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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 71, March 8, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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{177}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *


"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 71.]
SATURDAY, MARCH 8. 1851.
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                   Page

  On Two Passages in "All's Well that Ends Well," by
  S. W. Singer                                                177

  George Herbert and the Church of Leighton Bromswold         178

  Folk Lore:--Sacramental Wine--"Snail, Snail, come
  out of your Hole"--Nievie-nick-nack                         179

  Records at Malta                                            180

  On an Ancient MS. of "Bedæ Historia Ecclesiastica"          180

  Minor Queries:--The Potter's and Shepherd's Keepsakes--
  Writing-paper--Little Casterton (Rutland)
  Church--The Hippopotamus--Specimens of Foreign
  English--St. Clare--Dr. Dodd--Hats of Cardinals
  and Notaries Apostolic--Baron Munchausen's Frozen
  Horn--Contracted Names of Places                            181

  QUERIES:--

  Bibliographical Queries                                     182

  Enigmatical Epitaph                                         184

  Shakspeare's "Merchant of Venice"                           185

  Minor Queries:--Was Lord Howard of Effingham a
  Protestant or a Papist?--Lord Bexley: how descended
  from Cromwell--Earl of Shaftesbury--Family of
  Peyton--"La Rose nait en un Moment"--John
  Collard the Logician--Traherne's Sheriffs of Glamorgan--
  Haybands in Seals--Edmund Prideaux, and the
  First Post-office--William Tell Legend--Arms of
  Cottons buried in Landwade Church--Sir George
  Buc's Treatise on the Stage--A Cracowe Pike--St.
  Thomas of Trunnions--Paper mill near Stevenage--
  Mounds, Munts, Mounts--Church Chests--The
  Cross-bill--Iovanni Volpe--Auriga--To speak in
  Lutestring--"Lavora, come se tu," &c.--Tomb of
  Chaucer--Family of Clench                                   185

  REPLIES:--

  Cranmer's Descendants                                       188

  Dutch Popular Song-book, by J. H. van Lennep                189

  Barons of Hugh Lupus                                        189

  Shakspeare's "Antony and Cleopatra"                         190

  "Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon!"                        191

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Ulm Manuscript--Harrison's
  Chronology--Mistletoe on Oaks--Swearing by
  Swans--Jurare ad caput animalium--Ten Children
  at a Birth--Richard Standfast--"Jurat, crede minus"--
  Rab Surdam--The Scaligers--Lincoln Missal--
  By-and-bye--Gregory the Great--True Blue--
  Drachmarus--The Brownes of Cowdray, Sussex--
  Red Hand--Anticipations of Modern Ideas by Defoe--
  Meaning of Waste-book--Deus Justificatus--
  Touchstone's Dial--Ring Dials--Cockade--Rudbeck's
  Atlantica, &c.                                              191

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      198

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                199

  Notices to Correspondents                                   199

  Advertisements                                              200

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

ON TWO PASSAGES IN "ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL."

Among the few passages in Shakspeare upon which little light has been
thrown, after all that has been written about them, are the following in
Act. IV. Sc. 2. of _All's Well that Ends Well_, where Bertram is persuading
Diana to yield to his desires:

 "_Bert._ I pr'ythee, do not strive against my vows:
    I was compell'd to her; but I love thee
    By love's own sweet constraint, and will for ever
    Do thee all rights of service.

  _Dia._ Ay, so you serve us,
    Till we serve you: but when you have our roses,
    You barely leave our thorns to prick ourselves,
    And mock us with our bareness.

  _Bert._ How have I sworn?

  _Dia._ 'Tis not the many oaths that make the truth;
    But the plain single vow, that is vow'd true.
    What is not holy, that we swear not by,
    But take the Highest to witness: Then, pray you, tell me,
    If I should swear by Jove's great attributes,
    I love'd you dearly, would you believe my oaths,
    When I did love you ill? this has no holding,
    To swear by him _whom I protest to love_,
    That I will work against him."

Read--"_when_ I protest to _Love_."

It is evident that Diana refers to Bertram's double vows, his marriage vow,
and the subsequent vow or _protest_ he had made not to keep it. "If I
should swear by Jove I loved you dearly, would you believe my oath when I
loved you ill? This has no consistency, to swear by _Jove_, when secretly I
protest to _Love_ that I will work against him (_i.e._ against the oath I
have taken to Jove)."

Bertram had _sworn by the Highest_ to love his wife; in his letter to his
mother he says:

    "I have wedded her, not bedded her, and sworn to make the _not_
    eternal:"

he secretly _protests to Love_ to work against his sacred oath; and in his
following speech he says:

 "Be not so cruel-holy, Love is holy."

He had before said:

         "----do not strive against my vows:
  I was compell'd to her; but I love thee
  By Love's own sweet constraint:"

clearly indicating that this must be the true sense of the passage. By
printing _when_ for _whom_, and _Love_ with a capital letter, to indicate
the personification, all is made clear. {178}

After further argument from Bertram, Diana answers:

 "I see that men _make ropes in such a scarre_
  That we'll forsake ourselves."

This Rowe altered to "make _hopes_ in such _affairs_," and Malone to "make
_hopes_ in such _a scene_." Others, and among them Mr. Knight and Mr.
Collier, retain the old reading, and vainly endeavour to give it a meaning,
understanding the word _scarre_ to signify a _rock_ or _cliff_, with which
it has nothing to do in this passage. There can be no doubt that "make
_ropes_" is a misprint for "make _hopes_," which is evidently required by
the context, "that we'll forsake ourselves." It then only remains to show
what is meant by _a scarre_, which signifies here _anything that causes
surprise or alarm_; what we should now write _a scare_. Shakspeare has used
the same orthography, _scarr'd_, i.e. _scared_, in _Coriolanus_ and in
_Winter's Tale_. There is also abundant evidence that this was its old
orthography, indicative of the broad sound the word then had, and which it
still retains in the north. Palsgrave has both the noun and the verb in
this form: "_Scarre_, to _scar_ crowes, espouventail." And again, "I
_scarre_ away or feare away, as a man doth crowes or such like; je
escarmouche." The French word might lead to the conclusion that _a scarre_
might be used for _a skirmish_. (See Cotgrave in v. Escarmouche.) I once
thought we should read "in such a _warre_," _i.e._ conflict.

In Minshen's _Guide to the Tongues_, we have:

    "To SCARRE, videtur confictum ex _sono_ oves vel aliud quid abigentium
    et terrorem illis incutientium. Gall. _Ahurir_ ratione eadem:" vi. _to
    feare, to fright_.

Objections have been made to the expression "make hopes;" but the poet
himself in _King Henry VIII._ has "more than I dare _make faults_," and
repeats the phrase in one of his sonnets: surely there is nothing more
singular in it than in the common French idiom, "_faire des espérances_."

S. W. SINGER.

       *       *       *       *       *

GEORGE HERBERT AND THE CHURCH AT LEIGHTON BROMSWOLD.

(Vol. iii., p. 85.)

I have great pleasure in laying before your readers the following
particulars, which I collected on a journey to Leighton Bromswold,
undertaken for the purpose of satisfying the Query of E. H. If they will
turn to _A Priest to the Temple_, ch. xiii., they will find the points to
which, with others, my attention was more especially directed.

Leighton Church consists of a western tower, nave, north and south porches
and transepts, and chancel. There are no aisles. As Prebendary of the
Prebend of Leighton Ecclesia in Lincoln Cathedral, George Herbert was
entitled to an estate in the parish, and it was no doubt a portion of the
increase of this property that he devoted to the repairing and beautifying
of the House of God, then "lying desolate," and unfit for the celebration
of divine service. Good Izaak Walton, writing evidently upon hearsay
information, and not of his own personal knowledge, was in error if he
supposed, as from his language he appears to have done, that George Herbert
almost rebuilt the church from the foundation, and he must be held to be
incorrect in describing that part of it which stood as "so decayed, so
_little_, and so useless." There are portions remaining earlier than George
Herbert's time, whose work may be readily distinguished by at least four
centuries; whilst at one end the porches, and at the other the piscina, of
Early English date, the windows, which are of different styles, and the
buttresses, afford sufficient proofs that the existing walls are the
original, and that in size the church has remained unaltered for ages. As
George Herbert new roofed the sacred edifice throughout, we may infer this
was the chief structural repair necessary. He also erected the present
tower, the font, put four windows in the chancel, and reseated the parts
then used by the congregation.

Except a western organ gallery erected in 1840, two pews underneath it, and
one elsewhere, these parts, the nave and transepts, remain, in all
probability, exactly as George Herbert left them. The seats are all
uniform, of oak, and of the good old open fashion made in the style of the
seventeenth century. They are so arranged, both in the nave and in the
transepts, that no person in service time turns his back either upon the
altar or upon the minister. (See "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. ii., p. 397.)
The pulpit against the north, and the reading-desk, with clerk's seat
attached, against the south side of the chancel-arch, are both of the same
height, and exactly similar in every respect; both have sounding-boards.
The font is placed at the west end of the nave, and, together with its
cover, is part of George Herbert's work; it stands on a single step, and a
drain carries off the water, as in ancient examples. The shallowness of the
basin surprised me. A vestry, corresponding in style to the seats, is
formed by a wooden inclosure in the south transept, which contains "a
strong and decent chest." Until the erection of the gallery, the tower was
open to the nave.

The chancel, which is raised one step above the nave, is now partly filled
with high pews, but, as arranged by the pious prebendary, it is believed to
have contained only one low bench on either side. The communion table,
which is elevated by three steps above the level of the chancel, is modern,
as are also the rails. There is a double Early English piscina in the south
wall, and an ambry in the north. A plain cross of the seventeenth century
crowns the eastern gable of the chancel externally.

No doubt there were originally "fit and proper {179} texts of scripture
everywhere painted;" but, if this were so, they are now concealed by the
whitewash. Such are not uncommon in neighbouring churches. No "poor man's
box conveniently seated" remains, but there are indications of its having
been fixed to the back of the bench nearest to the south door.

The roof is open to the tiles, being, like the seats, Gothic in design and
of seventeenth century execution. The same may be said of the tower, which
is battlemented, and finished off with pinnacles surmounted by balls, and
has a somewhat heavy appearance. But it is solid and substantial, and it is
evident that no expense was spared to make it--so far as the skill of the
time could make it--worthy of its purpose and of the donor. There are five
bells. No. 1. has the inscription:

 "IHS NAZARENVS REX IVDEORVM FILI DEI
  MISERERE MEI : GEORGE WOOLF VICAR :
  I : MICHELL : C : W : W : N. 1720."

Nos. 2. 4. and 5. contain the alphabet in Lombardic capitals; but the
inscription and date on each of them,--

 "THOMAS NOBBIS MADE ME 1641"--

show that they are not of the antiquity which generally renders the few
specimens we have of alphabet bells so peculiarly interesting, but probably
they were copied from the bells in the more ancient tower. No. 3. has in
Lombardic capitals the fragment--

 "ESME: CCATHERINA,"

and is consequently of ante-Reformation date.

The porches are both of the Early English period, and form therefore a very
noticeable feature.

On the external walls are several highly ornamented spouts, upon some of
which crosses are figured, and upon one with the date "1632" I discovered
three crests; but as I could not accurately distinguish what they were
intended to represent, I will not run the risk of describing them wrongly.
The wivern, the crest of the Herberts, did not appear; nor, so far as I
could learn, does the fabric itself afford any clue to him who was the
principal author of its restoration.

The view from the tower is extensive, and, from the number of spires that
are visible, very pleasing: fifteen or sixteen village churches are to be
seen with the naked eye; and I believe that Ely Cathedral, nearly thirty
miles distant, may be discovered with the aid of a telescope.

ARUN.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Sacramental Wine._--In a remote hamlet of Surrey I recently heard the
following superstition. In a very sickly family, of which the children were
troubled with bad fits, and the poor mother herself is almost half-witted,
an infant newly born seemed to be in a very weakly and unnatural state. One
of the gossips from the neighbouring cottages coming in, with a mysterious
look said, "Sure, the babby wanted _something_,--a drop of the sacrament
wine would do it good." On surprise being expressed at such a notion, she
added "Oh! they often gives it." I do not find any allusion in Brand's
_Antiquities_ to such popular credence. He mentions the superstition in
Berkshire, that a ring made from a piece of silver collected at the
communion (especially that on Easter Sunday) is a cure for convulsions and
fits.

ALBERT WAY.

"_Snail, Snail, come out of your Hole_" (Vol. iii., p. 132.).--Your
correspondent S. W. SINGER has brought to my recollection a verse, which I
heard some children singing near Exeter, in July last, and noted down, but
afterwards forgot to send to you:--

 "Snail, snail, shut out your horns;
    Father and mother are dead:
  Brother and sister are in the back yard,
    Begging for barley bread."

GEO. E. FRERE.

Perhaps it would not be uninteresting to add to the records of the
"Snail-charm" (Vol. iii, p. 132.), that in the south of Ireland, also, the
same charm, with a more fanciful and less threatening burden, was used
amongst us children to win from its reserve the startled and offended
snail. We entreated thus:--

   "Shell a muddy, shell a muddy,
      Put out your horns,
    For the king's daughter is
      Comings to town
  With a red petticoat and a green gown!"

I fear it is impossible to give a clue as to the meaning of the form of
invocation, or who was the royal visitor, so nationally clothed, for whose
sake the snail was expected to be so gracious.

F. J. H.

_Nievie-nick-nack._--A fire-side game, well known in Scotland; described by
Jamieson, Chambers, and (last, though not least) John M^cTaggart. The
following version differs from that given by them:--

 "Nievie, nievie, nick, neck,
  Whilk han will thou tak?
  Tak the richt, or tak the wrang,
  I'll beguile thee if I can."

It is alluded to by Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's_, iii. 102.; _Blackwood's
Magazine_, August, 1821, p. 37.

Rabelais mentions _à la nicnoque_ as one of the games played by Guargantua.
This is rendered by Urquhart _Nivinivinack: Transl._, p. 94. Jamieson
(_Supp. to Scot. Dict._, sub voce) adds:

    "The first part of the word seems to be from _Neive_, {180} the fist
    being employed in the game. Shall we view _nick_ as allied to the E.
    _v._ signifying 'to touch luckily'?"

Now, there is no such seeming derivation in the first part of the word. The
_Neive_, though employed in the game, is not the object addressed. It is
held out to him who is to guess--the conjuror--_and it is he who is
addressed_, and under a conjuring name. In short (to hazard a wide
conjecture, it may be), he is invoked in the person of NIC NEVILLE (_Neivie
Nic_), a sorcerer in the days of James VI., who was burnt at St. Andrew's
in 1569. If I am right, a curious testimony is furnished to his quondam
popularity among the common people:

    "From that he past to Sanctandrois, where a notable sorceres callit
    _Nic Neville_ was condamnit to the death and brynt," &c. &c.--_The
    Historie and Life of King Jame the Sext_, p. 40. Edin. 1825. Bannatyne
    Club Ed.

J. D. N. N.

       *       *       *       *       *

RECORDS AT MALTA.

Let me call _your_ attention, as well as that of your readers (for good may
come from both), to an article in the December No. of the _Archæological
Journal_, 1850, entitled "Notice of Documents preserved in the Record
Office at Malta;" an article which I feel sure ought to be more publicly
known, both for the sake of the reading world at large, and the high
character bestowed upon the present keeper of those records, M. Luigi
Vella, under whose charge they have been brought to a minute course of
investigation. There may be found here many things worthy of elucidation;
many secret treasures, whether for the archæologist, bibliopole, or herald,
that only require your widely disseminated "brochure" to bring nearer to
our own homes and our own firesides. It is with this view that I venture to
express a hope, that a _précis_ of that article may not be deemed
irregular; which point, of course, I must leave to your good judgment and
good taste to decide, being a very Tyro in archæology, and no book-worm
(though I really love a book), so I know nothing of _their_ points of
etiquette. At the same time I must, in justice to Mr. A. Milward (the
writer of the notice, and to whom I have not the honour of being known),
entreat his pardon for the plagiarism, if such it can be called, having
only the common "reciprocation of ideas" at heart; and remain as ever an
humble follower under Captain Cuttle's standard.

One Corporal WHIP.

    PRÉCIS of _Documents preserved in Record Office, Malta_.

    Six volumes of Records, parchment, consisting of Charters from
    Sovereigns and Princes, Grants of Land, and other documents connected
    with the Order of St. John from its establishment by Pope Pascal II.,
    whose original bull is perfect.

    Two volumes of Papers connected with the Island of Malta before it came
    into the possession of the Knights, from year 1397 to beginning of
    sixteenth century.

    A book of Privileges of the Maltese, compiled about 200 years ago.

    Several volumes of original letters from men of note: among whom we may
    mention, Viceroys of Sicily, Sovereigns of England. One from the
    Pretender, dated 1725, from Rome; three from Charles II., and one from
    his admiral, John Narbrough. Numerous Processes of Nobility, containing
    much of value to many noble families; of these last, Mr. Vella has
    taken the trouble of separating, all those referring to any English
    families.

    Also a volume of fifteenth century, containing the accounts of the
    commanderies. This is a continuation of an older and still more
    interesting volume, which is now in the Public Library.

For further particulars, see _Archælogical Journal_, December, 1850, p.
369.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON AN ANCIENT MS. OF "BEDÆ HISTORIA ECCLESIASTICA."

Some gentleman connected with the cathedral library of Lincoln may possibly
be able to give me some information respecting a MS. copy of the _Historia
Ecclesiastica_ of Beda in my possession, and of which the following
circumstances are therein apparent:--It is plainly a MS. of great
antiquity, on paper, and in folio. On a fly-leaf it has an inscription,
apparently of contemporaneous date, and which is repeated in a more modern
hand on the next page with additions, as follows:

    "Hunc librum legavit Will[=m]s Dadyngton qu^odam Vicarius de Barton sup
    humbre ecclie Lincoln ut e[=e]t sub custodia Vicecancellarii."

Then follows:--

    "Script[=u] p manus Nic[=o]i Belytt Vicecancellarii iiii^{to} die
    m[=e]sis Octob^r Anno Dni milles[=i]mo q[=u]icentessimo decimoqu[=i]to
    et Lr[=a] dñicalius G et Anno pp henrici octavi sexto."

In the hand of John, father of the more celebrated Ralph Thoresby, is
added:

    "Nunc e Libris Jo[/h]is Thoresby de Leedes emp. Executor^{bus} Tho. Dñi
    Fairfax, 1673."

Through what hands it may have passed since, I have no means of knowing;
but it came into mine from Mr. J. Wilson, 19. Great May's Buildings, St.
Martin's Lane, London, in whose Catalogue for December, 1831, it appeared,
and was purchased by me for 3l. 3s.

There it is conjectured to be of the twelfth century, and from the
character there is no reason to doubt that antiquity. It is on paper, and
has been ill-used. It proceeds no farther than into lib. v. c. xii.,
otherwise, from the beginning complete. The different public libraries of
the country abound in MSS. of this book. It is probable {181} that, under
the civil commotions in the reign of Charles I. the MS. in my possession
came into the hands of General Fairfax, and thence into those of John
Thoresby: so that no blame can possibly attach to the present, or even some
past, generations, of the curators of any library, whether cathedral or
private. It is, at all events, desirable to trace the pedigree of existing
MSS. of important works, where such information is attainable.

Perhaps some of your correspondents may be able to inform me what became of
the library of Ralph Thoresby; for into his possession, there can be little
doubt, it came from his father.

J. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_The Potter's and Shepherd's Keepsakes._--In the cabinet of a lover of
_Folk-lore_ are two quaint and humble memorials by which two "inglorious
Miltons" have perpetuated their affection, each in characteristic sort. The
one was a potter; the other, probably, a shepherd. The "pignus amoris" of
the former is a small earthenware vessel in the shape of a book, intended
apparently to hold a "nosegay" of flowers. The book has yellow clasps, and
is authentically inscribed on its sides, thus:

 "The. Love. Is. True.
  That. I. owe. You.
  Then. se. you. Bee.
  The. Like. To. Mee.

  (_On the other side._)

 "The. Gift. Is. Small.
  Good. will. Is. all.
  Jeneuery. y^e 12 day.
        1688."

The shepherd's love gift is a wooden implement, very neatly carved, and
intended to hold knitting-needles. On the front it has this couplet:

 "WHEN THIS YOV SEE.
  REMEMBER MEE. MW.

      (_On one side._)

      MW. 1673."

To an uninformed mind these sincere records of honest men seem as much
"signs of the times" as the perfumed sonnets dropped by expiring swains
into the vases of "my lady Betty," and "my lady Bab," with a view to
publication.

H. G. T.

_Writing-paper._--I have long been subject to what, in my case, I feel to
be a serious annoyance. For the last twenty years I have been unable to
purchase any letter-paper which I can write upon with comfort and
satisfaction. At first, I was allowed to choose between plain and
hot-pressed; but now I find it impossible to meet with any, which is not
glazed or smeared over with some greasy coating, which renders it very
disagreeable for use with a common quill--and I cannot endure a steel pen.
My style of writing, which is a strong round Roman hand, is only suited for
a quill.

Can any of your correspondents put me in the way of procuring the good
honest letter-paper which I want? I have in vain applied to the stationers
in every town within my reach. Would any of the paper-mills be disposed to
furnish me with a ream or two of the unglazed, plain, and unhotpressed
paper which I am anxious to obtain?

Whilst I am on this subject, I will take occasion to lament the very great
inferiority of the paper generally which is employed in printing books. It
may have a fine, glossy, smooth appearance, but its texture is so poor and
flimsy, that it soon frays or breaks, without the greatest care; and many
an immortal work is committed to a miserably frail and perishable material!

A comparison of the books which were printed a century ago, with those of
the present day, will, I conceive, fully establish the complaint which I
venture to make; and I would particularly remark upon the large Bibles and
Prayer Books which are now printed at the Universities for the use of our
churches and chapels, which are exposed to much wear and tear, and ought,
therefore, to be of more substantial and enduring texture, but are of so
flimsy, brittle, and cottony a manufacture, that they require renewing
every three or four years.

"LAUDATOR TEMPORIS ACTI."

_Little Casterton (Rutland) Church._--Within the communion rails in the
church of Little Casterton, Rutland, there lies in the pavement (or did
lately) a stone, hollowed out like the basin or drain of a piscina, which
some church-hunters have supposed to be a piscina, and have noticed as a
great singularity. The stone, however, did not originally belong to this
church; it was brought from the neighbouring site of the desecrated church
of Pickworth, by the late Reverend Richard Twopeny, who held the rectory of
Little Casterton upwards of sixty years; he had long seen it lying
neglected among the ruins, and at length brought it to his own church to
save it from destruction.

It may be interesting to some of your readers to learn that in the chancel
of Little Casterton are monumental brasses of an armed male and a female
figure, the latter on the sinister side, with the following inscription in
black letter:--

    "Hic jacet D[=n]s Thomas Burto[=n] miles quondam d[=u]s de Tolthorp ac
    ecclesiæ.... patronus qui obiit kalendas Augusti.... d[=n]a Margeria
    uxor ejus sinistris quor[um], a[=i]abus ppicietur deus amen."

R. C. H.

_The Hippopotamus_ (Vol. ii., pp. 35. 277.).--I can refer your
correspondent L. (Vol. ii, p. 35.) to one more example of a Greek writer
using the word [Greek: hippopotamos], viz., the Hieroglyphics of Horapollo
Nilous, lib. i. 56. (I quote from the edition by A. T. Cory. Pickering,
1840): {182}

    "[Greek: Adikon de kai achariston, hippopotamou onuchas duo, katô
    blepontas, graphousin]."

He there mentions the idea of the animal contending against his father,
&c.; and as he flourished in the beginning of the fifth century, it is
probable that he is the source from which Damascius took the story.

I have in my cabinet a large brass coin of the Empress Ptacilia Severa,
wife of Philip, on which is depicted the Hippopotamus, with the legend
SAECVLARES. AVGG., showing it to have been exhibited at the sæcular games.

E. S. TAYLOR.

_Specimens of Foreign English._--Several ludicrous examples have of late
been communicated (see Vol. ii., pp. 57. 138.), but none, perhaps,
comparable with the following, which I copied about two years since at
Havre, from a Polyglot advertisement of various Local Regulations, for the
convenience of persons visiting that favourite watering-place. Amongst
these it was stated that--

    _"Un arrangement peut se faire avec le pilote, pour de promenades à
    rames."_

Of this the following most literal version was enounced,--

    "One arrangement can make himself with the pilot for the walking with
    _roars_" (sic).

ALBERT WAY.

_St. Clare._--In the interesting and amusing volume of _Rambles beyond
Railways_, M. W. Wilkie Collins has attributed the church of St. Cleer in
Cornwall, with its Well and ruined Oratory, to St. Clare, the heroic Virgin
of Assisi; but in the elegant and useful _Calendar of the Anglican Church_,
the same church is ascribed to St. Clair, the Martyr of Rouen. My own
impression is, that the latter is correct; but I note the circumstance,
that some of your readers better informed than myself, may be enabled to
answer the Query, which is the right ascription? When Mr. Collins alluded
to the fate of Bishop Hippo, devoured by rats, I presume he means Bishop
Hatto, commemorated in the "Legends of the Rhine."

BERIAH BOTFIELD.

  Norton Hall, Feb. 14. 1851.

_Dr. Dodd._--On the 13th February, 1775, Dr. Dodd was inducted to the
vicarage of Wing, Bucks, on the presentation of the Earl of Chesterfield.
On the 8th February, 1777, he was arrested for forging the Earl's bond. Dr.
Dodd never resided at Wing; but, during the short period he held the
living, he preached there four times. The tradition of the parish is, that
on those occasions he preached from the following texts; all of them
remarkable, and the second and fourth especially so with reference to the
subsequent fate of the unhappy man, whose feelings they may reasonably be
supposed to embody.

The texts are as follows:--

    1 _Corinthians_ xvi. 22. "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ,
    let him be Anathema Maran-atha."

    _Micah_ vii. 8. "Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; when I fall, I
    shall arise; when I sit in darkness, the Lord shall be a light unto
    me."

    _Psalm_ cxxxix. 1, 2. "O Lord, thou hast searched me and known me. Thou
    knowest my down-sitting and mine up-rising, thou understandest my
    thought afar off."

    _Deuteronomy_ xxviii. 65, 66, 67. "And among these nations thou shalt
    find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest; but the
    Lord shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and
    sorrow of mind: and thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou
    shalt fear day and night, and shalt have none assurance of thy life: In
    the morning thou shalt say, Would God it were even! and at even thou
    shalt say, Would God it were morning! for the fear of thine heart
    wherewith thou shalt fear, and for the sight of thine eyes which thou
    shalt see."

Q. D.

_Hats of Cardinals and Notaries Apostolic_ (Vol. iii. p. 169.).--An
instance occurs in a MS. in this college (L. 10. p. 60.) circa temp. Hen.
VIII., of the arms of "Doctor Willm. Haryngton, prothonotaire apostolik,"
ensigned with a black hat, having three tassels pendant on each side: these
appendages, however, are somewhat different to those attached to the
Cardinal's hat, the cords or strings not being _fretty_. I have seen
somewhere a series of arms having the same insignia; but, at present, I
cannot say where.

THOS WM. KING, YORK HERALD.

  College of Arms, Feb. 17. 1851.

_Baron Munchausen's Frozen Horn._--

    "Till the Holy Ghost came to thaw their memories, that the words of
    Christ, like the voice in Plutarch that had become frozen, might at
    length become audible."--Hammond's _Sermons_, xvii.

These were first published in 1648.

E. H.

_Contracted Names of Places._--Kirton for Crediton, Devon; Wilscombe for
Wiveliscombe, Somersetshire; Brighton for Brighthelmstone, Sussex; Pomfret
for Pontefract, Yorkshire; Gloster for Gloucester.

J. W. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL QUERIES.

(_Continued from_ Vol. iii., p. 139.)

(43.) Is there any valid reason for not dating the publication of some of
Gerson's treatises at Cologne earlier than the year 1470? and if good cause
cannot be shown for withholding from them so high a rank in the scale of
typographic being, must we not instantly reject every effort to extenuate
Marchand's obtuseness in asserting with reference to Ulric Zell, "On ne
voit des éditions de ce Zell qu'en 1494?" (_Hist. de l'Imp._, p. 56.) {183}
Schelhorn's opinion as to the birthright of these tracts is sufficient to
awaken an interest concerning them, for he conceived that they should be
classed among the earliest works executed with cut moveable characters.
(_Diat. ad Card. Quirini lib._, p. 25. Cf. Seemiller, i. 105.) So far as I
can judge, an adequate measure of seniority has not been generally assigned
to these Zellian specimens of printing, if it be granted "Coloniam
Agrippinam post Moguntinenses primùm recepisse artem." (Meerman, ii. 106.)
This writer's representation, in his ninth plate, of the type used in 1467,
supplies us with ground for a complete conviction that these undated
Gersonian manuals are at least as old as the _Augustinus de singularitate
clericorum_. But why are they not older? Is there any document which has a
stronger conjectural claim? Van de Velde's _Catalogue_, tome i. Gand, 1831,
contains notices of some of them; and one volume before me has the first
initial letter principally in blue and gold, the rest in red, and all
elaborated with a pen. The most unevenly printed, and therefore, I suppose,
the primitial gem, is the _Tractatus de mendicitate spirituali_, in which
not only rubiform capitals, but whole words, have been inserted by a
chirographer. It is, says Van de Velde, (the former possessor,) on the
fly-leaf, "sans chiffres et réclames, en longues lignes de 27 lignes sur
les pages entières." The full stop employed is a sort of twofold,
recumbent, circumflex or caret; and the most eminent watermark in the paper
is a Unicorn, bearing a much more suitable antelopian weapon than is that
awkwardly horizontal horn prefixed by Dr. Dibdin to the Oryx in profile
which he has depicted in plate vi. appertaining to his life of Caxton:
_Typographical Antiquities_, vol. i.

(44.) Wherein do the ordinary _Hymni et Sequentiæ_ differ from those
according to the use of Sarum? Whose is the oldest _Expositio_ commonly
attached to both? and respecting it did Badius, in 1502, accomplish much
beyond a revision and an amendment of the style? Was not Pynson, in 1497,
the printer of the folio edition of the Hymns and Sequences entered in Mr.
Dickinson's valuable _List of English Service-Books_, p. 8.; or is there
inaccuracy in the succeeding line? Lastly, was the titular woodcut in
Julian Notary's impression, A.D. 1504 (Dibdin, ii. 580.), derived from the
decoration of the _Hymnarius_, and the _Textus Sequentiarum cum optimo
commento_, set forth at Delft by Christian Snellaert, in 1496? From the
first page of the latter we receive the following accession to our
philological knowledge:

    "Diabolus dicitur a _dia_, quod est duo, et _bolos_ morsus; quasi
    dupliciter mordens; quia lædit hominem in corpore et anima."

(45.) (1.) In what edition of the Salisbury Missal did the amusing errors
in the "Ordo Sponsalium" first occur; and how long were they continued? I
allude to the husband's obligation, "to haue and to holde fro thys day
_wafor beter_ for wurs," &c., and to the wife's prudential promise, "to
haue et to holde _for thys day_." (2.) Are there any vellum leaves in any
copy in England of the folio impression very beautifully printed _en rouge
et noir_ "in alma Parisiorum academia," die x. Kal. April, 1510?

(46.) On the 11th of last month (Jan.) somebody advertised in "NOTES AND
QUERIES" for _Foxes and Firebrands_. In these days of trouble and rebuke,
when (if we may judge from a recent article savouring of Neal's second
volume) it seems to be expected that English gentlemen will, in a Magazine
that bears their name, be pleased with a réchauffé of democratic obloquy
upon the character of the great reformer of their church, and will look
with favour upon _Canterburies Doome_, would it not be desirable that
Robert Ware's (and Nalson's) curious and important work should be
republished? If a reprint of it were to be undertaken, I would direct
attention to a copy in my possession of "The Third and Last Part," Lond.
1689, which has many alterations marked in MS. for a new edition, and which
exhibits the autograph of Henry Ware.

(47.) Was COHAUSEN the composer of "Clericus Deperrucatus; sive, in
fictitiis Clericorum Comis moderni seculi ostensa et explosa Vanitas: Cum
Figuris: Autore ANNOEO RHISENNO VECCHIO, Doctore Romano-Catholico," printed
at Amsterdam, and inscribed to Pope Benedict XIII.? One of the
well-finished copperplates, page 12., represents "_Monsieur l'Abbé prenant
du Tabac_."

(48.) Where can a copy of the earliest edition of the _Testamentum XII.
Patriarcharum_ be found? for if one had been easily obtainable, Grabe,
Cave, Oudin, and Wharton (_Ang. Sac._ ii. 345.) would not have treated the
third impression as the first; and let it be noted by the way that "Clerico
_Elichero_" in Wharton must be a mistake for "Clerico _Nicolao_." Moreover,
how did the excellent Fabricius (_Bibl. med. et inf. Latin._, and also
_Cod. Pseudepig. V. T._, i. 758.) happen to connect Menradus Moltherus with
the _editio princeps_ of 1483? It is certain that this writer's letter to
Secerius, accompanying a transcript of Bishop Grossetête's version, which
immediately came forth at Haguenau, was concluded "postridie Non. Januar.
M.D.XXXII."

(49.) (1.) Who was the bibliopolist with whom originated the pernicious
scheme of adapting newly printed title-pages to books which had had a
previous existence? Sometimes the deception may be discerned even at a
glance: for example, without the loss of many seconds, and by the aspect of
a single letter, (the long s,) we can perceive the falsehood of the
imprint, "Parisiis, apud Paul Mellier, 1842," together with "S.-Clodoaldi,
è typographeo Belin-Mandar," grafted upon tome i. {184} of the Benedictine
edition of S. Gregory Nazianzen's works, which had been actually issued in
1778. Very frequently, however, the comparison of professedly different
impressions requires, before they can be safely pronounced to be identical,
the protracted scrutiny of a practised eye. An inattentive observer could
not be conscious that the works of Sir James Ware, translated and improved
by Harris, and apparently the progeny of the year 1764, (the only edition,
and that but a spurious one, recorded in Watt's _Bibliotheca Britannica_,)
have been skilfully tampered with, and should be justly restored--the first
volume to 1739, the second to 1745.

(2.) We must admit that a bookseller gifted with mature sapience will very
rarely, or never, be such an amateur in expensive methods of bamboozling,
as to prefer having recourse to the title-page expedient, if he could
flatter himself that his purpose would be likely to be effected simply by
_doctoring the date_; and thus a question springs up, akin to the former
one, How great is the antiquity of this timeserving device? At this moment,
trusting only to memory, I am not able to adduce an instance of the
depravation anterior to the year 1606, when Dr. James's _Bellum Papale_ was
put forth in London as a new book, though in reality there was no novelty
connected with it, except that the last 0 in 1600 (the authentic date) had
been compelled by penmanship to cease to be a dead letter, and to germinate
into a 6.

(3.) If neither the judicious naturalisation of a title-page, nor the
dexterous corruption of the year in which a work was honestly produced,
should avail to eliminate "the stock in hand," _res ad Triarios
rediit_--there is but one contrivance left. This is, to give to the
ill-fated hoard _another name_; in the hope that a proverb properly
belonging to a rose may be superabundantly verified in the case of an old
book. What Anglo-Saxon scholar has not studied "_Divers Ancient
Monuments_," revived in 1638? and yet perhaps scarcely any one is aware
that the appellation is entirely deceptive, and that no such collection was
printed at that period. The inestimable remains of Ælfric, edited by L'Isle
in 1623, and then entitled, "_A Saxon Treatise concerning the Old and New
Testament_," together with a reprint of the "_Testimonie of Antiquitie_,"
(sanctioned by Archbishop Parker in 1567,) had merely submitted to
substitutes for the first two leaves with which they had been ushered into
the world, and after fifteen years the unsuspecting public were beguiled.
When was this system of misnomers introduced? and can a more signal
specimen of this kind of shamelessness be mentioned than that which is
afforded by the fate of Thorndike's _De ratione ac jure finiendi
Controversias Ecclesiæ Disputatio_? So this small folio in fours was
designated when it was published, Lond. 1670; but in 1674 it became
_Origines_ _Ecclesiasticæ_; and it was metamorphosed into _Restauratio
Ecclesiæ_ in 1677.

(50.) Dr. Dibdin (_Typ. Antiq._ iii. 350.) has thus spoken of a quarto
treatise, _De autoritate, officio, et potestate Pastorum
ecclesiasticorum_:--

    "This very scarce book is anonymous, and has neither date, printer's
    name, nor place; but being bound up with two other tracts of
    Berthelet's printing _are my reasons_ for giving it a place here."

The argument and the language in this sentence are pretty nearly on a par;
for as misery makes men acquainted with dissimilar companions, why may not
parsimony conglutinate heterogeneous compositions? I venture to deny
altogether that the engraved border on the title-page was executed by an
English artist. It seems rather to be an original imitation of Holbein's
design: and as regards the date, can we not perceive what was meant for a
modest "1530" on a standard borne by one of the boys in procession? In
Simler's Gesnerian _Bibliotheca_ SIMON HESS (let me reiterate the question,
Who was he?) is registered as the author; and of his work we read, "Liber
impressus in Germania." This observation will determine its locality to a
certain extent; and the tractate may be instantly distinguished from all
others on the same subject by the presence of the following alliterative
frontispiece:--

 "Primus Papa, potens Pastor, pietate paterna,
  Petrus, perfectam plebem pascendo paravit.
  Posthabito plures populo, privata petentes,
  Pinguia Pontifices, perdunt proh pascua plebis."

R. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

ENIGMATICAL EPITAPH.

In the church of Middleton Tyas, in the North Riding of the county, there
is the following extraordinary inscription on the monument of a learned
incumbent of that parish:--

    "This Monument rescues from oblivion the Remains of the Rev. John
    Mawer, D.D., late Vicar of this Parish, who died Nov. 18th, 1763, aged
    60. The doctor was descended from the royal family of Mawer, and was
    inferior to none of his illustrious ancestors in personal merit, being
    the greatest linguist this nation ever produced. He was able to write
    and speak twenty-two languages, and particularly excelled in the
    Eastern tongues, in which he proposed to his Royal Highness Frederick
    Prince of Wales, to whom he was firmly attached, to propagate the
    Christian religion in the Abyssinian empire,--a great and noble design,
    which was frustrated by the death of that amiable prince."

Whitaker, after giving the epitaph verbatim in his _History of
Richmondshire_, vol. i. p. 234., says:

    "This extraordinary personage, who may seem to have been qualified for
    the office of universal interpreter to all the nations upon earth,
    appears, {185} notwithstanding, to have been unaware that the Christian
    religion, in however degraded a form, has long been professed in
    Abyssinia. With respect to the royal line of Mawer I was long
    distressed, till, by great good fortune, I discovered that it was no
    other than that of old King Coyl."

As I happen to feel an interest in the subject which disinclines me to rest
satisfied with the foregoing hasty--not to say flippant explanation of the
learned historian, I am anxious to inquire whether or not any reader of the
"NOTES AND QUERIES" can throw light on the history, and especially the
genealogy, of this worthy and amiable divine? While I have reason to
believe that Dr. Mawer was about the last person in the world to have
composed the foregoing eulogy on his own character, I cannot believe that
the allusion to illustrious ancestors "is merely a joke," as Whitaker seems
to imply; while it is quite certain that there is nothing in the
inscription to justify the inference that the deceased had been "unaware
that the Christian religion" had "long been professed in Abyssinia:"
indeed, an inference quite the reverse would be quite as legitimate.

J. H.

  Rotherfield, Feb. 23. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE'S "MERCHANT OF VENICE"

(Act IV. Sc. 1.).

In the lines--

 "The quality of Mercy is not strained,
  It droppeth, as the gentle rain from heaven,
  Upon the place beneath."

What is the meaning of the word "strained?" The verb _to strain_ is
susceptible of two essentially different interpretations; and the question
is as to which of the two is here intended? On referring to Johnson's
Dictionary, we find, amongst other synonymous terms, _To squeeze through
something; to purify by filtration; to weaken by too much violence; to push
to its utmost strength_. Now, if we substitute either of the two latter
meanings, we shall have an assertion that "Mercy is not weakened by too
much violence (or put to its utmost strength), but droppeth, as the gentle
rain from heaven," &c., where it would require a most discerning editor to
explain the connexion between the two clauses. If, on the other hand, we
take the first two meanings, the passage is capable of being understood, if
nothing else. Beginning with _to squeeze through something_; what would
present itself to our ideas would be, that "Mercy does not fall in one
continuous stream (as would be the case, if _strained_) on one particular
portion of the earth, but expands into a large and universal shower, so as
to spread its influence over the entire globe." This, however, though not
absurd, is, I fear, rather forced.

To come to the second explanation of _to purify_, which in my opinion is
the most apt, I take it that Shakspeare intended to say, that "Mercy is so
pure and undefiled as to require no cleansing, but falls as gently and
unsullied as the showers from heaven, ere soiled by the impurities of
earth."

With these few remarks, I shall leave the matter in the hands of those
whose researches into the English language may have been deeper than my
own, with a hope that they may possess time and inclination to promote the
elucidation of a difficulty in one of the most beautiful passages of our
great national bard; a difficulty, by the way, which seems to have escaped
the notice of all the editors and commentators.

L. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Was Lord Howard of Effingham, who commanded in chief against the Spanish
Armada, a Protestant or a Papist?_--On the one hand, it is highly
improbable that Queen Elizabeth should employ a popish commander against
the Spaniards.

1. The silence of Dr. Lingard and other historians is also negatively in
favour of his being a Protestant.

But, on the other hand, it has been repeatedly asserted, in both houses of
Parliament, that he was a Papist.

2. It is _likely_, because his _father_ was the eldest son by his second
wife of Thomas, second Duke of Norfolk, and was created Baron Howard of
Effingham by Queen Mary.

3. Whatever his own religion may have been, he was contemporary with his
cousin, Philip, Earl of Arundel, whom Camden calls the champion of the
Catholics, and whose _violence_ was the cause of his perpetual
imprisonment.

4. The present Lord Effingham has recently declared that by blood he was
(had always been?) connected with the Roman Catholics.

Under these and _other_ circumstances, it is a question to be settled by
_evidence_.

C. H. P.

  Brighton.

_Lord Bexley--how descended from Cromwell?_--In the notice of the late Lord
Bexley in _The Times_, it is stated that he was _maternally_ descended from
Oliver Cromwell, the Protector, through the family of Cromwell's
son-in-law, Ireton.

Burke, in his _Peerage_, mentions that Henry Vansittart, father of Lord
Bexley, was governor of Bengal (circa 1770), and that he married Amelia
Morse, daughter of Nicolas Morse, governor of Madras.

It would therefore appear that this said Nicolas Morse was a descendant of
General Ireton. I wish to ascertain if this assumption be correct; and, if
correct, when and how the families of Morse and Ireton became connected? If
any of your correspondents can furnish information on this {186} subject,
or acquaint me where I can find any account or pedigree of the Morse
family, I shall feel much indebted to them.

PURSUIVANT.

_Earl of Shaftesbury._--I have read with great interest Lord Shaftesbury's
letter to Le Clerc, published in No. 67. May I ask your correspondents
JANUS DOUSA and Professor des Amories VAN DER HOVEN, whether the
Remonstrants' library of Amsterdam contains any papers relating to the
first Earl of Shaftesbury, which might have been sent by the third Earl to
Le Clerc; and whether any notices or traditions remain in Amsterdam of the
first Lord Shaftesbury's residence and death in that city? Any information
relative to the first Earl of Shaftesbury will greatly oblige.

CH.

_Family of Peyton._--Admiral Joseph Peyton [Post-Captain, December 2,
1757--Admiral, 1787--ob. 1804] was Admiral's First Captain in the fleet
under Darby, at the relief of Gibraltar, 1781. He was son of Commodore
Edward Peyton [Post-Captain, April 4, 1740], who is supposed to have gone
over from England, and settled in America, and there to have died. I should
be very glad of further particulars of these persons. Are my dates correct?
How is this branch of the family (lately represented by John Joseph Peyton,
Esq., of Wakehurst, who married a daughter of Sir East Clayton East, Bart.,
and died in 1844, leaving four children minors) connected with the Baronets
Peyton, of Iselham, or Dodington? Who was the father of the above
Commodore? It may aid the inquiry to mention that this branch is related to
the Grenfell family: William Peyton, second son of the above Admiral
Joseph, having married a first cousin of Pascoe Grenfell, Esq., M.P. for
Great Marlow (who died in 1833).

ACHE.

"_La Rose nait en un Moment._"--I wish to learn the name of the author of
the following verses, and where they are to be found. Any of your
correspondents who can inform me shall receive my sincere thanks:--

 "La Rose nait en un moment,
  En un moment elle est flêtrie;
  Mais ce que pour vous mon coeur sent,
  Ne finira qu'avec ma vie."

T. H. K.

  Malew, Man.

_John Collard the Logician._--Could any of your correspondents tell me
where I could find any account of _John Collard_, who wrote three treatises
on Logic:--The first, under the name of _N. Dralloc_ (his name reversed),
_Epitome of Logic_, Johnson, St. Paul's Church Yard, 1795; in his own name,
_Essentials of Logic_, Johnson, 1796; and in 1799, the _Praxis of Logic_.
He is mentioned as _Dralloc_ by Whately and Kirwan; but nobody seems to
have known him as _Collard_ but Levi Hedge, the American writer on that
subject. I made inquiry, some forty years ago, and was informed that he
lived at Birmingham, was a chairmaker by profession, and devoted much of
his time to chemistry; that he was known to and esteemed by Dr. Parr; and
that he was then dead.

At the close of his preface to his _Praxis_ he says,--

    "And let me inform the reader also, that this work was not composed in
    the pleasant tranquillity of retirement, but under such untoward
    circumstances, that the mind was subject to continual interruptions and
    vexatious distraction."

Then he adds,--

    "I have but little doubt but this _Praxis_ will, at some future period,
    find its way into the schools; and though critics should at present
    condemn what they have either no patience or inclination to examine, I
    feel myself happy in contemplating, that after I am mouldered to dust,
    it may assist our reason in this most essential part."

B. G.

  Feb. 20. 1851.

_Traherne's Sheriffs of Glamorgan._--Could any of your readers tell me
where I might see a copy of _A List of the Sheriffs of County Glamorgan_,
printed (privately?) by Rev. J. M. Traherne? I have searched the libraries
of the British Museum, the Athenæum Club, and the Bodleian at Oxford, in
vain.

EDMOND W.

_Haybands in Seals._--I have, in a small collection of Sussex deeds, two
which present the following peculiarity: they have the usual slip of
parchment and lump of wax pendant from the lower edge, but the wax, instead
of bearing an armorial figure, a merchant's mark, or any other of the
numerous devices formerly employed in the authentication of deeds instead
of one's chirograph, has neatly inserted into it a small wreath composed of
two or three stalks of grass (or rather hay) carefully plaited, and forming
a circle somewhat less in diameter than a shilling. The deeds, which were
executed in the time of Henry the Seventh, relate to the transfer of small
landed properties. I have no doubt that this diminutive _hayband_ was the
distinctive mark of a grazier or husbandman who did not consider his social
status sufficient to warrant the use of a more regular device by way of
seal. I have seen a few others connected with the same county, and, if I
recollect rightly, of a somewhat earlier date. I shall be glad to ascertain
whether this curious practice was in use in other parts of England.

M. A. LOWER.

  Lewes.

_Edmund Prideaux, and the First Post-office._--Polwhele, in his _History of
Cornwall_, says, p. 139.:

    "To our countryman Edmund Prideaux we owe the regular establishment of
    the Post-office."

{187}

He says again, p. 144.:

"Edmund Prideaux, Attorney-General to Oliver Cromwell, and _Inventor_ of
the Post-office."

Now the Edmund spoken of as Attorney-General, was of Ford Abbey, in
Devonshire, and second son of Sir Edmund Prideaux, of Netherton, in the
said county, therefore could not be one of the Cornish branch.

Query No. 1. Who was the Edmund Prideaux, his countryman, that regularly
established the Post-office?

Query No. 2. How were letters circulated before his time?

Query No. 3. Was Edmund Prideaux the Attorney-General, the inventor of the
Post-office, as he states; if not, who was?

Query No. 4. Has any life of Edmund Prideaux as Attorney-General been
published, or is any account of him to be found in any work?

G. P. P.

_William Tell Legend._--Could any of your readers tell me the true origin
of the William Tell apple story? I find the same story told of--

(1.) Egil, the father of the famous smith Wayland, who was instructed in
the art of forging metals by two dwarfs of the mountain of Kallova.
(Depping, _Mém. de la Société des Antiquaires de France_, tom. v. pp. 223.
229.)

(2.) Saxo Grammaticus, who wrote nearly a century before Tell, tells nearly
the same story of one Toko, who killed Harold.

(3.) "There was a souldier called Pumher, who, daily through witchcraft,
killed three of his enemies. This was he who shot at a pennie on his son's
head, and made ready another arrow to have slain the Duke Remgrave (?
Rheingraf), who commanded it." (Reginald Scot, 1584.)

(4.) And Adam Bell, Clym of the Clough, and William of Cloudeslie.

G. H. R.

_Arms of Cottons buried in Landwade Church, &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 39.).--Will
JONATHAN OLDBUCK, JUN., oblige me by describing the family coat-armour
borne by the Cottons mentioned in his Note? It may facilitate his inquiry,
in which, by the way, I am much interested.

R. W. C.

_Sir George Buc's Treatise on the Stage._--What has become of this MS.? Sir
George Buc mentions it in _The Third University of England_, appended to
Stowe's _Annals_, ed. 1631, p. 1082.--

    "Of this art [the dramatic] have written largely _Petrus Victorius_,
    &c.--as it were in vaine for me to say anything of the art; besides,
    that _I have written thereof a particular treatise_."

If this manuscript could be discovered, it would doubtless throw
considerable light upon the Elizabethan drama.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_A Cracowe Pike_ (Vol. iii., p. 118.).--Since I sent you the Query
respecting a _Cracowe Pike_, I have found that I was wrong in supposing it
to be a weapon or spear: for _Cracowe Pikes_ was the name given to the
preposterous "piked shoes," which were fashionable in the reign of Richard
II., and which were so long in the toes that it was necessary to tie them
with chains to the knee, in order to render it possible for the wearer to
walk. Stowe, in his _Chronicle_, tells us that this extravagant fashion was
brought in by Anne of Bohemia, Queen of Richard II. But why were they
called _Cracowe_ pikes?

I. H. T.

_St. Thomas of Trunnions._--Who was this saint, and why is he frequently
mentioned in connexion with onions?

 "Nay softe, my maisters, by _Saincte Thomas of Trunions_,
  I am not disposed to buy of your _onions_."
                  _Apius and Virginia_, 1575.

 "And you that delight in trulls and minions,
  Come buy my four ropes of hard _S. Thomas's onions_."
                  _The Hog hath lost his Pearl_, 1614.

    "Buy my rope of onions--white _St. Thomas's onions_," was one of the
    cries of London in the seventeenth century.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Paper-mill near Stevenage_ (Vol. ii., p. 473.).--In your number for
December 14, 1850, one of your correspondents, referring to Bartholomeus
_de Prop. Rerum_, mentions a paper-mill near Stevenage, in the county of
Hertford, as being probably the earliest, or one of the earliest,
established in England. I should feel much obliged if your correspondent,
through the medium of your pages, would favour me with any further
particulars on this subject; especially as to the site of this mill, there
being no stream within some miles of Stevenage capable of turning a mill. I
have been unable to find any account of this mill in either of the county
histories.

HERTFORDIENSIS.

_Mounds, Munts, Mounts._--In the parish register of Maresfield in Sussex,
there is an entry recording the surrender of a house and three acres of
land, called the "Mounds," in 1574, to the use of the parish; and in the
churchwardens' accounts at Rye, about the same time, it is stated that the
church of Rye was entitled to a rent from certain lands called "Mounts." In
Jevington, too, there are lands belonging to the Earl of Liverpool called
Munts or Mounts, but whether at any time belonging to the church, I am
unable to say. Any information as to the meaning of the word, or account of
its occurring elsewhere, will much oblige

R. W. B.

_Church Chests._--A representation of two knights engaged in combat is
sometimes found on ancient church chests. Can any one explain the meaning
of it? Examples occur at Harty Chapel, Kent, and Burgate, Suffolk. The
former is mentioned in the _Glossary of Architecture_, and described as a
carving: the latter is painted only, {188} and one of the knights is
effaced: the other is apparently being unhorsed; he wears a jupon
embroidered in red, and the camail, &c., of the time of Richard II.: a
small shield is held in his left hand: his horse stoops its head,
apparently to water, through which it is slowly pacing. Is this a subject
from the legend of some saint, or from one of the popular romances of the
middle ages? Are any other examples known?

C. R. M.

_The Cross-bill._--Is "The Legend of the Cross-bill," translated from
Julius Mosen by Longfellow, a genuine early tradition, or only a fiction of
the poet?

2. Is the Cross-bill considered in any country as a sacred bird? and was it
ever so used in architectural decoration, illumination, or any other works
of sacred art?

3. What is the earliest record on evidence of the Cross-bill being known in
England?

H. G. T.

  Launceston.

_Iovanni Volpe._--Can any of your readers supply a notice of IOVANNI VOLPE,
mentioned in a MS. nearly cotemporary to have been

    "An Italian doctor, famous in Queen Elizabeth's time, who went with
    George Earl of Cumberland most of his sea voyages, and was with him at
    the taking of Portorico?"

Another MS., apparently of the date of James I., describes him as
"physician to Queen Elizabeth."

He had a daughter, Frances, widow of Richard Evers, Esq. ("of the family of
Evers of Coventry"), who married, 2d November, 1601, Richard Hughes, Esq.,
then a younger son, but eventually representative, of the ancient house of
Gwerclas and Cymmer-yn-Edeirnion, in Merionethshire, and died 29th June,
1636.

M. N. O.

_Auriga._--How comes the Latin word AURIGA to mean "a charioteer?"

VARRO.

_To speak in Lutestring._--1. Philo-Junius--that is, Junius himself--in the
47th Letter, writes:

    "I was led to trouble you with these observations by a passage which,
    _to speak in lutestring_, I met with this morning, in the course of my
    reading."

Had the expression in Italics been used before by any one?

2. In the 56th Letter, addressed to the Duke of Grafton, Junius asks:

    "Is the union of _Blifil_ and _Black George_ no longer a romance?"

What part of that story is here referred to?

VARRO.

"_Lavora, come se tu," &c._--In Bohn's edition of Jeremy Taylor's _Holy
Living and Dying_, I observe in the notes several Italian sentences, mostly
couplets or proverbs. One peculiarly struck me: and I should feel obliged
if any of your readers could tell me whence it was taken, name of author,
&c. The couplet runs thus (Vide p. 182. of the work):--

 "Lavora, come se tu avessi a camper ogni hora:
  Adora, come se tu avessi a morir allora."

Indeed it would not be amiss, if _all_ the notes were marked with authors'
names or other reference, as I find some few of the Latin quotations as
well as the Greek, and _all_ the Italian ones, require a godfather.

W. H. P.

_Tomb of Chaucer._--Are any of the existing English families descended from
the poet Chaucer? If so, might they not fairly be applied to for a
contribution to the proposed restoration of his tomb? His son Thomas
Chaucer left an heiress, married to De la Pole, Duke of Suffolk; but I have
not the means of ascertaining whether any of their posterity are extant.

C. R. M.

_Family of Clench._--Can any of your readers supply me with the parentage
and family of _Bruin Clench_ of St. Martin's in the Fields, citizen of
London? He married Catharine, daughter of William Hippesley, Esq., of
Throughley, in Edburton, co. Sussex; and was living in 1686. His christian
name does not appear in the pedigrees of the Clinche or Clench family of
Bealings and Holbrook, co. Suffolk, in the _Heralds' Visitations_, in the
British Museum. His daughter married Roger Donne, Esq., of Ludham, co.
Norfolk, and was the maternal grandmother of the poet Cowper.

C. R. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

CRANMER'S DESCENDANTS.

(Vol. iii., p. 8.)

Your correspondent may be interested to know, that Sir Anthony Chester,
Bart., of Chichley, co. Bucks, married, May 21, 1657, Mary, dau. of Samuel
Cranmer, Esq., alderman of London, and sister to Sir Cæsar Cranmer, Kt., of
Ashwell, Bucks. This Samuel Cranmer was traditionally the last male heir of
the eldest of Cranmer's sons; his descent is, I believe, stated in general
terms in the epitaphs of Lady Chester, at Chichley, and Sir Cæsar Cranmer,
at Ashwell. He was a great London brewer by trade, and married his cousin
Mary (sister of Thomas Wood, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and Sir
Henry Wood, Bart., of the Board of Green Cloth), dau. of Thomas Wood, Esq.,
of Hackney, by his wife ---- Cranmer. They had only two children, and it
would appear from Harleian MS. No. 1476. fo. 419., which omits all mention
of Sir Cæsar, that he died in his father's lifetime, and that Lady Chester
was sole heiress to this branch of the Cranmers.

There are two brief pedigrees I have seen of these Cranmers, one in Harl.
MS. 1476. above {189} mentioned, the other in Philipot's _Catalogue of
Knights_; but neither of them goes so far as to connect them with the
archbishop, or even with the Nottinghamshire family; for they both begin
with Samuel Cranmer's grandfather, who is described of Alcester, co.
Warwick. Now the connexion is certain: could one of your readers supply me
with the wanting links? Is it possible that they omit all mention of the
archbishop on account of the prejudice mentioned by your correspondent;
being able to supply the three generations necessary to gentility without
him?

I am obliged to write without any books of reference, or I would have
consulted the epitaphs in question again.

R. E. W.

I am afraid that my quotations from memory, in my letter of Saturday, were
_not exactly correct_; for on examining Lipscomb's _Buckinghamshire_
to-day, I find that it is stated (vol. iv. pp. 4-7.) on the monument of
Samuel Cranmer at _Astwood Bury_, that he was "descended in a direct line
from Richard Cranmer, elder brother to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury;"
and that it was found, on an inquisition held on April 7, 1640, that his
son and heir Cæsar Cranmer (called on the monument "Sir Cæsar Wood At^e
Cranmer, Kt.") was his heir at six years of age. This Cæsar was knighted by
Charles II., and died unmarried; so that his sister, Lady Chester, was
evidently the representative of this branch of the Cranmer family.

Now, with regard to this statement on the monument, in the first place it
is discrepant with Lady Chester's epitaph at Chichley, which (Lipscomb's
_Bucks_, vol. iv. p. 97.) expressly declares that she derived her descent
from the archbishop. In the next place it appears from Thoroton's _Notts_,
that the archbishop had no elder brother named Richard. His elder brother's
name was John; who by Joan, dau. of John Frechevill, Esq., had two sons,
Thomas and _Richard_. Could this be the Richard alluded to? In the third
place, in neither of the pedigrees alluded to is there given any connexion
with the family of Cranmer of Aslacton. And, lastly, it is opposed to the
uniform tradition of the family. Now, if any of your readers can clear up
this difficulty, or will refer me to any other pedigree of the Cranmers, I
shall feel extremely obliged to him.

With the exception of the points now noticed, my former letter was
perfectly correct, and may be relied on in every respect.

I may mention that these Cranmers were from Warwickshire. The monument
states that Samuel Cranmer was born at "Aulcester" in that county, "about
the year 1575."

R. E. W.

       *       *       *       *       *

DUTCH POPULAR SONG-BOOK.

(Vol. iii., p. 22.)

The second edition of the song-book mentioned by the HERMIT OF HOLYPORT
must have been published between 1781 and 1810, as the many popular works
printed for S. and W. Koene may testify. In 1798 they lived on the Linde
gracht, but shifted afterwards their dwelling-place to the Boomstraat. For
the above information--about a trifle, interesting enough to call a
_hermit_ from his _memento-mori_ cogitations--I am indebted to the kindness
of Mr. J. J. NIEUWENHUYZEN.

But, alas! what can I, the man with a _borrowed name_ and borrowed
learning, say in reply to the first Query of the busy anchorite? He will
believe me, when I tell his reverence that I am _not_ JANUS DOUSA. What's
in the name, that I could choose it? Must I confess? A token of grateful
remembrance; the only means of making myself known to a British friend of
my youth, but for whom I would perhaps never have enjoyed MR. HERMIT'S
valuable contributions--the medium, in short, of being recognised
incognito. Will this do? Or must I say, copying a generous correspondent of
"NOTES AND QUERIES,"--Spare my blushes, I am

J. H. VAN LENNEP.

  Amsterdam, Feb. 25. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

BARONS OF HUGH LUPUS.

(Vol. iii., p. 87.)

Your correspondent P. asks for information respecting the families and
descendants of William Malbank and Bigod de Loges, two of the Barons of
Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, whose signatures are affixed to the charter of
foundation of St. Werburgh's Abbey at Chester.

Of the descendants of William Malbank I can learn nothing; but it appears
from the MS. catalogue of the Norman nobility before the Conquest, that
Roger and Robert de Loges possessed lordships in the district of Coutances
in Normandy. One at least, Roger, must have accompanied the Conqueror to
England (and his name appears in the roll of Battle Abbey as given by Fox),
for we find that he held lands in Horley and Burstowe in Surrey. His widow,
Gunuld de Loges, held the manor of Guiting in Gloucestershire of King
William; and in the year 1090 she gave two hides of land to the monastery
of Gloucester to pray for the soul of her husband. Roger had two sons,
Roger and Bigod, or, as he is sometimes called, Robert. The former
inherited the lands in Surrey. One of his descendants (probably his
great-grandson) was high sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in the years 1267,
1268, and 1269. His son Roger de Loges owned lands and tenements in Horley,
called La Bokland, which he sold to the Abbot of {190} Chertsea. His
successor, John de Logge of Burstowe, witnessed in the tenth year of Edward
II. a deed relating to the transfer of land in Hadresham, Surrey. The name
became gradually corrupted to Lodge.

To return to the subject of inquiry, Bigod de Loges--

    "held five tenements in Sow of the Earl of Chester, by the service of
    conducting the said earl towards the king's court through the midst of
    the forest of Cannock, meeting him at Rotford bridge upon his coming,
    and at Hopwas bridge on his return. In which forest the earl might, if
    he pleased, kill a deer at his coming, and another at his going back:
    giving unto Loges each time he should so attend him a barbed arrow.
    Hugo de Loges granted to William Bagot all his lands in Sow, to hold of
    him the said Hugo and his heirs, by the payment of a pair of white
    gloves at the feast of St. Michael yearly."--Dugdale.

Bigod de Loges had two sons, Hugo and Odardus:

    "Odardus de Loges was infeoffed by Ranulphus de Meschines, Earl of
    Chester, in the baronies of Stanyton, Wigton, Doudryt, Waverton,
    Blencoyd, and Kirkbride, in the county of Cumberland; and the said
    Odardus built Wigton church and endowed it. He lived until King John's
    time. Henry I. confirmed the grant of the barony to him, by which it is
    probable that he lived a hundred years. He had issue Adam. Adam had
    issue Odard, the lord, whose son and heir, Adam the Second, died
    without issue, and Odard the Fourth likewise," &c.--Denton's _MS._

Of the branch settled in Staffordshire and Warwickshire--

    "Hugo de Loges married, tempo Richard I., Margerie, daughter and
    heiress of Robert de Brok. By this marriage Hugo became possessed of
    the manor of Casterton in Warwickshire. He was forester of Cannock
    chace. He had issue Hugo de Loges, of Chesterton, whose son and heir,
    Sir Richard de Loges, died 21st of Edward I. Sir Richard had issue two
    sons, Richard and Hugo. The eldest, Richard of Chesterton, left issue
    an only daughter, Elizabeth, married to Nicholas de Warwick. The issue
    of this marriage was John de Warwick, whose daughter and heiress,
    Eleonora, married Sir John de Peto, and brought the manor of Chesterton
    into that family."--Dugdale.

M. J. T.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE'S "ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA."

(Vol. iii., p. 139.)

The scene in _Antony and Cleopatra_ contains two expressions which are in
_Henry VIII._--

         "Learn this, Silius."
 "Learn this, brother."--_Hen. VIII._

         "The Captain's captain."
 "To be her Mistress' mistress, the Queen's queen."--_Hen. VIII._

The first of these passages is in a scene in _Henry VIII._, which MR.
HICKSON gives to Fletcher (and of which, by-the-bye, it may be observed,
that, like the scene in _Antony and Cleopatra_, it has nothing to do with
the business of the play). The other is in a scene which he gives to
Shakspeare.

But, perhaps, there may be doubts whether rightly. I am exceedingly
ignorant in Fletcher; but here is a form of expression which occurs twice
in the scene, which, I believe, is more conformable to the practice of
Fletcher:--

 "_A_ heed was in his countenance."
 "And force them with _a_ constancy."

There is very great stiffness in the versification: one instance is quite
extraordinary:

                 "Yet I know her for
  A spleeny Lutheran; and not wholesome to
  Our cause, that she should lie i' the bosom of
  Our hard rul'd king."

There is great stiffness and tameness in the matter in many places.

Lastly, what MR. HICKSON hopes he has taken off Shakspeare's shoulders, the
compliments to the Queen and the King, is brought in here most forcedly:--

 "She (_i.e._ A. Boleyn) is a gallant creature, and complete
  In mind and feature. I persuade me, from her
  Will fall some blessings to this land, which shall
  In it be memoriz'd."

But there is also the general question, whether, either upon _à priori_
probability, or inferences derived from particular passages, we are bound
to suppose that the two authors wrote scene by scene. Shakspeare might
surely be allowed to touch up scenes, of which the mass might be written by
Fletcher.

As to the dates, MR. COLLIER is persuaded that _Henry VIII._ was written in
the winter of 1603-4. The accession of James was in March, 1603. MR.
COLLIER thinks that the compliments to Queen Elizabeth were not written in
her lifetime. He thinks that, even in the last year of her long reign, no
one would have ventured to call her an "aged princess," though merely as a
way of saying that she would have a long reign; and he says, there is not
the slightest evidence that the compliment to King James was an
interpolation. But surely it is strong evidence that if there is no
interpolation, this passage--

                 "As when
  The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phoenix,"

afterwards--

 "When Heav'n shall call her from this cloud of darkness,"

and then, after disposing of the King--

 "She shall be to the happiness of England
  An aged princess     .    .    .
      .    .    .    .    .    .
  Would I had known no more--but she must die;
  She must--the saints must have her yet a virgin," &c.

{191} would be ridiculous. All that can be said is, that either way it is
partly ridiculous to make it a matter of prophecy and lamentation that a
human being must, sometime or other, die.

But it is very difficult to conceive that the compliments to Elizabeth
should have been written after her death.

Fletcher, born in 1579, did not, in Mr. Dyce's opinion, bring out anything
singly or jointly with Beaumont till 1606 or 1607.

The irrelevant scenes, like that of Ventidius, are introduced with two
objects--one to gain time, the other for the sake of naturalness: of the
latter of which there are two instances in _Macbeth_; one where the King
talks of the swallows' nests: the other, relating to the English king
touching for the evil, seems remarkably suited to the mind of Shakspeare.

C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

"SUN, STAND THOU STILL UPON GIBEON!"

(JOSH. x. 12.)

(Vol. iii., p. 137.)

The observations of I. K. upon this passage have obviously proceeded from a
praiseworthy wish to remove what has appeared to some minds to be
inconsistent with that perfect truth which they expect to be the result of
divine inspiration. I. K. doubtless believes that God put it into the heart
of Joshua to utter a command for the miraculous continuance of daylight.
But why should he expect the inspiration to extend so far as to instruct
Joshua respecting the manner in which that continuance was to be brought
about? Joshua was not to be the worker of the miracle. It was to be wrought
by Him who can as easily stop any part of the stupendous machinery of His
universe, as we can stop the wheels of a watch. Joshua was left to speak,
as he naturally would, in terms well fitted to make those around him
understand, and tell others, that the sun and moon, whom the defeated
people notoriously worshipped, were so far from being able to protect their
worshippers, that they were made to promote their destruction at the
bidding of Joshua, whom God had commissioned to be the scourge of
idolaters. And when the inspired recorder of the miracle wrote that "the
sun stood still," he told what the eyes saw, with the same truth as I might
say that the sun _rose_ before seven this morning. Inspiration was not
bestowed to make men wise in astronomy, but wise unto salvation.

Those who think that the inspired penman should have said "the earth stood
still," in order to give a perfectly true account of the miracle, have need
to be told, or would do well to remember, that the stopping of the diurnal
revolution of the earth, in order to keep the sun and moon's apparent
places the same, would not involve a cessation of its motion in its orbit,
still less a cessation of that great movement of the whole solar system, by
which it is now more than conjectured that the sun, the moon, and the earth
are all carried on together at the rate of above 3700 miles in an hour; so
that to say "the earth stood still" would be liable to the same objection,
viz., that of not being astronomically true. I. K. carries his notion of
the "inseparable connexion" of the sun "with all planetary motion" too far,
when he supposes that a stoppage of the sun's motion round its own axis
would have any effect on our planet. The note he quotes from Kitto's
_Pictorial Bible_ is anything but satisfactory; and that from Mant is
childishly common-place. Good old Scott adverts with propriety to the
Creator's power to keep all things in their places, when the earth's
revolution was stopped; but when he endeavoured to illustrate it by the
little effect of a ship's _casting anchor when under full sail_, he should
have consulted his friend Newton, who would have stopped such an
imagination. Another commentator, Holden, has argued, in spite of the
Hebrew, that "in the midst of heaven" cannot mean mid-day, having made up
his mind that the moon can never be seen at that hour!

Such helpers do but make that difficult which, if received in its
simplicity, need neither perplex a child nor a philosopher.

H. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Ulm Manuscript_ (Vol. iii., p. 60.).--The late Bishop Butler's collection
of manuscripts is in the British Museum. I send you a copy of the bishop's
own description of the MS. (which should be called the _St. Gall MS._),
from the printed Catalogue, which was prepared for a sale by auction,
previous to the negociation with the trustees for the purchase of the
collection for the nation.

    "Acta Apostolorum. Epistolæ Pauli et Catholicæ cum Apocalypsi. Latinè.
    Sæculi IX. Upon Vellum. 4to.

The date of this most valuable and important manuscript is preserved by
these verses:

 'Iste liber Pauli retinet documenta sereni
  Hartmodus Gallo quem contulit Abba Beato,
  Si quis et hunc Sancti sumit de culmine Galli
  Hunc Gallus Paulusque simul dent pestibus amplis.'

Which I thus have tried to imitate:

  Thys boke conteynes the doctrynes of Seynct Paull,
  Hartmodus thabbat yeve yt to Seynct Gall;
  Gyf any tak thys boke from hygh Seynct Gall,
  Seynct Gall appall hym and Seynct Paull hym gall.

Hartmodus was Abbot of St. Gall in the Grisons from A.D. 872 to 874. The
MS. therefore may be earlier than the former, but cannot be later than the
latter date. {192}

This MS. is of the very highest importance. It contains the celebrated
passage of St. John thus: 'Quia tres sunt, qui testimonium dant, Spliritus,
aqua, et sanguis, et tres unum sunt. Sicut in coelo tres sunt, Pater,
Verbum, et Spiritus, et tres unum sunt.' This most important word _Sicut_
clearly shows how the disputed passage, from having been a Gloss crept into
the text. And on the first page prior to the Seven Catholic Epistles is the
Prologue of St. Jerome, bearing his name in uncials, which Porson and other
learned men think spurious. See Porson's _Letters to Travis_, p. 290."--Bp.
Butler's Manuscript Catalogue.

H. Foss.

  Rotherhithe, Jan. 29. 1851.

_Harrison's Chronology_ (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--To the querist on William
Harrison all lovers of bibliography are under obligations. At Oxford, amid
the Bodleian treasures, he could not have had many questions to ask: at
Thurles the case may be much otherwise, and he is entitled to a prompt
reply.

After examining the _Typographical Antiquities_ of Ames and Herbert, and
various bibliographical works, relying also on my own memory as a collector
of books for more than thirty years, I may venture to assert that the
_Chronology_ of W. Harrison has never been printed. I can further assert
that no copy of the work is recorded in the _Catalogi librorum
manuscriptorum Angliæ et Hiberniæ_, Oxoniæ, 1697.

The best account of Harrison is given by bishop Tanner, in his _Bibliotheca
Britannico-Hibernica_. Wood, however, should be consulted. With reference
to the events of his life, it is important to observe that the date of his
letter to sir William Brooke, which may be called an autobiography in
miniature, is 1577.

Assuming that this question could not escape the notice of other
contributors, I had made no researches with a view to answer it, and shall
be happy to remedy the defects of this scrap at a future time.

BOLTON CORNEY.

_Mistletoe on Oaks_ (Vol. ii., pp. 163, 214.).--Is it ever found now on
_other_ trees? Sir Thos. Browne (_Vulg. Err._ lib. ii. cap. vi. § 3.) says,
"We observe it in England very commonly upon _Sallow_, _Hazell_, and Oake."
By-the-bye, DR. BELL (p. 163.) seems to adopt the belief, which it is
Browne's object in the section referred to above to refute, viz., that
"Misseltoe is bred upon trees, from seeds which birds let fall thereon."
Have later observations shown that it was Browne himself who was in error?

ACHE.

_Swearing by Swans_ (Vol. iii., p. 70.).--An instance of the cognate custom
of swearing by pheasants is given by Michelet, _Précis de l'Histoire
Moderne_ (pp. 19, 20.). On the taking of Constantinople by the Turks,--

    "L'Europe s'émut enfin: Nicholas V. prêcha la croisade.... à Lille, le
    duc de Bourgoyne fit apparaître, dans un banquet, l'image de l'Eglise
    désolée et, selon les rites de la chevalerie, jura Dieu, la Vierge, les
    dames, et _le faisan_, qu'il irait combattre les infidèles." (1454.)

It seems, however, that in spite of all these formalities, the oath did not
sit very heavily on the conscience of the taker: for we are told
immediately after that--

    "Cette ardeur dura peu.... le duc de Bourgoyne resta dans ses états."

Michelet gives, as his authority, Olivier de la Marche, t. viii. _De la
Collection des Mémoires rélatifs à l'Hist. de France_, edit. de M. Petitot.

X. Z.

_Jurare ad caput animalium_ (Vol. ii., p. 392; Vol. iii., p.
71.).--Schayes, a Belgic writer (in _Les Pays Bas avant et durant la
Domination Romaine_, vol. ii. p. 73. et seq.), furnishes references to two
councils, in which this mode of swearing was condemned, viz. Concil.
Aurelianense (Orleans), A.D. 541, and Concil. Liptinense (Liptines or
Lestines), 743. On the Indiculus Paganiarum of the latter he subjoins the
commentaries of Des Roches (_Anc. Mém. de l'Acad. de Brux._), de Meinders
(_de statu relig. sub Carolo M._, p. 144.), d'Eckart (_Francia Orient_,
lib. i. p. 407.), de Canciani (_de Legibus barbaror._, tom. iii. p. 78.).
The enquirer may also consult Riveli Opera on the Decalogue; Petiti,
_Observ. Miscell._ lib. iv. c. 7.: "Defenditur Socrates ab improba
Lactantii calumnia et de ejus jusjurando per _canem_:" and Alex. ab
Alexandro, _Geniales Dies_, lib. v. c. 10.

I may avail myself of this opportunity of noticing the misprint in p. 152.,
_V_ezron for _P_ezron.

T. J.

_Ten Children at a Birth_ (Vol. ii., p. 459.; Vol. iii., p. 64.).--We are
indebted to the obliging courtesy of the editor of the _Leeds Mercury_ for
the following extract from that paper of the 9th October, 1781:--

    "A letter from Sheffield, dated October 1, says, 'This day one Ann
    Birch, formerly of Derby, who came to work at the silk-mills here, was
    delivered of TEN children; nine were dead, and one living, which, with
    the mother, is likely to do well.'"

Our informant adds--

    "I never heard of any silk-mills at Sheffield. If there was a Medical
    Society in Sheffield then, its records might be examined."

Can our correspondent N. D. throw any further light upon this certainly
curious and interesting case?

_Richard Standfast_ (Vol. iii., p. 143.).--This divine is buried in Christ
Church, Bristol; having been rector of that church for the long space of
fifty-one years. There is a monument erected to his memory in the
above-mentioned building, with the following inscription:-- {193}

    "Near this place lieth the body of Richard Standfast, Master of Arts,
    of Sidney College in Cambridge, and Chaplain-in-Ordinary to his Majesty
    King Charles I., who for his loyalty to the King and stedfastness in
    the established religion, suffered fourteen years' sequestration. He
    returned to his place in Bristol at the restoration of King Charles
    II., was then made prebendary of the cathedral church of Bristol, and
    for twenty years and better (notwithstanding his blindness) performed
    the offices of the church exactly, and discharged the duties of an
    able, diligent, and orthodox preacher. He was Rector of Christ Church
    upwards of fifty-one years, and died August 24, in the seventy-eighth
    year of his age, and in the year of Our Lord 1681.

      He shall live again."

The following additional lines, composed by himself, were taken down from
his own mouth two days before his death; and are, according to his own
desire, inscribed on his tomb:--

   "Jacob was at Bethel found,
    And so may we, though under ground.
    With Jacob there God did intend,
    To be with him where'ver he went,
    And to bring him back again,
    Nor was that promise made in vain.
  Upon which words we rest in confidence
  That he which found him there will fetch us hence.
  Nor without cause are we persuaded thus,
  For where God spake with him, he spake with us."

Besides the work your correspondent mentions, he wrote a book, entitled a
_Caveat against Seducers_.

J. K. R. W.

  Feb. 22. 1851.

"_Jurat, crede minus_" (Vol. iii., p. 143.).--This epigram was quoted by
Sir Ed. Coke on the trial of Henry Garnet. The author I cannot tell, but
F. R. R. may be glad to trace it up thus far.

J. BS.

_Rab Surdam_ (Vol. ii., p. 493.; Vol. iii., p. 42.).--May not "Rab Surdam"
be the ignorant stone-cutter's version of "resurgam?"

M. A. H.

_The Scaligers_ (Vol. iii., p. 133.).--Everything relating to this family
is interesting, and I have read with pleasure your correspondent's
communication on the origin of their armorial bearings. I am, however,
rather surprised to observe, that he seems to take for granted the
relationship of Julius Cæsar Scaliger and his son Joseph to the Lords of
Verona, which has been so convincingly disproved by several writers. The
world has been for some time pretty well satisfied that these two
illustrious scholars were mere impostors in the claim they made, that
Joseph Scaliger's letter to Janus Dousa was a very impudent affair. If your
correspondent has met with any new evidence in support of their claim, it
would gratify me much if he would make it known. Who would not derive
pleasure from seeing the magnificent boast of Joseph proved at last to have
been founded in fact:

    "Ego sum septimus ab Imperatore Ludovico et Illustrissimâ Hollandiæ
    comite Margareta: septimus item a Mastino tertio, ut et magnus Rex
    Franciscus, literarum parcus."

and Scioppius's parting recommendation--

    "Quid jam reliquum est tibi, nisi ut nomen commutes et ex Scalifero
    fias Furcifer?"--_Scaliger Hypobolimaeus. Mogunt._, 1607, 4to., p. 74.
    b.

deprived of its force and stringency? I fear, however, that this is not to
be expected.

It is impossible to read Joseph Scaliger's defence of his own case in the
rejoinder to Scioppius, _Confutatio fabulæ Burdonum_, without observing
that the author utterly fails in connecting Niccolo, the great-grandfather
of Joseph, with Guglielmo della Scala, the son of Can Grande Secundo. And
yet such is the charm of genius, that the _Confutatio_, altogether
defective in the main point as a reply, will ever be read with delight by
succeeding generations of scholars.

JAMES CROSSLEY.

  Manchester, Feb. 22, 1851.

_Lincoln Missal_ (Vol. iii., p. 119.).--It is clear that one of the most
learned ritualists, Mr. Maskell, did not know of a manuscript of the
Lincoln Use, else he would have noted it in his work, _The Ancient Liturgy
of the British Church_, where the other Uses of Salisbury, York, Bangor,
and Hereford, are compared together. In his preface to this work (p. ix.)
he states--

    "It has been doubted whether there ever was a Lincoln Use in any other
    sense than a different mode and practice of chanting."

MR. PEACOCK would probably find more information in the _Monumenta
Ritualia_, to which Mr. Maskell refers in his preface.

N. E. R. (A Subscriber.)

_By and bye_ (Vol. iii., p. 73.).--Your correspondent S. S., in support of
his opinion that _by the bye_ means "by the way," suggests that _good bye_
may mean "bon voyage." I must say the commonly received notion, that it is
a contraction of "God be wi' ye," appears to me in every way preferable. I
think that in the writers of the Elizabethan age, every intermediate
variety of form (such as "God b' w' ye," &c.) may be found; but I cannot at
this moment lay my hand on any instance.

In an ingenious and amusing article in a late Number of the _Quarterly_,
the character of different nations is shown to be indicated by their
different forms of greeting, and surely the same may be said of their forms
of taking leave. The English pride themselves, and with justice, on being a
peculiarly religious people: now, applying the above test,--as the
Frenchman has his _adieu_, the Italian his _addio_, the Portuguese his
_addios_, and the Spaniard his "vaya usted con _Dios_,"--it is to be
presumed {194} that the Englishman, also, on parting from his friend, will
commit him to the care of Providence. On the other hand, it must be
admitted that the Germans, who, as well as the English, are supposed to
entertain a deeper sense of religion than many other nations, content
themselves with a mere "lebe-wohl." I should be obliged if some one of your
readers will favour me with the forms of taking leave used by other
nations, in order that I may be enabled to see whether the above test will
hold good on a more extensive application.

X. Z.

_Gregory the Great._--This is clearly a mere slip of the pen in Lady
Morgan's pamphlet. I I think it may confidently be asserted that Gregory
VII. has not been thus designated habitually at any period.

R. D. H.

_True Blue_ (Vol. iii., p. 92.)--"The earliest connexion of the colour blue
with truth" (which inquiry I cannot consider as synonymous with the
original Query, Vol. ii., p. 494.) is doubtless to be traced back to one of
the typical garments worn by the Jewish high priest, which was (see
Godwyn's _Moses and Aaron_, London, 1631, lib. i. chap. 5.) "A robe all of
blew, with seventy two bels of gold, and as many pomegranates, of blew,
purple, and scarlet, upon the skirts thereof." He says that "by the bells
was typed the sound of his (Christ's) doctrine; by the pomegranates the
sweet savour of an holy life;" and, without doubt, by "the blew robe" was
typified the immutability and truthfulness of the person, mission, and
doctrine of our great High Priest, who was clothed with truth as with a
garment. The great Antitype was a literal embodiment of the symbolic
panoply of his lesser type.

BLOWEN.

_Drachmarus_ (Vol. iii., p. 157.).--Your correspondent has my most cordial
thanks both for his suggestion, and also for his conjecture.

1. Perhaps you will kindly afford me space to say, that the name of
Drachmarus occurs in a well-written MS. account of Bishop Cosin's
controversy, during his residence in Paris, with the Benedictine Prior
Robinson, concerning the validity of our English ordination: in the course
of which, after stating the opinion of divers of the Fathers, that the keys
of order and jurisdiction were given John xx., "Quorum peccata," &c., Cosin
adds:

    "I omit Hugo Cardinalis, the ordinary gloss, _Drachmarus_, Scotus, as
    men of a later age (though all, as you say, of your church) that might
    be produced to the same purpose."

I should here perhaps state, that no letter of Prior Robinson's is extant
in which any mention is made either of Drachmarus or of Druthmarus.

2. Before my Query was inserted, it had not only occurred to me as probable
that the transcriber might have written Drachmarus in mistake for
Druthmarus, but I had also consulted such of Druthmar's writings as are
found in the _Bibl. Patr._ I came to the conclusion, however, that a later
writer than Christian Druthmar was intended. _My_ conjecture was, that
Drachmarus must be a second name for some known writer of the age of the
schoolmen, just as _Carbajulus_ may be found cited under the name of
_Loysius_, or _Loisius_, which are only other forms of his Christian name,
_Ludovicus_.

J. SANSOM.

_The Brownes of Cowdray, Sussex._--E. H. Y. (Vol. iii., p. 66.) is wrong in
assigning the title of Lord _Mountacute_ to the Brownes of Cowdray, Sussex.
In 1 & 2 Phil. and Mary, Sir Antony Browne (son of the Master of the Horse
to Henry VIII.) was created Viscount _Montague_ (Collins). When curate of
Eastbourne, in which parish are situated the ruins of their ancestral Hall
of Cowdray, I frequently heard the village dames recite the tales of the
rude forefathers of the hamlet respecting the family.

They relate, that while the great Sir Antony (temp. Hen. VIII.) was holding
a revel, a monk presented himself before the guests and pronounced the
curse of fire and water against the male descendants of the family, till
none should be left, because the knight had received and was retaining the
church-lands of Battle Abbey, and those which belonged to the priory of
Eastbourne. Within the last hundred years, destiny, though slow of foot,
has overtaken the fated race. In one day the hall perished by fire, and the
lord by water, as mentioned by E. H. Y. The male line being extinct, the
estate passed to the sister of Lord Montague. This lady was married to the
late W. S. Poyntz, Esq., M.P. The two sons of Mr. and Mrs. Poyntz were
drowned at Bognor, and the estate a second time devolved on the female
representatives. These ladies, still living, are the Marchioness of Exeter,
the Countess Spencer, and the Dowager Lady Clinton. The estate passed by
purchase into the hands of the Earl of Egmont.

The old villagers, the servants, and the descendants of servants of the
family, point to the ruins of the hall, and religiously cling to the belief
that its destruction and that of its lords resulted from the curse. It
certainly seems an illustration of Archbishop Whitgift's words to Queen
Elizabeth:

    "Church-land added to an ancient inheritance hath proved like a moth
    fretting a garment, and secretly consumed both: or like the eagle that
    stole a coal from the altar, and thereby set her nest on fire, which
    consumed both her young eagles and herself that stole it."

E. RDS.

  Queen's Col., Birm., Feb. 20. 1851.

_Red Hand_ (Vol. ii., p. 506., _et antè_).--A correspondent, ARUN, says,
"Your correspondents would confer a heraldic benefit if they would {195}
point out other instances, which I believe to exist, where family
reputation has been damaged by similar ignorance in heraldic
interpretation." I have always thought this ignorance to be universal with
the country people in England: I could mention _several instances_. First,
when I was a boy at school I was shown the hatchments in Wateringbury
church, in Kent, by my master, and informed that Sir Thomas Styles had
murdered some domestic, and was consequently obliged to bear the "bloody
hand:" and lastly, and lately, at Church-Gresley, in Derbyshire, at the old
hall of the Gresley family, I was shown the marble table on which Sir Roger
or Sir Nigel Gresley had cut up, in a sort of Greenacre style, his cook;
for which he was obliged to have the bloody hand in his arms, and put into
the church on his tomb.

H. W. D.

_Anticipations of Modern Ideas by Defoe_ (Vol. iii., p. 137.).--The two
tracts mentioned by your correspondent R. D. H., and which he states he has
often sought in vain, namely, _Augusta Triumphans_, London, 1728, 8vo., and
_Second Thoughts are best_, London, 1729, 8vo., are to be found in the
_Selection from Defoe's Works_ published by Talboys in 20 vols. 12mo. in
1840. They are both indisputably by Defoe, and contain, as your
correspondent observes, many anticipations of modern improvements. I may
mention that there is a tract, also beyond doubt by Defoe, on the subject
of London street-robberies, which has never yet been noticed or attributed
to him by any one. It is far more curious and valuable than _Second
Thoughts are best_, and is perfectly distinct from that tract. It gives a
history, and the only one I ever yet met with, written in all Defoe's
graphic manner, of the London police and the various modes of street
robbery in the metropolis, from the time of Charles II. to 1731, and
concludes by suggestions of effectual means of prevention. It is evidently
the work of one who had lived in London during the whole of the period. The
title is--

    "An effectual Scheme for the immediate preventing of Street Robberies,
    and suppressing all other Disorders of the Night, with a brief History
    of the Night Houses, and an Appendix relating to those Sons of Hell
    called Incendiaries. Humbly inscribed to the Right Honourable the Lord
    Mayor of the City of London. London: Printed for J. Wilford, at the
    Three Flower de Luees, behind the Chapter House in St. Paul's Church
    Yard. 1731. (Price 1s.) 8vo., pages 72."

I have also another tract on the same subject, which has not been noticed
by Defoe's biographers, but which I have no hesitation in ascribing to him.
It is curious enough, but not of equal value with the last. The title is--

    "Street Robberies considered. The reason of their being so frequent,
    with probable Means to prevent 'em. To which is added, three short
    Treatises: 1. A Warning for Travellers; with Rules to know a Highwayman
    and Instructions how to behave upon the occasion. 2. Observations on
    Housebreakers. How to prevent a Tenement from being broke open. With a
    Word of Advice concerning Servants. 3. A Caveat for Shopkeepers: with a
    Description of Shoplifts, how to know 'em, and how to prevent 'em: also
    a Caution of delivering Goods: with the Relation of several Cheats
    practised lately upon the Publick. Written by a converted Thief. To
    which is prefix'd some Memoirs of his Life. _Set a Thief to catch a
    Thief._ London: Printed for J. Roberts, in Warwick Lane. Price 1s. (No
    date, but circ. 1726.) 8vo., pages 72."

JAMES CROSSLEY.

_Meaning of Waste-book_ (Vol. iii., p. 118.).--The _waste-book_ in a
counting-house is that in which all the transactions of the day, receipts,
payments, &c., are entered miscellaneously as they occur, and of which no
account is immediately taken, no value immediately found; whence, so to
speak, the mass of affairs is undigested, and the wilderness or _waste_ is
uncultivated, and without result until entries are methodically made in the
day-book and ledger; without which latter appliances there would, in
book-keeping, be _waste_ indeed, in the worst sense of the term. The word
_day-book_ explains itself. The word _ledger_ is explained in Johnson's and
in Ash's _Dictionary_, from the Dutch, as signifying a book that lies in
the counting-house _permanently in one place_. The etymology there given
also explains why certain lines used in fishing-tackle, by old Isaak
Walton, and by his disciples at the present day, are called _ledger-lines_.
It, however, does not seem to explain the phrase _ledger-lines_, used in
music; namely, the term applied to those short lines added above or below
the staff of five lines, when the notes run very high or very low, and
which are exactly those which are not _permanent_. Here the French word
_léger_ tempts the etymologist a little.

ROBERT SNOW.

_Deus Justificatus_ (Vol. ii., p. 441.).--There is no doubt that this work
was written by Henry Hallywell, and not by Cudworth. Dr. Worthington, whose
intercourse with the latter was of the most intimate kind, and who would
have been fully aware of the fact had he been the author, observes, in a
letter not dated, but written circ. September, 1668, addressed to Dr. More,
and of which I have a copy now before me:

    "I bought at London Mr. Hallywell's _Deus Justificatus_. Methinks it is
    better written than his former Letter. He will write better and
    better."

In a short account of Hallywell, who was of the school of Cudworth and
More, and whose MS. correspondence with the latter is now in my possession,
in Wood's _Fasti_, vol. ii. p. 187. Edit. Bliss, Wood, "amongst several
things that he hath published," enumerates five only, but does not give the
_Deus Justificatus_ amongst them. It {196} appears (Wood's _Athenæ_, vol.
iv. p. 230.) that he was ignorant who the author of this tract was.

It is somewhat singular that the mistake in ascribing _Deus Justificatus_
to Cudworth should have been continued in Kippis's edition of the
_Biographia Britannica_. It was so ascribed to him, first, as far as I can
find, by a writer of the name of Fancourt, in the preface to his _Free
Agency of Accountable Creatures Examined_, London, 1733, 8vo. On his
authority it was included in the list of Cudworth's works in the _General
Dictionary_, 1736, folio, vol. iv. p. 487., and in the _Biographia
Britannica_, 1750, vol. iii. p. 1581., and in the last edition by Kippis.
Birch, in the mean time, finding, no doubt, on inquiry, that there was no
ground for ascribing it to Cudworth, made no mention of it in his accurate
life prefixed to the edition of the _Intellectual System_ in 1742.

Hallywell, the author, deserves to be better known. In many passages in his
works he gives ample proof that he had fully imbibed the lofty Platonism
and true Christian spirit of his great master.

JAMES CROSSLEY.

_Touchstone's Dial_ (Vol. ii., p. 405.; Vol. iii., pp. 52. 107.).--I am
gratified to find that my note on "Touchstone's Dial" has prompted MR.
STEPHENS to send you his valuable communication on these old-fashioned
chronometers. The subjoined extract from _Travels in America in the Year_
1806, by Thomas Ashe, Esq., is interesting, as it shows that "Ring-dials"
were used as common articles of barter in America at the commencement of
the present century:--

    "The storekeepers on the Alleghany River from above Pittsburg to New
    Orleans are obliged to keep every article which it is possible that the
    farmer and manufacturer may want. Each of their shops exhibits a
    complete medley: a magazine, where are to be had both a needle and an
    anchor, a tin pot and a large copper boiler, a child's whistle and a
    piano-forte, a _ring-dial_ and a clock," &c.

J. M. B.

_Ring Dials_.--I was interested with the reference to _Pocket Sun-dials_ in
"NOTES AND QUERIES," pp. 52. 107. because it re-furnished an opportunity of
placing in print a scrap of information on the subject, which I neglected
to embrace when I first read MR. KNIGHT'S note on the passage in
Shakspeare. About seventy years ago these small, cheap, brass "Ring-dials"
for the pocket were manufactured by the gross by a firm in Sheffield
(Messrs. Proctor), then in Milk street. I well remember the workman--an old
man in my boyhood--who had been employed in making them, as he said, "in
basketsful;" and also his description of the _modus operandi_, which was
curious enough. They were of different sizes and prices, and their extreme
rarity at present, considering the number formerly in use, is only less
surprising than the commonness of pocket-watches which have superseded
them. I never saw but one of these cheapest and most nearly forgotten
horologia, and which the old brass-turner, as I recollect, boasted of as
"telling the time true to a quarter of an hour!"

D.

  Sheffield, Jan. 2. 1851.

_Cockade_ (Vol. iii., p. 7.).--The Query of A. E. has not yet been
satisfactorily answered; nor can I pretend to satisfy him. But as a small
contribution to the history of the decoration in question, I beg to offer
him the following definition from the _Dictionnaire étymologique_ of
Roquefort, 8vo., Paris, 1829:--

    "COCARDE, touffe de rubans que sous Louis XIII. on portoit sur le
    feutre, et qui imitoit la crête du coq."

If this be correct, APODLIKTES (p. 42.) must be mistaken in attributing so
recent an origin to the cockade as the date of the Hanoverian succession.
The truth is, that from the earliest period of heraldic institutions,
colours have been used to symbolise parties. The mode of wearing them may
have varied; and whether wrought in silk, or more economically represented
in the stamped leather cockade of our private soldier, is little to the
purpose. It will, however, hardly be contended that our present fashion at
all resembles "la crête du coq."

F. S. Q.

"The ribband worn in the hat" was styled "a favour" previous to the Scotch
Covenanters' nick-naming it a cockade. Allow me to correct APODLIKTES (p.
42.): "The black _favour_ being the Hanoverian badge, the white _favour_
that of the Stuarts." The knots or bunches of ribbons given as favours at
marriages, &c., were not invariably worn in the hat as a cockade is, but it
was sometimes (see Hudibras, Pt. i. canto ii. line 524.)

 "Wore in their hats like wedding garters."

There is a note on this line in my edition, which is the same as J. B.
COLMAN refers to for the note on the Frozen Horn (p. 91.).

BLOWEN.

_Rudbeck's Atlantica--Grenville copy--Tomus I Sine Anno._ 1675. 1679. (Vol.
iii., p. 26.).--Has any one of these three copies a separate leaf, entitled
"Ad Bibliopegos?"--Not one of them.

(Neither has the king's (George III.) copy, nor the Sloane copy, both in
the Museum.)

Has the copy with the date 1679, "Testimonia" at the end?--The Testimonia
are placed after the Dedication, before the text (they are inlaid). They
occupy fifteen pages.

Have they a separate _Title_ and a separate sheet of _Errata_?--Neither the
one nor the other.

Is there a duplicate copy of this separate Title at the end of the
Preface?--No.

(The copy with the date 1675 has at the end Testimonia filling eight pages,
with a separate title, and a leaf containing three lines of Errata.)

Tomus II. 1689.--How many pages of {197} Testimonia are there at the end of
the Preface?--Thirty-eight pages.

(In George III.'s copy the Testimonia occupy forty-three pages.)

Is there in any one of these volumes the name of any former owner, any book
number, or any other mark by which they can be recognised; for instance,
that of the Duke de la Vallière?--No. Not in Mr. Grenville's, nor in George
III.'s, nor in the Sloane's; this last has not the Third Volume.

HENRY FOSS.

_Scandal against Queen Elizabeth_ (Vol. iii., p. 11.).--It is a tradition
in a family with which I am connected, that Queen Elizabeth had a son, who
was sent over to Ireland, and placed under the care of the Earl of Ormonde.
The Earl, it will be remembered, was distantly related to the Queen, her
great-grandmother being the daughter of Thomas, the eighth Earl.

Papers are said to exist in the family which prove the above statement.

J. BS.

_Private Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth._--The curious little volume mentioned
by MR. ROPER (Vol. iii., p. 45.), is most probably the book alluded to by
J. E. C., p. 23. I possess a copy of much later date (1767). It is worthy
of note, that the narrative is headed _The Earl of Essex; or, the Amours of
Queen Elizabeth_; while the title-page states, _The secret History of the
most Renown'd Q. Elizabeth and Earl of Essex_.

I think it can scarcely be said to be _corroborative_ of the "scandal"
contained in Mr. Ives's MS. note, or that in Burton's _Parliamentary
Diary_, cited by P. T., Vol. ii. p. 393. Whitaker, in his _Vindication of
Mary Q. of Scots_, has displayed immense industry and research in his
collection of charges against the private life of Elizabeth, but makes no
mention of these reports.

E. B. PRICE.

_Bibliographical Queries_ (No. 39.), _Monarchia Solipsorum_ (Vol. iii., p.
138.).--Your correspondent asks, Can there be the smallest doubt that the
veritable inventor of this satire upon the Jesuits was their former
associate, Jules-Clement Scotti? Having paid considerable attention to the
writings of Scotti, Inchofer, and Scioppius, and to the evidence as to the
authorship of this work, I should, notwithstanding Niceron's authority, on
which your correspondent seems to rely, venture to assert that the claim
made for Scotti, as well as that for Scioppius, may be at once put aside.
No two authors ever more carefully protected their literary offspring,
numerous as they were, by the catalogues and lists of them which they
published or dispersed from time to time, than these two writers. In them
every tract is claimed, however short, which they had written. Scotti
published one in 1650, five years after the publication of the _Monarchia
Solipsorum_; and I have a letter of his, of the same period, containing a
list of his writings. Scioppius left one, dated 1647, now in MS. in the
Laurentian Library with his other MSS., and which carefully mentions every
tract he had written against the Jesuits. The _Monarchia Solipsorum_ does
not appear in the lists of these two writers; and no good reason can be
assigned why it should not, on the supposition of its being written by
either of them. If not in those which were published, it certainly would
not have been omitted in those communicated to their friends, not Jesuits,
or which were found amongst their own MSS. Then, nothing can be more
distinct than the style of Scotti, of Scioppius, and that of the author,
whoever he was, of the _Monarchia_. The much-vexed spirit of the bitterest
of critics would have been still more indignant if one or two of the
passages in this work could ever, in his contemplation, have been imputed
to his pen.

It is in this case, as in most other similar ones, much easier to conclude
who is not, than who is the author of the book in question. The internal
evidence is very strong in favour of Inchofer. It was published with his
name in 1652, seven years only after the date of the first edition; and the
witnesses are many among his contemporaries, who speak positively to his
being the author. Further, there is no great dissimilarity in point of
style, and I have collected several parallel expressions occurring in the
_Monarchia_ and Inchofer's other works, which very much strengthen the
claim made on his behalf, but which it is scarcely necessary to insert
here. In my opinion, he is the real author. The question might, I have no
doubt, be finally set at rest by an examination of his correspondence with
Leo Allatius, which is, or was, at all events, in the Vatican.

JAMES CROSSLEY.

  Manchester, Feb. 22, 1851.

_Touching for the Evil_ (Vol. iii., p. 93.).--It was one of the proofs
against the Duke of Monmouth, that he had touched for the evil when in the
West; and I have seen a handbill describing the cures he effected. It was
sold at Sir John St. Aubyn's sale of prints at Christie's some few years
since.

H. W. D.

"_Talk not of Love_" (Vol. iii., pp. 7.77.).--In answering the Query of
A. M. respecting this pleasing little song, your correspondents have
neglected to mention that the earliest copy of it, _i.e._ that in Johnson's
_Scots Musical Museum_, has _two_ additional stanzas. This is important,
because, from No. 8. of Burns's _Letters to Clarinda_, it appears that the
concluding lines were supplied by Burns himself to suit the music. He
remarks that--

    "The latter half of the first stanza would have been worthy of Sappho.
    I am in raptures with it."

{198} Mrs. Mac Lehose (_Clarinda_) was living in 1840, in the eightieth
year of her age.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Did St. Paul's Clock strike Thirteen?_ (Vol. iii., p. 40.).--Yes: but it
was not then at St. Paul's; for I think St. Paul's was then being rebuilt.
The correspondent to the _Antiquarian Repertory_ says:

    "The first time I heard it (the circumstance) was at Windsor, before
    St. Paul's had a clock, when the soldier's plea was said to be that Tom
    of Westminster struck thirteen instead of twelve at the time when he
    ought to have been relieved. It is not long since a newspaper mentioned
    the death of one who said he was the man."

About the beginning of the eighteenth century this bell was removed to St.
Paul's, &c.--Can any of the readers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" supply the
newspaper notice above referred to. The above was written in 1775. The
clock tower in which the bell was originally (and must have been when the
sentinel heard it) was removed in 1715.

JOHN FRANCIS.

    [The story is given in Walcott's _Memorials of Westminster_ as being
    thus recorded in _The Public Advertiser_ of Friday, 22nd June,
    1770:--"Mr. John Hatfield, who died last Monday at his house in
    Glasshouse Yard, Aldersgate, aged 102 years, was a soldier in the reign
    of William and Mary, and the person who was tried and condemned by a
    Court Martial for falling asleep on his duty upon the terrace at
    Windsor. He absolutely denied the charge against him, and solemnly
    declared that he heard St. Paul's clock strike thirteen, the truth of
    which was much doubted by the court because of the great distance. But
    whilst he was under sentence of death, an affidavit was made by several
    persons that the clock actually did strike thirteen instead of twelve;
    whereupon he received his majesty's pardon. The above his friends
    caused to be engraved upon his plate, to satisfy the world of the truth
    of a story which has been much doubted, though he had often confirmed
    it to many gentlemen, and a few days before his death told it to
    several of his neighbours. He enjoyed his sight and memory to the day
    of his death."]

_Defence of the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots_ (Vol. iii., p.
113.).--Among the benefits conferred by "NOTES AND QUERIES" upon the
literary world, is the information occasionally afforded, in what
libraries, public and private, very rare books are deposited. MR. COLLIER
expresses his thanks to MR. LAING for sending to him a very rare volume by
Kyffin. Had I seen his "Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers'
Company," I should have had much pleasure in furnishing him with extracts,
from another copy in the Chetham Library, of the tract he has described.
The Rev. T. Corser possesses the same author's _Blessedness of Britain_.
His other works are enumerated by Watt, and should be transferred to a
Bibliotheca Cambrensis.

T. J.

_Metrical Psalms, &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 119.).--ARUN may find all the
information he seeks by consulting a treatise of _Heylin's_ on the subject
of the metrical version of the Psalms, published by Dr. Rich. Watson, under
the title of _The Deduction_, 8vo. Lond. 1685.

Together with this treatise, two letters from Bishop _Cosin_ to Watson are
published; in the latter of which, towards the end, the following paragraph
occurs:--

    "The singing Psalms are not adjoined to our Bibles, or to our Liturgy,
    by any other authority than what the Company of Stationers for their
    own gain have procured, either by their own private ordinances among
    themselves, or by some order from the Privy Council in Queen
    Elizabeth's time. Authority of convocation, or of Parliament, such as
    our Liturgy had, never had they any: only the Queen, by her Letters
    Patent to the Stationers, gave leave to have them printed, and allowed
    them (did not command them) to be sung in churches or private houses by
    the people. When the Liturgy was set forth, and commanded to be used,
    these psalms were not half of them composed: no bishop ever inquired of
    their observance, nor did ever any judge at an assize deliver them in
    his charge: which both the one and other had been bound to do, if they
    had been set forth by the same authority which the Liturgy was. Besides
    you may observe, that they are never printed with the Liturgy or Bible,
    nor ever were; but only bound up, as the stationers please, together
    with it," &c.

J. SANSOM.

_Aristophanes on the Modern Stage_ (Vol. iii., p. 105.)--Molière has
availed himself in the comedy of the _Bourgeois Gentilhomme_ very liberally
of the comedy of the _Clouds_. The lesson in grammar given to Monsr.
Jourdain is nearly the same as that which Socrates gives to Strepsiades.

W. B. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

The last number of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ contains a very important
paper upon the limited accessibility of the State Paper Office to literary
inquirers, and the consequent injury to historical literature. But not only
is the present system illiberal; it seems that it has been determined by
the Lords of the Treasury that the historical papers anterior to 1714 shall
be transferred from the State Paper Office to the new Record Office, which
is now rising rapidly on the Rolls Estate. Under present circumstances,
this is a transfer from bad to worse. Our contemporary shows the absurdity
and injustice to literature of such a determination in a very striking
manner. We cannot follow him through his proofs, but are bound as the organ
of literary men to direct attention to the subject. It is most important to
every one who is interested--and who is not?--in the welfare of historical
literature. {199}

The _Unpublished Manuscripts on Church Government_ by Archbishop Laud,
stated to have been prepared for the education of Prince Henry, and
subsequently presented to Charles I., which we mentioned in our sixty-ninth
number, was sold by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, on the 24th ultimo, for
Twenty Guineas. And here we may note that in the Collection of Autographs
sold by the same auctioneers on Friday last, among other valuable articles
was a Letter of Burke, dated 3rd Oct. 1793, from which we quote the
following passage, which will be read with interest at the present time,
and furnishes some information respecting Cardinal Erskine--the subject of
a recent Query:--"I confess, I would, if the matter rested with me, enter
into much more distinct and avowed political connections with the Court of
Rome than hitherto we have held. If we decline them, the bigotry will be on
our part and not on that of his Holiness. Some mischief has happened, and
much good has, I am convinced, been prevented by our unnatural alienation.

... With regard to Monsignor Erskine, I am certain that all his designs are
formed upon the most honourable and the most benevolent public principles."
One of the most interesting lots at the sale was a proclamation of the "Old
Pretender," dated Rome, 23 Dec. 1743, given "under our Sign Manual and
Privy Seal," the seal having the inscription "JACOBUS III. REX," which
fetched Eleven Pounds.

We believe there are few libraries in this country, however small, in which
there is not to be found one shelf devoted to such pet books on Natural
History as White's _Selborne_, the _Journal of a Naturalist_, and
Waterton's _Wanderings_. The writings of Mr. Knox are obviously destined to
take their place in the same honoured spot. Actuated with the same love of
nature, and gifted with the same power of patient observation as White, he
differs from him in the wider range over which he extends his observation,
and in combining the ardour of the sportsman with the scientific spirit of
inquiry which distinguishes the naturalist. In his _Game Birds and Wild
Fowl: their Friends and their Foes_, which contains the result of his
observations and experience, not only on the birds described in his
title-page, but on certain other animals supposed, oftentimes most
erroneously, to be injurious to their welfare and increase--we have a work
which reflects the highest credit upon the writer, and can scarcely fail to
accomplish the great end for which Mr Knox wrote it, that of "adding new
votaries to a loving observation of nature."

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Desdemona, the Magnifico's Child_; the Fourth of Mrs.
Cowden Clarke's Stories of _The Girlhood of Shakspeare's Heroines_, is
devoted to the history of

                         "a maid
  That paragons description and wild fame."

_Gilbert's Popular Narrative of the Origin, History, Progress, and
Prospects Of the Great Industrial Exhibition of 1851, by Peter Berlyn_,--a
little volume apparently carefully compiled from authentic sources of
information upon the several points set forth in its ample title-page.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

WILSON'S ORNAMENTS OF CHURCHES CONSIDERED.

THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARE RESTORED.

CELEBRATED TRIALS, 6 Vols. 8vo., 1825. Vol 6.

OSSIAN, 3 Vols. 12mo. Miller, 1805. Vol. 2.

HOWITT'S RURAL LIFE OF ENGLAND. 12mo. 1838. Vol. 2.

SHARON TURNER'S ANGLO-SAXONS. Last Edition.

CHAMBERS'S SCOTTISH BIOGRAPHY, 4 Vols. 8vo.

THE LADY'S POETICAL MAGAZINE, or BEAUTIES OF BRITISH POETRY, Vol. 2.
London, 1781.

BURNET'S HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION. Folio. Vol. 3.

PASSERI, ISTORIA DELLE PITTURE IN MAJOLICA. Pesaro, 1838; or any other
Edition.

NAVAL CHRONICLE, any or all of the odd books of the first 12 Vols.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

_Although we have this week enlarged our paper to 24 pages, we are
compelled to solicit the indulgence of many correspondents for the
postponement of many interesting_ NOTES, QUERIES, _and_ REPLIES.

C. H. P. _will find his query inserted. It was in type last week, but only
postponed from want of room. We have omitted his comment called for by the
omission of the words "fleet against the."_

W. S. _The fine lines commencing,--_

 "My mind to me a kingdom is,
  Such perfect joy therein I find:"

_were written by Lovelace._

F. B. RELTON. _The Satyr_ on the Jesuits _was written by John Oldham, and
originally published in 1679._

SALOPIAN. _The tragedy of_ The Earl of Warwick _or_ The King and Subject,
_was translated from the French of De la Harpe by Paul Heffernan._

CAM. _It appears from Brayley's_ Londiniana, iv. 5. _on the authority of
Strype's_ Stow. b. i. p. 287., _that Sir Baptist Hicks, afterwards Viscount
Campden, was the son of Robert Hicks, a silk mercer, who kept a shop in
Cheapside, at Soper's Lane End, at the White Bear. See also Cunningham's_
Handbook of London, _Art._ HICKS' HALL.

O. P. _The lines--_

 "Had Cain been Scot, God would have chang'd his doom,
  Not forc't him wander, but confin'd him home."

_are from Cleveland's_ Rebell Scott, _and would be found at p. 52 of
Cleveland's Poems, ed. 1654._

H., _who asks whether any friend living in London would consult books for
him at the British Museum, and let him know the result, had better specify
more particularly what is the information he requires._

RUSTICUS _will find the information he seeks in a Biographical Dictionary
under the name_ Sarpi.

L. J. _Blackstone_ (Book iv. cap. 25.; vol. iv. p. 328. ed 1778) _supposes
that pressing a mute prisoner to death was gradually introduced between 31
Edw. III and 8 Hen. IV. as a species of mercy to the delinquent, by
delivering him sooner from his torment._

REPLIES RECEIVED. _"Love's Labour's Lost"--Election of a
Pope--Umbrellas--Signs on Chemists' Bottles--Christmas Day--Four Events--A
Coggeshall Job--Denarius Philosophorum--Days of the Week--Hugh Peters--Sun,
stand thou still--Master John Shorne--Boiling to Death--Wages in the last
Century--Crossing Rivers on Skins--Election of a Pope--Origin of
Harlequins--Thomas May--Prince of Wales' Motto--Ten Commandments--Tract on
the Eucharist._

VOLS. I. _and_ II., _each with very copious Index, may still be had, price
9s. 6d. each._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvenders. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels._

_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
addressed to the care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. {200}

       *       *       *       *       *


NEW BOOKS.

JUST PUBLISHED BY SMITH, ELDER, AND CO.

I.

THE STONES OF VENICE. Volume the First, THE FOUNDATIONS. By JOHN RUSKIN,
Esq., Author of "Seven Lamps of Architecture," "Modern Painters," &c. Imp.
8vo. with 21 Plates and numerous Woodcuts, 2l. 2s. in embossed cloth.

II.

MILITARY MEMOIRS OF LIEUT.-COL. JAMES SKINNER, C.B., commanding a Corps of
Irregular Cavalry in the Hon. East India Company's Service. By J. BAILLIE
FRASER, Esq., 2 vols. post 8vo. with Portraits, 21s. cloth.

III.

THE BRITISH OFFICER; his Position, Duties, Emoluments, and Privileges. By
J. H. STOCQUELER. 8vo. 15s. cloth extra.

IV.

ROSE DOUGLAS; or, the Autobiography of a Minister's Daughter. 2 vols. post
8vo. 21s. cloth.

V.

A TRIP TO MEXICO; or, Recollections of a Ten Months' Ramble in 1849-50. By
a BARRISTER. Post 8vo. 9s. cloth.

London: SMITH, ELDER, and CO., 65. Cornhill.
Edinburgh: OLIVER and BOYD. Dublin: J. M^CGLASHAN.

       *       *       *       *       *


IN ANTICIPATION OF EASTER.

THE SUBSCRIBER has prepared an ample supply of his well known and approved
SURPLICES, from 20s. to 50s., and various devices in DAMASK COMMUNION
LINEN, well adapted for presentation to Churches.

Illustrated priced Catalogues sent free to the Clergy, Architects, and
Churchwardens by post, on application to

GILBERT J. FRENCH, Bolton, Lancashire.

       *       *       *       *       *


Second Edition, now ready, price 3s. 6d.

THE NUPTIALS OF BARCELONA.--A Tale of Priestly Frailty and Spanish Tyranny.
By R. N. DUNBAR.

    "This work is powerfully written. Beauty, pathos, and great powers of
    description are exhibited in every page. In short, it is well
    calculated to give the author a place among the most eminent writers of
    the day."--_Sunday Times._

SAUNDERS & OTLEY, Publishers, Conduit Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, foolscap 8vo. price 10s. 6d.

THE CALENDAR OF THE ANGLICAN CHURCH ILLUSTRATED. With Brief Accounts of the
Saints who have Churches dedicated in their Names, or whose Images are most
frequently met with in England; the early Christian and Medieval Symbols;
and an Index of Emblems. With numerous Woodcuts.

    "It is perhaps hardly necessary to observe that this work is of an
    archæological, not of a theological character; the Editor has not
    considered it his business to examine into the truth or falsehood of
    the legends of which he narrates the substance; he gives them merely as
    legends, and in general so much of them only as is necessary to explain
    why particular emblems were used with a particular saint, or why
    Churches in a given locality are named after this or that
    saint."--_Preface._

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE FAMILY ALMANACK AND EDUCATIONAL REGISTER FOR THE YEAR OF OUR LORD 1851.
Containing, in addition to the usual Contents of an Almanack, a List of the
Foundation and Grammar Schools in England and Wales; together with an
Account of the Scholarships and Exhibitions attached to them. Post 8vo. 4s.

London: JOHN HENRY PARKER, 377. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, imperial 4to., price 10s. 6d.

OUTLINE SKETCHES OF OLD BUILDINGS IN BRUGES. By E. S. COLE. 15 Plates.

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


In a few days, royal 8vo., cloth, price 10s.

THE SEVEN PERIODS OF ENGLISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. Defined and Illustrated
by EDMUND SHARPE, M.A., Architect, M.I.B.A. An Elementary Work showing at a
single glance the different Changes through which our National Architecture
passed, from the Heptarchy to the Reformation. Twelve Steel Engravings and
Woodcuts.

Each Period, except the First, is illustrated by portions of the Interior
and the Exterior of one of our Cathedral Churches of corresponding date,
beautifully engraved on Steel, so presented as to enable the Student to
draw for himself a close comparison of the characteristic features which
distinguish the Architecture of each of the SEVEN PERIODS, and which are of
so striking and simple a nature as to prevent the possibility of mistake.

The First, or Saxon Period, contains so few buildings of interest or
importance, as to render its comparative illustration unnecessary, if not
impossible.

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just ready, 8vo., cloth, price 15s.

A TABLE OF ANTI-LOGARITHMS. Containing to Seven Places of Decimals, natural
Numbers, answering to all Logarithms from 0001 to 99999; and an improved
Table of Gauss's Logarithms, by which may be found the Logarithm to the sum
or difference of Two Quantities where Logarithms are given: preceded by an
Introduction, containing also the History of Logarithms, their
Construction, and the various Improvements made therein since their
invention. By HERSCHELL E. FILIPOWSKI. Second edition, revised and
corrected.

The publisher, having purchased the copyright and stereotype plates of
these tables, (published a few months ago at 2l. 2s.,) is enabled to offer
a corrected edition at the above reduced price.

_Testimonial of Augustus de Morgan, Esq._

    "I have examined the proofs of Mr. Filipowski's Table of
    Anti-Logarithms and of Gauss's Logarithms, and also the plan of his
    proposed table of Annuities for three lives, constructed from the
    Carlisle Table.

    "The table of Anti-Logarithms is, I think, all that could be wished, in
    extent, in structure, and in typography. For its extent it is unique
    among modern Tables. Of accuracy I cannot speak, of course; but this
    being supposed, I have no hesitation in recommending it without
    qualification.

    "The form in which Gauss's Tables are arranged will be a matter of
    opinion. I can only say that Mr. Filipowski's Table is used with ease,
    as I have found upon trial; and that its extent, as compared with other
    tables, and particularly with other FIVE-FIGURE tables, of the same
    kind, will recommend it. I desire to confine myself to testifying to
    the facility with which this table can be used: comparison with other
    forms, as to RELATIVE facility, being out of the question on so short a
    trial.

    "On the table of Annuities for three lives, there is hardly occasion to
    say anything. All who are conversant with Life Contingencies are well
    aware how much it is wanted. A. DE MORGAN."

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Choice Engravings, Drawings, and Paintings.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Picadilly, on THURSDAY next, March 13,
and following day, a collection of choice engravings, mostly of the English
School, the property of a gentleman, comprising choice proofs of Woollett;
a series of the works of Joshua Reynolds, all brilliant proofs; Müller's
Madonna di San Sisto, a very early proof; Charles II. by Farthorne, extra
rare, a splendid proof; and many other choice proofs of the works of
English and Foreign Artists. Catalogues will be sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published, Part I., 4to., price 1s.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF MEDIEVAL COSTUMES in England, collected from MSS. in the
British Museum, Bibliothèque de Paris, &c. By T. A. DAY and J. B. DINES. To
be completed in Six Monthly Parts.

London: T. BOSWORTH, 215. Regent Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 8. 1851.





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