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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 191, June 25, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 191, June 25, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 191.]
Saturday, June 25, 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page

    Witchcraft in Somersetshire                               613

   "Emblemata Horatiana," by Weld Taylor                      614

    Shakspeare Criticism, by Thomas Keightley                 615

    Red Hair a Reproach, by T. Hughes                         616

    Extracts from Newspapers, 1714, by E. G. Ballard          616

    MINOR NOTES:--Last Suicide buried at a Cross Road.
      --Andrew's Edition of Freund's Latin Lexicon--
      Slang Expressions--"Quem Deus vult perdere"--
      White Roses                                             617


   "Merk Lands" and "Ures:" Norwegian Antiquities             618

    The Leigh Peerage, and Stoneley Estates, Warwickshire     619

    MINOR QUERIES:--Phillips Family--Engine-à-verge
      --Garrick's Funeral Epigram--The Rosicrucians--
      Passage in Schiller--Sir John Vanbrugh--Historical
      Engraving--Hall-close, Silverstone, Northamptonshire
      --Junius's Letters to Wilkes--The Reformer's
      Elm--How to take Paint off old Oak                      619

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Cadenus and Vanessa
      --Boom--"A Letter to a Member of Parliament"
      --Ancient Chessmen--Guthryisms                          620


    Correspondence of Cranmer and Calvin, by Henry Walter     621

   "Populus vult decipi," by Robert Gibbings, &c.             621

    Latin: Latiner                                            622

    Jack                                                      622

    Passage in St. James, by T. J. Buckton, &c.               623

    Faithfull Teate                                           624

    Parvise                                                   624

    The Coenaculum of Lionardo da Vinci                       624

    Font Inscriptions, by F. B. Relton, &c.                   625

    Burn at Croydon                                           626

    Christian Names, by William Bates, &c.                    626

    Weather Rules                                             627

    Rococo, by Henry H. Breen                                 627

    Descendants of John of Gaunt, by J. S. Warden             628

    The Order of St. John of Jerusalem                        628

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Anticipatory Worship
      of the Cross--Ennui--"Qui facit per alium, facit per
      se," &c.--Vincent Family--Judge Smith--"Dimidiation"
      in Impalements--Worth--"Elementa sex,"
      &c.--"A Diasii 'Salve,'" &c.--Meaning of "Claret"
      --"The Temple of Truth"--Wellborne Family
      --Devonianisms--Humbug--George Miller, D.D.
      --"A Letter to a Convocation Man"--Sheriffs
      of Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire--Ferdinand
      Mendez Pinto--"Other-some" and "Unneath"
      --Willow Pattern--Cross and Pile--Old Fogie
      --Another odd Mistake--Spontaneous Combustion
      --Erroneous Forms of Speech--Ecclesia Anglicana--
      Gloves at Fairs--The Sparrows at Lindholme, &c.         629


    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              634

    Notices to Correspondents                                 634

    Advertisements                                            634

       *       *       *       *       *



Perhaps the following account of superstitions now entertained in some
parts of Somersetshire, will be interesting to the inquirers into the
history of witchcraft. I was lately informed by a member of my congregation
that two children living near his house were bewitched. I made inquiries
into the matter, and found that witchcraft is by far less uncommon than I
had imagined. I can hardly adduce the two children as an authenticated
case, because the medical gentleman who attended them pronounced their
illness to be a kind of ague: but I leave the two following cases on record
in "N. & Q." as memorable instances of witchcraft in the nineteenth

A cottager, who does not live five minutes' walk from my house, found his
pig seized with a strange and unaccountable disorder. He, being a sensible
man, instead of asking the advice of a veterinary surgeon, immediately went
to the white witch (a gentleman who drives a flourishing trade in this
neighbourhood). He received his directions, and went home and implicitly
followed them. In perfect silence, he went to the pigsty; and lancing each
foot and both ears of the pig, he allowed the blood to run into a piece of
common dowlas. Then taking two large pins, he pierced the dowlas in
opposite directions; and still keeping silence, entered his cottage, locked
the door, placed the bloody rag upon the fire, heaped up some turf over it,
and reading a few verses of the Bible, waited till the dowlas was burned.
As soon as this was done, he returned to the pigsty; found his pig
perfectly restored to health, and, _mirabile dictu!_ as the white witch had
predicted, the old woman, who it was supposed had bewitched the pig, came
to inquire after the pig's health. The animal never suffered a day's
illness afterwards. My informant was the owner of the pig himself.

Perhaps, when I heard this story, there may have been a lurking expression
of doubt upon my face, so that my friend thought it necessary to give me
farther proof. Some time ago a lane in this town began to be looked upon
with a mysterious awe, for every evening a strange white rabbit {614} would
appear in it, and, running up and down, would mysteriously disappear. Dogs
were frequently put on the scent, but all to no purpose, the white rabbit
could not be caught; and rumours soon began to assert pretty confidently,
that the white rabbit was nothing more nor less than a witch. The man whose
pig had been bewitched was all the more confident; as every evening when
the rabbit appeared, he had noticed the bed-room window of his old enemy's
house open! At last a large party of bold-hearted men one evening were
successful enough to find the white rabbit in a garden, the only egress
from which is through a narrow passage between two cottages, all the rest
of the garden being securely surrounded by brick-walls. They placed a
strong guard in this entry to let nothing pass, while the remainder
advanced as skirmishers among the cabbages: one of these was successful,
and caught the white rabbit by the ears, and, not without some trepidation,
carried it towards the reserve in the entry. But, as he came nearer to his
friends, his courage grew; and gradually all the wrongs his poor pig had
suffered, took form and vigour in a powerful kick at the poor little
rabbit! No sooner had he done this than, he cannot tell how, the rabbit was
out of his grasp; the people in the entry saw it come, but could not stop
it; through them all it went, and has never been seen again. But now to the
proof of the witchcraft. The old woman, whom all suspected, was laid up in
her bed for three days afterwards, unable to walk about: all in consequence
of the kick she had received in the shape of a white rabbit!

S. A. S.


       *       *       *       *       *


Whatever may be proposed as to republishing works of English emblems, the
work published in Holland with the above title at all events deserves to be
better known. All the English works on the subject I ever saw, are poor
indeed compared with the above: indeed, I think most books of emblems are
either grounded or compiled from this interesting work; which is to the
artist a work of the deepest interest, since all the designs are by Otho
Venius, the master of Rubens. Not only are the morals conveyed lofty and
sound, but the figures are first-rate specimens of drawing. I believe it is
this work that Malone says Sir Joshua Reynolds learned to draw from: and if
he really did, he could have had nothing better, whatever age he might be.
"His principal fund of imitation," says Malone, "was Jacob Cat's book of
emblems, which his great-grandmother, by his father's side, who was a Dutch
woman, had brought with her from Holland." There is a small copy I think
published in England, but a very poor one: the original work, of which I
possess a portion only, is large, and engraved with great care. And I have
often thought it a pity such an admirable work should be so scarce and
little known. Whoever did it, it must have occupied many years, in those
slow days, to make the designs and engrave them. At the present day
lithography, or some of the easy modes of engraving, would soon multiply
it. The size of the engravings are rather more than seven inches. Many of
the figures have been used repeatedly by Rubens, and also some of the
compositions. And though he is certainly a better painter, he falls far
short in originality compared with his master; and, I may add, in richness
of material. I should say his chief works are to be found in that book. One
of my leaves is numbered 195: so I should judge the work to be very large,
and to embrace a variety of subjects. Some of the figures are worthy of
Raffaelle. I may instance one called the "Balance of Friendship." Two young
men have a balance between them; one side is filled with feathers, and the
other with weightier offerings: the meaning being, we should not allow
favours and gifts to come all from one side. The figures have their hands
joined, and appear to be in argument: their ample drapery is worthy of a
study for apostles.

"Undertake nothing beyond your Strength" is emblemised by the giants
scaling the heavens: one very fine figure, full of action, in the centre,
is most admirably drawn.

"Education and Habit" is another, full of meaning. Two dogs are running:
one after game, and another to a porringer. Some one has translated the
verses at the bottom on the back of the print as follows. This has a fine
group of figures in it:

 "When taught by man, the hound pursues
    The panting stag o'er hill and fell,
  With steadfast eyes he keeps in view
    The noble game he loves so well.
  A mongrel coward slinks away,
    The buck, the chase, ne'er warms his soul;
  No huntsman's cheer can make him stay,
    He runs to nothing, but his porridge bowl.

  Throughout the race of men, 'tis still the same,
  And all pursue a different kind of game.
  Taverns and wine will form the tastes of some,
  Others success in maids or wives undone.
  To solid good, the wise pursues his way;
  Nor for low pleasure ever deigns to stay.
  Though in thy chamber all the live-long day,
  In studious mood, you pass the hours away;
  Or though you pace the noisy streets alone,
  And silent watch day's burning orb go down;
  _Nature_ to thee displays her honest page:
  Read there--and see the follies of an age."

The taste for emblemata appears to have passed by, but a good selection
would be I think received with favour; particularly if access could be
obtained to a good collection. And I should like to {615} see any addition
to the REV. J. CORSER's list in the Number of the 14th of May.


       *       *       *       *       *


When I entered on the game of criticism in "N. & Q.," I deemed that it was
to be played with good humour, in the spirit of courtesy and urbanity, and
that, consequently, though there might be much worthless criticism and
conjecture, the result would on the whole be profitable. Finding that such
is not to be the case, I retire from the field, and will trouble "N. & Q."
with no more of my lucubrations.

I have been led to this resolution by the language employed by MR.
ARROWSMITH in No. 189., where, with little modesty, and less courtesy, he
styles the commentators on Shakspeare--naming in particular, KNIGHT,
COLLIER, and DYCE, and including SINGER and all of the present
day--_criticasters_ who "stumble and bungle in sentences of that simplicity
and grammatical clearness as not to tax the powers of a third-form
schoolboy to explain." In order to bring _me_ "within his danger," he
actually transposes two lines of Shakspeare; and so, to the unwary, makes
me appear to be a very shallow person indeed.

    "It was gravely," says Mr. A., "almost magisterially, proposed by one
    of the disputants [MR. SINGER] to corrupt the concluding lines by
    altering _their_ the pronoun into _there_ the adverb, because (shade of
    Murray!) the commentator could not discover of what noun _their_ could
    possibly be the pronoun, in these lines following:

     'When great things labouring perish in their birth,
      Their form confounded makes most form in mirth;'

    and it was left to MR. KEIGHTLEY to bless the world with the
    information that it was _things_."

In all the modern editions that I have been able to consult, these lines
are thus printed and punctuated:

 "Their form confounded makes most form in mirth;
  When great things labouring perish in the birth:"

and _their_ is referred to _contents_. I certainly seem to have been the
first to refer it to _things_.

Allow me, as it is my last, to give once more the whole passage as it is in
the folios, unaltered by MR. COLLIER's Magnus Apollo, and with my own

 "That sport best pleases, that doth least know how,
  Where zeal strives to content, and the contents
  Dyes in the zeal of that which it presents.
  Their form confounded makes most form in mirth,
  When great things labouring perish in the birth."
                  _Love's Labour's Lost_, Act V. Sc. 2.

My interpretation, it will be seen, beside referring _their_ to _things_,
makes _dyes in_ signify _tinges_, _imbues with_; of which use of the
expression I now offer the following instances:

 "And the grey ocean _into purple dye_."
                  _Faery Queene_, ii. 10. 48.

 "Are deck'd with blossoms _dyed in white and red_."
                  _Ib._., ii. 12. 12.

 "_Dyed in_ the dying _slaughter_ of their foes."
                  _King John_, Act II. Sc. 2.

 "And it was _dyed in mummy_."
                  _Othello_, Act III. Sc. 4.

 "O truant Muse! what shall be thy amends
  For thy neglect of truth _in beauty dyed_?"
                  Sonn. 101.

For the use of this figure I may quote from the Shakspeare of France:

 "Mais pour moi, qui, caché sous une autre aventure,
  D'une âme plus commune ai pris quelque _teinture_."
                  _Héraclius_, Act III. Sc. 1.

    "The house ought to _dye_ all the surrounding country with a strength
    of colouring, and to an extent proportioned to its own
    importance."--_Life of Wordsworth_, i. 355.

Another place on which I had offered a conjecture, and which MR. A. takes
under his patronage, is "Clamor your tongues" (_Winter's Tale_, Act IV. Sc.
4.) and in proof of _clamor_ being the right word, he quotes passages from
a book printed in 1542, in which are _chaumbreed_ and _chaumbre_, in the
sense of restraining. I see little resemblance here to _clamor_, and he
does not say that he would substitute _chaumbre_. He says, "Most
judiciously does Nares reject Gifford's corruption of this word into
_charm_ [it was Grey not Gifford]; nor will the suffrage of the 'clever'
old commentator," &c. It is very curious, only that we _criticasters_ are
so apt to overrun our game, that the only place where "charm your tongue"
really occurs, seems to have escaped MR. COLLIER. In _Othello_, Act V. Sc.
2., Iago says to his wife, "Go to, charm your tongue;" and she replies, "I
will not charm my tongue." My conjecture was that _clamor_ was _clam_, or,
as it was usually spelt, _clem_, to press or restrain; and to this I still

                 "When my entrails
  Were _clemmed_ with keeping a perpetual fast."
                  Massinger, _Rom. Actor._, Act II. Sc. 1.

    "I cannot eat stones and turfs: say, what will he _clem_ me and my
    followers?"--Jonson, _Poetaster_, Act I. Sc. 2.

    "Hard is the choice when the valiant must eat their arms or _clem_."
    Id., _Every Man Out of his Humour_ Act III. Sc. 6.

In these places of Jonson, _clem_ is usually rendered _starve_; but it
appears to me, from the kindred of the term, that it is used elliptically.
Perhaps, instead of "Till famine _cling_ thee" (_Macbeth_, Act V. Sc. 5.),
Shakspeare wrote "Till {616} famine _clem_ thee." While in the region of
conjecture, I will add that _coasting_, in _Troilus and Cressida_ (Act IV.
Sc. 5.), is, in my opinion, simply accosting, lopped in the usual way by
aphæresis; and that "the still-peering air" in _All's Well that Ends Well_
(Act III. Sc. 2.), is, by the same figure, "the still-appearing air,"
_i. e._ the air that appears still and silent, but that yet "_sings_ with

One conjecture more, and I have done. I do not like altering the text
without absolute necessity; but there was always a puzzle to me in this

                 "Where I find him, were it
  At home, upon my brother's guard, even there,
  Against the hospitable canon, would I
  Wash my fierce hand in 's blood."
                  _Coriol._, Act I. Sc. 10.

Why should Aufidius speak thus of a brother who is not mentioned anywhere
else in the play or in Plutarch? It struck me one day that Shakspeare
_might_ have written, "Upon my household hearth;" and on looking into
North's _Plutarch_, I found that when Coriolanus went to the house of
Aufidius, "he got him up straight to _the chimney-hearth_, and sate him
downe." The poet who adhered so faithfully to his _Plutarch_ may have
wished to preserve this image, and, _chimney_ not being a very poetic word,
may have substituted _household_, or some equivalent term. Again I say this
is all but conjecture.


P.S.--It is really very annoying to have to reply to unhandsome and unjust
accusations. The REV. MR. ARROWSMITH first transposes two lines of
Shakspeare, and then, by notes of admiration, holds me up as a mere
simpleton; and then A. E. B. charges me with having pirated from him my
explanation of a passage in _Love's Labour's Lost_, Act V. Sc. 2. Let any
one compare his (in "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 297.) with mine (Vol. vii., p.
136.), and he will see the utter falseness of the assertion. _He_ makes
_contents_ the nom. to _dies_, taken in its ordinary sense (rather an
unusual concord). _I_ take _dyes_ in the sense of tinges, imbues with, and
make it governed of _zeal_. But perhaps it is to the full-stop at
_presents_ that the "that's my thunder!" applies. I answer, that that was a
necessary consequence of the sense in which I had taken _dies_, and that
_their_ must then refer to _things_ maugre MR. ARROWSMITH. And when he says
that I "do him the honour of requoting the line with which he had supported
it," I merely observe that it is the line immediately following, and that I
have eyes and senses as well as A. E. B.

A. E. B. deceives himself, if he thinks that literary fame is to be
acquired in this way. I do not much approve either of the manner in which,
at least to my apprehension, in his opening paragraph, he seems to
insinuate a charge of forgery against MR. COLLIER. Finally, I can tell him
that he need not crow and clap his wings so much at his emendation of the
passage in _Lear_, for, if I mistake not, few indeed will receive it. It
may be nuts to him and MR. ARROWSMITH to know that they have succeeded in
driving my name out of the "N. & Q."

       *       *       *       *       *


I do not know the why or the wherefore, but in every part of England I have
visited, there appears to be a deep-rooted prejudice in the eyes of the
million against people with red hair. Tradition, whether truly or not must
remain a mystery, assigns to Absalom's hair a reddish tinge; and Judas, the
traitorous disciple, is ever painted with locks of the same unhappy colour.
Shakspeare, too, seems to have been embued with the like morbid feeling of
distrust for those on whose hapless heads the invidious mark appeared. In
his play of _As You Like It_, he makes Rosalind (who is pettishly
complaining of her lover's tardiness coming to her) say to Celia:

 "_Ros._ His very hair is of the dissembling colour.
  _Celia._ Something browner than Judas'."

It will be apparent from this quotation, that in England, at any rate, the
prejudice spoken of is not of very recent development; and that it has not
yet vanished before the intellectual progress of our race, will, I think,
be painfully evident to many a bearer of this unenviable distinction. It
seems to be generally supposed, by those who harbour the doctrine, that
red-headed people are dissemblers, deceitful, and, in fact, not to be
trusted like others whose hair is of a different colour; and I may add,
that I myself know persons who, on that account alone, never admit into
their service any whose hair is thus objectionable. In Wales, _pen coch_
(red head) is a term of reproach universally applied to all who come under
the category; and if such a wight should by any chance involve himself in a
scrape, it is the signal at once for a regular tirade against all who have
the misfortune to possess hair of the same fiery colour.

I cannot bring myself to believe that there is any really valid foundation
for this prejudice; and certainly, if not, it were indeed a pity that the
superstitious feeling thus engendered is not at once and for ever banished
from the memory.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Daily Courant_, Jan. 9, 1714:

    "Rome, Dec. 16.--The famous painter, Carlo Maratta, died some days ago,
    in the ninetieth year of his age."

_The Post Boy_, Jan. 12-14, 1714.--_Old MSS. relating to Winchester._--In
the _Post Boy_, Jan. {617} 12-14, 1714, appears the following curious

    "_Winchester Antiquities_, written by Mr. Trussell, Dr. Bettes, and Mr.
    Butler of St. Edmund's Bury, in one of which manuscripts is the
    _Original of Cities_; which manuscripts were never published. If the
    person who hath either of them, and will communicate, or permit the
    same to be copied or perused, he is earnestly desired to give notice
    thereof to Mr. Mathew Imber, one of the aldermen of the city of
    Winchester, in the county of Southampton, who is compleating the idea
    or description of the ancient and present state of that ancient city,
    to be speedily printed; together with a faithful collection of all the
    memorable and useful things relating to the same city."

Gough, in his _Topography_, vol. i. p. 387., thus notices these MSS.:

    "Wood says (_Ath. Ox._, vol. i. p. 448.) that Trussell the historian,
    who was alderman of Winchester, continued to Bishop Curll's time, 1632,
    an old MS. history of the see and bishops in the Cathedral library. He
    also wrote _A Description of the City of Winchester; with an Historical
    Relation of divers memorable Occurrences touching the same_, and
    prefixed to it _A Preamble of the Original of Cities in general_. In a
    catalogue of the famous Robert Smith's books, sold by auction, 1682,
    No. 24. among the MSS. has this identical title, by J. Trussell, fol.,
    and was purchased for twelve shillings by a Mr. Rothwell, a frequent
    purchaser at this sale. The _Description_, &c., written by Trussell
    about 1620, is now in the hands of John Duthy, Esq.; and from it large
    extracts were made in _The History and Antiquities of Winchester_,
    1773. Bishop Nicolson guesses that it was too voluminous, and Bishop
    Kennett that it was too imperfect to be published.

    "The former mentions something on the same subject by Dr. Bettes, whose
    book is still in MS.

    "Dr. Butler, of St. Edmund's Bury, made observations on the ancient
    monuments of this city under the Romans."


    [Trussell's MSS. are now in the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Last Suicide buried at a Cross Road._--I have reason to believe that the
_last_ person subjected to this barbarous ceremony was the wretched
parricide and suicide Griffiths, who was buried at the cross road formed by
Eaton Street, Grosvenor Place, and the King's Road, as late as June, 1823.
I subjoin the following account from the _Chronicle_:

    "The extreme privacy which the officers observed, as to the hour and
    place of interment, increased in a great degree the anxiety of those
    that were waiting, and it being suspected that the body would have been
    privately carried away, through the back part of the workhouse (St.
    George's) into Farm Street Mews, and from thence to its final
    destination, different parties stationed themselves at the several
    passages through which it must unavoidably pass, in order to prevent
    disappointment. All anxiety however, on this account, was ultimately
    removed, by preparations being made for the removal of the body through
    the principal entry of the workhouse leading into Mount Street, and
    about half-past one o'clock the body was brought out in a shell
    supported on the shoulders of four men, and followed by a party of
    constables and watchmen. The solitary procession, which increased in
    numbers as it went along, proceeded up Mount Street, down South Audley
    Street into Stanhope Street, from thence into Park Lane through Hyde
    Park Corner, and along Grosvenor Place, until its final arrival at the
    cross road formed by Eaton Street, Grosvenor Place, and the King's
    Road. When the procession arrived at the grave, which had been
    previously dug, the constables arranged themselves around it to keep
    the crowd off, upon which the shell was laid on the ground, and the
    body of the unfortunate deceased taken out. It had on a winding-sheet,
    drawers, and stockings, and a quantity of blood was clotted about the
    head, and the lining of the shell entirely stained. The body was then
    wrapped in a piece of Russia matting, tied round with some cord, and
    then instantly dropped into the hole, which was about five feet in
    depth: it was then immediately filled up, and it was gratifying to see
    that that disgusting part of the ceremony of throwing lime over the
    body, and driving a stake through it, was on this occasion dispensed
    with. The surrounding spectators, consisting of about two hundred
    persons, amongst whom were several persons of respectable appearance,
    were much disgusted at this horrid ceremony."

Imagine such scene in the "centre of civilisation" only thirty years ago!


_Andrew's Edition of Freund's Latin Lexicon._--A singular plan seems to
have been pursued in this valuable lexicon in one point. Wherever the
meaning of a word in a certain passage is disputed, all reference to that
place is omitted! Here are a few examples of this "dodge" from one book,

  _Subjectus._ Car. 1. 12. 55.
  _Divido._ 1. 15. 15.
  _Incola._ 1. 16. 5. _Vertex._ 3. 24. 6.
  _Pars._ 2. 17. 18. _Tormentum._ 3. 21. 13.
  _Laudo._ Ep. 11. 19.
  _Offendo._ Ep. 15. 15.
  _Octonus._ S. 1. 6. 75.
  _Æra._ Ib.
  _Duplex._ S. 2. 4. 63.
  _Vulpecula._ Epist. 1. 7. 29.
  _Proprius._ A. P. 128., &c.

A. A. D.

_Slang Expressions._--It would be curious to investigate farther how some
odd forms of expression of this kind have crept into, if not the English
language, at least into every-day parlance; and by _what classes of men_
they have been introduced. I do not of course mean the vile _argot_, or St.
Giles' {618} Greek, prevalent among housebreakers and pick-pockets; though
a great deal of that is traceable to the Rommany or gipsy language, and
other sufficiently odd sources: but I allude more particularly to phrases
used by even educated men--such as "a regular mull," "bosh," "just the
cheese," &c. The first has already been proved an importation from our
Anglo-Indian friends in the pages of "N. & Q."; and I have been informed
that the other two are also exotics from the land of the Qui-Hies. _Bosh_,
used by us in the sense of "nonsense," "rubbish," is a Persian word,
meaning "dirt" and _cheese_, a corruption of a Hindostani word denoting
"thing:" which is exactly the sense of the expression I have quoted. "Just
the cheese," "quite the cheese," _i. e._ just the thing I require, quite
_comme il faut_, &c.

Probably some of your correspondents could furnish other examples.


"_Quem Deus vult perdere._"--In Croker's _Johnson_, vol. v. p. 60., the
phrase, "Quem Deus vult perdere, prius dementat," is stated to be from a
Greek _iambic_ of Euripides:

 "[Greek: Hon theos thelei apolesai prôt' apophrenai]."

This statement is made first by Mr. John Pitts, late Rector of Great
Brickhill, Bucks[1], to Mr. Richard How of Aspley, Beds, and is taken for
granted successively by Boswell, Malone, and Croker. But no such Greek is,
in fact, to be found in Euripides; the words conveying a like sentiment

 "[Greek: Hotan de Daimôn andri porsunêi kaka],
  [Greek: Ton noun eblapse prôton]."

The cause of this classical blunder of so many eminent annotators is, that
these words are not to be found in the usual college and school editions of
Euripides. The edition from which the above correct extract is made is in
ten volumes, published at Padua in 1743-53, with an Italian translation in
verse by P. Carmeli, and is to be found in vol. x. p. 268. as the 436-7th
verses of the _Tragedie incerte_, the meaning of which he thus gives in
prose "Quando vogliono gli Dei far perire alcuno, gli toglie la mente."



P.S.--In Croker's _Johnson_, vol. iv. p. 170., the phrase "_Omnia_ mea
mecum porto" is incorrectly quoted from _Val. Max._ vii. 2., instead of
"_Bona_ mea mecum porto."

[Footnote 1: This gentleman is wrong in saying _demento_ is of no
authority, as it is found in Lactantius. (See Facciolati.)]

_White Roses._--The paragraph quoted from "an old newspaper," dated
Saturday, June 15th, 1723, alludes to the commemoration of the birthday of
King James VIII. (the 10th of June), which was the Monday mentioned as that
before the Saturday on which the newspaper was published. All faithful
adherents of the House of Stuart showed their loyalty by wearing the white
rose (its distinguishing badge) on the 10th of June, when no other way was
left them of declaring their devotion to the exiled family; and, from my
own knowledge, I can affirm that there still exist some people who would
think that day desecrated unless they wore a white rose, or, when that is
not to be procured, a cockade of white ribbon, in token of their veneration
for the memory of him of whose birth it is the anniversary.

L. M. M. R.

       *       *       *       *       *



In Shetland, at the present day, all public assessments are levied, and
divisions made, according to the number of merk lands in a parish. All
arable lands were anciently, under the Norwegian law, rated as _merks_,--a
merk containing eight _ures_. These merks are quite indefinite as to
extent. It is, indeed, clear that the ancient denomination of _merk land_
had not reference to superficial extent of surface, but was a denomination
of value alone, in which was included the proportion of the surrounding
commonty or _scattald_. Merk lands are of different values, as sixpenny,
ninepenny, twelvepenny,--a twelvepenny merk having, formerly at least, been
considered equal to two sixpenny merks; and in some old deeds lands are
described as thirty merks sixpenny, otherwise fifteen merks twelvepenny
land. All assessments have, however, for a very long period, been levied
and all privileges apportioned, according to merks, without relation to
whether they were sixpenny or twelvepenny. The ancient rentals of Shetland
contain about fourteen thousand merks of land; and it will be noticed that,
however much the ancient inclosed land be increased by additional
improvements, the number of merks ought to be, and are, stationary. The
valued rent, divided according the merk lands, would make a merk land in
Shetland equal to 2l. Scots of valued rent. There are only one or two
places of Scotland proper where merks are in use,--Stirling and
Dunfermline, I think. As these two places were the occasional residences of
our ancient Scottish kings, it is possible this plan of estimating land may
have obtained there, to equalise and make better understood some
arrangements relating to land entered into between the kings of Norway and
Scotland. Possibly some of the correspondents of "N. & Q." in the north may
be able to throw some light on this subject. It was stated some time ago
that Dr. Munch, Professor in the University of Christiana, had presented to
the Society of Northern Archæology, in {619} Copenhagen, a very curious
manuscript which he had discovered and purchased during a voyage to the
Orkneys and Shetland in 1850. The manuscript is said to be in good
preservation, and the form of the characters assigns the tenth, or perhaps
the ninth century as its date. It is said to contain, in the Latin tongue,
several episodes of Norwegian history, relating to important facts hitherto
unknown, and which throw much light on feudal tenures, holdings,
superstitions, omens, &c., which have been handed down to our day, with
their origin involved in obscurity, and on the darkness of the centuries
that preceded the introduction of Christianity into Norway. Has this
manuscript ever been printed?


       *       *       *       *       *


The fifth Lord Leigh left his estates to his sister, the Hon. Mary Leigh,
for her life, and at her decease without issue to "the first and nearest of
his kindred, being male, and of his name and blood," &c. On the death of
Mrs. Mary Leigh in 1806, the estates were taken possession of by her very
distant kinsman, the Rev. Thomas Leigh. The first person to dispute his
right to them was Mr. George Smith Leigh, who claimed them as being
descended from a _daughter_ of Sir Thomas Leigh, son of the first Baron
Leigh. His claim was not allowed, because he had the name of Leigh only _by
royal license, and not by inheritance_. Subsequently, the Barony of Leigh
was claimed by another Mr. George Leigh, of Lancashire, as descended from a
son of the Hon. Christopher Leigh (fourth son of the aforesaid Sir Thomas
Leigh), by his second wife. His claim was disallowed when heard by a
committee of the House of Lords in 1828, because he could not prove the
second marriage of Christopher Leigh, nor the birth of any son by such

Being about to print a genealogy of the Leigh family, I should be under an
obligation to any one who will, without delay furnish me with--

1st. The descent, with dates, of the aforesaid Mr. George _Smith_ Leigh
from Sir Thomas Leigh.

2nd. The wife, and descendants to the present time, of the aforesaid Mr.
George Leigh.

In return for this information I shall be happy to send my informant a copy
of the genealogy when it is printed. I give you my name and address.

J. M. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Phillips Family._--Is there a family of Phillips now bearing the ancient
arms of William Phillips, Lord Bardolph: viz. Quarterly, gu. and az., in
the chief dexter quarter an eagle displayed or.

H. G. S.

_Engine-à-verge._--What is the _engine-à-verge_, mentioned by P. Daniel in
his _Hist. de la Milice Franc._, and what the origin of the name?


_Garrick's Funeral Epigram._--Who is the author of these verses?

 "Through weeping London's crowded streets,
    As Garrick's funeral pass'd,
  Contending wits and poets strove
    Which should desert him last.

 "Not so this world behaved to Him
    Who came this world to save;
  By solitary Joseph borne
    Unheeded to the grave."

K. N.

_The Rosicrucians._--I should be extremely glad of a little information
respecting "the Brethren of the Rosy Cross." Was there ever a regular
fraternity of philosophers bearing this appellation; or was it given merely
as a title to all students in alchemy?

I should wish to obtain a list of works which might contain a record of
their studies and discoveries. I subjoin the few in my own library, which I
imagine to belong to this class.

    Albertus Magnus de Animalibus, libr. xxvi. fol. Venet. 1495.

    Albertus Magnus de Secretis Mulierum, de Virtutibus Herbarum, Lapidum
    at Animalium.

    Albertus Magnus de Miribilibus Mundi, item.

    Michael Scotus de Secretis Naturæ, 12mo., Lugd. 1584.

    Henr. Corn. Agrippa on the Vanitie of Sciences, 4to., London, 1575.

    Joann. Baptist. Van Helmont, Opera Omnina, 4to., Francofurti, 1682.

    Dr. Charleton, Ternary of Paradoxes, London, 1650.

Perhaps some of your correspondents will kindly furnish me with notices of
other works by these writers, and by others who have written on similar
subjects, as Paracelsus, &c.


_Passage in Schiller._--In the _Memoirs of a Stomach_, lately published,
the editor asks a question of you: "Is it Schiller who says, 'The
metaphysical part of love commences with the first sigh, and terminates
with the first kiss'?" I pray you look to the merry and witty and learned
little book, and respond to his Query.


_Sir John Vanbrugh._--This eminent architect and poet of the last century
is stated by his biographers to have been "born in Cheshire." Can anybody
furnish me with the place and date of his birth?



_Historical Engraving._--I have an ancient engraving, size 14¾ in. wide and
11¾ in. high, without title or engraver's name, which I should be {620}
glad to authenticate. It appears to represent Charles II. at the Hague in

The foreground is occupied by groups of figures in the costume of the
period. In the distance is seen a street in perspective, down which the
royal carriage is proceeding, drawn by six horses. On one side is a row of
horses, on the other an avenue of trees. To the right of this is a canal,
on the bank of which a battery of seven guns is firing a salute. The
opposite bank is occupied by public buildings.

In the air a figure of Fame holds a shield charged with the royal arms of
England, surrounded by a garter, without the motto. Five cherubs in various
positions are dispersed around, holding respectively a globe, a laurel
crown, palm branches, &c., and a crowned shield bearing a lion rampant, and
a second with a stork, whose beak holds a serpent.

A portion of the zodiacal circle, containing Libra, Scorpio, and
Sagittarius, marks, I suppose, the month in which the event took place.


_Hall-close, Silverstone, Northamptonshire._--Adjoining the church-yard is
a greensward field called "Hall-close," which is more likely to be the site
of the mansion visited by the early kings of England, when hunting in
Whittlebury Forest, than the one mentioned by Bridles in his History of the
county. About 1798, whilst digging here, a fire-place containing ashes was
discovered; also many large wrought freestones.

The well, close by, still retains the name of Hall-well; and there are
other things in the immediate vicinity which favour the supposition; but
can an extract from an old MS., as a will, deed, indenture, &c., be
supplied to confirm it?



_Junius's Letters to Wilkes._--Where are the original letters addressed by
Junius to Mr. Wilkes? The editor of the _Grenville Papers_ says, "It is
uncertain in whose custody the letters now remain, many unsuccessful
attempts having been _recently_ made to ascertain the place of their

D. G.

_The Reformer's Elm._--What was the origin of the name of "The Reformer's
Elm?" Where and what was it?

C. M. T.


_How to take Paint off old Oak._--Can any of your correspondents inform me
of some way to take paint off old oak?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Cadenus and Vanessa._--What author is referred to in the lines in Swift's
"Cadenus and Vanessa,"--

 "He proves as sure as GOD's in Gloster,
  That Moses was a grand impostor;
  That all his miracles were tricks," &c.?



    [These lines occur in the Dean's verses "On the Death of Dr. Swift,"
    and refer to Thomas Woolston, the celebrated heterodox divine, who, as
    stated in a note quoted in Scott's edition, "for want of bread hath, in
    several treatises, in the most blasphemous manner, attempted to turn
    our Saviour's miracles in ridicule."]

_Boom._--Is there an English verb active _to boom_, and what is the precise
meaning of it? Sir Walter Scott uses the participle:

 "The bittern _booming_ from the sedgy shallow."
                  _Lady of the Lake_, canto i. 31.


    [Richardson defines BOOM, v., applied as _bumble_ by Chaucer, and
    _bump_ by Dryden, to the noise of the bittern, and quotes from Cotton's
    _Night's Quatrains_,--

     "Philomel chants it whilst it bleeds,
      The bittern _booms_ it in the reeds," &c.]

"_A Letter to a Member of Parliament._"--Who was the author of _A Letter to
a Member of Parliament_, occasioned by _A Letter to a Convocation Man_: W.
Rogers, London, 1697?



    [Attributed to Mr. Wright, a gentleman of the Bar, who maintains the
    same opinions with Dr. Wake.]

_Ancient Chessmen._--I should be glad to learn, through the medium of "N. &
Q.," some particulars relative to the sixty-four chessmen and fourteen
draughtsmen, made of walrus tusk, found in the Isle of Lewis in Scotland,
and now in case 94. Mediæval Collection of the British Museum?


    [See _Archæologia_, vol. xxiv. p. 203., for a valuable article,
    entitled "Historical Remarks on the introduction of the Game of Chess
    into Europe, and on the ancient Chessmen discovered in the Isle of
    Lewis, by Frederick Madden, Esq., F.R.S., in a Letter addressed to
    Henry Ellis, Esq., F.R.S., Secretary."]

_Guthryisms._--In a work entitled _Select Trials at the Old Bailey_ is an
account of the trial and execution of Robert Hallam, for murder, in the
year 1731. Narrating the execution of the criminal, and mentioning some
papers which he had prepared, the writer says: "We will not tire the
reader's patience with transcribing these prayers, in which we can see
nothing more than commonplace phrases and unmeaning _Guthryisms_." What
{621} is the meaning of this last word, and to whom does it refer?

S. S. S.

    [James Guthrie was chaplain of Newgate in 1731; and the phrase
    _Guthryisms_, we conjecture, agrees in common parlance with a later
    saying, that of "stuffing _Cotton_ in the prisoner's ears."]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 501.)

The question put by C. D., respecting the existence of letters said to have
passed between Archbishop Cranmer and Calvin, and to exist in print at
Geneva, upon the seeming sanction given by our liturgy to the belief that
baptism confers regeneration, is a revival of an inquiry made by several
persons about ten years ago. It then induced M. Merle d'Aubigné to make the
search of which C. D. has heard; and the result of that search was given in
a communication from the Protestant historian to the editor of the
_Record_, bearing date April 22, 1843.

I have that communication before me, as a cutting from the _Record_; but
have not preserved the date of the number in which it appeared[2], though
likely to be soon after its receipt by the editor. Merle d'Aubigné says, in
his letter, that both the printed and manuscript correspondence of Calvin,
in the public library of Geneva, had been examined in vain by himself, and
by Professor Diodati the librarian, for any such topic; but he declares
himself disposed to believe that the assertion, respecting which C. D.
inquires, arose from the following passage in a letter from Calvin to the
English primate:

    "Sic correctæ sunt externæ superstitiones, ut residui maneant innumeri
    surculi, qui assidue pullulent. _Imo ex corruptelis papatus audio
    relictum esse congeriem, quæ non obscuret modo, sed propemodum obruat
    purum et genuinum Dei cultum_."

Part of this letter, but with important omissions, had been published by
Dean Jenkyns in 1833. (_Cranmer's Remains_, vol. i. p. 347.) M. d'Aubigné's
communication gave the whole of it; and it ought to have appeared in the
Parker Society volume of original letters relative to the English
Reformation. That volume contains one of Calvin's letters to the Protector
Somerset; but omits another, of which Merle d'Aubigné's communication
supplied a portion, containing this important sentence:

    "Quod ad formulam precum et rituum ecclesiasticorum, _valde probo ut
    certa illa extet, a qua pastoribus discedere in functione sua non
    liceat_, tam ut consulatur quorumdam simplicitati et imperitiæ, quam ut
    certius ita constet omnium inter se ecclesiarum consensus."

Another portion of a letter from Calvin, communicated by D'Aubigné, is
headed in the _Record_ "Cnoxo et gregalibus, S. D.;" but seems to be the
one cited in the Parker Society, vol. ii. of _Letters_, pp. 755-6, notes
941, as a letter to Richard Cox and others; so that _Cnoxo_ should have
been Coxo.

The same valuable communication farther contained the letter of Cranmer
inviting Calvin to unite with Melancthon and Bullinger in forming
arrangements for holding a Protestant synod in some safe place; meaning in
England, as he states more expressly to Melancthon. This letter, however,
had been printed entire by Dean Jenkyns, vol. i. p. 346.; and it is given,
with an English translation, in the Parker Society edition of _Cranmer's
Works_ as Letter CCXCVII., p. 431. It is important, as proving that Heylyn
stated what was untrue, _Eccles. Restaur._, p. 65.; where he has said,
"Calvin had offered his assistance to Archbishop Cranmer. But the
archbishop knew the man, and refused his offer." Instead of such an offer,
Calvin replied courteously and affectionately to Cranmer's invitation; but
says, "Tenuitatem meam facturam spero, ut mihi parcatur ... Mihi utinam par
studii ardori suppeteret facultas." This reply, the longest letter in their
correspondence, is printed in the note attached to Cranmer's letter (Park.
Soc., as above, p. 432.; and a translation of it in Park. Soc. _Original
Letters_, vol. ii. p. 711.: and there are extracts from it in Jenkyns, p.
346., n.p.). D'Aubigné gave it entire; but has placed both Calvin's letters
to the archbishop before the latter's epistle to him, to which they both


[Footnote 2: It appeared in the No. for May 15, 1849.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 572.)

If MR. TEMPLE will turn to p. 141. of Mathias Prideaux's _Easy and
Compendious Introduction for reading all Sorts of Histories_, 6th edit.,
Oxford, 1682, small 4to., he will find his Query thus answered:

    "It was this Pope's [Paul IV.] Legate, _Cardinal Carafa_, that gave
    this blessing to the devout Parisians, _Quandoquidem populus decipi
    vult, decipiatur_. Inasmuch as this people _will_ be deceived, let them
    be deceived."

This book of Prideaux's is full of mottoes, of which I shall give a few
instances. Of Frederick Barbarosa "his saying was, _Qui nescit dissimulare,
nescit imperare_:" of Justinian "His word was, _Summum jus, summa
injuria_--The rigour of the law may prove injurious to conscience:" of
Theodosius II. "His motto was, _Tempori parendum_--We must fit us (as far
as it may be done with a good conscience) to the time wherein we live, with
Christian prudence:" of Nerva "His motto sums {622} up his excellencies,
_Mens bona regnum possidet_--My mind to me a kingdom is:" of Richard Coeur
de Lion, "The motto of _Dieu et mon droit_ is attributed to him; ascribing
the victory he had at Gisors against the French, not to himself, but to God
and His might."


Cardinal Carafa seems to have been the author of the above memorable
dictum. Dr. John Prideaux thus alludes to the circumstance:

    "Cardinalis (ut ferunt) quidam [Greek: meta pollês phantasias] Lutetiam
    aliquando ingrediens, cum instant importunius turbæ ut benedictionem
    impertiret: _Quandoquidem_ (inquit) _hic populus vult decipi,
    decipiatur in nomine Diaboli_."--_Lectiones Novem_, p. 54.: Oxoniæ,
    1625, 4to.

I must also quote from Dr. Jackson:

    "Do all the learned of that religion in heart approve that commonly
    reported saying of Leo X., '_Quantum profuit nobis fabula Christi_,'
    and yet resolve (as Cardinal Carafa did, _Quoniam populus iste vult
    decipi, decipiatur_) to puzzle the people in their
    credulity?"--_Works_, vol. i. p. 585.: Lond. 1673, fol.

The margin directs me to the following passage in Thuanus:

    "Inde Carafa Lutetiam regni metropolim tanquam Pontificis legatus
    solita pompa ingreditur, ubi cum signum crucis, ut fit, ederet,
    verborum, quæ proferri mos est, loco, ferunt eum, ut erat securo de
    numine animo et summus religionis derisor, occursante passim populo et
    in genua ad ipsius conspectum procumbente, sæpius secreta murmuratione
    hæc verba ingeminasse: _Quandoquidem populus iste vult decipi,
    decipiatur_."--_Histor._, lib. xvii., ad ann. 1556, vol. i. p. 521.:
    Genevæ, 1626, fol.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 423.)

Latin was likewise used for the language or song of birds:

 "E cantino gli angelli
  Ciascuno in suo _Latino_."
                  _Dante_, canzone i.

 "This faire kinges doughter Canace,
  That on hire finger bare the queinte ring,
  Thurgh which she understood wel every thing
  That any foule may in his _leden_ sain,
  And coude answere him in his _leden_ again,
  Hath understonden what this faucon seyd."
                  Chaucer, _The Squieres Tale_, 10746.

Chaucer, it will be observed, uses the Anglo-Saxon form of the word.
_Leden_ was employed by the Anglo-Saxons in the sense of language
generally, as well as to express the Latin tongue.

In the German version of Sir Tristram, Latin is also used for the song of
birds, and is so explained by Ziemann:

    "_Latin_, Latein; für jede fremde eigenthümliche Sprache, selbst für
    den _Vogelgesang_. Tristan und Isolt, 17365."--Ziemann,
    _Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch_.

Spenser, who was a great imitator of Chaucer, probably derives the word
_leden_ or _ledden_ from him:

 "Thereto he was expert in prophecies,
  And could the _ledden_ of the gods unfold."
                  _The Faerie Queene_, book iv. ch. xi. st. 19.

 "And those that do to Cynthia expound
  The _ledden_ of straunge languages in charge."
                  _Colin Clout_, 744.

In the last passage, perhaps, _meaning, knowledge_, best expresses the
sense. _Ledden_ may have been one of the words which led Ben Jonson to
charge Spenser with "affecting the ancients." However, I find it employed
by one of his cotemporaries, Fairfax:

 "With party-colour'd plumes and purple bill,
    A wond'rous bird among the rest there flew,
  That in plain speech sung love-lays loud and shrill,
    Her _leden_ was like human language true."
                  Fairfax's _Tasso_, book xvi. st. 13.

The expression _lede, in lede_, which so often occurs in Sir Tristram, may
also have arisen from the Anglo-Saxon form of the word _Latin_. Sir W.
Scott, in his Glossary, explains it: "_Lede, in lede. In language_, an
expletive, synonymous to _I tell you_." The following are a few of the
passages in which it is found:

 "Monestow neuer in _lede_
      Nought lain."--Fytte i. st. 60.

 "In _lede_ is nought to layn,
  He set him by his side."--Fytte i. st. 65.

 "Bothe busked that night,
  To Beliagog in _lede_."--Fytte iii. st. 59.

It is not necessary to descant on thieves' Latin, dog-Latin, _Latin de
Cuisine_, &c.; but I should be glad to learn when dog-Latin first appeared
in our language.

E. M. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 326.)

The list of _Jacks_ supplied by your correspondent JOHN JACKSON is amusing
and curious. A few additions towards a complete collection may not be
altogether unacceptable or unworthy of notice.

Supple (usually pronounced souple) _Jack_, a flexible cane; _Jack_ by the
hedge, a plant (_Erysimum cordifolium_); the _jacks_ of a harpsichord;
_jack_, an engine to raise ponderous bodies (Bailey); _Jack_, the male of
birds of sport (Ditto); _Jack_ of Dover, a joint twice dressed (Ditto, from
Chaucer); _jack_ pan, used by barbers (Ditto); _jack_, a frame used by
sawyers. I have also noted _Jack_-Latin, _Jack_-a-nod, but cannot give
their authority or meaning. {623}

The term was very familiar to our older writers. The following to Dodsley's
_Collection of old Plays_ (1st edition, 1744) may assist in explaining its

     Vol. I.--Page 45. Jack Strawe.
              Page 65. New Jack.
              Page 217. Sir Jacke.
              Page 232. Jack Fletcher.
              Page 263. Jacknapes.
              Page 271. Jack Sauce.

    Vol. II.--Page 139. Clapper Jack.

   Vol. III.--Page 34. Prating Jack.
              Page 64. Jack-a-lent.
              Page 168. His Jacks.
              Page 214. Black Jacks.

     Vol. V.--Page 161. Every Jack.
              Page 341. Skip-Jack.

    Vol. VI.--Page 290. Jack Sauce.
              Page 325. Flap-Jacks.
              Page 359. Whirling Jacks.

  Vol. VIII.--Page 55. Jack Sauce.

     Vol. X.--Pages 46. 49. His Jack.

Your correspondent is perhaps aware that Dr. Johnson is disposed to
consider the derivation from _John_ to be an error, and rather refers the
word to the common usage of the French word Jacques (James). His conjecture
seems probable, from many of its applications in this language. _Jacques_,
a jacket, is decidedly French; _Jacques_ de mailles equally so; and the
word _Jacquerie_ embraces all the catalogue of virtues and vices which we
connect with our _Jack_.

On the other hand, _John_, in his integrity, occurs familiarly in _John_
Bull, _John_-a-Nokes, _John_ Doe, _John_ apple, _John_ Doree, Blue _John_,
_John_ Trot, _John's_ Wort, _John_-a-dreams, &c.; and Poor _John_ is found
in Dodsley, vol. viii. pp. 197. 356.

C. H. P.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 549)

On referring to the passage cited by S. S. S. in Bishop Taylor's _Holy
Dying_, vol. iv. p. 345. (Heber's edit.), I find I had marked two passages
in St. James's Epistle as being those to which, in all probability, the
bishop alluded; one in the first chapter, and one in the third. In the
commencement of his Epistle St. James exhorts his hearers to exercise
patience in all the worldly accidents that might befal them; to resign
themselves into God's hands, and accept in faith whatever might happen. He
then proceeds:

    "If any of you lack wisdom" (prudentia ad dijudicandum quid in singulis
    circumstantiis agendum sit--_Grotius_), "let him ask of God" (postulet
    ab eo, qui dat, nempe Deo: ut intelligas non aliunde petendum

Again, in chap. iii. 13., he asks:

    "Who is a wise man, and endued with knowledge among you" ([Greek:
    epistêmôn], _i. e._ sciens, sive scientià præditus, quod recentiores
    vocant scientificus.--_Erasmus_).

He bids him prove his wisdom by submission to the truth; for that cunning
craftiness which manifests itself only in generating heresies and
contentions, is--

    "Not from above," [Greek: all' epigeios, Psuchikê ] (animalis,--ista
    sapientia a natura est, non a Deo) [Greek: daimoniôdês].--_Vid._ Eph.
    ii. 2., and 2 Cor. iv. 4.

These passages would naturally afford ample scope for the exuberant fancy
of ancient commentators; and it is not unreasonable to suppose that Bishop
Taylor may have had the remarks of one of these writers running in his
mind, when he quoted St. James as reprobating, with such minuteness of
detail, the folly of consulting oracles, spirits, sorcerers, and the like.

I have not, at present, access to any of the commentators to whom I allude;
so I am unable to confirm this suggestion.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

There is no uncanonical epistle attributed to this apostle, although the
one received by the English from the Greek and Latin churches was
pronounced uncanonical by Luther. The passage to which Jeremy Taylor
refers, is iv. 13, 14., which he interpreted as referring to an unlawful
inquiry into the future:

    "Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a
    city and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain: whereas
    ye know not what shall be on the morrow: for what is your life? It is
    even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth

Hug (Wait's Trans., vol. ii. p. 579.) considers the apostle as reproving
the Jews for attempting to evade the national punishment threatened them,
by removing out of their own country of Judæa. Probably, however, neither
Taylor nor Hug are correct in departing from the more obvious
signification, which refers to the mercantile character of the twelve
tribes (i. 1.), arising mainly out of the fact of their captivities and
dispersions ([Greek: diasporai]). The practice is still common in the East
for merchants on a large and small scale to spend a whole season or year in
trafficking in one city, and passing thence to another with the varied
products suitable respectively to each city; and such products were
interchanged without that extreme division of labour or despatch which the
magnitude of modern commerce requires. The whole passage, from James iv.
13. to v. 6. inclusive, must be taken as specially applicable to the sins
of mercantile men whose _works_ of righteousness St. James (iii. 17-20.)
declared to be wanting, in proof of their holding the _faith_ necessary,
{624} according, to St. Paul (Rom. iii. 27.), for their salvation.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 529.)

The _Ter Tria_[3], about which your correspondent J. S. inquires, is
neither a rare nor a very valuable book; and if his copy has cost him more
than some three and sixpence, it is a poor investment of capital. Mine,
which is of the second edition, 1669, has the following book-note:

    "The worthy Faithfull Teate indulges himself in the then prevailing bad
    taste of _anagramising_ his name: see the result after the title. A
    better play upon his name is that of Jo. Chishull, who, in lashing the
    prophane wits of the day, and eulogising the author, has the following
    comical allusion thereto:

     'Let all wise-hearted sav'ring things divine
      _Come suck this_ TEAT that yields both milk and wine,
      Loe depths where elephants may swim, yet here
      The weakest lamb of Christ wades without fear.'"

The _Ter Tria_ was originally published in 1658; its author, F. T., was the
father of the better known Nahum Tate, the co-translator of the last
authorised version of the Psalms,--a _Teat_ which, following the metaphor
of Mr. Chishull, has nourished not a few generations of the godly, but now,
like a sucked orange, thrown aside for the more juicy productions of our
modern Psalmists. Old Teate (or Tate, as the junior would have it) is
styled in this book, "preacher at Sudbury." He seems subsequently to have
removed to Ireland, where his son Nahum, the laureat, was born.

J. O.

[Footnote 3: "Ter Tria; or the Doctrine of the Three Sacred Persons:
Father, Son, and Spirit. Principal Graces: Faith, Hope, and Love. Main
Duties: Prayer, Hearing, and Meditation. Summarily digested for the
Pleasure and Profit of the pious and ingenious Reader. By F. T. Tria sunt

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 528.)

_Parvise_ seems to have been a porch, used as a school or place for
disputation. The _parvise_ mentioned in the Oxford "Little-Go"
(Responsions) Testamur is alluded to in Bishop Cooper's book against
Private Mass (published by the Parker Society). He ridicules his opponent's
arguments as worthy of "a sophister in the parvyse schools." The
Serjeant-at-law, in Chaucer's Canterbury Pilgrims, had been often at the
_paruise_. In some notes on this character in a number of the _Penny
Magazine_ for 1840 or 1841, it is farther remarked that the choristers of
Norwich Cathedral were formerly taught in the _parvise_, _i. e._ porch. The
chamber over a porch in some churches may have been the school meant.
Instances of this arrangement were to be found at Doncaster Church (where
it was used as a library), and at Sherborne Abbey Church. The porch here
was Norman, and the chamber Third Pointed; and at the restoration lately
effected the pitch of the roof was raised, and the chamber removed.


Oxford University.

I believe that the _parvisus_, or _paradisus_ of the Responsions Testamur,
is the _pro-scholium_ of the divinity school, otherwise called the
"pig-market," from its site having been so occupied up to the year 1554.
This is said to be the locality in which the Responsions were formerly

It is ordered by the statutes, tit. vi.,--

    "Quod priusquam quis ad Gradum Baccalaurei in Artibus admittatur, in
    Parviso semel Quæstionibus Magistrorum Scholarum respondeat."

However, they go on to direct, "Locus hisce Responsionibus assignetur
Schola Metaphysices;" and there they are at present held. (See the Glossary
to Tyrwhitt's _Chaucer_; and also Parker's _Glossary of Architecture_, ad
voc. "Parvise.")


The term _parvise_, though used in somewhat different senses by old
writers, appears to mean strictly a _porch_ or _antechamber_. Your
correspondent OXONIENSIS will find in Parker's _Glossary_ ample information
respecting this word, with references to various writers, showing the
different meanings which have been attached to it. "Responsions," or the
preliminary examinations at Oxford, are said to be held _in parviso_; that
is, in the porch, as it were, or antechamber before the schools, which are
the scene of the greater examinations for the degree.

H. C. K.

If your correspondent will refer to the word _Parvisium_, in the Glossary
at the end of Watt's edition of Matthew Paris, he will find a good deal of
information. To this I will add that the word is now in use in Belgium in
another sense. I saw some years since, and again last summer, in a street
leading out of the Grande Place, by one side of the Halle at Bruges, on a
house, this notice,--


D. P.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 524, 525.)

MR. SMIRKE's paper, questioning the received opinion as to the points of
time and circumstance {625} expressed in this celebrated fresco, contains
the following sentence:

    "The work in question is now so generally accessible, through the
    medium of _accurate_ engravings, that any one may easily exercise his
    own judgment on the matter."

Having within no very distant period spent an hour or two in examining the
original, with copies lying close at hand for the purposes of comparison,
allow me to offer you a few impressions of which, while fresh, I "made a
note" in an interleaved copy of Bishop Burnet's curious _Tour in Italy_,
which served me as a journal while abroad. Burnet mentions the Dominican
Convent at Milan as in his day "very rich." My note is as follows:

    "The Dominican convent is now suppressed. It is a cavalry barracks:
    dragoons have displaced Dominicans. There is a fine cupola to the
    church, the work of Bramante: in the salle or refectory of this convent
    was discovered, since Burnet's time, under a coat of wash or plaster,
    the celebrated fresco of Lionardo da Vinci, now so well known to the
    world by plates and copies, better finished than the original ever was,
    in all probability; certainly better than it is now, after abuse,
    neglect, damp, and, worst of all, _restoring_, have done their joint
    work upon it. A visit to this fresco disenchants one wonderfully. It is
    better to be satisfied with the fine engravings, and let the original
    live in its ideal excellence. The copyists have taken some liberties,
    of which these strike me as the chief:

    "First, The Saviour's head is put more on one side, in what I would
    call a more languishing position than its actual one.

    "Second, the expression of the figure seated at his left hand is quite
    changed. In the copies it is a grave, serious, fine face: in the
    original, though now indistinct, it evidently expressed 'open-mouthed
    horror' at the declaration, 'One of you shall betray me.'

    "Third, Judas in all copies is identified not only by the held bag of
    money, but by the overturned saltcellar at his elbow. This last is not
    in the original.

    "The whole fresco, though now as well kept as may be, seems spoiling
    fast. There is a Crucifixion at the other end of the same hall, in much
    better preservation, though of the same date; and the doorway which the
    tasteful Dominicans cut in the wall, through the bottom of the
    painting, is, though blocked up, still quite visible. It is but too
    probable that the monks valued the absurd and hideous frescoes in the
    cloisters outside, representing Saint Dominic's miracles! and the
    Virgin fishing souls out of purgatory with a rosary, beyond Lionardo's
    great work."

So far my original note, written without supposing that the received idea,
as to the subject of the picture, had ever been questioned. In reference to
the question raised, however, I will briefly say, that, as recollection
serves me, it would require a well-sustained criticism to convince me that
the two disciples at the Saviour's right hand were not designed to express
the point of action described in the 23rd and 24th verses of chapter xiii.
of St. John's Gospel. Possibly MR. SMIRKE might favour us with the argument
of his MSS. on the group.

A. B. R.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 408.)

I have in my note-book the following entries:--

Kiddington, Oxon.:

 "This sacred Font Saint Edward first receaved,
  From womb to grace, from grace to glory went
  His virtuous life. To this fayre isle beqveth'd.
  Prase ... and to vs bvt lent.
  Let this remaine the trophies of his fame;
  A King baptized from hence a Saint became.

 "This Fonte came from the King's Chapell in Islip."

Newark, round the base in black letter:

 "Suis . Natis . sunt . Deo . hoc . Fonte . Renati . erunt."

On a pillar adjoining the font is a brass tablet with this inscription:

    "This Font was demolished by the Rebels, May 9, 1646, and rebuilt by
    the charity of Nicholas Ridley in 1660."

Kirton, Lincoln:

    "Orate pro aia Alauni Burton qui fontem istum fieri fec. A.D. MCCCCV."

Clee, Lincoln:

    "The Font is formed of two cylindrical parts, one placed upon the
    other, over which, in the shaft of the circular column, is inlaid a
    small piece of marble, with a Latin inscription in Saxon characters,
    referring to the time of King Richard, and stating it was dedicated to
    the Holy Trinity and St. Mary, by Hugh Bishop of Lincoln, A.D. 1192."

The above are extracts from books, not copied by me from the fonts.


At Threckingham, Lincolnshire, round the base of the font--

 "Ave Maria gratis . p . d . t."

At Little Billing, Northamptonshire,--

    "Wilberthus artifex atq; cementarius hunc fabricavit, quisquis suum
    venit mergere corpus procul dubio capit."

J. P., Jun.

To the list of these should be added the early English font at Keysoe,
Beds., noticed in the _Ecclesiologist_, vol. i. p. 124., and figured in Van
Voorst's _Baptismal Fonts_. It bears the legend in Norman French:

  + "Trestui: ke par hiei passerui
  Pur le alme Warel prieui:
  Ke Deu par sa grace
  Verrey merci li face. A[=m]."

{626} Or, in modern French:

 "Restez: qui par ici passerez
  Pour l'âme de Warel priez:
  Que Dieu par sa grace
  Vraie merci lui fasse. Amen."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 238. 393.)

The bourne at Croydon is one of the most remarkable of those intermitting
springs which issue from the upper part of the chalk strata after
long-continued rains.

All porous earth-beds are reservoirs of water, and give out their supplies
more or less copiously according to their states of engorgement; and at
higher or lower levels, as they are more or less replenished by rain. Rain
percolates through the chalk rapidly at all times, it being greatly
fissured and cavernous, and finds vent at the bottom of the hills, in
ordinary seasons, in the perennial springs which issue there, at the top of
the chalk marl, or of the galt (the clay so called) which underlies the
chalk. But when long-continued rains have filled the fissures and caverns,
and the chinks and crannies of the ordinary vents below are unequal to the
drainage, the reservoir as it were overflows, and the superfluity exudes
from the valleys and gullies of the upper surface; and these occasional
sources continue to flow till the equilibrium is restored, and the
perennial vents suffice to carry off the annual supply. Some approach to
the full engorgement here spoken of takes place annually in many parts of
the chalk districts, where springs break out after the autumnal and winter
rains, and run themselves dry again in the course of a few months, or maybe
have intermissions of a year or two, when the average falls are short.
Thence it is we have so many "Winterbournes" in the counties of Wilts,
Hants, and Dorset; as Winterbourne-basset, Winterbourne-gunner,
Winterbourne-stoke, &c. (Vide Lewis's _Topog. Dict._) The highest sources
of the Test, Itchen, and some other of our southern rivers which take their
rise in the chalk, are often dry for months, and their channels void of
water for miles; failing altogether when the rains do not fill the
neighbouring strata to repletion.

In the case of long intermissions, such as occur to the Croydon bourne, it
is not wonderful that the sudden appearance of waters in considerable
force, where none are usually seen to flow, should give rise to
superstitious dread of coming evils. Indeed, the coincidence of the running
of the bourne, a wet summer, a worse sowing-season, and a wet cold spring,
may well inspire evil forebodings, and give a colourable pretext for such
apprehensions as are often entertained on the occurrence of any unusual
natural phenomenon. These intermittent rivulets have no affinity, as your
correspondent E. G. R. supposes, to subterraneous rivers. The nearest
approach to this kind of stream is to be found in the Mole, which sometimes
sinks away, and leaves its channel dry between Dorking and Leatherhead,
being absorbed into fissures in the chalk, and again discharged; these
fissures being insufficient to receive its waters in times of more copious
supply. The subterraneous rivers of more mountainous countries are also not
to be included in the same category. They have a history of their own, to
enlarge on which is not the business of this Note: but it may not be
irrelevant to turn the attention for a moment to the use of the word
_bourne_ or _burn_. The former mode of spelling and pronouncing it appears
to prevail in the south, and the latter in the north of England and in
Scotland; both alike from the same source as the _brun_ or _brunen_ of
Germany. The perennial bourne so often affords a convenient natural
geographical boundary, and a convenient line of territorial division, that
by an easy metonymy it has established itself in our language in either
sense, signifying streamlet or boundary-line,--as witness the well-known

 "That undiscovered country, from whose bourne
  No traveller returns."--_Shakspeare._

 "I know each lane, and every alley green,
  And every bosky bourn from side to side."--_Milton._


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 406. 488, 489.)

The opinion of your correspondents, that instances of persons having more
than one Christian name before the last century are, at least, very rare,
is borne out by the learned Camden, who, however, enables me to adduce two
earlier instances of polyonomy than those cited by J. J. H.:

    "Two Christian names," says he (_Remaines concerning Britaine_, p.
    44.), "are rare in England, and I onely remember now his majesty, who
    was named Charles James, and the prince his sonne Henry Frederic; and
    among private men, Thomas Maria Wingfield, and Sir Thomas Posthumous

The custom must have been still rare at the end of the eighteenth century,
for, as we are informed by Moore in a note to his _Fudge Family in Paris_
(Letter IV.):

    "The late Lord C. (Castlereagh?) of Ireland had a curious theory about
    names; he held that _every_ man with _three_ names was a Jacobin. His
    instances in Ireland were numerous; Archibald Hamilton Rowan, Theobald
    Wolfe Tone, James Napper Tandy, John Philpot Curran, &c.: and in
    England he produced as examples, Charles James Fox, Richard Brinsley
    {627} Sheridan, John Horne Tooke, Francis Burdett Jones," &c.

Perhaps the noble lord thought with Sterne in _Tristram Shandy_, though the
_nexus_ is not easy to discover, that "there is a strange kind of magic
bias, which good or bad names irresistibly impose upon our character and
conduct," or perhaps he had misread that controverted passage in Plautus
(_Aulular._ Act II. Sc. 4.):

 "Tun' _trium literarum_ homo
  Me vituperas? _Fur._"

The custom is now almost universal; and as, according to Camden (_Remaines,
&c._, p. 96.),

    "Shortly after the Conquest it seemed a disgrace for a gentleman to
    have but one single name, as the meaner sort and bastards had,"

so now, the _tria nomina nobiliorum_ have become so common, as to render
the epigram upon a certain M. L-P. Saint-Florentin, of almost universal
applicability as a neat and befitting epitaph.

    "On ne lui avait pas épargné," says the biographer of this gentleman
    (_Biographie Universelle_, tom. xxxix. p. 573.), "les épigrammes de son
    vivant; il en parut encore contre lui au moment de sa mort; en voici

     'Ci gît un petit homme à l'air assez commun,
      Ayant porté _trois noms_, et n'en laissant _aucun_.'"



Leopold William Finch, fifth son of Heneage, second Earl of Nottingham,
born about the year 1662, and afterwards Warden of All Souls, is an earlier
instance of an English person with two Christian names than your
correspondent J. J. H. has noticed.

J. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 522.)

Your correspondent J. A., JUN., makes a Note and asks a question regarding
a popular opinion prevalent in Worcestershire, on the subject of a
"Sunday's moon," as being one very much addicted to rain. In Sussex that
bad repute attaches to the moon that changes on Saturday:

 "A Saturday's moon,
  If it comes once in seven years, it comes too soon."

It may be hoped that the time is not far distant when a scientific
meteorology will dissipate the errors of the traditional code now in
existence. Of these errors none have greater or more extensive prevalence
than the superstitions regarding the influence of the moon on the
atmospheric phenomena of wet and dry weather. Howard, the author of _The
Climate of London_, after twenty years of close observation, could not
determine that the moon had any perceptible influence on the weather. And
the best authorities now follow, still more decidedly, in the same train.

"The change of the moon," the expression in general use in predictions of
the weather, is idly and inconsiderately used by educated people, without
considering that in every phase that planet is the same to us, as a
material agent, except as regards the power of reflected light; and no one
supposes that moonlight produces wet or dry. Why then should that point in
the moon's course, which we agree to call "the new" when it begins to
emerge from the sun's rays, have any influence on our weather. Twice in
each revolution, when in conjunction with the sun at new, and in opposition
at the full, an atmospheric spring-tide may be supposed to exist, and to
exert some sort of influence. But the existence of any atmospheric tide at
all is denied by some naturalists, and is at most very problematical; and
the absence of regular diurnal fluctuations of the barometric pressure
favours the negative of this proposition. But, granting that it were so,
and that the moon, in what is conventionally called the beginning of its
course, and again in the middle, at the full, did produce changes in the
weather, surely the most sanguine of _rational lunarians_ would discard the
idea of one moon differing from another, except in relation to the season
of the year; or that a new moon on the Sabbath day, whether Jewish or
Christian, had any special quality not shared by the new moons of any other
days of the week.

Such a publication as "N. & Q." is not the place to discuss fully the
question of lunar influence. Your correspondent J. A., JUN., and all
persons who have inconsiderately taken up the popular belief in
moon-weather, will do well to consult an interesting article on this
subject (I believe attributed to Sir D. Brewster) in _The Monthly
Chronicle_ for 1838; and this will also refer such inquirers to Arago's
_Annuaire_ for 1833. There may be later and completer disquisitions on the
lunar influences, but they are not known to me.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. i., pp. 321. 356.)

This word is now receiving a curious illustration in this colony of French
origin. _Rococo_--antiquated, old-fashioned--would seem to have become
_rococo_ itself; and in its place the negroes have adopted the word
_entêté_, wilful, headstrong, to express, as it were, the persistence of a
person in retaining anything that has gone out of fashion. This term was
first applied to white hats; and the wearers of such have been assailed
from every corner of the streets with the cry of "Entêté chapeau!" It was
next applied to umbrellas of a {628} strange colour (the varieties of which
are almost without number in this country of the sun); and it has now been
extended to every article of wearing apparel of an unfashionable or
peculiar shape. A negro woman, appearing with a blue umbrella, has been
followed by half a dozen black boys with the cry of "Entêté parasol!" and
in order to get rid of the annoyance she had to shut the umbrella and
continue her way under the broiling sun. But the term is not always used in
derision. A few days ago, a young girl of colour, dressed in the extreme of
the fashion, was passing along, when some bystanders began to rally her
with the word "Entêté." The girl, perceiving that she was the object of
their notice, turned round, and in an attitude of conscious
irreproachableness, retorted with the challenge in Creole French, "Qui
entêté ça?" But the smiles with which she was greeted showed her (what she
had already partly suspected) that their cries of "Entêté" were intended
rather to compliment her on the style of her dress.


St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 41.)

I am gratified to see that MR. HARDY's documentary researches have
confirmed my conjectures as to the erroneous date assigned for the death of
the first husband of Jane Beaufort. Perhaps it may be in his power also to
rectify a chronological error, which has crept into the account usually
given of the family into which one of her sons married. The Peerages all
place the death of the last Lord Fauconberg of the original family in 1376,
not observing that this date would make his daughter and heiress married to
William Nevill, second son of the Earl of Westmoreland and Countess Joane,
twenty-five years at the lowest computation; or, if we take the date which
they assign for the death of Lord Ferrers of Wemme, forty years older than
her husband,--a difference this, which, although perhaps it might not prove
an insuperable impediment to marriage where the lady was a great heiress,
would undoubtedly put a bar on all hopes of issue: whereas it stands on
record that they had a family.

I must take this opportunity of complaining of the manner in which many, if
not all these Peerages, are compiled: copying each others' errors, however
obvious, without a word of doubt or an attempt to rectify them; though MR.
HARDY's communication, above mentioned, shows that the materials for doing
so, in many cases, exist if properly sought. Not to mention minor errors,
they sometimes crowd into a given time more generations than could have
possibly existed, and sometimes make the generations of a length that has
not been witnessed since the patriarchal ages. As instances of the former
may be mentioned, the pedigree of the Ferrerses, Earls of Derby (in which
eight successions from father to son are given between 1137 and 1265), and
those of the Netterville and Tracy families: and of the latter, the
pedigree of the Fitzwarines, which gives only four generations between the
Conquest and 1314; and that of the Clanricarde family. It is strange that
Mr. Burke, who appears to claim descent from the latter, did not take more
pains to rectify a point so nearly concerning him; instead of making, as he
does in his Peerage, one of the family to have held the title (MacWilliam
Eighter) and estates for 105 years!--an absurdity rendered still more
glaring by this long-lived gentleman's father having possessed them
fifty-four years before him, and his son for fifty-six years after him. If
such can be supposed true, the Countess of Desmond's longevity was not so
unusual after all.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 407.)

May I be allowed to inform your correspondent R. L. P. that he is in error,
when supposing that the English knights were deprived of their property by
Queen Elizabeth, as it was done by act of parliament in the year 1534, and
during the reign of Henry VIII.

For the information sought by your correspondent R. L. P., I would refer
him to the following extract taken from Sutherland's _History of the
Knights of Malta_, vol. ii. pp. 114, 115.:

    "To increase the despondency of L'Isle Adam [the Grand Master of the
    Order of St. John of Jerusalem], Henry VIII. of England having come to
    an open rupture with the Pope, in consequence of the Pontiff's steady
    refusal to countenance the divorcement of Catherine of Arragon his
    queen, commenced a fierce and bloody persecution against all persons in
    his dominions, who persisted in adhering to the Holy See. In these
    circumstances, the Knights of St. John, who held themselves bound to
    acknowledge the Pope as their superior at whatever hazard, did not long
    escape his ire. The power of the Order, composed as it was of the
    chivalry of the nation, while the Prior of London sat in parliament on
    an equality with the first baron of the realm, for a time deterred him
    from openly proscribing it; but at length his wrath burst forth in an
    ungovernable flame. The knights Ingley, Adrian Forrest, Adrian
    Fortescu, and Marmaduke Bohus, refusing to abjure their faith, perished
    on the scaffold. Thomas Mytton and Edward Waldegrave died in a dungeon;
    and Richard and James Bell, John Noel, and many others, abandoned their
    country for ever, and sought an asylum at Malta[4], completely stripped
    {629} of their possessions. In 1534, by an act of the legislature, the
    Order of St. John was abolished in the King of England's dominions; and
    such knights as survived the persecution, but who refused to stoop to
    the conditions offered them, were thrown entirely on the charity of
    their brethren at Malta. Henry offered Sir Wm. Weston, Lord Prior of
    England, a pension of a thousand pounds a year; but that knight was so
    overwhelmed with grief at the suppression of his Order, that he never
    received a penny, but soon after died. Other knights, less scrupulous,
    became pensioners of the crown."

W. W.

La Valetta, Malta.

[Footnote 4: I have sought in vain among the records of the Order at this
island to find any mention made of those English knights, whom Sutherland
thus mentions as having fled to Malta at the time of this persecution in
their native land.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Anticipatory Worship of the Cross_ (Vol. vii., p. 548.).--A correspondent
wishes for farther information on the anticipatory worship of the cross in
Mexico and at Alexandria. At the present moment I am unable to refer to the
works on which I grounded the statement which he quotes. He will, however,
find the details respecting Mexico in Stephens's _Travels in Yucatan_; and
those respecting Alexandria in the commentators on Sozomen (_H. E._, vii.
15.), and Socrates (_H. E._, v. 16.). A similar instance is the worship of
the _Cross Fylfotte_ in Thibet.


_Ennui_ (Vol. vii., p. 478.).--

    "Cleland (voc. 165.) has, with his usual sagacity, and with a great
    deal of trouble, as he himself acknowledges, traced out the true
    meaning and derivation of this word: for after he had long despaired of
    discovering the origin of it, mere chance, he says, offered to him what
    he took to be the genuine one: 'In an old French book I met,' says he,
    'with a passage where the author, speaking of a company that had sat up
    late, makes use of this expression, "l'ennuit les avoit gagnés," by the
    context of which it was plain he meant, that the common influence of
    _the night_, in bringing on _heaviness_ and _yawning_, had come upon
    them. The proper sense is totally antiquated, but the figurative
    remains in full currency to this day."--Lemon's _Etymological

The true synonym of _ennui_ seem to be _tædium_, which appears to have the
same relation to _tædo_, a torch, as _ennui_ to _nuit_.

B. H. C.

_"Qui facit per alium, facit per se," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 488.).--This
maxim is found in the following form in the _Regulæ Juris_, subjoined to
the 6th Book of the Decretals, Reg. lxxii.: "Qui facit per alium, est
perinde ac si faciat per seipsum."

J. B.

_Vincent Family_ (Vol. vii., pp. 501. 586.).--The _Memoir of Augustine
Vincent_, referred to by MR. MARTIN, was written by the late Sir N. Harris
Nicolas, and published by Pickering in 1827, crown 8vo. Shortly after its
publication, a few pages of _Addenda_ were printed in consequence of some
information communicated by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, respecting the
descendants of Augustine Vincent. At that time Francis Offley Edmunds,
Esq., of Westborough, was his representative.


_Judge Smith_ (Vol. vii., pp. 463. 508.).--I am well acquainted with the
monumental inscriptions in Chesterfield Church, but I do not recollect one
to the memory of Judge Smith.

Thomas Smith, who was an attorney in Sheffield, and died in 1774, had a
brother, William Smith of Norwich, who died in 1801. Thomas Smith married
Susan Battie, by whom he had a son Thomas Smith of Sheffield, and after of
Dunston Hall, who married in 1791 Elizabeth Mary, only surviving child of
Robert Mower of Woodseats, Esq., (by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of
Richard Milnes of Dunston Hall, Esq.) It was through this lady that the
Dunston estate came to the Smiths by the will of her uncle Mr. Milnes. Mr.
Smith died in 1811, having had issue by her (who married secondly John
Frederick Smith, Esq., of London) three sons and several daughters. The
second son (Rev. Wm. Smith of Dunston Hall) died in 1841, leaving male
issue; but I am not aware of the death of either of the others. The family
had a grant of arms in 1816. Dunston Hall had belonged to the Milnes family
for about a century.

W. ST.

_"Dimidiation" in Impalements_ (Vol. vii., p. 548.).--In reply to your
correspondent's Query as to _dimidiation_, he will find that this was the
most ancient form of impalement. Its manifest inconvenience no doubt at
last banished it. Guillim (ed. 1724) says, at p. 425.:

    "It was an ancient way of impaling, to take half the husband's coat,
    and with that to joyn as much of the wife's; as appeareth in an old
    roll, wherein three lions, being the arms of _England_, are dimidiated
    and impaled with half the pales of Arragon. The like hath been
    practised with quartered coats by leaving out half of them."

On p. 426. he gives the example of Mary, Henry VIII.'s sister, and her
husband Louis XII. of France. Here the French king's coat is cut in half,
so that the lily in the base point is _dimidiated_; and the queen's coat,
being quarterly France and England, shows two quarters only; England in
chief, France in base.

Sandford, in his _Genealogical History_, gives a plate of the tomb of Henry
II. and Richard I. of England at Fontevrault, which was built anew in {630}
1638. Upon it are several impalements by _dimidiation_. Sandford (whose
book seems to me to be strangely over-valued) gives no explanation of them.
No doubt they were copied from the original tomb.

In Part II. of the _Guide to the Architectural Antiquities in the
Neighbourhood of Oxford_, at p. 178., is figured an impalement by
_dimidiation_ existing at Stanton Harcourt, in the north transept of the
church, in a brass on a piece of blue marble. The writer of the _Guide_
supposes this bearing to be some union of Harcourt and Beke, in consequence
of a will of John Lord Beke, and to be commemorative of the son of Sir
Richard Harcourt and Margaret Beke. It is in fact commemorative of those
persons themselves. Harcourt, two bars, is dimidiated, and meets Beke, a
cross moline or ancrée. The figure thus produced is a strange one, but
perfectly intelligible when the practice of impaling by dimidiation is
recollected. I know no modern instance of this method of impaling. I doubt
if any can be found since the time of Henry VIII.

D. P.


_Worth_ (Vol. vii., p. 584.).--At one time, and in one locality, this word
seems to have denoted manure; as appears by the following preamble to the
statute 7 Jac. I. cap. 18.:

    "Whereas the sea-sand, by long triall and experience, hath bin found to
    be very profitable for the bettering of land, and especially for the
    increase of corne and tillage, within the counties of Devon and
    Cornwall, where the inhabitants have not commonly used any other
    _worth_, for the bettering of their arable grounds and pastures."

I am not aware of any other instance of the use of this word in this sense.



_"Elementa sex," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 572.).--The answer to the Latin riddle
propounded by your correspondent EFFIGY, seems to be the word _putres_;
divided into _utres_, _tres_, _res_, _es_, and the letter _s_.

The allusion in _putres_ is to Virgil, _Georgic_, i. 392.; and in _utres_
probably to _Georgic_, ii. 384.: the rest is patent enough.

I send this response to save others from the trouble of seeking an answer,
and being disappointed at their profitless labours. If I may venture a
guess at its author, I should be inclined to ascribe it to some idle
schoolboy, or perhaps schoolmaster, who deserved to be whipped for their

C. W. B.

_"A Diasii 'Salve'," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 571.).--The deliverance desired in
these words is from treachery, similar to that which was exhibited by the
fratricide Alfonso Diaz toward his brother Juan. (Vid. Senarclæi _Historiam
veram_, 1546; _Actiones et Monimenta Martyrum_, foll. 126-139. [Genevæ],
1560: _Histoire des Martyrs_, foll. 161-168., ed. 1597; M^cCrie's
_Reformation in Spain_, pp. 181-188., Edinb. 1829.)

The "A Gallorum 'Venite,'" probably refers to the singing of the "Venite,
exultemus Domino," on the occasion of the massacre of St. Bartholomew.

R. G.

_Meaning of "Claret"_ (Vol. vii., pp. 237. 511.).--Old Bartholomew
Glanville, the venerable Franciscan, gives a recipe for claret in his
treatise _De Proprietatibus Rerum_, Argent., 1485., lib. xix. cap. 56.,
which proves it to be of older date than is generally supposed:

    "Claretum ex vino et melle et speciebus aromaticis est confectum ...
    Unde a vino contrahit fortitudinem et acumen, a speciebus autem retinet
    aromaticitatem et odorem, sed a melle dulcedinem mutuat et saporem."

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

"_The Temple of Truth_" (Vol. vii., p. 549.).--The author of this work,
according to Dr. Watt, was the Rev. C. E. de Coetlogon, rector of Godstone,

[Greek: Halieus].


_Wellborne Family_ (Vol. vii., p. 259.).--The following is from the _Town
and Country Magazine_ for 1772:

    "_Deaths._--Mr. Richard Wellborne, in Aldersgate Street, descended in a
    direct male line from the youngest son of Simon Montfort, Earl of
    Leicester, who flourished in King Henry III.'s time, and married that
    king's sister."

There is now a family of the name of Wellborne residing in Doncaster.

W. H. L.

_Devonianisms_ (Vol. vii., p. 544.).--While a resident in Devonshire, I
frequently met with localisms similar in character to those quoted by
J. M. B.; but what at first struck me as most peculiar in common
conversation, was the use, or rather abuse, of the little preposition _to_.
When inquiring the whereabouts of an individual, Devonians ask one another,
"Where is he _to_?" The invariable reply is, "_To_ London," "_To_
Plymouth," &c., as the case may be. The Cheshire clowns, on the other hand,
murder the word _at_, in just the same strange and inappropriate manner.

The indiscriminate use of the term _forrell_, when describing the cover of
a book, is a solecism, I fancy, peculiarly Devonian. Whether a book be
bound in cloth, vellum, or morocco, it is all alike _forrell_ in Devonshire
parlance. I imagine, however, that the word, in its present corrupt sense,
must have originated from _forrell_, a term still used by the trade to
designate an inferior kind of vellum {631} or parchment, in which books are
not unfrequently bound. When we consider that vellum was at one time in
much greater request for bookbinding purposes than it is just now, we shall
be at no great loss to reconcile this eccentricity in the vocabulary of our
west country brethren.



_Humbug_ (Vol. vii., p. 550.).--A recent number of Miller's _Fly Leaves_
makes the following hazardous assertion as to the origin and derivation of
the term _Humbug_:

    "This, now common expression, is a corruption of the word Hamburgh, and
    originated in the following manner:--During a period when war prevailed
    on the Continent, so many false reports and lying bulletins were
    fabricated at Hamburgh, that at length, when any one would signify his
    disbelief of a statement, he would say, 'You had that from Hamburgh;'
    and thus, 'That is Hamburgh,' or _Humbug_, became a common expression
    of incredulity."

With all my credulity, I cannot help fancying that this bit of specious
_humbug_ is a _leetle_ too far-fetched.



_George Miller, D.D._ (Vol. vii., p. 527.).--His Donnellan Lectures were
never published.

[Greek: Halieus].


"_A Letter to a Convocation Man_" (Vol. vii., p. 502.).--Your correspondent
W. FRASER may be informed that the "great preacher" for whom he inquires
was Archbishop Tillotson.

[Greek: Halieus].

    [Perhaps our correspondent can reply to another Query from MR. W.
    FRASER, viz. "Who is the 'certain author' quoted in _A Letter to a
    Convocation Man_, pp. 24, 25.?"--ED.]

_Sheriffs of Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire_ (Vol. vii., p.
572.).--This is a very singular Query, inasmuch as Fuller's list of the
sheriffs of these counties begins 1st Henry II., and not, as is assumed by
your correspondent D., "from the time of Henry VIII."



_Ferdinand Mendez Pinto_ (Vol. vii., p. 551.).--INQUIRENS will find the
passage he quotes in Congreve's _Love for Love_, Act II. Sc. 5. Foresight,
addressing Sir Sampson Legend, says:

    "Thou modern Mandeville, Ferdinand Mendez Pinto was but a type," &c.

In the _Tatler_, No. 254. (a paper ascribed to Addison and Steele
conjointly), these veracious travellers are thus pleasantly noticed:

    "There are no books which I more delight in than in travels, especially
    those that describe remote countries, and give the writer an
    opportunity of showing his parts without incurring any danger of being
    examined and contradicted. Among all the authors of this kind, our
    renowned countryman, Sir John Mandeville, has distinguished himself by
    the copiousness of his invention, and the greatness of his genius. The
    second to Sir John I take to have been Ferdinand Mendez Pinto, a person
    of infinite adventure and unbounded imagination. One reads the voyages
    of these two great wits with as much astonishment as the travels of
    Ulysses in Homer, or of the Red Cross Knight in Spenser. All is
    enchanted ground and fairy land."

Biographical sketches of Mandeville and Pinto are attached to this paper in
the excellent edition of the _Tatler_ ("with Illustrations and Notes" by
Calder, Percy, and Nichols), published in six volumes in 1786. Godwin
selected this quotation from Congreve as a fitting motto for his _Tale of
St. Leon_.

J. H. M.

The passage referred to occurs in Congreve's _Love for Love_, Act II. Sc.
5. Cervantes had before designated Pinto as the "prince of liars." It seems
that poor Pinto did not deserve the ill language applied to him by the
wits. Ample notices of his travels may be seen in the _Retrospective
Review_, vol. viii. pp. 83-105., and Macfarlane's _Romance of Travel_, vol.
ii. pp. 104-192.



_"Other-some" and "Unneath"_ (Vol vii., p. 571.).--Mr. Halliwell, in his
_Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words_, has _other-some_, some other,
"a quaint but pretty phrase _of frequent occurrence_." He gives two
instances of its use. He has also "_Unneath_, beneath. Somerset."



The word _other-some_ occurs in the authorised version of the Bible, Acts
xvii. 18. "Other some, He seemeth to be a setter forth of strange gods." It
does not occur in any of the earlier versions of this passage in Bagster's
_English Hexapla_. Halliwell says that it is "a quaint but pretty phrase of
frequent occurrence," and gives an example dated 1570. _Unneath_, according
to the same authority, is used in Somersetshire. _Other-some_ is constantly
used in Norfolk. I think it, however, a pity that your space should be
occupied by such Queries as these, which a simple reference to Halliwell's
_Dictionary_ would have answered.

E. G. R.

_Willow Pattern_ (Vol. vi., p. 509.).--Evidently a Chinese design. The
bridge-houses, &c., are purely Chinese; and also the want of perspective. I
have seen crockery in the shops in Shanghai with the _same pattern_, or at
least with very slight difference.

H. B.


_Cross and Pile_ (Vol. vii., p. 487.).--Another evidence that the word
_pile_ is of French origin: {632} "_Pille_, pile; that side of the coin
which bears the head. Cross or pile, a game."--_A Dictionary of the Norman
French Language_, by Robert Kelham of Lincoln's Inn: London, 1779, 8vo., p.


_Old Fogie_ (Vol. vii., pp. 354. 559.).--J. L., who writes from Edinburgh,
denies the Irish origin of this appellation, because he says it was used of
the "veteran companies" who garrisoned the castles of Edinburgh and
Stirling. My mother, who was born in 1759, often told me that she never had
heard any other name for the old men in the Royal Hospital, in the vicinity
of which she passed her early days. It was therefore a well-known name a
century ago in Dublin, and consequently was in use long before; probably
from the building of the hospital in the reign of Charles II. Can J. L.
trace the Scotch term as far back as that? Scotch or Irish, however, I
maintain that my derivation is the right one. J. L. says he prefers that of
Dr. Jamieson, in his _Scottish Dictionary_, who "derives it from Su.-G.
_Fogde_, formerly one who had the charge of a garrison." In thus preferring
a Scottish authority, J. L. shows himself to be a true Scot; but he must
allow me to ask him, is he acquainted with the Swedish language? (for that
is what is meant by the mysterious Su.-G.) And if so, is he not aware that
_Fogde_ is the same as the German _Vogt_, and signifies governor, judge,
steward, &c., never merely a military commandant; and what on earth has
that to do with battered old soldiers?

I may as well take this opportunity of replying to another of your
Caledonian correspondents, respecting the origin of the word _nugget_. The
Persian derivation is simply ridiculous, as the word was not first used in
Australia. I am then perfectly well aware that this term has long been in
use in Scotland and the north of Ireland as _i. q._ lump, as a _nugget_ of
bread, of sugar, &c. But an _ingot_ is a lump also: and the derivation is
so simple and natural, that in any case I am disposed to regard it as the
true one. May not the Yankee term have been made independently of the
British one?


_Another odd Mistake_ (Vol. vii., p. 405.).--On page 102. of _Last Glimpses
of Convocation_, by A. J. Joyce, 1853, I read of "the defiance thrown out
to Henry III. by his barons, _Nolumus leges Angliæ mutare_." I have never
read of any such defiance, expressed in any such language, anywhere else.



_Spontaneous Combustion_ (Vol. vii., pp. 286. 440.).--I have somewhere read
an account of a drunkard whose body was so saturated with alcohol, that
being bled in a fever, and the lamp near him having been overthrown, the
blood caught fire, and burst into a blaze: the account added, that he was
so startled by this occurrence, that on his recovery he reformed
thoroughly, and prolonged his life to a good old age. Where is this story
to be found, and is the fact related physically possible? It seems to bear
on the question of spontaneous combustion.



_Erroneous Forms of Speech_ (Vol vii., p. 329.).--E. G. R. will find, on
farther inquiry, that he is in the wrong as regards the mode of writing and
speaking _mangold-wurzel_. The subject was discussed in the _Gardeners'
Chronicle_ in 1844. There (p. 204.) your correspondent will find, by
authority of "a German," that _mangold_ is field-beet or leaf-beet: and
that _mangel_ is a corruption or pretended emendation of the common German
appellation, and most probably of English coinage. Such a thing as
_mangel-wurzel_ is not known on the Continent; and the best authorities
now, in this country, all use _mangold-wurzel_.


P.S.--Since writing the above, I have seen MR. FRERE's note on the same
subject (Vol. vii, p. 463.). The substitution of _mangel_ for the original
_mangold_, was probably an attempt to correct some vulgar error in
orthography; or to substitute a word of some significance for one of none.
But, as Dr. Lindley has said, "If we adopt a foreign name, we ought to take
it as we find it, whatever may be its imperfections."

_Ecclesia Anglicana_ (Vol. vii., pp. 12. 440. 535.).--I gladly set down for
G. R. M. the following instances of the use of "Ecclesia Gallicana;" they
are quotations occurring in Richard's _Analysis Consiliorum_: he will find
many more in the same work as translated by Dalmasus:

    "Ex _Gallicanæ Ecclesiæ_ usu, Jubilæi Bullæ ad Archiepiscopos mittendæ
    sunt, e quorum manibus ad suffraganeos Episcopos
    perferuntur."--_Monumenta Cleri_, tom. ii. p. 228.

    "_Gallicana Ecclesia_ a disciplinæ remissione, ante quadringentos aut
    quingentos annos inducta, se melius quam aliæ defendit, Romanæque curiæ
    ausis vehementius resistat."--Fleurius, _Sermo super Ecclesiæ Gallicanæ

I have not time to search for the other examples which he wants; though I
have not any doubt but they would easily be found. The English Church has
been, I consider, a more Romanising church than many; but, in mediæval
times, the most intimate connexion with Rome did not destroy, though it
impaired, the nationality of the church. The church of Spain is, I believe,
now one of the most national of the churches in communion with Rome.



_Gloves at Fairs_ (Vol. vii., p. 455.).--The writer saw, a few years ago,
the shape of a glove hanging {633} during the fair at the common ground of
Southampton, and was told, that while it was there debtors were free from
arrest within the town.


In returning my thanks to your correspondents who have given instances of
this custom, allow me to add that a friend has called my attention to the
fact that Mattishall _Gant_, or fair, takes place in Rogation or _Gang
week_, and probably takes its name from the latter word. Forby says that
there are probably few instances of the use of this word, and I am not
aware of any other than the one he gives, viz. Mattishall _Gant_.

E. G. R.

_Popular Sayings.--The Sparrows at Lindholme_ (Vol. vii., p. 234.).--The
sparrows at Lindholme have made themselves scarce here, under the following
circumstances:--William of Lindholme seems to have united in himself the
characters of hermit and wizard. When a boy, his parents, on going to Wroot
Feast, hard by, left him to keep the sparrows from the corn; at which he
was so enraged that he took up an enormous stone, and threw it at the house
to which they were gone, but from throwing it too high it fell on the other
side. After he had done this he went to the feast, and when scolded for it,
said he had fastened up all the sparrows in the barn; where they were
found, on the return home, all dead, except a few which were turned white.
(Vide Stonehouse's _History of the Isle of Axholme_.)

As for the "Doncaster Daggers" and "Hatfield Rats," also inquired after, I
have no information, although those places are in the same neighbourhood.

W. H. L.

_Effects of the Vox Regalis of the Queen Bee_ (Vol. vii., p. 499.).--Dr.
Bevan, than whom there is probably no better authority on apiarian matters,
discredits this statement of Huber. No other naturalist appears to have
witnessed these wonderful effects. Dr. Bevan however states, that when the
queen is

    "Piping, prior to the issue of an after-swarm, the bees that are near
    her remain still, with a slight inclination of their heads, but whether
    impressed by fear or not seems doubtful."--Bevan _On the Honey Bee_, p.


_Seneca and St. Paul_ (Vol. vii., p. 500.).--

    "The fourteen letters of Seneca to Paul, _which are printed_ in the old
    editions of Seneca, are apocryphal."--Dr. W. Smith's _Dict. of
    Mythology_, &c.

    "SENECA, Opera, 1475, fol. The second part contains only his letters,
    and _begins with the correspondence of St. Paul and Seneca_."--Ebert's
    _Bibl. Dict._

B. H. C.

_Hurrah_ (Vol. vi., p. 54.; Vol. vii., p. 595.).--Wace's _Chronicle of the
Norman Conquest_, as it appears in Mr. Edgar Taylor's translation, pp. 21,
22, mentions the war-cries of the various knights at the battle of Val des
Dunes. Duke William cries "Dex aie," and Raol Tesson "_Tur aie_;" on which
there is a note that M. Pluquet reads "Thor aide," which he considers may
have been derived from the ancient Northmen. Surely this is the origin of
our modern _hurrah_; and if so, perhaps the earliest mention of our English

J. F. M.

_Purlieu_ (Vol. vii., p. 477.).--The etymology of this word which Dr.
Johnson adopted is that which many others have approved of. The only other
derivation which appears to have been suggested is from _perambulatio_.
Blount, _Law Dict._, s. voc., thus explains:

    "_Purlue_ or _Purlieu_ (from the Fr. _pur_, i. e. _purus_, and _lieu_,
    locus) is all that ground near any forest, which being made forest by
    Henry II., Richard I., or King John, were, by _perambulation_, granted
    by Henry III., severed again from the same, and became _purlue_, i. e.
    pure and free from the laws and ordinances of the forest. Manwood, par.
    2., For. Laws, cap. 20.; see the statute 33 Edw. I. stat. 5. And the
    perambulation, whereby the _purlieu_ is deafforested, is called
    _pourallee_, i. e. _perambulatio_. 4 Inst. fol. 303."

(See also Lye, Cowel, Skinner, and especially Minshæus.)

B. H. C.

_Bell Inscriptions_ (Vol. vi., p. 554.).--In Weever's _Ancient Funeral
Monuments_ (London, 1631) are the following inscriptions:

 "En ego campana nunquam denuncio vana;
  Laudo Deum verum, plebem voco, congrego clerum.
  Defunctos plango, vivos voco, fulmina frango.
  Vox mea, vox vitæ, voco vos ad sacra, venite,
  Sanctos collaudo, tonitrus fugo, funera claudo."
      .    .    .    .    .    .
 "Funera plango, fulgura frango, Sabbatha pango,
  Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos."

There is also an old inscription for a "holy water" vessel:

 "Hujus aquæ tactus depellit Demonis actus.
  Asperget vos Deus cum omnibus sanctis suis ad vitam æternam.
          Sex operantur aqua benedicta.
  Cor mundat, Accidiam fugat, venalia tollit,
  Auget opem, removetque hostem, phantasmata pellit."

At page 848. there is a beautiful specimen of an old font in the church of
East Winch, in the diocese of Norwich.



_Quotation from Juvenal_ (Vol. vii., pp. 166. 321.).--My copy of this poet
being unfortunately without notes, I was not aware that there was authority
for "abest" in this passage; but my argument still remains much the same,
as regards quoters {634} having retained for their own convenience a
reading which most editors have rejected. I observe that Gifford, in his
translation, takes _habes_ as the basis of his version in both the passages

May I ask if it is from misquotation, or variation in the copies, that an
even more hackneyed quotation is never given as I find it printed, Sat. 2.
v. 83.: "Nemo repente _venit_ turpissimus?"


_Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman_ (Vol. vii., pp. 133. 211.).--Your
correspondent L. has not proved this story to be fabulous: it has usually
been told of the wife of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, great-grandmother of the two
queens, and, for anything we know yet of _her_ family, it may be quite


_Rathe_ (Vol. vii., p. 512).--I can corroborate the assertion of Anon.,
that this word is still in use in Sussex, though by no means frequently.
Not long since I heard an old woman say, "My gaeffer (meaning her husband)
got up quite _rathe_ this morning."

In the case of the early apple it is generally pronounced _ratheripe_.

See also Cooper's excellent _Sussex Glossary_, 2nd edit. 1853.


_Old Booty's Case_ (Vol. iii., p. 40.).--The most authentic report of this
case is, I think, in one of the London Gazettes for 1687 or 1688. I read
the report in one of these at the British Museum several years ago. It
purported to be given only a few days after the trial had taken place.


       *       *       *       *       *



CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. 12mo. London, 1828. (Two Copies.)






LORD LANSDOWNE'S WORKS. Vol. I. Tonson. 1736.

4to. 1794.


WALKER'S PARTICLES. 8vo. old calf, 1683.

WARNER'S SERMONS. 2 Vols. Longman, about 1818.


Two Copies.




HISTORY OF ANCIENT WILTS, by Sir R. C. HOARE. The last three Parts.

*** Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be
sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_Being anxious to include as many Replies as possible in our present
Number, in order that they may be found in the same Volume with the_
Queries _to which they relate, we have omitted for this week our usual_
interesting articles, which are in type_.

MR. LYTE'_s_ Treatment of Positives _shall appear next week_.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.--_The passage_---

 "The soul's dark cottage," &c.

_is from Waller. See some curious illustrations of it in our_ 3rd Vol., pp.
154, 155.

W. EWART. _We should he glad to have an opportunity of looking at the
collection of Epithets to which our correspondent refers_.

JARLTZBERG'_s Query in our next. His other articles shall have early

JUVENIS. _We must repeat that we cannot undertake the invidious task of
recommending our Correspondents where to purchase their photographic
apparatus and materials. Our advertising columns give ample information.
The demand for cheap apparatus, if it becomes general, will be sure to be

_Errata_.--P. 569. col. 1. l. 45., for "oo_yddes_" read "Ov_yddes_." P. 548
col. 2. l. 47, for "1550" read "1850."

_The_ INDEX _to our_ Seventh Volume _is in forward preparation. It will be
ready, we hope, by_ Saturday the 16th, _when we shall also publish our
Seventh Volume, Price_ 10s. 6d., _cloth, boards_.

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. to vi., _price Three
Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable_.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 28s. cloth) of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.

  Volume Three, 1272--1377.
  Volume Four, 1377--1485.

Lately published, price 28s. cloth,

  Volume One, 1066--1199.
  Volume Two, 1199--1272.

"A book which is essentially sound and truthful, and must therefore take
its stand in the permanent literature of' our country."--_Gent. Mag_.

London : LONGMAN & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X. in
Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities. and adapted to all Climates, may
now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,



       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


T. OTTEWILL (from Horne & Co.'s) begs most respectfully to call the
attention of Gentlemen, Tourists, and Photographers, to the superiority of
his newly registered DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing the
efficiency and ready adjustment of the Sliding Camera, with the portability
and convenience of the Folding Ditto.

Every description of Apparatus to order.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which my be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver)--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289 Strand, were the first in England who published
the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their Collodion
(price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness, tenacity, and
colour unimpaired for months; it may be exported to any climate, and the
Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO. manufacture PURE
CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements adapted for all
the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for Developing in the
open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses from the best
Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next
Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers.

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  W. Cabell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

suffer from depression of spirits, confusion, headache, blushing,
groundless fears, unfitness for business or society, blood to the head,
failure of memory, delusions, suicidal thoughts, fear of insanity, &c.,
will call on, or correspond with, REV. DR. WILLIS MOSELEY, who, out of
above 22,000 applicants, knows not fifty uncured who have followed his
advice, he will instruct them how to get well, without fee, and will render
the same service to the friends of the insane.--At home from 11 to 3.


       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


  _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


  _Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D.,
  8. Bennett Street, St. James's.

  _Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *

contains descriptions and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different
Bedsteads: also of every description of Bedding, Blankets and Quilts. And
their new warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture,
Furniture Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their
Establishment complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY)

Of Saturday, June 18, contains Articles on

  Agriculture and steam power
  Apples, wearing out of
  Books noticed
  Bradshaw's Continental Guide
  Calendar, horticultural
  ----, agricultural
  Camellia's, to cure sickly
  Cartridge, Capt. Norton's
  Chiswick exhibition
  Coal pits, rev.
  Draining swamps
  Fences, wire
  ----, thorn
  Fig trees
  Fruits, wearing out of
  Fuchsias from seed
  Gardeners' Benevolent Institution, anniversary of
  Grapes, rust in
  Hedges, thorn
  Horticultural Society's exhibition
  Jeffery (Mr.), news from
  Law relating to tenant right, rev.
  Lycoperdon Proteus
  Manure, liquid
  ----, waste
  Moles, to drive away
  Norton's, Captain, cartridge
  Oregon expedition, news of
  Peas, early
  Pelargoniums, new
  Plants, wearing out of
  Poultry show, West Kent
  ---- books
  Puff balls
  Rhubarb, monster
  ---- wine, recipes for making
  Royal Botanical Gardens
  Seeding, thin
  Societies, proceedings of the Agricultural of England, Bath and
      Oxfordshire Agricultural, Belfast Flax
  Steam engines, uses of
  Weight of rhubarb
  Wheat crop
  Wine, recipes for making rhubarb

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Price One Shilling.

translated from the English by Permission of the Author, with Notes by the
Editors of the "Courrier de L'Europe."

London: JOSEPH THOMAS, 2. Catherine Street, Strand; and all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *

must be forwarded to the Publisher by the 25th, and BILLS for insertion by
the 27th instant.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

"We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper_, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

(Forwarded per Post on Receipt of Eighteen Postage Stamps.)

Miscellanea Historica et Bibliotheca Scotica, Antiqua.



    Abbotsford, Bannatyne, Maitland, and Roxburghe Clubs, the Auchinleck
    Press, Camden, Celtic, English Historical, Hakluyt, Iona, Irish
    Archæological, Percy, Shakspeare, Spalding, Spottiswoode, Surtees, and
    Wodrow Societies:--Books printed upon Vellum:--Curious and Unique
    Collection of Manuscripts relating to the Nobility and Gentry of
    Scotland, Scottish Poetry and the Drama, Fiction, Witchcraft, State
    Papers, Chronicles and Chartularies:--an Extraordinary Collection of
    Almanacs, Record Commission Publications, Ecclesiastical History,
    Classics and Translations, Civil and Criminal Trials, &c., &c.

_The whole of which are in Fine Preservation, warranted perfect, and many
of them in Elegant Binding._

(Second Door West of the New Club.)

       *       *       *       *       *

CHEAP GERMAN BOOKS.--WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 15. Bedford Street, Covent Garden,
charge to direct Purchasers all Books published in Germany at THREE
SHILLINGS per PRUSSIAN THALER only, the exact value of their published
price in Germany, without any addition for carriage or duty, for ready
money. Catalogues gratis on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHEAP FRENCH BOOKS.--WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 15. Bedford Street, Covent Garden,
charge to Purchasers directly from them FRENCH BOOKS at TEN PENCE per FRANC
only, being a reduction of 17 per cent. on the former rate of Shillings for
Francs. A monthly French Catalogue is sent gratis to Purchasers.

       *       *       *       *       *

&c.--A very Choice, Instructive, and most Amusing Miscellaneous Selection
may be had free by sending SIX POSTAGE STAMPS to


       *       *       *       *       *


The SCHOOL is NOW OPEN for instruction in all branches of Photography, to
Ladies and Gentlemen, on alternate days, from Eleven till Four o'clock,
under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has long been
connected with Photography, and J. H. PEPPER, Esq., the Chemist to the

A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, an entirely New, Revised, and Cheaper Edition, with 100
Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 5s., bound.

MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY. Founded upon Principles of Economy and Practical
Knowledge, and adapted for the Use of Private Families.

"A collection of plain receipts, adapted to the service of families, in
which the table is supplied, with a regard to economy as well as comfort
and elegance."--_Morning Post._

"Unquestionably the most complete guide to the culinary department of
domestic economy that has yet been given to the world."--_John Bull._

"A new edition, with a great many new receipts, that have stood the test of
_family_ experience, and numerous editorial and typographical improvements

"Murray's 'Cookery Book' claims to rank as a new work."--_Literary

"The best work extant on the subject for an ordinary household."--_Atlas._

"As a complete collection of useful directions clothed in perspicuous
language, this can scarcely be surpassed."--_Economist._

"Full of sage instruction and advice, not only on the economical and
gastronomic materials, but on subjects of domestic management in

"We may heartily and safely commend to English housewifery this cookery
book. It tells plainly what plain folks wish to know, and points out how an
excellent dinner may be best secured."--_Express._

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 25.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

p. 621 "inviting Calvin to unite with Melancthon" - "Malancthon" in

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