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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 44, August 31, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 44, August 31, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 44.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 31, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {209}



Gravesend Boats                                        209
Notes on Cunningham's Handbook of London, by E.F.
    Rimbault                                           211
Devotional Tracts belonging to Queen Katherine Parr,
    by Dr. Charlton                                    212
Suggestions for cheap Books of Reference               213
Rib, why the first Woman formed from                   213
Minor Notes:--Cinderella, or the Glass Slipper--Mistletoe
    on Oaks--Omnibuses--Havock--Schlegel
    on Church Property in England                      214

P. Mathieu's Life of Sejanus                           215
The Antiquity of Smoking                               216
Sir Gregory Norton, Bart.                              216
Minor Queries:--City Offices--Meaning of
    Harefinder--Saffron-bag--Bishop Berkley's successful
    Experiments--Unknown Portrait--Custom of selling
    Wives--Hepburn Crest and Motto--Concolinel--"One
    Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church"--The
    Norfolk Dialect--Sir John Perrot--"Antiquitas sæculi
    juventus mundi"                                    216

Derivation of "News"                                   218
Replies to Minor Queries:--Swords worn in Public--Quarles'
    Pension--Franz von Sickingen--"Noll me
    tangere"--Dr. Bowring's Translations--Countess
    of Desmond--Yorkshire Dales--Sir Thomas Herbert's
    Memoirs--Alarum--Practice of Scalping
    among the Scythian's--Gospel Tree--Martinet--"Yote"
    or "Yeot"--Map of London--Woodcarving,
    Snow Hill--Waltheof--The Dodo--"Under
    the Rose"--Ergh, Er, or Argh--Royal
    Supporters--The Frog and the Crow of Ennow         218

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                 222
Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                           223
Notices to Correspondents                              223
Advertisements                                         223

       *       *       *       *       *



While so much has been said of coaches, in the early numbers of "Notes
and Queries" and elsewhere, very little notice has been taken of another
mode of conveyance which has now become very important. I think it may
amuse some of your readers to compare a modern Gravesend boat and
passage with the account given by Daniel Defoe, in the year 1724: and as
it is contained in what I believe to be one of his least known works, it
may probably be new to most of them. In his _Great Law of
Subordination_, after describing the malpractices of hackney coachmen,
he proceeds:

    "The next are the watermen; and, indeed, the insolence of these,
    though they are under some limitations too, is yet such at this
    time, that it stands in greater need than any other, of severe
    laws, and those laws being put in speedy execution.

    "Some years ago, one of these very people being steersman of a
    passage-boat between London and Gravesend, drown'd
    three-and-fifty people at one time. The boat was bound from
    Gravesend to London, was very full of passengers and goods, and
    deep loaden. The wind blew very hard at south-west, which being
    against them, obliged them to turn to windward, so the seamen
    call it, when they tack from side to side, to make their voyage
    against the wind by the help of the tide.

    "The passengers were exceedingly frighted when, in one tack
    stretching over the stream, in a place call'd Long-Reach, where
    the river is very broad, the waves broke in upon the boat, and
    not only wetted them all, but threw a great deal of water into
    the boat, and they all begg'd of the steersman or master not to
    venture again. He, sawey and impudent, mock'd them, ask'd some
    of the poor frighted women if they were afraid of going to the
    Devil; bid them say their prayers and the like, and then stood
    over again, as it were, in a jest. The storm continuing, he
    shipp'd a great deal of water that time also. By this time the
    rest of the watermen begun to perswade him, and told him, in
    short, that if he stood over again the boat would founder, for
    that she was a great deal the deeper for the water she had taken
    in, and one of them begg'd of him not to venture; he swore at
    the fellow, call'd him fool, bade him let him alone to his
    business, and he would warrant him; then used a vulgar
    sea-proverb, which such fellows have in their mouths, 'Blow
    Devil, the more wind, the better boat.'

    "The fellow told him in so many words he would drown all the
    passengers, and before his face began to strip, and so did two
    more, that they might be in condition to swim for their lives.
    This extremely terrify'd the passengers, who, having a cloth or
    tilt over them, were in no condition to save their lives, so
    that there was a dreadful cry among them, and some of the men
    were making way to come at the steersman to make him by force
    let fly the sail and stand back for the shore; but before they
    could get to him the waves broke in upon the boat and carried
    them all to the bottom, none escaping but the three watermen
    that were prepar'd to swim. {210}

    "It was but poor satisfaction for the loss of so many lives, to
    say the steersman was drown'd with them, who ought, indeed, to
    have died at the gallows, or on the wheel, for he was certainly
    the murtherer of all the rest.

    "I have many times pass'd between London and Gravesend with
    these fellows in their smaller boats, when I have seen them, in
    spite of the shrieks and cries of the women and the persuasions
    of the men passengers, and, indeed, as if they were the more
    bold by how much the passengers were the more afraid; I say, I
    have seen them run needless hazards, and go, as it were, within
    an inch of death, when they have been under no necessity of it,
    and, if not in contempt of the passengers, it has been in meer
    laziness to avoid their rowing; and I have been sometimes
    oblig'd, especially when there has been more men in the boat of
    the same mind, so that we have been strong enough for them, to
    threaten to cut their throats to make them hand their sails and
    keep under shore, not to fright as well as hazard the passengers
    when there was no need of it.

    "One time, being in one of these boats all alone, coming from
    London to Gravesend, the wind freshen'd and it begun to blow
    very hard after I was come about three or four mile of the way;
    and as I said above, that I always thought those fellows were
    the more venturous when their passengers were the most fearful,
    I resolved I would let this fellow alone to himself; so I lay
    down in the boat as if I was asleep, as is usual.

    "Just when I lay down, I called to the waterman, 'It blows hard,
    waterman,' said I; 'can you swim?' 'No, Sir,' says he. 'Nor
    can't your man swim neither?' said I. 'No, Sir,' says the
    servant. 'Well then,' says I, 'take care of yourselves, I shall
    shift as well as you, I suppose:' and so down I lay. However, I
    was not much disposed to sleep; I kept the tilt which they cover
    their passengers with open in one place, so that I could see how
    things went.

    "The wind was fair, but over-blow'd so much, that in those
    reaches of the river which turn'd crossway, and where the wind
    by consequence was thwart the stream, the water went very high,
    and we took so much into the boat, that I began to feel the
    straw which lay under me at the bottom was wet, so I call'd to
    the waterman, and jesting told him, they must go all hands to
    the pump; he answered, he hoped I should not be wet; 'But it's
    bad weather, master,' says he, 'we can't help it.' 'No, no,'
    says I, ''tis pretty well yet, go on.'

    "By and by I heard him say to himself, 'It blows very hard,' and
    every now and then he repeated it, and sometimes thus: ''Twill
    be a dirty night, 'twill be a terrible night,' and the like;
    still I lay still and said nothing.

    "After some time, and his bringing out several such speeches as
    above, I rous'd as if I had but just wak'd; 'Well, waterman,'
    says I, 'how d'ye go on?' 'Very indifferently,' says he; 'it
    blows very hard.' 'Ay, so it does,' says I; 'where are we?' 'A
    little above Erith,' says he; so down I lay again, and said no
    more for that time.

    "By and by he was at it again, 'It blows a frett of wind,' and
    'It blows very hard,' and the like; but still I said nothing. At
    last we ship'd a dash of water over the boat's head, and the
    spry of it wetted me a little, and I started up again as if I
    had been asleep; 'Waterman,' says I, 'what are you doing? what,
    did you ship a sea?' 'Ay,' says the waterman, 'and a great one
    too; why it blows a frett of wind.' 'Well, well,' says I, 'come,
    have a good heart; where are we now?' 'Almost in Gallions,' says
    he, 'that's a reach below Woolwich.'

    "Well, when we got into the Gallions reach, there the water was
    very rough, and I heard him say to his man, 'Jack, we'll keep
    the weather-shore aboard, for it grows dark and it blows a
    storm.' Ay, thought I, had I desir'd you to stand in under
    shore, you would have kept off in meer bravado; but I said
    nothing. By and by his mast broke, and gave a great crack, and
    the fellow cry'd out, 'Lord have mercy upon us!' I started up
    again, but still spoke cheerfully; 'What's the matter now?' says
    I. 'L--d, Sir,' say's he, 'how can you sleep? why my mast is
    come by the board.' 'Well, well,' says I, 'then you must take a
    goose-wing.' 'A goose-wing! why,' says he, 'I can't carry a knot
    of sail, it blows a storm.' 'Well,' says I, 'if you can't carry
    any sail, you must drive up under shore then, you have the tide
    under foot:' and with that I lay down again. The man did as I
    said. A piece of his mast being yet standing, he made what they
    call a goose-wing sail, that is, a little piece of the sail out,
    just to keep the boat steddy, and with this we got up as high as
    Blackwall; the night being then come on and very dark, and the
    storm increasing, I suffer'd myself to be persuaded to put in
    there, though five or six mile short of London; whereas, indeed,
    I was resolv'd to venture no farther if the waterman would have
    done it.

    "When I was on shore, the man said to me, 'Master, you have been
    us'd to the sea, I don't doubt; why you can sleep in a storm
    without any concern, as if you did not value your life; I never
    carry'd one in my life that did so; why, 'twas a wonder we had
    not founder'd.' 'Why,' says I, 'friend, for that you know I left
    it all to you; I did not doubt but you would take care of
    yourself;' but after that I told him my other reason for it, the
    fellow smil'd, but own'd the thing was true, and that he was the
    more cautious a great deal, for that I took no thought about it;
    and I am still of opinion, that the less frighted and timorous
    their passengers are, the more cautious and careful the watermen
    are, and the least apt to run into danger; whereas, if their
    passengers appear frighted, then the watermen grow sawcy and
    audacious, show themselves vent'rous, and contemn the dangers
    which they are really exposed to."--p. 130.

We are not bound to suppose that this is plain relation of matter of
fact, any more than the _History of Robinson Crusoe_; but it is a
graphic sketch of life and manners worth the notice of those who study
such things. It forms at least a little contribution to the history of
travelling in England. A passenger who had just landed from a Gravesend
boat, to pursue his journey by land, might well be thankful to "be
received in a coach" like that which had been started at York near half
a century before.


       *       *       *       *       * {211}


Mr. Cunningham's work on London is a book of such general interest, that
the additions and corrections, which I shall continue from time to time
to offer to your readers, will not, I think, be deemed impertinent or
trifling. Let it not be imagined, for one single instant, that I wish to
depreciate Mr. Cunningham's labours. On the contrary, his book is one of
the most delightful publications relative to our great city which we
possess. And let me candidly say, if I were to select only half-a-dozen
volumes for my own reading, _Cunningham's Handbook of London_ would most
assuredly be one of that number.

The quaint and learned old Fuller, in his address to the _Worthies of
England_, says:

    "The bare skeleton of time, place, and person, must be fleshed
    with some pleasant passages; and to this intent I have purposely
    interlaced (not as meat but as condiment) many stories, so that
    the reader, if he do not arise _religiosior_ or _doctior_, with
    more piety or learning, at least he may depart _jucundior_, with
    more pleasure and lawful delight."

This remark has been well understood by Mr. Cunningham, whose pleasant
quotations, and literary and artistic recollections, have made his book
a _readable_ one to the many, and an instructive companion for the

The "bare skeleton" sometimes wants "fleshing," and hence the following
list of additions and corrections:

1. _Dobney's_, or, more correctly, _D'Aubigney's Bowling Green_, was a
celebrated place of amusement "more than sixty years since." It is now
occupied by a group of houses called _Dobney's Place_, near the bottom
of Penton street, and almost opposite to the Belvidere Tavern and Tea

2. _Bridge Street, Westminster._ The Long Wool-staple was on the site of
this street. Henry VIII., in 1548, founded, "in the Long Wool-staple,"
St. Stephen's Hospital, for eight maimed soldiers, who had each a
convenient room, and received an allowance of 5l. a year from the
exchequer. It was removed in 1735, and eight almshouses rebuilt in St.
Anne's Lane, bearing the inscription "Wool-staple Pensioners, 1741." In
1628, in the Overseer's books of St. Margaret's is rated in the
Wool-staple "Orlando Gibbons ij d."

3. _Campden House, Kensington._ Built by Sir Baptist Hickes in 1612;
pulled down about 1827. Nicholas Lechmere, the eminent lawyer, was
residing here when he was created a peer.

  "Back in the dark, by Brompton Park,
  He turned up thro' the Gore,
  So slunk to _Campden House_ so high,
  All in his coach and four."

  Swift's Ballad of _Duke and no Duke_.

4. _Finch's Grotto._ A place of amusement, similar to Vauxhall Gardens,
much in vogue at the end of the last century. The "Grotto Gardens," as
they were sometimes called, were situated partly in Winchester Park, or
the Clink, and partly in the parish of St. George, Southwark.

5. _Leicester Square._ Mr. Cunningham does not mention the fine house of
Sir George Savile, in this square. It was subsequently Miss Linwood's
_Exhibition of Needlework_; and has latterly been used as a
concert-room, casino, &c. The statue in the centre of the square is
George I., not George II.

6. _Thavie's Inn._ A small brass plate fixed up against the first house
on the west side, has the following inscription:

    "Thavie's Inn, founded by John Thavie, Esquire, in the reign of
    Edward the Third; Adjudged to be extra-parochial, in the Court
    of King's Bench, Guild-hall, in the causes Fraser against the
    Parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, on the 7th day of July, 1823, and
    Marsden against the same parish, on the 17th day of October,
    1826. This memorial of the antiquity and privileges of this inn,
    was erected during the Treasurership of Francis Paget Watson,
    Esq., Anno Dom. MDCCCXXVII."

7. _Old Bailey._ Peter Bales, the celebrated writing master of Queen
Elizabeth's reign, was master of a school "at the upper end of the _Old
Bailey_" in 1590. It was here he published his first work, entitled,
_The Writing School Master_.

8. _Islington._ During the reign of James I. and Charles I., Islington
was a favourite resort, on account of its rich dairies. In that part of
the manor of Highbury at the lower end of Islington, there were, in
1611, eight inns principally supported by summer visitors. See _Nelson's
History of Islington_, p. 38, 4to., 1811.

  "--Hogsdone, _Islington_, and Tothnam Court,
  For cakes and creame had then no small resort."

  Wither's _Britain's Remembrancer_, 12mo. 1628.

9. _Seven Dials._ The Doric column with its "seven dials," which once
marked this locality, now "ornaments" the pleasant little town of

10. _Mews (the King's)._ The fore-court of the royal mews was used in
1829 for the exhibition of a "monstrous whale." The _building_ (which
stood upon the site of the National Gallery) was occupied, at the same
time, by the _Museum of National Manufactures_. The "Museum" was
removed, upon the pulling down of the mews, to Dr. Hunter's house in
Leicester Square, and was finally closed upon the establishment of the
_Royal Polytechnic Institution_.

Mr. Cunningham, in his _Chronology_, says the mews was taken down in
1827. In the body of the book he gives the date, perhaps more correctly,
1830. {212}

11. _Brownlow Street, Holborn._ This should be "Brownlow Street, _Drury
Lane_;" George Vertue the engraver was living here in 1748.

12. _White Conduit House._ The anonymous author of _The Sunday Ramble_,
1774, has left us the following description of this once popular

    "The garden is formed into several pleasing walks, prettily
    disposed; at the end of the principal one is a painting, which
    serves to render it much larger in appearance than it really is;
    and in the middle of the garden is a round fish-pond,
    encompassed with a great number of very genteel boxes for
    company, curiously cut into the hedges, and adorned with a
    variety of Flemish and other painting; there are likewise two
    handsome tea-rooms, one over the other, as well as several
    inferior ones in the dwelling-house."

"White Conduit Loaves" were for a long time famous, and before the great
augmentation in the price of bread, during the revolutionary war with
France, they formed one of the regular "London cries."

13. _Vauxhall Gardens._ A curious and highly interesting description of
this popular place of amusement, "a century ago," was printed in 1745,
under the title of _A Sketch of the Spring-Gardens, Vaux-hall, in a
letter to a Noble Lord_, 8vo. My copy is much at Mr. Cunningham's
service for any future edition of his _Handbook_.

Edward F. Rimbault.

       *       *       *       *       *


In your Number for August 10th, I observe an inquiry regarding a MS.
book of prayers said to have belonged to Queen Katherine Parr. Of the
book in question I know nothing, but there has lately come into my
possession a volume of early English printed devotional works, which
undoubtedly has belonged to this Queen. The volume is a small duodecimo,
bound red velvet, with gilt leaves, and it has had ornamental borders
and clasps of some metal, as the impressions of these are still
distinctly visible upon the velvet covering. The contents of this volume
are as follows:

    1. "A sermon of Saint Chrysostome, wherein besyde that it is
    furnysshed with heuenly wisedome and teachinge, he wonderfully
    proueth that No man is hurted but of hym-selfe: translated into
    Englishe by the floure of lerned menne in his tyme, Thomas
    Lupsete, Londoner, 1534."

At the bottom of this title-page is written, in the well-known bold hand
of Katherine Parr,--"Kateryn the Quene, K.P.," with the equally
well-known flourish beneath.

    2. "A svvete and devovte sermon of Holy Saynet Ciprian of
    mortalitie of man. The rules of a Christian life made by Picus,
    erle of Mirandula, both translated into Englyshe by Syr Thomas
    Elyot, Knyght. Londini, Anno verbi incarnati MDXXXIX.

    3. "An exhortation to yonge men, &c., by Thomas Lupsete,
    Londener, 1534.

    4. "A treatise of charitie, 1534.

    5. "Here be the Gathered Counsales of Sainete Isidorie, &c.,

    6. "A compendious and a very fruitful treatise teaching the waye
    of dyenge well, written to a frende by the floure of lerned men
    of his tyme, Thomas Lupsete, Londoner, late deceassed, on whose
    sowle Jesu have mercy. 1541."

Almost all these treatises are printed by Thomas Berthelet. I know not
if any of these treatises are now scarce. On the fly-leaf opposite the
first page we find the following scriptural sentences, which are, in my
opinion, and in that of others to whom I have shown the book, evidently
written by the hand of the queen.

It will be only necessary to give the first and last of these sentences:

    "Delyte not in Þe multytude of ungodly men, and haue no pleasure
    in Þem, for they feare not God.

    "Refuse not Þe prayer of one yt is in trouble, and turne not
    away thy face from the nedye."

We need not quote more; but on the opposite side of the fly-leaf are
some verses of a different character, and which I suspect to be from the
royal pen of Henry VIII. The writing is uncommonly difficult to
decypher, but it bears a strong resemblance to all that I have seen of
Henry's handwriting. A portion of the verses, as far as I can make them
out, are here subjoined:


  "Blush not, fayre nimphe, tho (nee?) of nobell blod,
  I fain avoutch it, and of manners good,
  Spottles in lyf, of mynd sencere and sound,
  In whoam a world of vertues doth abowend,
  And sith besyd yt ye lycens giv withall
  Set doughts asyd and to some sporting fall,
  Therefoor, suspysion, I do banyshe thee"

Then follows a line I cannot decypher, and at the bottom of the page is

  "You will be clear of my suspysion."

Are these verses from some old poet, or are they composed as well as
written by the royal tyrant? for no other would, I think, have addressed
such lines to "Kateryn the Quene."

I have only to add that the volume was given me by the sister of the
late President of the English college at Valladolid, and that he
obtained it during his residence in Spain. It is not unlikely it may
have been carried thither by some of the English Catholics, who resorted
to that country for education. In 1625 it seems to have belonged to John

I should be glad of any information about the verses.

E. Charlton, M.D.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, August 18. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       * {213}


Although your space is generally devoted to the higher and more curious
inquiries respecting antiquities and literature, I am sure you will not
grudge a little room for facilitating and improving the means of popular
information and instruction.

For every man, almost in any station in society, I submit that the
followings works for reference are indispensable, in the most convenient
corner or shelf of his library:--1. A Biographical Dictionary. 2. A
Gazetteer. 3. A Statistical or Commercial Dictionary. With works of that
description the public have been very indifferently supplied during the
last thirty years: at least, at the _moderate prices_ calculated to
bring them within the reach of students in humbler life, forming the
great mass of readers. Mr. Constable, of Edinburgh, published in 1817 an
abridged Gazetteer, price 18s., but there has been no such work since.
Mr. A.K. Johnston's _Geographical Dictionary_, at 36s., lately
published, supplies to a certain class of readers one of the works

I beg to suggest a few observations for the improvement of works of this
description through your valuable channel.

I. I submit that none of the dictionaries of reference now specified
should be published without promise of a _periodical supplement_ every
five or seven years, containing later matter and intelligence. For
example, how easily could this be given in the case of a Biographical
Dictionary! Say that such a work has been published in 1830 (which, it
is believed, is the date of Gorton's excellent _Biographical
Dictionary_), the compiler of a supplement has only to collect and
arrange monthly or annual obituaries of the common magazines since 1830
to make a good and useful supplemental volume.

II. I would suggest to skilful authors and booksellers publishing
Biographical Dictionaries to follow the French and American custom of
including in them the more eminent _contemporary_ living characters.
That would add greatly to the use of the book; and the matter could
easily be collected from the current Books of Peerage and Parliamentary
Companions, with aid from the numerous magazines as to distinguished
literary men.

III. The supplements for Gazetteers could be easily compiled from the
_parliamentary papers_ and magazines of the day. I would refer
particularly to the supplements published by Mr. McCulloch to his
_Commercial Dictionary_ as an example to be followed; while the conduct
lately adopted in the new edition of Maunder's _Biographical Treasury_
should be avoided. The old edition of that collection consisted of 839
pages, and it is believed it was _stereotyped_. A new edition, or a new
issue, of the old 839 pages was lately published, the same as the
original dictionary, with a supplement of 72 pages. That is not sold
separately; so that the holders of the old edition must purchase the
whole work a _second_ time in 1850, at 10s., to procure the supplement.
The public should not encourage such a style of publication. Any one
might publish a supplemental dictionary since 1836, which would equally
serve with the old edition. This hint is particularly addressed to Mr.
Charles Knight.

These hints are offered to the publishers and encouragers of _popular_
works for general readers, at economical prices; and they might be
extended. For example, dictionaries of medicine for family use have
great sale. Sometimes, it is believed, they are stereotyped. Why should
not later practice and discoveries be published in a cheaper
_supplement_, to preserve the value of the original work? Thus, in my
family, I use the excellent _Cyclopædia of Popular Medicine_ published
by Dr. Murray in 1842; but on looking into it for "Chloroform" and "Cod
Liver Oil," no such articles are to be found, as they were not known in
1842. The skilful will find many other omissions.

IV. There might be a greater difficulty in constructing a popular
commercial or statistical dictionary, at a moderate price, to be
supplied with supplements at later intervals. But even as to these,
there is a good model in Waterston's _Small Dictionary of Commerce_,
published in 1844, which, with a supplement, might afford, for a few
shillings, to give all the later information derived from the free-trade
measures and extension of our colonies. Waterston's original work is
advertised often for sale at 10s. or 12s., and a supplement at 3s. would
bring it within the reach of the great bulk of readers.

These suggestions are offered without the slightest intention to
depreciate or disparage the greater and more elaborate works of Mr.
McCulloch, and others who compile and publish works worthy of reference,
and standards of authority among men of highest science. No man who can
afford it would ever be without the latest edition (without the aid of
supplements) of large works; but it is manifest that there has been a
great neglect to supply the mass of readers in ordinary circumstances
with books of common reference, at moderate prices; and I hope that some
publishers of enterprise and sagacity will see it to be their interest
to act on the advice now offered.


       *       *       *       *       *


Allow me to request a place for the following curious and quaint
exposition of the propriety of the selection of _the rib_ as the
material out of which our first mother Eve was formed; and the ingenious
illustration which it is made to afford of the relation between wife and
husband. {214}

    "Thirdly, God so ordered the matter betwixt them, that this
    adhæsion and agglutination of one to the other should be
    perpetuall. For by taking a bone from the man (who was _nimium
    osseus_, exceeded and was somewhat monstrous, by one bone too
    much) to strengthen the woman, and by putting flesh in steede
    thereof to mollifie the man, he made a sweete complexion and
    temper betwixt them, like harmony in musicke, for their amiable

    "Fourthly, that bone which God tooke from the man, was from out
    the midst of him. As Christ wrought saluation _in medio terræ_,
    so God made the woman _è medio viri_, out of the very midst of
    man. The _species_ of the bone is exprest to be _costa_, a rib,
    a bone of the side, not of the head: a woman is not _domina_,
    the ruler; nor of any anterior part; she is not _prælata_,
    preferred before the man; nor a bone of the foote; she is not
    _serva_, a handmaid; nor of any hinder part; she is not
    _post-posita_, set behind the man: but a bone of the _side_, of
    a middle and indifferent part, to show that she is _socia_, a
    companion to the husband. For _qui junguntur lateribus, socii
    sunt_, they that walke side to side and cheeke to cheeke, walke
    as companions.

    "Fifthly, I might adde, a bone from vnder the arme, to put the
    man in remembrance of protection and defense to the woman.

    "Sixthly, a bone not far from his heart to put him in minde of
    dilection and loue to the woman. Lastly, a bone from the left
    side, to put the woman in minde, that by reason of her frailty
    and infirmity she standeth in need of both the one and the other
    from her husband.

    "To conclude my discourse, if these things be duely examined
    when man taketh a woman to wife, _reparat latus suum_, what doth
    he else but remember the maime that was sometimes made in his
    side, and desireth to repaire it? _Repetit costam suam_, he
    requireth and fetcheth back the rib that was taken from him,"
    &c. &c.--From pp. 28, 30, of "_Vitis Palatina_, A sermon
    appointed to be preached at Whitehall, upon Tuesday after the
    marriage of the Ladie Elizabeth, her Grace, by the B. of London.
    London: printed for John Bill, 1614."

The marriage actually took place on the 14th of February, 1612. In the
dedication to the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I., the Bishop
(Dr. John King) hints that he had delayed the publication till the full
meaning of his text, which is Psalm xxviii. ver. 3, should have been
accomplished by the birth of a son, an event which had been recently
announced, and that, too, on the very day when this Psalm occurred in
the course of the Church service.

The sermon is curious, and I may hereafter trouble you with some notices
of these "Wedding Sermons," which are evidently contemplated by the
framers of our Liturgy, as the concluding homily of the office for
matrimony is by the Rubric to be read "if there be no sermon." It is
observable that the first Rubric especially directs that the woman shall
stand on the man's left hand. Any notices on the subject from your
correspondents would be acceptable.

In the first series of Southey's _Common Place Book_, at page 226., a
passage is quoted from Henry Smith's _Sermons_, which dwells much upon
the formation of the woman from _the rib_ of man, but not in such detail
as Bishop King has done. Notices of the Bishop may be found in Keble's
edition of _Hooker_, vol. ii. pp. 24, 100, 103. It appears that after
his death it was alleged that he maintained Popish doctrines. This his
son, Henry King, canon of St. Paul's, and Archdeacon of Colchester,
satisfactorily disproved in a sermon at Paul's Cross, and again in the
dedication prefixed to his "_Exposition upon the Lord's Prayer_," 4to.,
London, 1634. See Wood's _Athenæ Oxon._, fol. edit. vol. ii. p. 294.

As for the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth, afterwards celebrated for
her misfortunes as Queen of Bohemia, it was celebrated in an
epithalamium by Dr. Donne, _Works_, 8vo. edit. vol. vi. p. 550. And in
the Somer's _Tracts_, vol. iii., pp. 35, 43., may be found descriptions
of the "_shewes_," and a poem of Taylor the Water Poet, entitled
"Heaven's Blessing and Earth's Joy," all tending to show the great
contemporary interest which the event occasioned.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Cinderella, or the Glass Slipper._--Two centuries ago furs were so
rare, and therefore so highly valued, that the wearing of them was
restricted by several sumptuary laws to kings and princes. Sable, in
those laws called _vair_, was the subject of countless regulations: the
exact quality permitted to be worn by persons of different grades, and
the articles of dress to which it might be applied, were defined most
strictly. Perrault's tale of _Cinderella_ originally marked the dignity
conferred on her by the fairy by her wearing a slipper of _vair_, a
privilege then confined to the highest rank of princesses. An error of
the press, now become inveterate, changed _vair_ into _verre_, and the
slipper of _sable_ was suddenly converted into a _glass_ slipper.


_Mistletoe on Oaks._--In Vol. ii., p. 163., I observed a citation on the
extreme rarity of _mistletoe on oaks_, from Dr. Giles and Dr. Daubeny;
and with reference to it, and to some remarks of Professor Henslow in
the _Gardeners' Chronicle_, I communicated to the latter journal, last
week, the fact of my having, at this present time, a bunch of that plant
growing in great luxuriance on an oak aged upwards of seventy years.

I beg leave to repeat it for the use of your work, and to add, what I
previously appended as likely to be interesting to the archæologist of
Wales or the Marches, that the oak bearing it stands about half a mile
N.W. of my residence here, on the earthen mound of Badamscourt, once a
moated {215} mansion of the Herberts, or Ab-Adams, of Beachley adjacent,
and of Llanllowell.

George Ormerod.

Sedbury Park, Chepstow.

_Omnibuses._--It may be interesting to your readers at a future time to
know when these vehicles, the use of which is daily extending, were
introduced into this country; perhaps, therefore, you will allow me to
state how the fact is. Mr. C. Knight, in his _Volume of Varieties_, p.
178., observes:

    "The Omnibus was tried about 1800, with four horses and six
    wheels; but we refused to accept it in any shape till we
    imported the fashion from Paris in 1830."

And Mr. Shillibeer, of the City Road, the inventor of the patent funeral
carriage, in his evidence before the Board of Health on the general
scheme for extra-mural sepulture, incidentally mentions that he

    "Had had much experience in cheapening vehicular transit, having
    originated and established the Omnibus in England."--_Report_,
    p. 124., 8vo. ed.


_Havock._--Havock is a term in our ancient English military laws: the
use of it was forbidden among the soldiery by the army regulations of
those days; so in the Ordinances des Batailles in the ninth year of
Richard II, art. x.:

    "Item, que nul soit si hardi de crier havoick sur peine d'avoir
    la teste coupe."

This was properly a punishable offence in soldiers; havock being the cry
of mutual encouragement to general massacre, unlimited slaughter, that
no quarter should be given, &c. A tract on "The office of the constable
and Mareshall in the tyme of Warre," contained in the black book of the
Admiralty, has this passage:

    "Also, that no man be so hardy to crye havock upon peyne that he
    that is begynner shall be deede therefore: and the remanent that
    doo the same, or follow, shall lose their horse and harneis ...
    and his body in prison at the king's will."

And this appears to answer well to the original term, which is taken
from the ravages committed by a troop of wild beasts, wolves, lions,
&c., falling on a flock of sheep. But some think it was originally a
hunting term, importing the letting loose a pack of hounds. Shakspeare
combines both senses:

    "Cry havock! and let slip the dogs of war."

In a copy of Johnson's _Dictionary_ before me, I find

    "HAVOCK (haroc, Sax.), waste; wide and general devastation."

    "HAVOCK, _interj_, a word of encouragement to slaughter."

    "TO HAVOCK, _v. a._, to waste; to destroy; to lay waste."


_Schlegel on Church Property in England._--Fr. Schlegel, in his
_Philosophy of History_, says, p. 403., "in England and Sweden church
property remained inviolate:" what the case may be in Sweden I do not
know, but it appears strange that a man of such general knowledge as F.
Schlegel should make such an assertion as regards England.


       *       *       *       *       *



In a letter from Southey to his friend Bedford, dated Nov. 11, 1821
(_Life and Correspondence_, vol. v. p. 99.), he desires him to inform
Gifford that

    "In a volume of tracts at Lowther, of Charles I.'s time, I found
    a life of Sejanus by P.M., by which initials some hand,
    apparently as old as the book, had written Philip Massinger. I
    did not read the tract, being too keenly in pursuit of other
    game; but I believe it had a covert aim at Buckingham. I have
    not his Massinger, and, therefore, do not know whether he is
    aware that this was ever ascribed to that author; if he is not,
    he will be interested in the circumstance, and may think it
    worthy of further inquiry."

As others may be led by this hint to enter on such an inquiry, I would
suggest that it may save much trouble if they first satisfy themselves
that the _Life of Sejanus_ by P. Mathieu may not have been the tract
which fell in Southey's way. It is to be found in a volume entitled

    "_Unhappy Prosperity_, expressed in the History of Ælius Selanus
    and Philippa the _Catanian_, with observations upon the fall of
    Sejanus. Lastly, Certain Considerations upon the life and
    Services of _Monsieur_ Villeroy, translated out of the original
    [French] by _S'r T. H._[_awkins_], _second edition_, 12'o.
    London, 1639."

This was just eleven years after Buckingham met his fate at the hands of
Felton. How long the interval between the first and this, the second
edition, may have been, I cannot tell. Nor do I know enough of the
politics of the time to determine whether anything can be inferred from
the fact that the translation is dedicated to William Earl of Salisbury,
or to warrant me in saying that these illustrations of the fate of royal
favourites may have been brought before the English public with any view
to the case of George Villiers. A passage, however, in Mathieu's
dedication of the original "to the king," seems to render it not
improbable, certainly not inapplicable:

    "You (Sir) shall therein [in this history] behold, that _a
    prince ought to be very carefull to conserve his authority
    entire. Great ones_ [court favourites] _here may learne_, it is
    not good to play with the generous {216} Lyon though he suffer
    it, and that _favours are precipices for such as abuse them_."

Having referred to this work of Mathieu's, I shall feel obliged to any
of your correspondents who will favour me with a notice of it, or of the


       *       *       *       *       *


I feel much interested in the Query of your correspondent Z.A.Z. (Vol.
ii., p. 41.) I had a "Query" something similar, with a "Note" on it,
lying by me for some time, which I send you as they stand.--Was not
smoking in use in England and other countries before the introduction of
tobacco? Whitaker says, a few days after the tower of Kirkstall Abbey
fell, 1779, he

    "Discovered imbedded in the mortar of the fallen fragments
    several little smoking pipes, such as were used in the reign of
    James I. for tobacco; a proof of a fact _which has not been
    recorded_, that, prior to the introduction of that plant from
    America, the practice of inhaling the smoke of some indigenous
    plant or vegetable prevailed in England." (_Loidis and Elmete_.)

Allowing, then, pipes to have been coeval with the erection of
Kirkstall, we find them to have been used in England about 400 years
before the introduction of tobacco. On the other hand, as Dr. Whitaker
says, we find _no record_ of their being used, or of smoking being
practised; and it is almost inconceivable that our ancestors should have
had such a practice, without any allusion being made to it by any
writers. As to the antiquity of smoking in Ireland, the first of Irish
antiquaries, the learned and respected Dr. Petrie, says:

    "The custom of smoking is of much greater antiquity in Ireland
    than the introduction of tobacco into Europe. Smoking pipes made
    of bronze are frequently found in our Irish _tumuli_, or
    sepulchral mounds, of the most remote antiquity; and similar
    pipes, made of baked clay, are discovered daily in all parts of
    the island. A curious instance of the _bathos_ in sculpture,
    which also illustrates the antiquity of this custom, occurs on
    the monument of Donogh O'Brien, king of Thomond, who was killed
    in 1267, and interred in the Abbey of Corcumrac, in the co. of
    Clare, of which his family were the founders. He is represented
    in the usual recumbent posture, with the short pipe or _dudeen_
    of the Irish in his mouth."

In the _Anthologia Hibernica_ for May 1793, vol. i. p. 352., we have
some remarks on the antiquity of smoking "among the German and Northern
nations," who, the writer says, "were clearly acquainted with, and
cultivated tobacco, which they smoked through wooden and earthen tubes."
He refers to Herod. lib. i. sec. 36.; Strabo, lib. vii. 296.; Pomp. Mela
2, and Solinus, c. 15.

Wherever we go, we see smoking so universal a practice, and people
"taking to it so naturally," that we are inclined to believe that it was
always so; that our first father enjoyed a quiet puff now and then;
(that, like a poet, man "nascitur non fit" a smoker); and that the
soothing power of this narcotic tranquillised the soul of the aquatic
patriarch, disturbed by the roar of billows and the convulsions of
nature, and diffused its peaceful influence over the inmates of the ark.
Yes, we are tempted to spurn the question, When and where was smoking
introduced? as being equal to When and where was _man_ introduced? Yet,
as some do not consider man as a smoking animal "de natu et ab initio,"
the question may provoke some interesting replies from your learned


       *       *       *       *       *


I am desirous to be informed of the date and particulars of the above
baronetcy having been created. In _The Mystery of the good old Cause
briefly unfolded_ (1660), it is stated, at p. 26., that Sir Gregory
Norton, Bart. (one of the king's judges), had Richmond House, situated
in the _Old_ Park, and much of the king's goods, for an inconsiderable
value. Sir Gregory Norton has a place also in _The Loyal Martyrology_ of
Winstanley (1665), p. 130.; and also in _History of the King-killers_
(1719), part 6. p. 75. It is unnecessary to refer to Noble's
_Regicides_, he having simply copied the two preceding works. Sir
Gregory died before the Restoration, in 1652, and escaped the vindictive
executions which ensued, and was buried at Richmond in Surrey. There was
a Sir _Richard_ Norton, Bart., of Rotherfield, _Hants_ (Query
Rotherfield, _Sussex_, near Tunbridge Wells), who is mentioned by
Sylvanus Morgan in his _Sphere of Gentry_; but he does not record a Sir
Gregory. Nor does the latter occur in a perfect collection of the
knights made by King James I., by J.P. (Query John Philipot?), London,
Humphrey Moseley, 1660, 8vo. I have examined all the various works on
extinct and dormant baronetcies ineffectually. In the _Mercurius
Publicus_ of Thursday, 28th June, 1660, it appears that on the preceding
Saturday the House of Commons settled the manor of Richmond, with house
and materials, purchased by Sir Gregory Norton, Bart., on the queen
(Henrietta Maria) as part of her jointure.


       *       *       *       *       *


_City Offices._--Can any of your correspondents recommend some book
which gives a good history of the different public offices of the city
of London, with their duties and qualifications, and in whom the
appointments are vested?

A Citizen.

_Harefinder, Meaning of._--Can any of your readers kindly give a
feasible explanation of {217} phrase _harefinder_, as it occurs in _Much
Ado about Nothing_, Act i. Sc. 1.? A reference to any similar term in a
contemporary would be very valuable.


_Saffron-bag._--Having lately read Sir E.B. Lytton's novel of _The
Caxtons_--to which I must give a passing tribute of admiration--I have
been a good deal puzzled, first, to ascertain the meaning, and, second,
the origin of the _saffron-bag_ of which he speaks so much. I have asked
many persons, and have not been able to obtain a satisfactory solution
of my difficulty. Should you or any of your contributors be able, I wish
you would enlighten not only me but many of my equally unlearned

W.C. Luard.

_Bishop Berkley's successful Experiments._--I have somewhere read that
Bishop Berkley succeeded in increasing the stature of an individual
placed in his charge. Will any of your correspondents give me the
details of such process, with their opinions as to the practicability of
the scheme?


_Portrait (Unknown)._--A very carefully painted portrait, on an oak
panel, has been in the possession of my family for many years, and I
should be much pleased if any of your correspondents could enable me to
identify the personage.

The figure, which is little more than a head, is nearly the size of
life, and represents an elderly man with grey hair and a long venerable
beard: the dress, which is but little shown, is black. At the upper part
of the panel, on the dexter side, is a shield, bearing these
arms:--Argent on a fess sable between three crosses patées, Or, as many
martlets of the last. Above the shield is written "In cruce glorior." I
have searched in vain for those arms. On the prints published by the
Society of Antiquaries, of the funeral of Abbot Islip, is one nearly
similar,--the field ermine on a fess between three crosses patées, as
many martlets. The colours are not shown by the engraver. A manuscript
ordinary, by Glover, in my possession, contains another, which is
somewhat like that on the picture, being--Argent on a fess engrailed
sable, bearing three crosses patées, Gules, as many martlets on the
field. This is there ascribed to "Canon George." It is very probable
that the gold crosses on the white field was an error of the portrait

The size of the oak panel, which is thick, is seventeen inches wide, and
twenty-two in height. The motto is in a cursive hand, apparently of
about the time of Edward VI.


_Wives, Custom of Selling._--Has there ever been any foundation in law
for the practice of selling of wives, which our neighbours the French
persist in believing to be perfectly legal and common at the present
day? What was the origin of the custom? An amusing series of "Notes"
might be made, from instances in which the custom is introduced as
characteristic of English manners, by French and other foreign writers.


_Hepburn Crest and Motto._--Can some of your numerous readers give me
the origin of the crest and motto of the family of Hepburn, namely, a
horse argent, furnished gules, passant, and tied to a tree proper.
Motto, "Keep Traist."

I should also be glad to know the name of any book containing the
legends, or authentic stories, relating to the heraldic bearings of
various families?


_Concolinel._--I have recently met with a curious manuscript which
contains numerous tunes of the time of Queen Elizabeth, one of which is
stated in a recent hand to be the "tune of _Concolinel_ mentioned by
Shakspeare;" but the old index, if there was one that indicated this, is
now missing. My reason for writing to you is to ask whether Dr.
Rimbault, or any of your other correspondents, can refer me to any
information that will enable me to ascertain whether my MS. really
contains that tune. It certainly does contain several others noticed by


"_One Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church._"--Can any of your
correspondents inform me how, or why, the word "holy" is omitted in the
above article of the Nicene (Constantinopolitan) Creed, in all our
Prayer-books? It is not omitted in the original Greek and Latin.


_The Norfolk Dialect._--Mr. Dickens' attempt to give interest to his new
novel by introducing this dialect would have been even more successful
had he been more familiar with the curious peculiarities of that
east-coast language. Many of the words are, I believe, quite peculiar to
Norfolk and Suffolk, such as, for instance, the following:

  _Mawther_, a girl, a wench.
  _Gotsch_, a stone jug.
  _Holl_, a dry ditch.
  _Anan? An?_ an interrogation used when the
  speaker does not understand a question put to him.
  _To be muddled_, to be distressed in mind.
  _Together_, an expletive used thus: where are
  you going _together?_ (meaning several persons)--what
  are you doing _together?_

Perhaps some reader can explain the origin of these words.


_Sir John Perrot._--Sir John Perrot, governor of Ireland in the reign of
Henry VIII., was one of the few rulers over that most unfortunate
country who have ruled it wisely. I believe that he was beheaded in the
reign of Elizabeth. Will any of your readers kindly inform me whether
his life has {218} ever been published, or where I can meet with the
best account of him?


"_Antiquitas sæculi juventus mundi._"--Mr. Craik in his admirable little
work on _Bacon; his Writings and his Philosophy_, after quoting the
paragraph containing this fine aphoristic expression, remarks that,

    "From the manner in which it is here introduced as a Latin
    phrase, there would seen to be some reason for doubting whether
    it be an original thought of Bacon's. It has much the appearance
    of some aphorism or adage of the schools." (Vol. ii. p. 55.)

Mr. Craik adds in a note,

    "A friend, however, who, if we were to name him, would be
    recognised as one of the first of living authorities on all
    points connected with the history of learning and philosophy,
    informs us that he feels certain of having never met with the
    expression or the thought in any writer previous to Bacon."

In Basil Montagu's edition of _The Advancement of Learning_ it is marked
as a quotation. Query. Has the expression, or the thought, been traced
to any writer previous to Bacon?


       *       *       *       *       *



I have no wish to prolong the controversy on this word, in which I feel
I, at least, have had my share. I beg room, however, for an observation
on one or two very pertinent remarks by Mr. Singer.

In the course of this argument I have seen that if _news_ were
originally a plural noun, it might be taken for an ellipsis of
_new-tidings_. My objection to this would be twofold. First, that the
adjective _new_ is of too common use, and, at the same time, too general
and vague to form an ellipsis intelligible on its first application;
and, secondly, that the ellipsis formed of _new-tidings_ would be found
to express no more than _tidings_, still requiring the _new_, if the
idea of _new_ were required, as in the instance Mr. Singer cites of _new

I would not pretend to determine whether the word were taken from the
High German or the Dutch; but Mr. Singer's remark, that our language has
derived scarcely anything from the former, brings back the question to
the point from which I originally started. That there was a political
and commercial connexion between the two countries, I suppose there can
be no doubt and such, I imagine, never existed without leaving its marks
on languages so near akin.

Taking up Bailey's _Dictionary_ by accident a day or two ago, I turned
to the word, which I there find as derived from Newes, _Teut_.; Bailey
using the term _Teutonic_ for German.

I think I shall express the feelings of the majority of your readers in
saying that nothing could be more acceptable or valuable to the
consideration of any etymological question than the remarks of Mr.

Samuel Hickson.

I have read with much interest the respective theories of the derivation
of _news_, and it seems to me that Mr. Hickson's opinion must give way
to an excellent authority in questions of this kind, Dr. Latham, who

    Some say, _this news_ IS good in which case the word is
    singular. More rarely we find the expression, _these news_ ARE
    good; in which case the word "news" is plural. In the word
    "news", the -_s_ (unlike the -_s_ in _alms_ and _riches_) is no
    part of the original singular, but the sign of the plural, like
    the -_s_ in "trees." Notwithstanding this, we cannot subtract
    the _s_, and say "new," in the same way that we _can_ form
    "tree" from "trees." Hence the word "news" is, in respect to its
    original form, plural; in respect to its meaning, either
    singular or plural, most frequently the former.--_Eng.
    Grammar_, p. 62.

The above extract will probably suffice to show the true state of the
case, and for information on similar points I would refer your readers
to the work from which the above extract is taken, and also to that on
_The English Language_, by the same author.

T. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Swords worn in public_ (Vol. i., p. 415.; vol. ii. p. 110.).--I am
surprised that the curious topic suggested by the Query of J.D.A. has
not been more satisfactorily answered. Wedsecuarf's reply (Vol. ii., p.
110.) is short, and not quite exact. He says that "Swords ceased to be
worn as an article of dress through the influence of Beau Nash, and were
consequently first out of fashion at Bath;" and he quotes the authority
of Sir Lucius O'Trigger as to "wearing no swords _there_." Now, it is, I
believe, true that Nash endeavoured to discountenance the wearing swords
at Bath; but it is certain that they were commonly worn twenty or thirty
years later.

Sir Lucius O'Trigger talks of Bath in 1774, near twenty years after
Nash's reign, and, even at that time, only says that swords were "not
worn _there_"--implying that they were worn elsewhere; and we know that
Sheridan's own duel at Bath was a rencontre, he and his adversary,
Mathews, both wearing swords. I remember my father's swords hung up in
his dressing-room, and his telling me that he had worn a sword, even in
the streets, so late as about 1779 or 1780. In a set of characteristic
sketches of eminent persons about the year 1782, several wear swords;
and one or two members of the House of Commons, evidently represented in
the attitude of speaking, have swords. I have seen a picture of the Mall
in {219} St. James's Park, of about that date, in which all the men have

I suspect they began to go out of common use about 1770 and were nearly
left off in ordinary life in 1780; but were still occasionally worn,
both in public and private, till the French Revolution, when they
totally went out, except in court dress.

If any of your correspondents who has access to the Museum would look
through the prints representing out-of-doors life, from Hogarth to
Gilray, he would probably be able to furnish you with some precise and
amusing details on this not unimportant point in the history of manners.


_Quarles' Pension_ (Vol. ii., p. 171.).--There should have been added to
the reference there given, viz. "Vol. i., p. 201." (at which place there
is no question as to Quarles' _pension_), another to Vol. i., p. 245.,
where that question is raised. I think this worth noting, as "Quarles"
does not appear in the Index, and the imperfect reference might lead
inquirers astray. It seems very curious that the inquiry as to the
precise meaning of Pope's couplet has as yet received no explanation.


_Franz von Sickingen_ (Vol. i., p. 131.).--I regret that I cannot
resolve the doubt of H.J.H. respecting Albert Durer's allegorical print
of _The Knight, Death, and the Devil_, of which I have only what I
presume is a copy or retouched plate, bearing the date 1564 on the
tablet in the lower left-hand corner, where I suppose the mark of Albert
Durer is placed in the original.

I should, however, much doubt its being intended as a portrait of
Sickingen, and I can trace no resemblance to the medal given by Luckius.
I believe the conjecture originated with Bartsch, in his _Peintre
Graveur_, vol. vii. p. 107. Schoeber, in his _Life of Durer_, p. 87.,
supposes that it is an allegory of the nature of a soldier's life.

It was this print that inspired La Motte Fouqué with the idea of his
_Sintram_ as he thus informs us in the postscript to that singularly
romantic tale:

    "Some years since there lay among my birth-day presents a
    beautiful engraving of Albert Durer. A harnessed knight, with an
    oldish countenance, is riding upon his high steed, attended by
    his dog, through a fearful valley, where fragments of rock and
    roots of trees distort themselves into loathsome forms; and
    poisonous weeds rankle along the ground. Evil vermin are
    creeping along through them. Beside him Death is riding on a
    wasted pony; from behind the form of a devil stretches over its
    clawed arm toward him. Both horse and dog look strangely, as it
    were infected by the hideous objects that surround them; but the
    knight rides quietly along his way, and bears upon the tip of
    his lance a lizard that he has already speared. A castle, with
    its rich friendly battlements, looks over from afar, whereat the
    desolateness of the valley penetrates yet deeper into the soul.
    The friend who gave me this print added a letter, with a request
    that I would explain the mysterious forms by a ballad.... I bear
    the image with me in peace and in war, until it has now spun
    itself out into a little romance."

S.W. Singer.

Mickleham Aug. 13. 1850.

"_Noli me tangere_" (Vol. ii., p. 153.).--B.R. is informed, that one of
the finest paintings on this subject is the altar-piece in All Souls
College Chapel, Oxford. It is the production of Raphael Mengs, and was
purchased for the price of three hundred guineas of Sir James Thornhill,
who painted the figure of the founder over the altar, the ceiling, and
the figures between the windows. There may be other paintings by earlier
masters on so interesting subject, but none can surpass this of Raphael
Mengs in the truthfulness of what he has here delineated. The exact size
of the picture I do not recollect, but it cannot be less than ten feet

There is a beautiful engraving of it by Sherwin.



_Dr. Bowring's Translations_ (Vol. ii. p. 152.).--Besides the
anthologies mentioned by Jarltzberg, Dr. Bowring has published _Poets of
the Magyars_, 8vo. London, 1830; _Specimens of Polish Poets_, 1827;
_Servian popular Poetry_, 1827; and a _Cheskian Anthology_, 1832.


"_Speak the Tongue that Shakspeare spoke_" (Vol. ii., p. 135.).--The
lines about which X. asks, are

  "We must be free or die, who speak the tongue
  That Shakspeare spake; the faith and morals hold
  Which Milton held," &c.

They are in one of Wordsworth's glorious "Sonnets to Liberty" (the
sixteenth), and belong to _us_, and not to the New-Englanders.


_Countess of Desmond_ (Vol. ii., pp. 153. 186.).--In reply to K., I have
an impression that Horace Walpole has a kind of dissertation on the _Old
Countess of Desmond_, to whom his attention was directed by her being
said to have danced with Richard III. Having no books at hand, I cannot
speak positively; but if K. turns to Walpole's _Works_, he will see
whether my memory is correct. I myself once looked, many years ago, into
the subject, and satisfied myself that the great age attributed to _any_
Countess of Desmond must be a fable; and that the portrait of her (I
think, at Windsor) was so gross an imposition as to be really that of an
old man. I made a "Note"--indeed many--of the circumstances which led me
to this conclusion; but they are at this moment inaccessible to me. I
venture however, now that the question is revived, to offer these vague
suggestions. By and by, if the subject be not exhausted, I shall
endeavour to find my "Notes," and communicate them to you. I wonder the
{220} absurdity of the kind of death imputed to the imaginary lady did
not reflect back a corresponding incredulity as to the length of her


_Yorkshire Dales_ (Vol. ii., p. 154.).--No guide or description has been
published that would serve as a handbook to the dales in the West Riding
of Yorkshire between Lancashire and Westmoreland. Should A PEDESTRIAN
wish to explore the beauties of Teesdale he will find a useful handbook
in a little work, published anonymously in 1813, called _A Tour in
Teesdale, including Rokeby and its Environs_. The author was Richard
Garland, of Hull, who died several years ago.

[Greek: Delta].

_The Yorkshire Dales_ (Vol. ii., p. 154.).--In answer to a recent
inquiry, I beg to state that a guide to the above dales is in
preparation. It will be edited by your humble servant, illustrated by a
well-known gentleman, and published by Mr. Effingham Wilson.


Tollington Villa, Hornsey.

    [We are glad to hear that such a Guide is preparing by Mr.
    Dixon, whose knowledge of the locality peculiarly fits him for
    the work he has undertaken.]

_Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs_ (Vol. ii., p. 140.).--The information MR.
GATTY wishes for, he will find in Dr. Bliss's edition of the _Athenæ_,
vol. iv. p. 18. He will perform an acceptable service to historical
inquirers, if he will collate the printed memoir with the MS. in the
possession of his friend, and give to the world such passages, if any,
as have not been hitherto published.

[Greek: Delta].

_Alarum_ (Vol. ii., pp. 151. 183.).--There can be no doubt that the word
_alarm_ (originally French) comes from the warning war-cry _à l'arme_.
So all the French philologists agree; and the modern variance of _aux
armes_ does not invalidate so plain an etymology. When CH. admits that
there can be no doubt that _alarm_ and _alarum_ are identical, it seems
to one that _cadit questio_,--that all his doubts and queries are
answered. I will add, however, that it appears that in the words'
original sense of an _awakening cry_, Shakspeare generally, if not
always, spelled it _alarum_. Thus--

  "Ring the _alarum_ bell!"--_Macbeth_.

  "_Alarum'd_ by his sentinel the wolf."

  "When she speaks, is it not an _alarum_ to love?"

  "But when he saw my _best-alarum'd_ spirits roused
  to the encounter."--_Lear_.

In all these cases _alarum_ means incitement, not _alarm_ in the
secondary or metaphorical sense of the word, which has now become the
ordinary one. In truth, the meanings, though of identical origin, have
become almost contradictions: for instance, in the passage from
_Othello_, an "alarum to love"--incitement to love--is nearly the
reverse of what an "alarm to love" would be taken to mean.


_Practice of Scalping among the Scythians, &c_. (Vol. ii., p.
141.).--Your correspondent T.J. will find in Livy, x. 26., that the
practice of scalping existed among the Kelts.

    "Nec ante ad consules ... famam ejus cladis perlatam, quam in
    conspectu fuere Gallorum equites pectoribus equorurn suspensa
    gestantes capita, et lanceis infixa ovantesque moris sui


_Gospel Tree_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--In reply to W.H.B., I may mention
that there is a "Gospel Tree" near Leamington. I do not know of one so
called in Gloucestershire.


_Martinet_ (Vol. ii., p. 118.).--There is no doubt the term _martinet_
is derived from the general officer _M. de Martinet_ indicated by MR. C.
FORBES, and who was, as Voltaire states, celebrated for having restored
and improved the discipline and tactics of the French army; whence very
strict officers came to be called _martinets_: but is it also from this
restorer of discipline that the name of what we call _cat-o'-nine-tails_
is in French _martinet_? This is rather an interesting Query,
considering how severely our neighbours censure our use of that
auxiliary to discipline.


_"Yote" or "Yeot"_ (Vol. ii., p. 89.).--You may inform B. that _Yote_ or
_Yeot_ is only provincial pronunciation of _Yate_ or _Gate_, a way or
road. The channel made to conduct melted metal into the receptacle
intended for it, is called a gate.


_Map of London_ (Vol. ii., p. 56.).--The map of London, temp. Edw. VI.,
in the Sutherland collection, has been recently engraved. It is of
singular curiosity. I do not know the name of the publisher.


_Wood-carving, Snow Hill_ (Vol. ii., p. 134.).--The carving alluded to
by A.C. is, I believe, of artificial stone, and represents Æsop attended
by a child, to whom he appears to be narrating his fables. It is or
rather _was_, a work of some merit, and is, as A.C. observes, "worth
preserving;" but, alas! of this there is but little chance. The house in
question (No. 41. Skinner Street), and also the one adjoining, have been
tenantless for many years; they belong to two old ladies, who also own
the two deserted houses at the corner of Stamford Street, Blackfriars
Road. It is scarcely necessary to speak of the now somewhat picturesque
condition of the houses alluded to in either locality, for the pitiably
dilapidated condition of them all must have been matter of remark for
many years past to any one at all acquainted with London. {221} The
house, 41. Skinner Street, is also worthy of remark from another
circumstance. It was formerly occupied by William Godwin, the well-known
author of _Caleb Williams, Political Justice_, &c. It was here he opened
a bookseller's shop, and published his numerous juvenile works, under
the assumed name of Edward Baldwin.


_Waltheof_ (Vol. ii, p. 167.).--I believe that Waltheof (or Wallef, as
he is always styled in Doomsday Book) never appeared at the court of
William the Conqueror in the character of an envoy; but in 1067, little
better than six months after the first landing of the Normans, we find
him, in conjunction with Edgar Atheling and others, accompanying the
Conqueror in his triumphal return to Normandy, as a hostage and
guarantee for the quiescence of his countrymen. At this period, it is
probable he might have first become acquainted with Judith; but this
must rest on conjecture. At all events, we have the authority of William
of Malmsbury for saying that Waltheof's marriage did not take place
until the year 1070, soon after his reconciliation with the king on the
banks of the Tees. Your correspondent errs in ascribing 1070 as the date
of Waltheof's execution; the _Saxon Chronicle_ distinctly states May
31st, 1076, as the date of his death; while the chronicle of Mailros,
and Florence of Worcester, assign it to the preceding year: in which
they are followed by Augustin Thierry. T.E.L.L. has also fallen into an
error as to the cause of Waltheof's execution, which he states arose
from his participation in a conspiracy at York. Now the crime for which
he was accused, and condemned (on the evidence of his wife), was his
inviting over the Danes to the invasion of England. This was the primary
cause; although his being present at the celebrated marriage-feast at
Norwich was doubtless a secondary one. According to Thierry, he left two
children by Judith.



_The Dodo_ (Vol. i., pp. 261. 410.).--I have the pleasure to supply Mr.
Strickland with the elucidation he desires in his Query 7., by referring
to Hyde, _Historia Religionis Vet. Persarum_, p. 312.

    "Et ut de Patre (Zoroastris) conveniunt, sic inter omnes
    convenit Matris ejus nomen fuisse Dôghdu, quod (liquescente _gh_
    ut in vocibus Anglicis, _high_, _mighty_, &c.) apud eos
    plerumque sonat Dôdu; nam sonus Gain in medio vocum fere
    evanescere solet. Hocque nomen innuit quasi foecundidate ea
    similis esset ejusdem nominis Gallinæ Indicæ, cujus Icon apud
    Herbertum in Itinerario extat sub nomine Dodo, cujus etiam
    exuviæ farctæ in Auditorio Anatomico Oxoniensi servantur.
    Reliqua ex Icone dignoscantur. Plurima parit ova, unde et
    commodum foecunditatis emblema."


"_Under the Rose_" (Vol. i., p. 214.).--I find the three following
derivations for this phrase in my note-book:--

    I. "The expression, 'under the rose,' took its origin," says
    Jenoway, "from the wars between the Houses of York and
    Lancaster. The parties respectively swore by the red or the
    white rose, and these opposite emblems were displayed as the
    _signs of two taverns_; one of which was by the side of, and the
    other opposite to, the Parliament House in Old Palace Yard,
    Westminster. Here the retainers and servants of the noblemen
    attached to the Duke of York and Henry VI. used to meet. Here
    also, as disturbances were frequent, measures either of defence
    or annoyance were taken, and every transaction was said to be
    done 'under the rose;' by which expression the most profound
    secrecy was implied."

II. According to others, this term originated in the fable of Cupid
giving the rose to Harpocrates, the god of silence, as a bribe to
prevent him betraying the amours of Venus, and was hence adopted as the
emblem of silence. The rose was for this reason frequently sculptured on
the ceilings of drinking and feasting, rooms, as a warning to the guests
that what was said in moments of conviviality should not be repeated;
from which, what was intended to be kept secret was said to be held
"under the rose."

III. Roses were consecrated as presents from the Pope. In 1526, they
were placed over the goals of confessionals as the symbols of secrecy.
Hence the origin of the phrase "Under the Rose."


_Ergh, Er, or Argh._--Might not these words (queried by T.W., Vol. ii. p
22.) be corruptions of "_burgh_," aspirated _wurgh_, and the aspirate
then dropped; or might not _ark, argh_, &c., be corruptions of "_wark_:"
thus Southwark, commonly pronounced _Southark_? I merely offer this as a


_Royal Supporters_ (Vol. ii., p. 136.).--E.C. asks when and why the
unicorn was introduced as one of the royal supporters. It was introduced
by James VI. of Scotland when he ascended the throne of England, on
account of the Scottish royal supporters being two unicorns rampant
argent, crowned with imperial, and gorged with antique, crowns, with
chains affixed to the latter passing between their forelegs and reflexed
over their backs, unguled, armed, and crined, all or; the dexter one
embracing and bearing up a banner of gold charged with the royal arms;
the sinister, another banner azure, charged with the cross of St.
Andrew, argent. Queen Elizabeth had used as supporters, dexter, a lion
rampant gardant, crowned; and sinister, a dragon rampant, both or. She
also used a lion ramp. gardant crowned, and a greyhound, both or. James
adopted as supporters, dexter, a lion ramp. gardant, {222} crowned with
the imperial crown, or; sinister, an unicorn argent, armed, crined,
unguled, gorged with a coronet composed of crosses patées, and
fleurs-de-lis, a chain affixed thereto passing between its forelegs, and
reflexed over the back, all or. These have been used as the royal
supporters ever since their first adoption, with but one exception, and
that is in the seal of the Exchequer, time of Charles I., where the
supporters are an antelope and stag, both ducally collared and chained.


_The Frog and the Crow of Ennow_.--In answer to M. (Vol. ii., p. 136.),
I send you the edition of "the frog and the crow" which I have been
familiar with since childhood. I can give you no history of it, save
that it is tolerably well known in Lancashire, and that the _point_
consists in giving a scream over the last "oh!" which invariably, if
well done, elicits a start even in those who are familiar with the
rhyme, and know what to expect.

  _The Frog and the Crow_.

  "There was a jolly fat frog lived in the river Swimmo,
  And there was a comely black crow lived on the
          river Brimmo;
  Come on shore, come on shore, said the crow to the
          frog, and then, oh;
  No, you'll bite me, no, you'll bite me, said the frog
          to the crow again, oh.

  "But there is sweet music on yonder green hill, oh,
  And you shall be a dancer, a dancer in yellow,
  All in yellow, all in yellow, said the crow to the frog,
          and then, oh;
  Sir, I thank you, Sir, I thank you, said the frog to
          the crow again, oh.

  "Farewell, ye little fishes, that are in the river Swimmo,
  For I am going to be a dancer, a dancer in yellow;
  Oh, beware, Oh, beware, said the fish to the frog
          again, oh;
  All in yellow, all in yellow, said the frog to the fish,
          and then, oh.

  "The frog he came a-swimming, a-swimming, to
          land, oh,
  And the crow, he came a-hopping to lend him his
          hand, oh;
  Sir, I thank you; Sir, I thank you, said the frog to
          the crow, and then, oh;
  Sir, you're welcome; Sir, you're welcome, said the
          crow to the frog again, oh.

  "But where is the music on yonder green hill, oh;
  And where are the dancers, the dancers in yellow,
  All in yellow, all in yellow? said the frog to the
          crow, and then, oh;
  Sir, they're here; Sir, they're here, said the crow to
          the frog, and eat him all up, _Oh_," (screamed.)

The moral is obvious, and the diction too recent for the song to have
any great antiquity. I have never seen it in print.


       *       *       *       *       *



It would, we think, be extremely difficult to find any subject upon
which persons, otherwise well informed, were so entirely ignorant, until
the appearance of Mrs. Jameson's _Sacred and Legendary Art_, as the one
upon which that lady treated in those ably written and beautifully
illustrated volumes. It seemed as if the Act of Henry VIII., which
declared that the name and remembrance of Thomas à Becket should be
erased from all documents, had had the effect of obliterating from all
memories not only the often puerile, often offensive stories of the
legend-mongers, but, with them, all remembrance of those holy men of
old, whose piety towards God, and love for their fellow men, furnished
example for all succeeding ages. To readers of all classes Mrs. Jameson
opened up a new and most interesting subject: to lovers of Art almost a
new world, from the light which her learning and criticism threw upon
its master-pieces. What wonder is it, then, that the success of her
_Sacred and Legendary Art_, confined as the two volumes necessarily were
to legends of angels and archangels, evangelists and apostles, the
Fathers, the Magdalene, the patron saints, the virgin patronesses, the
martyrs, bishops and hermits, and the patron saints of christendom,
should have led Mrs. Jameson to continue her labours? The first part of
such continuation is now before us, under the title of _Legends of the
Monastic Orders_: and most fitting it is that the three great divisions
of the regular ecclesiastics should be thus commemorated, since of them
Mrs. Jameson aptly remarks, that while each had a distinct vocation,
there was one vocation common to all:--"The Benedictine Monks instituted
schools of learning; the Augustines built noble cathedrals; the
Mendicant Orders founded hospitals: _all_ became patrons of the Fine
Arts on such a scale of munificence, that the protection of the most
renowned princes has been mean and insignificant in comparison." Nor is
this their only claim; for the earliest artists of the Middle Ages were
monks of the Benedictine Order. "As architects, as glass painters, as
mosaic workers, as carvers in wood and metal, they were the precursors
of all that has since been achieved in Christian Art: and if so few of
these admirable and gifted men are known to us individually and by name,
it is because they worked for the honour of God and their community, not
for profit, nor for reputation." The merits of Mrs. Jameson's first
series were universally acknowledged. The present volume may claim as
high a meed of praise. If possible, it exceeds its predecessors in
literary interest, and in the beauty of the etchings and woodcuts which
accompany it. As a handbook to the traveller who wanders through the
treasuries of Art, it will be indispensable; while to those who are
destined not to leave their homes it will be invaluable, for the light
it throws upon the social condition of Europe in those ages in which the
monastic orders had their origin. It is a volume highly suggestive both
of Notes and Queries, and in such forms we shall take occasion to return
to it.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will commence, on Monday
next, a four-days sale of the {223} library of the late Rev. Dr.
Johnson, Rector of Perranuthnoe, consisting of a good collection of
theological and miscellaneous books.

We have received the following Catalogues:--John Leslie's (58. Great
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn) Catalogue of English and Foreign Theology,
including several works of very rare occurrence, and forming the largest
portion of the valuable library of the Rev. W. Maskell, M.A.; C.
Gancia's (73. King's Road, Brighton,) Second Catalogue of a Choice
Collection of Foreign Books, MSS., Books printed upon vellum, many of
them great rarities, and seldom to be met with; J. Miller's (43. Chandos
Street, Trafalgar Square,) Catalogue No. X. for 1850 of Books Old and

       *       *       *       *       *



ANIMALS, 8vo., London, 1798.




RICKMAN'S ODE ON THE BLACKS, 4to. London, 1804.




Edinburgh, 1792.


JOHNSON'S LIVES OF THE POETS, 4 vols. 8vo. London, Longman, 1794. Vol.

1827. Vol. I.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


P.S.W.E. _We did not insert his reply to the Query of MATFELONESIS,
because we do not regard a newspaper paragraph as an authority. The
story of Lord Stair being the executioner of Charles I. is related, we
believe, in Cecil's_ Sixty Curious Narratives, _an interesting
compilation made by the late W. Hone, who does not, however, give his

J.W.H., _Downpatrick. His letter has been forwarded as he suggested.
The_ Life of Walsh _is not in the Museum_.

G.L.B. _A Translation of Count Hamilton's_ Fairy Tales _has lately been
published by Bohn_.

VOLUME THE FIRST OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen_.

_The Monthly Part for August, being the third of Vol. II., is also now
ready, price 1s. 3d._

       *       *       *       *       *

among other articles,

Unpublished Anecdotes of Sir Thomas Wyatt.
Roman Art at Cirencester (with Engravings).
The Congress of Vienna and Prince de Ligne.
Letter of H.R.H. the Duke of York in 1787.
Monuments in Oxford Cathedral (with two Plates).
Michael Drayton and his "Idea's Mirrour."
Date of the erection of Chaucer's Tomb.
Letters of Dr. Maitland and Mr. Stephens on The Ecclesiastical
  History Society: with Remarks.
The British Museum Catalogue and Mr. Panizzi.
Reviews of Correspondence of Charles V., the Life of Southey,
  &c., &c., Notes of the Month, Literary and Antiquarian Intelligence,
  Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY. Price 2s. 6d.

"The Gentleman's Magazine has been revived with a degree of spirit and
talent which promises the best assurance of its former popularity."--
_Taunton Courier_.

"A better or more valuable work for country book societies, lending
libraries, and reading rooms, it is impossible to find within the whole
compass of English literature. Its literary articles are peculiarly
sound in principle, and its criticisms liberal but just; whilst its
Obituary confers upon it a national importance. We are sure then we
cannot do a better service to our friends, and more especially to those
connected with institutions like those we have adverted to, than in
recommending this work to their support."--_Nottingham Review_.

NICHOLS and SON, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 12mo., price 5s. 6d.

HANDBOOK of MODERN GEOGRAPHY and HISTORY. Translated from the German of
Pütz, by the Rev. R.B. PAUL, M.A., and edited by the Rev. T.K. ARNOLD,

This Volume completes the series of Professor Pütz's Handbooks.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place; Of whom may be
had, (lately published), by the same Editors,



       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, the Second Edition, with Additions, price 5s. 6d. cloth,

By the Rev. EDMUND SAUL DIXON, M.A., Rector of
Intwood with Keswick.


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The Guinea Fowl
The Spanish Fowl
The Speckled Dorkings
The Cochin-China Fowl
The Malay Fowl
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may be ordered of any Bookseller.

       *       *       *       *       * {224}


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FOXE (John)--The Acts and Monuments of, a New and Complete Edition, with
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S.R. Catley, M.A., 8 thick vols. royal 8vo., with port. and engraved
title-page, 2l. 2s. 1841

HALL'S (Mr. and Mrs. S.C.) Ireland, its Scenery, Character, and History,
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HORTICULTURAL (The) Transactions of London, from its commencement in
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HUME and SMOLLET'S History of England a New Edition, with Lives and
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Trade. 1841

HARDING'S Shakspeare Illustrated, consisting of portraits of all the
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LOCKE (John), The Entire Works of, handsome Library Edition, 10 vols.
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NORTH BRITISH REVIEW, a Quarterly Journal, from its Conmencement in
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PLINII Naturalis Historia ex editione Gab Brotier cum Notis et
Interpretatione in usum Delphini. Varis Lectionibus Notis Variorum, 12
vols. 8vo. 1l. 1s. Valpy, 1826

ROBERTSON'S (Wm., D.D.)--The entire Collection of his Works, with an
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SALTS' Views of St. Helena, the Cape of Good Hope, India Ceylon,
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SCOTT'S (Sir Walter) Novels and Romances, with all his Introductions and
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SHAKSPEARE'S (Mr. William) Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, published
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copy, portrait, 2l. 2s. Reprint, 1623.

SHAKSPEARE, the Works of, Revised from the Best Authorities with a
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--The Plays of William Shakspeare, with the Corrections and
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SOUTHEY'S (Robt., L.L.D.) History of the Peninsular War, 3 vols. 4to.,
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VOLTAIRE (M. de), Complete Collection des Oeuvres de, 32 vols. 12mo., in
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AN ABRIDGEMENT of the Philosophical Transactions ol the Royal Societv of
London, from its Commencement in 1665 to the year 1800. Abridged with
Notes and Biographic Illustrations by Hutton, Shaw, and Pearson, 18
vols. 4to., numerous plates, 1l.15s. 1809

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, August 31. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 44, August 31, 1850" ***

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