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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 50, October 12, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 50, October 12, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 50.] SATURDAY, OCTOBER 12, 1850 [Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       * {305}



  A Note on "Small Words". 305
  Gray's Elegy, by Bolton Corney. 306
  Gray's Elegy in Portuguese. 306
  Further Notes on the Authorship of Henry VIII. 306
  Queen Elizabeth and Sir Henry Nevill, by Lord
    Braybrooke. 307
  Minor Notes:--Whales--Bookbinding--Scott's
    Waverley--Satyayrata. 307

  The Black Rood of Scotland. 308
  Minor Queries:--Trogus Pompeius--Mortuary
    Stanzas--Laird of Grant--Bastille, Records of,--Orkney
    under Norwegians--Swift's Works--Pride of the
    Morning--Bishop Durdent and the Staffordshire Historians--Pope and
    Bishop Burgess--Daniel's Irish New Testament--Ale Draper--Eugene
    Aram--Latin Epigram--Couplet in Defoe--Books
    wanted to refer to--Watermarks in
    Writing-paper--Puzzling Epitaph--Cornish MSS.--Bilderdijk
    the Poet--Egyptian MSS.--Scandinavian
    Priesthood--Thomas Volusemus. 309

  Curfew. 311
  Engelmann's Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum. 312
  Crozier and Pastoral Staff, by Rev. M. Walcott. 313
  Parsons, the Staffordshire Giant, by E.F. Rimbault,
    L.L.D. 314
  Wormwood Wine, by S.W. Singer, &c. 315
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Feltham's Works--Harefinder--Fool
    or a Physician--Papers of Perjury--Pilgrim's
    Road--Capture of Henry VI.--Andrew
    Beckett--Passage in Vida--Quem Deus--Countess
    of Desmond--Confession--Cayell, Meaning of,--Lord
    Kingsborough's Mexico--Aërostation--Concolinel--Andrewes's
    Tortura Torti, &c. 315

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 319
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted. 319
  Notices to Correspondents. 319
  Advertisements. 320

       *       *       *       *       *



    "And ten small words creep on in one dull line."

Most ingenious! most felicitous! but let no man despise little words,
despite of the little man of Twickenham. He himself knew better, but
there was no resisting the temptation of such a line as that. Small
words he says, in plain prosaic criticism, are generally "stiff and
languishing, but they may be beautiful to express melancholy."

The English language is a language of small words. It is, says Swift,
"overstocked with monosyllables." It cuts down all its words to the
shortest possible dimensions: a sort of half-Procrustes, which lops but
never stretches. In one of the most magnificent passages in Holy Writ,
that, namely, which describes the death of Sisera:--

    "At her feet he bowed, he fell: at her feet he bowed, he fell,
    he lay down: where he bowed, there he fell down dead."

There are twenty-two monosyllables to three of greater length, or rather
to the same dissyllable thrice repeated; and that too in common parlance
proncounced as a monosyllable. The passage in the Book of Ezekiel, which
Coleride is said to have considered the most sublime in the whole

    "And He said unto me, son of man, can these bones live? And I
    answered, O Lord God, though knowest,"--

contains seventeen monosyllables to three others. And in the most grand
passage which commences the Gospel of St. John, from the first to the
fourteenth verses, inclusive, there are polysyllables twenty-eight,
monosyllables two hundred and one. This it may be said is poetry, but
not verse, and therefore makes but little against the critic. Well then,
out of his own mouth shall he be confuted. In the fourth epistle of his
_Essay on Man_, a specimen selected purely at random from his works, and
extending altogether to three hundred and ninety-eight lines, there are
no less than twenty-seven (that is, a trifle more than one out of every
fifteen,) made up _entirely_ of monosyllables: and over and above these,
there are one hundred and fifteen which have in them only one word of
greater length; and yet there are few dull creepers among the lines of

The early writers, the "pure wells of English undefiled," are full of
"small words."

Hall, in one of the most exquisite of his satires, speaking of the
vanity of "adding house to house, and field to field," has these most
beautiful lines,--

  "Fond fool! six feet shall serve for all thy store,
  And he that cares for most shall find no more!"

"What harmonious monosyllables!" says Mr. Gifford; and what critic will
refuse to echo his exclamation? The same writer is full of monosyllabic
lines, and he is among the most energetic {306} of satirists. By the
way, it is not a little curious, that in George Webster's _White Devil,
or Vittoria Corombona_, almost the same thought is also clothed in two
monosyllabic lines:--

  "His wealth is summed, and this is all his store:
  This poor men get, and great men get no more."

Was Young dull? Listen, for it is indeed a "solemn sound:"--

  "The bell strikes one. We take no note of time
  Save by its loss, to give it then a tongue
  Was wise in man."

Was Milton tame? Hear the "lost archangel" calling upon Hell to receive
its new possessor:--

        "One who brings
  A mind not to be chang'd by place or time.
  The mind is its own place, and in _itself_
  Can make a heav'n of hell,--a hell of heav'n.
  What _matter_ where, if I be still the same,
  And what I should be; all but less than he
  Whom _thunder_ hath made _greater_? Here at least
  We shall be free; the _Almighty_ hath not built
  Here for his _envy_; will not drive us hence:
  Here we may reign _secure_; and in my choice
  To reign is worth _ambition_, though in hell:
  _Better_ to reign in hell, than serve in heav'n!"

A great conjunction of little words! Are monosyllables passionless?
Listen to the widowed Constance:--

  "Thou mayst, thou shalt! I will not go with thee!
  I will _instruct_ my _sorrows_ to be proud;
  For grief is proud, and makes his _owner_ stout;
  To me, and to the state of my great grief,
  Let kings _assemble_; for my grief's so great,
  That no _supporter_ but the huge firm earth
  Can hold it up: here I and _sorrow_ sit;
  Here is my throne: bid kings come bow to it."

Six polysyllables only in eight lines!

The ingenuity of Pope's line is great, but the criticism false. We
applaud it only because we have never taken the trouble to think about
the matter, and take it for granted that all monosyllabic lines must
"creep" like that which he puts forward as a specimen. The very
frequency of monosyllables in the compositions of our language is one
grand cause of that frequency passing uncommented upon by the general
reader. The investigation prompted by the criticism will serve only to
show its unsoundness.


       *       *       *       *       *


If required to name the most popular English poem of the last century, I
should perhaps fix on the _Elegy_ of Gray. According to Mason, it "ran
through eleven editions in a very short space of time." If he means
_separate_ editions, I can point out six other impressions in the
life-time of the poet, besides those in miscellaneous collections viz.
In _Six Poems by Mr. T. Gray_, London, 1753. Folio--1765. Folio--and in
_Poems by Mr. Gray_, London, 1768. small 8o.--Glasgow 1768. 4o.--London.
A new edition, 1768. small 8o. A new edition, 1770. small 8o. So much
has been said of translations and imitations, that I shall confine
myself to the text.

Of the _first_ separate edition I am so fortunate as to possess a copy.
It is thus entitled:--

    "_An elegy wrote in a country church-yard_. LONDON: printed for
    R. Dodsley in Pal-mall; and sold by M. Cooper in
    Pater-noster-row, 1751. Price six-pense. 4o six leaves.


    "The following POEM came into my hands by accident, if the
    general approbation with which this little piece has been
    spread, may be call'd by so slight a term as accident. It is
    this approbation which makes it unnecessary for me to make any
    apology but to the author: as he cannot but feel some
    satisfaction in having pleas'd so many readers already, I
    flatter myself he will forgive my communicating that pleasure to
    many more.

    "The EDITOR."

The history of this publication is given by Gray himself, in a letter to
Walpole, dated in 1751, and needs no repetition; but I must observe, as
a remarkable circumstance, that the poem was reprinted _anonymously_, in
its separate form, as late as 1763.

I have collated the editions of 1751 and 1770, and find variations in
stanzas 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 12, 23, 24, and 27. All the amendments, however,
were adopted as early as 1753, except the correction of a grammatical
peccadillo in the ninth stanza.

I make this communication in the shape of a note, as it may interest men
of the world not less than certain _hermits_.


       *       *       *       *       *


In several numbers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" mention is made of various
translations into foreign languages of GRAY'S _Elegy in a Country
Church-yard_. P.C.S.S. begs leave to add to the list a very elegant
translation into Portuguese, by the Chevalier Antonio de Aracejo
(afterwards Minister of Foreign Affairs at Lisbon and at Rio de
Janeiro), to whose friendship he was indebted many years ago for a copy
of it. It was privately printed at Lisbon towards the close of the last
century, and was subsequently reprinted at Paris in 1802, in a work
called _Traductions interlinéaires, en six Langues_, by A.M.H. Boulard.


       *       *       *       *       *


The Gentleman's Magazine for the present month contains a letter from
Mr. Spedding, the author of the essay which appeared in the August {307}
number of that magazine on the authorship of _Henry VIII._ After
expressing himself "gratified but not surprised" by the coincidence
between his views and those of Mr. Hickson in "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol.
ii., p. 198.), Mr. Spedding proceeds:

    "The resemblance of the style, in some parts of the play, to
    Fletcher's, was pointed out to me several years ago by Alfred
    Tennyson (for I do not know why I should not mention his name);
    and long before that, the general distinctions between
    Shakspeare's manner and Fletcher's had been admirably explained
    by Charles Lamb in his note on the _Two Noble Kinsmen_, and by
    Mr. Spalding in his Essay. And in respect to this I had myself
    derived additional light, more, perhaps, than I am aware of,
    from Mr. Hickson himself, if he be (as I suppose he is) the S.H.
    of the _Westminster Review_. But having been thus put upon the
    scent and furnished with principles, I followed the inquiry out
    by myself, without help or communication. That two independent
    inquirers should thus have arrived at the same conclusions upon
    so many particulars, must certainly be considered very singular,
    except upon one supposition; viz., that the conclusions are
    according to reason. Upon that supposition, nothing is more
    natural; and I must confess, for my own part, that I should have
    been more surprised if the coincidence had been less exact."

We will borrow one more paragraph from Mr. Spedding's communication
(which is distinguished throughout by the liberality of tone of a true
scholar), and we doubt not that the wish expressed at its conclusion is
one in which our readers join as heartily as ourselves:--

    "I hope, however, that Mr. Hickson may be induced to pursue his
    own investigation further, and to develop more fully the
    suggestion which he throws out as to a difference of style
    discernible in the scenes which he attributes to Shakspeare. If
    I understand him rightly, he sees traces in this play of the
    earlier as well as the later hand of both poets. I cannot say
    that I perceive any indications of this myself, nor, if it be
    so, can I well make out how it should have come to pass. But I
    should be glad to hear more about it."

It will be seen by the following extract from Mr. Emerson's
_Representative Men_, for which we are indebted to our correspondent
A.R., that the subject had attracted the attention of that distinguished

    "In _Henry VIII._, I think I see plainly the cropping out of the
    original rock on which his (Shakspeare's) own finer stratum was
    laid. The first play was written by a superior, thoughtful man,
    with a vicious ear. I can mark his lines, and know well their
    cadence. See Wolsey's Soliloquy, and the following scene with
    Cromwell, where, instead of the metre of Shakspeare, whose
    secret is, that the thought constructs the tune, so that reading
    for the sense will best bring out the rhythm; here the lines are
    constructed on a given tune, and the verse has even a trace of
    pulpit eloquence. But the play contains, through all its length,
    unmistakeable traits of Shakspeare's hand; and some passages, as
    the account of the coronation, are like autographs. What is odd,
    the compliment to Queen Elizabeth is in the bad rhythm."

       *       *       *       *       *


Many years ago I copied the following note from a volume of Berkshire
pedigrees in the British Museum, my reference to which is unluckily

    "Queen Elizabeth, in her first progress at Maidenhithe Bridge,
    being mett by all the Nobility, Kn'ts, and Esquires of Berks,
    they kneeling on both sides of her way, shee alighted at the
    bridge foot, and walked on foote through the midst, and coming
    just agaynst Sir Henry Nevill of Billingbear, made a stay, and
    leyd her glove on his head, saying, 'I am glad to see thee,
    _Brother Henry_.' Hee, not pleased with the expression, swore
    she would make the court believe hee was a bastard, at which
    shee laughed, and passed on."

The masquing scene in _Henry VIII._, as described by Holinshed, perhaps
furnishes a clue to the Queen's pleasantry, though Shakspeare has
omitted the particular incident relating to Sir Henry Nevill. The old
chronicler, after giving an account of Wolsey's banquet, and the
entrance of a noble troop of strangers in masks, amongst whom he
suspected that the king made one, proceeds as follows:--

    "Then the Lord Chamberlain said to the Cardinal, Sir, they
    confesse that among them there is such a noble personage whom,
    if your Grace can appointe out 'from the rest, he is content to
    disclose himself and to accept your place.' Whereupon the
    Cardinal, taking good advisement among them, at the last quoth
    he, 'Me seemeth the gentleman in the black beard should be even
    he.' And with that he arose out of his chaire and offered the
    same to the gentleman in the black beard, with his cap in his
    hand. The person to whom he offered the chaire was Sir Edward
    Nevill, a comelie knight, that much more resembled the king's
    person in that mask than anie other. The King perceiving the
    Cardinal so deceived, could not forbear laughing, and pulled
    down his visor and Maister Nevill's too."

Sir Edward Nevill of Aldington, in Kent, was the second surviving son of
George Nevill, Lord Abergavenny, and the father of Sir Henry Nevill
above mentioned, who laid the foundation-stone and built the body and
one wing of Billingbear House, which still belongs to his descendant.
Sir Edward Nevill was beheaded for high treason in 1538, his likeness to
Henry VIII. not saving him from the fate which befell so many of that
king's unhappy favourites.


Audley End.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Whales._--Tychsen thinks the stories of whales mistaken for islands
originated in the perplexities of inexperienced sailors when first
venturing from {308} the Mediterranean into a sea exposed to the tides.
I think Dr. Whewell mentions that in particular situations the turn of
the current occurs at a sufficient interval from the time of high or low
water to perplex even the most experienced sailors.


_Bookbinding._--While the mischief of _mildew_ on the _inside_ of books
has engaged some correspondents to seek for a remedy (Vol. ii., 103.
173.), a word may be put in on behalf of the _outside_, the binding. The
present material used in binding is so soft, flabby, and unsound, that
it will not endure a week's service. I have seen a bound volume lately,
with a name of repute attached to it; and certainly the _workmanship_ is
creditable enough, but the _leather_ is just as miserable as any from
the commonest workshop. The volume cannot have been bound many months,
and yet even now, though in good hands, it is beginning to rub _smooth_,
and to look, what best expresses it emphatically, _shabby_, contrasting
most grievously with the leather of another volume, just then in use,
bound some fifty or seventy years ago, and as sound and firm as a drum's
head--_common_ binding too, be it observed--as the modern _cover_ is
flabby and washy. Pray, sir, raise a voice against this wretched
_material_, for that is the thing in fault, not the workmanship; and if
more must be paid for undoctored outsides, let it be so.


_Scott's Waverley._--Some years ago, a gentleman of my acquaintance, now
residing in foreign parts, told me the following story:--

    "Once upon a time," the great unknown being engaged in a
    shooting-match near his dwelling, it came to pass that all the
    gun-wadding was spent, so that he was obliged to fetch _paper_
    instead. After Sir Walter had come back, his fellow-shooter
    chanced to look at the succedaneum, and was not a little
    astonished to see it formed part of a tale written by his
    entertainer's hand. By his friend's urgent inquiries, the Scotch
    romancer was compelled to acknowledge himself the author, and to
    save the well nigh destroyed manuscript of _Waverley_.

I do not know whether Sir Walter Scott was induced by _this_ incident to
publish the first of his tales or not; perhaps it occurred after several
of his novels had been printed. Now, if any body acquainted with the
anecdote I relate should perchance hit upon my endeavour to give it an
English garb, he would do me a pleasure by noting down the particulars I
might have omitted or mis-stated. I never saw the fact recorded.


_Satyavrata._--Mr. Kemble, _Salomon and Saturn_, p. 129., does not seem
to be aware that the Satyavrata in question was one of the forgeries
imposed on, and afterwards detected, by Wilford.


       *       *       *       *       *



Can any of your correspondents give me any information on the following
points connected with "the Black Rood of Scotland?"

1. What was the history of this cross before it was taken into Scotland
by St. Margaret, on the occasion of her marriage with Malcolm, king of
Scotland? Did she get it in England or in Germany?

2. What was its size and make? One account describes it as made of gold,
and another (_Rites of Durham_, p. 16.) as of silver.

3. Was the "Black Rood of Scotland" the same as the "Holy Cross of
Holyrood House?" One account seems to make them the same: for in the
_Rites of Durham_, p. 16., we read,--

    "At the east end of the south aisle of the choir, was a most
    fair rood, or picture of our Saviour, _in silver_, called the
    _Black Rood of Scotland_, brought out of Holyrood House by King
    David Bruce, and was won at the battle of Durham, with the
    picture of our Lady on the one side, and St. John on the other
    side, very richly wrought in silver, all three having crowns of
    gold," &c. &c.

Another account, in p. 21 of the same work, seems to make them
different; for, speaking of the battle of Neville's Cross (18th October,
1346), it says--

    "In which said battle a _holy Cross_, which was taken out of
    Holyrood House, in Scotland, by King David Bruce, was won and
    taken," &c., p. 21.

And adds,--

    "In which battle were slain seven earls of Scotland.... and also
    lost _the said cross_, and many other most worthy and excellent
    jewels ... together with the Black Rood of Scotland (so termed)
    with Mary and John, made of silver, being, as it were, smoked
    all over," &c., p. 22.

4. If they were the same, how is the legend concerning its discovery by
the king, upon Holyrood day, when hunting in a forest near Edinburgh, to
be reconciled with the fact of its being taken by St. Margaret into
Scotland? If they were not the same, what was the previous history of
each, and which was the cross of St. Margaret?

5. How is the account of Simeon of Durham, that the Black Rood was
bequeathed to Durham Priory by St. Margaret, to be reconciled with the
history of its being taken from the Scotch at the battle of Neville's

6. May there not be a connexion between the legend of the discovery of
the "Holy Cross" between the horns of a wild hart (_Rites of Durham_, p.
21.), and the practice that existed of an offering of a stag annually
made, on St. Cuthbert's day, in September, by the Nevilles of Raby, to
the Priory of Durham? May it not have been an acknowledgement {309} that
the cross won at the battle of Neville's Cross was believed to have been
taken by King David from the hart in the forest of Edinburgh? In the
"Lament for Robert Neville," called by Surtees "the very oldest rhyme of
the North" we read--

  "Wel, qwa sal thir hornes blaw
     Haly rod thi day?
   Nou is he dede and lies law
     Was wont to blaw thaim ay."

7. Is it known what became of the "Holy Cross" or "Black Rood" at the
dissolution of Durham Priory?



       *       *       *       *       *


_Trogus Pompeius._--In Hannay and Dietrichsen's _Almanuck for the Year_
1849, I find the following statement under the head of "Remarkable
Occurrences of the Year 1847:"--

    "July 21. A portion of the history of Trogus Pompeius (the
    author abridged by Justin) is discovered in the library of
    Ossolinski at Berlin."

Not having noticed any contemporary account of this occurrence, I should
be glad of any information respecting the nature and extent of the


_Mortuary Stanzas._--Could any of your readers supply me with
information respecting the practice of appending mortuary stanzas to the
yearly bills of mortality, published in many parishes; whether there are
any extant specimens of such stanzas besides those memorable poems of
Cowper written for the parish clerk of Northampton; and whether, also,
the practice is still kept up in any parts of the country?

[Greek: Philopatris].

_Laird of Grant._--In the north of England, I have repeatedly heard the
_auld wife_ remark, on observing any unwonted act of extravagance, such
as burning more than the ordinary number of candles, &c. &c.,--"Who is
to be Laird of Grant next year?" As this saying appears to be used only
in the north, I have no other medium at present than to seek a reply
through the aid of your valuable little work.


    [A similar "saw" was formerly current in the metropolis,--"What,
    three candles burning! we shall be Lord Mayor next year."]

_Bastille, MS. Records of._--Are there amongst the MSS. of the British
Museum any documents relating to spies, or political agents, employed by
the French and English governments from 1643 to 1715, who were
incarcerated in the Bastille?


_Orkney under the Norwegians._--Torfæus (_Orcades_), under the
transactions of the year 1430 (p. 182-3.), has an incidental mention of
the Orkneys as among the forbidden islands, "vetitæ insulas," of which
the commerce was forbidden to strangers, and confined to the mother
country, as to this day it is with Denmark and her possessions of the
Faroe Islands and Iceland, both mentioned in the paragraph of the
historian among the islands whose commerce was restricted. It would be
very desirable to know of the social state of Orkney under the
government of Norway and its native Jarls of the Norwegian race, and or
its connexion with Norway and Denmark; and some of your correspondents
may take the trouble to point out sources of information on the subject
of this Query.



_Swift's Works._--In Wilde's _Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life_ (2d
edit. p. 78.) is mentioned an autograph letter from Sir Walter Scott to
C.G. Gavelin, Esq., of Dublin, in the MS. library. T.C.D., in which he
states he had nothing whatever to do with the publication or revision of
the second edition of the _Works of Jonathan Swift_. This does not agree
with the statement given in Mr. Lockhart's _Life of Sir Walter Scott_,
2d edit. vol. vii. p. 215. Who was the editor, and in what does the
second edition differ from the first?


"_Pride of the Morning_."--Why is the small rain which falls in the
morning, at some seasons of the year, called "the pride of the morning?"


_Bishop Durdent and the Staffordshire Historians._--It is stated by
Sampson Erdeswich, Esq., in his _Survey of Staffordshire_, p. 164, 12mo.
1717, that--

    "Not far from Tame, Roger Durdent held Fisherwicke of the
    bishop, 24 Ed. I. And 4 Ed. II. Nicholas Durdent was lord of it,
    which I suppose was procured to some of his ancestors of the
    same name by their kinsman Walter Durdent, Bishop of Litchfield,
    in Henry II.'s time."

but no authority is given for this statement.

In Shaw's _History of Staffordshire_, p. 365., fol., 1798, it is further
recorded that--

    "Walter Durdent, in the beginning of Henry II., appears to have
    granted it (Fisherwicke) to some of his relations, for we find
    William Durdent of Fisherwicke temp. Henry II.; and in the 40th
    of Hen. III. Roger Durdent occurs, who held Fisherwicke of the
    bishop, 24 Ed. I. In the 4 Ed. II. Nicholas Durdent was lord of

Shaw refers to Erdeswick, and to the _Annals of Burton Abbey_, p. 364.

In Dr. Harwood's edition of Erdeswick, 8vo., 1844, the same statements
are repeated, but no authority is adduced. Could any of your
correspondents obligingly furnish me with the original {310} sources of
information to which Erdeswick had access, and also with any
biographical notices of Bishop Durdent besides those which are recorded
in Godwin and Shaw? The bishop had the privilege of coining money. (See
Shaw's _Staffordshire_, pp. 233. 265.) Are any of his coins known to


_Pope and Bishop Burgess._--To what passage in Pope's writings does the
conclusion of the following extract refer?[1]

    "Digammaticæ doctrinæ idem accidit. In his _Popius_ eam in
    ludibrium vertit, &c. Sed eximius Poeta neque in veteribus suæ
    ipsius linguæ, nedum Græcæ monumentis versatus, tantum scilicet
    de antiqua illa litera vidit, quantum _de Shakespearii_


[Footnote 1: 3d ed. of Dawes's _Mis. Critic_, p. xviii, note x.]

_Daniel's Irish New Testament._--F.G.X. will be much obliged for
information on the following points:--

1. Which is the most correct edition, as to printing and orthography, of
Daniel's Irish New Testament?

2. Does the edition now on sale by the Bible Society bear the character
for incorrectness as to these points, which, judged by itself, it
appears to deserve, or is it really, though "bad, the best?"

3. F.G.X. is far advanced with an Irish Testament Concordance. Can any
one possessed of the requisite information give him hope of the
acceptableness of such a publication? He should expect it to be chiefly
useful to clerical Irish students in acquiring a knowledge of words and
construction; but the lists of Irish Bibles disposed of of late years
would lead to the supposition of its being desirable also as pointing
out the place of passages to the native reader.

4. Does the Cambridge University Library contain a copy of the first
edition of Daniel's translation?

_Ale Draper--Eugene Aram._--In Hargrove's well-known history of Eugene
Aram, the hero of Bulwer's still better known novel, one of the guilty
associates of the Knaresborough murderer is designated as an "Ale
Draper." As this epithet never presented itself in my reading, and as I
am not aware that _draper_ properly admits of any other definition than
that given by Johnson, "one who deals in cloth," may I ask whether the
word was ever in "good use" in the above sense?

My main purpose in writing, is to propound the foregoing Query; but
while I have the pen in hand permit me to ask,--

1. Whether it be possible to read the celebrated "defence," so called,
which was delivered by Aram on his trial at York, without concurring
with the jury in their verdict, and with the judge in his sentence? In
short, without a strong feeling that the prisoner would not have been
hanged, but for that over-ingenious, and obviously evasive, address, in
which the plain averment of "not guilty" does not occur.

2. Has not the literary character, especially the philological
attainments, of this noted malefactor been vastly over-rated? And

3. Ought not the "memoirs" of "this great man" by Mr. Scatcherd to be
ranked among the most remarkable attempts ever made, and surely made

  "--in vain,
  To wash the murderer from blood-guilty stain?"



_Latin Epigram._--Can any of your correspondents inform me who was the
author of the following epigram:--


  "Te tandem tuus Oreus habet, quo civibus Orei
  Gratius haud unquam misit Apollo caput;
  Quippe tuo jussu terras liquere, putantque
  Tartara se jussu linquere posse tuo."

The person alluded to was Sir W. Browne, M.D., the founder of the Browne
medals in the University of Cambridge. Some old fellow of King's College
may be able to inform me.

The medals were first given about the year 1780, and in the first year,
I presume, out of respect to the memory of the donor, no subject was
given for Epigrams. It has occurred to me, that perhaps some wag on that
occasion sent the lines as a quiz.


Richmond, Surrey

_Couplet in De Foe_--

  "Restraint from ill is freedom to the wise,
  And good men wicked liberties despise."

This couplet is at the end of the second letter in De Foe's _Great Law
of Subordination_, p. 42. Is it his own? If not, where did he get it?


_Books wanted to refer to_.--

    "Hollard's Travels (1715), by a French Protestant Minister,
    afterwards suppressed by the author."

    "Thomas Bonnell, Mayor of Norwich, Life of."

    "Canterbury, Letters and Memoirs on the Excommunication of two
    Heretics, 1698."

    "The Book of Seventy-seven French Protestant Ministers,
    presented to Will'm III."

If any of your readers can refer me to the above works I shall be glad.
They may be in the British Museum, although I have searched there in
vain for them.


_Water-marks in Writing-paper._--Can any of your correspondents indicate
any guide to the dating of {311} paper by the water-mark. I think I have
read of some work on that subject, but have no precise recollection
about it. I have now before me several undated MSS. written on paper of
which it would be very desirable to fix the exact date. They evidently
belonged to Pope, Swift, and Lady M.W. Montague, as they contain their
autographs. They are all of that size called _Pro Patria_, and two of
them have as water-mark a figure of Britannia with a lion brandishing a
sword within a paling, and the motto _Pro Patria_ over the sword. Of one
of these the opposite page has the initials GR, and the other has IX;
but the paper has been cut off in the middle of the water-mark and only
exhibits half the figure IV. Another sheet has the royal arms (1.
England and Scotland impaled, 2. France, 3. Ireland, 4. the white horse
of Hanover,) within the garter, and surmounted by the crown, and on the
opposite page GR. within a crowned wreath. There is no doubt that they
were all manufactured between 1715 and 1740; but is there any means of
arriving at a more precise date?


_Puzzling Epitaph._--The following curious epitaph was found in a
foreign cathedral:--


  "O quid tuæ
   be est biæ;
   ra ra ra
   es et in
   ram ram ram

The following is plainly the solution of the last four lines:--

  _ra, ra, ra_, is thrice _ra_, i.e. _ter-ra=terra_.
  _ram, ram, ram_, is thrice _ram_, i.e. _ter-ram=terram_.
  _ii_ is _i_ twice, _i.e. i-bis=ibis_.

Thus the last four lines are,--

  "Terra es et in terram ibis."

Can any one furnish a solution of the two first lines?


    [We would suggest that the first two lines are to be read "O
    _super_ be, quid _super_ est, tuæ _super_ biæ," and the
    epitaph will then be--

      "O superbe quid superest tuæ superbiæ
      Terra es, et in terram ibis."--ED.]

_MSS. of Cornish Language._--Are there any ancient MSS. of the Cornish
language, or are there any works remaining in that language, besides the
_Calvary_ and _Christmas Carol_ published by the late Davies Gilbert?


_Bilderdijk the Poet._--Banished from his native country, disowned by
his own countrymen, the Dutch poet Willem Bilderdijk pitched his tent
for a while on the hospitable soil of Old England. Prince William V.
residing in 1795 at Hampton Court, he resolved to stay there; but,
possessing no income at all, and, like the sage of antiquity, having
saved nothing from the shipwreck but his genius, he shifted his
dwelling-place to London, where he gave lessons in drawing, languages,
and various, even medical, sciences. He was married in England to
Katharine Wilhelmina Schweickhardt, on the 18th of May, 1797. His
residence in the birthplace of "NOTES AND QUERIES" makes me ask, if
there be still persons living, who remember him as teacher, friend, or
poet? A presentation-copy of Mrs. Bilderdijk's translation of _Rodrick,
the Last of the Goths_, was offered to Southey, accompanied by a Latin
letter from her spouse. The poet-laureate visiting Leyden in the summer
of 1825, Bilderdijk would not suffer him to remain lodged in the inn,
where an injury to his leg urged him to favour the landlord with a
protracted stay. Southey was transported accordingly to the Dutch poet's
house; and did not leave it before he was cured, several weeks having
elapsed in the meanwhile. Mention of this fact is made in a poem the
British bard addresses to Cuninghame. I do not know whether it is
alluded to in Southey's _Life_.

Bilderdijk's foot was crushed accidentally, in the sixth year of his
age, by one of his play-fellows; and thus he, who, by his natural
disposition seemed to be destined to a military career, was obliged to
enlist in the _militia togata_. He fought the good fight in verse. It is
remarkable that Byron and Sir Walter Scott, his cotemporaries, were also
lame or limping.


_Egyptian MSS._--What is the age of the oldest MS. found in Egypt? Are
there any earlier than the age of Alexander?


_Scandinavian Priesthood._--Will one of your correspondents do me the
favour to let me know the best authority I can refer to for information
as to the priesthood of the Scandinavians; the mode of their election,
the rank from which they were generally chosen, whether they were
allowed to marry, &c.?


_Thomas Volusemus (or Wilson?)._--Is anything known of Thomas Volusemus
(Wilson?) who edited the works of his father-in-law, Patrick Adamson,
titular Archbishop of St. Andrew's, which were published in London A.D.


       *       *       *       *       *



We have received the following Replies to NABOC'S inquiry (Vol. ii., p.
103.) as to where the custom of ringing the curfew still remains.

_Bingley in Yorkshire._--In the town of Bingley, {312} in Yorkshire, the
custom of ringing the curfew existed in the year 1824. It may have been
discontinued since that year, but I do not know that it has.

It is also the custom at Blackburn, in Lancashire; and it was, if it is
not now, at Bakewell in Derbyshire.


_Bromyard, Herefordshire._--The curfew is still rung at Bromyard,
Herefordshire, at nine P.M., from the 5th of November, until Christmas
Day; and the bell is afterwards tolled the number of the day of the
month. Why it is merely confined to within the above days, I could never


_Waltham-on-the-Wolds._--The curfew is still rung at
Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Leicestershire, at five A.M., eight P.M. in
summer, and at six A.M., seven P.M. in winter; the bell also tolling the
day of the month.


_Oxfordshire._--I see that NABOC's inquiry about the curfew is answered
at p. 175. by a reference to the _Journal of the British Archæological
Association_. The list there is probably complete: but lest it should
omit any, I may as well mention, from my own knowledge, Woodstock, Oxon,
where it rings from eight to half-past eight in the evening, from
October to March; Bampton and Witney, Oxon, and Stow, in Gloucester; at
some of which places it is also rung at four in the morning.


_Chertsey, Surrey._--In the town of Chertsey in Surrey, the curfew is
regularly tolled for a certain time at eight every evening, but only
through the winter months. There is also a curious, if not an uncommon,
custom kept up with regard to it. After the conclusion of the curfew,
and a pause of half a minute, the day of the month is tolled out: one
stroke for the 1st, two for the 2nd, and so on.


_Penrith._--The curfew bell continues to be rung at Penrith, in
Cumberland, at eight o'clock in the evening, and is the signal for
closing shops, &c.

_Newcastle-upon-Tyne._--The curfew is still rung by all the churches of
Newcastle-upon-Tyne at eight in the evening; and its original use may be
said to be preserved to a considerable extent, for the greater bulk of
the shops make it a signal for closing.


_Morpeth._--The curfew bell is still rung at eight P.M. at Morpeth in


_Exeter._--The curfew is rung in Exeter Cathedral at eight P.M.

The present practice is to toll the bell thirty strokes, and after a
short interval to toll eight more; the latter, I presume, denoting the


_Winchester._--Curfew is still rung at Winchester.


_Over, near Winsford, Cheshire._--The custom of ringing the curfew is
still kept up at Over, near Winsford, Cheshire; and the parish church,
St. Chads, is nightly visited for that purpose at eight o'clock. This
bell is the signal amongst the farmers in the neighbourhood for "looking
up" their cattle in the winter evenings; and was, before the
establishment of a public clock in the tower of the Weaver Church at
Winsford, considered the standard time by which to regulate their


    [We are indebted to the courtesy of the Editor of the _Liverpool
    Albion_ for this Reply, which was originally communicated to
    that paper.]

_The Curfew_, of which some inquiries have appeared in the "NOTES AND
QUERIES," is generally rung in the north of England. But then it is also
common in the south of Scotland. I have heard it in Kelso, and other
towns in Roxburghshire. The latter circumstance would appear to prove
that it cannot have originated with the Norman conqueror, to whom it is


       *       *       *       *       *

(Vol. ii., p. 296.)

The shortest reply to MR. DE MORGAN'S complaint against a foreign
bookseller would be, that _Engelmann himself_ printed for any of the
purchasers of a large number of his Catalogues the titles to which MR.
DE MORGAN objects so much.

Will you allow me to add one or two remarks occasioned by MR. DE
MORGAN'S strictures?

1. Engelmann is not, strictly speaking, a bookseller, and his catalogues
are not booksellers' catalogues in the sense in which that term is
generally received here. He is a publisher and compiler (and an
admirable one) of general classified catalogues for the use of the trade
and of students, without any reference to his stock, or, in many
instances, to the possibility of easily acquiring copies of the books
enumerated: and although he _might_ execute an order from his
catalogues, getting orders is _not_ the end for which _he_ publishes

2. Some foreign houses in London, as well as in other countries, bought
a large number of his Catalogues, not as a _book_ but as a _catalogue_,
to be supplied to their customers at the bare cost, or, where it appears
advisable, to be delivered gratis to purchasers of a certain amount.

3. It appears to me pardonable if, under these circumstances, a notice
is inserted on the title, that orders may be directed to the house which
has purchased a number, and supplies them without any immediate profit;
and I may add that I do {313} not believe any of the houses concerned
would object to a notice being taken of such a proceeding in your paper.

4. The error in omitting the words "from 1700" on the title-page, is one
to which MR. DE MORGAN'S notice first directed my attention, classics
printed before that date not being commonly in demand among foreign

5. The practice of compiling catalogues for general use, with the names
of the purchasers of any number of copies of the catalogue inserted on
the title or wrapper, is very common in Germany.

Hinrichs of Leipsic issues--

1. A Six-monthly Alphabetical Catalogue, with a systematic index;

2. A Quarterly Catalogue, systematically arranged, with an alphabetical

Vandenhoeck of Gottigen issues _half-yearly_--

1. A Bibliotheca Medico-Chirurgica et Pharmaceuto-Chemica;

2. A Bibliotheca Theologica, for Protestant theology;

3. A Bibliotheca Classica et Philologica;

4. A Bibliotheca Juridica;

and Engelmann, from time to time, numerous general catalogues;--

all of which are not only supplied to London houses, with English
titles, but may be had all over Germany, with the firms of different
booksellers inserted as publishers of the catalogue.

Will you make use of the above in any way in which you may think it of
advantage to your readers?


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 248.)

A correspondent inquires what was the difference between a crozier and a
pastoral staff. The crozier (_Crocia_, Mediæval Latin), Fr. _Crosse_,
Ital. _Rocco Pastorale_, German. _Bischofstab_, is the ornamental staff
used by archbishops and legates, and derives its name from the cross
which surmounts it. A crozier behind a pall is borne on the primatial
arms of Canterbury. The use of the crozier can only be traced back to
the 12th century. _Cavendish_ mentions "two great crosses of silver,
whereof one of them was for his archbishoprick and the other for his
legatry, always before" Cardinal Wolsey. The fact did not escape Master
_Roy_, who sings thus:--

  "Before him rydeth two Prestes stronge,
  And they beare two Crosses right longe,
    Gapinge in every man's face."

_Hall_ says that he removed from Whitehall "with one cross." In the
Eastern Church patriarchs only have a crozier; a patriarch has two
transverse bars upon his crozier, the Pope carries three.

The pastoral staff was the ensign of bishops. Honorius describes it as
in the form of a shepherd's crook, made of wood or bone, united by a
ball of gold or crystal, the lower part of the staff being pointed.

    "In Evangelio Dominus Apostolis præcepit, ut in prædcatione
    nihil præter virgam tollerent. Et quià Episcopi pastores gregis
    Dominici sunt, ideò baculum in custodiâ præferunt: per baculum,
    quo infirmi sustentatur, auctoritas doctrinæ designatur; per
    virgam, quà improbi emendantur, potestas regiminis figuratur.
    Baculum ergò Pontifices portant, ut infirmos in Fide per
    doctrinam erigant. Virgam bajulant, ut per potestatem inquietos
    corrigant: quæ virga vel baculus est recurvus, ut aberrantes à
    grege docendo ad poenitetiam trabat; in extremo est acutus, ut
    rebelles excommunicando retrudat; hæreticos, velut lupos, ab
    ovili Christi potestativè exterreat."--_In Gemmâ Animæ_, lib. i.
    cap. 218, 219., _apud Hitterpium_.

In its primitive form it appears to have been a staff shaped like a T,
and used to lean upon. It was gradually lengthened, and in some cases
was finished at the top like a mace. The pastoral staff is mentioned in
the _Life of S. Cæsarius of Arles_. Gough says that the pastoral staff
found in the coffin of Grostete, Bp. of Lincoln, who died in 1254, was
made of red wood ending in a rudely shaped ram's horn. It was inscribed:

  "Per baculi formam
  Prælati discite normam."

In the first prayer-book of the Reformed English Church, 2 Edward VI.,
at the time of the holy communion the bishop is directed to have "_his
pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne by his chaplain_." It was used
in solemn benedictions; and so lately as at the coronation of Queen
Elizabeth. The second book of King Edward VI., published A.D. 1552,
being revived in that reign, the use of the staff was discontinued, as
we find by the consecration service of Archbishop Parker.

    "Postq' hæc dixissent, ad reliqua Communionis solemnia permit
    Cicestren. nullu. Archie'po tradens Pastorale
    baculum."--_Bramhall_, vol. iii. p. 205., Part i. Disc. 5. App.,
    Oxon. 1844.

A crozier was borne at the funerals of Brian Duppa, of Winton, A.D.
1662; Juxon of London, 1663; Frewen of York, 1664; Wren of Ely, 1667;
Cosin of Dunelm, 1671; Trelawney of Winton, 1721; Lindsay of Armagh,
1724. It is engraven on the monuments of Goodrich of Ely, 1552; Magrath
of Cashel, 1622; Hacket of Lichfield, 1670; Creggleton of Wells,
Lamplugh of York, 1691; Sheldon, 1677; Hoadley of Winton, and Porteus of
London. Their croziers (made of gilt metal) were suspended over the
tombs of Morley, 1684, and Mews, 1706. The bishop's staff had its crook
bent outwards to signify that his jurisdiction extended over his
diocese; that of the abbot inwards, as his authority was limited to his
house. The crozier of Matthew Wren was of silver {314} with the head
gilt. When Bp. Fox's tomb was opened at Winchester some few years since,
his staff of oak was found in perfect preservation. A staff of wood
painted in azure and gilt, hangs over Trelawney's tomb in Pelynt Church,
Cornwall. The superb staff of the pious and munificent founder of the
two St. Marie Winton Colleges is still preserved at Oxford, as is also
that of the illustrious Wykehamist, Bp. Fox, to whose devotion we owe
Corpus Christi College in that university. One of the earliest tombs
bearing a staff incised, is that of Abbot Vitalis, who died in 1082, and
may be seen in the south cloister of St. Peter's Abbey in Westminster.
There were croziered as well as mitred abbots: for instance, the
superior of the Benedictine abbey at Bourges had a right to the crozier,
but not to the mitre. The Abbot of Westminster was croziered and mitred.
I intended to write a reply, but have enabled with a note.


7. College Street, Westminster

J.Z.P. will find a fully satisfactory answer to his Query, in regard to
the real difference between the crozier and the pastoral staff, on
referring to the article headed "Crozier," in the _Glossary of
Architecture_. It is there stated, that "the crozier of an archbishop is
surmounted by a cross; but it was only at a comparatively late time,
about the 12th century, that the archbishop laid aside the pastoral
staff, to assume the cross as an appropriate portion of his personal
insignia." From which it may be inferred, that the only existent real
difference between the crozier and the pastoral staff is, that the
former is surmounted by a cross, and the latter is as it was before the
12th century, viz., surmounted by "a head curled round something in the
manner of a shepherd's crook;" and the difference in regard to their
use, that the crozier pertains to the archbishops, and the pastoral
staff to the bishops.


Cheltenham, Sept. 16. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 135.)

Harwood's note in Erdeswick's _Staffordshire_, quoted by your
correspondent C.H.B., is incorrect, inasmuch as the writer has confused
the biographies of two distinct "giants"--WALTER PARSONS, porter to King
James I., and WILLIAM EVANS, who filled the same office in the
succeeding reign.

The best account of these two "worthies" is that found in Fuller, and
which I extract from the original edition now before me:--

    WALTER PARSONS, born in this county [Staffordshire], was first
    apprenticed to a smith, when he grew so tall in stature, that a
    hole was made for him in the ground to stand therein up to the
    knees, so to make him adequate with his fellow-workmen. He
    afterwards was porter to King _James_; seeing as gates generally
    are higher than the rest of the building, so it was sightly that
    the porter should be taller than other persons. He was
    proportionable in all parts, and had strength equal to height,
    valour to his strength, temper to his valour, so that he
    disdained to do an injury to any single person. He would make
    nothing to take two of the tallest _yeomen_ of the _guard_ (like
    the _Gizard_ and _Liver_) under his arms at once, and order them
    as he pleased.

    "Yet were his parents (for aught I do understand to the
    contrary) but of an ordinary stature, whereat none will wonder
    who have read what _St. Augustine_ (_De Civitate Dei_, lib. xv.
    cap. 23.) reports of a woman which came to _Rome_ (a little
    before the sacking thereof by the _Goths_), of so giant-like a
    height, that she was far above all who saw her, though infinite
    troopes came to behold the spectacle. And yet he addeth, _Et hoc
    erat maximæ admirationis, quod ambo parentes ejus, &c_. This
    made men most admire, that both her parents were but of ordinary
    stature. This _Parsons_ is produced for proof, that all ages
    afford some of extraordinary height, and that there is no
    general decay of mankind in their _dimensions_, which, if there
    were, we had ere this time shrunk to be lower than _Pigmyes_,
    not to instance in a lesse proportion. This _Parsons_ died Anno
    Dom. 1620."--Fuller's _History of the Worthies of England_, 1662
    (_Staffordshire_), p. 48.

    "WILLIAM EVANS was born in this county [Monmouthshire], and may
    justly be accounted the _Giant_ of our age for his stature,
    being, full two yards and a half in height. He was porter to
    King _Charles I._, succeeding, _Walter Persons_ [sic] in his
    place, and exceeding him two inches in height, but far beneath
    him in an equal proportion of body; for he was not onely what
    the _Latines_ call _compernis_, knocking his knees together, and
    going out squalling with his feet, but also haulted a little;
    yet made a shift to dance in an antimask at court, where he drew
    little Jeffrey, the dwarf, out of his pocket, first to the
    wonder, then to the laughter, of the beholders. He dyed _Anno
    Dom_. 1630." _Ibid. (Monmouthshire)_, p. 54.

From these extracts it will be seen that the Christian name of Parsons
was _Walter_, not William, as stated by Harwood. _William_ was the
Christian name of Evans, Parsons' successor. The bas-relief mentioned by
the same writer represents William Evans and Jeffrey Hudson, his
diminutive fellow-servant. It is over the entrance of _Bull-head Court_,
Newgate Street; not "a bagnio-court," which is nonsense. On the stone
these words are cut: "The King's Porter, and the Dwarf," with the date
1660. This bas-relief is engraved in Pennant.

There is a picture of Queen Elizabeth's giant porter at Hampton Court
but I am not aware that any portrait of Parsons is preserved in the
Royal Collections.


       *       *       *       *       * {315}


(Vol. ii., p. 249.)

If Pepys' friends actually did _drink up_ the two quarts of _wormwood
wine_ which he gave them, it must, as LORD BRAYBROOKE suggests, have
been rendered more palatable than the _propoma_ which was in use in
Shakspeare's time. I have been furnished by a distinguished friend with
the following, among other Notes, corroborative of my explanation of

    "I have found no better recipe for making wormwood wine than
    that given by old Langham in his _Garden of Health_; and as he
    directs its use to be confined to 'Streine out a _little_
    spoonful, and drinke it with a draught of ale or wine,' I think
    it must have been so atrociously unpalatable, that to _drink it
    up_, as Hamlet challenged Laertes to do, would have been as
    strong an argumentum ad stomachum as to digest a crocodile, even
    when appetised by a slice of the loaf."

It is evident, therefore, that but small doses of this nauseously bitter
medicament were taken at once, and to take a large draught, _to drink
up_ a quantity, "would be an extreme pass of amorous demonstration
sufficient, one would think, to have satisfied even Hamlet." Our
ancestors seem to have been partial to medicated wines; and it is most
probable that the wormwood wine Pepys gave his friends had only a slight
infusion of the bitter principle; for we can hardly conceive that such
"pottle draughts" as two quarts could be taken as a treat, of such a
nostrum as the _Absinthites_, or wormwood wine, mentioned by Stuckius,
or that prescribed by the worthy Langham.


Mickleham, Sept. 30. 1850.

_Eisell_ (Vol. ii., p. 242.).--The attempt of your very learned
correspondent, MR. SINGER, to show that "eisell" was _wormwood_, is, I
fear, more ingenious than satisfactory. It is quite true that wormwood
wine and beer were ordinary beverages, as wormwood bitters are now; but
Hamlet would have done little in challenging Laertes to a draught of
wormwood. As to "eisell," we have the following account of it in the
"Via Recta ad Vitam longam, or a Plaine Philosophical Discourse of the
Nature, Faculties, and Effects of all such Things as by way of
Nourishments, and Dieteticale Observations make for the Preservation of
Health, &c. &c. By Jo. Venner, Doctor of Physicke at Bathe in the Spring
and Fall, and at other Times in the Burrough of North-Petherton, neere
to the Ancient Haven Towne of Bridgewater in Somersetshire. London,

    "Eisell, or the vinegar which is made of cyder, is also a good
    sauce, it is of a very penetrating nature and is like to
    verjuice in operation, but it is not so astringent, nor
    altogether so cold," p. 97.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Feltham's Works_ (Vol. ii., p. 133.).--In addition to the works
enumerated by E.N.W., Feltham wrote _A Discourse upon Ecclesiastes_ ii.
11.; _A Discourse upon St. Luke_ xiv. 20.; and _A Form of Prayer
composed for the Family of the Right Honourable the Countess of
Thomond_. These two lists, I believe, comprise the whole of his
writings. The meaning of the passage in his _Remarks on the Low
Countries_, appears to be this, that a person "courtly or gentle" would
receive as little kindness from the inhabitants, and show as great a
contrast to their boorishness, as the handsome and docile merlin (which
is the smallest of the falcon tribe, anciently denominated "noble"),
among a crowd of noisy, cunning, thievish crows; neither remarkable for
their beauty nor their politeness. The words "after Michaelmas" are used
because "the merlin does not breed here, but visits us in October."
_Bewick's British Birds_, vol. i. p. 43.


King William's College, Isle of Man.

_Harefinder_ (Vol. ii., p. 216.).--The following lines from Drayton's
_Polyolbion_, Song 23., sufficiently illustrates this term:--

  "The man whose vacant mind prepares him to the sport
  The _Finder_ sendeth out, to seeke out nimble _Wat_,--
  Which crosseth in the field, each furlong every flat,
  Till he this pretty beast upon the form hath found:
  Then viewing for the course which is the fairest ground,
  The greyhounds forth are brought, for coursing then in case,
  And, choycely in the slip, one leading forth a brace;
  The Finder puts her up, and gives her coursers' law,"

In the margin, at the second line, are the words, _The Harefinder_. What
other instances are there of _Wat_, as a name of the hare? It does not
occur in the very curious list in the _Reliquiæ Antiquæ_, i. 133.


_Fool or a Physician--Rising and Setting Sun_ (Vol. i., p. 157.).--The
inquiry of your correspondent C. FORBES, respecting the authorship of
the two well-known sayings on these subjects, seems to have received no
reply. He thinks that we owe them both to that "imperial Macchiavel,
Tiberius." He is right with respect to the one, and wrong with regard to
the other. The saying, "that a man after thirty must be either a fool or
a physician," had, as it appears, its origin from Tiberius; but the
observation that "more worship the rising than the setting sun," is to
be attributed to Pompey.

Tacitus says of Tiberius, that he was "solitus eludere medicorum artes,
atque eos qui post tricesimum ætatis annum ad internoscenda corpori
{316} suo utilia vel noxia alieni consilia indigerent." _Annal_. vi. 46.
Suetonius says: "Valetudine prosperrimâ usus est,--quamvis a tricesimo
ætatis anno arbitratu eam suo rexerit, sine adjumento consiliove
medicorum." _Tib._ c. 68. And Plutarch, in his precepts _de Valetudine
tuendâ_, c. 49., says--

    [Greek: "Aekousa Tiberion pote Kaisara eipein, hos anaer huper
    hexaekonta [sic vulgò, sed bene corrigit Lipsius ad Tac. loc.
    cit. triakonta] gegonos etae, kai proteinon iatro cheira,
    katagelastos estin."]

These passages sufficiently indicate the origin of the saying; but who
first gave it the pointed form in which we now have it, by coupling
_fool_ with _physician_, I am not able to tell.

The authority for giving the other saying to Pompey, is Plutarch, who
says that when Pompey, after his return from Africa, applied to the
senate for the honour of a triumph, he was opposed by Sylla, to whom he
observed, [Greek: "Oti ton aelion anatellonta pleiones ae duomenon
proskunousin,"] that more worship the rising than the setting
sun--intimating that his own power was increasing, and that of Sylla
verging to its fall. (_Vit. Pomp_. c. 22.)


Stockwell, Sept. 7.

_Papers of Perjury_ (Vol. ii., p. 182.).--In the absence of a "graphic
account," it may interest your correspondent S.R. to be referred to the
two following instances of "perjurers wearing papers denoting their
crime." In _Machyn's Diary_, edited by the accomplished antiquary, John
Gough Nichols, Esq., and published by the Camden Society, at p. 104.
occurs the following:--

    "A.D. 1556, April 28th.... The sam day was sett on the pelere in
    Chepe iij. [men; two] was for the preuerment of wyllfull
    perjure, the iij. was for wyllfull perjure, with _paper sett
    over their hedes_."

In the same works at p. 250., we have also this additional illustration:

    "A.D. 1560--I. The xij. day of Feybruary xj. men of the North was
    of a quest; because they gayff a wrong evyde [nee, and] thay
    ware paper _a-pon their hedes_ for perjure."



_Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury._--Being acquainted with the road to which
your correspondent S.H. (Vol. ii., p. 237.) alludes, he will, perhaps,
allow me to say, that in the neighbourhood of Kemsing a tradition is
current, that a certain line of road, which may be traced from Otford to
Wrotham, was the pilgrims' road from _Winchester_ to Canterbury. How far
this may be correct I know not.

I have not been able to discover any road in the neighbourhood of this
city which goes by the name of the _pilgrims'_ road.

If any of your correspondents would furnish any particulars respecting
this road, I shall feel much obliged.



_Capture of Henry VI._ (Vol. ii., p. 228.).--In his correction of your
correspondent, CLERICUS CRAVENSIS, MR. NICHOLS states:--

    "Both Sir John Tempest and Sir James Harrington of Brierley,
    near Barnesley, were concerned in the king's capture, and each
    received 100 marks reward; but the fact of Sir Thomas Talbot
    being the chief actor, is shown by his having received the
    larger reward of 100l."

In this statement appears entirely to have been overlooked the grant of
lands made by King Edward IV. to Sir James Harrington--

    "For his services in taking prisoner, and withholding as such in
    diligence and valour, his enemy Henry, lately called King Henry

This grant, which was confirmed in Parliament, embraced the castle,
manor, and domain of Thurland; a park, called Fayzet Whayte Park, with
lands, &c. in six townships in the county of Lancaster; lands at Burton
in Lonsdale, co. York; and Holme, in Kendal, co. Westmoreland, the
forfeited lands of Sir Richard Tunstell, and other "rebels." So
considerable a recognition of the services of Sir James Harrington would
seem to demand something more than the second-rate position given to
them by your correspondent. The order to give Sir James Harrington
possession of the lands under his grant will be found in Rymer. The
grant itself is printed in the _Nugæ Antiquæ_, by Henry Harrington, 1775
(vol. ii. p. 121.), and will, I believe, be found in Baines'
_Lancashire_. Mr. Henry Harrington observes that the lands were
afterwards lost to his family by the misfortune of Sir James and his
brother being on the wrong side at Bosworth Field; after which they were
both attainted for serving Richard III. and Edward IV., "and commanding
the party which seized Henry VI. and conducted him to the Tower."



_Andrew Becket_ (Vol. ii., p. 266.), about whom A.W. HAMMOND inquires,
when I knew him, about twelve years ago, was a strange whimsical old
gentleman, full of "odd crotchets," and abounding in theatrical anecdote
and the "gossip of the green-room." But as to his ever having been "a
_profound_ commentator on the dramatic works of Shakspeare," I must beg
leave to express my doubts. At one period he filled the post of
sublibrarian to the Prince Regent; and that he was "ardently devoted to
the pursuits of literature" cannot be a question.

His published works, as far as I can learn, are as follows:-- {317}

    1. A Trip to Holland, 1801.

    2. Socrates, a dramatic poem, 8vo. 1806.

    3. Lucianus Redivivus, or Dialogues concerning Men, Manners, and
    Opinions, 8vo. 1812.

    4. Shakspeare's Himself, or the Language of the Poet asserted;
    being a full but dispassionate Examin of the Readings and
    Interpretations of the several Editors, 2 vols. 8vo. 1815.


_Passage in Vida_ (Vol. i., p. 384.).--Your correspondent A.W. asks for
some light on the lines of Vida, _Christiad_, i. 67.:

  "Quin age, te incolumi potius....
  Perficias quodcumque tibi nunc instat agendum."

He cannot construe "te incolumi." No wonder. Will not all be set right
by reading, "Quin age, et incolumi," &c.?


Stockwell, Sept. 7.

"_Quem Deus vult perdere_" (Vol. i., p. 347., &c.).--To the
illustrations of the saying "_Quem Deus vult perdere prius dementat_,"
which have been given, may be added the following from the _Fragments of
Constantinus Manasses_ (edited with _Nicet. Eugen_., by Boissonade.
Paris, 1819), book viii. line 40.:--

  [Greek: "Ho gar theos aptomenos anthropou dianoias
  Haenika to dusdaimoni kirnaesi penthous poma,
  Ouden pollakis sugchorei bouleusasthai sumpheron."]


Marlborough College.

_Countess of Desmond_ (Vol. ii., pp. 153. 186.).--R. is referred to
Smith's _History of Cork_, and _European Magazine_, vol. viii., for
particulars respecting the Countess of Desmond. They show her picture at
Knowle House, Kent, or Penshurst (I forget which); and tell the story of
the fall from the cherry (or plum) tree, adding that she cut three sets
of teeth!


_Confession_ (Vol. ii., p. 296.).--The name asked for by U.J.B. of the
Catholic priest, who, sooner than break the seal of confession, suffered
death, is John of Nepomuc, Canon of Prague. By order of the Emperor
Wenceslas, he was thrown off a bridge into the Muldaw, because he would
not tell that profligate prince the confession of his religious empress.
This holy man is honoured as St. John Nepomucen on the 16th of May, in
the kalendar of Saints.


    [U.J.B., if desirous of further particulars respecting St. John
    Nepomuc, may consult Mrs. Jameson's interesting _Legends of the
    Monastic Orders_, pp. 214. 217.--ED.]

_Cavell, meaning of_ (Vol. i., p. 473.).--I concur entirely with the
etymology of the word _cavell_ given at p. 473. A lake having been
drained in my country, the land is still divided into _Kavelingen_; as
lots of land were formerly measured by strings of cord, _kavel_,
_kabel_, _cable_. Vide Tuinman _Trakkel_, d. n. t. p. 165. _Kavelloten_
is to receive a cavell by _lot._ cf. _Idem, Verrolg_, p. 97.


_Lord Kingsborough's Antiquities of Mexico._--Has Lord Kingsborough's
splendid work on Mexican hieroglyphics ever been completed or not?


    [This magnificent work has been recently completed by the
    publication of the eighth volume, which may, we believe, be
    procured from Mr. Henry Bohn.--ED.]

_Aërostation_ (Vol. ii., p. 199.).--The article BALLOON, in the _Penny
Cyclopædia_, would give C.B.M. a good many references. The early works
there mentioned are those of Faujas de St. Fond, Bourgeois, and Cavallo;
to which I add the following: Thomas Baldwin, _Airopaidia, containing
the Narrative of a Balloon Excursion from Chester, Sept_. 8. 1785.
Chester, 1786, 8vo. (pp. 360.).

Vincent Lunardi published the account of his voyage (the first made in
England) in a series of letters to a friend. The title is torn out in my
copy. The first page begins, "An Account of the First Aërial Voyage in
England. Letter I. London, July 15. 1784." (8vo. pp. 66 + ii. with a
plate.) It ends with a poetical epistle to Lunardi by "a gentleman well
known in the literary world" (query, the same who is thus cited in our
day?) from which the following extracts are taken as a specimen of the
original balloon jokes:--

  "The multitude scarcely believed that a man,
  With his senses about him could form such a plan,
  And thought that as Bedlam was so very nigh,
  You had better been there than turned loose in the sky.

       *       *       *       *       *

  "In their own way of thinking, all felt and all reasoned,
  Greedy aldermen judged that your flight was ill-seasoned,
  That you'd better have taken a good dinner first,
  Nor have pinched your poor stomach by hunger or thirst.

  "In perfect indifference the beau yawned a blessing,
  And feared before night that your hair would want dressing;
  But the ladies, all zeal, sent their wishes in air,
  For a man of such spirit is ever their care.

  "Attornies were puzzled how now they could sue you,
  Underwriters, what premium they'd now take to do you;
  While the sallow-faced Jew, of his monies so fond,
  Thanked Moses he never had taken your bond."

Mr. Baldwin ascended in Lunardi's balloon, the latter being present at
the start, though not taking part in the voyage.


_Concolinel_ (Vol. ii., p. 217.).--I have been many years engaged in
researches connected with {318} the _original_ music of Shakspeare's
Plays, but it has not been my good fortune to meet with the air of
_Concolinel_. The communication of your correspondent R. is of the
greatest interest, and I should be for ever grateful if he would allow
me to see the manuscript in question, in order that I might test the
_genuineness_ of the air "stated, in a recent hand, to be the tune of
_Concolinel_ mentioned by Shakspeare."

This air has double claims on our attention, as its existence, in any
shape, is placed amongst the "doubtful" points by the following note
extracted from the Rev. J. Hunter's _New Illustrations of Shakspeare_,
vol. i. p. 268.:--

    "Concolinel. In the absence of any thing like sufficient
    explanation or justification of this word, if word it is, I will
    venture to suggest the possibility that it is a corruption of a
    stage direction, _Cantat Ital._, for _Cantat Italicé_; meaning
    that here Moth sings an Italian song. It is quite evident, from
    what Armado says, when the song was ended, 'Sweet air!' that a
    song of some sort was sung, and one which Shakespeare was
    pleased with, and meant to praise. If Moth's song had been an
    English song, it would have been found in its place as the other
    songs are."

I, for one, cannot subscribe to Mr. Hunter's suggestion that our great
poet intended an _Italian_ song to be sung in his play and for this
reason, that Italian music for a _single voice_ was almost unknown in
this country in 1597, at which date we know _Love's Labour's Lost_ was
in existence. Surely _Concolinel_ is just as likely to be the burden of
a song as _Calen o Custure me_, mentioned in _Henry the Fifth_ (Act iv.
sc. 4.), of which there is now no doubt.

I may just mention, in passing, that I have discovered the air of _Calen
o Custure me_ in a manuscript that once belonged to Queen Elizabeth, and
have ample proof that it was an especial favourite with her maiden
majesty. The commentators were at fault when they pointed out the more
modern tune of the same name in Playford's _Musical Companion_, 1667.


S. Augustus Square, Regent's Park.

_Andrewes's Tortura Torti_ (Vol. ii., p. 295.).--On what forms Mr.
Bliss's third quotation, which _does_ appear in some shape in Bernard,
_De Consid. ad Eugen._, iii. 4. 18., the _Bibliotheca Juridica_, &c., of
Ferraris observes, under the head of _Dispensatio_: "Hinc dispensatio
sine justa causa non dispensatio sed dissipatio dicitur communiter a
doctoribus, ut observant et tenent Sperell;" then referring to several
Romish canonists, &c., the last being Reiffenstuel, lib. i., _Decretal_,
tit. 2., n. 450., of which I give the full reference, his volumes being
accessible in the British Museum, if not elsewhere.


_Swords worn in Public_ (Vol. ii., p. 218.)--A very respected and old
friend of mine, now deceased, used to relate that he had often seen the
celebrated Wilkes, of political notoriety, walking in the public
streets, dressed in what is usually termed court dress, wearing his
sword. Wilkes died in 1797. In connexion with this subject it may be
interesting to your readers to know that in 1701 it was found necessary
to prohibit footmen wearing swords. An order was issued by the Earl
Marshal in that year, declaring that--

    "Whereas many mischiefs and dangerous accidents, tending not
    onely to the highest breach of the peace, but also to the
    destruction of the lives of his Ma'ties subjects, have happend
    and been occasioned by Footmen wearing of Swords, for the
    prevention of the like evill accidents and disturbance for the
    future, I doe hereby order that no Foot-man attending any of the
    Nobilitye or Gentry of his Ma'ties Realms, during such time as
    they or any of them shall reside or bee within the Cities of
    London or Westm'r, and the Liberties and Precincts of the same,
    shall wear any Sword, Hanger, Bagonet, or other such like
    offensive weapon, as they will answer the Contempt hereof."
    Dated 30th Dec. 1701.


_Speech given to Man to conceal his Thoughts_ (Vol. i., p. 83.).--The
maxim quoted by your correspondent F.R.A. was invented, if I may rely
upon the _notebook_ of memory, by the Florentine Machiavelli. The German
writer Ludwig Börne says:--

    "Macchiavelli, der die Freiheit liebte, schrieb seinem Prinzen
    so, dass er alle rechtschaffenen Psychologen in Verlegenheit und
    in solche Verwirrung gebracht, dass sie gar nicht mehr wussten,
    was sie sprachen und sie behaupteten, Macchiavelli habe eine
    politische Satyre geschrieben."

Le style c'est l'homme!


_The Character "&,", and Meaning of "Parse"_ (Vol. ii., pp. 230.
284.).--This character, being different from any of the twenty-four
letters, was placed at the end of the alphabet, and children, after
repeating their letters, were taught to indicate this symbol as
_and-per-se-and_. Instead of spelling the word _and_, as composed of
three letters, it was denoted by a special symbol, which was "_and by
itself, and_." Hence the corruption, an _ampussy and_.

The word _parse_ is also derived from the Latin _per se_. To _parse_ a
sentence is to take the words _per se_, and to explain their grammatical
form and etymology.


_Wife of Edward the Outlaw_ (Vol. ii., p. 279.).--With reference to the
Query of E.H.Y. (Vol. ii., p. 279.), there seems to be much confusion in
all the accounts of Edward's marriage. I think it is evident, from an
attentive consideration of the various authorities, that the Lady Agatha
was {319} either sister to Giselle, wife of _Stephen_, King of Hungary
(to whom the young princes must have been sent, as _he_ reigned from
A.D. 1000 till A.D. 1038), and sister also to the Emperor Henry II., or,
as some writers seem to think, she was the daughter of Bruno, that
emperor's brother. (See a note in Dr. Lingard's _History_, vol. i. p.

That she was not the _daughter_ of either Henry II., Henry III., or
Henry IV., is very certain; in the first case, for the reason stated by
your correspondent; and in the second, because Henry III. was only
twelve years old when he succeeded his father Conrad II. (in the year
1039), which of course puts his son Henry IV. quite out of the question,
who was born A.D. 1049. It strikes me (and perhaps some of your
correspondents will correct me if I am wrong) that the two English
princes _may_ have respectively married the two ladies to whom I have
referred, and that hence may have arisen the discrepancies in the
different histories: but that the wife of Edward the Outlaw was _one_ of
these two I have no doubt.


_Translations of the Scriptures_ (Vol. ii., p. 229.).--C.F.S. may
perhaps find _The Bible of every Land_, now publishing by Messrs.
Bagster, serviceable in his inquiries respecting Roman Catholic
translations of the Scriptures. The saying of the Duke of Lancaster is
found in the first edition of Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_, and in the
modern reprint, iv. 674.; the original of the treatise from which it is
taken being in C.C. College, Cambridge. (See Nasmith's _Catalogue_, p.


_Scalping_ (Vol. ii., p. 220.).--W.B.D. confounds beheading with
scalping. In the American war many British soldiers, it was said, walked
about without their _scalps_, but not without their heads.


       *       *       *       *       *



No one branch of antiquarian study has been pursued with greater success
during the last few years than that of Gothic Architecture; and, to this
success, no single work has contributed in any proportion equal to that
of the _Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, and Gothic
Architecture_. Since the year 1836, in which this work first appeared,
no fewer than four large editions, each an improvement upon its
predecessor, have been called for and exhausted. The fifth edition is
now before us; and, we have no doubt, will meet, as it deserves, the
same extended patronage and success. When we announce that in this fifth
edition the text has been considerably augmented by the enlargement of
many of the old articles, as well as by the addition of many new ones,
among which Professor Willis has embodied a great part of his
_Architectural Nomenclature of the Middle Ages_; that the number of
woodcuts has been increased from eleven hundred to seventeen hundred;
and lastly, that the Index has been rendered far more complete, by
including in it the names of places mentioned, and the foreign synonyms;
we have done more to show its increased value than any mere words of
commendation would express. While the only omission that has been made,
namely, that of the utensils and ornaments of the Mediæval Church (with
the exception of the few such as altars, credences, piscinas, and
sedilias, which belong to architectural structure and decoration), is a
portion of the work which all must admit to have been foreign to a
Glossary of Architectural Terms, and must therefore agree to have been
wisely and properly left out. The work in its present form is, we
believe, unequalled in the architectural literature of Europe, for the
amount of accurate information which it furnishes, and the beauty of its
illustrations; and as such, therefore, does the highest credit both to
its editor and to its publisher; if, indeed, the editor and publisher be
not identical.

Mr. L.A. Lewis, of 125. Fleet Street, has commenced a series of weekly
Book Sales, to take place every Friday during the months of October and
November, and has arranged that parties sending large or small parcels
of books for sale during the one week, may have them sold on the Friday
in the week following.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Bernard Quaritch's (16.
Castle Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 19. for 1850 of Oriental
Literature, Manuscripts, Theology, Classics, &c.; John Miller's (43.
Chandos Street) Catalogue No. 12. for 1850 of History, Antiquities,
Heraldry, &c., and Conchology, Geology, and other popular Sciences.

       *       *       *       *       *



An early Edition of the HISTORY OF JACK AND THE GIANTS.

Odd Volumes

TURNER'S SACRED HISTORY. Vol. III. First Edition, 8vo.

Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to Mr. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

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VOLUME THE FIRST OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with Title-page and very copious
Index, is now ready, price 9s. 6d., bound in cloth, and may be had, by
order, of all Booksellers and Newsmen_.

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NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured by the Trade at noon on Friday: so
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_As the Suggestion we threw out in our last week's Paper of publishing
an extra Number for the purpose of clearing off our accumulation of
REPLIES, seems to have given general satisfaction, we shall, on Saturday
next, issue a Double Number, to be devoted chiefly, if not entirely, to

       *       *       *       *       * {320}

No. CLXXIV., is published THIS DAY.



JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published this day Saturday, October 12th,

The NATIONAL EDITION. Part 1., containing THE
TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA, with Forty Illustrations, Price 1s.

London: CHARLES KNIGHT, 90. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

OF ALL NATIONS. Number I., price 2d.

Number 1., price 2d. The above will be published on Saturday,
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London: CHARLES KNIGHT, 90. Fleet Street.

And sold by all Booksellers in Town and Country.

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Street, Waterloo Place.--A Gigantic MOVING DIORAMA of the ROUTE of the
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       *       *       *       *       *

On the 1st of October, No. 12, price 5s., published Quarterly,

Edited by JOHN KITTO, D.D., F.S.A.

Genesis and Geology.
The Bible and Josephus.
On the Authorship of the Acts of the Apostles.
Jewish Commentaries on Isaiah.
Voices of the Night.
On the Literal Interpretation of Prophecy.
Ramathaim Zephim and Rachel's Sepulchre.
The Life of Hugh Heugh, D.D.
Reconsidered Texts.

Correspondence.--Notices of Books.--Biblical Intelligence--List of

London: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, and CO., Stationer's Hall Court. Edinburgh:
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       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition, with illustrations, 12mo., 3s. cloth.

THE BELL; its Origin, History, and Uses.
By the Rev. ALFRED GATTY, Vicar of Ecclesfield.

"A new and revised edition of a very varied, learned, and amusing essay
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GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

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MEMOIRS OF MUSICK. By the Hon. ROGER NORTH, Attorney-General to James I.
Now first printed from the original MS. and edited, with copious Notes,
by EDWARD F. RIMBAULT, LL.D., F.S.A., &c. &c. Quarto; with a Portrait;
handsomely printed in 4to.; half-bound in morocco, 15s.

This interesting MS., so frequently alluded to by Dr. Burney in the
course of his "History of Music," has been kindly placed at the disposal
of the Council of the Musical Antiquarian Society, by George Townshend
Smith, Esq., Organist of Hereford Cathedral. But the Council, not
feeling authorised to commence a series of literary publications, yet
impressed with the value of the work, have suggested its independent
publication to their Secretary, Dr. Rimbault, under whose editorial care
it accordingly appears.

It abounds with interesting Musical Anecdotes; the Greek Fables
respecting the origin of Music; the rise and progress of Musical
Instruments; the early Musical Drama; the origin of our present
fashionable Concerts; the first performance of the Beggar's Opera, &c.

A limited number having been printed, few copies remain for sale: unsold
copies will shortly be raised in price to 1l. 10s. 6d.

Folio, price 30s.

AND IRELAND. Collected from Authentic Sources. By the
Rev. JOHN JEBB, A.M., Rector of Peterstow.

The present Work contains a full collection of the harmonized
compositions of ancient date, including nine sets of pieces and
responses, and fifteen litanies, with a few of the more ancient Psalm
Chants. They are given in full score, and in their proper cliffs. In the
upper part, however, the treble is substituted for the "cantus" or
"medius" cliff: and the whole work is so arranged as to suit the library
of the musical student, and to be fit for use in the Choir.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just Published, Octavo Edition, plain, 15s., Quarto Edition, having the
Plates of the Tesselated Pavements all coloured, 1l. 5s.

REMAINS of ROMAN ART in Cirencester, the Site of Ancient Corinium;
containing Plates by De la Motte, of the magnificent Tesselated
Pavements discovered in August and September, 1849, with copies of the
grand Heads of Ceres, Flora, and Pomona; reduced by the Talbotype from
facsimile tracings of the original; together with various other plates
and numerous wood engravings.

In the Quarto edition the folding of the plates necessary for the
smaller volume is avoided.

"These heads (Ceres, Flora, and Pomona) are of a high order of art, and
Mr. De la Motte, by means of the Talbotype, has so successfully reduced
them that the engravings are perfect facsimiles of the originals. They
are, perhaps, the best of the kind, every tessella apparently being

"Our authors have very advantageously brought to their task a knowledge
of geology and chemistry, and the important aid which an application of
these sciences confers on archæology, is strikingly shown in the chapter
on the materials of the tessellæ, which also includes a valuable report
by Dr. VOELCKER, on an analysis of ruby glass, which formed part of the
composition of one of the Cirencester pavements. This portion of the
volume is too elaborate and circumstantial for any justice to be done to
it in an extract."--_Gentleman's Mag., Sept._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October 12. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 50, October 12, 1850" ***

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