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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 186, May 21, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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are listed at the end of the text.

{493} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 186.]
Saturday, May 21, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                            Page
    Lord Bacon's "Advancement of Learning"                             493
    Erection of Forts at Michnee and Pylos, by C. Forbes               495
    Hoveden's Annals: Bohn's "Antiquarian Library," by
      James Graves                                                     495
    FOLK LORE:--Raven Superstition--African Folk Lore
      --Funeral Custom                                                 496
    Shakspeare Readings, No. VII.                                      496
    MINOR NOTES:--Portrait of Luther--Randle Wilbraham
      --Unpublished Epigram by Sir W. Scott--Crassus'
      Saying                                                           498

  QUERIES:--
    Bees and the Sphynx atropos, by Sydney Smirke                      499
    "The Craftsman's Apology," by James Crossley                       499
    Palissy and Cardinal Wiseman                                       499
   MINOR QUERIES:--Polidus--St. Paul's Epistles to
      Seneca--Meaning of "folowed"--Roman Catholic
      Registers--St. Alban's Day--Meigham, the London
      Printer--Adamsoniana--Canker or Brier Rose--
      "Short red, god red"--Overseers of Wills--Lepel's
      Regiment--Vincent Family--Passage in the First
      Part of Faust--Lady Anne Gray--Continental Brasses
      --Peter Beaver--Cremonas--Cranmer and Calvin                     499
    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"A Letter to a Convocation
      Man"--Prester John--Homer's Iliad in a
      Nut--Monogram of Parker Society--The Five Alls--
      Corvizer                                                         502

  REPLIES:--
    English Comedians in Germany                                       503
    A Gentleman executed for whipping a Slave to Death,
      by Henry H. Breen                                                503
    Longevity                                                          504
    Derivation of Canada, by Robert Wright                             504
    Setantiorum Portus                                                 505
    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Stereoscopic Queries
      --Photographic Portraits of Criminals, &c.--Photography
      applied to Catalogues of Books--Application
      of Photography to the Microscope                                 505
    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Discovery At Nuneham
      Regis--Eulenspiegel, or Howleglas--Parochial Libraries
      --Painter--Pepys's "Morena"--Pylades and
      Corinna--Judge Smith--Grindle--Simile of the Soul
      and the Magnetic Needle--English Bishops deprived
      by Queen Elizabeth--Borrowed Thoughts--Dr. South
      _v._ Goldsmith, Talleyrand, &c.--Foucault's Experiment
      --Passage in "Locksley Hall"--Lake of
      Geneva--"Inter cuncta micans"--"Its"--Gloves
      at Fairs--Astronomical Query--Tortoiseshell Tom
      Cat--Sizain on the Pope, the Devil, and the Pretender
      --Wandering Jew--Hallett and Dr. Saxby--
      "My mind to me a kingdom is"--Claret--Suicide at
      Marseilles--Etymology of Slang--Scanderbeg's Sword
      --Arago on the Weather--Rathe--Carr Pedigree--
      Banbury Cakes--Detached Belfry Towers, &c.                       507

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
    Notes on Books, &c.                                                513
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                       514
    Notices to Correspondents                                          514
    Advertisements                                                     514

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES.

LORD BACON'S "ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING."

Considering the large number of quotations from previous writers which
occur in Lord Bacon's works, and especially in his most popular and
generally read works--his _Essays_ and his _Advancement of Learning_--it is
remarkable how little his editors have done for the illustration of his
text in this respect. The French editors of Montaigne's _Essays_, who is
likewise a writer abounding in quotations, have bestowed much care on this
portion of their author's text. The defect in question has, however, been
to a great extent supplied in a recent edition of the _Advancement of
Learning_, published by Mr. Parker in West Strand; and it is to be hoped
that the beginning, so usefully made, may be followed up by similar
editions of other of Bacon's works.

The edition in question, though it traces the great majority of Bacon's
quotations, has left some gleanings to its successors; and I propose now to
call attention to a few passages of the _Advancement of Learning_ which,
after the labours of the late editor, seem still to require further
elucidation. My references are to the pages of the new edition:--

    P. 25. "Then grew the flowing and watery vein of Osorius the Portugal
    bishop to be in price."

The editor prints _Orosius_ for _Osorius_, and adds this note:

    "All the editions have _Osorius_, which, however, must be a mere
    misprint. He was not a Portuguese, but a Spaniard, born at Tarragona,
    nor indeed ever a bishop. He was sent by St. Augustine on a mission to
    Jerusalem, and is supposed to have died in Africa in the earlier part
    of the fifth century."

The text of Bacon is quite right. The allusion is not to Paulus Orosius, a
Spaniard, who flourished at the beginning of the fifth century; but to
Jerome Osorio, who was born at Lisbon in 1506, afterwards became Bishop of
Silves, and died in 1580. His works were published at Rome in 1592, in 4
vols. folio. His principal work, _De rebus Emanuelis Virtute et Auspicio
gestis_, which first appeared in 1571, was several times reprinted, and was
translated into French and English. {494}

    P. 31. "Time, which is the author of authors."

In _Nov. Org._, i. 84., Time is called "Auctor auctorum, atque adeo omnis
auctoritatis."

    P. 34. "But of these conceits Aristotle speaketh seriously and wisely,
    when he saith, 'Qui respiciunt ad pauca de facili pronunciant."

The editor does not attempt to trace this passage. Query, If it is not in
Aristotle, where is it to be found?

    P. 60. "Ulysses, 'Qui vetulam prætulit immortalitati' is a figure of
    those which prefer custom and habit before all excellency."

The editor refers to _Cic. de Orat._, i. 44., where it is said that such is
the love of country,

    "Ut Ithacam illam, in asperrimis saxulis, tanquam nidulum, affixam,
    sapientissimus vir immortalitati anteponeret."

Another application of the saying is made by Bacon in his Essay VIII., "On
Marriage and Single Life:"

    "Grave natures, led by custom, and therefore constant, are commonly
    loving husbands, as was said of Ulysses, 'vetulam suam prætulit
    immortalitati.'"

The passage in Cicero does not agree with the dictum quoted by Bacon, which
seems to be a reference to the _Odyssey_, v. 136. 208-10.

    P. 62. "Claudus in vià antevertit cursorem extra viam."

The same proverb is quoted in _Nov. Org._, i. 61.

    P. 85. "Omnia mutantur, nil interit"--

from Ovid, _Met._, xv. 165.

Several passages are cited by Bacon from Seneca, which the editor does not
trace. Thus, in p. 146., it is said,--

    "Nocet illis eloquentia, quibus non rerum cupiditatem facit, sed sui."

Page 147.,--

    "Vere magnum habere fragilitatem hominis, securitatem Dei."

The same passage is also quoted by Bacon in Essay V., "On Adversity," and
in the treatise _De Sap. Vet._, vol. x. p. 343., edit. Montagu.

Again, p. 159.:

    "De partibus vitæ quisque deliberat, de summâ nemo."

Page 152.,--

    "Cogita quamdiu eadem feceris," &c.,

repeated in part in the "Essay on Death."

This last passage is taken, with considerable verbal variations, from
Epist. 77. § 6.

    "Therefore Aristotle, when he thinks to tax Democritus, doth in truth
    commend him, where he saith, _If we shall indeed dispute, and not
    follow after similitudes_," &c.

The passage referred to is in _Eth. Nic._, vi. 3.; but it contains no
allusion to Democritus, who is not even named in the _Ethics_; and the word
which Bacon renders _dispute_ ([Greek: akribologeisthai]) means _to speak
with precision_.

    P. 163. "For as the ancient politiques in popular states were wont to
    compare the people to the sea, and the orators to the winds."

The allusion is to a couplet of Solon:

 "[Greek: ex anemôn de thalassa tarassetai? ên de tis autên]
      [Greek: mê kinêi, pantôn esti dikaiotatê.]"
                  _Fragm._ i. 8., ed. Gaisford.

And to a passage of Livy (xxviii. 27.):

    "Multitudo omnis, sicut natura maris, per se immobilis est, venti et
    auræ cient."

Compare Babrius, fab. 71.

    P. 165. "Did not one of the Fathers, in great indignation, call poesy
    _vinum dæmonum_?"

The same citation recurs in Essay I., "On Truth:"

    "One of the Fathers, in great severity, called poesy _vinum dæmonum_."

Query, Who is the Father alluded to?

Page 177., the sayings, "Faber quisque fortunæ propriæ" is cited; and
again, p. 178., "Faber quisque fortunæ suæ." In Essay XL., "On Fortune," it
is quoted, with the addition, "saith the poet." The words are to be found
in Sallust, _Ad Cæsar. de Rep. Ord._, ii. 1.:

    "Sed res docuit, id verum esse, quad in carminibus Appius ait, fabrum
    suæ esse quemque fortunæ."

The Appius alluded to is Appius Claudius the Censor.

Bacon proceeds to say:

    "This conceit or position [viz. 'Faber quisque,' &c.], if it be too
    much declared and professed, hath been thought a thing impolitic and
    unlucky, as was observed in Timotheus the Athenian, who, having done
    many great services to the estate in his government, and giving an
    account thereof to the people, as the manner was, did conclude every
    particular with this clause, 'And in this Fortune had no part.' And it
    came so to pass, that he never prospered in anything he took in hand
    afterwards."

The anecdote is as follows:--Timotheus had been ridiculed by the comic
poets, on account of the small share which his own management had had in
his successes. A satirical painting had likewise been made, in which he was
represented sleeping, while Fortune stood over him, and drew the cities
into his net. (See Plutarch, _Reg. et Imp. Apophth._, vol. ii. p. 42., ed.
Tauchnitz; Ælian, V. H. xiii. 42.) On one occasion, however, having
returned from a successful expedition, he remarked to the Athenians, in
allusion to the previous sarcasms, that in this campaign at least Fortune
had no share. Plutarch, who relates the latter {495} anecdote in his _Life
of Sylla_, c. 6., proceeds to say, that this boast gave so much offence to
the deity, that he never afterwards prospered in any of his enterprises.
His reverse of luck, in consequence of his vainglorious language against
Fortune, is also alluded to by Dio Chrysost. _Orat._, lxiv. § 19., edit.
Emper. It will be observed that Plutarch refers the saying of Timotheus to
a single expedition; whereas Bacon multiplies it, by extending it over a
series of acts.

    P. 172. "Cicero reporteth that it was then in use for senators that had
    name and opinion for general wise men, as Coruncanius, Curius, Lælius,
    and many others, to walk at certain hours in the Place," &c.

The passage alluded to is _De Orat._, iii. 83. The persons there named are
Sex. Ælius, Manius Manilius, P. Crassus, Tib. Coruncanius, and Scipio.

    P. 179. "We will begin, therefore, with this precept, according to the
    ancient opinion, that the sinews of wisdom are slowness of belief, and
    distrust."

The precept adverted to is the verse of Epicharmus:

    "[Greek: naphe kai memnas' apistein? arthra tauta tôn phrenôn.]"

    P. 180. "Fraus sibi in parvis fidem præstruit, ut majore emolumento
    fallat."

Query, Where does this passage occur, as well as the expression "alimenta
socordiæ," which Demosthenes, according to Bacon, applies to small favours.

L.

       *       *       *       *       *


ERECTION OF FORTRESS AT MICHNEE AND PYLOS.

Mr. Dartnell, Surgeon of H. M. 53rd regiment, gives the following account
of the building of a fort which has lately been erected at Michnee to check
the incursions of the Momunds into the Peshawur Valley:

    "There was little to be done, except to build a fort, and here the
    officers had to superintend and direct the working parties which were
    daily sent out.... Laborers from far and near, Cashmerees, Caboolees,
    men from the Hindoo Koosh, Afreedees, Khyberees, &c., all working
    together with hearty goodwill, and a sort of good-humoured rivalry....
    It is only when working by contract, however, that the Cashmeree
    displays his full physical powers, and it is then perfectly refreshing,
    in such a physically relaxing and take-the-world-as-it-goes sort of a
    country as this, to observe him.... And then to see him carry a burden!
    On his head? No. On his back? Yes, but after a fashion of his own,
    perfectly natural and entirely independent of basket, or receptacle of
    any kind in which to place it. I have now in my garden some half-dozen
    of these labourers at work, removing immense masses of clay, which are
    nearly as hard as flint, and how do they manage? My friend Jumah Khan
    reverts his arms, and clasping his hands together behind his back,
    receives the pyramidal load, which generally overtops his head, and
    thus he conveys it to its destination," &c.--Colburn's _United Service
    Magazine_, December, 1852, pp. 514, 515.

Thucydides tells us that as soon as the crews of the Athenian ships,
weatherbound at Pylos in the spring of the year B.C. 425, had made up their
minds to kill time by fortifying their harbour of refuge,--

    "They took the work in hand, and plied it briskly.... The mud that was
    anywhere requisite, for want of vessels, they carried on their
    shoulders, bending forwards as much as possible, that it might have
    room to stick on, and holding it up with both hands clasped fast behind
    that it might not slide down."--Book iv. chap. 4. (Smith's
    Translation.)

C. FORBES.

Temple.

       *       *       *       *       *


HOVEDEN'S ANNALS--BOHN'S "ANTIQUARIAN LIBRARY."

Considering the cheap issue of all standard works of reference a great boon
to the general student, I was predisposed to welcome heartily Mr. Bohn's
_Antiquarian Library_. If, however, _cheapness_ be accompanied by
_incorrectness_, the promised boon I conceive to be worthless; even one or
two glaring errors rendering the student distrustful of the entire series.
I was led to form the first of these conclusions on receiving vol. i. of a
translation of the _Annals of Roger de Hoveden_, by Henry T. Riley, Esq.,
barrister-at-law; who introduces the work by a flourish of trumpets in the
Preface, on the multifarious errors of the London and Frankfort editions,
and the labour taken to correct _his own_; to the second by observing,
whilst cutting the leaves, the following glaring errors, put forward too as
_corrections_:--Vol. i. p. 350., Henry II. is stated by the _Annalist_ to
have landed in Ireland, A.D. 1172, "at a place which is called _Croch_,
distant _eight miles_ from the city of Waterford." Here Mr. Riley, with
perfect gravity, suggests _Cork_[1] as the true reading!! Can it be, that a
barrister-at-law, with an ominously Irish-sounding name, is ignorant that
the city of Cork is somewhat more distant than _eight miles_ from the _urbs
intacta_, as Waterford loves to call herself? The fact is, however, that
Hoveden and his former editors were nearly correct: on {496} old maps of
the harbour of Waterford, Crook Castle is laid down inside Creden Head, on
the Waterford side of the harbour; and Crook is still the name of a place
at the point indicated, somewhat more however than eight miles from
Waterford.

Again, at p. 351. occurs Hoveden's well-known and valuable enumeration of
the Irish episcopal sees at the same period, of which Mr. Riley observes:
"Nearly all these are mis-spelt ... they are in a state of almost hopeless
confusion." And then, to make confusion worse confounded, his note on the
Bishop of Ossory (p. 352.) says "In the text, 'Erupolensis' is perhaps a
mistake for 'Ossoriensis.'" Now, _Erupolensis_ happens to be a correct
_alias_ of Ossoriensis: the former characterising the diocese from
Kilkenny, the cathedral city, which being seated on the Nore, or
Neor--Hibernicè _Eoir_, Latinè _Erus_, was sometimes called Erupolis--the
latter from the territory with which the see was and is co-extensive, the
ancient kingdom of Ossory.

How many more errors there may be in the first volume of the work, I cannot
say: but, at all events, what the reader has to complain of is, _not_ that
the translator was unable to tell all about "Croch" and "Erupolis," but
that, not knowing, he has made matters worse by his hardy elucidations.
Truly, at this rate, it were better that no cheap edition of Hoveden were
vouchsafed to the public.

JAMES GRAVES.

Kilkenny.

[Footnote 1: This geographical _morceau_ was nearly equalled by a scribe in
the _Illustrated London News_, who stated that her Gracious Majesty's
steam-yacht, with its royal freight and attendant squadron, when coasting
round from Cork to Dublin in the year 1849, had entered Tramore Bay, and
thence steamed up to Passage in the Waterford Harbour! A truly _royal road_
to safety; and one that, did it exist, would have saved many a gallant crew
and ship, which have met their fate within the landlocked, but ironbound
and shelterless, jaws of Tramore Bay.]

       *       *       *       *       *


FOLK LORE.

_Raven Superstition._--On a recent occasion, at an ordinary meeting of the
guardians of the poor, an application was made by the relieving officer on
behalf of a single woman residing in the church village at Altarnun. The
cause of seeking relief was stated to be "grief," and on asking for an
explanation, the officer stated that the applicant's inability to work was
owing to depressed spirits, produced by the flight of a croaking raven over
her dwelling on the morning of his visit to the village. The pauper was by
this circumstance, in connexion with its well-known ominous character,
actually frightened into a state of wretched nervous depression, which
induced physical want.

S. R. P.

_African Folk Lore._--The following curious piece of folk lore is quoted
from an extract in _The Critic_ (of April 1, 1853, p. 172.), in the course
of a review of Richardson's _Narrative of a Mission to Central Africa,
&c._:

    "To avert the evil eye from the gardens, the people (of Mourzak) put up
    the head of an ass, or some portion of the bones of that animal. The
    same superstition prevails in all the oases that stud the north of
    Africa, from Egypt to the Atlantic, but the people are unwilling to
    explain what especial virtue there exists in an ass's skull."

W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

_Funeral Custom._--In some parts (I believe) of Yorkshire, and perhaps
elsewhere, it is customary to send, immediately after a death, a paper bag
of biscuits, and a card with the name, &c. of the deceased, to his friends,
be they many or few. Can any of your readers explain the matter? I have
more than once seen the card, but not the biscuits.

ABHBA.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHAKSPEARE READINGS, NO. VII.

"What are 'Aristotle's checks?'"

This is the question that MR. COLLIER proposed in support of the alteration
of _checks_ into _ethics_, at p. 144. of his _Notes and Emendations_. He
terms _checks_ "an absurd blunder," and in the preface he again introduces
it, passing upon it the same unqualified sentence of excommunication, as
upon "bosom multiplied," viz. "it can never be repeated." In this opinion
he is backed by most of the public scribes of the day, especially by the
critic of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for April, who declares "we should be
very sorry to have to discover what the editors have understood by the
_checks_ of Aristotle." Furthermore, this critic thinks that "it is
extremely singular that the mistake should have remained so long
uncorrected;" and he intimates that they who have found any meaning in
_checks_, have done so only because, through ignorance, they could find no
meaning in _ethics_.

Hence it becomes necessary for those who do find a meaning in _checks_, to
defend that meaning; and hence I undertake to answer MR. COLLIER'S
question.

Aristotle's _checks_ are those _moral adjustments_ that form the
distinguishing feature of his philosophy.

They are _the eyes of reason_, whereby he would teach man to avoid
divergence from the straight path of happiness.

They are his moderators, his mediocrities, his metriopathics.

They are his philosophical steering-marks, his moral guiding-lines, whereby
the passions are to be kept in the _via media_; as much removed from total
abnegation on the one hand, as from immoderate indulgence on the other.

Virtue, according to Aristotle, consists in checked or _adjusted_
propensities. Our passions are not in themselves evil, except when
unchecked by reason. And inasmuch as we may overeat, or underfeed ourselves
(the check being temperance), so may we suffer our other propensities to
deviate from the _juste milieu_, either in the direction of indulgence or
of privation. {497}

The art of adjusting the passions requires an apprenticeship to virtue. The
end to be attained is the establishment of good habits. These good habits,
like any other skill, can only be attained by practice. Therefore the
practice of virtue is the education of the passions.

_Ethics_ is the doctrine of _habits_; but habits may be good or bad. When
good, they constitute virtue; when bad, licentiousness.

The doctrine of _checks_ is that branch of _ethics_ which teaches moral
adjustment and restraint.

Therefore _checks_ and _licentiousness_ are in better antithesis to each
other, than _ethics_ can be to either, because ethics includes both.

The Aristotelian idea of _adjustment_, rather than _denial_, of the
passions, is well illustrated in the following passage from Plutarch's
_Morall Vertue_, by Philemon Holland, a contemporary of Shakspeare:

    "For neither do they shed and spill the wine upon the floure who are
    afraide to be drunke, but delay the same with water: nor those who
    feare the violence of a passion, do take it quite away, but rather
    temper and qualifie the same: like as folke use to breake horses and
    oxen from their flinging out with their heeles, their stiffenes and
    curstnes of the head, and stubburnes in receiving the bridle or the
    yoke, but do not restraine them of other motions of going about their
    worke and doing their deede. And even so, verily, reason maketh good
    use of these passions, when they be well tamed, and, as it were,
    brought to hand: without overweakening or rooting out cleane that parte
    of the soule which is made for to second reason and do it good
    service.... Whereas let passions be rid cleane away (if that were
    possible to be done), our reason will be found in many things more dull
    and idle: like as the pilot and master of a ship hath little to do if
    the winde be laid and no gale at all stirring ... as if to _the
    discourse of reason_ the gods had adjoined passion as a pricke to
    incite, and a chariot to set it forward."

Again, in describing the "Meanes," he says--

    "Now to begin with Fortitude, they say it is the meane between
    Cowardise and rash Audacitie; of which twaine the one is a defect, the
    other an excesse of the yrefull passion: Liberalitie, betweene
    Nigardise and Prodigalitie: Clemencie and Mildnesse, betweene
    senselesse Indolence and Crueltie: Justice, the meane of giving more or
    lesse than due: Temperance, a mediocritie betweene the blockish
    stupiditie of the minde, moved with _no touch of pleasure_, and all
    unbrideled loosenes, whereby it is abandoned to all sensualitie."--
    _The Philosophie of Plutarch_, fol. 1603.

It really does appear to me that there could not be a happier or more
appropriate designation, for a philosophy made up in this way of "meanes"
and adjustments, so as to steer between the _plus_ and _minus_, than a
system of _checks_--not fixed, or rigid rules, as they are sometimes
interpreted to be, but nice allowances of excess or defect, to be
discovered, weighed, and determined by individual reason, in the audit of
each man's conscience, according to the strength or weakness of the
passions he may have to regulate.

I therefore oppose the substitution of _ethics_--

1. Because we have the _primâ facie_ evidence of the text itself, that
_checks_ was Shakspeare's word.

2. Because we have internal evidence, in the significance and excellence of
the phrase, that it was Shakspeare's word.

_Ethics_ was the patent title by which Aristotle's moral philosophy was
universally known; therefore any ignoramus, who never dipped beyond the
title, might, _and would_, have used it. But no person, except one well
read in the philosophy itself, would think of giving it such a designation
as _checks_; which word, nevertheless, is most happily characteristic of
it.

3. Because, as before stated, Aristotle's _checks_, being the restrictive
and regulating portion of Aristotle's _Ethics_, is necessarily a more
diametrical antithesis to Ovid (and his _laxities_).

4. Because I look upon the use of this phrase as one of those nice and
scarcely perceptible touches by which Shakspeare was content rather to hint
at, than to disclose his knowledge,--one of those effects whereby he makes
a single word supply the place of a treatise.

With these opinions, I cannot but look upon this threatened change of
_checks_ into _ethics_, as wholly unwarrantable, and I now protest against
it as earnestly as, upon a former occasion, I did against the alteration of
_sickles_ into _shekels_, or, still worse, into _cycles_ or into _circles_.
It is with great satisfaction I compare four different views taken of this
word by MR. COLLIER, viz.--in the note to the text of his octavo edition of
Shakspeare;--in an additional note in vol. i., page cclxxxiv. of that
edition;--in the first announcement of his annotated folio in the
_Athenæum_ newspaper, Jan. 31st, 1852,--and finally (after my remarks upon
the word in "N. & Q."), his virtual reinstatement of the original _sickle_
(till then supposed a palpable and undeniable misprint) at page 46. of
_Notes and Emendations_, together with the production, _suo motu_, of an
independent reference in support of my position.

To return to this present substitution of _ethics_ for _checks_, a very
singular circumstance connected with it is the ignoring, by both MR.
COLLIER and by the critic in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, of Sir William
Blackstone's original claim to the suggestion, by prior publication of
upwards of half a century. At that time, notwithstanding the great learning
and acuteness of the proposer, the alteration was rejected! And shall we
now be less wise than our fathers? Shall we--misled by the prestige of a
few drops of rusty ink fashioned into letters of formal cut--place implicit
credence in emendations whose only claim to faith, like that of the Mormon
scriptures, is that nobody knows whence they came? {498}

In the passage I have quoted from Philemon Holland, there may be observed
two peculiarities which are generally supposed to be exclusively
Shakspearian: one is the beautiful application of the word "touch"--the
other the phrase "discourse of reason." Where this last expression occurs
in _Hamlet_, it narrowly escaped _emendation_ at the hands of Gifford! (See
Mr. Knight's note, in his illustrated edition of _Shakspeare_.) It is the
true Aristotelian [Greek: dianoia].

There is also a third peculiarity of expression in the same quotation, in
the use of the word _delay_ in the sense of _diluere_, to dilute, temper,
allay. There are at least two passages in Shakspeare's plays where the word
is used in this sense, but which appear to have been overlooked by his
glossarists. The first is in _All's Well that Ends Well_, Act IV. Sc. 3.,
where the French locals are moralising upon Bertram's profligate pursuit of
Diana:

    "Now God _delay_ our rebellion--as we are ourselves, what are we?"

The second is in _Cymbeline_, Act V. Sc. 4., where Jupiter tempers his love
with crosses, in order to make his gifts--

 "The more _delayed_, delighted."

A. E. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Portrait of Luther._--A portrait of Luther, perhaps original, certainly
nearly cotemporary with the Reformer, possessing many excellent qualities,
was some time since shown me. It is in the possession of Mr. Horne, of
Morton in Marsh, Gloucestershire: it was received by him from an elderly
gentleman still living in London, who purchased it many years since at a
sale of pictures. The picture is very dark, on canvass, with a black frame
having a narrow gilt moulding. As the existence of this portrait is perhaps
not known, mention of the fact might interest some of your readers. The
picture, including frame, is perhaps in size thirty inches by twenty-four;
and the age of the sitter, whose features are delineated with remarkable
effects is probably under fifty years.

B. H. C.

_Randle Wilbraham._--Randle Wilbraham, Esq., the grandfather of Lord
Skelmersdale, who died upon the 3rd of April last, was a lawyer of great
eminence, and held the office of treasurer of Lincoln's Inn. The university
of Oxford conferred, by diploma, the degree of D.C.L. upon him in these
notable terms:

    "Placuit nobis in Convocatione die 14 mensis Aprilis 1761, solenniter
    convocatis spectatissimum Ranulphum Wilbraham, Arm. Coll. Ænæi Nasi
    quondam commensalem, in agendis causis pro diversis Tribunalibus per
    multos retro annos hodieque versatissimum, Subsenescallum nostrum et
    Consiliarium fidissimum, Gradu Doctoris in Jure Civili insignire. Cujus
    quidem hæc præcipua ac prope singularis et est, et semper fuit, quod
    propriis ingenii et industriæ suæ viribus innixus Aulici favoris nec
    appetens, nec particeps, sine ullo magnatum patrocinio, sine turpi
    Adulantium aucupio, ad summam tamen in Foro, in Academia, in Senatu,
    tum gloriam, tum etiam authoritatem facilem sibi et stabilem munivit
    viam, Fortunæ suæ si quis alius Deo Favente vere Faber", &c.

The above is copied from the original diploma, which Mr. Randle Wilbraham
gave to his nephew, the late Dr. William Falconer of Bath. On the death of
Mr. R. Wilbraham, Chief Justice Wilmot wrote "I have lost my old friend Mr.
Wilbraham: he died in the seventy-seventh year of his age, and has not left
a better lawyer, or an honester man behind him."

ANON.

_Unpublished Epigram by Sir W. Scott._--

 "Earth walks on Earth,
      Glittering in gold:
  Earth goes to Earth,
      Sooner than it wold:
  Earth builds on Earth,
      Palaces and towers:
  Earth says to Earth:
      Soon, all shall be ours."

The above, by Sir W. Scott, I _believe_, has never appeared in print to my
knowledge. It was recited to me by a friend of Sir W. Scott.

R. VINCENT.

_Crassus' Saying._--I find in the Diary of the poet Moore (in Lord John
Russell's edition), vol. ii. p. 148., a conversation recorded with Dr.
Parr, in which the Doctor quotes "the witticism that made Crassus laugh
(the only time in his life): 'Similes habent labra lactucas.'"

It appears (see the quotations in Facciolati) that this sage and
laughter-moving remark of Crassus was made on seeing an ass eating a
thistle; whereon he exclaimed, "Similes habent labra lactucas."

In Bailey's edition of Facciolati it is said, "Proverbium habet locum ubi
similia similibus contingunt,... quo sensu Angli dicimus, 'Like lips like
lettuce: like priest like people.'"

Out of this explanation it is difficult to elicit any sense, much less any
"witticism."

I suggest that Crassus' saying meant, "His (the ass's) lips hold thistles
and lettuces to be both alike;" wanting the discrimination to distinguish
between them. Or, if I may put it into a doggerel rhyme:

 "About a donkeys taste why need we fret us?
  To lips like his a thistle is a lettuce."

WM. EWART.

University Club.

       *       *       *       *       * {499}


Queries.

BEES AND THE SPHYNX ATROPOS.

Huber, in his _Observations on the Natural History of Bees_, avers that the
moth called the _Sphynx atropos_ invades and plunders with impunity a hive
containing thousands of bees, notwithstanding the watchfulness, pugnacity,
and formidable weapons of those insects. To account for this phenomenon, he
states that the queen bee has the faculty of emitting a certain sound which
instantly strikes the bees motionless; and he conjectures that this
burglarious moth, being endowed with the same property, uses it to produce
a similar effect, first on the sentinels at the entrance of the hive, and
then on the bees within.

In another part of his book (2nd edit. 1808, p. 202.) he relates what he
himself witnessed on introducing a strange queen into a hive. The bees,
greatly irritated, pulled her, bit her, and chased her away; but on her
emitting the sound and assuming an extraordinary attitude, "the bees all
hung down their heads and remained motionless." On the following day he
repeated the experiment, and the intrusive queen was similarly maltreated;
but when she emitted her sound, and assumed the attitude, from that moment
the bees again became motionless.

Have more modern observers verified this curious fact? Is it not a case of
mesmerism?

SYDNEY SMIRKE.

       *       *       *       *       *


"THE CRAFTSMAN'S APOLOGY."

When Bolingbroke published his _Final Answer to the Remarks on the
Craftsman's Vindication, and to all the Libels which have come, or may come
from the same quarter against the Person last mentioned in the Craftsman of
the 22nd May, 1731_, he was answered in five Poetical Letters to the King,
which in keenness of wit, polished satire, and flowing ease of
versification, have not been since surpassed. The title of the tract in
which they are contained is _The Craftsman's Apology, being a Vindication
of his Conduct and Writings in several Letters to the King_, printed for T.
Cooper, 1732, 8vo. pages 32. By whom were these very clever and amusing
letters written? Lord Hervey or Sir Charles Hanbury Williams are the
parties one would think most likely to have written them; but they do not
appear in the list of Lord Hervey's works given by Walpole, or amongst
those noticed by Mr. Croker, or in Sir C. H. Williams's _Collected Works_,
in three volumes. Independently of which, I question whether the
versification is not, in point of harmony, too equal for either of them. If
they be included in the collected works of any other writer of the time,
which I have no immediate recollection of, some of your correspondents will
no doubt be able to point him out. Should it appear that they have not been
reprinted, I shall be disposed to recur again to the subject, and to give
an extract from them, as, of all the attacks ever made upon Bolingbroke,
they seem to me the most pleasant, witty, and effective.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


PALISSY AND CARDINAL WISEMAN.

On April 28, Cardinal Wiseman, at the Manchester Corn Exchange, delivered a
lecture "On the Relation of the Arts of Design to the Arts of Production."
It occupies thirteen columns of _The Tablet_ of May 7, which professes to
give it "from _The Manchester Examiner_, with corrections and additions." I
have read it with pleasure, and shall preserve it as one of the best
discourses on Art ever delivered; but there is a matter of fact, on which I
am not so well satisfied. In noticing Bernard Palissy, the cardinal is
reported to have said:

    "For sixteen years he persevered in this way; and then was crowned with
    success, and produced the first specimens of coloured and beautiful
    pottery, such as are to this day sought by the curious; and _he
    received a situation in the king's household, and ended his days in
    comfort and respectability_."

In the review of "Morley's Life of Palissy the Potter," _Spectator_, Oct.
9, 1852, it is said:

    "The period of the great potter's birth is uncertain. Mr. Morley fixes
    it, on probable data, at 1509; but with a latitude of six years on
    either side. _Palissy died in 1589 in the Bastile, where he had been
    confined four years as a Hugenot; the king and his other friends could
    defer his trial, but dared not grant him liberty._"

All the accounts which I have read agree with Mr. Morley and the
_Spectator_. Are they or the cardinal right, supposing him to be correctly
reported?

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Polidus._--Can you tell me where the scene of the following play is laid,
and the names of the _dramatis personæ_?--_Polidus, a Tragedy_, by Moses
Browne, 8vo. 1723. The author of this play, who was born in 1703, and died
in 1787, was for some time the curate of the Rev. James Harvey, author of
_Meditations_, and other works. Mr. Browne was afterwards presented to the
vicarage of Olney, in Bucks, where the Rev. John Newton was his curate for
several years.

A. Z.

Glasgow.

    [Moses Browne was subsequently Chaplain of Morden College. The
    piscatory brotherhood are indebted to him for having revived Walton's
    _Complete Angler_, after it had lain dormant for upwards of eighty
    years; and this task, he tells us, was undertaken at the request of Dr.
    Samuel Johnson.--ED.]

{500}

_St. Paul's Epistles to Seneca._--It has frequently been affirmed that
Seneca became, in the last year of his life, a convert to Christianity--his
canonisation by St. Jerome is undoubted and there was stated to be a MS. of
the above epistle in Merton College. May I ask any of your contributors
whether this MS. has ever been printed?

J. M. S.

Hull.

_Meaning of "folowed."_--Inside the cover of an old Bible and Prayer-Book,
bound in one quarto, Robert Barker, 1611, is the following inscription:

    "July eight I was much folowed when I lay in bed alone att Mistris
    Whitmore's house, wee haveing agreed too bee married nextt daye.

    "God, even our own God, shal bless us. This incouriged mee too hope for
    God's favour and blessing through Christ.

    "Christopher Curwen and Hannah Whitmore was married att Lambe's Chapel,
    near Criplegate, July ninth, 1712."

An entry of his marriage with his first wife, Elizabeth Sutton, 1704, is on
the cover at the beginning of the book.

Can any one of your correspondents enlighten me as to the meaning of the
word _folowed_? The letters are legibly written, and there can be no
mistake about any of them. Is it an expression derived from the Puritans?

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Roman Catholic Registers._--Can any of your correspondents inform me where
I can find the registers of births, marriages, and burials of Roman
Catholic families living in Berks and Oxon in the reigns of Charles I. and
II.?

A. PT.

_St. Alban's Day._--At p. 340. of the _Chronicles of London Bridge_, it is
stated that Cardinal Fisher was executed on St. Alban's day, June 22, 1535.
How is it that in our present calendar St. Alban's day is not June 22, but
June 17? On looking back I see SIR W. C. TREVELYAN, in our first volume,
inquired the reason of this change, but I do not find any reply to his
Query.

E. H. A.

_Meigham, the London Printer._--J. A. S. is desirous of obtaining
information regarding a printer in London, of the name of Meigham, about
1745-8, or to be directed where to search for such. Meigham conversed, or
corresponded, about Catholicity with Dr. Hay, the then vicar-apostolic of
the Eastern District of Scotland.

_Adamsoniana._--Is anything known of the family of Michel Adamson, or
Michael Adamson, the eminent naturalist and voyager to Senegal, who, though
born in France, is said to have been of Scottish extraction?

Where is the following poem to be met with?

    "Ode in Collegium Bengalense, præmio dignata quod alumnis collegiorum
    Aberdonensium proposuit vir reverendus C. Buchanan, Coll. Bengalensis
    Præfectus Vicarius. Auctore Alexandro Adamson, A.M., Coll. Marisch.
    Aberd. alumno."

Allow me to repeat a Query which was inserted in Vol. ii., p. 297., asking
for any information respecting J. Adamson, the author of a rare tract on
Edward II.'s reign, published in 1732, in defence of the Walpole
administration from the attacks of the _Craftsman_.

Who was John Adamson, author of _Fanny of Caernarvon, or the War of the
Roses_, an historical romance, of which a French translation was published
in 1809 at Paris, in 2 vols. 12mo.?

E. H. A.

_Canker or Brier Rose._--Can any of your correspondents tell me why the
brier or dog-rose was anciently called the _canker_? The brier is
particularly free from the disease so called, and the name does not appear
to have been used in disparagement. In Shakspeare's beautiful Sonnet LIV.
are the lines:

 "The _canker-blooms_ have full as deep a dye,
  As the perfumed tincture of the roses."

In _King Henry IV._, Act I. Sc. 3., Hotspur says:

 "Shall it for shame be spoken in these days,
  Or fill up chronicles in times to come,
  That men of your nobility and power,
  Did 'gage them both in an unjust behalf,
  (As both of you, God pardon it! have done)
  To put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose
  And plant this thorn, this _canker_ Bolingbroke."

And again, Don John, in _Much Ado about Nothing_, Act I. Sc. 3.:

    "I had rather be a _canker_ in a hedge, than a rose in the grave."

ANON.

"_Short red, god red._"--In Roger of Wendover's _Chronicle_, Bohn's
edition, vol. i. p. 345., is a story how Walchere, Bishop of Durham, was
slain in his county court, A.D. 1075, by the suitors on the instigation of
one who cried out in his native tongue "Schort red, god red, slea ye the
bischop."

Sir Walter Scott, in his _Tales of a Grandfather_ (vol. i. p. 85.), tells
the same story of a Bishop of Caithness who was burned for enforcing tithes
in the reign of Alexander II. of Scotland (about 1220).

What authority is there for the latter story? Did Sir Walter confound the
two bishops, or did he add the circumstance for the amusement of Hugh
Littlejohn? Was this the formula usually adopted on such occasions? How
came the Caithness people to speak such good Saxon?

G.

_Overseers of Wills._--I have copies of several wills of the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries, in {501} which one set of persons are appointed
_executors_ and another _overseers_. What were the rights and duties of
these latter?

J. K.

_Lepel's Regiment._--Can your correspondent MR. ARTHUR HAMILTON inform me
what is the regiment known in 1707 as _Lepel's Regiment_? It was a cavalry
regiment, I believe.

J. K.

_Vincent Family._--Can any of your correspondents give me any information
respecting the descendants of Francis Vincent, grandson of Augustine
Vincent, Rouge Croix Pursuivant at Arms. His sister Elizabeth has, or had
very lately, a representative in the person of Francis Offley Edmunds of
Worsborough, Yorkshire; but nowhere have I been able to obtain any
information respecting himself. If you could give any information on this
subject, you would much oblige

C. WILSON.

_Passage in the First Part of Faust._--

 "_Faust._ Es Klopft? Herein! Wer will mich wieder plagen?
  _Mephistopheles._ Ich bin's.
  _Faust._ Herein!
  _Mephis._ Du musst es dreimal sagen.
  _Faust._ Herein denn!
  _Mephis._ So gefällst du mir."

Why must he say it _three_ times? Is this a superstition that can be traced
in other countries than Germany? In Horace we have Diana thus addressed:

 "_Ter_ vocata audis, adimisque letho,
  Diva triformis."--Lib. iii. Ode 22.

But she is there the benign Diana, not Hecate.

Are we to understand the passage to mean, that the number _three_ has a
magical influence in summoning spirits; or to teach that the power of evil
is so overruled by a higher Power, that he cannot approach to begin his
work of temptation and ruin unless he be, not once merely, or twice, but
_three_ times, called by the free will and act of the individual who is
surrendering himself to his influence? The subject seems worthy of
elucidation.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Lady Anne Gray._--Who was the "Lady Anne Gray," or "Lady Gray," who was
one of the attendants on Queen Elizabeth when princess, and is mentioned
first in Sir John Harrington's poem in praise of her ladies?

N. A.

_Continental Brasses._--At a recent meeting of the Archæological Institute,
Mr. Nesbitt exhibited rubbings of some fine brasses at Bamberg, Naumberg,
Meissen, and Erfurt. Mr. Nesbitt would confer a favour on the readers of
"N. & Q." by stating the names and dates of those sepulchral memorials, and
the churches from which he obtained the rubbings, and thus aid in carrying
out MR. W. SPARROW SIMPSON'S excellent suggestion for obtaining a complete
list of monumental brasses on the Continent.

WILLIAM W. KING.

_Peter Beaver._--In the early part of the last century, a gentleman named
Peter Beaver, whose daughter was married in 1739 to Latham Blacker, Esq.,
of Rathescar, lived in the old and fashionable town of Drogheda. Can any
one inform me as to the year of his death, and whether he left a son? The
name has disappeared in Drogheda. I would likewise be glad to know the
origin of the name; and, if it be a corruption of Beauvoir, at what time,
and for what reason, was it changed? The crest is the animal of the same
name.

ABHBA.

_Cremonas._--Can any of your numerous correspondents kindly supply me with
a list of the earliest and the latest of the instruments of each of the
famous _cremona_ makers? Such a list would be a valuable contribution to
"N. & Q."

Mr. Dubourg's work on the _Violin_, excellent as it is in many respects,
contains but a meagre account of the instrument itself, and is sadly
deficient on the subject of my Query. May I ask him, and I have reason for
so doing, on what authority he gives 1664 as the year of the birth of
Antonius Stradivarius, in his last edition?

H. C. K.

_Cranmer and Calvin._--In the _Christian Observer_ for March 1827 (No. 303.
p. 150.) it is stated that the late Rev. T. Brock, of Guernsey, had been
assured by an eminent scholar of Geneva, afterwards a clergyman in our
church, that he had met with, in a public library at Geneva, a printed
correspondence in Latin between Archbishop Cranmer and Calvin, in which the
latter forewarned the former, that though he perfectly understood the
meaning of the baptismal service, yet "the time would come when" it "would
be misconceived, and received as implying that baptism absolutely conveyed
regeneration;" and that Cranmer replied, "that it is not possible such a
construction can be put upon the passage, the church having sufficiently
explained her meaning in the Articles and elsewhere." I have heard that
search was made for these documents by M. D'Aubigné and others, but without
success; one of the reports being, that "the documents had been apparently
_cut out_." Mr. Brock's informant, I hear, was a Rev. Marc De Joux, who
afterwards became an Irvingite, left Guernsey, and went to the Mauritius,
where it is believed he still resides. With the _theological_ question I
wish not here to meddle, or to express an opinion. But I should be glad if
you will kindly permit me to inquire whether any of your readers can give
any information as to the existence of the supposed "printed"
correspondence {502} referred to? whether or not it does exist? and, if so,
where?

C. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

"_A Letter to a Convocation Man_" (Vol. vii., pp. 358. 415.).--I beg to
thank "N. & Q." for the answer to my inquiry respecting the authorship of
this letter. I should be very glad to learn further particulars respecting
Sir Bartholomew Shower. Was he a member of the House of Commons, as the
author of the Letter intimates that he himself was? I shall also be very
thankful if TYRO, or any other correspondent, will answer for me these
Queries, suggested by the same Letter.

    "It was the opinion, indeed, of a late _great preacher_, that
    Christians under a Mahometan or Pagan government, ought to value the
    peace of the country above the conversion of the people there."

Who is the preacher here referred to?

Who were the authors, and what were the titles of the many _Defences_ of
Sherlock's _Vindication of the Holy and Ever Blessed Trinity_, and _The
Divinity and Death of Christ_? *

And what farther is to be learned of Mr. Papin, a Socinian, who jointed the
Church of Rome about that period? +

Who was Chief Justice in 1697? Was it Chief Justice Treby? ++

Trelawney, Bishop of Exeter, excommunicated Dr. Bury. When was the living
the latter enjoyed "untouched and even unquestioned by another bishop?" §

In case the answers to these should not appear of sufficient importance to
be put into type, I enclose an envelope.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

P.S.--The misprint you point out, Vol. vii., p. 409., of _Oxoniensis_ for
_Exoniensis_, occurred in the Appendix to Wake's _State of the Church and
Clergy of England_, p. 4.

    [* The titles of nearly twenty works relating to Sherlock's Trinitarian
    Controversy will be found _s. v._ in the _Bodleian Catalogue_, vol.
    iii. p. 462. See also Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_.

    + A long account of Mr. Papin is given in Rose's as well as in
    Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_.

    ++ Sir George Treby was Chief Justice of Common Pleas in 1697.

    § Bishop Trelawney, it appears, suspended Dr. Arthur Bury from the
    rectorship of Exeter College for some heterodox notions in his work,
    _The Naked Gospel_. The affair was carried by appeal from the King's
    Bench to the House of Lords, when Bishop Stillingfleet delivered a
    speech on the "Case of Visitation of Colleges," printed in his
    _Ecclesiastical Cases_, part ii. p. 411. Wood states that Dr. Bury was
    soon after restored. For an account of this controversy, and the works
    relating to it, see Gough's _British Topography_, vol. ii. p. 147., and
    Wood's _Athenæ_ (Bliss), vol. iv. p. 483.

    Any farther communications on the above Queries shall be forwarded to
    the correspondent.]

_Prester John._--I should be glad, through the medium of "N. & Q.," to be
favoured with some information relative to this mysterious personage.

STRATH CLYDE.

    [The history of Prester John, or of the individuals bearing that
    appellation, appears involved in considerable confusion and obscurity.
    Most of our Encyclopædias contain notices of this mysterious personage,
    especially Rees's, and Collier's _Great Historical Dictionary_. "The
    fame of _Prester_ or _Presbyter_ John," says Gibbon, "a khan, whose
    power was vainly magnified by the Nestorian missionaries, and who is
    said to have received at their hands the rite of baptism, and even of
    ordination, has long amused the credulity of Europe. In its long
    progress to Mosul, Jerusalem, Rome, &c., the story of Prester John
    evaporated into a monstrous fable, of which some features have been
    borrowed from the Lama of Thibet (_Hist. Généaologique des Tartares_,
    part ii. p. 42.; _Hist. de Gengiscan_, p. 31. &c.), and were ignorantly
    transferred by the Portuguese to the emperor of Abyssinia (Ludolph.
    _Hist. Æthop. Comment._ l. ii. c. 1.). Yet is is probable that, in the
    twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Nestorian Christianity was professed
    in the horde of the Keraites."]

_Homer's Iliad in a Nut._--On the tomb of those celebrated gardeners,
Tradescant father and son, these lines occur in the course of the
inscription:

 "Whilst they (as Homer's Iliad in a nut),
  A World of Wonders in one closet shut."

Will you explain the comparison implied in the words "as Homer's Iliad in a
nut?"

DAVID.

    [It refers to the account given by Pliny, vii. 21., that the _Iliad_
    was copied in so small a hand, that the whole work could lie in a
    walnut-shell: "In nuce inclusam Iliada Homeri carmen, in membrana
    scriptum tradidit Cicero." Pliny's authority is Cicero _apvd Gellium_,
    ix. 421. See M. Huet's account of a similar experiment in _Gentleman's
    Magazine_, vol. xxxix. p. 347.]

_Monogram of Parker Society._--What is the meaning of the monogram adopted
by the Parker Society on all their publications?

TYRO.

    [The monogram is "MATTHEW PARKER," Archbishop of Canterbury in the
    reign of Queen Elizabeth.]

_The Five Alls._--Can any of your readers give me an interpretation of a
sign on an inn in Oxford, which bears this inscription?

    "THE FIVE ALLS."

I can make nothing of it.

CURIOSUS.

Oxford.

    [Captain Grose shall interpret this Query. He says, "The Five Alls is a
    country sign, representing five human figures, each having a motto. The
    first is a king in his regalia, 'I govern all.' The second, a {503}
    bishop in pontificals, 'I pray for all.' Third, a lawyer in his gown,
    'I plead for all.' Fourth, a soldier in his regimentals, 'I fight for
    all.' Fifth, a poor countryman with his scythe and rake, 'I _pay_ for
    all!'"]

_Corvizer._--In a deed of the middle of the last century, I find this
addition to the name of a person residing at Conway. The word is similarly
employed in a list of interments of some "common people," contained in
Browne Willis's account of Bangor Cathedral. What does it mean, and whence
is it derived?

H. B.

Bangor.

    [An obsolete word for a cordwainer or shoemaker. See Ash's
    _Dictionary._]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

ENGLISH COMEDIANS IN GERMANY.

(Vol. ii., pp. 184. 459.; Vol. iii., p. 21.; Vol. vii., pp. 114. 360.)

In 1605 the English comedians first appeared in Prussia. In October they
performed before the Duchess Maria Eleonora at Koningsberg, for which they
were well paid; they then proceeded to Elbing, whence they were dismissed
with twenty thalers, since they produced scandalous things ("weil sie
schandbare Dinge fürgebracht"). In 1607, they were again sent away, after
they had performed the preceding year at Rostock. Some time after, the
Elector of Brandenburg, Joh. Sigismund, employed a certain noble, Hans von
Stockfisch, to obtain a theatrical company from England and the
Netherlands. A troop of nineteen comedians, under the direction of John
Spencer, came with sixteen musicians to add lustre to the electoral feasts.
In 1611, they received 720 marks, as well as many hundred ells of various
stuffs for costumes and decorations; of which great quantities were used in
1612. Many a time was it necessary to ransom them at great cost from inns
and lodging-houses; so that the prince, in 1613, resolved to rid himself of
these dear guests, and gave them a recommendation to the Elector of Saxony.
In 1616 we find them in Dantzic, where they gave eight representations; and
two years later, the Electress of Brandenburg, through Hans von Stockfisch,
procured eighteen comedians, who performed at Elbing, Koningsberg, and
other places, and were paid for their trouble ("für ihre gehabte Mühe eins
für alles") 200 Polish guilders.

In 1639, English comedians are again found in Koningsberg; and, for the
last time, in 1650, at Vienna, where William Roe, John Waide, Gideon,
Gellius, and Robert Casse, obtained a license from Ferdinand I.

In 1620 appeared a volume of _Englische Comedien und Tragedien, &c._ (2nd
edit., 1624), which was followed by a second; and in 1670 by a third: in
which last, however, the English element is not so prominent.

These statements of Dr. Hagen are confirmed by numerous quotations from
original documents, published by him in the _Neue Preuss. Provincial
Blätter_, Koningsb., 1850, vol. x.; vid. et _Gesch. der Deuts.
Schauspielk._, by E. Devrient, Leipzic, 1848. Professor Hagen maintains,
that in the beginning of the seventeenth century, the English comedies were
performed in Dutch; and that, in Germany, the same persons were called
indifferently English or Dutch comedians. They were Englishmen who had
found shelter under the English trading companies in the Netherlands ("Es
waren Engländer die in den englischen Handelscompagnien in den Niederlanden
ein Unterkommen gefunden.")--From the _Navorscher_.

J. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


A GENTLEMAN EXECUTED FOR WHIPPING A SLAVE TO DEATH.

(Vol. vii., p. 107.)

The occurrence noticed by W. W. is, I believe, the only instance on record
in the West Indies of the _actual_ execution of a gentleman for the murder,
by shipping or otherwise, of a slave. Nor is this strange. In the days of
slavery every owner of slaves was regarded in the light of a gentleman, and
his "right to do what he liked with his own" was seldom called in question
by judges or juries, who were themselves among the principal shareholders.
The case of Hodge was, however, of an aggravated character. For the trivial
offence of stealing a mango, he had caused one of his slaves to be whipped
to death; and this was, perhaps, the least shocking of the repeated acts of
cruelty which he was known to have committed upon the slaves of his estate.

During slavery each colony had its Hodge, and some had more than one. The
most conspicuous character of this kind in St. Lucia was _Jacques O'Neill
de Tyrone_, a gentleman who belonged to an Irish family, originally settled
in Martinique, and who boasted of his descent from one of the ancient kings
of Ireland. This man had long been notorious for his cruelty to his slaves.
At last, on the surrender of the colony to the British in 1803, the
attention of the authorities was awakened; a charge of murder was brought
against him, and he was sentenced to death. From this sentence he appealed
to a higher court; but such was the state of public feeling at the bare
idea of putting a white man to death for any offence against a slave, that
for a long time the members of the court could not be induced to meet; and
when they did meet, it was only to reverse the sentence of the court below.
I have now before me the proceedings of both courts. {504} The sentence of
the inferior court, presided over by an European judge, is based upon the
clearest evidence of O'Neill's having caused two of his slaves to be
murdered in his presence, and their heads cut off and stuck upon poles as a
warning to the others. The sentence of the Court of Appeal, presided over
by a brother planter, and entirely composed of planters, reverses the
sentence, without assigning any reason for its decision, beyond the mere
allegations of the accused party. Such was criminal justice in the days of
slavery!

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


LONGEVITY.

(Vol. vii., p. 358., &c.)

On looking over some volumes of the _Annual Register_, from its
commencement in 1758, I find instances of longevity very common, if we can
credit its reports. In vol. iv., for the year 1761, amongst the deaths, of
which there are many between 100 and 110, the following occur:

    January. "At Philadelphia, Mr. Charles Cottrell, aged 120 years; and
    three days after, his wife, aged 115. This couple lived together in the
    marriage state 98 years in great union and harmony."

    April. "Mrs. Gillam, of Aldersgate Street, aged 113."

    July. "John Newell, Esq., at Michael(s)town, Ireland, aged 127,
    grandson to old Parr, who died at the age of 152."

    August. "James Carlewhite, of Seatown, in Scotland, aged 111.

    "John Lyon, of Bandon, in the county of Cork, Ireland, aged 116."

In September there are three aged 106; one 107; one 111; one 112; and one
114 registered. I will take three from the year 1768, viz.:

    January. "Died lately in the Isle of Sky, in Scotland, Mr. Donald
    M^cGregor, a farmer there, in the 117th year of his age.

    "Last week, died at Burythorpe, near Malton in Yorkshire, Francis
    Confit, aged 150 years: he was maintained by the parish above sixty
    years, and retained his senses to the very last."

    April. "Near Ennis, Joan M^cDonough, aged 138 years."

Should sufficient interest attach to this subject, and any of the
correspondents of "N. & Q." wish it, I will be very happy to contribute my
mite, and make out a list of all the deaths above 120 years, or even 110,
from the commencement of the _Annual Register_, but am afraid it will be
found rather long.

J. S. A.

Old Broad Street.

A few years ago there lived in New Ross, in the county of Wexford, two old
men. The one, a slater named Furlong, a person of very intemperate habits,
died an inmate of the poorhouse in his 101st year: he was able to take long
walks up to a very short period before his death; and I have heard that he,
his son, and grandson, have been all together on a roof slating at the same
time. The other man was a nurseryman named Hayden, who died in his 108th
year: his memory was very good as to events that happened in his youth, and
his limbs, though shrunk up considerably, served him well. He was also in
the frequent habit of taking long walks not long before his death.

J. W. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


DERIVATION OF CANADA.

(Vol. vii., p. 380.)

The derivation given in the "cutting from an old newspaper," contributed by
MR. BREEN, seems little better than that of Dr. Douglas, who derives the
name from a _M. Cane_, to whom he attributes the honour of being the
discoverer of the St. Lawrence.

In the first place, the "cutting" is not correct, in so far as Gaspar
Cortereal never ascended the river, having merely entered the gulf, to
which the name of St. Lawrence was afterwards given by Jacques Carter.
Neither was the main object of the expedition the discovery of a passage
into the Indian Sea, but the discovery of gold; and it was the
disappointment of the adventurers in not finding the precious metal which
is supposed to have caused them to exclaim "Aca nada!" (Nothing here).

The author of the _Conquest of Canada_, in the first chapter of that
valuable work, says that "an ancient Castilian tradition existed, that the
Spaniards visited these coasts before the French,"--to which tradition
probably this supposititious derivation owes its origin.

Hennepin, who likewise assigns to the Spaniards priority of discovery,
asserts that they called the land _El Capo di Nada_ (Cape Nothing) for the
same reason.

But the derivation given by Charlevoix, in his _Nouvelle France_, should
set all doubt upon the point at rest; _Cannáda_ signifying, in the Iroquois
language, a number of huts (_un amas de cabanes_), or a village. The name
came to be applied to the whole country in this manner:--The natives being
asked what they called the first settlement at which Cartier and his
companions arrived, answered, "Cannáda;" not meaning the particular
appellation of the place, which was Stadacóna (the modern Quebec), but
simply a village. In like manner, they applied the same word to Hochelága
(Montreal) and to other places; whence the Europeans, hearing every
locality designated by the same term, _Cannáda_, very naturally applied it
to the entire valley of the St. Lawrence. It may not here be out of place
to notice, that with respect to the derivation of _Quebec_, the weight of
evidence {505} would likewise seem to be favourable to an aboriginal
source, as Champlain speaks of "la pointe de Québec, ainsi appellée des
sauvages;" not satisfied with which, some writers assert that the far-famed
city was named after Candebec, a town on the Seine; while others say that
the Norman navigators, on perceiving the lofty headland, exclaimed "Quel
bec!" of which they believe the present name to be a corruption. Dissenting
from all other authorities upon the subject, Mr. Hawkins, the editor of a
local guide-book called _The Picture of Quebec_, traces the name to an
European source, which he considers to be conclusive, owing to the
existence of a seal bearing date 7 Henry V. (1420), and on which the Earl
of Suffolk is styled "Domine de Hamburg et de Québec."

ROBERT WRIGHT.

       *       *       *       *       *


SETANTIORUM PORTUS.

(Vol. vii., pp. 180. 246.)

Although the positions assigned by Camden to the ancient names of the
various estuaries on the coasts of Lancashire and Cumberland are very much
at variance with those laid down by more modern geographers; still, with
regard to the particular locality assigned by him to the _Setantiorum
Portus_, he has made a suggestion which seems worthy the attention of your
able correspondent C.

His position for _Morecambe Bay_ is a small inlet to the south of the
entrance of _Solway Firth_, into which the rivers _Waver_ and _Wampool_
empty themselves, and on which stands "the abbey of _Ulme_, or _Holme
Cultraine_." He derives the name from the British, as signifying a "crooked
sea," which doubtless is correct; we have _Môr taweh_, the main sea;
_Morudd_, the Red Sea; and _Môr camm_ may be supposed to indicate a bay
much indented with inlets. It is needless to say that the present
_Morecambe Bay_ answers this description far more accurately than that in
the Solway Firth. _Belisama Æstuarium_ he assigns to the mouth of the
Ribble, and is obliged to allot _Setantiorum Portus_ to the remaining
estuary, now called Morecambe Bay. However, he seems not quite satisfied
with this last arrangement, and suggests that it would be more appropriate
if we might read, as is found in some copies, _Setantiorum_ [Greek: limnê],
instead of [Greek: limên], thus assigning the name of Setantii to the
inhabitants of the _lake district_.

The old editions of Ptolemy, both Greek and Latin, are very incorrect, and,
there is little doubt, have suffered from alterations and interpolations at
the hands of ignorant persons. I have not access at present to any edition
of his geography, either of Erasmus, Servetus, or Bertius, so I know not
whether any weight should be allowed to the following circumstance; in the
_Britannia Romana_, in Gibson's _Camden_, this is almost the only _Portus_
to be found round the coast of England. The terms there used are (with one
more exception) invariably _æstuarium_, or _fluvii ostium_. If this
variation in the old reading be accepted, the appellation as given by
Montanus, Bertius, and others, to _Winandermere_, becomes more
intelligible.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Stereoscopic Queries._--Can any of your readers inform me what are the
proper angles under which stereoscopic pictures should be taken?

Mr. Beard, I am informed, takes his stereoscopic portraits at about 6½°, or
1 in 9; that is to say, his cameras are placed 1 inch apart for every 9
inches the sitter is removed from them. The distance of the sitter with him
is generally, I believe, 8 feet, which would give 10-2/3 inches for the
extent of the separation between his cameras. More than this has the
effect, he says, of making the pictures appear to stand out unnaturally;
that is to say, if the cameras were to be placed 12 inches apart (which
would be equal to 1 in 8), the pictures would seem to be in greater relief
than the objects.

I find that the pictures on a French stereoscopic slide I have by me have
been taken at an angle of 10°, or 1 in 6. This was evidently photographed
at a considerable distance, the triumphal arch in the Place de Carousel (of
which it is a representation) being reduced to about 1¼ inch in height. How
comes it then that the angle is here increased to 10° from 6½°, or to 1 in
6 from 1 in 9.

Moreover, the only work I have been able to obtain on the mode of taking
stereoscopic pictures, lays it down that all portraits, or near objects,
should be taken under an angle of 15°, or, as it says, 1 in 5; that is, if
the camera is 20 feet from the sitter, the distance between its first and
second position (supposing only one to be used) should not exceed 4 feet:
otherwise, adds the author, "the stereosity will appear unnaturally great."

When two cameras are employed, the instructions proceed to state that the
distance between them would be about 1/10th of the distance from the part
of the object focussed. The example given is a group of portraits, and the
angle, 1 in 10, is afterwards spoken of as being equivalent to an arc of
10°.

Farther on, we are told that "the angle should be lessened as the distance
between the nearest and farthest objects increase. Example: if the farthest
object be twice as far from the camera as the near object, the angle should
be 5° to a central point between these two.

Now, I find by calculation that the measurements and the angle here
mentioned by no means {506} agree. For instance, an angle of 15° is spoken
of as being equivalent to the measurement 1 in 5. An angle of 10° is said,
or implied, to be the same as 1 in 10. This is far from being the fact.
According to my calculations, the following are the real equivalents:--

  An angle of 15° is equal to 1 in 4.
     "       12°      "      1 in 5.
     "       10°      "      1 in 6.
     "       6½°      "      1 in 9.
     "       6°       "      1 in 10.
     "       5°       "      1 in 12.
     "       4°       "      1 in 15.

Will any of your readers oblige me by solving the above anomalies, and by
giving the proper angles or measurement under which objects should be taken
when near, moderately distant, or far removed from the camera; stating, at
the same time, at how many feet from the camera an object is to be
considered as near, or distant, or between the two? It would be a great
assistance to beginners in the stereoscopic art, if some experienced
gentleman would state the best distances and angles for taking busts,
portraits, groups, buildings, and landscapes.

It is said that stereoscopic pictures at great distances, such as views,
should be taken "with a small aperture." But as the exact dimensions are
not mentioned, it would be equally serviceable if, to the other details,
were added some account of the dimensions of the apertures required for the
several angles.

In the directions given in the work from which I have quoted, it is said
that when pictures are taken with one camera placed in different positions,
the angle should be 15°; but when taken with two cameras, the angle should
be 10°. Is this right? And, if so, why the difference?

In the account given by you of Mr. Wilkinson's ingenious mode of levelling
the cameras for stereoscopic pictures, it is said the plumb-line should be
three feet long, and that the diagonal lines drawn on the ground glass
should be made to cut the principal object focussed on the glass; and "when
you have moved it, the camera, 8 _or_ 10 feet, make it cut the same object
again." At what distance is the object presumed to be?

Any information upon the above matters will be a great service, and
consequently no slight favour conferred upon your constant reader since the
photographic correspondence has been commenced.

[phi].

_Photographic Portraits of Criminals, &c._--Such experience as I have had
both in drawing portraits and taking photographs, impels me to hint to the
authorities of Scotland Yard that they will by no means find taking the
portraits of gentlemen that are "wanted" infallible, and I anticipate some
unpleasant mistakes will ere long arise. I have observed that inability to
recognize a portrait is as frequent in the case of photographs as on
canvass, or in any other way. I defy the whole world of artists to reduce
the why and wherefore into a reasonable shape; one will declare that
"either" looks as if the individual was going to cry; the next critic will
say he sees nothing but a pleasant smile. "I should never have known who it
is if you hadn't told me," says a third; the next says "it's his eyes, but
not his nose;" and perhaps the next will say, "it's his nose, but not his
eyes."

I was present not long since at the showing a portrait, which I think about
the climax of doubt. "Not a bit like," was the first exclamation. The poor
artist sank into his chair; after, however, a brief contemplation, "It's
very like, _in-deed_; it's excellent:" this was said by a gentleman of the
highest attainments, and one of the best poets of the day.

Some persons (I beg pardon of the ladies) take the habiliments as the
standard of recognition. I do not accuse them of doing it wilfully; they do
not know it themselves. For example, Miss Smith will know Miss Jones a mile
or so off. By her general air, or her face? Oh no! It's by the bonnet she
helped her to choose at Madame What-d'ye-call's, because the colour suited
he complexion.

These are some of the mortifications attendant on artistic labour, and if
they occur with the educated classes, they are more likely to happen even
to "intelligent policemen," as the newspaper have it. If I dissent from the
plan it is because I doubt its efficiency, but do not deny that it is worth
a trial. If the French like to carry their portraits about with them on
their passports to show to policemen, let them submit to the humiliation. I
doubt very much whether the Chamber of Deputies would have made a law of
it: it appears a new idea in jurisprudence that a man _must_ sit for his
picture. Any one, however, understanding the camera, would be alive before
the removal of the cup of the lens, and be ready with a wry face; I do not
suppose he could be imprisoned for _that_.

Both plans are miserable travesties on the lovely uses of portrait painting
and photography. Side by side with Cowper's passionate address to his
mother's picture, how does it look?

 "Oh, that those lips had language! Life has pass'd
  With me but roughly since I saw thee last."

And,

 "Blest be the art that can immortalise."

If photography has an advantage over canvas, it does indeed immortalise
(the painting may imitate, and the portrait may be good; but there is
something more profoundly affecting in having the actual, the real shade of
a friend perhaps long {507} since in his grave); and we ought not only to
be grateful to the illustrious inventors of the art, but prevent these base
uses being made of it.

In short, apart from the uncertainty of recognition, which I have not in
the least caricatured, if Giles Scroggins, housebreaker and coiner, and all
the swell mob, are to be photographed, it will bring the art into disgrace,
and people's friends will inquire delicately where it was done, when they
show their lively effigies. It may also mislead by a sharp rogue's
adroitness; and I question very much its legality.

WELD TAYLOR.

_Photography applied to Catalogues of Books._--May not photography be
usefully applied to the making of catalogues of large libraries? It would
seem no difficult matter to obtain any number of photographs, of any
required size, of the title-page of any book. Suppose the plan adopted,
that five photographs of each were taken; they may be arranged in five
catalogues, as follows:--Era, subject, country, author, title. These being
arranged alphabetically, would form five catalogues of a library probably
sufficient to meet the wants of all. Any number of additional divisions may
be added. By adopting a fixed breadth--say three inches--for the
photographs, to be pasted in double columns in folio, interchanges may take
place of those unerring slips, and thus librarians aid each other. I throw
out this crude idea, in the hope that photographers and librarians may
combine to carry it out.

ALBERT BLOR, LL.D.

Dublin.

_Application of Photography to the Microscope._--May I request the
re-insertion of the photographic Query of R. J. F. in Vol. vi., p. 612., as
I cannot find that it has received an answer, viz., What extra apparatus is
required to a first-rate microscope in order to obtain photographic
microscopic pictures?

J.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Discovery at Nuneham Regis_ (Vol. vi., p. 558.).--May the decapitated
body, found in juxta-position with other members of the Chichester family,
not be that of Sir John Chichester the Younger, mentioned in Burke's
_Peerage and Baronetage_, under the head "Chichester, Sir Arthur, of
Raleigh, co. Devon," as being that fourth son of Sir John Chichester, Knt.,
M.P. for the co. Devon, who was Governor of Carrickfergus, and lost his
life "by decapitation," after falling into the hands of James Macsorley
Macdonnel, Earl of Antrim?

The removal of the body from Ireland to the resting-place of other members
of the family would not be a very improbable event, and quite consistent
with the natural affection of relatives, under such mournful circumstances.

J. H. T.

_Eulenspiegel, or Howleglas_ (Vol. vii., pp. 357. 416.).--Permit me to
acquaint your correspondent that among the many singular and curious books
which formed the library of that talented antiquary the late Charles
Kirkpatrick Sharp, and which were sold here by auction some time ago, there
was a small 12mo. volume containing _French translations_, with rude
woodcuts, of--

    1. "La Vie joyeuse et recreative de Tiel-Ullespiegle, de ses Faits
    merveilleux et Fortunes qu'il a eues; lequel par aucune Ruse ne se
    laissa pas tromper. A Troyes, chez Garner, 1838."

    2. "Histoire de Richard Sans Peur, Duc de Normandie, Fils de Robert le
    Diable, &c. A Troyes, chez Oudot, 1745."

T. G. S.

Edinburgh.

_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432.; Vol. vii., pp. 193. 369. 438.).--

    "In the year 1635, upon the request of the Rev. Anthony Tuckney, Vicar
    of Boston, it was ordained by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Laud), then
    on his metropolitical visitation at Boston, 'that the roome over the
    porch of the saide churche shall be repaired and decently fitted up to
    make a librarye, to the end that, in case any well and charitably
    disposed person shall hereafter bestow any books to the use of the
    parish, they may be there safely preserved and kept.'"

This library at present contains several hundred volumes of ancient
(patristic, scholastic, and post-Reformation) divinity.

I hope to be able ere long to make a correct catalogue of the books at
present remaining, and at the same time make an attempt to restore them to
that decent "keeping" in which the great and good archbishop desired they
might remain.

Query: In making preparations for the catalogue, I have been informed by a
gentleman that he remembers two or more _cart loads_ of books from this
library being sold by the churchwardens, and, as he believes, by the then
archdeacon's orders, at waste paper price; that the bulk of them was
purchased by a bookseller then resident in Boston, and re-sold by him to a
clergyman in the neighbourhood of Silsby.

1. What was the date of the sale?

2. The name of the _Venerable_ Archdeacon who perpetrated this robbery?

3. Whether there are any legal means for recovering the missing works?

My extracts are from Thompson's _History of Boston_, a correspondent of
yours, a new edition of whose laborious work is about to appear.

THOMAS COLLIS.

Boston.

_Painter--Derrick_ (Vol. vii., pp. 178. 391.).--I cannot agree with
J. S. C. that _painter_ is a corruption of _punter_, from the Saxon _punt_,
a boat. {508} According to the construction and analogy of our language, a
_punter_ or _boater_ would be the person who worked or managed the boat. I
consider that _painter_--like _halter_ and _tether_, derived from Gothic
words signifying to _hold_ and to _tie_--is a corruption of _bynder_, from
the Saxon _bynd_, to bind. If the Anglo-Norman word _panter_, a snare for
catching and holding birds, be a corruption of _bynder_, we are brought to
the word at once. Or, indeed, we may go no farther back than _panter_.

J. C. G. says that _derrick_ is an ancient British word: perhaps he will be
kind enough to let us know its signification. I always understood that a
_derrick_ took its name from _Derrick_, the notorious executioner at
Tyburn, in the early part of the seventeenth century, whose name was long a
general term for hangman. In merchant ships, the _derrick_, for hoisting up
goods, is always placed at the hatchway, close by the _gallows_. The
_derrick_, however, is not a nautical appliance alone; it has been long
used to raise stones at buildings; but the crane, and that excellent
invention the handy-paddy, has now almost put it out of employment. What
will philologists, two or three centuries hence, make out of the word
_handy-paddy_, which is universally used by workmen to designate the
powerful winch, traversing on temporary rails, employed to raise heavy
weights at large buildings. For the benefit of posterity, I may say that it
is very _handy_ for the masons, and almost invariably worked by Irishmen.

As a collateral evidence to my opinion, that _painter_ is derived from the
Saxon _bynder_, through the Anglo-Norman _panter_, and that _derrick_ is
from _Derrick_ the hangman, I may add that these words are unknown in the
nautical technology of any other language.

W. PINKERTON.

Ham.

_Pepys's "Morena"_ (Vol. vii., p. 118.).--MR. WARDEN may like to be
informed that his conjecture about the meaning of this word is fully
confirmed by the following passage in the _Diary_, 6th October, 1661, which
has hitherto unaccountably escaped observation:

    "There was also my _pretty black girl_, Mrs. Dekins and Mrs. Margaret
    Pen this day come to church."

BRAYBROOKE.

_Pylades and Corinna_ (Vol. vii., p. 305.).--If your correspondent's
question have reference to the two volumes in octavo published under this
title in 1731, assuredly Defoe had nothing to do with them, as must be
evident to any one on the most cursory glance. The volumes contain memoirs
of Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, on whom Dryden conferred the poetical title of
Corinna, and the letters which passed between her and Richard Gwinnett, her
intended husband. A biography of this lady, neither whose life nor poetry
were of the best, may be found in Chalmers's _Biog. Dict._, vol. xxix. p.
281., and a farther one in Cibber's _Lives_, vol. iv. The _Dunciad_, and
her part in the publication of Pope's early correspondence, have given her
an unhappy notoriety. I must say, however, that, notwithstanding his
provocation, I cannot but think that he treated this poor woman
ungenerously.

JAMES CROSSLEY.

_Judge Smith_ (Vol. vii., p. 463.).--I must confess my ignorance of any
Judge Smith flourishing in the reign of Elizabeth. I know of only three
judges of that name.

1. John Smith, a Baron of the Exchequer during the last seven years of the
reign of Henry VIII. From him descended the Lords Carrington of Wotton
Waven, in Warwickshire, a title which became extinct in 1705.

2. John Smith, who was also a Baron of the Exchequer in the reign of Anne.
He became Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Scotland in 1708, and died in
1726. He endowed a hospital for poor widows at Frolesworth in
Leicestershire.

3. Sidney Stafford Smythe, likewise a Baron of the Exchequer under George
II. and III., and Chief Baron in the latter reign. He was of the same
family as that of the present Viscount Strangford.

If Z. E. R. would be good enough to send a copy of the inscription on the
monument in Chesterfield Church, and give some particulars of the family
seated at Winston Hall, the difficulty will probably be removed.

EDWARD FOSS.

_Grindle_ (Vol. vii., pp. 107. 307. 384.).--As one at least of the readers
of "N. & Q." living near _Grindle_ (Greendale is modern), allow me to say
that from the little I know of the places, they appear to me "to possess no
traces of those natural features which would justify the demoniacal
derivation proposed by I. E." However, as my judgment may be of little
worth, if "I. E. of Oxford" should ever migrate into these parts, and will
favour me with a call, with credentials of being the veritable I. E. of "N.
& Q.," I shall have much pleasure in assisting him to examine for himself
all the local knowledge which a short walk to the spots may enable him to
acquire.

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

Rectory, Clyst St. George.

_Simile of the Soul and the Magnetic Needle_ (Vol. vi., pp. 127. 207. 280.
368. 566.).--Dr. Arnold, with more religion than science, thus employs this
simile:

    "Men get embarrassed by the common cases of misguided conscience; but a
    compass may be out of order as well as a conscience, and the needle may
    point due south if you hold a powerful magnet in that direction. Still
    the compass, generally speaking, is a true and sure guide, and so is
    the conscience; and you {509} can trace the deranging influence on the
    latter quite as surely as on the former."--_Life and Correspondence_,
    2nd ed. p. 390.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_English Bishops deprived by Queen Elizabeth, 1559_ (Vol. vii., p.
260.).--I have endeavoured to procure some information for A. S. A. on
those points which MR. DREDGE left unnoticed, but find that, after his
diligent search, very little indeed is to be gleaned. _Bishop Payne_ died
in January, 1559/60 (Strype's _Annals_, anno 1559). Dod, in vol. i. p. 507.
of his _Church History_, mentions a letter of _Bishop Goldwell's_, or, as
he calls him, _Godwell's_, to Dr. Allen, dated anno 1581:

    "This letter," he says, "seems to be written not long before Bishop
    Godwell's death, for I meet with no farther mention of him. Here the
    reader may take notice of a mistake in Dr. Heylin, who tells us he died
    prisoner in Wisbich Castle, which is to be understood of Bishop
    Watson."

Of _Bishop Pate_ he says:

    "He was alive in 1562, but how long after I do not find."--Vol. i. p.
    488.

_Bishop Pole_, according to the same authority, died a prisoner at large
about the latter end of May, 1568. _Bishop Frampton_ died May 25, 1708
(Calamy's _Own Times_, vol. ii. p. 119.). I cannot ascertain the day of
_Bishop White's_ death, but he was buried, according to Evelyn (vol. iii.
p. 364.), June 5, 1698.

TYRO.

Dublin.

_Borrowed Thoughts_ (Vol. vii., p. 203.).--The thought which ERICA shows
has been used by Butler and Macaulay is a grain from an often-pillaged
granary; a tag of yarn from a piece of cloth used ever since its make for
darning and patching; a drop of honey from a hive round which robber-bees
and predatory wasps have never ceased to wander,--the _Anatomy of
Melancholy_:

    "Though there were giants of old in physic and philosophy, yet I say
    with Didacus Stella[2], 'a dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant
    may see farther than a giant himself.' I may likely add, alter, and see
    farther than my predecessors; and it is no greater prejudice for me to
    indite after others, than for Ælianus Montaltus, that famous physician,
    to write _De Morbis Capitis_, after Jason Pratensis," &c.

The pagination (that of Tegg's edition, 1849) will not guide those who with
Elia sicken at the profanity of "unearthing the bones of that fantastic old
great man," and know not a "sight more heartless" than the reprint of his
_Opus_.

SIGMA.

Sunderland.

[Footnote 2: In _Luc._ 10. tom. ii.: "Pigmi gigantum humeris impositi
plusquam ipsi gigantes vident."--_Preface_, p. 8.]

_Dr. South_ v. _Goldsmith, Talleyrand, &c._ (Vol. vi., p. 575. Vol. vii.,
p. 311.).--One authority has been overlooked by MR. BREEN, which seems as
likely as any to have given currency to the saying, viz. Dean Swift. In
_Gulliver's Travels_ (1727), Voyage to the Houyhnhnms, the hero gives the
king some information respecting British ministers of state, which I
apprehend in Swift's day was no exaggeration. The minister, Gulliver says,
"applies his words to all uses except to the indication of his mind." It
must be confessed, however, that this authority is some seven years after
Dr. South.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Foucault's Experiment_ (Vol. vii., p. 330.).--The reality of the rotation,
and the cause assigned to it by Foucault in his experiment, is now admitted
without question by scientific men. But in measuring the amount of the
motion of the pendulum, so many disturbing causes were found to be at work,
that the numerical results have not been obtained as yet with exactness.
The best account is, perhaps, the original one in the _Comptes Rendus_. Mr.
Foucault has lately invented an instrument founded on a similar principle,
to find the latitude of a place.

ELSNO.

_Passage in "Locksley Hall"_ (Vol. vi., p. 272.; Vol. vii., pp. 25.
146.).--Of these three commentators neither appears to me to have hit
Tennyson's meaning, though CORYLUS has made the nearest shot. I ought to
set out by confessing that it was not originally clear to myself, but that
I could not for a monument doubt, when the following explanation was
suggested to me by a friend. The "curlews" themselves are the "dreary
gleams:" the words are what the Latin Grammar calls "duo substantiva
ejusdem rei." I take the meaning, in plain prose to be this: "The curlews
are uttering their peculiar cry, as they fly over Locksley Hall, looking
like (to me, the spectator) dreary gleams crossing the moorland."

I could supply A. A. D. with several examples _in English_, from my
commonplace-book, of the "bold figure of speech not uncommon in the vivid
language of Greece;" and among the rest, one from Tennyson himself, to wit:

 "Now, scarce three paces measured from the mound,
  We stumbled on a stationary _voice_," &c.

But I doubt whether the poet had those passages in his thought, when he
penned the opening of his noble poem "Locksley Hall." Of course I do not
_know_, any more than A. A. D., and the rest; and I suppose we shall none
of us get any enlightenment "by authority."

HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.

_Lake of Geneva_ (Vol. vii. p. 406.).--The account given in the _Chronicle
of Marius_ of what is called "an earthquake or landslip in the valley of
the {510} Upper Rhone," is evidently that of a sudden _débâcle_ destructive
of life and property, but not such as to effect any permanent change in the
configuration of the country. That an antiquary like Montfaucon should have
fallen into the blunder of supposing that the Lacus Lemanus was then
formed, may well excite surprise. The breadth of the new-formed lake, as
given by Marius, is impossible, as the mountains in the valley are scarcely
anywhere more than a mile apart. The valley of the Upper Rhone is liable to
such _débâcles_, and one which would fill it might be called a lake,
although of short duration. Having witnessed the effects of the _débâcle_
of 1818 a few weeks after it happened, I can easily understand how such a
one as that described by Marius should have produced the effects attributed
to it, and yet have left no traces of its action after the lapse of
centuries.

J. S.

Athenæum.

_"Inter cuncta micans," &c._ (Vol. vi., p. 413.).--In a small work, _Lives
of Eminent Saxons_, part i. p. 104., the above lines are ascribed to
Aldhelm, and a translation by Mr. Boyd is subjoined.

To Aldhelm also are attributed the lines so often alluded to in "N. & Q.,"
"Roma tibi subito," &c.

B. H. C.

_"Its"_ (Vol. vi., p. 509.; Vol. vii., p. 160.).--As the proposer of the
question on this word, so kindly replied to by MR. KEIGHTLEY, may I give
two instances of its use from the Old Version of the Psalms?

    "Which in due season bringeth forth _its_ fruit abundantly."--Ps. i. 3.

    "Thou didst prepare first a place, and set _its_ roots so fast."--Ps.
    lxxx. 10.

The American _Bibliotheca Sacra_ for October 1851, p. 735., says (speaking
of the time when the authorised version of the Scriptures was executed),
"the genitive _its_ was not then in use;" which is disproved by the
quotations already given.

B. H. C.

_Gloves at Fairs_ (Vol. vii., p. 455.).--The custom of "hanging out the
glove at fair time," as described by E. G. R., is, in all probability, of
Chester origin. The annals of that city show that its two great annual
fairs were established, or rather confirmed, by a charter of Hugh Lupus,
the first Norman Earl of Chester, who granted to the abbot and convent of
St. Werburgh (now the cathedral) "the extraordinary privilege, that no
criminals resorting to their fairs at Chester should be arrested for any
crime whatever, except such as they might have committed during their stay
in the city." For several centuries, Chester was famous for the manufacture
of gloves; and in token thereof, it was the custom for some days before,
and during the continuance of the fair, to hang out from the town-hall,
then situate at the High Cross, their local emblem of commerce--a _glove_:
thereby proclaiming that non-freemen and strangers were permitted to trade
within the city, a privilege at all other times enjoyed by the citizens
only. During this period of temporary "free trade," debtors were safe from
the tender mercies of their creditors, and free from the visits of the
sheriff's officer and his satellites. On the removal of the town-hall to
another part of the city, the leathern symbol of "unrestricted competition"
was suspended, at the appointed season, from the roof of St. Peter's
Church; until that reckless foe to antiquity, the Reform Bill, aimed a
heavy blow at all our prescriptive rights and privileges, and decreed that
the stranger should be henceforth on a footing with the freeborn citizen.
Notwithstanding this, the authorities of the city still continued to "hang
out their banner on the outward walls;" and it is only within the last ten
years that the time-honoured custom has ceased to exist.

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

_Astronomical Query_ (Vol. vii., p.84.).--Your fair correspondent LEONORA
makes a mistake in reference to the position, in regard to the zodiac, of
the newly-discovered planets. It is indeed not at all surprising that these
bodies were not discovered before, for this reason--they _do not move
within the circle of the zodiac_: they lie far beyond it, so much so, that
to include them the zodiac must be expanded to at least five times its
present breadth. Hence they lie out of the path of ordinary observation,
and their discovery is usually the result of keen telescopic examination of
distant parts of the heavens. LEONORA is of course aware, that, with the
exception of Neptune (the discovery of which is a peculiar case), all the
recently discovered planets belong to the cluster of asteroids which move
between Mars and Jupiter. These are all invisible to the eye with the
exception of Vesta, and she is not to be distinguished by any but an
experienced star-gazer, and under most favourable circumstances; their
minuteness, their _extra_-zodiacal position, and the outrageous orbits
which they describe, all conspire to keep them out of human ken until they
are detected by the telescope, and ascertained to be planets either by
their optical appearances, or by a course of watching and comparison of
their positions with catalogues of the fixed stars.

SHIRLEY HIBBERD.

_Tortoiseshell Tom Cat_ (Vol. v., p. 465.; Vol. vii., p. 271.).--See Hone's
_Year Book_, p. 728.

ZEUS.

_Sizain on the Pope, the Devil, and the Pretender_ (Vol. vii., p.
270.).--This is given as one of the prize epigrams in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_ for 1735, vol. v. p. 157.

ZEUS. {511}

_Wandering Jew_ (Vol. vii., p. 261.).--Your correspondent will find an
account of the Wandering Jew prefixed to "Le Juif errant," the 3ième
livraison of _Chants et Chansons Populaires de la France_.

THOS. LAWRENCE.

Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

The earliest account of this legend is in Roger of Wendover, under the year
1228: _De Joseph, qui ultimum Christi adventum adhuc vivus exspectat_, vol.
iv. p. 176. of the Historical Society's edition, vol. ii. p. 512. of Bohn's
Translation: see also Brand's _Popular Antiquities_, vol iii. p. 360.,
Bohn's edition.

ZEUS.

_Hallett and Dr. Saxby_ (Vol. vii., p. 41.).--I know nothing of the
parties, but have the book about which S. R. inquires. The title is not
accurately given in the _Literary Journal_. Instead of "An Ode to Virtue,"
by Dr. Morris Saxby, it is _An Ode on Virtue by a Young Author, dedicated
to Dr. William Saxby; with a Preface and Notes, Critical and Explanatory,
by a Friend_--"Mens sibi conscia recti"--A good intention. Printed anno
Domini MDCCXCI, pp. 16.

A more stupid production could not easily be found; but, as it must be
scarce, if the story about the destruction of all but eight copies is true,
I transcribe a part of the dedication:

    "Most August Doctor,

    "The reputation you have acquired by professional merit, with the
    respect which is universally shown to you on account of your practical
    observance of moral philosophy, has induced me to select you as a
    protector of the following work; which being evidently intended to
    promote a cause for which you was always a zealous advocate, I have
    nourished the most flattering hopes that you will be rather pleased
    than offended by this unwarrantable presumption.

    "It is necessary I should deviate from the general rule of celebrating
    a patron's virtues in a high strain of panegyric, being sensible how
    generally yours are known, and how justly admired."--P. 3.

The ode contains only ten lines:

 "Virtue, a mere chimera amongst the fair,
  Is now quite vanquished into air;
  Formerly it was thought a thing of worth,
  But now who thinks of such poor stuff.
  It's only put on to deceive,
  That us poor mortals on them may crave;
  Fall down and swear their beauty far
  Surpasses what are ever saw!
  Then they who think all's true that's said," &c.

I omit the final line as unseemly.

Dr. Saxby is mentioned only on the title-page, and that part of the
dedication which I have copied. He must have been a sensitive man to have
felt such an attack, and a prompt one to settle his account with the author
so quickly. As it is obvious that the ode was published solely to annoy
him, we may be allowed to hope that in the "severe personal chastisement"
he was not sparing of whipcord. The absence of place of publication and
printer's name render inquiry difficult; and there is no indication as to
whether Dr. Saxby was of Divinity, Law, or Physic.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

_"My mind to me a kingdom is"_ (Vol. i., pp. 302. 489.; Vol. vi., pp. 555.
615.).--The idea is Shakspeare's (Third Part of _Hen. VI._):

 "_Keeper._ Ay, but thou talk'st as if thou wert a king.
  _K. Henry._ Why, so I am in mind; and that's enough."

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Claret_ (Vol. vii., p. 237.).--The word claret seems to me to be the same
as the French word _clairet_, both adjective and substantive; as a
substantive it means a low and cheap sort of _claret_, sold in France, and
drawn from the barrel like beer in England; as an adjective it is a
diminutive of _clair_, and implies that the wine is transparent.

JOHN LAMMENS.

Manchester.

_Suicide at Marseilles_ (Vol. vii., pp. 180. 316.).--The original authority
for the custom at Marseilles, of keeping poison at the public expense for
the accommodation of all who could give the senate satisfactory reasons for
committing suicide, is Valerius Maximus, lib. ii. cap. vi. § 7.

ZEUS.

_Etymology of Slang_ (Vol. vii., p. 331.).--

    "SLANGS are the greaves with which the legs of convicts are fettered,
    having acquired that name from the manner in which they were worn, as
    they required a sling of string to keep them off the ground.... The
    irons were the _slangs_; and the slang-wearer's language was of course
    slangous, as partaking much if not wholly of the
    _slang_."--_Sportsman's Slang, a New Dictionary and Varieties of Life_,
    by John Bee: Preface, p. 5.

ZEUS.

_Scanderbeg's Sword_ (Vol. vii., pp. 35. 143.).--The proverb, "Scanderbeg's
sword must have Scanderbeg's arm," is founded on the following story:

    "George Castriot, Prince of Albania, one of the strongest and
    valiantest men that lived these two hundred yeares, had a cimeter,
    which Mahomet the Turkish Emperor, his mortall enemy, desired to see.
    Castriot (surnamed of the Turks, Ischenderbeg, that is, Great
    Alexander, because of his valiantnesse), having received a pledge for
    the restitution of his cimeter, sent it so far as Constantinople to
    Mahomet, in whose court there was not any man found that could with any
    ease wield that piece of steele: so that Mahomet sending it back
    againe, enioyned the messenger to tell the prince, that in this action
    he kind proceeded enemy-like, and with a fraudulent mind, sending a
    counterfeit cimeter {512} to make his enemie afraid. Ischenderbeg writ
    back to him, that he had simply without fraud or guile sent him his
    owne cimeter, with the which he used to helpe himselfe couragiously in
    the wars; but that he had not sent him the hand and the arme which with
    the cimeter cleft the Turkes in two, struck off their heads, shoulders,
    legs, and other parts, yea, sliced them of by the wast; and that verie
    shortly he would show him a fresh proofe thereof; which afterwards he
    performed."--_Historical Meditations from the Latin of P. Camerarius_,
    by John Molle, Esquire, 1621, book iv. Cap. xvi. p. 299.

The following, relating to the arm and sword of Scanderbeg, may perhaps not
inappropriately be added, although not connected with the proverb:

    "Marinus Barletius (lib. i.) reports of Scanderbeg, Prince of Epirus
    (that most terrible enemy of the Turks), that, from his mother's womb,
    he brought with him into the world a notable mark of warlike glory: for
    he had upon his right arm a sword, so well set on, as if it had been
    drawn with the pencil of the most curious and skilful painter in the
    world."--Wanley's _Wonders of the Little World_, 1678, book i. cap.
    vii.

ZEUS.

_Arago on the Weather_ (Vol. vii., p. 40.).--ELSNO will find extracts from
Arago's papers in the _Pictorial Almanack_, 1847, p. 30., and in the _Civil
Engineer and Architects' Journal_, which volume I cannot say, but I think
that for 1847. Also in the _Monthly Chronicle_, vol. i. p. 60., and vol.
ii. p. 209.; the annals of the _Bureau des Longitudes_ for 1834 and the
_Annuaire_ for 1833.

SHIRLEY HIBBERD.

_Rathe_ (Vol. vii., p. 392.).--MR. CROSSLEY is, I believe, mistaken in his
derivation of the word _rathe_ from the Celtic _raithe_, signifying
inclination, although _rather_ seems indisputably to belong to it. _Rathe_
is, I believe, identical with the Saxon adjective _rætha_, signifying
early. Chaucer's--

    "What aileth you so _rathe_ for to arise,"

has been already quoted as bearing this meaning. Milton, in Lycidas, has--

    "Bring the _rathe_ primrose that forsaken dies."

In a pastoral, called a "Palinode," by E. B., probably Edmond Bolton, in
England's _Helicon_, edit. 1614, occurs:

    "And make the _rathe_ and timely primrose grow."

And we have "_rathe_ and late," in a pastoral in Davidson's _Poems_, 4th
edit., London, 1621.

_Rathe_ is a word still in use in the Weald of Sussex, where Saxon still
lingers in the dialect of the common people; and a _rathe_, instead of an
early spring, is spoken of; and a species of early apple is known as the
_Rathe_-ripe.

ANON.

_Carr Pedigree_ (Vol. vii., p. 408.).--The pedigree description of Lady
Carr is "Gresil, daughter of Sir Robert Meredyth, Knt., Chancellor of the
Exchequer in Ireland." Sir George Carr died Feb. 13, 1662-3, and was buried
in Dublin. His sons were 1, Thomas, and 2, William; and a daughter Mary,
who married 1st, Dr. Thomas Margetson (son to the Archbishop of Armagh);
and 2ndly, Dr. Michael Ward. The pedigree is continued through Thomas the
eldest son, who was the father of the Bishop of Killaloe. It does not
appear that William left any issue. His wife's name was Elizabeth, daughter
of Edward Sing, D.D., Lord Bishop of Cork.

W. ST.

_Banbury Cakes_ (Vol. vii., p. 106.).--In _A Treatise of Melancholy_, by T.
Bright, doctor of physic, and published in 1586, I find the following:

    "Sodden wheat is of a grosse and melancholicke nourishment, and bread
    especially of the fine flower unleavened: of this sort are bag-puddings
    or pan-puddings made with flour, frittars, pancakes, such as we call
    _Banberie cakes_, and those great ones confected with butter, eggs,
    &c., used at weddings; and howsoever it be prepared, rye and bread made
    thereof carrieth with it plentie of melancholie."

H. A. B.

_Detached Belfry Towers_ (Vol. vii., pp. 333. 416. 465.).--To your already
extensive list of church towers separate from the church, Launceston
Church, Cornwall, and St. John's Church, Chester, may not unfittingly be
added.

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

Elstow, Bedfordshire, is an instance of a bell tower separated from the
body of the church.

B. H. C.

_Dates on Tombstones_ (Vol. vii., p. 331.).--A correspondent asks for
instances of dates on tombstones prior to 1601. I cannot give any, but I
can refer to some slabs lying upon the ground in a churchyard near Oundle
(Tausor if I remember aright), on which appear in relief recumbent figures
with the hands upon the breast, crossed, or in the attitude of prayer.
These are of a much earlier date, and I should be much pleased to know if
many or any such instances elsewhere occur.

B. H. C.

_Subterranean Bells_ (Vol. vii., pp. 128. 328.).--Bells under ground and
under water, so often referred to, remind me of the Oundle Drumming Well,
which I remember seeing when a child. There is a legend connected with it
which I heard, but cannot accurately recollect. The well itself is referred
to in Brand, vol. ii. p. 369. (Bohn's ed.), but the legend is not given.

B. H. C.

_Mistletoe in Ireland_ (Vol. ii., p. 270.).--I have just received, in full
blossom, a very fine spray from a luxuriant plant of this parasite growing
on an apple tree in the gardens of Farmley, the seat of William Lloyd
Flood, Esq., in the county of Kilkenny. This plant of mistletoe has existed
at {513} Farmley beyond the memory of the present generation; but Mr.
Flood's impression, communicated to me, is, that it was artificially
produced from seed by some former gardener. If natural, which _may_ be the
case, this instance of its occurrence in Ireland is, I believe, unique.

JAMES GRAVES.

Kilkenny.

_Stars and Flowers_ (Vol. iv., p. 22.; Vol. vii., p. 151. 341.).--Passages
illustrative of this similitude have been quoted from Cowley, Longfellow,
Hood, and Moir. The metaphor is also made use of by Darwin, in his _Loves
of the Plants_:

 "Roll on, ye stars! exult in youthful prime,
  Mark with bright curves the printless steps of time;
  _Flowers of the sky!_ ye, too, to age must yield,
  Frail as your silken sisters of the field."

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_The Painting by Fuseli_ (Vol. vii., p. 453.).--The picture by the late
Henry Fuseli, R.A., inquired after by MR. SANSOM, is in the collection at
Sir John Soane's Museum; it was purchased by him in 1802.

It was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1780, and is thus entered in the
Catalogue of that year:

    "No. 77. Ezzelin Bracciaferro musing over Meduna, destroyed by him, for
    disloyalty, during his absence in the Holy Land. _Fuseli._"

There is an engraving of the picture in _Essays on Physiognomy_, by J. C.
Lavater, translated from the French by Henry Hunter, D.D., 4to.: London,
1789. The _second_ volume, p. 294.

The inscription under that engraving, by Holloway, is as follows:

    "Ezzelin, Count of Ravenna, surnamed Bracciaferro or Iron Arm, musing
    over the body of Meduna; slain by him, for infidelity, during his
    absence in the Holy Land."

GEORGE BAILEY.

The subject of your correspondent J. SANSOM'S inquiry is in the Soane
Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields. Search among the Italian story-tellers will
not discover the origin of the picture of Count Ezzelin's remorse: it
sprung from that fertile source of fearful images--Henry Fuseli's brain.
The work might well have been left without a name, but for the requirements
of the Royal Academy Catalogue, and, it must be added, Fuseli's desire to
mystify the Italian as well as the other scholars of his day.

For confirmation of the correctness of these statements, I refer your
correspondent to the _Life of Fuseli_ by Knowles, and to that by Cunningham
in the _Lives of the British Painters_.

R. F., Jun.

_"Navita Erythræum"_ (Vol. vii., p. 382.).--Since I requested a reference
to these lines, I have possessed myself of a very elaborate Latin work on
_Bells_, in two vols. 8vo., published at Rome, 1822, by Alexander
Lazzarinus, _De Vario Tintinnabulorum usu apud veteres Hebræos et
Ethnicos_: wherein, in a section on the effect of the sound of bells on
different animals, he quotes those very lines from "Cornelius Kilianus
Dufflæus in suis poematibus."

I shall now be thankful to be told something about the said Dufflæus,--who
and what he was,--when and where he lived?

H. T. ELLACOMBE.

Rectory, Clyst St. George.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

The success which has attended _The Chronological New Testament_ has
encouraged the publisher of that most useful work to undertake an edition
of the entire Scriptures on a similar plan; and we have now before us the
First Part of _The English Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments
according to the authorised Version: newly divided into Paragraphs, with
concise Introductions to the several Books; and with Maps and Notes
illustrative of the Chronology, History, and Geography of the Holy
Scriptures; containing also the most remarkable Variations of the ancient
Versions, and the chief Results of modern Criticism_. Even this ample
title-page does not, however, point out the many helps towards a better
understanding of the Word of God, which, by improvements in its division
and typographical arrangement, are here furnished for the use of the devout
student: and which has this great recommendation in our eyes, as we have no
doubt it will be its greatest in that of many of our readers, that it is no
endeavour to furnish a new translation, but only an attempt to turn our
noble authorised version to the best account. The present Part completes
the Book of Genesis, and we have little doubt that its success will be such
as to secure for the publisher that patronage which will enable him to
complete so desirable a work as his "_New Edition of the authorised Version
of the Bible_." While on this subject, we may fitly call attention to the
eighth number of _The Museum of Classical Antiquities: a Quarterly Journal
of Ancient Art_, and its accompanying _Supplement_, both of which are
entirely occupied with a question which, from its connexion with our
holiest and most religious feelings, must always command our deepest
attention,--namely, the true site of Calvary, and of the Holy Sepulchre.
The question is discussed at considerable length, and with great learning
and acuteness; and, we trust, from its generally interesting character, may
have the effect of drawing attention to a journal which deserves the
patronage of scholars to a greater extent than, from the prefatory notice,
it would appear to have received up to the present time.

The Second Part of _The Ulster Journal of Archæology_ has just appeared. We
cannot better recommend it to our antiquarian friends than by pointing out
that it contains the following papers:--1. Metropolitan Visitation of the
Diocese of Derry, A.D. 1397. 2. Iona. 3. Anglo-Norman Families of Lecale,
County Down. {514} 4. Ogham Inscriptions. 5. Irish Surnames, their past and
present Forms. 6. The Island of Tory in the Pagan Period. 7. Origin and
Characteristics of the People in the Counties of Down and Antrim. 8. King
William's Progress to the Boyne. 9. Antiquarian Notes and Queries. 10.
Annals of Ulster.

We ought, in the same way, to specify the various papers to be found in the
recently-published _Reports and Papers read at the Meetings of the
Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of Northampton and the Counties
of York and Lincoln; and of the Architectural and Archæological Society of
the County of Bedford during the Year 1852_,--but such a course is
obviously impossible. There is one paper in the volume which, as especially
worthy the attention of those interested in our Ecclesiastical History,
deserves to be particularly noticed, namely, the Rev. G. A. Poole's
_Synchronological Table of the Bishops of the English Sees from the Year
1050 to 1550_. How much good service might be done to Historical Literature
by the compilation and printing of many documents of a similar character!

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Just published in 4to. price 22s. cloth,

CATALOGI CODICUM MANUSCRIPTORUM BIBLIOTHECÆ BODLEIANÆ--PARS PRIMA
RECENSIONEM CODICUM GRÆCORUM continens, confecit H. O. COXE, A.M.,
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Oxonii.: Typographeo Academico. Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 377.
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Published in September last, Second Edition, price 15s.

ON THE ANCIENT BRITISH, ROMAN, AND SAXON ANTIQUITIES AND FOLK-LORE OF
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HISTORY of the BYZANTINE EMPIRE, from DCCXVI. to MLVII. By GEORGE FINLAY,
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WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London;

Who have lately published, by the same Author,

GREECE UNDER THE ROMANS: a Historical View of the Greek Nation, from the
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PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
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London: WILLIAM TEGG & CO., 85 Queen Street, Cheapside.

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SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
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  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
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   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

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       *       *       *       *       *


CITY OF LONDON LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY, 2. Royal Exchange Buildings, London.

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  Mr. Commissioner West, Leeds.
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       *       *       *       *       *

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THE DIARY AND HOURES OF THE LADYE ADOLIE,

A FAYTHFULLE CHILDE, 1552.

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       *       *       *       *       *

BY THE AUTHOR OF "CHILD'S PLAY."

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of
St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 21.
1853.

Corrections made to printed original.

p501. "the birth of Antonius Stradivarius" - "Autonius" in original





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this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
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