of that famous
group of men of letters and artists whom Boswell has made so familiar and
so dear to all later generations. Burke, however, had no intention of being
dependent. His consciousness of his own powers animated him with a most
justifiable ambition, if ever there was one, to play a part in the conduct
of national affairs. Friends shared this ambition on his behalf; one of
these was Lord Charlemont. He introduced Burke to William Gerard Hamilton
(1759), now only remembered by the nickname "single-speech," derived from
the circumstance of his having made a single brilliant speech in the House
of Commons, which was followed by years of almost unbroken silence.
Hamilton was by no means devoid of sense and acuteness, but in character he
was one of the most despicable men then alive. There is not a word too many
nor too strong in the description of him by one of Burke's friends, as "a
sullen, vain, proud, selfish, cankered-hearted, envious reptile." The
reptile's connexion, however, was for a time of considerable use to Burke.
When he was made Irish secretary, Burke accompanied him to Dublin, and
there learnt Oxenstiern's eternal lesson, that awaits all who penetrate
behind the scenes of government, _quam parva sapientia mundus regitur_.

The penal laws against the Catholics, the iniquitous restrictions on Irish
trade and industry, the selfish factiousness of the parliament, the jobbery
and corruption of administration, the absenteeism of the landlords, and all
the other too familiar elements of that mischievous and fatal system, were
then in full force. As was shown afterwards, they made an impression upon
Burke that was never effaced. So much iniquity and so much disorder may
well have struck deep on one whose two chief political sentiments were a
passion for order and a passion for justice. He may have anticipated with
something of remorse the reflection of a modern historian, that the
absenteeism of her landlords has been less of a curse to Ireland than the
absenteeism of her men of genius. At least he was never an absentee in
heart. He always took the interest of an ardent patriot in his unfortunate
country; and, as we shall see, made more than one weighty sacrifice on
behalf of the principles which he deemed to be bound up with her welfare.

When Hamilton retired from his post, Burke accompanied him back to London,
with a pension of £300 a year on the Irish Establishment. This modest
allowance he hardly enjoyed for more than a single year. His patron having
discovered the value of so laborious and powerful a subaltern, wished to
bind Burke permanently to his service. Burke declined to sell himself into
final bondage of this kind. When Hamilton continued to press his odious
pretensions they quarrelled (1765), and Burke threw up his pension. He soon
received a more important piece of preferment than any which he could ever
have procured through Hamilton.

The accession of George III. to the throne in 1760 had been followed by the
disgrace of Pitt, the dismissal of Newcastle, and the rise of Bute. These
events marked the resolution of the court to change the political system
which had been created by the Revolution of 1688. That system placed the
government of the country in the hands of a territorial oligarchy, composed
of a few families of large possessions, fairly enlightened principles, and
shrewd political sense. It had been preserved by the existence of a
Pretender. The two first kings of the house of Hanover could only keep the
crown on their own heads by conciliating the Revolution families and
accepting Revolution principles. By 1760 all peril to the dynasty was at an
end. George III., or those about him, insisted on substituting for the
aristocratic division of political power a substantial concentration of it
in the hands of the sovereign. The ministers were no longer to be the
members of a great party, acting together in pursuance of a common policy
accepted by them all as a united body; they were to become nominees of the
court, each holding himself answerable not to his colleagues but to the
king, separately, individually and by department. George III. had before
his eyes the government of his cousin the great Frederick; but not every
one can bend the bow of Ulysses, and, apart from difference of personal
capacity and historic tradition, he forgot that a territorial and
commercial aristocracy cannot be dealt with in the spirit of the barrack
and the drill-ground. But he made the attempt, and resistance to that
attempt supplies the keynote to the first twenty-five years of Burke's
political life.

Along with the change in system went high-handed and absolutist tendencies
in policy. The first stage of the new experiment was very short. Bute, in a
panic at the storm of unpopularity that menaced him, resigned in 1763.
George Grenville and the less enlightened section of the Whigs took his
place. They proceeded to tax the American colonists, to interpose
vexatiously against their trade, to threaten the liberty of the subject at
home by general warrants, and to stifle the liberty of public discussion by
prosecutions of the press. Their arbitrary methods disgusted the nation,
and the personal arrogance of the ministers at last disgusted the king. The
system received a temporary check. Grenville fell, and the king was forced
to deliver himself into the hands of the orthodox section of the Whigs. The
marquess of Rockingham (July 10, 1765) became prime minister, and he was
induced to make Burke his private secretary. Before Burke had begun his
duties, an incident occurred which illustrates the character of the two
men. The old duke of Newcastle, probably desiring a post for some nominee
of his own, conveyed to the ear of the new minister various absurd rumours
prejudicial to Burke,--that he was an Irish papist, that his real name was
O'Bourke, that he had been a Jesuit, that he was an emissary from St
Omer's. Lord Rockingham repeated these tales to Burke, who of course denied
them with indignation. His chief declared himself satisfied, but Burke,
from a feeling that the indispensable confidence between them was impaired,
at once expressed a strong desire to resign his post. Lord Rockingham
prevailed upon him to reconsider his resolve, and from that day until Lord
Rockingham's death in [v.04 p.0827] 1782, their relations were those of the
closest friendship and confidence.

The first Rockingham administration only lasted a year and a few days,
ending in July 1766. The uprightness and good sense of its leaders did not
compensate for the weakness of their political connexions. They were unable
to stand against the coldness of the king, against the hostility of the
powerful and selfish faction of Bedford Whigs, and, above all, against the
towering predominance of William Pitt. That Pitt did not join them is one
of the many fatal miscarriages of history, as it is one of the many serious
reproaches to be made against that extraordinary man's chequered and uneven
course. An alliance between Pitt and the Rockingham party was the surest
guarantee of a wise and liberal policy towards the colonies. He went
further than they did, in holding, like Lord Camden, the doctrine that
taxation went with representation, and that therefore parliament had no
right to tax the unrepresented colonists. The ministry asserted, what no
competent jurist would now think of denying, that parliament is sovereign;
but they went heartily with Pitt in pronouncing the exercise of the right
of taxation in the case of the American colonists to be thoroughly
impolitic and inexpedient. No practical difference, therefore, existed upon
the important question of the hour. But Pitt's prodigious egoism,
stimulated by the mischievous counsels of men of the stamp of Lord
Shelburne, prevented the fusion of the only two sections of the Whig party
that were at once able, enlightened and disinterested enough to carry on
the government efficiently, to check the arbitrary temper of the king, and
to command the confidence of the nation. Such an opportunity did not
return.

The ministerial policy towards the colonies was defended by Burke with
splendid and unanswerable eloquence. He had been returned to the House of
Commons for the pocket borough of Wendover, and his first speech (January
27, 1766) was felt to be the rising of a new light. For the space of a
quarter of a century, from this time down to 1790, Burke was one of the
chief guides and inspirers of a revived Whig party. The "age of small
factions" was now succeeded by an age of great principles, and selfish ties
of mere families and persons were transformed into a union resting on
common conviction and patriotic aims. It was Burke who did more than any
one else to give to the Opposition, under the first half of the reign of
George III., this stamp of elevation and grandeur. Before leaving office
the Rockingham government repealed the Stamp Act; confirmed the personal
liberty of the subject by forcing on the House of Commons one resolution
against general warrants, and another against the seizure of papers; and
relieved private houses from the intrusion of officers of excise, by
repealing the cider tax. Nothing so good was done in an English parliament
for nearly twenty years to come. George Grenville, whom the Rockinghams had
displaced, and who was bitterly incensed at their formal reversal of his
policy, printed a pamphlet to demonstrate his own wisdom and statesmanship.
Burke replied in his _Observations on a late Publication on the Present
State of the Nation_ (1769), in which he showed for the first time that he
had not only as much knowledge of commerce and finance, and as firm a hand,
in dealing with figures as Grenville himself, but also a broad, general and
luminous way of conceiving and treating politics, in which neither then nor
since has he had any rival among English publicists.

It is one of the perplexing points in Burke's private history to know how
he lived during these long years of parliamentary opposition. It is
certainly not altogether mere impertinence to ask of a public man how he
gets what he lives upon, for independence of spirit, which is so hard to
the man who lays his head on the debtor's pillow, is the prime virtue in
such men. Probity in money is assuredly one of the keys to character,
though we must be very careful in ascertaining and proportioning all the
circumstances. Now, in 1769, Burke bought an estate at Beaconsfield, in the
county of Buckingham. It was about 600 acres in extent, was worth some £500
a year, and cost £22,000. People have been asking ever since how the
penniless man of letters was able to raise so large a sum in the first
instance, and how he was able to keep up a respectable establishment
afterwards. The suspicions of those who are never sorry to disparage the
great have been of various kinds. Burke was a gambler, they hint, in Indian
stock, like his kinsmen Richard and William, and like Lord Verney, his
political patron at Wendover. Perhaps again, his activity on behalf of
Indian princes, like the raja of Tanjore, was not disinterested and did not
go unrewarded. The answer to all these calumnious innuendoes is to be found
in documents and title-deeds of decisive authority, and is simple enough.
It is, in short, this. Burke inherited a small property from his elder
brother, which he realized. Lord Rockingham advanced him a certain sum
(£6000). The remainder, amounting to no less than two-thirds of the
purchase-money, was raised on mortgage, and was never paid off during
Burke's life. The rest of the story is equally simple, but more painful.
Burke made some sort of income out of his 600 acres; he was for a short
time agent for New York, with a salary of £700; he continued to work at the
_Annual Register_ down to 1788. But, when all is told, he never made as
much as he spent; and in spite of considerable assistance from Lord
Rockingham, amounting it is sometimes said to as much as £30,000, Burke,
like the younger Pitt, got every year deeper into debt. Pitt's debts were
the result of a wasteful indifference to his private affairs. Burke, on the
contrary, was assiduous and orderly, and had none of the vices of
profusion. But he had that quality which Aristotle places high among the
virtues--the noble mean of Magnificence, standing midway between the two
extremes of vulgar ostentation and narrow pettiness. He was indifferent to
luxury, and sought to make life, not commodious nor soft, but high and
dignified in a refined way. He loved art, filled his house with statues and
pictures, and extended a generous patronage to the painters. He was a
collector of books, and, as Crabbe and less conspicuous men discovered, a
helpful friend to their writers. Guests were ever welcome at his board; the
opulence of his mind and the fervid copiousness of his talk naturally made
the guests of such a man very numerous. _Non invideo equidem, miror magis_,
was Johnson's good-natured remark, when he was taken over his friend's fine
house and pleasant gardens. Johnson was of a very different type. There was
something in this external dignity which went with Burke's imperious
spirit, his spacious imagination, his turn for all things stately and
imposing. We may say, if we please, that Johnson had the far truer and
loftier dignity of the two; but we have to take such men as Burke with the
defects that belong to their qualities. And there was no corruption in
Burke's outlay. When the Pitt administration was formed in 1766, he might
have had office, and Lord Rockingham wished him to accept it, but he
honourably took his fate with the party. He may have spent £3000 a year,
where he would have been more prudent to spend only £2000. But nobody was
wronged; his creditors were all paid in time, and his hands were at least
clean of traffic in reversions, clerkships, tellerships and all the rest of
the rich sinecures which it was thought no shame in those days for the
aristocracy of the land and the robe to wrangle for, and gorge themselves
upon, with the fierce voracity of famishing wolves. The most we can say is
that Burke, like Pitt, was too deeply absorbed in beneficent service in the
affairs of his country, to have for his own affairs the solicitude that
would have been prudent.

In the midst of intense political preoccupations, Burke always found time
to keep up his intimacy with the brilliant group of his earlier friends. He
was one of the commanding figures at the club at the Turk's Head, with
Reynolds and Garrick, Goldsmith and Johnson. The old sage who held that the
first Whig was the Devil, was yet compelled to forgive Burke's politics for
the sake of his magnificent gifts. "I would not talk to him of the
Rockingham party," he used to say, "but I love his knowledge, his genius,
his diffusion and affluence of conversation." And everybody knows Johnson's
vivid account of him: "Burke, Sir, is such a man that if you met him for
the first time in the street, where you were stopped by a drove of oxen,
and you and he stepped aside to take shelter but for five minutes, he'd
talk [v.04 p.0828] to you in such a manner that when you parted you would
say, 'This is an extraordinary man.'" They all grieved that public business
should draw to party what was meant for mankind. They deplored that the
nice and difficult test of answering Berkeley had not been undertaken, as
was once intended, by Burke, and sighed to think what an admirable display
of subtlety and brilliance such a contention would have afforded them, had
not politics "turned him from active philosophy aside." There was no
jealousy in this. They did not grudge Burke being the first man in the
House of Commons, for they admitted that he would have been the first man
anywhere.

With all his hatred for the book-man in politics, Burke owed much of his
own distinction to that generous richness and breadth of judgment which had
been ripened in him by literature and his practice in it. He showed that
books are a better preparation for statesmanship than early training in the
subordinate posts and among the permanent officials of a public department.
There is no copiousness of literary reference in his work, such as
over-abounded in the civil and ecclesiastical publicists of the 17th
century. Nor can we truly say that there is much, though there is certainly
some, of that tact which literature is alleged to confer on those who
approach it in a just spirit and with the true gift. The influence of
literature on Burke lay partly in the direction of emancipation from the
mechanical formulae of practical politics; partly in the association which
it engendered, in a powerful understanding like his, between politics and
the moral forces of the world, and between political maxims and the old and
great sentences of morals; partly in drawing him, even when resting his
case on prudence and expediency, to appeal to the widest and highest
sympathies; partly, and more than all, in opening his thoughts to the many
conditions, possibilities and "varieties of untried being," in human
character and situation, and so giving an incomparable flexibility to his
methods of political approach.

This flexibility is not to be found in his manner of composition. That
derives its immense power from other sources; from passion, intensity,
imagination, size, truth, cogency of logical reason. Those who insist on
charm, on winningness in style, on subtle harmonies and fine exquisiteness
of suggestion, are disappointed in Burke: they even find him stiff and
over-coloured. And there are blemishes of this kind. His banter is nearly
always ungainly, his wit blunt, as Johnson said, and often unseasonable. As
is usual with a man who has not true humour, Burke is also without true
pathos. The thought of wrong or misery moved him less to pity for the
victim than to anger against the cause. Again, there are some gratuitous
and unredeemed vulgarities; some images that make us shudder. But only a
literary fop can be detained by specks like these.

The varieties of Burke's literary or rhetorical method are very striking.
It is almost incredible that the superb imaginative amplification of the
description of Hyder Ali's descent upon the Carnatic should be from the
same pen as the grave, simple, unadorned _Address to the King_ (1777),
where each sentence falls on the ear with the accent of some golden-tongued
oracle of the wise gods. His stride is the stride of a giant, from the
sentimental beauty of the picture of Marie Antoinette at Versailles, or the
red horror of the tale of Debi Sing in Rungpore, to the learning,
positiveness and cool judicial mastery of the _Report on the Lords'
Journals_ (1794), which Philip Francis, no mean judge, declared on the
whole to be the "most eminent and extraordinary" of all his productions.
But even in the coolest and driest of his pieces there is the mark of
greatness, of grasp, of comprehension. In all its varieties Burke's style
is noble, earnest, deep-flowing, because his sentiment was lofty and
fervid, and went with sincerity and ardent disciplined travail of judgment.
He had the style of his subjects; the amplitude, the weightiness, the
laboriousness, the sense, the high flight, the grandeur, proper to a man
dealing with imperial themes, with the fortunes of great societies, with
the sacredness of law, the freedom of nations, the justice of rulers. Burke
will always be read with delight and edification, because in the midst of
discussions on the local and the accidental, he scatters apophthegms that
take us into the regions of lasting wisdom. In the midst of the torrent of
his most strenuous and passionate deliverances, he suddenly rises aloof
from his immediate subject, and in all tranquillity reminds us of some
permanent relation of things, some enduring truth of human life or human
society. We do not hear the organ tones of Milton, for faith and freedom
had other notes in the 18th century. There is none of the complacent and
wise-browed sagacity of Bacon, for Burke's were days of personal strife and
fire and civil division. We are not exhilarated by the cheerfulness, the
polish, the fine manners of Bolingbroke, for Burke had an anxious
conscience, and was earnest and intent that the good should triumph. And
yet Burke is among the greatest of those who have wrought marvels in the
prose of our English tongue.

Not all the transactions in which Burke was a combatant could furnish an
imperial theme. We need not tell over again the story of Wilkes and the
Middlesex election. The Rockingham ministry had been succeeded by a
composite government, of which it was intended that Pitt, now made Lord
Chatham and privy seal, should be the real chief. Chatham's health and mind
fell into disorder almost immediately after the ministry had been formed.
The duke of Grafton was its nominal head, but party ties had been broken,
the political connexions of the ministers were dissolved, and, in truth,
the king was now at last a king indeed, who not only reigned but governed.
The revival of high doctrines of prerogative in the crown was accompanied
by a revival of high doctrines of privilege in the House of Commons, and
the ministry was so smitten with weakness and confusion as to be unable to
resist the current of arbitrary policy, and not many of them were even
willing to resist it. The unconstitutional prosecution of Wilkes was
followed by the fatal recourse to new plans for raising taxes in the
American colonies. These two points made the rallying ground of the new
Whig opposition. Burke helped to smooth matters for a practical union
between the Rockingham party and the powerful triumvirate, composed of
Chatham, whose understanding had recovered from its late disorder, and of
his brothers-in-law, Lord Temple and George Grenville. He was active in
urging petitions from the freeholders of the counties, protesting against
the unconstitutional invasion of the right of election. And he added a
durable masterpiece to political literature in a pamphlet which he called
_Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents_ (1770). The immediate
object of this excellent piece was to hold up the court scheme of weak,
divided and dependent administrations in the light of its real purpose and
design; to describe the distempers which had been engendered in parliament
by the growth of royal influence and the faction of the king's friends; to
show that the newly formed Whig party had combined for truly public ends,
and was no mere family knot like the Grenvilles and the Bedfords; and,
finally, to press for the hearty concurrence both of public men and of the
nation at large in combining against "a faction ruling by the private
instructions of a court against the general sense of the people." The
pamphlet was disliked by Chatham on the one hand, on no reasonable grounds
that we can discover; it was denounced by the extreme popular party of the
Bill of Rights, on the other hand, for its moderation and conservatism. In
truth, there is as strong a vein of conservative feeling in the pamphlet of
1770 as in the more resplendent pamphlet of 1790. "Our constitution," he
said, "stands on a nice equipoise, with steep precipices and deep waters
upon all sides of it. In removing it from a dangerous leaning towards one
side, there may be a risk of oversetting it on the other. Every project of
a material change in a government so complicated as ours is a matter full
of difficulties; in which a considerate man will not be too ready to
decide, a prudent man too ready to undertake, or an honest man too ready to
promise." Neither now nor ever had Burke any other real conception of a
polity for England than government by the territorial aristocracy in the
interests of the nation at large, and especially in the interests of
commerce, to the vital importance of which in our economy he was always
keenly and wisely alive. The policy of George III., and the support which
it found among [v.04 p.0829] men who were weary of Whig factions, disturbed
this scheme, and therefore Burke denounced both the court policy and the
court party with all his heart and all his strength.

Eloquence and good sense, however, were impotent in the face of such forces
as were at this time arrayed against a government at once strong and
liberal. The court was confident that a union between Chatham and the
Rockinghams was impossible. The union was in fact hindered by the
waywardness and the absurd pretences of Chatham, and the want of force in
Lord Rockingham. In the nation at large, the late violent ferment had been
followed by as remarkable a deadness and vapidity, and Burke himself had to
admit a year or two later that any remarkable robbery at Hounslow Heath
would make more conversation than all the disturbances of America. The duke
of Grafton went out, and Lord North became the head of a government, which
lasted twelve years (1770-1782), and brought about more than all the
disasters that Burke had foretold as the inevitable issue of the royal
policy. For the first six years of this lamentable period Burke was
actively employed in stimulating, informing and guiding the patrician
chiefs of his party. "Indeed, Burke," said the duke of Richmond, "you have
more merit than any man in keeping us together." They were well-meaning and
patriotic men, but it was not always easy to get them to prefer politics to
fox-hunting. When he reached his lodgings at night after a day in the city
or a skirmish in the House of Commons, Burke used to find a note from the
duke of Richmond or the marquess of Rockingham, praying him to draw a
protest to be entered on the Journals of the Lords, and in fact he drew all
the principal protests of his party between 1767 and 1782. The accession of
Charles James Fox to the Whig party, which took place at this time, and was
so important an event in its history, was mainly due to the teaching and
influence of Burke. In the House of Commons his industry was almost
excessive. He was taxed with speaking too often, and with being too
forward. And he was mortified by a more serious charge than murmurs about
superfluity of zeal. Men said and said again that he was Junius. His very
proper unwillingness to stoop to deny an accusation, that would have been
so disgraceful if it had been true, made ill-natured and silly people the
more convinced that it was not wholly false. But whatever the London world
may have thought of him, Burke's energy and devotion of character impressed
the better minds in the country. In 1774 he received the great distinction
of being chosen as one of its representatives by Bristol, then the second
town in the kingdom.

In the events which ended in the emancipation of the American colonies from
the monarchy, Burke's political genius shone with an effulgence that was
worthy of the great affairs over which it shed so magnificent an
illumination. His speeches are almost the one monument of the struggle on
which a lover of English greatness can look back with pride and a sense of
worthiness, such as a churchman feels when he reads Bossuet, or an Anglican
when he turns over the pages of Taylor or of Hooker. Burke's attitude in
these high transactions is really more impressive than Chatham's, because
he was far less theatrical than Chatham; and while he was no less nobly
passionate for freedom and justice, in his passion was fused the most
strenuous political argumentation and sterling reason of state. On the
other hand he was wholly free from that quality which he ascribed to Lord
George Sackville, a man "apt to take a sort of undecided, equivocal, narrow
ground, that evades the substantial merits of the question, and puts the
whole upon some temporary, local, accidental or personal consideration." He
rose to the full height of that great argument. Burke here and everywhere
else displayed the rare art of filling his subject with generalities, and
yet never intruding commonplaces. No publicist who deals as largely in
general propositions has ever been as free from truisms; no one has ever
treated great themes with so much elevation, and yet been so wholly secured
against the pitfalls of emptiness and the vague. And it is instructive to
compare the foundation of all his pleas for the colonists with that on
which they erected their own theoretic declaration of independence. The
American leaders were impregnated with the metaphysical ideas of rights
which had come to them from the rising revolutionary school in France.
Burke no more adopted the doctrines of Jefferson in 1776 than he adopted
the doctrines of Robespierre in 1793. He says nothing about men being born
free and equal, and on the other hand he never denies the position of the
court and the country at large, that the home legislature, being sovereign,
had the right to tax the colonies. What he does say is that the exercise of
such a right was not practicable; that if it were practicable, it was
inexpedient; and that, even if this had not been inexpedient, yet, after
the colonies had taken to arms, to crush their resistance by military force
would not be more disastrous to them than it would be unfortunate for the
ancient liberties of Great Britain. Into abstract discussion he would not
enter. "Show the thing you contend for to be reason; show it to be common
sense; show it to be the means of attaining some useful end." "The question
with me is not whether you have a right to render your people miserable,
but whether it is not your interest to make them happy." There is no
difference in social spirit and doctrine between his protests against the
maxims of the English common people as to the colonists, and his protests
against the maxims of the French common people as to the court and the
nobles; and it is impossible to find a single principle either asserted or
implied in the speeches on the American revolution which was afterwards
repudiated in the writings on the revolution in France.

It is one of the signs of Burke's singular and varied eminence that hardly
any two people agree precisely which of his works to mark as the
masterpiece. Every speech or tract that he composed on a great subject
becomes, as we read it, the rival of every other. But the _Speech on
Conciliation_ (1775) has, perhaps, been more universally admired than any
of his other productions, partly because its maxims are of a simpler and
less disputable kind than those which adorn the pieces on France, and
partly because it is most strongly characterized by that deep ethical
quality which is the prime secret of Burke's great style and literary
mastery. In this speech, moreover, and in the only less powerful one of the
preceding year upon American taxation, as well as in the _Letter to the
Sheriffs of Bristol_ in 1777, we see the all-important truth conspicuously
illustrated that half of his eloquence always comes of the thoroughness
with which he gets up his case. No eminent man has ever done more than
Burke to justify the definition of genius as the consummation of the
faculty of taking pains. Labour incessant and intense, if it was not the
source, was at least an inseparable condition of his power. And magnificent
rhetorician though he was, his labour was given less to his diction than to
the facts; his heart was less in the form than the matter. It is true that
his manuscripts were blotted and smeared, and that he made so many
alterations in the proofs that the printer found it worth while to have the
whole set up in type afresh. But there is no polish in his style, as in
that of Junius for example, though there is something a thousand times
better than polish. "Why will you not allow yourself to be persuaded," said
Francis after reading the _Reflections_, "that polish is material to
preservation?" Burke always accepted the rebuke, and flung himself into
vindication of the sense, substance and veracity of what he had written.
His writing is magnificent, because he knew so much, thought so
comprehensively, and felt so strongly.

The succession of failures in America, culminating in Cornwallis's
surrender at Yorktown in October 1781, wearied the nation, and at length
the persistent and powerful attacks of the opposition began to tell. "At
this time," wrote Burke, in words of manly self-assertion, thirteen years
afterwards, "having a momentary lead (1780-1782), so aided and so
encouraged, and as a feeble instrument in a mighty hand--I do not say I
saved my country--I am sure I did my country important service. There were
few indeed at that time that did not acknowledge it. It was but one voice,
that no man in the kingdom better deserved an honourable provision should
be made for him." In the spring of 1782 Lord North resigned. It seemed as
if the court system which Burke had been denouncing [v.04 p.0830] for a
dozen years was now finally broken, and as if the party which he had been
the chief instrument in instructing, directing and keeping together must
now inevitably possess power for many years to come. Yet in a few months
the whole fabric had fallen, and the Whigs were thrown into opposition for
the rest of the century. The story cannot be omitted in the most summary
account of Burke's life. Lord Rockingham came into office on the fall of
North. Burke was rewarded for services beyond price by being made paymaster
of the forces, with the rank of a privy councillor. He had lost his seat
for Bristol two years before, in consequence of his courageous advocacy of
a measure of tolerance for the Catholics, and his still more courageous
exposure of the enormities of the commercial policy of England towards
Ireland. He sat during the rest of his parliamentary life (to 1794) for
Malton, a pocket borough first of Lord Rockingham's, then of Lord
Fitzwilliam's. Burke's first tenure of office was very brief. He had
brought forward in 1780 a comprehensive scheme of economical reform, with
the design of limiting the resources of jobbery and corruption which the
crown was able to use to strengthen its own sinister influence in
parliament. Administrative reform was, next to peace with the colonies, the
part of the scheme of the new ministry to which the king most warmly
objected. It was carried out with greater moderation than had been
foreshadowed in opposition. But at any rate Burke's own office was not
spared. While Charles Fox's father was at the pay-office (1765-1778) he
realized as the interest of the cash balances which he was allowed to
retain in his hands, nearly a quarter of a million of money. When Burke
came to this post the salary was settled at £4000 a year. He did not enjoy
the income long. In July 1782 Lord Rockingham died; Lord Shelburne took his
place; Fox, who inherited from his father a belief in Lord Shelburne's
duplicity, which his own experience of him as a colleague during the last
three months had made stronger, declined to serve under him. Burke, though
he had not encouraged Fox to take this step, still with his usual loyalty
followed him out of office. This may have been a proper thing to do if
their distrust of Shelburne was incurable, but the next step, coalition
with Lord North against him, was not only a political blunder, but a shock
to party morality, which brought speedy retribution. Either they had been
wrong, and violently wrong, for a dozen years, or else Lord North was the
guiltiest political instrument since Strafford. Burke attempted to defend
the alliance on the ground of the substantial agreement between Fox and
North in public aims. The defence is wholly untenable. The Rockingham Whigs
were as substantially in agreement on public affairs with the Shelburne
Whigs as they were with Lord North. The movement was one of the worst in
the history of English party. It served its immediate purpose, however, for
Lord Shelburne found himself (February 24, 1783) too weak to carry on the
government, and was succeeded by the members of the coalition, with the
duke of Portland for prime minister (April 2, 1783). Burke went back to his
old post at the pay-office and was soon engaged in framing and drawing the
famous India Bill. This was long supposed to be the work of Fox, who was
politically responsible for it. We may be sure that neither he nor Burke
would have devised any government for India which they did not honestly
believe to be for the advantage both of that country and of England. But it
cannot be disguised that Burke had thoroughly persuaded himself that it was
indispensable in the interests of English freedom to strengthen the party
hostile to the court. As we have already said, dread of the peril to the
constitution from the new aims of George III. was the main inspiration of
Burke's political action in home affairs for the best part of his political
life. The India Bill strengthened the anti-court party by transferring the
government of India to seven persons named in the bill, and neither
appointed nor removable by the crown. In other words, the bill gave the
government to a board chosen directly by the House of Commons; and it had
the incidental advantage of conferring on the ministerial party patronage
valued at £300,000 a year, which would remain for a fixed term of years out
of reach of the king. In a word, judging the India Bill from a party point
of view, we see that Burke was now completing the aim of his project of
economic reform. That measure had weakened the influence of the crown by
limiting its patronage. The measure for India weakened the influence of the
crown by giving a mass of patronage to the party which the king hated. But
this was not to be. The India Bill was thrown out by means of a royal
intrigue in the Lords, and the ministers were instantly dismissed (December
18, 1783). Young William Pitt, then only in his twenty-fifth year, had been
chancellor of the exchequer in Lord Shelburne's short ministry, and had
refused to enter the coalition government from an honourable repugnance to
join Lord North. He was now made prime minister. The country in the
election of the next year ratified the king's judgment against the Portland
combination; and the hopes which Burke had cherished for a political
lifetime were irretrievably ruined.

The six years that followed the great rout of the orthodox Whigs were years
of repose for the country, but it was now that Burke engaged in the most
laborious and formidable enterprise of his life, the impeachment of Warren
Hastings for high crimes and misdemeanours in his government of India. His
interest in that country was of old date. It arose partly from the fact of
William Burke's residence there, partly from his friendship with Philip
Francis, but most of all, we suspect, from the effect which he observed
Indian influence to have in demoralizing the House of Commons. "Take my
advice for once in your life," Francis wrote to Shee; "lay aside 40,000
rupees for a seat in parliament: in this country that alone makes all the
difference between somebody and nobody." The relations, moreover, between
the East India Company and the government were of the most important kind,
and occupied Burke's closest attention from the beginning of the American
war down to his own India Bill and that of Pitt and Dundas. In February
1785 he delivered one of the most famous of all his speeches, that on the
nabob of Arcot's debts. The real point of this superb declamation was
Burke's conviction that ministers supported the claims of the fraudulent
creditors in order to secure the corrupt advantages of a sinister
parliamentary interest. His proceedings against Hastings had a deeper
spring. The story of Hastings's crimes, as Macaulay says, made the blood of
Burke boil in his veins. He had a native abhorrence of cruelty, of
injustice, of disorder, of oppression, of tyranny, and all these things in
all their degrees marked Hastings's course in India. They were, moreover,
concentrated in individual cases, which exercised Burke's passionate
imagination to its profoundest depths, and raised it to such a glow of
fiery intensity as has never been rivalled in our history. For it endured
for fourteen years, and was just as burning and as terrible when Hastings
was acquitted in 1795, as in the select committee of 1781 when Hastings's
enormities were first revealed. "If I were to call for a reward," wrote
Burke, "it would be for the services in which for fourteen years, without
intermission, I showed the most industry and had the least success, I mean
in the affairs of India; they are those on which I value myself the most;
most for the importance; most for the labour; most for the judgment; most
for constancy and perseverance in the pursuit." Sheridan's speech in the
House of Commons upon the charge relative to the begums of Oude probably
excelled anything that Burke achieved, as a dazzling performance abounding
in the most surprising literary and rhetorical effects. But neither
Sheridan nor Fox was capable of that sustained and overflowing indignation
at outraged justice and oppressed humanity, that consuming moral fire,
which burst forth again and again from the chief manager of the
impeachment, with such scorching might as drove even the cool and intrepid
Hastings beyond all self-control, and made him cry out with protests and
exclamations like a criminal writhing under the scourge. Burke, no doubt,
in the course of that unparalleled trial showed some prejudice; made some
minor overstatements of his case; used many intemperances; and suffered
himself to be provoked into expressions of heat and impatience by the
cabals of the defendant and his party, and the intolerable incompetence of
the tribunal. It is one of the inscrutable perplexities of human affairs,
that in the logic of practical [v.04 p.0831] life, in order to reach
conclusions that cover enough for truth, we are constantly driven to
premises that cover too much, and that in order to secure their right
weight to justice and reason good men are forced to fling the two-edged
sword of passion into the same scale. But these excuses were mere trifles,
and well deserve to be forgiven, when we think that though the offender was
in form acquitted, yet Burke succeeded in these fourteen years of laborious
effort in laying the foundations once for all of a moral, just,
philanthropic and responsible public opinion in England with reference to
India, and in doing so performed perhaps the most magnificent service that
any statesman has ever had it in his power to render to humanity.

Burke's first decisive step against Hastings was a motion for papers in the
spring of 1786; the thanks of the House of Commons to the managers of the
impeachment were voted in the summer of 1794. But in those eight years some
of the most astonishing events in history had changed the political face of
Europe. Burke was more than sixty years old when the states-general met at
Versailles in the spring of 1789. He had taken a prominent part on the side
of freedom in the revolution which stripped England of her empire in the
West. He had taken a prominent part on the side of justice, humanity and
order in dealing with the revolution which had brought to England new
empire in the East. The same vehement passion for freedom, justice,
humanity and order was roused in him at a very early stage of the third
great revolution in his history--the revolution which overthrew the old
monarchy in France. From the first Burke looked on the events of 1789 with
doubt and misgiving. He had been in France in 1773, where he had not only
the famous vision of Marie Antoinette at Versailles, "glittering like the
morning star, full of life, and splendour and joy," but had also supped and
discussed with some of the destroyers, the encyclopaedists, "the
sophisters, economists and calculators." His first speech on his return to
England was a warning (March 17, 1773) that the props of good government
were beginning to fail under the systematic attacks of unbelievers, and
that principles were being propagated that would not leave to civil society
any stability. The apprehension never died out in his mind; and when he
knew that the principles and abstractions, the un-English dialect and
destructive dialectic, of his former acquaintances were predominant in the
National Assembly, his suspicion that the movement would end in disastrous
miscarriage waxed into certainty.

The scene grew still more sinister in his eyes after the march of the mob
from Paris to Versailles in October, and the violent transport of the king
and queen from Versailles to Paris. The same hatred of lawlessness and
violence which fired him with a divine rage against the Indian malefactors
was aroused by the violence and lawlessness of the Parisian insurgents. The
same disgust for abstractions and naked doctrines of right that had stirred
him against the pretensions of the British parliament in 1774 and 1776, was
revived in as lively a degree by political conceptions which he judged to
be identical in the French assembly of 1789. And this anger and disgust
were exasperated by the dread with which certain proceedings in England had
inspired him, that the aims, principles, methods and language which he so
misdoubted or abhorred in France were likely to infect the people of Great
Britain.

In November 1790 the town, which had long been eagerly expecting a
manifesto from Burke's pen, was electrified by the _Reflections on the
Revolution in France, and on the proceedings in certain societies in London
relative to that event_. The generous Windham made an entry in his diary of
his reception of the new book. "What shall be said," he added, "of the
state of things, when it is remembered that the writer is a man decried,
persecuted and proscribed; not being much valued even by his own party, and
by half the nation considered as little better than an ingenious madman?"
But the writer now ceased to be decried, persecuted and proscribed, and his
book was seized as the expression of that new current of opinion in Europe
which the more recent events of the Revolution had slowly set flowing. Its
vogue was instant and enormous. Eleven editions were exhausted in little
more than a year, and there is probably not much exaggeration in the
estimate that 30,000 copies were sold before Burke's death seven years
afterwards. George III. was extravagantly delighted; Stanislaus of Poland
sent Burke words of thanks and high glorification and a gold medal.
Catherine of Russia, the friend of Voltaire and the benefactress of
Diderot, sent her congratulations to the man who denounced French
philosophers as miscreants and wretches. "One wonders," Romilly said, by
and by, "that Burke is not ashamed at such success." Mackintosh replied to
him temperately in the _Vindiciae Gallicae_, and Thomas Paine replied to
him less temperately but far more trenchantly and more shrewdly in the
_Rights of Man_. Arthur Young, with whom he had corresponded years before
on the mysteries of deep ploughing and fattening hogs, added a cogent
polemical chapter to that ever admirable work, in which he showed that he
knew as much more than Burke about the old system of France as he knew more
than Burke about soils and roots. Philip Francis, to whom he had shown the
proof-sheets, had tried to dissuade Burke from publishing his performance.
The passage about Marie Antoinette, which has since become a stock piece in
books of recitation, seemed to Francis a mere piece of foppery; for was she
not a Messalina and a jade? "I know nothing of your story of Messalina,"
answered Burke; "am I obliged to prove judicially the virtues of all those
I shall see suffering every kind of wrong and contumely and risk of life,
before I endeavour to interest others in their sufferings?... Are not high
rank, great splendour of descent, great personal elegance and outward
accomplishments ingredients of moment in forming the interest we take in
the misfortunes of men?... I tell you again that the recollection of the
manner in which I saw the queen of France in 1774, and the contrast between
that brilliancy, splendour and beauty, with the prostrate homage of a
nation to her, and the abominable scene of 1780 which I was describing,
_did_ draw tears from me and wetted my paper. These tears came again into
my eyes almost as often as I looked at the description,--they may again.
You do not believe this fact, nor that these are my real feelings; but that
the whole is affected, or as you express it, downright foppery. My friend,
I tell you it is truth; and that it is true and will be truth when you and
I are no more; and will exist as long as men with their natural feelings
shall exist" (_Corr._ iii. 139).

Burke's conservatism was, as such a passage as this may illustrate, the
result partly of strong imaginative associations clustering round the more
imposing symbols of social continuity, partly of a sort of corresponding
conviction in his reason that there are certain permanent elements of human
nature out of which the European order had risen and which that order
satisfied, and of whose immense merits, as of its mighty strength, the
revolutionary party in France were most fatally ignorant. When Romilly saw
Diderot in 1783, the great encyclopaedic chief assured him that submission
to kings and belief in God would be at an end all over the world in a very
few years. When Condorcet described the Tenth Epoch in the long development
of human progress, he was sure not only that fulness of light and
perfection of happiness would come to the sons of men, but that they were
coming with all speed. Only those who know the incredible rashness of the
revolutionary doctrine in the mouths of its most powerful professors at
that time; only those who know their absorption in ends and their
inconsiderateness about means, can feel how profoundly right Burke was in
all this part of his contention. Napoleon, who had begun life as a disciple
of Rousseau, confirmed the wisdom of the philosophy of Burke when he came
to make the Concordat. That measure was in one sense the outcome of a mere
sinister expediency, but that such a measure was expedient at all sufficed
to prove that Burke's view of the present possibilities of social change
was right, and the view of the Rousseauites and too sanguine
Perfectibilitarians wrong. As we have seen, Burke's very first niece, the
satire on Bolingbroke, sprang from his conviction that merely rationalistic
or destructive criticism, applied to the vast complexities of man [v.04
p.0832] in the social union, is either mischievous or futile, and
mischievous exactly in proportion as it is not futile.

To discuss Burke's writings on the Revolution would be to write first a
volume upon the abstract theory of society, and then a second volume on the
history of France. But we may make one or two further remarks. One of the
most common charges against Burke was that he allowed his imagination and
pity to be touched only by the sorrows of kings and queens, and forgot the
thousands of oppressed and famine-stricken toilers of the land. "No tears
are shed for nations," cried Francis, whose sympathy for the Revolution was
as passionate as Burke's execration of it. "When the provinces are scourged
to the bone by a mercenary and merciless military power, and every drop of
its blood and substance extorted from it by the edicts of a royal council,
the case seems very tolerable to those who are not involved in it. When
thousands after thousands are dragooned out of their country for the sake
of their religion, or sent to row in the galleys for selling salt against
law,--when the liberty of every individual is at the mercy of every
prostitute, pimp or parasite that has access to power or any of its basest
substitutes,--my mind, I own, is not at once prepared to be satisfied with
gentle palliatives for such disorders" (_Francis to Burke_, November 3,
1790). This is a very terse way of putting a crucial objection to Burke's
whole view of French affairs in 1789. His answer was tolerably simple. The
Revolution, though it had made an end of the Bastille, did not bring the
only real practical liberty, that is to say, the liberty which comes with
settled courts of justice, administering settled laws, undisturbed by
popular fury, independent of everything but law, and with a clear law for
their direction. The people, he contended, were no worse off under the old
monarchy than they will be in the long run under assemblies that are bound
by the necessity of feeding one part of the community at the grievous
charge of other parts, as necessitous as those who are so fed; that are
obliged to flatter those who have their lives at their disposal by
tolerating acts of doubtful influence on commerce and agriculture, and for
the sake of precarious relief to sow the seeds of lasting want; that will
be driven to be the instruments of the violence of others from a sense of
their own weakness, and, by want of authority to assess equal and
proportioned charges upon all, will be compelled to lay a strong hand upon
the possessions of a part. As against the moderate section of the
Constituent Assembly this was just.

One secret of Burke's views of the Revolution was the contempt which he had
conceived for the popular leaders in the earlier stages of the movement. In
spite of much excellence of intention, much heroism, much energy, it is
hardly to be denied that the leaders whom that movement brought to the
surface were almost without exception men of the poorest political
capacity. Danton, no doubt, was abler than most of the others, yet the
timidity or temerity with which he allowed himself to be vanquished by
Robespierre showed that even he was not a man of commanding quality. The
spectacle of men so rash, and so incapable of controlling the forces which
they seemed to have presumptuously summoned, excited in Burke both
indignation and contempt. And the leaders of the Constituent who came first
on the stage, and hoped to make a revolution with rose-water, and hardly
realized any more than Burke did how rotten was the structure which they
had undertaken to build up, almost deserved his contempt, even if, as is
certainly true, they did not deserve his indignation. It was only by
revolutionary methods, which are in their essence and for a time as
arbitrary as despotic methods, that the knot could be cut. Burke's vital
error was his inability to see that a root and branch revolution was, under
the conditions, inevitable. His cardinal position, from which he deduced so
many important conclusions, namely, that, the parts and organs of the old
constitution of France were sound, and only needed moderate invigoration,
is absolutely mistaken and untenable. There was not a single chamber in the
old fabric that was not crumbling and tottering. The court was frivolous,
vacillating, stone deaf and stone blind; the gentry were amiable, but
distinctly bent to the very last on holding to their privileges, and they
were wholly devoid both of the political experience that only comes of
practical responsibility for public affairs, and of the political sagacity
that only comes of political experience. The parliaments or tribunals were
nests of faction and of the deepest social incompetence. The very sword of
the state broke short in the king's hand. If the king or queen could either
have had the political genius of Frederick the Great, or could have had the
good fortune to find a minister with that genius, and the good sense and
good faith to trust and stand by him against mobs of aristocrats and mobs
of democrats; if the army had been sound and the states-general had been
convoked at Bourges or Tours instead of at Paris, then the type of French
monarchy and French society might have been modernized without convulsion.
But none of these conditions existed.

When he dealt with the affairs of India Burke passed over the circumstances
of our acquisition of power in that continent. "There is a sacred veil to
be drawn over the beginnings of all government," he said. "The first step
to empire is revolution, by which power is conferred; the next is good
laws, good order, good institutions, to give that power stability." Exactly
on this broad principle of political force, revolution was the first step
to the assumption by the people of France of their own government. Granted
that the Revolution was inevitable and indispensable, how was the nation to
make the best of it? And how were surrounding nations to make the best of
it? This was the true point of view. But Burke never placed himself at such
a point. He never conceded the postulate, because, though he knew France
better than anybody in England except Arthur Young, he did not know her
condition well enough. "Alas!" he said, "they little know how many a weary
step is to be taken before they can form themselves into a mass which has a
true political personality."

Burke's view of French affairs, however consistent with all his former
political conceptions, put an end to more than one of his old political
friendships. He had never been popular in the House of Commons, and the
vehemence, sometimes amounting to fury, which he had shown in the debates
on the India Bill, on the regency, on the impeachment of Hastings, had made
him unpopular even among men on his own side. In May 1789--that memorable
month of May in which the states-general marched in impressive array to
hear a sermon at the church of Notre Dame at Versailles--a vote of censure
had actually been passed on him in the House of Commons for a too severe
expression used against Hastings. Fox, who led the party, and Sheridan, who
led Fox, were the intimates of the prince of Wales; and Burke would have
been as much out of place in that circle of gamblers and profligates as
Milton would have been out of place in the court of the Restoration. The
prince, as somebody said, was like his father in having closets within
cabinets and cupboards within closets. When the debates on the regency were
at their height we have Burke's word that he was not admitted to the
private counsels of the party. Though Fox and he were on friendly terms in
society, yet Burke admits that for a considerable period before 1790 there
had been between them "distance, coolness and want of confidence, if not
total alienation on his part." The younger Whigs had begun to press for
shorter parliaments, for the ballot, for redistribution of political power.
Burke had never looked with any favour on these projects. His experience of
the sentiment of the populace in the two greatest concerns of his
life,--American affairs and Indian affairs,--had not been likely to
prepossess him in favour of the popular voice as the voice of superior
political wisdom. He did not absolutely object to some remedy in the state
of representation (_Corr._ ii. 387), still he vigorously resisted such
proposals as the duke of Richmond's in 1780 for manhood suffrage. The
general ground was this:--"The machine itself is well enough to answer any
good purpose, provided the materials were sound. But what signifies the
arrangement of rottenness?"

Bad as the parliaments of George III. were, they contained their full share
of eminent and capable men; and, what is more, their very defects were the
exact counterparts of what we now look back upon as the prevailing
stupidity in the country. [v.04 p.0833] What Burke valued was good
government. His _Report on the Causes of the Duration of Mr Hastings's
Trial_ shows how wide and sound were his views of law reform. His _Thoughts
on Scarcity_ attest his enlightenment on the central necessities of trade
and manufacture, and even furnished arguments to Cobden fifty years
afterwards. Pitt's parliaments were competent to discuss, and willing to
pass, all measures for which the average political intelligence of the
country was ripe. Burke did not believe that altered machinery was at that
time needed to improve the quality of legislation. If wiser legislation
followed the great reform of 1832, Burke would have said this was because
the political intelligence of the country had improved.

Though averse at all times to taking up parliamentary reform, he thought
all such projects downright crimes in the agitation of 1791-1792. This was
the view taken by Burke, but it was not the view of Fox, nor of Sheridan,
nor of Francis, nor of many others of his party, and difference of opinion
here was naturally followed by difference of opinion upon affairs in
France. Fox, Grey, Windham, Sheridan, Francis, Lord Fitzwilliam, and most
of the other Whig leaders, welcomed the Revolution in France. And so did
Pitt, too, for some time. "How much the greatest event it is that ever
happened in the world," cried Fox, with the exaggeration of a man ready to
dance the carmagnole, "and how much the best!" The dissension between a man
who felt so passionately as Burke, and a man who spoke so impulsively as
Charles Fox, lay in the very nature of things. Between Sheridan and Burke
there was an open breach in the House of Commons upon the Revolution so
early as February 1790, and Sheridan's influence with Fox was strong. This
divergence of opinion destroyed all the elation that Burke might well have
felt at his compliments from kings, his gold medals, his twelve editions.
But he was too fiercely in earnest in his horror of Jacobinism to allow
mere party associations to guide him. In May 1791 the thundercloud burst,
and a public rupture between Burke and Fox took place in the House of
Commons.

The scene is famous in English parliamentary annals. The minister had
introduced a measure for the division of the province of Canada and for the
establishment of a local legislature in each division. Fox in the course of
debate went out of his way to laud the Revolution, and to sneer at some of
the most effective passages in the _Reflections_. Burke was not present,
but he announced his determination to reply. On the day when the Quebec
Bill was to come on again, Fox called upon Burke, and the pair walked
together from Burke's house in Duke Street down to Westminster. The Quebec
Bill was recommitted, and Burke at once rose and soon began to talk his
usual language against the Revolution, the rights of man, and Jacobinism
whether English or French. There was a call to order. Fox, who was as sharp
and intolerant in the House as he was amiable out of it, interposed with
some words of contemptuous irony. Pitt, Grey, Lord Sheffield, all plunged
into confused and angry debate as to whether the French Revolution was a
good thing, and whether the French Revolution, good or bad, had anything to
do with the Quebec Bill. At length Fox, in seconding a motion for confining
the debate to its proper subject, burst into the fatal question beyond the
subject, taxing Burke with inconsistency, and taunting him with having
forgotten that ever-admirable saying of his own about the insurgent
colonists, that he did not know how to draw an indictment against a whole
nation. Burke replied in tones of firm self-repression; complained of the
attack that had been made upon him; reviewed Fox's charges of
inconsistency; enumerated the points on which they had disagreed, and
remarked that such disagreements had never broken their friendship. But
whatever the risk of enmity, and however bitter the loss of friendship, he
would never cease from the warning to flee from the French constitution.
"But there is no loss of friends," said Fox in an eager undertone. "Yes,"
said Burke, "there _is_ a loss of friends. I know the penalty of toy
conduct. I have done my duty at the price of my friend--our friendship is
at an end." Fox rose, but was so overcome that for some moments he could
not speak. At length, his eyes streaming with tears, and in a broken voice,
he deplored the breach of a twenty years' friendship on a political
question. Burke was inexorable. To him the political question was so vivid,
so real, so intense, as to make all personal sentiment no more than dust in
the balance. Burke confronted Jacobinism with the relentlessness of a
Jacobin. The rupture was never healed, and Fox and he had no relations with
one another henceforth beyond such formal interviews as took place in the
manager's box in Westminster Hall in connexion with the impeachment.

A few months afterwards Burke published the _Appeal from the New to the Old
Whigs_, a grave, calm and most cogent vindication of the perfect
consistency of his criticisms upon the English Revolution of 1688 and upon
the French Revolution of 1789, with the doctrines of the great Whigs who
conducted and afterwards defended in Anne's reign the transfer of the crown
from James to William and Mary. The _Appeal_ was justly accepted as a
satisfactory performance for the purpose with which it was written. Events,
however, were doing more than words could do, to confirm the public opinion
of Burke's sagacity and foresight. He had always divined by the instinct of
hatred that the French moderates must gradually be swept away by the
Jacobins, and now it was all coming true. The humiliation of the king and
queen after their capture at Varennes; the compulsory acceptance of the
constitution; the plain incompetence of the new Legislative Assembly; the
growing violence of the Parisian mob, and the ascendency of the Jacobins at
the Common Hall; the fierce day of the 20th of June (1792), when the mob
flooded the Tuileries, and the bloodier day of the 10th of August, when the
Swiss guard was massacred and the royal family flung into prison; the
murders in the prisons in September; the trial and execution of the king in
January (1793); the proscription of the Girondins in June, the execution of
the queen in October--if we realize the impression likely to be made upon
the sober and homely English imagination by such a heightening of horror by
horror, we may easily understand how people came to listen to Burke's voice
as the voice of inspiration, and to look on his burning anger as the holy
fervour of a prophet of the Lord.

Fox still held to his old opinions as stoutly as he could, and condemned
and opposed the war which England had declared against the French republic.
Burke, who was profoundly incapable of the meanness of letting personal
estrangement blind his eyes to what was best for the commonwealth, kept
hoping against hope that each new trait of excess in France would at length
bring the great Whig leader to a better mind. He used to declaim by the
hour in the conclaves at Burlington House upon the necessity of securing
Fox; upon the strength which his genius would lend to the administration in
its task of grappling with the sanguinary giant; upon the impossibility, at
least, of doing either with him or without him. Fox's most important
political friends who had long wavered, at length, to Burke's great
satisfaction, went over to the side of the government. In July 1794 the
duke of Portland, Lord Fitzwilliam, Windham and Grenville took office under
Pitt. Fox was left with a minority which was satirically said not to have
been more than enough to fill a hackney coach. "That is a calumny," said
one of the party, "we should have filled two." The war was prosecuted with
the aid of both the great parliamentary parties of the country, and with
the approval of the great bulk of the nation. Perhaps the one man in
England who in his heart approved of it less than any other was William
Pitt. The difference between Pitt and Burke was nearly as great as that
between Burke and Fox. Burke would be content with nothing short of a
crusade against France, and war to the death with her rulers. "I cannot
persuade myself," he said, "that this war bears any the least resemblance
to any that has ever existed in the world. I cannot persuade myself that
any examples or any reasonings drawn from other wars and other politics are
at all applicable to it" (_Corr._ iv. 219). Pitt, on the other hand, as
Lord Russell truly says, treated Robespierre and Carnot as he would have
treated any other French rulers, whose ambition was to be resisted, and
whose interference in the affairs of other nations was to be checked. And
he entered upon the matter [v.04 p.0834] in the spirit of a man of
business, by sending ships to seize some islands belonging to France in the
West Indies, so as to make certain of repayment of the expenses of the war.

In the summer of 1794 Burke was struck to the ground by a blow to his
deepest affection in life, and he never recovered from it. His whole soul
was wrapped up in his only son, of whose abilities he had the most
extravagant estimate and hope. All the evidence goes to show that Richard
Burke was one of the most presumptuous and empty-headed of human beings.
"He is the most impudent and opiniative fellow I ever knew," said Wolfe
Tone. Gilbert Elliot, a very different man, gives the same account.
"Burke," he says, describing a dinner party at Lord Fitzwilliam's in 1793,
"has now got such a train after him as would sink anybody but himself: his
son, who is quite _nauseated_ by all mankind; his brother, who is liked
better than his son, but is rather oppressive with animal spirits and
brogue; and his cousin, William Burke, who is just returned unexpectedly
from India, as much ruined as when he went years ago, and who is a fresh
charge on any prospects of power Burke may ever have. Mrs Burke has in her
train Miss French [Burke's niece], the most perfect _She Paddy_ that ever
was caught. Notwithstanding these disadvantages Burke is in himself a sort
of power in the state. It is not too much to say that he is a sort of power
in Europe, though totally without any of those means or the smallest share
in them which give or maintain power in other men." Burke accepted the
position of a power in Europe seriously. Though no man was ever more free
from anything like the egoism of the intellectual coxcomb, yet he abounded
in that active self-confidence and self-assertion which is natural in men
who are conscious of great powers, and strenuous in promoting great causes.
In the summer of 1791 he despatched his son to Coblenz to give advice to
the royalist exiles, then under the direction of Calonne, and to report to
him at Beaconsfield their disposition and prospects. Richard Burke was
received with many compliments, but of course nothing came of his mission,
and the only impression that remains with the reader of his prolix story is
his tale of the two royal brothers, who afterwards became Louis XVIII. and
Charles X., meeting after some parting, and embracing one another with many
tears on board a boat in the middle of the Rhine, while some of the
courtiers raised a cry of "Long live the king"--the king who had a few
weeks before been carried back in triumph to his capital with Mayor Pétion
in his coach. When we think of the pass to which things had come in Paris
by this time, and of the unappeasable ferment that boiled round the court,
there is a certain touch of the ludicrous in the notion of poor Richard
Burke writing to Louis XVI. a letter of wise advice how to comport himself.

At the end of the same year, with the approval of his father he started for
Ireland as the adviser of the Catholic Association. He made a wretched
emissary, and there was no limit to his arrogance, noisiness and
indiscretion. The Irish agitators were glad to give him two thousand
guineas and to send him home. The mission is associated with a more
important thing, his father's _Letters to Sir Hercules Langrishe_,
advocating the admission of the Irish Catholics to the franchise. This
short piece abounds richly in maxims of moral and political prudence. And
Burke exhibited considerable courage in writing it; for many of its maxims
seem to involve a contradiction, first, to the principles on which he
withstood the movement in France, and second, to his attitude upon the
subject of parliamentary reform. The contradiction is in fact only
superficial. Burke was not the man to fall unawares into a trap of this
kind. His defence of Catholic relief--and it had been the conviction of a
lifetime--was very properly founded on propositions which were true of
Ireland, and were true neither of France nor of the quality of
parliamentary representation in England. Yet Burke threw such breadth and
generality over all he wrote that even these propositions, relative as they
were, form a short manual of statesmanship.

At the close of the session of 1794 the impeachment of Hastings had come to
an end, and Burke bade farewell to parliament. Richard Burke was elected in
his father's place at Malton. The king was bent on making the champion of
the old order of Europe a peer. His title was to be Lord Beaconsfield, and
it was designed to annex to the title an income for three lives. The patent
was being made ready, when all was arrested by the sudden death of the son
who was to Burke more than life. The old man's grief was agonizing and
inconsolable. "The storm has gone over me," he wrote in words which are
well known, but which can hardly be repeated too often for any who have an
ear for the cadences of noble and pathetic speech,--"The storm has gone
over me, and I lie like one of those old oaks which the late hurricane has
scattered about me. I am stripped of all my honours; I am torn up by the
roots and lie prostrate on the earth.... I am alone. I have none to meet my
enemies in the gate.... I live in an inverted order. They who ought to have
succeeded me have gone before me. They who should have been to me as
posterity are in the place of ancestors."

A pension of £2500 was all that Burke could now be persuaded to accept. The
duke of Bedford and Lord Lauderdale made some remarks in parliament upon
this paltry reward to a man who, in conducting a great trial on the public
behalf, had worked harder for nearly ten years than any minister in any
cabinet of the reign. But it was not yet safe to kick up heels in face of
the dying lion. The vileness of such criticism was punished, as it deserved
to be, in the _Letter to a Noble Lord_ (1796), in which Burke showed the
usual art of all his compositions in shaking aside the insignificances of a
subject. He turned mere personal defence and retaliation into an occasion
for a lofty enforcement of constitutional principles, and this, too, with a
relevancy and pertinence of consummate skilfulness. There was to be one
more great effort before the end.

In the spring of 1796 Pitt's constant anxiety for peace had become more
earnest than ever. He had found out the instability of the coalition and
the power of France. Like the thrifty steward he was, he saw with growing
concern the waste of the national resources and the strain upon commerce,
with a public debt swollen to what then seemed the desperate sum of
£400,000,000. Burke at the notion of negotiation flamed out in the _Letters
on a Regicide Peace_, in some respects the most splendid of all his
compositions. They glow with passion, and yet with all their rapidity is
such steadfastness, the fervour of imagination is so skilfully tempered by
close and plausible reasoning, and the whole is wrought with such strength
and fire, that we hardly know where else to look either in Burke's own
writings or elsewhere for such an exhibition of the rhetorical resources of
our language. We cannot wonder that the whole nation was stirred to the
very depths, or that they strengthened the aversion of the king, of Windham
and other important personages in the government against the plans of Pitt.
The prudence of their drift must be settled by external considerations.
Those who think that the French were likely to show a moderation and
practical reasonableness in success, such as they had never shown in the
hour of imminent ruin, will find Burke's judgment full of error and
mischief. Those, on the contrary, who think that the nation which was on
the very eve of surrendering itself to the Napoleonic absolutism was not in
a hopeful humour for peace and the European order, will believe that
Burke's protests were as perspicacious as they were powerful, and that
anything which chilled the energy of the war was as fatal as he declared it
to be.

When the third and most impressive of these astonishing productions came
into the hands of the public, the writer was no more. Burke died on the 8th
of July 1797. Fox, who with all his faults was never wanting in a fine and
generous sensibility, proposed that there should be a public funeral, and
that the body should lie among the illustrious dead in Westminster Abbey.
Burke, however, had left strict injunctions that his burial should be
private; and he was laid in the little church at Beaconsfield. It was the
year of Campo Formio. So a black whirl and torment of rapine, violence and
fraud was encircling the Western world, as a life went out which,
notwithstanding some eccentricities [v.04 p.0835] and some aberrations, had
made great tides in human destiny very luminous.

(J. MO.)

AUTHORITIES.--Of the _Collected Works_, there are two main editions--the
quarto and the octavo. (1) Quarto, in eight volumes, begun in 1792, under
the editorship of Dr F. Lawrence; vols. i.-iii. were published in 1792;
vols. iv.-viii., edited by Dr Walter King, sometime bishop of Rochester,
were completed in 1827. (2) Octavo in sixteen volumes. This was begun at
Burke's death, also by Drs Lawrence and King; vols. i.-viii. were published
in 1803 and reissued in 1808, when Dr Lawrence died; vols. ix.-xii. were
published in 1813 and the remaining four vols. in 1827. A new edition of
vols. i.-viii. was published in 1823 and the contents of vols. i.-xii. in 2
vols. octavo in 1834. An edition in nine volumes was published in Boston,
Massachusetts, in 1839. This contains the whole of the English edition in
sixteen volumes, with a reprint of the _Account of the European Settlements
in America_ which is not in the English edition.

Among the numerous editions published later may be mentioned that in
_Bohn's British Classics_, published in 1853. This contains the fifth
edition of Sir James Prior's life; also an edition in twelve volumes,
octavo, published by J.C. Nimmo, 1898. There is an edition of the _Select
Works_ of Burke with introduction and notes by E.J. Payne in the Clarendon
Press series, new edition, 3 vols., 1897. _The Correspondence of Edmund
Burke_, edited by Earl Fitzwilliam and Sir R. Bourke, with appendix,
detached papers and notes for speeches, was published in 4 vols., 1844.
_The Speeches of Edmund Burke, in the House of Commons and Westminster
Hall_, were published in 4 vols., 1816. Other editions of the speeches are
those _On Irish Affairs_, collected and arranged by Matthew Arnold, with a
preface (1881), _On American Taxation, On Conciliation with America_,
together with the _Letter to the Sheriff of Bristol_, edited with
introduction and notes by F.G. Selby (1895).

The standard life of Burke is that by Sir James Prior, _Memoir of the Life
and Character of Edmund Burke with Specimens of his Poetry and Letters_
(1824). The lives by C. MacCormick (1798) by R. Bisset (1798, 1800) are of
little value. Other lives are those by the Rev. George Croly (2 vols.,
1847), and by T. MacKnight (3 vols., 1898). Of critical estimates of
Burke's life the _Edmund Burke_ of John Morley, "English Men of Letters"
series (1879), is an elaboration of the above article; see also his _Burke,
a Historical Study_ (1867); "Three Essays on Burke," by Sir James Fitzjames
Stephen in _Horae Sabbaticae_, series iii. (1892); and _Peptographia
Dublinensis, Memorial Discourses preached in the Chapel of Trinity College,
Dublin_, 1895-1902; _Edmund Burke_, by G. Chadwick, bishop of Derry (1902).

BURKE, SIR JOHN BERNARD (1814-1892), British genealogist, was born in
London, on the 5th of January 1814, and was educated in London and in
France. His father, John Burke (1787-1848), was also a genealogist, and in
1826 issued a _Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and
Baronetage of the United Kingdom_. This work, generally known as _Burke's
Peerage_, has been issued annually since 1847. While practising as a
barrister Bernard Burke assisted his father in his genealogical work, and
in 1848 took control of his publications. In 1853 he was appointed Ulster
king-at-arms; in 1854 he was knighted; and in 1855 he became keeper of the
state papers in Ireland. After having devoted his life to genealogical
studies he died in Dublin on the 12th of December 1892. In addition to
editing _Burke's Peerage_ from 1847 to his death, Burke brought out several
editions of a companion volume, _Burke's Landed Gentry_, which was first
published between 1833 and 1838. In 1866 and 1883 he published editions of
his father's _Dictionary of the Peerages of England, Scotland and Ireland,
extinct, dormant and in abeyance_ (earlier editions, 1831, 1840, 1846); in
1855 and 1876 editions of his _Royal Families of England, Scotland and
Wales_ (1st edition, 1847-1851); and in 1878 and 1883 enlarged editions of
his _Encyclopaedia of Heraldry, or General Armoury of England, Scotland and
Ireland_. Burke's own works include _The Roll of Battle Abbey_ (1848); _The
Romance of the Aristocracy_ (1855); _Vicissitudes of Families_ (1883 and
several earlier editions); and _The Rise of Great Families_ (1882). He was
succeeded as editor of _Burke's Peerage_ and _Landed Gentry_ by his fourth
son, Ashworth Peter Burke.

BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA (1820-1861), Australian explorer, was born at St
Cleram, Co. Galway, Ireland, in 1820. Descended from a branch of the family
of Clanricarde, he was educated in Belgium, and at twenty years of age
entered the Austrian army, in which he attained the rank of captain. In
1848 he left the Austrian service, and became a member of the Royal Irish
Constabulary. Five years later he emigrated to Tasmania, and shortly
afterwards crossed to Melbourne, where he became an inspector of police.
When the Crimean War broke out he went to England in the hope of securing a
commission in the army, but peace had meanwhile been signed, and he
returned to Victoria and resumed his police duties. At the end of 1857 the
Philosophical Institute of Victoria took up the question of the exploration
of the interior of the Australian continent, and appointed a committee to
inquire into and report upon the subject. In September 1858, when it became
known that John McDouall Stuart had succeeded in penetrating as far as the
centre of Australia, the sum of £1000 was anonymously offered for the
promotion of an expedition to cross the continent from south to north, on
condition that a further sum of £2000 should be subscribed within a
twelvemonth. The amount having been raised within the time specified, the
Victorian parliament supplemented it by a vote of £6000, and an expedition
was organized under the leadership of Burke, with W.J. Wills as surveyor
and astronomical observer. The story of this expedition, which left
Melbourne on the 21st of August 1860, furnishes perhaps the most painful
episode in Australian annals. Ten Europeans and three Sepoys accompanied
the expedition, which was soon torn by internal dissensions. Near Menindie
on the Darling, Landells, Burke's second in command, became insubordinate
and resigned, his example being followed by the doctor--a German. On the
11th of November Burke, with Wills and five assistants, fifteen horses and
sixteen camels, reached Cooper's Creek in Queensland, where a depot was
formed near good grass and abundance of water. Here Burke proposed waiting
the arrival of his third officer, Wright, whom he had sent back from
Torowoto to Menindie to fetch some camels and supplies. Wright, however,
delayed his departure until the 26th of January 1861. Meantime, weary of
waiting, Burke, with Wills, King and Gray as companions, determined on the
16th of December to push on across the continent, leaving an assistant
named Brahe to take care of the depot until Wright's arrival. On the 4th of
February 1861 Burke and his party, worn down by famine, reached the estuary
of the Flinders river, not far from the present site of Normantown on the
Gulf of Carpentaria. On the 26th of February began their return journey.
The party suffered greatly from famine and exposure, and but for the rainy
season, thirst would have speedily ended their miseries. In vain they
looked for the relief which Wright was to bring them. On the 16th of April
Gray died, and the emaciated survivors halted a day to bury his body. That
day's delay, as it turned out, cost Burke and Wills their lives; they
arrived at Cooper's Creek to find the depot deserted. But a few hours
before Brahe, unrelieved by Wright, and thinking that Burke had died or
changed his plans, had taken his departure for the Darling. With such
assistance as they could get from the natives, Burke, and his two
companions struggled on, until death overtook Burke and Wills at the end of
June. King sought the natives, who cared for him until his relief by a
search party in September. No one can deny the heroism of the men whose
lives were sacrificed in this ill-starred expedition. But it is admitted
that the leaders were not bushmen and had had no experience in exploration.
Disunion and disobedience to orders, from the highest to the lowest,
brought about the worst results, and all that now remains to tell the story
of the failure of this vast undertaking is a monument to the memory of the
foolhardy heroes, from the chisel of Charles Summers, erected on a
prominent site in Melbourne.

BURKE, WILLIAM (1792-1829), Irish criminal, was born in Ireland in 1792.
After trying his hand at a variety of trades there, he went to Scotland
about 1817 as a navvy, and in 1827 was living in a lodging-house in
Edinburgh kept by William Hare, another Irish labourer. Towards the end of
that year one of Hare's lodgers, an old army pensioner, died. This was the
period of the body-snatchers or Resurrectionists, and Hare and Burke, aware
that money could always be obtained for a corpse, sold the body to Dr
Robert Knox, a leading Edinburgh anatomist, for £7, 10s. The price obtained
and the simplicity of the transaction suggested to Hare an easy method of
making a [v.04 p.0836] profitable livelihood, and Burke at once fell in
with the plan. The two men inveigled obscure travellers to Hare's or some
other lodging-house, made them drunk and then suffocated them, taking care
to leave no marks of violence. The bodies were sold to Dr Knox for prices
averaging from £8 to £14. At least fifteen victims had been disposed of in
this way when the suspicions of the police were aroused, and Burke and Hare
were arrested. The latter turned king's evidence, and Burke was found
guilty and hanged at Edinburgh on the 28th of January 1829. Hare found it
impossible, in view of the strong popular feeling, to remain in Scotland.
He is believed to have died in England under an assumed name. From Burke's
method of killing his victims has come the verb "to burke," meaning to
suffocate, strangle or suppress secretly, or to kill with the object of
selling the body for the purposes of dissection.

See George Macgregor, _History of Burke and Hare and of the Resurrectionist
Times_ (Glasgow, 1884).

BURLAMAQUI, JEAN JACQUES (1694-1748), Swiss publicist, was born at Geneva
on the 24th of June 1694. At the age of twenty-five he was designated
honorary professor of ethics and the law of nature at the university of
Geneva. Before taking up the appointment he travelled through France and
England, and made the acquaintance of the most eminent writers of the
period. On his return he began his lectures, and soon gained a wide
reputation, from the simplicity of his style and the precision of his
views. He continued to lecture for fifteen years, when he was compelled on
account of ill-health to resign. His fellow-citizens at once elected him a
member of the council of state, and he gained as high a reputation for his
practical sagacity as he had for his theoretical knowledge. He died at
Geneva on the 3rd of April 1748. His works were _Principes du droit
naturel_ (1747), and _Principes du droit politique_ (1751). These have
passed through many editions, and were very extensively used as text-books.
Burlamaqui's style is simple and clear, and his arrangement of the material
good. His fundamental principle may be described as rational
utilitarianism, and in many ways it resembles that of Cumberland.

BURLESQUE (Ital. _burlesco_, from _burla_, a joke, fun, playful trick), a
form of the comic in art, consisting broadly in an imitation of a work of
art with the object of exciting laughter, by distortion or exaggeration, by
turning, for example, the highly rhetorical into bombast, the pathetic into
the mock-sentimental, and especially by a ludicrous contrast between the
subject and the style, making gods speak like common men and common men
like gods. While parody (_q.v._), also based on imitation, relies for its
effect more on the close following of the style of its counterpart,
burlesque depends on broader and coarser effects. Burlesque may be applied
to any form of art, and unconsciously, no doubt, may be found even in
architecture. In the graphic arts it takes the form better known as
"caricature" (_q.v._). Its particular sphere is, however, in literature,
and especially in drama. The _Batrachomachia_, or Battle of the Frogs and
Mice, is the earliest example in classical literature, being a travesty of
the Homeric epic. There are many true burlesque parts in the comedies of
Aristophanes, _e.g._ the appearance of Socrates in the _Clouds_. The
Italian word first appears in the _Opere Burlesche_ of Francesco Berni
(1497-1535). In France during part of the reign of Louis XIV., the
burlesque attained to great popularity; burlesque Aeneids, Iliads and
Odysseys were composed, and even the most sacred subjects were not left
untravestied. Of the numerous writers of these, P. Scarron is most
prominent, and his _Virgile Travesti_ (1648-1653) was followed by numerous
imitators. In English literature Chaucer's _Rime of Sir Thopas_ is a
burlesque of the long-winded medieval romances. Among the best-known true
burlesques in English dramatic literature may be mentioned the 2nd duke of
Buckingham's _The Rehearsal_, a burlesque of the heroic drama; Gay's
_Beggar's Opera_, of the Italian opera; and Sheridan's _The Critic_. In the
later 19th century the name "burlesque" was given to a form of musical
dramatic composition in which the true element of burlesque found little or
no place. These musical burlesques, with which the Gaiety theatre, London,
and the names of Edward Terry, Fred Leslie and Nellie Farren are
particularly connected, developed from the earlier extravaganzas of J.R.
Planché, written frequently round fairy tales. The Gaiety type of burlesque
has since given place to the "musical comedy," and its only survival is to
be found in the modern pantomime.

BURLINGAME, ANSON (1820-1870), American legislator and diplomat, was born
in New Berlin, Chenango county, New York, on the 14th of November 1820. In
1823 his parents took him to Ohio, and about ten years afterwards to
Michigan. In 1838-1841 he studied in one of the "branches" of the
university of Michigan, and in 1846 graduated at the Harvard law school. He
practised law in Boston, and won a wide reputation by his speeches for the
Free Soil party in 1848. He was a member of the Massachusetts
constitutional convention in 1853, of the state senate in 1853-1854, and of
the national House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861, being elected for
the first term as a "Know Nothing" and afterwards as a member of the new
Republican party, which he helped to organize in Massachusetts. He was an
effective debater in the House, and for his impassioned denunciation (June
21, 1856) of Preston S. Brooks (1819-1857), for his assault upon Senator
Charles Sumner, was challenged by Brooks. Burlingame accepted the challenge
and specified rifles as the weapons to be used; his second chose Navy
Island, above the Niagara Falls, and in Canada, as the place for the
meeting. Brooks, however, refused these conditions, saying that he could
not reach the place designated "without running the gauntlet of mobs and
assassins, prisons and penitentiaries, bailiffs and constables." To
Burlingame's appointment as minister to Austria (March 22, 1861) the
Austrian authorities objected because in Congress he had advocated the
recognition of Sardinia as a first-class power and had championed Hungarian
independence. President Lincoln thereupon appointed him (June 14, 1861)
minister to China. This office he held until November 1867, when he
resigned and was immediately appointed (November 26) envoy extraordinary
and minister plenipotentiary to head a Chinese diplomatic mission to the
United States and the principal European nations. The embassy, which
included two Chinese ministers, an English and a French secretary, six
students from the Tung-wan Kwang at Peking, and a considerable retinue,
arrived in the United States in March 1868, and concluded at Washington
(28th of July 1868) a series of articles, supplementary to the Reed Treaty
of 1858, and later known as "The Burlingame Treaty." Ratifications of the
treaty were not exchanged at Peking until November 23, 1869. The
"Burlingame Treaty" recognizes China's right of eminent domain over all her
territory, gives China the right to appoint at ports in the United States
consuls, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those
enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia"; provides that
"citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and
Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of
conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on
account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and grants
certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the
privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld. After
leaving the United States, the embassy visited several continental
capitals, but made no definite treaties. Burlingame's speeches did much to
awaken interest in, and a more intelligent appreciation of, China's
attitude toward the outside world. He died suddenly at St Petersburg, on
the 23rd of February 1870.

His son Edward Livermore Burlingame (b. 1848) was educated at Harvard and
at Heidelberg, was a member of the editorial staff of the New York
_Tribune_ in 1871-1872 and of the _American Cyclopaedia_ in 1872-1876, and
in 1886 became the editor of _Scribner's Magazine_.

BURLINGTON, a city and the county-seat of Des Moines county, Iowa, U.S.A.,
on the Mississippi river, in the S.E. part of the state. Pop. (1890)
22,565; (1900) 23,201; (1905, state census) 25,318 (4492 foreign-born);
(1910) 24,324. It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (which has
extensive [v.04 p.0837] construction and repair shops here), the Chicago,
Rock Island & Pacific, and the Toledo, Peoria & Western (Pennsylvania
system) railways; and has an extensive river commerce. The river is spanned
here by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway bridge. Many of the
residences are on bluffs commanding beautiful views of river scenery; and
good building material has been obtained from the Burlington limestone
quarries. Crapo Park, of 100 acres, along the river, is one of the
attractions of the city. Among the principal buildings are the county court
house, the free public library, the Tama building, the German-American
savings bank building and the post office. Burlington has three
well-equipped hospitals. Among the city's manufactures are lumber,
furniture, baskets, pearl buttons, cars, carriages and wagons, Corliss
engines, waterworks pumps, metallic burial cases, desks, boxes, crackers,
flour, pickles and beer. The factory product in 1905 was valued at
$5,779,337, or 29.9% more than in 1900. The first white man to visit the
site of Burlington seems to have been Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, who came
in 1805 and recommended the erection of a fort. The American Fur Company
established a post here in 1829 or earlier, but settlement really began in
1833, after the Black Hawk War, and the place had a population of 1200 in
1838. It was laid out as a town and named Flint Hills (a translation of the
Indian name, _Shokokon_) in 1834; but the name was soon changed to
Burlington, after the city of that name in Vermont. Burlington was
incorporated as a town in 1837, and was chartered as a city in 1838 by the
territory of Wisconsin, the city charter being amended by the territory of
Iowa in 1839 and 1841. The territorial legislature of Wisconsin met here
from 1836 to 1838 and that of Iowa from 1838 to 1840. In 1837 a newspaper,
the _Wisconsin Territorial Gazette_, now the Burlington _Evening Gazette_,
and in 1839 another, the Burlington _Hawk Eye_, were founded; the latter
became widely known in the years immediately following 1872 from the
humorous sketches contributed to it by Robert Jones Burdette (b. 1844), an
associate editor, known as the "Burlington Hawk Eye Man," who in 1903
entered the Baptist ministry and became pastor of the Temple Baptist church
in Los Angeles, California, and among whose publications are _Hawkeyetems_
(1877), _Hawkeyes_ (1879), and _Smiles Yoked with Sighs_ (1900).

BURLINGTON, a city of Burlington county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the E. bank
of the Delaware river, 18 m. N.E. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 7264; (1900)
7392, of whom 636 were foreign-born and 590 were of negro descent; (1905)
8038; (1910) 8336. It is served by the Pennsylvania railway, and by
passenger and freight steamboat lines on the Delaware river, connecting
with river and Atlantic coast ports. Burlington is a pleasant residential
city with a number of interesting old mansions long antedating the War of
Independence, some of them the summer homes of old Philadelphia families.
The Burlington Society library, established in 1757 and still conducted
under its original charter granted by George II., is one of the oldest
public libraries in America. At Burlington are St Mary's Hall (1837;
Protestant Episcopal), founded by Bishop G.W. Doane, one of the first
schools for girls to be established in the country, Van Rensselaer Seminary
and the New Jersey State Masonic home. In the old St Mary's church
(Protestant Episcopal), which was built in 1703 and has been called St
Anne's as well as St Mary's, Daniel Coxe (1674-1739), first provincial
grand master of the lodge of Masons in America, was buried; a commemorative
bronze tablet was erected in 1907. Burlington College, founded by Bishop
Doane in 1864, was closed as a college in 1877, but continued as a church
school until 1900; the buildings subsequently passed into the hands of an
iron manufacturer. Burlington's principal industries are the manufacture of
shoes and cast-iron water and gas pipes. Burlington was settled in 1677 by
a colony of English Quakers. The settlement was first known as New Beverly,
but was soon renamed after Bridlington (Burlington), the Yorkshire home of
many of the settlers. In 1682 the assembly of West Jersey gave to
Burlington "Matinicunk Island," above the town, "for the maintaining of a
school for the education of youth"; revenues from a part of the island are
still used for the support of the public schools, and the trust fund is one
of the oldest for educational purposes in the United States. Burlington was
incorporated as a town in 1693 (re-incorporated, 1733), and became the seat
of government of West Jersey. On the union of East and West Jersey in 1702,
it became one of the two seats of government of the new royal province, the
meetings of the legislature generally alternating between Burlington and
Perth Amboy, under both the colonial and the state government, until 1790.
In 1777 the _New Jersey Gazette_, the first newspaper in New Jersey, was
established here; it was published (here and later in Trenton) until 1786,
and was an influential paper, especially during the War of Independence.
Burlington was chartered as a city in 1784.

See Henry Armitt Brown, _The Settlement of Burlington_ (Burlington, 1878);
George M. Hills, _History of the Church in Burlington_ (Trenton, 1885); and
Mrs A.M. Gummère, _Friends in Burlington_ (Philadelphia, 1884).

BURLINGTON, a city, port of entry and the county-seat of Chittenden county,
Vermont, U.S.A., on the E. shore of Lake Champlain, in the N.W. part of the
state, 90 m. S.E. of Montreal, and 300 m. N. of New York. It is the largest
city in the state. Pop. (1880) 11,365; (1890) 14,590; (1900) 18,640, of
whom 3726 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 20,468. It is served by the
Central Vermont and the Rutland railways, and by lines of passenger and
freight steamboats on Lake Champlain. The city is attractively situated on
an arm of Lake Champlain, being built on a strip of land extending about 6
m. south from the mouth of the Winooski river along the lake shore and
gradually rising from the water's edge to a height of 275 ft.; its
situation and its cool and equable summer climate have given it a wide
reputation as a summer resort, and it is a centre for yachting, canoeing
and other aquatic sports. During the winter months it has ice-boat
regattas. Burlington is the seat of the university of Vermont (1791;
non-sectarian and co-educational), whose official title in 1865 became "The
University of Vermont and State Agricultural College." The university is
finely situated on a hill (280 ft. above the lake) commanding a charming
view of the city, lake, the Adirondacks and the Green Mountains. It has
departments of arts, sciences and medicine, and a library of 74,800 volumes
and 32,936 pamphlets housed in the Billings Library, designed by H.H.
Richardson. The university received the Federal grants under the Morrill
acts of 1862 and 1890, and in connexion with it the Vermont agricultural
experiment station is maintained. At Burlington are also the Mt St Mary's
academy (1889, Roman Catholic), conducted by the Sisters of Mercy; and two
business colleges. Among the principal buildings are the city hall, the
Chittenden county court house, the Federal and the Y.M.C.A. buildings, the
Masonic temple, the Roman Catholic cathedral and the Edmunds high school.
Burlington's charitable institutions include the Mary Fletcher hospital,
the Adams mission home, the Lousia Howard mission, the Providence orphan
asylum, and homes for aged women, friendless women and destitute children.
The Fletcher free public library (47,000 volumes in 1908) is housed in a
Carnegie building. In the city are two sanitariums. The city has two parks
(one, Ethan Allen Park, is on a bluff in the north-west part of the city,
and commands a fine view) and four cemeteries; in Green Mount Cemetery,
which overlooks the Winooski valley, is a monument over the grave of Ethan
Allen, who lived in Burlington from 1778 until his death. Fort Ethan Allen,
a United States military post, is about 3 m. east of the city, with which
it is connected by an electric line. Burlington is the most important
manufacturing centre in the state; among its manufactures are sashes, doors
and blinds, boxes, furniture and wooden-ware, cotton and woollen goods,
patent medicines, refrigerators, house furnishings, paper and machinery. In
1905 the city's factory products were valued at $6,355,754, three-tenths of
which was the value of lumber and planing mill products, including sashes,
doors and blinds. The Winooski river, which forms the boundary between
Burlington and the township of Colchester and which enters Lake Champlain
N.W. of the city, [v.04 p.0838] furnishes valuable water-power, but most of
the manufactories are operated by steam. Quantities of marble were formerly
taken from quarries in the vicinity. The city is a wholesale distributing
centre for all northern Vermont and New Hampshire, and is one of the
principal lumber markets in the east, most of the lumber being imported
from Canada. It is the port of entry for the Vermont customs district,
whose exports and imports were valued respectively in 1907 at $8,333,024
and $5,721,034. A charter for a town to be founded here was granted by the
province of New Hampshire in 1763, but no settlement was made until 1774.
Burlington was chartered as a city in 1865.

BURMA, a province of British India, including the former kingdom of
independent Burma, as well as British Burma, acquired by the British Indian
government in the two wars of 1826 and 1852. It is divided into Upper and
Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.
The province lies to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of
country extending from the Pakchan river in 9° 55' north latitude to the
Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th
degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the
Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that
is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and 100th degrees of east longitude.
The extreme length from north to south is almost 1200 m., and the broadest
part, which is in about latitude 21° north, is 575 m. from east to west. On
the N. it is bounded by the dependent state of Manipur, by the Mishmi
hills, and by portions of Chinese territory; on the E. by the Chinese Shan
States, portions of the province of Yunnan, the French province of
Indo-China, and the Siamese Shan, or Lao States and Siam; on the S. by the
Siamese Malay States and the Bay of Bengal; and on the W. by the Bay of
Bengal and Chittagong. The coast-line from Taknaf, the mouth of the Naaf,
in the Akyab district on the north, to the estuary of the Pakchan at
Maliwun on the south, is about 1200 m. The total area of the province is
estimated at 238,738 sq.m., of which Burma proper occupies 168,573 sq.m.,
the Chin hills 10,250 sq.m., and the Shan States, which comprise the whole
of the eastern portion of the province, some 59,915 sq.m.

_Natural Divisions._--The province falls into three natural divisions:
Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of
Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in
the basin of the Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the
Mekong. Of these Arakan is a strip of country lying on the seaward slopes
of the range of hills known as the Arakan Yomas. It stretches from Cape
Negrais on the south to the Naaf estuary, which divides it from the
Chittagong division of Eastern Bengal and Assam on the north, and includes
the districts of Sandoway, Kyaukpyu, Akyab and northern Arakan, an area of
some 18,540 sq.m. The northern part of this tract is barren hilly country,
but in the west and south are rich alluvial plains containing some of the
most fertile lands of the province. Northwards lie the Chin and some part
of the Kachin hills. To the east of the Arakan division, and separated from
it by the Arakan Yornas, lies the main body of Burma in the basin of the
Irrawaddy. This tract falls into four subdivisions. First, there is the
highland tract including the hilly country at the sources of the Chindwin
and the upper waters of the Irrawaddy, the Upper Chindwin, Katha, Bhamo,
Myitkyina and Ruby Mines districts, with the Kachin hills and a great part
of the Northern Shan states. In the Shan States there are a few open
plateaus, fertile and well populated, and Maymyo in the Mandalay district,
the hill-station to which in the hot weather the government of Burma
migrates, stands in the Pyin-u-lwin plateau, some 3500 ft. above the sea.
But the greater part of this country is a mass of rugged hills cut deep
with narrow gorges, within which even the biggest rivers are confined. The
second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes the whole
of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of
the Southern Shan States. It stretches along both sides of the Irrawaddy
from the north of Mandalay to Thayetmyo, and embraces the Lower Chindwin,
Shwebo, Sagaing, Mandalay, Kyauksè, Meiktila, Yamèthin, Myingyan, Magwe,
Pakôkku and Minbu districts. This tract consists mostly of undulating
lowlands, but it is broken towards the south by the Pegu Yomas, a
considerable range of hills which divides the two remaining tracts of the
Irrawaddy basin. On the west, between the Pegu and the Arakan Yomas,
stretches the Irrawaddy delta, a vast expanse of level plain 12,000 sq.m.
in area falling in a gradual unbroken slope from its apex not far south of
Prome down to the sea. This delta, which includes the districts of Bassein,
Myaungmya, Thôngwa, Henzada, Hanthawaddy, Tharrawaddy, Pegu and Rangoon
town, consists almost entirely of a rich alluvial deposit, and the whole
area, which between Cape Negrais and Elephant Point is 137 m. wide, is
fertile in the highest degree. To the east lies a tract of country which,
though geographically a part of the Irrawaddy basin, is cut off from it by
the Yomas, and forms a separate system draining into the Sittang river. The
northern portion of this tract, which on the east touches the basin of the
Salween river, is hilly; the remainder towards the confluence of the
Salween, Gyaing and Attaran rivers consists of broad fertile plains. The
whole is comprised in the districts of Toungoo and Thaton, part of the
Karen-ni hills, with the Salween hill tract and the northern parts of
Amherst, which form the northern portion of the Tenasserim administrative
division. The third natural division of Burma is the old province of
Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with Moulmein as its capital, formed
the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown. It
is a narrow strip of country lying between the Bay of Bengal and the high
range of hills which form the eastern boundary of the province towards
Siam. It comprises the districts of Mergui and Tavoy and a part of Amherst,
and includes also the Mergui Archipelago. The surface of this part of the
country is mountainous and much intersected with streams. Northward from
this lies the major portion of the Southern Shan States and Karen-ni and a
narrowing strip along the Salween of the Northern Shan States.

_Mountains._--Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of
mountain ranges. The Arakan Yomas starting from Cape Negrais extend
northwards more or less parallel with the coast till they join the Chin and
Naga hills. They then form part of a system of ranges which curve north of
the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills
of the Jade and Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the
great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river. On the
east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the
Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous
barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the
eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam. The
highest peak of the Arakan Yomas, Liklang, rises nearly 10,000 ft. above
the sea, and in the eastern Kachin hills, which run northwards from the
state of Möng Mit to join the high range dividing the basins of the
Irrawaddy and the Salween, are two peaks, Sabu and Worang, which rise to a
height of 11,200 ft. above the sea. The Kumon range running down from the
Hkamti country east of Assam to near Mogaung ends in a peak known as
Shwedaunggyi, which reaches some 5750 ft. There are several peaks in the
Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft. and Loi Ling in the Northern
Shan States reaches 9000 ft. Compared with these ranges the Pegu Yomas
assume the proportions of mere hills. Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan
district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 ft.,
but it is interesting mainly as an extinct volcano, a landmark and an
object of superstitious folklore, throughout the whole of Central Burma.
Mud volcanoes occur at Minbu, but they are not in any sense mountains,
resembling rather the hot springs which are found in many parts of Burma.
They are merely craters raised above the level of the surrounding country
by the gradual accretion of the soft oily mud, which overflows at frequent
intervals whenever a discharge of gas occurs. Spurs of the Chin hills run
down the whole length of the Lower Chindwin district, almost to Sagaing,
and one hill, Powindaung, is particularly noted on account of its
innumerable cave temples, which are said to hold no fewer than 446,444
images of Buddha. Huge caves, of which the most noted are the Farm Caves,
occur in the hills near Moulmein, and they too are full of relics of their
ancient use as temples, though now they are chiefly visited in connexion
with the bats, whose flight viewed from a distance, as they issue from the
caves, resembles a cloud of smoke.

_Rivers._--Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important. It
rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions,
where India, Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction
of a number of considerable streams of no great length. Two rivers, the
Mali and the N'mai, meeting about latitude 25° 45' some 150 m. north of
Bhamo, contribute chiefly to its volume, and during the dry weather it is
navigable for steamers up to their confluence. Up to Bhamo, a distance of
900 m. from the sea, it is navigable throughout the year, and its chief
tributary in Burma, the Chindwin, is also navigable for steamers for 300 m.
from its junction with the Irrawaddy at Pakôkku. The Chindwin, called in
its upper reaches the Tanai, rises in the hills south-west of Thama, and
flows due north till it enters the south-east corner of the Hukawng valley,
where it turns north-west and continues in that direction cutting the
valley into two almost equal parts until it reaches its north-west range,
when it turns almost due south and takes the name of the Chindwin. It is a
swift clear river, fed in its upper reaches by numerous mountain streams.
The Mogaung river, rising in the watershed which divides the Irrawaddy and
the Chindwin drainages, flows south and south-east for 180 m. before it
joins the Irrawaddy, and is navigable for steamers as far as Kamaing for
about four months in the year. South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan
Yomas approach the river and almost meet that spur of the Pegu Yomas which
formed till 1886 the [v.04 p.0839] northern boundary of British Burma, the
valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung
the influence of the tide is first felt, and the delta may be said to
begin. The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy,
Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and
the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there
are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose.
There is, however, one true river of some size, the Hlaing, which rises
near Prome, flows southwards and meets the Pegu river and the Pazundaung
creek near Rangoon, and thus forms the estuary which is known as the
Rangoon river and constitutes the harbour of Rangoon. East of the Rangoon
river and still within the deltaic area, though cut off from the main delta
by the southern end of the Pegu Yomas, lies the mouth of the Sittang. This
river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then
southward through the Kyauksè, Yamèthin and Toungoo districts, its line
being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglèbin
in the Pegu district. At Toungoo it is narrow, but below Shwegyin it
widens, and at Sittang it is half a mile broad. It flows into the Gulf of
Martaban, and near its mouth its course is constantly changing owing to
erosion and corresponding accretions. The second river in the province in
point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its
waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa. It is in all
probability actually longer than the Irrawaddy, but it is not to be
compared to that river in importance. It is, in fact, walled in on either
side, with banks varying in British territory from 3000 to 6000 ft. high
and at present unnavigable owing to serious rapids in Lower Burma and at
one or two places in the Shan States, but quite open to traffic for
considerable reaches in its middle course. The Gyaing and the Attaran
rivers meet the Salween at its mouth, and the three rivers form the harbour
of Moulmein, the second seaport of Burma.

_Lakes._--The largest lake in the province is Indawgyi in the Myitkyina
district. It has an area of nearly 100 sq. m. and is surrounded on three
sides by ranges of hills, but is open to the north where it has an outlet
in the Indaw river. In the highlands of the Shan hills there are the Inle
lakes near Yawnghwe, and in the Katha district also there is another Indaw
which covers some 60 sq. m. Other lakes are the Paunglin lake in Minbu
district, the Inma lake in Prome, the Tu and Duya in Henzada, the Shahkègyi
and the Inyègyi in Bassein, the sacred lake at Ye in Tenasserim, and the
Nagamauk, Panzemyaung and Walonbyan in Arakan. The Meiktila lake covers an
area of some 5 sq. m., but it is to some extent at least an artificial
reservoir. In the heart of the delta numerous large lakes or marshes
abounding in fish are formed by the overflow of the Irrawaddy river during
the rainy season, but these either assume very diminutive proportions or
disappear altogether in the dry season.

_Climate._--The climate of the delta is cooler and more temperate than in
Upper Burma, and this is shown in the fairer complexion and stouter
physique of the people of the lower province as compared with the
inhabitants of the drier and hotter upper districts as far as Bhamo, where
there is a great infusion of other types of the Tibeto-Burman family. North
of the apex of the delta and the boundary between the deltaic and inland
tracts, the rainfall gradually lessens as far as Minbu, where what was
formerly called the rainless zone commences and extends as far as Katha.
The rainfall in the coast districts varies from about 200 in. in the Arakan
and Tenasserim divisions to an average of 90 in Rangoon and the adjoining
portion of the Irrawaddy delta. In the extreme north of Upper Burma the
rainfall is rather less than in the country adjoining Rangoon, and in the
dry zone the annual average falls as low as 20 and 30 in.

The temperature varies almost as much as the rainfall. It is highest in the
central zone, the mean of the maximum readings in such districts as Magwe,
Myingyan, Kyauksè, Mandalay and Shwebo in the month of May being close on
100° F., while in the littoral and sub-montane districts it is nearly ten
degrees less. The mean of the minimum readings in December in the central
zone districts is a few degrees under 60° F. and in the littoral districts
a few degrees over that figure. In the hilly district of Mogôk (Ruby Mines)
the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°. The climate of
the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate. In the
shade and off the ground the thermometer rarely rises above 80° F. or falls
below 25° F. In the hot season and in the sun as much as 150° F. is
registered, and on the grass in the cold weather ten degrees of frost are
not uncommon. Snow is seldom seen either in the Chin or Shan hills, but
there are snow-clad ranges in the extreme north of the Kachin country. In
the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley,
the shade maximum reaches 100° F. regularly for several weeks in April. The
rainfall in the hills varies very considerably, but seems to range from
about 60 in. in the broader valleys to about 300 in. on the higher
forest-clad ranges.

_Geology._--Geologically, British Burma consists of two divisions, an
eastern and a western. The dividing line runs from the mouth of the Sittang
river along the railway to Mandalay, and thence continues northward, with
the same general direction but curving slightly towards the east. West of
this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they
are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds
are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from
south to north with its convexity facing westward. There is an axial zone
of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the
Upper Eocene and the Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied
chiefly by the Pliocene. Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the
sea spreads over the western Miocene zone. The Cretaceous beds have not yet
been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the identification of the
system rests on the discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite. The Eocene
beds are marine and contain nummulites. The Miocene beds are also marine
and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna. The Pliocene, on the
other hand, is of freshwater origin, and contains silicified wood and
numerous remains of Mammalia. Flint chips, which appear to have been
fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to
prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger
evidence than has yet been brought forward.

The older rocks of eastern Burma are very imperfectly known. Gneiss and
granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States,
and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein. Volcanic rocks
are not common in any part of Burma, but about 50 m. north-north-east of
Yenangyaung the extinct volcano of Popa rises to a height of 3000 ft. above
the surrounding Pliocene plain. Intrusions of a serpentine-like rock break
through the Miocene strata north of Bhamo, and similar intrusions occur in
the western ranges. Whether the mud "volcanoes" of the Irrawaddy valley
have any connexion with volcanic activity may be doubted. The petroleum of
Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that
of Yenangyaung. Coal is found in the Tertiary deposits in the valley of the
Irrawaddy and in Tenasserim. Tin is abundant in Tenasserim, and lead and
silver have been worked extensively in the Shan States. The famous ruby
mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the
Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of
serpentine-like rock already noticed.[1]

_Population._--The total population of Burma in 1901 was 10,490,624 as
against 7,722,053 in 1891; but a considerable portion of this large
increase was due to the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills in
the census area. Even in Burma proper, however, there was an increase
during the decade of 1,530,822, or 19.8%. The density of population per
square mile is 44 as compared with 167 for the whole of India and 552 for
the Bengal Delta. England and Wales have a population more than twelve
times as dense as that of Burma, so there is still room for expansion. The
chief races of Burma are Burmese (6,508,682), Arakanese (405,143), Karens
(717,859), Shans (787,087), Chins (179,292), Kachins (64,405) and Talaings
(321,898); but these totals do not include the Shan States and Chin hills.
The Burmese in person have the Mongoloid characteristics common to the
Indo-Chinese races, the Tibetans and tribes of the Eastern Himalaya. They
may be generally described as of a stout, active, well-proportioned form;
of a brown but never of an intensely dark complexion, with black, coarse,
lank and abundant hair, and a little more beard than is possessed by the
Siamese. Owing to their gay and lively disposition the Burmese have been
called "the Irish of the East," and like the Irish they are somewhat
inclined to laziness. Since the advent of the British power, the
immigration of Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with
a keener business instinct has threatened the economic independence of the
Burmese in their own country. As compared with the Hindu, the Burmese wear
silk instead of cotton, and eat rice instead of the cheaper grains; they
are of an altogether freer and less servile, but also of a less practical
character. The Burmese women have a keener business instinct than the men,
and serve in some degree to redress the balance. The Burmese children are
adored by their parents, and are said to be the happiest and merriest
children in the world.

_Language and Literature._--The Burmese are supposed by modern philologists
to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm,
from western China to the head waters of the Irrawaddy and then separated,
some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to press southwards into the
[v.04 p.0840] plains of Burma. The indigenous tongues of Burma are divided
into the following groups:--

  A.  Indo-Chinese (1) Tibet-Burman    (a) The Burmese group.
        family           sub-family    (b) The Kachin group.
                                       (c) The Kuki-Chin group.

                   (2) Siamese-Chinese (d) The Tai group.
                         sub-family    (e) The Karen group.

                   (3) Môn-Annam       (f) The Upper Middle
                         sub-family        Mekong or Wa Palaung
                                           group.
                                       (g) The North Cambodian
                                           group.
  B. Malay family                      (h) The Selung language.

Burmese, which was spoken by 7,006,495 people in the province in 1901, is a
monosyllabic language, with, according to some authorities, three different
tones; so that any given syllable may have three entirely different
meanings only distinguishable by the intonation when spoken, or by accents
or diacritical marks when written. There are, however, very many weighty
authorities who deny the existence of tones in the language. The Burmese
alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the P[=a]li of Upper
India. The language is written from left to right in what appears to be an
unbroken line. Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, P[=a]li and
Burmese. The P[=a]li is by far the more ancient, including as it does the
Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon
and southern India. The Burmese literature is for the most part metrical,
and consists of religious romances, chronological histories and songs. The
_Maha Yazawin_ or "Royal Chronicle," forms the great historical work of
Burma. This is an authorized history, in which everything unflattering to
the Burmese monarchs was rigidly suppressed. After the Second Burmese War
no record was ever made in the _Yazawin_ that Pegu had been torn away from
Burma by the British. The folk songs are the truest and most interesting
national literature. The Burmese are fond of stage-plays in which great
licence of language is permitted, and great liberty to "gag" is left to the
wit or intelligence of the actors.

_Government._--The province as a division of the Indian empire is
administered by a lieutenant-governor, first appointed 1st May 1897, with a
legislative council of nine members, five of whom are officials. There are,
besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two
under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.
The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial
commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records
and agriculture, with a land records departmental staff. There is a chief
court for the province with a chief justice and three justices, established
in May 1900. Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner
for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein. There are
four commissioners of revenue and circuit, and nineteen deputy
commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy
commissioners in Upper Burma. There are two superintendents of the Shan
States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an
assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill
tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from
the Chinese consular service. The police are under the control of an
inspector-general, with deputy inspector-general for civil and military
police, and for supply and clothing. The education department is under a
director of public instruction, and there are three circles--eastern,
western and Upper Burma, each under an inspector of schools.

The Burma forests are divided into three circles each under a conservator,
with twenty-one deputy conservators. There are also a deputy
postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of
telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port
officers, and an inspector-general of jails. At the principal towns benches
of honorary magistrates, exercising powers of various degrees, have been
constituted. There are forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in
Upper Burma. The commissioners of division are _ex officio_ sessions judges
in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as
revenue officers. They are responsible to the lieutenant-governor, each in
his own division, for the working of every department of the public
service, except the military department, and the branches of the
administration directly under the control of the supreme government. The
deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates,
district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the miscellaneous
duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of
government. Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant
commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myoôks, who are invested
with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the
townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are
called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these
townships are grouped. Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships
officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most
direct contact with the people. Finally, there are the village headmen,
assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old
custom. Similarly in the towns, there are headmen of wards and elders of
blocks. In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.
The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are
appointed is of comparatively recent origin, and is modelled on the village
system.

The Shan States were declared to be a part of British India by notification
in 1886. The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, [Sidenote: The Shan
States.] criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the state,
subject to the restrictions specified in the _sanad_ or patent granted to
him. The law to be administered in each state is the customary law of the
state, so far as it is in accordance with the justice, equity and good
conscience, and not opposed to the spirit of the law in the rest of British
India. The superintendents exercise general control over the administration
of criminal justice, and have power to call for cases, and to exercise wide
revisionary powers. Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the
complainant or the defendant is a European, or American, or a government
servant, or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn
from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant
superintendents. Neither the superintendents nor the assistant
superintendents have power to try civil suits, whether the parties are
Shans or not. In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however,
the criminal law is practically the same as the in force in Upper Burma,
and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of
the second class. The chiefs of the Shan States are of three classes:--(1)
sawbwas; (2) myosas; (3) ngwegunhmus. The last are found only in the
_Myelat_, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma.
There are fifteen sawbwas, sixteen myosas and thirteen ngwegunhmus in the
Shan States proper. Two sawbwas are under the supervision of the
commissioner of the Mandalay division, and two under the commissioner of
the Sagaing division. The states vary enormously in size, from the 12,000
sq. m. of the Trans-Salween State of Kêng Tung, to the 3.95 sq. m. of Nam
Hkôm in the Myelat. The latter contained only 41 houses with 210
inhabitants in 1897 and has since been merged in the adjoining state. There
are five states, all sawbwaships, under the supervision of the
superintendent of the northern Shan States, besides an indeterminate number
of Wa States and communities of other races beyond the Salween river. The
superintendent of the southern Shan States supervises thirty-nine, of which
ten are sawbwaships. The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at
Lashio, of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi.

The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British
India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States,
but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern
Shan States.

[Illustration]

The northern portion of the Karen hills is at present dealt with on the
principle of political as distinguished from administrative control. The
tribes are not interfered with as long as they keep the peace. What is
specifically known as the Kachin hills, the country taken under
administration in the Bhamo and Myitkyina districts, is divided into forty
tracts. Beyond these tracts there are many Kachins in Katha, Möng-Mit, and
the northern Shan States, but though they are often the preponderating,
they are not the exclusive population. The country within the forty tracts
may be considered the Kachin hills proper, and it lies between 23° 30' and
26° 30' N. lat. and 96° and 98° E. long. Within this area the petty chiefs
have appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and the rate of tribute
per household is fixed in each case. Government is regulated by the [v.04
p.0841] Kachin hills regulation. Since 1894 the country has been
practically undisturbed, and large numbers of Kachins are enlisted, and
ready to enlist in the military police, and seem likely to form as good
troops as the Gurkhas of Nepal.

The Chin hills were not declared an integral part of Burma until 1895, but
they now form a scheduled district. The chiefs, however, are allowed to
administer their own affairs, as far as may be, in accordance with their
own customs, subject to the supervision of the superintendent of the Chin
hills.

_Religion._--Buddhists make up more than 88.6%; Mussulmans 3.28;
spirit-worshippers 3.85; Hindus 2.76, and Christians 1.42 of the total
population of the province. The large nominal proportion of Buddhists is
deceptive. The Burmese are really as devoted to demonolatry as the
hill-tribes who are labelled plain spirit-worshippers. The actual figures
of the various religions, according to the census of 1901, are as
follows:--

  Buddhists           9,184,121
  Spirit-worshippers    399,390
  Hindus                285,484
  Mussulmans            339,446
  Christians            147,525
  Sikhs                   6,596
  Jews                      685
  Parsees                   245
  Others                     28

The chief religious principle of the Burmese is to acquire merit for their
next incarnation by good works done in this life. The bestowal of alms,
offerings of rice to priests, the founding of a monastery, erection of
pagodas, with which the country is crowded, the building of a bridge or
rest-house for the convenience of travellers are all works of religious
merit, prompted, not by love of one's fellow-creatures, but simply and
solely for one's own future advantage.

An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess
Christianity, and there are about the same number of Mahommedans among
them. It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has
progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid
progress made amongst the Karens. It is amongst the Sgaw Karens that the
greatest progress in Christianity has been made, and the number of
spirit-worshippers among them is very much smaller. The number of Burmese
Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion among them of the
Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers of Syriam deported to the
old Burmese Tabayin, a village now included in the Ye-u subdivision of
Shwebo. These Christians returned themselves as Burmese. The forms of
Christianity which make most converts in Burma are the Baptist and Roman
Catholic faiths. Of recent years many conversions to Christianity have been
made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or Muhsö hill
tribesmen.

_Education._--Compared with other Indian provinces, and even with some of
the countries of Europe, Burma takes a very high place in the returns of
those able to both read and write. Taking the sexes apart, though women
fall far behind men in the matter of education, still women are better
educated in Burma than in the rest of India. The average number of each sex
in Burma per thousand is:--literates, male 378; female, 45; illiterates,
male, 622; female, 955. The number of literates per thousand in Bengal
is:--male, 104; female, 5. The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901
census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly
consist of illiterates.

The fact that in Upper Burma the proportion of literates is nearly as high
as, and the proportion of those under instruction even higher than, that of
the corresponding classes in Lower Burma, is a clear proof that in primary
education, at least, the credit for the superiority of the Burman over the
native of India is due to indigenous schools. In almost every village in
the province there is a monastery, where the most regular occupation of one
or more of the resident _pongyis_, or Buddhist monks, is the instruction
free of charge of the children of the village. The standard of instruction,
however, is very low, consisting only of reading and writing, though this
is gradually being improved in very many monasteries. The absence of all
prejudice in favour of the seclusion of women also is one of the main
reasons why in this province the proportion who can read and write is
higher than in any other part of India, Cochin alone excepted. It was not
till 1890 that the education department took action in Upper Burma. It was
then ascertained that there were 684 public schools with 14,133 pupils, and
1664 private schools with 8685 pupils. It is worthy of remark that of these
schools 29 were Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in
which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught. There are three circles--Eastern,
Central and Upper Burma. For the special supervision and encouragement of
indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of
inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of
the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputy-inspector
or a sub-inspector of schools. There are nine standards of instruction, and
the classes in schools correspond with these standards. In Upper Burma all
educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in
Lower Burma. Grants-in-aid are given according to results. There is only
one college, at Rangoon, which is affiliated to the Calcutta University.
There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a
school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan
States. A _Patamabyan_ examination for marks in the P[=a]li language was
first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.

_Finance._--The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872
was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,530 was from imperial taxation,
Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.
The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230. In Burma the cultivators
themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of
their holdings averages about five acres. The land tax is supplemented by a
poll tax on the male population from 18 to 60 years of age, with the
exception of immigrants during the first five years of their residence,
religious teachers, schoolmasters, government servants and those unable to
obtain their own livelihood. In 1890-1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has
risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for
provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds. The
expenditure on the administration of Lower Burma in 1870-1871 was
Rs.49,70,020. In 1890-1891 it was Rs.1,58,48,041. In Upper Burma the chief
source of revenue is the _thathameda_, a tithe or income tax which was
instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they
found it. For the purpose of the assessment every district and town is
classified according to its general wealth and prosperity. As a rule the
basis of calculation was 100 rupees from every ten houses, with a 10%
deduction for those exempted by custom. When the total amount payable by
the village was thus determined, the village itself settled the amount to
be paid by each individual householder. This was done by _thamadis_,
assessors, usually appointed by the villagers themselves. Other important
sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and
miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes. In
1886-1887, the year after the annexation, the amount collected in Upper
Burma from all sources was twenty-two lakhs of rupees. In the following
year it had risen to fifty lakhs. Much of Upper Burma, however, remained
disturbed until 1890. The figures for 1890-1891, therefore, show the first
really regular collection. The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020.

The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was
Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298. The total expenditure in the
same years respectively was Rs.4,30,81,000 and Rs.5,66,60,047. The
principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways,
customs, forests and excise.

_Defence._--Burma is garrisoned by a division of the Indian army,
consisting of two brigades, under a lieutenant-general. Of the native
regiments seven battalions are Burma regiments specially raised for
permanent service in Burma by transformation from military police. These
regiments, consisting of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans, are distributed
throughout the Shan States and the northern part of Burma. In addition to
these there are about 13,500 civil police and 15,000 military police. The
military police are in reality a regular military force with only two
European officers in command of each battalion; and they are recruited
entirely from among the warlike races of northern India. A small battalion
of Karens enlisted as sappers and miners proved a failure and had to be
disbanded. Experiments have also been made with the Kachin hillmen and with
the Shans; but the Burmese character is so averse to discipline and control
in petty matters that it is impossible to get really suitable men to enlist
even in the civil police. The volunteer forces consist of the Rangoon Port
Defence Volunteers, comprising artillery, naval, and engineer corps, the
Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, Railway and Upper Burma rifles.

_Minerals and Mining._--In its three chief mineral products, earth-oil,
coal and gold, Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more.
Without yielding fortunes for speculators, like South Africa or Australia,
it returns a fair percentage upon genuine hard work. Coal is found in the
Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it
also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered
have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be
worked to advantage. The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives,
but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by
European methods. The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma. The jade
mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that
mineral, which is in great demand over all China. The mines are situated
beyond Kamaing, north of Mogaung in the Myitkyina district. The miners are
all Kachins, and the right to collect the jade duty of 33-1/3 is farmed out
by government to a lessee, who has hitherto always been a Chinaman. The
amount obtained has varied considerably. In 1887-1888 the rent was
Rs.50,000. This dwindled to Rs.36,000 in 1892-1893, but the system was then
adopted of letting for a term of three years and a higher rent was
obtained. The value varies enormously according to colour, which should be
a particular shade of dark green. Semi-transparency, brilliancy and
hardness are, however, also essentials. The old river mines produced the
best quality. The quarry mines on the top of the hill near Tawmaw produce
enormous quantities, but the quality is not so good.

The most important ruby-bearing area is the Mogôk stone tract, in the hills
about 60 m. east of the Irrawaddy and 90 m. north-north-west of Mandalay.
The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from
persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines
Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years
at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits. The rent was
[v.04 p.0842] reduced permanently in 1898 to Rs.2,00,000 a year, but the
share of the profits taken by government was increased from 20 to 30%.
There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at
Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods
under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month. They are, however, only
moderately successful. Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma,
but the gold-washing industry is for the most part spasmodic in the
intervals of agriculture. There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the
Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by
machinery and treated by chemical processes. Work was begun in 1895, and
the yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz. in
1896-1897. This, however, proved to be merely a pocket, and the mine is now
shut down. Dredging for gold, however, seems likely to prove very
profitable and gold dust is found in practically every river in the hills.

The principal seats of the petroleum industry are Yenangyaung in the Magwe,
and Yenangyat in the Pakôkku districts. The wells have been worked for a
little over a century by the natives of the country. The Burma Oil Company
since 1889 has worked by drilled wells on the American or cable system, and
the amount produced is yearly becoming more and more important.

Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond the
administrative border, but the quality of the fossil resin is not very
good. The amount exported varies considerably. Tourmaline or rubellite is
found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of
Möng Löng. Steatite is extracted from the Arakan hill quarries. Salt is
manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower
Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan and Yamethin districts, as well as at
Mawhkio in the Shan State of Thibaw. Iron is found in many parts of the
hills, and is worked by inhabitants of the country. A good deal is
extracted and manufactured into native implements at Pang Lông in the
L[=e]gya (Laihka) Shan State. Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from
the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-s[=o]n) in the Myelat, southern Shan States. The
ore is rich in silver as well as in lead.

_Agriculture._--The cultivation of the land is by far the most important
industry in Burma. Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the
census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives
of India and not Burmese. Nearly two-thirds of the total population are
directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture and kindred occupations.
Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children
all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages
whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities
and eatables. The food of the people consists as a rule of boiled rice with
salted fresh or dried fish, salt, sessamum-oil, chillies, onions, turmeric,
boiled vegetables, and occasionally meat of some sort from elephant flesh
down to smaller animals, fowls and almost everything except snakes, by way
of condiment.

The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice. In
Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is
grown wherever practicable. Throughout the whole of the moister parts of
the province the agricultural season is the wet period of the south-west
monsoon, lasting from the middle of May until November. In some parts of
Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is
also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months. Oxen
are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier
and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands. As rice
has to be transplanted as well as sown and irrigated, it needs a
considerable amount of labour expended on it; and the Burman has the
reputation of being a somewhat indolent cultivator. The Karens and Shans
who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding
their crops. Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in
Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat,
millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea,
barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other
dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce. At the time of the British
annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyauksè
and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and
these have now been renewed and extended. In addition to this the Mandalay
Canal, 40 m. in length, with fourteen distributaries was opened in 1902;
the Shwebo canal, 27 m. long, was opened in 1906, and a beginning had been
made of two branches 29 and 20 m. in length, and of the Môn canal, begun in
1904, 53 m. in length. In all upwards of 300,000 acres are subject to
irrigation under these schemes. On the whole the people of Burma are
prosperous and contented. Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the
disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still
available in most districts. Compared with the congested districts in the
other provinces of India, with the exception of Assam, the lot of the
Burman is decidedly enviable.

_Forests._---The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one
of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the
world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding, and indeed it was the
demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma. At the close
of the First Burmese War in 1826 Tenasserim was annexed because it was
supposed to contain large supplies of this valuable timber; and it was
trouble with a British forest company that directly led to the Third
Burmese War of 1885. Since the introduction of iron ships teak has
supplanted oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron
and steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak.
The forests of Burma, therefore, are now strictly preserved by the
government, and there is a regular forest department for the conservation
and cutting of timber, the planting of young trees for future generations,
the prevention of forest fires, and for generally supervising their
treatment by the natives. In the reserves the trees of commercial value can
only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while
unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption. There are
naturally very many trees in these forests besides the teak. In Lower Burma
alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his _Forest Flora
of British Burma_ (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown
species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this
total very considerably. In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of
the revenue, the most valuable woods are _sha_ or cutch, india rubber,
_pyingado_, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and _padauk_. Outside these
reserves enormous tracts of forest and jungle still remain for clearance
and cultivation, reservation being mostly confined to forest land
unsuitable for crops. In 1870-1871 the state reserved forests covered only
133 sq.m., in all the Rangoon division. The total receipts from the forests
then amounted to Rs.7,72,400. In 1889-1890 the total area of reserved
forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq.m., and the gross revenue was
Rs.31,34,720, and the expenditure was Rs.13,31,930. The work of the forest
department did not begin in Upper Burma till 1891. At the end of 1892 the
reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq.m. On 30th June 1896
the reserved area amounted to 5438 sq.m. At the close of 1899 the area of
the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq.m., and in
1903-1904 to 20,038 sq.m. with a revenue of Rs.85,19,404 and expenditure
amounting to Rs.35,00,311. In 1905-1906 there were 20,545 sq.m. of reserved
forest, and it is probable that when the work of reservation is complete
there will be 25,000 sq.m. of preserves or 12% of the total area.

_Fisheries._--Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of
Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in
1907. The chief seat of the industry is in the Thongwa and Bassein
districts, where the income from the leased fisheries on individual streams
sometimes amounts to between £6000 and £7000 a year. Net fisheries, worked
by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-shore, are not
nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries--called _In_--which are from
time to time sold by auction for fixed periods of years. Salted fish forms,
along with boiled rice, one of the chief articles of food among the
Burmese; and as the price of salted fish is gradually rising along with the
prosperity and purchasing power of the population, this industry is on a
very sound basis. There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui
Archipelago, which have a very recent history; they were practically
unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian
adventurers, most of whom have since departed; and now they are leased in
blocks to a syndicate of Chinamen, who grant sub-leases to individual
adventurers at the rate of £25 a pump for the pearling year. The chief
harvest is of mother of pearl, which suffices to pay the working expenses;
and there is over and above the chance of finding a pearl of price. Some
pearls worth £1000 and upwards have recently been discovered.

_Manufactures and Art._--The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but
many cultivators are also artisans in the by-season. In addition to
rice-growing and the felling and extraction of timber, and the fisheries,
the chief occupations are rice-husking, silk-weaving and dyeing. The
introduction of cheap cottons and silk fabrics has dealt a blow to
hand-weaving, while aniline dyes are driving out the native vegetable
product; but both industries still linger in the rural tracts. The best
silk-weavers are to be found at Amarapura. There large numbers of people
follow this occupation as their sole means of livelihood, whereas silk and
cotton weaving throughout the province generally is carried on by girls and
women while unoccupied by other domestic duties. The Burmese are fond of
bright colours, and pink and yellow harmonize well with their dark olive
complexion, but even here the influence of western civilization is being
felt, and in the towns the tendency now is towards maroon, brown, olive and
dark green for the women's skirts. The total number of persons engaged in
the production of textile fabrics in Burma according to the census of 1901
was 419,007. The chief dye-product of Burma is cutch, a brown dye obtained
from the wood [v.04 p.0843] of the _sha_ tree. Cutch-boiling forms the
chief means of livelihood of a large number of the poorer classes in the
Prome and Thayetmyo districts of Lower Burma, and a subsidiary means of
subsistence elsewhere. Cheroot making and smoking is universal among both
sexes. The chief arts of Burma are wood-carving and silver work. The floral
wood-carving is remarkable for its freedom and spontaneity. The carving is
done in teak wood when it is meant for fixtures, but teak has a coarse
grain, and otherwise _yamane_ clogwood, said to be a species of gmelina, is
preferred. The tools employed are chisel, gouge and mallet. The design is
traced on the wood with charcoal, gouged out in the rough, and finished
with sharp fine tools, using the mallet for every stroke. The great bulk of
the silver work is in the form of bowls of different sizes, in shape
something like the lower half of a barrel, only more convex, of betel
boxes, cups and small boxes for lime. Both in the wood-carving and silver
work the Burmese character displays itself, giving boldness, breadth and
freedom of design, but a general want of careful finish. Unfortunately the
national art is losing its distinctive type through contact with western
civilization.

_Commerce._--The chief articles of export from Burma are rice and timber.
In 1805 the quantity of rice exported in the foreign and coastal trade
amounted to 1,419,173 tons valued at Rs.9,77,66,132, and in 1905 the
figures were 2,187,764 tons, value Rs.15,67,28,288. England takes by far
the greatest share of Burma's rice, though large quantities are also
consumed in Germany, while France, Italy, Belgium and Holland also consume
a considerable amount. The regular course of trade is apt to be deflected
by famines in India or Japan. In 1900 over one million tons of rice were
shipped to India during the famine there. The rice-mills, almost all
situated at the various seaports, secure the harvest from the cultivator
through middlemen. The value of teak exported in 1895 was Rs.1,34,64,303,
and in 1905, Rs.1,31,03,401. Subordinate products for exports include cutch
dye, caoutchouc or india-rubber, cotton, petroleum and jade. By far the
largest of the imports are cotton, silk and woollen piece-goods, while
subordinate imports include hardware, gunny bags, sugar, tobacco and
liquors.

The following table shows the progressive value of the trade of Burma since
1871-1872:--

  +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
  |   Year.   |    Imports.  |   Exports.   |    Total.    |
  +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
  |           |      Rs.     |      Rs.     |      Rs.     |
  | 1871-1872 |  3,15,79,860 |  3,78,02,170 |  6,93,82,030 |
  | 1881-1882 |  6,38,49,840 |  8,05,71,410 | 14,44,21,250 |
  | 1801-1892 | 10,50,06,247 | 12,67,21,878 | 23,17,28,125 |
  | 1901-1902 | 12,78,46,636 | 18,74,47,200 | 31,52,93,836 |
  | 1904-1905 | 17,06,20,796 | 23,94,69,114 | 41,00,89,910 |
  +-----------+--------------+--------------+--------------+

_Internal Communications._--In 1871-1872 there were 814 m. of road in Lower
Burma, but the chief means of internal communication was by water. Steamers
plied on the Irrawaddy as far as Thayetmyo. The vessels of the Irrawaddy
Flotilla Company now ply to Bassein and to all points on the Irrawaddy as
far north as Bhamo, and in the dry weather to Myitkyina, and also on the
Chindwin as far north as Kindat, and to Homalin during the rains. The
Arakan Flotilla Company has also helped to open up the Arakan division. The
length of roads has not greatly increased in Lower Burma, but there has
been a great deal of road construction in Upper Burma. At the end of the
year 1904-1905 there were in the whole province 7486 m. of road, 1516 m. of
which were metalled and 3170 unmetalled, with 2799 m. of other tracks. But
the chief advance in communications has been in railway construction. The
first railway from Rangoon to Prome, 161 m., was opened in 1877, and that
from Rangoon to Toungoo, 166 m., was opened in 1884. Since the annexation
of Upper Burma this has been extended to Mandalay, and the Mu Valley
railway has been constructed from Sagaing to Myitkyina, a distance of 752
m. from Rangoon. The Mandalay-Lashio railway has been completed, and trains
run from Mandalay to Lashio, a distance of 178 m. The Sagaing-Mônywa-Alôn
branch and the Meiktila-Myingyan branch were opened to traffic during 1900.
In 1902 a railway from Henzada to Bassein was formed and a connecting link
with the Prome line from Henzada to Letpadan was opened in 1903. Railways
were also constructed from Pegu to Martaban, 121 m. in length, and from
Henzada to Kyang-in, 66 m. in length; and construction was contemplated of
a railway from Thazi towards Taung-gyi, the headquarters of the southern
Shan States. The total length of lines open in 1904-1905 was 1340 m., but
railway communication in Burma is still very incomplete. Five of the eight
commissionerships and Lashio, the capital of the northern Shan States, have
communication with each other by railway, but Taung-gyi and the southern
Shan States can still only be reached by a hill-road through difficult
country for cart traffic, and the headquarters of three commissionerships,
Moulmein, Akyab and Minbu, have no railway communication with Rangoon.
Arakan is in the worst position of all, for it is connected with Burma by
neither railway nor river, nor even by a metalled road, and the only way to
reach Akyab from Rangoon is once a week by sea.

_Law._--The British government has administered the law in Burma on
principles identical with those which have been adopted elsewhere in the
British dominions in India. That portion of the law which is usually
described as Anglo-Indian law (see INDIAN LAW) is generally applicable to
Burma, though there are certain districts inhabited by tribes in a backward
state of civilization which are excepted from its operation. Acts of the
British parliament relating to India generally would be applicable to
Burma, whether passed before or after its annexation, these acts being
considered applicable to all the dominions of the crown in India. As
regards the acts of the governor-general in council passed for India
generally--they, too, were from the first applicable to Lower Burma; and
they have all been declared applicable to Upper Burma also by the Burma
Laws Act of 1898. That portion of the English law which has been introduced
into India without legislation, and all the rules of law resting upon the
authority of the courts, are made applicable to Burma by the same act. But
consistently with the practice which has always prevailed in India, there
is a large field of law in Burma which the British government has not
attempted to disturb. It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above
referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or
any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is
(_a_) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (_b_) the
Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (_c_) the Hindu
law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may
have been modified by the legislature. The reservation thus made in favour
of the native laws is precisely analogous to the similar reservation made
in India (see INDIAN LAW, where the Hindu law and the Mahommedan Law are
described). The Buddhist law is contained in certain sacred books called
_Dhammathats_. The laws themselves are derived from one of the collections
which Hindus attribute to Manu, but in some respects they now widely differ
from the ancient Hindu law so far as it is known to us. There is no
certainty as to the date or method of their introduction. The whole of the
law administered now in Burma rests ultimately upon statutory authority;
and all the Indian acts relating to Burma, whether of the governor-general
or the lieutenant-governor of Burma in council, will be found in the Burma
Code (Calcutta, 1899), and in the supplements to that volume which are
published from time to time at Rangoon. There is no complete translation of
the _Dhammathats_, but a good many of them have been translated. An account
of these translations will be found in _The Principles of Buddhist Law_ by
Chan Toon (Rangoon, 1894), which is the first attempt to present those
principles in something approaching to a systematic form.

_History._--It is probable that Burma is the _Chryse Regio_ of Ptolemy, a
name parallel in meaning to _Sonaparanta_, the classic P[=a]li title
assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents. The royal
history traces the lineage of the kings to the ancient Buddhist monarchs of
India. This no doubt is fabulous, but it is hard to say how early
communication with Gangetic India began. From the 11th to the 13th century
the old Burman empire was at the height of its power, and to this period
belong the splendid remains of architecture at Pagan. The city and the
dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Mongol) invasion (1284 A.D.)
in the reign of Kublai Khan. After that the empire fell to a low ebb, and
Central Burma was often subject to Shan dynasties. In the early part of the
16th century the Burmese princes of Toungoo, in the north-east of Pegu,
began to rise to power, and established a dynasty which at one time held
possession of Pegu, Ava and Arakan. They made their capital at Pegu, and to
this dynasty belong the gorgeous [v.04 p.0844] descriptions of some of the
travellers of the 16th century. Their wars exhausted the country, and
before the end of the century it was in the greatest decay. A new dynasty
arose in Ava, which subdued Pegu, and maintained their supremacy throughout
the 17th and during the first forty years of the 18th century. The Peguans
or Talaings then revolted, and having taken the capital Ava, and made the
king prisoner, reduced the whole country to submission. Alompra, left by
the conqueror in charge of the village of Môtshobo, planned the deliverance
of his country. He attacked the Peguans at first with small detachments;
but when his forces increased, he suddenly advanced, and took possession of
the capital in the autumn of 1753.

In 1754 the Peguans sent an armament of war-boats against Ava, but they
were totally defeated by Alompra; while in the districts of Prome, Donubyu,
&c., the Burmans revolted, and expelled all the Pegu garrisons in their
towns. In 1754 Prome was besieged by the king of Pegu, who was again
defeated by Alompra, and the war was transferred from the upper provinces
to the mouths of the navigable rivers, and the numerous creeks and canals
which intersect the lower country. In 1755 the yuva raja, the king of
Pegu's brother, was equally unsuccessful, after which the Peguans were
driven from Bassein and the adjacent country, and were forced to withdraw
to the fortress of Syriam, distant 12 m. from Rangoon. Here they enjoyed a
brief repose, Alompra being called away to quell an insurrection of his own
subjects, and to repel an invasion of the Siamese; but returning
victorious, he laid siege to the fortress of Syriam and took it by
surprise. In these wars the French sided with the Peguans, the English with
the Burmans. Dupleix, the governor of Pondicherry, had sent two ships to
the aid of the former; but the master of the first was decoyed up the river
by Alompra, where he was massacred along with his whole crew. The other
escaped to Pondicherry. Alompra was now master of all the navigable rivers;
and the Peguans, shut out from foreign aid, were finally subdued. In 1757
the conqueror laid siege to the city of Pegu, which capitulated, on
condition that their own king should govern the country, but that he should
do homage for his kingdom, and should also surrender his daughter to the
victorious monarch. Alompra never contemplated the fulfilment of the
condition; and having obtained possession of the town, abandoned it to the
fury of his soldiers. In the following year the Peguans vainly endeavoured
to throw off the yoke. Alompra afterwards reduced the town and district of
Tavoy, and finally undertook the conquest of the Siamese. His army advanced
to Mergui and Tenasserim, both of which towns were taken; and he was
besieging the capital of Siam when he was taken ill. He immediately ordered
his army to retreat, in hopes of reaching his capital alive; but he expired
on the way, in 1760, in the fiftieth year of his age, after he had reigned
eight years. In the previous year he had massacred the English of the
establishment of Negrais, whom he suspected of assisting the Peguans. He
was succeeded by his eldest son Noungdaugyi, whose reign was disturbed by
the rebellion of his brother Sin-byu-shin, and afterwards by one of his
father's generals. He died in little more than three years, leaving one son
in his infancy; and on his decease the throne was seized by his brother
Sin-byu-shin. The new king was intent, like his predecessors, on the
conquest of the adjacent states, and accordingly made war in 1765 on the
Manipur kingdom, and also on the Siamese, with partial success. In the
following year he defeated the Siamese, and, after a long blockade,
obtained possession of their capital. But while the Burmans were extending
their conquests in this quarter, they were invaded by a Chinese army of
50,000 men from the province of Yunnan. This army was hemmed in by the
skill of the Burmans; and, being reduced by the want of provisions, it was
afterwards attacked and totally destroyed, with the exception of 2500 men,
who were sent in fetters to work in the Burmese capital at their several
trades. In the meantime the Siamese revolted, and while the Burman army was
marching against them, the Peguan soldiers who had been incorporated in it
rose against their companions, and commencing an indiscriminate massacre,
pursued the Burman army to the gates of Rangoon, which they besieged, but
were unable to capture. In 1774 Sin-byu-shin was engaged in reducing the
marauding tribes. He took the district and fort of Martaban from the
revolted Peguans; and in the following year he sailed down the Irrawaddy
with an army of 50,000 men, and, arriving at Rangoon, put to death the aged
monarch of Pegu, along with many of his nobles, who had shared with him in
the offence of rebellion. He died in 1776, after a reign of twelve years,
during which he had extended the Burmese dominions on every side. He was
succeeded by his son, a youth of eighteen, called Singumin (Chenguza of
Symes), who proved himself a bloodthirsty despot, and was put to death by
his uncle, Bodawpaya or Mentaragyi, in 1781, who ascended the vacant
throne. In 1783 the new king effected the conquest of Arakan. In the same
year he removed his residence from Ava, which, with brief interruptions,
had been the capital for four centuries, to the new city of Amarapura, "the
City of the Immortals."

The Siamese who had revolted in 1771 were never afterwards subdued by the
Burmans; but the latter retained their dominion over the sea-coast as far
as Mergui. In the year 1785 they attacked the island of Junkseylon with a
fleet of boats and an army, but were ultimately driven back with loss; and
a second attempt by the Burman monarch, who in 1786 invaded Siam with an
army of 30,000 men, was attended with no better success. In 1793 peace was
concluded between these two powers, the Siamese yielding to the Burmans the
entire possession of the coast of Tenasserim on the Indian Ocean, and the
two important seaports of Mergui and Tavoy.

In 1795 the Burmese were involved in a dispute with the British in India,
in consequence of their troops, to the amount of 5000 men, entering the
district of Chittagong in pursuit of three robbers who had fled from
justice across the frontier. Explanations being made and terms of
accommodation offered by General Erskine, the commanding officer, the
Burmese commander retired from the British territories, when the fugitives
were restored, and all differences for the time amicably arranged.

But it was evident that the gradual extension of the British and Burmese
territories would in time bring the two powers into close contact along a
more extended line of frontier, and in all probability lead to a war
between them. It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their
arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet,
on the north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of
the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government. The
Burmese leaders, arrested in their career of conquest, were impatient to
measure their strength with their new neighbours. It appears from the
evidence of Europeans who resided in Ava, that they were entirely
unacquainted with the discipline and resources of the Europeans. They
imagined that, like other nations, they would fall before their superior
tactics and valour; and their cupidity was inflamed by the prospect of
marching to Calcutta and plundering the country. At length their chiefs
ventured on the open violation of the British territories. They attacked a
party of sepoys within the frontier, and seized and carried off British
subjects, while at all points their troops, moving in large bodies, assumed
the most menacing positions. In the south encroachments were made upon the
British frontier of Chittagong. The island of Shahpura, at the mouth of the
Naaf river, had been occupied by a small guard of British troops. These
were attacked on the 23rd of September 1823 by the Burmese, and driven from
their post with the loss of several lives; and to the repeated demands of
the British for redress no answer was returned. Other outrages ensued; and
at length, on March 5th, 1824, war was declared by the British government.
The military operations, which will be found described under BURMESE WARS,
ended in the treaty of Yandaboo on the 24th of February 1826, which
conceded the British terms and enabled their army to be withdrawn.

For some years the relations of peace continued undisturbed. Probably the
feeling of amity on the part of the Burmese government was not very strong;
but so long as the prince by whom the treaty was concluded continued in
power, no attempt was [v.04 p.0845] made to depart from its main
stipulations. That monarch, Ba-ggi-daw, however, was obliged in 1837 to
yield the throne to a usurper who appeared in the person of his brother,
Tharrawaddi (Tharawadi). The latter, at an early period, manifested not
only that hatred of British connexion which was almost universal at the
Burmese court, but also the extremest contempt. For several years it had
become apparent that the period was approaching when war between the
British and the Burmese governments would again become inevitable. The
British resident, Major Burney, who had been appointed in 1830, finding his
presence at Ava agreeable neither to the king nor to himself, removed in
1837 to Rangoon, and shortly afterwards retired from the country.
Ultimately it became necessary to forego even the pretence of maintaining
relations of friendship, and the British functionary at that time, Captain
Macleod, was withdrawn in 1840 altogether from a country where his
continuance would have been but a mockery. The state of sullen dislike
which followed was after a while succeeded by more active evidences of
hostility. Acts of violence were committed on British ships and British
seamen. Remonstrance was consequently made by the British government, and
its envoys were supported by a small naval force. The officers on whom
devolved the duty of representing the wrongs of their fellow-countrymen and
demanding redress, proceeded to Rangoon, the governor of which place had
been a chief actor in the outrages complained of; but so far were they from
meeting with any signs of regret, that they were treated with indignity and
contempt, and compelled to retire without accomplishing anything beyond
blockading the ports. A series of negotiations followed; nothing was
demanded of the Burmese beyond a very moderate compensation for the
injuries inflicted on the masters of two British vessels, an apology for
the insults offered by the governor of Rangoon to the representatives of
the British government, and the re-establishment of at least the appearance
of friendly relations by the reception of a British agent by the Burmese
government. But the obduracy of King Pagan, who had succeeded his father in
1846, led to the refusal alike of atonement for past wrongs, of any
expression of regret for the display of gratuitous insolence, and of any
indication of a desire to maintain friendship for the future. Another
Burmese war was the result, the first shot being fired in January 1852. As
in the former, though success was varying, the British finally triumphed,
and the chief towns in the lower part of the Burmese kingdom fell to them
in succession. The city of Pegu, the capital of that portion which, after
having been captured, had again passed into the hands of the enemy, was
recaptured and retained, and the whole province of Pegu was, by
proclamation of the governor-general, Lord Dalhousie, declared to be
annexed to the British dominions on the 20th of December 1852. No treaty
was obtained or insisted upon,--the British government being content with
the tacit acquiescence of the king of Burma without such documents; but its
resolution was declared, that any active demonstration of hostility by him
would be followed by retribution.

About the same time a revolution broke out which resulted in King Pagan's
dethronement. His tyrannical and barbarous conduct had made him obnoxious
at home as well as abroad, and indeed many of his actions recall the worst
passages of the history of the later Roman emperors. The Mindôn prince, who
had become apprehensive for his own safety, made him prisoner in February
1853, and was himself crowned king of Burma towards the end of the year.
The new monarch, known as King Mindôn, showed himself sufficiently arrogant
in his dealings with the European powers, but was wise enough to keep free
from any approach towards hostility. The loss of Pegu was long a matter of
bitter regret, and he absolutely refused to acknowledge it by a formal
treaty. In the beginning of 1855 he sent a mission of compliment to Lord
Dalhousie, the governor-general; and in the summer of the same year Major
(afterwards Sir Arthur) Phayre, _de facto_ governor of the new province of
Pegu, was appointed envoy to the Burmese court. He was accompanied by
Captain (afterwards Sir Henry) Yule as secretary, and Mr Oldham as
geologist, and his mission added largely to our knowledge of the state of
the country; but in its main object of obtaining a treaty it was
unsuccessful. It was not till 1862 that the king at length yielded, and his
relations with Britain were placed on a definite diplomatic basis.

In that year the province of British Burma, the present Lower Burma, was
formed, with Sir Arthur Phayre as chief commissioner. In 1867 a treaty was
concluded at Mandalay providing for the free intercourse of trade and the
establishment of regular diplomatic relations. King Mindôn died in 1878,
and was succeeded by his son King Thibaw. Early in 1879 he excited much
horror by executing a number of the members of the Burmese royal family,
and relations became much strained. The British resident was withdrawn in
October 1879. The government of the country rapidly became bad. Control
over many of the outlying districts was lost, and the elements of disorder
on the British frontier were a standing menace to the peace of the country.
The Burmese court, in contravention of the express terms of the treaty of
1869, created monopolies to the detriment of the trade of both England and
Burma; and while the Indian government was unrepresented at Mandalay,
representatives of Italy and France were welcomed, and two separate
embassies were sent to Europe for the purpose of contracting new and, if
possible, close alliances with sundry European powers. Matters were brought
to a crisis towards the close of 1885, when the Burmese government imposed
a fine of £230,000 on the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation, and refused to
comply with a suggestion of the Indian government that the cause of
complaint should be investigated by an impartial arbitrator. An ultimatum
was therefore despatched on the 22nd of October 1885. On the 9th of
November a reply was received in Rangoon amounting to an unconditional
refusal. The king on the 7th of November issued a proclamation calling upon
his subjects to drive the British into the sea. On the 14th of November
1885 the British field force crossed the frontier, and advanced to Mandalay
without incurring any serious resistance (see BURMESE WARS). It reached Ava
on the 26th of November, and an envoy from the king signified his
submission. On the 28th of November the British occupied Mandalay, and next
day King Thibaw was sent down the river to Rangoon, whence he was
afterwards transferred to Ratnagiri on the Bombay coast. Upper Burma was
formally annexed on the 1st of January 1886, and the work of restoring the
country to order and introducing settled government commenced. This was a
more serious task than the overthrow of the Burmese government, and
occupied four years. This was in part due to the character of the country,
which was characterized as one vast military obstacle, and in part to the
disorganization which had been steadily growing during the six years of
King Thibaw's reign. By the close of 1889 all the larger bands of marauders
were broken up, and since 1890 the country has enjoyed greater freedom from
violent crime than the province formerly known as British Burma. By the
Upper Burma Village Regulations and the Lower Burma Village Act, the
villagers themselves were made responsible for maintaining order in every
village, and the system has worked with the greatest success. During the
decade 1891-1901 the population increased by 19.8% and cultivation by 53%.
With good harvests and good markets the standard of living in Burma has
much improved. Large areas of cultivable waste have been brought under
cultivation, and the general result has been a contented people. The
boundary with Siam was demarcated in 1893, and that with China was
completed in 1900.

AUTHORITIES.--_Official_: Col. Horace Spearman, _British Burma Gazetteer_
(2 vols., Rangoon, 1879); Sir J. George Scott, _Upper Burma Gazetteer_ (5
vols., Rangoon, 1900-1901). _Non-official_: Right Rev. Bishop Bigandet,
_Life or Legend of Gautama_ (3rd ed., London, 1881); G.W. Bird, _Wanderings
in Burma_ (London, 1897); E.D. Cuming, _In the Shadow of the Pagoda_
(London, 1893), _With the Jungle Folk_ (Condon, 1897); Max and Bertha
Ferrars, _Burma_ (London, 1900); H. Fielding, _The Soul of a People
(Buddhism in Burma)_ (London, 1898), _Thibaw's Queen_ (London, 1899), _A
People at School_ (1906); Capt. C.J. Forbes, F.S., _Burma_ (London, 1878),
_Comparative Grammar of the Languages of Farther India_ (London, 1881),
_Legendary History of Burma and Arakan_ (Rangoon, 1882); J. Gordon, _Burma
and its Inhabitants_ (London, 1876); Mrs E. Hart, [v.04 p.0846]
_Picturesque Burma_ (London, 1897); Gen. R. Macmahon, _Far Cathay and
Farther India_ (London, 1892); Rev. F. Mason, D.D., _Burma_ (Rangoon,
1860); E.H. Parker, _Burma_ (Rangoon, 1892); Sir Arthur Phayre, _History of
Burma_ (London, 1883); G.C. Rigby, _History of the Operations in Northern
Arakan and the Yawdwin Chin Hills_ (Rangoon, 1897), Sir J. George Scott,
_Burma, As it is, As it was, and As it will be_ (London, 1886); Shway Yoe,
_The Burman, His Life and Notions_ (2nd ed., London, 1896); D.M. Smeaton,
_The Karens of Burma_ (London, 1887); Sir Henry Yule, _A Mission to Ava_
(London, 1858); J. Nisbet, _Burma under British Rule and Before_ (London,
1901); V.D. Scott O'Connor, _The Silken East_ (London, 1904); Talbot Kelly,
_Burma_ (London, 1905); an exhaustive account of the administration is
contained in Dr Alleyne Ireland's _The Province of Burma_, Report prepared
on behalf of the university of Chicago (Boston, U.S.A., 2 vols., 1907).

(J. G. SC.)

[1] See also, for geology, W. Theobald, "On the Geology of Pegu," _Mem.
Geol. Surv. India_, vol. x. pt. ii. (1874); F. Noetling, "The Development
and Subdivision of the Tertiary System in Burma," _Rec. Geol. Sun. India_,
vol. xxviii. (1895), pp. 59-86, pl. ii.; F. Noetling, "The Occurrence of
Petroleum in Burma, and its Technical Exploitation," _Mem. Geol. Surv.
India_, vol. xxvii. pt. ii. (1898).

BURMANN, PIETER (1668-1741), Dutch classical scholar, known as "the Elder,"
to distinguish him from his nephew, was born at Utrecht. At the age of
thirteen he entered the university where he studied under Graevius and
Gronovius. He devoted himself particularly to the study of the classical
languages, and became unusually proficient in Latin composition. As he was
intended for the legal profession, he spent some years in attendance on the
law classes. For about a year he studied at Leiden, paying special
attention to philosophy and Greek. On his return to Utrecht he took the
degree of doctor of laws (March 1688), and after travelling through
Switzerland and part of Germany, settled down to the practice of law,
without, however, abandoning his classical studies. In December 1691 he was
appointed receiver of the tithes which were originally paid to the bishop
of Utrecht, and five years later was nominated to the professorship of
eloquence and history. To this chair was soon added that of Greek and
politics. In 1714 he paid a short visit to Paris and ransacked the
libraries. In the following year he was appointed successor to the
celebrated Perizonius, who had held the chair of history, Greek language
and eloquence at Leiden. He was subsequently appointed professor of history
for the United Provinces and chief librarian. His numerous editorial and
critical works spread his fame as a scholar throughout Europe, and engaged
him in many of the stormy disputes which were then so common among men of
letters. Burmann was rather a compiler than a critic; his commentaries show
immense learning and accuracy, but are wanting in taste and judgment. He
died on the 31st of March 1741.

Burmann edited the following classical authors:--Phaedrus (1698); Horace
(1699); Valerius Flaccus (1702); Petronius Arbiter (1709); Velleius
Paterculus (1719); Quintilian (1720); Justin (1722); Ovid (1727); _Poetae
Latini minores_ (1731); Suetonius (1736); Lucan (1740). He also published
an edition of Buchanan's works, continued Graevius's great work, _Thesaurus
Antiquitatum et Historiarum Italiae_, and wrote a treatise _De Vectigalibus
populi Romani_ (1694) and a short manual of Roman antiquities,
_Antiquitatum Romanarum Brevis Descriptio_ (1711). His _Sylloge epistolarum
a viris illustribus scriptarum_ (1725) is of importance for the history of
learned men. The list of his works occupies five pages in Saxe's
_Onomasticon_. His poems and orations were published after his death. There
is an account of his life in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for April (1742) by
Dr Samuel Johnson.

BURMANN, PIETER (1714-1778), called by himself "the Younger" (Secundus),
Dutch philologist, nephew of the above, was born at Amsterdam on the 13th
of October 1714. He was brought up by his uncle in Leiden, and afterwards
studied law and philology under C.A. Duker and Arnold von Drakenborch at
Utrecht. In 1735 he was appointed professor of eloquence and history at
Franeker, with which the chair of poetry was combined in 1741. In the
following year he left Franeker for Amsterdam to become professor of
history and philology at the Athenaeum. He was subsequently professor of
poetry (1744), general librarian (1752), and inspector of the gymnasium
(1753). In 1777 he retired, and died on the 24th of June 1778 at Sandhorst,
near Amsterdam. He resembled his more famous uncle in the manner and
direction of his studies, and in his violent disposition, which involved
him in quarrels with contemporaries, notably Saxe and Klotz. He was a man
of extensive learning, and had a great talent for Latin poetry. His most
valuable works are: _Anthologia Veterum Latinorum Epigrammatum et Poematum_
(1759-1773); _Aristophanis Comoediae Novem_ (1760); _Rhetorica ad
Herennium_ (1761). He completed the editions of Virgil (1746) and Claudian
(1760), which had been left unfinished by his uncle, and commenced an
edition of Propertius, one of his best works, which was only half printed
at the time of his death. It was completed by L. van Santen and published
in 1780.

BURMESE WARS. Three wars were fought between Burma and the British during
the 19th century (see BURMA: _History_), which resulted in the gradual
extinction of Burmese independence.

_First Burmese War, 1823-26._--On the 23rd of September 1823 an armed party
of Burmese attacked a British guard on Shapura, an island close to the
Chittagong side, killing and wounding six of the guard. Two Burmese armies,
one from Manipur and another from Assam, also entered Cachar, which was
under British protection, in January 1824. War with Burma was formally
declared on the 5th of March 1824. On the 17th of May a Burmese force
invaded Chittagong and drove a mixed sepoy and police detachment from its
position at Ramu, but did not follow up its success. The British rulers in
India, however, had resolved to carry the war into the enemy's country; an
armament, under Commodore Charles Grant and Sir Archibald Campbell, entered
the Rangoon river, and anchored off the town on the 10th of May 1824. After
a feeble resistance the place, then little more than a large stockaded
village, was surrendered, and the troops were landed. The place was
entirely deserted by its inhabitants, the provisions were carried off or
destroyed, and the invading force took possession of a complete solitude.
On the 28th of May Sir A. Campbell ordered an attack on some of the nearest
posts, which were all carried after a steadily weakening defence. Another
attack was made on the 10th of June on the stockades at the village of
Kemmendine. Some of these were battered by artillery from the war vessels
in the river, and the shot and shells had such effect on the Burmese that
they evacuated them, after a very unequal resistance. It soon, however,
became apparent that the expedition had been undertaken with very imperfect
knowledge of the country, and without adequate provision. The devastation
of the country, which was part of the defensive system of the Burmese, was
carried out with unrelenting rigour, and the invaders were soon reduced to
great difficulties. The health of the men declined, and their ranks were
fearfully thinned. The monarch of Ava sent large reinforcements to his
dispirited and beaten army; and early in June an attack was commenced on
the British line, but proved unsuccessful. On the 8th the British
assaulted. The enemy were beaten at all points; and their strongest
stockaded works, battered to pieces by a powerful artillery, were in
general abandoned. With the exception of an attack by the prince of
Tharrawaddy in the end of August, the enemy allowed the British to remain
unmolested during the months of July and August. This interval was employed
by Sir A. Campbell in subduing the Burmese provinces of Tavoy and Mergui,
and the whole coast of Tenasserim. This was an important conquest, as the
country was salubrious and afforded convalescent stations to the sick, who
were now so numerous in the British army that there were scarcely 3000
soldiers fit for duty. An expedition was about this time sent against the
old Portuguese fort and factory of Syriam, at the mouth of the Pegu river,
which was taken; and in October the province of Martaban was reduced under
the authority of the British.

The rainy season terminated about the end of October; and the court of Ava,
alarmed by the discomfiture of its armies, recalled the veteran legions
which were employed in Arakan, under their renowned leader Maha Bandula.
Bandula hastened by forced marches to the defence of his country; and by
the end of November an army of 60,000 men had surrounded the British
position at Rangoon and Kemmendine, for the defence of which Sir Archibald
Campbell had only 5000 efficient troops. The enemy in great force made
repeated attacks on Kemmendine without success, and on the 7th of December
Bandula was defeated in a counter attack made by Sir A. Campbell. The
fugitives retired to a strong position on the river, which they again
entrenched; and here they were attacked by the British on the 15th, and
driven in complete confusion from the field.

Sir Archibald Campbell now resolved to advance on Prome, [v.04 p.0847]
about 100 m. higher up the Irrawaddy river. He moved with his force on the
13th of February 1825 in two divisions, one proceeding by land, and the
other, under General Willoughby Cotton, destined for the reduction of
Danubyu, being embarked on the flotilla. Taking the command of the land
force, he continued his advance till the 11th of March, when intelligence
reached him of the failure of the attack upon Danubyu. He instantly
commenced a retrograde march; on the 27th he effected a junction with
General Cotton's force, and on the 2nd of April entered the entrenchments
at Danubyu without resistance, Bandula having been killed by the explosion
of a bomb. The English general entered Prome on the 25th, and remained
there during the rainy season. On the 17th of September an armistice was
concluded for one month. In the course of the summer General Joseph
Morrison had conquered the province of Arakan; in the north the Burmese
were expelled from Assam; and the British had made some progress in Cachar,
though their advance was finally impeded by the thick forests and jungle.

The armistice having expired on the 3rd of November, the army of Ava,
amounting to 60,000 men, advanced in three divisions against the British
position at Prome, which was defended by 3000 Europeans and 2000 native
troops. But the British still triumphed, and after several actions, in
which the Burmese were the assailants and were partially successful, Sir A.
Campbell, on the 1st of December, attacked the different divisions of their
army, and successively drove them from all their positions, and dispersed
them in every direction. The Burmese retired on Malun, along the course of
the Irrawaddy, where they occupied, with 10,000 or 12,000 men, a series of
strongly fortified heights and a formidable stockade. On the 26th they sent
a flag of truce to the British camp; and negotiations having commenced,
peace was proposed to them on the following conditions:--(1) The cession of
Arakan, together with the provinces of Mergui, Tavoy and Ye; (2) the
renunciation by the Burmese sovereign of all claims upon Assam and the
contiguous petty states; (3) the Company to be paid a crore of rupees as an
indemnification for the expenses of the war; (4) residents from each court
to be allowed, with an escort of fifty men; while it was also stipulated
that British ships should no longer be obliged to unship their rudders and
land their guns as formerly in the Burmese ports. This treaty was agreed to
and signed, but the ratification of the king was still wanting; and it was
soon apparent that the Burmese had no intention to sign it, but were
preparing to renew the contest. On the 19th of January, accordingly, Sir A.
Campbell attacked and carried the enemy's position at Malun. Another offer
of peace was here made by the Burmese, but it was found to be insincere;
and the fugitive army made at the ancient city of Pagan a final stand in
defence of the capital. They were attacked and overthrown on the 9th of
February 1826; and the invading force being now within four days' march of
Ava, Dr Price, an American missionary, who with other Europeans had been
thrown into prison when the war commenced, was sent to the British camp
with the treaty (known as the treaty of Yandaboo) ratified, the prisoners
of war released, and an instalment of 25 lakhs of rupees. The war was thus
brought to a successful termination, and the British army evacuated the
country.

_Second Burmese War, 1852._--On the 15th of March 1852 Lord Dalhousie sent
an ultimatum to King Pagan, announcing that hostile operations would be
commenced if all his demands were not agreed to by the ist of April.
Meanwhile a force consisting of 8100 troops had been despatched to Rangoon
under the command of General H.T. Godwin, C.B., while Commodore Lambert
commanded the naval contingent. No reply being given to this letter, the
first blow of the Second Burmese War was struck by the British on the 5th
of April 1852, when Martaban was taken. Rangoon town was occupied on the
12th, and the Shwe Dagôn pagoda on the 14th, after heavy fighting, when the
Burmese army retired northwards. Bassein was seized on the 19th of May, and
Pegu was taken on the 3rd of June, after some sharp fighting round the
Shwe-maw-daw pagoda. During the rainy season the approval of the East India
Company's court of directors and of the British government was obtained to
the annexation of the lower portion of the Irrawaddy Valley, including
Prome. Lord Dalhousie visited Rangoon in July and August, and discussed the
whole situation with the civil, military and naval authorities. In
consequence General Godwin occupied Prome on the 9th of October after but
slight resistance. Early in December Lord Dalhousie informed King Pagan
that the province of Pegu would henceforth form part of the British
dominions, and that if his troops resisted the measure his whole kingdom
would be destroyed. The proclamation of annexation was issued on the 20th
of January 1853, and thus the Second Burmese War was brought to an end
without any treaty being signed.

_Third Burmese War, 1885-86._--The imposition of an impossible fine on the
Bombay-Burma Trading Company, coupled with the threat of confiscation of
all their rights and property in case of non-payment, led to the British
ultimatum of the 22nd of October 1885; and by the 9th of November a
practical refusal of the terms having been received at Rangoon, the
occupation of Mandalay and the dethronement of King Thibaw were determined
upon. At this time, beyond the fact that the country was one of dense
jungle, and therefore most unfavourable for military operations, little was
known of the interior of Upper Burma; but British steamers had for years
been running on the great river highway of the Irrawaddy, from Rangoon to
Mandalay, and it was obvious that the quickest and most satisfactory method
of carrying out the British campaign was an advance by water direct on the
capital. Fortunately a large number of light-draught river steamers and
barges (or "flats"), belonging to the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company, were
available at Rangoon, and the local knowledge of the company's officers of
the difficult river navigation was at the disposal of the government.
Major-General, afterwards Sir, H.N.D. Prendergast, V.C., K.C.B., R.E., was
placed in command of the expedition. As was only to be expected in an
enterprise of this description, the navy as well as the army was called in
requisition; and as usual the services rendered by the seamen and guns were
most important. The total effective of the force was 9034 fighting men,
2810 native followers and 67 guns, and for river service, 24 machine guns.
The river fleet which conveyed the troops and stores was composed of a
total of no less than 55 steamers, barges, launches, &c.

Thayetmyo was the British post on the river nearest to the frontier, and
here, by 14th November, five days after Thibaw's answer had been received,
practically the whole expedition was assembled. On the same day General
Prendergast received instructions to commence operations. The Burmese king
and his country were taken completely by surprise by the unexampled
rapidity of the advance. There had been no time for them to collect and
organize the stubborn resistance of which the river and its defences were
capable. They had not even been able to block the river by sinking
steamers, &c., across it, for, on the very day of the receipt of orders to
advance, the armed steamers, the "Irrawaddy" and "Kathleen," engaged the
nearest Burmese batteries, and brought out from under their guns the king's
steamer and some barges which were lying in readiness for this very
purpose. On the 16th the batteries themselves on both banks were taken by a
land attack, the enemy being evidently unprepared and making no resistance.
On the 17th of November, however, at Minhla, on the right bank of the
river, the Burmans in considerable force held successively a barricade, a
pagoda and the redoubt of Minhla. The attack was pressed home by a brigade
of native infantry on shore, covered by a bombardment from the river, and
the enemy were defeated with a loss of 170 killed and 276 prisoners,
besides many more drowned in the attempt to escape by the river. The
advance was continued next day and the following days, the naval brigade
and heavy artillery leading and silencing in succession the enemy's river
defences at Nyaungu, Pakôkku and Myingyan. On the 26th of November, when
the flotilla was approaching the ancient capital of Ava, envoys from King
Thibaw met General Prendergast with offers of surrender; and on the 27th,
when the ships [v.04 p.0848] were lying off that city and ready to commence
hostilities, the order of the king to his troops to lay down their arms was
received. There were three strong forts here, full at that moment with
thousands of armed Burmans, and though a large number of these filed past
and laid down their arms by the king's command, still many more were
allowed to disperse with their weapons; and these, in the time that
followed, broke up into dacoit or guerrilla bands, which became the scourge
of the country and prolonged the war for years. Meanwhile, however, the
surrender of the king of Burma was complete; and on the 28th of November,
in less than a fortnight from the declaration of war, Mandalay had fallen,
and the king himself was a prisoner, while every strong fort and town on
the river, and all the king's ordnance (1861 pieces), and thousands of
rifles, muskets and arms had been taken. Much valuable and curious "loot"
and property was found in the palace and city of Mandalay, which, when
sold, realized about 9 lakhs of rupees (£60,000).

From Mandalay, General Prendergast seized Bhamo on the 28th of December.
This was a very important move, as it forestalled the Chinese, who were
preparing to claim the place. But unfortunately, although the king was
dethroned and deported, and the capital and the whole of the river in the
hands of the British, the bands of armed soldiery, unaccustomed to
conditions other than those of anarchy, rapine and murder, took advantage
of the impenetrable cover of their jungles to continue a desultory armed
resistance. Reinforcements had to be poured into the country, and it was in
this phase of the campaign, lasting several years, that the most difficult
and most arduous work fell to the lot of the troops. It was in this jungle
warfare that the losses from battle, sickness and privation steadily
mounted up; and the troops, both British and native, proved once again
their fortitude and courage.

Various expeditions followed one another in rapid succession, penetrating
to the remotest corners of the land, and bringing peace and protection to
the inhabitants, who, it must be mentioned, suffered at least as much from
the dacoits as did the troops. The final, and now completely successful,
pacification of the country, under the direction of Sir Frederick
(afterwards Earl) Roberts, was only brought about by an extensive system of
small protective posts scattered all over the country, and small lightly
equipped columns moving out to disperse the enemy whenever a gathering came
to a head, or a pretended prince or king appeared.

No account of the Third Burmese War would be complete without a reference
to the first, and perhaps for this reason most notable, land advance into
the enemy's country. This was carried out in November 1885 from Toungoo,
the British frontier post in the east of the country, by a small column of
all arms under Colonel W.P. Dicken, 3rd Madras Light Infantry, the first
objective being Ningyan. The operations were completely successful, in
spite of a good deal of scattered resistance, and the force afterwards
moved forward to Yamethin and Hlaingdet. As inland operations developed,
the want of mounted troops was badly felt, and several regiments of cavalry
were brought over from India, while mounted infantry was raised locally. It
was found that without these most useful arms it was generally impossible
to follow up and punish the active enemy.

BURN, RICHARD (1700-1785), English legal writer, was born at Winton,
Westmorland, in 1709. Educated at Queen's College, Oxford, he entered the
Church, and in 1736 became vicar of Orton in Westmorland. He was a justice
of the peace for the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland, and devoted
himself to the study of law. He was appointed chancellor of the diocese of
Carlisle in 1765, an office which he held till his death at Orton on the
12th of November 1785. Burn's _Justice of the Peace and Parish Officer_,
first published in 1755, was for many years the standard authority on the
law relating to justices of the peace. It has passed through innumerable
editions. His _Ecclesiastical Law_ (1760), a work of much research, was the
foundation upon which were built many modern commentaries on ecclesiastical
law. The best edition is that by R. Phillimore (4 vols., 1842). Burn also
wrote _Digest of the Militia Laws_ (1760), and _A New Law Dictionary_ (2
vols., 1792).

BURNABY, FREDERICK GUSTAVUS (1842-1885), English traveller and soldier, was
born on the 3rd of March 1842, at Bedford, the son of a clergyman. Educated
at Harrow and in Germany, he entered the Royal Horse Guards in 1859.
Finding no chance for active service, his spirit of adventure sought
outlets in balloon-ascents and in travels through Spain and Russia. In the
summer of 1874 he accompanied the Carlist forces as correspondent of _The
Times_, but before the end of the war he was transferred to Africa to
report on Gordon's expedition to the Sudan. This took Burnaby as far as
Khartum. Returning to England in March 1875, he matured his plans for a
journey on horseback to Khiva through Russian Asia, which had just been
closed to travellers. His accomplishment of this task, in the winter of
1875-1876, described in his book _A Ride to Khiva_, brought him immediate
fame. His next leave of absence was spent in another adventurous journey on
horseback, through Asia Minor, from Scutari to Erzerum, with the object of
observing the Russian frontier, an account of which he afterwards
published. In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877, Burnaby (who soon afterwards
became lieut.-colonel) acted as travelling agent to the Stafford House (Red
Cross) Committee, but had to return to England before the campaign was
over. At this point began his active interest in politics, and in 1880 he
unsuccessfully contested a seat at Birmingham in the Tory-Democrat
interest. In 1882 he crossed the Channel in a balloon. Having been
disappointed in his hope of seeing active service in the Egyptian campaign
of 1882, he participated in the Suakin campaign of 1884 without official
leave, and was wounded at El Teb when acting as an intelligence officer
under General Valentine Baker. This did not deter him from a similar course
when a fresh expedition started up the Nile. He was given a post by Lord
Wolseley, and met his death in the hand-to-hand fighting of the battle of
Abu Klea (17th January 1885).

BURNAND, SIR FRANCIS COWLEY (1836- ), English humorist, was born in London
on the 29th of November 1836. His father was a London stockbroker, of
French-Swiss origin; his mother Emma Cowley, a direct descendant of Hannah
Cowley (1743-1809), the English poet and dramatist. He was educated at Eton
and Cambridge, and originally studied first for the Anglican, then for the
Roman Catholic Church; but eventually took to the law and was called to the
bar. From his earliest days, however, the stage had attracted him--he
founded the Amateur Dramatic Club at Cambridge,--and finally he abandoned
the church and the law, first for the stage and subsequently for dramatic
authorship. His first great dramatic success was made with the burlesque
_Black-Eyed Susan_, and he wrote a large number of other burlesques,
comedies and farces. One of his early burlesques came under the favourable
notice of Mark Lemon, then editor of _Punch_, and Burnand, who was already
writing for the comic paper _Fun_, became in 1862 a regular contributor to
_Punch_. In 1880 he was appointed editor of _Punch_, and only retired from
that position in 1906. In 1902 he was knighted. His literary reputation as
a humorist depends, apart from his long association with _Punch_, on his
well-known book _Happy Thoughts_, originally published in _Punch_ in
1863-1864 and frequently reprinted.

See _Recollections and Reminiscences_, by Sir F.C. Burnand (London, 1904).

BURNE-JONES, SIR EDWARD BURNE, Bart. (1833-1898), English painter and
designer, was born on the 28th of August 1833 at Birmingham. His father was
a Welsh descent, and the idealism of his nature and art has been attributed
to this Celtic strain. An only son, he was educated at King Edward's
school, Birmingham, and destined for the Church. He retained through life
an interest in classical studies, but it was the mythology of the classics
which fascinated him. He went into residence as a scholar at Exeter
College, Oxford, in January 1853. On the same day William Morris entered
the same college, having also the intention of taking orders. The two were
thrown together, and grew close friends. Their similar tastes and
enthusiasms were [v.04 p.0849] mutually stimulated. Burne-Jones resumed his
early love of drawing and designing. With Morris he read _Modern Painters_
and the _Morte d'Arthur_. He studied the Italian pictures in the University
galleries, and Dürer's engravings; but his keenest enthusiasm was kindled
by the sight of two works by a living man, Rossetti. One of these was a
woodcut in Allingham's poems, "The Maids of Elfinmere"; the other was the
water-colour "Dante drawing an Angel," then belonging to Mr Coombe, of the
Clarendon Press, and now in the University collection. Having found his
true vocation, Burne-Jones, like his friend Morris, determined to
relinquish his thoughts of the Church and to become an artist. Rossetti,
although not yet seen by him, was his chosen master; and early in 1856 he
had the happiness, in London, of meeting him. At Easter he left college
without taking a degree. This was his own decision, not due (as often
stated) to Rossetti's persuasion; but on settling in London, where Morris
soon joined him at 17 Red Lion Square, he began to work under Rossetti's
friendly instruction and encouraging guidance.

As Burne-Jones once said, he "found himself at five-and-twenty what he
ought to have been at fifteen." He had had no regular training as a
draughtsman, and lacked the confidence of science. But his extraordinary
faculty of invention as a designer was already ripening; his mind, rich in
knowledge of classical story and medieval romance, teemed with pictorial
subjects; and he set himself to complete his equipment by resolute labour,
witnessed by innumerable drawings. The works of this first period are all
more or less tinged by the influence of Rossetti; but they are already
differentiated from the elder master's style by their more facile though
less intensely felt elaboration of imaginative detail. Many are pen-and-ink
drawings on vellum, exquisitely finished, of which the "Waxen Image" is one
of the earliest and best examples; it is dated 1856. Although subject,
medium and manner derive from Rossetti's inspiration, it is not the hand of
a pupil merely, but of a potential master. This was recognized by Rossetti
himself, who before long avowed that he had nothing more to teach him.
Burne-Jones's first sketch in oils dates from this same year, 1856; and
during 1857 he made for Bradfield College the first of what was to be an
immense series of cartoons for stained glass. In 1858 he decorated a
cabinet with the "Prioress's Tale" from Chaucer, his first direct
illustration of the work of a poet whom he especially loved and who
inspired him with endless subjects. Thus early, therefore, we see the
artist busy in all the various fields in which he was to labour.

In the autumn of 1857 Burne-Jones joined in Rossetti's ill-fated scheme to
decorate theh walls of the Oxford Union. None of the painters had mastered
the technique of fresco, and their pictures had begun to peel from the
walls before they were completed. In 1859 Burne-Jones made his first
journey to Italy. He saw Florence, Pisa, Siena, Venice and other places,
and appears to have found the gentle and romantic Sienese more attractive
than any other school. Rossetti's influence still persisted; and its
impress is visible, more strongly perhaps than ever before, in the two
water-colours "Sidonia von Bork" and "Clara von Bork," painted in 1860.
These little masterpieces have a directness of execution rare with the
artist. In powerful characterization, combined with a decorative motive,
they rival Rossetti at his best. In June of this year Burne-Jones was
married to Miss Georgiana Macdonald, two of whose sisters were the wives of
Sir E. Poynter and Mr J.L. Kipling, and they settled in Bloomsbury. Five
years later he moved to Kensington Square, and shortly afterwards to the
Grange, Fulham, an old house with a garden, where he resided till his
death. In 1862 the artist and his wife accompanied Ruskin to Italy,
visiting Milan and Venice.

In 1864 he was elected an associate of the Society of Painters in
Water-Colours, and exhibited, among other works, "The Merciful Knight," the
first picture which fully revealed his ripened personality as an artist.
The next six years saw a series of fine water-colours at the same gallery;
but in 1870, owing to a misunderstanding, Burne-Jones resigned his
membership of the society. He was re-elected in 1886. During the next seven
years, 1870-1877, only two works of the painter's were exhibited. These
were two water-colours, shown at the Dudley Gallery in 1873, one of them
being the beautiful "Love among the Ruins," destroyed twenty years later by
a cleaner who supposed it to be an oil painting, but afterwards reproduced
in oils by the painter. This silent period was, however, one of unremitting
production. Hitherto Burne-Jones had worked almost entirely in
water-colours. He now began a number of large pictures in oils, working at
them in turn, and having always several on hand. The "Briar Rose" series,
"Laus Veneris," the "Golden Stairs," the "Pygmalion" series, and "The
Mirror of Venus" are among the works planned and completed, or carried far
towards completion, during these years. At last, in May 1877, the day of
recognition came, with the opening of the first exhibition of the Grosvenor
Gallery, when the "Days of Creation," the "Beguiling of Merlin," and the
"Mirror of Venus" were all shown. Burne-Jones followed up the signal
success of these pictures with "Laus Veneris," the "Chant d'Amour," "Pan
and Psyche," and other works, exhibited in 1878. Most of these pictures are
painted in gay and brilliant colours. A change is noticeable next year,
1879, in the "Annunciation" and in the four pictures called "Pygmalion and
the Image"; the former of these, one of the simplest and most perfect of
the artist's works, is subdued and sober; in the latter a scheme of soft
and delicate tints was attempted, not with entire success. A similar
temperance of colours marks the "Golden Stairs," first exhibited in 1880.
In 1884, following the almost sombre "Wheel of Fortune" of the preceding
year, appeared "King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid," in which Burne-Jones
once more indulged his love of gorgeous colour, refined by the period of
self-restraint. This masterpiece is now in the National collection. He next
turned to two important sets of pictures, "The Briar Rose" and "The Story
of Perseus," though these were not completed for some years to come. In
1886, having been elected A.R.A. the previous year, he exhibited (for the
only time) at the Royal Academy "The Depths of the Sea," a mermaid carrying
down with her a youth whom she has unconsciously drowned in the impetuosity
of her love. This picture adds to the habitual haunting charm a tragic
irony of conception and a felicity of execution which give it a place apart
among Burne-Jones's works. He resigned his Associateship in 1893. One of
the "Perseus" series was exhibited in 1887, two more in 1888, with "The
Brazen Tower," inspired by the same legend. In 1890 the four pictures of
"The Briar Rose" were exhibited by themselves, and won the widest
admiration. The huge tempera picture, "The Star of Bethlehem," painted for
the corporation of Birmingham, was exhibited in 1891. A long illness for
some time checked the painter's activity, which, when resumed, was much
occupied with decorative schemes. An exhibition of his work was held at the
New Gallery in the winter of 1892-1893. To this period belong several of
his comparatively few portraits. In 1894 Burne-Jones was made a baronet.
Ill-health again interrupted the progress of his works, chief among which
was the vast "Arthur in Avalon." In 1898 he had an attack of influenza, and
had apparently recovered, when he was again taken suddenly ill, and died on
the 17th of June. In the following winter a second exhibition of his works
was held at the New Gallery, and an exhibition of his drawings (including
some of the charmingly humorous sketches made for children) at the
Burlington Fine Arts Club.

His son and successor in the baronetcy, Sir Philip Burne-Jones (b. 1861),
also became well known as an artist. The only daughter, Margaret, married
Mr J.W. Mackail.

Burne-Jones's influence has been exercised far less in painting than in the
wide field of decorative design. Here it has been enormous. His first
designs for stained glass, 1857-1861, were made for Messrs Powell, but
after 1861 he worked exclusively for Morris & Co. Windows executed from his
cartoons are to be found all over England; others exist in churches abroad.
For the American Church in Rome he designed a number of mosaics. Reliefs in
metal, tiles, gesso-work, decorations for [v.04 p.0850] pianos and organs,
and cartoons for tapestry represent his manifold activity. In all works,
however, which were only designed and not carried out by him, a decided
loss of delicacy is to be noted. The colouring of the tapestries (of which
the "Adoration of the Magi" at Exeter College is the best-known) is more
brilliant than successful. The range and fertility of Burne-Jones as a
decorative inventor can be perhaps most conveniently studied in the
sketch-book, 1885-1895, which he bequeathed to the British Museum. The
artist's influence on book-illustration must also be recorded. In early
years he made a few drawings on wood for Dalziel's Bible and for _Good
Words_; but his later work for the Kelmscott Press, founded by Morris in
1891, is that by which he is best remembered. Besides several illustrations
to other Kelmscott books, he made eighty-seven designs for the _Chaucer_ of
1897.

Burne-Jones's aim in art is best given in some of his own words, written to
a friend: "I mean by a picture a beautiful, romantic dream of something
that never was, never will be--in a light better than any light that ever
shone--in a land no one can define or remember, only desire--and the forms
divinely beautiful--and then I wake up, with the waking of Brynhild." No
artist was ever more true to his aim. Ideals resolutely pursued are apt to
provoke the resentment of the world, and Burne-Jones encountered, endured
and conquered an extraordinary amount of, angry criticism. In so far as
this was directed against the lack of realism in his pictures, it was
beside the point. The earth, the sky, the rocks, the trees, the men and
women of Burne-Jones are not those of this world; but they are themselves a
world, consistent with itself, and having therefore its own reality.
Charged with the beauty and with the strangeness of dreams, it has nothing
of a dream's incoherence. Yet it is a dreamer always whose nature
penetrates these works, a nature out of sympathy with struggle and
strenuous action. Burne-Jones's men and women are dreamers too. It was this
which, more than anything else, estranged him from the age into which he
was born. But he had an inbred "revolt from fact" which would have
estranged him from the actualities of any age. That criticism seems to be
more justified which has found in him a lack of such victorious energy and
mastery over his materials as would have enabled him to carry out his
conceptions in their original intensity. Representing the same kind of
tendency as distinguished his French contemporary, Puvis de Chavannes, he
was far less in the main current of art, and his position suffers
accordingly. Often compared with Botticelli, he had nothing of the fire and
vehemence of the Florentine. Yet, if aloof from strenuous action,
Burne-Jones was singularly strenuous in production. His industry was
inexhaustible, and needed to be, if it was to keep pace with the constant
pressure of his ideas. Invention, a very rare excellence, was his
pre-eminent gift. Whatever faults his paintings may have, they have always
the fundamental virtue of design; they are always pictures. His fame might
rest on his purely decorative work. But his designs were informed with a
mind of romantic temper, apt in the discovery of beautiful subjects, and
impassioned with a delight in pure and variegated colour. These splendid
gifts were directed in a critical and fortunate moment by the genius of
Rossetti. Hence a career which shows little waste or misdirection of power,
and, granted the aim proposed, a rare level of real success.

AUTHORITIES.--In 1904 was published _Memorials of Edward Burne-Jones_, by
his widow, two volumes of extreme interest and charm. _The Work of
Burne-Jones_, a collection of ninety-one photogravures, appeared in 1900.

See also _Catalogue to Burlington Club Exhibition of Drawings by
Burne-Jones_, with Introduction by Cosmo Monkhouse (1899); _Sir E.
Burne-Jones: a Record and a Review_, by Malcolm Belt (1898); _Sir E.
Burne-Jones, his Life and Work_, by Julia Cartwright (Mrs Ady) (1894); _The
Life of William Morris_, by J.W. Mackail (1899).

(L. B.)

BURNELL, ARTHUR COKE (1840-1882), English Sanskrit scholar, was born at St
Briavels, Gloucestershire, in 1840. His father was an official of the East
India Company, and in 1860 he himself went out to Madras as a member of the
Indian civil service. Here he utilized every available opportunity to
acquire or copy Sanskrit manuscripts. In 1870 he presented his collection
of 350 MSS. to the India library. In 1874 he published a _Handbook of South
Indian Palaeography_, characterized by Max Müller as "indispensable to
every student of Indian literature," and in 1880 issued for the Madras
government his greatest work, the _Classified Index to the Sanskrit MSS. in
the Palace at Tanjore_. He was also the author of a large number of
translations from, and commentaries on, various other Sanskrit manuscripts,
being particularly successful in grouping and elucidating the essential
principles of Hindu law. In addition to his exhaustive acquaintance with
Sanskrit, and the southern India vernaculars, he had some knowledge of
Tibetan, Arabic, Kawi, Javanese and Coptic. Burnell originated with Sir
Henry Yule the well-known dictionary of Anglo-Indian words and phrases,
_Hobson-Jobson_. His constitution, never strong, broke down prematurely
through the combined influence of overwork and the Madras climate, and he
died at West Stratton, Hampshire, on the 12th of October 1882. A further
collection of Sanskrit manuscripts was purchased from his heirs by the
India library after his death.

BURNELL, ROBERT (d. 1292), English bishop and chancellor, was born at Acton
Burnell in Shropshire, and began his public life probably as a clerk in the
royal chancery. He was soon in the service of Edward, the eldest son of
King Henry III., and was constantly in attendance on the prince, whose
complete confidence he appears to have enjoyed. Having received some
ecclesiastical preferments, he acted as one of the regents of the kingdom
from the death of Henry III. in November 1272 until August 1274, when the
new king, Edward I., returned from Palestine and made him his chancellor.
In 1275 Burnell was elected bishop of Bath and Wells, and three years later
Edward repeated the attempt which he had made in 1270 to secure the
archbishopric of Canterbury for his favourite. The bishop's second failure
to obtain this dignity was due, doubtless, to his irregular and unclerical
manner of life, a fact which also accounts, in part at least, for the
hostility which existed between his victorious rival, Archbishop Peckham,
and himself. As the chief adviser of Edward I. during the earlier part of
his reign, and moreover as a trained and able lawyer, the bishop took a
prominent part in the legislative acts of the "English Justinian," whose
activity in this direction coincides practically with Burnell's tenure of
the office of chancellor. The bishop also influenced the king's policy with
regard to France, Scotland and Wales; was frequently employed on business
of the highest moment; and was the royal mouthpiece on several important
occasions. In 1283 a council, or, as it is sometimes called, a parliament,
met in his house at Acton Burnell, and he was responsible for the
settlement of the court of chancery in London. In spite of his numerous
engagements, Burnell found time to aggrandize his bishopric, to provide
liberally for his nephews and other kinsmen, and to pursue his cherished
but futile aim of founding a great family. Licentious and avaricious, he
amassed great wealth; and when he died on the 25th of October 1292 he left
numerous estates in Shropshire, Worcestershire, Somerset, Kent, Surrey and
elsewhere. He was, however, genial and kind-hearted, a great lawyer and a
faithful minister.

See R.W. Eyton, _Antiquities of Shropshire_ (London, 1854-1860); and E.
Foss, _The Judges of England_, vol. iii. (London, 1848-1864).

BURNES, SIR ALEXANDER (1805-1841), British traveller and explorer, was born
at Montrose, Scotland, in 1805. While serving in India, in the army of the
East India Company, which he had joined in his seventeenth year, he made
himself acquainted with Hindustani and Persian, and thus obtained an
appointment as interpreter at Surat in 1822. Transferred to Cutch in 1826
as assistant to the political agent, he turned his attention more
particularly to the history and geography of north-western India and the
adjacent countries, at that time very imperfectly known. His proposal in
1829 to undertake a journey of exploration through the valley of the Indus
was not carried out owing to political apprehensions; but in 1831 he was
sent to Lahore with a present of horses from King William IV. to Maharaja
Ranjit Singh and took advantage of the opportunity for extensive
investigations. In the following years his travels were extended through
Afghanistan across the Hindu Kush to [v.04 p.0851] Bokhara and Persia. The
narrative which he published on his visit to England in 1834 added
immensely to contemporary knowledge of the countries traversed, and was one
of the most popular books of the time. The first edition brought the author
the sum of £800, and his services were recognized not only by the Royal
Geographical Society of London, but also by that of Paris. Soon after his
return to India in 1835 he was appointed to the court of Sind to secure a
treaty for the navigation of the Indus; and in 1836 he undertook a
political mission to Dost Mahommed at Kabul. He advised Lord Auckland to
support Dost Mahommed on the throne of Kabul, but the viceroy preferred to
follow the opinion of Sir William Macnaghten and reinstated Shah Shuja,
thus leading up to the disasters of the first Afghan War. On the
restoration of Shah Shuja in 1839, he became regular political agent at
Kabul, and remained there till his assassination in 1841 (on the 2nd of
November), during the heat of an insurrection. The calmness with which he
continued at his post, long after the imminence of his danger was apparent,
gives an heroic colouring to the close of an honourable and devoted life.
It came to light in 1861 that some of Burnes' despatches from Kabul in 1839
had been altered, so as to convey opinions opposite to his, but Lord
Palmerston refused after such a lapse of time to grant the inquiry demanded
in the House of Commons. A narrative of his later labours was published in
1842 under the title of _Cabool_.

See Sir J.W. Kaye, _Lives of Indian Officers_ (1889).

BURNET, GILBERT (1643-1715), English bishop and historian, was born in
Edinburgh on the 18th of September 1643, of an ancient and distinguished
Scottish house. He was the youngest son of Robert Burnet (1592-1661), who
at the Restoration became a lord of session with the title of Lord Crimond.
Robert Burnet had refused to sign the Scottish Covenant, although the
document was drawn up by his brother-in-law, Archibald Johnstone, Lord
Warristoun. He therefore found it necessary to retire from his profession,
and twice went into exile. He disapproved of the rising of the Scots, but
was none the less a severe critic of the government of Charles I. and of
the action of the Scottish bishops. This moderate attitude he impressed on
his son Gilbert, whose early education he directed. The boy entered
Marischal College at the age of nine, and five years later graduated M.A.
He then spent a year in the study of feudal and civil law before he
resolved to devote himself to theology. He became a probationer for the
Scottish ministry in 1661 just before episcopal government was
re-established in Scotland. His decision to accept episcopal orders led to
difficulties with his family, especially with his mother, who held rigid
Presbyterian views. From this time dates his friendship with Robert
Leighton (1611-1684), who greatly influenced his religious opinions.
Leighton had, during a stay in the Spanish Netherlands, assimilated
something of the ascetic and pietistic spirit of Jansenism, and was devoted
to the interests of peace in the church. Burnet wisely refused to accept a
benefice in the disturbed state of church affairs, but he wrote an
audacious letter to Archbishop Sharp asking him to take measures to restore
peace. Sharp sent for Burnet, and dismissed his advice without apparent
resentment. He had already made valuable acquaintances in Edinburgh, and he
now visited London, Oxford and Cambridge, and, after a short visit to
Edinburgh in 1663, when he sought to secure a reprieve for his uncle
Warristoun, he proceeded to travel in France and Holland. At Cambridge he
was strongly influenced by the philosophical views of Ralph Cudworth and
Henry More, who proposed an unusual degree of toleration within the
boundaries of the church and the limitations imposed by its liturgy and
episcopal government; and his intercourse in Holland with foreign divines
of different Protestant sects further encouraged his tendency to
latitudinarianism.

When he returned to England in 1664 he established intimate relations with
Sir Robert Moray and with John Maitland, earl and afterwards first duke of
Lauderdale, both of whom at that time advocated a tolerant policy towards
the Scottish covenanters. Burnet became a member of the Royal Society, of
which Moray was the first president. On his father's death he had been
offered a living by a relative, Sir Alexander Burnet, and in 1663 the
living of Saltoun, East Lothian, had been kept open for him by one of his
father's friends. He was not formally inducted at Saltoun until June 1665,
although he had served there since October 1664. For the next five years he
devoted himself to his parish, where he won the respect of all parties. In
1666 he alienated the Scottish bishops by a bold memorial (printed in vol.
ii. of the _Miscellanies_ of the Scottish Historical Society), in which he
pointed out that they were departing from the custom of the primitive
church by their excessive pretensions, and yet his attitude was far too
moderate to please the Presbyterians. In 1669 he resigned his parish to
become professor of divinity in the university of Glasgow, and in the same
year he published an exposition of his ecclesiastical views in his _Modest
and Free Conference between a Conformist and a Nonconformist_ (by "a lover
of peace"). He was Leighton's right hand in the efforts at a compromise
between the episcopal and the presbyterian principle. Meanwhile he had
begun to differ from Lauderdale, whose policy after the failure of the
scheme of "Accommodation" moved in the direction of absolutism and
repression, and during Lauderdale's visit to Scotland in 1672 the
divergence rapidly developed into opposition. He warily refused the offer
of a Scottish bishopric, and published in 1673 his four "conferences,"
entitled _Vindication of the Authority, Constitution and Laws of the Church
and State of Scotland_, in which he insisted on the duty of passive
obedience. It was partly through the influence of Anne (d. 1716), duchess
of Hamilton in her own right, that he had been appointed at Glasgow, and he
made common cause with the Hamiltons against Lauderdale. The duchess had
made over to him the papers of her father and uncle, from which he compiled
the _Memoirs of the Lives and Actions of James and William, dukes of
Hamilton and Castleherald. In which an Account is given of the Rise and
Progress of the Civil Wars of Scotland ... together with many letters ...
written by King Charles I._ (London, 1677; Univ. Press, Oxford, 1852), a
book which was published as the second volume of a _History of the Church
of Scotland_, Spottiswoode's _History_ forming the first. This work
established his reputation as an historian. Meanwhile he had clandestinely
married in 1671 a cousin of Lauderdale, Lady Margaret Kennedy, daughter of
John Kennedy, 6th earl of Cassilis, a lady who had already taken an active
part in affairs in Scotland, and was eighteen years older than Burnet. The
marriage was kept secret for three years, and Burnet renounced all claim to
his wife's fortune.

Lauderdale's ascendancy in Scotland and the failure of the attempts at
compromise in Scottish church affairs eventually led Burnet to settle in
England. He was favourably received by Charles II. in 1673, when he went up
to London to arrange for the publication of the Hamilton _Memoirs_, and he
was treated with confidence by the duke of York. On his return to Scotland
Lauderdale refused to receive him, and denounced him to Charles II. as one
of the chief centres of Scottish discontent. Burnet found it wiser to
retire to England on the plea of fulfilling his duties as royal chaplain.
Once in London he resigned his professorship (September 1674) at Glasgow;
but, although James remained his friend, Charles struck him off the roll of
court chaplains in 1674, and it was in opposition to court influence that
he was made chaplain to the Rolls Chapel by the master, Sir Harbottle
Grimston, and appointed lecturer at St Clement's. He was summoned in April
1675 before a committee of the House of Commons to give evidence against
Lauderdale, and disclosed, without reluctance according to his enemies,
confidences which had passed between him and the minister. He himself
confesses in his autobiography that "it was a great error in me to appear
in this matter," and his conduct cost him the patronage of the duke of
York. In ecclesiastical matters he threw in his lot with Thomas Tillotson
and John Tenison, and at the time of the Revolution had written some
eighteen polemics against encroachments of the Roman Catholic Church. At
the suggestion of Sir William Jones, the attorney-general, he began his
_History of the Reformation in England_, based on original documents. [v.04
p.0852] In the necessary research he received some pecuniary help from
Robert Boyle, but he was hindered in the preparation of the first part
(1679) through being refused access to the Cotton library, possibly by the
influence of Lauderdale. For this volume he received the thanks of
parliament, and the second and third volumes appeared in 1681 and 1715. In
this work he undertook to refute the statements of Nicholas Sanders, whose
_De Origine et progressu schismatis Anglicani libri tres_ (Cologne, 1585)
was still, in the French translation of Maucroix, the commonly accepted
account of the English reformation. Burnet's contradictions of Sanders must
not, however, be accepted without independent investigation. At the time of
the Popish Plot in 1678 he displayed some moderation, refusing to believe
the charges made against the duke of York, though he chose this time to
publish some anti-Roman pamphlets. He tried, at some risk to himself, to
save the life of one of the victims, William Staly, and visited William
Howard, Viscount Stafford, in the Tower. To the Exclusion Bill he opposed a
suggestion of compromise, and it is said that Charles offered him the
bishopric of Chichester, "if he would come entirely into his interests."
Burnet's reconciliation with the court was short-lived. In January 1680 he
addressed to the king a long letter on the subject of his sins; he was
known to have received the dangerous confidence of Wilmot, earl of
Rochester, in his last illness; and he was even suspected, unjustly, in
1683, of having composed the paper drawn up on the eve of death by William
Russell, Lord Russell, whom he attended to the scaffold. On the 5th of
November 1684 he preached, at the express wish of his patron Grimston, and
against his own desire, the usual anti-Catholic sermon. He was consequently
deprived of his appointments by order of the court, and on the accession of
James II. retired to Paris. He had already begun the writing of his
memoirs, which were to develop into the _History of His Own Time_.

Burnet now travelled in Italy, Germany and Switzerland, finally settling in
Holland at the Hague, where he won from the princess of Orange a confidence
which proved enduring. He rendered a signal service to William by inducing
the princess to offer to leave the whole political power in her husband's
hands in the event of their succession to the English crown. A prosecution
against him for high treason was now set on foot both in England and in
Scotland, and he took the precaution of naturalizing himself as a Dutch
subject. Lady Margaret Burnet was dying when he left England, and n Holland
he married a Dutch heiress of Scottish descent, Mary Scott. He returned to
England with William and Mary, and drew up the English text of their
declaration. His earlier views on the doctrine of non-resistance had been
sensibly modified by what he saw in France after the revocation of the
edict of Nantes and by the course of affairs at home, and in 1688 he
published an _Inquiry into the Measures of Submission to the Supreme
Authority_ in defence of the revolution. He was consecrated to the see of
Salisbury on the 31st of March 1689 by a commission of bishops to whom
Archbishop Sancroft had delegated his authority, declining personally to
perform the office. In his pastoral letter to his clergy urging them to
take the oath of allegiance, Burnet grounded the claim of William and Mary
on the right of conquest, a view which gave such offence that the pamphlet
was burnt by the common hangman three years later. As bishop he proved an
excellent administrator, and gave the closest attention to his pastoral
duties. He discouraged plurality of livings, and consequent non-residence,
established a school of divinity as Salisbury, and spent much time himself
in preparing candidates for confirmation, and in the examination of those
who wished to enter the priesthood. Four discourses delivered to the clergy
of his diocese were printed in 1694. During Queen Mary's lifetime
ecclesiastical patronage passed through her hands, but after her death
William III. appointed an ecclesiastical commission on which Burnet was a
prominent member, for the disposal of vacant benefices. In 1696 and 1697 he
presented memorials to the king suggesting that the first-fruits and tenths
raised by the clergy should be devoted to the augmentation of the poorer
livings, and though his suggestions were not immediately accepted, they
were carried into effect under Queen Anne by the provision known as Queen
Anne's Bounty. His second wife died of smallpox in 1698, and in 1700 Burnet
married again, his third wife being Elizabeth (1661-1709), widow of Robert
Berkeley and daughter of Sir Richard Blake, a rich and charitable woman,
known by her _Method of Devotion_, posthumously published in 1710. In 1699
he was appointed tutor to the royal duke of Gloucester, son of the Princess
Anne, an appointment which he accepted somewhat against his will. His
influence at court had declined after the death of Queen Mary; William
resented his often officious advice, placed little confidence in his
discretion, and soon after his accession is even said to have described him
as _ein rechter Tartuffe_. Burnet made a weighty speech against the bill
(1702-1703) directed against the practice of occasional conformity, and was
a consistent exponent of Broad Church principles. He devoted five years'
labour to his _Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles_ (1699; ed. J.R.
Page, 1837), which was severely criticized by the High Church clergy. But
his hopes for a comprehensive scheme which might include nonconformists in
the English Church were necessarily destroyed on the accession of Queen
Anne. He died on the 17th of March 1715, and was buried in the parish of St
James's, Clerkenwell.

Burnet directed in his will that his most important work, the _History of
His Own Time_, should appear six years after his death. It was published (2
vols., 1724-1734) by his sons, Gilbert and Thomas, and then not without
omissions. It was attacked in 1724 by John Cockburn in _A Specimen of some
free and impartial Remarks_. Burnet's book naturally aroused much
opposition, and there were persistent rumours that the MS. had been unduly
tampered with. He has been freely charged with gross misrepresentation, an
accusation to which he laid himself open, for instance, in the account of
the birth of James, the Old Pretender. His later intimacy with the
Marlboroughs made him very lenient where the duke was concerned. The
greatest value of his work naturally lies in his account of transactions of
which he had personal knowledge, notably in his relation of the church
history of Scotland, of the Popish Plot, of the proceedings at the Hague
previous to the expedition of William and Mary, and of the personal
relations between the joint sovereigns.

Of his children by his second wife, William (d. 1729) became a colonial
governor in America; Gilbert (d. 1726) became prebendary of Salisbury in
1715, and chaplain to George I. in 1718; and Sir Thomas (1694-1753), his
literary executor and biographer, became in 1741 judge in the court of
common pleas.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The chief authorities for Bishop Burnet's life are the
autobiography "Rough Draft of my own Life" (ed. H.C. Foxcroft, Oxford,
1902, in the _Supplement to Burnet's History_), the Life by Sir Thomas
Burnet in the _History of His Own Time_ (Oxford, 1823, vol. vi.), and the
_History_ itself. A rather severe but detailed and useful criticism is
given in L. v. Ranke's _History of England_ (Eng. ed., Oxford, 1875), vol.
vi. pp. 45-101. Burnet's letters to his friend, George Savile, marquess of
Halifax, were published by the Royal Historical Society (_Camden
Miscellany_, vol. xi.). The _History of His Own Time_ (2 vols. fol.,
1724-1734) ran through many editions before it was reprinted at the
Clarendon Press (6 vols., 1823, and supplementary volume, 1833) with the
suppressed passages of the first volume and notes by the earls of Dartmouth
and Hardwicke, with the remarks of Swift. This edition, under the direction
of M.J. Routh, was enlarged in a second Oxford edition of 1833. A new
edition, based on this, but making use of the Bodleian MS., which differs
very considerably from the printed version, was edited by Osmund Airy
(Oxford, 1897, &c.). In 1902 (Clarendon Press, Oxford) Miss H.C. Foxcroft
edited _A Supplement to Burnet's History of His Own Time_, to which is
prefixed an account of the relation between the different versions of the
History--the Bodleian MS., the fragmentary Harleian MS. in the British
Museum and Sir Thomas Burnet's edition; the book contains the remaining
fragments of Burnet's original memoirs, his autobiography, his letters to
Admiral Herbert and his private meditations. The chief differences between
Burnet's original draft as represented by the Bodleian MS. and the printed
history consist in a more lenient view generally of individuals, a
modification of the censure levelled at the Anglican clergy, changes
obviously dictated by a general variation in his point of view, and a more
cautious account of personal matters such as his early relations with
Lauderdale. He also cut out much minor detail, and information relating to
himself and to members of his family. His [v.04 p.0853] _History of the
Reformation of the Church of England_ was edited (Clarendon Press, Oxford,
7 vols., 1865) by N. Pocock.

Besides the works mentioned above may be noticed: _Some Passages of the
Life and Death of John, Earl of Rochester_ (Lond., 1680; facsimile reprint,
with introduction by Lord Ronald Gower, 1875); _The Life and Death of Sir
Matthew Hale, Kt., sometime Lord Chief-Justice of his Majesties Court of
Kings Bench_ (Lond., 1682), which is included in C. Wordsworth's
_Ecclesiastical Biography_ (vol. vi., 1818); _The History of the Rights of
Princes in disposing of Ecclesiastical Benefices and Church Lands_ (Lond.,
1682, 8vo); _The Life of William Bedell, D.D., Bishop of Kilmore in
Ireland_ (1685), containing the correspondence between Bedell and James
Waddesdon of the Holy Inquisition on the subject of the Roman obedience;
_Reflections on Mr Varillas's "History of the Revolutions that have
happened in Europe in matters of Religion," and more particularly on his
Ninth Book, that relates to England_ (Amst., 1686), appended to the account
of his travels entitled _Some Letters_, which was originally published at
Rotterdam (1686); _A Discourse of the Pastoral Care_ (1692, 14th ed.,
1821); _An Essay on the Memory of the late Queen_ (1695); _A Collection of
various Tracts and Discourses written in the Years 1677 to 1704_ (3 vols.,
1704); and _A Collection of Speeches, Prefaces, Letters, with a Description
of Geneva and Holland_ (1713). Of his shorter religious and polemical works
a catalogue is given in vol. vi. of the Clarendon Press edition of his
_History_, and in Lowndes's _Bibliographer's Manual_. The following
translations deserve to be mentioned:--_Utopia, written in Latin by Sir
Thomas More, Chancellor of England: translated into English_ (1685); _A
Relation of the Death of the Primitive Persecutors, written originally in
Latin, by L.C.F. Lactantius: Englished by Gilbert Burnet, D.D., to which he
hath made a large preface concerning Persecution_ (Amst., 1687).

See also _A Life of Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury_ (1907), by T.E.S.
Clarke and H.C. Foxcroft, with an introduction by C.H. Firth, which
contains a chronological list of Burnet's published works. Of Burnet's
personal character there are well-known descriptions in chapter vii. of
Macaulay's _History of England_, and in W.E.H. Lecky's _History of England
in the Eighteenth Century_, vol. i. pp. 80 seq.

BURNET, THOMAS (1635-1715), English divine, was born at Croft in Yorkshire
about the year 1635. He was educated at Northallerton, and at Clare Hall,
Cambridge. In 1657 he was made fellow of Christ's, and in 1667 senior
proctor of the university. By the interest of James, duke of Ormonde, he
was chosen master of the Charterhouse in 1685, and took the degree of D.D.
As master he made a noble stand against the illegal attempts to admit
Andrew Popham as a pensioner of the house, strenuously opposing an order of
the 26th of December 1686, addressed by James II. to the governors
dispensing with the statutes for the occasion.

Burnet published his famous _Telluris Theoria Sacra_, or _Sacred Theory of
the Earth_,[1] at London in 1681. This work, containing a fanciful theory
of the earth's structure,[2] attracted much attention, and he was
afterwards encouraged to issue an English translation, which was printed in
folio, 1684-1689. Addison commended the author in a Latin ode, but his
theory was attacked by John Keill, William Whiston and Erasmus Warren, to
all of whom he returned answers. His reputation obtained for him an
introduction at court by Archbishop Tillotson, whom he succeeded as clerk
of the closet to King William. But he suddenly marred his prospects by the
publication, in 1692, of a work entitled _Archaeologiae Philosophicae: sive
Doctrina antiqua de Rerum Originibus_, in which he treated the Mosaic
account of the fall of man as an allegory. This excited a great clamour
against him; and the king was obliged to remove him from his office at
court. Of this book an English translation was published in 1729. Burnet
published several other minor works before his death, which took place at
the Charterhouse on the 27th September 1715. Two posthumous works appeared
several years after his death--_De Fide et Officiis Christianorum_ (1723),
and _De Statu Mortuorum et Resurgentium Tractatus_ (1723); in which he
maintained the doctrine of a middle state, the millennium, and the limited
duration of future punishment. A _Life of Dr Burnet_, by Heathcote,
appeared in 1759.

[1] "Which," says Samuel Johnson, "the critick ought to read for its
elegance, the philosopher for its arguments, and the saint for its piety"
(_Lives of English Poets_, vol. i. p. 303).

[2] Burnet held that at the deluge the earth was crushed like an egg, the
internal waters rushing out, and the fragments of shell becoming the
mountains.

BURNET, known botanically as _Poterium_, a member of the rose family. The
plants are perennial herbs with pinnate leaves and small flowers arranged
in dense long-stalked heads. Great burnet (_Poterium officinale_) is found
in damp meadows; salad burnet (_P. Sanguisorba_) is a smaller plant with
much smaller flower-heads growing in dry pastures.

BURNETT, FRANCES ELIZA HODGSON (1849- ), Anglo-American novelist, whose
maiden name was Hodgson, was born in Manchester, England, on the 24th of
November 1849; she went to America with her parents, who settled in
Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1865. Miss Hodgson soon began to write stories for
magazines. In 1873 she married Dr L.M. Burnett of Washington, whom she
afterwards (1898) divorced. Her reputation as a novelist was made by her
remarkable tale of Lancashire life, _That Lass o' Lowrie's_ (1877), and a
number of other volumes followed, of which the best were _Through one
Administration_ (1883) and _A Lady of Quality_ (1896). In 1886 she attained
a new popularity by her charming story of _Little Lord Fauntleroy_, and
this led to other stories of child-life. _Little Lord Fauntleroy_ was
dramatized (see COPYRIGHT for the legal questions involved) and had a great
success on the stage; and other dramas by her were also produced. In 1900
she married a second time, her husband being Mr Stephen Townesend, a
surgeon, who (as Will Dennis) had taken to the stage and had collaborated
with her in some of her plays.

BURNEY, CHARLES (1726-1814), English musical historian, was born at
Shrewsbury on the 12th of April 1726. He received his earlier education at
the free school of that city, and was afterwards sent to the public school
at Chester. His first music master was Edmund Baker, organist of Chester
cathedral, and a pupil of Dr John Blow. Returning to Shrewsbury when about
fifteen years old, he continued his musical studies for three years under
his half-brother, James Burney, organist of St Mary's church, and was then
sent to London as a pupil of the celebrated Dr Arne, with whom he remained
three years. Burney wrote some music for Thomson's _Alfred_, which was
produced at Drury Lane theatre on the 30th of March 1745. In 1749 he was
appointed organist of St Dionis-Backchurch, Fenchurch Street, with a salary
of £30 a year; and he was also engaged to take the harpsichord in the "New
Concerts" then recently established at the King's Arms, Cornhill. In that
year he married Miss Esther Sleepe, who died in 1761; in 1769 he married
Mrs Stephen Allen of Lynn. Being threatened with a pulmonary affection he
went in 1751 to Lynn in Norfolk, where he was elected organist, with an
annual salary of £100, and there he resided for the next nine years. During
that time he began to entertain the idea of writing a general history of
music. His _Ode for St Cecilia's Day_ was performed at Ranelagh Gardens in
1759; and in 1760 he returned to London in good health and with a young
family; the eldest child, a girl of eight years of age, surprised the
public by her attainments as a harpsichord player. The concertos for the
harpsichord which Burney published soon after his return to London were
regarded with much admiration. In 1766 he produced, at Drury Lane, a free
English version and adaptation of J.J. Rousseau's operetta _Le Devin du
village_, under the title of _The Cunning Man_. The university of Oxford
conferred upon him, on the 23rd of June 1769, the degrees of Bachelor and
Doctor of Music, on which occasion he presided at the performance of his
exercise for these degrees. This consisted of an anthem, with an overture,
solos, recitatives and choruses, accompanied by instruments, besides a
vocal anthem in eight parts, which was not performed. In 1769 he published
_An Essay towards a History of Comets_.

Amidst his various professional avocations, Burney never lost sight of his
favorite object--his _History of Music_--and therefore resolved to travel
abroad for the purpose of collecting materials that could not be found in
Great Britain. Accordingly, he left London in June 1770, furnished with
numerous letters of introduction, and proceeded to Paris, and thence to
Geneva, Turin, Milan, Padua, Venice, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Naples.
The results of his observations he published in _The Present State of Music
in France and Italy_ (1771). Dr Johnson [v.04 p.0854] thought so well of
this work that, alluding to his own _Journey to the Western Islands of
Scotland_, he said, "I had that clever dog Burney's Musical Tour in my
eye." In July 1772 Burney again visited the continent, to collect further
materials, and, after his return to London, published his tour under the
title of _The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands and United
Provinces_ (1773). In 1773 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society. In
1776 appeared the first volume (in 4to) of his long-projected _History of
Music_. In 1782 Burney published his second volume; and in 1789 the third
and fourth. Though severely criticized by Forkel in Germany and by the
Spanish ex-Jesuit, Requeno, who, in his Italian work _Saggi sul
Ristabilimento dell' Arte Armonica de' Greci e Romani Cantori_ (Parma,
1798), attacks Burney's account of the ancient Greek music, and calls him
_lo scompigliato Burney_, the _History of Music_ was generally recognized
as possessing great merit. The least satisfactory volume is the fourth, the
treatment of Handel and Bach being quite inadequate. Burney's first tour
was translated into German by Ebeling, and printed at Hamburg in 1772; and
his second tour, translated into German by Bode, was published at Hamburg
in 1773. A Dutch translation of his second tour, with notes by J.W. Lustig,
organist at Groningen, was published there in 1786. The Dissertation on the
Music of the Ancients, in the first volume of Burney's _History_, was
translated into German by J.J. Eschenburg, and printed at Leipzig, 1781.
Burney derived much aid from the first two volumes of Padre Martini's very
learned _Storia della Musica_ (Bologna, 1757-1770). One cannot but admire
his persevering industry, and his sacrifices of time, money and personal
comfort, in collecting and preparing materials for his _History_, and few
will be disposed to condemn severely errors and oversights in a work of
such extent and difficulty.

In 1774 he had written _A Plan for a Music School_. In 1779 he wrote for
the Royal Society an account of the infant Crotch, whose remarkable musical
talent excited so much attention at that time. In 1784 he published, with
an Italian title-page, the music annually performed in the pope's chapel at
Rome during Passion Week. In 1785 he published, for the benefit of the
Musical Fund, an account of the first commemoration of Handel in
Westminster Abbey in the preceding year, with an excellent life of Handel.
In 1796 he published _Memoirs and Letters of Metastasio_. Towards the close
of his life Burney was paid £1000 for contributing to Rees's _Cyclopaedia_
all the musical articles not belonging to the department of natural
philosophy and mathematics. In 1783, through the treasury influence of his
friend Edmund Burke, he was appointed organist to the chapel of Chelsea
Hospital, and he moved his residence from St Martin's Street, Leicester
Square, to live in the hospital for the remainder of his life. He was made
a member of the Institute of France, and nominated a correspondent in the
class of the fine arts, in the year 1810. From 1806 until his death he
enjoyed a pension of £300 granted by Fox. He died at Chelsea College on the
12th of April 1814, and was interred in the burying-ground of the college.
A tablet was erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey.

Burney's portrait was painted by Reynolds, and his bust was cut by
Nollekens in 1805. He had a wide circle of acquaintance among the
distinguished artists and literary men of his day. At one time he thought
of writing a life of his friend Dr Samuel Johnson, but he retired before
the crowd of biographers who rushed into that field. His character in
private as well as in public life appears to have been very amiable and
exemplary. Dr Burney's eldest son, James, was a distinguished officer in
the royal navy, who died a rear-admiral in 1821; his second son was the
Rev. Charles Burney, D.D. (1757-1817), a well-known classical scholar,
whose splendid collection of rare books, and MSS. was ultimately bought by
the nation for the British Museum; and his second daughter was Frances
(Madame D'Arblay, _q.v._).

The _Diary and Letters_ of Madame D'Arblay contain many minute and
interesting particulars of her father's public and private life, and of his
friends and contemporaries. A life of Burney by Madame D'Arblay appeared in
1832.

Besides the operatic music above mentioned, Burney's known compositions
consist of:--(1) _Six Sonatas for the harpsichord_; (2) _Two Sonatas for
the harp or piano, with accompaniments for violin and violoncello_; (3)
_Sonatas for two violins and a bass: two sets_; (4) _Six Lessons for the
harpsichord_; (5) _Six Duets for two German flutes_; (6) _Three Concertos
for the harpsichord_; (7) _Six concert pieces with an introduction and
fugue for the organ_; (8) _Six Concertos for the violin, &c., in eight
parts_; (9) _Two Sonatas for pianoforte, violin and violoncello_; (10) _A
Cantata, &c._; (11) _Anthems, &c._; (12) _XII. Canzonetti a due voci in
Canone, poesia dell' Abate Metastasio_.

BURNHAM BEECHES, a wooded tract of 375 acres in Buckinghamshire, England,
acquired in 1879 by the Corporation of the city of London, and preserved
for public use. This tract, the remnant of an ancient forest, the more
beautiful because of the undulating character of the land, lies west of the
road between Slough and Beaconsfield, and 2 m. north of Burnham Beeches
station on the Great Western railway. The poet Thomas Gray, who stayed
frequently at Stoke Poges in the vicinity, is enthusiastic concerning the
beauty of the Beeches ina letter to Horace Walpole in 1737. Near the
township of Burnham are slight Early English remains of an abbey founded in
1265. Burnham is an urban district with a population (1901) of 3245.

BURNHAM-ON-CROUCH, an urban district in the southeastern parliamentary
division of Essex, England, 43 m. E. by N. from London on a branch of the
Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 2919. The church of St Mary is
principally late Perpendicular, a good example; it has Decorated portions
and a Norman font. There are extensive oyster beds in the Crouch estuary.
Burnham lies 6 m. from the North Sea; below it the Crouch is joined on the
south side by the Roch, which branches into numerous creeks, and, together
with the main estuary, forms Foulness, Wallasea, Potton and other low, flat
islands, embanked and protected from incursions of the sea. Burnham is in
some repute as a watering-place, and is a favourite yachting station. There
is considerable trade in corn and coal, and boat-building is carried on.

BURNING TO DEATH. As a legal punishment for various crimes burning alive
was formerly very wide-spread. It was common among the Romans, being given
in the XII. Tables as the special penalty for arson. Under the Gothic codes
adulterers were so punished, and throughout the middle ages it was the
civil penalty for certain heinous crimes, _e.g._ poisoning, heresy,
witchcraft, arson, bestiality and sodomy, and so continued in some cases,
nominally at least, till the beginning of the 19th century. In England,
under the common law, women condemned for high treason or petty treason
(murder of husband, murder of master or mistress, certain offences against
the coin, &c.) were burned, this being considered more "decent" than
hanging and exposure on a gibbet. In practice the convict was strangled
before being burnt. The last woman burnt in England suffered in 1789, the
punishment being abolished in 1790.

Burning was not included among the penalties for heresy under the Roman
imperial codes; but the burning of heretics by orthodox mobs had long been
sanctioned by custom before the edicts of the emperor Frederick II. (1222,
1223) made it the civil-law punishment for heresy. His example was followed
in France by Louis IX. in the Establishments of 1270. In England, where the
civil law was never recognized, the common law took no cognizance of
ecclesiastical offences, and the church courts had no power to condemn to
death. There were, indeed, in the 12th and 13th centuries isolated
instances of the burning of heretics. William of Newburgh describes the
burning of certain foreign sectaries in 1169, and early in the 13th century
a deacon was burnt by order of the council of Oxford (Foxe ii. 374; cf.
Bracton, _de Corona_, ii. 300), but by what legal sanction is not obvious.
The right of the crown to issue writs _de haeretico comburendo_, claimed
for it by later jurists, was based on that issued by Henry IV. in 1400 for
the burning of William Sawtre; but Sir James Stephen (_Hist. Crim. Law_)
points out that this was issued "with the assent of the lords temporal,"
which seems to prove that the crown had no right under the common law to
issue such writs. The burning of heretics was actually made legal in
England by the statute _de haeretico comburendo_ (1400), passed ten days
after the issue of the above writ. This was repealed in 1533, but the Six
Articles Act of 1539 revived burning as a penalty [v.04 p.0855] for denying
transubstantiation. Under Queen Mary the acts of Henry IV. and Henry V.
were revived; they were finally abolished in 1558 on the accession of
Elizabeth. Edward VI., Elizabeth and James I., however, burned heretics
(illegally as it would appear) under their supposed right of issuing writs
for this purpose. The last heretics burnt in England were two Arians,
Bartholomew Legate at Smithfield, and Edward Wightman at Lichfield, both in
1610. As for witches, countless numbers were burned in most European
countries, though not in England, where they were hanged. In Scotland in
Charles II.'s day the law still was that witches were to be "worried at the
stake and then burnt"; and a witch was burnt at Dornoch so late as 1708.

BURNLEY, a market town and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of
Lancashire, England, at the junction of the rivers Brun and Calder, 213 m.
N.N.W. of London and 29 m. N. of Manchester, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire
railway and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal. Pop. (1891) 87,016; (1901) 97,043.
The church of St Peter dates from the 14th century, but is largely
modernized; among a series of memorials of the Towneley family is one to
Charles Towneley (d. 1805), who collected the series of antique marbles,
terra-cottas, bronzes, coins and gems which are named after him and
preserved in the British Museum. In 1902 Towneley Hall and Park were
acquired by the corporation, the mansion being adapted to use as a museum
and art gallery, and in 1903 a summer exhibition was held here. There are a
large number of modern churches and chapels, a handsome town-hall, market
hall, museum and art gallery, school of science, municipal technical
school, various benevolent institutions, and pleasant public parks and
recreation grounds. The principal industries are cotton-weaving,
worsted-making, iron-founding, coal-mining, quarrying, brick-burning and
the making of sanitary wares. It has been suggested that Burnley may
coincide with Brunanburh, the battlefield on which the Saxons conquered the
Dano-Celtic force in 937. During the cotton famine consequent upon the
American war of 1861-65 it suffered severely, and the operatives were
employed on relief works embracing an extensive system of improvements. The
parliamentary borough (1867), which returns one member, falls within the
Clitheroe division of the county. The county borough was created in 1888.
The town was incorporated in 1861. The corporation consists of a mayor, 12
aldermen and 36 councillors. By act of parliament in 1890 Burnley was
created a suffragan bishopric of the diocese of Manchester. Area of the
municipal borough, 4005 acres.

BURNOUF, EUGÈNE (1801-1852), French orientalist, was born in Paris on the
8th of April 1801. His father, Prof. Jean Louis Burnouf (1775-1844), was a
classical scholar of high reputation, and the author, among other works, of
an excellent translation of Tacitus (6 vols., 1827-1833). Eugene Burnouf
published in 1826 an _Essai sur le Pâli ..._, written in collaboration with
Christian Lassen; and in the following year _Observations grammaticales sur
quelques passages de l'essai sur le Pâli_. The next great work he undertook
was the deciphering of the Zend manuscripts brought to France by Anquetil
du Perron. By his labours a knowledge of the Zend language was first
brought into the scientific world of Europe. He caused the _Vendidad Sade_,
part of one of the books bearing the name of Zoroaster, to be lithographed
with the utmost care from the Zend MS. in the Bibliothèque Nationale, and
published it in folio parts, 1829-1843. From 1833 to 1835 he published his
_Commentaire sur le Yaçna, l'un des livres liturgiques des Parses_; he also
published the Sanskrit text and French translation of the _Bhâgavata Purâna
ou histoire poétique de Krichna_ in three folio volumes (1840-1847). His
last works were _Introduction à l'histoire du Bouddhisme indien_ (1844),
and a translation of _Le lotus de la bonne loi_ (1852). Burnouf died on the
28th of May 1852. He had been for twenty years a member of the Académie des
Inscriptions and professor of Sanskrit in the Collège de France.

See a notice of Burnouf's works by Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire, prefixed to
the second edition (1876) of the _Introd. à l'histoire du Bouddhisme
indien_; also Naudet, "Notice historique sur M.M. Burnouf, père et fils,"
in _Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions_, xx. A list of his valuable
contributions to the _Journal asiatique_, and of his MS. writings, is given
in the appendix to the _Choix de lettres d'Eugène Burnouf_ (1891).

BURNOUS (from the Arab. _burnus_), a long cloak of coarse woollen stuff
with a hood, usually white in colour, worn by the Arabs and Berbers
throughout North Africa.

BURNS, SIR GEORGE, Bart. (1795-1890), English shipowner, was born in
Glasgow on the 10th of December 1795, the son of the Rev. John Burns. In
partnership with a brother, James, he began as a Glasgow general merchant
about 1818, and in 1824 in conjunction with a Liverpool partner, Hugh
Matthie, started a line of small sailing ships which ran between Glasgow
and Liverpool. As business increased the vessels were also sailed to
Belfast, and steamers afterwards replaced the sailing ships. In 1830 a
partnership was entered into with the McIvers of Liverpool, in which George
Burns devoted himself specially to the management of the ships. In 1838
with Samuel Cunard, Robert Napier and other capitalists, the partners
(McIver and Burns) started the "Cunard" Atlantic line of steamships. They
secured the British government's contract for the carrying of the mails to
North America. The sailings were begun with four steamers of about 1000
tons each, which made the passage in 15 days at some 8½ knots per hour.
George Burns retired from the Glasgow management of the line in 1860. He
was made a baronet in 1889, but died on the 2nd of June 1890 at Castle
Wemyss, where he had spent the latter years of his life.

John Burns (1829-1901), his eldest son, who succeeded him in the baronetcy,
and became head of the Cunard Company, was created a peer, under the title
of Baron Inverclyde, in 1897; he was the first to suggest to the government
the use of merchant vessels for war purposes. George Arbuthnot Burns
(1861-1905) succeeded his father in the peerage, as 2nd baron Inverclyde,
and became chairman of the Cunard Company in 1902. He conducted the
negotiations which resulted in the refusal of the Cunard Company to enter
the shipping combination, the International Mercantile Marine Company,
formed by Messrs J.P. Morgan & Co., and took a leading part in the
application of turbine engines to ocean liners.

BURNS, JOHN (1858- ), English politician, was born at Vauxhall, London, in
October 1858, the second son of Alexander Burns, an engineer, of Ayrshire
extraction. He attended a national school in Battersea until he was ten
years old, when he was sent to work in Price's candle factory. He worked
for a short time as a page-boy, then in some engine works, and at fourteen
was apprenticed for seven years to a Millbank engineer. He continued his
education at the night-schools, and read extensively, especially the works
of Robert Owen, J.S. Mill, Paine and Cobbett. He ascribed his conversion to
the principles of socialism to his sense of the insufficiency of the
arguments advanced against it by J.S. Mill, but he had learnt socialistic
doctrine from a French fellow-workman, Victor Delahaye, who had witnessed
the Commune. After working at his trade in various parts of England, and on
board ship, he went for a year to the West African coast at the mouth of
the Niger as a foreman engineer. His earnings from this undertaking were
expended on a six months' tour in France, Germany and Austria for the study
of political and economic conditions. He had early begun the practice of
outdoor speaking, and his exceptional physical strength and strong voice
were invaluable qualifications for a popular agitator. In 1878 he was
arrested and locked up for the night for addressing an open-air
demonstration on Clapham Common. Two years later he married Charlotte Gale,
the daughter of a Battersea shipwright. He was again arrested in 1886 for
his share in the West End riots when the windows of the Carlton and other
London clubs were broken, but cleared himself at the Old Bailey of the
charge of inciting the mob to violence. In November of the next year,
however, he was again arrested for resisting the police in their attempt to
break up the meeting in Trafalgar Square, and was condemned to six weeks'
imprisonment. A speech delivered by him at the Industrial Remuneration
Conference of 1884 had attracted considerable attention, and in that year
he became a member of the Social Democratic Federation, which put him
forward [v.04 p.0856] unsuccessfully in the next year as parliamentary
candidate for West Nottingham. His connexion with the Social Democratic
Federation was short-lived; but he was an active member of the executive of
the Amalgamated Engineers' trade union, and was connected with the trades
union congresses until 1895, when, through his influence, a resolution
excluding all except wage labourers was passed. He was still working at his
trade in Hoe's printing machine works when he became a Progressive member
of the first London County Council, being supported by an allowance of £2 a
week subscribed by his constituents, the Battersea working men. He
introduced in 1892 a motion that all contracts for the County Council
should be paid at trade union rates and carried out under trade union
conditions, and devoted his efforts in general to a war against monopolies,
except those of the state or the municipality. In the same year (1889) in
which he became a member of the County Council, he acted with Mr Ben
Tillett as the chief leader and organizer of the London dock strike. He
entered the House of Commons as member for Battersea in 1892, and was
re-elected in 1895, 1900 and 1906. In parliament he became well known as an
independent Radical, and he was included in the Liberal cabinet by Sir
Henry Campbell-Bannerman in December 1905 as president of the Local
Government Board. During the next two years, though much out of favour with
his former socialist allies, he earned golden opinions for his
administrative policy, and for his refusal to adopt the visionary proposals
put forward by the more extreme members of the Labour party for dealing
with the "unemployed" question; and in 1908 he retained his office in Mr
Asquith's cabinet.

BURNS, ROBERT (1759-1796), Scottish poet, was born on the 25th of January
1759 in a cottage about 2 m. from Ayr. He was the eldest son of a small
farmer, William Burness, of Kincardineshire stock, who wrought hard,
practised integrity, wished to bring up his children in the fear of God,
but had to fight all his days against the winds and tides of adversity.
"The poet," said Thomas Carlyle, "was fortunate in his father--a man of
thoughtful intense character, as the best of our peasants are, valuing
knowledge, possessing some and open-minded for more, of keen insight and
devout heart, friendly and fearless: a fully unfolded man seldom found in
any rank in society, and worth descending far in society to seek. ... Had
he been ever so little richer, the whole might have issued otherwise. But
poverty sunk the whole family even below the reach of our cheap school
system, and Burns remained a hard-worked plough-boy."

Through a series of migrations from one unfortunate farm to another; from
Alloway (where he was taught to read) to Mt. Oliphant, and then (1777) to
Lochlea in Tarbolton (where he learnt the rudiments of geometry), the poet
remained in the same condition of straitened circumstances. At the age of
thirteen he thrashed the corn with his own hands, at fifteen he was the
principal labourer. The family kept no servant, and for several years
butchers' meat was a thing unknown in the house. "This kind of life," he
writes, "the cheerless gloom of a hermit and the unceasing toil of a
galley-slave, brought me to my sixteenth year." His naturally robust frame
was overtasked, and his nervous constitution received a fatal strain. His
shoulders were bowed, he became liable to headaches, palpitations and fits
of depressing melancholy. From these hard tasks and his fiery temperament,
craving in vain for sympathy in a frigid air, grew the strong temptations
on which Burns was largely wrecked,--the thirst for stimulants and the
revolt against restraint which soon made headway and passed all bars. In
the earlier portions of his career a buoyant humour bore him up; and amid
thick-coming shapes of ill he bated no jot of heart or hope. He was cheered
by vague stirrings of ambition, which he pathetically compares to the
"blind groping of Homer's Cyclops round the walls of his cave." Sent to
school at Kirkoswald, he became, for his scant leisure, a great
reader--eating at meal-times with a spoon in one hand and a book in the
other,--and carrying a few small volumes in his pocket to study in spare
moments in the fields. "The collection of songs" he tells us, "was my _vade
mecum_. I pored over them driving my cart or walking to labour, song by
song, verse by verse, carefully noting the true, tender, sublime or
fustian." He lingered over the ballads in his cold room by night; by day,
whilst whistling at the plough, he invented new forms and was inspired by
fresh ideas, "gathering round him the memories and the traditions of his
country till they became a mantle and a crown." It was among the furrows of
his father's fields that he was inspired with the perpetually quoted wish--

 "That I for poor auld Scotland's sake
  Some useful plan or book could make,
    Or sing a sang at least."

An equally striking illustration of the same feeling is to be found in his
summer Sunday's ramble to the Leglen wood,--the fabled haunt of
Wallace,--which the poet confesses to have visited "with as much devout
enthusiasm as ever pilgrim did the shrine of Loretto." In another reference
to the same period he refers to the intense susceptibility to the homeliest
aspects of Nature which throughout characterized his genius. "Scarcely any
object gave me more--I do not know if I should call it pleasure--but
something which exalts and enraptures me--than to walk in the sheltered
side of a wood or high plantation in a cloudy winter day and hear the
stormy wind howling among the trees and raving over the plain. I listened
to the birds, and frequently turned out of my path lest I should disturb
their little songs or frighten them to another station." Auroral visions
were gilding his horizon as he walked in glory, if not in joy, "behind his
plough upon the mountain sides."; but the swarm of his many-coloured
fancies was again made grey by the _atra cura_ of unsuccessful toils.

Burns had written his first verses of note, "Behind yon hills where
Stinchar (afterwards Lugar) flows," when in 1781 he went to Irvine to learn
the trade of a flax-dresser. "It was," he says, "an unlucky affair. As we
were giving a welcome carousal to the New Year, the shop took fire and
burned to ashes; and I was left, like a true poet, without a sixpence." His
own heart, too, had unfortunately taken fire. He was poring over
mathematics till, in his own phraseology,--still affected in its prose by
the classical pedantries caught from Pope by Ramsay,--"the sun entered
Virgo, when a charming _fillette_, who lived next door, overset my
trigonometry, and set me off at a tangent from the scene of my studies." We
need not detail the story, nor the incessant repetitions of it, which
marked and sometimes marred his career. The poet was jilted, went through
the usual despairs, and resorted to the not unusual sources of consolation.
He had found that he was "no enemy to social life," and his mates had
discovered that he was the best of boon companions in the lyric feasts,
where his eloquence shed a lustre over wild ways of life, and where he was
beginning to be distinguished as a champion of the New Lights and a
satirist of the Calvinism whose waters he found like those of Marah.

In Robert's 25th year his father died, full of sorrows and apprehensions
for the gifted son who wrote for his tomb in Alloway kirkyard, the fine
epitaph ending with the characteristic line--

 "For even his failings leaned to virtue's side."

For some time longer the poet, with his brother Gilbert, lingered at
Lochlea, reading agricultural books, miscalculating crops, attending
markets, and in a mood of reformation resolving, "in spite of the world,
the flesh and the devil, to be a wise man." Affairs, however, went no
better with the family; and in 1784 they migrated to Mossgiel, where he
lived and wrought, during four years, for a return scarce equal to the wage
of the commonest labourer in our day. Meanwhile he had become intimate with
his future wife, Jean Armour; but the father, a master mason,
discountenanced the match, and the girl being disposed to "sigh as a
lover," as a daughter to obey, Burns, in 1786, gave up his suit, resolved
to seek refuge in exile, and having accepted a situation as book-keeper to
a slave estate in Jamaica, had taken his passage in a ship for the West
Indies. His old associations seemed to be breaking up, men and fortune
scowled, and "hungry ruin had him in the wind," when he wrote the lines
ending--

[v.04 p.0857]

 "Adieu, my native banks of Ayr,"

and addressed to the most famous of the loves, in which he was as prolific
as Catullus or Tibullus, the proposal--

 "Will ye go to the Indies, my Mary."

He was withheld from his project and, happily or unhappily, the current of
his life was turned by the success of his first volume, which was published
at Kilmarnock in June 1786. It contained some of his most justly celebrated
poems, the results of his scanty leisure at Lochlea and Mossgiel; among
others "The Twa Dogs,"--a graphic idealization of Aesop,--"The Author's
Prayer," the "Address to the Deil," "The Vision" and "The Dream,"
"Halloween," "The Cottar's Saturday Night," the lines "To a Mouse" and "To
a Daisy," "Scotch Drink," "Man was made to Mourn," the "Epistle to Davie,"
and some of his most popular songs. This epitome of a genius so marvellous
and so varied took his audience by storm. "The country murmured of him from
sea to sea." "With his poems," says Robert Heron, "old and young, grave and
gay, learned and ignorant, were alike transported. I was at that time
resident in Galloway, and I can well remember how even plough-boys and
maid-servants would have gladly bestowed the wages they earned the most
hardly, and which they wanted to purchase necessary clothing, if they might
but procure the works of Burns." This first edition only brought the author
£20 direct return, but it introduced him to the _literati_ of Edinburgh,
whither he was invited, and where he was welcomed, feasted, admired and
patronized. He appeared as a portent among the scholars of the northern
capital and its university, and manifested, according to Mr Lockhart, "in
the whole strain of his bearing, his belief that in the society of the most
eminent men of his nation he was where he was entitled to be, hardly
deigning to flatter them by exhibiting a symptom of being flattered."

Sir Walter Scott bears a similar testimony to the dignified simplicity and
almost exaggerated independence of the poet, during this _annus mirabilis_
of his success. "As for Burns, _Virgilium vidi tantum_, I was a lad of
fifteen when he came to Edinburgh, but had sense enough to be interested in
his poetry, and would have given the world to know him. I saw him one day
with several gentlemen of literary reputation, among whom I remember the
celebrated Dugald Stewart. Of course we youngsters sat silent, looked, and
listened.... I remember ... his shedding tears over a print representing a
soldier lying dead in the snow, his dog sitting in misery on one side, on
the other his widow with a child in her arms. His person was robust, his
manners rustic, not clownish. ... His countenance was more massive than it
looks in any of the portraits. There was a strong expression of shrewdness
in his lineaments; the eye alone indicated the poetic character and
temperament. It was large and of a dark cast, and literally glowed when he
spoke with feeling or interest. I never saw such another eye in a human
head. His conversation expressed perfect self-confidence, without the least
intrusive forwardness. I thought his acquaintance with English poetry was
rather limited; and having twenty times the abilities of Allan Ramsay and
of Fergusson he talked of them with too much humility as his models. He was
much caressed in Edinburgh, but the efforts made for his relief were
extremely trifling." _Laudatur et alget._ Burns went from those meetings,
where he had been posing professors (no hard task), and turning the heads
of duchesses, to share a bed in the garret of a writer's apprentice,--they
paid together 3s. a week for the room. It was in the house of Mr Carfrae,
Baxter's Close, Lawnmarket, "first scale stair on the left hand in going
down, first door in the stair." During Burns's life it was reserved for
William Pitt to recognize his place as a great poet; the more cautious
critics of the North were satisfied to endorse him as a rustic prodigy, and
brought upon themselves a share of his satire. Some of the friendships
contracted during this period--as for Lord Glencairn and Mrs Dunlop--are
among the most pleasing and permanent in literature; for genuine kindness
was never wasted on one who, whatever his faults, has never been accused of
ingratitude. But in the bard's city life there was an unnatural element. He
stooped to beg for neither smiles nor favour, but the gnarled country oak
is cut up into cabinets in artificial prose and verse. In the letters to Mr
Graham, the prologue to Mr Wood, and the epistles to Clarinda, he is
dancing minuets with hob-nailed shoes. When, in 1787, the second edition of
the _Poems_ came out, the proceeds of their sale realized for the author
£400. On the strength of this sum he gave himself two long rambles, full of
poetic material--one through the border towns into England as far as
Newcastle, returning by Dumfries to Mauchline, and another a grand tour
through the East Highlands, as far as Inverness, returning by Edinburgh,
and so home to Ayrshire.

In 1788 Burns took a new farm at Ellisland on the Nith, settled there,
married, lost his little money, and wrote, among other pieces, "Auld Lang
Syne" and "Tam o' Shanter." In 1789 he obtained, through the good office of
Mr Graham of Fintry, an appointment as excise-officer of the district,
worth £50 per annum. In 1791 he removed to a similar post at Dumfries worth
£70. In the course of the following year he was asked to contribute to
George Thomson's _Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs with
Symphonies and Accompaniments for the Pianoforte and Violin: the poetry by
Robert Burns_. To this work he contributed about one hundred songs, the
best of which are now ringing in the ear of every Scotsman from New Zealand
to San Francisco. For these, original and adapted, he received a shawl for
his wife, a picture by David Allan representing the "Cottar's Saturday
Night," and £5! The poet wrote an indignant letter and never afterwards
composed for money. Unfortunately the "Rock of Independence" to which he
had proudly retired was but a castle of air, over which the meteors of
French political enthusiasm cast a lurid gleam. In the last years of his
life, exiled from polite society on account of his revolutionary opinions,
he became sourer in temper and plunged more deeply into the dissipations of
the lower ranks, among whom he found his only companionship and sole,
though shallow, sympathy.

Burns began to feel himself prematurely old. Walking with a friend who
proposed to him to join a county ball, he shook his head, saying "that's
all over now," and adding a verse of Lady Grizel Baillie's ballad--

 "O were we young as we ance hae been,
  We sud hae been galloping down on yon green,
  And linking it ower the lily-white lea,
  But were na my heart light I wad dee."

His hand shook; his pulse and appetite failed; his spirits sunk into a
uniform gloom. In April 1796 he wrote--"I fear it will be some time before
I tune my lyre again. By Babel's streams I have sat and wept. I have only
known existence by the pressure of sickness and counted time by the
repercussions of pain. I close my eyes in misery and open them without
hope. I look on the vernal day and say with poor Fergusson--

 "Say wherefore has an all-indulgent heaven
  Life to the comfortless and wretched given."

On the 4th of July he was seen to be dying. On the 12th he wrote to his
cousin for the loan of £10 to save him from passing his last days in jail.
On the 21st he was no more. On the 25th, when his last son came into the
world, he was buried with local honours, the volunteers of the company to
which he belonged firing three volleys over his grave.

It has been said that "Lowland Scotland as a distinct nationality came in
with two warriors and went out with two bards. It came in with William
Wallace and Robert Bruce and went out with Robert Burns and Walter Scott.
The first two made the history, the last two told the story and sung the
song." But what in the minstrel's lay was mainly a requiem was in the
people's poet also a prophecy. The position of Burns in the progress of
British literature may be shortly defined; he was a link between two eras,
like Chaucer, the last of the old and the first of the new--the inheritor
of the traditions and the music of the past, in some respects the herald of
the future.

The volumes of our lyrist owe part of their popularity to the fact of their
being an epitome of melodies, moods and memories that had belonged for
centuries to the national life, the best [v.04 p.0858] inspirations of
which have passed into them. But in gathering from his ancestors Burns has
exalted their work by asserting a new dignity for their simplest themes. He
is the heir of Barbour, distilling the spirit of the old poet's epic into a
battle chant, and of Dunbar, reproducing the various humours of a
half-sceptical, half-religious philosophy of life. He is the pupil of
Ramsay, but he leaves his master, to make a social protest and to lead a
literary revolt. _The Gentle Shepherd_, still largely a court pastoral, in
which "a man's a man" if born a gentleman, may be contrasted with "The
Jolly Beggars"--the one is like a minuet of the ladies of Versailles on the
sward of the Swiss village near the Trianon, the other like the march of
the maenads with Theroigne de Mericourt. Ramsay adds to the rough tunes and
words of the ballads the refinement of the wits who in the "Easy" and
"Johnstone" clubs talked over their cups of Prior and Pope, Addison and
Gay. Burns inspires them with a fervour that thrills the most wooden of his
race. We may clench the contrast by a representative example. This is from
Ramsay's version of perhaps the best-known of Scottish songs,--

 "Methinks around us on each bough
    A thousand Cupids play;
  Whilst through the groves I walk with you,
    Each object makes me gay.
  Since your return--the sun and moon
    With brighter beams do shine,
  Streams murmur soft notes while they run
    As they did lang syne."

Compare the verses in Burns--

 "We twa hae run about the braes
    And pu'd the gowans fine;
  But we've wandered mony a weary foot
    Sin auld lang syne.
  We twa hae paidl'd in the burn,
    Frae morning sun till dine:
  But seas between us braid hae roar'd
    Sin auld lang syne."

Burns as a poet of the inanimate world doubtless derived hints from Thomson
of _The Seasons_, but in his power of tuning its manifestation to the moods
of the mind he is more properly ranked as a forerunner of Wordsworth. He
never follows the fashions of his century, except in his failures--in his
efforts at set panegyric or fine letter-writing. His highest work knows
nothing of "Damon" or "Musidora." He leaves the atmosphere of drawing-rooms
for the ingle or the ale-house or the mountain breeze.

The affectations of his style are insignificant and rare. His prevailing
characteristic is an absolute sincerity. A love for the lower forms of
social life was his besetting sin; Nature was his healing power. Burns
compares himself to an Aeolian harp, strung to every wind of heaven. His
genius flows over all living and lifeless things with a sympathy that finds
nothing mean or insignificant. An uprooted daisy becomes in his pages an
enduring emblem of the fate of artless maid and simple bard. He disturbs a
mouse's nest and finds in the "tim'rous beastie" a fellow-mortal doomed
like himself to "thole the winter's sleety dribble," and draws his
oft-repeated moral. He walks abroad and, in a verse that glints with the
light of its own rising sun before the fierce sarcasm of "The Holy Fair,"
describes the melodies of a "simmer Sunday morn." He loiters by Afton Water
and "murmurs by the running brook a music sweeter than its own." He stands
by a roofless tower, where "the howlet mourns in her dewy bower," and "sets
the wild echoes flying," and adds to a perfect picture of the scene his
famous vision of "Libertie." In a single stanza he concentrates the
sentiment of many Night Thoughts--

 "The pale moon is setting beyond the white wave,
  And Time is setting wi' me, O."

For other examples of the same graphic power we may refer to the course of
his stream--

 "Whiles ow'r a linn the burnie plays
  As through the glen it wimpled," &c.,

or to "The Birks of Aberfeldy" or the "spate" in the dialogue of "The Brigs
of Ayr." The poet is as much at home in the presence of this flood as by
his "trottin' burn's meander." Familiar with all the seasons he represents
the phases of a northern winter with a frequency characteristic of his
clime and of his fortunes; her tempests became anthems in his verse, and
the sounding woods "raise his thoughts to Him that walketh on the wings of
the wind"; full of pity for the shelterless poor, the "ourie cattle," the
"silly sheep," and the "helpless birds," he yet reflects that the bitter
blast is not "so unkind as man's ingratitude." This constant tendency to
ascend above the fair or wild features of outward things, or to penetrate
beneath them, to make them symbols, to endow them with a voice to speak for
humanity, distinguishes Burns as a descriptive poet from the rest of his
countrymen. As a painter he is rivalled by Dunbar and James I., more rarely
by Thomson and Ramsay. The "lilt" of Tannahill's finest verse is even more
charming. But these writers rest in their art; their main care is for their
own genius. The same is true in a minor degree of some of his great English
successors. Keats has a palette of richer colours, but he seldom
condescends to "human nature's daily food." Shelley floats in a thin air to
stars and mountain tops, and vanishes from our gaze like his skylark.
Byron, in the midst of his revolutionary fervour, never forgets that he
himself belongs to the "caste of Vere de Vere." Wordsworth's placid
affection and magnanimity stretch beyond mankind, and, as in
"Hart-leap-well" and the "Cuckoo," extend to bird and beast; he moralizes
grandly on the vicissitudes of common life, but he does not enter into,
because by right of superior virtue he places himself above them. "From the
Lyrical Ballads," it has been said, "it does not appear that men eat or
drink, marry or are given in marriage." We revere the monitor who,
consciously good and great, gives us the dry light of truth, but we love
the bard, _nostrae deliciae_, who is all fire--fire from heaven and
Ayrshire earth mingling in the outburst of passion and of power, which is
his poetry and the inheritance of his race. He had certainly neither
culture nor philosophy enough to have written the "Ode on the Recollections
of Childhood," but to appreciate that ode requires an education. The
sympathies of Burns, as broad as Wordsworth's, are more intense; in turning
his pages we feel ourselves more decidedly in the presence of one who joys
with those who rejoice and mourns with those who mourn. He is never
shallow, ever plain, and the expression of his feeling is so terse that it
is always memorable. Of the people he speaks more directly for the people
than any of our more considerable poets. Chaucer has a perfect hold of the
homeliest phases of life, but he wants the lyric element, and the charm of
his language has largely faded from untutored ears. Shakespeare, indeed,
has at once a loftier vision and a wider grasp; for he sings of "Thebes and
Pelops line," of Agincourt and Philippi, as of Falstaff, and Snug the
joiner, and the "meanest flower that blows." But not even Shakespeare has
put more thought into poetry which the most prosaic must appreciate than
Burns has done. The latter moves in a narrower sphere and wants the
strictly dramatic faculty, but its place is partly supplied by the
vividness of his narrative. His realization of incident and character is
manifested in the sketches in which the manners and prevailing fancies of
his countrymen are immortalized in connexion with local scenery. Among
those almost every variety of disposition finds its favourite. The quiet
households of the kingdom have received a sort of apotheosis in the
"Cottar's Saturday Night." It has been objected that the subject does not
afford scope for the more daring forms of the author's genius; but had he
written no other poem, this heartful rendering of a good week's close in a
God-fearing home, sincerely devout, and yet relieved from all suspicion of
sermonizing by its humorous touches, would have secured a permanent place
in literature. It transcends Thomson and Beattie at their best, and will
smell sweet like the actions of the just for generations to come.

Lovers of rustic festivity may hold that the poet's greatest performance is
his narrative of "Halloween," which for easy vigour, fulness of rollicking
life, blended truth and fancy, is unsurpassed in its kind. Campbell,
Wilson, Hazlitt, Montgomery, Burns himself, and the majority of his
critics, have [v.04 p.0859] recorded their preference for "Tam o' Shanter,"
where the weird superstitious element that has played so great a part in
the imaginative work of this part of our island is brought more prominently
forward. Few passages of description are finer than that of the roaring
Doon and Alloway Kirk glimmering through the groaning trees; but the unique
excellence of the piece consists in its variety, and a perfectly original
combination of the terrible and the ludicrous. Like Goethe's _Walpurgis
Nacht_, brought into closer contact with real life, it stretches from the
drunken humours of Christopher Sly to a world of fantasies almost as
brilliant as those of the _Midsummer Night's Dream_, half solemnized by the
severer atmosphere of a sterner clime. The contrast between the lines
"Kings may be blest," &c., and those which follow, beginning "But pleasures
are like poppies spread," is typical of the perpetual antithesis of the
author's thought and life, in which, at the back of every revelry, he sees
the shadow of a warning hand, and reads on the wall the writing, _Omnia
mutantur_. With equal or greater confidence other judges have pronounced
Burns's masterpiece to be "The Jolly Beggars." Certainly no other single
production so illustrates his power of exalting what is insignificant,
glorifying what is mean, and elevating the lowest details by the force of
his genius. "The form of the piece," says Carlyle, "is a mere cantata, the
theme the half-drunken snatches of a joyous band of vagabonds, while the
grey leaves are floating on the gusts of the wind in the autumn of the
year. But the whole is compacted, refined and poured forth in one flood of
liquid harmony. It is light, airy and soft of movement, yet sharp and
precise in its details; every face is a portrait, and the whole a group in
clear photography. The blanket of the night is drawn aside; in full ruddy
gleaming light these rough tatterdemalions are seen at their boisterous
revel wringing from Fate another hour of wassail and good cheer." Over the
whole is flung a half-humorous, half-savage satire--aimed, like a two-edged
sword, at the laws and the law-breakers, in the acme of which the graceless
crew are raised above the level of ordinary gipsies, footpads and rogues,
and are made to sit "on the hills like gods together, careless of mankind,"
and to launch their Titan thunders of rebellion against the world.

 "A fig for those by law protected;
    Liberty's a glorious feast;
  Courts for cowards were erected,
    Churches built to please the priest."

A similar mixture of drollery and defiance appears in the justly celebrated
"Address to the Deil," which, mainly whimsical, is relieved by touches oan
in the conception of such a being straying in lonely places and loitering
among trees, or in the familiarity with which the poet lectures so awful a
personage,"--we may add, than in the inimitable outbreak at the close--

 "O would you tak a thought an' men'."

Carlyle, in reference to this passage, cannot resist the suggestion of a
parallel from Sterne. "He is the father of curses and lies, said Dr Slop,
and is cursed and damned already. I am sorry for it, quoth my Uncle Toby."

Burns fared ill at the hands of those who were not sorry for it, and who
repeated with glib complacency every terrible belief of the system in which
they had been trained. The most scathing of his _Satires_, under which head
fall many of his minor and frequent passages in his major pieces, are
directed against the false pride of birth, and what he conceived to be the
false pretences of religion. The apologue of "Death and Dr Hornbook," "The
Ordination," the song "No churchman am I for to rail and to write," the
"Address to the Unco Guid," "Holy Willie," and above all "The Holy Fair,"
with its savage caricature of an ignorant ranter of the time called Moodie,
and others of like stamp, not unnaturally provoked offence. As regards the
poet's attitude towards some phases of Calvinism prevalent during his life,
it has to be remarked that from the days of Dunbar there has been a degree
of antagonism between Scottish verse and the more rigid forms of Scottish
theology.

It must be admitted that in protesting against hypocrisy he has
occasionally been led beyond the limits prescribed by good taste. He is at
times abusive of those who differ from him. This, with other offences
against decorum, which here and there disfigure his pages, can only be
condoned by an appeal to the general tone of his writing, which is
reverential. Burns had a firm faith in a Supreme Being, not as a vague
mysterious Power; but as the Arbiter of human life. Amid the vicissitudes
of his career he responds to the cottar's summons, "Let us worship God."

 "An atheist's laugh's a poor exchange
    For Deity offended"

is the moral of all his verse, which treats seriously of religious matters.
His prayers in rhyme give him a high place among secular Psalmists.

Like Chaucer, Burns was a great moralist, though a rough one. In the
moments of his most intense revolt against conventional prejudice and
sanctimonious affectation, he is faithful to the great laws which underlie
change, loyal in his veneration for the cardinal virtues--Truth, Justice
and Charity,--and consistent in the warnings, to which his experience gives
an unhappy force, against transgressions of Temperance. In the "Epistle to
a Young Friend," the shrewdest advice is blended with exhortations
appealing to the highest motive, that which transcends the calculation of
consequences, and bids us walk in the straight path from the feeling of
personal honour, and "for the glorious privilege of being independent."
Burns, like Dante, "loved well because he hated, hated wickedness that
hinders loving," and this feeling, as in the lines--"Dweller in yon dungeon
dark," sometimes breaks bounds; but his calmer moods are better represented
by the well-known passages in the "Epistle to Davie," in which he preaches
acquiescence in our lot, and a cheerful acceptance of our duties in the
sphere where we are placed. This _philosophie douce_, never better sung by
Horace, is the prevailing refrain of our author's _Songs_. On these there
are few words to add to the acclaim of a century. They have passed into the
air we breathe; they are so real that they seem things rather than words,
or, nearer still, living beings. They have taken all hearts, because they
are the breath of his own; not polished cadences, but utterances as direct
as laughter or tears. Since Sappho loved and sang, there has been no such
national lyrist as Burns. Fine ballads, mostly anonymous, existed in
Scotland previous to his time; and shortly before a few authors had
produced a few songs equal to some of his best. Such are Alexander Ross's
"Wooed and Married," Lowe's "Mary's Dream," "Auld Robin Gray," "The Land o'
the Leal" and the two versions of "The Flowers o' the Forest." From these
and many of the older pieces in Ramsay's collection, Burns admits to have
derived copious suggestions and impulses. He fed on the past literature of
his country as Chaucer on the old fields of English thought, and--

 "Still the elements o' sang,
  In formless jumble, right and wrang,
  Went floating in his brain."

But he gave more than he received; he brought forth an hundredfold; he
summed up the stray material of the past, and added so much of his own that
one of the most conspicuous features of his lyrical genius is its variety
in new paths. Between the first of war songs, composed in a storm on a
moor, and the pathos of "Mary in Heaven," he has made every chord in our
northern life to vibrate. The distance from "Duncan Gray" to "Auld Lang
Syne" is nearly as great as that from Falstaff to Ariel. There is the
vehemence of battle, the wail of woe, the march of veterans "red-wat-shod,"
the smiles of meeting, the tears of parting friends, the gurgle of brown
burns, the roar of the wind through pines, the rustle of barley rigs, the
thunder on the hill--all Scotland is in his verse. Let who will make her
laws, Burns has made the songs, which her emigrants recall "by the long
wash of Australasian seas," in which maidens are wooed, by which mothers
lull their infants, which return "through open casements unto dying
ears"--they are the links, the watchwords, the masonic symbols of the Scots
race.

(J. N.) [v.04 p.0860]

The greater part of Burns's verse was posthumously published, and, as he
himself took no care to collect the scattered pieces of occasional verse,
different editors have from time to time printed, as his, verses that must
be regarded as spurious. _Poems chiefly in the Scottish Dialect_, by Robert
Burns (Kilmarnock, 1786), was followed by an enlarged edition printed in
Edinburgh in the next year. Other editions of this book were printed--in
London (1787), an enlarged edition at Edinburgh (2 vols., 1793) and a
reprint of this in 1794. Of a 1790 edition mentioned by Robert Chambers no
traces can be found. Poems by Burns appeared originally in _The Caledonian
Mercury, The Edinburgh Evening Courant, The Edinburgh Herald, The Edinburgh
Advertiser_; the London papers, _Stuart's Star and Evening Advertiser_
(subsequently known as _The Morning Star_), _The Morning Chronicle_; and in
the _Edinburgh Magazine_ and _The Scots Magazine_. Many poems, most of
which had first appeared elsewhere, were printed in a series of penny
chap-books, _Poetry Original and Select_ (Brash and Reid, Glasgow), and
some appeared separately as broadsides. A series of tracts issued by
Stewart and Meikle (Glasgow, 1796-1799) includes some Burns's numbers, _The
Jolly Beggars, Holy Willie's Prayer_ and other poems making their first
appearance in this way. The seven numbers of this publication were reissued
in January 1800 as _The Poetical Miscellany_. This was followed by Thomas
Stewart's _Poems ascribed to Robert Burns_ (Glasgow, 1801). Burns's songs
appeared chiefly in James Johnson's _Scots Musical Museum_ (6 vols.,
1787-1803), which he appears after the first volume to have virtually
edited, though the two last volumes were published only after his death;
and in George Thomson's _Select Collection of Original Scottish Airs_ (6
vols., 1793-1841). Only five of the songs done for Thomson appeared during
the poet's lifetime, and Thomson's text cannot be regarded with confidence.
The Hastie MSS. in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 22,307) include 162
songs, many of them in Burns's handwriting; and the Dalhousie MS., at
Brechin Castle, contains Burns's correspondence with Thomson. For a full
account of the songs see James C. Dick, _The Songs of Robert Burns now
first printed with the Melodies for which they were written_ (2 vols.,
1903).

The items in Mr W. Craibe Angus's _Printed Works of Robert Burns_ (1899)
number nine hundred and thirty. Only the more important collected editions
can be here noticed. Dr Currie was the anonymous editor of the _Works of
Robert Burns; with an Account of his Life, and a Criticism on his Writings
..._ (Liverpool, 1800). This was undertaken for the benefit of Burns's
family at the desire of his friends, Alexander Cunningham and John Syme. A
second and amended edition appeared in 1801, and was followed by others,
but Currie's text is neither accurate nor complete. Additional matter
appeared in _Reliques of Robert Burns_ ... by R.H. Cromek (London, 1808).
In _The Works of Robert Burns, With his Life by Allan Cunningham_ (8 vols.,
London, 1834) there are many additions and much biographical material. _The
Works of Robert Burns_, edited by James Hogg and William Motherwell (5
vols., 1834-1836, Glasgow and Edinburgh), contains a life of the poet by
Hogg, and some useful notes by Motherwell attempting to trace the sources
of Burns's songs. _The Correspondence between Burns and Clarinda_ was
edited by W.C. M^cLehose (Edinburgh, 1843). An improved text of the poems
was provided in the second "Aldine Edition" of the _Poetical Works_ (3
vols., 1839), for which Sir H. Nicolas, the editor, made use of many
original MSS. In the _Life and Works of Robert Burns_, edited by Robert
Chambers (Edinburgh, 4 vols., 1851-1852; library edition, 1856-1857; new
edition, revised by William Wallace, 1896), the poet's works are given in
chronological order, interwoven with letters and biography. The text was
bowdlerized by Chambers, but the book contained much new and valuable
information. Other well-known editions are those of George Gilfillan (2
vols., 1864); of Alexander Smith (Golden Treasury Series, London, 2 vols.,
1865); of P. Hately Waddell (Glasgow, 1867); one published by Messrs
Blackie & Son, with Dr Currie's memoir and an essay by Prof. Wilson
(1843-1844); of W. Scott Douglas (the Kilmarnock edition, 1876, and the
"library" edition, 1877-1879), and of Andrew Lang, assisted by W.A. Craigie
(London, 1896). The complete correspondence between Burns and Mrs Dunlop
was printed in 1898.

A critical edition of the _Poetry of Robert Burns_, which may be regarded
as definitive, and is provided with full notes and variant readings, was
prepared by W.E. Henley and T.F. Henderson (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1896-1897;
reprinted, 1901), and is generally known as the "Centenary Burns." In vol.
iii. the extent of Burns's indebtedness to Scottish folk-song and his
methods of adaptation are minutely discussed; vol. iv. contains an essay on
"Robert Burns. Life, Genius, Achievement," by W.E. Henley.

The chief original authority for Burns's life is his own letters. The
principal "lives" are to be found in the editions just mentioned. His
biography has also been written by J. Gibson Lockhart (_Life of Burns_,
Edinburgh, 1828); for the "English Men of Letters" series in 1879 by Prof.
J. Campbell Shairp; and by Sir Leslie Stephen in the _Dictionary of
National Biography_ (vol. viii., 1886). Among the more important essays on
Burns are those by Thomas Carlyle (_Edinburgh Review_, December 1828); by
John Nichol, the writer of the above article (W. Scott Douglas's edition of
Burns); by R.L. Stevenson (_Familiar Studies of Men and Books_); by Auguste
Angellier (_Robert Burns. La vie et les oeuvres_, 2 vols., Paris, 1893); by
Lord Rosebery (_Robert Burns: Two Addresses in Edinburgh_, 1896); by J.
Logie Robertson (in _In Scottish Fields_, Edin., 1890, and _Furth in
Field_, Edin., 1894); and T.F. Henderson (_Robert Burns_, 1904). There is a
selected bibliography in chronological order in W.A. Craigie's _Primer of
Burns_ (1896).

BURNS AND SCALDS. A burn is the effect of dry heat applied to some part of
the human body, a scald being the result of moist heat. Clinically there is
no distinction between the two, and their classification and treatment are
identical. In Dupuytren's classification, now most generally accepted,
burns are divided into six classes according to the severest part of the
lesion. Burns of the first degree are characterized by severe pain, redness
of the skin, a certain amount of swelling that soon passes, and later
exfoliation of the skin. Burns of the second degree show vesicles (small
blisters) scattered over the inflamed area, and containing a clear,
yellowish fluid. Beneath the vesicle the highly sensitive papillae of the
skin are exposed. Burns of this degree leave no scar, but often produce a
permanent discoloration. In burns of the third degree, there is a partial
destruction of the true skin, leaving sloughs of a yellowish or black
colour. The pain is at first intense, but passes off on about the second
day to return again at the end of a week, when the sloughs separate,
exposing the sensitive nerve filaments of the underlying skin. This results
in a slightly depressed cicatrix, which happily, however, shows but slight
tendency to contraction. Burns of the fourth degree, which follow the
prolonged application of any form of intense heat, involve the total
destruction of the true skin. The pain is much less severe than in the
preceding class, since the nerve endings have been totally destroyed. The
results, however, are far more serious, and the healing process takes place
only very slowly on account of the destruction of the skin glands. As a
result, deep puckered scars are formed, which show great tendency to
contract, and where these are situated on face, neck or joints the
resulting deformity and loss of function may be extremely serious. In burns
of the fifth degree the underlying muscles are more or less destroyed, and
in those of the sixth the bones are also charred. Examples of the last two
classes are mainly provided by epileptics who fall into a fire during a
fit.

The clinical history of a severe burn can be divided into three periods.
The first period lasts from 36 to 48 hours, during which time the patient
lies in a condition of profound shock, and consequently feels little or no
pain. If death results from shock, coma first supervenes, which deepens
steadily until the end comes. The second period begins when the effects of
shock pass, and continues until the slough separates, this usually taking
from seven to fourteen days. Considerable fever is present, and the
tendency to every kind of complication is very great. Bronchitis,
pneumonia, pleurisy, meningitis, intestinal catarrh, and even ulceration of
the duodenum, have all been recorded. Hence both nursing and medical
attendance must be very close during this time. It is probable that these
complications are all the result of septic infection and absorption, and
since the modern antiseptic treatment of burns they have become much less
common. The third period is prolonged until recovery takes place. Death may
result from septic absorption, or from the wound becoming infected with
some organism, as tetanus, erysipelas, &c. The prognosis depends chiefly on
the extent of skin involved, death almost invariably resulting when
one-third of the total area of the body is affected, however superficially.
Of secondary but still grave importance is the position of the burn, that
over a serous cavity making the future more doubtful than one on a limb.
Also it must be remembered that children very easily succumb to shock.

In treating a patient the condition of shock must be attended to first,
since from it arises the primary danger. The sufferer must be wrapped
immediately in hot blankets, and brandy given by the mouth or in an enema,
while ether can be injected hypodermically. If the pulse is very bad a
saline infusion must be administered. The clothes can then be removed and
the burnt surfaces thoroughly cleansed with a very mild antiseptic, a weak
solution of lysol acting very well. If there are blisters these must be
opened and the contained effusion allowed to [v.04 p.0861] escape. Some
surgeons leave them at this stage, but others prefer to remove the raised
epithelium. When thoroughly cleansed, the wound is irrigated with
sterilized saline solution and a dressing subsequently applied. For the
more superficial lesions by far the best results are obtained from the
application of gauze soaked in picric acid solution and lightly wrung out,
being covered with a large antiseptic wool pad and kept in position by a
bandage. Picric acid 1½ drams, absolute alcohol 3 oz., and distilled water
40 oz., make a good lotion. All being well, this need only be changed about
twice a week. The various kinds of oil once so greatly advocated in
treating burns are now largely abandoned since they have no antiseptic
properties. The deeper burns can only be attended to by a surgeon, whose
aim will be first to bring septic absorption to a minimum, and later to
hasten the healing process. Skin grafting has great value after extensive
burns, not because it hastens healing, which it probably does not do, but
because it has a marked influence in lessening cicatricial contraction.
When a limb is hopelessly charred, amputation is the only course.

BURNSIDE, AMBROSE EVERETT (1824-1881), American soldier, was born at
Liberty, Indiana, on the 23rd of May 1824, of Scottish pedigree, his
American ancestors settling first in South Carolina, and next in the
north-west wilderness, where his parents lived in a rude log cabin. He was
appointed to the United States military academy through casual favour, and
graduated in 1847, when war with Mexico was nearly over. In 1853 he
resigned his commission, and from 1853 to 1858 was engaged in the
manufacture of firearms at Bristol, R.I. In 1856 he invented a
breech-loading rifle. He was employed by the Illinois Central railroad
until the Civil War broke out. Then he took command of a Rhode Island
regiment of three months militia, on the summons of Governor Sprague, took
part in the relief of the national capital, and commanded a brigade in the
first battle of Bull Run. On the 6th of August 1861 he was commissioned
brigadier-general of volunteers, and placed in charge of the expeditionary
force which sailed in January 1862 under sealed orders for the North
Carolina coast. The victories of Roanoke Island, Newbern and Fort Macon
(February--April) were the chief incidents of a campaign which was
favourably contrasted by the people with the work of the main army on the
Atlantic coast. He was promoted major-general U.S.V. soon afterwards, and
early in July, with his North Carolina troops (IX. army corps), he was
transferred to the Virginian theatre of war. Part of his forces fought in
the last battles of Pope's campaign in Virginia, and Burnside himself was
engaged in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. At the latter he was
in command of McClellan's left wing, but the want of vigour in his attack
was unfavourably criticized. His patriotic spirit, modesty and amiable
manners, made him highly popular, and upon McClellan's final removal (Nov.
7) from the Army of the Potomac, President Lincoln chose him as successor.
The choice was unfortunate. Much as he was liked, no one had ever looked
upon him as the equal of McClellan, and it was only with the greatest
reluctance that he himself accepted the responsibility, which he had on two
previous occasions declined. He sustained a crushing defeat at the battle
of Fredericksburg (13 Dec. 1862), and (Jan. 27) gave way to Gen. Hooker,
after a tenure of less than three months. Transferred to Cincinnati in
March 1863, he caused the arrest and court-martial of Clement L.
Vallandigham, lately an opposition member of Congress, for an alleged
disloyal speech, and later in the year his measures for the suppression of
press criticism aroused much opposition; he helped to crush Morgan's Ohio
raid in July; then, moving to relieve the loyalists in East Tennessee, in
September entered Knoxville, to which the Confederate general James
Longstreet unsuccessfully laid siege. In 1864 Burnside led his old IX.
corps under Grant in the Wilderness and Petersburg campaigns. After bearing
his part well in the many bloody battles of that time, he was overtaken
once more by disaster. The failure of the "Burnside mine" at Petersburg
brought about his resignation. A year later he left the service, and in
1866 he became governor of Rhode Island, serving for three terms
(1866-1869). From 1875 till his death he was a Republican member of the
United States Congress. He was present with the German headquarters at the
siege of Paris in 1870-71. He died at Bristol, Rhode Island, on the 13th of
September 1881.

See B.P. Poore, _Life and Public Services of Ambrose E. Burnside_
(Providence, 1882); A. Woodbury, _Major-General Burnside and the Ninth Army
Corps_ (Providence, 1867).

BURNTISLAND, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Fife, Scotland, on the
shore of the Firth of Forth, 5¾ m. S.W. of Kirkcaldy by the North British
railway. Pop. (1891) 4993; (1901) 4846. It is protected from the north wind
by the Binn (632 ft.), and in consequence of its excellent situation, its
links and sandy beach, it enjoys considerable repute as a summer resort.
The chief industries are distilling, fisheries, shipbuilding and shipping,
especially the export of coal and iron. Until the opening of the Forth
bridge, its commodious harbour was the northern station of the ferry across
the firth from Granton, 5 m. south. The parish church, dating from 1594, is
a plain structure, with a squat tower rising in two tiers from the centre
of the roof. The public buildings include two hospitals, a town-hall, music
hall, library and reading room and science institute. On the rocks forming
the western end of the harbour stands Rossend Castle, where the amorous
French poet Chastelard repeated the insult to Queen Mary which led to his
execution. In 1667 it was ineffectually bombarded by the Dutch. The burgh
was originally called Parva Kinghorn and later Wester Kinghorn. The origin
and meaning of the present name of the town have always been a matter of
conjecture. There seems reason to believe that it refers to the time when
the site, or a portion of it, formed an island, as sea-sand is the subsoil
even of the oldest quarters. Another derivation is from Gaelic words
meaning "the island beyond the bend." With Dysart, Kinghorn and Kirkcaldy,
it unites in returning one member to parliament.

BURR, AARON (1756-1836), American political leader, was born at Newark, New
Jersey, on the 6th of February 1756. His father, the Rev. Aaron Burr
(1715-1757), was the second president (1748-1757) of the College of New
Jersey, now Princeton University; his mother was the daughter of Jonathan
Edwards, the well-known Calvinist theologian. The son graduated from the
College of New Jersey in 1772, and two years later began the study of law
in the celebrated law school conducted by his brother-in-law, Tappan Reeve,
at Litchfield, Connecticut. Soon after the outbreak of the War of
Independence, in 1775, he joined Washington's army in Cambridge, Mass. He
accompanied Arnold's expedition into Canada in 1775, and on arriving before
Quebec he disguised himself as a Catholic priest and made a dangerous
journey of 120 m. through the British lines to notify Montgomery, at
Montreal, of Arnold's arrival. He served for a time on the staffs of
Washington and Putnam in 1776-77, and by his vigilance in the retreat from
Long Island he saved an entire brigade from capture. On becoming
lieutenant-colonel in July 1777, he assumed the command of a regiment, and
during the winter at Valley Forge guarded the "Gulf," a pass commanding the
approach to the camp, and necessarily the first point that would be
attacked. In the engagement at Monmouth, on the 28th of June 1778, he
commanded one of the brigades in Lord Stirling's division. In January 1779
Burr was assigned to the command of the "lines" of Westchester county, a
region between the British post at Kingsbridge and that of the Americans
about 15 m. to the north. In this district there was much turbulence and
plundering by the lawless elements of both Whigs and Tories and by bands of
ill-disciplined soldiers from both armies. Burr established a thorough
patrol system, rigorously enforced martial law, and quickly restored order.

He resigned from the army in March 1779, on account of ill-health, renewed
the study of law, was admitted to the bar at Albany in 1782, and began to
practise in New York city after its evacuation by the British in the
following year. In 1782 he married Theodosia Prevost (d. 1794), the widow
of a British army officer who had died in the West Indies during the War of
Independence. They had one child, a daughter, Theodosia, born in 1783, who
became widely known for her beauty and accomplishments, married Joseph
Alston of South Carolina [v.04 p.0862] in 1801, and was lost at sea in
1813. Burr was a member of the state assembly (1784-1785), attorney-general
of the state (1789-1791), United States senator (1791-1797), and again a
member of the assembly (1798-1799 and 1800-1801). As national parties
became clearly defined, he associated himself with the
Democratic-Republicans. Although he was not the founder of Tammany Hall, he
began the construction of the political machine upon which the power of
that organization is based. In the election of 1800 he was placed on the
Democratic-Republican presidential ticket with Thomas Jefferson, and each
received the same number of electoral votes. It was well understood that
the party intended that Jefferson should be president and Burr
vice-president, but owing to a defect (later remedied) in the Constitution
the responsibility for the final choice was thrown upon the House of
Representatives. The attempts of a powerful faction among the Federalists
to secure the election of Burr failed, partly because of the opposition of
Alexander Hamilton and partly, it would seem, because Burr himself would
make no efforts to obtain votes in his own favour. On Jefferson's election,
Burr of course became vice-president. His fair and judicial manner as
president of the Senate, recognized even by his bitterest enemies, helped
to foster traditions in regard to that position quite different from those
which have become associated with the speakership of the House of
Representatives.

Hamilton had opposed Burr's aspirations for the vice-presidency in 1792,
and had exerted influence through Washington to prevent his appointment as
brigadier-general in 1798, at the time of the threatened war between the
United States and France. It was also in a measure his efforts which led to
Burr's lack of success in the New York gubernatorial campaign of 1804;
moreover the two had long been rivals at the bar. Smarting under defeat and
angered by Hamilton's criticisms, Burr sent the challenge which resulted in
the famous duel at Weehawken, N.J., on the 11th of July 1804, and the death
of Hamilton (_q.v._) on the following day. After the expiration of his term
as vice-president (March 4, 1805), broken in fortune and virtually an exile
from New York, where, as in New Jersey, he had been indicted for murder
after the duel with Hamilton, Burr visited the South-west and became
involved in the so-called conspiracy which has so puzzled the students of
that period. The traditional view that he planned a separation of the West
from the Union is now discredited. Apart from the question of political
morality he could not, as a shrewd politician, have failed to see that the
people of that section were too loyal to sanction such a scheme. The
objects of his treasonable correspondence with Merry and Yrujo, the British
and Spanish ministers at Washington, were, it would seem, to secure money
and to conceal his real designs, which were probably to overthrow Spanish
power in the Southwest, and perhaps to found an imperial dynasty in Mexico.
He was arrested in 1807 on the charge of treason, was brought to trial
before the United States circuit court at Richmond, Virginia, Chief-Justice
Marshall presiding, and he was acquitted, in spite of the fact that the
political influence of the national administration was thrown against him.
Immediately afterward he was tried on a charge of misdemeanour, and on a
technicality was again acquitted. He lived abroad from 1808 to 1812,
passing most of his time in England, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden and France;
trying to secure aid in the prosecution of his filibustering schemes but
meeting with numerous rebuffs, being ordered out of England and Napoleon
refusing to receive him. In 1812 he returned to New York and spent the
remainder of his life in the practice of law. Burr was unscrupulous,
insincere and notoriously immoral, but he was pleasing in his manners,
generous to a fault, and was intensely devoted to his wife and daughter. In
1833 he married Eliza B. Jumel (1769-1865), a rich New York widow; the two
soon separated, however, owing to Burr's having lost much of her fortune in
speculation. He died at Port Richmond, Staten Island, New York, on the 14th
of September 1836.

The standard biography is James Parton's _The Life and Times of Aaron Burr_
(first edition, 1857; enlarged edition, 2 vols., Boston and New York,
1898). W.F. McCaleb's _The Aaron Burr Conspiracy_ (New York, 1903) is a
scholarly defence of the West and incidentally of Burr against the charge
of treason, and is the best account of the subject; see also I. Jenkinson,
_Aaron Burr_ (Richmond, Ind., 1902). For the traditional view of Burr's
conspiracy, see Henry Adams's _History of the United States_, vol. iii.
(New York, 1890).

BURRIANA, a seaport of eastern Spain, in the province of Castellón de la
Plana; on the estuary of the river Séco, which flows into the Mediterranean
Sea. Pop. (1900) 12,962. The harbour of Burriana on the open sea is
annually visited by about three hundred small coasting-vessels. Its exports
consist chiefly of oranges grown in the surrounding fertile plain, which is
irrigated with water from the river Mijares, on the north, and also
produces large quantities of grain, oil, wine and melons. Burriana is
connected by a light railway with the neighbouring towns of Onda (6595),
Almazóra (7070), Villarreal (16,068) and Castellón de la Plana (29,904).
Its nearest station on the Barcelona-Valencia coast railway is Villarreal.

BURRITT, ELIHU (1810-1879), American philanthropist, known as "the learned
blacksmith," was born in New Britain, Conn., on the 8th of December 1810.
His father (a farmer and shoemaker), and his grandfather, both of the same
name, had served in the Revolutionary army. An elder brother, Elijah, who
afterwards published _The Geography of the Heavens_ and other text-books,
went out into the world while Elihu was still a boy, and after editing a
paper in Georgia came back to New Britain and started a school. Elihu,
however, had to pick up what knowledge he could get from books at home,
where his father's long illness, ending in death, made his services
necessary. At sixteen he was apprenticed to a blacksmith, and he made this
his trade both there and at Worcester, Mass., where he removed in 1837. He
had a passion for reading; from the village library he borrowed book after
book, which he studied at his forge or in his spare hours; and he managed
to find time for attending his brother's school for a while, and even for
pursuing his search for culture among the advantages to be found at New
Haven. He mastered Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, Italian and German, and
by the age of thirty could read nearly fifty languages. His extraordinary
aptitude gradually made him famous. He took to lecturing, and then to an
ardent crusade on behalf of universal peace and human brotherhood, which
made him travel persistently to various parts of the United States and
Europe. In 1848 he organized the Brussels congress of Friends of Peace,
which was followed by annual congresses in Paris, Frankfort, London,
Manchester and Edinburgh. He wrote and published voluminously, leaflets,
pamphlets and volumes, and started the _Christian Citizen_ at Worcester to
advocate his humanitarian views. Cheap trans-oceanic postage was an ideal
for which he agitated wherever he went. His vigorous philanthropy keeps the
name of Elihu Burritt green in the history of the peace movement, apart
from the fame of his learning. His countrymen, at universities such as Yale
and elsewhere, delighted to do him honour; and he was U.S. consul at
Birmingham from 1865 to 1870. He returned to America and died at New
Britain on the 9th of March 1879.

See _Life_, by Charles Northend, in the memorial volume (1879); and an
article by Ellen Strong Bartlett in the _New England Magazine_ (June,
1897).

BURROUGHS, GEORGE (c. 1650-1692), American congregational pastor, graduated
at Harvard in 1670, and became the minister of Salem Village (now Danvers)
in 1680, a charge which he held till 1683. He lived at Falmouth (now
Portland, Maine) until the Indians destroyed it in 1690, when he removed to
Wells. In May 1692 during the witchcraft delusion, on the accusation of
some personal enemies in his former congregation who had sued him for debt,
Burroughs was arrested and charged, among other offences, with
"extraordinary Lifting and such feats of strength as could not be done
without Diabolicall Assistance." Though the jury found no witch-marks on
his body he was convicted and executed on Gallows Hill, Salem, on the 19th
of August, the only minister who suffered this extreme fate.

[v.04 p.0863] BURROUGHS, JOHN (1837- ), American poet and writer on natural
history, was born in Roxbury, Delaware county, New York, on the 3rd of
April 1837. In his earlier years he engaged in various pursuits, teaching,
journalism, farming and fruit-raising, and for nine years was a clerk in
the treasury department at Washington. After publishing in 1867 a volume of
_Notes on Walt Whitman as poet and person_ (a subject to which he returned
in 1896 with his _Whitman: a Study_), he began in 1871, with _Wake-Robin_,
a series of books on birds, flowers and rural scenes which has made him the
successor of Thoreau as a popular essayist en the plants and animals
environing human life. His later writings showed a more philosophic mood
and a greater disposition towards literary or meditative allusion than
their predecessors, but the general theme and method remained the same. His
chief books, in addition to _Wake-Robin_, are _Birds and Poets_ (1877),
_Locusts and Wild Honey_ (1879), _Signs and Seasons_ (1886), and _Ways of
Nature_ (1905); these are in prose, but he wrote much also in verse, a
volume of poems, _Bird and Bough_, being published in 1906. _Winter
Sunshine_ (1875) and _Fresh Fields_ (1884) are sketches of travel in
England and France.

A biographical sketch of Burroughs is prefixed to his _Year in the Fields_
(new ed., 1901). A complete uniform edition of his works was issued in
1895, &c. (Riverside edition, Cambridge, Mass.).

BURSAR (Med. Lat. _bursarius_), literally a keeper of the _bursa_ or purse.
The word is now chiefly used of the official, usually one of the fellows,
who administers the finances of a college at a university, or of the
treasurer of a school or other institution. The term is also applied to the
holder of "a bursary," an exhibition at Scottish schools or universities,
and also in England a scholarship or exhibition enabling a pupil of an
elementary school to continue his education at a secondary school. The term
"burse" (Lat. _bursa_, Gr. [Greek: borsa], bag of skin) is particularly
used of the embroidered purse which is one of the insignia of office of the
lord high chancellor of England, and of the pouch which in the Roman Church
contains the "corporal" in the service of the Mass. The "bursa" is a square
case opening at one side only and covered and lined with silk or linen; one
side should be of the colour of the vestments of the day.

BURSCHENSCHAFT, an association of students at the German universities. It
was formed as a result of the German national sentiment awakened by the War
of Liberation, its object being to foster patriotism and Christian conduct,
as opposed to the particularism and low moral standard of the old
_Landsmannschaften_. It originated at Jena, under the patronage of the
grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, and rapidly spread, the _Allgemeine deutsche
Burschenschaft_ being established in 1818. The loud political idealism of
the _Burschen_ excited the fears of the reactionary powers, which
culminated after the murder of Kotzebue (_q.v._) by Karl Sand in 1819, a
crime inspired by a secret society among the _Burschen_ known as the Blacks
(_Schwarzen_). The repressive policy embodied in the Carlsbad Decrees
(_q.v._) was therefore directed mainly against the _Burschenschaft_, which
none the less survived to take part in the revolutions of 1830. After the
_émeute_ at Frankfort in 1833, the association was again suppressed, but it
lived on until, in 1848, all laws against it were abrogated. The
_Burschenschaften_ are now purely social and non-political societies. The
_Reformburschenschaften_, formed since 1883 on the principle of excluding
duelling, are united in the _Allgemeiner deutscher Burschenbund_.

BURSIAN, CONRAD (1830-1883), German philologist and archaeologist, was born
at Mutzschen in Saxony, on the 14th of November 1830. On the removal of his
parents to Leipzig, he received his early education at the Thomas school,
and entered the university in 1847. Here he studied under Moritz Haupt and
Otto Jahn until 1851, spent six months in Berlin (chiefly to attend Böckh's
lectures), and completed his university studies at Leipzig (1852). The next
three years were devoted to travelling in Belgium, France, Italy and
Greece. In 1856 he became a _Privat-docent_, and in 1858 extraordinary
professor at Leipzig; in 1861 professor of philology and archaeology at
Tübingen; in 1864 professor of classical antiquities at Zurich; in 1869 at
Jena, where he was also director of the archaeological museum; in 1874 at
Munich, where he remained until his death on the 21st of September 1883.
His most important works are: _Geographie von Griechenland_ (1862-1872);
_Beiträge zur Geschichte der klassischen Studien im Mittelalter_ (1873);
_Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland_ (1883); editions of
Julius Firmicus Maternus' _De Errore Profanarum Religionum_ (1856) and of
Seneca's _Suasoriae_ (1857). The article on Greek Art in Ersch and Gruber's
Encyclopaedia is by him. Probably the work in connexion with which he is
best known is the _Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der klassischen
Altertumswissenschaft_ (1873, &c.), of which he was the founder and editor;
from 1879 a _Biographisches Jahrbuch für Altertumskunde_ was published by
way of supplement, an obituary notice of Bursian, with a complete list of
his writings, being in the volume for 1884.

BURSLEM, a market town of Staffordshire, England, in the Potteries
district, 150 m. N.W. from London, on the North Staffordshire railway and
the Grand Trunk Canal. Pop. (1891) 31,999; (1901) 38,766. In the 17th
century the town was already famous for its manufacture of pottery. Here
Josiah Wedgwood was born in 1730, his family having practised the
manufacture in this locality for several generations, while he himself
began work independently at the Ivy House pottery in 1759. He is
commemorated by the Wedgwood Institute, founded in 1863. It comprises a
school of art, free library, museum, picture-gallery and the free school
founded in 1794. The exterior is richly and peculiarly ornamented, to show
the progress of fictile art. The neighbouring towns of Stoke, Hanley and
Longton are connected with Burslem by tramways. Burslem is mentioned in
Domesday. Previously to 1885 it formed part of the parliamentary borough of
Stoke, but it is now included in that of Hanley. It was included in the
municipal borough of Stoke-on-Trent under an act of 1908.

BURTON, SIR FREDERICK WILLIAM (1816-1900), British painter and art
connoisseur, the third son of Samuel Burton of Mungret, Co. Limerick, was
born in Ireland in 1816. He was educated in Dublin, where his artistic
studies were carried on with marked success under the direction of Mr
Brocas, an able teacher, who foretold for the lad a distinguished career.
That this estimate was not exaggerated was proved by Burton's immediate
success in his profession. He was elected an associate of the Royal
Hibernian Academy at the age of twenty-one and an academician two years
later; and in 1842 he began to exhibit at the Royal Academy. A visit to
Germany and Bavaria in 1851 was the first of a long series of wanderings in
various parts of Europe, which gave him a profound and intimate knowledge
of the works of the Old Masters, and prepared him admirably for the duties
that he undertook in 1874 when he was appointed director of the British
National Gallery in succession to Sir W. Boxall, R.A. During the twenty
years that he held this post he was responsible for many important
purchases, among them Leonardo da Vinci's "Virgin of the Rocks," Raphael's
"Ansidei Madonna," Holbein's "Ambassadors," Van Dyck's equestrian portrait
of Charles I., and the "Admiral Pulido Pareja," by Velasquez; and he added
largely to the noted series of Early Italian pictures in the gallery. The
number of acquisitions made to the collection during his period of office
amounts to not fewer than 500. His own painting, most of which was in
water-colour, had more attraction for experts than for the general public.
He was elected an associate of the Royal Society of Painters in
Water-Colours in 1855, and a full member in the following year. He resigned
in 1870, and was re-elected as an honorary member in 1886. A knighthood was
conferred on him in 1884, and the degree of LL.D. of Dublin in 1889. In his
youth he had strong sympathy with the "Young Ireland Party," and was a
close associate with some of its members. He died in Kensington on the 16th
of March 1900.

BURTON, JOHN HILL (1809-1881), Scottish historical writer, the son of an
officer in the army, was born at Aberdeen on the 22nd of August 1809. After
studying at the university of his native city, he removed to Edinburgh,
where he qualified for [v.04 p.0864] the Scottish bar and practised as an
advocate; but his progress was slow, and he eked out his narrow means by
miscellaneous literary work. His _Manual of the Law of Scotland_ (1839)
brought him into notice; he joined Sir John Bowring in editing the works of
Jeremy Bentham, and for a short time was editor of the _Scotsman_, which he
committed to the cause of free trade. In 1846 he achieved high reputation
by his _Life of David Hume_, based upon extensive and unused MS. material.
In 1847 he wrote his biographies of Simon, Lord Lovat, and of Duncan
Forbes, and in 1849 prepared for Chambers's Series manuals of political and
social economy and of emigration. In the same year he lost his wife, whom
he had married in 1844, and never again mixed freely with society, though
in 1855 he married again. He devoted himself mainly to literature,
contributing largely to the _Scotsman_ and _Blackwood_, writing _Narratives
from Criminal Trials in Scotland_ (1852), _Treatise on the Law of
Bankruptcy in Scotland_ (1853), and publishing in the latter year the first
volume of his _History of Scotland_, which was completed in 1870. A new and
improved edition of the work appeared in 1873. Some of the more important
of his contributions to _Blackwood_ were embodied in two delightful
volumes, _The Book Hunter_ (1862) and _The Scot Abroad_ (1864). He had in
1854 been appointed secretary to the prison board, an office which gave him
entire pecuniary independence, and the duties of which he discharged most
assiduously, notwithstanding his literary pursuits and the pressure of
another important task assigned to him after the completion of his history,
the editorship of the _National Scottish Registers_. Two volumes were
published under his supervision. His last work, _The History of the Reign
of Queen Anne_ (1880), is very inferior to his _History of Scotland_. He
died on the 10th of August 1881. Burton was pre-eminently a jurist and
economist, and may be said to have been guided by accident into the path
which led him to celebrity. It was his great good fortune to find abundant
unused material for his _Life of Hume_, and to be the first to introduce
the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland. All
previous attempts had been far below the modern standard in these
particulars, and Burton's history will always be memorable as marking an
epoch. His chief defects as a historian are want of imagination and an
undignified familiarity of style, which, however, at least preserves his
history from the dulness by which lack of imagination is usually
accompanied. His dryness is associated with a fund of dry humour
exceedingly effective in its proper place, as in _The Book Hunter_. As a
man he was loyal, affectionate, philanthropic and entirely estimable.

A memoir of Hill Burton by his wife was prefaced to an edition of _The Book
Hunter_, which like his other works was published at Edinburgh (1882).

(R. G.)

BURTON, SIR RICHARD FRANCIS (1821-1890), British consul, explorer and
Orientalist, was born at Barham House, Hertfordshire, on the 19th of March
1821. He came of the Westmorland Burtons of Shap, but his grandfather, the
Rev. Edward Burton, settled in Ireland as rector of Tuam, and his father,
Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Netterville Burton, of the 36th Regiment, was an
Irishman by birth and character. His mother was descended from the
MacGregors, and he was proud of a remote drop of Bourbon blood piously
believed to be derived from a morganatic union of the Grand Monarque. There
were even those, including some of the Romany themselves, who saw gipsy
written in his peculiar eyes as in his character, wild and resentful,
essentially vagabond, intolerant of convention and restraint. His irregular
education strengthened the inherited bias. A childhood spent in France and
Italy, under scarcely any control, fostered the love of untrammelled
wandering and a marvellous fluency in continental vernaculars. Such an
education so little prepared him for academic proprieties, that when he
entered Trinity College, Oxford, in October 1840, a criticism of his
military moustache by a fellow-undergraduate was resented by a challenge to
a duel, and Burton in various ways distinguished himself by such eccentric
behaviour that rustication inevitably ensued. Nor was he much more in his
element as a subaltern in the 18th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry,
which he joined at Baroda in October 1842. Discipline of any sort he
abhorred, and the one recommendation of the East India Company's service in
his eyes was that it offered opportunities for studying Oriental life and
languages. He had begun Arabic without a master at Oxford, and worked in
London at Hindustani under Forbes before he went out; in India he laboured
indefatigably at the vernaculars, and his reward was an astonishingly rapid
proficiency in Gujarati, Marathi, Hindustani, as well as Persian and
Arabic. His appointment as an assistant in the Sind survey enabled him to
mix with the people, and he frequently passed as a native in the bazaars
and deceived his own _munshi_, to say nothing of his colonel and messmates.
His wanderings in Sind were the apprenticeship for the pilgrimage to Mecca,
and his seven years in India laid the foundations of his unparalleled
familiarity with Eastern life and customs, especially among the lower
classes. Besides government reports and contributions to the Asiatic
Society, his Indian period produced four books, published after his return
home: _Scinde, or the Unhappy Valley_ (1851), _Sindh and the Races that
Inhabit the Valley of the Indus_ (1851), _Goa and the Blue Mountains_
(1851), and _Falconry in the Valley of the Indus_ (1852). None of these
achieved popularity, but the account of Sind is remarkably vivid and
faithful.

The pilgrimage to Mecca in 1853 made Burton famous. He had planned it
whilst mixing disguised among the Muslims of Sind, and had laboriously
prepared for the ordeal by study and practice. No doubt the primary motive
was the love of adventure, which was his strongest passion; but along with
the wanderer's restlessness marched the zest of exploration, and whilst
wandering was in any case a necessity of his existence, he preferred to
roam in untrodden ways where mere adventure might be dignified by
geographical service. There was a "huge white blot" on the maps of central
Arabia where no European had ever been, and Burton's scheme, approved by
the Royal Geographical Society, was to extend his pilgrimage to this "empty
abode," and remove a discreditable blank from the map. War among the tribes
curtailed the design, and his journey went no farther than Medina and
Mecca. The exploit of accompanying the Muslim hajj to the holy cities was
not unique, nor so dangerous as has been imagined. Several Europeans have
accomplished it before and since Burton's visit without serious mishap.
Passing himself off as an Indian Pathan covered any peculiarities or
defects of speech. The pilgrimage, however, demands an intimate proficiency
in a complicated ritual, and a familiarity with the minutiae of Eastern
manners and etiquette; and in the case of a stumble, presence of mind and
cool courage may be called into request. There are legends that Burton had
to defend his life by taking others'; but he carried no arms, and
confessed, rather shamefastly, that he had never killed anybody at any
time. The actual journey was less remarkable than the book in which it was
recorded, _The Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah_ (1855). Its vivid
descriptions, pungent style, and intensely personal "note" distinguish it
from books of its class; its insight into Semitic modes of thought and its
picture of Arab manners give it the value of an historical document; its
grim humour, keen observation and reckless insobriety of opinion, expressed
in peculiar, uncouth but vigorous language make it a curiosity of
literature.

Burton's next journey was more hazardous than the pilgrimage, but created
no parallel sensation. In 1854 the Indian government accepted his proposal
to explore the interior of the Somali country, which formed a subject of
official anxiety in its relation to the Red Sea trade. He was assisted by
Capt. J.H. Speke and two other young officers, but accomplished the most
difficult part of the enterprise alone. This was the journey to Harrar, the
Somali capital, which no white man had entered. Burton vanished into the
desert, and was not heard of for four months. When he reappeared he had not
only been to Harrar, but had talked with the king, stayed ten days there in
deadly peril, and ridden back across the desert, almost without food and
water, running the gauntlet of the Somali spears all the way. Undeterred by
this experience he set out again, but was checked [v.04 p.0865] by a
skirmish with the tribes, in which one of his young officers was killed,
Captain Speke was wounded in eleven places, and Burton himself had a
javelin thrust through his jaws. His _First Footsteps in East Africa_
(1856), describing these adventures, is one of his most exciting and most
characteristic books, full of learning, observation and humour.

After serving on the staff of Beatson's Bashi-bazouks at the Dardanelles,
but never getting to the front in the Crimea, Burton returned to Africa in
1856. The foreign office, moved by the Royal Geographical Society,
commissioned him to search for the sources of the Nile, and, again
accompanied by Speke, he explored the lake regions of equatorial Africa.
They discovered Lake Tanganyika in February 1858, and Speke, pushing on
during Burton's illness and acting on indications supplied by him, lighted
upon Victoria Nyanza. The separate discovery led to a bitter dispute, but
Burton's expedition, with its discovery of the two lakes, was the incentive
to the later explorations of Speke and Grant, Baker, Livingstone and
Stanley; and his report in volume xxxiii. of the _Proceedings of the Royal
Geographical Society_, and his _Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa_ (1860),
are the true parents of the multitudinous literature of "darkest Africa."
Burton was the first Englishman to enter Mecca, the first to explore
Somaliland, the first to discover the great lakes of Central Africa. His
East African pioneering coincides with areas which have since become
peculiarly interesting to the British Empire; and three years later he was
exploring on the opposite side of Africa, at Dahomey, Benin and the Gold
Coast, regions which have also entered among the imperial "questions" of
the day. Before middle age Burton had compressed into his life, as Lord
Derby said, "more of study, more of hardship, and more of successful
enterprise and adventure, than would have sufficed to fill up the existence
of half a dozen ordinary men." _The City of the Saints_ (1861) was the
fruit of a flying visit to the United States in 1860.

Since 1849 his connexion with the Indian army had been practically severed;
in 1861 he definitely entered the service of the foreign office as consul
at Fernando Po, whence he was shifted successively to Santos in Brazil
(1865), Damascus (1869), and Trieste (1871), holding the last post till his
death on the 20th of October 1890. Each of these posts produced its
corresponding books: Fernando Po led to the publishing of _Wanderings in
West Africa_ (1863), _Abeokuta and the Cameroons_ (1863), _A Mission to
Gelele, king of Dahomé_ (1864), and _Wit and Wisdom from West Africa_
(1865). The _Highlands of the Brazil_ (1869) was the result of four years'
residence and travelling; and _Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay_
(1870) relate to a journey across South America to Peru. Damascus suggested
_Unexplored Syria_ (1872), and might have led to much better work, since no
consulate in either hemisphere was more congenial to Burton's taste and
linguistic studies; but he mismanaged his opportunities, got into trouble
with the foreign office, and was removed to Trieste, where his Oriental
prepossessions and prejudices could do no harm, but where, unfortunately,
his Oriental learning was thrown away. He did not, however, abandon his
Eastern studies or his Eastern travels. Various fresh journeys or
revisitings of familiar scenes are recorded in his later books, such as
_Zanzibar_ (1872), _Ultima Thule_ (1875), _Etruscan Bologna_ (1876), _Sind
Revisited_ (1877), _The Land of Midian_ (1879) and _To the Gold Coast for
Gold_ (1883). None of these had more than a passing interest. Burton had
not the charm of style or imagination which gives immortality to a book of
travel. He wrote too fast, and took too little pains about the form. His
blunt, disconnected sentences and ill-constructed chapters were full of
information and learning, and contained not a few thrusts for the benefit
of government or other people, but they were not "readable." There was
something ponderous about his very humour, and his criticism was personal
and savage. By far the most celebrated of all his books is the translation
of the "Arabian Nights" (_The Thousand Nights and a Night_, 16 vols.,
privately printed, 1885-1888), which occupied the greater part of his
leisure at Trieste. As a monument of his Arabic learning and his
encyclopaedic knowledge of Eastern life this translation was his greatest
achievement. It is open to criticism in many ways; it is not so exact in
scholarship, nor so faithful to its avowed text, as might be expected from
his reputation; but it reveals a profound acquaintance with the vocabulary
and customs of the Muslims, with their classical idiom as well as their
vulgarest "Billingsgate," with their philosophy and modes of thought as
well as their most secret and most disgusting habits. Burton's
"anthropological notes," embracing a wide field of pornography, apart from
questions of taste, abound in valuable observations based upon long study
of the manners and the writings of the Arabs. The translation itself is
often marked by extraordinary resource and felicity in the exact
reproduction of the sense of the original; Burton's vocabulary was
marvellously extensive, and he had a genius for hitting upon the right
word; but his fancy for archaic words and phrases, his habit of coining
words, and the harsh and rugged style he affected, detract from the
literary quality of the work without in any degree enhancing its fidelity.
With grave defects, but sometimes brilliant merits, the translation holds a
mirror to its author. He was, as has been well said, an Elizabethan born
out of time; in the days of Drake his very faults might have counted to his
credit. Of his other works, _Vikram and the Vampire, Hindu Tales_ (1870),
and a history of his favourite arm, _The Book of the Sword_, vol. i.
(1884), unfinished, may be mentioned. His translation of _The Lusiads of
Camoens_ (1880) was followed (1881) by a sketch of the poet's life. Burton
had a fellow-feeling for the poet adventurer, and his translation is an
extraordinarily happy reproduction of its original. A manuscript
translation of the "Scented Garden," from the Arabic, was burnt by his
widow, acting in what she believed to be the interests of her husband's
reputation. Burton married Isabel Arundell in 1861, and owed much to her
courage, sympathy and passionate devotion. Her romantic and exaggerated
biography of her husband, with all its faults, is one of the most pathetic
monuments which the unselfish love of a woman has ever raised to the memory
of her hero. Another monument is the Arab tent of stone and marble which
she built for his tomb at Mortlake.

Besides Lady Burton's _Life of Sir Richard F. Burton_ (2 vols., 1893, 2nd
edition, condensed, edited, with a preface, by W.H. Wilkins, 1898), there
are _A Sketch of the Career of R.F. Burton_, by A.B. Richards, Andrew
Wilson, and St Clair Baddeley (1886); _The True Life of Captain Sir Richard
F. Burton_, by his niece, G.M. Stisted (1896); and a brief sketch by the
present writer prefixed to Bohn's edition of the _Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah
and Meccah_ (1898), from which some sentences have here been by permission
reproduced. In 1906 appeared the _Life of Sir Richard Burton_, by Thomas
Wright of Olney, in two volumes, an industrious and rather critical work,
interesting in particular for the doubts it casts on Burton's originality
as an Arabic translator, and emphasizing his indebtedness to Payne's
translation (1881) of the _Arabian Nights_.

(S. L.-P.)

BURTON, ROBERT (1577-1640), English writer, author of _The Anatomy of
Melancholy_, son of a country gentleman, Ralph Burton, was born at Lindley
in Leicestershire on the 8th of February 1576-7. He was educated at the
free school of Sutton Coldfield and at Nuneaton grammar school; became in
1593 a commoner of Brasenose College, and in 1599 was elected student at
Christ Church, where he continued to reside for the rest of his life. The
dean and chapter of Christ Church appointed him, in November 1616, vicar of
St Thomas in the west suburbs, and about 1630 his patron, Lord Berkeley,
presented him to the rectory of Segrave in Leicestershire. He held the two
livings "with much ado to his dying day" (says Antony à Wood, the Oxford
historian, somewhat mysteriously); and he was buried in the north aisle of
Christ Church cathedral, where his elder brother William Burton, author of
a _History of Leicestershire_, raised to his memory a monument, with his
bust in colour. The epitaph that he had written for himself was carved
beneath the bust: _Paucis notus, paucioribus ignotus, hic jacet Democritus
Junior, cui vitam dedit et mortem Melancholia_. Some years before his death
he had predicted, by the calculation of his nativity, that the approach of
his climacteric year (sixty-three) would prove fatal; and the prediction
came true, for he died on the 25th of January 1639-40 (some gossips
surmising that he had "sent up his soul to heaven through a noose about his
neck" to avoid the chagrin of seeing his calculations falsified). His [v.04
p.0866] portrait in Brasenose College shows the face of a scholar, shrewd,
contemplative, humorous.

A Latin comedy, _Philosophaster_, originally written by Robert Burton in
1606 and acted at Christ Church in 1617, was long supposed to be lost; but
in 1862 it was printed for the Roxburghe Club from a manuscript belonging
to the Rev. W.E. Buckley, who edited it with elaborate care and appended a
collection of the academical exercises that Burton had contributed to
various Oxford miscellanies ("Natalia," "Parentalia," &c.).
_Philosophaster_ is a vivacious exposure of charlatanism. Desiderius, duke
of Osuna, invites learned men from all parts of Europe to repair to the
university which he has re-established; and a crowd of shifty adventurers
avail themselves of the invitation. There are points of resemblance to
_Philosophaster_ in Ben Jonson's _Alchemist_ and Tomkis's _Albumazar_, but
in the prologue Burton is careful to state that his was the earlier play.
(Another manuscript of _Philosophaster_, a presentation copy to William
Burton from the author, has since been found in the library of Lord
Mostyn.)

In 1621 was issued at Oxford the first edition, a quarto, of _The Anatomy
of Melancholy ... by Democritus Junior_. Later editions, in folio, were
published in 1624, 1628, 1632, 1638, 1651, 1652, 1660, 1676. Burton was for
ever engaged in revising his treatise. In the third edition (where first
appeared the engraved emblematical title-page by C. Le Blond) he declared
that he would make no further alterations. But the fourth edition again
bore marks of revision; the fifth differed from the fourth; and the sixth
edition was posthumously printed from a copy containing his latest
corrections.

Not the least interesting part of the _Anatomy_ is the long preface,
"Democritus to the Reader," in which Burton sets out his reasons for
writing the treatise and for assuming the name of Democritus Junior. He had
been elected a student of "the most flourishing college of Europe" and he
designed to show his gratitude by writing something that should be worthy
of that noble society. He had read much; he was neither rich nor poor;
living in studious seclusion, he had been a critically observant spectator
of the world's affairs. The philosopher Democritus, who was by nature very
melancholy, "averse from company in his latter days and much given to
solitariness," spent his closing years in the suburbs of Abdera. There
Hippocrates once found him studying in his garden, the subject of his study
being the causes and cure of "this _atra bilis_ or melancholy." Burton
would not compare himself with so famous a philosopher, but he aimed at
carrying out the design which Democritus had planned and Hippocrates had
commended. It is stated that he actually set himself to reproduce the old
philosopher's reputed eccentricities of conduct. When he was attacked by a
fit of melancholy he would go to the bridge foot at Oxford and shake his
sides with laughter to hear the bargemen swearing at one another, just as
Democritus used to walk down to the haven at Abdera and pick matter for
mirth out of the humours of waterside life.

Burton anticipates the objections of captious critics. He allows that he
has "collected this cento out of divers authors" and has borrowed from
innumerable books, but he claims that "the composition and method is ours
only, and shows a scholar." It had been his original intention to write in
Latin, but no publisher would take the risk of issuing in Latin so
voluminous a treatise. He humorously apologizes for faults of style on the
ground that he had to work single-handed (unlike Origen who was allowed by
Ambrosius six or seven amanuenses) and digest his notes as best he might.
If any object to his choice of subject, urging that he would be better
employed in writing on divinity, his defence is that far too many
commentaries, expositions, sermons, &c., are already in existence. Besides,
divinity and medicine are closely allied; and, melancholy being both a
spiritual and bodily infirmity, the divine and the physician must unite to
cure it.

The preface is followed by a tabular synopsis of the First Partition with
its several Sections, Members and Subsections. After various preliminary
digressions Burton sets himself to define what Melancholy is and what are
its species and kinds. Then he discusses the Causes, supernatural and
natural, of the disorder, and afterwards proceeds to set down the Symptoms
(which cannot be briefly summarized, "for the Tower of Babel never yielded
such confusion of tongues as the Chaos of Melancholy doth of Symptoms").
The Second Partition is devoted to the Cure of Melancholy. As it is of
great importance that we should live in good air, a chapter deals with "Air
Rectified. With a Digression of the Air." Burton never travelled, but the
study of cosmography had been his constant delight; and over sea and land,
north, east, west, south--in this enchanting chapter--he sends his vagrant
fancy flying. In the disquisition on "Exercise rectified of body and mind"
he dwells gleefully on the pleasures of country life, and on the content
that scholars find in the pursuit of their favourite studies.
Love-Melancholy is the subject of the first Three Sections of the Third
Partition, and many are the merry tales with which these pages are
seasoned. The Fourth (and concluding) Section treats, in graver mood, of
Religious Melancholy; and to the "Cure of Despair" he devotes his deepest
meditations.

_The Anatomy_, widely read in the 17th century, for a time lapsed into
obscurity, though even "the wits of Queen Anne's reign and the beginning of
George I. were not a little beholden to Robert Burton" (Archbishop
Herring). Dr Johnson deeply admired the work; and Sterne laid it heavily
under contribution. But the noble and impassioned devotion of Charles Lamb
has been the most powerful help towards keeping alive the memory of the
"fantastic great old man." Burton's odd turns and quirks of expression, his
whimsical and affectate fancies, his kindly sarcasm, his far-fetched
conceits, his deep-lying pathos, descended by inheritance of genius to
Lamb. The enthusiasm of Burton's admirers will not be chilled by the
disparagement of unsympathetic critics (Macaulay and Hallam among them) who
have consulted his pages in vain; but through good and evil report he will
remain, their well-loved companion to the end.

The best of the modern editions of Burton was published in 1896, 3 vols.
8vo (Bell and Sons), under the editorship of A.R. Shilleto, who identified
a large number of the classical quotations and many passages from
post-classical authors. Prof. Bensley, of the university of Adelaide, has
since contributed to the ninth and tenth series of _Notes and Queries_ many
valuable notes on the _Anatomy_. Dr Aldis Wright has long been engaged on
the preparation of a definitive edition.

(A. H. B.)

BURTON, WILLIAM EVANS (1804-1860), English actor and playwright, born in
London in September 1804, was the son of William George Burton (1774-1825),
a printer and author of _Research into the religions of the Eastern nations
as illustrative of the scriptures_ (1805). He was educated for the Church,
but, having entered his father's business, his success as an amateur actor
led him to go upon the stage. After several years in the provinces, he made
his first London appearance in 1831. In 1834 he went to America, where he
appeared in Philadelphia as Dr Ollapod in _The Poor Gentleman_. He took a
prominent place, both as actor and manager, in New York, Philadelphia and
Baltimore, the theatre which he leased in New York being renamed Burton's
theatre. He had much popular success as Captain Cuttle in John Brougham's
dramatization of _Dombey and Son_, and in other low comedy parts in plays
from Dickens's novels. Burton was the author of a large number of plays,
one of which, _Ellen Wareham_ (1833), was produced simultaneously at five
London theatres. In Philadelphia he established the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
of which Edgar Allan Poe was for some time the editor. He was himself the
editor of the _Cambridge Quarterly_ and the _Souvenir_, and the author of
several books, including a _Cyclopaedia of Wit and Humour_ (1857). He
collected a library of over 100,000 volumes, especially rich in
Shakespeariana, which was dispersed after his death at New York City on the
9th of February 1860.

BURTON-UPON-TRENT, a market town and municipal and county borough in the
Burton parliamentary division of Staffordshire and the Southern
parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England; lying mainly upon the left
bank of the Trent, in Staffordshire. Pop. (1891) 46,047; (1901) 50,386. It
is 127 m [v.04 p.0867] north-west from London by the London & North-Western
and the Midland railways, and is also served by the Great Northern and
North Staffordshire railways. The Trent is navigable from a point near the
town downward. The neighbouring country is pleasant enough, particularly
along the river, but the town itself is purely industrial, and contains no
pre-eminent buildings. The church of St Mary and St Modwen is classic in
style, of the 18th century, but embodies some remains of an ancient Gothic
building. Of a Benedictine abbey dedicated to the same saints there remain
a gatehouse and lodge, and a fine doorway. The former abbot's house at
Seyney Park is a half-timbered building of the 15th century. The free
grammar school was founded in 1525. A fine bridge over the Trent, and the
municipal buildings, were provided by Lord Burton. There are pleasant
recreation grounds on the Derbyshire side of the river.

Burton is the seat of an enormous brewing trade, representing nearly
one-tenth of the total amount of this trade in the United Kingdom. It is
divided between some twenty firms. The premises of Bass's brewery extend
over 500 acres, while Allsopp's stand next; upwards of 5000 hands are
employed in all, and many miles of railways owned by the firms cross the
streets in all directions on the level, and connect with the lines of the
railway companies. The superiority which is claimed for Burton ales is
attributed to the use of well-water impregnated with sulphate of lime
derived from the gypseous deposits of the district. Burton is governed by a
mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area, 4202 acres.

Burton-upon-Trent (Burhton) is first mentioned towards the close of the 9th
century, when St Modwen, an Irish virgin, is said to have established a
convent on the Isle of Andressey opposite Burton. In 1002 Wulfric, earl of
Mercia, founded here a Benedictine abbey, and by charter of 1004 granted to
it the town with other large endowments. Burton was evidently a mesne
borough under the abbot, who held the court of the manor and received the
profits of the borough according to the charter of Henry I. granting sac
and soc and other privileges and right in the town. Later charters were
given by Henry II., by John in 1204 (who also granted an annual fair of
three days' duration, 29th of October, at the feast of St Modwen, and a
weekly market on Thursday), by Henry III. in 1227, by Henry VII. in 1488
(Henry VII. granted a fair at the feast of St Luke, 18th of October), and
by Henry VIII. in 1509. At the dissolution Henry VIII. founded on the site
of the abbey a collegiate church dissolved before 1545, when its lands,
with all the privileges formerly vested in the abbot, were conferred on Sir
William Paget, ancestor of the marquess of Anglesey, now holder of the
manor. In 1878 it was incorporated under a mayor, 8 aldermen, 24
councillors. Burton was the scene of several engagements in the Civil War,
when its large trade in clothing and alabaster was practically ruined.
Although the abbey ale was mentioned as early as 1295, the brewing industry
is comparatively of recent development, having begun about 1708. Forty
years later it had a market at St Petersburg and the Baltic ports, and in
1796 there were nine brewing firms in the town.

See William Molyneux, _History of Burton-on-Trent_ (1869); _Victoria County
History, Staffordshire_.

BURU (_Buro_, Dutch _Boeroe_ or _Boeloe_), an island of the Dutch East
Indies, one of the Molucca Islands belonging to the residency of Amboyna,
between 3° 4' and 3° 50' S. and 125° 58' and 127° 15' E. Its extreme
measurements are 87 m. by 50 m., and its area is 3400 sq. m. Its surface is
for the most part mountainous, though the seaboard district is frequently
alluvial and marshy from the deposits of the numerous rivers. Of these the
largest, the Kajeli, discharging eastward, is in part navigable. The
greatest elevations occur in the west, where the mountain Tomahu reaches
8530 ft. In the middle of the western part of the island lies the large
lake of Wakolo, at an altitude of 2200 ft., with a circumference of 37 m.
and a depth of about 100 ft. It has been considered a crater lake; but this
is not the case. It is situated at the junction of the sandstone and slate,
where the water, having worn away the former, has accumulated on the
latter. The lake has no affluents and only one outlet, the Wai Nibe to the
north. The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near
the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk,
deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago. By far the larger part of
the country is covered with natural forest and prairie land, but such
portions as have been brought into cultivation are highly fertile. Coffee,
rice and a variety of fruits, such as the lemon, orange, banana, pine-apple
and coco-nut are readily grown, as well as sago, red-pepper, tobacco and
cotton. The only important exports, however, are cajeput oil, a sudorific
distilled from the leaves of the _Melaleuca Cajuputi_ or white-wood tree;
and timber. The native flora is rich, and teak, ebony and canari trees are
especially abundant; the fauna, which is similarly varied, includes the
babirusa, which occurs in this island only of the Moluccas. The population
is about 15,000. The villages on the sea-coast are inhabited by a Malayan
population, and the northern and western portions of the island are
occupied by a light-coloured Malay folk akin to the natives of the eastern
Celebes. In the interior is found a peculiar race which is held by some to
be Papuan. They are described, however, as singularly un-Papuan in
physique, being only 5 ft. 2 in. in average height, of a yellow-brown
colour, of feeble build, and without the characteristic frizzly hair and
prominent nose of the true Papuan. They are completely pagan, live in
scattered hamlets, and have come very little in contact with any
civilization. Among the maritime population a small number of Chinese,
Arabs and other races are also found. The island is divided by the Dutch
into two districts. The chief settlement is Kajeli on the east coast. A
number of Mahommedan natives here are descended from tribes compelled in
1657 to gather together from the different parts of the island, while all
the clove-trees were exterminated in an attempt by the Dutch to centralize
the clove trade. Before the arrival of the Dutch the islanders were under
the dominion of the sultan of Ternate; and it was their rebellion against
him that gave the Europeans the opportunity of effecting their subjugation.

BURUJIRD, a province of Persia, bounded W. by Luristan, N. by Nehavend and
Malayir, E. by Irak and S. by Isfahan. It is divided into the following
administrative divisions:--(1) town of Burujird with villages in immediate
neighbourhood; (2) Silakhor (upper and lower); (3) Japalak (with Sarlek and
Burbarud); (4) nomad Bakhtiari. It has a population of about 250,000 or
300,000, and pays a yearly revenue of about £16,000. It is very fertile and
produces much wheat, barley, rice and opium. With improved means of
transport, which would allow the growers to export, the produce of cereals
could easily be trebled. The province is sometimes joined with that of
Luristan.

The town Burujird, the capital of the province, is situated in the fertile
Silakhor plain on the river Tah[=i]j, a tributary of the Dizful river (Ab i
Diz), 70 m. by road from Hamadan and 212 m. from Isfahan, in 33° 55' N. and
48° 55' E., and at an elevation of 5315 ft. Pop. about 25,000. It
manufactures various cotton stuffs (coarse prints, carpet covers) and felts
(principally hats and caps for Lurs and Bakhtiaris). It has post and
telegraph offices.

BURY, JOHN BAGNELL (1861- ), British historian, was born on the 16th of
October 1861, and was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was
elected to a fellowship in 1885. A fine Greek scholar, he edited Pindar's
_Nemean_ and _Isthmian Odes_; but he devoted himself chiefly to the study
of history, and was chosen professor of modern history at Dublin in 1893,
becoming regius professor of Greek in 1898. He resigned both positions in
1902, when he was elected regius professor of modern history in the
university of Cambridge. His historical work was mainly concerned with the
later Roman empire, and his edition of Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, with a
masterly introduction and valuable notes (1896-1900), is the standard text
of this history. He also wrote a _History of Greece to the Death of
Alexander the Great_ (1900); _History of the Later Roman Empire, 395-800_
(1889); _History of the Roman Empire 27 B.C.-180 A.D._ (1893); _Life of St
Patrick and his Place in History_ (1905), &c. He was elected a fellow of
King's College, Cambridge, and received honorary degrees from the
universities of Oxford, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Durham.

BURY, a market-town and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of
Lancashire, England, on the river Irwell, [v.04 p.0868] 195 m. N.W. by W.
from London, and 10½ N. by W. from Manchester, on the Lancashire &
Yorkshire railway and the Manchester & Bolton canal. Pop. (1891) 57,212;
(1901) 58,029. The church of St Mary is of early foundation, but was
rebuilt in 1876. Besides numerous other places of worship, there are a
handsome town hall, athenaeum and museum, art gallery and public library,
various assembly rooms, and several recreation grounds. Kay's free grammar
school was founded in 1726; there are also municipal technical schools. The
cotton manufacture is the principal industry; there are also calico
printing, dyeing and bleaching works, machinery and iron works, woollen
manufactures, and coal mines and quarries in the vicinity. Sir Robert Peel
was born at Chamber Hall in the neighbourhood, and his father did much for
the prosperity of the town by the establishment of extensive print-works. A
monument to the statesman stands in the market-place. The parliamentary
borough returns one member (since 1832). The county borough was created in
1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors.
Area, 5836 acres.

Bury, of which the name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon _burhg_, _birig_ or
_byrig_ (town, castle or fortified place), was the site of a Saxon station,
and an old English castle stood in Castle Croft close to the town. It was a
member of the Honour of Clitheroe and a fee of the royal manor of
Tottington, which soon after the Conquest was held by the Lacys. The local
family of Bury held lands here during the 13th century, and at least for a
short time the manor itself, but before 1347 it passed by marriage to the
Pilkingtons of Pilkington, with whom it remained till 1485, when on the
attainder of Sir Thomas Pilkington it was granted to the first earl of
Derby, whose descendants have since held it. Under a grant made by Edward
IV. to Sir Thomas Pilkington, fairs are still held on March 5, May 3, and
September 18, and a market was formerly held under the same grant on
Thursday, which has, however, been long replaced by a customary market on
Saturday. The woollen trade was established here through the agency of
Flemish immigrants in Edward III.'s reign, and in Elizabeth's time this
industry was of such importance that an aulneger was appointed to measure
and stamp the woollen cloth. But although the woollen manufacture is still
carried on, the cotton trade has been gradually superseding it since the
early part of the 18th century. The family of the Kays, the inventors,
belonged to this place, and Robert Peel's print-works were established here
in 1770. The cognate trades of bleaching, dyeing and machine-making have
been long carried on. A court-leet and view of frank pledge used to be held
half-yearly at Easter and Michaelmas, and a court-baron in May. Until 1846
three constables were chosen annually at the court-leet to govern the
place, but in that year the inhabitants obtained authority from parliament
to appoint twenty-seven commissioners to undertake the local government. A
charter of incorporation was granted in 1876. The well-known Bury
Cooperative Society was established in 1856. There was a church here at the
time of the Domesday Survey, and the earliest mention of a rector is found
in the year 1331-1332. One-half of the town is glebe belonging to the
rectory.

BURY ST EDMUNDS, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough of
Suffolk, England, on the Lark, an affluent of the Great Ouse; 87 m. N.E. by
N. from London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 16,255. It is
pleasantly situated on a gentle eminence, in a fertile and richly
cultivated district. The tower or church-gate, one of the finest specimens
of early Norman architecture in England, and the western gate, a beautiful
structure of rich Decorated work, together with ruined walls of
considerable extent, are all that remains of the great abbey. St Mary's
church, with a beautifully carved roof, was erected in the earlier part of
the 15th century, and contains the tomb of Mary Tudor, queen of Louis XII.
of France. St James's church is also a fine Perpendicular building, with a
modern chancel, and without a tower. All these splendid structures,
fronting one of the main streets in succession, form, even without the
abbey church, a remarkable memorial of the wealth of the foundation. Behind
them lie picturesque gardens which contain the ruins, the plan of which is
difficult to trace, though the outlines of some portions, as the
chapter-house, have been made clear by excavation. There is a handsome
Roman Catholic church of St Edmund. The so-called Moyses Hall (perhaps a
Jew's House, of which there is a parallel example at Lincoln) retains
transitional Norman work. The free grammar school, founded by Edward VI.,
has two scholarships at Cambridge, and six exhibitions to each university,
and occupies modern buildings. The Church Schools Company has a school.
There are large agricultural implement works, and the agricultural trade is
important, cattle and corn markets being held. In the vicinity is Ickworth,
the seat of the marquess of Bristol, a great mansion of the end of the 18th
century. The parliamentary borough, which returns one member, is
coextensive with the municipal borough. The town is governed by a mayor, 6
aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 2947 acres.

Bury St Edmunds (Beodricesworth, St Edmund's Bury), supposed by some to
have been the Villa Faustina of the Romans, was one of the royal towns of
the Saxons. Sigebert, king of the East Angles, founded a monastery here
about 633, which in 903 became the burial place of King Edmund, who was
slain by the Danes about 870, and owed most of its early celebrity to the
reputed miracles performed at the shrine of the martyr king. By 925 the
fame of St Edmund had spread far and wide, and the name of the town was
changed to St Edmund's Bury. Sweyn, in 1020, having destroyed the older
monastery and ejected the secular priests, built a Benedictine abbey on its
site. In 942 or 945 King Edmund had granted to the abbot and convent
jurisdiction over the whole town, free from all secular services, and
Canute in 1020 freed it from episcopal control. Edward the Confessor made
the abbot lord of the franchise. By various grants from the abbots, the
town gradually attained the rank of a borough. Henry III. in 1235 granted
to the abbot two annual fairs, one in December (which still survives), the
other the great St Matthew's fair, which was abolished by the Fairs Act of
1871. Another fair was granted by Henry IV. in 1405. Elizabeth in 1562
confirmed the charters which former kings had granted to the abbots, and
James I. in 1606 granted a charter of incorporation with an annual fair in
Easter week and a market. Further charters were granted by him in 1608 and
1614, and by Charles II. in 1668 and 1684. The reversion of the fairs and
two markets on Wednesday and Saturday were granted by James I. in fee farm
to the corporation. Parliaments were held here in 1272, 1296 and 1446, but
the borough was not represented until 1608, when James I. conferred the
privilege of sending two members. The Redistribution Act 1885 reduced the
representation to one. There was formerly a large woollen trade.

See Richard Yates, _Hist. and Antiqs. of the Abbey of St Edmund's Bury_
(2nd ed., 1843); H.R. Barker, _History of Bury St Edmunds_.

BUSBECQ, OGIER GHISLAIN DE [AUGERIUS GISLENIUS] (1522-1592), Flemish writer
and traveller, was born at Comines, and educated at the university of
Louvain and elsewhere. Having served the emperor Charles V. and his son,
Philip II. of Spain, he entered the service of the emperor Ferdinand I.,
who sent him as ambassador to the sultan Suleiman I. the Magnificent. He
returned to Vienna in 1562 to become tutor to the sons of Maximilian II.,
afterwards emperor, subsequently taking the position of master of the
household of Elizabeth, widow of Charles IX., king of France, and daughter
of Maximilian. Busbecq was an excellent scholar, a graceful writer and a
clever diplomatist. He collected valuable manuscripts, rare coins and
curious inscriptions, and introduced various plants into Germany. He died
at the castle of Maillot near Rouen on the 28th of October 1592. Busbecq
wrote _Itinera Constantinopolitanum et Amasianum_ (Antwerp, 1581), a work
showing considerable insight into Turkish politics. This was published in
Paris in 1589 as _A.G. Busbequii legationis Turcicae epistolae iv._, and
has been translated into several languages. He was a frequent visitor to
France, and wrote _Epistolae ad Rudolphum II. Imperatorem e Gallia
scriptae_ (Louvain, 1630), an interesting account of affairs at the French
court. His works were published [v.04 p.0869] at Leiden in 1633 and at
Basel in 1740. An English translation of the _Itinera_ was published in
1744.

See C.T. Forster and F.H.B. Daniel, _Life and Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de
Busbecq_ (London, 1881); Viertel, _Busbecks Erlebnisse in der Turkei_
(Gottingen, 1902).

BUSBY, RICHARD (1606-1695), English clergyman, and head master of
Westminster school, was born at Lutton in Lincolnshire in 1606. He was
educated at the school which he afterwards superintended for so long a
period, and first signalized himself by gaining a king's scholarship. From
Westminster Busby proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in
1628. In his thirty-third year he had already become renowned for the
obstinate zeal with which he supported the falling dynasty of the Stuarts,
and was rewarded for his services with the prebend and rectory of Cudworth,
with the chapel of Knowle annexed, in Somersetshire. Next year he became
head master of Westminster, where his reputation as a teacher soon became
great. He himself once boasted that sixteen of the bishops who then
occupied the bench had been birched with his "little rod". No school in
England has on the whole produced so many eminent men as Westminster did
under the régime of Busby. Among the more illustrious of his pupils may be
mentioned South, Dryden, Locke, Prior and Bishop Atterbury. He wrote and
edited many works for the use of his scholars. His original treatises (the
best of which are his Greek and Latin grammars), as well as those which he
edited, have, however, long since fallen into disuse. Busby died in 1695,
in his ninetieth year, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his
effigy is still to be seen.

BUSBY, the English name for a military head-dress of fur. Possibly the
original sense of a "busby wig" came from association with Dr Busby of
Westminster; but it is also derived from "buzz", in the phrase "buzz wig".
In its first Hungarian form the military busby was a cylindrical fur cap,
having a "bag" of coloured cloth hanging from the top; the end of this bag
was attached to the right shoulder as a defence against sword-cuts. In
Great Britain "busbies" are of two kinds: (_a_) the hussar busby,
cylindrical in shape, with a bag; this is worn by hussars and the Royal
Horse Artillery; (_b_) the rifle busby, a folding cap of astrachan, in
shape somewhat resembling a "Glengarry" but taller. Both have straight
plumes in the front of the headdress. The word "busby" is also used
colloquially to denote the tall bear-and-raccoon-skin "caps" worn by
foot-guards and fusiliers, and the full dress feather bonnet of Highland
infantry. Cylindrical busbies were formerly worn by the artillery engineers
and rifles, but these are now obsolete in the regular army, though still
worn by some territorial and colonial troops of these arms.

BUSCH, JULIUS HERMANN MORITZ (1821-1899), German publicist, was born at
Dresden on the 13th of February 1821. He entered the university of Leipzig
in 1841 as a student of theology, but graduated as doctor philosophiae, and
from 1847 devoted himself entirely to journalism and literature. In 1851 he
went to America, but soon returned disillusioned to Germany, and published
an account of his travels. During the next years he travelled extensively
in the East and wrote books on Egypt, Greece and Palestine. From 1856 he
was employed at Leipzig on the _Grenzboten_, one of the most influential
German periodicals, which, under the editorship of Gustav Freytag, had
become the organ of the Nationalist party. In 1864 he became closely
connected with the Augustenburg party in Schleswig-Holstein, but after 1866
he transferred his services to the Prussian government, and was employed in
a semi-official capacity in the newly conquered province of Hanover. From
1870 onwards he was one of Bismarck's press agents, and was at the
chancellor's side in this capacity during the whole of the campaign of
1870-71. In 1878 he published the first of his works on Bismarck--a book
entitled _Bismarck und seine Leute, während des Krieges mit Frankreich_, in
which, under the form of extracts from his diary, he gave an account of the
chancellor's life during the war. The vividness of the descriptions and the
cleverness with which the conversations were reported ensured a success,
and the work was translated into several languages. This was followed in
1885 by another book, _Unser Reichskanzler_, chiefly dealing with the work
in the foreign office in Berlin. Immediately after Bismarck's death Busch
published the chancellor's famous petition to the emperor William II. dated
the 18th of March 1890, requesting to be relieved of office. This was
followed by a pamphlet _Bismarck und sein Werk_; and in 1898 in London and
in English, by the famous memoirs entitled _Bismarck: some Secret Pages of
his History_ (German by Grunow, under title _Tagebuchblätter_), in which
were reprinted the whole of the earlier works, but which contains in
addition a considerable amount of new matter, passages from the earlier
works which had been omitted because of the attacks they contained on
people in high position, records of later conversations, and some important
letters and documents which had been entrusted to him by Bismarck. Many
passages were of such a nature that it could not be safely published in
Germany; but in 1899 a far better and more complete German edition was
published at Leipzig in three volumes and consisting of three sections.
Busch died at Leipzig on the 16th of November 1899.

See Ernst Goetz, in _Biog. Jahrbuch_ (1900).

BUSCH, WILHELM (1832-1908), German caricaturist, was born at Wiedensahl in
Hanover. After studying at the academies of Düsseldorf, Antwerp and Munich,
he joined in 1859 the staff of _Fliegende Blätter_, the leading German
comic paper, and was, together with Oberländer, the founder of modern
German caricature. His humorous drawings and caricatures are remarkable for
the extreme simplicity and expressiveness of his pen-and-ink line, which
record with a few rapid scrawls the most complicated contortions of the
body and the most transitory movement. His humorous illustrated poems, such
as _Max und Moritz, Der heilige Antonius von Padua, Die Fromme Helene, Hans
Huckebein_ and _Die Erlebnisse Knopps des Junggesellen_, play, in the
German nursery, the same part that Edward Lear's nonsense verses do in
England. The types created by him have become household words in his
country. He invented the series of comic sketches illustrating a story in
scenes without words, which have inspired Caran d'Ache and other leading
caricaturists.

BÜSCHING, ANTON FRIEDRICH (1724-1793), German theologian and geographer,
was born at Stadthagen in Schaumburg-Lippe, on the 27th of September 1724.
In 1748 he was appointed tutor in the family of the count de Lynars, who
was then going as ambassador to St Petersburg. On this journey he resolved
to devote his life to the improvement of geographical science. Leaving the
count's family, he went to reside at Copenhagen, and devoted himself
entirely to this new pursuit. In 1752 he published his _Description of the
Counties of Schleswig and Holstein_. In 1754 he removed to Göttingen, where
in 1757 he was appointed professor of philosophy; but in 1761 he accepted
an invitation to the German congregation at St Petersburg. There he
organized a school which, under him, soon became one of the most
flourishing in the north of Europe, but a disagreement with Marshal Münich
led him, in spite of the empress's offers of high advancement, to return to
central Europe in 1765. He first went to live at Altona; but next year he
was called to superintend the famous "Greyfriars Gymnasium" (_Gymnasium zum
Grauen Kloster_), which had been formed at Berlin by Frederick the Great.
He died of dropsy on the 28th of May 1793, having by writing and example
given a new impulse to education throughout Prussia. While at Göttingen he
married the poetess, Christiana Dilthey.

Büsching's works (on geography, history, education and religion) amount to
more than a hundred. The first class comprehends those upon which his fame
chiefly rests; for although he did not possess the genius of D'Anville, he
may be regarded as the creator of modern Statistical Geography. His _magnum
opus_ is the _Erdebeschreibung_, in seven parts, of which the first four,
comprehending Europe, were published in 1754-1761, and have been translated
into several languages (_e.g._ into English with a preface by Murdoch, in
six volumes, London, 1762). In 1768 the fifth part was published, being the
first volume upon Asia, containing Asiatic Turkey and Arabia. It displays
an immense extent of research, and is generally considered as his [v.04
p.0870] masterpiece. Büsching was also the editor of a valuable collection
entitled _Magazin für d. neue Historie und Geographie_ (23 vols. 4to,
1767-1793); also of _Wochentl. Nachrichten von neuen Landkarten_ (Berlin,
1773-1787). His works on education enjoyed great repute. In biography he
wrote a number of articles for the above-mentioned _Magazin_, and a
valuable collection of _Beiträge zur Lebensgeschichte merkwürdiger
Personen_ (6 vols., 1783-1789), including an elaborate life of Frederick
the Great.

BUSENBAUM (or BUSEMBAUM), HERMANN (1600-1668), Jesuit theologian, was born
at Nottelen in Westphalia. He attained fame as a master of casuistry, and
out of his lectures to students at Cologne grew his celebrated book
_Medulla theologiae moralis, facili ac perspicua methodo resolvens casus
conscientiae_ (1645). The manual obtained a wide popularity and passed
through over two hundred editions before 1776. Pierre Lacroix added
considerably to its bulk, and editions in two folio volumes appeared in
both Germany (1710-1714) and France (1729). In these sections on murder and
especially on regicide were much amplified, and in connexion with Damien's
attempt on the life of Louis XV. the book was severely handled by the
parlement of Paris. At Toulouse in 1757, though the offending sections were
repudiated by the heads of the Jesuit colleges, the _Medulla_ was publicly
burned, and the episode undoubtedly led the way to the duc de Choiseul's
attack on the society. Busenbaum also wrote a book on the ascetic life,
_Lilium inter spinas_. He became rector of the Jesuit college at Hildesheim
and then at Münster, where he died on the 31st of January 1668, being at
the time father-confessor to Bishop Bernard of Galen.

BUSH. (1) (A word common to many European languages, meaning "a wood", cf.
the Ger. _Busch_, Fr. _bois_, Ital. _bosco_ and the med. Lat. _boscus_), a
shrub or group of shrubs, especially of those plants whose branches grow
low and thick. Collectively "the bush" is used in British colonies,
particularly in Australasia and South Africa, for the tract of country
covered with brushwood not yet cleared for cultivation. From the custom of
hanging a bush as a sign outside a tavern comes the proverb "Good wine
needs no bush." (2) (From a Teutonic word meaning "a box", cf. the Ger.
_Rad-büchse_, a wheel box, and the termination of "blunderbuss" and
"arquebus"; the derivation from the Fr. _bouche_, a mouth, is not correct),
a lining frequently inserted in the bearings of machinery. When a shaft and
the bearing in which it rotates are made of the same metal, the two
surfaces are in certain cases apt to "seize" and abrade each other. To
prevent this, bushes of some dissimilar metal are employed; thus a shaft of
mild steel or wrought iron may be made to run in hard cast steel, cast
iron, bronze or Babbitt metal. The last, having a low melting point, may be
cast about the shaft for which it is to form a bearing.

[Illustration: Female Bushbuck.]

BUSHBUCK (_Boschbok_,) the South African name of a medium-sized red
antelope (_q.v._), marked with white lines and spots, belonging to a local
race of a widely spread species, _Tragelaphus scriptus_. The males alone
have rather small, spirally twisted horns. There are several allied
species, sometimes known as harnessed antelopes, which are of a larger
size. Some of these such as the situtunga (_T. spekei_) have the hoofs
elongated for walking on swampy ground, and hence have been separated as
_Limnotragus_.

BUSHEL (from the O. Fr. _boissiel_, cf. med. L. _bustellus, busellus_, a
little box), a dry measure of capacity, containing 8 gallons or 4 pecks. It
has been in use for measuring corn, potatoes, &c., from a very early date;
the value varying locally and with the article measured. The "imperial
bushel", legally established in Great Britain in 1826, contains 2218.192
cub.in., or 80 lb of distilled water, determined at 62° F., with the
barometer at 30 in. Previously, the standard bushel used was known as the
"Winchester bushel", so named from the standard being kept in the town hall
at Winchester; it contained 2150.42 cub. in. This standard is the basis of
the bushel used in the United States and Canada; but other "bushels" for
use in connexion with certain commodities have been legalized in different
states.

BUSHIDO (Japanese for "military-knight-ways"), the unwritten code of laws
governing the lives of the nobles of Japan, equivalent to the European
chivalry. Its maxims have been orally handed down, together with a vast
accumulation of traditional etiquette, the result of centuries of
feudalism. Its inception is associated with the uprise of feudal
institutions under Yoritomo, the first of the Shoguns, late in the 12th
century, but bushido in an undeveloped form existed before then. The
samurai or nobles of Japan entertained the highest respect for truth. "A
_bushi_ has no second word" was one of their mottoes. And their sense of
honour was so high as to dictate suicide where it was offended.

See Inazo Nitobe, _Bushido: The Soul of Japan_ (1905); also JAPAN: _Army_.

BUSHIRE, or BANDER BUSHIRE, a town of Persia, on the northern shore of the
Persian Gulf, in 28° 59' N., 50° 49' E. The name is pronounced Boosheer,
and not Bew-shire, or Bus-hire; modern Persians write it Bushehr and, yet
more incorrectly, Abushehr, and translate it as "father of the city," but
it is most probably a contraction of Bokht-ardashir, the name given to the
place by the first Sassanian monarch in the 3rd century. In a similar way
Riv-ardashir, a few miles south of Bushire, has become Rishire (Reesheer).
In the first half of the 18th century, when Bushire was an unimportant
fishing village, it was selected by Nadir Shah as the southern port of
Persia and dockyard of the navy which he aspired to create in the Persian
Gulf, and the British commercial factory of the East India Company,
established at Gombrun, the modern Bander Abbasi, was transferred to it in
1759. At the beginning of the 19th century it had a population of 6000 to
8000, and it is now the most important port in the Persian Gulf, with a
population of about 25,000. It used to be under the government of Fars, but
is (since about 1892) the seat of the governor of the Persian Gulf ports,
who is responsible to the central government, and has under his
jurisdiction the principal ports of the Gulf and their dependencies. The
town, which is of a triangular form, occupies the northern extremity of a
peninsula 11 m. long and 4 broad, and is encircled by the sea on all sides
except the south. It is fortified on the land side by a wall with 12 round
towers. The houses being mostly built of a white conglomerate stone of
shells and coral which forms the peninsula, gives the city when viewed from
a distance a clean and handsome appearance, but on closer inspection the
streets are found to be very narrow, irregular, ill-paved and filthy.
Almost the only decent buildings are the governor's palace, the British
residency and the houses of some well-to-do merchants. The sea immediately
east of the town has a considerable depth, but its navigation is impeded by
sand-banks and a bar north and west of the town, which can be passed only
by vessels drawing not more than 9 ft. of water, except at spring tides,
when there is a rise of from 8 to 10 ft. Vessels drawing more than 9 ft.
must anchor in the roads miles away to the west. The climate is very hot in
the summer months and unhealthy. The water is very bad, and that fit for
drinking requires to be brought from wells distant 1½ to 3 m. from the city
wall.

Bushire carries on a considerable trade, particularly with India, Java and
Arabia. Its principal imports are cotton and woollen goods, yarn, metals,
sugar, coffee, tea, spices, cashmere shawls, &c., and its principal exports
opium, wool, carpets, horses, grain, dyes and gums, tobacco, rosewater, &c.
The importance of Bushire has much increased since about 1862. It is now
not only the headquarters of the English naval squadron in the Persian
Gulf, and the land terminus of the Indo-European telegraph, but it also
forms the chief station in the Gulf of the British Indian Steam Navigation
Company, which runs its vessels weekly between Bombay and Basra. Consulates
of Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia and Turkey and several European
mercantile houses are established at Bushire, and [v.04 p.0871]
notwithstanding the drawbacks of bad roads to the interior, insufficient
and precarious means of transport, and want of security, the annual value
of the Bushire trade since 1890 averaged about £1,500,000 (one-third being
for exports, two-thirds for imports), and over two-thirds of this was
British. Of the 278,000 tons of shipping which entered the port in 1905,
244,000 were British.

During the war with Persia (1856-57) Bushire surrendered to a British force
and remained in British occupation for some months. At Rishire, some miles
south of Bushire and near the summer quarters of the British resident and
the British telegraph buildings, there are extensive ruins among which
bricks with cuneiform inscriptions have been found, showing that the place
was a very old Elamite settlement.

(A. H.-S.)

BUSHMEN, or BOSJESMANS, a people of South Africa, so named by the British
and Dutch colonists of the Cape. They often call themselves _Saan_ [Sing.
_Sá_], but this appears to be the Hottentot name. If they have a national
name it is _Khuai_, probably "small man," the title of one group. This
_Khuai_ has, however, been translated as the Bushman word for _tablier
égyptien_ (see below), adopted as the racial name because that malformation
is one of their physical characteristics. The Kaffirs call them Abatwa, the
Bechuana Masarwa (Maseroa). There is little reason to doubt that they
constitute the aboriginal element of the population of South Africa, and
indications of their former presence have been found as far north at least
as the Nyasa and Tanganyika basins. "It would seem," writes Sir H.H.
Johnston (_British Central Africa_, p. 52), "as if the earliest known race
of man inhabiting what is now British Central Africa was akin to the
Bushman-Hottentot type of negro. Rounded stones with a hole through the
centre, similar to those which are used by the Bushmen in the south for
weighting their digging-sticks (the _graaf stock_ of the Boers), have been
found at the south end of Lake Tanganyika." The dirty yellow colour of the
Bushmen, their slightly slanting eyes and prominent cheek-bones had induced
early anthropologists to dwell on their resemblance to the Mongolian races.
This similarity has been now recognized as quite superficial. More recently
a connexion has been traced between the Bushmen and the Pygmy peoples
inhabiting the forests of Central Africa. Though the matter cannot be
regarded as definitely settled, the latest researches rather tend to
discredit this view. In fact it would appear that the two peoples have
little in common save diminutive proportions and a nomadic and predatory
form of existence. Owing to the discovery of steatopygous figurines in
Egyptian graves, a theory has been advanced that the Egyptians of the early
dynasties were of the same primitive pygmy negroid stock as the Bushmen.
But this is highly speculative. The physical characteristics of Egyptian
skulls have nothing of the Bushman in them. Of the primitive pygmy negroid
stock the Hottentots (_q.v._), once considered the parent family, are now
regarded as an offshoot of mixed Bantu-Bushman blood from the main Bushman
race.

It seems probable that the Bushmen must be regarded as having extended
considerably to the north of the area occupied by them within the memory of
white men. Evidence has been produced of the presence of a belated
Hottentot or Hottentot-Bushman group as far north as the district between
Kilimanjaro and Victoria Nyanza. They were probably driven south by the
Bantu tribes, who eventually outflanked them and confined them to the less
fertile tracts of country. Before the arrival of Europeans in South Africa
the Bushman race appears to have been, what it so essentially is to-day, a
nomadic race living in widely scattered groups. The area in which the
Bushmen are now found sporadically may be defined as extending from the
inner ranges of the mountains of Cape Colony, through the central Kalahari
desert to near Lake Ngami, and thence north-westward to the districts about
the Ovambo river north of Damaraland. In short, they have been driven by
European and Kaffir encroachments into the most barren regions of South
Africa. A few remain in the more inaccessible parts of the Drakensberg
range about the sources of the Vaal. Only in one or two districts are they
found in large numbers, chiefly in Great Bushman Land towards the Orange
river. A regularly planned and wholesale destruction of the Bushmen on the
borders of Cape Colony in the earlier years of European occupation reduced
their numbers to a great extent; but this cruel hunting of the Bushmen has
ceased. In retaliation the Bushmen were long the scourge of the farms on
the outer borders of the colony, making raids on the cattle and driving
them off in large numbers. On the western side of the deserts they are
generally at enmity with the Koranna Hottentots, but on the eastern border
of the Kalahari they have to some extent fraternized with the earliest
Bechuana migrants. Their language, which exists in several dialects, has in
common with Hottentot, but to a greater degree, the peculiar sounds known
as "clicks." The Hottentot language is more agglutinative, the Bushman more
monosyllabic; the former recognizes a gender in names, the latter does not;
the Hottentots form the plural by a suffix, the Bushmen by repetition of
the name; the former count up to twenty, the latter can only number two,
all above that being "many." F.C.Selous records that Koranna Hottentots
were able to converse fluently with the Bushmen of Bechuanaland.

The most striking feature of the Bushman's physique is shortness of
stature. Gustav Fritsch in 1863-1866 found the average height of six grown
men to be 4 ft. 9 in. Earlier, but less trustworthy, measurements make them
still shorter. Among 150 measured by Sir John Barrow during the first
British occupation of Cape Colony the tallest man was 4 ft. 9 in., the
tallest woman 4 ft. 4 in. The Bushmen living in Bechuanaland measured by
Selous in the last quarter of the 19th century were, however, found to be
of nearly average height. Few persons were below 5 ft.; 5 ft. 4 in. was
common, and individuals of even 6 ft. were not unknown. No great difference
in height appears to exist between men and women. Fritsch's average from
five Bushman women was one-sixth of an inch more than for the men. The
Bushmen, as already stated, are of a dirty yellow colour, and of generally
unattractive countenance. The skull is long and low, the cheek-bones large
and prominent. The eyes are deeply set and crafty in expression. The nose
is small and depressed, the mouth wide with moderately everted lips, and
the jaws project. The teeth are not like badly cut ivory, as in Bantu, but
regular and of a mother-of-pearl appearance. In general build the Bushman
is slim and lean almost to emaciation. Even the children show little of the
round outlines of youth. The amount of fat under the skin in both sexes is
remarkably small; hence the skin is as dry as leather and falls into strong
folds around the stomach and at the joints. The fetor of the skin, so
characteristic of the negro, is not found in the Bushman. The hair is weak
in growth, in age it becomes grey, but baldness is rare. Bushmen have
little body-hair and that of a weak stubbly nature, and none of the fine
down usual on most skins. On the face there is usually only a scanty
moustache. A hollowed back and protruding stomach are frequent
characteristics of their figure, but many of them are well proportioned,
all being active and capable of enduring great privations and fatigue.
Considerable steatopygy often exists among the women, who share with the
Hottentot women the extraordinary prolongation of the nymphae which is
often called "the Hottentot apron" or _tablier_. Northward the Bushmen
appear to improve both in general condition and in stature, probably owing
to a tinge of Bantu blood. The Bushman's clothing is scanty: a triangular
piece of skin, passed between the legs and fastened round the waist with a
string, is often all that is worn. Many men, however, and nearly all the
women, wear the _kaross_, a kind of pelisse of skins sewn together, which
is used at night as a wrap. The bodies of both sexes are smeared with a
native ointment, _buchu_, which, aided by accretions of dust and dirt, soon
forms a coating like a rind. Men and women often wear sandals of hide or
plaited bast. They are fond of ornament, and decorate the arms, neck and
legs with beads, iron or copper rings, teeth, hoofs, horns and shells,
while they stick feathers or hares' tails in the hair. The women sometimes
stain their faces with red pigment. They carry tobacco in goats' horns or
in the shell of a land tortoise, while boxes of ointment [v.04 p.0872] or
amulets are hung round neck or waist. A jackal's tail mounted on a stick
serves the double purpose of fan and handkerchief. For dwellings in the
plains they have low huts formed of reed mats, or occupy a hole in the
earth; in the mountain districts they make a shelter among the rocks by
hanging mats on the windward side. Of household utensils they have none,
except ostrich eggs, in which they carry water, and occasionally rough
pots. For cooking his food the Bushman needs nothing but fire, which he
obtains by rubbing hard and soft wood together.

Bushmen do not possess cattle, and have no domestic animals except a few
half-wild dogs, nor have they the smallest rudiments of agriculture. Living
by hunting, they are thoroughly acquainted with the habits and movements of
every kind of wild animal, following the antelope herds in their
migrations. Their weapon is a bow made of a stout bough bent into a sharp
curve. It is strung with twisted sinew. The arrow, which is neatly made of
a reed, the thickness of a finger, is bound with thread to prevent
splitting, and notched at the end for the string. At the point is a head of
bone, or stone with a quill barb; iron arrow-blades obtained from the Bantu
are also found. The arrow is usually 2 to 3 ft. long. The distance at which
the Bushman can be sure of hitting is not great, about twenty paces. The
arrows are always coated with a gummy poisonous compound which kills even
the largest animal in a few hours. The preparation is something of a
mystery, but its main ingredients appear to be the milky juice of the
_Amaryllis toxicaria_, which is abundant in South Africa, or of the
_Euphorbia arborescens_, generally mixed with the venom of snakes or of a
large black spider of the genus _Mygale_; or the entrails of a very deadly
caterpillar, called N'gwa or 'Kaa, are used alone. One authority states
that the Bushmen of the western Kalahari use the juice of a chrysalis which
they scrape out of the ground. From their use of these poisons the Bushmen
are held in great dread by the neighbouring races. They carry, too, a club
some 20 in. long with a knob as big as a man's fist. Assegais and knives
are rare. No Bushman tribe south of Lake Ngami is said to carry spears. A
rude implement, called by the Boers _graaf stock_ or digging stick,
consisting of a sharpened spike of hard wood over which a stone, ground to
a circular form and perforated, is passed and secured by a wedge, forms
part of the Bushman equipment. This is used by the women for uprooting the
succulent tuberous roots of the several species of creeping plants of the
desert, and in digging pitfalls. These perforated stones have a special
interest in indicating the former extension of the Bushmen, since they are
found, as has been said, far beyond the area now occupied by them. The
Bushmen are famous as hunters, and actually run down many kinds of game.
Living a life of periodical starvation, they spend days at a time in search
of food, upon which when found they feed so gluttonously that it is said
five of them will eat a whole zebra in a few hours. They eat practically
anything. The meat is but half cooked, and game is often not completely
drawn. The Bushman eats raw such insects as lice and ants, the eggs of the
latter being regarded as a great delicacy. In hard times they eat lizards,
snakes, frogs, worms and caterpillars. Honey they relish, and for
vegetables devour bulbs and roots. Like the Hottentot, the Bushman is a
great smoker.

The disposition of the Bushman has been much maligned; the cruelty which
has been attributed to him is the natural result of equal brutalities
practiced upon him by the other natives and the early European settlers. He
is a passionate lover of freedom, and, like many other primitive people,
lives only for the moment. Unlike the Hottentot he has never willingly
become a slave, and will fight to the last for his personal liberty. He has
been described as the "anarchist of South Africa." Still, when he becomes a
servant, he is usually trustworthy. His courage is remarkable, and Fritsch
was told by residents who were well qualified to speak that supported by a
dozen Bushmen they would not be afraid of a hundred Kaffirs. The terror
inspired by the Bushmen has indeed had an effect in the deforestation of
parts of Cape Colony, for the colonists, to guard against stealthy attacks,
cut down all the bush far round their holdings. Mission-work among the
Bushmen has been singularly unsuccessful. But in spite of his savage
nature, the Bushman is intelligent. He is quick-witted, and has the gift of
imitating extraordinarily well the cries of bird and beast. He is musical,
too, and makes a rough instrument out of a gourd and one or more strings.
He is fond of dancing; besides the ordinary dances are the special dances
at certain stages of the moon, &c. One of the most interesting facts about
the Bushman is his possession of a remarkable delight in graphic
illustration; the rocks of the mountains of Cape Colony and of the
Drakensberg and the walls of caves anciently inhabited by them have many
examples of Bushman drawings of men, women, children and animals
characteristically sketched. Their designs are partly painted on rock, with
four colours, white, black, red and yellow ochre, partly engraved in soft
sandstone, partly chiselled in hard stone. Rings, crosses and other signs
drawn in blue pigment on some of the rocks, and believed to be one or two
centuries old, have given rise to the erroneous speculation that these may
be remains of a hieroglyphic writing. A discovery of drawings of men and
women with antelope heads was made in the recesses of the Drakensberg in
1873 (J.M. Orpen in _Cape Monthly Magazine_, July 1874). A few years later
Selous discovered similar rock-paintings in Mashonaland and Manicaland.

Little is known of the family life of the Bushmen. Marriage is a matter
merely of offer and acceptance ratified by a feast. Among some tribes the
youth must prove himself an expert hunter. Nothing is known of the laws of
inheritance. The avoidance of parents-in-law, so marked among Kaffirs, is
found among Bushmen. Murder, adultery, rape and robbery are offences
against their code of morals. As among other African tribes the social
position of the women is low. They are beasts of burden, carrying the
children and the family property on the journeys, and doing all the work at
the halting-place. It is their duty also to keep the encampment supplied
with water, no matter how far it has to be carried. The Bushman mother is
devoted to her children, who, though suckled for a long time, yet are fed
within the first few days after birth upon chewed roots and meat, and
taught to chew tobacco at a very early age. The child's head is often
protected from the sun by a plaited shade of ostrich feathers. There is
practically no tribal organization. Individual families at times join
together and appoint a chief, but the arrangement is never more than
temporary. The Bushmen have no concrete idea of a God, but believe in evil
spirits and supernatural interference with man's life. All Bushmen carry
amulets, and there are indications of totemism in their refusal to eat
certain foods. Thus one group will not eat goat's flesh, though the animal
is the commonest in their district. Others reverence antelopes or even the
caterpillar N'gwa. The Bushman cuts off the joints of the fingers as a sign
of mourning and sometimes, it seems, as an act of repentance. Traces of a
belief in continued existence after death are seen in the cairns of stone
thrown on the graves of chiefs. Evil spirits are supposed to hide beneath
these sepulchral mounds, and the Bushman thinks that if he does not throw
his stone on the mounds the spirits will twist his neck. The whole family
deserts the place where any one has died, after raising a pile of stones.
The corpse's head is anointed, then it is smoke-dried and laid in the grave
at full length, stones or earth being piled on it. There is a Bushman
belief that the sun will rise later if the dead are not buried with their
faces to the east. Weapons and other Bushman treasures are buried with the
dead, and the hut materials are burnt in the grave.

The Bushmen have many animal myths, and a rich store of beast legends. The
most prominent of the animal mythological figures is that of the mantis,
around which a great cycle of myths has been formed. He and his wife have
many names. Their adopted daughter is the porcupine. In the family history
an ichneumon, an elephant, a monkey and an eland all figure. The Bushmen
have also solar and lunar myths, and observe and name the stars. Canopus
alone has five names. Some of the constellations have figurative names.
Thus they call Orion's Belt "three she-tortoises hanging on a stick," and
Castor and [v.04 p.0873] Pollux "the cow-elands." The planets, too, have
their names and myths, and some idea of the astonishing wealth of this
Bushman folklore and oral literature may be formed from the fact that the
materials collected by Bleek and preserved in Sir George Grey's library at
Cape Town form eighty-four stout MS. volumes of 3600 pages. They comprise
myths, fables, legends and even poetry, with tales about the sun and moon,
the stars, the crocodile and other animals; legends of peoples who dwelt in
the land before the Bushmen arrived from the north; songs, charms, and even
prayers, or at least incantations; histories, adventures of men and
animals; tribal customs, traditions, superstitions and genealogies. A most
curious feature in Bushman folklore is the occurrence of the speeches of
various animals, into which the relater of the legend introduces particular
"clicks," supposed to be characteristic of the animals in whose mouths they
are placed.

See G.W. Stow, _The Native Races of South Africa_ (London, 1905); Mark
Hutchinson, "Bushman Drawings," in _Jour. Anthrop. Instit._, 1882, p. 464;
Sir H.H. Johnston, _Jour. Anthrop. Inst._, 1883, p. 463; Dr H. Welcker,
_Archiv f. Anthrop._ xvi.; G. Bertin, "The Bushmen and their Language,"
_Jour. R. Asial. Soc._ xviii. part i.; Gustav Fritsch, _Die Eingeborenen
Südafrikas_ (Breslau, 1872); W.H.I. Bleek, _Bushman Folklore_ (1875);
J.L.P. Erasmus, _The Wild Bushman_, MS. note (1899); F.C. Selous, _African
Nature Notes and Reminiscences_ (1908), chap. xx.; S. Passarge, _Die
Buschmanner der Kalahari_ (Berlin, 1907).

BUSHNELL, HORACE (1802-1876), American theologian, was born in the village
of Bantam, township of Litchfield, Connecticut, on the 14th of April 1802.
He graduated at Yale in 1827, was associate editor of the New York _Journal
of Commerce_ in 1828-1829, and in 1829 became a tutor at Yale. Here he at
first took up the study of law, but in 1831 he entered the theological
department of Yale College, and in 1833 was ordained pastor of the North
Congregational church in Hartford, Conn., where he remained until 1859,
when on account of long-continued ill-health he resigned his pastorate.
Thereafter he had no settled charge, but, until his death at Hartford on
the 17th of February 1876, he occasionally preached and was diligently
employed as an author. While in California in 1856, for the restoration of
his health, he took an active interest in the organization, at Oakland, of
the college of California (chartered in 1855 and merged in the university
of California in 1869), the presidency of which he declined. As a preacher,
Dr Bushnell was a man of remarkable power. Not a dramatic orator, he was in
high degree original, thoughtful and impressive in the pulpit. His
theological position may be said to have been one of qualified revolt
against the Calvinistic orthodoxy of his day. He criticized prevailing
conceptions of the Trinity, the atonement, conversion, and the relations of
the natural and the supernatural. Above all, he broke with the prevalent
view which regarded theology as essentially intellectual in its appeal and
demonstrable by processes of exact logical deduction. To his thinking its
proper basis is to be found in the feelings and intuitions of man's
spiritual nature. He had a vast influence upon theology in America, an
influence not so much, possibly, in the direction of the modification of
specific doctrines as in "the impulse and tendency and general spirit which
he imparted to theological thought." Dr Munger's estimate may be accepted,
with reservations, as the true one: "He was a theologian as Copernicus was
an astronomer; he changed the point of view, and thus not only changed
everything, but pointed the way toward unity in theological thought. He was
not exact, but he put God and man and the world into a relation that
thought can accept while it goes on to state it more fully with ever
growing knowledge. Other thinkers were moving in the same direction; he led
the movement in New England, and wrought out a great deliverance. It was a
work of superb courage. Hardly a theologian in his denomination stood by
him, and nearly all pronounced against him." Four of his books were of
particular importance: _Christian Nurture_ (1847), in which he virtually
opposed revivalism and "effectively turned the current of Christian thought
toward the young"; _Nature and the Supernatural_ (1858), in which he
discussed miracles and endeavoured to "lift the natural into the
supernatural" by emphasizing the super-naturalness of man; _The Vicarious
Sacrifice_ (1866), in which he contended for what has come to be known as
the "moral view" of the atonement in distinction from the "governmental"
and the "penal" or "satisfaction" theories; and _God in Christ_ (1849)
(with an introductory "Dissertation on Language as related to Thought"), in
which he expressed, it was charged, heretical views as to the Trinity,
holding, among other things, that the Godhead is "instrumentally
three--three simply as related to our finite apprehension, and the
communication of God's incommunicable nature." Attempts, indeed, were made
to bring him to trial, but they were unsuccessful, and in 1852 his church
unanimously withdrew from the local "consociation," thus removing any
possibility of further action against him. To his critics Bushnell formally
replied by writing _Christ in Theology_ (1851), in which he employs the
important argument that spiritual facts can be expressed only in
approximate and poetical language, and concludes that an adequate dogmatic
theology cannot exist. That he did not deny the divinity of Christ he
proved in _The Character of Jesus, forbidding his possible Classification
with Men_ (1861). He also published _Sermons for the New Life_ (1858);
_Christ and his Salvation_ (1864); _Work and Play_ (1864); _Moral Uses of
Dark Things_ (1868); _Women's Suffrage, the Reform against Nature_ (1869);
_Sermons on Living Subjects_ (1872); and _Forgiveness and Law_ (1874). Dr
Bushnell was greatly interested in the civic interests of Hartford, and was
the chief agent in procuring the establishment of the public park named in
his honour by that city.

An edition of his works, in eleven volumes, appeared in 1876-1881; and a
further volume, gathered from his unpublished papers, as _The Spirit in
Man: Sermons and Selections_, in 1903. New editions of his _Nature and the
Supernatural, Sermons for the New Life_, and _Work and Play_, were
published the same year. A full bibliography, by Henry Barrett Learned, is
appended to his _Spirit in Man_. Consult Mrs M.B. Cheneys _Life and Letters
of Horace Bushnell_ (New York, 1880; new edition, 1903), and Dr Theodore T.
Mungers _Horace Bushnell, Preacher and Theologian_ (Boston, 1899); also a
series of papers in the _Minutes of the General Association of Connecticut_
(_Bushnell Centenary_) (Hartford, 1902).

(W. WR.)

B[=U][S.][=I]R[=I] [Ab[=u] 'Abdall[=a]h Muhammad ibn Sa'[=i]d
ul-B[=u][s.][=i]r[=i]] (1211-1294), Arabian poet, lived in Egypt, where he
wrote under the patronage of Ibn Hinna, the vizier. His poems seem to have
been wholly on religious subjects. The most famous of these is the
so-called "Poem of the Mantle." It is entirely in praise of Mahomet, who
cured the poet of paralysis by appearing to him in a dream and wrapping him
in a mantle. The poem has little literary value, being an imitation of Ka'b
ibn Zuhair's poem in praise of Mahomet, but its history has been unique
(cf. I. Goldziher in _Revue de l'histoire des religions_, vol. xxxi. pp.
304 ff.). Even in the poet's lifetime it was regarded as sacred. Up to the
present time its verses are used as amulets; it is employed in the
lamentations for the dead; it has been frequently edited and made the basis
for other poems, and new poems have been made by interpolating four or six
lines after each line of the original. It has been published with English
translation by Faizullabhai (Bombay, 1893), with French translation by R.
Basset (Paris, 1894), with German translation by C.A. Ralfs (Vienna, 1860),
and in other languages elsewhere.

For long list of commentaries, &c., cf. C. Brockelmann's _Gesch. der Arab.
Litteratur_ (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 264-267.

(G. W. T.)

BUSIRIS, in a Greek legend preserved in a fragment of Pherecydes, an
Egyptian king, son of Poseidon and Lyssianassa. After Egypt has been
afflicted for nine years with famine, Phrasius, a seer of Cyprus, arrived
in Egypt and announced that the cessation of the famine would not take
place until a foreigner was yearly sacrificed to Zeus or Jupiter. Busiris
commenced by sacrificing the prophet, and continued the custom by offering
a foreigner on the altar of the god. It is here that Busiris enters into
the circle of the myths and _parerga_ of Heracles, who had arrived in Egypt
from Libya, and was seized and bound ready to be killed and offered at the
altar of Zeus in Memphis. Heracles burst the bonds which bound him, and,
seizing his club, slew Busiris with his son Amphidamas and his herald
Chalbes. [v.04 p.0874] This exploit is often represented on vase paintings
from the 6th century B.C. and onwards, the Egyptian monarch and his
companions being represented as negroes, and the legend is referred to by
Herodotus and later writers. Although some of the Greek writers made
Busiris an Egyptian king and a successor of Menes, about the sixtieth of
the series, and the builder of Thebes, those better informed by the
Egyptians rejected him altogether. Various esoterical explanations were
given of the myth, and the name not found as a king was recognized as that
of the tomb of Osiris. Busiris is here probably an earlier and less
accurate Graecism than Osiris for the name of the Egyptian god Usiri, like
Bubastis, Buto, for the goddesses Ubasti and Uto. Busiris, Bubastis, Buto,
more strictly represent Pusiri, Pubasti, Puto, cities sacred to these
divinities. All three were situated in the Delta, and would be amongst the
first known to the Greeks. All shrines of Osiris were called _P-usiri_, but
the principal city of the name was in the centre of the Delta, capital of
the 9th (Busirite) nome of Lower Egypt; another one near Memphis (now
Abusir) may have helped the formation of the legend in that quarter. The
name Busiris in this legend may have been caught up merely at random by the
early Greeks, or they may have vaguely connected their legend with the
Egyptian myth of the slaying of Osiris (as king of Egypt) by his mighty
brother Seth, who was in certain aspects a patron of foreigners. Phrasius,
Chalbes and Epaphus (for the grandfather of Busiris) are all explicable as
Graecized Egyptian names, but other names in the legend are purely Greek.
The sacrifice of foreign prisoners before a god, a regular scene on temple
walls, is perhaps only symbolical, at any rate for the later days of
Egyptian history, but foreign intruders must often have suffered rude
treatment at the hands of the Egyptians, in spite of the generally mild
character of the latter.

See H. v. Gartringen, in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopadie_, for the
evidence from the side of classical archaeology.

(F. LL. G.)

BUSK, GEORGE (1807-1886), British surgeon, zoologist and palaeontologist,
son of Robert Busk, merchant of St Petersburg, was born in that city on the
12th of August 1807. He studied surgery in London, at both St Thomas's and
St Bartholomew's hospitals, and was an excellent operator. He was appointed
assistant-surgeon to the Greenwich hospital in 1832, and served as naval
surgeon first in the _Grampus_, and afterwards for many years in the
_Dreadnought_; during this period he made important observations on cholera
and on scurvy. In 1855 he retired from service and settled in London, where
he devoted himself mainly to the study of zoology and palaeontology. As
early as 1842 he had assisted in editing the _Microscopical Journal_; and
later he edited the _Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science_
(1853-1868) and the _Natural History Review_ (1861-1865). From 1856 to 1859
he was Hunterian professor of comparative anatomy and physiology in the
Royal College of Surgeons, and he became president of the college in 1871.
He was elected F.R.S. in 1850, and was an active member of the Linnean,
Geological and other societies, and president of the Anthropological
Institute (1873-1874); he received the Royal Society's Royal medal and the
Geological Society's Wollaston and Lyell medals. Early in life he became
the leading authority on the Polyzoa; and later the vertebrate remains from
caverns and river-deposits occupied his attention. He was a patient and
cautious investigator, full of knowledge, and unaffectedly simple in
character. He died in London on the 10th of August 1886.

BUSKEN-HUET, CONRAD (1826-1886), Dutch literary critic, was born at the
Hague on the 28th of December 1826. He was trained for the Church, and,
after studying at Geneva and Lausanne, was appointed pastor of the Walloon
chapel in Haarlem in 1851. In 1863 conscientious scruples obliged him to
resign his charge, and Busken-Huet, after attempting journalism, went out
to Java in 1868 as the editor of a newspaper. Before this time, however, he
had begun his career as a polemical man of letters, although it was not
until 1872 that he was made famous by the first series of his _Literary
Fantasies_, a title under which he gradually gathered in successive volumes
all that was most durable in his work as a critic. His one novel,
_Lidewijde_, was written under strong French influences. Returning from the
East Indies, Busken-Huet settled for the remainder of his life in Paris,
where he died in April 1886. For the last quarter of a century he had been
the acknowledged dictator in all questions of Dutch literary taste.
Perfectly honest, desirous to be sympathetic, widely read, and devoid of
all sectarian obstinacy, Busken-Huet introduced into Holland the light and
air of Europe. He made it his business to break down the narrow prejudices
and the still narrower self-satisfaction of his countrymen, without
endangering his influence by a mere effusion of paradox. He was a brilliant
writer, who would have been admired in any language, but whose appearance
in a literature so stiff and dead as that of Holland in the 'fifties was
dazzling enough to produce a sort of awe and stupefaction. The posthumous
correspondence of Busken-Huet has been published, and adds to our
impression of the vitality and versatility of his mind.

(E. G.)

BUSKIN (a word of uncertain origin, existing in many European languages, as
Fr. _brousequin_, Ital. _borzacchino_, Dutch _brozeken_, and Span,
_borceguí_), a half-boot or high shoe strapped under the ankle, and
protecting the shins; especially the thick-soled boot or _cothurnus_ in the
ancient Athenian tragedy, used to increase the stature of the actors, as
opposed to the _soccus_, "sock," the light shoe of comedy. The term is thus
often used figuratively of a tragic style.

BUSLAEV, FEDOR IVANOVICH (1818-1898), Russian author and philologist, was
born on the 13th of April 1818 at Kerensk, where his father was secretary
of the district tribunal. He was educated at Penza and Moscow University.
At the end of his academical course, 1838, he accompanied the family of
Count S.G. Strogonov on a tour through Italy, Germany and France, occupying
himself principally with the study of classical antiquities. On his return
he was appointed assistant professor of Russian literature at the
university of Moscow. A study of Jacob Grimm's great dictionary had already
directed the attention of the young professor to the historical development
of the Russian language, and the fruit of his studies was the book _On the
Teaching of the National Language_ (Moscow, 1844 and 1867), which even now
has its value. In 1848 he produced his work _On the Influence of
Christianity on the Slavonic Language_, which, though subsequently
superseded by Franz von Miklosich's _Christliche Terminologie_, is still
one of the most striking dissertations on the development of the Slavonic
languages. In this work Buslaev proves that long before the age of Cyril
and Methodius the Slavonic languages had been subject to Christian
influences. In 1855 he published _Palaeographical and Philological
Materials for the History of the Slavonic Alphabets_, and in 1858 _Essay
towards an Historical Grammar of the Russian Tongue_, which, despite some
trivial defects, is still a standard work, abounding with rich material for
students, carefully collected from an immense quantity of ancient records
and monuments. In close connexion with this work in his _Historical
Chrestomathy of the Church-Slavonic and Old Russian Tongues_ (Moscow,
1861). Buslaev also interested himself in Russian popular poetry and old
Russian art, and the result of his labours is enshrined in _Historical
Sketches of Russian Popular Literature and Art_ (St Petersburg, 1861), a
very valuable collection of articles and monographs, in which the author
shows himself a worthy and faithful disciple of Grimm. His _Popular Poetry_
(St Petersburg, 1887) is a valuable supplement to the _Sketches_. In 1881
he was appointed professor of Russian literature at Moscow, and three years
later published his _Annotated Apocalypse_ with an atlas of 400 plates,
illustrative of ancient Russian art.

See S.D. Sheremetev, _Memoir of F.I. Buslaev_ (Moscow, 1899).

(R. N. B.)

BUSS, FRANCES MARY (1827-1894), English schoolmistress, was born in London
in 1827, the daughter of the painter-etcher R.W. Buss, one of the original
illustrators of _Pickwick_. She was educated at a school in Camden Town,
and continued there as a teacher, but soon joined her mother in keeping a
school in Kentish Town. In 1848 she was one of the original attendants at
lectures at the new Queen's College for Ladies. In 1830 her [v.04 p.0875]
school was moved to Camden Street, and under its new name of the North
London Collegiate School for Ladies it rapidly increased in numbers and
reputation. In 1864 Miss Buss gave evidence before the Schools Inquiry
Commission, and in its report her school was singled out for exceptional
commendation. Indeed, under her influence, what was then pioneer work of
the highest importance had been done to put the education of girls on a
proper intellectual footing. Shortly afterwards the Brewers' Company and
the Clothworkers' Company provided funds by which the existing North London
Collegiate School was rehoused and a Camden School for Girls founded, and
both were endowed under a new scheme, Miss Buss continuing to be principal
of the former. She and Miss Beale of Cheltenham became famous as the chief
leaders in this branch of the reformed educational movement; she played an
active part in promoting the success of the Girls' Public Day School
Company, encouraging the connexion of the girls' schools with the
university standard by examinations, working for the establishment of
women's colleges, and improving the training of teachers; and her energetic
personality was a potent force among her pupils and colleagues. She died in
London on the 24th of December 1894.

BUSSA, a town in the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria, on the west
bank of the Niger, in 10° 9' N., 4° 40' E. It is situated just above the
rapids which mark the limit of navigability of the Niger by steamer from
the sea. Here in 1806 Mungo Park, in his second expedition to trace the
course of the Niger, was attacked by the inhabitants, and drowned while
endeavouring to escape. During 1894-1898 its possession was disputed by
Great Britain and France, the last-named country acknowledging by the
convention of June 1898 the British claim, which carried with it the
control of the lower Niger. It is now the capital of northern Borgu (see
NIGERIA, and BORGU).

BUSSACO (or BUSACO), SERRA DE, a mountain range on the frontiers of the
Aveiro, Coimbra, and Vizeu districts of Portugal, formerly included in the
province of Beira. The highest point in the range is the Ponta de Bussaco
(1795 ft.), which commands a magnificent view over the Serra da Estrella,
the Mondego valley and the Atlantic Ocean. Luso (pop. 1661), a village
celebrated for its hot mineral springs, is the nearest railway station, on
the Guarda-Figueira da Foz line, which skirts the northern slopes of the
Serra. Towards the close of the 19th century the Serra de Bussaco became
one of the regular halting-places for foreign, and especially for British,
tourists, on the overland route between Lisbon and Oporto. Its hotel, built
in the Manoellian style--a blend of Moorish and Gothic--encloses the
buildings of a secularized Carmelite monastery, founded in 1268. The
convent woods, now a royal domain, have long been famous for their cypress,
plane, evergreen oak, cork and other forest trees, many of which have stood
for centuries and attained an immense size. A bull of Pope Gregory XV.
(1623), anathematizing trespassers and forbidding women to approach, is
inscribed on a tablet at the main entrance; another bull, of Urban VIII.
(1643), threatens with excommunication any person harming the trees. In
1873 a monument was erected, on the southern slopes of the Serra, to
commemorate the battle of Bussaco, in which the French, under Marshal
Masséna, were defeated by the British and Portuguese, under Lord
Wellington, on the 27th of September 1810.

BUSSY, ROGER DE RABUTIN, COMTE DE (1618-1693), commonly known as
BUSSY-RABUTIN, French memoir-writer, was born on the 13th of April 1618 at
Epiry, near Autun. He represented a family of distinction in Burgundy (see
SÉVIGNÉ, MADAME DE), and his father, Léonor de Rabutin, was
lieutenant-general of the province of Nivernais. Roger was the third son,
but by the death of his elder brothers became the representative of the
family. He entered the army when he was only sixteen and fought through
several campaigns, succeeding his father in the office of _mestre de camp_.
He tells us himself that his two ambitions were to become "honnête homme"
and to distinguish himself in arms, but the luck was against him. In 1641
he was sent to the Bastille by Richelieu for some months as a punishment
for neglect of his duties in his pursuit of gallantry. In 1643 he married a
cousin, Gabrielle de Toulongeon, and for a short time he left the army. But
in 1645 he succeeded to his father's position in the Nivernais, and served
under Condé in Catalonia. His wife died in 1646, and he became more
notorious than ever by an attempt to abduct Madame de Miramion, a rich
widow. This affair was with some difficulty settled by a considerable
payment on Bussy's part, and he afterwards married Louise de Rouville. When
Condé joined the party of the Fronde, Bussy joined him, but a fancied
slight on the part of the prince finally decided him for the royal side. He
fought with some distinction both in the civil war and on foreign service,
and buying the commission of _mestre de camp_ in 1655, he went to serve
under Turenne in Flanders. He served there for several campaigns and
distinguished himself at the battle of the Dunes and elsewhere; but he did
not get on well with his general, and his quarrelsome disposition, his
overweening vanity and his habit of composing libellous _chansons_ made him
eventually the enemy of most persons of position both in the army and at
court. In the year 1659 he fell into disgrace for having taken part in an
orgy at Roissy near Paris during Holy Week, which caused great scandal.
Bussy was ordered to retire to his estates, and beguiled his enforced
leisure by composing, for the amusement of his mistress, Madame de
Montglas, his famous _Histoire amoureuse des Gaules_. This book, a series
of sketches of the intrigues of the chief ladies of the court, witty
enough, but still more ill-natured, circulated freely in manuscript, and
had numerous spurious sequels. It was said that Bussy had not spared the
reputation of Madame, and the king, angry at the report, was not appeased
when Bussy sent him a copy of the book to disprove the scandal. He was sent
to the Bastille on the 17th of April 1665, where he remained for more than
a year, and he was only liberated on condition of retiring to his estates,
where he lived in exile for seventeen years. Bussy felt the disgrace
keenly, but still bitterer was the enforced close of his military career.
In 1682 he was allowed to revisit the court, but the coldness of his
reception there made his provincial exile seem preferable, and he returned
to Burgundy, where he died on the 9th of April 1693.

The _Histoire amoureuse_ is in its most striking passages adapted from
Petronius, and, except in a few portraits, its attractions are chiefly
those of the scandalous chronicle. But his _Mémoires_, published after his
death, are extremely lively and characteristic, and have all the charm of a
historical romance of the adventurous type. His voluminous correspondence
yields in variety and interest to few collections of the kind, except that
of Madame de Sévigné, who indeed is represented in it to a great extent,
and whose letters first appeared in it. The literary and historical
student, therefore, owes Bussy some thanks.

The best edition of the _Histoire amoureuse des Gaules_ is that of Paul
Boiteau in the Bibliothèque Elzévirienne (3 vols., Paris, 1856-1859). The
_Mémoires_ (2 vols., 1857) and _Correspondance_ (6 vols., 1858-1859) were
edited by Ludovic Lalanne. Bussy wrote other things, of which the most
important, his _Genealogy of the Rabutin Family_, remained in MS. till
1867, while his _Considérations sur la guerre_ was first published in
Dresden in 1746. He also wrote, for the use of his children, a series of
biographies, in which his own life serves a moral purpose.

BUSTARD (corrupted from the Lat. _Avis tarda_, though the application of
the epithet[1] is not easily understood), the largest British land-fowl,
and the _Otis tarda_ of Linnaeus, which formerly frequented the champaign
parts of Great Britain from East Lothian to Dorsetshire, but of which the
native race is now extirpated. Its existence in the northern locality just
named rests upon Sir Robert Sibbald's authority (_circa_ 1684), and though
Hector Boethius (1526) unmistakably described it as an inhabitant of the
Merse, no later writer than the former has adduced any evidence in favour
of its Scottish domicile. The last examples of the native race were
probably two killed in 1838 near Swaffham, in Norfolk, a district in which
for some years previously a few hen-birds of the species, the remnant of a
plentiful stock, had maintained their existence, though no cock-bird had
latterly been known to bear them company. In Suffolk, where the
neighbourhood of Icklingham formed its chief haunt, an [v.04 p.0876] end
came to the race in 1832; on the wolds of Yorkshire about 1826, or perhaps
a little later; and on those of Lincolnshire about the same time. Of
Wiltshire, George Montagu, author of an _Ornithological Dictionary_,
writing in 1813, says that none had been seen in their favourite haunts on
Salisbury Plain for the last two or three years. In Dorsetshire there is no
evidence of an indigenous example having occurred since that date, nor in
Hampshire nor Sussex since the opening of the 19th century. From other
English counties, as Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire and Berkshire, it
disappeared without note being taken of the event, and the direct cause or
causes of its extermination can only be inferred from what, on testimony
cited by Henry Stevenson (_Birds of Norfolk_, ii. pp. 1-42), is known to
have led to the same result in Norfolk and Suffolk. In the latter the
extension of plantations rendered the country unfitted for a bird whose shy
nature could not brook the growth of covert that might shelter a foe, and
in the former the introduction of improved agricultural implements, notably
the corn-drill and the horse-hoe, led to the discovery and generally the
destruction of every nest, for the bird's chosen breeding-place was in wide
fields--"brecks," as they are locally called--of winter-corn. Since the
extirpation of the native race the bustard is known to Great Britain only
by occasional wanderers, straying most likely from the open country of
Champagne or Saxony, and occurring in one part or another of the United
Kingdom some two or three times every three or four years, and chiefly in
midwinter.

An adult male will measure nearly 4 ft. from the tip of the bill to the end
of the tail, and its wings have an expanse of 8 ft. or more,--its weight
varying (possibly through age) from 22 to 32 lb. This last was that of one
which was recorded by the younger Naumann, the best biographer of the bird
(_Vögel Deutschlands_, vii. p. 12), who, however, stated in 1834 that he
was assured of the former existence of examples which had attained the
weight of 35 or 38 lb. The female is considerably smaller. Compared with
most other birds frequenting open places, the bustard has
disproportionately short legs, yet the bulk of its body renders it a
conspicuous and stately object, and when on the wing, to which it readily
takes, its flight is powerful and sustained. The bill is of moderate
length, but, owing to the exceedingly flat head of the bird, appears longer
than it really is. The neck, especially of the male in the breeding-season,
is thick, and the tail, in the same sex at that time of year, is generally
carried in an upright position, being, however, in the paroxysms of
courtship turned forwards, while the head and neck are simultaneously
reverted along the back, the wings are lowered, and their shorter feathers
erected. In this posture, which has been admirably portrayed by Joseph Wolf
(_Zool. Sketches_, pl. 45), the bird presents a very strange appearance,
for the tail, head and neck are almost buried amid the upstanding feathers
before named, and the breast is protruded to a remarkable extent. The
bustard is of a pale grey on the neck and white beneath, but the back is
beautifully barred with russet and black, while in the male a band of deep
tawny-brown--in some examples approaching a claret-colour--descends from
either shoulder and forms a broad gorget on the breast. The secondaries and
greater wing-coverts are white, contrasting vividly, as the bird flies,
with the black primaries. Both sexes have the ear-coverts somewhat
elongated--whence doubtless is derived the name _Otis_ (Gr. [Greek:
ôtis])--and the male is adorned with a tuft of long, white, bristly plumes,
springing from each side of the base of the mandible. The food of the
bustard consists of almost any of the plants natural to the open country it
loves, but in winter it will readily forage on those which are grown by
man, and especially coleseed and similar green crops. To this vegetable
diet much animal matter is added when occasion offers, and from an
earthworm to a field-mouse little that lives and moves seems to come amiss
to its appetite.

Though not many birds have had more written about them than the bustard,
much is unsettled with regard to its economy. A moot point, which will most
likely always remain undecided, is whether the British race was migratory
or not, though that such is the habit of the species in most parts of the
European continent is beyond dispute. Equally uncertain as yet is the
question whether it is polygamous or not--the evidence being perhaps in
favour of its having that nature. But one of the most singular properties
of the bird is the presence in some of the fully-grown males of a pouch or
gular sac, opening under the tongue. This extraordinary feature, first
discovered by James Douglas, a Scottish physician, and made known by
Eleazar Albin in 1740, though its existence was hinted by Sir Thomas Browne
sixty years before, if not by the emperor Frederick II, has been found
wanting in examples that, from the exhibition of all the outward marks of
virility, were believed to be thoroughly mature; and as to its function and
mode of development judgment had best be suspended, with the understanding
that the old supposition of its serving as a receptacle whence the bird
might supply itself or its companions with water in dry places must be
deemed to be wholly untenable. The structure of this pouch--the existence
of which in some examples has been well established--is, however, variable;
and though there is reason to believe that in one form or another it is
more or less common to several exotic species of the family _Otididae_, it
would seem to be as inconstant in its occurrence as in its capacity. As
might be expected, this remarkable feature has attracted a good deal of
attention (_Journ. für Ornith._, 1861, p. 153; _Ibis_, 1862, p. 107; 1865,
p. 143; _Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1865, p. 747; 1868, p. 741; 1869, p. 140; 1874,
p. 471), and the later researches of A.H. Garrod show that in an example of
the Australian bustard (_Otis australis_) examined by him there was,
instead of a pouch or sac, simply a highly dilated oesophagus--the
distension of which, at the bird's will, produced much the same appearance
and effect as that of the undoubted sac found at times in the _O. tarda_.

The distribution of the bustards is confined to the Old World--the bird so
called in the fur-countries of North America, and thus giving its name to a
lake, river and cape, being the Canada goose (_Bernicla canadensis_). In
the Palaearctic region we have the _O. tarda_ already mentioned, extending
from Spain to Mesopotamia at least, and from Scania to Morocco, as well as
a smaller species, _O. tetrax_, which often occurs as a straggler in, but
was never an inhabitant of, the British Islands. Two species, known
indifferently by the name of houbara (derived from the Arabic), frequent
the more southern portions of the region, and one of them, _O. macqueeni_,
though having the more eastern range and reaching India, has several times
occurred in north-western Europe, and once even in England. In the east of
Siberia the place of _O. tarda_ is taken by the nearly-allied, but
apparently distinct, _O. dybovskii_, which would seem to occur also in
northern China. Africa is the chief stronghold of the family, nearly a
score of well-marked species being peculiar to that continent, all of which
have been by later systematists separated from the genus _Otis_. India,
too, has three peculiar species, the smaller of which are there known as
floricans, and, like some of their African and one of their European
cousins, are remarkable for the ornamental plumage they assume at the
breeding-season. Neither in Madagascar nor in the Malay Archipelago is
there any form of this family, but Australia possesses one large species
already named. From Xenophon's days (_Anab._ i. 5) to our own the flesh of
bustards has been esteemed as of the highest flavour. The bustard has long
been protected by the game-laws in Great Britain, but, as will have been
seen, to little purpose. A few attempts have been made to reinstate it as a
denizen of this country, but none on any scale that would ensure success.
Many of the older authors considered the bustards allied to the ostrich, a
most mistaken view, their affinity pointing apparently towards the cranes
in one direction and the plovers in another.

(A. N.)

[1] It may be open to doubt whether _tarda_ is here an adjective. Several
of the medieval naturalists used it as a substantive.

BUSTO ARSIZIO, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Milan, 21 m.
N.W. by rail from the town of Milan. Pop. (1901) 19,673. It contains a fine
domed church, S. Maria di Piazza, built in 1517 after the designs of
Bramante: the picture over the high altar is one of Gaudenzio Ferrari's
best works. The church of S. Giovanni Battista is a good baroque edifice of
1617; by it stands a fine 13th-century campanile. Busto Arsizio is an
active manufacturing town, the cotton factories being [v.04 p.0877]
especially important. It is a railway junction for Novara and Seregno.

BUTADES, of Sicyon, wrongly called DIBUTADES, the first Greek modeller in
clay. The story is that his daughter, smitten with love for a youth at
Corinth where they lived, drew upon the wall the outline of his shadow, and
that upon this outline her father modelled a face of the youth in clay, and
baked the model along with the clay tiles which it was his trade to make.
This model was preserved in Corinth till Mummius sacked that town. This
incident led Butades to ornament the ends of roof-tiles with human faces, a
practice which is attested by numerous existing examples. He is also said
to have invented a mixture of clay and ruddle, or to have introduced the
use of a special kind of red clay (Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ xxxv. 12[43]). The
period at which he flourished is unknown, but has been put at about 600
B.C.

BUTCHER, one who slaughters animals, and dresses and prepares the carcass
for purposes of food. The word also is applied to one who combines this
trade with that of selling the meat, and to one who only sells the meat.
The O.Fr. _bochier_ or _bouchier_, modern _boucher_, from which "butcher"
is derived, meant originally a killer of goats and a seller of goats'
flesh, from the O.Fr. _boc_, a he-goat; cf. Ital. _beccaio_, from _becco_,
a goat.

BUTE, JOHN STUART, 3RD EARL OF (1713-1792), English prime minister, son of
James, 2nd earl, and of Lady Jane Campbell, daughter of the 1st duke of
Argyll, was born on the 25th of May 1713; he was educated at Eton and
succeeded to the earldom (in the peerage of Scotland; created for his
grandfather Sir James Stuart in 1703) on his father's death in 1723. He was
elected a representative peer for Scotland in 1737 but not in the following
parliaments, and appears not to have spoken in debate. In 1738 he was made
a knight of the Thistle, and for several years lived in retirement in Bute,
engaged in agricultural and botanical pursuits. From the quiet obscurity
for which his talents and character entirely fitted him Bute was forced by
a mere accident. He had resided in England since the rebellion of 1745, and
in 1747, a downpour of rain having prevented the departure of Frederick,
prince of Wales, from the Egham races, Bute was summoned to his tent to
make up a whist party; he immediately gained the favour of the prince and
princess, became the leading personage at their court, and in 1750 was
appointed by Frederick a lord of his bedchamber. After the latter's death
in 1751 his influence in the household increased. To his close intimacy
with the princess a guilty character was commonly assigned by contemporary
opinion, and their relations formed the subject of numerous popular
lampoons, but the scandal was never founded on anything but conjecture and
the malice of faction. With the young prince, the future king, Bute's
intimacy was equally marked; he became his constant companion and
confidant, and used his influence to inspire him with animosity against the
Whigs and with the high notions of the sovereign's powers and duties found
in Bolingbroke's _Patriot King_ and Blackstone's _Commentaries_. In 1775 he
took part in the negotiations between Leicester House and Pitt, directed
against the duke of Newcastle, and in 1757 in the conferences between the
two ministers which led to their taking office together. In 1756, by the
special desire of the young prince, he was appointed groom of the stole at
Leicester House, in spite of the king's pronounced aversion to him.

On the accession of George III. in 1760, Bute became at once a person of
power and importance. He was appointed a privy councillor, groom of the
stole and first gentleman of the bedchamber, and though merely an
irresponsible confidant, without a seat in parliament or in the cabinet, he
was in reality prime minister, and the only person trusted with the king's
wishes and confidence. George III. and Bute immediately proceeded to
accomplish their long-projected plans, the conclusion of the peace with
France, the break-up of the Whig monopoly of power, and the supremacy of
the monarchy over parliament and parties. Their policy was carried out with
consummate skill and caution. Great care was shown not to alienate the Whig
leaders in a body, which would have raised up under Pitt's leadership a
formidable party of resistance, but advantage was taken of disagreements
between the ministers concerning the war, of personal jealousies, and of
the strong reluctance of the old statesmen who had served the crown for
generations to identify themselves with active opposition to the king's
wishes. They were all discarded singly, and isolated, after violent
disagreements, from the rest of the ministers. On the 25th of March 1761
Bute succeeded Lord Holderness as secretary of state for the northern
department, and Pitt resigned in October on the refusal of the government
to declare war against Spain.

On the 3rd of November Bute appeared in his new capacity as prime minister
in the House of Lords, where he had not been seen for twenty years. Though
he had succeeded in disarming all organized opposition in parliament, the
hostility displayed against him in the nation, arising from his Scottish
nationality, his character as favourite, his peace policy and the
resignation of the popular hero Pitt, was overwhelming. He was the object
of numerous attacks and lampoons. He dared not show himself in the streets
without the protection of prize-fighters, while the jack-boot (a pun upon
his name) and the petticoat, by which the princess was represented, were
continually being burnt by the mob or hanged upon the gallows. On the 9th
of November, while proceeding to the Guildhall, he narrowly escaped falling
into the hands of the populace, who smashed his coach, and he was treated
with studied coldness at the banquet. In January 1762 Bute was compelled to
declare war against Spain, though now without the advantages which the
earlier decision urged by Pitt could have secured, and he supported the
war, but with no zeal and no definite aim beyond the obtaining of a peace
at any price and as soon as possible. In May he succeeded the duke of
Newcastle as first lord of the treasury, and he was created K.G. after
resigning the order of the Thistle. In his blind eagerness for peace he
conducted on his own responsibility secret negotiations for peace with
France through Viri, the Sardinian minister, and the preliminary treaty was
signed on the 3rd of November at Fontainebleau. The king of Prussia had
some reason to complain of the sudden desertion of his ally, but there is
no evidence whatever to substantiate his accusation that Bute had
endeavoured to divert the tsar later from his alliance with Prussia, or
that he had treacherously in his negotiations with Vienna held out to that
court hopes of territorial compensation in Silesia as the price of the
abandonment of France; while the charge brought against Bute in 1765 of
having taken bribes to conclude the peace, subsequently after investigation
pronounced frivolous by parliament, may safely be ignored. A parliamentary
majority was now secured for the minister's policy by bribery and threats,
and with the aid of Henry Fox, who deserted his party to become leader of
the Commons. The definitive peace of Paris was signed on the 10th of
February 1763, and a wholesale proscription of the Whigs was begun, the
most insignificant adherents of the fallen party, including widows, menial
servants and schoolboys, incurring the minister's mean vengeance. Later,
Bute roused further hostility by his cider tax, an ill-advised measure
producing only £75,000 a year, imposing special burdens upon the farmers
and landed interest in the cider counties, and extremely unpopular because
extending the detested system of taxation by excise, regarded as an
infringement of the popular liberties. At length, unable to contend any
longer against the general and inveterate animosity displayed against him,
fearing for the consequences to the monarchy, alarmed at the virulent
attacks of the _North Briton_, and suffering from ill-health, Bute resigned
office on the 8th of April. "Fifty pounds a year," he declared, "and bread
and water were luxury compared with what I suffer." He had, however, before
retiring achieved the objects for which he had been entrusted with power.

He still for a short time retained influence with the king, and intended to
employ George Grenville (whom he recommended as his successor) as his
agent; but the latter insisted on possessing the king's whole confidence,
and on the failure of Bute in August 1763 to procure his dismissal and to
substitute a ministry led by Pitt and the duke of Bedford, Grenville
demanded and obtained Bute's withdrawal from the court. He resigned
accordingly the office of privy purse, and took leave of George III. [v.04
p.0878] on the 28th of September. He still corresponded with the king, and
returned again to London next year, but in May 1765, after the duke of
Cumberland's failure to form an administration, Grenville exacted the
promise from the king, which appears to have been kept faithfully, that
Bute should have no share and should give no advice whatever in public
business, and obtained the dismissal of Bute's brother from his post of
lord privy seal in Scotland. Bute continued to visit the princess of Wales,
but on the king's arrival always retired by a back staircase.

The remainder of Bute's life has little public interest. He spoke against
the government on the American question in February 1766, and in March
against the repeal of the Stamp Act. In 1768 and 1774 he was again elected
a representative peer for Scotland, but took no further part in politics,
and in 1778 refused to have anything to do with the abortive attempt to
effect an alliance between himself and Chatham. He travelled in Italy,
complained of the malice of his opponents and of the ingratitude of the
king, and determined "to retire from the world before it retires from me."
He died on the 10th of March 1792 and was buried at Rothesay in Bute.

Though one of the worst of ministers, Bute was by no means the worst of men
or the despicable and detestable person represented by the popular
imagination. His abilities were inconsiderable, his character weak, and he
was qualified neither for the ordinary administration, of public business
nor for the higher sphere of statesmanship, and was entirely destitute of
that experience which sometimes fills the place of natural aptitude. His
short administration was one of the most disgraceful and incompetent in
English history, originating in an accident, supported only by the will of
the sovereign, by gross corruption and intimidation, the precursor of the
disintegration of political life and of a whole series of national
disasters. Yet Bute had good principles and intentions, was inspired by
feelings of sincere affection and loyalty for his sovereign, and his
character remains untarnished by the grosser accusations raised by faction.
In the circle of his family and intimate friends, away from the great world
in which he made so poor a figure, he was greatly esteemed. Samuel Johnson,
Lord Mansfield, Lady Hervey, Bishop Warburton join in his praise. For the
former, a strong opponent of his administration, he procured a pension of
£300 a year. He was exceptionally well read, with a refined taste for books
and art, and purchased the famous _Thomason Tracts_ now in the British
Museum. He was learned in the science of botany, and formed a magnificent
collection and a botanic garden at Luton Hoo, where Robert Adam built for
him a splendid residence. He engraved privately about 1785 at enormous
expense _Botanical Tables containing the Different Familys of British
Plants_, while _The Tabular Distribution of British Plants_ (1787) is also
attributed to him. Bute filled the offices of ranger of Richmond Forest,
governor of the Charterhouse, chancellor of Marischal College, Aberdeen
(1761), trustee of the British Museum (1765), president of the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland (1780) and commissioner of Chelsea hospital.

By his marriage with Mary, daughter of Edward Wortley Montagu of Wortley,
Yorkshire, who in 1761 was created Baroness Mount Stuart of Wortley, and
through whom he became possessed of the enormous Wortley property, he had,
besides six daughters, five sons, the eldest of whom, John, Lord Cardiff
(1744-1814), succeeded him as 4th earl and was created a marquess in 1796.
John, Lord Mount Stuart (1767-1794), the son and heir of the 1st marquess,
died before his father, and consequently in 1814 the Bute titles and
estates came to his son John (1793-1848) as 2nd marquess. The latter was
succeeded by his only son John Patrick (1847-1900), whose son John (b.
1881) inherited the title in 1900.

BUTE, the most important, though not the largest, of the islands
constituting the county of the same name, in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland,
about 18 m. S.W. of Greenock and 40 m., by water, from Glasgow. It is
bounded on the N. and W. by the lovely Kyles of Bute, the narrow winding
strait which separates it from Argyllshire, on the E. by the Firth of
Clyde, and on the S. and S.W. by the Sound of Bute, about 6 m. wide, which
divides it from Arran. Its area is about 49 sq. m., or 31,161 acres. It
lies in a N.W. to S.E. direction, and its greatest length from Buttock
Point on the Kyles to Garroch Head on the Firth of Clyde is 15½ m. Owing to
indentations its width varies from 1-1/3 m. to 4½ m. There are piers at
Kilchattan, Craigmore, Port Bannatyne and Rothesay, but Rothesay is
practically the harbour for the whole island. Here there is regular
communication by railway steamers from Craigendoran, Prince's Pier
(Greenock), Gourock and Wemyss Bay, and by frequent vessels from the
Broomielaw Bridge in Glasgow and other points on the Clyde. Pop. (1891)
11,735; (1901) 12,162.

The principal hills are in the north, where the chief are Kames Hill (911
ft.) and Kilbride Hill (836 ft.). The streams are mostly burns, and there
are six lochs. Loch Fad, about 1 m. S. of Rothesay, 2½ m. long by 1/3 m.
wide, was the source of the power used in the Rothesay cotton-spinning
mill, which was the first establishment of the kind erected in Scotland. In
1827 on its western shore Edmund Kean built a cottage afterwards occupied
by Sheridan Knowles. It now belongs to the marquess of Bute. From Loch
Ascog, fully 1 m. long, Rothesay derives its water supply. The other lakes
are Loch Quien, Loch Greenan, Dhu Loch and Loch Bull. Glen More in the
north and Glen Callum in the south are the only glens of any size. The
climate is mild and healthful, fuchsias and other plants flowering even in
winter, and neither snow nor frost being of long continuance, and less rain
falling than in many parts of the western coast. Some two-thirds of the
area, mostly in the centre and south, are arable, yielding excellent crops
of potatoes for the Glasgow market, oats and turnips; the rest consists of
hill pastures and plantations. The fisheries are of considerable value.
There is no lack of sandstone, slate and whinstone. Some coal exists, but
it is of inferior quality and doubtful quantity. At Kilchattan a superior
clay for bricks and tiles is found, and grey granite susceptible of high
polish.

The island is divided geologically into two areas by a fault running from
Rothesay Bay in a south-south-west direction by Loch Fad to Scalpsie Bay,
which, throughout its course, coincides with a well-marked depression. The
tract lying to the north-west of this dislocation is composed of the
metamorphic rocks of the Eastern Highlands. The Dunoon phyllites form a
narrow belt about a mile and a half broad crossing the island between Kames
Bay and Etterick Bay, while the area to the north is occupied by grits and
schists which may be the western prolongations of the Beinn Bheula group.
Near Rothesay and along the hill slopes west of Loch Fad there are parallel
strips of grits and phyllites. That part of the island lying to the east of
this dislocation consists chiefly of Upper Old Red Sandstone strata,
dipping generally in a westerly or south-westerly direction. At the extreme
south end, between Kilchattan and Garroch Head, these conglomerates and
sandstones are overlaid by a thick cornstone or dolomitic limestone marking
the upper limit of the formation, which is surmounted by the cement-stones
and contemporaneous lavas of Lower Carboniferous age. The bedded volcanic
rocks which form a series of ridges trending north-west comprise
porphyritic basalts, andesite, and, near Port Luchdach, brownish trachyte.
Near the base of the volcanic series intrusive igneous rocks of
Carboniferous age appear in the form of sills and bosses, as, for instance,
the oval mass of olivine-basalt on Suidhe Hill. Remnants of raised beaches
are conspicuous in Bute. One of the well-known localities for arctic shelly
clays occurs at Kilchattan brick-works, where the dark red clay rests on
tough boulder-clay and may be regarded as of late glacial age.

As to the origin of the name of Bute, there is some doubt. It has been held
to come from _both_ (Irish for "a cell"), in allusion to the cell which St
Brendan erected in the island in the 6th century; others contend that it is
derived from the British words _ey budh_ (Gaelic, _ey bhiod_), "the island
of corn" (_i.e._ food), in reference to its fertility, notable in contrast
with the barrenness of the Western Isles and Highlands. Bute was probably
first colonized by the vanguard of Scots who came over from Ireland, and at
intervals the Norsemen also secured a footing for longer or shorter
periods. In those days the Butemen were also called Brandanes, after the
Saint. Attesting the antiquity of the island, "Druidical" monuments,
barrows, cairns and cists are numerous, as well as the remains of ancient
chapels. In virtue of a charter granted by James IV. in 1506, the numerous
small proprietors took the title of "baron," which became hereditary in
their families. Now the title is practically extinct, the lands conferring
it having with very few exceptions passed [v.04 p.0879] by purchase into
the possession of the marquess of Bute, the proprietor of nearly the whole
island. His seat, Mount Stuart, about 4½ m. from Rothesay by the shore
road, is finely situated on the eastern coast. Port Bannatyne (pop. 1165),
2 m. north by west of Rothesay, is a flourishing watering-place, named
after Lord Bannatyne (1743-1833), a judge of the court of session, one of
the founders of the Highland and Agricultural Society in 1784. Near to it
is Kames Castle, where John Sterling, famous for Carlyle's biography, was
born in 1806. Kilchattan, in the south-east of the island, is a favourite
summer resort. Another object of interest is St Blane's Chapel,
picturesquely situated about ½ m. from Dunagoil Bay. Off the western shore
of Bute, ¾ m. from St Ninian's Point, lies the island of Inchmarnock, 2 m.
in length and about ¾ m. in width.

See J. Wilson, _Account of Rothesay and Bute_ (Rothesay, 1848); and J.K.
Hewison, _History of Bute_ (1894-1895).

BUTE, or BUTESHIRE, an insular county in the S.W. of Scotland, consisting
of the islands of Bute, from which the county takes its name, Inchmarnock,
Great Cumbrae, Little Cumbrae, Arran, Holy Island and Pladda, all lying in
the Firth of Clyde, between Ayrshire on the E. and Argyllshire on the W.
and N. The area of the county is 140,307 acres, or rather more than 219 sq.
m. Pop. (1891) 18,404; (1901) 18,787 (or 86 to the sq. m.). In 1901 the
number of persons who spoke Gaelic alone was 20, of those speaking Gaelic
and English 2764. Before the Reform Bill of 1832, Buteshire, alternately
with Caithness-shire, sent one member to parliament--Rothesay at the same
time sharing a representative with Ayr, Campbeltown, Inveraray and Irvine.
Rothesay was then merged in the county, which since then has had a member
to itself. Buteshire and Renfrewshire form one sheriffdom, with a
sheriff-substitute resident in Rothesay who also sits periodically at
Brodick and Millport. The circuit courts are held at Inveraray. The county
is under school-board jurisdiction, and there is a secondary school at
Rothesay. The county council subsidizes technical education in agriculture
at Glasgow and Kilmarnock. The staple crops are oats and potatoes, and
cattle, sheep and horses are reared. Seed-growing is an extensive industry,
and the fisheries are considerable. The Rothesay fishery district includes
all the creeks in Buteshire and a few in Argyll and Dumbarton shires, the
Cumbraes being grouped with the Greenock district. The herring fishery
begins in June, and white fishing is followed at one or other point all the
year round. During the season many of the fishermen are employed on the
Clyde yachts, Rothesay being a prominent yachting centre. The exports
comprise agricultural produce and fish, trade being actively carried on
between the county ports of Rothesay, Millport, Brodick and Lamlash and the
mainland ports of Glasgow, Greenock, Gourock, Ardrossan and Wemyss Bay,
with all of which there is regular steamer communication throughout the
year.

BUTHROTUM. (1) An ancient seaport of Illyria, corresponding with the modern
Butrinto (_q.v._). (2) A town in Attica, mentioned by Pliny the Elder
(_Nat. Hist._ iv. 37).

BUTLER, the name of a family famous in the history of Ireland. The great
house of the Butlers, alone among the families of the conquerors, rivalled
the Geraldines, their neighbours, kinsfolk and mortal foes. Theobald
Walter, their ancestor, was not among the first of the invaders. He was the
grandson of one Hervey Walter who, in the time of Henry I., held Witheton
or Weeton in Amounderness, a small fee of the honour of Lancaster, the
manor of Newton in Suffolk, and certain lands in Norfolk. In the great
inquest of Lancaster lands that followed a writ of 1212, this Hervey, named
as the father of Hervey Walter, is said to have given lands in his fee of
Weeton to Orm, son of Magnus, with his daughter Alice in marriage. Hervey
Walter, son of this Hervey, advanced his family by matching with Maude,
daughter of Theobald de Valognes, lord of Parham, whose sister Bertha was
wife of Ranulf de Glanville, the great justiciar, "the eye of the king."
When Ranulf had founded the Austin Canons priory of Butley, Hervey Walter,
his wife's brother-in-law, gave to the house lands in Wingfield for the
soul's health of himself and his wife Maude, of Ranulf de Glanville and
Bertha his wife, the charter, still preserved in the Harleian collection,
being witnessed by Hervey's younger sons, Hubert Walter, Roger and Hamon.
Another son, Bartholomew, witnessed a charter of his brother Hubert,
1190-1193. That these nephews of the justiciar profited early by their
kinship is seen in Hubert Walter's foundation charter of the abbey of West
Dereham, wherein he speaks of "dominus Ranulphus de Glanvilla et domina
Bertha uxor eius, qui nos nutrierunt." Hubert, indeed, becoming one of his
uncle's clerks, was so much in his confidence that Gervase of Canterbury
speaks of the two as ruling the kingdom together. King Richard, whom he
accompanied to the Holy Land, made him bishop of Salisbury and (1193)
archbishop of Canterbury. "Wary of counsel, subtle of wit," he was the
champion of Canterbury and of England, and the news of his death drew the
cry from King John that "now, for the first time, am I king in truth."

Between these two great statesmen Theobald Walter, the eldest brother of
the archbishop, rose and flourished. Theobald is found in the _Liber Niger_
(c. 1166) as holding Amounderness by the service of one knight. In 1185 he
went over sea to Waterford with John the king's son, the freight of the
harness sent after him being charged in the Pipe Roll. Clad in that harness
he led the men of Cork when Dermot MacCarthy, prince of Desmond, was put to
the sword, John rewarding his services with lands in Limerick and with the
important fief of Arklow in the vale of Avoca, where he made his Irish seat
and founded an abbey. Returning to England he accompanied his uncle Randulf
to France, both witnessing a charter delivered by the king at Chinon when
near to death. Soon afterwards, Theobald Walter was given by John that
hereditary office of butler to the lord of Ireland, which makes a surname
for his descendants, styling himself _pincerna_ when he attests John's
charter to Dublin on the 15th of May 1192. J. Horace Round has pointed out
that he also took a fresh seal, the inscription of which calls him Theobald
Walter, Butler of Ireland, and henceforward he is sometimes surnamed Butler
(_le Botiller_). When John went abroad in 1192, Theobald was given the
charge of Lancaster castle, but in 1194 he was forced to surrender to his
brother Hubert, who summoned it in King Richard's name. Making his peace
through Hubert's influence, he was sheriff of Lancashire for King Richard,
who regranted to him all Amounderness. His fortunes turned with the king's
death. The new sovereign, treating his surrender of the castle as
treachery, took the shrievalty from him, disseised him of Amounderness and
sold his cantreds of Limerick land to William de Braose. But the great
archbishop soon found means to bring his brother back to favour, and on the
2nd of January 1201-2 Amounderness, by writ of the king, is to be restored
to Theobald Walter, _dilecto et fideli nostra_, Within a year or two
Theobald left England to end his days upon his Arklow fief, busying himself
with religious foundations at Wotheney in Limerick, at Arklow and at
Nenagh. At Wotheney he is said to have been buried shortly before the 12th
of February 1205-6, when an entry in the Close Roll is concerned with his
widow. This widow, Maude, daughter of Robert le Vavasor of Denton, was
given up to her father, who, buying the right of marrying her at a price of
1200 marks and two palfreys, gave her to Fulk fitz-Warine. Theobald, the
son and heir of Theobald and Maude, a child of six years old, was likewise
taken into the keeping of his grandfather Robert, but letters from the
king, dated the 2nd of March 1205-6, told Robert, "as he loved his body,"
to surrender the heir at once to Gilbert fitz-Reinfrid, the baron of
Kendal.

Adding to its possessions by marriages the house advanced itself among the
nobility of Ireland. On the 1st of September 1315, its chief, Edmund Walter
_alias_ Edmund the Butler, for services against the Scottish raiders and
Ulster rebels, had a charter of the castle and manors of Carrick,
Macgriffyn and Roscrea to hold to him and his heirs _sub nomine et honore
comitis de Karryk_. This charter, however, while apparently creating an
earldom, failed, as Mr Round has explained, to make his issue earls of
Carrick. But James, the son and heir of Edmund, having married in 1327
Eleanor de Bohun, daughter of Humfrey, [v.04 p.0880] earl of Hereford and
Essex, high constable of England, by a daughter of Edward I., was created
an Irish earl on the 2nd of November 1328, with the title of Ormonde.

From the early years of the 14th century the Ormonde earls, generation by
generation, were called to the chief government of Ireland as lords-keeper,
lords-lieutenant, deputies or lords-justices, and unlike their hereditary
enemies the Geraldines they kept a tradition of loyalty to the English
crown and to English custom. Their history is full of warring with the
native Irish, and as the sun stood still upon Gibeon, even so, we are told,
it rested over the red bog of Athy while James the White Earl was staying
the wild O'Mores. More than one of the earls of Ormonde had the name of a
scholar, while of the 6th earl, master of every European tongue and
ambassador to many courts, Edward IV. is said to have declared that were
good breeding and liberal qualities lost to the world they might be found
again in John, earl of Ormonde. The earls were often absent from Ireland on
errands of war or peace. James, the 5th earl, had the English earldom of
Wiltshire given him in 1449 for his Lancastrian zeal. He fought at St
Albans in 1455, casting his harness into a ditch as he fled the field, and
he led a wing at Wakefield. His stall plate as a knight of the Garter is
still in St George's chapel. Defeated with the earl of Pembroke at
Mortimer's Cross and taken prisoner after Towton, his fate is uncertain,
but rumour said that he was beheaded at Newcastle, and a letter addressed
to John Paston about May 1461 sends tidings that "the Erle of Wylchir is
hed is sette on London Brigge."

To his time belongs a document illustrating a curious tradition of the
Butlers. His petition to parliament when he was conveying Buckinghamshire
lands to the hospital of St Thomas of Acres in London, recites that he does
so "in worship of that glorious martyr St Thomas, sometime archbishop of
Canterbury, of whose blood the said earl of Wiltshire, his father and many
of his ancestors are lineally descended." But the pedigrees in which
genealogists have sought to make this descent definite will not bear
investigation. The Wiltshire earldom died with him and the Irish earldom
was for a time forfeited, his two brothers, John and Thomas, sharing his
attainder. John was restored in blood by Edward IV.; and Thomas, the 7th
earl, summoned to the English parliament in 1495 as Lord Rochford, a title
taken from a Bohun manor in Essex, saw the statute of attainder annulled by
Henry VII.'s first parliament. He died without male issue in 1515. Of his
two daughters and co-heirs Anne was married to Sir James St. Leger, and
Margaret to Sir William Boleyn of Blickling, by whom she was mother of Sir
James and Sir Thomas Boleyn. The latter, the father of Anne Boleyn, was
created earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde in 1529.

In Ireland the heir male of the Ormonde earls, Sir Piers Butler--"red
Piers"--assumed the earldom of Ormonde in 1515 and seized upon the Irish
estates. Being a good ally against the rebel Irish, the government
temporized with his claim. He was an Irishman born, allied to the wild
Irish chieftains by his mother, a daughter of the MacMorrogh Kavanagh; the
earldom had been long in the male line; all Irish sentiment was against the
feudal custom which would take it out of the family, and the two co-heirs
were widows of English knights. In 1522, styled "Sir Piers Butler
pretending himself to be earl of Ormonde," he was made chief governor of
Ireland as lord deputy, and on the 23rd of February 1527/8, following an
agreement with the co-heirs of the 7th earl, whereby the earldom of Ormonde
was declared to be at the king's disposal, he was created earl of Ossory.
But the Irish estates, declared forfeit to the crown in 1536 under the Act
of Absentees, were granted to him as "earl of Ossory and Ormonde." Although
the Boleyn earl of Ormonde and Wiltshire was still alive, there can be no
doubt that Piers Butler had a patent of the Ormonde earldom about the 22nd
of February 1537/8, from which date his successors must reckon their
peerage. His son and heir, James the Lame, who had been created Viscount
Thurles on the 2nd of January 1535/6, obtained an act of parliament in
1543/4 which, confirming the grant to his father of the earldom, gave him
the old "pre-eminence" of the ancient earldom of 1328.

Earl James was poisoned at a supper in Ely House in 1546, and Thomas the
Black Earl, his son and heir, was brought up at the English court,
professing the reformed religion. His sympathies were with the Irish,
although he stood staunchly for law and order, and for the great part of
his life he was wrestling with rebellion. His lands having been harried by
hit hereditary enemies the Desmond Geraldines, Elizabeth gave him his
revenge by appointing him in 1580 military governor of Munster, with a
commission to "banish and vanquish these cankered Desmonds," then in open
rebellion. In three months, by his own account, he had put to the sword 46
captains, 800 notorious traitors and 4000 others, and, after four years'
fighting, Gerald, earl of Desmond, a price on his head, was taken and
killed. Dying in 1614 without lawful issue, Thomas was succeeded by his
nephew Walter of Kilcash, who had fought beside him against the Burkes and
O'Mores. But Sir Robert Preston, afterwards created earl of Desmond,
claimed a great part of the Ormonde lands in right of his wife, the Black
Earl's daughter and heir. In spite of the loyal services of Earl Walter,
King James supported the claimant, and the earl, refusing to submit to a
royal award, was thrown into gaol, where he lay for eight years in great
poverty, his rents being cut off. Although liberated in 1625 he was not
acknowledged heir to his uncle's estates until 1630. His son, Viscount
Thurles, being drowned on a passage to England, a grandson succeeded him.

This grandson, James Butler, is perhaps the most famous of the long line of
Ormondes. By his marriage with his cousin Elizabeth Preston, the Ormonde
titles were once more united with all the Ormonde estates. A loyal soldier
and statesman, he commanded for the king in Ireland, where he was between
the two fires of Catholic rebels and Protestant parliamentarians. In
Ireland he stayed long enough to proclaim Charles II. in 1649, but defeated
at Rathmines, his garrisons broken by Cromwell, he quitted the country at
the end of 1650. At the Restoration he was appointed lord-lieutenant, his
estates having been restored to him with the addition of the county
palatine of Tipperary, taken by James I. from his grandfather. In 1632 he
had been created a marquess. The English earldom of Brecknock was added in
1660 and an Irish dukedom of Ormonde in the following year. In 1682 he had
a patent for an English dukedom with the same title. Buckingham's intrigues
deprived him for seven years of his lord-lieutenancy, and a desperate
attempt was made upon his life in 1670, when a company of ruffians dragged
him from his coach in St James's Street and sought to hurry him to the
gallows at Tyburn. His son's threat that, if harm befell his father he
would pistol Buckingham, even if he were behind the king's chair, may have
saved him from assassination. At the accession of James II. he was once
more taken from active employment, and "Barzillai, crowned with honour and
with years" died at his Dorsetshire house in 1688. He had seen his
great-great-uncle the Black Earl, who was born in 1532, and a
great-grandson was playing beside him a few hours before his death. His
brave son Ossory, "the eldest hope with every grace adorned," died eight
years before him, and he was succeeded by a grandson James, the second duke
of Ormonde, who, a recognized leader of the London Jacobites, was attainted
in 1715, his honours and estates being forfeited. The duke lived thirty
years in exile, chiefly at Avignon, and died in the rebellion year of 1745
without surviving issue. His younger brother Charles, whom King William had
created Lord Butler of Weston in the English peerage and earl of Arran in
the Irish, was allowed to purchase the Ormonde estates. On the earl's death
without issue in 1758 the estates were enjoyed by a sister, passing in
1760, by settlement of the earl of Arran, to John Butler of Kilcash,
descendant of a younger brother of the first duke. John dying six years
later was succeeded by Walter Butler, a first cousin, whose son John,
heir-male of the line of Ormonde, became earl of Ormonde and Ossory and
Viscount Thurles in 1791, the Irish parliament reversing the attainder of
1715. Walter, son and heir of the restored earl, was given an English
peerage as Lord Butler of Llanthony (1801) and an Irish marquessate of
Ormonde (1816), titles that died with him. This Lord Ormonde in 1810 [v.04
p.0881] sold to the crown for the great sum of £216,000 his ancestral right
to the prisage of wines in Ireland. For his brother and heir, created Lord
Ormonde of Llahthony at the coronation of George IV., the Irish marquessate
was revived in 1825 and descended in the direct line.

The earls of Carrick (Ireland 1748), Viscounts Ikerrin (Ireland 1629),
claim descent from a brother of the first Ormonde earl, while the viscounts
Mountgarret (Ireland 1550) spring from a younger son of Piers, the Red Earl
of Ossory. The barony of Caher (Ireland 1543), created for Sir Thomas
Butler of Chaier or Caher-down-Eske, a descendant in an illegitimate branch
of the Butlers, fell into abeyance among heirs general on the death of the
2nd baron in 1560. It was again created, after the surrender of their
rights by the heirs general, in 1583 for Sir Theobald Butler (d. 1596), and
became extinct in 1858 on the death of Richard Butler, 13th baron and 2nd
viscount Caher, and second earl of Glengall. Buttler von Clonebough,
_genannt_ Haimhausen, count of the Holy Roman Empire, descends from the 3rd
earl of Ormonde, the imperial title having been revived in 1681 in memory
of the services of a kinsman, Walter, Count Butler (d. 1634), the dragoon
officer who carried out the murder of Wallenstein.

See Lancashire Inquests, 1205-1307; Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society,
xlviii.; Chronicles of Matthew Paris, Roger of Hoveden, Giraldus
Cambrensis, &c.; _Dictionary of National Biography_; G.E.C.'s _Complete
Peerage_; Carte's Ormonde papers; Paston Letters; Rolls of parliament; fine
rolls, liberate rolls, pipe rolls, &c.

(O. BA.)

BUTLER, ALBAN (1710-1773), English Roman Catholic priest and hagiologist,
was born in Northampton on the 24th of October 1710. He was educated at the
English college, Douai, where on his ordination to the priesthood he held
successively the chairs of philosophy and divinity. He laboured for some
time as a missionary priest in Staffordshire, held several positions as
tutor to young Roman Catholic noblemen, and was finally appointed president
of the English seminary at St Omer, where he remained till his death on the
15th of May 1773. Butler's great work, _The Lives of the Saints_, the
result of thirty years' study (4 vols., London, 1756-1759), has passed
through many editions and translations (best edition, including valuable
notes, Dublin, 12 vols. 1779-1780). It is a popular and compendious
reproduction of the _Acta Sanctorum_, exhibiting great industry and
research, and is in all respects the best work of its kind in English
literature.

See _An Account of the Life of A.B. by C.B._, _i.e._ by his nephew Charles
Butler (London, 1799); and Joseph Gillow's _Bibliographical Dictionary of
English Catholics_, vol. i.

BUTLER, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1818-1893), American lawyer, soldier and
politician, was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, on the 5th of November
1818. He graduated at Waterville (now Colby) College in 1838, was admitted
to the Massachusetts bar in 1840, began practice at Lowell, Massachusetts,
and early attained distinction as a lawyer, particularly in criminal cases.
Entering politics as a Democrat, he first attracted general attention by
his violent campaign in Lowell in advocacy of the passage of a law
establishing a ten-hour day for labourers; he was a member of the
Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1853, and of the state senate in
1859, and was a delegate to the Democratic national conventions from 1848
to 1860. In that of 1860 at Charleston he advocated the nomination of
Jefferson Davis and opposed Stephen A. Douglas, and in the ensuing campaign
he supported Breckinridge.

After the Baltimore riot at the opening of the Civil War, Butler, as a
brigadier-general in the state militia, was sent by Governor John A.
Andrew, with a force of Massachusetts troops, to reopen communication
between the Union states and the Federal capital. By his energetic and
careful work Butler achieved his purpose without fighting, and he was soon
afterwards made major-general, U.S.V. Whilst in command at Fortress Monroe,
he declined to return to their owners fugitive slaves who had come within
his lines, on the ground that, as labourers for fortifications, &c., they
were contraband of war, thus originating the phrase "contraband" as applied
to the negroes. In the conduct of tactical operations Butler was almost
uniformly unsuccessful, and his first action at Big Bethel, Va., was a
humiliating defeat for the National arms. Later in 1861 he commanded an
expeditionary force, which, in conjunction with the navy, took Forts
Hatteras and Clark, N.C. In 1862 he commanded the force which occupied New
Orleans. In the administration of that city he showed great firmness and
severity. New Orleans was unusually healthy and orderly during the Butler
régime. Many of his acts, however, gave great offence, particularly the
seizure of $800,000 which had been deposited in the office of the Dutch
consul, and an order, issued after some provocation, on May 15th, that if
any woman should "insult or show contempt for any officer or soldier of the
United States, she shall be regarded and shall be held liable to be treated
as a woman of the town plying her avocation." This order provoked protests
both in the North and the South, and also abroad, particularly in England
and France, and it was doubtless the cause of his removal in December 1862.
On the 1st of June he had executed one W.B. Mumford, who had torn down a
United States flag placed by Farragut on the United States mint; and for
this execution he was denounced (Dec. 1862) by President Davis as "a felon
deserving capital punishment," who if captured should be reserved for
execution. In the campaign of 1864 he was placed at the head of the Army of
the James, which he commanded creditably in several battles. But his
mismanagement of the expedition against Fort Fisher, N.C., led to his
recall by General Grant in December.

He was a Republican representative in Congress from 1867 to 1879, except in
1875-1877. In Congress he was conspicuous as a Radical Republican in
Reconstruction legislation, and was one of the managers selected by the
House to conduct the impeachment, before the Senate, of President Johnson,
opening the case and taking the most prominent part in it on his side; he
exercised a marked influence over President Grant and was regarded as his
spokesman in the House, and he was one of the foremost advocates of the
payment in "greenbacks" of the government bonds. In 1871 he was a defeated
candidate for governor of Massachusetts, and also in 1879 when he ran on
the Democratic and Greenback tickets, but in 1882 he was elected by the
Democrats who got no other state offices. In 1883 he was defeated on
renomination. As presidential nominee of the Greenback and Anti-Monopolist
parties, he polled 175,370 votes in 1884, when he had bitterly opposed the
nomination by the Democratic party of Grover Cleveland, to defeat whom he
tried to "throw" his own votes in Massachusetts and New York to the
Republican candidate. His professional income as a lawyer was estimated at
$100,000 per annum shortly before his death at Washington, D.C., on the
11th of January 1893. He was an able but erratic administrator and soldier,
and a brilliant lawyer. As a politician he excited bitter opposition, and
was charged, apparently with justice, with corruption and venality in
conniving at and sharing the profits of illicit trade with the Confederates
carried on by his brother at New Orleans and by his brother-in-law in the
department of Virginia and North Carolina, while General Butler was in
command.

See James Parton, _Butler in New Orleans_ (New York, 1863), which, however,
deals inadequately with the charges brought against Butler; and _The
Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major-General B.F. Butler:
Butler's Book_ (New York, 1893), to be used with caution as regards facts.

BUTLER, CHARLES (1750-1832), British lawyer and miscellaneous writer, was
born in London on the 14th of August 1750. He was educated at Douai, and in
1775 entered at Lincoln's Inn. He had considerable practice as a
conveyancer, and after the passing of the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1791
was called to the bar. In 1832 he took silk, and was made a bencher of
Lincoln's Inn. He died on the 2nd of June in the same year. His literary
activity was enormous, and the number of his published works comprises
about fifty volumes. The most important of them are the _Reminiscences_
(1821-1827); _Horae Biblicae_ (1797), which has passed through several
editions; _Horae Juridicae Subsecivae_ (1804); _Book of the Roman Catholic
Church_ (1825), which was directed against Southey and excited [v.04
p.0882] some controversy; lives of Erasmus, Grotius, Bossuet, Fénelon. He
also edited and completed the _Lives of the Saints_ of his uncle, Alban
Butler, Fearne's _Essay on Contingent Remainders_ and Hargrave's edition of
_Coke upon Littleton's Laws of England_ (1775).

A complete list of Butler's works is contained in Joseph Gillow's
_Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics_, vol. i. pp. 357-364.

BUTLER, GEORGE (1774-1853), English schoolmaster and divine, was born in
London and educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where he
afterwards became fellow, in the capacity first of mathematical lecturer,
and afterwards of classical tutor. He was elected a public examiner of the
university in 1804, and in the following year was one of the select
preachers. As head master of Harrow (1805-1829) his all-round knowledge,
his tact and his skill as an athlete rendered his administration successful
and popular. On his retirement he settled down at Gayton, Northamptonshire,
a living which had been presented to him by his college in 1814. In 1836 he
became chancellor of the diocese of Peterborough, and in 1842 was appointed
dean of Peterborough. His few publications include some notes of Harrow,
entitled _Harrow, a Selection of Lists of the School between 1770 and 1828_
(Peterborough, 1849).

His eldest son, GEORGE BUTLER (1819-1890), was principal of Liverpool
College (1866-1882) and canon of Winchester. In 1852 he married Josephine
Elizabeth, daughter of John Grey of Dilston. She died on the 30th of
December 1906 (see her _Autobiography_, 1909). Mrs Josephine Butler, as she
was commonly called afterwards, was a woman of intense moral and spiritual
force, who devoted herself to rescue work, and specially to resisting the
"state regulation of vice" whether by the C.D. Acts in India or by any
system analogous to that of the continent in England.

His youngest son, the Rev. Dr HENRY MONTAGU BUTLER, became one of the
best-known scholars of his day. Born in 1833, and educated at Harrow and
Trinity, Cambridge, he was senior classic in 1855 and was elected a fellow
of his college. In 1859 he became head master of Harrow, as his father had
been, and only resigned on being made dean of Gloucester in 1885. In 1886
he was elected master of Trinity, Cambridge. His publications include
various volumes of sermons, but his reputation rests on his wide
scholarship, his remarkable gifts as a public speaker, and his great
practical influence both as a headmaster and at Cambridge. He married first
(1861), Georgina Elliot, and secondly (1888) Agneta Frances Ramsay (who in
1887 was senior classic at Cambridge), and had five sons and two daughters.

BUTLER, JOSEPH (1692-1752), English divine and philosopher, bishop of
Durham, was born at Wantage, in Berkshire, on the 18th of May 1692. His
father, a linen-draper of that town, was a Presbyterian, and it was his
wish that young Butler should be educated for the ministry in that church.
The boy was placed under the care of the Rev. Philip Barton, master of the
grammar school at Wantage, and remained there for some years. He was then
sent to Samuel Jones's dissenting academy at Gloucester, and afterwards at
Tewkesbury, where his most intimate friend was Thomas Seeker, who became
archbishop of Canterbury.

While at this academy Butler became dissatisfied with the principles of
Presbyterianism, and after much deliberation resolved to join the Church of
England. About the same time he began to study with care Samuel Clarke's
celebrated _Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God_, which had
been published as the Boyle Lectures a few years previously. With great
modesty and secrecy Butler, then in his twenty-second year, wrote to the
author propounding certain difficulties with regard to the proofs of the
unity and omnipresence of the Divine Being. Clarke answered his unknown
opponent with a gravity and care that showed his high opinion of the
metaphysical acuteness displayed in the objections, and published the
correspondence in later editions of the _Demonstration_. Butler
acknowledged that Clarke's reply satisfied him on one of the points, and he
subsequently gave his adhesion to the other. In one of his letters we
already find the germ of his famous dictum that "probability is the guide
of life."

In March 1715 he entered at Oriel College, Oxford, but for some time found
it uncongenial and thought of migrating to Cambridge. But he made a close
friend in one of the resident fellows, Edward Talbot, son of William
Talbot, then bishop of Oxford, and afterwards of Salisbury and Durham. In
1718 he took his degree, was ordained deacon and priest, and on the
recommendation of Talbot and Clarke was nominated preacher at the chapel of
the Rolls, where he continued till 1726. It was here that he preached his
famous _Fifteen Sermons_ (1726), including the well-known discourses on
human nature. In 1721 he had been given a prebend at Salisbury by Bishop
Talbot, who on his translation to Durham gave Butler the living of
Houghton-le-Skerne in that county, and in 1725 presented him to the wealthy
rectory of Stanhope. In 1726 he resigned his preachership at the Rolls.

For ten years Butler remained in perfect seclusion at Stanhope. He was only
remembered in the neighbourhood as a man much loved and respected, who used
to ride a black pony very fast, and whose known benevolence was much
practised upon by beggars. Archbishop Blackburne, when asked by Queen
Caroline whether he was still alive, answered, "He is not dead, madam, but
buried." In 1733 he was made chaplain to Lord Chancellor Talbot, elder
brother of his dead friend Edward, and in 1736 prebendary of Rochester. In
the same year he was appointed clerk of the closet to the queen, and had to
take part in the metaphysical conversation parties which she loved to
gather round her. He met Berkeley frequently, but in his writings does not
refer to him. In 1736 also appeared his great work, _The Analogy of
Religion_.

In 1737 Queen Caroline died; on her deathbed she recommended Butler to the
favour of her husband. George seemed to think his obligation sufficiently
discharged by appointing Butler in 1738 to the bishopric of Bristol, the
poorest see in the kingdom. The severe but dignified letter to Walpole, in
which Butler accepted the preferment, showed that the slight was felt and
resented. Two years later, however, the bishop was presented to the rich
deanery of St Paul's, and in 1746 was made clerk of the closet to the king.
In 1747 the primacy was offered to Butler, who, it is said, declined it, on
the ground that "it was too late for him to try to support a falling
church." The story has not the best authority, and though the desponding
tone of some of Butler's writings may give it colour, it is not in harmony
with the rest of his life, for in 1750 he accepted the see of Durham,
vacant by the death of Edward Chandler. His charge to the clergy of the
diocese, the only charge of his known to us, is a weighty and valuable
address on the importance of external forms in religion. This, together
with the fact that over the altar of his private chapel at Bristol he had a
cross of white marble, gave rise to an absurd rumour that the bishop had
too great a leaning towards Romanism. At Durham he was very charitable, and
expended large sums in building and decorating his church and residence.
His private expenses were exceedingly small. Shortly after his translation
his constitution began to break up, and he died on the 16th of June 1752,
at Bath, whither he had removed for his health. He was buried in the
cathedral of Bristol, and over his grave a monument was erected in 1834,
with an epitaph by Southey. According to his express orders, all his MSS.
were burned after his death. Bishop Butler was never married. His personal
appearance has been sketched in a few lines by Hutchinson:--"He was of a
most reverend aspect; his face thin and pale; but there was a divine
placidness which inspired veneration, and expressed the most benevolent
mind. His white hair hung gracefully on his shoulders, and his whole figure
was patriarchal."

Butler was an earnest and deep-thinking Christian, melancholy by
temperament, and grieved by what seemed to him the hopelessly irreligious
condition of his age. In his view not only the religious life of the
nation, but (what he regarded as synonymous) the church itself, was in an
almost hopeless state of decay, as we see from his first and only charge to
the diocese of Durham and [v.04 p.0883] from many passages in the
_Analogy_. And though there was a complete remedy just coming into notice,
in the Evangelical revival, it was not of a kind that commended itself to
Butler, whose type of mind was opposed to everything that savoured of
enthusiasm. He even asked John Wesley, in 1739, to desist from preaching in
his diocese of Bristol, and in a memorable interview with the great
preacher remarked that any claim to the extraordinary gifts of the Holy
Spirit was "a horrid thing, a very horrid thing, sir." Yet Butler was
keenly interested in those very miners of Kingswood among whom Wesley
preached, and left £500 towards building a church for them. It is a great
mistake to suppose that because he took no great part in politics he had no
interest in the practical questions of his time, or that he was so immersed
in metaphysics as to live in the clouds. His intellect was profound and
comprehensive, thoroughly qualified to grapple with the deepest problems of
metaphysics, but by natural preference occupying itself mainly with the
practical and moral. Man's conduct in life, not his theory of the universe,
was what interested him. The _Analogy_ was written to counteract the
practical mischief which he considered wrought by deists and other
freethinkers, and the _Sermons_ lay a good deal of stress on everyday
Christian duties. His style has frequently been blamed for its obscurity
and difficulty, but this is due to two causes: his habit of compressing his
arguments into narrow compass, and of always writing with the opposite side
of the case in view, so that it has been said of the _Analogy_ that it
raises more doubts than it solves. One is also often tempted away from the
main course of the argument by the care and precision with which Butler
formulates small points of detail.

His great work, _The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the
Course and Constitution of Nature_, cannot be adequately appreciated unless
taken in connexion with the circumstances of the period at which it
appeared. It was intended as a defence against the great tide of deistical
speculation (see DEISM), which in the apprehension of many good men seemed
likely to sweep away the restraints of religion and make way for a general
reign of licence. Butler did not enter the lists in the ordinary way. Most
of the literature evoked by the controversy on either side was devoted to
rebutting the attack of some individual opponent. Thus it was Bentley
versus Collins, Sherlock versus Woolston, Law versus Tindal. The _Analogy_,
on the contrary, did not directly refer to the deists at all, and yet it
worked more havoc with their position than all the other books put
together, and remains practically the one surviving landmark of the whole
dispute. Its central motive is to prove that all the objections raised
against revealed or supernatural religion apply with equal force to the
whole constitution of nature, and that the general analogy between the
principles of divine government, as set forth by the biblical revelation,
and those observable in the course of nature, leads us to the warrantable
conclusion that there is one Author of both. Without altogether eschewing
Samuel Clarke's _a priori_ system, Butler relies mainly on the inductive
method, not professing to give an absolute demonstration so much as a
probable proof. And everything is brought into closest relation with "that
which is the foundation of all our hopes and of all our fears; all our
hopes and fears which are of any consideration; I mean a Future Life."

Butler is a typical instance of the English philosophical mind. He will
admit no speculative theory of things. To him the universe is no
realization of intelligence, which is to be deciphered by human thought; it
is a constitution or system, made up of individual facts, through which we
thread our way slowly and inductively. Complete knowledge is impossible;
nay, what we call knowledge of any part of the system is inherently
imperfect. "We cannot have a thorough knowledge of any part without knowing
the whole." So far as experience goes, "to us probability is the very guide
of life." Reason is certainly to be accepted; it is pur natural light, and
the only faculty whereby we can judge of things. But it gives no completed
system of knowledge and in matters of fact affords only probable
conclusions. In this emphatic declaration, that knowledge of the course of
nature is merely probable, Butler is at one with Hume, who was a most
diligent student of the bishop's works. What can come nearer Hume's
celebrated maxim--"Anything may be the cause of anything else," than
Butler's conclusion, "so that any one thing whatever may, for aught we know
to the contrary, be a necessary condition to any other"?

It is this strong grasp or the imperfect character of our knowledge of
nature and of the grounds for its limitation that makes Butler so
formidable an opponent to his deistical contemporaries. He will permit no
anticipations of nature, no _a priori_ construction of experience. "The
constitution of nature is as it is," and no system of abstract principles
can be allowed to take its place. He is willing with Hume to take the
course of experience as the basis of his reasoning, seeing that it is
common ground for himself and his antagonists. In one essential respect,
however, he goes beyond Hume. The course of nature is for him an unmeaning
expression unless it be referred to some author; and he therefore makes
extensive use of the teleological method. This position is assumed
throughout the treatise, and as against the deists with justice, for their
whole argument rested upon the presupposition of the existence of God, the
perfect Ruler of the world.

The premises, then, with which Butler starts are the existence of God, the
known course of nature, and the necessary limitation of our knowledge. What
does he wish to prove? It is not his intention _to prove God's perfect
moral government over the world or the truth of religion_. His work is in
no sense a philosophy of religion. His purpose is entirely defensive; he
wishes to answer objections that have been brought against religion, and to
examine certain difficulties that have been alleged as insuperable. And
this is to be effected in the first place by showing that from the
obscurities and inexplicabilities we meet with in nature we may reasonably
expect to find similar difficulties in the scheme of religion. If
difficulties be found in the course and constitution of nature, whose
author is admitted to be God, surely the existence of similar difficulties
in the plan of religion can be no valid objection against its truth and
divine origin. That this is at least in great part Butler's object is plain
from the slightest inspection of his work. It has seemed to many to be an
unsatisfactory mode of arguing and but a poor defence of religion; and so
much the author is willing to allow. But in the general course of his
argument a somewhat wider issue appears. He seeks to show not only that the
difficulties in the systems of natural and revealed religion have
counterparts in nature, but also that the facts of nature, far from being
adverse to the principles of religion, are a distinct ground for inferring
their probable truth. He endeavours to show that the balance of probability
is entirely in favour of the scheme of religion, that this probability is
the natural conclusion from an inspection of nature, and that, as religion
is a matter of practice, we are bound to adopt the course of action which
is even probably the right one. If, we may imagine him saying, the precepts
of religion are entirely analogous in their partial obscurity and apparent
difficulty to the ordinary course of nature disclosed to us by experience,
then it is credible that these precepts are true; not only can no
objections be drawn against them from experience, but the balance of
probability is in their favour. This mode of reasoning from what is known
of nature to the probable truth of what is contained in religion is the
celebrated method of analogy.

Although Butler's work is peculiarly one of those which ought not to be
exhibited in outline, for its strength lies in the organic completeness
with which the details are wrought into the whole argument, yet a summary
of his results will throw more light on the method than any description
can.

Keeping clearly in view his premises--the existence of God and the limited
nature of knowledge--Butler begins by inquiring into the fundamental
pre-requisite of all natural religion--the immortality of the soul.
Evidently the stress of the whole question is here. Were man not immortal,
religion would be of little value. Now, Butler does not attempt to prove
the truth of the doctrine; that proof comes from another quarter. The only
questions he asks are--Does experience forbid us to admit immortality as a
possibility? Does experience furnish any probable reason for inferring that
immortality is a fact? To the first of these a negative, to the second an
affirmative answer is returned. All the analogies of our life here lead us
to conclude that we shall continue to live after death; and neither from
experience nor from the reason of the thing can any argument against the
possibility of this be drawn. Immortality, then, is not unreasonable; it is
probable. If, he continues, we are to live after death, it is of importance
for us to consider on what our future state may depend; for we may be
either happy or miserable. Now, whatever speculation may say as to God's
purpose being necessarily universal benevolence, experience plainly shows
us that our present happiness and misery depend upon our conduct, and are
not distributed indiscriminately. Therefore no argument can be brought from
experience against the possibility of our future happiness and misery
likewise depending upon conduct. The whole analogy of nature is in favour
of such a dispensation; it is therefore reasonable or probable. Further, we
are not only under a government in which actions considered simply as such
are rewarded and punished, but it is known from experience that virtue and
vice are followed by their natural consequents--happiness and misery. And
though the distribution of these rewards is not perfect, all hindrances are
plainly temporary or accidental. It may therefore be concluded that the
balance of probability is in favour of God's government in general being a
moral scheme, where virtue and vice are respectively rewarded and punished.
It need not be objected to the justice of [v.04 p.0884] this arrangement
that men are sorely tempted, and may very easily be brought to neglect that
on which their future welfare depends, for the very same holds good in
nature. Experience shows man to be in a state of trial so far as regards
the present; it cannot, therefore, be unreasonable to suppose that we are
in a similar state as regards the future. Finally, it can surely never be
advanced as an argument against the truth of religion that there are many
things in it which we do not comprehend, when experience exhibits to us
such a copious stock of incomprehensibilities in the ordinary course and
constitution of nature.

It cannot have escaped observation, that in the foregoing course of
argument the conclusion is invariably from experience of the present order
of things to the reasonableness or probability of some other system--of a
future state. The inference in all cases passes beyond the field of
experience; that it does so may be and has been advanced as a conclusive
objection against it. See for example a passage in Hume, _Works_ (ed.
1854), iv. 161-162, cf. p. 160, which says, in short, that no argument from
experience can ever carry us beyond experience itself. However well
grounded this reasoning may be, it altogether misses the point at which
Butler aimed, and is indeed a misconception of the nature of analogical
argument. Butler never attempts to _prove_ that a future life regulated
according to the requirements of ethical law is a reality; he only desires
to show that the conception of such a life is not irreconcilable with what
we know of the course of nature, and that consequently it is _not
unreasonable_ to suppose that there is such a life. Hume readily grants
this much, though he hints at a formidable difficulty which the plan of the
_Analogy_ prevented Butler from facing, the proof of the existence of God.
Butler seems willing to rest satisfied with his opponents' admission that
the being of God is proved by reason, but it would be hard to discover how,
upon his own conception of the nature and limits of reason, such a proof
could ever be given. It has been said that it is no flaw in Butler's
argument that he has left atheism as a possible mode of viewing the
universe, because his work was not directed against the atheists. It is,
however, in some degree a defect; for his defence of religion against the
deists rests on a view of reason which would for ever preclude a
demonstrative proof of God's existence.

If, however, his premises be granted, and the narrow issue kept in view,
the argument may be admitted as perfectly satisfactory. From what we know
of the present order of things, it is not unreasonable to suppose that
there will be a future state of rewards and punishments, distributed
according to ethical law. When the argument from analogy seems to go beyond
this, a peculiar difficulty starts up. Let it be granted that our happiness
and misery in this life depend upon our conduct--are, in fact, the rewards
and punishments attached by God to certain modes of action, the natural
conclusion from analogy would seem to be that our future happiness or the
reverse will probably depend upon our actions in the future state. Butler,
on the other hand, seeks to show that analogy leads us to believe that our
future state will depend upon our present conduct. His argument, that the
punishment of an imprudent act often follows after a long interval may be
admitted, but does not advance a single step towards the conclusion that
imprudent acts will be punished hereafter. So, too, with the attempt to
show that from the analogy of the present life we may not unreasonably
infer that virtue and vice will receive their respective rewards and
punishments hereafter; it may be admitted that virtuous and vicious acts
are naturally looked upon as objects of reward or punishment, and treated
accordingly, but we may refuse to allow the argument to go further, and to
infer a perfect distribution of justice dependent upon our conduct here.
Butler could strengthen his argument only by bringing forward prominently
the absolute requirements of the ethical consciousness, in which case he
would have approximated to Kant's position with regard to this very
problem. That he did not do so is, perhaps, due to his strong desire to use
only such premises as his adversaries the deists were willing to allow.

As against the deists, however, he may be allowed to have made out his
point, that the substantial doctrines of natural religion are not opposed
to reason and experience, and may be looked upon as credible. The positive
proof of them is to be found in revealed religion, which has disclosed to
us not only these truths, but also a further scheme not discoverable by the
natural light. Here, again, Butler joins issue with his opponents. Revealed
religion had been declared to be nothing but a republication of the truths
of natural religion (Matthew Tindal, _Christianity as Old as the
Creation_), and all revelation had been objected to as impossible. To show
that such objections are invalid, and that a revelation is at least not
impossible, Butler makes use mainly of his doctrine of human ignorance.
Revelation had been rejected because it lay altogether beyond the sphere of
reason and could not therefore be grasped by human intelligence. But the
same is true of nature; there are in the ordinary course of things
inexplicabilities; indeed we may be said with truth to know nothing, for
there is no medium between perfect and completed comprehension of the whole
system of things, which we manifestly have not, and mere faith grounded on
probability. Is it unreasonable to suppose that in a revealed system there
should be the same superiority to our intelligence? If we cannot explain or
foretell by reason what the exact course of events in nature will be, is it
to be expected that we can do so with regard to the wider scheme of God's
revealed providence? Is it not probable that there will be many things not
explicable by us? From our experience of the course of nature it would
appear that no argument can be brought against the possibility of a
revelation. Further, though it is the province of reason to test this
revealed system, and though it be granted that, should it contain anything
immoral, it must be rejected, yet a careful examination of the particulars
will show that there is no incomprehensibility or difficulty in them which
has not a counterpart in nature. The whole scheme of revealed principles
is, therefore, not unreasonable, and the analogy of nature and natural
religion would lead us to infer its truth. If, finally, it be asked, how a
system professing to be revealed can substantiate its claim, the answer is,
by means of the historical evidences, such as miracles and fulfilment of
prophecy.

It would be unfair to Butler's argument to demand from it answers to
problems which had not in his time arisen, and to which, even if they had
then existed, the plan of his work would not have extended. Yet it is at
least important to ask how far, and in what sense, the _Analogy_ can be
regarded as a positive and valuable contribution to theology. What that
work has done is to prove to the consistent deist that no objections can be
drawn from reason or experience against natural or revealed religion, and,
consequently, that the things objected to are not incredible and may be
proved by external evidence. But the deism of the 17th century is a phase
of thought that has no living reality now, and the whole aspect of the
religious problem has been completely changed. To a generation that has
been moulded by the philosophy of Kant and Hegel, by the historical
criticism of modern theology, and by all that has been done in the field of
comparative religion, the argument of the _Analogy_ cannot but appear to
lie quite outside the field of controversy. To Butler the Christian
religion, and by that he meant the orthodox Church of England system, was a
moral scheme revealed by a special act of the divine providence, the truth
of which was to be judged by the ordinary canons of evidence. The whole
stood or fell on historical grounds. A speculative construction of religion
was abhorrent to him, a thing of which he seems to have thought the human
mind naturally incapable. The religious consciousness does not receive from
him the slightest consideration. The _Analogy_, in fact, has and can have
but little influence on the present state of theology; it was not a book
for all time, but was limited to the problems of the period at which it
appeared.

Throughout the whole of the _Analogy_ it is manifest that the interest
which lay closest to Butler's heart was the ethical. His whole cast of
thinking was practical. The moral nature of man, his conduct in life, is
that on account of which alone an inquiry into religion is of importance.
The systematic account of this moral nature is to be found in the famous
_Sermons preached at the Chapel of the Rolls_, especially in the first
three. In these sermons Butler has made substantial contributions to
ethical science, and it may be said with confidence, that in their own
department nothing superior in value appeared during the long interval
between Aristotle and Kant. To both of these great thinkers he has certain
analogies. He resembles the first in his method of investigating the end
which human nature is intended to realize; he reminds of the other by the
consistency with which he upholds the absolute supremacy of moral law.

In his ethics, as in his theology, Butler had constantly in view a certain
class of adversaries, consisting partly of the philosophic few, partly of
the fashionably educated many, who all participated in one common mode of
thinking. The keynote of this tendency had been struck by Hobbes, in whose
philosophy man was regarded as a mere selfish sensitive machine, moved
solely by pleasures and pains. Cudworth and Clarke had tried to place
ethics on a nobler footing, but their speculations were too abstract for
Butler and not sufficiently "applicable to the several particular relations
and circumstances of life."

His inquiry is based on teleological principles. "Every work, both of
nature and art, is a system; and as every particular thing both natural and
artificial is for some use or purpose out of or beyond itself, one may add
to what has been already brought into the idea of a system its
conduciveness to this one or more ends." Ultimately this view of nature, as
the sphere of the realization of final causes, rests on a theological
basis; but Butler does not introduce prominently into his ethics the
specifically theological groundwork, and may be thought willing to ground
his principle on experience. The ethical question then is, as with
Aristotle, what is the [Greek: telos] of man? The answer to this question
is to be obtained by an analysis of the facts of human nature, whence,
Butler thinks, "it will as fully appear that this our nature, _i.e._
constitution, is adapted to virtue, as from the idea of a watch it appears
that its nature, _i.e._ constitution or system, is adapted to measure
time." Such analysis had been already attempted by Hobbes, and the result
he came to was that man naturally is adapted only for a life of
selfishness,--his end is the procuring of pleasure and the avoidance of
pain. A closer examination, however, shows that this at least is false. The
truth of the counter propositions, that man is [Greek: phusei politikos],
that the full development of his being is impossible apart from society,
becomes manifest on examination of the facts. For while self-love plays a
most important part in the human economy, there is no less evidently a
natural principle of benevolence. Moreover, among the particular [v.04
p.0885] passions, appetites and desires there are some whose tendency is as
clearly towards the general good as that of others is towards the
satisfaction of the self. Finally, that principle in man which reflects
upon actions and the springs of actions, unmistakably sets the stamp of its
approbation upon conduct that tends towards the general good. It is clear,
therefore, that from this point of view the sum of practical morals might
be given in Butler's own words--"that mankind is a community, that we all
stand in a relation to each other, that there is a public end and interest
of society, which each particular is obliged to promote." But deeper
questions remain.

The threefold division into passions and affections, self-love and
benevolence, and conscience, is Butler's celebrated analysis of human
nature as found in his first sermon. But by regarding benevolence less as a
definite desire for the general good as such than as kind affection for
particular individuals, he practically eliminates it as a regulative
principle and reduces the authorities in the polity of the soul to
two--conscience and self-love.

But the idea of human nature is not completely expressed by saying that it
consists of reason and the several passions. "Whoever thinks it worth while
to consider this matter thoroughly should begin by stating to himself
exactly the idea of a system, economy or constitution of any particular
nature; and he will, I suppose, find that it is one or a whole, made up of
several parts, but yet that the several parts, even considered as a whole,
do not complete the idea, unless in the notion of a whole you include the
relations and respects which these parts have to each other." This fruitful
conception of man's ethical nature as an organic unity Butler owes directly
to Shaftesbury and indirectly to Aristotle; it is the strength and
clearness with which he has grasped it that gives peculiar value to his
system.

The special relation among the parts of our nature to which Butler alludes
is the subordination of the particular passions to the universal principle
of reflection or conscience. This relation is the peculiarity, the _cross_,
of man; and when it is said that virtue consists in following nature, we
mean that it consists in pursuing the course of conduct dictated by this
superior faculty. Man's function is not fulfilled by obeying the passions,
or even cool self-love, but by obeying conscience. That conscience has a
natural supremacy, that it is superior in kind, is evident from the part it
plays in the moral constitution. We judge a man to have acted wrongly,
_i.e._ unnaturally, when he allows the gratification of a passion to injure
his happiness, _i.e._ when he acts in accordance with passion and against
self-love. It would be impossible to pass this judgment if self-love were
not regarded as superior in kind to the passions, and this superiority
results from the fact that it is the peculiar province of self-love to take
a view of the several passions and decide as to their relative importance.
But there is in man a faculty which takes into consideration all the
springs of action, including self-love, and passes judgment upon them,
approving some and condemning others. From its very nature this faculty is
supreme in authority, if not in power; it reflects upon all the other
active powers, and pronounces absolutely upon their moral quality.
Superintendency and authority are constituent parts of its very idea. We
are under obligation to obey the law revealed in the judgments of this
faculty, for it is the law of our nature. And to this a religious sanction
may be added, for "consciousness of a rule or guide of action, in creatures
capable of considering it as given them by their Maker, not only raises
immediately a sense of duty, but also a sense of security in following it,
and a sense of danger in deviating from it." Virtue then consists in
following the true law of our nature, that is, conscience. Butler, however,
is by no means very explicit in his analysis of the functions to be
ascribed to conscience. He calls it the Principle of Reflection, the Reflex
Principle of Approbation, and assigns to it as its province the motives or
propensions to action. It takes a view of these, approves or disapproves,
impels to or restrains from action. But at times he uses language that
almost compels one to attribute to him the popular view of conscience as
passing its judgments with unerring certainty on individual acts. Indeed
his theory is weakest exactly at the point where the real difficulty
begins. We get from him no satisfactory answer to the inquiry, What course
of action is approved by conscience? Every one, he seems to think, knows
what virtue is, and a philosophy of ethics is complete if it can be shown
that such a course of action harmonizes with human nature. When pressed
still further, he points to justice, veracity and the common good as
comprehensive ethical ends. His whole view of the moral government led him
to look upon human nature and virtue as connected by a sort of
pre-established harmony. His ethical principle has in it no possibility of
development into a system of actual duties; it has no content. Even on the
formal side it is a little difficult to see what part conscience plays. It
seems merely to set the stamp of its approbation on certain courses of
action to which we are led by the various passions and affections; it has
in itself no originating power. How or why it approves of some and not of
others is left unexplained. Butler's moral theory, like those of his
English contemporaries and successors, is defective from not perceiving
that the notion of duty can have real significance only when connected with
the will or practical reason, and that only in reason which wills itself
have we a principle capable of development into an ethical system. It has
received very small consideration at the hands of German historians of
ethics.

AUTHORITIES.--See T. Bartlett, _Memoirs of Butler_ (1839). The standard
edition of Butler's works is that in 2 vols. (Oxford, 1844). Editions of
the _Analogy_ are very numerous; that by Bishop William Fitzgerald (1849)
contains a valuable Life and Notes. W. Whewell published an edition of the
_Three Sermons_, with Introduction. Modern editions of the _Works_ are
those by W.E. Gladstone (2 vols. with a 3rd vol. of _Studies Subsidiary_,
1896), and J.H. Bernard, (2 vols. in the English Theological Library,
1900). For the history of the religious works contemporary with the
_Analogy_, see Lechler, _Gesch. d. Engl. Deismus_; M. Pattison, in _Essays
and Reviews_; W. Hunt, _Religious Thought in England_, vols., ii. and iii.;
L. Stephen, _English Thought in the 18th Century_; J.H. Overton and F.
Relton, _The English Church from the Accession of George I. to the End of
the 18th Century_.

(R. AD.; A. J. G.)

BUTLER, NICHOLAS MURRAY (1862- ), American educator, was born at Elizabeth,
New Jersey, on the 2nd of April 1862. He graduated at Columbia College in
1882, was a graduate fellow in philosophy there from 1882 to 1884, when he
took the degree of Ph.D., and then studied for a year in Paris and Berlin.
He was an assistant in philosophy at Columbia in 1885-1886, tutor in
1886-1889, adjunct professor of philosophy, ethics and psychology in
1889-1890, becoming full professor in 1890, and dean of the faculty of
philosophy in 1890-1902. From 1887 until 1891 he was the first president of
the New York college for the training of teachers (later the Teachers'
College of Columbia University), which he had personally planned and
organized. In 1891 he founded and afterwards edited the _Educational
Review_, an influential educational magazine. He soon came to be looked
upon as one of the foremost authorities on educational matters in America,
and in 1894 was elected president of the National Educational Association.
He was also a member of the New Jersey state board of education from 1887
to 1895, and was president of the Paterson (N.J.) board of education in
1892-1893. In 1901 he succeeded Seth Low as president of Columbia
University. Besides editing several series of books, including "The Great
Educators" and "The Teachers' Professional Library," he published _The
Meaning of Education_ (1898), a collection of essays; and two series of
addresses, _True and False Democracy_ (1907), and _The American as he is_
(1908).

BUTLER (or BOTELER), SAMUEL (1612-1680), English poet, author of
_Hudibras_, son of Samuel Butler, a small farmer, was baptized at
Strensham, Worcestershire, on the 8th of February 1612. He was educated at
the King's school, Worcester, under Henry Bright, the record of whose zeal
as a teacher is preserved by Fuller (_Worthies_, Worcestershire). After
leaving school he served a Mr Jeffereys of Earl's Croome, Worcestershire,
in the capacity of justice's clerk, and is supposed to have thus gained his
knowledge of law and law terms. He also employed himself at Earl's Croome
in general study, and particularly in painting, which he is said to have
thought of adopting as a profession. It is probable, however, that art has
not lost by his change of mind, for, according to one of his editors, in
1774 his pictures "served to stop windows and save the tax; indeed they
were not fit for much else." He was then recommended to Elizabeth, countess
of Kent. At her home at Wrest, Bedfordshire, he had access to a good
library, and there too he met Selden, who sometimes employed him as his
secretary. But his third sojourn, with Sir Samuel Luke at Cople Hoo,
Bedfordshire, was not only apparently the longest, but also much the most
important in its effects on his career and works. We are nowhere informed
in what capacity Butler served Sir Samuel Luke, or how he came to reside in
the house of a noted Puritan and Parliament man. In the family of this
"valiant Mamaluke," who, whether he was or was not the original of
Hudibras, was certainly a rigid Presbyterian, "a colonel in the army of the
Parliament, scoutmaster-general for Bedfordshire and governor of Newport
Pagnell," Butler must have had the most abundant opportunities of studying
from the life those who were to be the victims of his satire; he is
supposed to have taken some hints for his caricature from Sir Henry
Rosewell of Ford Abbey, Devonshire. But we know nothing positive of him
until the Restoration, when he was appointed secretary to Richard Vaughan,
2nd earl of Carbery, lord president of the principality of Wales, who made
him steward of Ludlow Castle, an office which he held from January 1661
[v.04 p.0886] to January 1662. About this time he married a rich lady,
variously described as a Miss Herbert and as a widow named Morgan. His
wife's fortune was afterwards, however, lost.

Early in 1663 _Hudibras: The First Part: written in the Time of the Late
Wars_, was published, but this, the first genuine edition, had been
preceded in 1662 by an unauthorized one. On the 26th of December Pepys
bought it, and though neither then nor afterwards could he see the wit of
"so silly an abuse of the Presbyter knight going to the wars," he
repeatedly testifies to its extraordinary popularity. A spurious second
part appeared within the year. This determined the poet to bring out the
second part (licensed on the 7th of November 1663, printed 1664), which if
possible exceeded the first in popularity. From this time till 1678, the
date of the publication of the third part, we hear nothing certain of
Butler. On the publication of _Hudibras_ he was sent for by Lord Chancellor
Hyde (Clarendon), says Aubrey, and received many promises, none of which
was fulfilled. He is said to have received a gift of £300 from Charles II.,
and to have been secretary to George Villiers, 2nd duke of Buckingham, when
the latter was chancellor of the university of Cambridge. Most of his
biographers, in their eagerness to prove the ill-treatment which Butler is
supposed to have received, disbelieve both these stories, perhaps without
sufficient reason. Butler's satire on Buckingham in his _Characters_
(_Remains_, 1759) shows such an intimate knowledge that it is probable the
second story is true. Two years after the publication of the third part of
_Hudibras_ he died, on the 25th of September 1680, and was buried by his
friend Longueville, a bencher of the Middle Temple, in the churchyard of St
Paul's, Covent Garden. He was, we are told, "of a leonine-coloured hair,
sanguine, choleric, middle-sized, strong." A portrait by Lely at Oxford and
others elsewhere represent him as somewhat hard-featured.

Of the neglect of Butler by the court something must be said. It must be
remembered that the complaints on the subject supposed to have been uttered
by the poet all occur in the spurious posthumous works, that men of letters
have been at all times but too prone to complain of lack of patronage, that
Butler's actual service was rendered when the day was already won, and that
the pathetic stories of the poet starving and dying in want are
contradicted by the best authority--Charles Longueville, son of the poet's
friend--who asserted that Butler, though often disappointed, was never
reduced to anything like want or beggary and did not die in any person's
debt. But the most significant notes on the subject are Aubrey's,[1] that
"he might have had preferments at first, but would not accept any but very
good, so at last he had none at all, and died in want"; and the memorandum
of the same author, that "satirical wits disoblige whom they converse with,
&c., consequently make to themselves many enemies and few friends, and this
was his manner and case."

Three monuments have been erected to the poet's memory--the first in
Westminster Abbey in 1721, by John Barber, mayor of London, who is
spitefully referred to by Pope for daring to connect his name with
Butler's. In 1786 a tablet was placed in St Paul's, Covent Garden, by
residents of the parish. This was destroyed in 1845. Later, another was set
up at Strensham by John Taylor of that place. Perhaps the happiest epitaph
on him is one by John Dennis, which calls Butler "a whole species of poets
in one."

_Hudibras_ itself, though probably quoted as often as ever, has dropped
into the class of books which are more quoted than read. In reading it, it
is of the utmost importance to comprehend clearly and to bear constantly in
mind the purpose of the author in writing it. This purpose is evidently not
artistic but polemic, to show in the most unmistakable characters the
vileness and folly of the anti-royalist party. Anything like a regular
plot--the absence of which has often been deplored or excused--would have
been for this end not merely a superfluity but a mistake, as likely to
divert the attention and perhaps even enlist some sympathy for the heroes.
Anything like regular character-drawing would have been equally unnecessary
and dangerous--for to represent anything but monsters, some alleviating
strokes must have been introduced. The problem, therefore, was to produce
characters just sufficiently unlike lay-figures to excite and maintain a
moderate interest, and to set