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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 185, May 14, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 185.]
Saturday, May 14, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                            Page
    English Books of Emblems, by the Rev. Thomas Corser                469
    Author of Tract on "Advantages of the East India
      Trade, 1720, 8vo.," by James Crossley                            471
    "Ake" and "Ache," by Thomas Keightley                              472
    Localities mentioned in Anglo-Saxon Charters, by B.
      Williams                                                         473
    Inedited Letter                                                    473
    A Shaksperian Book                                                 474
    MINOR NOTES:--Shakspeare's Monument--Archbishop
      Leighton and Pope: Curious Coincidence Of Thought
      and Expression--Grant of Slaves--Sealing-wax                     475

    Walmer Castle, by C. Waymor                                        475
    Scotchmen in Poland, by Peter Cunningham                           475
    Bishop Juxon and Walton's Polyglott Bible                          476
    MINOR QUERIES:--Was Andrew Marvell poisoned?--Anonymous
      Pamphlet by Dr. Wallis--Mrs. Cobb's
      Diary--Compass Flower--Nuns of the Hotel Dieu--
      Purlieu--Jennings Family--Latimer's Brothers-in-
      Law--Autobiographical Sketch--Schonbornerus--Symbol
      of Globe and Cross--Booth Family--Ennui--Bankruptcy
      Records--Golden Bees--The Grindstone
      Oak--Hogarth--Adamsons of Perth--Cursitor Barons
      of the Exchequer--Syriac Scriptures                              476

    Psalmanazar, by Rev. Dr. Maitland                                  479
    Consecrated Roses, &c., by William J. Thoms                        480
    Campbell's Imitations                                              481
    "The Hanover Rat"                                                  481
    Font Inscriptions                                                  482
    Irish Rhymes: English Provincialisms: Lowland Scotch               483
    Pictures by Hogarth                                                484
      Process--Colouring Collodion Pictures--Wanted, a
      simple Test for a good Lens--Photographic Tent:
      Restoration of Faded Negatives                                   484
    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Gibbon's Library--Robert
      Drury--Grub Street Journal--Wives of Ecclesiastics--Blanco
      White--Captain Ayloff--General
      Monk and the University of Cambridge--The Ribston
      Pippin--Cross and Pile--Ellis Walker--Blackguard--
      Talleyrand--Lord King and Sclater--"Beware the
      Cat"--"Bis dat qui cito dat"--High Spirits a Presage
      of Evil--Colonel Thomas Walcott--Wood of the
      Cross: Mistletoe--Irish Office for Prisoners--Andries
      de Græff: Portraits at Brickwall House--"Qui facit
      per alium, facit per se"--Christian Names--Lamech's
      War-song--Traitor's Ford                                         485

    Notes on Books, &c.                                                489
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                       490
    Notices to Correspondents                                          490
    Advertisements                                                     490

       *       *       *       *       *



It is a remarkable circumstance that whilst the emblems of Alciatus Vent
through almost innumerable editions, and were translated into most of the
continental languages, no version of these Emblems should ever have been
printed in this country, although we believe that MS. translations of them
are in existence. It is remarkable also that more than half century should
have elapsed after their appearance, before any English publication on this
subject should have been committed to the press. Our English authors of
Books of Emblems were not only late in their appearance, but are few in
number, and in their embellishments not very original, the plates being for
the most part mere copies of those already published abroad by Herman Hugo,
Rollenhagius, and others. The notices of the English writers on this
entertaining subject are also but meagre and imperfect, and restricted to a
very few works; both Dibdin, in his slight and rapid sketch on Books of
Emblems in the _Bibliogr. Decam._, vol. i. p. 254., and the writer in the
_Retrosp. Rev._, vol. ix. p. 123., having confined their remarks to some
one or two of the leading writers only, Arwaker, Peacham, Quarles, Whitney,
and Wither. With the exception of an occasional article in the _Bibl. Ang.
Poet._, _Cens. Liter. Restituta_, and similar bibliographical volumes, we
are not aware that any other notice has been taken of this particular
branch of our literature[1], nor does there exist, {470} that we know of,
any complete, separate, and distinct catalogue of such works.

Being anxious, therefore, to obtain a correct account of what may be termed
the English Series of Books of Emblems, I inclose a list of all those in my
own possession, and of the titles of such others as I have been able to
collect; and I shall be glad if any of your readers can make any additions
to the series, confining them at the same time strictly to Books of
Emblems, and not admitting fables, heraldic works, or older publications
not coming within the same category. A good comprehensive work on this
subject of Books of Emblems, not confined merely to the English series, but
embracing the whole foreign range, giving an account both of the writers of
the verses, and also of the engravers, and the different styles of art in
each, is still a great desideratum in our literary history; and if ably and
artistically done, with suitable illustrations of the various engravings
and other ornaments, would form a very interesting, instructive, and
entertaining volume; and I sincerely hope that the time will not be far
distant when such a volume will be found in our libraries.

I conclude with a Query of inquiry, whether anything is known of the
present resting-place of a _Treatise on Emblems_, which the late Mr. Beloe
informs us, at the close of his _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. vi. p. 406., he
had written at "considerable length," from communications furnished him by
the Marquis of Blandford, whose collection of Emblems was at that time one
of the richest and most extensive in the kingdom, and whose treatise, if
published, might perhaps prove a valuable addition to our information on
this portion of our literature.

I would also inquire who was Thomas Combe, and what did he write, who is
thus mentioned by Meres in his _Palladis Tamia: Wits Treasury_, Lond. 1598,
8vo., as one of our English writers of Emblems: "As the Latines have those
emblematists, Andreas Alciatus, Reusnerus, and Sambucus, so we have these,
Geffrey Whitney, Andrew Willet, and _Thomas Combe_." Is anything known of
the latter, or of his writings?


Stand Rectory.

_List of English Writers of Books of Emblems._

A. (H.) Parthenia Sacra, of the Mysterious and Delicious Garden of the
Sacred Parthenis: Symbolically set forth and enriched with Pious Devises
and Emblems for the entertainment of devout Soules, &c. By H. A. Plates.
8vo. Printed by John Cousturier, 1633.

Abricht (John A. M.). Divine Emblems. Embellished with Etchings of Copper
after the fashion of Master Francis Quarles. 12mo. Lond. 1838.

Arwaker (Edmund). Pia Desideria, or Divine Addresses in Three Books. With
47 Copper Plates by Sturt. 8vo. Lond. 1686.

Ashrea: or the Grove of Beatitudes. Represented in Emblemes: and by the Art
of Memory to be read on our Blessed Saviour Crucified, &c. 12mo. Lond.

Astry (Sir James). The Royal Politician represented in One Hundred Emblems.
Written in Spanish by Don Diego Saavedra Faxardo, &c. Done into English
from the Original. By Sir James Astry. In Two Vols. With Portrait of
William Duke of Gloucester, and other Plates. 8vo. Lond. 1700. Printed for
Matthew Gylliflower.

Ayres (Philip). Emblemata Amatoria. Emblems of Love in Four Languages.
Dedicated to the Ladys. By Ph. Ayres, Esq. With 44 Plates on Copper. 8vo.
Lond. 1683.

Barclay (Alexander).[2] The Ship of Fooles, wherein is shewed the folly of
all States, &c. Translated out of Latin into Englishe. With numerous
Woodcuts. Imprinted by John Cawood. Folio, bl. letter, Lond. 1570.

Blount (Thomas). The Art of making Devises: treating of Hieroglyphicks,
Symboles, Emblemes, Ænigmas, &c. Translated from the French of Henry
Estienne. 4to. Lond. 1646.

Bunyan (John). Emblems by J. Bunyan. [I have not seen this work, but
suspect it is only a common chap-book. A copy was in one of Lilly's

Burton (R.). Choice Emblems, Divine and Moral, Ancient and Modern; or
Delights for the Ingenious in above Fifty Select Emblems, Curiously
Ingraven upon Copper Plates. With engraved Frontispiece, &c. 12mo. Lond.
1721. Printed for Edmund Parker.

Castanoza (John). The Spiritual Conflict, or The Arraignment of the Spirit
of Selfe-Love and Sensuality at the Barre of Truth and Reason. First
published in Spanish by the Reverend Father John Castanoza, afterwards put
into the Latin, Italian, German, French, and English Languages. With
numerous Engravings. 12mo. at Paris, 1652.

Choice Emblems, Natural, Historical, Fabulous, Moral, and Divine. 12mo.
Lond. 1772.

Colman (W.). La Dance Machabre, or Death's Duell, by W. C. With engraved
Frontispiece by Cecil, and Plate. 8vo. Lond. 163--.

Compendious Emblematist; or Writing and Drawing made easy. With many
Plates. 4to. Lond.

Emblems Divine, Moral, Natural, and Historical, Expressed in Sculpture, and
applied to the several Ages, Occasions, and Conditions of the Life of Man.
By a Person of Quality. With Woodcut Engravings and Metrical Illustrations.
8vo. Lond. 1673. Printed by J. C. for Will. Miller.

Emblems for the Entertainment and Improvement of Youth, with Explanations,
on 62 Copper Plates. White Knights. 8vo. n. d., Part I.

Emblems of Mortality. With Holbein's Cuts of the Dance of Death, modernized
and engraved by Bewick. Three Editions. 8vo. Lond. 1789.

Farlie (Robert). Lychnocausia, sive Moralia Facum Emblemata. Lights Morall
Emblems. Kalendarium {471} Humanæ Vitæ. The Kalendar of Man's Life. With
Frontispiece and numerous Woodcuts. 8vo. Lond. 1638.

Fransi (Abrahami). Insignium Armorum Emblematum Hieroglyphicorum et
Symbolorum Explicatio. No Plates. 4to. Lond. 1588.

G. (H.). The Mirrour of Majestie: or the Badges of Honour conceitedly
emblazoned. With Emblems annexed. 4to. 1618. [This is the rarest of the
English series; only two copies known, one perfect _penes_ me, and another

Gent (Thomas). Divine Entertainments; of Penitential Desires, Sighs, and
Groans of the Wounded Soul. In Two Books, adorned with suitable Cuts. In
Verse. With numerous Woodcuts. 12mo. Lond. 1724.

Hall (John). Emblems, with elegant Figures newly published. Sparkles of
Divine Love. Engraved Frontispiece and Plates. 12mo. Lond. 1648.

Heywood (Thomas). Pleasant Dialogues and Dramas, selected out of Lucian,
&c. With sundry Emblems, extracted from the most elegant Iacobus Catsius,
&c. 8vo. Lond. 1637. No Plates.

Jenner (Thomas). The Soules Solace; or Thirtie and one Spirituall Emblems.
With Plates on Copper, and Verses. 4to. Lond. 1631.

---- The Ages of Sin, of Sinnes Birth and Growth. With the Steppes and
Degrees of Sin, from Thought to finall Impenitence. Nine leaves containing
nine emblematical engravings, each with six metrical lines beneath. 4to. No
printer's name, place, or date.

---- A Work for none but Angels and Men, that is, to be able to look into,
and to know themselves, &c. It contains eight Engravings emblematic of the
Senses, and is in fact Sir John Davis's poem on the Immortality of the Soul
turned into prose. 4to. Lond. 1650. Printed by M. S. for Thomas Jenner.

---- Wonderful and Strange Punishments inflicted on the Breakers of the Ten
Commandments. With curious Plates. 4to. Lond. 1650.

Montenay (Georgette de). A Booke of Armes, or Remembrance: wherein are a
hundred Godly Emblemata; first invented and elaborated in the French
Tongue, but now in severall Languages. With Plates. 8vo. Franckfort. 1619.

Murray (Rev. T. B.). An Alphabet of Emblems. With neatly executed Woodcuts.
12mo. Lond. 1844.

Peacham (Henry). Minerva Britannia, or, A Garden of Heroickall Devises,
furnished and adorned with Emblemes and Impressas, &c. Numerous Woodcuts.
4to. Lond. n. d. (1612.)

Protestant's (The) Vade Mecum, or Popery Displayed in its proper Colours,
in Thirty Emblems, lively representing all the Jesuitical Plots against
this Nation. With thirty engraved Emblems on copper. 8vo. Lond. 1680.
Printed for Daniel Brown.

Quarles (Francis). Emblemes by Fra. Quarles. The First Edition. With Plates
by W. Marshall and others. Rare. 8vo. Lond. 1635. Printed by G. M. at John

---- Hieroglyphickes of the Life of Man, by Fra. Quarles. In a Series of
engraved Emblems on Copper by Will. Marshall. With Verses. 8vo. Lond. 1638.
Printed by M. Flesher.

Richardson (George). Iconology; or a Collection of Emblematical Figures,
Moral and Instructive. In Two Volumes. With Plates. 4to. Lond. 1777-79.

Riley (George). Emblems for Youth. Reprinted in 1775, and again in 1779.
12mo. Lond. 1772.

Ripa (Cæsar). Iconologia; or Morall Emblems. Wherein are express'd various
Images of Virtues, Vices, &c. Illustrated with 326 Human Figures engraved
on Copper. By the care and charge of P. Tempest. 4to. Lond. 1709.

S. (P.) The Heroical Devises of M. Claudius Paradin, Canon of Beauvieu.
Whereunto are added the Lord Gabriel Symons and others. Translated out of
Latin into English by P. S. With Woodcuts. 16mo. Lond. 1591. Imprinted by
William Kearney.

Stirry (Thomas). A Rot among the Bishops, or a terrible Tempest in the Sea
of Canterbury, a Poem with lively Emblems. A Satire against Archbishop
Laud. With Four Wood Engravings. Rare. 8vo. Lond. 1641.

Thurston (J.). Religious Emblems; being a Series of Engravings on Wood,
from the Designs of J. Thurston, with Descriptions by the Rev. J. Thomas.
4to. Lond. 1810.

Vicars (John). A Sight of y^e Transactions of these latter Yeares
Emblemized with engraven Plates, which men may read without Spectacles.
Collected by John Vicars. With Engravings of Copper. 4to. Lond. n. d., are
to be sould by Thomas Jenner at his shop.

---- Prodigies and Apparitions, or England's Warning Pieces. Being a
seasonable Description by lively figures and apt illustrations of many
remarkable and prodigious forerunners and apparent Predictions of God's
Wrath against England, if not timely prevented by true Repentance. Written
by J. V. With curious Frontispiece and six other Plates. 8vo. Lond. n. d.,
are to bee sould by Tho. Bates.

Whitney (Geoffrey). A Choice of Emblems and other Devises. Englished and
Moralized by Geoffrey Whitney. With numerous Woodcuts. 4to. Leyden, 1586.
Imprinted at Leyden in the house of Christopher, by Grancis Raphalengius.

Willet (Andrew). Sacrorum Emblematum Centuria Una quæ tam ad exemplum aptè
expressa sunt, &c. No Plates. 4to. Cantabr. n. d. (1598.)

Wither (George). A Collection of Emblems, Ancient and Moderne: Quickened
with Metricall Illustrations both Morall and Divine. The Plates, 200 in
number, were engraved by Crispin Pass. Folio, Lond. 1635. Printed by A. M.
for Henry Taunton.

Wynne (John Huddlestone). Choice Emblems for the Improvement of Youth.
Plates. 12mo. Lond. 1772.

[Footnote 1: We must exempt from this sweeping assertion a very interesting
and well-written account of works on this subject, entitled "A Sketch of
that Branch of Literature called Books of Emblems, as it flourished during
the 16th and 17th centuries, by Joseph Brooks Yates, Esq., F.S.A.," of West
Dingle, near Liverpool, the friend of Roscoe, and the worthy and
intelligent President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Liverpool, read at their meetings, and of which two parts have already been
printed in their volumes of _Proceedings_. This "Sketch" only requires to
be enlarged and completed, with specimens added of the different styles of
the engravings, to render it everything that is to be desired on the

[Footnote 2: Perhaps this, and the works of Colman and Heywood, are
scarcely to be considered as _Books of Emblems_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Of this pamphlet, originally published in 1701, 8vo., under the title of
_Considerations upon the East India Trade_, and afterwards in 1720, 8vo.,
with a new title-page, _The Advantages of the East India Trade to England
considered_, containing {472} 128 pages, inclusive of Preface, the author
never yet been ascertained.

Mr. M^cCulloch accords to it, and very deservedly, the highest praise. He
styles it (_Literature of Political Economy_, p. 100.) "a profound, able,
and most ingenious tract;" and observes that he has "set the powerful
influence of the division of labour in the most striking point of view, and
has illustrated it with a skill and felicity which even Smith has not
surpassed, but by which he most probably profited." Addison's admirable
paper in _The Spectator_ (No. 69.) on the advantages of commerce, is only
an expansion of some of the paragraphs in this pamphlet. In some parts I
think he has scarcely equalled the force of his original. Take, for
instance, the following sentences, which admit of fair comparison:

    "We taste the spices of Arabia, yet never feel the scorching sun which
    brings them forth; we shine in silks which our hands have never
    wrought; we drink of vineyards which we never planted; the treasures of
    those mines are ours which we have never digged; we only plough the
    deep, and reap the harvest of every country in the world."--_Advantages
    of East India Trade_, p. 59.

    "Whilst we enjoy the remotest products of the north and south, we are
    free from those extremities of weather which give them birth; our eyes
    are refreshed with the green fields of Britain, at the same time that
    our palates are feasted with fruits that rise between the
    tropics."--_Spectator_, No. 69.

Mr. M^cCulloch makes no conjecture as to the probable author of this very
able tract; but it appears to me that it may on good grounds be ascribed to
Henry Martyn, who afterwards--not certainly in accordance with the
enlightened principles he lays down in this pamphlet--took an active part
in opposing the treaty of commerce with France, and was rewarded by the
appointment of Inspector-General of the exports and imports of the customs.
(See an account of him in Ward's _Lives of Gresham Professors_, p. 332.) He
was a contributor to _The Spectator_, and Nos. 180. 200. and 232. have been
attributed to him; and the matter of Sir Andrew Freeport's speculations
appears to have been furnished by him as Addison and Steele's oracle on
trade and commerce. It will be seen that in No. 232. he makes exactly the
same use of Sir William Petty's example of the watch as is done in the
tract (p.69.), and the coincidence seems to point out one common author of
both compositions. But, without placing too much stress on this similarity,
I find, that Collins's _Catalogue_, which was compiled with great care, and
where it mentions the authors of anonymous works may always be relied upon,
attributes this tract to Martyn (Collins's _Cat_. 1730-1, 8vo., Part I.,
No. 3130.). I have a copy of the edition of 1701, in the original binding
and lettering--lettered "Martyn on the East India Trade "--and copies of
the edition of 1720 in two separate collections of tracts; one of which
belonged to A. Chamier, and the other to George Chalmers; in both of which
the name of Martyn is written as its author on the title-page, and in the
latter in Chalmers's handwriting. I think therefore we may conclude that
this tract, which well deserves being more generally known than it is at
present, was written by Henry Martyn.


       *       *       *       *       *


John Kemble, it is well known, maintained that the latter was the mode of
pronouncing this word in Shakspeare's days. He was right, and he was wrong;
for, as I shall show, both modes prevailed, at least in poetry, till the
end of the seventeenth century. So it was with some other words, _show_ and
_shew_, for instance. It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to observe that the
sounds _k, ch, sh, kh_ (guttural) are commutable. Thus the letter _h_ is
named in Italian, _acca_; in French, _ache_, in English, _aitch_, perhaps
originally _atch_: our _church_ is the Scottish _kirk_, &c. Accordingly, we
meet in Shakspeare _reckless_ and _rechless_, _reeky_ and _reechy_; "As I
could _pike_ (pitch) my lance." (Coriol., Act I. Sc. 1.) Hall has (_Sat_.
vi. 1.) "Lucan _streaked_ (stretched) on his marble bed." So also there
were _like_ and _liche_, and the vulgar _cham_ for _I am_ (_Ic eom_, A.-S.)

Having now to show that both _ake_ and _ache_ were in use, I commence with
the former:

 "Like a milch-doe, whose swelling dugs do _ake_,
  Hasting to find her fawn hid in some brake."
              Shakspeare's _Venus and Adonis_

 "By turns now half asleep, now half awake,
  My wounds began to smart, my hurt to _ake_."
              Fairfax, _Godf. of Bull._, viii, 26.

 "Yet, ere she went, her vex'd heart, which did _ake_,
  Somewhat to ease, thus to the king she spake."
              Drayton, _Barons' Wars_, iii. 75.

 "And cramm'd them till their guts did _ake_
  With caudle, custard, and plumcake."
              _Hudibras_, ii. 2.

The following is rather dubious:

 "If chance once in the spring his head should _ach_,
  It was foretold: thus says my almanack."
              Hall, _Sat._ ii. 7., ed. Singer.

The _aitch_, or rather, as I think, the _atch_ sound, occurs in the
following places:

 "_B._ Heigh ho!
  _M._ For a hawk, a horse, or a husband?
  _B._ For the letter that begins them all, _H_."
              _Much Ado about Nothing_, Act III. Sc. 4.

 "Their fears of hostile strokes, their _aches_, losses."
              _Timon of Athens_, Act V. Sc. 2.

 "Yea, fright all _aches_ from your bones."
              Jonson, _Fox_, ii. 2.


 "Wherefore with mine thou dow thy musick match,
  Or hath the crampe thy ionts benom'd with _ache_."
              Spenser, _Shep. Cal._, viii. 4.

 "Or Gellia wore a velvet mastic-patch
  Upon her temples, when no tooth did _ach_."
              Hall, _Sat._ vi. 1.

 "As no man of his own self catches
  The itch, or amorous French _aches_."
              _Hudibras_, ii, 2.

 "The natural effect of love,
  As other flames and _aches_ prove."
              _Ib._, iii. 1.

 "Can by their pangs and _aches_ find
  All turns and changes of the wind."
              _Ib._, iii. 2.

These, in Butler, are, I believe, the latest instances of this form of the


       *       *       *       *       *


When Mr. Kemble published the index to his truly national code of
Anglo-Saxon Charters, he expressly stated that there were many places of
which he was in doubt, and which are indicated by Italics.

It is only by minute local knowledge that many places can be verified, and
with the view of eliciting from others the result of their investigations,
I send you my humble contribution of corrections of places known to myself.

  Bemtún, 940. Bampton, Oxon.
  Bleódon, 587, 1182. Bleadon, Somerset.
  Bóclond, 1050. Buckland, Berks.
  Brixges stán, 813. Brixton, Surrey.
  Ceomina lacu, 714. Chimney, Oxon.
  Ceommenige, 940. Idem.
  Cingestún, 1268, 1276, 1277. Kingston Bagpuxe, Berks.
  Cingtuninga gemære, 1221. Idem.
  Colmenora, 1283. Cumnor, Berks.
  Crócgelád, 1305. Cricklade, Wilts.
  Dúnnestreátún, 136. Dunster, Somerset.
  Esstune, 940. Aston-in-Bampton, Oxon.
  Fifhidan, 546, 1206. Fyfield, Berks.
  Hearge, 220. Harrow-on-the-Hill.
  Hengestesige, 556. Hinksey, Berks.
  Leoie, 1255. Bessil's-leigh, Berks.
  Monninghæma díc, 645. Monnington, Herefordshire.
  Osulfe's Lea, 404, is in Suffolk, or near it.
  Pipmynster, 774, &c., probably Pippingminster, Somerset.
  Scypford, 714. Shifford, Oxon.
  Scuccanhláu, 161, is in Berks.
  Tubbanford, 1141, 1255. Tubney, Berks.
  Whétindún, 363. Whatindon, Surrey.
  Wenbeorg, 1053. Wenbury, Devon.
  Wænríc 775, and Wenrise, 556, is the River Windrush.
  Wícham (Wítham), 116, 214, 775. Witham, Berks.
  Wyttanig, 556. Witney, Oxon.
  Wurðe, Wyrðe, Weorthe, Weorthig, 208, 1171, 1212, 1221. Longworth, Berks.
  Worth, Wurthige, 743, 1121. Worth, Hants.

The following are omitted:

  Hanlee, 310.
  Helig, 465.
  Pendyfig, 427.
  Stanford, 1301. Stanford, Kent.
  Stánlége, 1255. Standlake, Oxon.
  Ðestinctun, 805.
  Welingaford, 1154. Wallingford, Berks.
  Wanhæminga, 1135.


       *       *       *       *       *


        August 24th, 1690,
        Qu. Coll. Oxon.

Dear S^r,

I heartily thank you for the favour of your letter, and to shew itt will
not fail to write as often as anything does occurr worth sending, if you
think the accountt I give not troublesome. Dr. Adams, Dr. Rudston, and
Delaune have promis'd to write this post: we remembred you both before and
after your letters came w^{th} S^r John Matthews, who staid here 3 nights
this weeke. Our militia is gone home cloath'd in Blew coates but many
coxcombs of this city have refused to pay their quota towards the buying of
them, railing against my L^d Abington, who has smooth'd the mob by giving a
brace of Bucks last Friday in Port Meed. J. M. has bin expected here this
fortnight: the Lady that calls herselfe by his nane has bin a good while at
Astrop, and has discover'd her displeasure there, that her husband as shee
calls him keeps the coach so long from her at Oxford: upon hearing of
w^{ch} S^r W. H. in a blunt way gave her the old name, w^{ch} caus'd some
dissatisfaction and left her smal acquaintance: I heare that the
understanding between our Friend and his uncle is not so good as formerly,
but I do not think it will end in Abdication. Mr. Painter is admitted
Rector of Exeter. The _Naked Gospel_[3] was burnt on y^e 19th in the
Scholes Quadrangle. The Regents first drew up a Petition to have it
censured; then some others more busy than wise tooke upon them to gett it
subscribed, and went to coffee houses and taverns as well as colleges for
that purpose: these proceedings being ag^{st} statute, and reflecting upon
the vice ch., gave great offence; at last he call'd a meeting of y^e {474}
heads of houses, who deputed 6 to examine it: they pick'd several Proposit.
w^{ch} were read. The sentence was in this form: Propositions &^c tanqu[=a]
falsas et impias in Chris. Relig. et in Ecc. præcipue Anglican[=a]
contumeliosas damnamus, plerasq; insuper hæreticas esse decernimus et
declaramus, &^c. This was first subscribed by all y^e heads of Coll. and
then condemn'd unanimously in a full convocation. The Decree is printed,
but is too large to send. The Author of y^e Booke has sent about a soft
vindication of himselfe, that he is unwilling to be accounted a Socinian,
&c. If I can gett a sight of it I will send you the contents. I do not know
how far you are in the right about guessing at a Bursar: Tim. seems
resolv'd to act according to y^e song; but I to shew good nature even
w^{th}out a tree have promis'd to make him a Dial: and when that's done I
will doe y^e like at Astrop. I am

Your very humble serv^t,
W. R.

If you see Coll. Byerly, give my service to him.

Directed thus: These to George Clark, Esq., Secretary of War in Ireland.

By y^e way of London.

Indorsed: W. Rooke, Rec^d at Tipperary, Sept. 7th.

[Footnote 3: [For some account of this work, by Arthur Bury, and the
controversy respecting it, see Wood's _Athenæ_, edit. Bliss, vol. i. p.
483. William Rooke, the Writer of the letter, was of Queen's College; made
B.A., May 16, 1674; M.A., Oct. 30, 1677; B.D., April 12, 1690.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


"There exists," says Mr. John Wilson, "as it were a talismanic influence in
regard to the most trivial circumstances connected with Shakspeare," and
yet this enthusiast has not, in his _Shaksperiana_, alluded to the dramatic
works of Mary Hornby, written under, and dated from, the _dear_ old roof at

It was my late good fortune, after filling my pockets from the twopenny
boxes of the suburban bookstalls, to find, on turning out the heterogeneous
contents, that I had accidentally become possessed of _The Broken Vow_, a
comedy by the aforesaid lady, who waits to be enrolled in that much wanted
book, a new edition of the _Biographia Dramatica_. This _Broken Bow_ which
looks like a re-cooking of the _Merry Miller_ of Thomas Sadler, 1766, bears
to be "printed at Stratford-upon-Avon, for the Author, by W. Barnacle,
1820." Mary Hornby, following the example of the _preoccupier of the
butcher's shop_, tries her hand at both tragedy and comedy; in the first
line she stands charged with the perpetration of _The Battle of Waterloo_,
which, I doubt not, rivalled its original enactment in its _sanguinary_
character. I have not been lucky enough to fall in with this, which was a
_hit_; our fair authoress, in her preface to the comedy under notice,
modestly attributing its great success more to the kindness of her friends
than to its literary merit.

Mrs. Hornby sustains the dignity of the drama by adhering to her five acts,
with prologue and epilogue according to prescription. Looking to the
prologue for the _who_, the _why_, and the _wherefore_, I am sorry to say I
find no materials for the concoction of a biographical note; upon the
second point, the _why_, she tells us:

 "When women teem, be it with bad or good,
  They must bring forth--forsooth 'tis right they should,
  But to produce a bantling of the brain,
  Hard is the task, and oft the labour vain."

That her literary _accouchement_ should not be a failure, she further says:

 "Lord, how I've bother'd all the gods and graces,
  Who patronize _some_ mortals, in such cases."

I take the expressive use of the word "some" here to indicate her
predecessor, the ancient occupier of the tenement, who certainly was a
_protégé_ of the said parties.

Mrs. Hornby then goes on to relate how that during her _gestation_ she
invoked Apollo, Thalia, and Erato:

 "Soon they arrived, with Hermes at their side,
  By Jove commission'd, as their friend and guide.
  But when the mirth-inspiring dames stepp'd o'er
  The sacred threshold of _great Shakspeare's door_,
  The heav'nly guests, _who came to laugh with me_,
  Oppress'd with grief, wept with _Melpomene_;
  Bow'd pensive o'er the Bard of Nature's tomb,
  Dropt a sad tear, then left me to my doom!"

I leave the reader to judge for himself whether the Muses really "came to
laugh" with Mary Hornby, or whether, under the belief of the immortality of
our Bard, they did not rather expect a pleasant _soirée_ with Gentle Will,
and naturally enough went off in a huff when they found themselves
inveigled into a tea-party at Mrs. Hornby's.

Mr. Wilson, in the work above quoted, does condescend to notice Mrs.

    "Who rented the butcher's shop under the chamber in which the poet was
    born, and kept the _Shaksperian Album_, an interesting record of the
    visitors to that shrine. Some of the subscribers having given vent to
    original stanzas suggested by the scene, those effusions," continues
    the lofty bookseller, "_the female in question_ caused to be inscribed
    and printed in a small pamphlet, which she sells to strangers."

Not a word, you will see, about the poet's mantle having descended upon the
shoulders of our Mary,--which was unpolite of him, seeing that both the
tragedy and comedy had the precedence of his book by some years. Not having
before me the later history of Shakspeare's house, I am unable to say
whether our subject deserved more consideration and gallant treatment at
the hands of MR. COLLIER, when he and his colleagues came into possession.

J. O.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Shakspeare's Monument._--When I was a young man, some thirty or forty
years ago, I visited the monument of Shakspeare, in the beautiful church of
Stratford-upon-Avon, and there copied, from the Album which is kept for the
names of visitors, the following lines:

 "Stranger! to whom this monument is shown,
  Invoke the poet's curse upon Malone!
  Whose meddling zeal his barbarous taste displays,
  And smears his tombstone, as he marr'd his plays.
                                  R. F.
  Oct. 2, 1810."

This has just now been brought to my mind by reading, in page 155. of the
second volume of Moore's Journal, the following account of a conversation
at Bowood:

    "Talked of Malone--a dull man--his whitewashing the statue of
    Shakspeare, at Leamington or Stratford (?), and General Fitzpatrick's
    (Lord L.'s uncle) epigram on the subject--very good--

     'And smears his statue as he mars his lays.'"

I cannot but observe that the doubt expressed in the Diary of
Moore--whether Shakspeare's monument is "at Leamington or Stratford
(?)"--is curious, and I conceive my version of the last line, besides being
more correct, is also more pithy. It is incorrect, moreover, to call it a
_statue_, as it is a three-quarters bust in a niche in the wall.

The extract from _Moore's Diary_, however, satisfactorily explains the
initials "R. F.," which have hitherto puzzled me.


_Archbishop Leighton and Pope: Curious Coincidence of Thought and

    "Were the true visage of sin seen at a full light, undressed and
    unpainted, it were impossible, while it so appeared, that any one soul
    could be in love with it, but would rather flee from it as hideous and
    abominable."--Leighton's _Works_, vol. i. p. 121.

  Vice is a monster of such hideous mien,
  As to be hated, needs but to be seen."--_Pope._


_Grant of Slaves._--I send you a copy of a grant of a slave with his
children, by William, the Lion King of Scotland, to the monks of
Dunfermline, taken from the _Cart. de Dunfermline_, fol. 13., printed by
the Bannatyne Club from a MS. in the Advocates' Library here, which you
may, perhaps, think curious enough to insert in "N. & Q."

    "De Servis.

    "Willielmus Dei gracia Rex Scottorum. Omnibus probis hominibus tocius
    terre me, clericis et laicis, salutem: Sciant presentis et futuri me
    dedisse et concessisse et hac carta mea confirmasse, Deo et ecclesie
    Sancte Trinitatis de Dunfermlene et Abbati et Monachis ibidem, Deo
    servientibus in liberam et perpetuam elemosinam, Gillandream Macsuthen
    et ejus liberos et illos eis quietos clamasse, de me, et heredibus
    meis, in perpetuum. Testibus Waltero de Bid, Cancellario; Willielmo
    filio Alani, Dapifero; Roberto Aveneli Gillexio Rennerio, Willielmo
    Thoraldo, apud Strivelin."

G. H. S.


_Sealing-wax._--The most careful persons will occasionally drop melting
sealing-wax on their fingers. The first impulse of every one is to pull it
off, which is followed by a blister. The proper course is to let the wax
cool on the finger; the pain is much less, and there is no blister.



       *       *       *       *       *



In Hasted's _History of Kent_, vol. iv. p. 172., folio edition, we have as

    "Walmer, probably so called _quasi vallum maris_, i. e. the wall or
    fortification made against the sea, was expressed to have been a member
    of the port of Sandwich time out of mind," &c.

Again, p. 165., note _m_, we find:

    "Before these three castles were built, there were, between Deal and
    Walmer Castle, two eminences of earth, called 'The Great and Little
    Bulwark;' and another, between the north end of Deal and Sandwich
    Castle (all of which are now remaining): and there was probably one
    about the middle of the town, and others on the spots where the castles
    were erected. They had embrasures for guns, and together formed a
    defensive line of batteries along that part of the coast," &c.

To the new building of these castles Leland alludes, in his _Cygnea

 "Jactat Dela novas celebris arces
  Notus Cæsareis locus trophæis."--Ver. 565.

There are clear remains of a Roman entrenchment close to Walmer Castle.
(See _Hasted_, vol. iv. p. 162., notes.)

Any of your correspondents who could give me any information tending to
show that an old fortification had existed on the site of Walmer Castle,
previous to the erection of the present edifice--or even _almost_ upon the
same site--would do me a very great kindness if he would communicate it,
through the columns of "N. & Q.," or by a private letter sent to the


       *       *       *       *       *


Can any of your readers throw any light on this passage in Dr. Johnson's
_Life of Sir John Denham_?

    "He [Sir John Denham] now resided in France, as one of the followers of
    the exiled king; and, to divert {476} the melancholy of their
    condition, was sometimes enjoined by his master to write occasional
    verses; one of which amusements was probably his ode or song upon the
    Embassy to Poland, by which he and Lord Crofts procured a contribution
    of ten thousand pounds from the Scotch, that wandered over that
    kingdom. Poland was at that time very much frequented by itinerant
    traders, who, in a country of very little commerce and of great extent,
    where every man resided on his own estate, contributed very much to the
    accommodation of life, by bringing to every man's house those little
    necessaries which it was very inconvenient to want, and very
    troublesome to fetch. I have formerly read, without much reflection, of
    the multitude of Scotchmen that travelled with their wares in Poland;
    and that their numbers were not small, the success of this negociation
    gives sufficient evidence."

The title of Denham's poem is "On my Lord Crofts' and my journey into
Poland, from whence we brought 10,000l. for his Majesty by the decimation
of his Scottish subjects there."


       *       *       *       *       *


In the library at this island, which formerly belonged to the Knights of
Malta, there is an edition of Walton's Polyglott Bible, which was published
in London in 1657. This work is in a most perfect state of preservation.

On the title-page of the first of the eleven volumes, there is written, in
a bold and perfectly legible manner, the following words:

    "Liber Coll. Di Joannis Bapt^a Oxon Ex dono Reverendiss. in Xt^o Patris
    Gvil^i Jvxon Archiep. Cantvariensis. A^o D^{ni} 1663."

Just below, but on the right of the above, there is written in a clear hand
as follows:

    "Ex Libris domus Abbatialis S. Antonij Viennensis, Catalogo Inscript
    an. 1740. No. 11."

That the question which I shall ask at the end of this Note may be the more
easily answered, it will perhaps be necessary for me to state, that in the
year 1777, Rohan, the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, succeeded in
annexing the property belonging to the Order of St. Antonio de Vienna to
that of Malta. In accepting of these estates, which were situated in France
and Savoy, Rohan bound himself to pay the many mortgages and debts with
which they were encumbered; and so large an amount had to be thus defrayed,
that for a hundred years the convent would not be reimbursed for its
advances, and receive the 120,000 livres, at which sum their annual rental
would then be valued. Of the foundation of this Order a recent writer
(Thornton) thus remarks:

    "In 1095 some nobles of Dauphiny united for the relief of sufferers
    from a kind of leprosy called St. Anthony's fire, which society, in
    1218, was erected into a religious body of Hospitallers, having a
    grand master for chief. This order, after many changes in its
    constitution, having been left the option between extinction and
    secularisation, or union with another order, accepted the latter
    alternative, and selected that of St. John of Jerusalem."

Among the moveable effects which came to the Knights of Malta by this
arrangement, was a small and well-selected library, and in it this edition
of Walton's Bible.

Without, therefore, writing more at length on this subject, which might
take up too much space in "N. & Q.," I would simply add, that my attention
was called to this work by the Rev. Mr. Howe, chaplain of H.B.M. ship
"Britannia," and for the purpose of asking, At what time, by whom, and in
what manner, were these volumes removed from St. John's College at Oxford,
and transferred to the library of the Order of St. Antonio de Vienna in

W. W.

La Valetta, Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Was Andrew Marvell poisoned?_--I have just been reading the three
ponderous quarto volumes comprising _The Works_ of Andrew Marvell, as
collected and edited by his townsman, Capt. Edward Thompson of Hull. In the
"Life," near the end of vol. iii., we are told that the patriot died on
Aug. 16, 1678, "and by poison for he was healthful and vigorous to the
moment he was seized with the premeditated ruin." And again, in a summary
of his merits, we are told that "all these patriot virtues were
insufficient to guard him against the jesuitical machinations of the
_state_; for what vice and bribery could not influence, was perpetrated by
poison." This heinous crime, so formally averred against the enemies of
Marvell, may have been committed by "some person or persons unknown;" but,
as not a tittle of evidence is adduced or indicated by the zealous
biographer in support of the charge--Query, had it any foundation in fact?
In the court, and out of the court, the anti-popish, anti-prelatical
Puritan had enemies numerous and bitter enough; but is there really any
other ground for the abominable imputation of foul play alluded to, beyond
his actually sudden death? Is the hypothesis of poison coeval with the date
of Marvell's demise? If so, was there any official inquiry--any "crowner's
quest?" Surely his admiring compatriots on the banks of the Humber did not
at once quietly sit down with the conviction, that _thus_ "fell one of the
first characters of this kingdom or of any other."


_Anonymous Pamphlet by Dr. Wallis_ (Vol. vii., p. 403.).--Will MR. CROSSLEY
have the kindness to give the title of the anonymous pamphlet which, he
informs us, was published by Dr. John Wallis {477} in defence of the Oxford
decree of 1695, on the subject of the Trinity?



_Mrs. Cobb's Diary._--Can any of your readers give me any information as to
the following book, _Extracts from the Diary and Letters of Mrs. Mary
Cobb_: London, printed by C. and R. Baldwin, 1805, 8vo., pp. 324.; said to
be _privately printed_?


Roxfield, Bedfordshire.

_Compass Flower._--

 "Look at this delicate flower that lifts its head from the meadow--
  See how its leaves all point to the north, as true as the magnet;
  It is the compass flower, that the finger of God has suspended
  Here on its fragile stalk, to direct the traveller's journey
  Over the sea-like, pathless, limitless waste of the desert."
              _Evangeline_, Part II. IV. line 140., &c.

Where can I find a description of this flower, and what is its scientific

In Abercrombie's _Intellectual Powers_, p. 49. edit. 1846, I find the
following passage:

    "The American hunter finds his way in the trackless forests by
    attention to minute appearances in the trees, which indicate to him the
    points of the compass."

Can any one tell me what these "minute appearances" are?


East Sheen, Surrey.

_Nuns of the Hotel Dieu._--What is the religions habit of the nuns at the
hospital of the Hotel Dieu in Paris at the present day?

M. L.

_Purlieu._--Some of your correspondents seem afraid that an attempt to
repair the deficiencies of our English dictionaries, by research into
disputed etymologies in "N. & Q.," would tend to produce too much and too
tedious discussion, and fill its space too much. Could _this_, at least,
not be done without much objection? Could we not co-operate in finding the
earliest known mention of words, and thus perhaps trace the occasion and
manner of their introduction?

At any rate, this word _purlieu_ is certainly in want of some examination.
Johnson has adopted the wretched etymology of _pur_, Fr. for pure, and
_lieu_, Fr. for place; and he defines it as a place on the outskirts of a
forest free of wood.

The earliest record in which this word occurs, so far as I have seen, is in
an act of Edward III., quoted by Manwood, and it is there spelt _puraley_;
and it relates to the disafforested parts which several preceding kings
permitted to be detached from their royal forests.

Might I ask if any of your correspondents find an earlier use of the word;
and can it be gifted with a probable paternity?

The tracing of the earliest known mention of disputed words is a task
capable of being finished, and might perhaps be attended, in many cases,
with happy results. It would rid us probably of many puerilities which
degrade our current dictionaries.

M. C. E.

_Jennings Family._--Some time since I requested as a great favour that your
correspondent PERCURIOSUS would kindly inform me where I could get a sight
of the Spoure MSS. I repeat that I should feel greatly obliged if he would
do so: and as this is of no public interest, I send postage envelope, in
the event of PERCURIOSUS obliging me with the desired information.


_Latimer's Brothers-in-Law._--In Bishop Latimer's first sermon, preached
before King Edward VI., we find the quaint martyr-bishop magnifying the
paternal prudence for having suitably "married his sisters with five
pounds, or twenty nobles, apiece;" but neither the editors of the sermon,
nor the writers of several biographical notices of Latimer consulted by me,
and in which the extract appears, give any account of the fortunate
gentlemen whom the generous parent thus doubly blessed with his twofold

Can you, or any of your readers, oblige by furnishing the _names_ of Bishop
Latimer's brothers-in-law, or by giving some references or brief account of

* *

_Autobiographical Sketch._--A fragment came into my possession some time
ago, among a quantity of waste paper in which books were wrapped, which,
from the singularity of its contents, I felt desirous to trace to the book
of which it forms a part, but my research has hitherto proved unsuccessful.
It consists of two leaves of a large octavo sheet, probably published some
twenty years back, and is headed "Autobiographical Sketch of the Editor."
It commences with the words: "The Commissioners of the Poor Laws will
understand me, when I say, that I was born at Putney, in Surrey." The pages
are of course not consecutive: so after an allusion to the wanderings of
the writer, I have nothing more up to p. 7., at which is an account of a
supposed plot against the lord mayor and sheriffs, concocted by him with
the assistance of some school-boy coadjutors; the object of which appears
to have been, to overturn the state-coach of the civic functionary, as it
ascended Holborn Hill, by charging it with a hackney coach, in which sat
the writer and certain widows armed with bolsters in pink satin bags. The
word having been given to "Charge!" this new kind of war-chariot was driven
down the hill at full speed, gunpowder ignited on its roof, and blazing
squibs protruded {478} through its back, sides, and front. The ingenious
author declares that the onslaught was crowned with complete success; but
here, most unfortunately, the sheet ends: and unless you, Mr. Editor, or
some of your correspondents, will kindly help me to the rest of the
narrative, I must, I fear return unexperienced to my grave. I have omitted
to mention, that the date of this event is given as the 4th of July, 1799.


_Schonbornerus._--Can any of your readers give me information about a book
I became possessed of by chance a short time ago, or tell me anything
respecting its author, for whom I have vainly sought biographical
dictionaries? The volume is a duodecimo, and bears the following

    "Georgii Schonborneri Politicorum, Libri Septem. Editio ad ipsius
    Authoris emendatum Exemplar nunc primum vulgata. Amsterodami: apud L.
    Elzevirium, anno 1642."

It is written in Latin, and contains as many quotations as the _Anatomy of
Melancholy_, or Mr. Digby's _Broad Stone of Honour_.

H. A. B.

_Symbol of Globe and Cross._--Can any one oblige me with an explanation of
the mysterious symbols on a seal not older than the last century? It
contains a globe, bearing a cross upon it, and a winged heart above, with
the legend "_Pour vous_."

C. T.

_Booth Family._--Can any of your Lancashire correspondents afford
information bearing on the families of Booth of Salford, and Lightbown of
Manchester? Is any pedigree extant of either of these families, and what
arms did they bear? Humphrey Booth founded, I believe, a church in Salford
about the year 1634, the patronage of which still remains, as it might
seem, in the family, the _Clergy List_ describing it as in the gift of Sir
R. G. Booth.

There is a Booth Hall in Blackley, a small village lying by the road side,
between Manchester and Middleton; and from the _inquisitio post mortem_ of
Humphrey Booth, 12 Car. I., it appears that he died seised of lands in
Blackley as well as Salford.

Is there any evidence to connect him with this hall, as the place of his


Jesus College, Cambridge.

_Ennui._--What is our nearest approach to a correct rendering of this
expression? Some English writer (Lady Morgan, I believe) has defined it
"mental lukewarmness:" but, if it be true, as La-Motte Houdart says, that--

    "L'ennui naquit un jour de l'uniformité."

the above definition would seem to indicate rather the cause of _ennui_
than _ennui_ itself.


St. Lucia.

_Bankruptcy Records._--Where can I search for evidence of a bankruptcy,
probably about 1654? The Chief Registrar's indices do not go back nearly so

J. K.

_Golden Bees._--Napoleon I. and II. are said to have had their imperial
robes embroidered with golden bees, as claiming official descent from
Carolus Magnus. Query, what is the authority for this heraldic distinction,
said to have been assumed by Charlemagne?



_The Grindstone Oak._--Can any of your topographical correspondents state
what is the earliest mention made of an oak tree well known in this part of
the country, and the destruction of which by fire, on the 5th of November,
1849, was the subject of regret to all who had seen or heard of it? It was
called the _Grindstone Oak_, and had been a denizen of the forest of Alice
Holt, as many suppose, since the days of the Confessor. It measured
thirty-four feet in circumference, at the height of seven feet from the
ground; and is mentioned by Gilbert White, in his _History of Selborne_, as
"the great oak in the Holt, which is deemed by Mr. Marsham to be the
biggest in this island."

L. L. L.

Near Selborne, Hants.

_Hogarth._--About the year 1746, Mr. Hogarth painted a portrait of himself
and wife: he afterwards cut the canvass through, and presented the half
containing his own portrait to a gentleman in Yorkshire.

If any of your numerous readers are in possession of any portrait of Mr.
Hogarth, about three feet in length, and one foot eight inches wide, or are
aware of the existence of such a portrait, they will confer a favour by
addressing a line to

5. Torrington Place, London.

_Adamsons of Perth._--Can any of your Scottish correspondents inform me
what relationship existed between Patrick Adamson, titular Archbishop of
St. Andrew's, and the two learned brothers, Henry Adamson, author of the
_Muses' Threnodie_, and John Adamson, principal of the college at
Edinburgh, and editor of the _Muses' Welcome_; and whether any existing
family claims to be descended from them? They were all born at Perth. Henry
and John were the sons of James Adamson, a merchant and magistrate of the
fair city. Probably the archbishop was a brother of this James Adamson, and
son of Patrick Adamson, who was Dean of the Guild when John Knox preached
his famous sermon at St. John's. Mariota, a daughter of the archbishop, is
said by Burke to have married Sir Michael {479} Balfour, Bart., of Nortland
Castle Orkney. Another daughter would appear to have become the wife of
Thomas Wilson, or Volusenus, as he calls himself, the editor of his
father-in-law's poems and other publications.

E. H. A.

_Cursitor Barons of the Exchequer._--Will you allow me to repeat a question
which you inserted in Vol. v., p. 346., as to a list of these officers, and
any account of their origin and history? Surely some of your
correspondents, devoted to legal antiquities, can give note a clue to the
labyrinth which Madox has not ventured to enter. The office still
exists--with peculiar duties which are still performed--and we know that it
is an ancient one; all sufficient grounds for inquiry, which I trust will
meet with some response.


_Syriac Scriptures._--I am very anxious to know what editions of the
Scriptures in Syriac (the _Peshito_) were published between Leusden and
Schaaf's New Testament, and the entire Bible in 1816 by the Bible Society.

B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., pp. 206. 435.)

Having long felt a great respect for this person, and a great interest in
all that concerns his history, I am induced to mention the grounds on which
I have been led to doubt whether the letter in the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
to which MR. CROSSLEY refers, is worthy of credit. When I first saw it, I
considered it as so valuable an addition to the information which I had
collected on the subject, that I was anxious to know who was the writer. It
had no signature; but the date, "Sherdington, June, 1704," which was
retained, gave me a clue which, by means not worth detailing, led me to the
knowledge that what thus appeared in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
February, 1765, had issued from "Curll's chaste press" more than thirty
years before, in the form of a letter from the person now known in literary
history as "Curll's Corinna," but by her cotemporaries (see the index of
Mr. Cunningham's excellent _Handbook of London_) as Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas,
sometime of Dyot Street, St. Giles's, and afterwards of a locality not
precisely ascertained, but within the rules of the Fleet, and possibly
(though Mr. Cunningham does not corroborate this) at some period of her
life resident in the more genteel quarters which Curll assigns to her. To
speak more strictly, and make the matter intelligible to any one who may
look at it in the Magazine, I should add that the first paragraph
(seventeen lines, on p. 78., dated from "Sherdington," and beginning "I
dined," says the letter writer, "last Saturday with Sir John Guise, at
Gloucester") is part of a letter purporting to be written by her lover;
while all the remainder (on pp. 79-81.) is from Corinna's answer to it.

The worthless and forgotten work of which these letters form a part,
consists of two volumes. The copy which I borrowed when I discovered what I
have stated, consisted of a first volume of the second edition (1736), and
a second volume of the first edition (1732). The title of the second volume
(which I give as belonging to the earlier edition) is:

    "The Honourable Lovers: or, the second and last Volume of Pylades and
    Corinna. Being the remainder of Love Letters, and other Pieces (in
    Verse and Prose), which passed between Richard Gwinnett, Esq.; of Great
    Shurdington, in Gloucestershire, and Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, Jun., of
    Great Russel Street, Bloomsbury. To which is added, a Collection of
    familiar Letters between Corinna, Mr. Norris, Capt. Hemington, Lady
    Chudleigh, Lady Pakington, &c. &c. All faithfully published from their
    original Manuscripts. London: printed in the Year M.DCC.XXXII. (Price

The title-page of the first volume (second edition) differs principally in
having the statement that the book was "printed for E. Curll" (whose name
does not appear in the earlier second volume, though perhaps it may have
done so in the first of that earlier edition), and an announcement that the
fidelity of the publication is "attested, by Sir Edward Northey, Knight."

The work is a farrago of low rubbish utterly beneath criticism; and I
should perhaps hardly think it worth while to say as much as I have said of
it, had it not been that, in turning it about, I could not help feeling a
suspicion that Daniel Defoe's hand was in the matter, at least so far as
that papers that had belonged to him might have come into Curll's hands,
and furnished materials for the work. It would be tedious to enter into
details; but the question seemed to me to be one of some interest, because,
in my own mind, it was immediately followed by another, namely, whether
Daniel had not more to do than has been suspected with the _History of
Formosa_? Those who are more familiar with Defoe than I am, will be better
able to judge whether he was, as Psalmanazar says, "the person who
Englished it from my Latin;" for the youth was as much disqualified for
writing the book in English, by being a Frenchman, as he would have been if
he had been a Formosan. He acknowledges that this person assisted him to
correct improbabilities; but I do not know that he anywhere throws further
light on the question respecting the help which he must have had. Daniel
would be just the man to correct some gross improbabilities, and at the
same time help him to some more probable fictions. Under this impression I
recently inquired (see "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 305.) respecting the
authorship of {480} _Pylades and Corinna_, and the possibility that it
might be the work of Defoe; but I believe that my question has not been

I have already trespassed unreasonably on your columns; but still I must
beg, in justice to a man whose character, as I have said, I very highly
respect, to add one remark. When his imposture is referred to, it is not
always remembered that when he came to this country he was not his own
master. It seems that he rambled away from his home in the South of France,
when about fifteen years old; that he spent about two years in wandering
about France and Germany, and astonishing people by pretending to be, at
first a converted, and afterwards an unconverted, Formosan; that when
performing this second, pagan, character, he arrived at Sluys, where a
Scotch regiment in the Dutch service, under Brigadier Lauder, was
stationed; that the chaplain, named Innes, detected the fraud, but instead
of reproving the lad for his sin and folly, only considered how he might
turn the cheat to his own advantage, and render it conducive to his own
preferment. The abandoned miscreant actually went through the blasphemous
mockery of baptizing the youth as a convert from heathenism; named him
after the brigadier, who stood godfather: claimed credit from the Bishop of
London for his zeal; and was by the kind prelate invited to bring his
convert to London. The chaplain lost no time in accepting, was graciously
received by the bishop and the archbishop, snapped up the first piece of
preferment that would answer his views (it happened to be the office of
chaplain-general to the forces in Portugal), and made off, leaving his
convert to bear the storm which was sure to burst on him, as best he might.
That a youth thus tutored and thus abandoned, before Johnson was born,
should have lived to attract his society, and win from him the testimony
that he was "the best man" whom he had ever known, gives him a claim to our
respect, which seems to me to be strengthened by everything which I have
been able to learn respecting him.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 407.)

Had G.'s Query referred solely to the consecration of _The Golden Rose_, I
might have given him a satisfactory answer by referring him to Cartari's
essay on the subject entitled _La Rosa d'Ora Pontificia, &c._, 4to. 1681,
and to the account (with accompanying engraving) of the _Rose, Sword, and
Cap_ consecrated by Julius III., and sent by him to Philip and Mary; and to
Cardinal Pole's exposition of these Papal gifts, which are to be found in
the 1st volume of F. Angeli Rocca, _Opera Omnia_ (fol. Rome, 1719). In the
authors to whom I have referred, much curious information will, however, be
found. I take this opportunity of saying, that as I am about to submit a
communication on the subject of _The Golden Rose_ to the Society of
Antiquaries, I shall feel obliged by any hints which may help me to render
it more complete; and of putting on record in "N. & Q." the following
particulars of the ceremonial, as it was performed on the 6th of March
last, which I extract from the _Dublin Weekly Telegraph_ of the 9th of

    "On Sunday, the 6th [March, 1853], the Benediction of the Golden Rose,
    was, according to annual usage, performed by the Pontiff previously to
    High Mass, in the Sistine Chapel, celebrated by a cardinal, at which he
    assists every Sunday during Lent. To the more ancient practice of
    blessing, on the fourth Sunday of 'Quaresima,' a pair of gold and
    silver keys, touched with filings from the chains of St. Peter (which
    are still preserved in Rome), the Holy See has substituted that of the
    Benediction of the 'Rosa d'Oro,' to be presented, within the year, to
    some sovereign or other potentate, who has proved well deserving of the
    Church. The first positive record respecting the Golden Rose has been
    ascribed to the Pontificate of Leo IX. (1049-53); but a writer in the
    _Civitta Catolica_ states that allusion to a census levied for its cost
    may be found in the annals of a still earlier period. The Pontiffs used
    formerly to present it annually to the Prefect of Rome, after singing
    Mass, on this Sunday, at the Lateran, and pronouncing a homily, during
    which they lifted the consecrated object in one hand whilst expounding
    to the people its mystic significance. Pius II. (1458) is the last Pope
    recorded to have thus preached in reference to and thus conferred the
    Golden Rose; and the first foreign potentate recorded to have received
    it from the Holy See is Fulk, Count of Anjou, to whom it was presented
    by Urban II. in 1096. A homily of Innocent III. also contains all
    explanation of this beautiful symbol--the precious metal, the balsam
    and musk used in consecrating it, being taken in mystic sense as
    allusion to the triple substance in the person of the Incarnate
    Lord--divinity, soul, and body. It is not merely a single flower, but
    an entire rose-tree that is represented--the whole about a foot in
    height, most delicately wrought in fine lamina of gold. This being
    previously deposited between lighted candelabra, on a table in the
    sacristy, is taken by the youngest cleric of the camera, to be
    consigned to his Holiness, after the latter has been vested for the
    solemnity, but before his assuming the mitre. After a beautiful form of
    prayer, with incense and holy water, the Pontiff then, holding the
    object in his hand, imparts the Benediction, introducing into the
    flower which crowns the graceful stem, and is perforated so as to
    provide a receptacle, balsam of Peru and powder of musk. He then passes
    with the usual procession into the Sistine, still carrying the rose in
    his left hand; and during the Mass it remains beneath the crucifix over
    the altar. If in the course of the year no donation of the precious
    object is thought advisable, the same is consecrated afresh on the
    anniversary following. Some have conjectured that the Empress of France
    will be selected {481} by Pius IX. to receive this honour in the
    present instance; but this is mere conjecture. On a former occasion, it
    is true, the Golden Rose was conferred by him on another crowned head
    of the fairer sex--one entitled to more than common regards from the
    Supreme Pastor in adversity--the Queen of Naples."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 505.)

It is curious that two of the passages pointed out by MR. BREEN, as
containing borrowed ideas, are those quoted by Alison in his recent volume
(_Hist. Eur._, vol. i. pp. 429, 430.) to support his panegyric on Campbell,
of whose "felicitous images" he speaks with some enthusiasm.

The propensity of Campbell to adapt or imitate the thoughts and expressions
of others has often struck me. Let me then suggest the following (taken at
random) as further, and I believe hitherto unnoticed, illustrations of that

  1. "When front to front the banner'd hosts combine,
      Halt ere they close, and form the dreadful line."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

     "When front to front the marching armies shine,
      Halt ere they meet, and form the lengthening line."
                          Pope, _Battle of Frogs and Mice_.

  2. "As sweep the shot stars down the troubled sky."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

     "And rolls low thunder thro' _the troubled sky_."
                          Pope, _Frogs and Mice_.

  3. "With meteor-standard to the winds unfurl'd."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

     "The imperial _standard_ which full high advanc'd,
      Shone _like a meteor_ streaming _to the wind_."
                          Milton, _Par. Lost_, i. 535.

  4. "The dying man to Sweden turn'd his eye,
      Thought of his home, and clos'd it with a sigh."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

     "Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, coelumque
      Aspicit, _et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos_."
                          Virgil, _Æn._, x. 782.

  5. "... Red meteors flash'd along the sky,
      And conscious Nature shudder'd at the cry."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

     "... _Fulsere ignes, et conscius_ æther."
                          Virgil, _Æn._, iv. 167.

  6. "In hollow winds he hears a spirit moan."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

Shakespeare has the _hollow whistling_ of the southern _wind_.

  7. "The strings of Nature crack'd with agony."
                          _Pleasures of Hope._

     "His _grief_ grew puissant. and _the strings of life_
      Began _to crack_."--Shakspeare, _King Lear_.

  8. "The fierce extremes of good and ill to brook."
                          _Gertrude of Wyoming._

     "... And feel by turns the bitter change
      Of _fierce extremes, extremes_ by change more _fierce_."
                          Milton, _Par. Lost_, ii. 599.

  9. "His tassell'd horn beside him laid."
                          _O'Connor's Child._

     "... Ere th' odorous breath of morn
      Awakes the slumbering leaves, or _tassell'd horn_
      Shakes the high thicket."--Milton, _Arcades_.

  10. "The scented wild-weeds and enamell'd moss."

Campbell thinks it necessary to explain this latter epithet in a note: "The
moss of Switzerland, as well as that of the Tyrol, is remarkable for a
bright smoothness approaching to the appearance of enamel." And yet was no
one, or both, of the following passages floating in his brain when his pen
traced the line?

 "O'er the _smooth enamell'd green_
  Where no print of sleep hath been."
                          Milton, _Arcades_.

 "Here blushing Flora paints _th' enamell'd ground_."
                          Pope, _Winsdor Forest_.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii. p. 206.)

_An Essay on Irish Bulls_ is said to have found its way into a catalogue of
works upon natural history; with which precedent in my favour, and pending
the inquiries of _naturalists_, _ratcatchers_, and _farmers_ into the
history of the above-named formidable invader, I hope MR. HIBBERD will have
no objection to my intruding a bibliographical curiosity under the
convenient head he has opened for it in "N. & Q."

My book, then, bears the appropriate title, _An Attempt towards a Natural
History of the Hanover Rat, dedicated to P***m M******r, M.D., and S----y
to the Royal Society_, 8vo., pp. 24.: London, 1744.

The writer of this curious piece takes his _cue_ from that remarkable
production, _An Attempt towards a Natural History of the Polype_, 1743; in
which the learned Mr. Henry Baker, in a letter to Martin Folkes, of 218
pages, 8vo., illustrated by a profusion of woodcuts, elaborately describes
this link between the animal and vegetable creation, and the experiments he
practised upon the same: commencing with "cutting off a polype's head," and
so on through a series of scientific barbarities upon his _little
creature_, which ended only in "turning a polype inside out!"

Following the plan of Mr. Baker, the anonymous author of _The Hanover Rat_
tells us, that, after thirty years' laborious research, he had {482}
satisfied himself that this animal was not a native of these islands: "I
cannot," he says, "particularly mark the date of its first appearance, yet
I think it is within the memory of man;" and finding favour in its original
_mine affamée_ state with a few of the most starved and hungry of the
English rats from the common sewer, he proceeds to show that it _did_
extirpate the natives; but whether this is the best account, or whether the
facts of the case as here set forth will satisfy your correspondent, is
another thing. According to _my_ authority, the aboriginal rat was, at the
period of writing, sorely put to it to maintain his ground against the
invading colonists and their unnatural allies the _providers_; and the
present work seems to have been an effort on the part of one in the
interest of the former to awaken them to a sense of their danger. In his
laudable attempts to rally their courage, this advocate reminds them of a
similar crisis when their country was infested with a species of frog
called _Dutch frogs_: "which no sooner," says he, "began to be mischievous,
than its growth and progress was stopped by the natives." "Had we," he
continues, "but the same public spirit with our ancestors, we need not
complain to-day of being eaten up by _rats_. Our country is the same, but
alas! we feel no more the same affection for it." In this way he stimulates
the invaded to a combined attack upon the common enemy, and we need not
tell _our_ readers how successfully, nor how desperate the struggle, the
very next year; which ended in the complete ascendancy of the _Hanover
rat_, or reigning family, over the unlucky Jacobite native. Under his
figure of a rat, this Jacobite is very scurrilous indeed upon the
Hanoverian succession; and, continuing his _polypian_ imitations, relates a
few coarse experiments upon _his subject_ illustrative of its destructive
properties, voracity, and sagacity, which set at nought "all the
contrivances of the farmer to defend his barns; the trailer his warehouse;
the gentleman his land; or the inferior people their cup-boards and small
beer cellars. No bars or bolts can keep them out, nor can any gin or trap
lay hold of them."

Luckily for us living in these latter days, we can extract amusement from
topics of this nature, which would have subjected our forefathers to severe
pains and penalties; and looking at the character and mischievous tendency
of _The Hanover Rat_, I am curious to know if Mary Cooper, the publisher,
was put under surveillance for her share in its production; for to me it
appears a more aggravated libel upon the reigning family than that of the
_Norfolk Prophecy_--for the publication of which, Boswell says, the great
Samuel Johnson had to play at hide and seek with the officers of justice.

The advent of both Pretenders was preceded by _straws_ like these cast out
by their adherents, to try _how the current set_. The present _jeu
d'esprit_, however, is a double-shotted one: for, not content with
tampering with the public allegiance, this aboriginal rat seems more
innocently enjoying a laugh at the Royal Society, and its ingenious
_fellow_ Mr. Baker, in as far as regards the aforesaid elaborate treatise
upon _polypes_.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 408.)

MR. ELLACOMBE desires examples of these. I can supply the following:--

At Bradley, Lincolnshire, is a very large font, of the Decorated period,
with this inscription round the bowl in black letter:

    "Pater Noster, Ave Maria, and Criede, leren ye chyld yt es nede."

This is an early instance of the use of _English_ for inscriptions. The
sketch was engraved in the work on _Baptismal Fonts_.

At Threckingham, Lincolnshire, I believe I succeeded in deciphering an
inscription round the font, which was said to have been previously studied
in vain. It is somewhat defaced; but in all probability the words are,--

    "Ave Maria gracia p... d... t..."

_i. e._ of course, "plena, dominus tecum." The bowl of the font is Early
English; but the base, round which the inscription runs, appears to be of
the fifteenth century.

At Burgate, Suffolk, an inscription in black letter is incised on the upper
step of the font:

    "[Orate pro an--b'] Will'mi Burgate militis et d[=n]e Elionore uxoris
    eius qui istum fontem fieri fecerunt."

Sir William Burgate died in 1409. It is engraved in the _Proceedings of the
Bury and West Suffolk Archæological Institute_.

At Caistor, by Norwich:

    "Orate pro animab ... liis ... ici de Castre."

At Walsoken, Norfolk:

    "Remember the soul of S. Honyter and Margaret his wife, and John
    Beforth, Chaplain."

with the date 1544.

At Gaywood, Norfolk, is a font of Gothic design, lust probably of
post-Reformation date. On four of the eight sides of the bowl are these

  SALVVS . ERIT."          MAT. 3."

 "CHRISTVM . IN         "I . AM . THY . GOD
  DVISTIS . QVOT         AND . THE . GOD
  QVOT . BAPTI           OF . THY . SEEDE.
  ZATI . ESTIS."           GEN."


At Tilney, All Saints, Norfolk, is an inscribed font so similar to the one
last mentioned that they are probably the works of the same designer.

On the _cover_ of the font at Southacre, Norfolk, is this inscription:

    "Orate p. aia. M[=r]i. Ri[=c]i. Gotts et d[=n]i Galfridi baker,
    Rectoris huj' [eccl[=i]e qui hoc] opus fieri fece^t."

I may take the opportunity of adding two _pulpit_ inscriptions; one at
Utterby, Lincolnshire, on the sounding-board:

 "Quoties conscendo animo contimesco."

The other at Swarby, in the same county:

 "O God my Saviour be my sped,
  To preach thy word, men's soulls to fed."

C. R. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., pp. 605, 606.)

MR. BEDE, who first called attention to a class of rhymes which he
denominated "Irish," seems to take it ill that I have dealt with his
observations as somewhat "hypercritical." I acknowledge the justness of his
criticism; but I did, and must still, demur to the propriety of calling
certain false rhymes peculiarly _Irish_, when I am able to produce similes
from poets of celebrity, who cannot stand excused by MR. BEDE'S
explanation, that the rhymes in question "made music for their Irish ear."
If, as he tells us, MR. BEDE was not "blind to similar imperfections in
English poets," I am yet to learn why he should fix on "Swift's Irishisms,"
and call those errors a national peculiarity, when he finds them so freely
scattered through the standard poetry of England?

Your correspondent J. H. T. suggests a new direction for inquiry on this
subject when he conjectures that the pronunciation now called _Irish_ was,
"during the first half of the eighteenth century, the received
pronunciation of the most correct speakers of the day;" and MR. BEDE
himself suggests that _provincialisms_ may sometimes modify the rhymes of
even so correct a versifier as Tennyson. I hope some of your contributors
will have "drunk so deep of the well of English undefiled" as to be
competent to address themselves to this point of inquiry. I cannot pretend
to do much, being but a shallow philologist; yet, since I received your
last Number, I have lighted on a passage in that volume of "omnifarious
information" Croker's _Boswell_, which will not be deemed inapplicable.

Boswell, during a sojourn at Lichfield in 1776, expressed a doubt as to the
correctness of Johnson's eulogy on his townsmen, as "speaking the purest
English," and instanced several provincial sounds, such as _there_
pronounced like _fear_, _once_ like _woonse_. On this passage are a
succession of notes: Burney observes, that "David Garrick always said
_shupreme, shuperior_." Malone's note brings the case in point to ours when
he says, "This is still the vulgar pronunciation in Ireland; the
pronunciation in Ireland is doubtless that which generally prevailed in
England in the time of Queen Elizabeth." And Mr. Croker sums up the case

    "No doubt the English settlers carried over, and may have in some cases
    preserved, the English idiom and accent of their day. Bishop Kearny, as
    well as his friend Mr. Malone, thought that the most remarkable
    peculiarity of Irish pronunciation, as in _say_ for _sea_, _tay_ for
    _tea_, was _the English mode, even down to the reign of Queen Anne_;
    and there are rhymes in Pope, and more frequently in Dryden, that
    countenance that opinion. But rhymes cannot be depended upon for minute
    identity of sound."--Croker's _Notes_, A.D. 1776.

If this explanation be adopted, it will account for the examples I have
been furnishing, and others which I find even among the harmonious rhymes
of Spenser (he might, however, have caught the brogue in Ireland); yet am I
free to own that to me popular pronunciation scarcely justifies the
committing to paper such loose rhymes as ought to grate on that fineness of
ear which is an essential faculty in the true poet; "here or awa'," in
England or Ireland, I continue to set them down to "slip-slop composition."

It may not be inappropriate to notice, that among Swift's eccentricities,
we find a propensity to "out-of-the-way rhymes." In his works are numerous
examples of couplets made apparently for no other purpose but to show that
no word could baffle him; and the anecdote of his long research for a rhyme
for the name of his old enemy Serjent _Betsworth_, and of the curious
accident by which he obtained it, is well known; from which we may conclude
that he was on the watch for occasions of exhibiting such rhymes as
_rakewell_ and _sequel_, _charge ye_ and _clergy_, without supposing him
ignorant that he was guilty of "lèse majesté" against the laws of correct

When I asked MR. BEDE'S decision on a _palpable Cockneyism_ in verse, I did
so merely with a view, by a "_tu quoque_ pleasantry," to enliven a
discussion, which I hope we may carry on and conclude in that good humour
with which I accept his parenthetic hint, that I have made "a bull" of my
Pegasus. I beg to submit to him, that, as I read the _Classical
Dictionary_, it is from the _heels_ of Pegasus the fount of poetic
inspiration is supposed to be derived; and, further, that the _brogue_ is
not so _malapropos_ to the _heel_ as he imagines, for in Ireland the
_brogue_ is in use as well to cover the _understanding_ as to _tip the
tongue_. Could I enjoy the pleasure of MR. BEDE'S company in a stroll over
my native mountains, he might find that there are occasions on which he
might be glad to put off {484} his London-made shoe, and "to _wear_ the
_brogue_, though _speak_ none."

A. B. R.

P.S.--The _postscriptum_ of J. H. T. respecting the pronunciation of
English being preserved in Scotland, goes direct to an opinion I long since
formed, that the Lowland Scotch, as we read it in the Waverley Novels, is
the only genuine unadulterated remains we have of the Saxon language, as
used before the Norman Conquest. I formed this opinion from continually
tracing what we call "braid Scotch" to its root, in Bosworth's, and other
Saxon dictionaries; and I lately found this fact confirmed and accounted
for in a passage of Verstegan, as follows:--He tells us that after the
battle of Hastings Prince Edgar Atheling, with his sisters Margaret and
Christian, retired into Scotland, where King Malcolm married the former of
these ladies; and proceeds thus:

    "As now the English court, by reason of the aboundance of Normannes
    therein, became moste to speak French, so the Scottish court, because
    of the queen, and the many English that came with her, began to speak
    English; the which language, it would seem, King Malcolm himself had
    before that learned, and now, by reason of his queen, did more affecte
    it. But the English toung, in fine, prevailed more in Scotland than the
    French did in England; _for English became the language of all the
    south part of Scotland_, the Irish (or Gaelic) having before that been
    the general language of the whole country, since remaining only in the
    north."--Verstegan's _Restitution of Antiquities_, A.D. 1605.

Many of your accomplished philological readers will doubtless consider the
information of this Note trivial and puerile; but they will, I hope, bear
with a tyro in the science, in recording an original remark of his own,
borne out by an authority so decisive as Verstegan.

A. B. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 339. 412.)

In reply to AMATEUR, I can inform him that at the sale of the Marlborough
effects at Marlborough House about thirty years ago, there were sold four
or five small whole-lengths in oil of members of that family. They were
hardly clever enough for what Hogarth's after-style would lead us to
expect, but there were many reasons for thinking they were by him. They
came into the possession of Mr. Croker, who presented them, as family
curiosities, to the second Earl Spencer, and they are now, I presume, in
the gallery at Althorpe. One of them was peculiarly curious as connected
with a remarkable anecdote of the great Duchess. Horace Walpole tells us in
the _Reminiscences_, her granddaughter, Lady Bateman, having persuaded her
brother, the young Duke of Marlborough, to marry a Miss Trevor without the
Duchess's consent:

    "The grandam's rage exceeded all bounds. Having a portrait of Lady
    Bateman, she blackened the face, and then wrote on it, '_Now her
    outside's as black as her inside._'"

One of the portraits I speak of was of Lady Bateman, and bore on its face
evidence of having incurred some damage, for the coat of arms with which
(like all the others, and as was Hogarth's fashion) it was ornamented in
one corner, were angrily scratched out, as with a knife. Whether this
defacement gave rise to Walpole's story, or whether the face had been also
blackened with some stuff that was afterwards removed, seems doubtful; the
picture itself, according to my recollection, showed no mark but the
armorial defacement.

I much wonder this style of small whole-lengths has not been more
prevalent; they give the general air and manner of the personage so much
better than the bust size can do, and they are so much more suited to the
size of our ordinary apartments.


Referring to AN AMATEUR'S inquiry as to where any pictures painted by
Hogarth are to be seen, I beg to say that I have in my possession, and
should be happy to show him, the portrait of Hogarth's wife (Sir William
Thornhill's daughter), painted by himself.



The late Bishop Luscombe showed me, at Paris, in 1835, a picture of "The
Oratorio,"--a subject well known from Hogarth's etching. He told me that he
bought it at a broker's shop in the Rue St. Denis; that, on examination, he
found the frame to be English; and that, as the price was small--thirty
francs, if I remember rightly--he bought the piece, without supposing it to
be more than a copy. Sir William Knighton, on seeing it in the bishop's
collection, told him that Hogarth's original had belonged to the Dukes of
Richmond, and had been in their residence at Paris until the first
Revolution, since which time it had not been heard of; and Sir William had
no doubt that the bishop had been so fortunate as to recover it. Perhaps
some of your readers may have something to say on this story.

J. C. R.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Washing Collodion Process._--In "N. & Q.," No. 153., p. 320., your valued
correspondent DR. DIAMOND states "that up to the _final_ period of the
operation, no washing of the plate is requisite. It prevents, rather than
assists, the necessary chemical action.".

Now, in all other instructions I have yet seen, it is directed to wash off
the iron, or other developing solution, _prior_ to immersing in the hypo.,
and after {485} such immersion, again to wash well in water. I shall feel
greatly obliged if DR. D. will be kind enough to state whether the
first-named washing is requisite, or whether the properties of the hypo.,
or the beauty of the picture, will be in any way injured by the previous
solutions _not_ having been washed off, prior to the fixings.

C. W.

    [We have submitted this Query to DR. DIAMOND, who informs us that he
    never adopts the practice of washing off the developing fluid, and
    considers it not only needless, but sometimes prejudicial, as when such
    washing has not been resorted to, the hyposulphite solution flows more
    readily over the picture, and causes none of the unpleasant stains
    which frequently occur in pictures which have been previously washed,
    especially if hard water has been used. But besides this, and the
    saving of time, the doing away with this unnecessary washing economises
    water, which in out-door practice is often a great consideration. DR.
    DIAMOND would again impress upon our readers the advantage of using the
    hyposulphite over and over again, merely keeping up its full strength
    by the addition of fresh crystals of the salt from time to time, as
    such practice produces pictures of whiter and softer tone than are ever
    produced by the raw solution.]

_Colouring Collodion Pictures_ (Vol. vii., p. 388.)--A patent has just been
taken out (dated September 23, 1852) for this purpose, by Mons. J. L.
Tardieu, of Paris. He terms his process _tardiochromy_. It consists in
applying oil or other colours at the back of the pictures, so as to give
the requisite tints to the several parts of the photograph, without at all
interfering with its extreme delicacy. It may even, in some cases, be used
to remedy defects in the photographic picture. The claim is essentially for
the application of colours at the back, instead of on the surface of
photographs, whatever kind of colours may be used. It is therefore, of
course, applicable only to photographs taken on paper, glass, or some
transparent material.


_Wanted, a simple Test for a good Lens._--As all writers on Photography
agree that the first great essential for successful practice is a good
lens--that is to say, a lens of which the visual and chemical foci
coincide--can any of the scientific readers of "N. & Q." point out any
simple test by which unscientific parties desirous of practising
photography may be enabled to judge of the goodness of a lens? A country
gentleman, like myself, may purchase a lens from an eminent house, with an
assurance that it is everything that can be desired (and I am _not_ putting
an imaginary case), and may succeed in getting beautiful images upon his
focussing-glass, but very unsatisfactory pictures; and it may not be until
he has almost abandoned photography, in despair at his own want of skill,
that he has the opportunity of showing his apparatus, manipulation, &c. to
some more practised hand, who is enabled to prove that _the lens was not
capable_ of doing what the vendors stated it could do. Surely scientific
men must know of a simple test which would save the disappointment I have
described; and I hope some one will take pity upon me, and send it to "N. &
Q.," for the benefit of myself and every other


_Photographic Tent--Restoration of Faded Negatives._--In Vol. vii., p.
462., I find M. F. M. inquiring for a cheap and portable tent, effective
for photographic operations out of doors. I have for the last two years,
and in mid-day (June), prepared calotype paper, and also the collodion
glass plates, for the camera, under a tent of glazed yellow calico of only
a single thickness: the light admitted is very great, but does not in the
least injure the most sensitive plate or paper. It is made square like a
large bag, so that in a room I can use it double as a blind; and out of
doors, in a high wind, I have crept into it, and prepared my paper opposite
the object I intended to calotype.

I should be glad it any of your readers would inform me how a failed
negative calotype can be restored to its original strength. I last year
took a great number, some of which have nearly faded away; and others are
as strong, and as able to be used to print from, as when first done. The
paper was prepared with the single iodide of silver solution, and rendered
sensitive with aceto-nitrate sil. and gallic acid in the usual way. I
attribute the fading to the hyposulphate not being got rid of; and the
question is, Can the picture he restored?

Are DR. DIAMOND'S _Notes_ published yet?

S. S. B., Jun.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Gibbon's Library_ (Vol. vii., p. 407.).--I visited it in 1825, in company
with Dr. Scholl, of Lausanne, who took charge of it for Mr. Beckford. It
was sold between 1830 and 1835, partly by auction, partly by private sale
in detail.


_Robert Drury_ (Vol. v., p. 533.).--I am afraid that the credit attachable
to Drury's _Madagascar_ is not supported or strengthened by the
announcement that the author was "every day to be spoken with" at Old Tom's
Coffee House in Birchin Lane. _The Apparition of Mrs. Veal_, and other
productions of a similar description, should make us very doubtful as
regards the literature of the earlier part of the eighteenth century. Might
not a person have been suborned to represent the fictitious Robert Drury,
to the benefit of the coffee-house keeper as well as the publisher? I am
induced to express this suspicion by a parallel case of the same period.
_The Ten Years' Voyages of Captain George Roberts_, London, 1726, is
universally, I {486} believe, considered fictitious, and ascribed to Defoe;
yet at the end of the work we find:

    "N. B.--The little boy so often mentioned in the foregoing sheets, now
    lives with Mr. Galapin, a tobacconist, in Monument Yard; and may be
    referred to for the truth of most of the particulars before related."



_Grub Street Journal_ (Vol. vii., p. 383.).--MR. JAMES CROSSLEY, after
quoting Eustace Budgell's conjectures as to the writers of this paper,
leaves it as doubtful whether Pope was or was not one of them. The poet has
himself contradicted Budgell's insinuation when he retorted upon him in
those terrible lines (alluding to his alleged forgery of a will):

 "Let Budgell charge low Grub Street to my quill,
  And write whate'er he please--except my will!"


_Wives of Ecclesiastics_ (Vol. i., p. 115.).--In considering "the statutes
made by Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas, Archbishop of York, and
all the other bishops of England," ann. 1108, interdicting the marriage of
ecclesiastics, might it not be worth investigating, by such of your
correspondents as are curious on the subject, what had been the antecedents
of the several bishops themselves?

With respect to Thomas II., Archbishop of York, it is historically certain,
that he was the _son_ of an ecclesiastic, and likewise the _grandson_ of an
ecclesiastic (his _father_ being one of the bishops who concurred in these
statutes). Neither does it seem altogether unlikely that Thomas himself
also had spent some part of his early life in bonds of wedlock, since we
learn from the _Monasticon_ (vol. iii. p. 490. of new edit.), that "Thomas,
_son of Thomas_ (_the second of that name_), _Archbishop of York_,
confirmed what his predecessors, Thomas and Girard, had given," &c. If this
be correct, as stated[4], the conclusion is inevitable; but possibly some
error may have arisen out of the circumstance, that Thomas I. and Thomas
II., Archbishops of York, were uncle and nephew.


[Footnote 4: Robertus Bloëtus also, who was still Bishop of Lincoln, and
Rogerus, Bishop of Salisbury, appear to have had sons, though, perhaps, not
born in wedlock; but query.]

_Blanco White._--In Vol. vii., p. 404., is a copy of a sonnet which is said
to be "_on_ the Rev. Joseph Blanco White." This sonnet is one which I have
been in search of for some years. I saw it in a newspaper (I believe the
_Athenæum_), but not having secured a copy of it at the time, now ten or
twelve years ago, I have had occasion to regret it ever since, and am
consequently much obliged to BALLIOLENSIS for his preservation of it in "N.
& Q." "It is needless," as he well observes, "to say anything in its
praise." I should add, that my strong impression is that this sonnet was
written _by_ Blanco White.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Captain Ayloff_ (Vol. vii., p. 429.).--Your correspondent will find a
short notice of Capt. Ayloff in Jacob's _Poetical Register_ (1719-20, 8vo.,
2 vols.), and two of his poetical pieces--"Marvell's Ghost" and the
"Cambridge Commencement"--in Nichols's _Collection of Poems_ (vol. iii. pp.
186-188.), 1780, 12mo. There is considerable vigour in his "Marvell's
Ghost;" and had he cultivated his talent, he might have taken a respectable
place as a poet amongst the writers of his time.


_General Monk and the University of Cambridge_ (Vol. vii., p. 427.).--I
cannot doubt that "W. D." was Dr. William Dillingham, Master of Emmanuel
College, and Vice-Chancellor of the University, from November 1659 till
November 1660.

The election to which his letter relates took place April 3, 1660. The
votes were:

  Lord General Moncke                             341
  Thomas Crouch, M.A., Fellow of Trin. Coll.      211
  Oliver St. John, Chancellor of the University   157

The Vice-Chancellor, in his accounts, makes this charge:

    "Paid to two messengers sent to wait on y^e Lord Generall about y^e
    burgesship, 4l. 10s."--_M. S. Baker_, xl. 59.

On the 22nd of May, General Monk, who had been also chosen for Devonshire,
made his election to sit for that county.



In reply to LEICESTRIENSIS, I beg leave to inform him that "W. D." was Wm.
Dillingham, D.D., master of Clare Hall, and at the time Vice-Chancellor of
the University of Cambridge. The letter in question, which was the original
draft, was, with a variety of other family papers, _stolen_ from me in

J. P. ORD.

P.S.--Query, from whom did the present possessor obtain it?

_The Ribston Pippin_ (Vol. vii., p. 436.).--The remarks of your
correspondent H. C. K., respecting the uncertain origin of the Ribston
pippin, reminded me of a communication which I received about fifty years
ago, from one of the sisters of the late Sir Henry Goodricke, the last of
the family who possessed Ribston. Though it leaves the question concerning
the origin of that excellent apple unsettled, yet it may not be
uninteresting to {487} H. C. K. and some others of your numerous readers. I
therefore send a transcript:

"_Tradition of the Ribston Pippin Tree._

"About the beginning of the last century, Sir Henry Goodricke, father of
the late Sir John Goodricke, had three pips sent by a friend in a letter
from Rouen in Normandy, which were sown at Ribston. Two of the pips
produced nothing: the third is the present tree, which is in good health,
and still continues to bear fruit."

"_Another Account._

"Sir Henry, the father of the late Sir John Goodricke, being at Rouen in
Normandy, preserved the pips of some fine flavoured apples, and sent them
to Ribston, where they were sown, and the produce in due time planted in
what then was the park. Out of seven trees planted, five proved decided
crabs, and are all dead. The other two proved good apples; they never were
grafted, and one of them is the celebrated original Ribston pippin tree."

The latter tradition has, I believe, always been considered as the most

S. D.

_Cross and Pile_ (Vol. vi., _passim._).--The various disquisitions of your
correspondents on the word _pile_ are very ingenious; but I think it is
very satisfactorily explained as "a ship" by Joseph Scaliger in _De Re
nummaria Dissertatio_, Leyden, 1616:

    "Macrobius de nummo _ratito_ loquens, qui erat æreus: _ita fuisse
    signatum hodieque intelligitur in aleæ lusu, quum pueri denarios in
    sublime jactantes, Capita aut Navia, lusu teste vetustatis
    exclamant_."--P. 58.

And in Scaligerana (prima):

    "Nummus ratitus--ce qu'aujourd'hui nous appellons jouer à croix ou à
    pile, car _pile_ est un vieil mot français qui signifiait un Navire,
    _unde_ Pilote. Ratitus nummus erat ex ære, sic dictus ab effigie
    ratus."--Tom. ii., Amsterdam, 1740, p. 130.

See also, _Auctores Latinæ Linguæ_, by Gothofred, 1585, p. 169. l. 53.
Also, _Dictionnaire National_ of M. Bescherelle, tome ii. p 885., Paris,
1846, art. PILE (_subst. fém._)

_En passant_, allow me to point out a very curious and interesting account
of this game, being the pastime of Edward II., in the _Antiquarian
Repertory_, by Grose and Astle: Lond. 1808, 4to., vol. ii. pp 406-8.


Richmond, Surrey.

_Ellis Walker_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.).--

    "Ellis Walker, D.D.," according to Ware, "was born in the city of York;
    but came young into Ireland, and was educated in the college of Dublin,
    where he passed through all his degrees. He fled from thence in the
    troublesome reign of King James II., and lived with an uncle at York,
    where he translated _Epictetus_ into verse. After the settlement of
    Ireland he returned, and for seven years employed himself with great
    reputation in teaching a public school at Drogheda, where he died on
    the 17th April, 1701, in the fortieth year of his age; and was buried
    there in St. Peter's Church, and twenty years after had a monument
    erected to his memory by one of his scholars."



_Blackguard_ (Vol. vii., pp. 77. 273.).--I am not aware that the following
extract from Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_ has ever yet been quoted
under this heading. Would it not be worth the while to add it to the
extract from Hobbes's _Microcosmos_, quoted by JARLTZBERG, Vol. ii., p.
134. and again, by SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT at Vol. vii., p. 78.:

    "The same author, Cardan, in his _Hyperchen_, out of the doctrine of
    the Stoicks, will have some of these genii (for so he calls them) to be
    desirous of men's company, very affable and familiar with them, as dogs
    are; others again, to abhor as serpents, and care not for them. The
    same, belike, Trithemius calls _igneos et sublunares, qui numquam
    demergunt ad inferiora, aut vix ullum habent in terris commercium:
    generally they far excel men in worth, as a man the meanest worm_;
    though some there are _inferiour to those of their own rank in worth,
    as the black guard in a princes court, and to men again, as some
    degenerate, base, rational creatures are excelled of brute
    beasts_."--_Anat. of Mel._, Part I. sec. 2. Mem. 1. subs. 2. [Blake,
    1836, p. 118.]



In looking over the second volume of "N. & Q.," I find the use of the word
_blackguard_ is referred to, and passages illustrative of its meaning are
given from the works of Beaumont and Fletcher, Hobbes, Butler, &c. To these
may be added the following fanciful use of the word, which occurs in the
poems of Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset; the author of the well-known
naval song "To all you Ladies now at Land:"

 "Love is all gentleness, all joy,
    Smooth are his looks, and soft his pace.
  Her [Belinda's] Cupid is a blackguard boy,
    That rubs his link full in your face."


_Talleyrand_ (Vol. vi., p. 575.).--Talleyrand's maxim is in Young. I regret
that I cannot give the reference.

Z. E. R.

_Lord King and Sclater_ (Vol. v., pp. 456. 518.).--By Sclater's answer, "as
I am informed, the Lord Chancellor _King_ was himself fully
convinced."--Zach. Grey's _Review of Neal_, p. 67., edit. 1744.

_"Beware the Cat"_ (Vol. v., p. 319.).-The "dignitary of Cambridge" was
probably Dr. Thackeray, provost of King's, who bequeathed all his {488}
black-letter books to the college. Perhaps _Beware the Cat_ may be among

Z. E. R.

"_Bis dat qui cito dat_" (Vol. vi., p. 376.).--The following Greek is
either in the _Anthologia_, or in Joshua Barnes:

    "[Greek: ôkeiai charitos glukerôterai, ên de bradunêi pasa charis
    phthinuthei, mêde legoito charis.]"

    "Gratia ab officio quod mora tardat, abest."

Z. E. R.

_High Spirits a Presage of Evil._--The Note of your correspondent CUTHBERT
BEDE (Vol. vii., p. 339.) upon this very interesting point recalls to my
recollection a line or two in Gilfillan's _First Gallery of Literary
Portraits_, p. 71., which bears directly upon it. Speaking of the death of
Percy Bysshe Shelley, the author says, "During all the time he spent in
Leghorn, he was in brilliant spirits, _to him a sure prognostic of coming
evil_." I may add, that I have been on terms of intimacy with various
persons who entertained a dread of finding themselves in good spirits, from
a strong conviction that some calamity would be sure to befall them. This
is a curious psychological question, worthy of attention.



_Colonel Thomas Walcot_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.) married Jane, the second
daughter of James Purcel of Craugh, co. Limerick, and had by her six sons
and two daughters: John, the eldest, who married Sarah Wright of Holt, in
Denbighshire; Thomas, Ludlow, and Joseph, which last three died unmarried;
Edward (who died an infant); William (of whom I have no present trace);
Catherine and Bridget. The latter married, first, Mr. Cox of Waterford, and
second, Robert Allen of Garranmore, co. Tipperary. John, the eldest son,
administered to his father, and possessed himself of his estates and
effects. I think his son was a John Minchin Walcot, who represented
Askeaton in Parliament in 1751, died in London in 1753, and was buried in
St. Margaret's churchyard. Two years after his death his eldest daughter
married William Cecil Pery, of the line of Viscount Pery, and had by him
Edmund Henry Pery, member of parliament for Limerick in 1786. A William
Walcot was on the Irish establishment appointed a major in the 5th Regiment
of Foot in 1769, but I cannot just now say whether, or how, he was related
to Colonel Thomas Walcot.



_Wood of the Cross: Mistletoe_ (Vol. vii., p. 437.).--Was S. S. S.'s farmer
a native of an eastern county? If he came from any part where Scandinavian
traditions may be supposed to have prevailed, there may be some connexion
between the myth, that the mistletoe furnished the wood for the cross, and
that which represents it as forming the arrow with which Hödur, at the
instigation of Lok, the spirit of evil, killed Baldyr. I have met with a
tradition in German, that the aspen tree supplied the wood for the cross,
and hence shuddered ever after at the recollection of its guilt.

T. H. L.

The tradition to which I have been always accustomed is, that the aspen was
the tree of which the cross was formed, and that its tremulous and
quivering motion proceeded from its consciousness of the awful use to which
it had once been put.



_Irish Office for Prisoners_ (Vol. vii, p 410.).--The best reference for
_English_ readers is to Bishop Mant's edition of the Prayer-Book, in which
this office is included.

J. C. R.

_Andries de Græff: Portraits at Brickwall House_ (Vol. vii, p.
406.).--"Andries de Græff. Obiit lxxiii., MDCLXXIV." Was this gentleman
related to, or the father of, Regulus de Græf, a celebrated physician and
anatomist, born in July, 1641, at Scomharen, a town in Holland, where his
father was the first architect? Regulus de Græf married in 1672, and died
in 1673, at the early age of thirty-two. He published several works,
chiefly _De Organis Generationis_, &c. (See Hutchinson's _Biographia
Medica_; and, for a complete list of his works, _Lindonius Renovatus_, p.
933.: Nuremberg, 1686, 4to.)

S. S. S.


"_Qui facit per alium, facit per se_" (Vol. vii., p. 382.).--This is one of
the most ordinary maxims or "brocards" of the common law of Scotland, and
implies that the employer is responsible for the acts of his servant or
agent, done on his employment. Beyond doubt it is borrowed from the civil
law, and though I cannot find it in the title of the digest, _De Diversis
Regulis Juris Antiqui_ (lib. 1. tit. 17.), I am sure it will be traced
either to the "Corpus Juris," or to one of the commentators thereupon.

W. H. M.

_Christian Names_ (Vol. vii., p. 406.).--When Lord Coke says "a man cannot
have two names of baptism, as he may have divers surnames," he does not
mean that a man may not have two or more Christian names given to him at
the font, but that, while he may have "divers surnames at divers times," he
may not have divers Christian names _at divers times_.

When a man changes his Christian name, he alters his legal identity. The
surname, however, is assumable at pleasure. The use of surnames came into
England, according to Camden, about {489} the time of the Conquest, but
they were not in general use till long after that. Many branches of
families used to substitute the names of their estate or residence for
their patronymic, which often makes the tracing of genealogies a difficult
matter. It was not till the middle of the fourteenth century that surnames
began to descend from father to son, and a reference to any old document of
the time will show how arbitrarily such names were assumed.

A surname, in short, may be called a matter of convenience; a Christian
name, a matter of necessity. The giving two Christian names at baptism did
not come generally into use till, owing to the multiplication of the
patronymic, a single Christian name became insufficient to identify the
individual. Consequently an instance of a double Christian name, previous
to the commencement of the eighteenth century, is a rarity. The fifth and
sixth earls of Northumberland bore the names of Henry-Algernon Percy. The
latter died in 1537.

As to the period at which Christian names were assumed as surnames, your
correspondent ERICAS is referred to Lower's _English Surnames_.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

Your correspondent ERICA will not, I think, find an instance in this
country of a person having more than one Christian name before the last
century. Charles James Fox and William Wyndham Grenville are the two
earliest instances I can find. It is trivial but curious to observe, that
in the lists given at the beginning of the _Oxford Calendar_ of the heads
of colleges and halls from their several foundations, the first who appears
with two Christian names is the venerable president of Magdalene College.
Antony Ashley Cooper is only a seeming exception; his surname was
Ashley-Cooper, as is proved by his contributing the letter _a_ to the word
_cabal_, the nickname of the ministry of which he formed a part. We find
the custom common enough in Germany at the time of the Reformation, and
still earlier in Italy. I apprehend that its origin is really in the _tria
nomina_ of Roman freemen. It was introduced into this country through our
royal family, but I am not aware of any prince who had the benefit of it
before Charles James.

I apprehend the passage which ERICA quotes from Lord Coke has not the
significance which he attributes to it. A man can have but one Christian or
baptismal name, of however many single names or words that baptismal name
may be composed. I have spoken in this letter of two Christian names, in
order to be more intelligible at the expense of correctness.

J. J. H.


_Lamech's War-song_ (Vol. vii., p. 432.).--There have been many
speculations about the origin and meaning of these lines. I agree with
EWALD in _Die Poetischen Bücher des Alten Bundes_, vol. i., who calls it a
"sword-song;" and I imagine it might have been preserved by tradition among
the Canaanitish nations, and so quoted by Moses as familiar to the
Israelites. I should translate it--

 "Adah and Zillah, hear ye my voice!
  Wives of Lemek, heed ye my saying!
  For man do I slay, for my wound;
  And child, for my bruise.
  For seven-fold is Cain avenged,
  And Lemek seventy-fold and seven."

Bishop Hall, in his _Explication of Hard Texts_, paraphrases it thus:

    "And Lamech said to his wives, 'Adah and Zillah, what tell you me of
    any dangers and fears? Hear my voice, oh ye faint-hearted wives of
    Lamech, and hearken unto my speech; I pass not of the strength of my
    adversary: for I know my own valour and power to revenge; if any man
    give me but a wound or a stroke, though he be never so young and lusty,
    I can and will kill him dead.'"

Your correspondent H. WALTER says that "every branch of Cain's family was
destroyed by the Deluge." Where is the authority to be found for the
tradition, quoted in an _Introduction to the Books of Moses_, by James
Morison, p. 26., that Naameh, the daughter of Lamech the Cainite and
Zillah, married Ham, the son of Noah, and thus survived the Flood?



_Traitor's Ford_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.).--Nothing is known of any legend in
connexion with the stirring events of the battle of Edgehill, or its times,
and the origin of the name is a matter of speculation. One _Trait_ had
lands near this stream, and it is thought by some that, from this
circumstance, it is properly _Trait's_ Ford, corrupted into Traitor's
Ford,--a locality well known to sportsmen as a favourite meet of the
Warwickshire hounds.

A. B. R.


       *       *       *       *       *



We understand the Committee appointed by the Society of Antiquaries to
consider the best mode of restoring the Society to its former efficient
state, have agreed upon their Report, and also to the revised laws to be
recommended to the Fellows for adoption. Of the nature of alterations
suggested, we know nothing; for while, on the one hand, it is stated that
the Report recommends changes of a most sweeping character, on the other it
is rumoured that the changes to be proposed are neither many nor important.
The truth in this, as in most cases, no doubt lies midway between {490} the
two: and the Report will probably be found to breathe a spirit of
conservative reform. Embracing, as the proposed changes necessarily must,
points on which great difference of opinion has existed, and may continue
to exist, we hope they will receive the impartial consideration of the
Fellows; and that they will bear in mind, that in coming to the conclusions
at which they have arrived, the Committee have had the advantage of sources
of information, necessarily beyond the reach of the body generally; and
that those very recommendations, which at first sight may seem most open to
objection, may probably be those which their information most completely

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Young's Night Thoughts, or Life, Death, and Immortality,
revised and collated with the early Quarto Editions, with a Life of the
Author by_ Dr. Doran. This new, handsomely printed, and carefully edited
reprint of the great work of this noble and original writer, is rendered
more valuable by the well-written and critical Memoir of Young, which Dr.
Doran has prefixed to it.--_The National Miscellany_, _May_ 1853. The first
Number of a New Magazine just issued by Mr. Parker (Oxford), with every
promise of realising the objects for which it has been projected, namely,
"to aid the elevation of the reader's mind, to raise some glow of generous
desire, some high and noble thoughts, some kindly feeling, and a warm
veneration for all things that are good and true."--_Cyclopædia
Bibliographica_, Part VIII. This most useful work is in the present Part
carried from _Fawcett_ (John) to _Göthe_. Every fresh issue of it affords
additional evidence of the great utility which the complete work will prove
to all authors, preachers, students, and literary men.

       *       *       *       *       *


by Francis Macpherson, Middle Row, Holborn. 1836.

LORD BISHOP OF ROCHESTER (HORSLEY). The Quarto Edition, printed for Robson.

HISTORY OF ANCIENT WILTS, by SIR R. C. HOARE. The last three Parts.

BEN JONSON'S WORKS. 9 Vols. 8vo. Vols. II., III., IV. Bds.

SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS. 41 Vols. 8vo. The last nine Vols. Boards.

JACOB'S ENGLISH PEERAGE. Folio Edition, 1766. Vols. II., III., and IV.


ALISON'S EUROPE. (20 Vols.) Vols. XIII., XX.



*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

H. C. B. _No._

J. D. LUCAS (Bristol). _The inscription is Dutch, and means "Praise God for
all things."_

WALTER J. WATTS _will find much of the literary history of the_ Travels of
Baron Munchausen, _which were written in ridicule of Bruce, the Abyssinian
traveller, in our_ 3rd Vol., pp. 117, 305, 453.

P. P. _Longfellow_ is _an American, having been born at Portland. He is
now, we believe, Professor of Modern Languages and Belles Lettres at
Cambridge University, U.S._

A BRITON _must be aware that if we were so far to depart from our plan of
avoiding religious controversy, as to insert his Query, we should be
inviting endless disputes and discussions, such as our pages could not
contain, or our readers endure._

C. M. I. _The sides of the stage are described in Stage Directions as_
O. P. _and_ P. S., _i. e._ Opposite Promp. (_or_ Prompter) _and_ Promp.

GENERAL SIR DENNIS PACK (Vol. vii., p. 453.).--_"As the purport of the
Query may be defeated by two misprints in my communication relative to this
gallant soldier, may I beg of your readers for 'French rebels,' to
substitute 'Irish rebels;' and for 'Ballinakell,' 'Ballinakill.' I am
willing to lay the blame of these errata on my own cacography, rather than
on the printer's back._



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. _Replies to our photographic Correspondents
next week._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *

suffer from depression of spirits, confusion, headache, blushing,
groundless fears, unfitness for business or society, blood to the head,
failure of memory, delusions, suicidal thoughts, fear of insanity, &c.,
will call on, or correspond with, REV. DR. WILLIS MOSELEY, who, out of
above 22,000 applicants, knows not fifty uncured who have followed his
advice, he will instruct them how to get well, without a fee, and will
render the same service to the friends of the insane.--At home from 11 to


       *       *       *       *       *


The SCHOOL is NOW OPEN for instruction in all branches of Photography, to
Ladies and Gentlemen, on alternate days, from Eleven till Four o'clock,
under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has long been
connected with Photography, and J. H. PEPPER, Esq., the Chemist to the

A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

       *       *       *       *       *

XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
Establishments. The superiority of this preparation is now generally
acknowledged. In all cases where a quantity is required, the two solutions
may be had at wholesale price in separate bottles; in which state it may be
kept for years, and exported to any climate. Full instructions for use.

_Caution._--Each bottle is stamped with a red label, bearing my name,

RICHARD W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall.

CYANOGEN SOAP for removing instantaneously Photographic Stains from the
Hands, and cleansing all kinds of Photographic Dishes, Glasses, Linen, &c.
Prepared solely by R. W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10 Pall Mall, Manufacturer of
Pure Photographic Chemicals, and may be procured of all respectable
Chemists; in pots at 1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS,
67. St. Paul's Church Yard--MESSRS. BARCLAY, 95. Farringdon Street,
Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *

One Volume, crown 8vo., bound in cloth, price 6s.,

relating to--

  Language, Literature, and Government.
  Architecture and Sculpture.
  Drama, Music, Painting, and Scientific Discoveries.
  Articles of Dress, &c.
  Titles, Dignities, &c.
  Names, Trades, Professions.
  Parliament, Laws, &c.
  Universities and Religious Sects.
  Epithets and Phrases.
  Remarkable Customs.
  Games, Field Sports.
  Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week.
  Remarkable Localities, &c. &c.


The Third Edition, revised and improved, by MERTON A. THOMAS, ESQ.

London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 85. Queen Street, Cheapside.


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s., 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's. Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Paper of Whatman's, Turners,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY--HORNE & CO.'s Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT. Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordinance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24-1/2 to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th of June next, will be entitled, at the
next Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

A LITERARY CURIOSITY, sent Free by Post on receipt of Three Postage Stamps.
A Fac-simile of a very remarkably Curious, Interesting, and Droll Newspaper
of Charles II.'s Period.

J. H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

WANTED, for the Ladies' Institute, 83. Regent Street, Quadrant. LADIES of
taste for fancy work.--by paying 21s. will be received as members, and
taught the new style of velvet wool work, which is acquired in a few easy
lessons. Each lady will be guaranteed constant employment and ready cash
payment for her work. Apply personally to Mrs. Thoughey. N. B. Ladies
taught by letter at any distance from London.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


  _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


  _Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D.,
  8. Bennett Street, St. James's.

  _Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2-1/4
per cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for
each 1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads:
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIMEN COPIES of the First Volume of this Work may be seen at MR.
SKEFFINGTON'S, 192. Piccadilly, and at MR. RUSSELL SMITH'S, 36. Soho
Square, London.

The Editor having, at a great sacrifice, adhered to the original limit, and
the estimates having been considerably exceeded, has been compelled, to
avoid incurring an extravagant loss, to make the terms very absolute, and
to raise the Subscription to the later copies. Notwithstanding, therefore,
the great demand for the Work, a few copies may still be secured by early
written application.

All communications on the subject are requested to be addressed to--


       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday May 7, contains Articles on

  Agriculture, history of
  Attraction, capillary
  Barley, to transplant, by Messrs. Hardy
  Beetle, instinct of
  Books noticed
  Butterfly, instinct of
  Calendar, horticultural
  ----, agricultural
  Columnea Schiedeana
  Dahlia, the, by Mr. Edwards
  Digging machine, Samuelson's
  Eggs, to keep
  Farm leases, by Mr. Morton
  Frost, plants injured by
  Grapes, colouring
  Green, German, by Mr. Prideaux
  Heat, bottom
  Heating, gas, by Mr. Lucas
  Ireland, tenant-right in
  Kilwhiss _v._ Rothamsted experiments, by Mr. Russell
  Land, transfer of
  Law of transfer
  Leases, farm, by Mr. Morton
  Level, new plummet, by Mr. Ennis
  Nelumbium luteum
  Orchard houses, by Mr. Russell (with engravings)
  Orchids, sale of
  Paints, green, by Mr. Prideaux
  Plants, effects of frost on
  ----, bottom-heat for
  Potatoe disease, by Mr. Hopps
  Schools, self-supporting
  Society of Arts
  Societies, proceedings of the Horticultural, Linnean, National
      Floricultural, Agricultural of England
  Strawberry, Cuthill's
  Tenant-right in Ireland
  Veitch's Nursery, Chelsea
  Water Lilies, eradicating
  Winter, the late

       *       *       *       *       *

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Gardens, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published on the 4th May, 1853, in One Volume 4to., cloth, price 24s.

A NEW GREEK HARMONY OF THE FOUR GOSPELS, including an Introductory
Treatise, and numerous Tables, Indexes, and Diagrams. By WILLIAM STROUD,

SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 15. Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Vol. II. Pt. 4. 6s. 6d., and Supplement 5s., April and May, 1853.

ON THE TRUE SITE OF CALVARY, with a restored Plan of the ancient City of

By [Arabic: **]

T. RICHARDS, 37. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn.

       *       *       *       *       *


On Monday will be published in fcap. 8vo., a new Edition, being the SIXTH,


WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published,

PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS of the Catalogue of Manuscripts in Gonville and
Caius College Library. Selected by the REV. J. J. SMITH. Being Facsimiles
of Illumination, Text, and Autograph, done in Lithograph, 4to. size, with
Letter-press Description in 8vo., as Companion to the published Catalogue,
price 1l. 4s.

A few copies may be had of which the colouring of the Plates is more highly
finished. Price 1l. 10s.



       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, 12mo., price 2s. 6d.

With English Notes, from the German of JULIUS SOMMERBRODT, by the REV.
HENRY BROWNE, M.A., Canon of Chichester. (Forming a New Volume of ARNOLD'S

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

Of whom may be had, (in the same Series,)

Epistles, 5s. PART III. Tusculan Disputations, 5s. 6d. PART IV. De Finibus
Malorum et Bonorum. 5s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, quarto, 5s., cloth,

TEMPLE BAR: THE CITY GOLGOTHA.--Narrative of the Historical Occurrences of
a Criminal Character, associated with the present Bar. BY A MEMBER OF THE

    "A chatty and anecdotical history of this last remaining gate of the
    city, acceptable particularly to London antiquaries."--_Notes and

DAVID BOGUE, Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in Six Volumes, fcp. 8vo., price 5s. each.

BOWDLER'S FAMILY SHAKSPEARE. In which nothing is _added_ to the Original
Text; but those Words and Expressions are _omitted_ which cannot with
propriety be read aloud in a Family. A New Edition.

*** Also a LIBRARY EDITION, with 36 Wood Engravings, from Designs by
Smirke, Howard, and other Artists; complete in One Volume, 8vo., price One


       *       *       *       *       *

THE NATIONAL MISCELLANY, No. I., for MAY, price 1s., contains:--

  1. Our First Words.
  2. A Few Words for May-Day.
  3. The Love of Horrors.
  4. Layard's Last Discoveries.
  5. Railway Literature.
  6. The Old Royal Palaces at Oxford.
  7. The Poultry Mania.
  8. Public Libraries.
  9. Slavery in America.
  10. Social Life in Paris.

JOHN HENRY PARKER 377. Strand; and of all Booksellers and Railway stations.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROYAL ASYLUM OF ST. ANN'S SOCIETY.--Waiting not for the Child of those once
in prosperity to become an Orphan, but by Voluntary Contributions affording
at once a Home, Clothing, Maintenance, and Education.

The Half-yearly Election will take place at the London Tavern on Friday,
August l2th, next.

Forms of Nomination may be procured at the Office, where Subscriptions will
be thankfully received.

Executors of Benefactors by Will become Life Governors according to the
amount of the Bequest.

E. F. LEEKS, Secretary.

2. Charlotte Row, Mansion House.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 14,

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