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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 26, April 27, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 26, April 27, 1850" ***

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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 26.] SATURDAY, APRIL 27, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {409}


CONTENTS.

NOTES:--
  Nicholas Breton, by the Rev. T. Corser. 409
  Notes upon Cunningham's London, by E.F. Rimbault,
    LL.D. 410
  Notes on the Dodo, by H.E. Strickland. 410
  Derivation of "Sterling" and "Penny." 411
  Hanno's Periplus, by S.W. Singer. 412
  Folk Lore:--Cook-eels--Divination by Bible and Key--Weather
    Proverb. 412
  Bibliographical Notes, by E.F. Rimbault, LL.D. 413
  Pope, Petronius, and his Translators, by A. Rich, Jun. 414

QUERIES:--
  When were Umbrellas introduced into England? by
      E.F. Rimbault, LL.D. 414
  Minor Queries:--Duke of Marlborough--"M. or N."--Song
    of the Bees--William Godwin--Regimental
    Badges--Mother of Thomas à Becket--Swords worn
    in public--Emblem and National Motto of Ireland--Latin
    Distich--Verbum Græcum--Pope Felix--"Where England's
    Monarch." 415

REPLIES:--
  Gray's Alcaic Ode. 416
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Chapels--Beaver--Poins
    and Bardolph--God tempers the Wind--Sterne's
    Koran--Lollius--Bishop Ryder--Brown Study--Seven
    Champions--Tempora mutantur, &c.--Vox Populi Vox
    Dei--Cuckoo--Ancient Tiles--Daysman--Safeguard--Finkel--Gourders
    of Rain--Urbanus Regius--Horns--_The_ or _A_ Temple--Ecclestiastical
    Year--Paying through the Nose--Quem Deus--Shrew--Zenobia--Cromwell's
    Estates--Vox et præterea Nihil--Law of Horses--Christ's
    Hospital--Tickhill, God help me! 417

MISCELLANIES:--
  MSS. of Casaubon--Latin Epigram--"Nec pluribus
    impar"--Close Translation--St. Antholin's Parish
    Books. 422

MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 423
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted. 423
  Notices to Correspondents. 423

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES

NICHOLAS BRETON.

Like Mr. COLLIER (No. 23. p. 364.), I have for many years felt "a
peculiar interest about Nicholas Breton," and an anxious desire to learn
something more of him, not only from being a sincere lover of many of
his beautiful lyrical and pastoral poems, as exhibited in _England's
Helicon_, _Davison's Poetical Rhapsodie_, and other numerous works of
his own, and from possessing several pieces of his which are not
generally known, but also from my intimate connection with the parish in
which he is supposed to have lived and died. From this latter
circumstance, especially, I had been most anxious to connect his name
with Norton, and have frequently cast a reverential and thoughtful eye
on the simple monument which has been supposed to record his name;
hoping, yet not without doubts, that some evidence would still be found
which would prove it to be really that of the poet. It was therefore
with the utmost pleasure that I read Mr. Collier's concluding paragraph,
that he is "in possession of undoubted proof that he was the Nicholas
Breton whose epitaph is on the chancel-wall of the church of Norton in
Northamptonshire."

It seems strange that, notwithstanding the number and variety of his
writings, the length of time he was before the public, and the
estimation in which he was held by his contemporaries, so little should
be known concerning Breton, and the circumstances of his life be still
involved in such great obscurity. In looking over his various
publications, it is remarkable how little is to be gleaned in the
preliminary prefixes which relate to his own personal history, and how
very rarely he touches on any thing referring to himself. There is a
plaintive and melancholy strain running through many of his works, and I
am inclined to the opinion entertained by Sir Egerton Bridges and
others, that cares, and misfortunes, and continued disappointments had
brought on melancholy and despair, and that the plaintive and touching
nature of his writings were occasioned by real sorrows and sufferings.
This seems at variance with his being the purchaser of the manor and
lordship of Norton, and in the possession and enjoyment of this world's
goods. Thus in his _Auspicante Jehova Maries Exercise_, 8vo. 1597, one
of the rarest of his works, in the dedication to Mary, Countess of
Pembroke, speaking of his temporal condition, he remarks, "I have soncke
my fortune in the worlde, hauing only the light of vertue to leade my
hope unto Heauen:" and signs himself "Your La. sometime unworthy Poet,
and now, and ever poore Beadman, Nich. Breton." And the "Address" after
it is signed, "Your poore friend or servant N.B." I am aware that these
phrases are sometimes used in a figurative sense, but am disposed to
think that here they are intended for something real. And I am at a loss
how to reconcile these expressions of poverty with his being the
purchaser and enjoyer of such an estate. I shall wait, therefore, with
considerable anxiety till it may suit the pleasure or convenience {410}
of Mr. Collier to communicate to the world the proofs he has obtained of
the poet's identification with the Norton monument. I would, however,
further add, that so late as 1606, the Dedication to _the Praise of
Vertuous Ladies_ is dated "From my Chamber in the Blacke-Fryers," and
that not one of his later productions is dated from Norton, which
probably would have been the case had he been resident there.

I regret that I am unable to afford Mr. Collier any information
respecting the "Crossing of Proverbs," beyond the fact of the late Mr.
Rodd being the purchaser of Mr. Heber's fragment, but whether on
commission or not, I cannot say, nor where it now is. The same kind of
proverbs are given in _Wit's Private Wealth_, 1603, and in some other of
his works.

Nicholas Breton, besides being a pleasing and polished writer of lyric
and pastoral poetry, appears to have been a close and attentive observer
of nature and manners,--abounding in wit and humour,--and a pious and
religious man. He was also a soldier, a good fisherman, and a warm
admirer of Queen Elizabeth, of whom he gives a beautiful character in
"_A Dialogue full of pithe and pleasure, upon the Dignitie or Indignitie
of Man_," 4to., 1603, on the reverse of Sig. c. iii.

As it is sometimes desirable to know where copies of the rarer
productions of a writer are to be met with, I may state, that among some
five or six-and-twenty of this author's pieces, besides the _Auspicante
Jehova Maries Exercise_, 8vo. 1597, already mentioned, of which I know
of no other copy than my own, I possess also the only one of _A small
handfull of Fragrant Flowers_, 8vo. 1575, and _A Floorish upon Fancie_,
4to. 1582, both reprinted in the Heliconia; _Marie Magdalen's Loue_,
with _A Solemne Passion of the Soules Loue_, 8vo. 1595, the first part
in prose, the latter in six-line stanzas, and very rare; _Fantastics:
seruing for a Perpetual Prognostication_, 4to. 1626; and _Wit's
Trenchmour, In a conference had betwixt a Scholler and an Angler.
Written by Nich. Breton, Gentleman_, 4to. bl. lett. 1597, the only copy
known and not included in Lowndes's list, which, from the style of its
composition and the similarity of some of the remarks, is supposed to
have been the original work from which Izaac Walton first took the idea
of his _Complete Angler_.

THOMAS CORSER.
Stand Rectory, April 16. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES UPON CUNNINGHAM'S HANDBOOK FOR LONDON.

_Baldwin's Gardens._--A passage upon the east side of Gray's Inn Lane,
leading into Leather Lane. Tom Brown dates some introductory verses,
prefixed to Playford's _Pleasant Musical Companion_, 1698, "from Mr.
Steward's, at the Hole-in-the-Wall, in _Baldwin's Gardens_." There is
extant a single sheet with an engraved head, published by J. Applebee,
1707, and called,--

    "The English and French Prophets mad, or bewitcht, at their
    assemblies in _Baldwin's Gardens_."

A Letter of Anthony Wood's, in the writer's collection, is thus
addressed:--

    "For John Aubrey, Esq. To be left at Mr. Caley's house, in
    _Baldwin's Gardens_, neare Gray's Inne Lane, London."

_The White Hart, Bishopsgate Street._--A tavern said to be of very
ancient date. In front of the present building, the writer of the
present notice observed (in 1838) the date cut in stone, 1480.

_The Nag's Head, Cheapside._--A view of this tavern is preserved in a
print of the entry of Mary de Medici, when she paid a visit to her
son-in-law and daughter, the unfortunate Charles I. and his queen.

_St. Paul's Alley._--

    "Whereas, the yearly meeting of the name of Adam hath of late,
    through the deficiency of the last stewards, been neglected,
    these are to give notice to all gentlemen, and others that are
    of that name, that, at William Adams', commonly called 'The
    Northern Alehouse,' in _St. Paul's Alley_, in St. Paul's Church
    Yard, there will be a weekly meeting, every Monday night, of our
    namesakes, between the hours of 6 and 8 of the clock in the
    evening, in order to choose stewards to revive our antient and
    annual feast."--_Domestic Intelligence_, 1681.

_St. Paul's Churchyard._--

    "In St. Paul's Church Yard were formerly many shops where music
    and musical instruments were sold, for which, at this time, no
    better reason can be given than that the service at that
    Cathedral drew together, twice a day, all the lovers of music in
    London; not to mention that the chairmen were wont to assemble
    there, where they were met by their friends and acquaintance."--
    _Sir John Hawkins' History of Music_, vol. v. p. 108.

_The French Change, Soho._--A place so called in the reign of Queen
Anne. Gough, in a MS. note, now before us, thought it stood on the site
of the present bazaar.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES ON THE DODO.

I have to thank "Mr. S.W. SINGER" (No. 22. p. 353.) for giving some
interesting replies to my "Dodo Queries" (No. 17. p. 261.). I trust that
Mr. S. will be induced to pursue the inquiry further, and especially to
seek for some _Portuguese_ account of the Mascarene Islands, prior to
the Dutch expedition of 1598. I am now able to state that the supposed
proof of the discovery of Bourbon by the Portuguese in 1545, on the
authority of a stone pillar, the figure of which Leguat has copied {411}
from Du Qesne, who copied it from Flacourt, turns out to be inaccurate.
On referring to Flacourt's _Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar_,
4to., Paris, 1658, p. 344, where the original figure of this monument is
given, I find that the stone was not found in Bourbon at all, but in
"l'Islet des Portugais," a small island at the mouth of the river
Fanshere (see Flacourt, p. 32.), near the S.E. extremity of Madagascar.
From this place Flacourt removed it to the neighbouring settlement of
Fort Dauphin in 1653, and engraved the arms of France on the opposite
side to those of Portugal. We are therefore still without any historical
record of the first discovery of Bourbon and Mauritius, though, from the
unanimous consent of later compilers, we may fairly presume that the
Portuguese were the discoverers.

The references which Mr. Singer has given to two works which mention the
_Oiseau bleu_ of Bourbon, are very important, as the only other known
authority for this extinct bird is the MS. Journal of Sieur D.B., which
thus receives full confirmation. May I ask Mr. Singer whether either of
these writers mentions the _Solitaire_ as inhabiting Bourbon?

The "Oiseaux appelez _Flamands_" quoted by Mr. S., are merely
_Flamingos_, and are devoid of interest as regards the present question.

The history of the Dodo's head at Copenhagen, referred to by Mr. Singer,
is fully recorded in the _Dodo and its Kindred_, pp. 25. 33.

The name _Dodo_ seems to have been first applied to the bird by Sir
Thomas Herbert, in 1634, who adds, in his edition of 1638, "a Portuguese
name it is, and has reference to her simpleness." Before that time the
Dutch were in the habit of calling it _Dodars_, _Dodaers_, _Toters_, and
_Dronte_. I had already made the same guesses at the etymology of these
words as those which Mr. Singer has suggested, but not feeling fully
satisfied with them, I put forth my Query VII. for the chance of
obtaining some further elucidation.

Mr. Singer's reasonings on the improbability of Tradescant's specimen of
the Dodo having been a fabrication are superfluous, seeing that the head
and foot of this individual are, as is well known, still in existence,
and form the subjects of six plates in the _Dodo and its Kindred_.

In regard to my Query IX. as to the local habitation of the family of
_Dronte_, who bore a Dodo on their shield, it has been suggested to me
by the Rev. Richard Hooper (who first drew my attention to this armorial
bearing), that the family was probably foreign to Britain. It appears
that there was a family named _Dodo_, in Friesland, a member of which
(Augustin Dodo, deceased in 1501) was the first editor of St.
Augustine's works. Mr. Hooper suggests that possibly this family may
have subsequently adopted the Dodo as their arms, and that Randle Holme
may, by a natural mistake, have changed the name of the family, in his
_Academy of Armory_, from _Dodo_ to the synonymous word _Dronte_. Can
none of your genealogical readers clear up this point?

H.E. Strickland.

       *       *       *       *       *

DERIVATION OF "STERLING" AND "PENNY".

Your correspondent suggests (No. 24. p. 384.) an ingenious derivation
for the word _Sterling_; but one which perhaps he has been too ready to
adopt, inasmuch as it helped his other derivation of _peny_, from
_pecunia_ or _pecus_. I quote the following from _A short Treatise
touching Sheriff's Accompts_, by Sir Matthew Hale: London, 1683:

    "Concerning the second, _viz._ the matter or species whereof the
    current coin of this kingdom hath been made, it is gold or
    silver, but not altogether pure, but with an allay of copper, at
    least from the time of King H. I. and H. II., though possibly in
    ancienter times the species whereof the coin was made might be
    pure gold or silver; and this allay was that which gave the
    denomination of Sterling to that coin, _viz._ Sterling Gold, or
    Sterling Silver. Wherein there will be inquirable,

    "1. Whence that denomination came?

    "2. How ancient that denomination was?

    "3. What was the allay that gave silver that denomination?

    "For the former of these there are various conjectures, and
    nothing of certainty.

    "_Spelman_ supposeth it to take that denomination from the
    Esterlings, who, as he supposeth, came over and reformed our
    coin to that allay. Of this opinion was _Camden. A Germanis,
    quos Angli_ Esterlings, _aborientali situ, vocarunt, facta est
    appellatio; quos_ Johannes _Rex, ad argentum in suam puritatem
    redigendam, primus evocavit; et ejus modi nummi_ Esterlingi, _in
    antiquis scripturis semper reperiuntur_. Some suppose that it
    might be taken up from the _Starre Judæorum_, who, being the
    great brokers for money, accepted and allowed money of that
    allay for current payment of their stars or obligations; others
    from the impression of a starling, or an asterisk upon the coin.
    _Pur ceo que le form d'un Stare, dont le diminutive est
    Sterling, fuit impressit on stamp sur ceo. Auters pur ceo que le
    primer de cest Standard fuit coyn en le Castle de Sterlin in_
    Scotland _pur le Roy_ Edw. I. And possibly as the proper name of
    the fourth part of a Peny was called a Farthing, ordinarily a
    Ferling; so in truth the proper name of a Peny in those times
    was called a Sterling, without any other reason of it than the
    use of the times and arbitrary imposition, as other names
    usually grow. For the old Act of 51 H. III., called _Compositio
    Mensurarum_, tells us that _Denarius Anglice Sterlingus
    dicitur_; and because this was the root of the measure,
    especially of Silver Coin, therefore all our Coin of the same
    allay was also called Sterling, as five Shillings Sterling, five
    Pounds Sterling.

    "When this name of Sterling came first in is uncertain, only we
    are certain it was a denomination in use in the time of H. III.
    or Ed. I. and after ages. But it was not in use at the time of
    the compiling of {412} Doomsday, for if it were we should have
    found it there where there is so great occasion of mention of
    Firmes, Rents, and Payments. Hovended in _Rich. I fol. 377. b._
    Nummus _a_ Numa, _que fuit le primer Roy que fesoit moneies en_
    Rome. _Issint Sterlings, alias Esterlings, queux primes fesoient
    le money de cest Standard en_ Engleterre."--_Sheriffs'
    Accompts_, p. 5-9.

So much for the derivation of _Sterling_, which evidently applied
originally to the metal rather than to a coin. May I be allowed to
hazard a suggestion as to the origin of _peny_, its synonym? They were
each equivalent to the Denarius.

    "_Denarius Angliæ, qui nominatur Sterlingus, rotundus sine
    tonsura, ponderabit 32 grana in medio spicæ. Sterlingus et
    Denarius sont tout un. Le Shilling consistoit de 12 sterlings.
    Le substance de cest denier ou sterling peny al primes fuit
    vicessima pars unicæ._"--_Indentures of the Mint_, Ed. I and VI.

May we not derive it from Denarius by means of either a typographical or
clerical error in the initial letter. This would at once give a new
name--the very thing they were in want of--and we may very easily
understand its being shortened into Penny.

G.
Milford, April 15.

       *       *       *       *       *

HANNO'S PERIPLUS.

"Mr. Hampson" has served the cause of truth in defending Hanno and the
Carthaginians from the charge of cruelty, brought against them by Mr.
Attorney-General Bannister. A very slender investigation of the bearings
of the narration would have prevented it. I know not how Dr. Falconer
deals with it, not having his little volume at hand; but in so common a
book as the _History of Maritime Discovery_, which forms part of
Lardner's _Cabinet Cyclopædia_, it is stated that these _Gorillæ_ were
probably some species of _ourang-outang_. Purchas says they might be the
_baboons_ or _Pongos_ of those parts.

The amusing, and always interesting, Italian, Hakluyt, in the middle of
the sixteenth century, gives a very good version of the [Greek: ANNONOS
PERIPLOUS], with a preliminary discourse, which would also have
undeceived Mr. Bannister, had he been acquainted with it, and prevented
Mr. Hampson's pleasant exposure of his error.

Ramusio says, "Seeing that in the Voyage of Hanno there are many parts
worthy of considerate attention, I have judged that it would be highly
gratifying to the studious if I were here to write down a few extracts
from certain memoranda which I formerly noted on hearing a respectable
Portugese pilot, in frequent conversations with the Count Raimondo della
Torre, at Venice, illustrate this Voyage of Hanno, when read to him,
from his own experience." There are, of course, some erroneous notions
in the information of the pilot, and in the deductions made from it by
Ramusio; but the former had the sagacity to see the truth respecting
this _Gorgon Island full of hairy men and women_. I will not spoil the
_naïveté_ of the narration by attempting a translation; merely premising
that he judged the Island to be that of Fernando Po.

    "E tutta la descrittione de questo Capitano era simile a quella
    per alcun Scrittore Greci, quale parlande dell' isola delle
    Gorgone, dicono quella esser un isola in mezzo d'una palude. E
    conciacosa che havea inteso che li poeti dicevan le Gorgone
    esser femine terribili, però scrisse che le erano pelose.... Ma
    a detto pilotto pareva più verisimile di pensare, che havendo
    Hannone inteso ne'i libri de' poeti come Perseo era stato per
    ære a questa isola, e di quivi reportata la testa di Medusa,
    essendo egli ambitioso di far creder al mondo che lui vi fasse
    audato per mare; e dar riputation a questo suo viaggio, di esser
    penetrato fuio dove era stato Perseo; volesse portar due pelli
    di Gorgone, e dedicarla nel tempio di Ginnone. Il che li fu
    facil cosa da fare, conciosia cosa che IN TUTTA QUELLA COSTA SI
    TRUOVINO INFINITE DI QUELLE SIMIE GRANDE, CHE FARENO PERSONE
    HUMANE, DELLE BABUINE, le pelle delle quali poteva far egli
    credere ad ogniuno che fussero state di femine."

Gopelin, also, in his _Recherches sur la Géographie des Anciens_,
speaking of this part of Hanno's voyage, says:

    "Hanno encountered a troop of _Ourang-outangs_, which he took
    for savages, because these animals walk erect, often having a
    staff in their hands to support themselves, as well as for
    attack or defence; and they throw stones when they are pursued.
    They are the Satyrs and the Argipani with which Pliny says Atlas
    was peopled. It would be useless to say more on this subject, as
    it is avowed _by all the modern commentators of the Periplus_."

The relation we have is evidently only an abridgment or summary made by
some Greek, studious of Carthaginian affairs, long subsequent to the
time of Hanno; and judging from a passage in Pliny (I. ii. c. 67.), it
appears that the ancients were acquainted with other extracts from the
original, yet, though its authenticity has been doubted by Strabo and
others, there seems to be little reason to question that it is a correct
_outline_ of the voyage. That the Carthaginians were oppressors of the
people they subjugated may be probable; yet we must not, on such slender
grounds as this narration affords, presume that they would wantonly kill
and flay _human beings_ to possess themselves of their skins!

S.W. Singer
April 10. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Cook-eels._--Forby derives this from _coquille_, in allusion to their
being fashioned like an escallop, in which sense he is borne out by
Cotgrave, who has "_Pain coquillé_, a fashion of an hard-crusted loafe,
somewhat like our stillyard bunne." I have always taken the word to be
"coquerells," from {413} the vending of such buns at the barbarous sport
of "throwing at the cock" on Shrove Tuesday. The cock is still commonly
called a cockerell in E. Anglia. Perhaps Mr. Wodderspoon will say
whether the buns of the present day are fashioned in any particular
manner, or whether any "the oldest inhabitant" has any recollection of
their being differently fashioned or at all impressed. What, too, are
the "_stillyard buns_" of Cotgrave? Are they tea-cakes? The apartment in
which tea was formerly made was called the _still_-room.

Buriensis.


_Divination by the Bible and Key._--This superstition is very prevalent
amongst the peasantry of this and adjoining parishes. When any article
is suspected to have been stolen, a Bible is procured, and opened at the
1st chap. of Ruth: the stock of a street-door key is then laid on the
16th verse of the above chapter, and the key is secured in this position
by a string, bound tightly round the book. The person who works the
charm then places his two middle fingers under the handle of the key,
and this keeps the Bible suspended. He then repeats in succession the
names of the parties suspected of the theft; repeating at each name a
portion of the verse on which the key is placed, commencing, "Whither
thou goest, I will go," &c. When the name of the guilty is pronounced,
the key turns off the fingers, the Bible falls to the ground, and the
guilt of the party is determined. The belief of some the more ignorant
of the lower orders in this charm is unbounded. I have seen it practiced
in other counties, the key being laid over the 5th verse of the 19th
chap. of Proverbs, instead of the 1st chap. of Ruth.

David Stevens.
Godalming, April 11. 1850.

    [In Brand's _Popular Antiquities_ (ed. Ellis). vol. iii. 188-9,
    it is stated that the key is placed upon the 50th Psalm.]


_Weather Proverb._--Weather proverbs are among the most curious portions
of popular literature. That foul or fair weather is betokened according
as the rainbow is seen in the morning or evening, is recorded in the
following German "saw," which is nearly identical with our well-known
English Proverb:

  Regenbogen am Morgen
  Macht dem Schäfer sorgen;
  Regenbogen am Abend
  Ist dem Schäfer labend.

In Mr. Akerman's recently published volume called _Spring Tide_, a
pleasant intermixture of fly-fishing and philology, we have a Wiltshire
version of this proverb, curious for its old Saxon language and its
comparatively modern allusion to a "great coat" in the third and sixth
lines, which must be interpolations.

  "The Rainbow in th' marnin'
  Gies the Shepherd warning'
  To car' his girt cwoat on his back
  The Rainbow at night
  Is the Shepherd's delight,
  For then no girt cwoat he lack."

No one, we believe, has yet remarked the philosophy of this saying;
namely that in the morning the rainbow is seen in the clouds in the
west, the quarter from which we get most rain, and of course, in the
evening, in the opposite quarter of the heavens.

William J. Thoms.

       *       *       *       *       *

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

1. A pleasant Dialogue between a Soldier of Barwicke and an English
Chaplain; wherein are largely handed such reasons as are brought in for
maintenance of Popish traditions in our English Church. 8vo. _circa_
1581.

This work is frequently attributed to Barnaby Rich; but from Bancroft's
_Dangerous Positions_, p. 42, the author is ascertained to have been
Anthony Gilby.

2. The Trumpet of Fame; or Sir Francis Drake's and Sir John Hawkin's
Farewell: with an encouragement to all Sailors and Souldiers that are
minded to go in this worthie enterprise, &c. 12mo. London, by T. Creede,
1595.

This poetical tract is of the greatest rarity, and was unknown to Ames,
Herbert, Warton and Ritson. A MS. note, in a contemporary hand, says the
author was one Henry Roberts, whose initials are appended to the work.

3. The Mastive, or Young Whelpe of the Olde Dogge. Epigrams and Satyrs,
by H.P. 4to. London, by T. Creede, _circa_ 1600.

As an Epigram in this collection also appears in Henry Peacham's
_Minerva Britanna_, with a slight variation, it is fair to surmise that
he was the author of this very rare volume, in preference to Henry
Parrott.

4. Pasquil's Jests, mixed with Mother Bunch's Merriments. Whereunto is
added a dozen of Gulles. Pretty and pleasant to drive away the
tediousnesse of a winter's evening. 4to. 1608.

In the _British Bibliographer_, vol i., may be seen an account of the
edition of 1609, with extracts from it, and a statement that "an earlier
edition is without the Gulls." The present copy (which passed through my
hands some years ago), although earlier, has the Gulls.

5. Holie Historie of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ's Nativitie,
Life, Actes, Miracles, Doctrine, Death, Passion, Resurrection, and
Ascension. Gathered into English Meeter, and published to withdraw all
vajne wits from all unsaverie and wicked rimes and fables &c. 12mo.
London, by R. Field, 1594.

Ames and Herbert say this book was written by _Henry_ Holland; but the
author's name {414} was Robert Holland. It is not mentioned by Warton.

6. News from the Stars; or, Erra Pater's Ghost, by Meriton Latroon.
12mo. 1673.

"Richard Head, a broken bookseller, and the author of the _English
Rogue_, writ this. He turned Papist, and in his voyage to Spain was
drowned."--_MS. note in a contemporary hand._

Edward F. Rimbault.

       *       *       *       *       *

POPE, PETRONIUS, AND HIS TRANSLATORS.

The vindication of Pope from the charge of borrowing his well-known
sentiment--"_Worth_ makes a man," &c.--from Petronius, is not so
completely made out by "P.C.S.S." as it might be; for surely there is a
sufficient similitude of idea, if not of expression, between the couplet
of Pope and the sentence of Petronius, as given in all four of the
translations cited by him (No. 23. p. 362.)--"The _heart_ makes the
man," &c.--to warrant a notion that the one was suggested by the other.
But the surmise of plagiarism originates in a misconception of the terms
employed by the Latin author--_virtus_, _frugalitas_, and more
especially _corcillum_,--which have been misunderstood by every one of
these translators. _Virtus_ is applied to mental as well as bodily
superiority (_Cic. Fin._ v. 13.).--The sense in which _frugalitas_ is
employed by Petronius may be collected from a preceding passage in the
same chapter, where Trimalchio calls his pet _puerum frugalissimum_--a
very _clever_ lad--as he explains the epithet by adding that "he can
read at sight, repeat from memory, cast up accounts, and turn a penny to
his own profit." _Corcillum_ is a diminutive of _corculum_ (like
_oscillum_, from _osculum_), itself a diminutive of _cor_, which word,
though commonly put for "the heart," is also used by the best authors,
Lucretius, Horace, Terence, &c, in the same sense as our _wit_,
_wisdom_, _intellect_. The entire passage, if correctly translated,
might then be expressed as follows:

    "The time has been, my friends, when I myself was no better off
    than you are; but I gained my present position solely by my own
    talents (_virtute_). Wit (_corcillum_) makes the man--(or,
    literally, It is wisdom that makes men of us)--everything else
    is worthless lumber. I buy in the cheapest and sell in the
    dearest market. But, as I said before, my own shrewdness
    (_frugalitas_) made my fortune. I came from Asia no taller than
    that lamp stand; and used to measure my height against it day by
    day, and grease my muzzle (_rostrum_) with oil from the lamp to
    make a beard come."

Then follow some additional examples of the youth's sagacity, not
adapted for translation, but equally instances of worldly wisdom. Thus
every one of the actions which Trimalchio enumerated as the causes of
his prosperity are emanations from the _head_, not the _heart_; the
results of a crafty intellect, not of moral feeling; so that the
sentiment he professes, instead of being similar to, is exactly the
reverse of that expressed by Pope.

This explanation seems so satisfactory that we might be well contented
to rest here. But some MSS. have the reading _coricillum_ instead of
_corcillum_. If that be received as the genuine one, and some editors
prefer it, the interpretation above given will only be slightly
modified, but not destroyed, by the introduction of another image, the
essential point remaining the same. The insertion of a vowel, _i_,
precludes all connection with _cor_ and its diminutives, but suggests a
derivation from [Greek: korukos], dim. [Greek: korukion], a leathern
sack or bag, which, when well stuffed, the Greeks used to suspend in the
gymnasium, like the pendulum of a clock (as may be seem on a fictile
vase), to buffet to and fro with blows of the fist. The stuffed bag will
represent the human head on the end of its trunk; and the word may have
been a slang one of the day, or coined by the Asiatic Trimalchio, whose
general language is filled with provincial patois. The translation would
then be, in the familiar style of the original,--"The _noddle_ makes the
man," &c.

Anthony Rich, Jun.

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES.

WHEN WERE UMBRELLAS INTRODUCED INTO ENGLAND?

Thomas Coryat, in his _Crudities_, vol. i. p. 134., gives us a curious
notice of the early use of the umbrella in Italy. Speaking of fans, he
says:

    "These fans are of a mean price, for a man may buy one of the
    fairest of them for so much money as countervaileth one English
    groat. Also many of them (the Italians) do carry other fine
    things of a far greater price, that will cost at the least a
    ducat, which they commonly call in the Italian tongue
    _umbrellaes_, that is, things that minister shadow unto them for
    shelter against the scorching heat of the sun. These are made of
    leather, something answerable to the form of a little canopy,
    and hooped in the inside with diverse little wooden hoops that
    extend the _umbrella_ in a pretty large compass. They are used
    especially by horsemen, who carry them in their hands when they
    ride, fastening the end of the handle upon one of their thighs:
    and they impart so long a shadow unto them, that it keepeth the
    heat of the sun from the upper parts of their bodies."

Lt.-Col. (afterwards Gen.) Wolfe, writing from Paris, in the year 1752,
says:

    "The people here use umbrellas in hot weather to defend them
    from the sun, and something of the same kind to secure them from
    snow and rain. I wonder a practice so useful is not introduced
    in England, (where there are such frequent showers,) and
    especially in the country, where they can be expanded without
    any inconveniency." {415}

Query, what is the date of the first introduction of the _umbrella_ into
England?

Edward F. Rimbault

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR QUERIES.

_Duke of Marlborough._--The Annual Register for the year 1758 (pp.
121-127.) contains an account of the circumstances connected with the
trial of one Barnard, son of a surveyor in Abingdon Buildings,
Westminster, on a charge of sending letters to the Duke of Marlborough,
threatening his life by means "too fatal to be eluded by the power of
physic," unless his grace "procured him a genteel support for his life."
The incidents are truly remarkable, pointing most suspiciously toward
Barnard; but he escaped. Can any of your readers refer me to where I can
find any further account or elucidation of this affair?

Buriensis.


"_M. or N._"--Of what words are "M. or N." the initials? Vide the
answers to be given in the Church Catechism, and some of the occasional
offices in he liturgy.

J.C.

    [It has been suggested that "M. or N." originated in a
    misreading of "NOM," a contraction for "_nomen_." This is
    certainly an ingenious explanation, though not a satisfactory
    one.]


_Song of the Bees._--Who was the author of the lines under this title
beginning,

  "We watch for the light of the moon to break
  and colour the grey eastern sky
  With its blended hues of saffron and lake," &c.

I have always understood them to be Dr. Aikin's, but latterly that has
been contradicted.

Buriensis.


_William Godwin._--Can any of your correspondents tell me where I can
find an account of the leading events of the life of William Godwin,
author of _Caleb Williams, St. Leon, Mandeville_ &c., or any reference
to his last hours? His sentiments, political and religious, are said to
have been _peculiar_.

N.
Woodbridge, April 15.


_Regimental Badges._--When were the regimental badges granted to the
first nine infantry corps of the line, and under what circumstances were
they so granted?

J.C.
London, April 15. 1850.


_Mother of Thomas à Becket._--The well-known romantic legend of the
origin of this lady has been introduced into the _Pictorial History of
England_, on the authority of "Brompton in X. Scriptores." And on the
same page (552. vol. i.) is a pictorial representation of the "Baptism
of the Mother of Becket, from the Royal MS. 2 B. vii."

Now, Lord Campbell, in his _Lives of the Chancellors_, repudiates the
story in toto; but without assigning any other reason for doing so, than
an inference from the silence of Becket himself and his secretary,
Fitzstephen, on the point.

Can any of the learned gentlemen, whose distinguished names adorn your
valuable pages, direct an humble student to the fountain of truth, for
the settlement of this _verata questio_?

W. Franks Mathews.
Kidderminster, April 7. 1850.


_Swords worn in public._--Can any of your correspondents say when swords
ceased to be worn as an article of ordinary dress, and whether the
practice was abolished by act of parliament, or that they gradually went
out of fashion.

J.D.A.
April 17. 1850.


_Emblem and National Motto of Ireland._--How long has the _harp_ been
the emblem, and _Erin-go-bragh_ the national motto of Ireland? To this I
give another query,--What is the national motto of England?

E.M.B.


_Latin Distich and Translation._--Who were the authors of the following
Latin Distich, and its English translation?

  "Mittitur in disco mihi piscis ab archiepisco--
  --Po non ponatur, quia potus non mihi datur."
  "I had sent me a fish in a great dish by the archbish--
  --Hop is not here, for he gave me no beer."

E.M.B.


_Verbum Græcum._--Who was the author of

  "Like the _verbum Græcum_
  Spermagoraiolekitholukanopolides,
  Words that should only be said upon holidays,
  When one has nothing else to do."

The _verbum Græcum_ itself is in Aristophanes' _Lysistrata_, 457.

E.M.B.


_Pope Felix._--Who is "Pope Felix," mentioned in Ælfric's _Homily on the
Birthday of St. Gregory_? Ælfric, in speaking of the ancestors of St.
Gregory, states that "_Felix_ se eawfaesta _papa_ waes his fifta
faeder,"--"Felix the pious pope was his fifth father," (i.e. great
grandfather's grandfather).

E.M.B.
April 15. 1850.


"_Where England's Monarch," and "I'd preach as though._"--Will any of
your subscribers have the kindness to inform me who was the author of
the lines

  "Where England's monarch all uncovered sat
  And Bradshaw bullied in a broad-brimm'd hat."

And also of these, quoted by Henry Martyn as "well-known:"

  "I'd preach as though I ne'er should preach again,
  I'd preach as dying unto dying men."

H.G.
Milford, April 15. 1850. {416}


_Latin Epigram._--I should be much obliged to any of your readers who
can inform me who was the author and what is the date of the following
epigram. The peculiarity of it, your readers will observe, consists in
the fact, that while read directly it contains a strong compliment; yet
it is capable of being read backwards, still forming the same
description of verse, but conveying a perfect reverse of the
compliment:--

  "Laus tua, non tua fraus; virtus non copia rerum,
    Scandere te fecit hoc decus eximium,
  Pauperibus tua das; nunquam stat janua clausa;
    Fundere res quæris, nec tua multiplicas.
  Conditio tua sit stabilis! non tempore parvo
    Vivere te faciat hic Deus omnipotens."

When reversed, it reads thus:--

  "Omnipotens Deus hic faciat te vivere parvo
    Tempore! Non stabilis sit tua conditio.
  Multiplicas tua, nec quæris res fundere; clausa
    Janua stat, nunquam das tua pauperibus.
  Eximium decus hoc fecit te scandere rerum
    Copia, non virtus; fraus tua, non tua laus."

Any additional information would much oblige.

O.
April 15. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPLIES.

GRAY'S ALCAIC ODE.

Circumstances enable me to give a reply, which I believe will be found
correct, to the inquiry of "C.B." in p. 382. of your 24th Number,
"Whether Gray's celebrated Latin Ode is actually to be found entered at
the Grande Chartreuse?" The fact is, that the French Revolution--that
whirlwind which swept from the earth all that came within its reach and
seemed elevated enough to offer opposition--spared not the poor monks of
the Chartreuse. A rabble from Grenoble and other places, attacked the
monastery; burnt, plundered, or destroyed their books, papers, and
property, and dispersed the inmates; while the buildings were left
standing, not from motives of respect, but because they would have been
troublesome and laborious to pull down, and were not sufficiently
combustible to burn.

In travelling on the Continent with a friend, during the summer of 1817,
we made a pilgrimage to the Grande Chartreuse, reaching it from the side
of the Echelles. It was an interesting moment; for at that very time the
scattered remains of the society had collected together, and were just
come again to take possession of and reinhabit their old abode. And
being their _jour de spaciment_, the whole society was before us, as
they returned from their little pilgrimage up the mountain, where they
had been visiting St. Bruno's chapel and spring; and it was impossible
not to think with respect of the self-devotion of these men, who, after
having for many years partaken (in a greater or less degree) of the
habits and comforts of a civilised life, had thus voluntarily withdrawn
themselves once more to their stern yet beautiful solitude (truly, as
Gray calls it, a _locus severus_), there to practise the severities of
their order, without, it may be supposed, any possessions or means,
except what they were themselves enabled to throw into a common stock;
for nearly the whole of their property had been seized by the government
during the Revolution, and was still held by it.

Our conversation was almost wholly with two of the fathers (they use the
prefix _Dom_), whose names I forget, and have mislaid my memorandum of
them. One of these had been in England, when driven out; and was there
protected by the Weld family in Dorsetshire, of whom he spoke in terms
of sincere gratitude and respect. The other told us that he was a native
of Chambery, and had done no more than cross the mountains to get home.
On asking him for Gray's Ode, he shook his head, saying, the Revolution
had robbed them of that, and every thing else; but repeated the first
line of it, so that there was no mistake as to the object of my inquiry.
From what occurred afterwards, it appears, however, to be questionable
whether he knew more than the first line; for I was informed that later
English travellers had been attempting, from a laudable desire of
diffusing information, to write out the whole in the present Album of
the Chartreuse, by contributing a line or stanza, as their recollection
served; but that, after all, this pic-nic composition was not exactly
what Gray wrote. Of course, had our friend the Dom known how to supply
the deficiencies, he would have done it.

There is a translation of the Ode by James Hay Beattie, son of the
professor and poet, printed amongst his poems, which is much less known
than its merits deserve. And I would beg to suggest to such of your
readers as may in the course of their travels visit this monastery, that
books (need I say _proper_ ones?) would be a most acceptable present to
the library; also, that there is a regular Album kept, in which those
who, in this age of "talent" and "intelligence," consider themselves
able to write better lines than Gray's, are at liberty to do so if they
please.

A very happy conjecture appeared in the _European Magazine_ some time
between 1804 and 1808, as to the conclusion of the stanzas to Mr.
Beattie. The corner of the paper on which they had been written as torn
off; and Mr. Mason supplies what is deficient in the following manner,
the words added by him being printed in Italics:--

  "Enough for me, if to some feeling breast
    My lines a secret sympathy _impart_;
  And as their pleasing influence _flows confest_,
    A sign of soft reflection _heave the heart_." {417}

This, it will be seen, is prosaic enough; but the correspondent of the
_E. Mag._ supposes the lines to have ended differently; and that the
poet, in some peculiar fit of modesty, tore off the name. His version is
this:--

  "Enough for me, if to some feeling breast,
     My lines a secret sympathy _convey_;
   And as their pleasing influence _is imprest_,
     A sigh of soft reflection _heave for Gray_."

One word upon another poet, Byron _v_. Tacitus, in p. 390. of your 24th
Number. There can be no doubt that the noble writer had this passage of
Tacitus in his mind, when he committed the couplet in question to paper;
but, in all probability, he considered it so well known as not to need
acknowledgment. Others have alluded to it in the same way. The late Rev.
W. Crowe, B.C.L., of New College, Oxford, and public orator of that
University, in some lines recited by his son at the installation of Lord
Grenville, has the following:--

  "And when he bids the din of war to cease,
   He calls the silent desolation--peace."

I wonder where Lord Byron stole stanzas 1, 2, 3, 4, of the second canto
of _The Bride of Abydos_; to say nothing of some more splendid passages
in the first and second cantos of _Childe Harold_?

W. (1.)

       *       *       *       *       *

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES.

_Chapels._--Perhaps the following remarks will be of service to "Mr.
GATTY" in the solution of his Queries touching the word _Chapel_ (No.
21.).

Spelman (_Glossary, sub voce_) endeavours to convince us that _capella_
is the same as _capsella_, the diminutive of _capsa_; thus making
_chapel_, in the first instance, "a small repository" (_sc._ of relics).
Richardson is also in favour of this etymon, notwithstanding its
harshness and insipidity. I think the common derivation (from _capella_,
diminutive of _capa_) very much preferable to any other, both on the
score of philology and of history. Ducange has quoted several passages,
all tending to evince that _capella_ (explained by the Teutonic
_voccus_) was specially applied to the famous vestment of St. Martin,
comprising his cloak and hood (not merely his _hat_, as some writers
mention). The name was then metonymically transferred to the repository
in which that relic was preserved, and afterwards, by a natural
expansion, became the ordinary designation of the smaller sanctuaries.
This derivation is distinctly affirmed by Walafred Strabo about 842, and
by a monk of St. Gall, placed by Basnage about 884. The earliest
instance where the word _capella_ is used for the vestment of St. Martin
appears to be in a "Placitum" of Theodoric, King of France, who ascended
the throne A.D. 672--"in oratorio nostro super capella Domini Martini
... hæc dibiret conjurare." In a second "Placitum," also quoted by
Ducange, of Childebert, King of France (_circa_ 695), the word _capella_
seems to mean a _sacred building_--"in oratorio suo seu capella Sancti
Marthini." And in a charter of Charles the Simple, _circ._ 900, the term
unquestionably occurs in this latter signification, disconnected from
St. Martin. Other illustrations may be seen in Ducange, who has bestowed
especial industry on the words _capa_ and _capella_.

With respect to the _legal_ definition of the modern _chapel_, I may
mention that, in stat. 7 & 8 Geo. IV. c. 29. s. 10., it signifies,
according to Mr. Stephens (_Eccl. Statutes_, p. 1357.), "a chapel where
the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England are performed, and
does not include the chapels of Dissenters." In stat. 7 & 8 Geo. IV. c.
30., we read, notwithstanding, of "any _chapel_ for the religious
worship of persons dissenting from the United Church of England and
Ireland."

C.H.
St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.


_Chapels_ (No. 20. p. 333., and No. 23. p. 371.).--The opinion of the
"BARRISTER" that this term had come into use as a designation of
dissenting places of worship from no "idea of either assistance or
opposition to the Church of England," but only as a supposed means of
security to the property, is probably correct. Yet it is likely
different reasons may have had weight in different places.

However, he is mistaken in "believing that we must date the adoption of
that term from about" forty years ago. I am seventy-six years old, and I
can bear testimony, that from my infancy it was the term universally
employed in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, and, I think
probable, in the more northern counties. In common speech, it was used
as the word of discrimination from the Methodist places of worship,
which bore the name of _Meeting-houses_, or, more generally, _Meetings_.
But within the period (forty years) assigned by your learned
correspondent, I think that I have observed the habit to have
extensively obtained of applying the term _Chapels_ to the latter class
of places.

I have abundant evidence of the general use of the term for dissenting
buildings, back to the seventeenth century. From my early life, I
remember the current opinion to have been that _Chapel_ was the word in
use north of the Trent, and _Meeting-house_ in Nottingham and
southwards.

An eminent antiquary, the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., could cast a full
light upon this subject.

J.P.S.
Homerton, April 15.


_Beaver_ (No. 21. p. 338.).--The earliest form of this word is _fiber_,
which is used to signify the animal, the _Castor_, by Varro and Pliny.
The fabulous story of the self-emasculation by which the beaver eludes
pursuit, is thus introduced by Silius, in illustrating the flight of
Hasdrubal:-- {418}

  "Fluminei veluti deprensus gurgitis undis,
   Avulsâ parte inguinibus caussaque pericli,
   Enatat intento prædæ _fibor_ avius hoste."

  _Punica_, IV. 485-8, where see Ruperti.

The scholiast on Juvenal, xii. 34., has the low Latin _vebrus_. (See
Forcellini, Lex. in _Fiber_ et _Castor_, Ducange in _Bever_, and Adelung
in _Biber_.) Derivations of the word _bebrus_ occur in all the languages
of Europe, both Romanic and Teutonic; and denote the Castor. _Beaver_,
in the sense of a _hat_ or _cap_, is a secondary application, derived
from the material of which the hat or cap was made.

W.


_Poins and Bardolph_ (No. 24. p. 385.)--Mr. Collier (Life prefixed to
the edit. of _Shakspeare_, p. 139.) was the first to notice that
Bardolph, Fluellen, and Awdrey, were names of persons living at
Stratford in the lifetime of the poet; and Mr. Halliwell (_Life of
Shakspeare_, pp. 126-7) has carried the subject still further, and shown
that the names of ten characters in the plays are also found in the
early records of that town. Poins was, I believe, a common Welsh name.

S.


_God tempers the Wind_ (No. 22. p. 357.)--Le Roux de Liney, _Livre des
Proverbes Français_ (Paris, 1842), tom. i. p. 11., cites the following
proverbs--

  "Dieu mesure le froid à la brebis tondue,
                              ou,
   Dieu donne le froid selon la robbe,"

from Henri Estienne, _Prémices_, &c., p. 47., a collection of proverbs
published in 1594. He also quotes from Gabriel Meurier, _Trésor des
Sentences_, of the sixteenth century:--

  "Dieu aide les mal vestus."

SIWEL.
April 5. 1850.


_Sterne's Koran_ (No. 14. p. 216.)--An inquiry respecting this work
appeared in the _Gent. Mag._, vol. lxvii. pt. ii. p. 565.; and at p.
755. we are told by a writer under the signature of "Normanus," that in
_his_ edition of Sterne, printed at Dublin, 1775, 5 vols. 12mo., the
Koran was placed at the end, the editor honestly confessing that it was
_not_ the production of Sterne, but of Mr. Richard Griffith (son of Mrs.
Griffith, the _Novellettist_), then a gentleman of large fortune seated
at Millecent, co. Kildare, and married to a daughter of the late Ld.
C.B. Burgh.

I possess a copy of an indifferent edition of Sterne's works, in point
of paper and type, "Printed for J. Mozley, Gainsbrough, 1795. 8 vols.
12mo." The Koran is in the sixth vol., termed "The Posthumous Works of
L. Sterne," dedicated to the Earl of Charlemont by the editor, who, in
his address to the reader, professes to have received the MS. from the
hands of the author some time before his untimely death.

This I hope will answer the Query of "E.L.N.:" and at the same time I
wish to express my regret, that we do not possess a really good and
complete edition of Sterne's Works, with a Life and literary history of
them, incorporating the amusing illustrations by Dr. Ferriar.

F.R.A.
April 12. 1850.


_Lollius._--In answer to "J.M.B." (No. 19. p. 303.) as to who was the
Lollius spoken of by Chaucer, I send you the following. _Lollius_ was
the real or fictitious name of the author or translator of many of our
Gothic prose romances. D'Israeli, in his admirable _Amenities of
Literature_, vol. i. p. 141., says:--

    "In some colophons of the prose romances the names of real
    persons are assigned as the writers; but the same romance is
    equally ascribed to different persons, and works are given as
    translations which in fact are originals. Amid this prevailing
    confusion, and these contradictory statements, we must agree
    with the editor of Warton, that we cannot with any confidence
    name the author of any of these prose romances. Ritson has aptly
    treated these pseudonymous translators as 'men of straw.' We may
    say of them all, as the antiquary Douce, in the agony of his
    baffled researches after one of their favourite authorities, a
    Will o' the Wisp named LOLLIUS, exclaimed, somewhat
    gravely,--'Of Lollius it will become every one to speak with
    diffidence.'"

Perhaps this "scrap" of information may lead to something more
extensive.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.


_Henry Ryder, Bishop of Killaloe_ (No. 24. p. 383).--Henry Ryder, D.D.,
a native of Paris, and Bishop of Killaloe, after whose paternity
"W.D.R." inquires, was advanced to that see by patent dated June 5. 1693
(not 1692), and consecrated on the Sunday following in the church of
Dunboyne, in the co. Meath. See Archdeacon Cotton's _Fasti Ecclesiæ
Hibernicæ_, vol. i. p. 404., who gives an account of his family.

W.(I.)


_Brown Study_ (No. 22. p. 352.).--Surely a corruption of brow-study,
brow being derived from to old German, _braun_, in its compound form
_ang-braun_, an eyebrow. (Vide Wachter, _Gloss. Germ._)

HENNES


_Seven Champions of Christendom._--Who was the author of _The Seven
Champions of Christendom_?

R.F. JOHNSON.

    [_The Seven Champions of Christendom_, which Ritson describes as
    "containing all the lies of Christendom in one lie," was written
    by the well-known Richard Johnson. Our correspondent will find
    many curious particulars of his various works in the
    Introduction which Mr. Chappell has prefixed to one of them,
    viz. _The Crown Garland of Golden Roses_, edited by him from the
    edition of 1612 for the Percy Society.] {419}


"_Tempora mutantur nos et mutamur in illis_."--"E.V." (p. 215.) is
referred to Cicero _De Officiis_, lib. i. cap. 10., and Ovid, _Met_.
lib. xv. 165. et seqq.

"_Vox Præterea nihil_."--"C.W.G." (p. 247.) is also referred to Ovid,
_Met_. lib. iii. 397., and Lactantius, lib. iii. Fab. v. These are the
nearest approximations I know.

A.W.


_Vox Populi Vox Dei._--The words "Populi vox, vox Dei," stand as No. 97.
among the "Aphorismi Politici ex Ph. Cominoeo," in a small volume in my
possession, entitled,--

    "Aphorismi Politici et Militares, etc. par Lambertum Danæum
    collecti. Lugduni Batavorum. CID IDC XXX IX."

There is no reference given to book or chapter; and, judging from the
manner in which the aphorisms of Thucydides and Tacitus (which I have
been able to examine) are quoted, I fear it may be found that the words
in question are rather a condensation of some paragraph by Des Comines
that the _ipsissima verba_ that he employed.

C. FORBES.
Temple.


_The Cuckoo._--In respect to the Query of "G." (No. 15. p. 230.), on the
cuckoo, as the Welsh Ambassador, I would suggest that it was in allusion
to the annual arrival of Welshmen in search of summer and other
employment. As those wanderers may have entered England about the time
of the cuckoo's appearance, the idea that the bird was the precursor of
the Welsh might thus become prevalent. Also, on the quotation given by
"PETIT ANDRÉ" (No. 18. p. 283.) of Welsh parsley, or hempen halters, it
may have derived its origin from the severity practised on the Welsh, in
the time of their independence, when captured on the English side of the
border,--the death of the prisoner being inevitable.

GOMER.


_Ancient Titles_ (No. 11. p. 173.).--It may be interesting to your
querist "B." to know that the seal of the borough of Chard, in the
county of Somerset, has two birds in the position which he describes,
with the date 1570.

S.S.S.


_Daysman_ (No. 12. p. 188., No. 17. p. 267.).--For quoted instances of
this, and other obsolete words, see Jameson's _Bible Glossary_, just
published by Wertheim in Paternoster Row.

S.S.S.


_Safeguard_ (No. 17. p. 267.).--The article of dress for the purpose
described is still used by farmers' wives and daughters in the west of
England, and is known by the same name.

S.S.S.


_Finkle_ (No. 24. p. 384.).--means _fennel_. Mr. Halliwell (_Dict._ p.
357.) quotes from a MS. of the _Nominale_, "fynkylsede, _feniculum_."

L.


_Gourders of Rain_ (No. 21. p. 335., No. 22. p. 357.).--Has the word
"Gourders" any connection with _Gourtes_, a stream, or pool? See
Cotgrave's _Dict._, and Kelham's _Dict. of the Norman Language_.

_Geotere_ is the A.-S. word for "melter;" but may not the term be
applied to the pourer out of anything? Gourd is used by Chaucer in the
sense of a vessel. (See _Prol. to the Manciple's Tale_.)

C.I.R.


_Urbanus Regius_ (No. 23. p. 367.).--The "delightful old lady" is
informed that "Urbanus Regius" (or Urban le Roi) was one of the
reformers, a native of Langenargen, in Germany. His works were published
under the title of _Vitet et Opera Urbani Regii, &c._, Norib. 1562. His
theological works have been translated into English, as the lady is
aware.

W. FRANKS MATHEWS.
Kidderminster, April 7. 1850.


_Horns_ (No. 24. p. 383.).--Rosenmüller ad Exodum xxxiv. 29.

    "_Ignorabat quods plenderet entis faciei ejus_. Vulgatus
    interpres reddidit. _Ignorabat quod cornuta esset facies sua_,
    quia verbum _Karan_ denominativum nominis _Keren, cornu_;
    opinatus est denotare, _cornua habere_; hine nata opinio, Mosis
    faciem fuisse cornutam. Sed nomen [Hebrew: keren] ob
    similitudinem et ad _radios_ transferri, docet Haliæ, m. 4. ubi
    de fulminibus dicitur.... Hic denotat _emisit radias_, i.e.
    splenduit." LXX. [Greek: dedoxastai]. Our version, _shone_.

R. ad Psal. xxii. seems to say, that in Arabic there is the like
metaphor, of the sun's rays to a deer's horns. R. adds, that the Jews
also attributed horns to Moses in another sense, figuratively for power,
as elsewhere.

_Tauriformis._--The old scholiasts on Horace say that rivers are always
represented with horns, "propter impetum et mugitum æquarum."

  "Corniger Hesperidum fluvius."

An old modern commentator observes, that in Virgil "Rhenus bicornis,"
rather applies to its two æstuaries.

When Milton says (xi. 831.) "push'd by the horned flood," he seems
rather to mean, as Newton explains him, that "rivers, when they meet
with anything to obstruct their passage, divide themselves and become
_horned_ as it were, and hence the ancients have compared them to
bulls."

C.B.

    ["M." (Oxford) refers our correspondent to Facciolati,
    _Lexicon_, ed. Bailey, voc. _Corun_.]


_Horns_ (No. 24. p. 383.).--1. Moses' face, Ex. ch. xxxiv. (_karan_,
Heb.), shot out beams or _horns_ of light (from _keren_, Heb.); so the
first beams of the rising sun are by the Arabian poets compared to
horns. Absurdly rendered by Aqu. and Vulg. (facies) _cornuta erat_.
Whence painters represent Moses as having horns.--Gesenius, _Heb. Lex._
{420}

2. There appear many reasons for likening rivers to bulls. Euripides
calls Cephisus taumomorphos, and Horace gives Aufidus the same epithet,
for the same reason probably, as makes him call it also "longe sonans,"
"violentus," and "acer;" viz., the bull-like roaring of its waters, and
the blind fury of its course, especially in flood time. Other
interpretations may be given: thus, Milton, Dryden, and others, speak of
the "horned flood," i.e., a body of water which, when it meets with any
obstruction, divides itself and becomes _horned_, as it were. See Milt.
P.L. xi. 831., and notes on the passage by Newton and Todd. Dryden
speaks of "the seven-fold _horns_ of the Nile," using the word as
equivalent to winding stream. It would be tedious to multiply examples.

3. Of this phrase I have never seen a satisfactory explanation. "Coruna
nasci" is said by Petronius, in a general sense, of one in great
distress. As applied to a cuckold, it is common to most of the modern
European languages. The Italian phrase is "becco cornuto" (horned goat),
which the Accademici della Crusca explain by averring that that animal,
unlike others can without anger bear a rival in his female's love.

"Dr. Burn, in his _History of Westmoreland_, would trace this _crest_ of
_cuckoldom_ to horns worn as crests by those who went to the Crusades,
as their armorial distinctions; to the infidelity of consorts during
their absence, and to the finger of scorn pointed at them on their
return; crested indeed, but abused."--_Todd's Johnson's Dictionary_.

R.T.H.G.


_Why Moses represented with Horns._--You may inform your querist "L.C."
(No. 24 p. 383.), that the strange practice of making Moses appear
horned, which is not confined to statues, arose from the mistranslation
of Exod. xxxiv. 30. & 35. in the Vulgate, which is to the Romanist his
authenticated scripture. For there he reads "faciem Moysi cornutum,"
instead of "the skin of Moses' face shone." The Hebrew verb put into our
type is _coran_, very possibly the root of the Latin _cornu_: and its
primary signification is to put forth horns; its secondary, to shoot
forth rays, to shine. The participle is used in its primary sense in
Psalms, xix. 31.; but the Greek Septuagint, and all translators _from
the Hebrew_ into modern European languages, have assigned to the verb
its secondary meaning in Exod. xxxiv. In that chapter the nominative to
_coran_ is, in both verses, undeniably _skin_, not _head_ nor _face_.
Now it would obviously be absurd to write "his skin was horned," so that
common sense, and the authority of the Septuagint, supported by the
language of St. Paul in his paraphrase and comment on this passage in 2
Cor. iii. 7-13., ought to have been sufficient to guide any Christian
translator as to the sense to be attached to _coran_ in the mention of
Moses.

H.W.
Oxford, April 16, 1850.

    [We have since received replies to a similar effect, from "SIR
    EDMUND FILMER," "J.E.," &c. "R.G." refers our Querist to Leigh's
    _Critica Særa_, part I. p. 219. London, 1662; and "M." refers
    him to the note on this passage in Exodus in M. Polus' _Synopsis
    Criticorum_. To "T.E." we are indebted for Notes on other
    portions of "L.C.'s" Queries.]


_The Temple or A Temple._--"Mr. Foss" says (No. 21. p. 335.) that in
Tyrwhitt's edition of Chaucer and in all other copies he has seen, the
reading is--

  "A gentil manciple was there of a temple."

In an imperfect black-letter folio copy of Chaucer in my possession
(with curious wood-cuts, but without title-page, or any indications of
its date, printer, &c.), the reading is--

  "A gentyl mancyple was there of _the_ temple."

That the above is the true reading ("the real passage"), and that it is
to be applied to _the_ temple, appears to me from what follows, in the
description of the manciple.

  "Of maysters had he moo than thryes ten
  That were of lawe expirte and curyous,
  Of whyche there were a dosen in that hous
  Worthy to be," &c.;

P.H.F.
March 23, 1850.


_Ecclesiastical Year_ (No. 24. p. 381.).--The following note on the
calendar is authority for the statement respecting the beginning of the
ecclesiastical year:--

    "Note that the Golden Number and the Dominicall letter doeth
    change euery yeere the first day of January. Note also, that the
    yeere of our Lord beginneth the xxv. day of March, the same
    supposed to be the first day upon which the world was created,
    and the day when Christ was conceived in the womb of the Virgin
    Mary."

As in the Book of Common Prayer, Lond. 1614, p. 2. Bishop Cosins
remarks, "beginneth the 25th day of March."

    "Romani annum suum auspicantur ad calendas Januarias. Idem
    faciunt hodierni Romani et qui in aliis regnis papæ authoritatem
    agnoseunt. Ecclesia autem Anglicana sequitur suppotationem
    antiquam a Dionysio Exiguo inchoatum, anno Christi 532."

Nicholl's Commentary on the Book of Common Prayer, additional notes, p.
10. Fol. Lond. 1712, vid. loe.

In the Book of Common Prayer, Oxford, 1716, the note is,--

    "_Note._--The supputation of the year of our Lord in the Church
    of England beginneth the five-and-twentieth day of March."

This note does not now appear in our Prayer Books, being omitted, I
suppose, in consequence {421} of the adoption of the new style in
England in 1752. The daily course of lessons used to begin, as it does
now, with the Book of Genesis and of St. Matthew, in January; the
collects, epistles, and gospels with those for Advent.

M.
Oxford.


_Paying through the Nose_ (No. 21. p. 335.).--I have always understood
this to be merely a degenerated pronunciation of the last word. Paying
through _the noose_ gives the idea so exactly, that, as far as the
etymology goes, it is explanatory enough. But whether _that_ reading has
an historical origin may be another question. It scarcely seems to need
one.

C.W.H.


_Quem Deus vult perdere, &c._ (No. 22. p. 351.).--The correct reading
is, "Quem Jupiter vult perdere, dementat prius." See Duport's
_Gnomologia Homerica_, p. 282. (Cantab. 1660.) Athenagoras quotes Greek
lines, and renders them in Latin (p. 121. Oxon. 1682):

  "At dæmon homini quum struit aliquid malum,
   Pervertit illi primitus mentem suam."

The word "dementat" is not to be met with, I believe, in the works of
any real classical author. Butler has employed the idea in part 3. canto
2. line 565. of _Hudibras_:

  "Like men condemned to thunderbolts,
   Who, ere the blow, become mere dolts."

C.I.R.


_Shrew_ (No. 24. p. 381.).--The word, I apprehend, means sharp. The
mouse, which is not the field-mouse, as Halliwell states, but an animal
of a different order of quadrupeds, has a very sharp snout. Shrewd means
sharp generally. Its bad sense is only incidental. They seem connected
with scratch; screw; shrags, the end of sticks or furze (Halliwell); to
shred (A.-S., screadan, but which must be a secondary form of the verb).
That the shrew-mouse is called in Latin _sorex_, seems to be an
accidental coincidence. That is said to be derived from [Greek: urax].
The French have confounded the two, and give the name _souris_ to the
common mouse, but _not_ to the shrew-mouse.

I protest, for one, against admitting that Broc is derived from _broc_,
persecution, which of course is participle from break. We say "to
badger" for to annoy, to teaze. I suppose two centuries hence will think
the name of the animal is derived from that verb, and not the verb from
it. It means also, in A.-S., _equus vilis_, a horse that is worn out or
"broken down."

C.B.


_Zenobia_ (No. 24. p. 383.).--Zenobia is said to be "gente Judaea," in
Hoffman's _Lexicon Universale_, and Facciolati, ed. Bailey, Appendix,
voc. _Zenobia_.

M.
Oxford.


_Cromwell's Estates_ (No. 24. p. 389.).--There is Woolaston, in
Gloucestershire, four miles from Chepstow, chiefly belonging now to the
Duke of Beaufort.

C.B.


_Vox et præterea Nihil_ (No. 16. p. 247., and No. 24. p. 387.).--This
saying is to be found in Plutarch's _Laconic Apophthegms_ ([Greek:
Apophthegmata Lakonika]), Plutarchi _Opera Moralia_, ed. Dan.
Wyttenbach, vol. i. p. 649.

Philemon Holland has "turned it into English" thus:--

    "Another [Laconian] having plucked all the feathers off from a
    nightingale, and seeing what a little body it had: 'Surely,'
    quoth he, 'thou art all voice, and nothing else.'"--_Plutarch's
    Morals_, fol. 1603. p. 470.

W.B.R.


_Law of Horses._--The following is from Oliphant's _Law of Horses, &c._,
p. 75. Will any of your readers kindly tell me whether the view is
correct?

    "It is said in _Southerene_ v. _Howe_ (2 Rol. Rep. 5.), _Si home
    vend chivall que est lame, null action gist peur ceo, mes_
    caveat emptor: _lou jeo vend chivall que ad null oculus la null
    action gist; autrement lou il ad un conterfeit faux et_ bright
    eye." "If a man sell a horse which is lame, no action lyes for
    that, but _caveat emptor_; and when I sell a horse that has _no_
    eye, there no action lies; otherwise where he has a counterfeit,
    false, and _bright eye_."

Thus it appears that a distinction is here made between a horse having
_no_ eye at all, and having a counterfeit, false or _bright_ one. And
probably by _bright eye_ is meant _glass eye_, or _gutta serena_; and
the words "counterfeit" and "false" may be an attempt of the reporter to
explain an expression which he did not understand. Because putting a
false eye into a horse is far in advance of the sharpest practices of
the present day, or of any former period.

Note.--_Gutta Serena_, commonly called glass-eye, is a species of
blindness; the pupil is unusually dilated; it is immovable, bright, and
glassy.

G.H. HEWIT OLIPHANT.
April 16. 1850.


_Christ's Hospital._--In reply to "NEMO" (No. 20. p. 318.), a
contemporary of the eminent Blues there enumerated, informs him, that
although he has not a perfect recollection of the ballads then popular
at Christ's Hospital, yet "NEMO" may be pleased to learn, that on making
search at the Society of Antiquaries for Robin Hood Ballads, he found in
a folio volume of Broadsides, &c., one of the much interest and
considerable length in relation to that school. The Ballad must also be
rare, as it is not among those in the two large volumes which have been
for many years in the British Museum, nor is it in the three volumes of
Roxburgh Ballads recently purchased for that noble library. {422}

The undersigned believes that the only survivor of the scholars at
Christ's Hospital mentioned by "NEMO," is the Rev. Charles Valentine Le
Grice, now residing at Trerieffe, near Penzance.

J.M.G.
Worcester, March 22. 1850.

    [We are happy to say that one other, at least, of the Christ
    Hospital worthies enumerated by "NEMO" still survives--Mr. Leigh
    Hunt, whose kindly criticism and real poetic feeling have
    enriched our literature with so many volumes of pleasant
    reading, and won for him the esteem of a large circle of
    admirers.]


_Tickhill, God help me!_ (No. 16. p. 247.).--"H.C. ST. CROIX" informs us
that a similar expression is in use in Lincolnshire. Near to the town of
"merry Lincoln" is a large heath celebrated for its cherries. If a
person meets one of the cherry-growers on his way to market, and asks
him where he comes from, the answer will be, if the season is
favourable, "From Lincoln Heath, where should 'un?" but if, on the
contrary, there is a scarcity of cherries, the reply will be, "From
Lincoln Heath, God help 'un."

"DISS" informs us, too, that this saying is not confined to Tickhill,
Melverly, or Pershore, but is also current at Letton, on the banks of
the Wye, between Hereford and Hay. And "H.C.P." says the same story is
told of the inhabitants of Tadley, in the north of Hampshire, on the
borders of Berkshire.

_Robert Long_ (No. 24. p. 382.).--Rear-Admiral Robert Long died 4th
_July_, 1771, having been superannuated on the half-pay of rear-admiral
some time before his death. His seniority in the navy was dated from
21st March, 1726, and he was posted in the Shoreham. He never was _Sir_
Robert. An account of the charity he founded may be seen in the
_Commissioners' Reports on Charities_, vol. iii. iv. vi.

G.


_Transposition of Letters_ (No. 19. p. 298.).--Instances of shortened
names of places. Bensington, Oxfordshire, now called Benson;
Stadhampton, Oxfordshire, now called Stadham; and in Suffolk the
following changes have taken place; Thelnetham is called Feltam; Hoxney,
Oxen.

C.I.R.


_The Complaynt of Scotland_.--I believe there has not been discovered
recently any fact relative to the authorship of above-mentioned poem,
and that the author is,

  "Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount,
  Lord Lyon King-at-Arms."

W.B.


_Note Books_ (No. 3. p. 43., and No. 7. p. 104.)--I beg to state my own
mode, than which I know of none better. I have _several_ books, viz.,
for History, Topography, Personal and Family History, Ecclesiastical
Affairs, Heraldry, Adversaria. At the end of each volume is an alphabet,
with six columns, one for each vowel; in one or other of which the word
is entered according to the vowel which first appears in it, with a
reference to the page. Thus, _bray_ would come under B.a; _church_ under
C.u.; and so forth.

S.S.S.

       *       *       *       *       *


MISCELLANIES.

_MSS. of Casaubon._--There is a short statement respecting certain MSS.,
now existing, of the great critic Casaubon, in a recent volume of the
Parker Society--Whitaker's _Disputation on Holy Scripture_, edited and
translated by Professor Fitzgerald, Professor of Moral Philosophy,
Dublin, which I conceive is one of those facts which might be of service
at some future time to scholars, from having been recorded in your
columns:--

Whitaker having observed--

    "One Herman, a most impudent papist, affirms that the scriptures
    are of no more avail than Aesop's fables, apart from the
    testimony of the church."--(Parker Soc. transl., p. 276.)

Professor Fitzgerald appends the following "note:"--

    "Casaubon, Exercit. Baron. I. xxxiii. had, but doubtfully,
    attributed this to Pighius; but in a MS. note preserved in
    Primate Marsh's library, at St. Sepulchre's, Dublin, he corrects
    himself thus: 'Non est hic, sed quidam Hermannus, ait Wittakerus
    in Præfat. Controvers. I. Quæst. S. p. 314.' If a new edition of
    those Exercitations be ever printed, let not these MSS. of that
    great man, which, with many other valuable records, we owe to
    the diligence of Stillingfleet and the munificence of Marsh, be
    forgotten."

T.
Bath

       *       *       *       *       *

ON A VERY TALL BARRISTER NAMED "LONG."

  Longi longorum longissime, Longe, virorum,
  Dic mihi, te quæso, num _Breve_ quicquid habes?

W.(1.)

       *       *       *       *       *

"NEC PLURIBUS IMPAR."

_On a very bad book: from the Latin of Melancthon_.

  A thousand blots would never cure this stuff;
  One might, I own, if it were large enough.

RUFUS.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Close Translation._--The following is a remarkable instance; for it is
impossible to say which is the original and which the translation, they
are so nearly equivalent:--

  "Boys and girls, come out to play;
  The moon doth shine as bright as day;
  Come with a whoop, come with a call,
  Come with a good will, or come not at all." {423}

  "Garçons et filles, venez toujours;
  La lune fait clarté comme le jour;
  Venez au bruit d'un joyeux éclat;
  Venez de bon coeur, ou ne venez pas."

W.(1.)


_St. Antholin's Parish Books._--In common with many of your antiquarian
readers, I look forward with great pleasure to the selection from the
entries in the St. Antholin's Parish Books, which are kindly promised by
their present guardian, and, I may add, intelligent expositor, "W.C."

St. Antholin's is, on several accounts, one of the most interesting of
our London churches; it was here, Strype tells us (_Annals_, I. i. p.
199.), "the new morning prayer," i.e., according to the new reformed
service-book, first began in September, 1559, the bell beginning to ring
at five, when a psalm was sung after the Geneva fashion, all the
congregation, men, women, and boys, singing together. It is much to be
regretted that these registers do not extend so far back as this year,
as we might have found in them entries of interest to the Church
historian; but as "W.C." tells us the volumes are kept regularly up to
the year 1708, I cannot but hope he may be able to produce some notices
of what Mr. P. Cunningham calls, "the Puritanical fervour" of this
little parish. "St. Antling's bell," and "St. Antling's preachers," were
proverbial for shrillness and prolixity, and the name is a familiar one
to the students of our old dramatists. Let "W.C." bear in mind, that the
chaplains of the Commissioners of the Church of Scotland, with Alexander
Henderson at their head, preached here in 1640, commanding crowded
audiences, and that a passage was formed from the house where they
lodged into a gallery of this church; and that the pulpit of St.
Antholin's seems, for many years, to have been the focus of schism,
faction, and sedition, and he may be able to bring forward from these
happily preserved registers much interesting and valuable information.

D.S.

       *       *       *       *       *


MISCELLANEOUS.

NOTES ON BOOKS, CATALOGUES, SALES, &C.

No one can have visited Edinburgh, and gazed upon

                            "The height
Where the huge Castle holds its state,"

without having felt a strong desire to learn the history of that
venerable pile, and the stirring tales which its grey walls could tell.
What so many must have wished done, has at length been accomplished by
Mr. James Grant, the biographer of Kirkaldy of Grange, the gallant
governor of that castle, who was so treacherously executed by the Regent
Morton. His work, just published under the title of _Memorials of the
Castle of Edinburgh_, contains its varied history, ably and pleasantly
narrated, and intermixed with so much illustrative anecdote as to render
it an indispensable companion to all who may hereafter visit one of the
most interesting, as well as most remarkable monuments of the metropolis
of Scotland.

The lovers of fine engravings and exquisite drawings will have a rare
opportunity of enriching their portfolios in the course of the next and
following week, as Messrs. Leigh Sotheby and Co., of Wellington Street,
commence on Monday a nine days' sale of a magnificent collection of
engravings, of the highest quality, of the ancient and modern Italian,
German, Dutch, Flemish, French, and English schools, which comprises
some superb drawings of the most celebrated masters of the different
schools of Europe.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Bernard Quaritch's (16.
Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue of Oriental and Foreign
Books, comprising most Languages and Dialects of the Globe; and John
Miller's (43. Chandos Street) Catalogue, Number Four for 1850, of Books,
Old and New.

       *       *       *       *       *

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Odd Volumes.

CREVIER--HISTORY OF THE ROMAN EMPERORS, 8vo. London, J. and P. Knapton,
1744, Vols. I. and II.

Plate 2, to the 11th chapter of Vol. III of STUART'S ATHENS. JOURNALS OF
THE HOUSE OF LORDS, from 1660 to 1688.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

_As we have been again compelled to omit many articles which we are
anxious to insert, we shall next week give an enlarged Number of 24
pages, instead of 16, so as to clear off our arrears._

Arnot's Physics. _A copy of this work has been reported to Mr. Bell:
will our correspondent who wishes for it forward his name and address?_

       *       *       *       *       *

PUBLIC RECORDS

MONUMENTA HISTORICA BRITANNICA.

Just published, folio, 5 guineas half-bound (printed by Her Majesty's
command).

MATERIALS for the HISTORY of BRITAIN, from the earliest period. Vol. I,
extending to the Norman Conquest. "Sir Robert Inglis remarked, that this
work had been pronounced, by one of our most competent collegiate
authorities, to be the finest work published in Europe."--_Proceedings
in Parliament_, March 11. 1850.

HENRY BUTTERWORTH, Publisher to the Public Record Department, 7. Fleet
Street.

Of whom may be had, 8vo., sewed. A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of the RECORD
PUBLICATIONS.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCRIPTURE RULE OF MARRIAGES.

This day is published, in post 8vo., price Twopence; 1s. 6d. per dozen,
or 10s. per hundred,

LET US UPHOLD the SCRIPTURE RULE of MARRIAGES: an Earnest Address to
Englishmen. By the Rev. ABNER W. BROWN, M.A. London; SAMPSON LOW, 169.
Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       * {424}

Preparing for Publication, With the Sanction of the Society of Arts, and
the Committee of the Ancient and Mediæval Exhibition,

A Description of the Works of Ancient and Mediæval Art

Collected at the Society of Arts in 1850; with Historical Introductions
on the various Arts, and Notices of the Artists.

By AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Honorary Secretary.

The Work will be handsomely printed in super-royal 8vo., and will be
amply illustrated with Wood Engravings by P.H. DE LA MOTTE.

GEORGE BELL, 186. FLEET STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CAMDEN SOCIETY, for the Publication of Early Historical and Literary
Remains.--The ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING will be held at the Freemason's
Tavern, Great Queen Street, on Thursday next, the 2nd of May, at FOUR
o'clock, precisely.

THE LORD BRAYBROOKE, the President, in the Chair.

WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary.

The following are the Publications of the Society for the year
1849-50:--

I. Inedited Letters of Queen Elizabeth, addressed to King James VI. of
Scotland, between the years 1581 and 1594. From the Originals in the
possession of the Rev. Edward Ryder, of Oaksey, Wilts. Edited by JOHN
BRUCE, Esq. Treas. S.A.

II. Chronicon Petroburgense. Nunc primum typis mandatum, curante THOMA
STAPLETON.

III. The Chronicle of Queen Jane, and of Two years of Queen Mary, and
especially of the Rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt, written by a Resident
in the Tower of London. Edited, with illustrative Documents and Notes,
by JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq. F.S.A.

The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum. Communications from
Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed to the
Secretary; or to Messrs. Nichols, No. 25. Parliament Street,
Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 1st of MAY next, 1850, will be published, price 2s. 6d.

PART I. of

HISTORIC RELIQUES;

A Series of Representations of

ARMS, JEWELLERY, GOLD AND SILVER PLATE, FURNITURE, ARMOUR, &c.,

In Royal and Noble Collections, Colleges, and Public Institutions, &c.,
and which

FORMERLY BELONGED TO INDIVIDUALS EMINENT IN HISTORY.

DRAWN FROM THE ORIGINALS AND ETCHED

BY JOSEPH LIONEL WILLIAMS.

PART I. will contain--

Andiron, William III., at Windsor Castle. Candelabrum, Charles I., St.
Baron, Ghent. Silver-gilt Cup, Margaret Beaufort, Christ's College,
Cambridge.

To be completed in Ten Parts, price 2s. 6d. each.

Large paper copies, 5s.

Office 198. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

A second and Cheaper Edition of

A DICTIONARY of ARCHAIC and PROVINCIAL WORDS, Obsolete Phrases,
Proverbs, and Ancient Customs. From the Reign of Edward I. By JAMES
ORCHARD HALLIWELL, F.R.S. F.S.A. &c. 2 vols, 8vo., containing upwards of
1000 pages, closely printed in double columns, 1l. 1s. cloth.

It contains above 50,000 Words (embodying all the known scattered
glossaries of the English Language), forming a complete key to the
reader of the works of our old Poets, Dramatists, Theologians, and other
authors whose works abound with allusions, of which explanations are not
to be found in ordinary dictionaries and books of reference. Most of the
principal Archaisms are illustrated by examples selected from early
inedited MSS. and rare books, and by far the greater portion will be
found to be original authorities.

J.R. SMITH, 4. Old Compton Street, Soho, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON THE LOVE OF BOOKS IN DARK AGES.

8vo. cloth, 5s.

BIBLIOMANA in the MIDDLE AGES.

BY F. MERRYWEATHER.

"Whoever has the real Mr. Merryweather's spirit will be in love with him
before they reach the end of this volume. The author is full of pleasant
enthusiasm, and has given us a volume of very curious facts."--_Eclectic
Review._

SIMPKIN and CO.

       *       *       *       *       *

Magnificent Collection of Engravings, the Property of a distinguished
Amateur.--Nine Days' Sale.

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and Co., Auctioneers of Literary Property and
Works illustrative of the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at their
House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on MONDAY, April 29, and eight
following days (Sunday excepted), at One precisely each day the
magnificent Collection of ENGRAVINGS, the property of a distinguished
Amateur comprising the Works of the most eminent Engravers of the
ancient and modern Italian, German, Dutch, Flemish, French, and English
Schools, the whole being of the very highest quality, both as to
impression and condition; together with some superb Drawings by the most
celebrated Masters of the different Schools of Europe.

May be viewed four days prior to the sale. Catalogues are now ready, and
will be forwarded on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

The beautiful Collection of Modern Drawings of a distinguished Amateur.

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and Co., Auctioneers of Literary Property and
Works illustrative of the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at their
House, Wellington Street, Strand, on THURSDAY, May 9, a small but very
choice Collection of DRAWINGS, chiefly in Water Colours, by the most
eminent modern Artists, and containing exquisite specimens of the works
of--

Gainsborough           J.W.M. Turner, R.A.      Sir D. Wilkie, R.A.
Wilson                 C. Stanfield, R.A.       Sir A. Callcott, R.A.
Watteau                Cattermole               De Wint
Zuccherelli            D. Cox                   Van Os
Sir T. Lawrence        Chambers                 Shelfhout
Bonnington             Muller                   Hildebrandt
Stothard

and many others of equal celebrity. They are the property of the same
distinguished amateur by whom the superb collection of prints advertised
above was formed, and have been selected with the most perfect taste and
judgment.

May be viewed four days prior to the sale. Catalogues are now ready, and
will be forwarded on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

Six Days' Sale of the Third Portion of the valuable Stock of Prints of
Messrs. W. and G. Smith, the eminent Printsellers of Lisle Street.

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and Co., Auctioneers of Literary Property and
Works illustrative of the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at their
House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on MONDAY, May 13, and five
following days, at One precisely each day, the third portion of the
important and valuable Stock of PRINTS, the property of Messrs. W. and
G. Smith, the long-established, well-known, and eminent Printsellers, of
Lisle Street, Leicester Square, who have retired from business;
comprising some of the works of the most eminent Engravers of the early
Italian, German, Dutch, Flemish, French, and English Schools, including
the matchless assemblage of the Works of the Masters of the School of
Fontainbleau, formerly in Count Fries' collection; Engravers' Proofs of
Book Plates, &c., generally of the very highest quality, both as to
impression and condition; together with a very few fine Drawings by
ancient and modern masters.

May be viewed four days before the sale, and Catalogues had at the place
of sale.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 27. 1850.





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