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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 74, March 29, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 74, March 29, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 74.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page
  On Portraits of Distinguished Men, by Lord Braybrooke       233
  Story of a Relic                                            234
  Illustration of Chaucer, No. II: Complaint of Mars
  and Venus                                                   235
  Charles the First and Bartolomeo della Nave's Collection
  of Pictures, by Sir F. Madden                               236
  Minor Notes:--Nonsuch Palace--Ferrar and Benlowes--
  Traditions from remote Periods through few Links--
  Longevity--Emendation of a Passage in Virgil--Poems
  discovered among the Papers of Sir K. Digby--
  Matter-of-Fact Epitaph                                      236

  Ancient Danish Itinerary: Prol in Angliam, by R. J.
  King                                                        238
  Chiming, Tolling, and Peal-ringing of Bells, by Rev.
  A. Gatty                                                    238
  Mazer Wood: Gutta Percha, by W. Pinkerton                   239
  Minor Queries:--Paul Pitcher Night--Disinterment
  for Heresy--"Just Notions," &c.--Pursuits of Literature--
  Satirical Medal--Matthew's Mediterranean
  Passage--Inscription on an Oak Board--Expressions
  in Milton--Saints' Days--Chepstow Castle--The
  Wilkes MSS. and "North Briton"--"O wearisome
  Condition of Humanity!"--Epitaph in Hall's "Discovery"      239

  MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Canon and Prebendary--
  What Amount of Property constitutes an Esquire?--
  Cromwell Family--Daughters of the Sixth Earl of
  Lennox--Wife of Joseph Nicholson--Six Abeiles--
  Southey--Epigram against Burke--Knight's Hospitallers       242

  Mesmerism, by Dr. Maitland                                  243
  Lord Howard of Effingham                                    244
  Iovanni Volpe, by William Hughes                            244
  Replies to Minor Queries:--Sir Andrew Chadwick--
  Manuscript of Bede--Closing of Rooms on account
  of Death--Enigmatical Epitaph on Rev. J. Mawer--
  Haybands in Seals--Notes on Newspapers--Duncan
  Campbell--Christmas-day--MS. Sermons by Jeremy
  Taylor--Dryden's Absolom and Achitophel--Rev.
  W. Adams--Duchess of Buckingham--"Go the
  whole Hog"--Lord Bexley's Descent from Cromwell--
  Morse and Ireton Families--The Countess of Desmond--
  Aristophanes on the Modern Stage--Denarius
  Philosophorum--On a Passage in the Tempest--
  Meaning of Waste-book--Arthur's Seat and Salisbury
  Craigs--Meaning of "Harrisers" &c.                          247

  Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      253
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                254
  Notices to Correspondents                                   254
  Advertisements                                              255

       *       *       *       *       *



In submitting to you the following brief observations, it is neither my
wish nor intention to undervalue or disparage the labours of Horace
Walpole, and Granger, and Pennant, and Lodge, and the numerous writers who
have followed in their train, and to whom we are so much indebted for their
notices of a great variety of original portraits of distinguished
Englishmen, which still adorn the mansions of our aristocracy, and are
found in the smaller collections throughout the realm. But I may be
permitted to express my surprise and regret that in this age of inquiry no
general catalogue of these national treasures should ever have been
published. It is true that the portraits, as well as the other objects of
attraction in our royal palaces, have been described in print with
tolerable accuracy, and some good accounts are to be met with of the
pictures at Woburn, and Blenheim, and Althorpe, and many of the residences
of the nobility which can boast their local historian. We are, however, in
most cases obliged to content ourselves with the meagre information
afforded by county topography, or such works as the _Beauties of England_,
_Neale's Country Seats_, and unsatisfactory guide-books.

No one, then, can doubt that such a compilation as I am advocating would
prove a most welcome addition to our increasing stock of historical lore,
and greatly assist the biographer in those researches upon which, from no
sufficient materials being at hand, too much time is frequently expended
without any adequate result. A catalogue would also tend to the
preservation of ancient portraits, which, by being brought into notice,
would acquire more importance in the estimation of the possessors; and in
the event of any old houses falling into decay, the recorded fact of
certain pictures having existed there, would cause them to be inquired
after, and rescue them from destruction. Opportunities would likewise be
afforded of correcting misnomers, and testing the authenticity of reputed
likenesses of the same individual; further, the printed lists would survive
after all the family traditions had been forgotten, and passed away with
the antiquated housekeeper, and her worn-out inventory. The practice, too,
of inscribing the names of the artist and person represented on the backs
of the frames, would probably be better observed; and I may mention as a
proof of this precaution being necessary, the instance of a {234} baronet
in our day having inherited an old house full of pictures, which were _one
and all_ described, in laconic and most unsatisfactory terms, as
"_Portraits of Ladies and Gentlemen Unknown_." The losses of works of art
and interest by the lamentable fires that have occurred so frequently
within the memory of man, may furnish a further motive for using every
endeavour to preserve those pictures that remain to us; but probably a far
greater number have perished from damp or neglect, and a strange
combination of mischief and ignorance. Let us hope that in this respect the
times are improving. For one, I cannot consent to the wanton destruction of
a single portrait, though Horace Walpole assures us--

    "That it is almost as necessary that the representations of men should
    perish and quit the scene to their successors, as it is that the human
    race should give place to rising generations; and, indeed, the
    mortality is almost as rapid. Portraits that cost twenty, thirty, sixty
    guineas, and that proudly take possession of the drawing-room, give way
    in the next generation to the new married couple, descending into the
    parlour, where they are slightly mentioned as my _father_ and
    _mother's_ pictures. When they become my _grandfather_ and
    _grandmother_, they mount to the two pair of stairs, and then, unless
    dispatched to the mansion-house in the country, or crowded into the
    housekeeper's room, they perish among the lumber of garrets, or flutter
    into rags before a broker's shop at the Seven Dials."--_Lives of the
    Painters_, vol. iv. pp. 14, 15.

I am tempted to add, that many years ago I saw a large roll of canvass
produced from under a bed at a furniture shop in "Hockley in the Hole,"
which, when unfolded, displayed a variety of old portraits, that had been
torn out of their frames, and stowed away like worn-out sail-cloth; the
place was so filthy that I was glad to make my escape without further
investigation, but I noticed a whole-length of a judge in scarlet robes,
and I could not help reflecting how much surprised the painter and the son
of the law whom he delineated would have been, could they have anticipated
the fate of the picture.

Having made these remarks, I am not unaware how much easier it is to point
out a grievance than to provide a remedy; but perhaps some of your readers
more conversant with such matters, may form an opinion whether it would
answer to any one to undertake to compile such a catalogue as I have
described. Though much would remain to be done, a great deal of information
is to be gleaned from printed works, and doubtless lists of portraits might
be in many instances procured from the persons who are fortunate enough to
possess them. It should also be remembered that amongst the MSS. of Sir
William Musgrave in the British Museum, there are many inventories of
English portraits, affording a strong presumption that he may once have
meditated such a publication as I have pointed out.

But, whether we are ever to have a catalogue or not, some advantage may
arise from the discussion of the subject in "NOTES AND QUERIES;" and if it
should lead to the rescue of a single portrait from destruction, we shall
have advanced one step in the right direction.


Audley End, March 18.

       *       *       *       *       *


P. C. S. S. found, some days ago, the following curious story in a rare
little Portuguese book in his possession, and he now ventures to send a
translation of it to the "NOTES AND QUERIES." The work was printed at
Vienna in 1717, and is an account of the embassy of Fernando Telles da
Sylva, Conde de Villa Mayor, from the court of Lisbon to that of Vienna, to
demand in marriage, for the eldest son of King Pedro II. of Portugal, the
hand of the Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. It was written by Father
Francisco da Fonseca, a Jesuit priest, who accompanied the ambassador in
quality of almoner and confessor, and is full of amusing matter,
particularly in reference to the strange opinions concerning our laws,
government, and religion, which the worthy padre appears to have picked up
during his short stay in England.

The original of the annexed translation is to be found at pp. 318, 319,
320. § 268. of Fonseca's Narrative.

    "As we are now upon the subject of miracles wrought by Relics in
    Vienna, I shall proceed to relate another prodigy which happened in the
    said city, and which will greatly serve to confirm in us those feelings
    of piety with which we are wont to venerate such sacred objects. The
    Count Harrach, who was greatly favoured by the Duke of Saxony, begged
    of him, as a present, a few of the many relics which the duke preserved
    in his treasury, assuredly less out of devotion than for the sake of
    their rarity and value. The duke, with his usual benignity, acceded to
    this request, and gave orders that sundry vials should be dispatched to
    the count, filled with most indubitable relics of Our Lord, of the
    Blessed Virgin, of the Apostles, of the Innocents, and of other holy
    persons. He directed two Lutheran ministers to pack these vials
    securely in a precious casket, which the duke himself sealed up with
    his own signet, and sent off to Vienna. On its arrival there, it was
    deposited in the chapel of the count, which is situated in the street
    called Preiner. The count immediately informed the bishop of the
    arrival of this treasure, and invited him to witness the opening of the
    casket, and to attend for the purpose of verifying its contents.
    Accordingly the bishop came, and on opening the casket, there proceeded
    from it such an abominable stench, that no man could endure it,
    infecting, as it did, the whole of the chapel. The bishop thereupon
    ordered all the vials to be taken out, and carefully examined one by
    one, hoping to ascertain the cause of this strange incident, which did
    not long remain a mystery, for they soon {235} found the very vial from
    which this pestilent odour was issuing. It contained a small fragment
    of cloth, which was thus labelled, '_Ex caligis Divi Martini Lutheri_,'
    that is to say, '_A bit of the Breeches of Saint Martin Luther_,' which
    the aforesaid two Lutheran ministers, by way of mockery of our piety,
    had slily packed up with the holy relics in the casket. The bishop
    instantly gave orders to burn this abominable rag of the great
    heresiarch, and forthwith, not only the stench ceased, but there
    proceeded from the true relics such a delicious and heavenly odour as
    perfumed the entire building."

       *       *       *       *       *


_Complaint of Mars and Venus._

I am not aware that the obvious astronomical allegory, which lurks in
Chaucer's "Complaint of Mars and Venus," has been pointed out, or that any
attempt has been made to explain it. In Tyrwhitt's slight notice of that
poem, prefixed to his glossary, there is not the most remote hint that he
perceived its astronomical significance, or that he looked upon it in any
other light than "that it was intended to describe the situation of _some_
two lovers under a veil of mystical allegory."

But, as I understand it, it plainly describes an astronomical conjunction
of the planets Mars and Venus, in the last degree of Taurus, and on the
12th of April.

These three conditions are not likely to concur except at very rare
intervals--it is possible they may have been only theoretical--but it is
also possible that they may have really occurred under Chaucer's
observation; it might therefore well repay the labour bestowed upon it if
some person, possessed of time, patience, and the requisite tables, would
calculate whether any conjunction, conforming in such particulars, did
really take place within the latter half of the fourteenth century: if it
was considered worth while to search out a described conjunction 2500 years
before Christ, in order to test the credibility of Chinese records, it
would surely be not less interesting to confirm the accuracy of Chaucer's
astronomy, of his fondness for which, and of his desire to bring it forward
on all possible occasions, he has given so many proofs in his writings.

The data to be gathered from the little poem in question are unfortunately
neither very numerous nor very definite; but I think the following points
are sufficiently plain.

1st. The entrance of Mars into the sign Taurus (_domus Veneris_), wherein
an assignation has been made between him and Venus:

 "That Mars shall enter as fast as he may glide,
  In to her _next palais_ to abide,
  Walking his course 'till she had him ytake,
  And he prayed her to hast her for his sake."

2nd. The nearly double velocity in apparent ecliptic motion of Venus as
compared with Mars:

 "Wherefore she spedded as fast in her way
  Almost in one day as he did in tway."

3d. The conjunction:

 "The great joy that was betwix hem two,
  When they be mette, there may no long tell.
  There is no more--but into bed they go."

4th. The entrance of the Sun into Taurus, as indicated in the unceremonious
intrusion of Phebus into Venus' chamber; which, as though to confirm its
identity with Taurus,

 "Depainted was with white _boles_ grete;"

whereupon Mars complains:

 "This twelve dayes of April I endure
  Through jelous Phebus this misaventure."

(It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader of Chaucer, that in the
poet's time the Sun would enter Taurus on the 12th of April.)

 "Now flieth Venus in to Ciclinius tour,
  With void corse, for fear of Phebus light."

These two lines, so obscure at first sight, afford, when properly
understood, the strongest confirmation of the astronomical meaning of the
whole; while, by indicating the conjunction on the last degree of Taurus,
they furnish a most essential element for its identification.

I confess that this "CICLINIUS" gave me a good deal of trouble; but, taking
as a guide the astronomical myth so evident throughout, I came to the
conviction that "Ciclinius" is a corruption, and that Chaucer wrote, or
intended to write, CYLLENIUS--a well-known epithet of _Mercury_, and used
too in an astronomical sense by Virgil, "_ignis coeli Cyllenius_."

Now _the sign Gemini_ is also "_domus Mercurii_;" so that when Venus fled
into the tour of Cyllenius, she simply slipped into the next door to her
own house of Taurus--leaving poor Mars behind to halt after her as he best

6th. Mars is almost stationary:

 "He passeth but a sterre in daies two."

There still remain one or two baffling points in the description, one of
which is the line--

 "Fro Venus Valanus might this palais see,"

which I am convinced is corrupt: I have formed a guess as to its true
meaning, but it is not as yet fully confirmed.

The other doubtful points are comprised in the following lines, which have
every appearance of significance; and which, I have not the least doubt,
bear as close application as those already explained: but, as yet, I must
acknowledge an inability to understand the allusions. After Venus has
entered Gemini--

 "Within the gate she fled into a cave:
  Dark was this cave and smoking as the hell;
  Nat but two paas within the gate it stood,
  _A natural day in darke I let her dwell_."

A. E. B.

Leeds, March 17.


       *       *       *       *       *


Among some miscellaneous papers in a volume of the Birch MSS. in the
British Museum (Add. 4293. fol. 5.) is preserved a curious document
illustrative of the love of Charles I. for the fine arts, and his anxiety
to increase his collection of paintings, which, as it has escaped the
notice of Walpole and his annotators, I transcribe below.

     "CHARLES R.

    "Whereas wee vnderstand that an excellent Collection of paintings are
    to be solde in Venice, whiche are knowen by the name of Bartolomeo
    della Nave his Collection, Wee are desirous that our beloved servant
    Mr. William Pettye, should goe thither to make the bargayne for them,
    Wee our selues beinge resolved to goe a fourthe share in the buyinge of
    them (soe it exceed not the s[=o]me of Eight hundred powndes
    sterlinge), but that our Name be concealed in it. And if it shall
    please God that the same Collection be bought and come safelye hither,
    Then wee doe promise in the word of a Kinge, that they shall be divyded
    with all equallitye in this maner, vid^t. That, they shall be equallie
    divyded into fower partes by some men skillfull in paintinge, and then
    everie one interested in the shares, or some for them, shall throwe the
    Dice severallye, and whoesoever throwes moste, shall chose his share
    first, and soe in order everye one shall choose after first, as he
    castes most, and shal take their shares freelye to their owne vses, as
    they shall fall vnto them. In wittnes whereof wee haue sett our hande,
    this Eight daye of July, in the Tenth year of our Reigne, 1634."

The individual employed by Charles in this negotiation is the same who
collected antiquities in Greece for the Earl of Arundel. He was Vicar of
Thorley, in the Isle of Wight, and is believed to have been the uncle of
the celebrated Sir William Petty, ancestor of the Marquis of Lansdowne. It
would be curious to learn the particulars of the "bargayne" made by him,
and how the pictures were disposed of after their arrival in England. Were
the Warrant and Privy Seal books of the period (still remaining among the
Exchequer records) easily accessible, no doubt some information on these
points might be gained. That this collection of Bartolomeo della Nave was a
celebrated one, we have the testimony of Simon Vouet, in a letter to
Ferrante Carlo, written from Venice, August 14, 1627, in which he speaks of
it as a "studio di bellissime pitture" (Bottari, _Lettere Pittoriche_, vol.
i. p. 335.: Milano, 1822): and that it came over to England, is asserted
repeatedly by Ridolfi, in his _Vite degli illustri Pittori Veneti_, the
first edition of which appeared at Venice in 1648. He mentions in this work
several paintings which were in Della Nave's collection, and which it may
be interesting to refer to here, in case they are still to be traced in
England. In vol. i. p. 107. (I quote the Padua edition of 1835) is noticed
a painting by Vincenzio Catena, representing Judith carrying the head of
Holofernes in one hand, and a sword in the other. In the same volume, p.
182., a portrait of Zattina by Palma il Vecchio, holding in her hand "una
zampina dorata;" and at p. 263. several sacred subjects by Titian among
which is specified one of the Virgin surrounded by Saints, and another of
the woman taken in adultery, with "multi ritratti" by the same. Again, at
p. 288., a head of a lady, supposed to be the mother of the artist Nadelino
da Murano, one of the most talented pupils of Titian; and at p. 328. a
painting by Andrea Schiavone, and some designs of Parmigiano. In vol. ii.
p. 123. are mentioned two paintings by Battista Zelotti from Ovid's Fables;
and at p. 141. a picture of the good Samaritan, by Jacopo da Ponte of
Bassano. For these references to Bottari and Ridolfi, I own myself indebted
to Mr. William Carpenter, the keeper of the department of engravings in the
British Museum; and, probably, some of your readers may contribute further
illustrations of Bartolomeo della Nave's collection of pictures, and of the
purchase of them by Charles I. I do not find this purchase noticed in
Vanderdort's list of Charles's pictures, published by Walpole in 1757.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Nonsuch Palace._--Our antiquarian friends may not be aware that traces of
this old residence of Elizabeth are still to be seen near Ewell. Traditions
of it exist in the neighbourhood and Hansetown, and Elizabethan coins are
frequently dug up near the foundations of the "Banquetting House," now
inclosed in a cherry orchard not far from the avenue that joins Ewell to
Cheam. In a field at some distance is an old elm, which the villagers say
once stood in the court-yard of the kitchen. Near this is a deep trench,
now filled with water, and hedged by bushes, which is called "Diana's
Dyke," now in the midst of a broad ploughed field, but formerly the site of
a statue of the Grecian goddess, which served as a fountain in an age when
water-works were found in every palace-garden, evincing in their subjects
proofs of the revival of classical learning. The elm above-mentioned
measures thirty feet in the girth, immediately below the parting of the
branches. Its age is "frosty but kindly;" some two or three hundred summers
have passed over its old head, which, as yet, is unscathed by heavens fire,
and unriven by its bolt. The ground here swells unequally and artificially,
and in an adjoining field, long called, no one knew why, "the Conduit
Field," pipes that brought the water to the palace have lately been found,
and may be seen intersected by the embankments of the Epsom railway.

The avenue itself is one of the old approaches to the palace, and was the
scene of a skirmish during the civil wars. {237}

Your readers may, perhaps, forget that this palace was the scene of the
fatal disgrace of young Essex.


_Ferrar and Benlowes._--The preface to that very singular poem, _Theophila:
Love's Sacrifice_. Lond. 1652, by Edw. Benlowes, contains a passage so
closely resembling the inscription "in the great parlour" at Little Gidding
(Peckard's _Life of Nic. Ferrar_, p. 234), that the coincidence cannot have
been accidental, and, if it has not been elsewhere pointed out, may be
worth record. As the inscription, thought not dated, was set up during the
life of Ferrar, who died in 1637, the imitation was evidently not _his_.
Only so much of the inscription is here given as is requisite to show the

    "He who (by reproof of our errors, and remonstrance of that which is
    more perfect) seeks to make us better, is welcome as an Angel of God:
    and he who (by a cheerful participation of that which is good) confirms
    us in the same, is welcome as a Christian friend. But he who faults us
    in absence, for that which in presence he made show to approve of, doth
    by a double guilt of flattery and slander violate the bands both of
    friendship and charity."

Thus writes Benlowes:

    "He who shall contribute to the improvement of the author, either by a
    prudent detection of an errour, or a sober communication of an
    irrefragable truth, deserves the venerable esteem and welcome of a good
    Angel. And he who by a candid adherence unto, and a fruitful
    participation of, what is good and pious, confirms him therein, merits
    the honourable entertainment of a faithful friend: but he who shall
    traduce him in absence for what in presence he would seem to applaud,
    incurres the double guilt of flattery and slander: and he who wounds
    him with ill reading and misprision, does execution on him before

G. A. S.

_Traditions from remote Periods through few Links_ (Vol. iii., p.
206.).--The communication of H. J. B., showing how a subject of our beloved
Queen Victoria can, with the intervention, as a lawyer would say, of "three
lives," connect herself with one who was a liegeman of that very dissimilar
monarch, Richard III., reminds me of a fact which I have long determined in
some way to commit to record. It is this: My father, who is only
sixty-eight years old, is connected in a similar mode with a person who had
the plague during the prevalence of that awful scourge in the metropolis in
the year 1665, with the intervention of _one_ life only. My grandfather,
John Lower of Alfriston, co. Sussex, distinctly remembered an aged woman,
who died at the adjacent village of Berwick at about ninety, and who had,
in her fourth year, recovered from that frightful disease. Should it please
Providence to spare my father's life to see his eighty-third birthday, the
recollections of three persons will thus connect events separated by a
period of two centuries.

I may take this opportunity of mentioning a fact which may interest such of
the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" as are students of natural history. My
grandfather, who was born in the year 1735 (being the son of Henry Lower,
born on the night of the memorable storm of November, 1703), was among the
very last of those who engaged in the sport of _bustard-hunting_ in the
South Downs. This bird has been extinct, on at least the eastern portion of
that range, for upwards of a century. The sport was carried on by means of
dogs which hunted down the poor birds, and the sticks of the human (or
_in_human?) pursuers did the rest. My ancestor was "in at the death" of the
last of the bustards, somewhere about 1747, being then twelve years old.



_Longevity._--Some few years since I had occasion to search the parish
registers of Evercreech in Somersetshire, in one of which I met with the
following astounding entry:--

    "1588. 20th Dec., Jane Britton of Evercriche, a Maidden, as she afirmed
    of the age of 200 years, was buried."

I can scarcely believe my own note, made however, with the register before

C. W. B.

_The Thirty-nine Articles._--The following MS. note is in a copy which I
have (4to. 1683):

     "Sept. 13. 1702.

    "Memor. That Mr. Thomas King did then Read publickly and distinctly, in
    a full Congregation during the Time of Divine Service, the nine and
    thirty Articles of Religion, and Declare his Assent and Consent, &c.,
    according as is Required in the Act of Uniformity, In the Parish Church
    of Ellesmere, In the Presence of Us, who had the said Articles printed
    before Us.

      E. KYNASTON.
      THO. EYTON.

J. O. M.

_Emendation of a Passage in Virgil._--Allow me to send you an emendation of
the usual readings of the 513th line of the first Georgic, which occurred
to me many years ago, and which still appears to me more satisfactory than
any which have hitherto been suggested.

 "Ut, cum carceribus sese effudere quadrigæ,
  _Ac sunt in spatio_,--_en_ frustra retinacula tendens,
  Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas."

 "When the chariots have passed the barriers,
  _And are now in the open course_,--
  _Lo_, the charioteer vainly pulling the
  Reins, is carried along by the steeds."

The usual readings are "addunt in spatio," or "addunt in spatia," which are
difficult to be {238} explained or understood. The emendation which I
suggest is, I think, simple, easy, and intelligible; and I can imagine how
the word "addunt" arose from the mistake of a transcriber, by supposing
that the MS. was written thus:--ac[s]vnt, with a long [s] closely following
the c, so as to resemble a d.


_Poems discovered among the Papers of Sir K. Digby._--In page 18. of your
current volume is a poem of which I am anxious to know the author: it is
entitled the "Houre-Glasse." Among the poems of Amaltheus I have discovered
one so like it, that it appears to be almost a translation. It is curious,
and but little known, so that I trust you can find it a place in "NOTES AND


  Perspicuo in vitro pulvis qui dividit horas
    Dum vagus augustum sæpe recurrit iter,
  Olim erat Alcippus, qui Gallæ ut vidit ocellos,
    Arsit, et est cæco factus ab igne cinis.--
  Irrequiete cinis, miseros testabere amantes
    More tuo nulla posse quiete frui."

H. A. B.

_Matter-of-fact Epitaph._--May I venture to ask a place for the following
very matter-of-fact epitaph in the English cemetery at Leghorn?

 "Amstelodamensis situs est hic Burr. Johannes,
    Quatuor è lustris qui modò cratus erat:
  Ditior anne auro, an meritis hoc nescio: tantas
    Cæca tamen Clotho non toleravit opes."

which may be thus freely rendered:

 "Here lie the remains of a Dutchman named Burr. John,
  Who baffled at twenty the skill of his surgeon;
  Whether greater his merits or wealth, I doubt which is,
  But Clotho the blind couldn't bear such great riches."

C. W. B.

       *       *       *       *       *



An ancient scholiast on Adam of Bremen, "paululum Adamo ratione ætatis
inferior," according to his editor, Joachim Maderus, supplies us with a
curious list of the stations in the voyages from Ripa, in Denmark, to Acre,
in the Holy Land. Adam of Bremen's _Ecclesiastical History_ dates toward
the end of the eleventh century, about 1070. His text is as follows:--

    "Alterum (episcopatum) in Ripa; quæ civitas alio tangitur alveo, qui ab
    oceano influit, et per quem vela torquentur in Fresiam, vel in nostram
    Saxoniam, vel certe in Angliam."

The scholiast has this note:--

    "De Ripa in Flandriam ad _Cuicfal_ velificari potest duobus diebus, et
    totidem noctibus; de Cuicfal ad _Prol in Angliam_ duobus diebus et una
    nocte. _Illud est ultimum caput Angliæ versus Austrum_, et est
    processus illuc de Ripa angulosus inter Austrum et Occidentem. De Prol
    in Britanniam ad Sanctum Matthiam, uno die,--inde ad Far, juxta Sanctum
    Jacobum tribus noctibus. Inde Leskebone duobus diebus inter Austrum et
    Occidentem. De Leskebone ad Narvese tribus diebus et tribus noctibus,
    angulariter inter Orientem et Austrum. De Narvese ad Arruguen quatuor
    diebus et quatuor noctibus, angulariter inter Aquilonem et Orientem. De
    Arruguen ad Barzalun uno die, similiter inter Aquilonem et Orientem. De
    Barzalun ad Marsiliam uno die et una nocte, fere versus Orientem,
    declinando tamen parum ad plagam Australem. De Marsilia ad Mezein in
    Siciliam quatuor diebus et quatuor noctibus, angulariter inter Orientem
    et Austrum. De Mezein ad Accharon xiiii diebus et totidem noctibus,
    inter Orientem et Austrum, magis appropiando ad Austrum."

We may fairly consider that the stations marked in this itinerary are of
great antiquity. "Prol in Angliam" is, no doubt, Prawle Point, in
Devonshire; a headland which must have been well known to the Veneti long
before the days of Adam of Bremen. Its mention here is one among the many
proofs of the early importance of this coast, the ancient "Littus
Totonesium," the scene of one of Marie's fabliaux, and of some curious
passages in Layamon's _Brut_, which are not to be found in the poem of
Wace. I wish to ask,--

1. Is the word "Prol" Saxon or British, and what is its probable etymology?

2. Where was "Cuicfal in Flandriam," from whence the voyage was made to


       *       *       *       *       *


Some of your clerical readers, as well as myself, would probably be glad to
have determined, what are the proper times and measures in which the bells
of a church ought to be rung. There seems to be no uniformity of practice
in this matter, nor any authoritative directions, by which the customs that
obtain may be either improved or regulated. The terms chiming, tolling, and
peal-ringing, though now generally understood, do not intelligibly apply to
the few regulations about bells which occur in the canons.

I believe that _chiming_ is the proper method of summoning the congregation
to the services of the church: and _tolling_ certainly appears to be the
most appropriate use of the bell at funerals. But chiming the bells is an
art that is not recognised in the older rules respecting their use. For
instance, the Fifteenth Canon orders that on Wednesdays and Fridays weekly,
warning shall be given to the people that litany will be said, by _tolling
of a bell_. And, on the other hand, though we toll at a funeral, the
Sixty-seventh Canon enjoins that--

    "After the party's death, there shall be rung no {239} more but one
    short peal, and one other before the burial, and one other after the

The peal here alluded to does not of course mean what MR. ELLACOMBE has so
clearly described to be a modern peal, in Vol. i., p. 154., of "NOTES AND
QUERIES;" but it would at least amount, I suppose, to _consonantia
campanarum_, a ringing together of bells, as distinguished from the _toll_
or single stroke on a bell. Horne Tooke says:

    "The toll of a bell is its being _lifted up_ (_tollere_, to raise),
    which causes that sound we call its toll."

The poet does not clear the ambiguity and confusion of terms, when he

 "Faintly as _tolls_ the evening _chime_!"

Peals are not heard in London on Sunday mornings, I believe; but in the
country, at least hereabouts, they are commonly rung as the summons to
church, ending with a few strokes on one bell; and then a smaller bell than
any in the peal (the _sanctus_ bell of old, perhaps, and now sometimes
vulgarly called "Tom Tinkler") announces that divine service is about to

The object of these remarks is to elicit clearly what is the right way of
ringing the bells of a church on the several occasions of their being used.



       *       *       *       *       *


In the _Musæum Tradescantianum, or a Collection of Rarities preserved at
South Lambeth, near London_, by John Tradescant, 1656, I find, amongst
"other variety of rarities," "the plyable Mazer wood, which, being warmed
in water, will work to any form;" and a little farther on, in the list of
"utensils and household stuffe," I also find "Mazer dishes." In my opinion,
it is more than a coincidence that Doctor Montgomery, who, in 1843,
received the gold medal of the Society of Arts for bringing gutta percha
and its useful properties under the notice of that body, describes it in
almost the same words that Tradescant uses when speaking of the pliable
Mazer wood: the Doctor says, "it could be moulded into any form by merely
dipping it into boiling water." It is worthy of remark that Tradescant, who
was the first botanist of his day, seems to have been uncertain of the true
nature of the "Mazer wood," for he does not class it with his "gums,
rootes, woods;" but, as before observed, in a heterogeneous collection
which he styles "other variety of rarities." Presuming, as I do, that this
Mazer wood was what we now term gutta percha, the question may be
propounded, how could Tradescant have procured it from its remote _locale_?
The answer is easy. In another part of the _Musæum Tradescantianum_ may be
found a list of the "benefactors" to the collection; and amongst their
names occurs that of William Curteen, Esq. Now this William Curteen and his
father Sir William, of Flemish Descent, were the most extensive British
merchants of the time, and had not only ships trading to, but also
possessed forts and factories on, some of the islands of the Eastern
Archipelago, the native _habitat_ of the sapotaceous tree that yields the
gutta percha. Curteen was a collector of curiosities himself, and no doubt
his captains and agents were instructed to procure such: in short, a
specimen of gutta percha was just as likely to attract the attention of an
intelligent Englishman at Amboyna in the fifteenth century, as it did at
Singapore in the nineteenth.

If there are still any remains of Tradescant's collection in the Ashmolean
Museum at Oxford, the question, whether the Mazer wood was gutta percha or
not, might be soon set at rest; but it is highly probable that the men who
ordered the relics of the Dodo to be thrown out, showed but little ceremony
to the Mazer wood or dishes.

A curious instance of a word, not very dissimilar to Mazer, may be found in
Eric Red's Saga, part of the _Flatö Annals_, supposed to be written in the
tenth century, and one of the authorities for the pre-Columbian discovery
of America by the Icelanders. Karlsefne, one of the heroes of the Saga,
while his ship was detained by a contrary wind in a Norwegian port, was
accosted by a German, who wished to purchase his, Karlsefne's, broom.

    "'I will not sell it,' said Karlsefne. 'I will give you half a mark in
    gold for it,' said the German man. Karlsefne thought this a good offer,
    and thereupon concluded the bargain. The German man went away with the
    broom. Karlsefne did not know what wood it was; but it was _Mæsur_,
    which had come from Wineland!"

Perhaps some reader may give an instance of Mazer wood being mentioned by
other writers; or inform me if the word Mazer, in itself, had any peculiar


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Paul Pitcher Night._--Can any of the contributors to "NOTES AND QUERIES"
throw light upon a curious custom, prevalent in some parts of Cornwall, of
throwing broken pitchers, and other earthen vessels, against the doors of
dwelling-houses, on the eve of the Conversion of St. Paul, thence locally
called "Paul pitcher night?" On that evening parties of young people
perambulate the parishes in which the custom is retained, exclaiming as
they throw the sherds,--

 "Paul's eve,
  And here's a heave!"

According to the received notions, the first "heave" cannot be objected to;
but, upon its being repeated, the inhabitants of the house whose {240} door
is thus attacked may, if they can, seize the offenders, and inflict summary
justice upon them; but, as they usually effect their escape before the door
can be opened, this is not easily managed.

Query, Can this apparently unintelligible custom have any reference to the
21st verse of the IXth chap. of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans: "Hath not
the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto
honour, and another unto dishonour?"--the earthen fragments thus turned to
dishonour being called "Paul's pitchers."

Any more probable conjecture as to the origin or meaning of this custom, or
any account of its occurring elsewhere, will greatly oblige

F. M. (a Subscriber).

_Disinterment for Heresy._--A remarkable instance of disinterment on
account of heresy is stated to have occurred a little before the
Reformation, in the case of one Tracy, who was publicly accused in
convocation of having expressed heretical tenets in his will; and, having
been found guilty, a commission was issued to dig up his body, which was
accordingly done. I shall be much obliged to any of your readers who will
favour me with the date and particulars of this case.


_"Just Notions," &c._--At the end of the Introduction of _The Christian
Instructed in the Principles of Religion_, by W. Reading, Lond. 1717, occur
the following lines: (Query, whether original, or, if not, from whence

 "Just notions will into good actions grow,
  And to our reason we our virtues owe;
  False judgments are the unhappy source of ill,
  And blinded error draws the passive will.
  To know our God, and know ourselves, is all
  We can true happiness or wisdom call."

U. Q.

_Pursuits of Literature._--How came the author of the _Pursuits of
Literature_ to be known? I have before me the 11th edition (1801); and in
the Preface to the fourth and last dialogue, the author declares that
"_neither my name nor situation in life will ever be revealed_." He does
not pretend to be the sole depository of his own secret; but he says again:

    "My secret will be for ever preserved, I _know_, under every change of
    fortune or of political tenets, while honour, and virtue, and religion,
    and friendly affection, and erudition, and the principles of a
    gentleman have binding force and authority upon minds so cultivated and
    dignified. When they fall, I am contented to fall with them."

Nevertheless, the author of the _Pursuits of Literature_ is known. How is

S. T. D.

_Satirical Medal._--I possess a medal whose history I should be glad to
know. It is apparently of silver, though not ringing as such, and about an
inch and a quarter in diameter. On the obverse are two figures in the
long-waisted, full-skirted coats, cavalier hats, and full-bottomed wigs of,
I presume, Louis XIV.'s time. Both wear swords; one, exhibiting the most
developed wig of the two, offers a snuff-box, from which the other has
accepted a pinch, and fillips it into his companion's eyes. The legend is
"Faites-vous cela pour m'affronter?"

The mitigated heroism of this _query_ seems to be _noted_ on the reverse,
which presents a man digging in the ground, an operation in which he must
be somewhat hampered by a lantern in his left hand; superfluous one would
deem (but for the authority of Diogenes), as the sun is shining above his
head in full splendour. The digger's opinion, that the two combined are not
more than the case requires, is conveyed in the legend,--

    "Je cherche du courage pour mon maistre."

The finding was curious. On cutting down an ash-tree in the neighbourhood
of Linton, Cambridgeshire, in 1818, a knob on its trunk was lopped off, and
this medal discovered in its core! It was probably the cause of the
excrescence, having been, perhaps, thrust under the bark to escape the
danger of its apparently political allusion. The Linton carrier purchased
it for half-a-crown, and from him it passed in 1820 into hands whence it
devolved to me.

Is anything known of this medal, or are any other specimens of it extant? I
pretend to no numismatic skill, but to an unlearned mind it would seem to
contain allusion to the insult which Charles II. and his government were
supposed to submit to from Louis XIV.; to be, in fact, a sort of metallic

Some friend, I forget who, pronounced the workmanship Dutch, which would, I
think, favour the above theory. The figures are in bold and prominent
relief, but to a certain degree rounded by wear, having been evidently
carried in the pocket for a considerable time.

G. W. W.

_Matthew's Mediterranean Passage._--I should be thankful for any
information as to where the following work could be seen, and also
respecting the nature of its contents.

    "Somerset.--Matthew's Mediterranean Passage by water from London to
    Bristol, &c., and from Lynne to Yarmouthe. Very rare, 4to. 1670."

The above is quoted from Thos. Thorpe's Cat., part iii., 1832, p. 169., no.


_Inscription on an Oak Board._--I have an old oak board, on which are
carved the following lines in raised capital letters of an antique form,
with lozenges between the words:--

  OR . WHO . I . WAS . THAT . DID . THE . SAME .


The letters are two inches long, and a quarter of an inch high from the
sunken face of the board, which is four feet long by ten inches wide. It
has a raised rim or border round the inscription; which proves that it had
not contained more lines than as above. It was found at Hereford, in a
county which still abounds in timbered houses, and it had been lately used
as a weather-board. The legend was submitted to the late Sir Samuel Meyrick
of Goderich Court; who was of opinion, that it had formerly been over the
chimney-piece or porch of some dwelling-house, and is a riddle involving
the builder's or founder's name. If any of your readers can suggest the age
and original use of this board, or explain the name concealed in the lines,
it will oblige

P. H. F.

_Expressions in Milton._--Allow me to ask some correspondent to give the
meaning of the following expressions from the prose works of Milton:--

    "A toothless satire is as improper as a toothed sleck stone, and as

"A toothed sleck stone," I take to mean a "jagged whetstone," very unfit
for its purpose; but what is the force of the term "as bullish?"


    "I do not intend this hot seasons to _bid you the base_, through the
    wide and dusty champaign of the councils."

The meaning I receive from this is, "I don't mean to carry you through the
maze of the ancient councils of the church;" but I wish to know the exact
force of the expression "to bid you the base?"

R. (a Reader).

_Saints' Days._--The _chorea invita_ is not a very satisfactory explanation
of St. Vitus's dance; and though St. Vitus is not in the Roman martyrology
of our day, yet he is in the almanacs of the fifteenth century, and
probably earlier. The martyr Vitus makes the 15th of June a red letter-day
in the first almanac ever printed. Who was St. Vitus, and how did he give
his name to the play of the features which is called his dance? Again, the
day before St. Patrick is celebrated in Ireland, St. Patricius is
celebrated in Auvergne. Can any identity be established?


_Chepstow Castle._--In Carlyle's _Life of Cromwell_, vol. i. pp. 349, 350.,
there is a letter from Cromwell, dated before Pembroke, wherein he directs
a Major Saunders, then quartered at or near Brecon, to go to Monmouthshire
and seize Sir Trevor Williams of Llangevie, and Mr. Morgan, High Sheriff of
Monmouth, "as," he writes, "they were very deep in the plot of betraying
Chepstow Castle." Carlyle has the following foot-note to the letter:

    "Saunders by his manner of indorsing this letter seems to intimate that
    he took his two men; that he keeps the letter by way of voucher. Sir
    Trevor Williams by and bye compounds as a delinquent, retires then into
    Llangevie House, and disappears from history. Of Sheriff Morgan, except
    that a new sheriff is soon appointed, we have no farther notice

Can any of your correspondents give me information in what work I can find
a tolerably full account of this "betraying of Chepstow Castle?" and also
of what place in the county was this Morgan, Sheriff of Monmouth?


_The Wilkes MSS. and "North Briton."_--I inquired long since what had
become of these MSS., which Miss Wilkes bequeathed to Peter Elmsley, of
Sloane Street, "to whose judgement and delicacy" she confided
them,--meaning, I presume, that she should be content to abide by his
judgement as to the propriety of publishing them, or a selection; but
certainly to be preserved for the vindication of her father's memory;
otherwise she would have destroyed them, or directed them to be destroyed.
In 1811 these MSS. were, I presume, in the possession of Peter Elmsley,
Principal of St. Alban's Hall, as he submitted the Junius Correspondence,
through Mr. Hallam, to Serjeant Rough, who returned the letters to Mr.
Hallam. Where now are the original Junius Letters, and where the other
MSS.? The _Athenæum_ has announced that the Stowe MSS., including the
Diaries and Correspondence of George Grenville, are about to be published,
and will throw a "new light" on the character of John Wilkes. I suspect any
light obtained from George Grenville will be very like the old light, and
only help to blacken what is already too dark. I therefore venture to ask
once again, Where are the Wilkes MSS.? and can they be consulted? Further,
are any of your readers able and willing to inform us who were the writers
of the different papers in the _North Briton_, either first or second
series? Through "NOTES AND QUERIES" we got much curious information on this
point with reference to the _Rolliad_.

W. M. S.

"_O wearisome Condition of Humanity!_"--Can any of your readers inform me
in what "noble poet of our own" the following verses are to be found. They
are quoted by Tillotson in vol. ii. p. 255. of his Works, in 3 vols. fo.

 "O wearisome condition of humanity!
    Born under one law, to another bound;
  Vainly begot, and yet forbidden vanity;
    Created sick, commanded to be sound.
  If Nature did not take delight in blood,
  She would have found more easy ways to good."



_Places called "Purgatory."_--The Rev. Wm. Thornber, in his _History of
Blackpool in the Fylde District of Lancashire_, gives the following
explanation of the name as applied to particular fields, houses, &c.:--

    "The last evening in October (or vigil of All Souls) {242} was called
    the Teanlay night; at the close of that day, till within late years,
    the hills which encircle the Fylde shone brightly with many a bonfire,
    the mosses rivalling them with their fires kindled for the object of
    succouring their friends in purgatory. A field near Poulton, in which
    this ceremony of the Teanlays was celebrated (a circle of men standing
    with bundles of straw raised high on pitchforks), is named Purgatory;
    and will hand down to posterity the farce of lighting souls to endless
    happiness from the confines of their prison-house: the custom was not
    confined to one village or town, but was generally practised by the

It is certain that places may be found here and there in the county still
going by the name of Purgatory. Can any of your correspondents throw
further light on the matter, or tell us if the custom extended to other

P. P.

_Epitaph in Hall's "Discovery."_--The following epitaph occurs in _Bishop
Hall's Discovery of a New World, by an English Mercury_, an extremely rare
little volume, unknown to Ames or Herbert; and is, I should imagine, a
satire on some statesman of the time. Query, on whom?


    "Stay, reade, walke, Here lieth Andrew Turnecoate, who was neither
    Slave, nor Soldier, nor Phisitian, nor Fencer, nor Cobler, nor
    Filtcher, nor Lawier, nor Usurer, but all; who lived neither in citty,
    nor countrie, nor at home, nor abroade, nor at sea, nor at land, nor
    here, nor elsewhere, but everywhere. Who died neither of hunger, nor
    poyson, nor hatchet, nor halter, nor dogge, nor disease, but
    altogether. I., I. H., being neither his debtour, nor heire, nor
    kinsman, nor friend, nor neighbour, but all: in his memory have erected
    this, neither monument, nor tombe, nor sepulcher, but all; wishing
    neither evill nor well, neither to thee, nor mee, nor him, but all unto
    all."--P. 140.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries Answered.

_Canon and Prebendary._--What is the difference between a _canon_ and a
_prebend_ or _prebendary_ in a cathedral, or a collegiate church

W. J.

    [The distinction seems to be this, that a prebendary is one who
    possesses a prebend, which formerly a canon might or might not hold.
    Subsequently, when canons received prebends for their support, the two
    classes became confounded; the one, however, is a name of office
    (_canon_), the other of emolument (_prebendary_).

    "Une partie du clergé était toujours auprès de l'évêque, pour assister
    aux prières et à toutes les fonctions publiques. L'évêque consultait
    les prêtres sur toutes les affaires de l'église: et pour l'exécution il
    se servait des diacres et des ministres inférieurs. Le reste du clergé
    était distribué dans les titres de la ville et de la campagne, et ne se
    rassemblait qu'en certaines occasions, d'où sont venus les synodes. De
    cette première partie de clergé sont venus les chanoines des
    cathédrales. Il est vrai que du commencement on nommait clercs
    canoniques, tous ceux qui vivaient selon les canons, sous la conduite
    de leur évêque; et qui étaient sur le canon ou la matricule de
    l'église, pour être entretenus à ses dépens, soit qu'ils servissent
    dans l'église matrice, ou dans les autres titres. Depuis, le nom de
    canonique ou chanoines fut particulièrement appliqué aux clercs, qui
    vivaient en commun avec leur évêque."--_Institution du Droit
    Ecclésiastique_, par M. l'Abbé Fleury, 1ière partie, chap. xvii.

So much for the origin of canons. As to prebendaries:

    "Præbenda, est jus percipiendi reditus ecclesiasticos, ratione divini
    officii, cui quis insistit. Alia est canonicatui annexa, alia sine ea
    confertur. _Gl. in c. cum M. Ferrariensis, 9. in verbo receperunt de

    "_Præbendam, beneficium et titulum_ nihil reipsa interest: usu tamen
    loquendi in alia ecclesia vocatur Præbenda, in alia beneficiam, seu
    titulus. _Secund. Pac. Isag. Decret. hoc tit._"--Lib. 2. tit. xxviii.
    of the _Aphorisms of Canon Law_, by Arn. Corvinus. _Paris_, 1671.

In the _Quare Impedit_ of Mallory, the distinction is thus expressed:--

    "There is a difference taken between a _prebendary_ and a _canon_, for
    a prebendary is _a præbendo_ and _nomen facti_ in respect of the
    maintenance given to him: but _Canonicus est nomen juris_; and in our
    usual translations a secular is translated to a regular, but not _e
    converso_, a regular to a secular, _Palm 501_."--p. 34. sub titulo

_What Amount of Property constitutes an Esquire?_--The practice of
subjoining "Esquire" to the names of persons has become so universal, that
the real significance of the title is quite lost sight of. Will some one of
your correspondents inform me what amount of property really constitutes an

W. L.

    [No fixed amount of property is a qualification for the title or rank
    of Esquire. For the description of persons so entitled to be
    designated, see Blackstone's _Commentaries_, vol. i.; and the later the
    edition, the greater advantage W. L. will have in the notes and remarks
    of the latest law writers.]

_Cromwell Family._--Will some of your correspondents be so good as to
inform me, to whom the children (sons and daughters) of Oliver Cromwell's
daughter Bridget were married, those by her first marriage with Ireton as
well as those by her second marriage with Fleetwood. I can learn but the
marriage of one: Ireton's daughter Bridget married a Mr. Bendyshe.

M. A. C.

    [Cromwell's daughter, Bridget, who was relict of Henry Ireton, married
    Charles Fleetwood of Armingland Hall, Norfolk, and Stoke Newington,
    Middlesex: she died, 1681, without any issue by Fleetwood. See
    Fleetwood's pedigree in No. IX. of the _Bibl. Topog. Britannica_, pp.
    28, 29. By her first husband, Henry Ireton, to whom she was married in
    1646, she had one son and four daughters, of whom a full account will
    be {243} found in Noble's _House of Cromwell_, vol. ii. pp. 319-329.,
    in which volume will be found an account of the family of Fleetwood.]

_Daughters of the Sixth Earl of Lennox._--J. W. wishes for information as
to who married, or what became of the daughters and granddaughters of
Charles Stuart, the sixth Earl of Lennox, and brother of Darnley?

    [The brother of Darnley (the husband of Mary Queen of Scots) was
    Charles, fifth earl of Lennox, who left an only daughter, the
    interesting and oppressed Lady Arabella Stuart, as every common Peerage
    will state.]

_Wife of Joseph Nicholson._--Any information as to who was the wife of
Joseph Nicholson, who resided in London the latter part of the seventeenth
century, would much oblige one of his descendants.

He was second son of the Rev. Joseph Nicholson, rector of Plumland,
Cumberland, who was married to Mary Miser, of Crofton.

His eldest brother was Dr. Wm. Nicholson, Bishop of Carlisle, afterwards
Bishop of Derry, and died there 1727. The bishop's nephew, Rev. James
Nicholson, son of the above Joseph, came to Ireland as chaplain to his
uncle, and became rector of Ardrahan, co. Galway, and died there about


    [If our correspondent will refer to the title-page of the Bishop's
    celebrated work, _The English, Scotch, and Irish Historical Libraries_,
    as well as to his correspondence with Thoresby, the Leeds antiquary, he
    will find his name spelt Nicolson, without the letter _h_. This
    deserves to be noted, as there was another Dr. William Nicholson,
    consecrated Bishop of Gloucester, A.D. 1660.]

_Six Abeiles._--In Mrs. Barrett Browning's beautiful poem, _Rhyme of the
Duchess May_, the following lines occur:

 "Six _abeiles_ i' the kirkyard grow,
  On the northside in a row."

Will you or some of your readers kindly inform me what _abeiles_ are. From
the context, they would seem to be some kind of tree, but what tree I
cannot discover.

M. A. H.

Monkstown, co. Cork, Feb. 18. 1851.

    [Bailey, in his _Dictionary_, says, "An abele-tree is a fine kind of
    white poplar." See also Chambers' _Cyclopædia_.]

_Southey._--There is a _jeu d'esprit_ attributed to Southey, on the
expedition of Napoleon into Russia, beginning,--

 "Buonaparte must needs set out
  On a summer's excursion to Moscow,"

and ending,--

 "But there's a place which he must go to,
    Where the fire is red, and the brimstone blue,
  Sacre-bleu, ventre-bleu,
    He'll find it hotter than Moscow."

I know this was printed, for I saw it when a boy. Where can it be found?


    [See "The March to Moscow," in Southey's _Poetical Works_, p. 464.,
    edit. 1850.]

_Epigram against Burke._--Can any reader supply me with some lines of great
asperity against Edmund Burke, excited (I believe) by the unrelenting
hostility exhibited by Burke against Warren Hastings?

The sting of the epigram is contained in the last line, which, alluding to
the exemption of Ireland from all poisonous reptiles, runs as follows:--

 "And saved her venom to create a Burke."

And if the said lines shall be forthcoming, I should be glad also to be
informed of their reputed author.


    [The following epigram, thrown to Burke in court, and torn by him to
    shreds, has been always attributed to Mr. Law (Lord Ellenborough), but

     "Oft have we wonder'd that on Irish ground
      No poisonous reptile has e'er yet been found;
      Reveal'd the secret stands of nature's work,
      She saved her venom to create a Burke."

    The real author was one Williams, notorious for his _nom de guerre_,
    Anthony Pasquin.--Townsend's _History of Twelve Eminent Judges_.]

_Knights Hospitallers._--Where may a correct list be found of the names of
the several persons who held the appointment of Master of the Knights
Hospitallers in England, from the period of their first coming until the
dissolution of their houses?

S. P. O. R.

    [See Dugdale's _Monasticon Anglicanum_, new edition, vol. vi. pp.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., p. 220.)

I am much obliged to your correspondent A. L. R. for his kind notice of my
pamphlet on Mesmerism, and equally so to yourself for inserting it; because
it gives me an opportunity of explaining to him, and others to whom I am
personally unknown, and who are therefore not aware of my circumstances and
movements, why the work was not continued without delay. In doing this I
will try to avoid trespassing on your goodness by one word of needless
egotism. In my Preface I described my materials as a "number of fragments
belonging to various ages and places," as "scattered facts and hints" which
I had met with in books which were not suspected of containing such matter;
and some of them books not likely to fall into the hands of anybody but a
librarian, or at least a person having access to a public library. It may
be easily understood that rough materials thus gathered were not fit for
{244} publication; and that, without the books from which they had been
"noted" and "queried," they could not be made so: and if I had anticipated
the course of events (notwithstanding an inducement which I will mention
presently), I should not have thought of publishing a Part I. But when I
sent it to the press, I had no idea that I should ever return here, or be
at an inconvenient distance from the libraries which were then within my
reach, and open to my use. As it was, I regretted that I had done so, and
felt obliged to hurry the pamphlet through the press, that I might pack up
these papers, and many other things more likely to be hurt by carriage, for
a residence an hundred miles off; and here they are _in statu quo_. I have
not attempted to do any thing with them, not only because I have been very
much occupied in other ways, but because I do not know that I could fit
them for publication without referring to some books to which I have not
access. At the same time I feel bound to add, that while I still think that
some of the things to which I refer might be worth printing, yet I do not
consider them so important as the matter which formed the subject of the
Part already published. I did think (and that was the inducement to which I
have already referred) that it was high time to call the attention of
disinterested and reflecting persons to the _facts_ alleged by mesmerists,
and to the _names_ by which they are attested. I have the satisfaction of
knowing that I have in some degree succeeded in this design. I may perhaps
some day find a channel for publishing the fragments alluded to; but in the
mean time, I shall be very glad if I can supply anything which your
correspondent may think wanting, or explain anything unintelligible in what
is published, if he will let me hear from him either with or without his
name. I am sorry to ask for so much space, knowing how little you have to
spare; but I cannot resist the temptation to offer an explanation, which
will be so widely circulated, and among such readers as I know this will
be, if you can find room for it.


Gloucester, March 24.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 185.)

The following observations, though slight in themselves, may tend to show
that Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, afterwards Earl of Nottingham, was,
or professed to be, a Protestant.

1st. On his embassy to Spain, Carte says (I quote from Collins's _Peerage_,
vol. iv. p. 272.)--

    "On Friday the last of this Month His Catholick Majesty ratified the
    peace upon Oath in a great chamber of the palace.... It was pretended
    that the Clergy would not suffer this to be done in a Church or Chapel
    where the neglect of reverence of the Holy Sacrament would give

I presume the "neglect of reverence" was apprehended in the case of the
English ambassador.

2nd. In Fuller's _Worthies_ (Surrey), speaking of Lord Nottingham, it is

    "He lived to be very aged, who wrote 'man,' (if not married) in the
    first of Queen Elizabeth, being an invited guest at the solemn
    consecration of Matthew Parker at Lambeth; and many years after, by his
    testimony, confuted those lewd and loud lies which the papists tell of
    the Nag's Head in Cheapside."

3rd. He was one of the commissioners on the trial of Garnet and others; and
told him, as he stood in a box made like a pulpit--

    "Sir, you have this day done more good in that pulpit wherein you now
    stand, than you have done in any other pulpit all the days of your
    life."--_Archæologia_, vol. xv.

His coffin-plate has been engraved somewhere, and, if his will exists, it
might probably settle the question.

Q. D.

_Lord Howard of Effingham_ (Vol. iii., p. 185.).--There is some proof that
he was a Protestant in the letter of instructions to him from King James
(_Biog. Brit._, p. 2679.):

    "Only we forewarn you, that in the performance of that ceremony, which
    is likely to be done in the King's (of Spain) chapel, you have especial
    care that it be not done in the forenoon, in the time of mass, to the
    scandal of _our_ religion; but rather in the afternoon, at what time
    their service is more free from note of superstition."

May Lord Effingham have changed his religion between the Armada and his
mission to Spain?

C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 188.)

The Volpes were an ancient, noble Florentine family of the second class,
some branches of which according to the usage of Florence, changed their
name, and adopted that of Bigliotti. The object of the change was to remove
the disqualification which attached to them, as nobles, of holding offices
under the republic. In illustration of this singular practice, the
following extracts may be cited:

    "Le peuple nomma une commission pour corriger les statuts de la
    république, et réprimer par les lois l'insolence des nobles. Une
    ordonnance fameuse, connue sous le nom _d'Ordinamenti della Giustizia_,
    fut l'ouvrage de cette commission. Pour le maintien de la liberté et de
    la justice, elle sanctionna la jurisprudence la plus tyrannique, et la
    plus injuste. Trente-sept familles, les plus nobles et les plus
    respectables de Florence, furent exclus à jamais du priorat, sans qu'il
    leur fùt permis de recouvrer les droits de cité, en se {245} faisant
    matriculer dans quelque corps de métier, ou en exerçant quelque
    profession.... Les membres de ces trente-sept familles furent désignés,
    même dans les lois, par les noms de grands et de magnats; et pour la
    première fois, on vit un titre d'honneur devenir nonseulement un
    fardeau onéreux, mais une punition."--Sismondi, _Histoire des
    Républiques Italiennes_, tom. iv. pp. 63-4.: Paris, 1826.

    "The people, now sure of their triumph, relaxed the Ordinances of
    Justice, and, to make some distinction in favour of merit or innocence,
    effaced certain families from the list of the nobility. Five hundred
    and thirty persons were thus elevated, as we may call it, to the rank
    of commoners. As it was beyond the competence of the Republic of
    Florence to change a man's ancestors, this nominal alteration left all
    the real advantage of birth as they were, and was undoubtedly an
    enhancenent of dignity, though, in appearance, a very singular one.
    Conversely, several unpopular commoners were ennobled in order to
    disfranchise them. Nothing was more usual, in subsequent times, than
    such an arbitrary change of rank, as a penalty or a benefit. (Messer
    Antonio de Baldinaccio degli Adimari, tutto che fosse de più grandi e
    nobili, per grazia era misso tra 'l popolo.--_Villani_, xii. c. 108.)
    Those nobles who were rendered plebeian by favour, were obliged to
    change their name and arms."--Hallam's _Middle Ages_, vol. i. p.
    435-6.: London, 1834.

    "In the history of Florentine families, a singular feature presents
    itself; by a practice peculiar to Italy, nay, it is believed to
    Florence, families, under certain circumstances, were compelled to
    change their arms and their surnames, the origin of which was as
    follows. After having long suffered the insolent factions of the great
    families to convulse the state, the middle classes, headed indeed by
    one of the nobles, by a determined movement, obtained the mastery. To
    organize their newly-acquired power, they instituted an office, the
    chief at Florence during the republican era, that of Gonfalonier of
    Justice; they formed a species of national guard from the whole body of
    the citizens, who were again subdivided into companies, under the
    command of other officers of inferior dignity, also styled Gonfaloniers
    (Bannarets). As soon as any noble committed violence within the walls
    of the city, likely to compromise the public peace, or disturb the
    quiet of the state, the great bell at the Palazzo Vecchio raised its
    alarum, the population flew to arms, and hastened to the spot, where
    the Gonfalonier of Justice speedily found himself in a position, not
    merely to put an end to the disturbance, but even to lay siege to the
    stout massive fortresses which formed the city residences of the
    insolent and refractory offenders to which they then withdrew. But the
    reforming party did not stop there; by the new constitution, which was
    then introduced, the ancient noble families, termed by cotemporary
    historians 'i grandi,' and explained to include those only which had
    ever been illustrated by the order of knighthood, were all placed under
    a severe system of civil restrictions, and their names were entered
    upon a roll called the Ordinances of Justice; the immediate effect was
    that, losing all political rights, they were placed in a most
    disadvantageous position before the law.

    "By a remarkable species of democratic liberality, a man or a family
    might be emancipated from this position and rendered fit for office,
    born again as it were into a new political life, by renouncing their
    connections (consorteria) and changing their arms and surnames. They
    were then said to be made plebeian or popular (fatti di popolo).
    Niebuhr has noticed the analogy of such voluntary resignation of
    nobility to the 'transitio ad plebem' of the Romans.

    "This practice of changing arms and surnames originated from the
    Ordinances of Justice promulgated about that time, which expressly
    requires this as a condition to the enjoyment by any of the old
    families of popular rights. It gave rise to great varieties of surnames
    and armorial bearings in different branches of the same house. But it
    has nevertheless been noted that in all these mutations it was still
    the endeavour of the parties to retain as much as possible of the
    ancient ensigns and appellations, so that traces of descent and
    connexion might not in the progress of years be altogether obliterated.
    Thus the Cavalcanti took the name of Cavallereschi, the Tornaquinci
    that of Tornabuoni. Sometimes they obtained the object by a play upon
    the name itself thus; at other times by making a patronymic of the
    Christian name of the first or some other favourite ancestor; thus a
    branch of the Bardi assumed the name of Gualterotti, and a branch of
    the Pazzi that of Accorri. Sometimes they took their new name from a
    place or circumstance calculated to preserve the memory of their
    origin; thus the Agolanti designated themselves Fiesolani, the Bostichi
    from the antiquity of their stock, Buonantichi. In mutation of arms a
    similar object was borne in mind. Thus the Buondelmonti simply added to
    their ancient bearings a mountain az. and a cross gu. The Baccelli, who
    were a branch of the Mazzinghi, replaced the three perpendicular clubs,
    the ancient ensigns of the family, by two placed in the form of a

    "As the object of these provisions was to discriminate for the future
    those of the ancient families who had acceded to the principles of the
    popular institutions from their more haughty kindred, who remained true
    to the defence of their feudal and aristocratical pretensions, the
    change either of arms or surname was not required if the whole family
    became converts to the new doctrines; for then there was no need of
    discrimination, and the law was not framed out of any dislike merely to
    particular ensigns, but only to the principles and opinions which they
    had up to a certain time been understood to represent."--_Mazzinghi._

The identity of the Volpes and Bigliottis is attested by ancient sepulchral
monuments of the family in Santo Spirito at Florence. To mark the ancient
origin, they retained or assumed the fox (_volpe_) as their arms. Borghini,
in his _Discorsi_ (Florence, 1584-5), mentions the family as an instance of
the name giving rise to the arms, and mentions Sandro Biglotti, 1339, as
the first who assumed the fox as his ensigns. The distinction and influence
enjoyed at Florence by the family is indicated by its having contributed
ten Gonfaloniers of Justice to the republic; an office corresponding in
rank with those of Doge of Venice {246} and Doge of Genoa. Details of
several branches of the family will be found in _Saggi Istorici D'Antichità
Toscane di Lorenzo Cantini_: Firenze, 1798.

Among the junta of twenty noblemen of Venice, chosen in 1355, on the
discovery of the conspiracy of Marino Faliero, Doge of Venice, we find the
name of "Ser Niccolò Volpe":--

    "Questi [que' del Consiglio de' Dieci] elessero tra loro una Giunta,
    nella notte, ridotti quasi sul romper del giorno, di venti nobili di
    Vinezia de' migliori, de' piu savii, e de' piu antichi, per consultare,
    non pero che mettessero pallottola."--_Vitæ Ducum Venetorum_,--though
    the title is in Latin, the work is in Italian,--published in Muratori's
    _Rerum Italicarum Scriptores_, tom. xii. p. 634.

The following particulars are extracted from the _Biographie

    "Ivo. Biliotti, d'une famille patricienne de Florence (qui avoit fourni
    dix Gonfaloniers de Justice à cette république, et placé ses armes sur
    les monnaies de l'état), fut un des derniers défenseurs de la liberté
    de sa patrie, et un des meilleurs capitaines de son temps. En 1529, il
    defendit le fort de Spello, en Toscane, contre les troupes liguées du
    pape et de l'Empereur Charles Quint. Il obligea le prince d'Orange, qui
    les commandait, à se retirer, et se distingua aussi au siége de
    Florence. Il passa au service de Francois I^{er}, roi de France, avec
    de Gondi et Pierre de Strozzi, ses parents, et fut tué au siége de
    Dieppe. Une partie de la famille Biliotti, proscrite par les Médicis,
    se refugia à Avignon et dans le comtat Venaissin, vers la fin du 15^e
    siècle. Le 29 juillet, 1794, le chef de cette maison, Joseph Joachim,
    Marquis de Biliotti, chevalier de St. Louis, âgé de soixante-dix ans,
    aussi distingué par ses vertus que par sa naissance, fut la dernière
    victime du tribunal révolutionnaire d'Orange, qui fut suspendu le
    lendemain de sa mort."

The only particulars of Iovanni Volpe furnished by the Gwerclas MSS. are
given in the annexed pedigree. The marriage of his daughter Frances with my
ancestor, Richard Hughes of Gwerclas, arose from the latter (before his
accession to the family estates and representation, consequent on the
decease without issue--February 6, 18 James I., 1620-1--of his elder
brother, Humffrey Hughes, Esq., of Gwerclas, Baron of Cymmer-yn-Edeirnion,
High Sheriff of Merionethshire in 1618) having been secretary of the
princely Cliffords, Earls of Cumberland, to whom Iovanni Volpe had been
physician. There can be little doubt that Iovanni was descended from a
branch of the Italian Volpes which had retained the ancient name; a
supposition confirmed by the tradition of my family, and by the fact of the
fox being assigned to his daughter Frances as her arms, in an emblazoned
genealogy of the house of Gwerclas compiled in 1650 by the most accurate
and eminent of Welsh antiquaries, Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt, Esq.

I may add, that among the Gwerclas pictures are portraits of Richard Hughes
and Frances; the latter exhibiting in features an complexion the
unmistakeable impress of Italian lineage.


Twyford, Hants, March 18. 1851.

                    WILLIAM WOLPE.   ===
                    Arms, Vert a fox  |
                    courant, proper.  |
  JOHN WOLPE, _aliter_ VULP, "An Italian === ---- ----, "Descended
  doctor; was ffamous in Queene Eliza-         |  of the ffamily of the
  beth's tyme, went with George Erle           |  Monntaynes in Yorkshire,
  of Cumberland most of his sea                |  who keepe the name this
  voyages, and was with him at the             |  daye [1622.]."
  takeing of Portorico, in the Indies."        |
  RICHARD EVERS (1st) === FRANCES, "Sole  === (2nd) RICHARD HUGHES, Esq.,
  "Of the ffamily of   |  daughter." Died  |  of Gwerclas, co. Merioneth,
  Evers of Coventry."  |  29 June, 1636,   |  Baron of Cymmer-yn-Edeirnion.
                       |  circa æt. 50.    |  Married 2 Nov. 1601. Died 21
                       |                   |  March, 1641, circa æt. 80.
                       |                   |
          +------------+                   +----------------+
          |                                                 |
  MARTHA, "Only daughter." === RICHARD LLOYD    HUMFFREY HUGHES, Esq. of
  Born 25 January, 1599.    |  of Vaerdre [in   Gwerclas, Baron of Cymmer-
  Married, 27 June, 1616.  /|\ Edeirnion, co.   yn-Edeirnion, son and heir.
                               Merioneth].      High Sheriff of Merioneth-
  "Had issue sonnes and daughters, now [19      shire in 1670. Born 14
  April, 1622] liveing."                        Aug. 1605. Buried at
                                                Llangar in Edeirnion,
                                                4 May, 1682.  |


_Giovanni Volpe or Master Wolfe_ (Vol. iii., p. 188.).--This person was
certainly never "physician to Queen Elizabeth," but he may have received
from her Majesty the appointment of apothecary, as he did from her
successor. On New-Year's day, 1605-6, John Vulp presented to the king "a
box of Indian plums," receiving in return 7 oz. di. di. qr. of gilt plate;
he is then named the last of five apothecaries who paid their votive
offerings to royalty. (Nichols's _Progresses, &c. of King James I._, vol.
i. p. 597.) In 1617 he had risen to be the king's principal apothecary, and
by the name of John Wolfgango Rumlero received "for his fee by the year 40
_li._," as appears by the abstract of his Majesty's revenue attached to the
pamphlet entitled _Time brought to Light by Time_. From the name here given
him, it may be conjectured that he was rather from Germany than Italy.
However, he also went by the plain English name of Master Wolfe.

He is thus alluded to in the epilogue to Ben Jonson's _Masque of the
Metamorphosed Gipsies_, when it was performed at Windsor in September,

 "But, lest it prove like wonder to the sight
  To see a gipsy, as an Æthiop, white,
  Know that what dy'd our faces was an ointment
  Made and laid on by Master Woolfe's appointment,
  The Count Lycanthropos."

As he was a man of such prominence in his profession, probably many other
notices of him might be collected if duly "noted" as they occur.

J. G. N.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Sir Andrew Chadwick_ (Vol. iii., p. 141.).--It was stated in evidence, in
a trial at Lancaster assizes, Hilary Term, 1769, between Law and Taylor,
plaintiffs, and Duckworth and Wilkinson, defendants, respecting the heirs
at law of Sir Andrew Chadwick, and their claim to his estates, that "Ellis
Chadwick married in Ireland a lady of fashion, who had some connexion with
her late Majesty Queen Anne, and had issue by her the late Sir Andrew
Chadwick. Ellis, the father, dying in his son's infancy, about the year
1693, his widow brought her son Andrew over to England, where he was very
early introduced at court, and being contemporary with the young Duke of
Gloucester, became a great favourite with him, was knighted, and had divers
preferments."--From the Attorney-General's MS. Brief. The latter part of
this statement does not appear to confirm the supposition recorded by MR.

F. R. R.

_Manuscript of Bede_ (Vol. iii., p. 180.).--The volume in question is
entered in the Catalogue of Thoresby's MSS., No. 10. in the _Ducatus
Leodiensis_, p. 72. 2d ed. 1816. The greater part of these MSS. came into
the hands of Ralph Thoresby, Jun., and, together with the coins, were
disposed of by public auction in March, 1764, by Whiston Bristow, sworn
broker. The MSS. were sold on the third day, but the volume containing Bede
does not appear among them. The opinion formed by J. M. of the age of this
MS. is certainly erroneous, and being on _paper_ it is more probably of the
_fifteenth_ than the _twelfth_ century. The period of William Dadyngton,
Vicar of Barton, might decide this.


_MS. of Bede_ (Vol. iii., p. 180.).--Your correspondent will find a
description of this MS. in the catalogue of Thoresby's Museum, at the end
of his _Ducatus Leodiensis_, edit. 1715, fol., p. 515. He will also, in
Thoresby's _Correspondence_, 1832, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 39., see a letter from
Dr. John Smith, the editor of Bede's _History_, respecting this manuscript,
the original of which letter is in my possession.

After many dismemberments, what remained of Thoresby's Museum, including
his manuscripts, was sold in London in March, 1764, by auction. Mr. Lilly,
the bookseller of Pall Mall, had a priced catalogue of this sale; and your
correspondent, if anxious to trace the pedigree of his MS. further, can, I
have no doubt, on application, get a reference made to that catalogue.

I take the present opportunity of mentioning that, as Mr. Upcott's sale,
when I became the purchaser of the Thoresby papers, including his MS.
diaries, his Album, and upwards of 1000 letters to him, a very small number
of which were printed in the collection, in two volumes, edited by Mr.
Hunter, one of the diaries, from May 14, 1712, to September 26, 1714, which
was sold with the lot, was after the sale found to be missing. It
subsequently came into the hands of a London dealer, by whom it was sold to
a Yorkshire gentleman, as I understand, but whose name I have not yet been
able to trace. Should this meet his eye, I will venture to appeal to his
sense of justice, entirely ignorant as I am sure he has been of the
"pedigree," to use your correspondent's expression, of his MS., whether he
will allow it to be longer separated from the series to which it belongs,
and which is incomplete without it. I need hardly say, I can only expect to
receive it on the terms of repaying the price paid for it, and which I
should embrace with many thanks.


Manchester, March 8. 1851.

    [The following advertisement of the missing MS. appeared in the
    Catalogue (No. 33., 1848) of Mr. C. J. Hamilton, then of Castle Court,
    Birchin Lane, now residing in the City Road, London:--"Thoresby's
    (Ralph, antiquary of Leeds), _Diary_ from May 14, 1712, to September
    23, 1714, an original unpublished MS., containing much highly
    interesting literary information, with autograph on fly-leaf, thick
    8vo., 436 {248} pages, vellum with tuck, closely written, price 2l.
    12s. 6d." The purchaser was Mr. Wallbran, Fallcroft, Ripon, Yorkshire.]

_Closing of Rooms on account of Death_ (Vol. iii., p. 142.).--I am
acquainted with a remarkable instance of this custom. A respectable farmer
who resided in a parish in Bedfordshire, adjoining that in which I am
writing, died in 1844; leaving to his daughter the fine old manor-house in
which he had lived for many years, and in which he died, together with
about 300 acres of land. The lady, with her husband, was then residing in a
neighbouring village, where the latter rented a farm, which he has since
given up, retaining the house; but she positively refused to remove to the
manor-house, "because her father had died in it;" and as she still persists
in her refusal, it is unoccupied to this day. For Mr. ---- is not even
permitted to let it, except a part, now tenanted by a valued friend of
mine, which for many years has been let separately. The rooms and the
furniture in them remain exactly as in the lifetime of the late occupant.
The lady's husband, who farms the land attached to the house, is put to
great inconvenience by living at a distance from it, but nothing will
induce her to alter her determination. The facts I have related are
notorious in the neighbourhood.


_Enigmatical Epitaph on Rev. John Mawer_ (Vol. iii., p. 184.).--On reading
to a lady the article on this subject in a late Number, she immediately
recollected, that about thirty years ago she had a governess of that name,
the daughter of a clergyman in Nottinghamshire, who often mentioned that
they were descended from the _Royal Family of Wales_, and that she had a
brother who was named _Arthur Lewellyn Tudor Kaye Mawer_.

This anecdote will perhaps be of use in directing attention to Cambrian
pedigrees, and leading it from Dr. Whitaker's "Old King Cole" to "the noble
race of Shenkin."

J. T. A.

_Haybands in Seals_ (Vol. iii., p. 186.).--The practice mentioned by MR.
LOWER, of inserting haybands, or rather slips of rush, in the seals of
feoffments, was common in all counties; and it certainly was not confined
to the humbler classes. Hundreds of feoffments of the fifteenth century,
and earlier, have passed through my hands with the seals as described by
MR. LOWER, relating to various counties, and executed by parties of all
degrees. In these instances, a little blade of rush is generally neatly
inserted round the inner rim of the impression, and evidently must have
been so done while the wax was soft. In some instances, these blades of
rush overlay the whole seal; in others, a slip of it is merely tied round
the label. In delivering seisin under a feoffment, the grantor, or his
attorney, handed over to the grantee, together with the deed, a piece of
turf, or a twig, or something plucked from the soil, in token of his giving
full and complete possession. I have generally supposed that these strips
of rush were the tokens of possession so handed over, as part and parcel of
the soil, by the grantor; and that they were attached to the seal, as it
were, "in perpetuam rei memoriam." In default of better information, I
venture to suggest this explanation, but will not presume to vouch for its

L. B. L.

_Notes on Newspapers_ (vol. iii., p. 164.).--John Houghton, the editor of
the periodical noticed by your correspondent, _A Collection for the
Improvement of Husbandry and Trade_, was one of those meritorious men who
well deserve commemoration, though his name is not to be found in any
biography that I am acquainted with. He was an apothecary, and became a
dealer in tea, coffee, and chocolate. He was in politics a loyalist, or
Tory, and was admitted a member of the Royal Society in 1679-80. He began
to publish his _Letters on Husbandry and Trade_ in 1681. No. 1. is dated
Thursday, September 8, 1681. The first collection ended June, 1684, and
consists of two vols. 4to. In November, 1691, Houghton determined to resume
his old plan of publishing papers on Husbandry and Trade. His abilities and
industry were warmly recommended by several members of the Royal Society:
Sir Peter Pott, John Evelyn, Dr. Hugh Chamberlain, and others. The
recommendation is prefixed to the first number of this second collection.
The first paper is dated Wednesday, March 30, 1692; and the second
Wednesday, April 6, 1692; they were continued every succeeding Wednesday.
The concluding paper was published September 24, 1703. There were 583
numbers, in 19 vols., of the folio papers. The last number contains an
"Epitome" of the 19 vols. and a "Farewell," which gives his reason for
discontinuing the paper, and thanks to his assistants, "wishing that
knowledge may cover the earth as the water covers the sea." A selection
from these papers was published in 1727, by Richard Bradley, F.R.S., in
three vols. 8vo., to which a fourth was afterwards added in 1728, 8vo.

Houghton also published _An Account of the Acres and Houses, with the
proportional Tax, &c. of each County in England and Wales_. Lond. 1693, on
a broadside. Also, _Book of Funds_, 1694, 4to. _Alteration of the Coin,
with a feasible Method to it_ 1695. 4to.


_Duncan Campbell_ (Vol. i., p. 186.).--There seems to be no doubt that
Duncan Campbell, whose life was written by Defoe, was a real person. See
_Tatler_, vol. i. p. 156. edit. 1786, 8vo.; _Spectator_, No. 560.; Wilson's
_Life of Defoe_, vol. iii. p. 476. His house was "in Buckingham Court, over
against Old Man's Coffee House, at Charing {249} Cross," and at another
period of his life in Monmouth Court. He is reported to have amassed a
large fortune from practising upon the credulity of the public, and was the
grand answerer of "Queries" in his day. Defoe's entertaining pieces
relating to him are evidently novels founded upon fact.


_Christmas Day_ (Vol. iii., p. 167.).--Julian I. has the credit of
transferring the celebration of Christ's birth from Jan. 6th to Dec. 25th;
but Mosheim considers the report very questionable (vol. i. p. 370.
Soames's edit.). Bingham, in his _Christian Antiq._, devotes ch. iv. of
book xx. to the consideration of this festival, and that of the Epiphany;
but does not notice the claim set up on behalf of Julian I.; neither
Neander (vol. iii. pp. 415-22. Eng. Translation). It would appear that the
Eastern Church kept Christmas on Jan. 6th, and the Western Church on Dec.
25th: at length, about the time of Chrysostom, the Oriental Christians
sided with the Western Church. Bingham also cites Augustine as saying that
it was the current tradition that Christ was born on the eighth of the
kalends of January, that is, on the 25th of December. Had, therefore,
Julian I. dogmatically fixed the 25th of December as the birthday of our
Saviour, it is scarcely possible to suppose that Augustine, who flourished
about half a century later, would allege current tradition as the reason,
without any notice of Julian.

N. E. R. (A Subscriber).

    [See Tillemont's _Histoire Ecclésiastique_, tome i., note 4., for a
    full discussion of this question. Also Mosheim's _De Rebus
    Christianorum ante Constantinum Commentarii_, sæculum primum, sec. 1.;
    and Butler's _Lives of the Saints_, article Christmas-Day.]

_Christmas-day_ (Vol. iii, p. 167.).--St. John of Chrysostom, archbishop of
Nice (died A.D. 407), in an epistle upon this subject, relates (tom. v. p.
45. edit. Montf. Paris, 1718-34) that, at the instance of St. Cyril of
Jerusalem (died A.D. 385), St. Julius (Pope A.D. 337-352) procured a strict
inquiry to be made into the day of our Saviour's nativity, which being
found to be the 25th Dec., that day was thenceforth set apart for the
celebration of this "Festorum omnium metropolis," as he styles it. St.
Tilesphorus (Pope A.D. 128-139), however, is supposed by the generality of
ancient authorities to be the first who appointed the 25th Dec. for that
purpose. The point is involved in much uncertainty, but your correspondent
may find all the information he seeks in _Baronii Apparatus ad Annales
Ecclesiasticos_, fol., Lucæ, 1740, pp. 475. et seq.; and in a curious
tract, entitled _The Feast of Feasts; or, the Celebration of the Sacred
Nativity of our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; grounded upon the
Scriptures, and confirmed by the Practice of the Christian Church in all
Ages_. 4to. Oxf. 1644. This tract is in the British Museum. J. C. makes a
tremendous leap in chronology when he asks "Was it not either Julius I. or
II.?" Why the one died exactly 1161 years after the other!


_Christmas Day_ (Vol. iii., p. 167.).--In a note to one of Bishop Pearson's
sermons (_Opera Minora_, ed. Churton) occurs the following passage from St.

    "[Greek: Para tôn akribôs tauta eidotôn, kai tên polin ekeinên] (sc.
    Romam) [Greek: oikountôn, PAREILÊPHAMEN TÊN HÊMERAN. Hoi gar ekei
    diatribontes ANÔTHEN kai ek PALAIAS PARADOSEÔS tautên epitelountes],"
    &c.--_Homil. Di. Nat._ ii. 354.

The remainder of the quotation my _note_ does not supply, but it may be
easily found by the reference. The day, therefore, seems fixed by
"tradition," and received both by the Eastern and Western Church, and not
on any dogmatical decision of the popes.

R. W. F.

_MS. Sermons by Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. i., p. 125.).--Coleridge's assertion,
"that there is now extant in MS. a folio of unprinted sermons by Jeremy
Taylor," must have proceeded from his wishes rather than his knowledge. No
such MS. is known to exist; and such a discovery is, I believe, as little
to be expected as a fresh play of Shakspeare's. Was it in the "Lands of
Vision," and with "the damsel and the dulcimer," that the transcendental
philosopher beheld it?


_Dryden's Absolom and Achitophel_ (Vol. ii., p. 406.).--The edition noticed
by your correspondent, "printed and sold by H. Hills, in Blackfriars, near
the Water Side, for the benefit of the Poor," 1708, 8vo., is a mere
catch-penny. Hills, the printer, was a great sinner in this way. I have
Roscommon's translation of Horace's _Art of Poetry_, 1709; his _Essay on
translated Verse_, 1709; Mulgrave's _Essay on Poetry_, 1709; Denham's
_Cooper's Hill_, 1709; and many other poems, all printed by Hills, on bad
paper, and very incorrectly, from 1708 to 1710, for sale at a low price.


_The Rev. W. Adams_ (Vol. iii., p. 140.).--The age of Mr. Adams at his
death was thirty-three. His tomb is in the churchyard of Bonchurch--a
simple coped coffin; but the cross placed upon it is, in allusion to his
own beautiful allegory, slightly raised, so that its shadow falls--

 "Along the letters of his name,
  And o'er the number of his years."

I have a pretty engraving of this tomb, purchased at Bonchurch in 1849, and
your correspondent may perhaps be glad to adopt the idea for an
illustration of the book he mentions.

E. J. M.

_Duchess of Buckingham_ (Vol. iii., p. 224.).--I am much surprised at this
question; I thought {250} there were few ladies of the last century better
known than Catherine, daughter of James II. (to whom he gave the name of
Darnley) by Miss Ledley, created Countess of Dorchester. Lady Catherine
Darnley was married first to Lord Anglesey, and secondly to Sheffield Duke
of Buckingham, by whom she was mother of the second duke of that name, who
died in his minority, and the title became extinct. All this, and many more
curious particulars of that extraordinary lady, may be found in the
_Peerages_, in _Pope_, in _Walpole's Reminiscences_, and in Park's edition
of the _Noble Authors_.


"_Go the whole Hog_" (Vol. iii., p. 224.).--We learn from _Men and Manners
in America_, vol. i. pp. 18, 19., that _going the whole hog_ is the
American popular phrase for radical reform, or democratical principle, and
that it is derived from the phrase used by butchers in Virginia, who ask
their customer whether he will go the whole hog, or deal only for joints or
portions of it.

C. B.

_Lord Bexley's Descent from Cromwell_ (Vol. iii., p. 185.).--In answer to
PURSUIVANT'S Query, How were the families of Morse and Ireton connected? it
appears that Jane, only child of Richard Lloyd (of Norfolk?), Esq., by
Jane, second daughter of Ireton, married, circa 1700, Nicholas or Henry
Morse. But what appears to me most likely to have occasioned the report of
Lord Bexley's connexion with the Cromwell family is, that the late Oliver
Cromwell, Esq., of Cheshunt, married Miss Mary Morse in 1771, which must
have been not far from the period when Lord Bexley's mother, also a Miss
Morse, was married to Mr. Vansittart.


_Morse and Ireton Families._--I have a small original portrait of General
Ireton by old Stone; on the back of it is a card, on which is the

    "Bequeathed by Jane Morse to her daughter Ann Roberts, this picture of
    her grandfather Ireton. Will dated Jan. 15. 1732-33."

    "Anne Roberts, wife of Gaylard Roberts, brother of Christ^r Roberts,
    father of J. R."

In Noble's _Memoirs of the Cromwell Family_, vol. ii. p. 302., the name is
printed _Moore_, evidently a mistake for _Morse_:--

    "Jane, third daughter of General Ireton, having married Richard Lloyd,
    Esq., the issue of this marriage was Jane, an only child, who married
    Nicholas, or Henry _Moore_ [Morse], Esq., by whom she had four sons and
    three daughters."


_The Countess of Desmond_ (Vol. ii., pp. 153. 186. 219. 317.).--Touching
this venerable lady, the following "Note" may not be unacceptable.

In the year 1829, when making a tour in Ireland, I saw an engraving at
Lansdowne Lodge, in the county of Kerry, the residence of Mr. Hickson, on
which the following record was inscribed:--

    "Catherine Fitzgerald, Countess of Desmond (from the original in the
    possession of the Knight of Kerry on Panell).

    "She was born in 1464; married in the reign of Edw. IV.; lived during
    the reigns of Edw. V., Rich. III., Hen. VII., Hen. VIII., Edw. VI.,
    Mary, and Elizabeth; and died in the latter end of James' or the
    beginning of Charles I.'s reign, at the great age of 162 years."

On my return home I was much surprised and gratified to find in my own
house, framed and glazed, a very clever small-sized portrait in crayon,
which at once struck me a a fac-simile (or nearly so) of the engraving I
had seen at Lansdowne Lodge.

Your correspondent C. in p. 219. appears very sceptical about this female
Methuselah! and speaks of a reputed portrait at Windsor "as a gross
imposition, being really that of an old man"--

 "Non nostrum tantus componere lites:"

but I would remind your correspondent C. that such longevity is not
impossible, and the traditions of the Countess of Desmond are widely
diffused. The portrait in my possession is not unlike an old man; but old
ladies, like old hen pheasants, are apt to put on the semblance of the


_Aristophanes on the Modern Stage_ (Vol. iii., p. 105.).--In reply to a
Query of our correspondent C. J. R., I beg leave to state, that, after
having made inquiry on the subject, I cannot find that any of the Comedies
of Aristophanes have ever been introduced upon the English stage, although
I agree with him in thinking that some of them might be advantageously
adapted to the modern theatre; and I am more confirmed in this opinion from
having witnessed at the Odéon in Paris, some years since, a dramatic piece,
entitled "Les Nuées d'Aristophane," which had a great run there. It was not
a literal translation from the Greek author, but a kind of mélange, drawn
from the Clouds and Plutus together. The characters of Socrates and his
equestrian son were very well performed; but the scenic accessories I
considered very meagre, particularly the choral part, which must have been
so striking and beautiful in the original of the former drama. Upon my
return to England I wrote to the then lessee of Drury Lane Theatre,
recommending a similar experiment on our stage from the free version by
Wheelwright, published some time before by the late D. A. Talboys, of
Oxford. The answer I received was, that the manager had then too much on
his hands to admit of his giving time to such an undertaking, which I still
think might be a successful one (as is the case with the "Antigone" {251}
of Sophocles, so often represented at Berlin), and such as to ensure the
favourable attention of an English audience, particularly as the subject
turns so much upon the danger and uselessness of the meteoric or visionary
education, then so prevalent at Athens.


Dusseldorf, March 6.

_Denarius Philosophorum_ (Vol. iii., p. 168.).--Bishop Thornborough may
have been thus styled from his attachment to alchemy and chemistry. One of
his publications is thus entitled:

    "Nihil, Aliquid, Omnia, in Gratiam eorum qui Artem Auriferam
    Physico-chymicè et pie, profitentur." Oxon. 1621.

Another part of his monumental inscription is singular. On the north side
are, or were, these words and figures--"In uno, 2^o 3^a 4^r 10--non spirans

    "He was," says Wood, "a great encourager of Bushall in his searches
    after mines and minerals:"

and Richardson speaks of this prelate as--

    "Rerum politicarum potius quam Theologicarum et artis Chemicæ peritia

J. H. M.

_On a Passage in the Tempest_ (Vol. ii., pp. 259. 299. 337. 429. 499.).--If
you will allow me to offer a conjecture on a subject, which you may think
has already been sufficiently discussed in your pages, I shall be glad to
submit the following to the consideration of your readers.

The passage in the _Tempest_, Act III. Scene 1., as quoted from the first
folio, stands thus:

                         "I forget:
  But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours
  Most busie lest, when I do it."

This was altered in the second folio to

 "Most busie least, when I do it."

Instead of which Theobald proposes,--

 "Most busyless, when I do it."

But "busyless" is not English. All our words ending in _less_ (forming
adjectives), are derived from Anglo-Saxon nouns; as love, joy, hope, &c.,
and never from adjectives.

My conjecture is that Shakespeare wrote--

                         "I forget:
  But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labour's
  Most business, when I do it."

"Most" being used in the sense of "greatest," as in _Henry VI._, Pt. I.,
Act IV. Scene 1., (noticed by Steevens):--

 "But always resolute in most extremes."

Thus the change of a single syllable is sufficient to make good English,
good sense, and good metre of a passage which is otherwise defective in
these three particulars. It retains the _s_ in "labours," keeps the comma
in its place, and provides that antecedent for "it," which was justly
considered necessary by MR. SINGER.


30. Upper Gower Street.

_Meaning of Waste-book_ (Vol. iii., pp. 118, 195.).--Richard Dafforne, of
Northampton, in his very curious

    "Merchant's Mirrour, or Directions for the Perfect Ordering and Keeping
    of his Accounts; framed by way of Debitor and Creditor after the (so
    tearmed) Italian Manner, containing 250 rare Questions, with their
    Answers in the form of a Dialogue; as likewise a Waste Book, with a
    complete Journal and Ledger thereunto appertaining;"

annexed to Malyne's _Consuetudo vel Lex Mercatoria_, edit. 1636, folio,
gives rather a different explanation of the origin of the term "waste-book"
to that contained in the answer of your last correspondent. "WASTE-BOOK,"
he observes,

    "So called, because, when the Matter is written into the Journall, then
    is this Book void, and of no esteeme, especially in Holland; where the
    buying people firme not the Waste-book, as here our nation doe in


_Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Craigs_ (Vol. iii., p. 119.).--L. M. M. R. is
informed that there is a tradition of King Arthur having defeated the
Saxons in the neighbourhood of this hill, to the top of which he ascended
for the purpose of viewing the country.

In the _Encyclopædia Britannica_ we have another explanation also (_sub
voce_), as follows:--

    "Arthur's Seat is said to be derived, or rather corrupted, from A'rd
    Seir, a 'place or field of arrows,' where people shot at a mark: and
    this not improperly; for, among these cliffs is a dell, or recluse
    valley, where the wind can scarcely reach, now called the Hunter's Bog,
    the bottom of it being a morass."

The article concludes thus:

    "The adjacent crags are supposed to have taken their name from the Earl
    of Salisbury; who, in the reign of Edward III., accompanied that prince
    in an expedition against the Scots."

But query "a height of earth;" "earthes" (an old form of the genitive), or
"airthes height," not unnaturally corrupted to "Arthur's Seat."

W. T. M.


_Salisbury Craigs._--Craiglockhart Hill and Craigmillar Castle, both in the
neighbourhood of the Craigs, are all so called from the Henry de
Craigmillar, who built the castle (now in ruins) in the twelfth century.
There is a charter in the reign of Alexander II., in 1212, by William, son
of Henry de Craigmillar, to the monastery of Dunfermline, which is the
earliest record of the castle.


_Meaning of "Harrisers"_ (Vol. ii., p. 376.).--I am told that the practice
which CLERICUS RUSTICUS {252} speaks of, holds in Yorkshire, but not the

In Devon a corn-field, which has been cut and cleared, is called an
"arrish." A vacant stubblefield is so called during the whole of the autumn

Your correspondent suggests "arista;" can he support this historically? If
not, it is surely far-fetched. Let me draw attention to a word in our
English Bible, which has been misunderstood before now by readers who were
quite at home in the original languages: "_earing nor harvest_" (Genesis).
Without some acquaintance with the earlier forms of our mother tongue, one
is liable to take _earing_ to mean the same as "harvest," from the
association of _ears_ of corn. But it is the substantive from the
Anglo-Saxon verb _erian_, to plough, to till: so that "earing nor harvest"
= "sowing nor reaping." From _erian_ we may pass on to _arare_, and from
that to _arista_: in the long pedigree of language they are scarcely
unconnected: but the Anglo-Saxon is not _derived_ from the Latin; they are,
each in its own language, genuine and independent forms. But it is curious
to see what an attraction these distant cousins have for one another, let
them only come within each other's sphere of gravitation.

In, Yorkshire the verb _to earland_ is still a _living_ expression; and a
Yorkshireman, who has more Saxon than Latin in him, will not write "arable
land," but "_ear_able land." A Yorkshire clergyman tells me that this
orthography has been perpetuated in a local act of parliament of no very
ancient date.

Putting all these facts together, I am inclined to think that "arrish" must
first mean "land for tillage;" and that the connexion of the word with
"gleaning" or "gleaners" is the effect of association, and therefore of
later date.

But it must be observed, there is a difference between "arrish" and
"harrisers." Can it be shown that Dorset-men are given to aspirating their
words? Besides this, there is a great difference between "arri_ss_ers" and
"arri_sh_ers" for counties so near as Dorset and Devon. And again, while I
am quite familiar with the word "arrish," I never heard "arrishers," and I
believe it is unknown in Devonshire.

J. E.


_Harrisers or Arrishers._--Doubtless, by this time, some dozen Devonshire
correspondents will have informed you, for the benefit of CLERICUS
RUSTICUS, that _arrishers_ is the term prevailing in that county for
"stubble." The Dorset harrisers are therefore, perhaps, the second set of
gleaners, who are admitted to the fields to pick up from the stubble, or
_arrishes_, the little left behind by the reapers' families. A third set of
gleaners has been admitted from time immemorial, namely, the _Anser
stipularis_, which feeds itself into plump condition for Michaelmas by
picking up, from between the stubble, the corns which fell from the ears
during reaping and sheaving. The Devonshire designation for this excellent
sort of poultry--known elsewhere as "stubble geese"--is "arrish geese."

The derivation of the word must be left to a better provinial philologist

W. H. W.

_Chaucer's "Fifty Wekes"_ (Vol. iii., p. 202.).--A. E. B.'s natural and
ingeniously-argued conjecture, that Chaucer, by the "_fifty wekes_" of the
_Knightes Tale_, "meant to imply the interval of _a solar year_,"--whether
we shall rest in accepting the poet's measure of time loosely and
poetically, or (which I would gladly feel myself authorised to do) find in
it, with your correspondent, an astronomical and historical reason,--is
fully secured by the comparison with Chaucer's original.

The _Theseus_ of Boccaccio says, appointing the listed fight:

 "E TERMINE vi sia a ciò donato

To which the poet subjoins:

 "E così fu ordinato."

See TESEIDE, v. 98.

A. L. X.

_The Almond Tree, &c._ (Vol. iii., p. 203.).--The allusions in Hall's poem,
stanzas iii. & v., refer to the fine allegorical description of human
decrepitude in _Ecclesiastes_, xii. 5, 6., when

    "'The almond tree shall flourish' (_white hairs_), and 'the silver cord
    shall be loosed,' and 'the golden bowl broken,' and 'the mourners shall
    go about the streets.'"

The pertinence of these solemn figures has been sufficiently explained by
biblical commentators. It is to be presumed that the reference to a source
so well known as the Bible would have occurred at once to the Querist, had
not the allusions, in the preceding stanza, to the _heathen_ fable of
Medea, diverted his thoughts from that more familiar channel.



    [Similar explanations have been kindly furnished by S. C., HERMES,
    P. K., R. P., J. F. M., J. D. A., and also by W. (2), who refers to
    Mead's _Medica Sacra_ for an explanation of the whole passage.]

_St. Thomas's Onions_ (Vol. iii., p. 187.).--In reference to the Query, Why
is St. Thomas frequently mentioned in connexion with onions? I fancy the
reason to be this. There is a variety of the onion tribe commonly called
_potato_ or _multiplying onion_. It is the rule to _plant_ this onion on
St. Thomas's day. From this circumstance it appears to me likely that this
sort of onion may be so called, though I never heard of it before. They are
fit for use as large hard onions some time before the other sort.


Norwich, March 10. 1851.


_Roman Catholic Peers_ (Vol. iii., p. 209.).--The proper comment has been
passed on the Duke of Norfolk, but not on the other two Roman Catholic
peers mentioned by Miss Martineau. She names Lord Clifford and Lord Dormer
as "having obtained entrance _at last_ to the legislative assembly, where
their fathers sat and ruled when their faith was the law of the land." The
term "fathers" is of course figuratively used, but we may conclude the
writer meant to imply their ancestors possessing the same dignity of
peerage, and enjoying, in virtue thereof, the right of "sitting and ruling"
in the senate of their country. If such was the lady's meaning, what is her
historical accuracy? The first Lord Dormer was created in the reign of
James I., in the year 1615; and, dying the next year, never sat in
parliament: and it has been remarked as a very singular fact that this
barony had existed for upwards of two centuries before any of its
possessors did so. But the first Lord Dormer, who sat in the House of
Lords, was admitted, not by the Roman Catholic Relief Act, but by the fact
of his being willing to take the usual oaths: this was John, the tenth
lord, who succeeded his half-brother in 1819, and died without issue in
1826. As for Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, that family was not raised to the
peerage until the year 1672, in the reign of Charles II.

J. G. N.

_Election of a Pope_ (Vol. iii., p. 142.).--Probably T. refers to the
(alleged) custom attendant upon the election of a pope, as part of the
ceremony alluded to in the following lines in _Hudibras_:--

 "So, cardinals, they say, do grope
  At t'other end the new made Pope"
      Part I. canto iii. l. 1249. [24mo. ed. of 1720.]

In the notes to the above edition (and probably to other of the old
editions) your correspondent will find a detailed explanation of these two
lines: I refer him to the work itself, as the "note" is scarcely fit to
transcribe here.


_Comets_ (Vol. iii., p. 223.).--There is a copious list of all the comets
that have appeared _since the creation_, and of all that _will appear up
to_ A.D. 2000, in the _Art de vérifier les Dates_, vol. i. part i.; and
vol. i. part ii. of the last edition.


_Camden and Curwen Families_ (Vol. iii., pp. 89. 125.).--H. C. will find,
in Harl. MS. 1437. fo. 69., a short pedigree of the family of Nicholas
Culwen of Gressiard and Stubbe, in the county of Lancaster, showing his
descent from Gilbert Culwen or Curwen (a younger brother of Curwen of
Workington), who appears to have settled at Stubbe about the middle of the
fifteenth century.

Although this pedigree was recorded by authority of Norroy King of Arms, in
1613, while Camden held the office of Clarenceux, it does not show any
connexion with Gyles Curwen, who married a daughter and coheir of Barbara,
of Poulton Hall, in the county of Lancaster, and whose daughter Elizabeth
was the wife of Sampson Camden of London, and mother of Camden.
Nevertheless, it may possibly throw some light on the subject.

If H. C. cannot conveniently refer to the Harl. MSS., I will with much
pleasure send him a copy of this pedigree, and of another, in the same MS.,
fo. 29., showing Camden's descent from Gyles Curwen, if he will communicate
his address to the Editor of "NOTES AND QUERIES."


_Auriga_ (Vol. iii., p. 188.).--That part of the Roman bridle which went
about the horse's ears (_aures_), was termed _aurea_; which, being by a
well-known grammatical figure put for the whole head-gear of the horse,
suggests as a meaning of _Auriga_, "_is qui_ AUREAS AGIT, he who manages,
guides, or (as we say) handles, the reins."


Ecclesfield Hall.

_Straw Necklaces_ (Vol. i., p. 4., &c.).--May not these be possibly only
Spenser's "rings of rushes," mentioned by him among other fragile ornaments
for the head and neck?

 "Sometimes her head she fondly would aguize
  With gaudy girlonds, or fresh flowrets dight
  About her necke, or rings of rushes plight."
              _F. Q._ lib. ii. canto vi. st. 7.


_The Nine of Diamonds, called the Curse of Scotland_ (Vol. i., pp. 61.,
90.).--The following explanation is given in a _Classical Dictionary of the
Vulgar Tongue_, 1785; an ignoble authority, it must be admitted:--

    "Diamonds imply royalty, being ornaments to the imperial crown, and
    every ninth King of Scotland has been observed for many ages to be a
    tyrant, and a curse to that country."

J. H. M.

"_Cum Grano Salis_" (Vol. iii., pp. 88. 153.).--I venture to suggest, that
in this phrase the allusion is to a rich and unctuous morsel, which, when
assisted _by a little salt_, will be tolerated by the stomach, otherwise
will be rejected. In the same way an extravagant statement, when taken with
a slight qualification (_cum grano salis_) will be tolerated by the mind. I
should wish to be informed what writer first uses this phrase in a
metaphorical sense--not, I conceive, any classical author.

X. Z.

       *       *       *       *       *



Mr. Rees of Llandovery announces for publication by subscription (under the
auspices of the Welsh MSS. Society), a new edition of _The Myvyrian
Archæology of Wales_, with English translations and notes, {254} nearly the
whole of the historical portions of which, consisting of revised copies of
Achan y Saint, historical triads, chronicles, &c. are ready for the press,
having been prepared for the late Record Commission, by Aneurin Owen, Esq.,
and since placed by the Right Hon. the Master of the Rolls at the disposal
of the Welsh MSS. Society for publication. As the first volume consists of
ancient poetry from the sixth to the fourteenth centuries, much of which,
from its present imperfect state, requires to be collated with ancient MS.
copies of the poems, not accessible to the former editors; in order to
afford more time for that most essential object, it is proposed to commence
with the publication of the historical matter: while the laws of Howel Dda,
having been recently published by the Record Commission, will not be
included; by which means it is expected the original Welsh text and English
translations of the rest of the work can be comprised in four or five
volumes, as the greatest care will be paid to the quantity of matter and
its accuracy, as well as typographical excellence, so as to ensure the
largest amount of information at the least expense. We need hardly say that
this patriotic undertaking has our heartiest wishes for its success.

The Rev. J. Forshall, one of the editors of the recently published
_Wickliffe Bible_, has just edited, under the title of _Remonstrance
against Romish Corruptions in the Church, addressed to the People and
Parliament of England in 1395, 18 Ric. II._, a most valuable paper drawn up
by Purvey, one of Wickliffe's friends and disciples, for the king, lords,
and commons, then about to assemble in parliament. As presenting a striking
picture of the condition of the English Church at the time, when combined
efforts were first made with any zealousness of purpose for its amendment
and reform; and affording a tolerably complete sketch of the views and
notions of the Wickliffite party on those points of ecclesiastical polity
and doctrine, in which they were most strongly opposed to the then
prevailing opinions; this publication is an extremely valuable contribution
to the history of a period in our annals, which has scarcely yet received
it due share of attention: while the great question which is agitating the
public mind renders the appearance of Purvey's tract at this moment
peculiarly well-timed. Mr. Forshall has executed his task in a very able
manner; the introduction is brief and to the purpose, and the short
glossary which he has appended is just what it should be.

The Camden Society has lately added a very important work to its list of
intended publications. It is the _St. Paul's Domesday of the Manors
belonging to the Cathedral in the year 1222_, and is to be edited with an
introduction and illustrative notes, by Archdeacon Hale.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell, on Monday next and
four following days, a selection of valuable Books, including old poetry,
plays, chap-books, and drolleries, and some important MSS. connected with
English County and Family History.

Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson (3. Wellington Street, Strand) will sell on
Monday the valuable collection of English coins and medals of Abraham
Rhodes, Esq.; on Wednesday and Thursday, a valuable collection of
engravings, drawings, and paintings, including a very fine drawing of
Torento by Turner; and on Friday and two following days, the valuable
assemblage of Greek, &c. coins and medals, including the residue of the
Syrian Regal Tetradrachms, recently found at Tarsus in Cilicia, the
property of F. R. P. Boocke, Esq.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Angels the Ministers of God's Providence. A Sermon
preached before the University of Dublin on Quinquagesima Sunday, 1851, by
the Rev. Richard Gibbings, M.A.--The Legend of Saint Peter's Chair, by
Anthony Rich, Jun., B.A._ A clever and caustic reply to Dr. Wiseman's
attack on Lady Morgan, by a very competent authority--the learned editor of
the _Illustrated Companion to the Latin Dictionary and Greek Lexicon_. Dr.
Wiseman pronounced Lady Morgan's statement to be "foolish and wicked." Mr.
Rich has shown that these strong epithets may more justly be applied to Dr.
Wiseman's own "_Remarks_."--_Supplement to Second Edition of Dr. Herbert
Mayo's Letters on the Truths contained in Popular Superstitions_ may be
best characterised in the writer's own words, as "a notice of some peculiar
motions, hitherto unobserved, to the manifestation of which, an influence
unconsciously proceeding from the living human frame is necessary," and a
very startling notice it is.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--Williams and Norgate's (14. Henrietta Street)
Catalogue No. 2. of Foreign Second-hand Books, and Books at reduced Prices;
W. Nield's (46. Burlington Arcade) Catalogue No. 5. of Very Cheap Books; W.
Waller and Son's (188. Fleet Street) Catalogue, Part 1. for 1851, of Choice
Books at remarkably low prices.

       *       *       *       *       *


  THE PATRICIAN, edited by Burke. Vol. 1.
  HISTORICAL REGISTER. January, 1845. Nos. 1. to 4.
  A MIRROR FOR MATHEMATICS, by Robert Farmer, Gent. London, 1587.
  MAD. CAMPAN'S FRENCH REVOLUTION (English Translation).

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We this week have the pleasure of presenting our readers with an extra
Eight Pages, rendered necessary by our increasing correspondence. If each
one of our readers could procure us one additional subscriber, it would
enable us to make this enlargement permanent, instead of occasional._

E. N. W. _A ring which had belonged to Mary Queen of Scots, very similar to
that which_ E. N. W. _possesses, was exhibited some years since. A friend,
on whose judgment we place great reliance, is of the opinion that the
cutting on_ E. N. W.'s _ring is modern. Could not_ E. N. W. _exhibit it at
the Society of Antiquaries? Mr. Akerman, the resident Secretary would take
charge of it for that purpose._

LAMMER BEADS. _Justice to_ MR. BLOWEN _requires that we should explain that
his article in_ No. 68. _was accidentally inserted after he had expressed
his wish to withdraw it, in consequence of_ MR. WAY'S _most satisfactory
paper in_ No. 67.

E. M. "God tempers the wind," &c. _Much curious illustration of this
proverb, of which the French version occurs in Gruter's_ Florilegium,
_printed in 1611, will be found in_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. I., pp. 211.
236. 325. 357. 418.

E. M. "Vox Populi Vox Dei" _were the words chosen by Archbishop Mepham for
his Sermon, when Edw. III. was called to the throne. See_ "NOTES AND
QUERIES," Vol. I., pp. 370. 419. 492. _for further illustrations_. {255}

S. WMSN. _The proposed short and true account of Zacharie Boyd would be

H. N. E. _Lord Rochester wrote a poem of seventeen stanzas upon_ NOTHING.
_The Latin poem on the same subject, to which_ H. N. E. _refers, is
probably that by Passerat, inserted by Dr. Johnson in his_ Life of

K. R. H. M. _Received._

O. S. _St. Thomas à Watering's was close to the second milestone on the Old
Kent Road. See Cunningham's_ Handbook of London, _s.v._

BORROW'S TRANSLATIONS. NORVICENSIS _and_ E. D. _are thanked for their
Replies, which had been anticipated. The latter also for his courteous

J. M. (Tavy), _who is certainly our fourth correspondent under that
signature (will he adopt another, or shall we add_ (4.) _to his initials?),
is thanked. His communications shall appeal in an early Number._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_St. Graal--Moths called Souls--Rack--Lines on Woman's
Will--Odour from the Rainbow--Almond Tree--In Memoriam--Gig's
Hill--Comets--Language given to Man--The whole
Hog--Monosyllables--Mistletoe--Head of the Saviour--Snail-eating--Coverdale
or Tindal's Bible--Dutch Church--Post-office--Drachmarus--Quebecca's
Epitaph--Meaning of "strained"--By-the-bye--Gloves--Tradesmen's Signs--Old
Hewson--Slums--Morganatic Marriages--Quinces--Sir John Vaughan--Commoner
marrying a Peeress--Pilgrim's Road--Herbert's Memoirs._

VOLS. I. _and_ II., _each with very copious Index, may still be had, price
9s. 6d. each._

NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
Newsvendors. It is published at noon on Friday, so that our country
Subscribers ought not to experience any difficulty in procuring it
regularly. Many of the country Booksellers, &c., are, probably, not yet
aware of this arrangement, which will enable them to receive_ NOTES AND
QUERIES _in their Saturday parcels._

_All communications for the Editor of_ NOTES AND QUERIES _should be
addressed to the care of_ MR. BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *




_b._ CLASSICS.--Philology, Archæology; Ancient History; Roman Law.

_c._ SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.--Medicine, Anatomy, Chemistry; Natural History and


14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

C. HAMILTON'S Catalogue No. 42. will be ready April 1, consisting of a
remarkably cheap class of OLD BOOKS and TRACTS, in various languages,
particularly interesting at the present crisis, and purchased within the
last few days. It consists of Works on Catholicism, History, Biography, &c.
&c.; including some very Interesting Tracts relating to Ireland and
Scotland, collected by the distinguished Reverend CHARLES LESLIE, Author of
"Snake in the Grass," &c. Forwarded on receipt of postage stamp.

No. 22. Anderson's Buildings, City Road, nearly opposite the New
Congregational Church. Late of Bridge Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Valuable Books, County MSS., Cabinet Snuff Boxes, very fine China Vase,
Paintings, &c.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on MONDAY, March 31, and
Four following Days, A COLLECTION of VALUABLE BOOKS, from the LIBRARY of a
GENTLEMAN, Books of Prints, Picture Galleries, Voyages and Travels, &c.,
chiefly in fine condition, many in choice old calf gilt and russia
bindings; also numerous curious Books, Poetry, Plays, Chap-Books, and
several valuable MSS., particularly a collection relative to the Family and
Possessions of Sir Ed. Coke, valuable MSS. relating to Yorkshire, very
large collection of MSS. connected with various English Counties, &c.

Catalogues will be sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE LONDON HOMOEOPATHIC HOSPITAL, 32. Golden-square: founded by the British
Homoeopathic Association, and supported by voluntary contributions.

Patroness--H. R. H. the Duchess of CAMBRIDGE.

Vice-Patron--His Grace the Duke of BEAUFORT, K.G.

Treasurer--John Dean Paul, Esq. (Messrs. Strahan and Co., Strand).

The ANNUAL FESTIVAL in aid of the funds of the Charity, and in
commemoration of the opening of the first Homoeopathic Hospital established
in London, will be held at the Albion Tavern, Aldersgate-street, on
Thursday, the 10th of April next, the anniversary of the birth of Samuel

The Most Noble the Marquis of WORCESTER, M.P., V.P., in the chair.

  F. M. the Marquis of Anglesey
  Rt. Hon. the Earl of Chesterfield
  Rt. Hon. the Earl of Essex
  Rt. Hon. Viscount Sydney
  Rt. Hon. Lord Gray
  The Viscount Maldon
  The Lord Francis Gordon
  The Lord Clarence Paget, M.P.
  The Lord Alfred Paget, M.P.
  The Lord George Paget, M.P.
  Culling Charles Smith, Esq.
  Marmaduke B. Sampson, Esq.
  F. Foster Quin, Esq., M.D.
  Nathaniel Barton, Esq.

  J. Askew, Esq.
  H. Banister, Esq.
  H. Bateman, Esq.
  Capt. Branford, R.N.
  F. Blake, Esq.
  H. Cameron, Esq.
  Capt. Chapman, R.A., F.R.S.
  H. Cholmondeley, Esq.
  J. B. Crampern, Esq.
  Col. Disbrowe
  W. Dutton, Esq.
  Ed. Esdaile, Esq.
  W. M. Fache, Esq.
  Fr. Fuller, Esq.
  H. Goez, Esq.
  J. Gosnell, Esq.
  G. Hallett, Esq.
  E. Hamilton, Esq., M.D.
  J. Huggins, Esq.
  P. Hughes, Esq.
  J. P. Knight, Esq., R.A.
  J. Kidd, Esq.
  T. R. Leadam, Esq.
  T. R. Mackern, Esq.
  V. Massol. Esq., M.D.
  J. Mayne, Esq., M.D.
  J. B. Metcalfe, Esq.
  C. T. P. Metcalfe, Esq.
  S. T. Partridge, Esq., M.D.
  T. Piper, Esq.
  W. Piper, Esq.
  R. Pope, Esq.
  H. Reynolds, Esq.
  A. Robinson, Esq.
  H. Rosher, Esq.
  C. J. Sanders, Esq.
  W. Scorer, Esq.
  Rittson Southall, Esq.
  T. Spicer, Esq.
  J. Smith, Esq.
  C. Snewin, Esq.
  C. Trueman, Esq.
  T. Uwins, Esq., R.A.
  W. Watkins, Esq.
  J. Wisewould, Esq.
  D. W. Witton, Esq.
  S. Yeldham, Esq.
  J. G. Young, Esq.

The responsibility of Stewards is limited to the dinner ticket, 21s., and
gentlemen who will kindly undertake the office are respectfully requested
to forward their names to any of the Stewards; or to the Hon. Secretary at
the Hospital.

32. Golden-square.   RALPH BUCHAN, Hon. Sec.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, fcap. 8vo., price 7s. 6d.


PLAIN SERMONS, addressed to a Country Congregation. By the late REV. EDWARD
BLENCOWE, Curate of Teversal, Notts, and formerly Fellow of Oriel College,


SERIES, price 7s. 6d. each.

    "Their style is simple; the sentences are not artfully constructed; and
    there is an utter absence of all attempt at rhetoric. The language is
    plain Saxon language, from which 'the men on the wall' can easily
    gather what it most concerns them to know."--_Theologian._

Also, 2 vols. 12mo., sold separately, 8s. each,

SERMONS. By the REV. ALFRED GATTY, M.A., Vicar of Ecclesfield.

    "Sermons of a high and solid character--earnest and

    "Plain and practical, but close and scholarly

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.


       *       *       *       *       *



  JOHN BRUCE, Esq., Treas. S.A.
  THOMAS W. KING, Esq., F.S.A.
  HENRY SHAW, Esq., F.S.A.

The Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer in Westminster Abbey is fast mouldering into
irretrievable decay. A sum of One Hundred Pounds will effect a perfect
repair. The Committee have not thought it right to fix any limit to the
contribution; they themselves have opened the list with a subscription from
each of them of Five Shillings; but they will be ready to receive any
amount, more or less, which those who value poetry and honour Chaucer may
be kind enough to remit to them.

Subscriptions have been received from the Earls of Carlisle, Ellesmere, and
Shaftesbury, Viscounts Strangford and Mahon, Pres. Soc. Antiq., The Lords
Braybrooke and Londesborough, and many other noblemen and gentlemen.

Subscriptions are received by all the members of the Committee, and at the
Union Bank, Pall Mall East. Post-office orders may be made payable at the
Charing Cross Office, to William Richard Drake, Esq., the Treasurer, 46.
Parliament Street, or William J. Thomas, Esq., Hon. Sec., 25. Holy-Well
Street, Millbank.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, the Second Edition, price 25s., illustrated by numerous examples
of Rare and Exquisite Greek and Roman Coins, executed by a New Process in
exact fac-simile of the originals, and in their respective metals.

ANCIENT COINS AND MEDALS; an Historical Account of the Origin of Coined
Money, the Development of the Art of Coining in Greece and her Colonies,
its Progress during the extension of the Roman Empire, and its decline as
an Art with the Decay of that Power. By H. N. HUMPHREYS.

"It is needless to remark how desirable an addition such a work as this
must be to the library of the historian, the classical scholar, and the
clergyman, no less than to the artist."--_Daily News._

GRANT and GRIFFITH, Corner of St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARCHÆOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.--The Volumes of the Transactions at the NORWICH
and LINCOLN MEETINGS are on delivery, at the office of the Society, 26.
Suffolk Street. Directions regarding their transmission to Members in the
country should be addressed to GEORGE VULLIAMY, Esq., Secretary.

The SALISBURY VOLUME, published by MR. BELL, 186. Fleet Street, is nearly
ready. Subscribers' names received by the Publisher. Price 15s.

The OXFORD VOLUME is ready for Press. All Members desirous that the Series
of Annual Volumes should be continued are requested to send their names to
the Publisher, MR. PARKER, 377. Strand, or to the Secretary of the

The JOURNAL, No. 29., commencing Vol. VIII., will be issued in a few days
to all Members not in arrear of their subscriptions, which may be remitted
to EDWARD HAWKINS, Esq., Treasurer, by Order on the Charing Cross Post
Office, or to MESSRS. COUTTS, Bankers of the Institute.

26. Suffolk Street, Pall-mall, March 24, 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


On the 25th instant was published, No. I., price 4s., of

THE THEOLOGICAL CRITIC; a Quarterly Journal. Edited by the Rev. THOMAS
KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and late Fellow of Trinity
College, Cambridge.

This Journal will embrace Theology in its widest acceptation, and several
articles of each Number will be devoted to Biblical Criticism.

CONTENTS:--1. Newman's Ninth Lecture. 2. Galatians iii. 13. 3. Cardinal
Bessarion. 4. Lepsius on Biblical Chronology. 5. The Ministry of the Body.
6. Romans xiv. 7. Is the Beast from the Sea the Papacy? 8. Modern
infidelity: Miss Martineau and Mr. Atkinson. 9. St. Columban and the Early
Irish Missionaries. 10. Dr. Bloomfield and Mr. Alford. 11. "Things Old and

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, 1 vol. 8vo. 7s. 6d.


Also, recently, by the same,


WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, price 1s.


    "Legend, which means that which ought to be read, is, from the early
    misapplication of the term by impostors, now used by us as if it
    meant--that which ought to be laughed at."--_Tooke's Diversion of

C. WESTERTON, Hyde Park Corner, and all Booksellers.

Also the Fourth Edition, price 1s., of


       *       *       *       *       *


THE SUBSCRIBER has prepared an ample supply of his well-known and approved
SURPLICES, from 20s. to 50s., and various devices in DAMASK COMMUNION
LINEN, well adapted for presentation to Churches.

Illustrated priced Catalogues sent free to the Clergy, Architects, and
Churchwardens by post, on application to

GILBERT J. FRENCH, Bolton, Lancashire.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 29, 1851.

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