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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 56, November 23, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 56, November 23, 1850" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 56.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *



    The Oldenburg Horn                                        417
    Greek Particles Illustrated by the Eastern Languages      418
    Samuel Rowlands, and his Claim to the Authorship of
        "The Choise of Change," by Dr. E.F. Rimbault          419
    Etymology of "Apricot," "Peach," and "Nectarine"          420
    Minor Notes:--Chaucer's Monument Robert Herrick
      --Epitaph of a Wine Merchant--Father Blackhal--
      The Nonjurors--Booksellers' Catalogues--Bailie
      Nicol Jarvie--Camels in Gaul                           420


    Bibliographical Queries                                   421
    Dryden's "Essay upon Satire"                              422
    Minor Queries:--Ænius Silvius (Pope Pius II.)--
      "Please the Pigs"--To save one's Bacon--Arabic
      Numerals--Cardinal--"By the bye"--Poisons--
      Cabalistic Author--Brandon the Juggler--Jacobus
        Præfectus Siculus--The Word "after" in the Rubric--
        Hard by--Thomas Rogers of Horminger--Armorial
        Bearings--Lady Compton's Letter to her Husband--
        Romagnasi's Works--Christopher Barker's Device        423


    Licensing of Books, by C.H. Cooper                        425
    Remains of James II., by Dr. J.R. Wreford                 427
    Judge Cradock, by H.T. Ellacombe                          427
    Replies to Minor Queries:--Replies by George Stephens:
        On a Passage in the "Tempest;" Legend of a Saint;
        Cupid and Psyche; Kongs Skuggsia--Disputed Passage
        in the "Tempest"--Viscount Castlecomer--Steele's
        Burial-place--Cure for Warts--Etymology of
        "Parse"                                               429


    Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                    430
    Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                              431
    Notice to Correspondents                                  431
    Advertisements                                            431

       *       *       *       *       *



The highly interesting collection of pictures at Combe Abbey, the seat of
the Earl of Craven, in Warwickshire, was, for the most part, bequeathed by
Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the daughter of James I., to her faithful
attendant, William, Earl of Craven. The collection has remained, entire and
undisturbed, up to the present time. Near the upper end of the long gallery
is a picture which doubtless formed a part of the bequest of the Queen of
Bohemia, and of which the following is a description:--

Three quarters length: a female figure, standing, with long curling light
hair, and a wreath of flowers round the head. She wears a white satin gown,
with a yellow edge; gold chain on the stomacher, and pearl buttons down the
front. She has a pearl necklace and earrings, with a high plaited
chemisette up to the necklace; and four rows of pearls, with a yellow bow,
round the sleeve. She holds in her hands a large highly ornamented gold
horn. The back-ground consists of mountains. Underneath the picture is this

    "Anno post natum Christum 939. Ottoni comiti Oldenburgico in venatione
    vehementer sitibundo virgo elegantissima ex monte Osen prodiens cornu
    argenteum deauratum plenum liquore ut biberet obtulit. Inspecto is
    liquore adhorruit, ac eundum bibere recusavit. Quo facto, subito Comes
    a virgine discedens liquorem retro super equum quem mox depilavit
    effudit, cornuque hic depictum secum Oldenburgum in perpetuam illius
    memoriam reportavit. Lucretio de Sainct Simon pinxit."

The painting is apparently of the first part of the seventeenth century.
The ordinary books of reference do not contain the painter's name.

The same legend as that contained in this inscription, though with fuller
details, is given by the brothers Grimm, in their collection of _Deutsche
Sagen_, No. 541. vol. ii. p. 317., from two Oldenburg chronicles. According
to this version Otto was Count of Oldenburg in the year 990 or 967. [The
chronicles appear to differ as to his date: the inscription of the Combe
Abbey picture furnishes a third date.] Being a good hunter, and fond of
hunting, he went, on the 20th of July, in this year, attended by his nobles
and servants, to hunt in the forest of Bernefeuer. Here he found a deer,
and chased it alone from this wood to Mount Osen: but in the pursuit he
left his companions and even his dogs behind; and he stood alone, on his
white horse, in the middle of the mountain. Being now exhausted by the
great heat, he exclaimed: "Would to God that some one had a draught of cold
water!" As soon as the count had uttered these words, the mountain opened,
and from the {418} chasm there came a beautiful damsel, dressed in fine
clothes, with her hair divided over her shoulders, and a wreath of flowers
on her head. In her hand she held a precious silver-gilt hunting-horn,
filled with some liquid; which she offered to the count, in order that he
might drink. The count took the horn, and examined the liquid, but declined
to drink it. Whereupon the damsel said: "My dear lord, drink it upon my
assurance; for it will do you no harm, but will tend to your good." She
added that, if he would drink, he and his family, and all his descendants,
and the whole territory of Oldenburg, would prosper: but that, if he
refused, there would be discord in the race of the Counts of Oldenburg. The
count, as was natural, mistrusted her assurances, and feared to drink out
of the horn: however, he retained it in his hand, and swung it behind his
back. While it was in this position some of the liquid escaped; and where
it fell on the back of the white horse, it took off the hair. When the
damsel saw this, she asked him to restore the horn; but the count, with the
horn in his hand, hastened away from the mountain, and, on looking back,
observed that the damsel had returned into the earth. The count, terrified
at the sight, spurred on his horse, and speedily rejoined his attendants:
he then recounted to them his adventure, and showed them the silver-gilt
horn, which he took with him to Oldenburg. And because this horn was
obtained in so wonderful a manner, it was kept as a precious relic by him
and all his successors in the reigning house of Oldenburg.

The editors state that richly decorated drinking-horn was formerly
preserved, with great care, in the family of Oldenburg; but that, at the
present time [1818], it is at Copenhagen.

The same story is related from Hamelmann's _Oldenburg Chronicle_, by
Büsching, in his _Volksagen_ (Leips. 1820), p. 380., who states that there
is a representation of the horn in p. 20. of the _Chronicle_, as well as in
the title-page of the first volume of the _Wunderhorn_.

Those who are accustomed to the interpretation of mythological fictions
will at once recognise in this story an explanatory legend, invented for
the purpose of giving an interest to a valuable drinking-horn, of ancient
work, which belonged to the Counts of Oldenburg. Had the story not started
from a basis of real fact, but had been pure fiction, the mountain-spirit
would probably have left, not _silver gilt_, but a _gold_ horn, with the
count. Moreover, the manner in which she suffers herself to be outwitted,
and her acquiescence in the loss of her horn, without exacting some
vengeance from the incredulous count, are not in the spirit of such
fictions, nor do they suit the malignant character which the legend itself
gives her. If the Oldenburg horn is still preserved at Copenhagen, its date
might doubtless be determined by the style of the work.

Mount Osen seems to have been a place which abounded in supernatural
beings. Some elves who came from this mountain to take fresh-brewed beer,
and left good, though unknown money, to pay for it, are mentioned in
another story in the _Deutsche Sagen_, (No.43. vol. i. p. 55.)


    [Having had an opportunity of inspecting a copy of Hamelmann's
    _Chronicle_, at present belonging to Mr. Quaritch, in which there is a
    very interesting engraving of the horn in question (which may possibly
    have been a Charter Horn), we are not disposed to pronounce it older
    than the latter end of the fifteenth century. If, however, it is still
    preserved at Copenhagen, some correspondent there will perhaps do us
    the favour to furnish us with a precise description of it, and with the
    various legends which are inscribed upon it.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


The affinity which exists between such of the vernacular languages of India
as are offshoots of the Sanscrit, as the Hindostanee, Mahratta, Guzeratee,
&c., and the Greek, Latin, German, and English languages, is now well known
to European scholars, more especially since the publication of the
researches of Vans Kennedy, Professor Bopp of Berlin, &c. Indeed, scarcely
a day passes in which the European resident in India may not recognise, in
his intercourse with the natives, many familiar words in all those
languages, clothed in an oriental dress. I am inclined also to think that
new light may be thrown upon some of the impracticable Greek particles by a
reference to the languages of the East; and without wishing to be
understood as laying down anything dogmatically in the present
communication, I hope, through the medium of your valuable publication, to
attract attention to this subject, and invite discussion on it. Taking, as
an illustration, the 233d line of the first book of the _Iliad_, where the
hero of the poem is violently abusing Agamemnon for depriving him of his
prize, the fair maid Briseis, he says,

  [Greek: "All' ek toi ereô, kai epi megan horkon homoumai."]

What is the meaning of [Greek: ek] in the above line? It is commonly
construed with [Greek: ereô], and translated, "I plainly tell thee--I
declare to thee;" [Greek: exereô], "I speak out--proclaim." But may it not
be identical with the Sanscrit _ek_, "one," a word, as most of your readers
are doubtless aware, in universal use throughout India, Persia, &c; the
rendering literally running thus:

  "But _one_ thing I tell thee," &c.

That this is the original sense of the line appears probable by comparing
it with line 297. of the {419} same book, where in the _second_ speech of
Achilles, that _impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer_, chieftain _again_
scolds "the king of men,"--

  "[Greek: Allo de toi ereô, sy d' ene phresì balleo sêsi.]"
      "And _another_ thing I tell thee."

This rendering receives additional confirmation by a comparison with the

  "[Greek: Touto de toi ereô.]"
      _Il._ iii. 177., and _Od._ vii. 243.
  "[Greek: Panta de toi ereô.]"
      _Od._ iv. 410., and x. 289.

In the last three lines [Greek: Allo], [Greek: Touto], and [Greek: Panta]
stand precisely in the same relation to [Greek: ereô] that [Greek: ek] does
in the first, [Greek: All'] merely taking the place of [Greek: de], for the
sake of versification.

  "But _one_ thing I tell thee.
  And _another_ thing I tell thee.
  But _this_ thing I tell thee.
  And _all_ things I tell thee."

It is not impossible that [Greek: exereô] may be a compound of [Greek: ek],
"one," and [Greek: ereô], "I speak." There is in the Hindostanee an
analogous form of expression, _Ek bat bolo_, "one word speak." This is
constantly used to denote, speaking plainly; to speak decidedly; one word
only; no display of unnecessary verbiage to conceal thought; no humbug; I
tell thee plainly; I speak solemnly--once for all; which is precisely the
meaning of [Greek: exereô] in all the passages where it occurs in Homer:
_e.g._ _Il._ i. 212. (where it is employed by Minerva in her solemn address
to Achilles); _Il._ viii. 286., _Od._ ix. 365. (where it is very
characteristically used), &c.

The word _ace_ (ace of spades, &c.) I suppose you will have no difficulty
in identifying with the Sanscrit _ek_ and the Greek [Greek: eis], the _c_
sometimes pronounced hard and sometimes soft. The Sanscrit _das_, the Greek
[Greek: dek-a], and the Latin _dec-em_, all signifying _ten_, on the same
principle, have been long identified.

J. SH.


       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. T. Jones in "NOTES AND QUERIES" (Vol. i., p. 39.), describing a copy of
_The Choise of Change_ in the Chetham Library, unhesitatingly ascribes its
authorship to the well-known satirist, Samuel Rowlands, whom he says,
"appears to have been a Welshman from his love of Triads." Mr. JONES'S
dictum, that the letters "S.R.," on the title-page "are the well-known
initials of Samuel Rowlands," may well, I think, be questioned. Great
caution should be used in these matters. Bibliographers and
catalogue-makers are constantly making confusion by assigning works, which
bear the initials only, to wrong authors.

_The Choise of Change_ may with much more probability be given to a very
different author. I have a copy of the edition of 1598 now before me, in
which the name is filled up, in a cotemporary hand, S[imon], R[obson]. And
I find in Lowndes' _Bibliographer's Manual_, that the work in question is
entered under the latter name. The compiler adds,--"This piece is by some
attributed to Dr. Simon Robson, Dean of Bristol in 1598; by others, most
probably erroneously, to Samuel Rowland." An examination of the biography
of Dr. Robson, who died in 1617, might tend to elucidate some particulars
concerning his claim to the authorship of this and several other works of
similar character.

Samuel Rowland's earliest publication is supposed to have been _The
Betraying of Christ_, &c., printed in 1598. If it can be proved that he has
any claim to _The Choise of Change_ (first printed in 1585), we make him an
author _thirteen_ years earlier. In the title-page of the latter, the
writer, whoever he was, is styled "Gent and Student in the Universitie of
Cambridge." This is a fact of some importance towards the elucidation of
authorship and has, I believe, escaped the notice of those writers who have
touched upon Samuel Rowland's scanty biography. But I can hardly conceive
that either of the publications above alluded to came from the same pen as
_Humours Ordinarie_, _Martin Mark-all_, _The Four Knaves_, and many others
of the same class, which are known to have been the productions of Samuel

Respecting Samuel Rowlands it may be regarded as extraordinary that no
account has been discovered; and though his pamphlets almost rival in
number those of Greene, Taylor, and Prynne, their prefaces--those fruitful
sources of information--throw no light upon the life or circumstances of
their author. The late Mr. Octavius Gilchrist considered that "Rowlands was
an ecclesiastic [?] by profession;" and, inferring his zeal in the pulpit
from his labours through the press, adds, "it should seem that he was an
active servant of the church." (See Fry's _Bibliographical Memoranda_, p.
257.) Sir Walter Scott (Preface to his reprint of _The Letting of Humours
Blood in the Head Vaine_) gives us a very different idea of the nature of
his calling. His words are:

    "Excepting that he lived and wrote, none of those industrious
    antiquaries have pointed out any particulars respecting Rowland[s]. It
    has been remarked that his muse is seldom found in the best company;
    and to have become so well acquainted with the bullies, drunkards,
    gamesters, and cheats, whom he describes, he must have frequented the
    haunts of dissipation in which such characters are to be found. But the
    humorous descriptions of low-life exhibited in his satires are more
    precious to antiquaries than more grave works, and those who make the
    manners of Shakspeare's {420} age the subject their study may better
    spare a better author than Samuel Rowlands."

    The opinions of both these writers are entitled to some respect, but
    they certainly looked upon two very different sides of the question.
    Gilchrist's conjecture that he was an ecclesiastic is quite untenable,
    and I am fully inclined to agree with Sir Walter Scott, that Rowlands'
    company was not of the most _select_ order, and that he must often have
    frequented those "haunts of dissipation" which he so well describes in
    those works which are the _known_ production of his muse.


       *       *       *       *       *


There is something curious in the etymology of the words "apricot,"
"peach," and "nectarine," and in their equivalents in several languages,
which may amuse your readers.

The apricot is an Armenian or Persian fruit, and was known to the Romans
later than the peach. It is spoken of by Pliny and by Martial.

Plin. N.H., lib. xv. c. 12.:

    "Post autumnum maturescunt Persica, æstate _præcocia_, intra xxx annos

Martial, lib. xiii. Epig. 46.:

  "Vilia maternis fueramus _præcoqua_ ramis,
    Nunc in adaptivis Persica care sumus."

Its only name was given from its ripening earlier than the peach.

The words used in Galen for the same fruit (evidently Græcised Latin), are
[Greek: prokokkia] and [Greek: prekokkia]. Elsewhere he says of this fruit,
[Greek: tautês ekleleiphthai to palaion onoma]. Dioscorides, with a nearer
approach to the Latin, calls apricots [Greek: praikokia.]

From _præcox_, though not immediately, _apricot_ seems to be derived.

Johnson, unable to account for the initial _a_, derives it from _apricus_.
The American lexicographer Webster gives, strangely enough _albus coccus_
as its derivation.

The progress of the word from west to east, and then from east to
south-west, and from thence northwards, and its various changes in that
progress, are rather strange.

One would have supposed that the Arabs, living near the region of which the
fruit was a native, might have either had a name of their own for it, or at
least have borrowed one from Armenia. But they apparently adopted a slight
variation of the Latin, [Greek: to palaion onoma], as Galen says, [Greek:

The Arabs called it [Arabic: brqwq] or, with the article, [Arabic:

The Spaniards must have had the fruit in Martial's time, but they do not
take the name immediately from the Latin, but through the Arabic, and call
it _albaricoque_. The Italians, again, copy the Spanish, not the Latin, and
call it _albicocco_. The French, from them, have _abricot_. The English,
though they take their word from the French, at first called it _abricock_,
then _apricock_ (restoring the _p_), and lastly, with the French
termination, _apricot_.

From _malum persicum_ was derived the German _Pfirsiche_, and _Pfirsche_,
whence come the French _pêche_, and our _peach_. But in this instance also,
the Spaniards follow the Arabic [Arabic: bryshan], or, with the article
[Arabic: albryshan], in their word _alberchigo_. The Arabic seems to be
derived from the Latin, and the Persians, though the fruit was their own,
give it the same name.

Johnson says that nectarine is French, but gives no authority. It certainly
is unknown to the French, who call the fruit either _pêche lisse_, or
_brugnon_. The Germans also call it _glatte Pfirsche_.

Can any of your readers inform me what is the Armenian word for _apricot_,
and whether there is any reason to believe that the Arabic words for
_apricot_ and _peach_, are of Armenian and Persian origin? If it is so, the
resemblance of the one to _præcox_, and of the other to _persicum_, will be
a curious coincidence, but hardly more curious than the resemblance of
[Greek: pascha] with [Greek: paschô] which led some of the earlier fathers,
who were not Hebraists, to derive [Greek: pascha] from [Greek: paschô].


       *       *       *       *       *


_Chaucer's Monument._--It may interest those of your readers who are
busying themselves in the praiseworthy endeavour to procure the means of
repairing Chaucer's Monument, especially Mr. Payne Collier, who has
furnished, in the November Number of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (p. 486.),
so curious an allusion from Warner's _Albion's England_, to

  "---- venerable Chaucer, lost
  Had not kind Brigham reared him cost,"

to know that there is evidence in Smith's _Life of Nollekens_, vol. i. p.
79., that remains of the painted figure of Chaucer were to be seen in
Nolleken's times. Smith reports a conversation between the artist and
Catlin, so many years the principal verger of the abbey, in which Catlin

    "Did you ever notice the remaining colours of the curious little figure
    which was painted on the tomb of Chaucer?"


    [We have heard one of the lay vicars of Westminster {421} Abbey, now
    deceased, say, that when he was a choir boy, some sixty-five or seventy
    years since, the figure of Chaucer might be made out by rubbing a wet
    finger over it.]

_Robert Herrick_ (Vol. i., p. 291.)--There is a little volume entitled
_Selections from the Hesperides and Works of the Rev. Robert Herrick_.
(_Antient_) _Vicar of Dean-Prior, Devon_. By the late Charles Short, Esq.,
F.R.S. and F.S.A., published by Murray in 1839. I believe it was recalled
or suppressed, and that copies are rare.


_Epitaph of a Wine Merchant._--The following is very beautiful, and well
deserves a Note. It is copied from an inscription in All Saints Church,

  "In Obitum Mri. Johannis Hammond Oenopolae Epitaphium.
  Spiritus ascendit generosi Nectaris astra,
    Juxta Altare Calix hic jacet ecce sacrum,
  Corporum [Greek: anastasei] cum fit Communia magna
    Unio tunc fuerit Nectaris et Calicis."


_Father Blackhal._--In the _Brief Narration of Services done to Three noble
Ladies by Gilbert Blackhal_ (Aberdeen, Spalding Club, 1844), the
autobiographer states (p. 43.) that, while at Brussels, he provided for his
necessities by saying mass "at Notre Dame _de bonne successe_, a chapel of
great devotion, so called from a statue of Our Lady, which was brought from
Aberdeen to Ostend," &c. It may be interesting to such of your readers as
are acquainted with this very amusing volume, to know that the statue is
still held in honour. A friend of mine (who had never heard of Blackhal)
told me, that being at Brussels on the eve of the Assumption (Aug. 14),
1847, he saw announcements that the _Aberdeen_ image would be carried in
procession on the approaching festival. He was obliged, however, to leave
Brussels without witnessing the exhibition.

As to Blackhal himself, _The Catholic Annual Register_ for the present year
(p. 207.) supplies two facts which were not known to his editor--that he
was at last principal of the Scots College at Paris, and that he died July
1. 1671.


_The Nonjurors_ (Vol. ii., p. 354.).--May I take the liberty of suggesting
to MR. YEOWELL that his interesting paper on "The Oratories of the
Nonjurors," would have been far more valuable if he had given the
authorities for his statements.


_Booksellers' Catalogues._--Allow me to suggest the propriety and utility
of stating the weight or cost of postage to second-hand and other books. It
would be a great convenience to many country book-buyers to know the entire
cost, carriage-free, of the volumes they require, but have never seen.


_Bailie Nicol Jarvie._--Lockhart, in his _Life of Scott_, speaking of the
first representation of _Rob Roy_ on the Edinburgh boards, observes--

    "The great and unrivalled attraction was the personification of Bailie
    Jarvie by Charles Mackay, who, being himself a native of Glasgow,
    entered into the minutest peculiarities of the character with high
    _gusto_, and gave the west country dialect in its most racy

But in the sweetest cup of praise, there is generally one small drop of
bitterness. The drop, in honest Mackay's case, is that by calling him a
"native of Glasgow," and, therefore, "to the manner born," he is, by
implication, deprived of the credit of speaking the "foreign tongue" like a
native. So after wearing his laurels for a quarter of a century with this
one withered leaf in them, he has plucked it off, and by a formal affidavit
sworn before an Edinburgh bailie, the Glasgow bailie has put it on record
that he is really by birth "one of the same class whom King Jamie
denominated a real Edinburgh Gutter-Bluid." If there is something droll in
the notion of such an affidavit, there is, assuredly, something to move our
respect in the earnestness and love of truth which led the bailie to make
it, and to prove him a good honest man, as we have no doubt, "his father,
the deacon, was before him."


_Camels in Gaul._--The use of camels by the Franks in Gaul is more than
once referred to by the chroniclers. In the year 585, the treasures of
Mummolus and the friends of Gondovald were carried from Bordeaux to
Convennes on camels. The troops of Gontran who were pursuing them--

    "invenerunt _camelos_ cum ingenti pondere auri atque argenti, sive
    equos quos fessos per vias reliquerat"--_Greg. Turon._, l. vii. c. 35.

And after Brunichild had fallen into the hands of Chlotair, she was, before
her death, conducted through the army on a camel:--

    "Jubetque eam _camelum_ per omnem exercitum sedentem
    perducere."--_Fredegarius_, c. 42.

By what people were camels first brought into Gaul? By the Romans; by the
Visigoths; or by the Franks themselves?


       *       *       *       *       *



(_Continued from page 325._)

(13.) Is it not a grievous and calumnious charge against the principal
libraries of England, Germany, and France, that not one of them contains a
copy of the _Florentine Pandects_, in three folio {422} volumes,
"magnifice, ac pereleganter, perque accurate impressis," as Fabricius
speaks? (_Bibl. Græc._ xii: 363.) This statement, which may be but a libel,
is found in Tilgner (_Nov. lib. rar. Collect._ Fascic. iv. 710.), Schelhorn
(_Amæn. Lit._ iii. 428.), Vogt (_Catal._ p. 562. Hamb. 1738), and Solger
(_Biblioth._ i 163.). According to the last writer, the edition in
question, Florent. 1553, (for a fac-simile of the letters of the original
MS. see Mabillon's _Iter Italicum_, p. 183.) is,--"splendidissima, et
stupendæ raritatis, quæ in tanta est apud Eruditos æstimatione ut pro 100
Imperialibus sæpius divendita fuerit." Would that the race of such
purchasers was not extinct! In Gibbon's notice of this impression (_Decline
and Fall_, iv. 197. ed. Milman), there are two mistakes. He calls the
editor "Taurellus" instead of _Taurellius_; and makes the date "1551", when
it should have been 1553. These errors, however, are scarcely surprising in
a sentence in which Antonius Augustinus is named "Antoninus." The
Archbishop of Tarragona had received a still more exalted title in p. 193.,
for there he was styled "Antoninus Augustus." Are these the author's
faults, or are they merely editorial embellishments?

(14.) In what year was the improved woodcut of the _Prelum Ascensianum_
used for the first time? And has it been observed that the small and
separated figures incised on the legs of this _insigne_ of Jodocus Badius
may sometimes be taken as a safe guide with reference to the exact date of
the works in which this mark appears? As an argument serving to justify the
occasional adoption of this criterion I would adduce the fact, that the
earliest edition of Budæus _De Contemptu Rerum fortuitarum_ is believed to
have been printed in 1520 (Greswell's _Parisian Greek Press_, i. 39.), and
this year is accordingly visible in the title-page on the print of the
_Prelum Ascensianum_. That recourse must, however, be had with caution to
this method of discovering a date, is manifest; from the circumstance, that
1521, or perhaps I should say an injured 1520, appears on the Badian Device
in the third impression of the same treatise (the second with the
_expositio_), though it was set forth "postridie Cal. April 1528."

(15.) Is it owing to the extreme rarity of copies of the first edition of
the Pagninian version of the Scriptures that so many writers are perplexed
and ignorant concerning it? One might have expected that such a very
remarkable impression in all respects would have been so well known to
Bishop Walton, that he could not have asserted (_Proleg._ v.) that it was
published in 1523; and the same hallucination is perceptible in the
_Elenchus Scriptorum_ by Crowe (p. 4.) It is certain that Pope Leo X.
directed that Pagnini's translation should be printed at his expense
(Roscoe, ii. 282.), and the Diploma of Adrian VI. is dated "die, xj. Maij.
M.D.XXIII.," but the labours of the eminent Dominican were not put forth
until the 29th of January, 1527. This is the date in the colophon; and
though "1528" is obvious on the title-page, the apparent variation may be
accounted for by remembering the several ways of marking the commencement
of the year. (_Le Long_, by Masch, ii. 475.; _Chronol. of Hist._, by Sir H.
Nicolas, p. 40.) Chevillier informs us (_Orig. de l'Imp._ p. 143.) that the
earliest Latin Bible, in which he had seen the verses distinguished by
ciphers, was that of Robert Stephens in 1557. Clement (_Biblioth._ iv.
147.) takes notice of an impression issued two years previously; and these
bibliographers have been followed by Greswell (_Paris. G. P._ i. 342.
390.). Were they all unacquainted with the antecedent exertions of Sante
Pagnini (See Pettigrew's _Bibl. Sussex._ p. 388.)

(16.) Why should Panzer have thought that the true date of the _editio
princeps_ of Gregorius Turonensis and Ado Viennensis, comprised in the same
small folio volume, was 1516? (Greswell, i. 35.) If he had said 1522, he
might have had the assistance of a misprint in the colophon, in which
"M.D.XXII." was inserted instead of M.D.XII.; but the royal privilege for
the book is dated, "le douziesme iour de mars lan _milcinqcens et onze_,"
and the dedication of the works by Badius to Guil. Parvus ends with "Ad.
XII Kalendas Decemb. Anni huius M.D.XII."

(17.) Who was the author of _Peniteas cito_? And is it not evident that the
impression at Cologne by Martinus de Werdena, in 1511, is considerably
later than that which is adorned on the title-page with a different
woodcut, and which exhibits the following words proceeding from the
teacher: "Accipies tanti doctoris dogmata sancta?"


       *       *       *       *       *


On what evidence does the statement rest, that the Earl of Mulgrave was the
author of the _Essay upon Satire_, and that Dryden merely corrected and
polished it? As at present advised, I have considerable doubt upon the
point: and although, in modern editions of Dryden's _Works_, I find it
headed _An Essay upon Satire, written by Mr. Dryden and the Earl of
Mulgrave_, yet in the _State Poems_, vol. i. p. 179., originally printed in
the lifetime of Dryden, it is attributed solely to him--"_An Essay upon
Satyr._ By J. Dryden, Esq." This gets rid of the assertion in the note of
"D.," in the Aldine edition of Dryden (i. 105.), that "the Earl of
Mulgrave's name has been _always_ joined with Dryden's, as concerned in the
composition." Was it not first published without notice that any other
person was concerned in it but Dryden?

The internal evidence, too, is strong that Dryden was the author of it. I
do not here refer to the {423} free, flexible, and idiomatic character of
the versification, so exactly like that of Dryden; but principally to the
description the _Essay upon Satire_ contains of the Earl of Mulgrave
himself, beginning,

  "Mulgrave had much ado to scape the snare,
  Though learn'd in those ill arts that cheat the fair;
  For, after all, his vulgar marriage mocks,
  With beauty dazzled Numps was in the stocks;"

And ending:

  "Him no soft thoughts, no gratitude could move;
  To gold he fled, from beauty and from love," &c.

Could Mulgrave have so written of himself; or could he have allowed Dryden
to interpolate the character. Earlier in the poem we meet with a
description of Shaftesbury, which cannot fail to call to mind Dryden's
character of him in _Absalom and Achitophel_; which, as we know, did not
make its appearance, even in its first shape, until two years after Dryden
was cudgelled in Rose Street as _the author_ of the _Essay upon Satire_.
Everybody bears in mind the triplet,

  "A fiery soul, which working out its way,
  Fretted his pigmy body to decay,
  And o'er-inform'd the tenement of clay;"

And what does Dryden (for it must be he who writes) say of Shaftesbury in
the _Essay upon Satire_?

  "As by our little Machiavel we find,
  That nimblest creature of the busy kind:
  His limbs are crippled, and his body shakes,
  Yet his hard mind, which all this bustle makes,
  No pity on its poor companion takes."

If Mulgrave wrote these lines, and Dryden only corrected them, Dryden was
at all events indebted to Mulgrave for the thought of the inequality, and
disproportion between the mind and body of Shaftesbury. Moreover, we know
that Pope expunged the assertion subsequently made, that Dryden had been
"punished" (not _beaten_, as "D." quotes the passage) "for another's
rhimes," when he was bastinadoed, in 1679, at the instigation of Rochester,
for the character of him in the _Essay upon Satire_.

It might suit Mulgrave's purpose afterwards to claim a share in this
production; but the evidence, as far as I am acquainted with it, seems all
against it. There may be much evidence on the point with which I am not
acquainted, and perhaps some of your readers will be so good as to point it
out to me. The question is one that I am, at this moment, especially
interested in.


       *       *       *       *       *


_Æneas Silvius (Pope Pius II.)._--A broadsheet was published in 1461,
containing the excommunication and dethronement of the Archbishop and
Elector Dietrich of Mayence, issued and styled in the most formidable terms
by _Pius II._ This broadsheet, consisting of eighteen lines, and printed on
one side only, appears from the uniformity of its type with the _Rationale_
of 1459, to be the product of _Fust_ and _Schöffer_.

No mention whatever is made of this typographical curiosity in any of the
standard bibliographical manuals, from which it seems, that this broadsheet
is UNIQUE. Can any information, throwing light upon this subject, be given?


November, 1850.

"_Please the Pigs_" is a phrase too vulgarly common not to be well known to
your readers. But whence has it arisen? Either in "NOTES AND QUERIES," or
elsewhere, it has been explained as a corruption of "Please the _pix_."
Will you allow another suggestion? I think it possible that the pigs of the
Gergesenes (Matthew viii. 28. _et seq._) may be those appealed to, and that
the invocation may be of somewhat impious meaning. John Bradford, the
martyr of 1555, has within a few consecutive pages of his writings the
following expressions:

    "And so by this means, as they save their pigs, which they would not
    lose, (I mean their worldly pelf), so they would please the
    Protestants, and be counted with them for gospellers, yea, marry, would
    they."--_Writings of Bradford_, Parker Society ed., p.390.


    "Now are they willing to drink of God's cup of afflictions, which He
    offereth common with His son Christ our Lord, lest they should love
    their pigs with the Gergenites." p. 409.


    "This is a hard sermon: 'Who is able to abide it?' Therefore, Christ
    must be prayed to depart, lest all their pigs be drowned. The devil
    shall have his dwelling again in themselves, rather than in their
    pigs." p. 409.

These, and similar expressions in the same writer, without reference to any
text upon the subject, seem to show, that men loving their pigs more than
God, was a theological phrase of the day, descriptive of their too great
worldliness. Hence, just as St. Paul said, "if the Lord will," or as we
say, "please God," or, as it is sometimes written, "D.V.," worldly men
would exclaim, "please the pigs," and thereby mean that, provided it suited
their present interest, they would do this or that thing.



    [We subjoin the following Query, as one so closely connected with the
    foregoing, that the explanation of the one will probably clear up the
    obscurity in which the other is involved.]

{424} _To save One's Bacon._--Can you or any of your correspondents inform
me of the origin of the common saying, "He's just saved his bacon?" It has
puzzled me considerably, and I really can form no conjecture why "bacon"
should be the article "saved."


_Arabic Numerals._--I should be glad to know something about the projected
work of Brugsh, Berlin, referred to in Vol. ii., p. 294.,--its size and


_Cardinal._--"_Never did Cardinal bring good to England._"--We read in Dr.
Ligard's _History_ (vol. iv. p. 527.), on the authority of Cavendish, that
when the Cardinals Campeggio and Wolsey adjourned the inquiry into the
legality of Henry VIII.'s marriage with Catharine of Arragon, "the Duke of
Suffolk, striking the table, exclaimed with vehemence, that the 'old saw'
was now verified,--'Never did Cardinal bring good to England.'" I should be
glad to know if this saying is to be met with elsewhere, and what gave rise
to it?


"_By the bye," &c._--What is the etymology of the phrases "by the bye," "by
and by," and such like?


_Poisons._--Our ancestors believed in the existence of poisons made so
artfully that they did not operate till several years after they were
administered. I should be greatly obliged by any information on this
subject obtained from English books published previously to 1600.


_Cabalistic Author._--Who was the author of a chemical and cabalistical
work, not noticed by Lowndes, entitled:

    "A philosophicall epitaph in hierogliphicall figures. A briefe of the
    golden calf (the world's idol). The golden ass well managed, and Midas
    restored to reason. Written by J. Rod, Glauber, and Jehior, the three
    principles or originall of all things. Published by W.C., Esquire, 8vo.
    Lond. Printed for William Cooper, at the Pellican, in Little Britain,

With a long catalogue of chemical books, in three parts, at the end. My
copy has two titles, the first being an engraved one, with ten small
circles round it, containing hieroglyphical figures, and an engraved
frontispiece, which is repeated in the volume, with some other cuts. There
are two dedications, one to Robert Boyle, Esq., and the other to Elias
Ashmole, Esq.; both signed "W.C. or twice five hundred," which signature is
repeated in other parts of the book. What is the meaning of "W.C. or twice
five hundred"?

T. CR.

_Brandon the Juggler._--Where is any information to be obtained of Brandon
the Juggler, who lived in the reign of King Henry VIII.?

T. CR.

_Jacobus Præfectus Siculus._--I have a beautiful copy of a poem by this
person, entitled _De Verbo DEI Cantica_. The binding expresses its date:
"Neapoli, 1537." It is not, I believe, the work which suggested to Milton
his greater songs, though it is a pretty complete outline of the _Paradise
Lost_ and _Regained_/ What is known about the author, or any other works of


_The Word "after" in the Rubric--Canons of 1604._--

1. Can any of your correspondents who may have in their possession any old
Greek, or Latin, or other versions, of the Book of Common Prayer, kindly
inform me how the word _after_ is rendered in the rubrics of the General
Confession, the Lord's Prayer in the Post Communion, and the last prayer of
the Commination Service? Is it in the sense of _post_ or _secundum_?

2. Where can any account of the translation of the Canons of 1604 into
English be found? It is apprehended the question is one more difficult to
answer than might be supposed.


_Hard by._--Is not _hard by_ a corruption of the German _hierbei_? I know
no other similar instance of the word _hard_, that is to say, as signifying
_proximity_, without the conjoint idea of _pressure_ or _pursuit._


_Thomas Rogers of Horninger._--Can any of the readers of your valuable
publication give me, or put me in the way of obtaining, any information
about one Thomas Rogers, who was in some way connected with the village of
Horninger or Horringer, near Bury St. Edmunds, was author of a work on the
Thirty-nine Articles, and died in the year 1616?


Corpus Christi Col., Cambridge.

_Armorial Bearings._--Three barrulets charged with six church bells, three,
two, and one, is a shield occurring in the Speke Chauntry, in Exeter
Cathedral. Can this coat be assigned?


_Lady Compton's Letter to her Husband._--In Bishop Goodman's _Court of King
James I.,_ edited by John S. Brewer, M.A. (vol. ii. p. 127..), is a letter
from Lady Compton to her husband, William Lord Compton, afterwards Earl of
Northampton, written upon occasion of his coming into possession of a large
fortune. This letter, with some important variations, is also given in
Knight's _London_ (vol. i. p. 324.), and, if my memory does not deceive me,
in Hewitt's _Visits to Remarkable Places_. This letter is very curious, but
I can hardly think it genuine. Can any of your correspondents throw any
light on the matter? Was it printed before 1839, when Mr. Brewer's work
appeared? Where is the original, or supposed original, to be seen? Above
all, is it authentic? If not, is it known when, and by {425} whom, and
under what circumstances it was written?


Cambridge, November 15. 1850.

_Romagnasi's Works._--In a "Life of G.D. Romagnasi," in vol. xviii. _Law
Mag._, p. 340., after enumerating several of his works, it is added, "All
these are comprised in a single volume, Florentine edit. of 1835." I have
in vain endeavoured to procure the work, and have recently received an
answer from the first book establishment in Florence, to the effect that no
such edition ever appeared either at Florence or elsewhere.

This is strange after the explicit statement in the _Law Mag._, and I shall
be obliged to receive through the medium of your useful pages any
information regarding the work in question.


_Christopher Barker's Device._--I have often been puzzled to understand the
precise meaning of the inscription on Christopher Barker's device. Whether
this arises from my own ignorance, or from any essential difficulty in it,
I cannot tell; but I should be glad of an explanation. I copy from a folio
edition of the Geneva Bible, "imprinted at London by Christopher Barker,
printer to the Queene's Majesty, 1578."

The device consists of a boar's head rising from a mural crown, with a
scroll proceeding from its mouth, and embracing a lamb in the lowest fold.
The inscription on this scroll is as follows:--

  "Tigre  .  Reo.
  Animale  .  Del.
  Adam  .  Vecchio.
  Figliuolo  .  Merce.
  L'Evangelio  .  Fatto.
  N'Estat  .  Agnello."

I venture my own solution:--The tiger, the wicked animal, of the old Adam,
being made, thanks to the Gospel, a son, is hence become a lamb."

I presume _N'Estat_ to be an abbreviation of "ne è stato." Any correction
or illustration of this will oblige.


Bingham's Melcombe, Blandford.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., p.359.)

On the 12th November, 5 & 6 Philip and Mary, 1558, a bill "That no man
shall print any book or ballad, &c., unless he be authorized thereunto by
the king and queen's majesties licence, under the Great Seal of Englande,"
was read for the first time in the House of Lords, where it was read again
a second time on the 14th. On the 16th it was read for the third time, but
it did not pass, and probably never reached the Commons; for Queen Mary
died on the following day, and thereby the Parliament was dissolved.
(_Lords' Journal_, i. 539, 540.) Queen Elizabeth, however did by her high
prerogative what her sister had sought to effect by legislative sanction.
In the first year of her reign, 1559, she issued injunctions concerning
both the clergy and the laity: the 51st Injunction was in the following

    "Item, because there is great abuse in the printers of books, which for
    covetousness chiefly regard not what they print, so they may have gain,
    whereby ariseth the great disorder by publication of unfruitful, vain,
    and infamous books and papers; the queen's majesty straitly chargeth
    and commandeth, that no manner of person shall print any manner of book
    or paper, of what sort, nature, or in what language soever it be,
    except the same be first licensed by Her Majesty by express words in
    writing, or by six of her privy council; or be perused and licensed by
    the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishop of London, the
    chancellors of both universities, the bishop being ordinary, and the
    archdeacon also of the place, where any such shall be printed, or by
    two of them, whereof the ordinary of the place to be always one. And
    that the names of such, as shall allow the same, to be added in the end
    of every such work, for a testimony of the allowance thereof. And
    because many pamphlets, plays, and ballads be oftentimes printed,
    wherein regard would be had that nothing therein should be either
    heretical, seditious, or unseemly for Christian ears; Her Majesty
    likewise commandeth that no manner of person shall enterprise to print
    any such, except the same be to him licensed by such Her Majesty's
    commissioners, or three of them, as be appointed in the city of London
    to hear and determine divers clauses ecclesiastical, tending to the
    execution of certain statutes made the last parliament for uniformity
    of order in religion. And if any shall sell or utter any manner of
    books or papers, being not licensed as is abovesaid, that the same
    party shall be punished by order of the said commissioners, as to the
    quality of the fault shall be thought meet. And touching all other
    books of matters of religion, or policy, or governance, that have been
    printed, either on this side the seas, or on the other side, because
    the diversity of them is great, and that there needeth good
    consideration to be had of the particularities thereof, Her Majesty
    referreth the prohibition or permission thereof to the order, which her
    said commissioners within the city of London shall take and notify.
    According to the which, Her Majesty straitly chargeth and commandeth
    all manner her subjects, and especially the wardens and company of
    stationers, to be obedient.

    "Provided that these orders do not extend to any profane authors and
    works in any language, that have been heretofore commonly received or
    allowed in any of the universities or schools, but the same may be
    printed, and used as by good order they were accustomed."--Cardswell's
    _Documentary Annals_, i. 229.

This injunction was, I take it, the origin of the licensing of the press of
this country. On the 23d June, 28 Eliz. 1586 (not 1585, as in Strype),
{426} Archbishop Whitgift and the Lords of the Privy Council in the Star
Chamber made rules and ordinances for redressing abuses in printing. No
printing-press was to be allowed elsewhere than in London (except one in
each University); and no book was to be printed until first seen and
perused by the Archbishop of Canterbury or Bishop of London; with an
exception in favour of the queen's printer, and books of the common law,
which were to be allowed by the Chief Justices and Chief Baron, or one of
them. Extensive and arbitrary powers of search for unlicensed books and
presses were also given to the wardens of the Stationers' Company.
(Strype's _Life of Archbishop Whitgift_, 222.; Records, No.XXIV.) On the
1st July, 1637, another decree of a similar character was made by the Court
of Star Chamber. (Rushworth's _Historical Collections_, Part ii. p.450.)
The Long Parliament, although it dissolved the Star Chamber, seems to have
had no more enlightened views as respects the freedom of the press than
Queen Elizabeth or the Archbishops Whitgift and Laud; for on the 14th June,
1643, the two Houses made an ordinance prohibiting the printing of any
order or declaration of either House, without order of one or both Houses;
or the printing or sale of any book, pamphlet, or paper, unless the same
were approved and licensed under the hands of such persons as both or
either House should appoint for licensing the same. (_Parliamentary
History_, xii. 298.) The names of the licensers appointed are given in
Neal's _History of the Puritans_ (ed. 1837, ii. 205.). It was this
ordinance which occasioned the publication, in or about 1644, of Milton's
most noble defence of the liberty of the press, entitled _Areopagitica; a
Speech for the Liberty of unlicensed Printing, To the Parliament of
England_. After setting out certain Italian imprimaturs, he remarks:

    "These are the pretty responsories, these are the dear antiphonies that
    so bewitched of late our prelates and their chaplains with the godly
    echo they made and besotted, as to the gay imitation of a lordly
    imprimatur, one from Lambeth House, another from the west end of
    Paul's; so apishly romanising, that the word of command still was set
    down in Latin, as if the learned grammatical pen that wrote it would
    cast no ink without Latin; or, perhaps, as they thought, because no
    vulgar tongue was worthy to express the pure conceit of an imprimatur;
    but rather, as I hope, for that our English, the language of men ever
    famous and foremost in the achievements of liberty, will not easily
    find servile letters enow to spell such a dictatory presumption

On the 28th September, 1647, the Lords and Commons passed a still more
severe ordinance, which imposed pains and penalties on all persons
printing, publishing, selling, or uttering any book, pamphlet, treatise,
ballad, libel, or sheet of news, without the licence of both, or either
House of Parliament, or such persons as should be thereunto authorised by
one or both Houses. Offending hawkers, pedlars, and ballad-chappers were to
be whipped as common rogues. (_Parliamentary History_, xvi. 309.) We get
some insight into the probable cause of this ordinance from a letter of Sir
Thomas Fairfax to the Earl of Manchester, dated "Putney, 20th Sept., 1647."
He complains of some printed pamphlets, very scandalous and abusive, to the
army in particular, and the whole kingdom in general; and expresses his
desire that these, and all of the like nature, might be suppressed for the
future. In order, however, to satisfy the kingdom's expectation for
intelligence, he advises that, till a firm peace be settled, two or three
sheets might be permitted to come out weekly, which might be licensed; and
as Mr. Mabbott had approved himself faithful in that service of licensing,
and likewise in the service of the House and the army, he requested that he
might be continued in the said place of licenser. (_Lords' Journals_, ix.
457.) Gilbert Mabbott was accordingly appointed licenser of such weekly
papers as should be printed, but resigned the situation 22nd May, 1649.
(_Commons' Journals_, vi. 214.) It seems he had conscientious objections to
the service, for elsewhere it is recorded, under the same date, "Upon Mr.
Mabbott's desire and reasons against licensing of books to be printed, he
was discharged of that imployment." (Whitelock's _Memorials_, 389.) On the
20th September, 1649, was passed a parliamentary ordinance prohibiting
printing elsewhere than in London, the two Universities, York, and
Finsbury, without the licence of the Council of State (Scobell's
_Ordinances_, Part ii. 90.); and on the 7th January, 1652-3, the Parliament
passed another ordinance for the suppression of unlicensed and scandalous
books. (Scobell's _Ordinances_, Part ii. 231.) In 1661 a bill for the
regulation of printing passed the Lords, but was rejected by the Commons on
account of the peers having inserted a clause exempting their own houses
from search; but in 1662 was passed the statute 13 & 14 Car. II. c. 33.,
which required all books to be licensed as follows:--Law books by the Lord
Chancellor, or one of the Chief Justices, or Chief Baron; books of history
and state, by one of the Secretaries of State; of heraldry, by the Earl
Marshal, or the King-at-Arms; of divinity, physic, philosophy, or
whatsoever other science or art, by the Archbishop of Canterbury or the
Bishop of London: or if printed at either University, by the chancellor
thereof. The number of master printers (exclusive of the king's printers
and the printers of the Universities) was to be reduced to twenty, and then
vacancies were to be filled up by the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop
of London, and printing was not to be allowed elsewhere than in London,
York (where the Archbishop of York was to license all books), {427} and the
two Universities. This Act was to continue for two years, from 10th June,
1662. It was renewed by the 16 Car. II. c. 8.; 16 & 17 Car. II. c. 7.; and
17 Car. II. c. 4., and expired on the 26th May, 1679,--a day rendered ever
memorable by the passing of the Habeas Corpus Act: but in less than a year
afterwards the judges unanimously advised the king that he might by law
prohibit the printing and publishing of all news-books and pamphlets of
news not licensed by His Majesty's authority; and accordingly on the 17th
May, 1680, appeared in the _Gazette_ a proclamation restraining the
printing of such books and pamphlets without license. The Act of 1662 was
revived for seven years, from 24th June, 1685, by 1 Jac. II. c. 17. s. 15.,
and, even after the Revolution, was continued for a year longer by 4 & 5
Wm. and Mary, c. 24. s. 14. When that year expired, the press of England
became free; but on the 1st of April, 1697, the House of Commons, after
passing a vote against John Salusbury, printer of the _Flying Post_, for a
paragraph inserted in that journal tending to destroy the credit and
currency of Exchequer Bills, ordered that leave should be given to bring in
a bill to prevent the writing, printing, and publishing any news without
licence. Mr. Poultney accordingly presented such a bill on the 3rd of
April. It was read a first time; but a motion to read it a second time was
negatived. (_Commons' Journals_, xi. 765. 767.) This attempt again to
shackle the press seems to have occasioned

    "A Letter to a Member of Parliament showing that a restraint on the
    Press is inconsistent with the Protestant Religion and dangerous to the
    Liberties of the Nation." Printed 1697, and reprinted in Cobbett's
    _Parliamentary History_, v. App. p. cxxx.


Cambridge, October 29. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 243. 281.)

To the information which has recently been furnished in your pages
respecting the remains of James II., it may be not uninteresting to add the
inscription which is on his monument in the church of St. Germain-en-Laye,
and which I copied, on occasion of my last visit to France.

The body of the king, or a considerable portion of it, which had remained
unburied, was, I believe, interred at St. Germain soon after the
termination of the war in 1814; but it being necessary to rebuild the
church, the remains were exhumed and re-interred in 1824. Vicissitudes as
strange in death as in life seem to have attended this unhappy king.

The following is the inscription _now_ on his monument in the parish church
of St. Germain:


  "Ferale quisquis hoc monumentum suspicis
      Rerum humanarum vices meditare
  Magnus in prosperis in adversis major
        Jacobus 2. Anglorum Rex.
  Insignes ærumnas dolendaque nimium fata
        Pio placidoque obitu exsolvit
              in hac urbe
       Die 16. Septemb. anni 1701.
  Et nobiliores quædam corporis ejus partes
        Hic reconditæ asservantur."

       *       *       *       *       *

  Qui prius augustâ gestabat fronte coronam
  Exiguâ nunc pulvereus requiescit in urnâ
  Quid solium--quid et alta juvant! terit omnia lethum,
  Verum laus fidei ac morum haud peritura manebit
  Tu quoque summe Deus regem quem regius hospes
  Infaustum excepit tecum regnare jubebis."

But a different inscription formerly was placed over the king's remains in
this church, which has now disappeared; at all events, I could not discover
it; and I suppose that the foregoing was preferred and substituted for
that, a copy of which I subjoin:

    "D.O.M. Jussu Georgii IV. Magnæ Britanniæ &c., Regis, et curante Equite
    exc. Carolo Stuart Regis Britanniæ Legato, cæteris antea rite peractis
    et quo decet honore in stirpem Regiam hic nuper effossæ reconditæ sunt
    Reliquiæ Jacobi II., qui in secundo civitatis gradu clarus triumphis in
    primo infelicior, post varios fortunæ casus in spem melioris vitæ et
    beatæ resurrectionis hic quievit in Domino, anno MDCCI, v. idus
    Septemb., MDCCCXXIV."

At the foot of the monument were the words--

  "Depouilles mortelles de Jacques 2. Roi d'Angleterre."

A third monumental inscription to the memory of James II., in Latin, is to
be seen in the chapel of the Scotch College in Paris. This memorial was
erected in 1703, by James, Duke of Perth. An urn, containing the brains of
the king, formerly stood on the top of it. A copy of this inscription is
preserved in the _Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica_, vol. vii.


Bristol, November 8. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *


My transplantation from Gloucester to Devonshire, and the consequent
unapproachable state of my books, prevents my referring to authorities at
the moment in support of what I have said about the arms of Judge Cradock
_alias_ Newton: still I wish to notice the subject at once that I may not
appear to shrink from the Query of S.A.Y. (Vol. ii., p. 371.)

I happen to have at hand a copy of the Grant {428} of Arms to Sir John of
East Harptree, Somerset, in 1567 in which, on the authority of the heralds
of the day, arg. on a chevron az. 3 garbs or, are granted to him in the
first quarter as the arms of Robert Cradock _alias_ Newton. The Judge seems
to have been the first of the family who dropped the name of Cradock. His
forefathers, for several generations (from Howel ap Grononye, who was Lord
of Newton, in Rouse or Trenewith, in Poursland), went by the name of Cradog
Dom. de Newton.

Robert Cradock, mentioned in the Grant I have quoted, married Margaret
Sherborne. He was the Judge's great-great-grandfather. Sir John Newton, to
whom the grant was made, lies buried at East Harptree; and on his tomb may
be seen (besides his effigies as large as life) the twelve quarterings in
their original (?) blazoning, impaled with those of his wife, one of the
Pointz family. The same arms (of Newton) are still discernible on a
beautifully wrought, though now much mutilated shield, over one of the
doors of Barres Court, at East Hanham, in Bitton, Gloucestershire, where
Newton also had a residence, where John Leland on his itinerary visited
him, and says (_Itin._ vol. vii. p. 87.) "his very propre name is Caradoc,"
&c. This property Newton inherited as a descendant from the De Bittons or
Button (through Hampton), a family of great note in their day, and
residents on the site of Barres Court, a "fayr manner place of stone,"
which evidently took its name from Sir John Barre, who married Joan, the
relict of Robert Greyndon, and daughter of Thomas Roug by Catherine, who
was the last heiress of that branch of De Bittons--(she died 1485, and is
buried with her first husband at Newlond). Of the same family were the
three bishops of that name, in the reigns of the early Edwards; one of
which, _Thomas_, Bishop of Exeter in 1299, was the pious founder of a
chantry chapel adjoining Bitton Church, over the bodies of his father and
another, who were buried there; the building itself is quite an
architectural gem. The said bishop must also have resided there, for in
1287, when Dean of Wells, the Lord of the Manor of that part of Bitton
where his estate lay, impounded some of his cattle, and had a trial thereon
at Gloucester, as appears by a Placite Roll of that date.

I send you a copy of the Grant of Arms, as it may be interesting, to
publish--besides, it is a reply to the latter part of S.A.Y.'s Query. It is
copied from the Ashmol. MSS. No. 834. p. 34.

Of the Newtons of Yorkshire I know nothing; but if S.A.Y. wishes to
question me further, I shall be happy to receive his communication under
his own proper sign-manual.

In Nichols' _Leicestershire_, vol. iv. pt. 2. p. 807., is a pedigree of
Cradock bearing the same arms, and it is there laid down that Howel ap
Gronow was slain by the French in 1096, and buried at Llandilo Vawr; also
that the Judge was called Newton from his birth-place. (It is in
Montgomeryshire, I believe.) Matthew Cradock, who lies in Swansea Church,
bore different arms.

    "To all and singular as well nobles and gentills as others to whom
    these presents shall come, we, Sir Gilbert Dethicke, knight, alias
    Garter, principall kinge of armes for the Order of the Garter, Robte.
    Cooke, alias Clarenciault, kinge of armes of the south, William Flower
    alias Norroy, kinge of armes of the northe, and all others the
    hereauldes of armes send humble commendacion and gretinge: that whereas
    we being required by Sir John Newton, of Richmond Castill, in the
    countie of Somersett, knight, to make serche for the ancient armes
    descendinge to him from his ancetors [sic], at whose requeste we, the
    said kinges and hereauldes of armes have not only made diligent serche
    in our regesters, but also therewithall perused diverse of his ancient
    evidence and other monumentes, whereuppon we doe fynd that the said Sir
    John Newton, knight, maye beare twelve severall cotes, that is to say,
    the armes of Robte. Cradocke alias Newton, the armes of Robte.
    Sherborne, the arms of Steven Angle, the armes of Steven Pirot, the
    armes of John Harvie, the armes of Sir John Sheder, knight, the armes
    of Richard Hampton, the armes of Sir John Bitton, knight, the armes of
    Sir Matthewe Ffurneault, knight, the armes of Walter Cawdecot, the
    armes of Sir Aunsell Corney, knight, and the armes of Sir Henry
    Harterie, knight. All which armes doth plainlie appere depicted in the
    Margent; and for that the said Sir John Newton is yncertaine of any
    creaste which he ought to beare by his owne proper name, he therefore
    hath also required vs, the said kings and hereauldes of armes, to
    assigne and confirme vnto him and his posteritie for ever, the creaste
    of Sir Auncell Corney, knight, which Sir Auncell Corney, as it doth
    appere by divers ancient evidence and other monuments of the said Sir
    John Newton, was at the winnynge of Acom with Kinge Richard the First,
    where he toke prisoner a kinge of the Mores: and farther, the said Sir
    John Newton, knight, hath made goode proofe for the bearinge of the
    same creaste, that the heires male of the said Sir Auncell Corney is
    extingueshed, and the heires generall do only remaine in him. In
    consideracion whereof wee, the said kinges and herehauldes of arms, do
    give, confirme, and grant vnto the said Sir John Newton and his
    posteritie for ever, the said creaste of Sir Auncell Corney, knight,
    that is to say, vppon his helme on a torce silver and asure, a kinge of
    the Mores armed in male, crowned gold, knelinge vpon his left knee
    rendring vppe his sworde, as more plainly aperith depicted in this
    Margent, to have and to horold the said creast to him and his
    posteretie, with there due difference to vse, beare, and show in
    shelde, cote armour, or otherwise, for ever, at his or their libertie
    and pleasure, without impediment, let, or interruption of any parson or
    parsons. In witnesse whereof we, the said hinges and hereauldes of
    arms, have caused these letters to be made patentes, and set herevnto
    our common seale of corporation, given at the office of arms in London,
    the twelvethe of December, and in the tenthe yeare of the reigne of our
    sovereign {429} ladie Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queene of England,
    France and Ireland, defender of the faithe," &c.


Clyst St George, Nov. 4. 1850.

_Cradock_--I should like to know whether the MSS. of Randle Holme, of
Chester, 1670, which afterwards were penes Dr. Latham, are still
accessible? Nichols refers to them as his authority for Cradock's pedigree,
as laid down in his _Leicestershire_ (vol. iv. part ii. p. 807.).


       *       *       *       *       *



I beg to encloze ðe following scraps, purposely written on slips, ðat ðe
one may be destroyed and not ðe oðer if you should þink fit so to do, and
for eaze ov printing.

Pleaze to respect my orþography--a _beginning_ to a better system--if you
can and will. Ðe types required will only be ðe Ð, ð, and Þ, þ, ov our
noble Anglo-Saxon moðer-tongue, letterz in common use almost down to ðe
time ov _Shakspeare_!

If you _will_ not be charmed, ov course you are at liberty to change it.

I have a large work in ðe press (translationz from ðe A.-Saxon) printed
entirely in ðis orþography.



    [Even our respect for Mr. Stephens' well-known scholarship, fails to
    remove our prejudices in favour of the ordinary system of orthography.]

_On a Passage in "The Tempest"_ (Vol. ii., pp. 259. 299. 337.).--Will you
allow me to suggest that the reading of the original edition is perfectly
correct as it stands, as will be seen by simply italicising the emphatic

  "_Most_ busie _least_, when I doe it."

The construction is thus merely an instance of a common ellipsis (here of
the word _busy_), and requires the comma after _least_. This is another
proof of the advantage of being slow to abandon primitive texts.


_Saint, Legend of a_ (Vol. ii., pp. 267.).--The circumstance alluded to is
perhaps that in the legend of _St. Patrick_. It was included by Voragine in
his life of that saint. See the "Golden Legend" in init.


_Cupid and Psyche_ (Vol. ii., pp. 247.).--This is probably an old
_Folk-tale_, originally perhaps an antique philosophical temple-allegory.
Apuleius appears only to have dressed it up in a new shape. The tale is
still current, but in a form _not_ derived from him, among the _Swedes_,
_Norwegians_, _Danes_, _Scots_, _Germans_, _French_, _Wallachians_,
_Italians_, and _Hindoos_. See _Svenska Folk-sagor och Afventyr, efter
muntlig Ofverlemning samlade och utgifna of G.O.H. Cavallius och G.
Stephens_, vol. i. (Stockholm, 1844-9), p. 323.


_Kongs Skuggsia_ (Vol. ii., pp 296. 335.).--This noble monument of Old
Norse literature was written at the close of the twelfth century by a
Norwegian of high rank, but who expresses his resolution to remain unknown,
in which he has perfectly succeeded. He probably resided near Trondhjem.
See, for other information, the preface to the last excellent edition
lately published by _Keyser_, _Munch_, and _Unger_, as follows:--

    "Speculum Regale Konungs-Skuggsjá Konge-Speilet et
    philosophisk-didaktisk Skrift, forfattet i Norge mod slutningen af det
    tolfte aarhundrede. Tilligemed et samtidigt Skrift om den norske kirkes
    Stilling til Statem. Med to lithographerede Blade
    Facsimile-Aftryck."--Christiana, 1848. 8vo.



_The disputed Passage in the "Tempest"_ (Vol. ii., pp. 259. 299. 337.).--I
am the "COMMA" which MR. COLLIER claims the merit of having removed, and I
humbly protest against the removal. I adhere to the reading of the folio of
1632, except that I would strike out the final _s_ in labours. The passage
would then read:

  "But these sweet thoughts so refresh my labour
  Most busy least, when I do it."

That is, the thoughts so refresh my labour, that I am "most busy least" (an
emphatic way of saying least busy), "when I do it," to wit, the labour. MR.
HICKSON is ingenious, but he takes no notice of--


_Viscount Castlecomer_ (Vol. ii., p. 376.).--S.A.Y. asks whether Lord
Deputy Wandesford (not Wanderforde) "ever took up this title, and what
became of it afterwards?" He never did; for on the receipt of the patent,
in the summer of 1640, Wandesford exclaimed, "Is this a time for a faithful
subject to be exalted, when his king, the fountain of honours, is likely to
be reduced lower than ever." A few months afterwards he died of a broken
heart. We are told that he concealed the patent, and his grandson was the
first of the family--apparently by a fresh creation in 1706--who assumed
the title. The neglect of sixty-six years, perhaps, rendered this
necessary: Beatson does not notice the first creation. The life of this
active and useful statesman, the friend and relative of Strafford, was
compiled from his daughter's papers, by his descendant, Thomas Comber,
LL.D. Of this work Dr. Whitaker availed himself in the very interesting
memoir which he has given of the Lord Deputy, in his _History of
Richmondshire_, written, as we may suppose it would be by so devoted {430}
an admirer of Charles I., with the warmest feelings of respect and

    "The death of my cousin Wandesford," said Lord Strafford, "more affects
    me than the prospect of my own; for in him is lost the richest magazine
    of learning, wisdom, and piety that these times could boast."



_Steele's Burial-place_ (Vol. ii., pp. 375, 441.).--I have been able to get
the following particulars respecting Steele's burial-place. Steele was
buried in the chancel of St. Peter's church, Caermarthen. The entry stands
thus in the Register:--

  "Sep. 4. Sr Richard Steel."

There is no monument to his memory in St. Peter's Church; but in Llangunnor
church, about two miles from Caermarthen, there is a plain monumental
tablet with the following inscription:--

    "This stone was erected at the instance of William Williams, of Ivy
    Tower, owner of Penddaylwn Vawr, in Llangunnor; part of the estate
    there once belonging to the deservedly celebrated Sir Richard Steele,
    knight, chief author of the essays named Tatlers, Guardians, and
    Spectators; and he wrote The Christian Hero, The Englishman, and The
    Crisis, The Conscious Lovers, and other fine plays. He represented
    several places in parliament; was a staunch and able patriot; finally,
    an incomparable writer on morality and Christianity. Hence the ensuing
    lines in a poem, called The Head of the Rock:--

  'Behold Llangunnor, leering o'er the vale,
  Pourtrays a scene t' adorn romantic tale;
  But more than all the beauties of its site,
  Its former owner gives the mind delight.
  Is there a heart that can't affection feel
  For lands so rich as once to boast a Steele?
  Who warm for freedom, and with virtue fraught,
  His country dearly lov'd, and greatly taught;
  Whose morals pure, the purest style conveys,
  T' instruct his Britain to the last of days.'"

Steele resided at White House (Ty Gwyn, as it is called in Welsh), a clean
farm-house half way between Caermarthen and Llangunnor church, which is
situate on a hill commanding extensive views of one of the prettiest values
in Wales. A field near the house is pointed out as the site of Steele's
garden, in the bower of which he is said to have written his "Conscious
Lovers." The Ivy Bush, formerly a private house, and said to be the house
where Steele died, is now the principal inn in Caermarthen.



_Cure for Warts_ (Vol. i., p. 482.)-- In Buckinghamshire I have heard of
the charming away of warts by touching each wart with a separate green pea.
Each pea being wrapped in paper by itself, and buried, the wart will vanish
as the pea decays.


_Etymology of "Parse"_ (Vol. ii., p. 118.).--Surely _to parse_ is to take
by itself each _pars_, or part of speech. The word does not seem to have
been known in 1611 when Brinsley published his _Posing of the Parts: or, a
most plain and easie Way of examining the Accidence and Grammar_. This work
appears to have been very popular, as I have by me the _twelfth_ edition,
London, 1669. In 1612, the same author issued his _Ludus Literarius: or the
Grammar Schoole_. Both these works interest me in him. Can any of your
readers communicate any particulars of his history?


       *       *       *       *       *



Admiration of the works of Holbein in Germany, as in this country, seems to
increase with increasing years. We have received from Messrs. Williams and
Norgate a copy of a new edition of his Bible Cuts lately published at
Leipsic, under the title _Hans Holbein's Altes Testament in funfzig
Holzschnitten getreu nach den Originalen copirt. Herausgegeben von Hugo
Burkner, mit einer Einleitung von D.F. Sotymann_, to which we direct the
attention of our readers, no less on account of the beauty and fidelity
with which these admirable specimens of Holbein's genius have been copied,
than of the interesting account of them prefixed by their new editor.

We beg to call the attention of such of our antiquaries as are interested
in the history of the Orkneys to a valuable contribution to our knowledge
of them, lately published by our accomplished friend, Professor Munch, of
the Christiana, under the title of _Symbolæ ad Historiam Antiquiorem Rerum
Norwegicarum_, which contains, I. A short Chronicle of Norway; II.
Genealogy of the Earls of Orkney; III. Catalogue of the Kings of
Norway--from a MS., for the most part hitherto inedited, and which appears
to have been written in Orkney about the middle of the fifteenth century.

While on the subject of foreign works of interest to English readers, we
may mention two or three others which we have been for some time intending
to bring under the notice of those who know how much light may be thrown
upon our early language and literature by a study of the contemporary
literature of the Low Countries. The first is, _Denkmaeler Niederdeutscher
Sprache und Literatur von Dr. Albert Hoefer, Erstes Banchen_, which
contains the highly curious Low German Whitson play called _Claws Bur_. The
next is a larger, more elaborately edited, and from its introduction and
extensive notes and various illustrations, a yet more interesting work to
English philologists. It is entitled _Leven van Sinte Christina de
Wonderbare_, an old Dutch poem, now first edited from a MS. of the
fourteenth or fifteenth century, by Professor Bormans.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Thomas Kerslake's (3. Park
Street, Bristol) Books, including valuable late Purchases; John Wheldon's
{431} (4. Paternoster Row) Catalogue of valuable Collection of Scentific
Books; W.H. McKeay's (11. Vinegar Yard, Covent Garden) Catalogue of a
Portion of Stock.

       *       *       *       *       *




*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_ to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We venture to call attention to the communications from Bombay and
Stockholm, which appear in our present Number, as evidences of the
extending circulation, and consequently, we trust, of the increasing
utility of _NOTES AND QUERIES.

W.S. (Oxford) _who inquires respecting _Tempora Mutantur_, is referred to
our First Volume_, pp. 215. 234. and 419.

       *       *       *       *       *



In Seven Volumes, 8vo., price 3l. 13s. 6d. boards.


"To produce a Literary Work, justly deserving the name of National, is a
rare contribution to our Literature. This MR. HUGHES has done in a
conscientious and able manner."--_Literary Gazette._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Augustine, A.D. 596. Second Edition. Post 8to. Price 5s. cloth.

"The Ancient British Church was a stranger to the Bishop of Rome, and his
pretended authority."--_Judge Blackstone._

WERTHEIM & MACINTOSH, 24. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


In small 8vo. price 8s. (with Illustrations), the Fifth Edition of
PERRANZABULOE, the LOST CHURCH FOUND; or, the Church of England not a New
Church, but ancient, Apostolical, and Independent, and a Protesting Church
Nine Hundred Years before the Reformaton. By the Rev. T. COLLINS TRELAWNY,
M.A., Rector of Timsbury, Somerset, and late Fellow of Balliol College.

The Volume contains an interesting Account of the Hstory and recent
Recovery of the ancient Church of Perranzabuloe, in Cornwall, after being
buried in the Sand for Seven Hundred Years.

RIVINGTONS, St. Pauls Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

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W.H. ELKINS, 47. Lombard Street, City.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 27th instant, fcp. 8vo. price 7s. 6d., a Third Series of PLAIN

By the late Rev. EDWARD BLENCOWE, Curate of Teversal, Notts; and formerly
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"Again, the range of thought is not high and difficult, but level and easy
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SERMONS. By the Rev. ALFRED GATTY, M.A., Vicar of Ecclesfield.

"Sermons of a high and solid character--earnest and

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       *       *       *       *       * {432}



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FACCIOLATI'S LATIN LEXICON, by BAILEY, 1826, large 4to. 2 vols. handsomely
bound, calf extra, gilt, 5l. 5s.

combining Explanation with Etymology; Pickering, 1844, 4to. 2 vols. very
handsomely bound, russia extra, gilt, gilt edges, a truly beautiful book,
4l. 4s.

SMITH, of Oscott, 1844, 70 Illuminations, sumptuously printed in gold and
colours, and other Engravings, royal 4to. half morocco, gilt, elegant, 4l.

COLLINS'S PEERAGE OF ENGLAND, augmented and continued by Sir E. BRYDGES,
1812, 8vo. 9 vols. russia, marble edges, by Lewis, 3l. 18s.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW, complete, 1820-28, 8vo. 16 vols. half green morocco,
very neat, 4l. 4s. Ditto in parts, uncut, 3l. 8s.

BALDINUCCI (Fil.) OPERE (History of Engraving in Copper and Wood, &c.,
&c.), Milano, 1808-12, port. 8vo. 14 thick vols. half calf, 1l. 12s.

DIBDIN'S (T.F.) TYPOGRAPHICAL ANTIQUITIES, or the History of Printing in
England, Scotland, and Ireland, comprehending a History of English
Literature and the Progress of Engraving, 1810-19, portraits and numerous
fac-similes of ancient wood engraving, the types used by the various early
printers, &c., &c., royal 4to. 4 vols. boards, uncut, 4l. 8s. (cost 14l.

ROYAL ACADEMY.--A Collection of all the Catalogues of the Exhibitions of
the Royal Academy from the 1st, 1769, to the 63rd, 1831, very scarce, 4to.
3 vols. half cloth, neat, uncut, 4l. 18s.

Card. BARONII (Cæs.) ANNALES ECLLESIASTICÆ, Antv. 1610, &c. port., 12 vols.
old oaken binding, stamped calf, old gilt, neat--BZOVII (Abra.) ANNALES
ECCLESIASTICÆ post Baronium ad 1572, accessit Tomus Posthumus et Ultimus,
Col.-Agripp, Et Romae, 1621-72, 9 vols. old oaken binding, stamped calf,
neat,--together, 21 vols., a fine set, 14l. 14s.

To be Bought of THOMAS KERSLAKE, at No. 3 PARK STREET, BRISTOL, at the Net
Prices annexed to each lot.

       *       *       *       *       *


Containing selections from the Libraries at Conishead Priory, Lancashire;
Sir Geo. Goold, Old Court, Co. Cork; Coleby Hall, Lincolnshire; Prof.
Elrington, T.C., Dublin; G.H. Ward, Esq., Northwood Park, Isle of Wight;
J.B. Swete, Esq., Oxton House, Devon; and other late Purchases. Franked by
a single stamp.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November 23. 1850.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 56, November 23, 1850" ***

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