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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 59, December 14, 1850
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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{473} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 59.]
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 14. 1850.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                        Page

    The First Paper-mill in England, by Dr. E.F. Rimbault          473
    Specimens of Foreign English                                   474
    Folk Lore:--May-dew--Piskies--The Dun Cow--
      Lady Godiva--"Can du plera meleor cera"                      474
    Minor Notes--Circulation of the Blood--Origin of
      the Word "Culprit"--Collar of SS.--The Singing of
      Swans--Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs--Portraits
      of Stevens and Cotton and Bunyan--Sonnet: Attempting
      to prove that Black is White--Nicholas
      Bretons Fantasticks                                          475

  QUERIES:--
    The Wise Men of Gotham                                         476
    Herstmonceux Castle                                            477
    Minor Queries:--Yorkshire Ballads--Ringing a Hand-bell
      before a Corpse--Church of St. Savior, Canterbury--
      Mock Beggar's Hall--Beatrix Lady Talbot--
      English Prize Essays--Rev. Joseph Blanco White--
      History of the Inquisition--Lady Deloraine--Speke
      Family--Pope's Villa--Armorial Bearings--Passage
      From Tennyson--Meaning of "Sauenap"--Hoods
      worn by Doctors of the University of Cambridge--
      Euclid and Aristotle--Ventriloquism--Fanningus,
      the King's Whisperer--Frances Lady Norton--
      Westminster Wedding--Stone's Diary--Dr. King's
      poem of "The Toast"--"Anima Magis" etc.--The
      Adventures of Peter Wilkins--Translations of the
      Talmud--Torn by Horses--The Marks *, [obelus], &c.
      --Blackguard                                                 478

  REPLIES:--
    Church History Society, by S.R. Maitland                       480
    Defender of the Faith, by W.S. Gibson                          481
    Meaning of Jezebel                                             482
    Socinian Boast, by J.R. Beard                                  483
    Replies to Minor Queries:--The König stuhl at Rheuze
      --Mrs. Tempest--Calendar of Sundays in Greek and
      Romish Churches--The Conquest--Thruscross--
      Osnaburgh Bishopric--Nicholas Ferrar--Butcher's
      Blue Dress--Chaucer's Portrait by Occleve--Lady
      Jane of Westmoreland--Gray and Dodsley                       484

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
    Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                         485
    Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                   486
    Notices to Correspondents                                      486
    Advertisements                                                 486

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES.

THE FIRST PAPER-MILL IN ENGLAND.

In the year 1588, a paper-mill was established at Dartford, in Kent, by
John Spilman, "jeweller to the Queen." The particulars of this mill are
recorded in a poem by Thomas Churchyard, published shortly after its
foundation, under the following title:--

"A description and playne discourse of paper, and the whole benefits that
paper brings, with rehearsall, and setting foorth in verse a paper-myll
built near Darthforth, by an high Germaine, called Master Spilman, jeweller
to the Queene's Majyestie."

The writer says:

  "(Then) he that made for us a paper-mill,
  Is worthy well of love and worldes good will,
  And though his name be _Spill-man_, by degree,
  Yet _Help_-man now, he shall be called by mee.
  Six hundred men are set at work by him,
  That else might starve, or seeke abroade their bread;
  Who now live well, and go full brave and trim,
  And who may boast _they_ are with paper fed."

In another part of the poem Churchyard adds:

  "An high Germaine he is, as may be proovde,
  In Lyndoam Bodenze, borne and bred,
  And for this mille, may heere be truly lovde,
  And praysed, too, for deep device of head."

It is a common idea that this was the first paper-mill erected in England;
and we find an intelligent modern writer, Mr. J.S. Burn, in his _History of
the Foreign Refugees_, repeating the same erroneous statement. At page 262,
of his curious and interesting work be says:

    "The county of Kent has been long famed for its manufacture of paper.
    It was at Dartford, in this county, that paper was _first made_ in
    England."

But it is proved beyond all possibility of doubt that a paper-mill existed
in England almost a century before the date of the establishment at
Dartford. In Henry VII.'s _Household Book_, we have the following:--

    "1498. For a rewarde geven at the pulper-mylne, 16s. 8d."

Again:--

    "1499. Geven in rewarde to Tate of the Mylne, 6s. 8d."

And in _Bartholomeus de Proprietatibus Rerum_, printed by Wynkyn de Worde
in 1495, mention is made of a paper-mill near Stevenage, in the county of
Hertford, belonging to JOHN TATE the younger, which was undoubtedly the
"mylne" visited by Henry VII.

The water-mark used by John Tate was an eight-pointed star within a double
circle. In the {474} twelfth volume of the _Archæeologia_, p. 114., is a
variety of fac-similes of water-marks used by our early paper makers,
exhibited in five large plates, but is not a little singular that the mark
of John Tate is omitted.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECIMENS OF FOREIGN ENGLISH.

The accompanying specimens of foreign English you may perhaps consider
worth a corner among the minor curiosities of literature:--

_Basle._--

    "Bains ordinaires et artificiels, tenu par B. Sigemund, Dr. in
    medicine, Basle. In this new erected establishment, which the Owner
    recommends best to all foreigners are to have,--Ordinary and artful
    baths, russia and sulphury bagnios, pumpings, artful mineral waters,
    gauze lemonads, fournished apartments for patients."

_Cologne._ Title-page in lithograph.

    "_Remembrance on the Cathedral of Cologne._--A collection of his most
    remarkable monumens, so as of the most artful ornamous and precious
    hilts of his renaconed tresory. Draconed and lithographed by Gerhardt
    Levy Elkan and Hallersch, collected by Gerhd. Emans."

_Augsburg_, Drei Mohren Hotel. Entry in travellers' book.

    "January 28. 1815.--His Grace Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, &c.
    &c. &c. Great honour arrived at the beginning of this year to the three
    Moors: this illustrious warrior, whose glorious atchievements, which,
    cradled in Asia, have filled Europe with his renown, descended in it."

_Mount Etna._ Printed notice found attached to the wall of one of the rooms
in the Casa degl' Inglesi, Mount Etna, October, 1844:

    "In consequence of the damage suffered in the house called English set
    on the Etna for the reprehensible conduct of some persons there
    recovered, the following provisional regulations are prescribed,
    authorized, and granted to M. Gemmellaro[1], who has the key of the
    mentioned house for his labour, honour, and money spent to finish such
    edifice, besides his kind reception for travellers curious to visit the
    mountain.

    I. Any person desirous to get the key of the house is requested to
    apply to M.G., and in case of his absence, to ... signing his name,
    title, and country, in the same time tell the guide's and muleteer's
    name, just to drive away those have been so rough to spoil the
    moveables and destroy the stables ... are the men to be particularly
    remarked.

    II. Nobody is admitted without a certificate of M.G., which will assure
    to have received his name, &c. &c., except those are known by the
    fore-going strangers.

    III. According to the afore-mentioned articles, nobody will take the
    liberty to go in the house and force the lock of the door: he will
    really suffer the most severe punishment fixed against violence.

    IV. Is not permitted to any body to put mules in the rooms destined for
    the use of people, notwithstanding the insufficiency of stables. It is
    forbidden likewise to dirtes the walls with pencil or coal. M.G. will
    procure a blank book for those learned people curious to write their
    observations. A particular care must be taken for the moveables settled
    in the house.

    V. The house must be left clean and without fire, to avoid
    conflagration; it is forbidden to leave rooms or windows opened, as the
    house has been lately damaged by the winds, snow, sand, &c. &c.; the
    aforementioned A.D., M.N. are imputed of negligence and malice: persons
    neglecting to execute the above article will be severely punished, and
    are obliged to pay damages and expences.

    VI. As soon as the traveller returns at Nicolosi, either to S. Nicolo
    l'Arena, will immediately deliver the key to M.G., as it commonly
    happens that foreigners are waiting for it. A certificate must be
    likewise delivered, declaring that the afore-mentioned regulations have
    been exactly executed. It is likewise proper and just to reward M. Gem.
    for the expense of moveables, money, &c, &c., and for the advantage
    travellers may get to examine the Volcan, for better than Empedocli,
    Amodei, Fazelli, Brydon, Spallanzani, and great many others. M. Gemm.
    has lately been authorized to deny the key whenever is unkindly
    requested. He is also absolutely obliged to inform the gen. of the
    army, who is determined to punish with rigour their insolence."

_Mount Sinai._--(On the fly-leaf of the travellers' book.)

    "Here in too were inscribed as in one legend, all whose in the rule of
    the year come from different parts, different cities and countries,
    pilgrims and travellers of any different rank and religion or
    profession, for advise and notice thereof to their posterity, and even
    also in owr own of memory acknowledging. 1845, Mount Sinai."

VIATOR.

[Footnote 1: The name of this gentleman will be recognised by some of the
readers of NOTES AND QUERIES as that of a most indefatigable explorer of
the wonders of the mountain, and the author, in the _Transactions of the
Catanian Academy_., of excellent descriptions of its recent eruptions.]

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_May-dew._--Every one has heard of the virtues of "May-dew," but perhaps
the complex superstition following may be less generally known. A
respectable tradesman's wife in this town (Launceston) tells me that the
poor people here say that a swelling in the neck may be cured by the
patient's going _before sunrise_, on the 1st of May, to the grave of the
last young man who has been buried in the church-yard, and applying the
dew, gathered by passing the hand _three times_ from the {475} head to the
foot of the grave, to the part affected by the ailment.[2] This was told me
yesterday in reply to a question, whether the custom of gathering "May-dew"
is still prevailing here. I may as well add, that the common notion of
improving the complexion by washing the face with the early dew in the
fields on the 1st of May extensively prevails in these parts; and they say
that a child who is weak in the back may be cured by drawing him over the
grass wet with the morning dew. The experiment must be thrice performed,
that is, on the mornings of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of May. I find no
allusion to these specific applications of "May-dew" in Ellis's _Brand_.

H.G.T.

[Footnote 2: If the patient be a woman, the grave chosen must be that of
the last young man buried, and that of the last young woman in the case of
a man patient.]

_Piskies._--An old woman, the wife of a respectable farmer at a place
called "Colmans," in the parish of Werrington, near Launceston, has
frequently told my informant before-mentioned of a "piskey" (for _so_, and
not _pixy_, the creature is called _here_, as well as in parts of Devon)
which frequently _made its appearance_ in the form of small child in the
kitchen of the farm-house, where the inmates were accustomed to set a
little stool for it. It would do a good deal of household work, but if the
hearth and chimney corner were not kept neatly swept, it would pinch the
maid. The piskey would often come into the kitchen and sit on its little
stool before the fire, so that the old lady had many opportunities of
seeing it. Indeed it was a familiar guest in the house for many months. At
last it left the family under these circumstances. One evening it was
sitting on the stool as usual, when it suddenly started, looked up, and
said,--

  "Piskey fine, and Piskey gay,
  Now Piskey! run away!"

and vanished; after which it never appeared again. This distich is the
first utterance of a piskey I have heard.

The word "fine" put me in mind of the expression "_fine_ spirit," "_fine_
Ariel," &c., noticed by DR. KENNEDY lately in NOTES AND QUERIES (Vol. ii.,
p. 251.). It is worth notice that the people here seem to entertain no
doubt as to the identity of piskies and fairies. Indeed I am told, that the
old woman before mentioned called her guest indifferently "piskey" or
"fairy."

The country people in this neighbourhood sometimes put a prayer-book under
a child's pillow as a charm to keep away the piskies. I am told that a poor
woman near Launceston was fully persuaded that one of her children was
taken away and a piskey substituted, the disaster being caused by the
absence of the prayer-book on one particular night. This story reminds me
of the "killcrop."

H.G.T.

1. The _dun cow_ of Dunsmore filled with milk every vessel that was brought
to her till an envious witch tried to milk her in a sieve.

2. _Lady Godiva._--A close-fitting dress might suggest the idea of nudity;
but was not the horse borrowed from the warrior Lady of Mercia Ethelfleda?

3. CAN DU PLERA MELEOR CERA. Quand Dieu plaira meilleur sera. Charm on a
ring, olim penes W. Hamper, F.A.S.

F.Q.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR NOTES.

_Circulation of the Blood._--About twenty-five years since, being in a
public library in France, a learned physician pointed out to me in the
works of the Venerable Bede a passage in which the fact of the circulation
of the blood appeared to him and myself to be clearly stated. I regret that
I did not, at the time, "make a note of it," and that I cannot now refer to
it, not having access to a copy of Bede: and I now mention it in hopes that
some of your correspondents may think it worth while to make it a subject
of research.

J. MN.

_Culprit, Origin of the Word._--Long ago I made this note, that this much
used English word was of French extraction, and that it was "_qu'il
paruit_," from the short way the clerk of the court has of pronouncing his
words; for our pleadings were formerly in French, and when the pleadings
were begun, he said to the defendant "_qu'il parait_"--culprit; and as he
was generally culpable, the "_qu'il parait_" became a synonyme with
offender.

T.

Cambridge.

    [Does not our ingenious correspondent point at the more correct origin
    of _culprit_, when he speaks of the defendant being "generally
    _culpable?_"]

_Collar of SS._--In the volume of Bury Wills just issued by the Camden
Society, is an engraving from the decorations of the chantry chapel in St.
Mary's Church, Bury St. Edmund's, of John Baret, who died in 146-; in which
the collar is represented as SS in the upright form set on a collar of
leather or other material. It is described in the will as "my collar of the
king's livery." John Baret, says the editor of the Wills, was a lay officer
of the monastery of St. Edmund, probably treasurer, and was deputed to
attend Henry VI. on the occasion of the king's long visit to that famed
monastic establishment in 14--.

BURIENSIS.

_The Singing of Swans._--"It would," says Bishop Percy (Mallet's _North.
Antiq._, ii. p. 72.), "be a curious subject of disquisition, to inquire
what could have given rise to so arbitrary and groundless a notion as the
singing of swans," {476} which "hath not wanted assertors from almost every
nation." (Sir T. Browne.)

  "Not in more swelling whiteness sails
  Cayster's swan to western gales, [3]
  When the melodious murmur sings
  'Mid her slow-heav'd voluptuous wings."

T.J.

[Footnote 3: "It was an ancient notion that the music of the swan was
produced by its wings, and inspired by the zephyr. See this subject,
treated with his accustomed erudition, by Mr. Jodrell, in his
_Illustrations of the Ion of Euripides_."--Bulwer's _Siamese Twins_.]

_Sir Thomas Herbert's Memoirs._--In consequence of the suggestion of
[Greek: D.] (Vol. ii., p. 220.), I have applied to the owner of Sir T.
Herbert's MS. account of the last days of Charles I., and the answer which
I have received is as follows:

    "I found the first part of Sir Thos. Herbert's MS. (56 pages) is not in
    the edition of Woods _Athenæ_ Lord W. has; but I found a note in a
    pedigree book, saying it was printed in 1702, 8vo. I suppose it can be
    ascertained whether this is true."

Perhaps some of your readers may know whether there is such a volume in
existence as that described by my friend.

ALFRED GATTY.

_Portraits of Stevens and Cotton and Bunyan._--The plan of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" appears well adapted to record the change of hands into which
portraits of literary men may pass. I accordingly offer two to your notice.

The portrait of George Stevens, the celebrated annotator on Shakspeare, who
died in 1800, was bequeathed by him to a relative, Mrs. Gomm of Spital
Square; and at that lady's death, some years after, it passed, I have
reason to expect, into the possession of her relative, Mr. Fince, of
Bishopsgate Street. I have no farther information of it.

The portrait of Charles Cotton, by Sir Peter Lely, was, at the time (1814)
when Linnell took a copy, and (in 1836) when Humphreys took a copy, in the
possession of John Berisford, Esq., of Compton House, Ashborne, Derbyshire;
and the following extracts of letters will show who at present possesses
it:--

    "Leek, 14th July, 1842.

    "After Mr. Berisford's decease, I should think the portrait of Cotton
    would fall into the hands of his nephew Francis Wright, Esq., of Linton
    Hall, near Nottingham.

    I am, &c. &c"

    "Linton Hall, Aug. 19. 1842.

    "Sir,--The Rev. J. Martin, of Trinity College, Cambridge, is the
    possessor of the portrait of Cotton to which your letter alludes. I am,
    Dear Sir,

    "Yours, in haste,

    "F. WRIGHT."

I avail myself of the present opportunity to ask the authority for the
portrait of Bunyan appended to his ever-fresh allegory. The engraved
portrait I have has not the name of the painter.

O.W.

_Sonnet: Attempting to prove that Black is White._--

  "It has been said of many, they were quite
    Prepared to prove (I do not mean in fun)
  That white was really black, and black was white;
    But I believe it has not yet been done.
  Black (Saxon, Blac) in any way to liken
    With _candour_ may seem almost out of reach;
  Yet _whiten_ is in kindred German _bleichen_,
    Undoubtedly identical with _bleach_:
  This last verb's cognate adjective is _bleak_--
    Reverting to the Saxon, _bleak_ is blæk. [4]
  A semivowel is, at the last squeak,
    All that remains such difference wide to make--
  The hostile terms of keen antithesis
  Brought to an _E plus ultra_ all but kiss!"

MEZZOTINTO.

[Footnote 4: Pronounced (as _black_ was anciently written) _blake_.]

_Nicholas Breton's Fantasticks_, 1626.--MR. HEBER says, "Who has seen
another copy?" In Tanner's Collection in the Bodleian Library is one copy,
and in the British Museum is another, the latter from Mr. Bright's
Collection.

W.P.

    [Another copy is in the valuable collection of the Rev. T. Corser. See
    that gentleman's communication on Nicholas Breton, in our First Vol.,
    p. 409.]

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES.

THE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM.

An ill-starred town in England seems to have enjoyed so unenviable a
reputation for some centuries for the folly and stupidity of its
inhabitants, that I am induced to send you the following Query (with the
reasons on which it is founded) in the hope that some of your readers may
be able to help one to a solution.

Query: Why have the men of _Gotham_ been long famous for their extreme
folly?

My authorities are,--

1. The Nursery Rhyme,--

  "Three wise men of _Gotham_
  Went to sea in a bowl;
  If the bowl had been stronger,
  My story would have been longer."

2. _Drunken Barnaby's Journal_ (edit. London, 1822, p. 25.), originally
printed 1774, London:

  "Veni _Gotham_, ubi multos
  Si non omnes, vidi stultos,
  Nam scrutando reperi unam
  Salientem contra lunam
  Alteram nitidam puellam
  Offerentem porco sellam."

  "Thence to _Gotham_, where, sure am I,
  If, _though_ not all fools, saw I many;
  Here a she-bull found I prancing,
  And in moonlight nimbly dancing;
  There another wanton mad one,
  Who her hog was set astride on."

{477} 3. In the "Life of Robin Hood" prefixed to Ritson's _Collection of
Ballads concerning Robin Hood_ (People's edit. p. 27.), the following
story, extracted from _Certaine Merry Tales of the Madmen of Gottam_, by
Dr. Andrew Borde, an eminent physician, temp. Hen. VIII. (Black letter), in
Bodleian Library, occurs:--

    "There was two men of __Gottam_, and the one of them was going to the
    market to Nottingham to buy sheepe, and the other came from the market;
    and both met together upon Nottingham bridge. Well met, said the one to
    the other. Whither be yee going? said he that came from Nottingham.
    Marry, said he that was going thither, I goe to the market to buy
    sheepe. Buy sheepe? said the other, and which way wilt thou bring them
    home? Marry, said the other, I will bring them over this bridge. By
    Robin Hood, said he that came from Nottingham, but thou shalt not. By
    Maid Marrion, said he that was going thitherward, but I will. Thou
    shalt not, said the one. I will, said the other. Ter here! said the
    one. Shue there! said the other. Then they beat their staves against
    the ground, one against the other, as there had been an hundred sheepe
    betwixt them. Hold in, said the one. Beware the leaping over the bridge
    of any sheepe, said the other. I care not, said the other. They shall
    not come this way, said the one. But they shall, said the other. Then
    said the other, and if that thou make much to doe, I will put my finger
    in thy mouth. A t..d thou wilt, said the other. And as they were at
    their contention, another man of _Gottam_ came from the market with a
    sack of meale upon a horse, and seeing and hearing his neighbours at
    strife for sheepe, and none betwixt them, said, Ah, fooles, will you
    never learn wit? Helpe me, said he that had the meale, and lay my sacke
    upon my shoulder. They did so and he went to the one side of the
    bridge, and unloosed the mouth of the sacke, and did shake out all his
    meale into the river. Now, neighbours, said the mall, how much meale is
    there in my sacke now? Marry, there is none at all, said they. Now, by
    my faith, said he, even as much wit as in your two heads, to strive for
    that thing you have not. Which was the wisest of all these three
    persons, judge you?"

4. Tom Coryat, in an oration to the Duke of York (afterwards Chas. I.),
called _Crambe, or Colwarts twice sodden_ (London, 1611), has this
passage:--

    "I came to Venice, and quickly took a survey of the whole model of the
    city, together with the most remarkable matters thereof; and shortly
    after any arrival in England I overcame any adversaries in the Town of
    Evill, in my native county of Somersetshire, who thought to have sunk
    me in a bargain of pilchards, as the _wise men of Gottam_ went about to
    drown an eel."

5. Dr. More's _Antidote against Atheism_, cap. ii. § 14.:

    "But because so many bullets joggled together in a man's hat will
    settle a determinate figure, or because the frost and wind will draw
    upon doors and glass windows pretty uncouth streaks like feathers and
    other fooleries which are to no use or purpose, try infer thence, that
    all the contrivances that are in nature, even the frame of the bodies,
    both of men and beasts, are from no other principle but the jumbling
    together of the matter, and so because that this doth naturally effect
    something, that is the cause of all things, seems to me to be reasoning
    in the same mood and figure with that wise market man's, who, going
    down a hill and carrying his cheeses under his arms, one of them
    falling and trundling down the hill very fast, let the other go after
    it appointing them all to meet him at his house at _Gotham_, not
    doubting but they beginning so hopefully, would be able to make good
    the whole journey; or like another of the same town, who perceiving
    that his iron trevet he had bought had three feet, and could stand,
    expected also that it should walk too, and save him the labour of the
    carriage."

6. Col. T. Perronet Thompson's Works, vol. ii. p. 236., _Anti-Corn-Law
Tracts_:--

    "If fooleries of this kind go on, _Gotham_ will be put in Schedule A.,
    and the representation of Unreason transferred into the West Riding."

J.R.M., M.A.

K.C.L. Nov. 26. 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

HERSTMONCEUX CASTLE.

Can you find an early place in your pages for the following Queries
relative to the history of Herstmonceux Castle and its lords, on which a
memoir is in preparation for the next volume of the collections of the
Sussex Archæological Society.

1. Who was Pharamuse of Boulogne, father of Sybil de Tingry? He is called
the _nephew_ of Maud, King Stephen's wife; but I believe there is no doubt
that she was the only child and sole heir of Eustace Earl of Boulogne,
brother of Godfrey, King of Jerusalem. Where is _Tingry_, of which place he
was lord? Is there any place in the North of France bearing that name now?

2. Will any one well skilled in the interpretation of ancient legal
documents furnish some explanation of the following extracts from the
_Rotul. de Fin._ (Hardy, i. 19.):--

    "1199. William de Warburton and Ingelram de Monceux give 500 marks to
    the king for having the inheritance of Juliana, wife of William, son of
    Aymer, whose next of kin they say they are."

Yet six years later, 1205 (Hardy, i. 310 )--

    "Waleran de Monceux gives 100 marks for having the reasonable
    (rationabilis) part of the inheritance of Juliana, as regards (versus)
    Wm. de Warburton, William and Waleran being her next of kin."

This Waleran was son of Idonea _de Herst_ (now Herst Monceux), and appears
in other documents as "Waleran _de Herst_." The land in question was in
_Compton_ (afterwards Compton _Monceux_), Hants.

Now how are we to reconcile the two above-quoted documents? What was the
connexion {478} between Ingelram and Waleran? And how is Waleran's double
appellation to be explained? I see a reference to a family named _de
Mounceaux_ in the last number of the _Archæological Journal_, p. 300.,
holding a manor near Hawbridge, Somerset Were they of the same stock?

3. The magnificent monument in Herstmonceux church to Thomas Lord Dacre
(who died 1534), and his eldest son, is embellished with a considerable
number of coats of arms, several of which I am unable to identity with any
connexions of the family. These are,--(1.) Sable, a cross or; (2.) Barry of
six, ar. and az., a bend gules; (3.) Arg. a fesse gules; (4.) Quarterly or,
and gules, an escarbuncle sable; (5.) Barry of six, arg. and gules; (6.)
Azure, an orle of martlets or, on an inescutcheon arg. three bass gules.

Can any of your readers, acquainted with the Dacre and Fienes pedigrees,
appropriate any of these coats?

4. A suite of small bed-rooms, and the gallery from which they opened, in
Herstmonceux Castle, were called respectively the _Bethlem Chambers_ and
_Bethlem Gallery_: is any instance of a similar denomination of apartments
known, and can the reason be assigned?

5. Sir Roger Fienes, the builder of Herstmonceux Castle, accompanied Henry
V. to Agincourt. Are any references to him to be found in Sir H. Nicolas'
_Battle of Azincourt_, or elsewhere?

6. Francis Lord Dacre was one of the noble twelve who had the courage to
appear in their places in the House of Lords and reject the ordinance for
the trial of Charles I. His son Thomas, who married the daughter of Charles
II. by the Duchess of Cleveland, and was created Earl of Sussex, was
compelled through his extravagance to alienate the castle and manor of
Herstmonceux. Are there any references to either of these peers, who played
a not inconspicuous part in the events of their times, in any of the
contemporary memoirs? Any information on any of the above points would
greatly oblige

E.V.

Herstmonceux, Nov. 18.

       *       *       *       *       *

MINOR QUERIES.

_Yorkshire Ballads._--Any of your readers would confer a great favour by
referring me to any early Yorkshire ballads, or ballads relating to places
in Yorkshire, not reprinted in the ordinary collections, such as Percy,
Evans, &c. I am of course acquainted with those in the Roxburghe
collection.

H.

_Ringing a Handbell before a Corpse._--Is it true that whenever an
interment takes place in Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, the corpse is
preceded on its way to the grave by a person who rings a small handbell at
intervals, each time giving a few tinkling strokes? My informant on this
subject was an Oxford undergraduate, who said that he had recently
witnessed the burials both of Mr. ----, a late student of Christ Church,
and of Miss ----, daughter of a living bishop: and he assured me that in
both cases this ceremony was observed. Certainly it is possible to go
through the academical course at Oxford without either hearing the bell, or
knowing of its use on such occasions: but I should now be glad to receive
some explanation of this singular custom.

A.G.

Ecclesfield.

_Church of St. Saviour, Canterbury._--Tradition, I believe, has uniformly
represented that an edifice more ancient, but upon the present site of St.
Martin's, Canterbury, was used by St. Augustine and his followers in the
earliest age of Christianity in this country. St. Martin's has, on that
account, been often spoken of as the mother-church of England. Lately,
however, in perusing the fourth volume of Mr. Kemble's _Codex
Diplomaticus_, p. 1. I find a charter of King Canute, of the year 1018,
which states the church of ST. SAVIOUR, _Canterbury_, to be the
mother-church of England:

    "Æcclesia Salvatoris in Dorobernia sita, omnium Æcclesiarum regni
    Angligeni _mater et domina_."

In none of the histories of Kent or of Canterbury can I find any mention of
a church dedicated to St. Saviour. May I beg the favour of you to insert
this among your Notes?

HENRY ELLIS.

_Mock Beggar's Hall._--What is the origin of this name as applied to some
old mansions? One at Wallasey, in Cheshire, was so named, and another near
Ipswich, in Suffolk. And what is the earliest instance of the title?

BURIENSIS.

_Beatrix Lady Talbot._--Since the publication of Sir Harris Nicolas' able
contribution to the _Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica_ (vol. i. pp.
80-90.) no one may be excused for confounding, as Dugdale and his followers
had done, Beatrix Lady Talbot with Donna Beatrix, daughter of John, King of
Portugal, to whom Thomas FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, was married, 26th Nov.,
1405. What I now wish to learn is, whether anything has since been
discovered to elucidate further the pedigree of Lady Talbot? It is evident
that she was of Portuguese origin; and it may be inferred from the
quarterings on her seal, as shown in a manuscript in the British Museum
(1st and 4th arg., five escutcheons in cross az., each charged with five
plates in saltire, for _Portugal_; and 2nd and 3rd az., five crescents in
saltire, or), that she was a member of the Portuguese family of Pinto,
which is the only house in Portugal that bears the five crescents in
saltire, as displayed on the seal.

SCOTUS.

{479}

_English Prize Essays._--Is there at present, in either of the
universities, or elsewhere, any prize, medal, or premium given for English
essays, for which all England could compete, irrespective of birth, place
of education, &c.; and, if so, particulars as to where such could be
obtained, would greatly oblige

MODEST AMBITION.

_Rev. Joseph Blanco White._--_History of the Inquisition._--In the Rev.
J.H. Thom's _Life of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White_ it is stated that he had
made a collection for a history of the Inquisition which he intended to
publish; and in a batch of advertisements preceding the first volume of
Smedley's _Reformed Religion in France_, published in 1832 by Rivingtons,
as part of their Theological Library. I find an announcement of other works
to be included in the series, and amongst others, already in preparation,
_The Origin and Growth of the Roman Catholic Inquisition against Heresy and
Apostacy_; by Joseph Blanco White, M.A. I need not ask whether the work was
_published_, for it is not to be found in the London Catalogue; but I wish
to ask whether any portion of the work was ever placed in the publisher's
hands, or ever printed; or whether he made any considerable progress in the
collection, and, if so, in whose hands the MSS. are? Such papers, if they
exist, would probably prove of too much importance to allow of their
remaining unpublished.

IOTA.

_Lady Deloraine._--The _Delia_ of Pope's line,

  "Slander or poison dread from _Delia's_ rage,"

is supposed to have been Lady Deloraine, who remarried W. Windam, Esq., of
Carsham, and died in Oct., 1744. The person said to have been poisoned was
a Miss Mackenzie. Are the grounds of this strange suspicion known?

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Speke Family._--I shall be glad to ascertain the family name and the
armorial bearings of Alice, wife of Sir John Speke, father of Sir John
Speke, founder of the chapel of St. George in Exeter Cathedral. She is said
to have been maid of honour to Queen Catherine.

J.D.S.

_Pope's Villa._--In Pope's _Literary Correspondence_, published by Curll,
an engraving, is advertised of his (Pope's) Villa at Twickenham, engraved
by Rysbrach and published by Curll. Are any of your correspondents aware of
the existence of a copy, and the price at which it can be obtained?

C. BATHURST W.

_Armorial Bearings._--Among the numerous coats-armorial in the great east
window of the choir of Exeter Cathedral, there is one respecting which I am
at a loss. Argent a cross between four crescents gules. Can either of your
readers kindly afford the name?

J.D.S.

_Passage from Tennyson._--You have so many correspondents well versed in
lore and legend, that I am induced to beg through you for an explanation of
the allusion contained in the following passage of Tennyson:--

  "Morn broaden'd on the borders of the dark,
  Ere I saw her, who clasp'd in her last trance
  Her murder'd father's head."

It occurs in the _Dream of Fair Women_, st. 67.

W.M.C.

Cambridge.

_Sauenap, Meaning of._--In the will of Jane Heryng, of Bury, 1419, occurs
this bequest:--

    "To Alyson my dowter, xl s. and ij pottys of bras neste the beste, and
    a peyr bedys of blak _get_, and a grene hod, and a red hod, and a gowne
    of violet, and another of tanne, and a towayll of diaper werk, and a
    _sauenap_; also a cloke and rownd table."

What was the _sauenap_?

BURIENSIS.

_Hoods worn by Doctors of the University of Cambridge._--Pray permit me to
inquire, through your agency, what is the proper lining of the scarlet
cloth hoods worn by doctors in the three faculties of the university of
Cambridge? The robe-makers of Cambridge have determined upon a pink or
rose-coloured silk for all; the London artists adopt a shot silk (light
blue and crimson) sometimes for all faculties, at others for Doctors in
Divinity only. On ancient monuments (there is one in Canterbury Cathedral)
I find that the hoods were lined with ermine; and this is the material of
those attached to the full-dress robes of doctors on the occasion of their
creation, and in the schools, and at congregations. I cannot find the
statutes bearing upon the subject.

As the Oxford statutes have recently been published, the matter is not so
much in the dark,--black silk being the material prescribed for the lining
of hoods of Doctors in Divinity, and those of the doctors in the other
faculties being prescribed to be of _silk of any intermediate colour_,
which the Oxford doctors understand to mean a deep rose-colour.

D.C.L.

U. University Club, Dec. 4. 1850.

_Euclid and Aristotle._--The ordinary chronologies place Aristotle as
nearly a century anterior to Euclid; but Professor De Morgan ("Eucleides,"
in Dr. Smith's _Biographical Dictionary_) considers them as contemporary.
Any of your readers conversant with the subject will oblige me by saying
_which_ is right, and likewise _why_ so.

GEOMETRICUS.

_Ventriloquism. Fanningus the King's Whisperer._--To the Query respecting
Brandon the juggler (Vol. ii., p. 424.), I beg leave to add another
somewhat similar. Where is any information to be obtained of "The King's
Whisperer, [Greek: engastrimythos], nomine Fanningus, who resided at Oxford
in 1643?"

T.J.

{480}

_Frances Lady Norton._--Can any of your readers give me an account of the
life of Frances Lady Norton, who wrote a work, entitled _The Applause of
Virtue, in Four Parts, consisting of Divine and Moral Essays towards the
obtaining of True Virtue_, 4to. 1705? It is a very delightful book, full of
patristic learning. I am aware she was the daughter of Ralph Freke, Esq.,
of Hannington, and married Sir George Norton, Knt. of Abbot's Leigh, in the
county of Somerset. I wish to know what other books she wrote, if any, and
where her life may be found? Perhaps the Freke family could furnish an
account of this learned lady. The work I believe to be extremely scarce.

RICHARD HOOPER.

_Westminster Wedding._--Jeremy Collier says, in one of his _Essays_ (Part
iii. Essay viii.):

    "As for the business of friendship you mentioned, 'tis not to be had at
    a _Westminster Wedding_."

Being much interested in weddings in Westminster at the present day, I
should be much obliged to any of your readers who can throw any light on
the observation of the Essayist, as above cited. What other authors use the
term?

R.H.

_Stone's Diary._--Stone, the celebrated sculptor, left a valuable diary.
The MS. was in the possession of Vertue the engraver. Has it ever been
printed?

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Dr. King's Poem of The Toast._--Where can I find a key to Dr. King's
_Heroic Poem_, called _The Toast?_ Isaac Reed's copy, with a _manuscript
key_, sold at his sale for 10l. 10s.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Anima Magis, &c._--To whom is this sentence to be ascribed--

  "Anima magis est ubi amat
  Quam ubi animat."

TYRO-ETYMOLOGICUS.

_The Adventures of Peter Wilkins._--Is the author of this delightful work
of fiction known? The first edition was published in 1751, but it does not
contain the dedication to Elizabeth, Countess of Northumberland, found in
later impressions. When was this dedication added? It is observable that in
all the editions I have seen, the initials R.P. are signed to the
dedication, while R.S. appears on the title-page.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Talmud, Translations of._--1. Have there been any English translations of
the Talmud, or any complete section of it? 2. What are the most esteemed
Continental and Latin translations?

S.P.H.T.

_Torn by Horses._--What is the last instance in the history of France of a
culprit being torn by horses? Jean Châtel, who attempted to assassinate
Henri Quatre, suffered thus in 1595. (Crowe's _France_, i. 364.)

ED. S. JACKSON.

_The Marks_ *, [obelus], [diesis], _&c._--What is the origin of the
asterisk, obelus, &c., used for references to notes? When were they first
used? What are their proper names?

ED. S. JACKSON.

Totteridge, Herts, Oct. 23.

_Blackguard._--Walking once through South Wales, we found an old woman by
the roadside selling a drink she called _blackguard_. It was composed of
beer and gin, spiced with pepper, and well deserved its name. Is this a
common beverage in the principality?

J.W.H.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPLIES.

CHURCH HISTORY SOCIETY.

I am much obliged to your correspondent LAICUS for his inquiry respecting
the proposed Society (Vol. ii., p. 464). Will you allow me to express to
him my confident hope, that the proposed plan, or some modification of it
by a committee (when one shall exist) may in due time be carried out. But
there seems to be no reason for haste; and in the formation of such body it
is desirable to have as many avowed supporters to select from as possible.
I do not think that the matter is much known yet, though I have to thank
you for a kind notice; and I need not tell some of your correspondents that
I have received very encouraging letters. But, in truth, as I did not
expect any profit, or desire any responsibility as to either money or
management, and only wished to lay before the public an idea which had
existed in my own mind for some years, and which had obtained the sanction
of some whom I thought competent judges; and as I had, moreover, published
pamphlets enough to know that a contribution of waste paper to any object
is often one of the most costly, I did not feel myself called on to go to
so much expense in advertising as I perhaps might have done if I had been
spending the money of a society instead of my own. I sent but few copies;
none, I believe, except to persons with whom I had some acquaintance, and
whom I thought likely to take more or less interest in the subject.

I trust, however, that the matter is quietly and solidly growing; and from
communications which I have received, and resources on which I believe I
may reckon, I feel no doubt that if it were considered desirable, friends
and money enough to set such a society going might be immediately brought
forward. It is one advantage of the proposed plan, that it may be tried on
almost any scale. A society so constituted would NOT begin its existence
{481} with great promises of returns to subscribers, and heavy engagements
to printers, papermakers, and editors. Its only _necessary_ expenses would
be those of _management_; and if the society were very small, these
expenses would be so too. It is, indeed, hardly possible to imagine that
they should be such as not to leave something to be funded for future use,
if they did not furnish means for immediate display; but it seems better to
wait patiently until such real substantial support is guaranteed as may
prevent all apprehension on that score.

S.R. MAITLAND.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH.

(Vol. ii., p. 442.)

It is quite startling to be told that the title of "Defender of the Faith"
was used by any royal predecessor of Henry VIII.

Selden (_Titles of Honour_, ed 1631, p. 54) says:

    "The beginning and ground of that attribute of DEFENDER OF THE FAITH,
    which hath been perpetually, in the later ages, added to the style of
    the kings of England, (not only in the first person, but frequent also
    in the second and in the third, as common use shows in the formality of
    instruments of conveyance, leases and such like) is most certainly
    known. It began in Henry the VIII. For he, in those awaking times, upon
    the quarrel of the Romanists and Lutherans, wrote a volume against
    Luther," &c.

Selden then states the well-known occasion upon which this title was
conferred, and sets out the Bull of Leo X. (then extant in the Collection
of Sir Robert Cotton, and now in the British Museum), whereby the Pope,
"holding it just to distinguish those who have undertaken such pious
labours for defending the faith of Christ with every honour and
commendation," decrees that to the title of King the subjects of the royal
controversialist shall add the title "Fidei Defensori." The pontiff adds,
that a more worthy title could not be found.

Your correspondent, COLONEL ANSTRUTHER, calls attention to the statement
made by Mr. Christopher Wren, Secretary of the Order of the Garter (A.D.
1736), in his letter to Francis Peck, on the authority of the Register of
the Order in his possession; which letter is quoted by Burke (_Dorm. and
Ext. Bar._, iv. 408.), that "King Henry VII. had the title Defender of the
Faith." It is not found in any acts or instruments of his reign that I am
acquainted with, nor in the proclamation on his interment, nor in any of
the epitaphs engraved on his magnificent tomb. (Sandford, _Geneal. Hist._)
Nor is it probable that Pope Leo X., in those days of diplomatic
intercourse with England, would have bestowed on Henry VIII., as a special
and personal distinction and reward, a title that had been used by his
royal predecessors.

I am not aware that any such title is attributed to the sovereign in any of
the English records anterior to 1521; but that many English kings gloried
in professing their zeal to defend the Church and religion, appears from
many examples. Henry IV., in the second year of his reign, promises to
maintain and defend the Christian religion (_Rot. Parl._, iii. 466.); and
on his renewed promise, in the fourth year of his reign, to defend the
Christian faith, the Commons piously grant a subsidy (_Ibid._, 493.); and
Henry VI., in the twentieth year of his reign, acts as keeper of the
Christian faith. (_Rot. Parl._, v. 61.)

In the admonition used in the investiture of a knight with the insignia of
the Garter, he is told to take the crimson robe, and being therewith
defended, to be bold to fight and shed his blood for Christ's faith, the
liberties of the Church, and the defence of the oppressed. In this sense,
the sovereign and every knight became a sworn defender of the faith. Can
this duty have come to be popularly attributed as part of the royal style
and title?

The Bull of Leo X., which confers the title on Henry VIII. personally, does
not make it inheritable by his successors, so that none but that king
himself could claim the honour. The Bull granted two years afterwards by
Clement VII. merely confirms the grant of Pope Leo to the king himself. It
was given, as we know, for his assertion of doctrines of the Church of
Rome; yet he retained it after his separation from the Roman Catholic
communion, and after it had been formally revoked and withdrawn by Pope
Paul III. in the twenty-seventh year of Henry VIII., upon the king's
apostacy in turning suppressor of religious houses. In 1543, the
Reformation legislature and the Anti-papal king, without condescending to
notice any Papal Bulls, assumed to treat the title that the Pope had given
and taken away as a subject of Parliamentary gift, and annexed it for ever
to the English crown by the statute 35 Hen. VIII. c. 3., from which I make
the following extract, as its language bears upon the question:

    "Where our most dread, &c., lord the king, hath heretofore been, and is
    justly, lawfully, and notoriously knowen, named, published, and
    declared to be King of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the
    Faith, and the Church of England and also of Ireland, in earth supreme
    head; and hath justly and lawfully used the title and name thereof as
    to his Grace appertaineth. Be it enacted, &c., that all and singular
    his Graces' subject, &c., shall from henceforth accept and take the
    same his Majesty's style ... viz., in the English tongue by these
    words, Henry the Eighth, by the grace of God King of England, France,
    and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England, and
    also of Ireland, in earth the supreme head; and that the said style,
    &c., shall be, &c., united {482} and annexed for ever to the imperial
    crown of his highness's realms of England."

By the supposed authority of this statute, and notwithstanding the
revocation of the title by Pope Paul III., and its omission in the Bull
addressed by Pope Julius III. to Philip and Mary, that princess, before and
after her marriage, used this style, and the statute having, been
re-established by 1 Eliz. c. 1., the example has been followed by her royal
Protestant successors, who wished thereby to declare themselves Defenders
of the Anti-papal Church. The learned Bishop Gibson, in his _Codex_ (i. 33,
note), treats this title as having commenced in Henry VIII. So do Blount,
Cowel, and such like authorities.

WM. SIDNEY GIBSON.

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Dec. 1850.

P.S. Since writing the above, I have found (in the nineteenth volume of
_Archæologia_, pp. 1-10.) an essay by Mr. Alex. Luders on this very
subject, in which that able writer, who was well accustomed to examine
historical records, refers to many examples in which the title "Most
Christian King" was attributed to, or used by English sovereigns, as well
as the kings of France; and to the fact, that this style was used by Henry
VII., as appears from his contract with the Abbot of Westminster (Harl. MS.
1498.). Selden tells us that the emperors had from early times been styled
"Defensores Ecclesiæ;" and from the instances cited by Mr. Luders, it
appears that the title of "Most Christian" was appropriated to kings of
France from a very ancient period; that Pepin received it (A.D. 755) from
the Pope, and Charles the Bald (A.D. 859) from a Council: and Charles VI.
refers to ancient usage for this title, and makes use of these words:

    "--nostrorum progenitorum imitatione--evangelicæ
    veritatis--DEFENSORES--nostra regia dignitas divino Christianæ
    religionis titulo gloriosius insignitur--."

Mr. Luders refers to the use of the words "Nos zelo _fidei catholicæ_,
cujus sumus et erimus Deo dante _Defensores_, salubriter commoti" in the
charter of Richard II. to the Chancellor of Oxford, in the nineteenth year
of his reign, as the earliest introduction of such phrases into acts of the
kings of England that he had met with. This zeal was for the condemnation
of Wycliff's _Trialogus_. In the reign of Hen. IV. the writ "De Hæretico
comburendo" had the words "Zelator justitia et fidei catholicæ cultor;" and
the title of "Très Chrêtien" occurs in several instruments of Hen. VI. and
Edw. IV. It appears very probable that this usage was the foundation of the
statement made by Chamberlayne and by Mr. Christopher Wren: but that the
title of Defender of the Faith was used as part of the royal style before
1521, is, I believe, quite untrue.

W.S.G.

       *       *       *       *       *

MEANING OF JEZEBEL.

(Vol. ii., p. 357.)

There appear to be two serious objections to the idea of your correspondent
W.G.H. respecting the appearance of _Baal_ in this word: 1. The original
orthography ([Hebrew: 'iyzebel]); whereas the name of the deity is found on
all Phoenician monuments, where it enters largely into the composition of
proper names, written [Hebrew: b`l]: and, 2. The fact of female names being
generally on these same monuments (as tombstones and so forth) compounded
of the name of a _goddess_, specially Astarth ([Hebrew: 'atiorit] or
[Hebrew: `a]). I do not know that we have any example of a female name into
which _Baal_ enters.

The derivation of the word appears to be that given by Gesenius (s.v.);
that it is compounded of the root [Hebrew: zabal] (habitavit, cohabitavit)
and the negative [Hebrew: 'eiyn], and that its meaning is the same as
[Greek: alochos], casta: comp. _Agnes_. _Isabel_, in fact, would be a name
nearer the original than the form in which we have it.

SC.

Carmarthen, Oct. 29. 1850.

_Jezebel._--W.G.H. has been misled by the ending _bel_. The Phoenician god
_Bel_ or _Baal_ has nothing to do with this name,--the component words
being _Je-zebel_, not _Jeze-bel_. Of the various explanations given, that
of Gesenius (_Heb. Lex._, s. voc.) appears, as usual, the simplest and most
rational. The name [Hebrew: 'iyzebel] (Jezebel) he derives from [Hebrew:
'iy] (_i_) "not" (comp. I-chabod, "In-glorious") and [Hebrew: zabal]
(zábal), "to dwell, cohabit with."

The name will then mean "without cohabitation," _i.e._ [Greek: alochos]
(Plat. _Theæt._) "chaste, modest." Comp. _Agnes_, _Katherine_, &c.

Less satisfactory explanations may be found in Calmet's _Dictionary_, and
the _Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature_, edited by Dr. Kitlo.

R.T.H.G.

_Jezebel._--The Hebrew spelling [Hebrew: 'iyzebel] presents so much
difficulty, that I fear such a derivation as W.G.H. wishes to obtain for
the name is not practicable by any known etymology. Nothing that I am aware
of, either in Hebrew, Syriac, or Arabic, will help us. The nearest verb
that I can find is the Chaldee [Hebrew: 'aza'], signifying, "to light a
fire," parts of which occur two or three times in Dan. iii.; but I fear it
would be too daring a conjecture to interpret the name _quem Belus
accendit_ on the strength of that verb's existence. At present I feel
myself obliged to take the advice of Winer, in his _Lexicon_, "Satius est
ignorantiam fateri quam argutari."

"Nominis origo (he says) non liquet. Sunt qui interpretentur _non stercus_,
Coll. 2 Reg. ix. 27., ineptè. {483} Simonis in Onom. dictum putat Ino
[Hebrew: n'iy zebel], _mansio habitationis_ (habitatio tectissima);
Gesenius _cui nemo concubuit_, Coll. [Hebrew: zbl], Gen. xxx. 20. Sed
satius," &c.

Admitting that Hasdrubal is, in fact [Hebrew: `azrw beil], _Bel (was) his
helper_, we cannot possibly connect [Hebrew: 'iyzebel] with it.

[Hebrew: b].

L---- Rectory, Somerset.

_Jezebel._--Your correspondent W.G.H. believes this word to be derivable
from _Baal_. That the Phoenician word [Hebrew: ba`al] (Lord) makes a
component part of many Syrian names is well-known: but I do not think the
contracted form [Hebrew: beil], which was used by the Babylonians, is ever
found in any Syrian names. If we suppose the name [Hebrew: 'iyzebel] to be
derived from [Hebrew: beil] or [Hebrew: ba`al], we must find a meaning for
the previous letters. Gesenius derives the name from [Hebrew: 'y], the
negative particle, [Hebrew: zbl], and gives it the sense of "innuba",
_i.e._ "pure," comparing it, as a female name, with the Christian Agnes.
There is but one passage, however, in Scripture which supports this
secondary sense of [Hebrew: zbl] properly, "to be round," or, "to make
round," and then "to dwell;" from whence [Hebrew: zbwl], "a dwelling or
habitation:" also [Hebrew: zbwlwn], "dwellings," the name which Leah gives
to her sixth son, because she hopes that thenceforward her husband [Hebrew:
yizbleiwiy], "will dwell with me." (Gen. xxx. 20.) Gesenius considers this
equivalent with "cohabit;" and from this single passage draws the sense
which he assigns to [Hebrew: 'iyzebel] This seems rather far-fetched. I am,
however, still inclined to give the sense of "pure, unpolluted," to
[Hebrew: 'iyzebel], but on different grounds.

[Hebrew: zebel] has another sense, [Greek: kopros], particularly of camels,
from the round form; and the word was common, in the later Hebrew, in that
sense. Hence the evil spirit is called [Hebrew: ba`al-zbwl], a contemptuous
name, instead of [Hebrew: ba`al-zbwb] = [Greek: Beelzeboul] instead of
[Greek: Beelzeboub] (Matt. xii. 24.).

The negative of this word [Hebrew: 'iyzebel] might, without any great
forcing of the literal sense, imply "the undefiled," [Greek: Amiautos]; and
this conjecture is supported by comparing 2 Kings, ix. 37. with the same
verse in the _Targum_ of Jonathan. They are as follows: (Heb.):

  [Hebrew: wihayta niblat 'iyzebel krmen `al-pneiy hasreh]

In the _Targum_ thus:

  [Hebrew: wtiheiy nibeiylta' r'iyzebel kzebel mbarar `al 'apeiy taqla':]

It is quite clear that the Targumists intended here a strong allusion to
the _original_ meaning of Jezebel's name; viz. that she who was named "the
undefiled" should become as "defilement." I am not sure whether a
disquisition of this kind may be considered irrelevant to your work; but as
the idea seems not an improbable one to some whose judgment I value, I
venture to send it.

E.C.H.

       *       *       *       *       *

SOCINIAN BOAST.

(Vol. ii., p. 375.).

One of your correspondents, referring to the lines lately quoted by Dr.
Pusey--

  "Tota jacet Babylon; destruxit tecta Lutherus,
  Calvinus muros, sed fundamenta Socinus."

inquires "by what Socinian writer" are these two hexameter verses used ?

In reply, I beg to remark that by "Socinian" is, I suppose, meant
"Unitarian," for even the immediate converts of Socinus refused to be
called Socinians, alleging that their belief was founded on the teaching of
Jesus Christ; and modern Unitarians, disowning all human authority in
religious matters, cannot take to themselves the name of Socinus.

The distich, however, appears to have been in use among the Polish
Unitarians shortly after the death of Faustus Socinus, as respectfully
expressive of the exact effect which they conceived that he had produced in
the religious world. Mr. Wallace, in his _Antitrinitarian Biography_, vol.
iii. p. 323., states that it is "the epitaph said to have been inscribed on
the tomb of Faustus Socinus." Mr. Wallace's authority for this assertion I
have not been able to discover. Bock (_Hist. Antitrinitariorum_, vol. iii.
p. 725.), whom Mr. Wallace generally follows, observes that the adherents
of Faustus Socinus were accustomed to use these lines "respecting his
decease," (qui de ejus obitu canere soliti sunt). This would seem to imply
that the lines were composed not long after the death of Faustus Socinus.
Probably they formed originally a part of poem written as a eulogy on him
by some minister of the Unitarian church. The case would not be without a
parallel.

Three versions of the distich are before me; that cited by Dr. Pusey, and
the two which follow:--

  "Alta ruit Babylon; destruxit tecta Lutherus,
  Muros Calvinus, sed fundamenta Socinus."
                  Fock, _Socinianismus_, vol. i. p. 180.

  "Tota ruet Babylon; destruxit tecta Lutherus,
  Muros Calvinus, sed fundamenta Socinus."
                  Bock, _ut supra_.

Which is the original? Bock's reading has the preference in my mind,
because he is known to have founded his history on the results of his own
personal investigations among the manuscripts as {484} well as the printed
documents of the Polish Unitarian Churches. Besides, if, as there is reason
to believe, the lines were composed shortly after the death of F. Socinus,
_ruet_ (_will_ fall) would now correctly describe what, at so small a
distance from the days of Luther and Calvin, may be supposed to have been
the feeling among the Polish Unitarians; whereas Dr. Pusey's _jacet_ (lies
low, in the _present_ tense) does as certainly partake somewhat of the
grandiloquent. That no "boast," however, was intended, becomes probable,
when we consider that the distich was designed to convey a feeling of
reverence towards Socinus rather than an insult to Rome.

JOHN R. BEARD.

       *       *       *       *       *

REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES.

_The Königs-stuhl at Rheuze_ (Vol. ii., p. 442.).--DR. BELL, who inquires
for an engraving of the old _Königs_ or _Kaisers-stuhl_, at Rheuze, is
referrred to the _History of Germany, on the Plan of Mrs. Markham's
Histories_, published by Murray, where, on the 188th page, he will find a
very neat woodcut of this building, which we are told was destroyed in
1807, and rebuilt after the original model in 1843. It is of an octagon
form, supported by pillars, with seven stone seats round the sides for the
electors, and one in the centre for the emperor.

M.H.G.

    [The woodcuts of this work deserve especial commendation, being
    accurate representations of objects of historical interest, instead of
    the imaginative illustrations too often introduced into works which
    claim to represent the truth of history. Many of the engravings, such
    as that of the _room in which the Council of Constance was held_, and
    the _Cages of the Anabaptists_ attached to the tower of _St. Lambert's
    Church, Munster_, are, we have understood, copied from original
    sketches placed at Mr. Murray's disposal for the purpose of being used
    in the work in question.]

_Mrs. Tempest_ (Vol. ii., p. 407.).--This lady was one of the two daughters
of Henry Tempest, Esq., of Newton Grange, Yorkshire (son of Sir John
Tempest of Tong Hall, who was created a baronet in 1664), by his wife
Alathea, daughter of Sir Henry Thompson of Marston, co. York. She died
unmarried in 1703. As the Daphne of Pope's pastoral "Winter," inscribed to
her memory, she is celebrated in terms which scarcely bear out the remark
of your correspondent, that the poet "has no special allusion to her."

J.T. HAMMACK.

_Calendar of Sundays in Greek and Romish Churches._--In reply to M.'s
Query, I beg to inform him, that to find a calendar of _both_ the above
churches, he need seek no further than the _Almanach de Gotha_ for the year
1851. He will there find what he wants, on authority no doubt sufficient.

D.C.

_The Conquest_ (Vol. ii., p. 440).--I do not agree with L. in thinking that
the modern notion, that this word means "a forcible method of acquisition,"
is an erroneous one; but have no doubt that, whatever its original
derivation may be, it was used in that sense. If William I. never pretended
"to annex the idea of victory to conquisition," it is certain that his son
William II. did: for we find a charter of his in the _Monasticon_ (ed.
1846), vol. vi. p. 992., confirming a grant of the church of St. Mary of
Andover to the abbey of St. Florence, at Salmur, in Anjou, in which there
is the following recital:

  "Noscant qui sunt et qui futuri sunt, quod Willielmus
  rex, qui _armis Anglicam terram sibi subjugavit_,
  dedit." &c.

If this charter was granted by William I., under whom Dugdale has placed it
in his _Chronica Series_, p. 1., _nomine Baldric_, the argument is so much
the stronger; but I have endeavored to prove by internal evidence (_Judges
of England_, vol. i. p. 67.) that it is a charter of William II.

EDWARD FOSS.

_Thruscross_ (Vol. ii., p. 441.).--In a sermon preached at the funeral of
Lady Margaret Mainard, at Little Easton, in Essex, June 30, 1682, by Bishop
Ken, he says:

    "The silenced, and plundered, and persecuted clergy she thought worthy
    of double honour, did vow a certain sum yearly out of her income, which
    she laid aside, only to succour them. The congregations where she then
    communicated, were those of the Reverend and pious Dr. Thruscross and
    Dr. Mossom, both now in heaven, and that of the then Mr. Gunning, the
    now most worthy Bishop of Ely, for whom she ever after had a peculiar
    veneration."

    "My last son Izaak, borne the 7th of September, 1651, at halfe an houre
    after two o'clock in the afternoone, being Sunday, and he was baptized
    that evening by Mr. Thruscross, in my house in Clerkenwell. Mr. Henry
    Davison and my brother Beacham were his godfathers, and Mrs. Roe his
    godmother."--_Izaak Walton's Entry in his Prayer Book._

Peckhard, in his _Life of Nicholas Ferrar_, p. 213., quotes Barwick's Life,
Oley, Thruscross, and Thorndike.

W.P.

_Osnaburgh Bishopric_ (Vol. ii., pp. 358. 447.).--The succession to this
bishopric was regulated by the Treaty of Westphalia, in 1648. By virtue of
that treaty the see of Osnaburgh is alternately possessed by a Romish and a
Protestant prince; and when it comes to the turn of a Protestant, it is to
be given to a younger son of the house of Hanover. The _Almanach de Gotha_
will most probably supply the information who succeeded the late Duke of
York. Looking at the names of the titular bishops of Osnaburgh, it may be
inferred that the duties attached to the see are confined to its
temporalities.

J.T. HAMMACK.

{485} _Nicholas Ferrar_ (Vol. ii., pp. 119. 407. 444.).--The libellous
pamphlet, entitled _The Arminian Nunnery at Little Gidding_, is printed
entire in the Appendix to Hearne's Preface to Langtoft. One of the
Harmonies of the Life of Christ is in the British Museum, and another at
St. John's College, Oxford (Qy.) (See the list of MSS. once at Gidding,
Peckhard, p. 306.) N. Ferrar published and wrote the preface to Herbert's
_Temple_, 1633,--and translated Valdesso's _Divine Considerations_, Camb.
1646.

W.P.

_Butchers' Blue Dress_ (Vol. ii., p. 266.).--A blue dress does not show
stains of blood, inasmuch as blood, when dry, becomes of a blue colour. I
have always understood this to be the explanation of this custom.

X.Z.

_Chaucer's Portrait by Occleve_ (Vol. ii., p. 442.).--This portrait is
engraved in Strutt's _Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities_.

J.I.D.

    [And we may add, in the edition of Tyrwhitt's _Canterbury Tales_,
    published by Pickering--ED.]

_Chaucer's Portrait_ (Vol. ii., p. 442.).--His portrait, from Occleve's
poem, has been engraved in octavo and folio by Vertue. Another, from the
Harleian MS., engraved by Worthington, is in Pickering's edition of
Tyrwhitt's _Chaucer_. Occleve's poem has not been printed; but see Ritson's
_Biblioth. Poetica_, and Warton's _H.E.P._ A full-length portrait of
Chaucer is given in Shaw's _Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages_;
another, on horseback, in Todd's _Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer_.

W.P.

_Lady Jane of Westmoreland_ (Vol. i., p. 103.).--I think your correspondent
Q.D. is wrong in his supposition that the two following entries in Mr.
Collier's second volume of _Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers'
Company_ refer to a composition by Lady Jane of Westmoreland:--

    "1585-6. Cold and uncoth blowes, of the Lady Jane of Westmorland.

    1586-7. A songe of Lady Jane of Westmorland."

My idea is, that the ballad (for Mr. Collier thinks that both entries
relate to one production) was merely one of those metrical ditties sung
about the streets of London depicting the woes and sufferings of some
unfortunate lady. The question is, who was this "unfortunate lady?" She was
the wife of Ralph, Earl of Westmoreland, who was attainted about the year
1570, and died in Flanders anno 1584. I learn this from a MS. of the
period, now before me, entitled _Some Account of the Sufferinges of the
Ladye Jane of Westmorlande, who dyed in Exile. By T.C._ Perhaps at some
future time I may trouble your readers with an account of this highly
interesting MS.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Gray and Dodsley._--As the HERMIT OF HOLYPORT has repeated his Queries on
Gray and Dodsley, I must make a second attempt to answer them with due
precision, assured that no man is more disposed than himself to communicate
information for the satisfaction of others.

1. _Gray_: In the first edition of the _Elegy_ the epithet in question is
_droning_; and so it stands in the _Poems of Gray_, as edited by himself,
in 1753, 1768, &c.

2. _Dodsley_: The first edition of the important poetical miscellany which
bears his name was published in 1748, in three volumes, 12mo.

BOLTON CORNEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


MISCELLANEOUS.

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

_The New Classical Dictionary of Biography, Mythology, and History_, may be
considered as the third in that important series of Classical Dictionaries
for which the world is indebted to the learning of Dr. Smith. As the
present work is distinguished by the same excellencies which have won for
the _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_, and the _Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology_, the widely-spread reputation they
enjoy, we shall content ourselves with a few words explanatory of the
arrangement of a work which, it requires no great gift of prophecy to
foretell, must ere long push Lemprière from its stool. The present
Dictionary may be divided into three portions. The Biographical, which
includes all the historical names of importance which occur in the Greek
and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the
Western Empire; those of all Greek and Roman writers, whose works are
either extant or known to have exercised an influence upon their respective
literatures; and, lastly, those of all the more important artists of
antiquity. In the Mythological division may be noticed first, the
discrimination, hitherto not sufficiently attended to, between the Greek
and Roman mythology, and which in this volume is shown by giving an account
of the Greek divinities under their Greek names, and the Roman divinities
under their Latin names; and, secondly, what is of still more consequence,
the care to avoid as far as possible all indelicate allusions in the
respective histories of such divinities. Lastly, in the Geographical
portion of the work, and which will probably be found the most important
one, very few omissions will be discovered of names occurring in the chief
classical writers. This brief sketch of the contents of this _New Classical
Dictionary_ will satisfy our readers that Dr. Smith has produced a volume,
not only of immense value to those who are entering upon their classical
studies, but one which will be found a most useful handbook to the scholar
and the more advanced student.

_The Greek Church, A Sketch_, is the last of the Shilling Series in which
Mr. Appleyard has described {486} the different sections of Christendom,
with a view to their ultimate reunion. Like its predecessors, the volume is
amiable and interesting, but being historical rather than doctrinal, is
scarcely calculated to give the uninformed reader a very precise view of
the creed of the Greek Church. It may serve, however, to assure us that the
acrimony of religious discussion and the mutual jealousy of Church and
State, which disquiets so many minds at present, was more than matched in
the days of Constantine and Athanasius.

The last part of the _Transactions of the Academy of Sciences_ of Berlin
contains two papers by Jacob Grimm, which will doubtless be perused with
great interest in this country. The one on the ancient practice of burning
the bodies of the dead (_Ueber das Verbrennen der Leichen_) will be of
especial interest to English antiquaries; but the other, from its connexion
with the great educational questions which now occupy so much of public
attention, will probably be yet more attractive. It is entitled, _Ueber
Schüle Universität Academie_. Separate copies of these Essays may be
procured from Messrs. Williams and Norgate.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson (Wellington Street, Strand) will sell on
Monday next and two following days the valuable Dramatic and Miscellaneous
Library of the late John Fullarton, Esq., which contains an extensive
collection of the early editions of the Old English Dramatists.

We have received the following Catalogues:--Bernard Quaritch's (16. Castle
Street, Leicester Square) Catalogue No. 21. for 1850, of Antiquarian,
Historical, Heraldic, Numismatic, and Topographical Books; William Heath's
(29½, Lincoln Inn Fields) Catalogue No. 6. for 1850, of Valuable
Second-hand Books; Cole's (15. Great Turnstile) List of very Cheap Books.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

LAW'S LETTERS TO BISHOP HOADLEY.

MILLES, REV. ISAAC, ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE AND CONVERSATION OF, 1721.

BRAY, REV. T., PUBLIC SPIRIT ILLUSTRATED IN THE LIFE AND DESIGNS OF, 8vo.
1746.

HUET'S COMMERCE OF THE ANCIENTS, 1717.

VINCE'S ASTRONOMY, 3 Vols. 1808.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

JEEDEE. _Notwithstanding Dr. Parr's assertion to the contrary, the _MALLEUS
MALEFICARUM_ is by no means an uncommon book, as may be seen by a reference
to Grüsse _(Bibliotheca Magica, p. 32.)_, where upwards of a dozen editions
are enumerated, and a table of its contents may be seen. The work has been
very fully analysed in the second volume of Horst's Dämonomagie, and, if we
remember rightly, its history is told by Soldan in his _Gesch. der
Hexenprocesse.

R.H. (Trin. Coll. Dub.) _will see that it is impossible to adopt his kind
suggestion without spoiling the uniformity of the work. We have a bound
copy of our First Volume now before us, and can assure him that, although
the margin is necessarily narrow the book has not been spoilt by the
binder._

J.S. Nortor _or _Nawter_ is only the provincial mode of pronouncing
_neatherd_. The _Nolt_ market is the ancient name of a street in
Newcastle--the cattle-market. See Brockett's _Gloss. of North Country
Words_, s.v. _NOWT_ or _NOLT.

A.H. (Stoke Newington). "Limbeck" _is used by Shakspeare for _"Alembic;"_
and in the passage in Macbeth_,--

  "That memory, the warder of the brain,
  Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason
  A limbeck only."

Receipt _is used in the sense of _receptacle_; and (we quote from one of
the commentators)_, "The _limbeck_ is the vessel through which distilled
liquors pass into the recipients. So shall it be with memory, through which
every thing shall pass, and nothing remain."

DJEDALEME TEBEYR. _Some of our correspondent's articles would, we have no
doubt, have appeared ere this, but for the difficulty of deciphering his
handwriting. Our correspondents little know how greatly they would
facilitate our labours by writing more legibly._

_Errata._--P. 406, col. 2. l. 45, for "vingto" read "MSto;" l. 48, for
"indefe_n_sus" read "indefe_s_sus." P. 469, col. 1. lines 44, 50, and 53,
for "Litt_ers_" read "Litt_us_."

In the advertisement of Mr. Appleyard's _Greek Church_, in our last Number,
p. 471, for "Darling, Great _Cullen_ Street," read "Darling, Great _Queen_
Street."

       *       *       *       *       *


Labitzky's quadrille of all nations, dedicated by special permission to
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N.B.--Just published, COCKS'S MUSICAL MISCELLANY, for October, November,
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       *       *       *       *       *

DR. WORDSWORTH'S TREATISE ON THE CHURCH, SIXTH EDITION.

In crown 8vo., price 8s. 6d., the Sixth Edition of THEOPHILUS ANGLICANUS;
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the Use of Schools, Colleges, and Candidates for Holy Orders. By CHR.
WORDSWORTH, D.D., Canon of Westminster.

RIVINGTON, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place; Of whom may be had,

1. ELEMENTS OF INSTRUCTION CONCERNING THE CHURCH. By the SAME AUTHOR. 3s.
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2. CATECHESIS; or, Christian Instruction preparatory to CONFIRMATION, and
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       *       *       *       *       *

Foreign books gratis and post free.--A CATALOGUE of very Cheap Second-hand
FOREIGN BOOKS, in all European Languages, has just been issued by FRANZ
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       *       *       *       *       *

{487} NOW READY,

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       *       *       *       *       *

VALUABLE LIBRARY OF THE LATE JAMES BROWN.

MESSRS. S. LEIGH SOTHEBY & JOHN WILKINSON, Auctioneer of Literary Property
and Works Illustrative of the Fine Arts, will SELL by AUCTION, at their
House, 3. Wellington Street, Strand, on FRIDAY, December 20, 1850, and
following day, at One o'clock precisely, the VALUABLE LIBRARY of the late
JAMES BROWN, Esq., for many years a Clerk in the General Post Office,
comprising Comte Lamberg, Collection des Vases Grecs, expliquée et publiée
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To be viewed two days prior, and Catalogues had; if in the Country, on
receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. DOYLE'S CHRISTMAS BOOK.

THE STORY OF JACK AND THE GIANTS.

With Forty Illustrations by RICHARD DOYLE. Engraved by G. and E. DALZIEL.
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London: JOSEPH THOMAS, 1. Finch Lane.

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       *       *       *       *       *

CHOICE COLLECTION OF AUTOGRAPHS OF THE LATE S. GEORGE CHRISTISON,
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PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioners of Literary Property, will Sell by Auction
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curiosity, and of high literary and historical interest, in fine condition,
mostly selected from the collection of the late William Upcott, Esq., and
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on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

{488}

NEW BOOKS.

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