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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 43, August 24, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 43, August 24, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *  {193}

No. 43.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 24, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Notes and Queries. 193
  Collar of SS. 194
  Tenyson--Coleridge--Extract from Baker's MSS. on
    Barth. Dodyngton, and William Jenkin, by J.E.B.
    Mayor. 195
  Parallel Passages. 196
  Folk Lore:--Power of Prophecy--Bay Leaves at Funerals--Shoes
    (old) thrown for Luck--Roasting Mice for Hooping-Cough--The
    Story of Mr. Fox--Baptismal Superstition--Rushbearing. 196

  Who wrote Shakspeare's Henry VIII.? by Samuel
    Hickson. 198
  Minor Queries:--The Abbé Strickland--Works on
    Aerostation--Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury--"Ædricus
    qui signa fundebat"--Osmund, the Waterman--Logic--Darbon
    Gatherall--Damasked Linen--Flourish--Drax Abbey and Free
    School--Ancient Catalogue of Books. 198

  Shakspeare's Use of the Word "Delighted," by S.W.
    Singer. 200
  Family of Love. 201
  Translation of the Philobiblon. 202
  Etymological Queries, by S.W. Singer. 203
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Lord Richard
    Christophilus--Poker--Querela Cantabrigiensis--"One
    Bell"--Fabulous Account of the Lion--Pomfret on the
    Thames--Walrond Family--Armenian Language--Genealogical
    Query--Richard Baxter's Descendants--Duresme and Dunelm. 204

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 207
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 207
  Notices to Correspondents. 207
  Advertisements. 207

       *       *       *       *       *



The history of books and periodicals of a similar character ought to be
the object of interest to the readers of this work. The number of works
in which answers have been given to proposed questions is not small. Not
to mention the _Spectator_ and its imitators, nor the class of almanacs
which give riddles and problems, nor mathematical periodicals of a more
extensive character,--though all these ought to be discussed in course
of time,--there yet remains a class of books in which general questions
proposed by the public are answered periodically, either by the public
or by the editors. Perhaps an account of one of these may bring out

In 1736 and 1737 appeared the _Weekly Oracle; or, Universal Library.
Published by a Society of Gentlemen._ One folio sheet was published
weekly, usually ending in the middle of a sentence. (Query. What is the
technical name for this mode of publication? If none, what ought to be?)
I have one folio volume of seventy numbers, at the end of which notice
of suspension is given, with prospect of revival in another form
probably no more was published. The introduction is an account of the
editorial staff to wit, a learned divine who "hath entered with so much
discernment into the true spirit of the schoolmen, especially Thomas
Aquinas and Duns Scotus, that he is qualified to resolve, to a hair's
breadth, the nicest cases of conscience." A physician who "knows, to a
mathematical point, the just tone and harmony of the risings pulses...."
A lawyer who "what he this day has proved to be a contingent remainder,
to-morrow he will with equal learning show must operate as an executory
devise or as a springing use." A philosopher "able to give the true
reason of all things, from the composition of watches, to the raising of
minced pies ... and who, if he is closely questioned about the planner
of squaring the circle, or by what means the perpetual motion, or
longitude, may be discovered, we believe has honesty, and we are sure
that he has skill enough to say that he knows--nothing of the matter." A
moral philosopher who has "discovered a _perpetuum mobile_ of
government." An eminent virtuoso who understands "what is the best
pickle to preserve a rattle-snake or an Egyptian mummy, better than the
nature of the government he lives under, or the economy and welfare of
himself and family." Lastly, a _man of mode_. "Him the beaus and the
ladies may consult in the affairs of love, dress, and equipage."

There is a great deal of good answering to tolerably rational questions,
mixed with some attempts at humour, and other eccentricities, and
occasionally a freedom, both of question and answer, by which we might,
were it advisable, confirm the fact, that the decorums of 1736 and of
1850 are two different things.{194}

First, as an instance of a question and answer, which might do as well
(if the record be correct) for the present publication.

    "Q. We read in our public papers of the Pope's Bull and the
    Pope's Brief; pray, Gentlemen, what is the difference between

    "A. They differ much in the same manner as the Great Seal and
    Privy Seal do here in England. The Bull being of the highest
    authority where the papal power extends; the Brief is of less
    authority. The Bull has a leaden seal upon silk affixed to the
    foot of the instrument, as the wax under the Great Seal is to
    our letters patent. The Brief has _sub annulo piscatoris_ upon
    the side."

Query. Is this answer complete and correct?

Now for another specimen:

  "Q. Wise Oracle show,
        A good reason why,
      When from tavern we _go_,
        You're wel_come_ they cry.

  "A. The reason is plain,
       'Cause doubtful to know,
      Till seeing their gain,
        If you _came well_ or no."

The following is an example of unanswerable refutation. To show why a
man has not one rib less than a woman, it is stated that imperfections
are not hereditary; as in the case of

    "One Mr. L----, an honest sailor not far from Stepney, who has
    but one arm, and who cannot walk himself without the assistance
    of a wooden leg, and yet has a son, born some years after the
    amputation of is own limbs, whom he has bred both a fiddler and
    a dancing master."

One more, not for the wretched play upon words, but because it may make
a new Query,--What does it all mean?

    "Q. Gentlemen, in the preamble to the late Earl of Oxford's
    patent, I observed, 'And whom they have congratulated upon his
    escape from the rage of a flagitious parricide.' I desire to
    know by whom, at what time, and in what manner, the said
    parricide was to have been committed.

    "A. Was to have been! He actually was committed--to Newgate."

So much for some of the "NOTES AND QUEERIES" (as the word ought to be
spelt) of a century ago.


       *       *       *       *       *


  "All the ensigns and marks of honour appertaining
  to persons of highest distinction, are equestrian."--_Sabnasins_.

The interest which attaches to this very ancient and distinguished
ensign of chivalrous honour will excuse the introduction into your pages
of a fuller dissertation upon the subject than what appears in "NOTES
AND QUERIES," Nos. 39. and 41., in answer to the several questions put
by your correspondents B. and [Greek: Ph].

After referring to the papers on the Collar of SS., and other collars of
livery, published a few years ago in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, and his
intention to arrange them, and other additional collections on the same
subject, in the shape of a small volume, MR. J.G. NICHOLS proceeds to

    "As a direct answer to B.'s question, 'Is there any list of
    persons who were honoured with that badge, (viz., the Collar of
    SS.?)', I may reply, No. Persons were not, in fact, 'honoured
    with the badge,' in the sense that persons are now decorated
    with stars, crosses, or medals; but the livery collar was
    _assumed_ by parties holding a certain position. So far as can
    be ascertained, these were either knights attached to the royal
    household or service, who wore gold or gilt collars, or esquires
    in the like position who wore silver collars."

From the statute for the regulation of apparel, passed in the 2nd year
of the reign of Henry IV., it is ordained that--

    "All the sons of the king, dukes, earls, barons, and baronettes,
    might use the livery of our Lord the King of his collar as well
    in his absence as in his presence; and that all other knights
    and esquires should use it only in the presence of the king and
    not in his absence."

The royal assent to this bill was accompanied with further regulations,
among which were:

    "That the dukes, earls, barons, and baronettes of the realm
    might use the said livery in their counties and elsewhere; and
    that knights and esquires might use the said livery in going
    from the hostel of the king and returning, to it, always
    provided that they did not use it in the counties and countries
    in which they resided or sojourned."

That the golden Collar of SS. was the undoubted badge or mark of a
knight (_chevalier, eques auratus seu ordo equestris_, for these words
respectively indicate the same grade or dignity of knighthood) all our
ancient heraldic writers allow. But, were it otherwise, the extract from
the statute above given shows that MR. NICHOLS is incorrect in stating,
1st. That there is no list of persons who were honoured with the collar
of SS.; 2nd. That persons were not honoured with the badge, in the sense
that persons are now decorated with stars, crosses, &c.; 3rd. That the
collar was _assumed_; and, 4th. That the assumers were, "so far as can
be ascertained, knights holding a certain position,--such as being
attached to the royal household or service."

It is important to point out these four inaccuracies of MR. NICHOLS'
reply to B., because it is desirable that his forthcoming volume should
not be a heterogeneous collection of notices relating to the Collar of
SS., mixed up with observations that will only serve the purpose of
darkening knowledge upon the subject of which he treats.

The Collar of SS. is found in great variety of {195} shapes, and at what
precise time it became an ensign of equestrian nobility no one can tell.
Collars were worn at least so far back as the days of Livy (i.e. the
commencement of the Christian era); for he recounts that Manlius having
pulled off the collar of a Gaul, took the name of _Torquatus_, and
afterwards always wore the collar. Such being the case, there is no room
for doubting that this ensign formed one of the ornaments of knighthood
from the period of that dignity's earliest introduction into England.

There is a notion, from the circumstance of "Soverayne" being the
favourite motto or impress of Henry IV., that the Collar of SS. takes
its name from the initial letter of that word; and the introduction of
the portcullis into the collar, which was the device of the House of
Lancaster, is also considered by some as proof that the collar
originated with that king. In the effigies, however, of Henry IV. and
his queen, Joan of Navarre, in the Chapel of St. Thomas Becket,
Canterbury Cathedral, the collar which appears round the neck of the
queen (there is none upon that of the king) has no portcullis. And as to
the derivations of the name of the collar from "Soverayne," from St.
Simplicius, from the martyrs of Soissons (viz. St. Crespin and St.
Crespinian, upon whose anniversary the battle of Agincourt was fought),
from the Countess of Salisbury, of Garter notoriety, from the word
"Souvenez" and, lastly, from Seneschallus or Steward (which latter is
MR. NICHOLS' notion)--they may all be regarded as mere monkish or
heraldic gossip.

Nicholas Upton, one of our earliest heraldic writers, who was present at
the siege of Orleans in 1428, states,--"Rex etiam scoeie dare solebat
pro signo vel titulo suo unum COLLARIUM de gormettis fremalibus equorum
de auro vel argento;" whilst, in a wood-cut engraving of the arms of a
German, Herr Florian Waldauff, of about the time of Albert Durer, are
three collars, one of the letters SS. linkings into each other,
terminating in front with portcullises. Put these notices together and
they may be considered sufficient to demolish the Lancastrian origin
theory of the collar, on the one hand, and to unfold the true source of
the collar's nomenclature on the other, viz. that it comes from the
S-shaped lever upon the bit of the bridle of the war steed.

To [Greek: Ph].'s question, "Who are the persons now privileged to wear
these collars?" MR. NICHOLS answers, "I believe the reply must be
confined to the judges, the Lord Mayor of London, the Lord Mayor of
Dublin, the kings and heralds of arms." The privilege of wearing a
Collar of SS., so far as the various persons enumerated are concerned,
is a mere official privilege, and can scarcely be cited in reply to
[Greek: Ph].'s interrogative, except upon the principle, "Exceptio
probat regulam." The persons now privileged to wear the ancient golden
Collar of SS. are the _equites aurati_, or knights (chevaliers) in the
British monarchy, a body which includes all the hereditary order of
baronets in England, Scotland, and Ireland, with such of their eldest
sons, being of age, as choose to claim inauguration as knights. It is
presumable too that the Collar of SS. is also an incident of the minor
degree of knight bachelor (bas-chevalier seu miles-bachillarus); whilst
the silver Collar of SS. belongs to every head of a family of ancient
esquirage quality, bearing arms. It is true, the fashion of wearing the
collar, whether gold or silver, may be said to have been in desuetude
for centuries. But rights of blood never prescribe; and there are strong
grounds to believe that there will again be a general revival of the use
of such distinctions.

There are various other points bearing upon the subject of the Collar of
SS., upon which I wish to offer some remarks, and with your permission I
will return to the subject. I cannot, however, conclude without
observing, that it would much add to the value of MR. NICHOLS'
compilation if he would extend it so as to embrace a description of the
floreal coronet of knighthood, the belt of honour, the helmet, scarf,
ring, spars, &c.,--all indeed, that the words "ad recipiendum a nobis
ARMA MILITARIA" implied in the ancient proclamations for taking the
order of knighthood. If MR. NICHOLS, in addition to this, will show also
wherein the knights of this equestrian quality differed from such
persons as were distrained "ad se milites faciendos," he will solve a
number of knotty difficulties in heraldic literature, and will enable
the public generally to understand that there are many more chivalrous
rights and privileges inherent in the subject than what is dreamt of in
the philosophy either of the court at St. James's, or the college on St.
Bennet's Hill.


       *       *       *       *       *


The well-known lines in Tenyson's _Locksley Hall_,--

      "This is truth the poet sings,
  That a sorrow's crown of sorrow is, remembering happier things."

appear to be taken from Dante (_Inferno_, canto v. Verse 121.),--

      "nessun maggior dolore,
  Che ricordarsi del tempo felice
  Nella miseria."

which is imitated by other writers, quoted by Mr. Cary. (Chaucer,
_Troilus and Creseide_, iii. 1626. Marino, _Adone_, c. xiv., st. 100.
Fortinguerra, _Riciardetto_, c. xi. st. 83.)

In Coleridge's second _Lay Sermon_ (ed. 1839, p. 365.) the passage--

    "What are you," (a philosopher was once asked), "in consequence
    of your admiration of these abstruse speculations?" He answered;
    "What I am, it does not become me to say; but what thousands
    are, who despise them, and even pride themselves on their
    ignorance, I see, and tremble."

is a quotation from Schiller (_Werke_, vol. i., p. 414. 1838)


  "Was ich ohne dich wäre, ich weiss es nicht; aber mir
  Seh'ich, was ohne dich Hundert und Tausende sind."

In Appendix (B.) to Coleridge's first _Lay Sermon_ (p. 276.), we read,--

    "An age or nation may become free from certain prejudices,
    beliefs, and superstitious practices, in two ways. It may have
    really risen above them; or it may have fallen below them, and
    become too bad for their continuance."

Though not given as a quotation, this passage is no doubt borrowed from
Baader, as quoted by Archdeacon Hare in a note to his _Sermons on the
Mission of the Comforter_,--

    "Nations, like individuals, may get free and rid of certain
    prejudices, beliefs, customs, abuses, &c., in two ways. They may
    really have risen above them, or they may have fallen below them
    and become too bad for them."

In a volume of tracts (Class mark Gg. 5. 27.) in St. John's College
Library, Cambridge, is a copy of Nicolas Carr's edition of the
Olynthiacs and Philippics of Demosthenes, (4to. London, Henry Denham
1571.). As Carr died before the work was published, his friends wrote a
number of commemorative pieces in Greek and Latin, prose and verse,
which are annexed to the volume. Amongst the rest, Barth. Dodyngton
wrote a copy of Greek elegiacs, and a Latin prose epistle. On Dodyngton,
Baker has written the following note:--

    "Barthol. Dodyngtonus in Com. Middlesex. natus, admissus fuit
    Discipulus Coll. Jo. pro Fundatrice an. 1548.--Idem admissus
    Socius, Apr. 8, an. 1552.--Idem admissus Socius Senior, an.
    1558.--Idem admissus Socius Major Coll. Trin. Oct. 29, an.

In the same volume is note on Cheke:--

    "Joan. Cheke admissus Socius Coll. Jo. Cant., Mar. 26, an. 21.
    Henrici 8'vi."

Another tract in the same volume is "Exodus, &c., a Sermon Preach't
Sept. 12, 1675. By occasion of the much lamented Death of that Learned
and Reverend Minister of Christ, Dr. Lazarus Seaman."--By William
Jenkyn. After Dr. Seaman's name Baker adds, "some time Master of Peter
House." Of Jenkyn he says: "Gul. Jenkin Coll. Jo. admissus in Matriculam
Academiæ (designatus Joannensis), Jul. 3, an. 1628."

J.E.B. Mayor.

St. John's College, Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *


I believe the following have not been hitherto noticed in "NOTES AND

  "Nec mirum, quod divina natura dedit agros, ars
  humana ædidicavit urbes."--Varro, R. R. iii. 1.

  "God made the country and man made the town,
  What wonder then," &c.--_The Task_, i.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "[Greek: O de Kritias ... ekaleito idiotaes men en philosophois,
    philosuph s de en idiotais.]"--_Schol. in Timoeum. Platonis_.

    "Sparsum memini hominem inter scholasticos insanum, inter sanos
    scholasticum."--Seneca, _Controv_. i 7., _Excerpt. ex Controv._

    "Lord Chesterfield is a Wit among Lords, and a Lord among

       *       *       *       *       *

  "[Greek: Ostis eim ego; Meton,
  On oiden Hellas cho Kolonos.]"

  Aristophanes, _The Birds_, 997.

  "Under the Tropics is our language spoke,
  And part of Flanders hath received our yoke."

  _Martinus Scriblerus_, Ch. xi.

       *       *       *       *       *

  "Pandite, atque aperite propere januam hanc Orci,
   Nam equidem haud aliter esse duco: quippe quo
          memo advenit
  Nisi quem spes reliquêre omnes."

  Plautus, _Bacchis_, Act iii Sc. 1.

  "Per me si va nella città dolente

  Lasciate ogni speranza, voi che intrate."

  Dante, _Inferno_, iii. 1-9.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Power of Prophecy._--MR. AUG. GUEST (Vol. ii., p. 116.) will perhaps
accept--as a small tribute to his interesting communication on the
subject of that "power of prophecy" which I apprehend to be still
believed by many to exist during certain lucid intervals before death--a
reference to Sir Henry Halford's _Essay on the [Greek: Kausos] of
Aretæus_. (See Sir H. Halford's _Essays and Orations read and delivered
at the Royal College of Physicians_, Lond. 1831, pp. 93. et seq.)

J. Sansom.

_Bay Leaves at Funerals._--In some parts of Wales it is customary for
funerals to be preceded by a female carrying bays, the leaves of which
she sprinkles at intervals in the road which the corpse will traverse.

Query, Is this custom practised elsewhere; and what is the meaning and
origin of the use of the bay?


_Shoes (old) thrown for luck._--Brand, in his _Popular Antiquities_,
observes, that it is accounted {197} lucky by the vulgar to throw an old
shoe after a person when they wish him to succeed in what he is going
about. This custom is very prevalent in Norfolk whenever servants are
going in search of new places; and especially when they are going to be
married, a shoe is thrown after them as they proceed to church.


Some years ago, when the vessels engaged in the Greenland whale-fishery
left Whitby, in Yorkshire, I observed the wives and friends of the
sailors to throw old shoes at the ships as they passed the pier-head.
Query, What is the origin of this practice?

[Hebrew: T.A.]

_Roasting Mice for Hooping-cough_ is also very common in Norfolk; but I
am sorry to say that a more cruel superstitious practice is sometimes
inflicted on the little animal; for it is not many years since I
accidentally entered the kitchen in time to save a poor little mouse
from being hung up by the tail and roasted alive, as the means of
expelling the others of its race from the house. I trust that this
barbarous practice will soon be forgotten.


_The Story of Mr. Fox._--Your correspondent F.L., who has related the
story of Sir Richard, surnamed Bloody, Baker, is, doubtless, aware of a
similar tale with which Mr. Blakeway furnished my late friend James
Boswell, and which the latter observed "is perhaps one of the most happy
illustrations of Shakspeare that has appeared."--(Malone's _Shakspeare_,
vol. vii. pp. 20. 163.)

The two narratives of Bloody Baker and Mr. Fox are substantially the
same. Variations will naturally creep in when a story is related by word
of mouth; for instance, the admonition over the chamber in Mr. Fox's

  "Be bold, be bold! but not too bold
  Lest that your heart's blood should run cold."

is altogether of a more dignified character than the similar warning
given by the parrot, at p. 68. Each of these worthies, Baker and Fox, is
seen bringing into his house the corpse of a murdered lady, whose hand
falls into the lap of the concealed visitor; but in Fox's story the
ornament on the hand is a rich bracelet, in Baker's a ring. The
assassins are, in both stories, invited to the visitor's house, and upon
Fox _summary_ justice is inflicted.

It may be asked, if Baker was burned, how came he to have a tomb with
gloves, helmet, &c., suspended over it in Cranbrook Church? Such honour
was not paid to a man of higher rank in Salisbury Cathedral, a murderer
also, who was hung, viz., Lord Stourton. Dodsworth tells us that till
about 1775, no chivalrous emblems were suspended over the latter, but
only a twisted wire, with a noose, emblematic of the halter. Allow me to
ask, What instances have we of tombs or gravestones, as memorials of
individuals who have suffered at the _stake_, exclusive of those
monuments which in after times may have been raised in honour of
distinguished martyrs at the Reformation?



_Baptismal Superstition._--In the north of England, when several
children are brought to be baptized at the same time, great anxiety is
shown by the people lest the girls should take the precedence of the
boys; in which case it is believed the latter, when arrived at man's
estate, would be beardless.


_Rushbearing_ (Vol. i., p 259.).--Wednesday, July 21, 1847, Grasmere
Church was decorated with ribbons, which had some reference to the
rushbearing which had taken place on the preceding Sunday.

It takes place at Ambleside one Sunday later.

_Extract from Black's "Guide to the Lakes," p. 43._

    "An interesting ceremony takes place at Ambleside once every
    year, which the stranger may think himself fortunate in seeing,
    not so much for the mere sight itself, though that is pretty
    enough, as for its being the vestige of a very ancient
    observance. The ceremony alluded to is called Rushbearing. On
    the eve of the last Sunday in July, the village girls walk in
    procession to the chapel bearing garlands of flowers (formerly
    rushes), which are there tastefully disposed. After service, the
    day following, these are removed, and it is usual that a sermon,
    in allusion to the event, be preached. This observance is
    probably as remote as the age of Gregory IV., who is known to
    have recommended to the early disseminators of Christianity in
    this country, that on the anniversary of the dedication of
    churches wrested from the Pagans, the converts should build
    themselves huts of the boughs of trees about their churches, and
    celebrate the solemnities with religious feasting. In former
    times, the rushes were spread upon the floor of the sacred
    edifice, and the garlands remained until withered. Possibly the
    practice of covering the floors of buildings with rushes by way
    of protection against the damp earth, may have had something to
    do with keeping the custom in existence, long after the origin
    of the institution had been forgotten. The ceremony of
    Rushbearing has now fallen into complete disuse, except in a few
    secluded hamlets in Westmoreland, and in one or two other places
    in the kingdom; nor can that disuse be much regretted, since
    what was founded as a religious act, every where degenerated
    into an occasion for unseemly revelry, in fact, into a sort of
    rustic saturnalia. And yet, when we look at this remain of the
    olden time, as observed at Ambleside, we are tempted to say with
    the poet,--

                  "'Many precious rites
      And customs of our rural ancestry
      Are gone or stealing from us: _this_, I hope
      Will last for ever.'"

       *       *       *       *       * {198}



I had no sooner read the title of an essay in the current number of the
_Gentleman's Magazine_, "Who wrote Shakspeare's Henry VIII.?" than I
became aware that I had been anticipated in at least the publication of
a discovery I made three or four years ago, but for the making known of
which a favourable opportunity had not occurred. The fact is, that I was
anxious to arrive at a more satisfactory conclusion than has yet
presented itself to me, and a paper on the subject commenced more than
two years ago, I, with this feeling, laid aside. My present object is to
strengthen the argument of the writer in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, by
recording the fact that I, having no communication with him, or
knowledge of him, even of his name, should have arrived at exactly the
same conclusion as his own. That conclusion is (should any of your
readers not have seen the article referred to), that Fletcher has at
least an equal claim with Shakspeare to the authorship of _Henry VIII_.

In the unfinished paper to which I have alluded, having asked how it was
that, with so much to be learned personal to Shakspeare from his works,
our criticism was so limited, and having stated it to be my intention to
confine myself to the simple inquiry, "_What did Shakspeare really
write?_" I continued:

    "To those who consider the text as having been settled 'by
    authority,' this question may seem superfluous; but, not to
    refer to plays of very early date, in connection with which we
    could bring forward facts that, we doubt not, would be
    considered sufficiently startling; we now state it as our belief
    that a great portion of the play of _Henry VIII_.--nay, more
    than half, was _not_ written by Shakspeare."

My intention now is not to enter into any argument in support of this
view, but to state the results, which will be shown in the following
extract from my note-book:

_Henry VIII._
Act I.  Scene 1. Shakspeare.
           "  2.    Ditto.
           "  3. Fletcher.
           "  4.    Ditto.
Act II.    "  1.    Ditto.
           "  2.    Ditto.
           "  3. Shakspeare.
           "  4.    Ditto.
Act III.   "  1. Fletcher.
           "  2. Shakspeare, (ending with 'what
                                appetite you have.')
           "  2. Fletcher, (beginning from the
Act IV.    "  1.    Ditto.
           "  2.    Ditto.
Act V.  Scene 1. Shakspeare
           "  2. Fletcher.
           "  3.    Ditto.
           "  4.    Ditto.
Prologue and Epilogue, Ditto.

So far all is clear, and in this apportionment Mr. Urban's correspondent
and myself are agreed. My conviction here is as complete as it is of my
own identity. But beyond, at present, all is dark; I cannot understand
the arrangement; and I doubt if my friend, who has treated the question
with so much ability, is altogether satisfied with his own explanation.

In the meanwhile, I would suggest one or two points for consideration.
In those parts which I have set down as Shakspeare's, and in which this
writer imagines he occasionally detects "a third hand," does the metre
differ materially from that of Shakspeare's early plays?

It will be observed that, in Act iii., Scene 2., there are _two_
farewells, the second being a kind of amplification of the first; both,
however, being in the part which I ascribe to Fletcher. Is it not
probable that these were written at different periods? And supposing
Fletcher to have improved his part, might there not originally have been
a stronger analogy than now appears between this play and the _Two Noble

The more it is tested the brighter shines out the character of
Shakspeare. The flatteries of James and Elizabeth may now go packing
together. The following four lines which I have met with in no other
edition of Shakspeare than Mr. Collier's, are worth any one of his plays
for their personal value; they show how he could evade a compliment with
the enunciation of a general truth that yet could be taken as a
compliment by the person for whom it was intended:

  _Shakspeare on the King._

  "Crowns have their compass; length of days their date;
  Triumphs, their tomb; felicity her fate;
  Of nought but earth can earth make us partaker,
  But knowledge makes a king most like his Maker."

Samuel Hickson.

August 12. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The Abbé Strickland._--In the third volume of the _Castlereagh
Correspondence_, an Abbé Strickland figures as a negotiator between the
English Catholics and the court of Rome. His name is also mentioned
unfavourably in the "_Quarterly_" review of that work. Will some of your
readers direct me where further information can be had of him, and his
ultimate destination?

J.W.H. {199}

_Aerostation, Works on._--Will you have the goodness to inquire for me
among your readers and contributors, for the _titles of any works
on_--or references to good _articles in encyclopaedias or dictionaries_
on--or for remarkable isolated passages relating to--_Aerostation_, or
the arts of, or attempts at, flying, either by means of mechanical
wings, &c., or by the aid of balloons.


_Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury._--Can any of the readers of "Notes and
Queries" point out the route which was pursued by Chaucer and his
fellow-travellers on the pilgrimage which his genius has immortalised?
Is the route of the old pilgrims' road laid down upon any early maps?
(it is not, I believe, marked on the Ordnance Survey;) and would it be
possible to traverse it at the present time? Any hints upon these
points, and any references to objects of interest on the line of road
inquired after, will be thankfully received by


"_Ædricus qui signa fundebat._"--In a chronicle of Battel Abbey,
compiled in the twelfth century, there is a list of the abbey's tenants
in the town of Battel. Among many such names as Gilbertus Textor,
Godwinus Cocus, Rotbertus filius Siflet, Rotbertus de Havena, I find
that of "Ædricus qui signa fundebat." As this phrase is susceptible of
several widely different renderings, I shall be grateful to any of your
ingenious readers who will give me their opinions as to its actual
meaning. I may add that Ædric was living about the year 1170, so that
the phrase can have no reference to events connected with the battle of

M.A. Lower.

Lewes, July 30. 1850.

_Osmund the Waterman._--In his description of the _Flowering Fern
(Osmunda regalis)_, Mr. Newman observes, that "the rhizoma [root-stock],
when cut through, has a whitish centre or core, called by old Gerarde in
his _Herbal_, 'the heart of Osmund the waterman.' My lore is
insufficient to furnish my readers with the history of the said Osmund."
(_History of British Ferns_, by Ed. Newman, 2nd ed., p. 334.) Can any of
_your_ readers supply this deficiency?


_Logic._--What is the earliest printed book on logic? meaning the first
which gives the common theory of the syllogism. Does it contain the
celebrated words _Barbara, Celarent_, &c. The difficulty will probably
arise from this, that each book has some _undated_ editions which are
probably earlier than the dated ones. Of books with dates there is the
exposition of Petrus Hispanus by Joh. Versor, in 1473, and the _Summulæ_
of Paulus Venetus, in 1474; the first I find in Hain (who had not seen
it), the second I have seen. Can any one of your readers go farther


_Darvon Gatherall?_--Can any reader adduce further information
respecting an image, called _Darvon Gatherall_, brought from Wales at
the Reformation, than what is mentioned in one of the treatises
published by the Camden Society?

W. Bell.

_Damasked Linen._--I should feel obliged for any information on the
earliest specimen of tablecloths being "damasked," and the history of
that manufacture. I have lately had shown me as "family curiosities" a
beautiful "damask service" of Flemish or Dutch work. The centre
contained a representation of St. George and the Dragon. The hero is
attired in the costume of the latter part of the seventeenth century
(?), with it cocked hat and plume, open sleeves and breeches, heavy
shoes and spurs: with this motto in German characters over him,

  [German: Ben Gott ist Rath und That,]
  "With God is counsel and deed."

At each corner of the cloth and napkins is a representation of a female
figure kneeling on a rock, with clasped hands, with a lamb by her side
(Query, St. Agnes?) On the border, at the top and bottom, St. George is
figured in armour stabbing with a spear an alligator; and then with a
sword, in the act of killing a bear.

On the side borders, he is receiving the attack of a lion on his arm,
covered with a mantle; and then, with a raised sword, cutting at the
proboscis of an elephant. I have seen, also, an older specimen, I think,
of the same manufacture; the subject being the "Bear and Ragged Staff,"
on alternate rows, with figures of trumpeters. I know not if this
subject is of sufficient interest for your "Notes and Queries," but I
trust you will make what use of it you please.


_Flourish._--We are told that a writer _flourished_ at such and such a
time. Is any definite notion attached to this word? When it is said of a
century there is no difficulty; it means that the writer was born and
died in that century. But when we are told that a writer flourished
about the year 1328 (such limitation of florescence is not uncommon),
what is then meant? What are we to understand he did in or about 1328?


_Drax Abbey and Free School._--Can you, or any of your intelligent
contributors, direct me where I can find any records of Drax Abbey, near
Selby, Yorkshire, or of the Free School in Drax, endowed by Robert Reed,
whom tradition states to heave been a foundling amongst the _reeds_ on
the banks of the Ouse, about half a mile distant. Such information will
place me under great obligation.

T. Dyson.


_Ancient Catalogue of Books._--A few days since I made the acquisition
of a curious old catalogue {200} of books, interleaved, and containing
about 200 pages, with the following title:

    "Catalogus Variorum, in quavis Facultate et materia Librorum
    incompactum Officinæ Joannis Maire, quorum Auctio publicè
    habebitur in ædibus Joannis Maire, hora octavâ matutinâ et
    secundâ postmeridiana ad diem ----, 1661. Lugduni Batavorum, ex
    Typographia Nicolai Herculis, 1661."

On the back is the following notice to "buyers:"

    "Monitos volumus Emptores, hosce Libros eâ vendi conditione, ut
    cum eorum traditione pretium præsenti pecuniâ persolvatur. Et si
    quis Libros à se emptos intra sex septimanarum spatium, à primà
    Auctionis die numerandum, à Bibliopola non exegerit, eos cum
    emptoris prioris damno aliis vendere integrum erit ac licitum.

    "Monentur etiam et rogantur, ut antè meridiem ad horæ octavæ,
    post meridiem vero ad secundæ punctum præsentes sese sistere

Can any of your readers give me particulars about this John Maire?



       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., pp. 113. 139.)

Although Mr. Hickson's notion of the meaning of _delight_, in the three
passages of Shakspeare he has cited, is somewhat startling, it was not
to be summarily rejected without due examination; and yet, from a
tolerably extensive acquaintance with old English phraseology, I fear I
cannot flatter him with the expectation of having it confirmed by
instances from other writers.

I believe that _lighted_ is rather an unusual form to express
_lightened_, _disencumbered_, but that it was sometimes used is
apparent; for in Hutton's _Dictionary_, 1583, we have "Allevo, to make
light, to light."--"Allevatus, lifted up, _lighted_." And in the
_Cambridge Dictionary_, 1594, "Allevatus, lifted up, _lighted_, raised,
eased or recovered." The use of the prefix _de_ in the common instance
of _depart_ for to _part_, _divide_, is noticed by Mr. Hickson; and
_demerits_ was used for _merits_ by many of our old writers as well as
Shakspeare. I find _decompound_ for _compound_ in Heylyn's
_Microcosmos_, 1627, p. 249., thus:--"The English language is a
_decompound_ of Dutch, French, and Latin."

These instances may serve to show that it is not at all improbable
Shakspeare may have used _delighted_ for _lighted==lightened==freed from
incumbrance_; and it must be confessed that the sense and spirit of the
passage in _Measure for Measure_ would be much improved by taking this
view of it.

On the other hand, it certainly does appear that the poet uses the
termination _-ed_ for _-ing_, in the passages cited by Mr. Halliwell,
where we have profess_ed_ for profess_ing_, becom_ed_ for becom_ing_,
guil_ed_ for guil_ing_, brood_ed_ for brood_ing_, and deform_ed_ for
deform_ing_: it was not unreasonable, therefore, to conclude that he had
done so in these other instances, and that delight_ed_ stood for
delight_ing_, and not for delight_ful_, as Mr. Halliwell implies. How
far the grammatical usages of the poet's time may have authorised this
has not yet been shown; but it appears also that the converse is the
case, and that he has used the termination _-ing_ for _-ed_; e.g.
long_ing_ for long_ed_, all-obey_ing_ for all-obey_ed_, discontent_ing_
for discontent_ed_, multiply_ing_ for multipli_ed_, unrecall_ing_, for
unrecall_ed_. Dr. Crombie (_Etymology and Syntax of the English
language_, p. 150.) says:

    "The participle in _ed_ I consider to be perfectly analogous to
    the participle in _ing_, and used like it in either an active or
    passive sense, belonging, therefore, neither to the one voice
    nor the other exclusively."

Supposing for a moment that Shakspeare used delight_ed_ for
delight_ing_, the sense of the passages would, I presume, be in _Measure
for Measure_, "the spirit affording delight;" in _Othello_, "if virtue
want no beauty affording delight;" in _Cymbeline_, "the gifts delighting
more from being delayed." Here we have a simple, and, in the last two
instances, I think, a more satisfactory meaning than Mr. Hickson's sense
of _lightened_, _disencumbered_, affords, even could it be more
unquestionably established.

I have, however, met with a passage in Sir Philip Sidney's _Arcadia_
(ed. 1598, p. 294.) which might lead to a different interpretation of
_delighted_ in these passages, and which would not, perhaps, be less
startling than that of Mr. Hickson.

    "All this night (in despite of darknesse) he held his eyes open;
    and in the morning, when the _delight_ began to restore to each
    body his colour, then with curtains bar'd he himselfe from the
    enjoying of it; neither willing to feele the comfort of the day,
    nor the ease of the night."

Here, _delight_ is apparently used for _the return of light_, and the
prefix _de_ is probably only intensive. Now, presuming that Shakspeare
also used _delighted_ for _lighted_, _illuminated_ the passage in
_Measure for Measure_ would bear this interpretation: "the delighted
spirit, i.e., the spirit _restored to light_," freed from "that dark
house in which it long was pent." In _Othello_, "if virtue lack no
delighted beauty," i.e. "_want not the light of beauty_, your son-in-law
shows far more fair than black." Here the opposition between _light_ and
_black_ is much in its favour. In _Cymbeline_, I must confess it is not
quite so clear: "to make my gifts, by the dark uncertainty attendant
upon delay, more lustrous (delighted), more radiant when given," is not
more satisfactory than Mr. {201} HICKSON'S interpretation of this
passage. But is it necessary that _delighted_ should have the same
signification in all the three passages? I think not.

These are only suggestions, of course, but the passage from Sidney is
certainly curious, and, from the correct and careful manner in which the
book is printed, does not appear to be a corruption. I have not seen the
earlier editions. I have only further to remark, that none of our old
authorities favour DR. KENNEDY'S suggestion, "that the word represents
the Latin participle _delectus_."

Since the above was written, Mr. HICKSON'S reply to MR. HALLIWELL has
reached me, upon which I have only to observe that he will find _to
guile_ was used as a verb. Thus in Gower, _Confessio Amantis_, fo. 135.
ed. 1532:

  "For often he that will begyle,
  Is _gyled_ with the same gyle,
  And thus the gyler is begyled."

We most probably had the word from the old French _Guiller_=tromper, and
the proverb is to the purpose:--

  "Qui croit de _Guiller_ Guillot, Guillot le Guile."

Horne Tooke's fanciful etymology cannot be sustained. MR. HICKSON'S
explanation of "guiled shore," is, however, countenanced by the
following passage in _Tarquin and Lucrece_:--

  "To me came Tarquin armed, so _beguil'd_
  With outward honesty, but yet defil'd
  With inward vice."

MR. HICKSON has, I think, conferred a singular favour in calling
attention to these perplexing passages in our great poet and these
remarks, like his own, are merely intended as hints which may serve to
elicit the _true_ interpretation.


Mickleham, August 20. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


I do not know whether the following Notes on "The Family of Love" will
be deserving a place in the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES;" as I may
possibly have been anticipated in much of what I send.

The Family of Love attracted notice as early as 1575, but not in such a
manner as to call for direct coercion. An apology was published for
them, from which it might be inferred that they possessed no distinct
opinions, but merely bound themselves to a more exalted interpretation
of Christian duties, on the principle of imitating the great love of God
manifested in their creation and retention. This principle, unrestrained
by any confession of faith or system of discipline, naturally attracted
to it the loose and irregular spirits that were at that time so
prevalent, and the sect became the receptacle for every variety of
opinion and disorder, exposing itself to more particular notice from its
contempt for outward observances, and its opposition to the civil
government. The _Evangelium Regni_ of Henry Nicholas, the acknowledged
founder of the sect, is written in such a manner as to include all
religious persuasions, and permits all parties to hold whatever
sentiments they please, if they merely declare themselves _members of
the Family of Love_.

    "Omnes vos, O amatores veritatis! qui amabilem vitam charitatis
    diligitis vocatmini et invitamini." (cap. 41.) ... "Omnes
    peribunt, qui extra Christum extra communionem charitatis
    manent." (Ibid.)

A confutation of this sect was written in the year 1579; the privy
council called upon the convocation of the year 1580 to notice it. We
find the sect still described in the publications of 1641, and
continuing under the same name with its preachers and congregations in

Bp. Cooper, in speaking of the sect in 1589 (_Admonition, &c._, p.
146.), terms them "that peevish faction of the 'Familie of Love,' which
have been breeding in this realm the space of these thirty years."

Fuller (_Ch. Hist._, 17th cent., p. 610.) says that in his time "they
had obtained the name of Ranters."

Leslie, in his _Works_ (vol. ii. p. 609.), considers the sect "identical
with that of the Quakers."

That this was not the case is evident, I conceive, from George Fox, the
father of the Quakers, having severely chastised this "Family of Love,"
because they would take an oath, dance, sing, and be cheerful. See
Sewel's _History of the Quakers_, iii. p. 88, 89, 344.

The founder of the sect, Henry Nicolai, was born at Munster, and
commenced his career about 1546 in the Netherlands; thence he passed
over to England, in the latter years of Edward VI.'s life, and joined
the Dutch congregation. But his sect did not become visible till some
time in the reign of Elizabeth.

In 1575 they presented a confession of their faith to parliament, along
with a number of their books, and prayed toleration.

Nicolai, or Nicolas, their founder, published a number of tracts and
letters in Dutch for the edification of his followers: and now I will
propose a Query, in hopes that some of your correspondents will solve
it. Is there extant any list of their writings as presented to
parliament in 1575, and has their confession been published, and when?
Perhaps the following works, none of which I am able to consult, would
furnish the means of solving my Query, all of which treat of the

    J. Hombeck's _Summa Controversiarum._ Godfr. Arnold's _Kirchen-
    und Kitzer-historie._ Ant. Wilh. Bohm's _Englische
    Reformations-historie._ Schroekh's _Kirchengesch. seit der


These sources would, I conceive, be useful to N.B., who inquires into
their tenets and lives.

I find I have omitted to mention one of their assailants, "the last and
most learned," Henry More, the English divine. See his _Mystery of
Godliness_, book vi., chap. 12-18.

[Hebrew: SP'T]

_The Family of Love._--In addition to the work of John Rogers, referred
to by DR. RIMBAULT (Vol. ii., p. 49.), the two following treatises,
which were also published in the year 1579, will present your readers
with much curious information respecting the "Family of Love." The first
is entitled,--

    "A Confutation of certaine Articles delivered unto the Familye
    of Loue, with the exposition of Theophilus, a supposed elder in
    the sayd Familye, upon the same Articles, by William Wilkinson,
    Maister of Artes, and student of Divinitye, &c. &c. At London:
    Printed by John Daye, dwelling ouer Aldersgate, Au. 1579."

In the _Epistle Dedicatorie_, dated Cambridge, September 30, 1579, and
addressed to Richard (Cox), Bishop of Ely, the author describes the new
doctrine as,--

    "The most pestiferous and deadly Heresie of all others, because
    there is not almost any one particular erroneous and
    schismaticall phantasie, whereof the _Familie of Loue_ hath not
    borrowed one braunche or other thereof, to peece vnto themselves
    this their Religion."

A passage is then added which may serve in some measure as a reply to
N.B. (Vol. ii., p. 89.) It seems to slow that, however vile might be the
theology of this sect, their morals were not at least publicly

    "The encrease of this _Familie_ is great, and that dayly,
    because the withstanders are not many; the defenders are wily as
    serpentes, and would fayne in lyfe seeme innocent and
    vnblameable. In profession of the one they boast very much: of
    the other they walkyng very closely do iustifie themselues,
    because fewe haue to finde fault with them, yet haue they their
    lothsome spottes and ougly deformities, as in this booke to the
    diligent reader playnely may appeare."

The "lothsome spottes" here intended are the 13th and 14th articles of
Wilkinson's indictment. They run as follows;--

    (1.) "H.N. (i.e. Henry Nicholas) saith, It is lawfull for one of
    his Familie to dissemble," (i.e., to conceal his religion when
    questioned by the magistrate); and (2.) "H.N. maketh God the
    Author of sinne, and the sinner guiltless," (but no proof is
    alleged that this speculative impiety was carried out into
    actual life).

The title of the second treatise to which I alluded is--

    "A Confutation of monstrous and horrible Heresies, taught by
    H.N., and embraced of a number who call themselves the Familie
    of Love, by I. Knewstub. Imprinted in London, at the Three
    Cranes in the Vinctree, by Thomas Dawson, for Richard Sergies.

He characterises the doctrine of the "Familists" as--

    "A masse or packe of Poperie, Arianisme, Anabaptisme, and
    Libertinisme. Respecting their morals we are told, that although
    for their loosenesse of life, they are from the toppe to the toe
    nothing but blottes, yet bragge they of all perfection, euen
    vnto a verie deifying of themselues."

Some further light is thrown upon this point by a letter sent to
Knewstub from a "godly learned man, W.C." He says,--

    "Howsoeuer, they seduce some goodly and zealous men and women of
    honest and godly conuersation, placing them at the porch of
    their synagogue to make a shewe of holinesse, and to stand there
    as baites and stalles to deceiue others; yet, alas! who can
    without blushing vtter the shame that is committed in the
    inwarde roomes, and as it were in the heart of that synagogue of

Appended to Knewstub's book is a further--

    "Confutation of the doctrine of Dauid George, and H.N., the
    father of the Familie of Loue, by M. Martyn Micronius, minister
    of the woorde in the Dutche Churche, at London."

It was originally written in Latin during the reign of Edward VI. The
author charges the "Familists" with maintaining that--

    "Idolatry, superstition, and outwarde vices are free and pure
    vnto them, which, vnder the pretence of a certaine fayth and
    inwarde puritie, boast that they knowe no sinne in the heart."
    (Fo. 87 b.)

Two features particularly distinguish them from other sectaries of the
age: they professed obedience to the civil magistrate, whatever might be
his religion; and they argued in favour of unlimited toleration both in
regard to themselves and others.


St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *


L.S. (Vol. ii, p. 153.) inquires for a "translation of Robert de Bury's
_Philobiblon_." An English version of this famous treatise by Richard,
not Robert Aungerville (see, for the surname, Pits, p. 467.) de Bury,
Bishop of Durham in 1333, was published by Mr. Rodd in the year 1832.
The translator has not given his name, but he was Mr. John Bellingham
Inglis, formerly a partner in the house of Inglis, Ellis, and Co. It is
greatly to be desired that there should be a careful reprint of this
most interesting work, and that the first edition of 1473 should be
collated with MSS. The translation by Mr. Inglis might be revised, and
made to accompany the Latin text. Let us hope, however, that his notes,
if they be permitted again to appear, may be purified from scepticism
and profaneness.

The claim of Holcot to be the author of this tract, should be well
considered and decided upon; {203} and the errors of the learned
Fabricius (who had a manuscript copy in which the writer was styled
"Muiegervile", instead of Aungerville), which have been repeated by
Mansi, should be corrected. Dr. James, the first Bodleian librarian,
fell into a strange mistake when he imagined that his inaccurate reprint
at Oxford, in 1599, was the _second_ edition of this treatise. It was in
reality the _fourth_, having been preceded by the impressions, Colon.
1473; Spiræ, 1483; and Paris, 1500. So far as I remember, the editio
princeps has not been specified by Gough. (_Brit. Topog_. ii. 121.)


I find I can answer the Query of L.S. (Vol. ii., p. l53.), who asks,
"Where can I procure a _translation_ of Robert de Bury's _Philobiblon_?"

A translation was published by Mr. Rodd, in 1832, of which the following
is the title:--

    "Philobiblon: a Treatise on the Love of Books, by Richard de
    Bury, Bishop of Durham, written in MCCCXLIV; and translated from
    the first Edition, MCCCCLXXIII, with some Collations. London:
    Printed for Thomas Rodd, 2 Great Newport Street, Leicester
    Square, 1832."

This translation is a small 8vo. volume, of which there is a copy in the
Douce collection in the Bodleian; at the beginning of which copy, on a
fly-leaf, the words, "J.B. Inglis to his friend F. Douce, Esq.," are
written; and opposite, on the inside of the cover, there is written in
pencil, apparently in Douce's own hand, "I had read the MS. of this work
before it was printed."

There appears to have existed some difference of opinion with respect to
the authorship of the _Philobiblon_. Leland, in his _Itinerary_, ed.
8vo. Oxford 1744, vol. iii. pp. 77, 78, sub loc. _Saresbyri_, says,--

    "Ex tabella in Sacello S. Mariæ. Orate pro anima Ricbardi Poure,
    quondam Sarum Episcopi." ...

    "Qui quidem Richardus Episcopus postea translatus fuit ad
    Episcopatum Dunelmensem ... Incipit Prologus in Philobiblon
    Richardi Dunelmensis Episcopi, _quem librum compilavit Robertus
    Holcot_ de Ord. Prædicatorum _sub nomine dicti Episcopi_."

Still, however, in the appendix to vol. iv. of the _Itinerary_, p. 164.,
it is said:--

    "Richardus de _Bury_, alias _Angravyle_ dictus, episc. Dunelm.,
    scripsit Philobiblon."

Upon Leland's authority, the Bodleian catalogue ascribes the work in
question to Robertus Holcot. Watt, however (_Bibl. Brit._), seems to
imagine R. de Bury and Holcot to be the same person. His words are (vol.
i. c. 176 ):--"Bury, Richard. Dunelm., _alias_ Robertus Holcot, Bishop
of Durham, and Chancellor and Treasurer of England, in the reign of
Edward III.;" and again, under Holcot's name, "Holcot, Robert, _or_
Richard D. Bury."

The translator (J.B. Inglis) distinguishes in his Preface between these
contemporary writers, and considers R. de Bury to be the undoubted
author of this work passing under his name. In corroboration of his
opinion, Mr. Inglis refers to the _Biographical and Retrospective
Miscellany_; and, in order to prove that the work was finished in the
author's lifetime, he produces the words:

    "Quod opus (Philobiblon) Aucklandiæ in habitatione sua
    complevit, 24 die Januarii, anno a communis salutis origine
    1344, ætatis suæ 58, et 11 suæ pontificatus."

and then adds:

    "He died 14 April, 1345. Holcot died in 1349."

There appears to be some confusion about the _editions_, also, of the
_Philobiblon_. There is an edition, 4to. Par., apud Gaspar. Philippum,
1500; also edit. _secund_. 4to. Oxoniæ, 1598; and it is printed in the
_Philolog. Epist. ex Bibl. Melch. Goldasti_, ed. Lipsiæ, 1674. But prior
to all these is the edition "printed at Cologne, 1473," from which the
_translation_ is made, and which is described by Watt as "the editio
princeps, and a work of uncommon rarity."

Query. Why does the Oxford edition of 1598 call itself "editio
_secundo_?" If the Paris edit. of 1500 so far differ from that of 1473
as to entitle it to be considered a different work, had the second MS.
passed through Holcot's hands?


The translation of Richard de Bury's _Philobiblon_, by Mr. Inglis,
printed in 1832 for the late Mr. Rodd, is an unsatisfactory performance.
The version is bald and spiritless, and some of the best passages of the
original are rendered in language that does no justice to the author's
meaning. His style is so peculiar, so allusive, and so full of metaphor
and quotation, and the work is luminous with "the sparks of so many
sciences," that a good translation is a desideratum.

I may inform your correspondent that one has lately been prepared and is
announced for publication, with a memoir of the illustrious bishop. I
may add that the _Philobiblon_ has been six times printed: the last
edition, if I remember rightly, was by Dr. James: but some old MS.
copies of this remarkable treatise on the Love of Books exist, with some
of which the text used by the translator should be collated. But, of the
publication announced, it would not become me to say anything more, as
the biographer is

Your faithful servant,



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 153.)

The very satisfactory replies of Mr. WAY to some of the Queries of J.
MN., given at p. 169-70., make us wish for more, which I trust we shall
have, should he be supplied with the context in which the words occur;
without which it is difficult {204} to elucidate them fully. In the
meantime, I venture a few suggestions on some of the remaining words.

    "In the fever or the _berebarde_,"

    "_Berbi_, O.F., chancre, dartre; a _boil, bubo_, or _tetter_,
    commonly attendant upon pestilent fever. 'Correpta fuit
    vehementissima febri. Subtus ejus axillis detectis quoque
    _Bubonibus_, magnam duritiem ac timorem præ se
    ferentibus.'"--_Miraculi S. Francisci Solani, A.S._, tom. v.,
    Julii, p. 909.

(See Bullein's _Dialogue bothe pleasant and pitiful, wherein is a goalie
regimente against the Fever Pestilence_, &c., 1578.)

"_Deale_," if an interjection (?), may possibly stand for "_Deâ_," or
"_Ouy Deâ_, Yes, truly! verily!" &c. (See Cotgrave in v. _Deâ_.)

"_Schunche away_".--To _shun_ or _shunche_ is used for to _shove_, in
Sussex. "I _shunched_ him away."

"Wear no iron, nor haircloth, nor _irspilles felles_"--that is, no
_skins having hard or bristly hair_ like that of goats.

"HIRCIPILUS, Durorum pilorum homines sicut hirci."--_Festus_.

Here the context clearly leads to this interpretation.

_Sabraz_, or _sabras_, is a _decoction_ or _infusion_. One of the
numerous terms which the apothecaries adopted from the Arabic, in which
_shabra_ is a drink.

_Sabe_, in O.F.; _saba_, Ital., an inspissated juice or decoction.

    "_Sabaricio_, a kind of strong drinke made of barley."

I doubt whether Ducange is right in explaining _sabrierium_ in the
following passage, by _condimentum_, Gallicè _saupiquet_. It most
probably signified a beverage.

    "In omnibus secundis feriis dent illis ova quatuor uniquique
    clerico pinguia, cum bono _Sabrierio_."


[We take this opportunity of correcting two errata in the
Etymological Queries of our valued correspondent J. MN.

"Hete_n_este" should be "hete_u_este"--"Inclosed heteueste in a
stone coffin or tomb:" and in a later Query "isti_l_ed" should
be "isti_h_ed"--"Let their hesmel be istihed, al without

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Lord Richard Christophilus._--CH. (Vol. ii., p. 130.) will probably
find as much information as he requires, if he can consult a small
volume in the British Museum (catalogued under the head of "_Isuf,
Bassa_,") of which the title is--

    "A True Relation of the Conversion and Baptism of Isuf, the
    Turkish Chaons, named Richard Christophilus, 8vo. Lond. 1684."

Also, in the Bodleian Catalogue, under the head of "Bassa (Isuf)," CH.
may find--

    "The History of Isuf Bassa, Capt.-General of the Ottoman Army at
    the Invasion of Candia. 8vo. Lond. 1684."

In reference to the former of these volumes, there is a note in the
_Fasti Oxonienses_, ad ann. 1683, v. Thom. White, of which the following
is a copy:--

    "Quære, if Tho. White, Lecturer of S. Andrew's Holborn,
    published an Epistle to the Reader of 'A True Relation of the
    Conversion and Baptism of Isuf, the Turkish Chaons, named
    Richard Christophilus, in the presence of a full congregation,
    Jan. 30, 1658, in Covent Garden, where Mr. Martin is Preacher.
    Lond. 1658. 8vo.' Kenneth." (_Athenæ Oxon_. ed. Phil. Bliss,
    1820, vol. iv. _Fasti_, coll. 392, 393.)


_Poker._--Among the muniments of the corporation of Bodmin is a
certificate of the mayor and burgesses respecting the claims of the
inhabitants of the town to take wood in Dunmere Wood, belonging to the
Priory of Bodmin. The language of it seems to throw light on the origin
of the word _pocarius_, or _poker_, which has been so often noticed and
discussed. (_Antè_, Vol. i., pp. 185. 218. 236. 269. 281. 323. 369.) The
passage also illustrates the _Hook or Crook_ privilege, which has been
already satisfactorily explained. The date is A.D. 1525:

    "We say, and for truth testify that the wood called Dynmure
    Wood, was ever open and common to all burgesses and inhabitants
    of Bodmin till now of late, as well for all manner kind of their
    beasts to common therein, as to have their burden wood, to bear
    and carry away upon their backs, of lop, crop, _hook_, _crook_,
    and _bag_ wood; ... always reserving to the Prior the stems of
    the trees for their fuel and building."

(See the _Bodmin Register_, collected by the Rev. John Wallis, of
Bodmin, and printed at Bodmin, 1827-1838, p. 303.)

I presume that _bag wood_ is such wood as can be cut with a hook or
crook, and bunched. In another nearly contemporary petition (Ibid. p.
306.), the same identical privilege is described by the townsmen as a
right to lop and crop with a hook and crook, and to carry away on their
backs, and "none other ways." This explains the former passage, and
shows that the wood was probably carried away on the back in a bag.

The woodward, who carried a bill for such purposes, would also carry a
bag, or _poke_, and might therefore be very appropriately called a

It will be seen in Halliwell's _Dictionary_, verb. "Bag" and "Bagging,"
and in the _Hereford Glossary_ (London, 1839), verb. "Bag," that
_bagging_ is sometimes used to signify cutting; and, more particularly,
cutting for burning.

I mention this, because it may be thought pertinent {205} to the present
inquiry; but as this use of the word has been plausibly supposed to be
derived from the Welsh _Bach_, a hook, it seems to have nothing to do
with a _poke_.

E. Smirke.

_Querela Cantabrigiensis_ (Vol. ii., p. 168.).--J.M.B. inquires whether
anything is known of the _authorship_ of the _Querela Cantabrigiensis_?
The tract in question appears to have been "written by Bruno Ryves," the
author of _Mercurius Rusticus_, and some few other treatises, in
connexion with which it is commonly bound. Ryves is described by Watt as
"a loyal divine," who was "born in Dorsetshire," and "died 1677." His
_Querela_ was first printed at Oxford in 1646. There was a second
edition in 1647.

In case J.M.B. do not himself intend to send out a new edition of this
tract, it is to be hoped that his Query may induce some one else to do
so. Indeed, a reprint of several similar pamphlets and short treatises,
belonging to the same period, might be brought out with great advantage
at this crisis. The series might begin with

    "The Answere of the Vice-Chancellour, the Doctors, both the
    Proctors, and other the Heads of Houses in the Universitie of

    "(Agreeable, undoubtedly, to the joint and uniforme opinion of
    all the Deanes and Chapters, and all other the learned and
    obedient Cleargy in the Church of England:)

    "To the humble Petition of the Ministers of the Church of
    England, desiring Reformation of certaine ceremonies and abuses
    of the Church. At Oxford: Printed by Joseph Barnes, and are to
    be sold in Paule's Church Yard, at the sign of the Crowne, by
    Simon Waterson, 1603."

J. Sansom.

"_One Bell_" (Vol ii., p. 166.)--In the sixth edition of the _Book of
the Church_ (I _believe_ references are also given in all editions since
the first), Southey gives us his authority for this, "Strype's
_Cranmer_, p. 266. (edition of 1694.)" The passage occurs in book ii.
chap. 26.: "The Duke of Somerset's death." I quote it from the reprint
by the Ecclesiastical History Society (vol. ii. p. 345.):

    "He (Somerset) is generally charged for the great spoil of
    churches and chapels; defacing ancient tombs and monuments, and
    pulling down the bells in parish churches, and _ordering only
    one bell in a steeple, as sufficient to call the people
    together_, which set the commonalty almost into a rebellion."


August 12.

_Fabulous Account of the Lion_ (Vol. ii., p. 142.).--Jarltzberg is right
in supposing that this is given by Philippe de Thaun. It is, however, of
older date. Turner (_History of England during the Middle Ages_, vol.
iv. chap. iv. p. 209.) gives part of a Latin version of it from the
"Physiologus" of a certain Theobald. The "Physiologus," which is in
substance the same as the "Bestiary" of Philippe de Thaun, occurs,
according to Mr. Turner's account of it, in MSS. of the eighth or ninth
century. Anglo-Saxon versions of "The Whale and the Panther" are in the
_Codex Exoniensis_. In the works of Hildebert, who died Abp. of Tours
1134, a poem called "Physiologus" is printed, which appears to be the
same as that ascribed by Turner to Theobald. The fable and application
of the Lion are the same as those given by Turner, with very trifling

Among the poems ascribed to Abp. Hildebert is an "Epitaphum Magistri
Theobaldi," who, I conjecture, is the same Theobald as the supposed
author of the "Physiologus." It is rather long; but there is nothing to
identify Theobaldus except the word "Dervensis." What place this
indicates I know not.

  "Hoc vivente, locus Dervensis floruit, isto
  Sublato, marcet nominis hujus odor."

  _Opera Hildeberti_, p. 1322., Paris, 1708.

In the _Opera Hildeberti_ there occur some verses on the symbols of the
Evangelists. I subjoin them: though it is perhaps hardly worth while to
print any more on this subject.


    "Matthæum signat vir, bos Lucain, leo Marcum, Ales discipulum
    qui sine sorde fuit.

    "Matthæo species humana datur, quia scripto Indicat et titulo
    quid Deus egit homo. Os vituli Lucam declarat, qui specialem
    Materiam sumpsit de cruce, Christe tuâ. Effigiat Marcum leo,
    cujus littera clamat Quantâ surrexit vi tua, Christi, caro.
    Discipulum signat species aquilina pudicum, Vox cujus nubes
    transit ad astra volans. Christus homo, Christus vitulus,
    Christus leo, Christus Est avis, in Christo cuncta notare potes.
    Est homo dum vivit, bos dum moritur, leo verò Quando resurgit,
    avis quando superna petit."

    _Hildeberti Opera_, Paris, 1708, p. 1318.


_Pomfret on the Thames_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--In a former number N.
required to be informed where the Pons fractus, or Pountfreyt super
Thamis, was situate, from whence several documents were dated by Edward
II. This question has puzzled many learned antiquaries, and I do not
think has ever been properly resolved. Both Pons fractus and Pountfreyt
occur in Rymer's _Foedera_, tomus iii., p. 904. Lond. 1706. If you will
permit, I would hazard the conjecture that it was Kingston Bridge. Till
within the last two centuries, the only bridges across the Thames were
London and Kingston; and the latter in the thirteenth century appears to
have been in a ruinous condition. And I find in _Rot. Litterar.
Clausar_. {206} anno 7 Hen. III. (A.D. 1223) memb. 4. p. 558. "de ponte
de Kingeston," that Henry de St. Alban, and Matthew, son of Geoffry de
Kingston, are directed to repair the bridge, date Wednesday, Aug. 9,
1223 and there is also a recurrence to the same subject, memb. 15. p.
579., dated on Tuesday, Dec. 12, 1223. I would therefore ask, with
submission to those who may be better informed, whether the bridge,
though ordered to be repaired by Henry III., may not have remained in
such a dilapidated state in the time of Edw. II., that it may then have
been styled "Pons fractus?"


_Walrond Family_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--Among my very numerous Notes
relating to the several families of this name, I find only the following
which appears likely to be of any interest to your correspondent in
connection with his Query.

    "Mrs. Ureth, daughter of Lieut.-Col. Walrond, was married to
    James Huish, Esq. of Sidbury, co. Devon, on the 25th July,

But it is probable that in so numerous a family there was more than one
colonel at that time. Your correspondent is, no doubt, aware that
Burke's _Landed Gentry_ states the names of the wife and children of
Colonel Humphrey Walrond, and that the monument of Humphrey Walrond,
Esq., who died in 1580, in the church of Ilminster, co. Somerset,
exhibits his coat armour quartering Polton, Fissacre, and Speke, and
impaling Popham and another coat, viz., Per fesse indented quarterly or
and sable, in each quarter an annulet counterchanged. This coat of arms
I shall be glad if your correspondent will enable me to assign to its
proper family.


_Armenian Language_ (Vol. ii., p. 136.).--Jarltzberg may refer to two
works printed at the press of the Mechitaristican Society at Venice; 1.
_Quadro della Storia Letteraria di Armenia_, 1829; and 2. _Quadro delle
Opere di Vari Autori anticamente tradotte in Armeno_, 1825. He may also,
perhaps, be interested by another little work, printed at the same
place, 1825, entitled, _A brief Account of the Mechitaristican Society,
founded on the Island of St. Lazaro_, by Alexander Goode; in which work
it is stated (p. 26.) that "by Lord Byron's assistance a grammar of the
Armenian and English languages was composed by the Rev. Dr. Aucher;" and
that "this reverend gentleman has likewise compiled, with John Brand,
Esq., of the University of Cambridge, a dictionary of the Armenian and
English languages."

All these works are in the writer's possession and shall be lent to
Jarltzberg if he wishes to see them, and is not able to find them in any
library near him.


_Genealogical Query_ (Vol. ii., p. 135)--Sir Philip Courtenay, first of
Powderham Castle, fifth son of Hugh, the second of that name, Earl of
Devon, by Margaret de Bohun, grand-daughter of King Edward I., married
Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Wake of Bisworth, co. Northampton, son of
Hugh, younger son of Baldwin Lord Wake, and had issue three sons and two
daughters, of which Margaret was married to Sir Robert Carey, of
Cockington, Knt. See _Cleaveland's History of the Family of Courtenay_,
pp. 265. 270.


_Richard Baxter's Descendants_ (Vol. ii, p. 89.).--Your correspondent
W.H.B., who wishes for information respecting the descendants of the
celebrated Richard Baxter, describes him to have been a Northamptonshire
man; now this (supposing the Nonconformist divine of that name is meant)
is a mistake, for he was, according to his own account, a Shropshire
man. In a narrative of the most memorable passages of his life and
times, by himself, and published soon after his death under the title of
_Reliquiæ Baxterianæ_, 1696, he says,

    "My father's name was Richard (the son of Richard) Baxter; his
    habitation and estate at a village called Eaton Constantine, a
    mile from the Wrekin Hill, and above half a mile from Severn
    River, and five miles from Shrewsbury in Shropshire. A village
    most pleasantly and healthfully situate. My mother's name was
    Beatrice, the daughter of Richard Adeney of Rowton, a village
    near High Encall, the Lord Newport's seat, in the same county.
    There I was born, A.D. 1615, on the 12th of November, being the
    Lord's Day, in the morning, at the time of divine worship, and
    baptized at High Encall the 19th day following: and there I
    lived from my parents with my grandfather till I was near ten
    years of age, and then was taken home."

He was married on Sept. 10, 1662, to a Miss Charlton. They had no
children. The only descendant of Richard Baxter known to his
biographers, was his nephew, William Baxter, a person of considerable
attainments as a scholar and an antiquary. He was born in Shropshire in
1650. He published several works, and kept an academy for some years at
Tottenham Cross, Middlesex, which he gave up on being chosen master of
Mercer's School, London, where he continued for twenty years, and
resigned a short time before his death, which took place in 1723.

Baxter makes mention, at the close of his own Life and Times, of one
Richard Baxter, a Sabbatarian Anabaptist, and says of him, "that he was
sent to gaol for refusing the oath of allegiance, and it went for
current that it was I."

H.M. Bealby.

North Brixton.

_Duresme and Dunelm_ (Vol. ii., p. 108.).--Three _successive_ bishops,
Morton, Cosin, and Crewe, took the signature of Duresme after their
Christian names. Three _successive_ bishops, Barrington, {207}
Van-Mildert, and the present occupant of the see, have taken the
signature of Dunelm. I think, therefore, J.G.N. is mistaken in saying
that the Bishops of Durham have assumed the French and Latin signatures


       *       *       *       *       *



That the good service which the _English Historical Society_ has
rendered to that branch of our national literature, for the promotion of
which it was instituted, is clearly recognised, is shown by the fact,
that of the small paper copies of the Society's publications, many of
the earlier volumes are now entirely out of print. Of the six volumes of
Mr. Kemble's invaluable _Codex Diplomaticus_, a work alike honourable to
the patriotic zeal of the Society and to the profound learning of its
editor, the first two volumes are, we believe, no longer to be procured.
Good texts of our early chronicles, in an acceptable form, have long
been wanted. That want, the English Historical Society is gradually
supplying. Their last publication is now before us. To Mr. Benjamin
Williams, the editor of _La Chronique de la Traison et Mort de Richard
II., Roy d'Angleterre_, the Society and the public is now indebted for
_Henrici Quinti Anglice Regis Gesta, cum Chronicâ Neustriæ Gallicè, ab
anno MCCCCXIV. ad MCCCCXXII._, a volume containing an account of the
battle of Agincourt, one of those mighty struggles, the result of which
changed the face of Europe; as well as a detailed narrative of Henry's
second expedition to the Continent, a subject passed over by historians
with less attention than it deserves. Mr. Williams' Preface gives a very
interesting notice of the MSS. which he has employed, and the points
which they serve to illustrate, and he has accompanied his text by a
number of useful and judicious notes.

A gentleman of Devonshire is preparing for publication a Catalogue of
the numerous published works which relate to the History, Antiquities,
Biography, Natural History, and Local Occurrences of that county, and
has already sufficient matter to occupy upwards of seventy octavo pages
in print, and would be glad to receive notices of any rare books and
tracts on those subjects on the shelves of private libraries. A similar
work is in contemplation as to existing manuscripts, ancient and modern,
relating to the same county; any information respecting which will be
highly acceptable, and may be forwarded to Mr. William Roberts, 197.
High Street, Exeter.

       *       *       *       *       *








PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE. The entire series to 1848.





COLLECTED, 8vo. London, 1771.

Odd Volumes

Second Vol. of BIOGRAPHIA ECCLESASTICA, or The Lives of the most Eminent
Fathers of the Christian Church, who flourished in the first Four
Centuries and part of the Fifth, adorned with their Effigies, in 2 vols.
London, printed for Tho. Atkinson, at the White Swan, in St. Paul's
Church Yard. 1705.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


VOLUME THE FIRST OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen_.

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday; so
that our country Subscribers ought to experience no difficulty in
receiving it regularly. Many of the country Booksellers are, probably,
not yet aware of this arrangement, which enables them to receive Copies
in their Saturday parcels_.

J.B. _Will the correspondent from whom we received the account of the
Treatise of Equivocation, printed in No. 41., favour us with the means
of addressing a letter to him?_

       *       *       *       *       *

TESTIMONIAL TO DR. CONOLLY.--At a meeting held at 12. Old Burlington
Street, Saturday, August 3d, 1850, the Right Hon. Lord Ashley in the
chair; the following resolutions among others were unanimously agreed

That Dr. John Conolly, of Hanwell, is, in the opinion of this meeting,
eminently entitled to some public mark of esteem and gratitude, for his
long, zealous, disinterested, and most successful labours in
ameliorating the treatment of the insane.

That a committee be now formed, for the purpose of carrying into effect
the foregoing Resolution, by making the requisite arrangements for the
presentation to Dr. Conolly of _A Public Testimonial_, commemorative of
his invaluable services in the cause of humanity, and expressive of the
just appreciation of those services by his numerous friends and
admirers, and by the public generally.

The Committee subsequently resolved:

That in the opinion of the committee, the most appropriate Testimonial
will be a Portrait of Dr. Conolly (for which he is requested to sit), to
be presented to his family, and an Engraving of the same, to be
presented to the subscribers; and that the ultimate arrangement of this
latter point be made at a future meeting of the committee.

It has been determined that the individual subscriptions shall be
limited to Five Guineas; that subscribers of Two Guineas and upwards
shall receive a proof impression of the Engraving; and subscribers of
One Guinea, a print.

It is also proposed to present Dr. Conolly with a piece of plate, should
the funds permit after defraying the expenses of the painting and

Subscribers' names and subscriptions will be received by the
secretaries, at 12. Old Burlington Street, and 4. Burlington Gardens,
and by the Treasurers, at the Union Bank, Regent Street Branch, Argyll
Place, London. Post-office Orders should be made payable at the
Post-office, _Piccadilly_, to one of the Secretaries.

John Forbes, Richard Frankum, _Secretaries_.

London, August 3, 1850.

       *       *       *       *       * {208}




In 3 vols. royal 8vo., cloth, price l_l_. 16_s_.

of Glasgow, 1637-62, and one of the Commissioners from Scotland to the
Westminster Assembly. Edited from the original MSS., with Memoir, by
David Laing, Esq.

(_Only a few copies now remain_.)

"The Letters abound in allusions to the ecclesiastical affairs of the
period, and in characteristic sketches of the most prominent leaders of
the several parties who were then struggling either for ascendancy or
for life."--_Eclectic Review_.

"We give it no small praise when we say there is, perhaps, no book of
that period which will in the end better reward the trouble of
reading."--_Westminster Review_.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 3 vols. royal 8vo., cloth, price 1l. 11s. 6d.

THE PRESBYTERIAN'S ARMOURY, containing the works of George Gillespie,
Rutherford's "Lex Rex, or the Laws and the Prince," Brown's
"Apologetical Relation," Calderwood's "Pastor and Prelate," &c.

"We have already expressed a high opinion of the style in which these
works have been got up, and the works themselves are of such a standard
character, that they require no encomium from us to recommend

       *       *       *       *       *

In 2 vols. royal 8vo., cloth, price 1_l_. 1_s_.

THE WORKS OF GEORGE GILLESPIE, one of the Commissioners to the
Westminster Assembly, with Memoir, by the Rev. Dr. Hetherington.

"The public are under a lasting debt of gratitude to the publisher for
the spirit and enterprise which he showed in projecting a cheap and
uniform edition of the works of George Gillespie. There are few of the
works of our early Scottish writers so worthy of being held in
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seasonable."--_The Warder_.

London: Hamilton, Adams, & Co. Edinburgh: Robert Ogle and Oliver and

       *       *       *       *       *

Important to Curators of public Libraries and Book Collectors.

from commencement in 1638 to 1842, inclusive; 9 vols. folio, full bound
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The advertiser would beg respectfully to call special attention to the
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Application to be made to

Robert Ogle, Bookseller, South Bridge, Edinburgh.

N.B. A liberal price will be given for a _first_ volume of the above
work, 1638-49, _in folio_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition, with Illustrations, 12mo., 3s. cloth.

THE BELL: its Origin, History, and Uses.
By the Rev. Alfred Gatty, Vicar of Ecclesfield.

"A new and revised edition of a very varied, learned, and amusing essay
on the subject of bells."--_Spectator_.

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       *       *       *       *       *

Price 3d., or 5s. for 25 copies for distribution amongst
Cottage Tenantry,


By Joseph Paxton,

Gardener to His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, &c., &c.

Reprinted from the _Gardeners' Chronicle_. Above 57,000 have already
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African Lilies
Black Fly
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China Asters
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Crown Imperials
Cultivation of Flowers in Windows
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Virginian Stocks

Illustrated with several Woodcuts.

Published at the 'Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette'
Office, 5. Upper Wellington-street, Covent-garden, London,
at the rate of 3d. each copy, or 5s. for 25 for distribution amongst
Cottage Tenantry; delivered anywhere in London. on a Post-office
Order being sent to the Publisher, James Matthews, at the
Office, and made payable at the Post-office, 180. Strand. London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 24. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 43, August 24, 1850" ***

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