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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 42, August 17, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 42, August 17, 1850" ***

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NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 42.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 17, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {177}


CONTENTS.

NOTES:--
  Alfred's Orosius, by Dr. Bell. 177
  Remarkable Proposition concerning Ireland, by H.
    Kersley. 179
  News: a few "old" Materials for its Elucidation, by
    S.W. Singer. 180
  Folk Lore:--Charming for Warts. 181
  Minor Notes:--Capture of Henry VI.--The New
    Temple. 181

QUERIES:--
  Essays of certain Paradoxes: Poem on Nothing, by
    S.W. Singer. 182
  Minor Queries:--Papers of Perjury--Church Rates--St.
    Thomas of Lancaster's Accomplices--Prelates of
    France--Lord Chancellor's Oath--Mediæval Nomenclature--Sir
    Christopher Sibthorp--Alarm. 182

REPLIES:--
  Shakspeare's Use of "Delighted," by Samuel Hickson. 183
  English Comedians in Germany. 184
  Achilles and the Tortoise. 185
  Replies to Minor Queries:--"Barum" and "Sarum"--Countess
    of Desmond--Michael Servetus, alias Reves--Caxton's
    Printing-office--Somagia--Various Modes
    of Interment among the Ancients--Guy's Porridge-pot--"Welcome
    the coming, speed the parting Guest"--"A Chrysostom to
    smoothe his Band in"--William of Wykeham--Dutch
    Language--"A Frog he would," &c.--City Sanitary
    Laws--Sanitary Laws of other Days--Michael Scott, the
    Wizard--Clerical Costume--The Curfew--Welsh Language--Armenian
    Language--North Sides of Churchyards unconsecrated--"Sir
    Hilary charged at Agincourt"--Unicorn--Abbey of St.
    Wandrille, Normandy, &c. 186

MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 191
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 191
  Notices to Correspondents. 191
  Advertisements. 191

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES

ALFRED'S OROSIUS.

The two exceedingly valuable elucidations which the geography of King
Alfred relating to Germany (intercalated in the royal author's
translation of Orosius), has received from your learned contributors MR.
R.T. HAMPSON (Vol. i., p. 257.) and MR. S.W. SINGER (Vol. i., p. 313.)
induce me to offer some new views on the same subject. From my having
passed a long series of years in the countries described, and read and
examined all that continental authors, as well as Englishmen, have
written or conjectured on the subject, I trust that my opinions, though
differing from all hitherto received, may not be unworthy the attention
of these gentlemen, and of your other numerous subscribers. I shall,
however, at present, not to exceed the necessary limitation of your
articles, restrict myself to a consideration of the very disputed
_Cwenas_ and the _Cwen-sae_, which both the gentlemen have not alluded
to.

The universal agreement amongst the commentators (with the two solitary
exceptions I shall hereafter mention), by which this sea is taken for
the White Sea, is diverting, and has been the primary source of many of
their errors, and of that most monster one, by which Othere's narrative
has been made the relation of a voyage round the North Cape to
Archangel. It is difficult to say who may have first broached the
brilliant idea. Spelmann's annotators, his alumni Oxonienses of
University College, seem to have left the matter without much
consideration, in which they were pretty servilely followed by Bussæus,
though not so much so as to justify Professor Ingram's remark, "that his
notes were chiefly extracted thence." (Pref. viii.) Professor Murray of
Göttingen (1765), and Langebeck, in his _Scriptores Rerum Danicarum_
(1773), make no mention of these arctic discoveries; and the latter is
satisfied that the Cwenas are the Amazons of Adam of Bremen:--

    "De Quenorum priscis Sedibus et Quenlandiæ situ, vide Torfæus,
    _Hist. Norweg._ i. 140. Adamus Bremens, pp. 58, 59. 61., per
    Amazones et terram Foeminarum voluit Queuones et Quenladiam
    intelligi."

and it remains, therefore, to the next commentator, John Reinhold
Forster (the companion navigator with Sir Joseph Banks), to have been
the first to whom we owe the important error. He was praised by Daines
Barrington, for whose edition he gave the notes afterwards reproduced in
his _Northern Voyages of Discovery_; but still with certain
reservations. The honourable translator found some negative evidences
which seemed to militate against the idea that the voyage could have
extended into the arctic circle; for, in such a case, Othere would
hardly have refrained from mentioning the perpetual day of those
regions; the northern lights, which he must have experienced; to which
{178} we add, the perpetual snows, and many other very striking
peculiarities, so new and seemingly inexplicable to a southern traveller
or listener.

Succeeding writers seem to have had fewer scruples, and to have admitted
the idea without consideration. Thorkelin, the Dane, (when in England to
copy out the poem of _Beowulf_ for publication at Copenhagen), gave a
very flattering testimony to Forster's notes, in _Bibliotheca
Topographica_, vol. ix. p. 891. _et seq._, though I believe he
subsequently much modified it. Our own writers who had to remark upon
the subject, Sharon Turner, and Wheaton, in his _History of the
Northmen_, may be excused from concurring in an opinion in which they
had only a verbal interest. Professor Ingram, in his translation of
_Othere's Voyage_ (Oxford, 1807, 4to. p. 96. note), gives the following
rather singular deduction for the appellation: Quenland was the land of
the Amazons; the Amazons were fair and white-faced, therefore _Cwen-Sae_
the White Sea, as Forster had deduced it: and so, having satisfied
himself with this kind of Sorites, follows pretty closely in Forster's
wake. But that continental writers, who took up the investigation
avowedly as indispensable to the earliest history of their native
countries, should have given their concurrence and approval so easily, I
must confess, astonishes me.

Dahlman, whilst Professor of History at Kiel, felt himself called upon
by his situation to edit and explain this work to his countrymen more
detailedly than previously, and at vol. ii. p. 405. of the work cited by
Mr. Singer gives all Alfred's original notices. I shall at present only
mention his interpretation of _Quen Sae_, which he translates
_Weltmeer_; making it equivalent to the previous _Garseeg_ or _Oceanus_.
He mentions the reasonings of Rask and Porthan, of Abo, the two
exceptions to the general opinion (which I shall subsequently notice),
without following, on this point, what they had previously so much more
clearly explained. The best account of what had previously been done on
the subject is contained in Beckmann's _Litteratur der alten Raisen_ (s.
450.); and incidental notices of such passages as fall within the scope
of their works, are found in Schlözer's _Allgemeine nordische
Geschichte_, Thummann's _Untersuchungen_, Walch's _Allgemeine
Bibliothek_, Schöning's _Gamle nordishe Geographie_, Nyerup's
_Historisk-statistik Skildering i aeldre og nyere Tider_, in Sprengel's
_Geschichte_, and by Wörbs, in Kruse's _Deutsche Alterthümer_. Professor
Ludw. Giesebrecht published in 1843, at Berlin, a most excellent
_Wendische Geschichte_, in 3 vols. 8vo., but his inquiries concerning
this Periplus (vol. iii. p 290) are the weakest part of his work, having
mostly followed blindly the opinions to which the great fame and
political importance of Dahlman had given full credence and authority.
He was not aware of the importance of Alfred's notices for the countries
he describes, and particularly for the elucidation of the vexed question
of Adam of Bremen's _Julin_ and Helmold's _Veneta_, by an investigation
of Othere's _Schiringsheal_, and which I endeavoured to point out in a
pamphlet I published in the German language, and a copy of which I had
the pleasure of presenting, amongst others, to Professor Dahlman himself
at the Germanisten Versammlung at Lübeck in 1847. To return, however, to
the _Cwena land_ and _sae_, it is evident that the commentators, who are
principally induced by their bearings to Sweon land to look upon the
latter as the White Sea, have overlooked the circumstance that the same
name is found earlier as an arm of the Wendel or Mediterranean Sea; and
it is evident that one denomination cannot be taken in a double meaning;
and therefore, when we find Alfred following the boundaries of Europe
from Greece, "Crecalande ut on þone Wendelsae Þnord on þone Garsaege pe
man Cwen sae haet", it is certain that we have here an arm of the Wendel
Sea (here mistaken for the ocean) that runs from Greece to the north,
and it cannot also afterwards be the White Sea. It will be necessary to
bring this, in conformity with the subsequent mention of _Cwen-Sae_,
more to the northward, which, as I have just said, has been hitherto
principally attended to.

In Welsh topography no designation scarcely recurs oftener than _Gwent_
(or, according to Welsh pronunciation, and as it may be written,
_Cwent_) in various modifications, as Gwyndyd, Gwenedd, Gynneth, Gwynne,
&c. &c.; and on the authority of Gardnor's _History of Monmouthshire_
(Appendix 14.), under which I willingly cloak my ignorance of the Welsh
language, I learn that _Gwent_ or _Went_ is "spelt with or without a
_G_, according to the word that precedes it, according to certain rules
of grammar in the ancient British language, and that _Venedotia_ for
North Wales is from the same root." The author might certainly have
said, "the same word Latinized." But exactly the same affinity or
identity of names is found in a locality that suits the place we are in
search of: in an arm of the Mediterranean stretching from Greece
northwards; viz. in the Adriatic, which had for its earliest name _Sirus
Venedicus_, translated in modern Italian into _Golfo di Venezia_.

Of the multitudes of authorities for this assumption I need only mention
Strabo, who calls the first settlers on its northern end (whence the
whole gulph was denominated) [Greek: Everoi]; or Livy, who merely
Latinizes the term as _Heneti_, lib. i. cap. i., "Antenorem cum
multitudine Henetum." With the fable of Antenor and his Trojan colony we
have at present no further relation. The name alone, and its
universality at this locality, is all that we require. I shall now show
that we can follow these Veneti (which, that it is a generic name of
situation, I must now omit to prove, from the compression {179}
necessary for your miscellany) without a break, in an uninterrupted
chain, to the north, and to a position that suits Alfred's other
locality much more fitting, than the White Sea. The province of
_Vindelicia_ would carry us to the Boden See (Lake of Constance), which
Pomponius Mela, lib. iii. cap. i. ad finem, calls _Lacus Venedicus_.
This omitting the modern evidences of this name and province in
Windisch-Grätz, Windisch-Feistriz, &c. &c., brings us sufficiently in
contact with the Slavonic and Wendic people of Bohemia to track the line
through them to the two Lausitz, where we are in immediate proximity to
the Spree Wald. There the Wends (pronounce _Vends_) still maintain a
distinct and almost independent community, with peculiar manners, and,
it is believed, like the gypsies, an elected or hereditary king; and
where, and round Lüchow, in Hanover, the few remnants of this once
potent nation are awaiting their final and gradual absorption into the
surrounding German nations. Whenever, in the north of Germany, a
traveller meets with a place or district ending in _wits_, _itz_,
_pitz_, &c., wherever situate, or whatever language the inhabitants
speak, he may put it down as originally Wendish; and the multitude of
such terminations will show him how extensively this people was spread
over those countries. Itzenplitz, the name of a family once of great
consequence in the Mark of Brandenburg is ultra-Wendish. It will,
therefore, excite no wonder that we find, even in Tacitus, Veneti along
their coasts and Ptolemy, who wrote about a century and a half later
than Strabo or Livy, seems to have improved the terminology of the
ancients in the interval; for, speaking of the Sarmatian tribes, he
calls these Veneti [Greek: Ouenedai par holon ton Ouenedikon kolpon].
Here we find the truest guide for the pronunciation, or, rather, for the
undigammaising of the Latin _V_ and the Welsh _W_, as _Ouenetoi_, which
is proved in many distant and varying localities. St. Ouen, the Welsh
Owen and Evan, and the patron saint of Rouen, no doubt had his name (if
he ever existed at all) coined from the French Veneti of Armorica,
amongst which he lived; and when foreigners wish to render the English
name _Edward_ as spoken, they write _Edouard_ and Robert the Wizzard,
the Norman conqueror of Sicily and Apulia, has his name transformed, to
suit Italian ears, into _Guiscard_, and as William into _Gulielmi_.
Thus, therefore, the whole coast of Prussia, from Pomerania, as far,
perhaps, as known, and certainly all the present Prussia Proper, was the
_Sinus Venedicus_, Ptolemy's [Greek: kolpon]; and this was also Alfred's
Cwen-Sae, for the north. I admit that when Alfred follows Orosius, he
uses _Adriatic_ for the _Golfo de Venezia_, but when he gives us his
independent researches, he uses an indigenous name. Professor Porthan,
of Abo in Finland, published a Swedish translation, with notes, of the
_Voyages of Othere and Wulfstan_ in the _Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och
Antiquitet Academiens Handlingar, sjette Delen_. Stockholm, 1800, p.
37-106., in which he expressly couples Finland with Cwenland; and, in
fact, considering the identity of _Cwen_ and _Ven_, and the
convertibility of the _F_ and _V_ in all languages, _Ven_ and _Fen_ and
_Cwen_ will all be identical: but I believe he might have taken a hint
from Bussæus, who, in addition to his note at p. 13., gives at p. 22. an
extract from the _Olaf Tryvassons Saga_, where "Finnland edr Quenland"
(Finland or Quenland) are found conjoined as synonyms. Professor Rask,
who gives the original text, and a Danish translation in the
_Transactions of the Shandinavish Litteratur Selkskab_ for 1815, as
"Otter og Wulfstans Korte Reideberetninger," &c., though laudatory in
the extreme of Porthan, and differing from him on some minor points, yet
fully agrees in finding the Cwen-Sea within the Baltic: and he seems to
divide this inland sea into two parts by a line drawn north and south
through Bornholm, of which the eastern part is called the Cwen or
Serminde, or Samatian Sea.

Be that as it may, the above is one of a series of deductions by which I
am prepared to prove, that as the land geography of Germany by Alfred is
restricted to the valleys of the Weichsel (Wisle), the Oder, the Elbe,
and the Weser, so the sea voyages are confined to the debouchures of
such of these rivers as flow into the Baltic. This would give a combined
action of purpose to both well suited to the genius of the monarch and
the necessities of an infant trade, requiring to be made acquainted with
coasts and countries accessible to their rude navigation and limited
commercial enterprise. So prudent a monarch would never have thought of
noting down, for the instruction and guidance of his subjects and
posterity, the account of a voyage which even now, after an interval of
ten centuries of continued nautical improvements, and since the
discovery of the compass, is not unattended with danger, nor
accomplished in less than a year's time wasted.

WILLIAM BELL, Phil. Dr.

British Archeological Association.

       *       *       *       *       *

REMARKABLE PROPOSITION CONCERNING IRELAND.

The following passage, which contains a curious proposition relating to
Ireland, will probably be new and interesting to many readers of "NOTES
AND QUERIES," since the book from which I extract it is a scarce one,
and not often read. Among the many various schemes that have of late
been propounded for the improvement of our sister country, this is
perhaps not the least remarkable, and shows that the _questio vexata_,
"What is to be done with Ireland?" is one of two centuries' standing.
James Harrington, in his _Oceana, the Introduction_, {180} (pp. 35, 36.,
Toland's Edition, 1700), speaking of Ireland under the name of Panopea,
says,--

    "Panopea, the soft Mother of a slothful and pusillanimous
    people, is a neighbor Iland, antiently subjected by the Arms of
    _Oceana_; since almost depopulated for shaking the Yoke, and at
    length replanted with a new Race. But (through what virtues of
    the Soil, or vice of the Air, soever it be), they com still to
    degenerat. Wherfore seeing it is neither likely to yield men fit
    for Arms, nor necessary it should; it had bin the Interest of
    _Oceana_ so to have dispos'd of this Province, being both rich
    in the nature of the Soil, and full of commodious Ports for
    Trade, that it might have bin order'd for the best in relation
    to her Purse, which, in my opinion (if it had been thought upon
    in time), might have bin best don by planting it with _Jews_,
    allowing them their own Rights and Laws; for that would have
    brought then suddenly from all parts of the World, and in
    sufficient numbers. And though the _Jews_ be now altogether for
    merchandize, yet in the Land of _Canaan_ (except since their
    exile, from whence they have not bin Landlords), they were
    altogether for Agriculture, and there is no cause why a man
    should doubt, but having a fruitful Country and excellent Ports
    too, they would be good at both. _Panopea_ well peopled, would
    be worth a matter of four millions of dry rents; that is besides
    the advantage of the Agriculture and Trade, which, with a Nation
    of that Industry, coms at least to as much more. Wherfore
    _Panopea_ being farm'd out to the Jews and their Heirs for ever,
    for the pay of a provincial Army to protect them during the term
    of seven years, and for two millions annual Revenue from that
    time forward, besides the customs which would pay the provincial
    Army, would have bin a bargain of such advantage both to them
    and this Commonwealth, as is not to be found otherwise by
    either. To receive the _Jews_ after any other manner into a
    Commonwealth, were to maim it; for they of all Nations never
    incorporat, but taking up the room of a Limb, are no use or
    office to the body, while they suck the nourishment which would
    sustain a natural and useful member."

HENRY KERSLEY

Corpus Christi Hall, Maidstone.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEWS.

A FEW _OLD_ MATERIALS FOR ITS ELUCIDATION.

    "_Novaum_, vulgo _Nouvelle_. Ugutio: '_Rumor, murmur, quod vulgo
    dicitur Novum._' Occurit non semel in Epistolis Marini Sanuti.
    'Novis de Obitu Papæ auditis,' in Regesta Universitatis Paris,
    an. 1394, _Spicileg. Acher._, tom vi. p. 60."

So far Ducange, who also refers to the following:

    "Supervenerunt nobis _Nova_ certa de morte, videlicet quorundam
    Nobilium, nobis adhærentium, captorum per partem dieti Philippi
    in Britannia, et de speciali Præcepto suo Parisiis ignominiosæ
    morti traditorum; nec non de Strage, &c. &c."--_Charta an_.
    1346, apud Rymer, t. v. p. 497.

The derivation of this word has been so strenuously and ably discussed
by the contending parties in your pages, that I have no intention of
interfering (non nostrum tantas componere lites) further than to furnish
a few materials bearing on the subject, which may not have come under
their notice.

It seems uncertain whether _Newes_ was considered by our ancestors
_plural_ or _singular_. Resolute John Florio is sadly inconsistent in
his use of it: in his _World of Wordes_, ed. 1598, we have:

    "_Nova_, newe, fresh, a noueltie, a _newe report_.

    "_Novella_, a tale, a nouell, a noueltie, a discourse, _a newes_
    a message."

In Queen Anna's _World of Wordes_, 1611:

    "_Nova_, a noueltie, _a new report_.

    "_Novella, a tiding, or newes_.

    "_Novellante_, a teller of _newes_ or _tidings_."

Here we have _newes_ treated both as _singular_ and _plural_! while we
have _tiding_ as the singular of _tidings_, a form which, from long
disuse, would now appear strange to us. In the following extract from
Florio's very amusing book of Dialogues, _Second Frutes_, 1591, he makes
_newes_ decidedly plural:--

    "_C_. What doo they say abroade? what _newes_ have you, Master
    Tiberio? _T_. Nothing that I know; can you tell whether the post
    be come? _C_. No, Sir; they saye in the Exchange that the great
    Turke makes great preparation to warre with the Persian. _T_.
    'Tis but a deuice; _these be newes_ cast abroade to feede the
    common sorte, I doo not beleeue them.... _C_. Yea, but _they_
    are written to verie worshipful merchants. _T_. By so much the
    lesse doo I beleeue them; doo not you know that euerie yeare
    _such newes are_ spreade abroade? _C_. I am almost of your
    minde, for I seldome see these written reports prove true. _T_.
    Prognostications, _newes_, deuices, and letters from forraine
    countries (good Master Cæsar), are but used as confections to
    feed the common people withal. _C_. A man must give no more
    credite to Exchange and Powles' _newes_ than to fugitiues
    promises and plaiers fables."

In Thomas's _Principal Rules of the Italian Grammer, with a
Dictionarie_, printed by Thomas Powell in 1562, but written in 1548, we
have--

    "_Novella_, a tale, a parable, or a _neweltee._

    "_Novelluzza_, an _ynkelyng_.

    "_Novellare_, to tell tales or _newes_."

In the title page of a rare little volume printed in 1616, we have the
adjective _new_ in apposition with the substantive _newes_, thus:

    "Sir Thomas Overburie his Wife, with new Elegies upon his (now
    knowne) untimely death. Whereunto are annexed _New Newes_ and
    Characters written by himselfe and other learned Gentlemen.
    Editio septima. London: printed by Edward Griffin for Lawrence
    Lisle, 1616, 12mo."

The head of one section is-- {181}

    "_Newes_ from any-whence, or, _Old Truth_ under a supposal of
    _Noueltie_."

Chaucer uses for _the newe_ and of _the newe_ (sc. fashion)
elliptically. _Tiding_ or _Tidings_, from the A.-S. Tid-an, evidently
preceded _newes_ in the sense of inteligence, and may not _newes_
therefore be an elliptic form of _new-tidinges_? Or, as our ancestors
had _newelté_ and _neweltés_, can it have been a contraction of the
latter? If we are to suppose with Mr. Hickson that _news_ was "adopted
bodily into the language," we must not go to the High-German, from which
our early language has derived scarcely anything, but to the
Neder-Duytsch, from the frequent and constant communication with the Low
Countries in the sixteenth century. The following passages from Kilian's
_Thesaurus_, printed by Plantin, at Antwerp, in 1573, are to the
purpose, and may serve to show how the word was formed:--

    "_Nieuwtijdinge_, oft _wat nieuws_, Nouvelles, Nuntius vel
    Nuntium."

    "_Seght ons wat nieuws_, Dicte nous quelquechose de nouveau,
    Recita nobis aliquid novi."

    "_Nieuwsgierich, nygierich_, Convoiteux de nouveautez, Cupidus
    novitatis."

I trust these materials may be acceptable to your able correspondents,
and tend to the resolution of the question at issue.

S.W. SINGER.

Mickleham, August 6. 1850.

"_News_," _Origin of the Word_ (Vol. i., pp. 270. 369. 487.; vol. ii.,
pp. 23. 81. 106.).--Your correspondents who have written upon this
subject may now have seen the following note in Zimperley's
_Encyclopædia_, p. 472.:--

    "The original orthography was _newes_, and in the singular.
    Johnson has, however, decided that the word _newes_ is a
    substantive without a singular, unless it be considered as
    singular. The word _new_, according to Wachter, is of very
    ancient use, and is common to many nations. The Britons, and the
    Anglo-Saxons, had the word, though not the thing. It was first
    printed by Caxton in the modern sense, in the _Siege of Rhodes_,
    which was translated by John Kay, the Poet Laureate, and printed
    by Caxton about the year 1490. In the _Assembly of Foulis_,
    which was printed by William Copland in 1530, there is the
    following exclamation:--

    "'Newes! newes! newes! have ye ony newes?'

    "In the translation of the _Utopia_, by Raphe Robinson, citizien
    and goldsmythe, which was imprinted by Abraham Nele in 1551, we
    are told, 'As for monsters, because they be no _newes_, of them
    we were nothynge inquysitive.' Such is the rise, and such the
    progress of the word _news_, which, even in 1551, was still
    printed _newes_!"

W.J.

Havre.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Charming for Warts_ (Vol. i., p. 19.; vol. ii. p. 150.).--In Lord
Bacon's _Sylva Sylvarum, or a Natural History in Ten Centuries_ (No.
997.), the great philosopher gives a minute account of the practice,
from personal experience, in the following words:--

    "The taking away of warts, by rubbing them with somewhat that
    afterwards is put to waste and consume, is a common experiment;
    and I do apprehend it the rather, because of mine own
    experience. I had from my childhood a wart upon one of my
    fingers; afterwards, when I was about sixteen years old, being
    then at Paris, there grew upon both my hands a number of warts
    (at least an hundred), in a month's space; the English
    Ambassador's lady, who was a woman far from superstition, told
    me one day she would help me away with my warts; whereupon she
    got a piece of lard with the skin on, and rubbed the warts all
    over with the fat side, and amongst the rest, that wart which I
    had from my childhood; then she nailed the piece of lard with
    the fat towards the sun, upon a post of her chamber window,
    which was to the south. The success was, that within five weeks'
    space all the warts went quite away, and that wart which I had
    so long endured for company; but at the rest I did little
    marvel, because they came in a short time and might go away in a
    short time again, but the going of that which had stayed so long
    doth yet stick with me. They say the like is done by rubbing of
    warts with a green elder stick, and then burying the stick to
    rot in muck."

J.M.B.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR NOTES.

_Capture of Henry the Sixth._--At Waddington in Mytton stands a pile of
building known as the "Old Hall," once antique, but now much indeed
despoiled of its beauty, where for some time the unfortunate king, Henry
the Sixth, was concealed after the fatal battle of Hexham, in
Northumberland. Quietly seated one day at dinner, "in company with Dr.
Manting, Dean of Windsor, Dr. Bedle, and one Ellarton," his enemies came
upon him by surprise, but he privately escaped by a back door, and fled
to Brungerley stepping-stones (still partially visible in a wooden
frame), where he was taken prisoner, "his legs tied together under the
horse's belly," and thus disgracefully conveyed to the Tower in London.
He was betrayed by one of the Talbots of Bashall Hall, who was then
high-sheriff for the West Riding. This ancient house or hall is still in
existence, but now entirely converted into a building for farming
purposes: "Sic transit gloria mundi." Near the village of Waddington,
there is still to be seen a meadow known by the name of "King Henry's
Meadow."

In Baker's _Chronicle_, the capture of the king is described as having
taken place "in _Lincolnshire_," {182} but this is evidently incorrect;
it is Waddington, in Mytton, West Yorkshire.

CLERICUS CRAVENSIS.


_The New Temple_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--As your correspondent is
interested in a question connected with the occupants of the New Temple
at the beginning of the fourteenth century, I venture to state, at the
hazard of its being of any use to him, that I have before me the
transcript of a deed, dated at Canterbury, the 16th of July, 1293, by
which two prebendaries of the church of York engage to pay to the Abbot
of Newenham, in the county of Devon, the sum of 200 marks sterling, at
the New Temple in London, in accordance with a bond entered into by them
before G. de Thornton and others, the king's justices.

S.S.S.

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES.

ESSAYES OF CERTAIN PARADOXES: POEM ON NOTHING.

Who was the author of a thin 4to. volume with the above title, printed
for Tho. Thorpe, 1616? The contents are, "The Praise of K. Richard the
Third--The French Poetes--Nothing--That it is good to be in Debt."

The late Mr. Yarnold has a MS. copy of the "Praise of K. Richard," to
which was prefixed the following dedication:--

    "TO THE HONOURABLE SIR HENRY NEVILL, KNIGHTE."

    "I am bolde to adventure to your honors viewe this small portion
    of my privatt labors, as an earnest peny of my love, beinge a
    mere Paradoxe in prayse of a most blame-worthie and condemned
    Prince, Kinge Richard the Third; who albeit I shold guilde with
    farre better termes of eloquence then I have don, and freate
    myself to deathe in pursuite of his commendations, yet his
    disgrace beinge so publicke, and the worlde so opinionate of his
    misdoings, as I shold not be able so farre to justifie him as
    they to condemne him. Yet that they may see what may be saide,
    and to shew how farre they haue mispraysed his vertues, this
    following Treatise shall make manyfest. Your honour may peruse
    and censure yt at your best leisure, and though yt be not trickt
    up wth elegance of phrase, yet may it satisfye a right curious
    judgmente, yf the reasons be considered as they ought. But,
    howsoever, yf you please to accepte it, I shall thinke my labors
    well bestowed; who, both in this and what ells may, devote
    myself to your honour, and rest,

    "Your honours most affectionat servant,

    "HEN. W."

The praise of Nothing is very well versified from the Latin of Passerat,
whose verses Dr. Johnson thought worthy of a place in his _Life of Lord
Rochester_. Besides Rochester's seventeen stanzas "Upon Nothing," there
appears to have been another copy of verses on this fertile subject; for
Flecknoe, in his _Epigrams of All Sorts_, 1671, has "Somewhat to Mr.
J.A. on his excellent poem of Nothing." Is _anything_ known of this
_Nothing_?

S.W. SINGER.

Mickleham, July 29. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR QUERIES.

_Papers of Perjury._--In Leicester's _Commonwealth_ occurs the following
passage:--

    "The gentlemen were all taken and cast into prison, and
    afterwards were sent down to Ludlow, there to wear _papers of
    perjury_."

Can any of your readers refer me to a _graphic_ account of the custom of
perjurers wearing papers denoting their crime, to which I suppose this
passage alludes?

S.R.


_Church Rates._--CH. would be obliged to any of your readers who could
refer him to the volume of either the _Gentleman's_ or the _British
Magazine_ which contains some remarks on the article on Church Rates in
Knight's _Political Dictionary_, and on Cyric-sceat.


_St. Thomas of Lancaster's Accomplices._--In No. 15. I find an extract
from Rymer, by MR. MONCKTON MILNES, relative to some accomplices of St.
Thomas of Lancaster, supposed to have worked miracles.--Query, Was "The
Parson of Wigan" one of these accomplices, and what was his name? Was he
ever brought to trial for aiding the Earl, preaching sedition in the
parish church of Wigan, and offering absolution to all who would join
the standard of the barons? and what was the result of that trial--death
or pardon?

CLERICUS CRAVENSIS.


_Prelates of France._--P.C.S.S. is desirous to know where he can meet
with an accurate list of the Archbishops and Bishops of France (or more
properly of their Sees) under the old _régime_.


_Lord Chancellor's Oath._--The gazette of the 16th July notified that
the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Wilde, in council, took the oath of Lord
Chancellor of Great Britain _and Ireland_ on the 15th inst.; and the
same gazette announced the direction of the Queen that letters patent be
passed granting the dignity of baron to the Right Hon. Sir Thomas Wilde,
Knt., Lord Chancellor of that part of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland called _Great Britain_.

Why, when he is only Chancellor of Great Britain, should he take the
oath of Chancellor of Great Britain _and Ireland_?

J.


_Mediæval Nomenclature._--In what work is to be obtained the best
information explanatory of the nomenclature of the useful arts in
mediæval times?

[Greek: delta]. {183}

_Sir Christopher Sibthorp._--Can any of your readers furnish me with
information as to the ancestry of Sir Christopher Sibthorp, whose name
appears in the title-page of the following tract: _A friendly
Advertisement to the pretended Catholics of Ireland, by Christopher
Sibthorp, Knt., one of H.M. Justices of his Court of Chief Place in
Ireland_, 1622, Dublin and also as to the crest, arms, and motto borne
by him.

DE BALDOC.


_Alarm_ (Vol. ii., p. 151.).--The derivation of _alarm_, and the French
_alarme_, from _à l'arme_, which your correspondent M. has reproduced,
has always struck me as unsatisfactory, and as of the class of
etymologies suspiciously ingenious. I do not venture to pronounce that
the derivation is wrong: I merely wish to ventilate a doubt through
"NOTES AND QUERIES," and invite some of your more learned readers to
lily to decide the question.

Of the identity of the words _alarm_ and _alarum_ there is no doubt. The
verb _alarm_ is spelt _alarum_ in old writers, and I have seen it so
spelt in manuscripts of Charles II.'s reign, but unfortunately have not
taken a "Note." Dr. Johnson says _alarum_ is a corruption of _alarm_.
Corruption, however, usually shortens words. I cannot help having a
notion that _alarum_ is the original word; and, though I may probably be
showing great ignorance in doing so, I venture to propound the following
Queries:--

1. How far back can the word _alarum_ be traced in our language, and how
far back _alarm_?

2. Can it be ascertained whether the French took _alarme_ from our
_alarm_, or we _alarm_ from them?

3. Can any explanation be given of _alarum_, supposing it to be the
original word? Is it a word imitative of sound?

_A l'arme_, instead of _aux armes_, adds to the suspiciousness of this
derivation.

CH.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPLIES.

SHAKSPEARE'S USE OF "DELIGHTED."

Although Dr. Kennedy does not think I have discovered the source from
whence Shakspeare's word _delighted_ is derived, I am gratified to find
that he concurs with me in drawing a distinction between this and the
more common word. His failure to convince me is a source almost of
regret, so happy do I regard the derivation he proposes in the last
passage cited. But in the passage from _Measure for Measure_, it does
not appear to me to express the sense which I deduce from the context;
and as I look upon the word in question as the same in each of the three
passages, I feel more inclined to adhere to my view, that it is a word
of English manufacture, according to the analogy referred to. I express
my opinion with hesitation and there can be no doubt the question is
deserving of full and attentive consideration.

Strengthened, however, in my main purpose, which was to show that
Shakspeare did not use _delighted_ in the ordinary sense of _highly
gratified_, I am better prepared to meet MR. HALLIWELL. This gentleman
does me no more than justice in the remark, not expressed, though, I
hope, implied, that I would not knowingly make use of an offensive
expression towards him or any living man; and I appreciate the courtesy
with which he has sweetened the uncomplimentary things he has felt
constrained to say of me. I trust it will be found that I can repay his
courtesy and imitate his forbearance. As a preliminary remark, however,
I must say that MR. HALLIWELL, in his haste, has confounded the "cool
impertinence" for which I censured one editor, with the "cool
correction" which was made by another; and, moreover, has referred the
remark to _Measure for Measure_, which I applied to the notes to the
passage in _Othello_. As I have not yet learned to regard the term
"delightful" as an _active participle_, it is evident that, however
"cool" I may consider the correction, I have not called it an
"impertinence." But he has no mind that I should escape so easily; and
therefore, like a true knight-errant, he adopts the cause without
hesitation, as though to be first satisfied of its goodness would be
quite inconsistent in its champion.

When I am charged with an "entire want of acquaintance with the
grammatical system" employed by Shakspeare, I might take exception to
the omission of the words "as understood by Mr. Halliwell," this
gentleman assuming the very point in question between us. I believe he
has paid particular attention to this subject; but he must not conclude
that all who presume to differ from him "judge Shakspeare's grammar by
Cobbett or Murray." And if I were disposed to indulge in as sweeping an
expression, I should say that the remark excites a suspicion of the
writer's want of acquaintance with the spirit of Shakspeare's works. I
do not think so, though I think MR. HALLIWELL has formed his opinion
hastily; and I think, moreover, that before I have ended, I shall
convince him that it would not have been amiss had he exercised a little
more reflection ere he began. In the passage in _Othello_, I object to
the substitution of _delighting_ or _delightful_ for _delighted_, as
_weak_ epithets, and such as I do not believe that Shakespeare would
have used. It was not as a schoolmaster or grammarian, but in reference
to the peculiar fitness and force of his expressions, and his perfect
acquaintance with the powers of the English language, and his _mastery_
over it, that I called Shakespeare its greatest master.

But to return to the first passage I cited--that from _Measure for
Measure_,--MR. HALLIWELL will be surprised to find that in the _only_
remark I made {184} upon it as it stands he actually agrees with me. I
said that the passage "in our sense of the term" is unintelligible. I
still say so; and he who attempts to mend it, or modernise the form,
says so too. The question next arises, Does he not mean _no system_,
when he says _system_? Otherwise, why does he say that Shakspeare uses
the passive for the active participle, when he explains the word not by
the active participle, but by an adjective of totally different meaning?
Is it not more likely that MR. HALLIWELL may have misunderstood
Shakspeare's system, than that the latter should have used intelligible
words, and precise forms of words, so at random? And, moreover, does not
the critic confound two meanings of the word _delightful_; the one
obsolete, _full of delight_, the other the common one, _giving delight_,
or _gratifying_?

Now by a violent figure which Shakspeare sometimes uses, _delighted may_
mean _delightful_ in the _former_ sense; perhaps, rather, _filled with
delight_. The word then would be formed directly from the noun, and must
not be regarded as a participle at all, but rather an ellipsis, from
which the verb (which may be represented by _give_, _fill_, _endow_,
&c.) is omitted. Take, as an instance, this passage in _Measure for
Measure_:--

  "_Clau._ Death is a fearful thing!

  "_Isa._ And _shamed_ life a hateful."

The meaning here is not _life ashamed_, but _life covered with shame_.
In this sense MR. HALLIWELL, apparently without knowing why, has adopted
the term _delightful_; but then the two succeeding words of his
explanation, "sweet, pleasant", he would appear to have taken at random
from a dictionary, forgetting that he was not using the word in its
ordinary sense; for it is not possible that he can suppose Shakspeare to
have used the word in the sense of the active participle. Now, though I
do not think this at all the expression that Shakspeare would use, it is
undoubtedly allowable as a general characteristic; but the word actually
used would appear to imply the result of a particular action, which
would have been productive of anything but delight. In short, as we are
agreed that the word _delighted_ in the passage in question in its
present sense is unintelligible, so also are we, I think, agreed that
the substitute, if any, must be used in a passive sense.

Now, with regard to the first instance furnished by MR. HALLIWELL of the
use of the passive for the active participle, if I were sure that the
delinquent were well out of hearing, and not likely "to rise again and
push us from our stools," I should be disposed to repeat the charge of
impertinence against the editor who altered "professed" to "professing".
The word _professed_ is one of common use, and in the present instance
perfectly intelligible. "To your bosom, _professed_ to entertain so much
love and care for our father, I commit him," seems to express the sense
of the passage: a doubt is implied by the expression, but there is a
directness of insult in the term _professing_ quite inconsistent with
the character of Cordelia.

"Becomed love" is love suited or fitted to the occasion. The use of the
passive participle is every way more appropriate than that of the
active, though the latter is more common now.

In the next instance, I have to observe that there is no such verb as
_to guile_. _Guile_ is a noun; and "guiled shore" is _guile-covered_, or
_charactered shore_. According to this rule, the modern word _talented_,
that is, _talent-endowed_, has been formed, it not having been
considered that licences are allowed in poetry that are unsuited to
ordinary language.

The passage next referred to is conditional, and I regard the use of the
passive participle here, too, as correct.

I have thus reduced MR. HALLIWELL'S list to that number which usually
forms the exception rather than the rule; and if accident, misprint,
error in copying, or other special circumstance be not held sufficient
to account for the single remaining instance, I have then only to say
that I prefer _deformed_ to _deforming_, as an epithet applied
disparagingly to Time's hand as more in accordance with Shakspeare's
practice, who was not in the habit of repeating the same idea, which, in
the latter case, would occur again in the word "defeatures" in the
following line.

MR. HALLIWELL may, doubtless find other instances, perhaps more
felicitous than these; at present, all I can say is that he has failed
to show that the use of the passive for the active participle was common
with Shakspeare. As to other variations between the grammatical usage of
Shakspeare's day and that of our own, I call assure him that I am not
quite so ignorant of the fact as he imagines.

SAMUEL HICKSON

August 1. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENGLISH COMEDIANS IN GERMANY.

I am glad to be enabled to reply to MR. BOLTON CORNEY'S Query (Vol. i.,
p. 439.) respecting a German book of plays.

The learned illustrator of the _Curiosities of Literature_ would find
the information he desires in the _Vorrath zur Geschichte der deutschen
dramatischen Dichtkunst_ of the formerly celebrated J. Christoph
Gottsched (Leipzig, 1767-69, 2 vols. 8vo.). But as this book, now
somewhat neglected, would perhaps be difficult to be found even in the
British Museum, I will transcribe the contents of the _Schau-Bühne
englischer und franzõsischer Comõdianten auff welcher werden vorgestellt
die schõnsten und neuesten Comõdien, so vor wenig Jahren in Frankreich,
Teutschland und andern Orten ... seynd agirt und präsentirt
worden_.--_Frankfurt_, {185} 1670, 3 vols. 8vo.

Vol. I.--

1. Amor der Arzt.
2. Die Comödia ohne Comödia.
3. Die köstliche Lächerlichkeit.
4. Der Hahnrey in der Einbildung.
5. Die Hahnreyinn nach der Einbildung.
6. Die Eyfreude mit ihr Selbst.
7. Antiochus, ein Tragicomödia.
8. Die buhlhaffte Mutter.
9. Damons Triumph-Spiel.

Vol. II.--

10. Von Sidonia und Theugene.
11. Der Verliebtell Kllnstgriffe.
12. Lustiges Pickelharings-Spiel, darum er mit
einem Stein gar artige Possen macht.
13. Von Fortunato seinem Wünschhütlein und
Seckel.
14. Der unbesonnene Liebhaber.
15. Die grossmüthige Thaliklea.

Vol. III.--

16. Vom Könige Ahasvero und Esther und dem
hoffartigen Hamon.
17. Vom verlohrnen Sohn, in welchem die Verzweifflung
und Hoffnung gar artig introducirt werden.
18. Von Königs Mantalors unrechtmässiger Liebe
und derselben Straffe.
19. Der Geitzige.
20. Von der Aminta und Sylvia.
21. Macht den kleinen Knaben Cupidinis.
22. George Damlin, oder der verwirrte Ehmann.

Some years before, another similar collection had been published. The
first vol. printed in 1620, and reprinted in 1624, has this title:

    "Englische Comedien und Tragedien, d. i. Sehr schöne, herrliche
    und ausserlosene, geist- und weltliche Comedi- und Tragedi-Spiel
    (sic), sampt dem Pickelhering, welche wegen ihrer artigen
    Inventionen kurtzweiligen auch theils wahrhafftigen Geschichte
    halbet, _von den Engelländern in Deutschland_ (I beg to notice
    these words) an Königlichen, Chur- und Furstlichen Höfen, auch
    in vornehmen Reichs- See- und Handel Städten seynd agirt und
    gehalten worden, und zuvor nie im Druck aussgangen."

The volume contains 10 plays. The 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10, are the 16, 17,
13, 10, and 12, of the collection of 1670. The other five are the
following:

4. Eine schöne lustige Comödia von Jemand und Niemand.
7. Tragödia von Julio und Hippolyto.
8. Eine sehr klägliche Tragödia von Tito Andromico
und hoffertigen Kayserinn, darinnen denkwürdigen
Actiones zu befinden.
9. Ein lustig Pickelherings-Spiel von der schönen
Mario und alten Hanrey.

The second volume was published in 1630, under the title _Lieberkampff,
oder ander Theil der Englischen Comödien_: it contains 8 plays. The 1st
is the 21st of the collection of 1670, with this addition:

    Die Personen der Lustspiels sind: 1. Venus, _die stumme Person_;
    2. Cupido; 3. Jucunda, _Jungfraw_; 4. Floretus, _Liebhaber_; 5.
    Balendus, _Betrieger_; 6. Corcillana, _Kuplerin_; 7. Hans Worst.

The 2d is the 20th of the same collection, "mit 9 Personen, worunter die
lustige Person Schräm heisst."

    3. Comoedia von Prob getrewer Lieb, mit 11 Personen, worunter
    auch eine allegorische, der Traum ist.

The 4th is the 18th, "mit 9 Personen, worunter die lustige Schampilasche
_Lean Potage_ heisst."

The four remaining are operas, without particular titles.

Ebert (_Bibliogr. Lexicon_, N. 5064.), speaking of these collections,
says, "the plays they are composed of are not translations from the
English," but, "as it appears," German original works.

I am at a loss to understand how that bibliographer, generally so exact,
did not recognise at least five comedies of Molière. MR. BOLTON CORNEY
will, I wish and hope, point out the originals--English, Italian, and, I
suppose, Spanish--of some others.

If you think proper to make use of the above, I entreat you, for the
sake of your readers, to correct my bad English, and to consider my
communication only as a token of the gratification I have found in your
amusing and useful "NOTES AND QUERIES."

D.L.

Ancien Membre de la Société des Bibliophiles.

Béthune, July 31. 1850.

P.S.--The Query (Vol. i., p. 185.) concerning the name of the Alost,
Louvain, and Antwerp printer, _Martens_ or _Mertens_, is settled in the
note, p. 68., of _Recherches sur la Vie et les Editions de Thierry
Martens (Martinus, Martens)_, par J. De Gand, 8vo. Alost, 1845. I am
ready to send a copy of the note if it is required.

[We have also received a reply to MR. CORNEY'S Query from MR. ASHER of
Berlin, who refers for particulars of this interesting collection to
Tieck's Preface to his _Alt-Deutsche Theater_. We propose shortly
returning to the curious fact of English comedians performing in Germany
at the close of the sixteenth and commencement of the seventeenth
centuries: a subject which has several times been discussed and
illustrated in the columns of our valuable contemporary _The Athenæum_.]

       *       *       *       *       *

ACHILLES AND THE TORTOISE.
(Vol. ii., p. 154.)

This paradox, whilst one of the oldest on record (being attributed by
Aristotle to Zeus Eleates, B.C. 500), is one of the most perplexing,
upon first presentation to the mind, that can be selected {186} from the
most ample list. Its professed object was to disprove the phenomenon of
motion; but its real one, to embarrass an opponent. It has always
attracted the attention of logicians; and even to them it has often
proved embarrassing enough. The difficulty does not lie in proving that
the conclusion is absurd, but in _showing where the fallacy lies_. From
not knowing the precise kind of information required by [Greek:
Idiotaes], I am unwilling to trespass on your valuable space by any
irrelevant discussion, and confine myself to copying a very judicious
note from Dr. Whateley's _Logic_, 9th edit. p. 373.

    "This is one of the sophistical puzzles noticed by Aldrich, but
    he is not happy in his attempt at a solution. He proposes to
    remove the difficulty by demonstrating that in a certain given
    time, Achilles _would_ overtake the tortoise; as if any one had
    ever doubted _that_. The very problem proposed, is to surmount
    the difficulty of a seeming demonstration of a thing palpably
    impossible; to show that _it is_ palpably impossible, is no
    solution of the problem.

    "I have heard the present example adduced as a proof that the
    pretensions of logic are futile, since (it was said) the most
    perfect logical demonstration may lead from true premises to an
    absurd conclusion. The reverse is the truth; the example before
    us furnishes a confirmation of the utility of an acquaintance
    with the syllogistic form, _in which form the pretended
    demonstration in question cannot be exhibited_. An attempt to do
    so will evince the utter want of connection between the premises
    and the conclusion."

What the Archbishop says is true, and it disposes of the question as one
of "Formal Logic:" but yet the form of the sophism is so plausible, that
it imposes with equal force on the "common sense" of all those who
repose their conclusions upon the operations of that faculty. With them
a different procedure is necessary; and I suspect that if any one of the
most obstinate advocates of the sufficiency of common sense for the
"balancing of evidence" were to attempt the explanation of a hundred
fallacies that could be presented to him, he would be compelled to admit
that a more powerful and a more accurate machine would be of advantage
to him in accomplishing his task. This machine the syllogism supplies.

The discussion of Gregory St. Vincent will be found at pages 101-3. of
his _Opus Geometricum_, Antw., 1647 fol. The principle is the same as
that which Aldrich afterwards gave, as above referred to by Dr.
Whateley. I can only speak from memory of the discussion of Leibnitz,
not having his works at hand; but I am clear in this, that his principle
again is the same. [Greek: Idiotaes] is in error, however, in calling
St. Vincent's "a geometrical treatment" of it. He indeed uses lines to
represent the spaces passed over; and their discussion occurs in a
chapter on what is universally (but very absurdly) called "geometrical
proportion." It is yet no more _geometrical_ than our school-day problem
of the basket and the hundred eggs in Francis Walkinghame. Mere names do
not bestow character, however much _philosophers as well as legislators_
may think so. All attempts of the kind have been, and must be, purely
numerical.

T.S.D.

Shooter's Hill, August 3.


_Achilles and the Tortoise._--Your correspondent will find references
in the article "Zeno (of Elea)" in the _Penny Cyclopædia_. For Gregory
St. Vincent's treatment of the problem, see his _Quadratara Circuli_,
Antwerp, 1647, folio, p. 101., or let it alone. I suspect that the
second is the better reference. Zeno's paradox is best stated, without
either Achilles or tortoise, as follows:--No one can go a mile; for he
must go over the first half, then over half the remaining half, then
over half the remaining quarter; and so on _for ever_. Many books of
logic, and many of algebra, give the answer to those who cannot find it.

M.

       *       *       *       *       *

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES

"_Barum_" and "_Sarum_" (Vol. ii., p. 21.)--The formation of the first
of these words has not yet been accounted for. I must premise my attempt
to supply an explanation by admitting that I was not aware it was in
common use as a contraction for Barnstaple. I think it will be found
that the contracted form of that name is more usually "Berdest,"
"Barnst". In trying further to contract the word, the two last letters
would be omitted, and it would then be "Barñ", with the circumflex
showing the omission of several letters. Having reduced it to this
state, an illiterate clerk would easily misread the circumflex for the
plain stroke "-," expressing merely the omission of the letter "m", and,
perhaps ignorant of the name intended, think it as well to write at full
length "Barum."

J. Br.


_Countess of Desmond_ (Vol. ii., p. 153.)--It is stated in Turner's
_Sacred History_, vol. iii. p. 283., that the Countess of Desmond died
in 1612, aged 145. This is, I presume, the correct date of her decease,
and not 1626 as mentioned by your querist K.; for in Lord Bacon's
_History of Life and Death_, originally published in 1623, her death is
thus alluded to:--

    "The Irish, especially the Wild Irish, even at this day, live
    very long. Certainly they report that within these few years the
    Countess of Desmond lived to a hundred and forty years of age,
    and bred teeth three times."

The manner of her death is recorded by Mr. Crofton Croker, in his
agreeable volume of _Researches in the South of Ireland_, 4to. London,
1824. {187} Speaking of Drumana, on the Blackwater, a little above
Youghall, as the "reputed birth-place of the long-lived Countess of
Desmond," he says,--

    "In this part of the country, her death is attributed to a fall
    whilst in the act of picking an apple from a tree in an orchard
    at Drumana."

In the _Olla Podrida_, a volume of miscellanies, printed for private
distribution, by Mr. Sainthill of Cork, there is a portrait of the "old
countess," from an etching made by Mr. Crofton Croker (if I mistake not)
in his early days.

J.M.B.


_Michael Servetus, alias Reves._--The manuscript, the character and fate
of which S.H. (Vol. ii., p. 153.) is anxious to investigate, contained
books iii.-vii., inclusive, of the work of Servetus _De Trinitate_; and
as these fragments differed somewhat from the printed text, they were
probably the first, or an early, draft (not necessarily in the author's
handwriting) of part of the _Christianismi Restitutio_. The purchaser of
this MS., at the sale of Du Fay's library in Paris in the year 1725, was
the Count de Hoym, ambassador to France from Poland. I beg to refer your
correspondent to pp. 214-18. of the _Historia Michaelis Serveti_, by
Henr. ab Allwoerden, published with Mosheim's approbation, Helmstad
1728.

Both a "Note" and a "Query" might be founded on a memorable passage in
the fifth book _De Trinitate_, in which Servetus, long before Harvey,
explains the circulation of the blood.

R.G.


_Caxton's Printing-office_ (Vol. ii., pp. 99. 122. 142.).--It is a pity
MR. NICHOLS did not take the trouble to see, and, having seen, to notice
in his first communication, that Abbot Islip was mentioned in the
passage from Stow's _Survey_ cited by MR. RIMBAULT. As that gentleman
quotes from, I believe, the second edition of the _Survey_, I may be
allowed to doubt, until it is clearly shown, that "Islip's name has been
introduced by the error of some subsequent writer." But supposing this
to be so, it would in no way affect the only question which is material,
Who was Caxton's patron? nor touch the accuracy of the _Life of Caxton_,
which MR. NICHOLS seems desirous of impeaching. I am anxious to point
this out, because I feel it right to vindicate to the utmost, where they
deserve it, useful works, which, like the little volume I am writing of,
are published at a price that ensures for them a circulation of almost
unlimited extent.

ARUN.


_Somagia_ (Vol. ii., p. 120.).--This is the plural of "somagium,"
"summagium," and means "horse-loads." It is a word frequently found in
documents relating to agrarian matters, and may signify the load packed
upon the horse's back (whence the name "sumpter-horse"), or in a cart
drawn by a horse. MR. SANSOM will find a full explanation of the
derivatives of its root, "sagma," at p. 50., vol. vii., of Ducange.

J.BT.


_Various Modes of Interment among the Ancients_ (Vol ii., pp. 8, 9. 22.
41. 78.).--In modes of interment some nations have been distinguished by
an idiosyncrasy almost incredible from their inhumanity.

    "Barcæi, populi inter Colchos et Iberos morbo absumptos igni
    comburebant, sed qui in bello fortiter occubuissent, honoris
    gratia vulturibus devorandos objiciebant."--.AElian. _Hist.
    Anim._ lib. x. "In Hyrcania (refert Cicero in _Tusc. Quæst._
    lib. i. 45.) ali canes solitos fuisse, a quibus delaniarentur
    mortui, eamque optimam Hyrcanos censuisse
    sepulturam."--Kirchmannus _de Funer. Romanorum._

The appendix to this work may be consulted for this, and yet greater
violations of the law of nature and nations.

    "Apud saniores barbaros ab animalibus discerpi cadavera foedum
    semper ac miserabile creditum fuit. Foetus abortivi feris
    alitibutsque exponebantur in montibus aut locis aliis
    inaccessis, quin et ipsi infantes, &c. Fuit hæc Asinina
    sepultura _poena_ Tyrannorum ac perduellium. (Spondan. _de
    Coemet. S._ pp. 367. 387. et seqq.) Quam et victorum insolentia
    odiumque vulgi implacabile in hostes non raro
    exercuit."--Ursinus _Arbor. Biblicum._

Hyde accounts for the Persians who embraced the religion of the Magi not
having adopted the two contrivances of corporal dissolution prevalent
among civilised nations--cremation or burning, and simple inhumation--by
the superstitious reverence with which they regarded the four elements.
Sir T. Browne remarks that similar superstitions may have had the same
effect among other nations.

Of the post-mortem _punishments_ described by Ducange, the former was
the customary sepulture of the Trogloditæ; the latter corresponds with
the rite of some of the Scythians recorded by Statius:

  "At gente in Scythica suffixa cadavera truncis,
  Lenta dies sepelit putri liquentia tabo."

I shall be obliged if you or a correspondent disposed "not only to teach
but to communicate," will kindly throw light on a passage, relating to
the Troloditæ, in Strabo, book xvi., where he relates, "Capræ cornu
mortuis saxorum cumulo coopertis fuisse superimpositum."

T.J.


_Guy's Porridge-pot_ (Vol. ii., p. 55.).--Your correspondent is quite
correct, when he says "neither the armour nor pot belonged to the noble
Guy." He would have been a _guy_ if he _had_ worn the armour, seeing
that it was made for a horse, and not for a man.

What the stout old lady who showed us the "relics of old Guy" in 1847
called "Guy's breastplate," and sometimes his helmet! is the "croupe" of
a suit of horse armour, and "another breastplate" a "poitrel." His
porridge-pot is a garrison {188} crock of the sixteenth century, used to
prepare "sunkits" for the retainers; and the fork a military fork temp.
Hen. VIII.

The so called "Roman swords" are "anelaces," and a couteau de chasse of
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

The "British weapon" is a hammer at arms temp. Hen. VIII., and "the
halbert" a black bill temp. Hen. VII. The only weapons correctly
described are the Spanish rapiers.

The shield with the "sight" is very curious; it weighs thirty pounds,
and is of the temp. of Henry VIII.

It is impossible to describe the horror of the old lady at our doubting
her version; she seemed to wonder the earth did not open and swallow us
for our heresy.

NASO.


  "_Welcome the coming, speed the parting Guest_"
  (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--

  "Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest,"

is from Pope (_Imitations of Horace_, book ii. sat. ii.).

Pope's distich, whence the line is taken, runs,--

  "For I, who hold sage Homer's rule the best,
  Welcome the coming, speed the _going_ guest."

Query. Where is "sage Homer's rule" to be found?

RUSTICUS.

[The following additional reply furnishes a solution of the Query of
RUSTICUS:--

  "True friendship's laws are by this rule express'd,
  Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest."

These lines are from Pope's _Homer_, the Odyssey, Book xv., lines 83 and
84.

E.H.]


"_A Chrysostom to smoothe his Band in_" (Vol. ii., p. 126.).--This Query
by Rev. ALFRED GATTY is answered by referring him to the _Happy Life of
a Country Parson_, by Swift, beginning with--

  "Parson, these things in thy possessing,
  Are worthy of a bishop's blessing."

And enumerating amongst them

  "A large Concordance bound long since,
  Sermons to Charles the First when prince,
  A chronicle of ancient standing,
  A chrysostom to smoothe thy band in;
  The polyglott--three parts--my text,
  Howbeit--likewise--to my next."

T.H.Q.

[C.I.R. (to whom we are indebted for a similar reference) adds the
concluding line--

  "And shake his head at Doctor Swift."

which would show that the verses were written not earlier than 1701, as
Swift, the author, took his D.D. degree in that year.]


_William of Wykeham_ (Vol. ii., p. 89.).--

    "Historica descriptio compleetens vitam ac res gestas beatissimi
    viri Guilmi Wicanii quondam Vintoniensis episcopi et Angliæ
    Cancellarii et fundatoris duorum collegiorum Oxoniæ et
    Vintoniæ."

is the title of a biography of William of Wykeham attributed to Thomas
Martin, published in 4to. Oxford, 1597.

There is also a little work which may come under the head of
biographies, viz.:

    "Uvedale (Robert) Examination of Lowth's objections to the
    account given by Leland of the parentage of William of Wykeham,"
    8vo. 1801.

_Vide_ Oettinger's _Bibliographie Biographique_.

S.W.


_Dutch Language_ (Vol. ii., p. 77.).--H.B.C. recommends, among other
works, Hendrik Conscience's novels. These are in Flemish, not Dutch. The
difference may not be great between the two; but one would hardly
recommend to a learner of English, Burns's _Poems_ as a reading-book. In
1829 Dr. Bowring wrote an article, being a sketch of Dutch literature,
in the _Foreign Quarterly Review_; which article was reprinted in
Amsterdam in the form of an 18mo. volume, and which I believe is still
to be got, and is a very useful guide to Dutch literature.

S.W.


"_A frog he would_" &c. (Vol. ii., p. 45. and elsewhere).--I remember,
when a boy, to have heard an old aunt repeatedly sing this song; but the
chorus was very strange.

  "A frog he would a-wooing ride,
    With a rigdum bullydimy kymy;
  With sword and buckler by his side,
    With a rigdum bullydimy kymy.
  Kymyary kelta cary kymyary kymy,
    Strimstram paradiddle larrabona ringting,
  Rigdum bullydimy kymy."

A.


_City Sanitary Laws_ (Vol. ii., p. 99.).--The act of Parliament
prohibiting the slaughter of cattle within the city, referred to in the
passage from _Arnold's Chronicle_, extracted by your correspondent
T.S.D. is the 4 Hen. VII. c. 3., which enacts that--

    "No butcher shall kill any flesh within his scalding-house, or
    within the walls of London, in pain to forfeit for every ox so
    killed 12d. and for every other beast 8d., to be divided between
    the king and the prosecutor."--Bohun's _Privilegia Londini_
    1723, p. 480.

Brydall, in his _Camera Regis_ (Lond. 1666, p. 114.), quotes the statute
of 11 Hen. VII. c. 21, as the authority for the "singularity" attaching
to the city, that "butchers shall kill no beasts in London." I believe,
however, Bohun's reference will be found to be the correct one. The
statute in question has, I think, never been repealed; but in the
absence of abbatoirs, or other proper provision for the slaughtering of
cattle without the walls of the city, it seems doubtful whether the
{189} pains and penalties to which the "contrary doers" were liable,
were at any time strictly enforced.

JAMES T. HAMMACK.


_Sanitary Laws of other Days_ (Vol. ii., p. 99.).--The statute referred
to by T.S.D. in his article, by which "it is ordeigned y't no such
slaughter of best shuld be used or had within this cite," was no doubt 4
& 5 Henry VII. c. 3., intituled "An Act that no Butcher slea any Manner
of Beast within the walls of London." The penalty is only twelvepence
for an ox or a cow, and eightpence for any smaller animal. The act
itself seems unrepealed, but the penalties are too small at the present
day to abate the nuisance.

C.R. SOC.


_Michael Scott, the Wizard_ (Vol. ii., p. 120.).--I have now lying
before me a small duodecimo, Lugdini, 1584, entitled--

    "Alberti Magni de Secretis Mulierum libellus, scholiis auctus et
    a mendis repurgatus,"

to which is appended a work of the wizard's "ob materiæ similitudinem,"

    "Michaelis Scoti philosophi De Secretis Naturæ Opusculum."

E.S.T.


_Clerical Costume_ (Vol. ii., p. 22.).--Possibly the answer to this
Query may be found in the passage from Bacon's _History of Life and
Death_, in the third part of the _Instauratio Magna_, which I copy below
from Craik's _Bacon and his Writings_, vol. iii. p. 45.:--

    "Some report that they have found great benefit in the
    conservation of their health by wearing scarlet waistcoats next
    their skin and under their shirts, as well down to their nether
    parts as on the upper."

From the quantity of serge bought, as well as from the nature of the
material, I think it likely it might be required for the purpose here
noticed by Bacon, and not for an outer waistcoat.

ARUN.


_The Curfew_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--As NABOC can, I imagine, only get a
perfect list of the places where the curfew is still rung by the
contributions of scattered correspondents, I will furnish my mite by
informing him that a very short time ago it was rung at Sturminster
Newton in Dorsetshire.

J. BT.


_Welsh Language; Armenian Language_ (Vol. ii., p. 136.).--JARLTZBERG
will find no Welsh dictionary with the part reversed. I possess a
dictionary in Welsh and English, in two volumes, by Pugh, published in
1832, which is one of the best. The one in two volumes by Walters is in
English and Welsh, and is also one of the best. The four volumes would
make a good dictionary. The best grammar is, I think, Pugh's. See the
Welsh bookseller in Holywell Street: I believe his name is Williams.

Father Chamick compiled the _History of Armenia_ from the historical
works of several authors, which was published at Venice in 1786; and in
1811 an abridgment thereof, which was translated by Mr. Acdall, of
Calcutta, in 1827. See Messrs. Allen and Co.'s _Catalogue of Oriental
Works_, at whose house these, and translations of other works
(particularly the _History of Vartan_ and the _Memoirs of Artemi_), may
be procured. I think JARLTZBERG will find a dictionary in Armenian and
French. I saw a notice of one a short time since. (See Bernard
Quaritch.) In 1841, Peterman published at Berlin, _Porta Ling. Orient.,
sive Elementa Ling. Syr., Chald., Arab._, &c. &c., which I think
contains an Armenian grammar. See Williams and Norgate; also a list of
Klaproth's works.

AREDJID KOOEZ.


_Armenian Language_ (Vol. ii., p. 136.).--In reply to JARLTZBERG, I can
answer that Lord Byron did not compose the English part of Aucher's
_Armenian and English Grammar_. A very learned friend of mine was at St.
Lazero, in Venice, and knew both Aucher and Lord Byron. Lord Byron was
taking lessons in Armenian, and a few of his exercises were introduced
into Aucher's _Grammar_, which was written for Armenians to learn
English, with which language Aucher was quite familiar, having resided
four years in London. But a new _Armenian and English Grammar_ has
recently been published. There is one, very rare, in Armenian and Latin,
and another in Armenian, modern Greek, and Italian. I have just seen
John Bunyan's _Pilgrim's Progress_ in _vulgar_ Armenian, with plates,
published at Smyrna; and the _Prayers of St. Nierses_, in twenty-four
languages, Venice, 1837, of which Armenian is one. Several works in
Armenian have been published at Calcutta.

HENRY WILKINSON.

Brompton.


_North Sides of Churchyards unconsecrated_ (Vol. ii., p. 55.).--The
strong preference given to the south side of the churchyard is traceable
to two principal causes; first and chiefly, because the churchyard cross
was always placed here; secondly, because this is the sunny side of the
churchyard. The cross, the emblem of all the Christian's hopes, the
bright sun shining on the holy ground, figurative of the sun of
righteousness, could not fail to bring to mind the comforting assurance
that they who slept around would one day rise again. And as the greater
part of the congregation entered the church by the south and principal
door, another cause of the preference was the hope that the sight of the
resting places of those of their friends and neighbours who had died in
the communion of the church, might remind the survivors each time they
repaired to the house of prayer to remember them in their supplications.
{190} There is not, however, I believe, the slightest reason for
considering that the north side of the churchyard was left
unconsecrated, nor do I think it possible that such could ever be the
case, inasmuch as all consecrated ground was required to be fenced off
from that which was unhallowed. But the north side has always been
considered inferior to the south. For example;--excommunicated persons
were at one time buried outside the precincts of the churchyard, which,
of course, would not have been necessary if any part had been left
unconsecrated, nor are instances of this practice wanting since the
Reformation.[1] And when discipline began to be relaxed, and murderers
were interred even within the church itself, it was still on the north
side.[2] It is very usual in small country parishes to find the north
side of the churchyard without a single grave, nor is it generally
resorted to until the south side is fully occupied. It would be
difficult to mention another instance of a prejudice so universal,
existing so long after the causes of it have mainly passed away.

I cannot conclude without expressing the extreme interest which, though
he seems not to be aware of it, attaches to the statement of your
correspondent, to the effect that he had on two occasions, namely, on
the Revel Sunday, and on another festival, observed the game of football
in a churchyard in the West of England. It is, indeed, interesting to
find that relics of a custom which, however repugnant to our notions,
was sanctioned by the highest authority in the best days of our church,
still linger in some of our rural districts; thus amply bearing out the
mention made by Bishop Peirs more than two centuries ago, of the
attachment of the people of the west to, and "how very much they desired
the continuance of," these ancient celebrations. For the letter of the
prelate, which was addressed to Archbishop Laud, and for many valuable
details with respect to dedication festivals, and the observance of
Sundays in former times, I would refer those who take an interest in the
matter to the _Hierurgia Anglicanæ_.

ARUN.

[Footnote 1: See Parish Register of Hart, Durham, December 17th, 1596;
of St. Nicholas, Newcastle, December 31st 1664.]

[Footnote 2: Parish Register of St. Nicholas, Newcastle August 1st,
1616, and August 13th, 1620.]


"_Sir Hilary charged at Agincourt_."--Your correspondent B.H.C, who, at
Vol. ii, p. 158., inquires after the author and answer to this charade,
might leave easily ascertained that the author was the late Mackworth
Praed, and that the answer is "Good-night." I believe your correspondent
has been guilty of some verbal inaccuracies, which makes the answer
appear not so pertinent to his version as it really is; but I have not
the original at hand. Some few years ago, the charade appeared in a
Cambridge paper, with a story about Sir Walter Scott having sent it
anonymously to Queen Adelaide. This was contradicted, and the real
author named in a subsequent number of the newspaper, and a metrical
solution given, amongst others, of the charade, with which, though I
believe I could recollect it, I will not trouble the Editor of "NOTES
AND QUERIES." I think the charade first appeared in a cheap periodical,
which was set on foot by the parties concerned in _Knight's Quarterly_.

J.H.L.


"_Sir Hilary charged at Agincourt_" (Vol. ii., p. 158).--This enigma was
written by the late Winthrop Mackworth Praed, and appeared in _Knight's
Quarterly Magazine_, vol. ii. p. 469.: whether solved or soluble, I
cannot say.

May I here express my concurrence in an opinion expressed in a very
recent number of the _Examiner_, that a collected edition of Mr. Praed's
poems is wanted?

C.H. COOPER.

Cambridge, August 5. 1850.


_Unicorn_ (Vol. ii., p. 136.).--King James I. abandoned the red dragon
of Henry VII. as one of the supporters of the royal arms of England, and
substituted the unicorn, one of the supporters of the royal arms of
Scotland.

S.S.S.


_Abbey of St. Wandrille, Normandy_ (Vol. i., pp. 338. 382. 486.).--As
the Vicar of Ecclesfield appears interested in the history of this
abbey, in the immediate neighbourhood of which I am at present living, I
forward the following list of works which have relation to the subject,
including the _Chronicle_, extracts from which have already been given
by GASTROS:--

    "Briefve Chronique de l'Abbaye de St. Wandrille, publiée par la
    première fois, d'après le Cartulaire de St. Wandrille, de
    Marcoussis M.S. du XVI. siècle, de la Bibliothèque de Rouen par
    M.A. Potter."--_Révue Rétrospective Normande_, Rouen, 1842.

    "Le Trisergon de l'Abbaye de Fontenelle (or St. Wandrille), en
    Normandie, par Dom Alexis Bréard. M.S. du XVII.
    siècle."--_Bibliothèque de Rouen_, M.S.S.Y. 110.

    "Appendix ad Chronicon Fontanellense in Spicileg." Acherii, t.
    ii. p. 285.

    "Gallia Christiana," vol. ii., in fo., page 155., (containing
    the Ecclesiastical History of Normandy).

    "Acta sanctor ord. St. Bened," tom. v.--_Miracula Wandregisili_.

    "Essais sur l'Abbaye de St. Wandrille, par Langlois," in 8vo.
    Rouen, 1827.

Several books formerly belonging to this monastery, are now in the
public library at Havre.

W.J.

Havre.


_Russian Language_ (Vol. ii., p. l52.).--A James Heard wrote a grammar
of this language, and published {191} it at St. Petersburgh, in 1827.
Mr. Heard also published a volume of _Themes_, or _Exercises_, to his
grammar, in the same year. I am not acquainted with any other Russian
grammar written in English.

Hamonière published his _Grammaire Russe_ at Paris in 1817; and
Gr_e_tsch (not Gr_o_tsch) published (in Russian) his excellent grammar
at St. Petersburgh about thirty years ago. A French translation appeared
at the same place in 1828, in 2 vols. 8vo., by Reiff.

In the _Révue Encyclopédique_ for 1829, p. 702., some curious details
will be found respecting, the various Russian grammars then in
existence. _J_appe's _Russian Grammar_ is possibly a misprint for
_T_appe, whose grammar, written in German, is a good one. Besides these,
the titles of some twenty other Russian grammars, in Russian, French, or
German, could be mentioned.

The anthologies published by Dr. Bowring, besides his Russian, Dutch,
and Spanish, are the Magyar, Bohemian, Servian, and Polish.

Writing from Oxford, where the first Russian grammar ever published was
printed, as your correspondent JARLTZBERG correctly states, perhaps it
may interest him, or his friend, who, he says, is about to go to Russia,
to be informed (should he not already be aware of the fact) that a
"Course of Lectures on Russian Literature" was delivered in this
university, by Professor Trithen, at Sir Robert Tayler's Institution, in
the winter of 1849.

J.M.

Oxford, Aug. 6. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

MISCELLANEOUS.

A very interesting contribution to our early national literature, as
well as to legendary history, has lately been published by Dr. Nicolaus
Delius of Bonn. He has edited in a small octavo volume, published at a
very moderate price, _Maistre Wace's St. Nicholas_, an old French poem,
by the poetical Canon of Bayeux, whose _Roman de Rou et des Ducs de
Normandie_, edited by Pluquet, and _Roman de Brut_, edited by Le Roux de
Lincy, are, doubtless, familiar to many of our readers. The present
valuable edition to the published works of Maistre Wace, is edited from
two Oxford MSS., viz., No. 270. of the Douce Collection, and No. 86. of
the Digby Collection in the Bodleian: and to add to the interest of the
present work, especially in the eyes of English readers, Dr. Delius has
appended to it the old English metrical life of _Saint Nicolas the
Bischop_, from the curious series of Lives and Legends which Mr. Black
has recently shown to have been composed by Robert of Gloucester.

We have received the following Catalogue:--John Russell Smith's (4. Old
Compton Street, Soho) Part IV. for 1850. of a Catalogue of Choice,
Useful, and Curious Books in most Departments of Literature.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

VOLUME THE FIRST OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen_.

_The Monthly Part for July, being the second of Vol. II. is also now
ready, price 1s._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday; so
that our country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in
receiving it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are, probably,
not yet aware of this arrangement, which enables them to receive Copies
in their Saturday parcels_.

JANUS DOUSA. _The Notes on Folk Lore have been received and will be used
very shortly. The Queries just received shall be duly inserted_.

_Errata_.--In No. 41., p. 166., col. 1., line 8 from bottom, for
"_Cordius_" read "_Cardin_"; p. 171., l. 29., for "haver_s_" read
"haver"; and p. 172., l. 24., for "Murton" read "Mu_i_rton."

       *       *       *       *       *

GREATLY REDUCED IN PRICE.

PATRES ECCLESIASTICI ANGLICANI.

THIS SERIES OF THE ENGLISH FATHERS OF THE CHURCH,--commencing with
ALDHELM, the first Bishop of Sherborne, which see he held from A.D. 705
to 709, and including VENERABLE BEDE, the father of English History, who
died in 735; BONIFACE, the English Apostle to the Germans, whose
martyrdom took place in 754; LANFRANC, to whose influence over the
Conqueror the English owed what liberty William still allowed them to
enjoy; PETER OF BLOIS, the gossiping but querulous archdeacon of Bath;
THOMAS A BECKET, the greatest churchman of any time, and the fearless
upholder of the rights of the Church against the usurpations of the
Crown and his contemporaries; honest plain-spoken JOHN OF SALISBURY; and
the specious ERNULPH, Bishop of Lisieux, whose works throw considerable
light upon the court intrigues of the reign of Henry II.,--is edited by
the Rev. Dr. GILES, formerly Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

The entire Series consists of Thirty-five volumes, 8vo.; the price of
which has been reduced from 18l. 19s. 6d. to 9l., _if taken in complete
sets_, of which only _a very small number_ remain unsold; or separately
as follows:--

ALDHELMI Opera, 1 vol. 8vo. 6s. (published at 10s. 6d.)
BEDAE VENERABILIS Opera, 12 vols. 8vo. 3l. 3s. (pub. at 6l. 6s.)
BONIFACII Opera, 2 vols. 8vo. 12s. (published at 1l. 1s.)
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THOMAE CANTUARIENSIS, HERBERT DE BOREHAMI
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On sale by D. NUTT, 270. Strand; and H. WASHBOURNE, 18. New Bridge
Street, Blackfriars.

       *       *       *       *       *

NEW WORK ON THE GREEK DRAMA.

In 12mo., price 4s. (with a Plan of a Greek Theatre.)

THE ATHENIAN STAGE, a Handbook for
Students. From the German of WETZSCHEL, by the Rev.
R.B. PAUL, M.A.; and edited by the Rev. T.K. ARNOLD, M.A.,
Rector of Lyndon, and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place:

Of whom may be had, by the same Editors,

l. HANDBOOK of GRECIAN ANTIQUITIES. 3s. 6d.
2. HANDBOOK of ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. 3s. 6d.
3. HANDBOOK of GREEK SYNONYMES. 6s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       * {192}

VALUABLE ANTIQUARIAN, HERALDIC, AND FOREIGN WORKS, DICTIONARIES,
GRAMMARS, ETC.

SOLD BY BERNARD QUARITCH, 16. CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE.

       *       *       *       *       *

Adelung's Wörterbuch der Hoch-Deutschen Mundart, mit beständiger
Vergleichung der übrigen Mundarten, besonders acer der Oberdeutschen,
best edition, by Schönberger, 4 vols. 4to., calf, gilt, marbled edges,
2l. 2s. Wien, 1811.


Aldrete, del Origen de la Lengua Castellana o Romance (an Old-Spanish
Dictionary), folio, vellum, 15s. Madrid, 1674.


Anderson's Royal Genealogies, or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors,
Kings, and Princes, from Adam to these times, folio, hf. bd. scarce,
26s. 1732.


Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, translated from the Original
Irish by Owen Connellan, Esq., with Additions by Mac Dermott, 4to.,
morocco super-extra, gilt edges. 30s. Dublin, 1846.


Bergomensis (J.P. Foresti) Supplementum Chronicarum, ab exordio mundi ad
annum 1502, folio, numerous woodcuts, monastic binding, 12s. 6d. Ven.
1503.


Baluze, Histoire Généalogique de la Maison d'Auvergne, 2 vols. folio,
numerous plates of Coats of Arms and Monumental Effigies, calf gilt,
20s. Paris, 1708.


----, another copy, 2 vols. folio, numerous fine Coats of Arms, the
corners of one volume damaged, calf, 10s. 6d. Paris, 1708.


Brunsvicensium Rerum Scriptores cura G.G. Leibnitii, 3 vols. folio,
calf, fine copy, 2l. 16s. Hanoveræ, 1707.

An Indispensable work to the student of the Ancient History and
Literature of Germany.


Caedmon's Metrical Paraphrase of parts of Holy Scripture in Anglo-Saxon,
with Translation by Thorpe, imp. 8vo. bds., 12s. 6d. 1832.


Campe's Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache, 6 vols. imp. 4to., hf. bd.
russia extra, uncut, top edges gilt. fine copy, 3l. 3s. Braunschweig,
1807-13.


Caraffa Family. Aldirnari, Historia Genealogica della Famiglia Carafa, 3
vols. folio, numerous very fine portraits and Coats of Arms, fine copy
in vellum,, scarce, 28s. Napoli, 1691.


Carpentier, Alphabetium Tironianum, seu notes Tironis explicandi
methods, folio, with numerous Short-hand Alphabets, Diplomas, Charters,
&c. of Louis the Pious, hf. bd. calf, 9s. Paris, 1747


Codex Traditionum Corbejensium Diplomatarium Sarachonis Abbatis
Registrum, cum notis Falcke, thick folio, fac-similes of Old Deeds, &c.,
vellum, 18s. Lips. 1752.


Corneille, OEuvres de, avec les commentaires de Voltaire, 12 vols. 8vo.
best edition, newly hf. bd. calf, 36s. Paris 1817.


Diccionario de la Lingua Castellana por la Real Academia Espanola,
tecera edicion, folio, calf neat, 12s. Madrid, 1791.


Edwards, Recherches sur les Langues Celtiques, 8vo. sd. 6s. Paris,
Imprimerie Royale, 1844.

A very valuable and learned Celtic Polyglott Grammar, giving a
Comparative View off the Breton, Gælic, Welsh, Irish, Cornish, and
Basque Languages.


Enderbie's Cambria Triumphans, or Britain in its perfect Lustre showing
the Origin and Antiquity of that Illustrious Nation; the Succession of
their Kings and Princes, from the first to King Charles, 2 vols in 1,
folio, Large Paper, numerous Coats of Arms, bds. leather back, uncut,
18s. London, 1661 (Bagster, 1810).


Faereyinga-Saga eller Faeroboernes Historie, in Icelandic, Danish, and
the Faroer Dialect, by Rafn, imp. 8vo. Large Paper, bds. 7s. 6d. Klob.
1832


Heineken, Idée générale d'une Collection complette d'Estampes et
Dissertation sur l'origine de la Gravure, plates, calf, 18s. 1771.


Johnson's Dictionary, Todd's last and best edition, 3 vols. 4to. calf
gilt, 5l. 1827.


Junil Etymologicum Anglicanum, edidit Lye, folio, portrait by Vertue,
calf, 18s. Oxf 1743.

A most important work for the study of English Etymologies.


Jurisprudentia Heroica, sive de Jure Belgarum circa Nobilitatem et
Insignia, folio, several hundred Coats of Arms, all beautifully
emblazoned in gold, silver, and colours, calf. A beautiful book, rare,
32s. Bruxelles, 1668.


Karamsin, Histoire de l'Empire de Russie, 11 vols 8vo. (pub. at 2l.
15s.) sd. 16s. Paris, 1819-26.

This French translation has been made under the patronage of the author,
who has added many notes and references. Karamsin is the greatest of all
the Russian writers.


Koch, Histoire abrégée des Traités de Paix entre les Puissances de
l'Europe, depuis la Paix de Westphalie jusqu'a 1815, 15 vols. 8vo.,
stained, sewed, 32s. Paris, 1817-18.

A most important collection, originally published at 6l. 16s. 6d. and
seldom met under price.


Lapponic Bible. Tat Ailes Tialog, Abme ja Addä Testamenta, 3 vols. 4to.
bds. 24s. Hernösandesne, 1811.


Legonidec, Dictionnaire Celto-Breton ou Breton-Français, 8vo. sd. 7s.
6d. Algoulème, 1821.


Lhuyd's Archæologia Britannica, giving an Account of the Languages of
the original Inhabitants of Britain, folio, hf. bd. calf, neat, scarce,
32s. Oxford, 1707.

Contains Armoric, Irish, Scottish, Welsh Grammars and Dictionaries.


Lope de Vega, Obras Sueltas, en Prosa y en Verso, 21 vols. small 4to.
vellum, 3l. 10s. Madrid, 1776.


----, another copy, Large Paper, sd., uncut, 3l. 3s.


Mabillon de Re Diplomatica, cum Supplemento, 2 vols. royal folio, Large
Paper, numerous plates, fine copy in Dutch calf, 38s. Lut. Par. 170.
1704.


Magnusen (Finn) Runamo og Runerne, 4to. (742 pp.), 14 plates of Runic
Antiquities, bds. 18s. Kyobenhavn, 1841.


Maurice, le Blason des Armoiries de tous les Chevaliers de l'Ordre de la
Toison d'Or, depuis la première Institution, folio, 450 plates,
containing upwards of 2000 finely engraved Coats of Arms, calf, a
beautiful book, 30s. La Haye, 1665.


O'Brien, Irish-English Dictionary, 4to. hf. bd., very scarce, 25s.
Paris, 1768.


Pompeii illustrated with Picturesque Views from the Drawings by Col.
Cockburn, with Plan and Details by Donaldson, 2 vols. in 1, imp. folio,
90 fine plates, some coloured, half morocco, 2l. 12s. 6d. 1827.


Rhæsi (D.) Cymbro-Brytannicæ Cymræcæve Linguæ Institutiones, small
folio, inlaid title, calf, gilt edges, very scarce, 36s. 1592.


Selden's Titles of Honour, folio, best edition, portraits and plates
calf, 16. 1672.


----, another edition, folio, with Roger Twysden's autograph, calf, 10s.
1631.


Sismondi, Histoire des Républiques Italiennes, 16 vols. 8vo. best
edition, a little stained, sd. 36s. Paris, 1818.


----, another edition, 8 vols. royal 8vo. sd. 36s. Brux. 1839.


Snorro Sturleson, Heimskringla, seu Historia Regum Norvegicorum, editio
nova opera Schöning, et Thorlacii, Islandice Danice, et Latine, 3 vols.
in 1, folio, fine paper, sumptuously whole bound calf extra, leather
joints, silk linings, gilt edges, 3l. 10s. Hauniæ, 1777-83.

These three volumes of this edition comprise the whole of the
Heimskringla, as originally published in 1697 by Perinskiold, but with a
Danish version in place of the Swedish, and considerable improvements
both as regards text and notes.


Transactions of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries.

Nordisk Tidskrift for Oldkyndighed, 3 vols. 8vo., numerous fine plates
of Antiquities, hf. bd. calf, 12s. Kiob. 1832-36.

Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed (Annals for Northern Antiquities,
edited by the Royal Society of Antiquaries), 1836-47, 8 vols. 8vo.
numerous fine plates, 2 vols hf. bd. the rest sewed, 2l. 5s.

Antiquarisk Tidskrift, 1843-48, 3 vols. 8vo. plates, sewed, 9s. Copenh.
1845-48.

These three collections form one set, sold together for 3l.


Wachteri Glossarium Germanicum, continens Origins et Antiquitates totius
Linguæ Germanicæ, 2 vols. in 1, folio, fine copy, old calf gilt, 25s.
Lips. 1737.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Catalogues of_ BERNARD QUARITCH'S _German_, _French_, _Italian_,
_Spanish_, _Northern_, _Celtic_, _Oriental_, _Antiquarian_, and
_Scientific Books_ gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City Of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, Of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 17, 1850.





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