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Title: Rig Veda Americanus - Sacred Songs of the Ancient Mexicans, With a Gloss in Nahuatl
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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In accordance with the general object of this series of volumes--which
is to furnish materials for study rather than to offer completed
studies--I have prepared for this number the text of the most ancient
authentic record of American religious lore. From its antiquity and
character, I have ventured to call this little collection the RIG VEDA
AMERICANUS, after the similar cyclus of sacred hymns, which are the most
venerable product of the Aryan mind.

As for my attempted translation of these mystic chants I offer it with
the utmost reserve. It would be the height of temerity in me to pretend
to have overcome difficulties which one so familiar with the ancient
Nahuatl as Father Sahagun intimated were beyond his powers. All that I
hope to have achieved is, by the aid of the Gloss--and not always in
conformity to its suggestions--to give a general idea of the sense and
purport of the originals.

The desirability of preserving and publishing these texts seems to me to
be manifest. They reveal to us the undoubtedly authentic spirit of the
ancient religion; they show us the language in its most archaic form;
they preserve references to various mythical cycli of importance to the
historian; and they illustrate the alterations in the spoken tongue
adopted in the esoteric dialect of the priesthood. Such considerations
will, I trust, attract the attention of scholars to these fragments of a
lost literature.

In the appended Vocabulary I have inserted only those words and
expressions for which I can suggest correct--or, at least,
probable--renderings. Others will have to be left to future




    I. Hymn of Huitzilopochtli

   II. War Song of the Huitznahuac

  III. Hymn of Tlaloc

   IV. Hymn to the All-Mother

    V. Hymn to the Virgin Mother

   VI. Hymn to the God of Fire

  VII. Hymn of Mixcoatl

 VIII. Hymn to the God of Flowers

   IX. Hymn to the Goddess of Artists

    X. Hymn to the God of Fishing

   XI. Hymn of the Otomi Leader

  XII. Hymn to the Goddess of Childbirth

 XIII. Hymn to the Mother of Mortals

  XIV. Hymn Sung at a Fast every Eight Years

   XV. Hymn to a Night God

  XVI. Hymn to the Goddess of Food

 XVII. Hymn to the Gods of Wine

XVIII. Hymn to the Master of Waters

  XIX. Hymn to the God of Flowers

   XX. Hymn to the God of Merchants




Xippe Totec, God of Silversmiths, in Full Costume, Frontispiece

Priest of Xippe Totec, Drinking and Playing on a Drum, Hymn XV

Chicomecoatl, Goddess of Food and Drink, Hymn XVI

Totochtin, the Rabbits, Gods of the Drunkards, Hymn XVII

Atlaua, Singing and Dancing, Hymn XVIII


As in a previous number of the Library of Aboriginal American Literature
I have discussed in detail the character of the ancient Mexican poetry,
I shall confine myself at present to the history of the present
collection. We owe its preservation to the untiring industry of Father
Bernardino de Sahagun, one of the earliest missionaries to Mexico, and
the author of by far the most important work on the religion, manners
and customs of the ancient Mexicans.

By long residence and close application Sahagun acquired a complete
mastery of the Nahuatl tongue. He composed his celebrated _Historia de
las Cosas de la Nueva España_ primarily in the native language, and from
this original wrote out a Spanish translation, in some parts
considerably abbreviated. This incomplete reproduction is that which was
published in Spanish by Lord Kingsborough and Bustamente, and in a
French rendering with useful notes by Dr. Jourdanet and M. Rémi Simeon.

So far as I know, the only complete copy of the Nahuatl original now in
existence is that preserved in the Bibliotheca Laurentio-Mediceana in
Florence, where I examined it in April, 1889. It is a most elaborate and
beautiful MS., in three large volumes, containing thirteen hundred and
seventy-eight illustrations, carefully drawn by hand, mostly colored,
illustrative of the native mythology, history, arts and usages, besides
many elaborate head and tail pieces to the chapters.

There is another Nahuatl MS. of Sahagun's history in the private
library of the King of Spain at Madrid, which I examined in May, 1888,
and of which I published a collation in the _Mémoires de la Sociétè
Internationale des Américanistes_, for that year. It is incomplete,
embracing only the first six books of the _Historia_, and should be
considered merely as a _borrador_ or preliminary sketch for the
Florentine copy. It contains, however, a certain amount of material not
included in the latter, and has been peculiarly useful to me in the
preparation of the present volume, as not only affording another reading
of the text, valuable for comparison, but as furnishing a gloss or
Nahuatl paraphrase of most of the hymns, which does not appear in the
Florentine MS. As evidently the older of the two, I have adopted the
readings of the Madrid MS. as my text, and given the variants of the
Florentine MS. at the end of each hymn.

Neither MS. attempts any translation of the hymns. That at Madrid has no
Spanish comment whatever, while that at Florence places opposite the
hymns the following remarks, which are also found in the printed copies,
near the close of the Appendix of the Second Book of the _Historia_:--

"It is an old trick of our enemy the Devil to try to conceal himself in
order the better to compass his ends, in accordance with the words of
the Gospel, 'He whose deeds are evil, shuns the light.' Also on earth
this enemy of ours has provided himself with a dense wood and a ground,
rough and filled with abysses, there to prepare his wiles and to escape
pursuit, as do wild beasts and venomous serpents. This wood and these
abysses are the songs which he has inspired for his service to be sung
in his honor within the temples and outside of them; for they are so
artfully composed that they say what they will, but disclose only what
the Devil commands, not being rightly understood except by those to whom
they are addressed. It is, in fact, well recognized that the cave, wood
or abysses in which this cursed enemy hides himself, are these songs or
chants which he himself composed, and which are sung to him without
being understood except by those who are acquainted with this sort of
language. The consequence is that they sing what they please, war or
peace, praise to the Devil or contempt for Christ, and they cannot in
the least be understood by other men."

Lord Kingsborough says in a note in his voluminous work on the
_Antiquities of Mexico_ that this portion of Sahagun's text was
destroyed by order of the Inquisition, and that there was a memorandum
to that effect in the Spanish original in the noble writer's possession.
This could scarcely have referred to a translation of the hymns, for
none such exists in any MS. I have consulted, or heard of; and Sahagun
intimates in the passage quoted above that he had made none, on account
of the obscurity of the diction. Neither does any appear in the
Florentine MS., where the text of the hymns is given in full, although
the explanatory Gloss is omitted. This last-mentioned fact has prevented
me from correcting the text of the Gloss, which in some passages is
manifestly erroneous; but I have confined myself to reproducing it
strictly according to the original MS., leaving its correction to those
who will make use of it.

The Florentine MS. has five colored illustrations of the divinities, or
their symbols, which are spoken of in the chants. These are probably
copied from the native hieroglyphic books in which, as we learn from
Sahagun, such ancient songs were preserved and transmitted. These
illustrations I had copied with scrupulous fidelity and reproduced by
one of the photographic processes, for the present work.

Such is the history of this curious document, and with this brief
introduction I submit it to those who will have the patience and skill
to unravel its manifold difficulties.


I. _Vitzilopochtli icuic._

  1. Vitzilopuchi, yaquetlaya, yyaconay, ynohuihuihuia: anenicuic,
toçiquemitla, yya, ayya, yya y ya uia, queyanoca, oya tonaqui, yyaya,
yya, yya.

  2. Tetzauiztli ya mixtecatl, ce ymocxi pichauaztecatla pomaya,
ouayyeo, ayyayya.

  3. Ay tlaxotla tenamitl yuitli macoc mupupuxotiuh, yautlatoa ya,
ayyayyo, noteuh aya tepanquizqui mitoaya.

  4. Oya yeua uel mamauia, in tlaxotecatl teuhtla milacatzoaya,
itlaxotecatl teuhtla milacatzoaya.

  5. Amanteca toyauan xinechoncentlalizquiuia ycalipan yauhtiua,

  6. Pipiteca toyauan xinechoncentlalizquiuia: ycalipan, yautiua,

_Var._ 6. This verse is omitted in the Medicean MS.


  1. In ivitzilopochtli ayac nouiui, _id est_, ayac nechneneuilia, ayac
iuhqui, in iuhqui. Anenicuic, _id est_, amo ca nen nonicuic, in
quetzali, in chalchihuitl in ixquich ynotlatqui, toçiquemitl. Queyanoca
oya tonaqui, _id est_, onocatonat, onocatlatuit.

  2. _Q.n._, tetzauiztli, _id est_, oquintetzauito, in mixteca inic
oquiyaochiuhqui: oquimanilito in imicxi in pichauazteca, ioan in

  3. Ay tlaxotla tenamitl, _q.n._, quitepeua inin tena in aquique
yauchiuallo. Iuitli macoc, _q.n._, oncan quitema in tiçatl in ihuitl.
Mopopuxotiuh yauhtlatuaya, _q.n._, inic mopopuxoticalaqui yauc, ioan,
_q.n._, yeuatl quitemaca y yauyutl quitemaceualtia, tepanquizqui,
mitoayaqui yehuatl quichioa yauyutl.

  4. Oya yeua huel mamauia, _q.n._, çan oc momamauhtiaya in aya
momochiua yauyutl. Teuhtla milacatzoaya _q.n._, in noteuh in opeuh
yauyutl, aocac momauhtica iniquac ynoteuhtli moquetza ynoteuhtica

  5. Amanteca toyauan, _q.n._, yn iyaoan yn aquique in cani
omocentlalique ca in calipan in yautioa ca tlatlaz ynin cal.

  6. Pipiteca, toyaoan, xinechoncentlalizque, _q.n._, in pipiteca y
yaoan mochiuhque. Yn calla in mochiua yauyutl in i calipan.


_The Hymn of Huitzilopochtli._

  1. Huitzilopochtli is first in rank, no one, no one is like unto him:
not vainly do I sing (his praises) coming forth in the garb of our
ancestors; I shine; I glitter.

  2. He is a terror to the Mixteca; he alone destroyed the
Picha-Huasteca, he conquered them.

  3. The Dart-Hurler is an example to the city, as he sets to work. He
who commands in battle is called the representative of my God.

  4. When he shouts aloud he inspires great terror, the divine hurler,
the god turning himself in the combat, the divine hurler, the god
turning himself in the combat.

  5. Amanteca, gather yourselves together with me in the house of war
against your enemies, gather yourselves together with me.

  6. Pipiteca, gather yourselves together with me in the house of war
against your enemies, gather yourselves together with me.


Huitzilopochtli was the well-known war-god of the Azteca, whose
functions are described by Sahagun (_Historia_, Lib. I., cap. 1) and
many other writers. The hymn here given is probably the _tlaxotecuyotl_,
which was chanted at the celebration of his feast in the fifteenth month
of the Mexican calendar (see Sahagun, _Historia_, Lib. II., cap. 34).
The word means "his glory be established." It was commenced at sunset
and repeated till sunrise.

  1. "In the garb of our ancestors" (_to-citli-quemitl_). The high
priest appeared in the insignia of Quetzalcoatl, which, says Sahagun,
"were very gorgeous." (_Hist._, Lib. II., Appendix.)

  2. Mixteca, plural of Mixtecatl, an inhabitant of Mixtecapan, near the
Pacific. The Huasteca, a nation of Maya lineage, lived on the Gulf

  3. The god was called the Hurler, as he was believed to hurl the
lightning serpent (the _xiuhcoatl_).

  5. Sahagun recites the legends about the Amanteca (_Historia_, Lib.
IX., cap. 18). Here the name refers to the inhabitants of the quarter
called Amantlan.

  6. _Pipiteca_, a _nomen gentile_, referring doubtless to a certain
class of the hearers.

This hymn may be compared to another, descriptive of the same divinity,
preserved in Sahagun's MS. in Madrid. It is as follows, with my
translation by its side.

Vitzilopuchtli                     Huitzilopochtli,

Can maceualli                      Only a subject,

Can tlacatl catca.                 Only a mortal was.

Naualli                            A magician,

Tetzauitl                          A terror,

Atlacacemelle                      A stirrer of strife,

Teixcuepani                        A deceiver,

Quiyocoyani in yaoyotl             A maker of war,

Yautecani                          An arranger of battles,

Yautlatoani;                       A lord of battles;

Ca itechpa mitoaya                 And of him it was said

Tepan quitlaza                     That he hurled

In xiuhcoatl                       His flaming serpent,

Immamalhuaztli                     His fire stick;

Quitoznequi yaoyotl                Which means war,

Teoatl tlachinolli.                Blood and burning;

Auh iniquac ilhuiq'xtililoya       And when his festival was celebrated,

Malmicouaya                        Captives were slain,

Tlaaltilmicoaya                    Washed slaves were slain,

Tealtilaya impochteca.             The merchants washed them.

Auh inic mochichiuaya:             And thus he was arrayed:

Xiuhtotonacoche catca              With head-dress of green feathers,

Xiuhcoanauale                      Holding his serpent torch,

Xiuhtlalpile                       Girded with a belt,

Matacaxe                           Bracelets upon his arms,

Tzitzile                           Wearing turquoises,

Oyuvale.                           As a master of messengers.

When in Florence, in 1889, I had an accurate copy made of the Nahuatl
text and all the figures of the first book of Sahagun's History. The
colored figure of Huitzilopochtli is in accordance with the above

II. _Uitznaoac yautl icuic._

  1. Ahuia tlacochcalco notequioa ayayui nocaquia tlacatl, ya
nechyapinauia, ayaca nomati, nitetzauiztli, auia, ayaca nomati niya,
yautla, aquitoloc tlacochcalco notequioa, iuexcatlatoa ay nopilchan.

  2. Ihiya quetl tocuilechcatl quauiquemitl nepapan oc uitzetla.

  3. Huia oholopa telipuchtla, yuiyoc yn nomalli, ye nimauia, ye
nimauia, yuiyoc yn nomalli.

  4. Huia uitznauac telepochtla yuiyoc, yn nomalli, ye nimauia, ye
nimauia yuiyoc, ynomalli.

  5. Huia ytzicotla telipochtla, yuiyoc, yn nomalli, ye nimauia, ye
nimauia, yuiyoc yn nomalli.

  6. Uitznauac teuaqui, machiyotla tetemoya, ahuia oyatonac, yahuia
oyatonac, machiyotla tetemoya.

  7. Tocuilitla teuaqui, machiyotla tetemoya, ahuia oyatonac, yahuia
oyatonac uia, machiyotla tetemoya.

_Var._ 6. Vitzanaoac teuhoaqui machiotla. _MS. Med._

_The War Song of the Huitznahuac._

  1. What ho! my work is in the hall of arms, I listen to no mortal, nor
can any put me to shame, I know none such, I am the Terror, I know none
other, I am where war is, my work is said to be in the hall of arms, let
no one curse my children.

  2. Our adornment comes from out the south, it is varied in color as
the clothing of the eagle.

  3. Ho! ho! abundance of youths doubly clothed, arrayed in feathers,
are my captives, I deliver them up, I deliver them up, my captives
arrayed in feathers.

  4. Ho! youths for the Huitznahuac, arrayed in feathers, these are my
captives, I deliver them up, I deliver them up, arrayed in feathers, my

  5. Youths from the south, arrayed in feathers, my captives, I deliver
them up, I deliver them up, arrayed in feathers, my captives.

  6. The god enters, the Huitznahuac, he descends as an example, he
shines forth, he shines forth, descending as an example.

  7. Adorned like us he enters as a god, he descends as an example, he
shines forth, he shines forth, descending as an example.


There is no Gloss to this hymn, but its signification seems clear.
_Huitznahuac_ was a name applied to several edifices in the great temple
at Tenochtitlan, as we are informed at length by Sahagun. The word is a
locative from _huitznahua_. This term means "magicians from the south"
or "diviners with thorns," and was applied in the Quetzalcoatl mythical
cyclus to the legendary enemies of Huitzilopochtli, whom he is said to
have destroyed as soon as he was born. (See my discussion of this myth
in _Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society_ for 1887.)
Apparently to perpetuate the memory of this exploit, the custom was, at
the festival of Huitzilopochtli, for the slaves who were to be
sacrificed to form two bands, one representing the Huitznahua and the
other the partisans of the god, and to slaughter each other until the
arrival of the god Paynal put an end to the combat (Sahagun,
_Historia_, Lib. II., cap. 34). The song here given belongs to this
portion of the ancient rite.

  1. The _tlacochcalli_, "house of arrows" (_tlacochtli_, arrow,
_calli_, house), was a large hall in the temple of Huitzilopochtli where
arrows, spears and other arms were kept (Sahagun, Lib. VIII., cap. 32).

  2. The "adornment from the south" refers to the meaning of the name
_Huitznahua_. (See Glossary.)

  3. Sahagun (_ubi sup._) informs us that the slaves condemned to die
fought against free warriors, and when any of the latter were captured
they were promptly put to death by their captors.

III. _Tlalloc icuic._

  1. Ahuia Mexico teutlaneuiloc amapanitla anauhcampa, ye moquetzquetl,
aoyequene y chocaya.

  2. Ahuia anneuaya niyocoloc, annoteua eztlamiyaual, aylhuiçolla nic
yauicaya teutiualcoya.

  3. Ahuia annotequiua naualpilli aquitlanella motonacayouh tic yachiuh
quitla catlachtoquetl, çan mitziyapinauia.

  4. Ahuia cana catella nechyapinauia anechyaca uelmatia, anotata yn
oquacuillo ocelocoatl aya.

  5. Ahuia tlallocana, xiuacalco aya quizqui aquamotla, acatonalaya.

  6. Ahuia xiyanouia, nahuia xiyamotecaya ay poyauhtla, ayauh
chicauaztica, ayauicalo tlallocanaya.

  7. Aua nacha tozcuecuexi niyayalizqui aya y chocaya.

  8. Ahuia queyamica xinechiuaya, temoquetl aitlatol, aniquiya
ilhuiquetl, tetzauhpilla niyayalizqui aya y chocaya.

  9. Ahuia nauhxiuhticaya itopanecauiloc ayoc ynomatia, ay motlapoalli,
aya ximocaya ye quetzalcalla nepanauia ay yaxcana teizcaltequetl.

  10. Ahuia xiyanouia, ahuia xiyamotequaya ay poyauhtla, ayauh
chicauaztlica ayauicallo tlalloca.

_Var._ 1. Amopanitl.


  1. Auia Mexico teutlanauiloc, _q.n._, yn Mexico onetlanauiloc in
tlaloc. Amapanitl annauhcampa ye moquetzquetl, _q.n._, amapanitl
nauhcampa omoquequetz. Aoyeque naichocaya, _id est_, itlaocuyaya.

  2. Auia anneuaya niyocoloc, _q.n._, ynehuatl ni tlalloc oniyocoloc.
Annoteua eztlamiyaual, _q.n._, noteu eztlamiyaualtitiuh. Aylhuiçolla,
_q.n._, yn umpa ilhuiçololo. Inic yauicaya teuitualcoya, _q.n._ in

  3. Auia annotequiua naualpilli, _q.n._ in tinoteuh naualpilli, _i.e._,
tlalloc. Aquitlanella motonacayouh, _q.n._, ca nelli teuatl
ticmochiuilia in motonacayouh. Catlachtoquetl, _q.n._, teuatl
ticmochiuilia auh in aquin timitzpinauia.

  4. Ahuia cana catella nechyapinauia, _q.n._, catel nechpinauia ca
monechuelmati. Annotata ynoquacuillo ocelocoatl aya, _q.n._, yn notaua
ioan yna quacuiloa yn oceloquacuili.

  5. Ahuia tlallocana xiuacalco, _q.n._, in tlalocan xiuhcalco, _id
est_, acxoyacalco. Ayaquizqui, _q.n._, umpa ualquizque. Aquamotla
acatonalaya, _q.n._, y notauan yn oquacuiloan acatonal.

  6. Ahuia xicanouia nauia xiyamotecaya, _q.n._, xiuian ximotecati. Ay
poyauhtlan, _q.n._, in umpa poyauhtlan tepeticpac. Ayauh chicauaztica
ayauicalo tlalocana, _q.n._, ayauh chicauaztica in auicalo tlalocan.

  7. Aua nach tozcuecuexi niyayalizqui, _q.n._, y nach tozcuecuex y ye
niauh niman ye choca.

  8. Ahuia queyamica xinechiuaya, _q.n._, quenamican y ya niauh aço
anechtemozque. Aniquiya ilhuiquetl tetzapilla niyayalizqui ayaichocaya,
_q.n._, onquilhui yn tetzapilli ye niyauh niman ye choca.

  9. Ahuia nauhxiuhticaya nitopanecauiloc, _q.n._, nauhxiuhtica in
topanecauiloz, _id est_, in tepan mochiuaz. Ayoc inomatia ay
motlapoalli, _q.n._, aocmo nomatia iniquin motlapoalpan. Ca oximoac ye
quetzalcalla nepanauia, _q.n._, ye qualcan ye netlamachtiloyan ynemca.
Ay yaxcana teizcaltiquetl, _q.n._, iniaxca inic oteizcalli.

  10. Ahuia xiyanouia, _q.n._, xiuia. Auia xiya motecaya ay poyauhtla,
_q.n._, ximotecati in umpa poyauhtla. Ayauh chicauaztica auicallo
tlalocan, _q.n._, ayauh chicauaztica in auicallo in umpa tlallocan.

_The Hymn of Tlaloc._

  1. In Mexico the god appears; thy banner is unfolded in all
directions, and no one weeps.

  2. I, the god, have returned again, I have turned again to the place
of abundance of blood-sacrifices; there when the day grows old, I am
beheld as a god.

  3. Thy work is that of a noble magician; truly thou hast made thyself
to be of our flesh; thou hast made thyself, and who dare affront thee?

  4. Truly he who affronts me does not find himself well with me; my
fathers took by the head the tigers and the serpents.

  5. In Tlalocan, in the verdant house, they play at ball, they cast the

  6. Go forth, go forth to where the clouds are spread abundantly, where
the thick mist makes the cloudy house of Tlaloc.

  7. There with strong voice I rise up and cry aloud.

  8. Go ye forth to seek me, seek for the words which I have said, as I
rise, a terrible one, and cry aloud.

  9. After four years they shall go forth, not to be known, not to be
numbered, they shall descend to the beautiful house, to unite together
and know the doctrine.

  10. Go forth, go forth to where the clouds are spread abundantly,
where the thick mist makes the cloudy house of Tlaloc.


The god Tlaloc shared with Huitzilopochtli the highest place in the
Mexican Pantheon. He was the deity who presided over the waters, the
rains, the thunder and the lightning. The annual festival in his honor
took place about the time of corn-planting, and was intended to secure
his favor for this all-important crop. Its details are described at
great length by Diego Duran, _Historia de Nueva España_, cap. 86, and
Sahagun, _Historia_, Lib. II., cap. 25, and elsewhere. His name is
derived from _tlalli_, earth. _Tlalocan_, referred to in v. 5, "the
place of Tlaloc," was the name of a mountain east of Tenochtitlan, where
the festival of the god was celebrated; but it had also a mythical
meaning, equivalent to "the earthly Paradise," the abode of happy souls.

It will be observed that v. 10 is a repetition of v. 6. The word
_ayauicalo_ refers to the _ayauhcalli_, "house of mist," the home of the
rain god, which Sahagun informs us was represented at the annual
festival by four small buildings near the water's edge, carefully
disposed to face the four cardinal points of the compass (Sahagun, _ubi

In v. 8 the expression _tetzauhpilli_ (_tetzauhqui_, to frighten) may
be explained by the figure of Tlaloc, whose statue, says Duran, was that
of _un espantable monstruo, la cara muy fea_ (_ibid._).

The compound in v. 10, _nauhxiuhtica_, "after four years," appears to
refer to the souls of the departed brave ones, who, according to Aztec
mythology, passed to the heaven for four years and after that returned
to the terrestrial Paradise,--the palace of Tlaloc. (See my paper, _The
Journey of the Soul_, in _Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian
Society of Philadelphia, 1883_.)

IV. _Teteuynan ycuic._

  1. Ahuiya coçauic xochitla oya cueponca yeua tonana teumechaue
moquiçican tamoanchan, auayye, auayya, yyao, yya, yyeo, aye ayo, ayy

  2. Coçauic xochitla oya moxocha yeua tonana, teumechaue, moquiçica
tamoanchan, ouayye, auayya, yyao, yya, yyeo, ayo aye, ayya, ayyaa.

  3. Ahuia iztac xochitla, oya cueponca yeua tonana teumechaue moquiçica
tamoanchan, ouayye, auayya, yyao yya, yyeo, ayeaye, ayya ayyaa.

  4. Ahuiya iztac xochitla oya moxocha yeua tonana teumechaue moquiçica
tamoanchan, ouayye, auayya, yyao, yya, yyeo, aye aye, ayya ayyaa.

  5. Ahuia ohoya teutl ca teucontli paca tona aya, itzpapalotli, auayye,
yyao, yya, yyeo, ayyaa.

  6. Ao, auatic ya itaca chicunauixtlauatla maçatl yyollo, ica
mozcaltizqui tonan tlaltecutli, ayao, ayyao, ayyaa.

  7. Aho, ye yancuic tiçatla ye yancuic yuitla oya potoniloc yn
auicacopa acatl xamontoca.

  8. Aho maçatl mochiuhca teutlalipan mitziya noittaco, yeua xiuhnello,
yeua mimichan.

_Var._ 7. Xamantoca. 8. Yehoa.


  1. _Q.n._, in tonan ocueponya umpa oalquiz yn tamoanchan.

  2. _Q.n._, in amona ca izcui yn xochiuh ca umpa oquiz yn tmoanchan.

  3. _Q.n._ In tonan ocuepo in umpa oquiz tamoanchan.

  4. _Q.n._, in amona iztac in oxochiuh yn umpa oniquiz tamoanchan.

  5. _Q.n._, in tonan ca teucumitl icpac in quiz yn itzpapalotl.

  6. _Q.n._, in tonan ixtlauan in mozcaltito auh inic mozcalti macatl y
yollo y yeua tonan tlaltecutli.

  7. _Q.n._, auh inic potoniloc, tonan, yancuic tiçatl ioan yancuic yn
iuitl, auh nauhcampa quite ynacatl.

  8. _Q.n._, in macatl yeuan can iliaya yn ixtlauacan yuhqui inic quic
noitayan y yeuatl inimich ioan in xiuhnel.

_Hymn to the Mother of the Gods._

  1. Hail to our mother, who caused the yellow flowers to blossom, who
scattered the seeds of the maguey, as she came forth from Paradise.

  2. Hail to our mother, who poured forth flowers in abundance, who
scattered the seeds of the maguey, as she came forth from Paradise.

  3. Hail to our mother, who caused the yellow flowers to blossom, she
who scattered the seeds of the maguey, as she came forth from Paradise.

  4. Hail to our mother, who poured forth white flowers in abundance,
who scattered the seeds of the maguey, as she came forth from Paradise.

  5. Hail to the goddess who shines in the thorn bush like a bright

  6. Ho! she is our mother, goddess of the earth, she supplies food in
the desert to the wild beasts, and causes them to live.

  7. Thus, thus, you see her to be an ever-fresh model of liberality
toward all flesh.

  8. And as you see the goddess of the earth do to the wild beasts, so
also does she toward the green herbs and the fishes.


The goddess to whom this hymn is devoted was called _Teteoinan_, the
Mother of the Gods, _Toçi_, our Mother (maternal ancestor), and also by
another name which signified "the Heart of the Earth," the latter being
bestowed upon her, says Duran, because she was believed to be the cause
of earthquakes. Her general functions were those of a genius of
fertility, extending both to the vegetable and the animal world. Thus,
she was the patroness of the native midwives and of women in childbirth
(Sahagun). Her chief temple at Tepeyacac was one of the most renowned in
ancient Mexico, and it was a felicitous idea of the early missionaries
to have "Our Lady of Guadalupe" make her appearance on the immediate
site of this ancient fane already celebrated as the place of worship of
the older female deity. The _Codex Ramirez_ makes her a daughter of the
first King of Culhuacan.

  1. _Tamoanchan._ This word Sahagun translates "we seek our homes,"
while the _Codex Telleriano-Remensis_ gives the more intelligible
rendering "there is their home whither they descend," and adds that it
is synonymous with _Xochitlycacan_, "the place where the flowers are
lifted." It was the mystical Paradise of the Aztecs, the Home of the
Gods, and the happy realm of departed souls. The Codex just quoted adds
that the gods were born there, which explains the introduction of the
word into this hymn.

  5. For _teucontli_ (see Glossary) I should suggest _teocomitl_, a
species of ornament, (cf. Sahagun, _Historia_, Lib. II., cap. 37.)

V. _Chimalpanecatl icuic ioan tlaltecaua (nanotl)._

  1. Ichimalipan chipuchica ueya, mixiuiloc yautlatoaya, ichimalipan
chipuchica ueya, mixiuiloc yautlatoa.

  2. Coatepec tequiua, tepetitla moxayaual teueuel aya quinelli
moquichtiuiui tlalli cuecuechiuia aqui moxayaual teueuella.

_Var._ Title. Tlaltecaoannanotl. 2. Cohoatepechquiua.


  1. _Q.n._, yautlatolli ipa omixiuh ynanotl chimalipan in omixiuh, _id
est_, ipa oquitlacatilli ynanotl in uitzilopochtli y yauyutl.

  2. _Q.n._, coatepec otepeuh tepetitla yc moxaual ioan y teueuel, _id
est_, ichimal ic otepeuh aocac omoquichquetz iniquac peualoque coatepec
a iniquac otlalli cuecuechiuh, _id est_, iquac opopoliuhque.

_Hymn to Chimalipan in Parturition._

  1. Chimalipan was a virgin when she brought forth the adviser of
battles; Chimalipan was a virgin when she brought forth the adviser of

  2. On the Coatepec was her labor; on the mountain he ripened into age;
as he became a man truly the earth was shaken, even as he became a man.


The goddess Chimalipan is not mentioned by the authorities at my
command; but from the tenor of the hymn it is evident that the name is
a synonym for the virgin mother of Huitzilopochtli, who is distinctly
referred to by his title _Yautlatoani_ (see _ante_, p. 18). In the myth,
she dwelt upon the Coatepetl, the Serpent Mountain, on the site of
Tulan. For a full discussion of this myth I refer to my inquiry, "_Were
the Toltecs an Historic Nationality?_" in _Proceedings of the Amer.
Phil. Soc._ for Sept. 1887, and _American Hero-Myths_, chap. 11.
(Phila., 1881).

The Gloss distinctly states that the mother of Huitzilopochtli is
referred to in the hymn. We must regard Chimalipan therefore as
identical with _Chimalman_, who, according to another myth dwelt in Tula
as a virgin, and was divinely impregnated by the descending spirit of
the All-father in the shape of a bunch of feathers.

In other myths she is mentioned as also the mother of the Huitznahua,
the enemies and the brothers of Huitzilopochtli, referred to in the
second of this collection of chants.

VI. _Ixcoçauhqui icuic._

  1. Huiya tzonimolco notauane ye namech maya pinauhtiz, tetemoca ye
namech maya pinauhtiz.

  2. Xonca mecatla notecua icçotl mimilcatoc chicueyocan naualcalli
nauali temoquetlaya.

  3. Huiya tzonimolco cuicotipeuhque, aya tzonimolco cuicotipeuhque, aya
iztleica naual moquizcauia, iztlauan naual moquizca.

  4. Huia tzonimolco maceualli maya temacouia, oya tonaqui, oya tonaqui
maceualli, maya temacouiya.

  5. Huiya tzonimolco xoxolcuicatl cacauantoc ya ayouica mocuiltonoaci
tontecuitl moteicnelil mauiztli.

  6. Huiya ciuatontla xatenonotza, ayyauhcalcatl quiyauatla,

_Var._ 2. Xoncan mecatlan notechoan. 3. Iztleica (for iztlauan). 6. Ia


  1. _Q.n._, yn itzonmolcatl notauane ye nemechpinauhtiz nachcan nochan
tetemoan, ye nemechpinauhtiz.

  2. _Q.n._, yn mecatla amo tecuhuan in oncan icçotl mimilcatoc
ueyaquixtoc icçotl uncan in temoc in chicueyocan.

  3. _Q.n._, yn tzonmolco otipeuhque macuico yn tzonmolco macuico
otipeuhque tleica in amo anualquiça tleica yn ayaualquiça.

  4. _Q.n._, yn tzonmolco otonac auh in omaceualhoan xinechinacaqui
notechpouizque yn enetoltiloyan.

  5. _Q.n._, yn cuicatl tzomolco ca ye cauani in aic necuiltonollo
netotilo in tetecuti yeua moteicnelil ca mauiztic.

  6. _Q.n._, yn ciuatontli xitenonotza in quiauat ayauhcalcatl, _id
est_, in ticiuatontli xitenonotza.

_Hymn to Ixcoçauhqui._

  1. In the Hall of Flames let me not put to shame my ancestors;
descending there, let me not put you to shame.

  2. I fasten a rope to the sacred tree, I twist it in eight folds, that
by it I, a magician, may descend to the magical house.

  3. Begin your song in the Hall of Flames; begin your song in the Hall
of Flames; why does the magician not come forth? Why does he not rise

  4. Let his subjects assist in the Hall of Flames; he appears, he
appears, let his subjects assist.

  5. Let the servants never cease the song in the Hall of Flames; let
them rejoice greatly, let them dance wonderfully.

  6. Call ye for the woman with abundant hair, whose care is the mist
and the rain, call ye for her.


_Ixcoçauhqui_, "the Yellow Faced," was the Mexican God of Fire.
Torquemada gives as his synonyms _Xiuhtecutli_, "Lord of Fire," and
_Huehueteotl_, "the Ancient God" (_Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. VI., cap.
28). Elsewhere he identifies him with the Sun-god (_Ibid._, Lib. XIV.,
cap. 4). Sahagun describes his annual festival (_Hist._, Lib. II., cap.
38), and gives another of his names, _Cueçaltzin_, a reverential form of
_cuezalotl_, flame (_Hist._, Lib. I., cap. 13).

The _tzonmolco_ so often referred to in this hymn was the sixty-fourth
edifice in the great temple of Tenochtitlan, and was devoted to the
worship of Ixcoçauhqui (Sahagun). The word literally means "the place of
spreading hairs," the rays or ornaments spreading from the head of the
statue of the god representing flames (Sahagun).

The reference in v. 6 seems to be to one of the women who were
sacrificed at the festival, as related by Sahagun (Lib. II., App.).

VII. _Mimixcoa icuic._

  1. Chicomoztoc quinexaqui, çani aueponi, çani, çani, teyomi.

  2. Tziuactitlan quinexaqui, çani a aueponi, çani, çani, teyomi.

  3. Oya nitemoc, oya nitemoc, aya ica nitemoc notziuaquimiuh, aya ica
nitemoc notziuaquimiuh.

  4. Oya nitemoc, oya nitemoc, ayayca nitemoc nomatlauacal.

  5. Ni quimacui, ni quimacui, yuaya niquimacui, niquimacui, yuanya ayo

  6. Tlachtli icpacaya, uel incuicaya, quetzalcuxcuxaya, quinanquilia
çinteutla, aay.

_Var._ 1. Quinehoaqui. 2. Quineuaqui. 6. Ipac.


  1. _Q.n._, chicomoztoc oniualleuac çani aueponi, ichichimecatlatol,
çani aueponi, çani, çani teyomi.

  2. _Q.n._, tziuactli in itlan oniualleuac çani aueponi, çani, çani

  3. Oya nitemoc, _q.n._, onitemoc onitlacatl ipan ynotziuacmiuh;
onitemoc ipan ynotziuacmiuh ça niman ipan nitlacat ynotlauitol ynomiuh.

  4. _Q.n._, onitemoc onitlacat inipan nomatlauacal ça niman ipan

  5. Y yacatlatol. Yc a a inya in chichimeca in chichimecatlatol.

  6. _Q.n._, yn tlataçica tictecazque totlach uncan ticuicazque
noyehuatl in quetzalcocox.

_Hymn of Mixcoatl._

  1. I come forth from Chicomoztoc, only to you, my friends, to you,
honored ones.

  2. I come forth from Tziuactitlan, only to you my friends, only to you
honored ones.

  3. I sought, I sought, in all directions I sought with my pack; in all
directions I sought with my pack.

  4. I sought, I sought, in all directions I sought with my traveling

  5. I took them in hand, I took them in hand; yes, I took them in hand;
yes, I took them in hand.

  6. In the ball ground I sang well and strong, like to the quetzal
bird; I answered back to the god.


"The Chichimecs," says Sahagun (_Hist._, Lib. VI., cap. 7), "worshipped
only one god, called _Mixcoatl_." The _Anales de Cuauhtitlan_ speaks of
Mixcoatl as one of the leaders of the ancient Nahuas from their
primitive home Chicomoztoc, the land of the Seven Caves. This is what is
referred to in the above hymn. In later times Mixcoatl became god of
hunting and of the tornado, and his worship extended to the Otomis.

_Tzihuactitlan_, "the land of the tzihuac bushes," I have not found
mentioned by any of the Spanish authorities, but it is named in
connection with Chicomoztoc in an ancient war-song given in my _Ancient
Nahuatl Poetry_, pp. 88 and 140.

The hymn appears to be in memory of the leadership of Mixcoatl in
conducting the ancestors of the Nahua on their long wanderings after
leaving their pristine seats. It should be read in connection with the
earlier pages of the _Annals of Cuauhtitlan_.

The reduplicated form of the name, _Mimixcoatl_, is not found elsewhere,
and appears to be a poetic license.

VIII. _Xochipilli icuic._

  1. Ye cuicaya tocniuaya ouaya yeo, ye cuicaya ye quetzalcoxcuxa
yoaltica tlao çinteutla, oay.

  2. Çan quicaquiz nocuic ocoyoalle teumechaue, oquicaquiz nocuica in
cipactonalla atilili, ouayya.

  3. Ayao, ayao, ayao, ayao, nitlanauati ay tlalocan tlamacazque, ayao,
ayao, ayao.

  4. Ayao, ayao, ayao, tlalocan tlamacazque nitlanauati, aya, ayao,

  5. Ao çani uallaçic, otli nepaniuia, cani çinteutla campa ye noyaz,
campa otli nicyatoca ça oay.

  6. Ayao, aya, ayao, tlalocan tlamacazque, quiauiteteu, ayyao, aya,


  1. _Q.n._, ca otonac, ca otlatuic ca ye cuico ca ye cuica centeotl in

  2. _Q.n._, macaco in tocuic ynican maquicaquican yn nican tlaca.

  3. _Q.n._, in tlaloque tlamacazque niquinnauatia ye niauh in nochan.

  4. _Q.n._, yn tlaloque tlamacazque niquinnauatia ye niauh in nochan.

  5. _Q.n._, ca onitlanauati ni tlaloca catli ye nictocaz utli.

  6. _Q.n._, yn antlaloque yn antlamacazque catli nictocaz yn anteteuh.

_Hymn to Xochipilli._

  1. O friends, the quetzal bird sings, it sings its song at midnight to

  2. The god will surely hear my song by night, he will hear my song as
the day begins to break.

  3. I send forth the priests to the house of Tlaloc.

  4. The priests to the house of Tlaloc do I send forth.

  5. I shall go forth, I shall join myself unto them, I shall go where
is Cinteotl, I shall follow the path to him.

  6. The priests go forth to the house of Tlaloc, to the home of the
gods of the plain.


_Xochipilli_, "lord of flowers," otherwise named _Macuilxochitl_, "five
flowers" (the name of a small odorous plant), was the deity who gave and
protected all flowering plants. As one of the gods of fertility and
production, he was associated with Tlaloc, god of rains, and Cinteotl,
god of maize. His festival is described in Sahagun (_Historia_, Lib. I.,
cap. 14).

  2. _Cipactonalla_, from _cipactli_, and _tonalli_, may refer to
_Cipactonal_, the reputed discoverer of the Aztec calendar. See
_Sahagun_, _Historia_, Lib. IV., cap. I.

IX. _Xochiquetzal icuic._

  1. Atlayauican ni xochiquetzalli tlacya niuitza ya motencaliuan
tamoanchan oay.

  2. Ye quitichocaya tlamacazecatla piltzintecutlo quiyatemoaya ye
xochinquetzalla xoyauia ay topa niaz, oay.

_Var._ 2. Icotochiquetzalla.


  1. _Q.n._, ompa niuitz ynixochiquetzal tamoanchan.

  2. _Q.n._, choca piltzintecutli quitemoa in xochiquetzal xoyauia no
umpa niaz.

_Hymn to Xochiquetzal._

  1. I, Xochiquetzal, go forth willingly to the dancing place by the
water, going forth to the houses in Tamoanchan.

  2. Ye noble youths, ye priests who wept, seeking Xochiquetzal, go
forth there where I am going.


_Xochiquetzal_, "plumage of flowers," was the deity of the artists, the
painters, weavers, engravers on metal, silver and goldsmiths, and of all
who dealt in fine colors. Her figure was that of a young woman with gay
garments and jewelry (Duran, _Historia_, cap. 94). In the _Codex
Telleriano-Remensis_ she is assigned as synonyms _Ichpochtli_, the
Virgin, and _Itzpapalotl_, literally "the obsidian butterfly," but which
was probably applied to a peculiar ornament of her idol.

On _Tamoanchan_ see notes to Hymn IV.

The term _atlayauican_, which I have translated "the dancing place by
the water," appears to refer to the "jar dance," _baile de las jicaras_,
which took place at the festival of the goddess, in the month of
October. Duran informs us this was executed at a spot by the shore of
the lake. Ceremonial bathing was carried on at the same festival, and
these baths were considered to cleanse from sin, as well as from
physical pollution.

X. _Amimitl icuic._

  1. Cotiuana, cotiuana, cali totoch maca huiya yyalimanico,
oquixanimanico, tlacochcalico, oua, yya yya, matonicaya, matonicalico,
oua yya yo, çana, çana, ayoueca niuia, çana canoya, ueca niuia, yya,
yya, yyeuaya, çana, çana, yeucua niuia.

  2. Ye necuiliyaya, niuaya, niuaya, niuaya, ay ca nauh niuahuaya,
niuaya, niuaya, ay ca nauh.

  3. Tlaixtotoca ye ca nauhtzini, tlaixtotoca ye ca nauhtzini, ayoaya,
yoaya, ye ca nauhtzini.

  4. Aueya itzipana nomauilia, aueya itzipana nomauilia, aueya itzipana

_Var._ 1. Manca. Matinicaya.


In amimitl icuic yuh mitoa in ueli chichimeca cuic amo uel caquizti in
quein quitoa in tonauatlatol ypa.

_Hymn to Amimitl._

  1. Join together your hands in the house, take hands in the sequent
course, let them spread forth, spread forth in the hall of arrows. Join
hands, join hands in the house, for this, for this have I come, have I

  2. Yes, I have come, bringing four with me, yes I have come, four
being with me.

  3. Four noble ones, carefully selected, four noble ones, carefully
selected, yes, four noble ones.

  4. They personally appear before his face, they personally appear
before his face, they personally appear before his face.


The brief Gloss to this Hymn states that it is of ancient Chichimec
origin and that it cannot well be rendered in Nahuatl. Its language is
exceedingly obscure, but it is evidently a dancing song.

_Amimitl_, "the water-arrow," or "fish-spear," was, according to
Torquemada, especially worshipped at Cuitlahuac. He was god of fishing,
and visited the subjects of his displeasure with diseases of a dropsical
or watery character (_Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. VI., cap. 29). On slender
and questionable grounds Clavigero identifies him with Opochtli, the god
of net makers and fishers with nets (_Storia Antica del Messico_, Tom.
II., p. 20).

The four noble ones referred to in vv. 3 and 4 probably refer to those
characters in the Mexican sacred dances called "the four auroras," four
actors clothed respectively in white, green, yellow and red robes. See
Diego Duran, _Historia_, cap. 87.

XI. _Otontecutli icuic._

  1. Onoalico, onoalico, pomaya, yyaya, ayyo, ayyo, aya, aya, ayyo.

  2. Chimalocutitlana motlaqueuia auetzini nonoualico, quauinochitla,
cacauatla motlaqueuia auetzini.

  3. Ni tepanecatli aya cuecuexi, ni quetzallicoatli aya cuecuexi.

  4. Cane ca ya itziueponi, cane ca ya itziueponi.

  5. Otomico, noyoco, nauaco, mexicame ya yauilili, noyoco, nauaco,
mexicame ya.

  6. A chimalli aya, xa, xauino quiyauilili, noyoco, nauaco, mexicame

_Var._ 2. Nonoualco.

_Hymn of Olontecutli._

  1. At Nonoalco he rules, at Nonoalco, Oho! Oho!

  2. In the pine woods he prepares your destruction at Nonoalco, in the
tuna woods, in the cacao woods he prepares your destruction.

  3. I, dweller in the palace, shook them; I, Quetzalcoatl, shook them.

  4. There was a splendor of spears, a splendor of spears.

  5. With my captain, with my courage, with my skill, the Mexicans were
put to flight; even the Mexicans, with my courage, with my skill.

  6. Go forth, ye shield bearers, put the Mexicans to flight with my
courage, with my skill.


The absence of a Gloss to this hymn adds to the difficulty of a
translation. _Otontecutli_ was the chief deity of the Otomis, and the
chant appears to be one of their war songs in their conflict with the
Azteca. The name is a compound of _otomitl_, an Otomi, and _tecutli_,
ruler or lord. He is slightly referred to by Sahagun as "the first ruler
to govern the ancestors of the Otomis." (_Historia_, Lib. X, cap. 29,
sec. 5.)

XII. _Ayopechtli icuic._

  1. Cane cana ichan, ayopechcatl cozcapantica mixiuhtoc.

  2. Cane cana ichan ayopechcatl cozcapantica mixiuhtoc, cane ichan

  3. Xiualmeuayauia, xiua xiualmeuayaauiaya yancuipilla, xiualmeuaya.

  4. Auiya xiualmeuaya, ueya, xiua, xiualmeuaya, cozcapilla xiualmeuaya.


  1. _Q.n._, in oncan ichan ayopechtli oncan mixiuiqui tlacatilia in
cuzcatl quetzalli.

  2. Cane cana ichan, _q.n._, in oncan ichan ayopechcatl oncan
quitlacatilia in cozcatl quetzalli oncan yoliua, tlacatiua.

  3. _Q.n._, ximeua, ximeua, in tipiltzintli xiualmeua in quinotitlacat

  4. _Q.n._, xiualmeua, xiualmeua, in tipiltzintli in ti cuzcatl, in ti

_Hymn to Ayopechcatl._

  1. Truly in whatever house there is a lying-in, Ayopechcatl takes
charge of the child.

  2. Truly in whatever house there is a lying-in, Ayopechcatl takes
charge of the child, there where it is weeping in the house.

  3. Come along and cry out, cry out, cry out, you new comer, come along
and cry out.

  4. Come along and cry out, cry out, cry out, you little jewel, cry


The name of Ayopechcatl does not appear among the divinities named by
Sahagun, Duran or the other authorities at my command. Her name
indicates her function as the goddess of the child-bed and the neonatus,
and the above hymn establishes her claim to a place in the Aztec

XIII. _Ciuacoatl icuic._

  1. Quaui, quaui, quilaztla, coaeztica xayaualoc uiuiya quauiuitl
uitzalochpa chalima aueuetl ye colhoa.

  2. Huiya tonaca, acxolma centla teumilco chicauaztica, motlaquechizca.

  3. Uitztla, uitztla, nomactemi, uitztla, uitztla nomactemi, açan
teumilco chicauaztica motlaquechizca.

  4. Malinalla nomactemi, açan teumilco chicauaztica motlaquechizca.

  5. A omei quauhtli, ye tonanaya chalmecatecutli ay tziuac y mauiztla
nechyatetemilli, yeua nopiltzinaya mixcoatla.

  6. Ya tonani, yauçiuatzin, aya tonan yauçiuatzi aya y maca coliuacan y
yuitla y potocaya.

  7. Ahuiya ye tonaquetli, yautlatocaya, ahuiya ye tonaquetli
yautlatocaya moneuila no tlaca cenpoliuiz aya y maca coliuaca y yuitla y

  8. Ahuia quauiuitl amo xayaualli onauiya yecoyametl amo xayaualli.

_Var._ 1. Cohoaeztica. 2. Acxoima. 7. Maneuila, cenpoalihuiz, inmaca.


  1. _Q.n._, in quauhcihuatl, ic oxaualoc in coaetztli, ioan in quauhtli
yhuitli in moteneua iquauhtzon, ipan iualuicoc yn umpa colhuacan.

  2. _Q.n._, inic motocaya çentli, in mochiuaya teumilpa, ichicauaztica
inic tlatatacaya, inic tocaya.

  3. Uitztla, _q.n._, nomactemi nochicauaztica inic nitocaya, inic

  4. Malinalla, uictli, _q.n._, uictica in tlachpanaya, _id est_,
iceliniquia, yn uncan teumilpan auh ychicauaztica inic nitlatatacaya,
inic tocaya.

  5. _Q.n._, matlactli omei quauhtli yn notonal innamona auh ynan
nopilhoan in chalmeca xicuiti in tziuactli xinechtemilica.

  6. _Q.n._, in iyauciuatzin yn amona umpa nochan in coluaca auh in
quauiuitl nictemaca ynic oquauhtiuac.

  7. _Q.n._, ca otonac ca otlatuic momochiua yauyutl ma tlamalo
tlalpiliuiz nic temaca in quauiuitl.

  8. _Q.n._, aahuia yn otlamaloc in quauiuitl yc moxaua.

_Hymn to Cihuacoatl._

  1. Quilaztli, plumed with eagle feathers, with the crest of eagles,
painted with serpents' blood, comes with her hoe, beating her drum, from

  2. She alone, who is our flesh, goddess of the fields and shrubs, is
strong to support us.

  3. With the hoe, with the hoe, with hands full, with the hoe, with
hands full, the goddess of the fields is strong to support us.

  4. With a broom in her hands the goddess of the fields strongly
supports us.

  5. Our mother is as twelve eagles, goddess of drum-beating, filling
the fields of tzioac and maguey like our lord Mixcoatl.

  6. She is our mother, a goddess of war, our mother, a goddess of war,
an example and a companion from the home of our ancestors (Colhuacan).

  7. She comes forth, she appears when war is waged, she protects us in
war that we shall not be destroyed, an example and companion from the
home of our ancestors.

  8. She comes adorned in the ancient manner with the eagle crest, in
the ancient manner with the eagle crest.


Cihuacoatl was the mythical mother of the human race. Her name,
generally translated "serpent woman," should be rendered "woman of
twins" or "bearing twins," as the myth related that such was her
fertility that she always bore two children at one lying-in.
(Torquemada, _Monarquia Indiana_, Lib. VI., cap. 31.) She was also known
by the title _Tonan_ or _Tonantzin_, "our mother," as in v. 5 and 6.
Still another of her appellations was _Quilaztli_, which is given her in
v. 1. (Comp. Sahagun, _Historia_, Lib. VI., cap. 27.) She was
essentially a goddess of fertility and reproduction. The name
_cihuacoatl_ was also applied to one of the higher magistrates and war
chiefs in the Aztec army (Sahagun). Reference is made to this in v. 6.
As a goddess of venerable antiquity, she is spoken of as coming from
Colhuacan, "the place of the old men," or of the ancestors of the tribe.
This name is derived from _coloa_, to bend down, as an aged person,
_colli_, an old man. (See my _Ancient Nahuatl Poetry_, pp. 172-3).

XIV. _Izcatqui yn cuicatl chicuexiuhtica meuaya iniquac atamalqualoya._

  1. Xochitl noyollo cuepontimania ye tlacoyoalle, oaya, oouayaye.

  2. Yecoc ye tonan, yecoc ye teutl tlacolteutla, oaya, ooayaya.

  3. Otlacatqui çenteutl tamiyoanichan ni xochitlicacani. Çey xochitli
yantala, yantata, ayyao, ayyaue, tilili yao, ayaue, oayyaue.

  4. Otlacatqui çenteutl, atl, yayaui cani tlaca pillachiualoya
chalchimichuacan, yyao, yantala, yatanta, a yyao, ayyaue tilili yao,
ayyaue, oayyaue.

  5. Oya tlatonazqui tlauizcalleuaya inan tlachinaya nepapan quechol,
xochitlacacan y yantala, yantata, ayyao, ayyaue, tilili yao, ayyaue,

  6. Tlalpa timoquetzca, tianquiz nauaquia nitlacatla, ni quetzalcoatla,
yyao, yantala, yantata, ayyao, ayyaue, tilili yao ayyaue, oayyayue.

  7. Ma ya auiallo xochinquauitl itlani nepapan quecholli ma ya in
quecholli xicaquiya tlatoaya y toteuh, xicaquiya tlatoaya y quechol
amach yeua tonicauh tlapitza amach ychan tlacaluaz, ouao.

  8. Aye oho, yyayya, ça miquiyecauiz ça noxocha tonaca xochitli ye
izqui xochitla, xochitlicacan, yyaa.

  9. Ollama, ollama uiue xolutl nauallachic, ollama ya xolutl
chalchiuecatl xiquitta mach, oya moteca piltzintecutli yoanchan,

  10. Piltzintle, piltzintle toçuitica timopotonia tlachco, timotlalli
yoanchan, yoanchan.

  11. Oztomecatla yyaue, oztomecatla xochiquetzal quimama, ontlatca
cholola, ayye, ayyo, oye maui noyol, oye maui noyol, aoya yecoc
centeutl, matiuia obispo, oztomecatl chacalhoa, xiuhnacochtla, yteamic
ximaquiztla yteamico, ayye, ayye.

  12. Cochina, cochina, cocochi ye nicmaololo, ni cani ye çiuatl ni
cochina yyeo, ouayeo, yho, yya, yya.

_Var._ 3. Çenteuteutl. 4. Uillachiualoia. 5. Oya tonazqui. 6. Tlapan.
10. Timotlalia. 11. Suchiquetzal. Ontlatoa cholollan.

_This is the Hymn which they sang every eight years when they fasted on
bread and water._

  1. The flower in my heart blossoms and spreads abroad in the middle of
the night.

  2. Tonan has satisfied her passion, the goddess Tlazolteotl has
satisfied her passion.

  3. I, Cinteotl, was born in Paradise, I come from the place of
flowers. I am the only flower, the new, the glorious one.

  4. Cinteotl was born from the water; he came born as a mortal, as a
youth, from the cerulean home of the fishes, a new, a glorious god.

  5. He shone forth as the sun; his mother dwelt in the house of the
dawn, varied in hue as the quechol bird, a new, a glorious flower.

  6. I came forth on the earth, even to the market place like a mortal,
even I, Quetzalcoatl, great and glorious.

  7. Be ye happy under the flower-bush varied in hue as the quetzal
bird; listen to the quechol singing to the gods; listen to the singing
of the quechol along the river; hear its flute along the river in the
house of the reeds.

  8. Alas! would that my flowers would cease from dying; our flesh is as
flowers, even as flowers in the place of flowers.

  9. He plays at ball, he plays at ball, the servant of marvellous
skill; he plays at ball, the precious servant; look at him; even the
ruler of the nobles follows him to his house.

  10. O youths! O youths! follow the example of your ancestors; make
yourselves equal to them in the ball count; establish yourselves in your

  11. She goes to the mart, they carry Xochiquetzal to the mart; she
speaks at Cholula; she startles my heart; she startles my heart; she has
not finished, the priest knows her; where the merchants sell green jade
earrings she is to be seen, in the place of wonders she is to be seen.

  12. Sleep, sleep, sleep, I fold my hands to sleep, I, O woman, sleep.


In default of a Gloss to this hymn, the indispensable Sahagun again
comes to our aid. He informs us in the Appendix to the second book of
his _Historia_ that "When the Indians celebrated the festival called
_atamalqualiztli_, which took place every eight years, certain natives
called Mazateca swallowed living serpents and frogs, and received
garments as a recompense for their daring." We are not informed as to
the purpose of the festival, and its name, which signifies "eating
bread made with water," is merely that of one of the regular systems of
fasting in vogue in ancient Mexico. (See Sahagun, Lib. III., cap. 8.)
The song before us appears to be a recitation calling on a number of the
Nahua divinities.

  1. "The flower in my heart" is a metaphorical expression for song.

  2. _Tonan_, "Our Mother"; _Tlazolteotl_, the goddess of lascivious
love, _Venus impudica_. The verb _yecoa_ appears to have its early
signification, expressing carnal connection.

  3. _Centeotl_, god of maize and fertility.

  8. The flowers referred to are the youths and maidens who die young.

  9. The house of the ball player is the tomb.

  11. This verse is very obscure and is obviously corrupt. It contains
the only Spanish word in the text of these hymns--_obispo_--a word
including two letters, _b_ and _s_, not in the Nahuatl alphabet.

  12. The woman referred to is Xochiquetzal. See Hymn IX.


XV. _Xippe icuic, Totec, yoallauana._

  1. Yoalli tlauana, iztleican nimonenequia xiyaqui mitlatia
teocuitlaquemitl, xicmoquenti quetlauia.

  2. Noteua chalchimamatlaco, apana, y temoya ay quetzallaueuetl, ay
quetzalxiuicoatl, nechiya iqui nocauhquetl, ouiya.

  3. Maniyauia, nia nia poliuiz, ni yoatzin achalchiuhtla noyollo,
ateucuitlatl nocoyaitaz, noyolceuizqui tlacatl achtoquetl tlaquauaya,
otlacatqui yautlatoaquetl ouiya.

  4. Noteua ce in tlaco xayailiuiz çonoa y yoatzin motepeyocpa
mitzualitta moteua, noyolceuizquin tlacatl achtoquetl tlaquauaya,
otlacatqui yautlatoaquetl, ouiya.

_Var._ 1. Quetloujia. 2. Noteuhoa chalchimmama tlacoapana itemoia. 3.
Achalchiuhtla. 4. Centlaco, mitzualitla.


  1. _Q.n._, yn ti yoallauana, ti xipe, totec, tleica in ti monequi in
timoçuma, in timotlatia, _id est_, tleica in amo quiauiteocuitlaquemitl,
xicmoquenti, _q.n._, ma quiaui, ma ualauh yn atl.

  2. _Q.n._, yn ti noteuh, otemoc in mauhoualla yn mauh; ay quetzalla
ueuetl, _id est_, ye tlaquetzalpatia ye tlaxoxouia, ye xopantla. Ay
quetzal xiuhcoatl nechia iqui no cauhquetl, _id est_, ca ye otechcauh yn

  3. _Q.n._, ma mauh, ma nipoliui yn ni yoatzin, _id est_, in catleuatl,
yuhquin chalchiuitl noyollo. A teocuitlatl nocoyaitaz, _q.n._, in
catleuatl achtomochiuaz ninoyolceuiz.

  4. _Q.n._, yn oteuh cequi tlatlacotyan in mochiua initonacayouh,
auh in tlein tlatlacotyan achto mochiua mochi tlacatl achto mitzualmaca,
auh iniquac ye omochimochiuh occeppa nomochi tlacatl mitzualmaca yn

_Hymn of the High Priest of Xipe Totec._

  1. The nightly drinking, why should I oppose it? Go forth and array
yourselves in the golden garments, clothe yourselves in the glittering

  2. My god descended upon the water, into the beautiful glistening
surface; he was as a lovely water cypress, as a beauteous green serpent;
now I have left behind me my suffering.

  3. I go forth, I go forth about to destroy, I, Yoatzin; my soul is in
the cerulean water; I am seen in the golden water; I shall appear unto
mortals; I shall strengthen them for the words of war!

  4. My god appears as a mortal; O Yoatzin, thou art seen upon the
mountains; I shall appear unto mortals; I shall strengthen them for the
words of war.


There is slight mention of the deity Xipe Totec in the Spanish writers.
He was the patron divinity of the silversmiths, and his festival,
attended with peculiarly bloody rites, was celebrated in the first month
of the calendar. (Duran, _Historia_, cap. 87; Sahagun, Lib. I., cap. 18,
Lib. II., cap. 21, etc.) Totec is named as one of the companions of
Quetzalcoatl, and an ancient divinity whose temple stood on the
_Tzatzitepec_ (see the _Codex Vaticanus_; Tab. XII., in Kingsborough's
_Mexico_). His high priest was called _Youallauan_, "the nocturnal
tippler" (_youalli_, night, and _tlauana_, to drink to slight
intoxication), and it was his duty to tear out the hearts of the human
victims (Sahagun, _u.s._). The epithet _Yoatzin_, "noble night-god,"
bears some relation to the celebration of his rites at night.


XVI. _Chicomecoatl icuic._

  1. Chicomollotzin xayameua, ximiçotica aca tona titech icnocauazqui
tiyauia mochan tlallocan nouia.

  2. Xayameua ximiçotica aca tonan titech icnocauazqui tiyauian mochan
tlallocan nouiya.

_Var._ 1. Xaia mehoa.


  1. _Q.n._, yn ti chicomolotl, _id est_, in ti centli ximeua, xiça,
xixoa, ca otimouicaya in mochan tlallocan.

  2. _Q.n._, xayameua, _id est_, ximeua, xixua, xiça, ca otimouicaya in
mochantzinco in tlallocan ca yuhquin ti tonatzon.

_Hymn to Chicomecoatl._

  1. O noble Chicomolotl, arise, awake, leave us not unprotected on the
way, conduct us to the home of Tlaloc.

  2. Arise, awake, leave us not unprotected on the way, conduct us to
the home of Tlaloc.


The goddess Chicomecoatl, "seven guests," was the deity who presided
over food and drink. Hence in the first verse she is referred to as
Chicomolotl, "seven ears of corn," and is spoken of as a guide to
Tlalocan, or the home of abundance.

Father Duran, who gives a long chapter on this goddess (_Historia_, cap.
92), translates her name "serpent of seven heads," and adds that she was
also called _Chalciucihuatl_, "Lady of the Emerald," and _Xilonen_,
"goddess of the tender ears of maize." Every kind of seed and vegetable
which served for food was under her guardianship, and hence her festival,
held about the middle of September, was particularly solemn. Her statue
represented her as a girl of about twelve years old.


XVII. _Totochtin incuic Tezcatzoncatl._

  1. Yyaha, yya yya, yya ayya, ayya ouiya, ayya yya, ayya yya, yyauiyya,
ayya ayya, yya ayya, yya yya yye.

  2. Coliuacan mauizpan atlacatl ichana, yya ayya, yyayyo.

  3. Tezcatzonco tecpan teutl, macoc ye chocaya, auia, macaiui, macayui
teutl, macoc yye chocaya.

  4. Auia axalaco tecpanteutl, macoc yye chocaya, macayui, macayui
teutl, macoc yye chocaya.

_Var._ 3. Tezcatzoncatl tepan. 4. Axalaca.


  1. Y tlauelcuic, tlauelcuica.

  2. Coliuacan mauizpa tlacatlichana, _q.n._, in tlacatl, _id est_,
octli ompa ichan ni colhoacan. Mauizpa, _q.n._, temamauhtican.

  3. Tezcatzonco tecpanteutl, _q.n._, ye choca in omacoc teutl
tezcatzonco tecpan, _id est_, octli. Quimonacayotia in teutl. Macaiui
teutl, _q.n._, macamo omatoni in teutl, _id est_, octli, ye choca cayamo

  4. Aia axalaco tecpanteutl, _q.n._, axala in tecpanteutl. Ye choca yn
omacoc, _id est_, octli axalatecpan, ye choca in omacoc, macamo omaco ni
ye choca cayamo ynemac.

_Hymn to Tezcatzoncatl Totochtin._

  1. Alas! alas! alas! alas! alas! alas!

  2. In the home of our ancestors this creature was a fearful thing.

  3. In the temple of Tezcatzoncatl he aids those who cry to him, he
gives them to drink; the god gives to drink to those who cry to him.

  4. In the temple by the water-reeds the god aids those who call upon
him, he gives them to drink; the god aids those who cry unto him.


Tezcatzoncatl was one of the chief gods of the native inebriating
liquor, the pulque. Its effects were recognized as most disastrous, as
is seen from his other names, _Tequechmecaniani_, "he who hangs people,"
and _Teatlahuiani_, "he who drowns people." Sahagun remarks, "They
always regarded the pulque as a bad and dangerous article." The word
_Totochtin_, plural of _tochtli_, rabbit, was applied to drunkards, and
also to some of the deities of special forms of drunkenness.

The first verse is merely a series of lamentations. The second speaks of
the sad effects of the pulque in ancient times. (On Colhuacan see Notes
to Hymn XIII.)


XVIII. _Atlaua Icuic._

  1. Auia nichalmecatl, nichalmecatl, neçaualcautla, neçaualcautla, olya
quatonalla olya.

  2. Ueya, ueya, macxoyauh quilazteutl y tlapani macxoyauh.

  3. Nimitz acatecunotzaya, chimalticpao moneçoya nimitzacatecunotzaya.

  4. Ayac nomiuh timalla aytolloca nacatl nomiuh aca xeliui timalla.

  5. Tetoma amo yolcana tlamacazquinte tometl, açan axcan ye
quetzaltototl, nic ya izcaltiquetla.

  6. Y yopuchi noteuh atlauaquetl, aça naxcan ye quetzaltototl, nic ya

  1. Neçaualcactla. 2. Itlamani. 4. Aitollaca acatl. Timalli. 5. Tetonac
amo yolcana tlamacaz quin tetometl.


  1. _Q.n._, ynichalmecatl, yn ineçaualac oqixicauhteuac y nioholti, y
nioya, ixquatechimal iquatunal.

  2. _Q.n._, ma xiyauh ti quilazteutl, momactemi in macxoyauh.

  3. _Q.n._, iniquac onimitznotz, mochimalticpac timiçoya.

  4. _Q.n._, atle nomiuh yc notimaloa, ca uel itoloc in acatl nomiuh, yn
acatl xeliui yc ninotimaloa.

  5. _Q.n._, oncan euac in tetuman nitlacochtetumetl. Auh inaxcan ye
quetzaltotol inic ni tlazcaltia.

  6. _Q.n._, tiacauh in oteuh in atlaua, auh inaxcan yuhqui quetzaltotol
in nitlazcaltia.

_The Hymn of Atlaua._

  1. I Chalmecatl, I Chalmecatl, I leave behind my sandles, I leave my
sandles and my helmet.

  2. Go ye forth and follow the goddess Quilaztli, follow her

  3. I shall call upon thee to arise when among the shields, I shall
call upon thee to arise.

  4. I boast of my arrows, even my reed arrows, I boast of my arrows,
not to be broken.

  5. Arrayed in priestly garb, take the arrow in thy hand, for even now
I shall arise and come forth like the quetzal bird.

  6. Mighty is my god Atlaua; truly I shall arise and come forth like
the quetzal bird.


_Atlaua_, mentioned by Olmos, who translates the word "Master of
waters," is a divinity of whom little is known. The derivation from
_atlatl_, arrow, would seem more appropriate to the words of this hymn.
_Chalmecatl_, used as a synonym in v. 1, appears to be from _chalania_,
to beat, to strike, as a drum.

On _Quilaztli_ see notes to Hymn XIII.

XIX. _Macuilxochitl Icuic._

  1. Ayya, yao, xochitlycaca umpan iuitza tlamacazecatla tlamocoyoalca.

  2. Ayya, yao, ayo intinotzicaya teumechaue oya, yao, tlauizcalac
yacallea tlamacazecatlo tlamocoyoualca.

  3. Tetzauhteutla notecuyo tezcatlipuca quinanquilican çinteutla, oay.

  4. Tezcatzonco moyolca ayyaquetl yya tochin quiyocuxquia noteuh,
niquiyatlacaz, niquiyamamaliz, mixcoatepetl colhoacan.

  5. Tozquixaya, nictzotzoniyao, yn tezcatzintli tezcatzintli
tezcaxocoyeua, tzoniztapaliati tlaoc xoconoctlia ho, a.

1. Tlamocoioaleua. 5. Tozquiuaia. Tzoniztapalatiati.


  1. _Q.n._, ompa nochan in xochitlicacan in itlamacazqui ni

  2. _Q.n._, motilinia in tinoçi in ompa titlaecoltilozque umpa tochan

  3. _Q.n._, yn tetzauitl in tezcatlipoca ca oyaque auh ynic tiui umpa
titlananquilizque in centeotl.

  4. Tezcatzonco moyolcan, _q.n._, tezcatzonco oyol in tochtli ynic yaz,
oquiyocux, oquipic, y noteuh oquito nittlaçaz, nicmamaliz, in
mixcoatepetl colhoacan, _id est_, nictepeuaz.

  5. Tozquixaya nictzotzomiao, _q.n._, nictzotzona, in tezcatzintli
oncan nexa in tezcatzonco, oncan oyol tzoniztapalatiati ocxoni ni octli.

_Hymn to Macuilxochitl._

  1. Yes, I shall go there to-night, to the house of flowers; I shall
exercise the priestly office to-night.

  2. We labor in thy house, our mother, from dawn unto night, fulfilling
the priestly office, laboring in the night.

  3. A dreadful god is our god Tezcatlipoca, he is the only god, he will
answer us.

  4. His heart is in the Tezcatzontli; my god is not timid like a hare
nor is he peaceable; I shall overturn, I shall penetrate the Mixcoatepec
in Colhuacan.

  5. I sing, I play on an instrument, I am the noble instrument, the
mirror; I am he who lifts the mirror; I cry aloud, intoxicated with the
wine of the tuna.


As before stated (Notes to Hymn VIII), Macuilxochitl is another title of
the flower-god Xochipilli.

XX. _Yacatecutli icuic._

  1. Anomatia aytoloc, anomatia aytoloc, tzocotzontla aytoloc,
tzocotzontla anomatia aytoloc.

  2. Pipitla aytoloc, pipitla anomatia aytoloc, cholotla aytoloc,
pipitla anomatia aytoloc.

  3. Tonacayutl nicmaceuh aça naxcan noquacuillo atliyollo,
nechualyauicatiaque xalli itepeuhya.

  4. Chalchiuhpetlacalco ni naxcan aça naxcan noquacuillo, atliyollo
nechualyauicatiaque xalli itepeuhya.


  1. Anomatia, _q.n._, amo nixpan in omito yauyutl inic otepeualoc
tzocotzontla, amo nomatia in omito yauyutl.

  2. Pipitla aytoloc, _q.n._, ynic tepeualoc pipitla amo nicmati inic
omito yauyutl, in cholotla ic otepeualloc amo nixpan ynic oyautlatolloc.

  3. Tonacayutl nicmaceuh, _q.n._, yn tonacayutl inic onicmaçeuh
ayaxcan, onechualhuicaque in oquacuiloan in xochayutl, in çoqniayutl in
teuelteca, quimilhui in iquintonaz tlatuiz anoquacuiloan ayezque. Xalli
tepeuhya, _id est_, tlalocan. Quilmach chalchiuhpetlacalli in quitepeuh
inic tepeuh.

  4. Chalchiuhpetlacalco ninaxcan, _q.n._, onca ninotlati in chalchiuh
petlacalco. Ayaxcan ynechualhuicatiaque yn oquacuiloan atliyoloa in umpa

_Hymn to Yacatecutli._

  1. I know not what is said, I know not what is said, what is said
about Tzocotzontlan, I know not what is said about Tzocotzontlan.

  2. I know not what is said of Pipitlan, what is said of Pipitlan, nor
what is said of Cholollan, what of Pipitlan, of Pipitlan.

  3. Now I seek our food, proceeding to eat it and to drink of the
water, going to where the sand begins.

  4. Now I go to my beautiful house, there to eat my food, and to drink
of the water, going to where the sand begins.


The god Yacatecutli, whose name means "lord of travelers," or "the lord
who guides," was the divinity of the merchants. Sahagun (_Historia_,
Lib. I, cap. 19) and Duran (_Historia_, cap. 90) furnish us many
particulars of his worship.

The hymn is extremely obscure, containing a number of archaic words, and
my rendering is very doubtful. The writer of the Gloss is, I think, also
at fault in his paraphrase. The general purpose of the hymn seems to be
that of a death-song, chanted probably by the victims about to be
sacrificed. They were given the sacred food to eat, as described by
Duran, and then prepared themselves to undergo death, hoping to go to
"the beautiful house," which the Gloss explains as Tlalocan, the
Terrestrial Paradise.



A, prefix, negative, or positive prefix, = _atl_, water.
Acatecunotzaya, XVIII, 3. Equivalent, according to the Gloss, to
Acatona, XVI, 1, 2. For _ac a tonan_. _See_ v. 2.
Acatonalaya, III, 5. From _acatl_, reed (?).
Achalchiuhtla, XV, 3. Comp. of _atl_, and _chalchiuitl_.
Achtoquetl, XV, 3, 4. In the first place, first.
Acxolma, XIII, 2. Apparently related to _acxoyatl_, wild laurel.
Açan, XIII, 3. Much, many times.
Aça naxcan, XVIII, 5, 6; XX, 3, 4. Only now, for _çan axcan_.
Ahuia, II, 1. An interjection.
Amanteca, I, 5. Workers in mechanic arts (Molina), especially feathers
Amapanitl, III, 1. _Panitl_, banner, flag, with possessive pronoun.
Amo, _adv._, no, not, negative; _pron._, your.
Anauhcampa, III, 1. "To all four quarters of the water," i.e., in all
Anneuaya, III, 2. Poetic for _in nehuatl_, "ego ipse."
Annotata, III, 4. Poetic for _in no-tauan_, my forefathers.
Annotequina, III, 3. According to the Gloss, equivalent to _in tino
             teuh_, thou my god.
Annoteua, III, 2. Poetic for _in no-teuh_, my lord.
Anomatia, XX, 1. Not to know, to be ignorant of.
Aoyequene, III, 1. For _aoc yequene_, "and also no one."
Apana, XV, 2. Comp. of _atl_, water, and _pani_, upon, postpos.
Aquamotla, III, 5. From _quammomotla_, to play ball (?).
Aquitoloc, II, 1. A negative, _itoa_, to say, to tell, in the passive
Ateucuitlatl, XV, 3. Golden water. Comp. of _atl_, and _teocuitlatl_.
Atilili, VIII, 2. _Atilia_, to become clear or light.
Atl, XIV, 4. Water. In composition, _a_.
Atliyollo, XX, 3, 4. From _atli_, to drink water. (?)
Aua, III, 7. An interjection (?).
Auatic, IV, 6. Mistress of the waters (_atl_, water).
A-uetztini, XI, 2. From _uetzi_, to fall; "your fall," "your destruction."
Auiallo, XIV, 7. From _auia_, to be content, to rejoice.
Axalaco, XVII, 4. From _axalli_, a water plant, and loc. term. _co_.
Ayac, I, 1, _et sæpe_. Nobody, no one.
Ayauh, III, 6. Fog, mist; compound form of _ayauitl_.
Ayauhcalcatl, VI, 6. One who has charge of the mist. Compare
              _tepancalcatl_, a gardener.
Ayailicalo, III, 6. From _ayauh_, _calli_, the house of mist, but the
            Gloss renders it by _auicalo_, the fresh, dewy house (cf.
            Sah., p. 150).
Aylhuiçolla, III, 2. Derived by the Gloss from _ilhuice_, more, hence,
             to make to grow, to increase.
Ayouica, VI, 5. For _ayaic_, never.
Aytoloc, XVIII, 4; XX, 1, 2. From _itoa_, to say, to tell, with negative
Ayya, I, 1, _et sæpe_; also in the forms _yya_, _ya_, _yyo_, _yye_,
      _aya_, _ayyo_, etc. An interjection, or shout.


Ca. 1. And, also. 2. To be.
Ça, Çan, VII, 1. Only, solely.
Cacauantoc, VI, 5. Reduplicated from _caua_, to cease, stop, leave off.
Cacauatla, XI, 2. "Among the cacao trees."
Calli, I, 5, 6. House; _calipan_, in the house.
Cana, XII, 1. Somewhere.
Cane, XII, 1. For _ca nel_, and truly.
Caqui, VIII, 2. To hear, to listen.
Caquia, II, 1. From _caqui_, to hear.
Catlachtoquetl, III, 3. Apparently compounded of the interrogative
                _catli_ and _tlacatl_, man, mortal; what mortal?
Catella, III, 4. For _catel_; who indeed?
Caua, XIV, 7; XV, 2. To cease, to stop; to surpass; to lay down.
Ce, I, 2; XV, 4. One, a, an.
Cenpoliuiz, XIII, 7. From _cempoliui_, to perish wholly.
Centeutl, VII, 6; VIII, 1, 5; XIV, 4; XIX, 3. Prop. name. The god of
Centla, XIII, 2. For _centli_, ear of corn, dried corn.
Centlalia, I, 5, 6. To assemble.
Chacalhoa, XIV, 11. For _chachaloa_, to tinkle, to resound.
Chalchimamatlaco, XV, 2. Compound of _chalchiuitl_, jade, turquoise;
                  hence of that color; _mama_, to carry; ref. to betake
                  oneself; _atl_, water; _co_, postposition.
Chalchimichuacan, XIV, 4. "The cerulean home of the fishes."
Chalchiuhecatl, XIV, 9. From _chalchiuitl_, jade; metaphorically,
                anything precious.
Chalmecatl, XVIII, 1. From _chalani_, to beat, to strike. Apparently a
            proper name.
Chalmecatecutli, XIII, 5. "Ruler of the (drum) beaters." Comp. v. 1.
Chalima, XIII, 1. Apparently for _chalani_, to strike, to beat,
         especially a drum.
Chan, XVI, 1, 2; XVII, 2. House, home.
Chicauaztica, III, 6; XIII, 2, 3. Strongly, boldly, energetically.
Chicomoztoc, VII, 1. "At the seven caves." _See_ Notes to Hymn VII.
Chicomollotzin, XVI, 1. _See_ Notes, p. 59.
Chicueyocan, VI, 2. In eight folds. From _chicuei_, eight.
Chicunaui, IV, 6. Nine; but used generally in the sense of "many,"
Chimal, XI, 2. For _chimalli_, buckler, shield.
Chimalticpac, XVIII, 3. "Above the shield."
Chipuchica, V, 1. Metastasis for _ichpochtica_, from _ichpochtli_,
Chiua, III, 3. To make, to form, to do.
Chocaya, III, 1, 7. From _choca_, to weep, to cry out.
Chocayotica, XII, 2. Adverbial from _choca_: "weepingly."
Cholola, XIV, 11; XX, 2. Proper name. "Place of the fugitives."
Cipactonalla, VIII, 2. From _tonalli_, the sun, day. Perhaps a proper
Ciuatontla, VI, 6. For _ciuatontli_, little woman.
Coatepec, V, 1. At the _Coatepetl_, or Serpent Hill.
Cochina, XIV, 12. From _cochi_, to sleep.
Colhoa, XIII, 1. For _Colhoacan_, proper name.
Coliuacan, XVII, 2; XIX, 4. Proper name, for _Colhoacan_.
Cotiuana, X, 1. Probably for _xo(xi-on)titaana_, tie hands, join hands.
Coçauic, IV, 1, 2. Poetic for _coztic_, yellow; literally, "yellowed,"
         from _coçauia_.
Cozcapantica, XII, 1. Adverbial, from _cozcatl_, a jewel, fig., an
Cozcapilla, XII, 4. From _cozcatl_, _pilli_, "jewel of a babe."
Cuecuechiuia, V, 2. From _cuecuechoa_, to shake.
Cuecuexi, XI, 3. From _cuecuechoa_, to shake.
Cueponi, IV, 1, etc. To bloom, to blossom.
Cuicatl, I, 1, _et sæpe_. Hymn, song. In compos., _cuic_.


Eztlamiyaual, III, 2. Apparently from _eztli_, blood, race, and
              _tlamiauati_, to surpass, to excel.


Huia, II, 3. _See_ _Ahuia_.


Y, I. For _in_ (_yn_), he, it, the, that, etc.
Ya. _See_ Ayya.
Yancuic, IV, 7. New, fresh, green.
Yancuipilla, XII, 3. New-born babe.
Yantata, XIV, 3. An exclamation.
Yaquetlaya, I, 1. Apparently a form of _tlayacati_, or of _yaque_, both
            from the root _yac-_, a point, a prominence, to be
            prominent. But the etymology is not clear.
Yauciuatzin, XIII, 6. _Yaotl-cihuatl-tzin_, "the revered war-woman."
Yauicaya, III, 2. From _yauh_, to go.
Yauilili, XI, 5. Causative form of _yauh_, "to cause to go," to put to
Yautiua, I, 5, 6. Freq. from _yaotia_, to fight.
Yautlatoaquetl, XV, 3, 4. _See_ _yautlatoaya_.
Yautlatoaya, I, 3; V. 1. From _yaotl_, war, _tlatoa_, to speak.
             _Yautlatoani_, ruler in war, was one of the titles of
Yaxcana, III, 9. _Axcan_, now. _Axcatl_, goods, property. _Yaxca_, his,
         its, property.
Yayalezqui, III, 7, 8. Frequent. of _yaliztli_; to go and come, go back
            and forth.
Yca, IV, 6. With which.
Icçotl, VI, 2. A tree planted in front of temples. Its bark was used for
        mats (Sahagun).
Icnocaua, XVI, 1, 2. To leave unprotected, as orphans.
Ye, VIII, 1. Already, this, but, nevertheless.
Yecoa, XIII, 8; XIV, 2. 1. To have carnal connection. 2. To end, to
Yeua, I, 4, etc. For _yehuatl_, he, it, that.
Ihuitl, I, 3; IV, 7. A feather; _met._, a model, pattern.
Ihiya, II, 2. Apparently for _iye_, yes, affirmative particle.
Ilhuiquetl, III, 8. From _ilhuia_, to say, to call.
Iliuiz, XV, 5. Thoughtlessly; with negative prefix _a_, not
Ymocxi, I, 2. Poetic for _in micti_, from _mictia_, to slaughter.
Yoalticatla, VIII, 1. _Yoalli-ticatla_, midnight.
Yoalli, XV, 1. Night.
Yoatzin, XV, 3, 4. Reverential of _yoalli_, night.
Yocoxquia, XIX, 4. Peaceably, quietly.
Yolcan, XVIII, 5. Place of birth.
Yolceuiz, XV, 3, 4. To appease, to please.
Yollotl, IV, 6. Heart, mind, center.
Itaca, IV, 6. For _itacatl_, food, sustenance.
Iteamic, XIV, 11. From _itta_, to see.
Itlani, XIV, 7. _See_ _Tlani_.
Itontecuitl, VI, 5. Explained by the Gloss by _in tetecuti_, which I
             take to be an error for _in teteuctin_.
Itopanecauiloc, III, 9. The Gloss gives _ni topan_. The verbal is a
                passive from _caua_, to leave, to abandon.
Itta, IV, 8. To see, to esteem.
Ytzicotla, II, 5. For _uitzicotla_, lit., place abounding in thorns;
           fig., the south.
Itzipana, X, 4. Apparently a compound of _ixtli_, face, and _pan_, for
          the more usual _ixpan_, before, in front of; _ixtli_ in comp.
          sometimes becomes _itz_, as in _itzoca_, "tener sucia la
          cara," Molina, _Vocabulario_.
Itziueponi, XI, 4. For _itztle-cueponi_, "resplendent with spears."
Itzpapalotl, IV, 5. "The obsidian butterfly," an image of gold and
             feathers, worn as a royal insignia. _See_ Sahagun, Lib.
             VII, Cap. 12.
Yua, III, 8. To send.
Yuitla, XIII, 6. _See_ _ihuitl_.
Yuiyoc, II, 3, 4, 5. From _yuiyotl_, a feather, _yuiyoa_, to be dressed
        in feathers, or feather garments.
Ixtlauatl, IV, 6. Open field, uncultivated region.
Yyaconay, I, 1. For _ayac-on-ay_, as appears by the gloss.
Yya. _See_ Ayya.
Izqui, XIV, 8. As many as.
Iztac, IV, 3, 4. White.
Iz tleica, VI, 3; XV, 1. "Here is why." The interrogative changed into
           the predicative form. _See_ Paredes, _Compendio_, p. 154.


Ma, VI, 1. 1. Sign of negative, no, not. 2. Sign of imperative.
Macaiui, XVII, 3, 4. From _macoa_, and _i_, to drink.
Maceualli, VI, 4. Subjects, servants.
Maceuh, XX, 3. From _maceua_, to seek for, to obtain.
Mach, XIV, 7. Intensive particle.
Machiyotla, II, 6, 7. For _machiotl_, sign, example.
Macoa, I, 3; XVII, 3. To aid, to assist.
Macxoyauh, XVIII, 3. By the Gloss, for _ma-xi-yauh_, imper. of _yauh_,
           to go.
Malinalli, XIII, 4. A broom.
Malli, II, 3, 4, 5. Captive; one taken by hand.
Mama, XIV, 11. To carry a load on the shoulders.
Mamalia, XIX, 4. To penetrate.
Mamauia, I, 4. To frighten, frequentative-causative, from _maui_, to
Maololo, XIV, 12. From _ma-ololo_, to cover with the hand.
Mati, II, 1. To know.
Matiuia, XIV, 11. For _matihuia_, from _mati_.
Matlauacal, VII, 4. A net-basket.
Ma-tonicaya, X, 1. Let it shine, let it be bright; from _tona_.
Mauia, II, 3, 4, 5. To give into the hands of, to deliver up.
Maui noyol, XIV, 11. To fear in my heart.
Mauiztli, VI, 5, XIII, 5. An honor (_cosa de estima_, _Molina_). A
          person of honor.
Mazatl, IV, 6. (Doubtful.) Deer; any large wild animal.
Mecatla, VI, 2. For _mecatl_, cord, rope.
Milacatzoa, I, 4. _Mo-ilacatzoa_, to twine oneself, as a serpent around
            a tree; refers to the _xiuhcoatl_, fire-serpent, of
Mimicha, IV, 8. Fish, for _michin_.
Mimilcatoc, VI, 2. Twisted, twined.
Miquiyecauiz, XIV, 8. Compound of _miqui_, to die, and _yecaui_, to
              cease; "to cease dying."
Mitoaya, I, 3. For _mo-itoa-ya_, it is said, they said.
Mixcoatepetl, XIX, 4. The mountain or town of Mixcoatl.
Mixcoatl, XIII, 5. A proper name.
Mixiui, XII, 1. To accouch, to bear a child.
Mixtecatl, I, 2. A proper name. The Mixteca lived on the Pacific coast,
           to the southwest, and were not of Nahuatl lineage.
Mixiuiloc, V, 1. From _mixiui_, to accouch, to bear a child.
Mo-cuiltonoa, VI, 5. To rejoice or enjoy greatly.
Moneçoya, XVIII, 3. From _neçi_, to appear.
Mo-neuila, XIII, 7. From _eua_, to rise up, to come forth.
Mo-quetzquetl, III, 1. For _m-oquequetz_, frequent. of _quetza_; to flow
               forth, to run from and out. A poetic form, not uncommon.
Moquichtiuiui, V, 2. _Oquichuia_, to suffer manfully.
Mo-teca, XIV, 9. They assemble; impers. from _teca_, to place oneself,
         to lie down.
Moteua, XV, 4. Perhaps from _itoa_, to say, "it is said."
Mo-tlaquechizca, XIII, 2, 3, 4. Strengthened form of _tlaquechia_, to
                 rest upon; to bear down upon; to press upon.
Mo-tlaqueuia, XI, 2. To seek people, or to hire them to work injury to
Mo-tonacayouh, III, 3. Our flesh; the usual form is _tonacayo_.
Moxayaual, V, 2. From _yaualoa_, to wander about.
Moxocha, IV, 2, 4. Probably a compound of _moxochitl-cha-yaui_, to sow
Mozcaltizqui, IV, 6. From _mo-izcali_, to resuscitate, to animate.


Nacha, III, 7. For _nachcan_, there, in that place.
Nacochtla, XIV, 11. The ears.
Nahuia, III, 6. From _naui_, four.
Nanquilia, VII, 6; XIX, 3. To answer.
Nauaco, XI, 5. "With (my) skill."
Naualpilli, III, 3. "Master magician;" said by the Gloss to be a name of
            Tlaloc. Sahagun gives this as one of the gods of the
            goldsmiths (Lib. IX, cap. 18).
Naualachic, XIV, 9. Skilfully; from _naualchiua_, to do something
Nauaquia, XIV, 6. Perhaps for _nahuaque_, an epithet of divinity.
Nauhxiuhtica, III, 9. "After four years" (Molina).
Neçazualcactla, XVIII, 1. From the Gloss equivalent to _neçaualacautla_,
                from _neçaualiztli_, fast, fasting, and _caua_, to
Nechyatetemilli, XIII, 5. Reverential of _temi_, to lie down, to fill.
Necuilia, X, 2. To bring some one.
Nella, III, 3. For _nelli_, truly.
Nen, adv. I, 1. In vain, of no advantage.
Nenequia, XV, 1. To oppose, to be angry with.
Nenoualico, XI, 2. See _Onoalico_. _Ne_ is the impersonal, pronominal
Nepaniui, VIII, 5. To join, to unite oneself to.
Nepanauia, III, 9. _Nepan_, thither, and _yauh_, to go.
Nepapan, II, 2; XIV, 5. Diverse, varied.
Ne-qui-macui, VII, 5. "I take them by the hand." Explained by the Gloss
              to be an archaic (_chicimeca_) expression used in leading
              or guiding (in dance or song).
Niuaya, X, 2. For _ni-ihua-ya_, I sent (some one).
Ni-yocoloc, III, 2. Passive preterit from _yocoya_; _yocolia_, to be
            made, composed, created.
No. 1. Possess, pron. my, mine. 2. Adv. also, yet.
Noca, I, 1. Of me, my, mine.
Nohuihuihuia, I, 1. Poetic form for _neuiuilia_, to equal some one.
Nomactemi, XIII, 3, 4. _No-maitl-c-temi_, my hand it fills, = with full
Nomauilia, X, 4. To do a thing personally.
Nomiuh, XVIII, 4. _No-omitl_, my bone, point, arrow.
Nopeltzin, XIII, 5. _No-pilli-tzin_, "my revered lord."
No-tauane, VI, 1. Our fathers.
No-tecua, VI, 2. For _nic-tecuia_, I tie it, I make it fast. The Gloss,
          _amo-tecuhuan_, is not intelligible.
No-teuh, I, 3; XX, 2, 4. "My god."
Noyoco, XI, 5. Apparently for _niyoco_, "with me alone."
Noyollo, XV, 3. From _yollotl_, heart, soul, courage, etc.


Oc, II, 2. Yet, besides this.
Ocelocoatl, III, 4. "Tiger snake."
Ocoyoalle, VIII, 2. "The night pine." Apparently a proper name.
Ocutitlana, XI, 2. "Among the pine woods."
Oholopa, II, 3. Poetic compound of _ololoa_, to cover, to dress, and
         _oppa_, twice.
Ollama, XIV, 9. To play at ball; from _olli_, a ball.
Olya, XVIII, 1. A form from _ololoa_, to cover or clothe oneself.
Omei, XIII, 5. For _ome_, two; the Gloss reads _matlactli ome_, twelve.
On, I, 1, _et sæpe_. A particle, merely euphonic, or signifying action
    at a distance.
Onca, _sæpe_. There.
Onoalico, XI, 1. Proper name, derived from _onoua_, the impersonal form
          of _onoc_, and meaning "a peopled place," a thickly inhabited
          spot. The terminal, _co_, is the postposition, at.
Opuchi, XVIII, 6. "Left-handed;" by the Gloss = _tiacauh_, brave,
Oquixanimanico, X, 1. A form in the second person plural, compounded of
                _quiça_ and _mani_, "coming forth, scatter yourselves
Otlacatqui, XIV, 3, 4. _Ilacati_, to be born.
Otli, VIII, 5. Path, road.
Ouayyeo, I, 2. An interjection.
Oya, _sæpe_. 1. An interjection. 2. Preterit of _yauh_, to go.
Oyatonac, II, 6, 7. For _otonac_, from _tona_, to shine.
Oztomecatl, XIV, 11. A merchant.


Petlacalco, XX, 4. From _petlatl_, mat, _calli_, house, and _co_,
Peua, VI, 3. To begin.
Picha-huazteca, I, 2. Proper name, "The frozen Huastecs," perhaps those
                living on the high Sierra, who were the nearest to the
Pillachiualoyan, XIV, 4. Locative from _pilli-chiua_, to engender
Piltzintecutli, IX, 2; XIV, 9. Lord of the youths or children,
Pipiteca, I, 6. Those having charge of the spies, from _pipia_, to spy.
Pipitla, XX, 2. Reduplicated locative from _pilli_, a child.
Pinauhtia, VI, 1. To make ashamed.
Pinauia, II, 1; III, 3, 4. To affront, to put to shame; to censure, to
Poliuiz, XV, 3. From _poloa_, to destroy.
Pomaya, I, 2; XI, 1. Apparently for _panauia_, to conquer.
Potocaya, XIII, 6, 7. _Potli_, companion.
Potonia, IV, 7; XIV, 10. To be liberal, to give equally or freely; to
         adorn with feathers.
Poyauhtla, III, 6. Among the fogs, from _poctli_, smoke, fog, mist;
           _atl_, water.
Pupuxotiuh, I, 3. A gerundive form from _popoxoa_, to till, to work the
            soil; here used figuratively.


Quacuillo, III, 4; XX, 3. From _qua_, to eat.
Quatonalla, XVIII, 1. "Head bright," the helmet on the head.
Quaui, XIII, 1. A shortened form of _quauiuitl_, in the same verse;
       compound of _quauhtli_, eagle, _iuitl_, feather; a decoration
       explained in the Gloss, usually called the _quauhtzontli_, eagle
Quauinochitla, XI, 2. "Among the tuna trees."
Quauiquemitl, II, 2. From _quauhtli_, eagle, _quemitl_, clothing, garb.
Quechol, XIV, 5, 7. A bird.
Quentia, XV, 1. To dress oneself.
Quetl, II, 2. Poetic for _quetza_, to rise, to come out of or from. See
       Gloss to III, 7.
Quetza, XIV, 6. To arise from.
Quetzalaueuetl, XV, 2. Of _quetzal_, beautiful, and _aueuetl_, the water
                cypress, fig. chief, lord.
Quetzalcalla, III, 9. "The house of the quetzal," beautiful as the
              quetzal bird. Explained in the Gloss to be the Place of
Quetzalcoatli, XI, 3; XIV, 6. Proper name.
Quetzalcocox, VII, 6; VIII, 7. The pheasant.
Queyamica, III, 8. For _quenamican_, how there?
Queyanoca, I, 1. According to the Gloss, equivalent to _onoca_, from
Quiauiteteu, VIII, 6. Rain gods; _quiauitl_, rain; _teteu_, plural of
             _teotl_, god.
Quilaztla, XIII, 1. For Quilaztli, another name of Cihuacoatl.
Quilazteutl, XVIII, 2. _See_ _Quilaztla_.
Quinexaqui, VII, 1. Explained by the Gloss by _oniualleuac_, I came
            quickly (_eua_, in composition, signifies precipitation).
            Hence it is a form from _yauh_, _yaqui_.
Quiyauatla, VI, 6. Poetic for _quiauitl_, rain.


Tamoanchan, IV, 1, etc. "We seek our home," a name applied to the
            Earthly Paradise. See p. 29.
Teacuitlaquemitl, XV, 1. Golden garb.
Teca, III, 6. To spread out, especially of liquids.
Tecpanteutl, XVII, 3, 4. "Palace god."
Teicnellili, VI, 5. A benefit, an advantage.
Teizcaltequetl, III, 9. That which gives wisdom and life. "Teizcali,
                cosa que da doctrina, y aviva, y da entendimiento"
Telipuchtla, II, 3, 4, 5. For _telpochtli_, a youth.
Temacouia, VI, 4. From _temaca_, to give, to deliver into the hands of.
Temoquetl, III, 8. From _temoa_, to seek, _quiza_, to go forth.
Tenamitl, I, 3. The wall of a city; hence, a town or city.
Tepanecatl, XI, 3. "Dweller in the palace." A proper name.
Tepanquizqui, I, 3. A substitute, one who represents another.
Tepetitlan, V, 2. "Among the mountains."
Tepeuh, XX, 3, 4. From _peua_, to begin.
Tepeyocpa, XV, 4. From _tepetl_, _pan_.
Tequiua, II, 1; V, 2, From _tequiutl_, task, labor, but explained by the
         Gloss as equivalent to _tepeua_, to overthrow, to conquer.
Tetemoya, II, 6, 7. Frequentative from _temo_, to descend, to come down,
Tetoma, XVIII, 5. From _toma_, to open, to send forth, to let loose.
Tezauhpilla, III, 8. "Master of fear."
Tetzauiztli, I, 2. An object which causes fear. A name of
             Huitzilopochtli. See Tezozomoc, _Cronica Mexicana_, cap.
Teuaqui, II, 6, 7. From _teotl_, god, _aqui_, to enter, to penetrate.
Teucontlipaca, IV, 5. Explained by the Gloss as _teucumitl icpac_, upon
               the thorn bush _teocumitl_, espina grande, Molina). But I
               should think it to be a compound of _teotl_, _conetl_,
               _icpac_, "upon the son of the goddess." The son of
               Teteunan was especially Centeotl, god of maize.
Teueuel, V, 2. Poetic from _ueue_, the ancients, the elders.
Teumechaue, IV, 1, 2, 3, 4; VIII, 2; XIX, 2. Perhaps from
            _teo-ome-chayaue_, "the twice divine seed-thrower," or
            _teometl-chayaue_, the planter of the divine maguey.
Teumilco, XIII, 2. From _teotl_, _milli_, _co_, "in the divine
          cornfield," fig. reference to the battlefield.
Teutiualcoya, III, 2. The Gloss reads _teuitualcoya_, from _teotl_, god,
              _ittualo_, passive of _itta_, to see.
Teu-tlaneuiloc, III, 1. Explained by the Gloss as equivalent to
                _onetlanauiloc_, an impersonal, passive, preterit, from
                _naua_, "it was danced." The peculiar sacred dance
                called _tlanaua_, performed by young girls, is described
                by Sahagun, Lib. II, cap. 24.
Teutlalipan, IV, 8. In the divine earth.
Teyomi, VII, 1. From _teyo_, esteemed, honored.
Tezcatlipuca, XIX, 2. Proper name of a divinity.
Tezcatzintli, XIX, 5. Proper name from _tezcatl_, mirror.
Tezcatzonco, XVII, 3; XIX, 4. Apparently the name of a part of the
Tianquiz, XIV, 6. The market place.
Tiçatl, IV, 7. Chalk; fig., model, pattern.
Timalla, XVIII, 4. Form of _timalloa_, to swell, to increase; fig., to
         rejoice, to glorify oneself.
Tlacaluaz, XIV, 7. For _tlacaluaztli_, a blow-pipe.
Tlacati, XV, 3, 4. For _tlacatl_.
Tlacatl, II, 1; XIII, 7. Mortal, creature, person.
Tlaçaz, XIX, 4. From _tlaça_, to overturn.
Tlachco, XIV, 10. The place of the ball play.
Tlachinaya, XIV, 5. From _tlachia_, to see.
Tlachtli, VII, 6. The ball.
Tlacochcalco, II, 1; X, 1. From _tlacochtli_, arrow, or generally,
              weapon, _calli_, house, _co_, post-position, in "the hall
              of weapons," or arsenal. It was a room in that part of the
              temple dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, and was filled with
              arrows, spears, etc. Sahagun, Lib. VIII, cap. 32.
Tlaçolteutla, XIV, 2. Name of a Mexican goddess.
Tlacoyoalle, XIV, 1. At midnight.
Tlacyaniuitza, IX, 1. Probably for _tlayauani ni-huitz_, I come dancing,
               as a dancer.
Tlaixtotoca, X, 3. _Ixtotoca_, to search for.
Tlalli, XIV, 10. To place oneself; earth, ground.
Tlalocan, III, 5; XVI, 1. The home of Tlaloc. See p. 25.
Tlaloc tlamacazque, VIII, 3, 4, 6. "Dispensers of the benefits of
                    Tlaloc"; the name applied to the priests of this
Tlalpa, XIV, 6. From _tlalli_, earth, and _pan_.
Tlaltecutli, IV, 6. _Tlalli_, _tecutli_; lord of the earth or land.
Tlamacazecatlo, XIX, 2. For _tlamacaztecatl_, one concerned with the
                priestly office.
Tlamocoyoualca, XIX, 1, 2. Apparently from _tlamaca_, to serve.
Tlani, XIV, 7. Below; _i-tlani_, below it.
Tlanuati, VIII, 3, 4. To send.
Tlapani, XVIII, 2. To break.
Tlapitza, XIV, 7. A flute.
Tlapoalli, III, 9. To number, to reckon.
Tlapomaya, _see_ _Pomaya_.
Tlaquaua, XV, 3, 4. To make strong, or hard.
Tlatia, XV, 1. 1. To hide oneself. 2. To burn oneself.
Tlatoa, XIV, 7, 11. To sing, to chant, to speak.
Tlatol, III, 8. For _tlatolli_, speech, discourses, prayers.
Tlatonazqui, XIV, 5. From _tona_, to shine.
Tlauana, XV, 1. To drink wine (_octli_),
Tlauia, XV, 1. To appear red or shining.
Tlauizcalle, XIV, 5; XIX, 2. Master of the house of the dawn. The
             terminal _ê_ signifies an active possessive.
Tlayauican, IX, 1. The dancing-place; from _tlayaua_, to dance in a
            certain manner.
Tlaxotecatl teuhtla, I, 4. _See_ Tlaxotla.
Tlaxotla, I, 3. Passive form from _tlaça_, to hurl, to throw.
          Huitzilopochtli was specifically "the hurler." _See_ Notes to
          Hymn I.
Toçiquemitl, I, 1. From _to-citli-quemitl_, vestment of our ancestress.
Tocniuaya, VIII, 1. _To-icniuh_, our friend.
Tocuilitla, II, 7. _See_ Tocuilechcatl.
Toçiuitica, XIV, 10. From _to-citli-yuitl_, with adverbial ending; "in
            the feather garb of our ancestors."
Tocuilechcatl, II, 2. _To_, our, _cuilia_, to paint, adorn; "our
To-naca, XIII, 2. "Our flesh."
Tonanaya, XIII, 5. Reduplicated for _tonaya_, to shine forth.
Tonaqui, I, 1. A form from _tona_, to shine.
Tonana, IV, 1. "Our mother;" _nantli_.
Topaniaz, IX, 2. The Gloss reads more correctly, _no umpa niaz_, "also
          there I shall go."
Totoch, X, 1; XVII, title. _Tochtli_, a rabbit; the name of a god of
        wine; also, of a day of the week.
Toyauan, I, 5, 6. _To-yauan_, our enemies. (_See_ Olmos. _Gram._, p.
Tozquiuaua, XIX, 5. From _tozquitl_, voice.
Tzioac, XIII, 5. For _tzioactli_, a sacred tree; here apparently fig.
        for a sacred person.
Tzioactitlan, VII, 2. "In the tzihuac bushes;" the tzihuac was a kind of
              maguey of a sacred character. _See_ my _Ancient Nahuatl
              Poetry_, p. 140.
Tziuaquimiuh, VII, 3. "My havresac made of tzihuac fibres."
Tzocotzontla, XX, 1. From _tzocoton_, little, _tzontli_, hair.
Tzonimolco, VI, 1. "Where the hair spreads abroad." The name of the hall
            sacred to the god of fire in the temple. The expression
            refers figuratively to the flames blazing upwards like hair
            from a head.
Tzotzonia, XIX, 5. To play on an instrument.


Ualitla, XV, 4. Comp. of _uallauh_ and _itla_.
Uallaçic, VIII, 5. From _uallauh_, to come, and _acic_, which adds the
          sense of approaching near.
Ualmeua, XII, 3. To cry lustily.
Ueca, X, 1. Far.
Uel, or Huel, adv., I, 4. Well.
Uelmatia, III, 4. To appear well, to be well.
Ueponi, VII, 1. _Uepollotl_, kin, relations.
Uexcaitoa, II, 1. To offer harm, to curse.
Uicacapa, IV, 7. Towards, to.
Uitzalochpan, XIII, 1. Compound of _huitz_, to come, and _tlaloa_, to
Uitzetla, II, 2. For _uitzlan_, in at the south, or the place of thorns.
Uitznauac, II, 4. For Huitznauac. _See_ Notes to Hymn II.
Uitztla, XIII, 3. According to the Gloss to v. 4, this is a poetic form
         for _uictli_, a hoe, the native agricultural implement.


Xamontoca, IV, 7. _Xi-am-on-itta_, from _itta_, to look, to see. Compare
           the Gloss.
Xatenonotza, VI, 6. For _xi-tenonotza_, call ye upon, pray ye to.
Xayaualli, XIII, 8. From _xayaua_, to adorn oneself in the ancient
Xeliui, XVIII, 4. To split, to divide.
Ximocaya, III, 9. Rendered by the Gloss as equivalent to _ximoayan_, the
          Paradise of Souls; _see_ my _Ancient Nahuatl Poetry_, p. 132.
Ximiçotica, XVI, 1, 2. From _iça_, to wake up, awake.
Xiuh, IV, 8. Green; grass.
Xiuacalco, III, 5. From _xiuh_, _calli_, _co_, in the green house; the
           Gloss explains it by _acxoyacalco_, "in the house of the wild
           laurel," or decorated with wild laurel, a plant probably
           sacred to Tlaloc.
Xiuicoatl, XV, 2. Grass snake, or green snake. From _xiuitl_, _coatl_.
Xiyanouia, III, 6. Imperative from _yauh_, to go.
Xochinquauitl, XIV, 7. The flower-tree.
Xochiquetzal, XIV, 11. Proper name of a deity.
Xochitla, IV, 1, etc. Flowers, place of, or abundance of. From
Xochitlicacan, XIV, 3, 5. The place of flowers.
Xoconoctli, XIX, 5. From _xocotl_, fruit, apple.
Xocoyeua, XIX, 5. From _xococtl_, fruit.
Xolotl, XIV, 9. A servant, a page.
Xoyauia, IX, 2. From _xoyaui_, to begrime, to spoil; _xoyauian_, the
         place of blackness, or of decay.
Xoxolcuicatl, VI, 5. From _xolotl_, servant, page, and _cuicatl_, song.


Abundance, the fabled house of,
Amantlan; a quarter of the city of Tenochtitlan,
Amimitl, the god:
  hymn to,
  his functions,
Ancient god, the, a name of the god of fire,
"Ancient Nahuatl Poetry," quoted,
  the house of,
  god of,
Artists, the goddess of,
Atlaua, the god:
  hymn to,
  signification of,
Auroras, the four,
Ayopechtli _or_ Ayopechcatl, a goddess:
  hymn to,
  functions of,
  Mythology, Paradise of,
  nation, wars of,

Ball, the game of,
Bibliotheca Laurentio-Mediceana,
Bread and water, fasting on,
Bustamente, his edition of Sahagun's _Historia_,

Cardinal points as symbols,
Chalchiucihuatl, a name of the goddess Chicomecoatl,
Chalmecatl, name of a deity,
Chichimecs, an ancient tribe,
Chicomecoatl, the goddess:
  hymn to,
  functions of,
  her names,
Chicomolotl, a name of the goddess Chicomecoatl,
Chicomoztoc, the "seven caves,"
Childbirth, goddess of,
Chimalman, the goddess of,
Chimalipan, the virgin-mother,
Cholula or Chollolan, a place name,
Cihuacoatl, the goddess:
  hymn to,
  functions of,
Cinteotl or Centeotl, the god,
  his birthplace,
  his functions,
Cipactonalli, a fabled personage,
Clavigero, quoted,
Coatepec, the sacred serpent mountain,
Codex Ramirèz, the,
Codex Telleriano-Remensis, the,
Codex Vaticanus, the,
  first King of,
  derivation of,
  reference to,
Colors, symbolism of,
Cuauhtitlan, the Annals of,
Cuezaltzin, a name of the god of fire,

  the jar,
  of the "four auroras,"
Death-song, a,
Drum, use of the,
Drum-beating, goddess of,
Drunkenness, deities of,
Duran, Diego, quoted,

Eagle's crest, as ornament,
  goddess of the,
  heart of the,
Eight, as a sacred number,
Emerald, the Lady of the,

  as ornaments,
  symbol of the spirit,
Fertility, genius of,
Fire, the Mexican god of,
Fire-stick, the,
Fish-spear, god of the,
"Five flowers," the, a plant,
Flames, the Hall of,
  the god of,
  plumage of,
  as symbols,
Food, the goddess of,
Four, as sacred number,

  mother of the,
  home of the,
Green corn, goddess of,
Guadalupe, Our Lady of,

Hair, as a symbol of flames,
Heads, serpent of seven,
Hearts of victims torn out,
Hieroglyphic books, native,
Huasteca, a tribe,
Huehueteotl, a name of the god of fire,
  hymn to,
  his functions,
  description of his idol,
  festival of,
  temple of,
  mother of,
  war song of,
  brother of Huitzilopochtli,
Hurler, the; epithet applied to Huitzilopochtli,

Ichpochtli, the virgin goddess,
Illustrations, colored,
Inquisition, action on Sahagun's Historia,
Intoxicating drink, the gods of,
Itzpapalotl, a goddess,
Ixcoçauhqui, the god of fire, hymn to,

Jade, ornaments of, mentioned,
Jourdanet, Dr., his translation of Sahagun's _Historia_,

Kingsborough, Lord:
  his edition of Sahagun's _Historia_,
  his _Mexican Antiquities_,

Lightning, as a serpent,
Lying-in, goddesses of. _See_ Childbirth.

  name of a deity,
  hymn to,
Maguey, brought from Paradise,
  the god of,
  goddess of,
Maya tribes in Mexico,
Mazateca, a certain tribe or caste,
Merchants, the god of,
Mexicans, the,
Mexicans, poetry of,
Mexico, ancient,
Mimixcoa. _See_ Mixcoatl.
Mirror, the use of,
Mist, the house of,
Mixcoatl, the god:
  hymn of,
  his functions,
  hill of,
Mixcoatepec, mountain so called,
Mixteca   } : a nation,
Mixtecatl }
Mixtecapan, a locality,
Mother of the gods,
  "our mother,"
  the virgin,

Nahua, the, as tribal name,
Nahuatl language, the,
Naualpilli, "noble magician," a name of Tlaloc,
Night, the god of,
Nonoalco, a place name,

"Obsidian butterfly," a kind of ornament,
Olmos, quoted,
Opochtli, the god of netmakers,
Otomis, the tribe so-called,
  war song of,
Otontecutli, the god:
  hymn to,
  his functions,

Paradise, the terrestrial,
Paynal, the god,
Parturition, goddess of. _See_ Childbirth.
Picha-Huasteca, a tribe,
Pipitlan, a place name,
Pipiteca, a nomen gentile,
Poetry, ancient Mexican,
Pulque, the god of,

Quechol bird, the,
Quetzal bird, the,
  priests adopt his garb,
  as speaker,
  his companion,
  name of a goddess,
  related to Atlaua,

Rain, the god of,
Rain gods, the, the house of,
Reproduction, the goddess of,

Sacrifices, human,
Sahagun, Bernardino de:
  MS. of his _Historia_,
  his remarks on the chants,
  action of Inquisition on,
  the lightning,
  the serpent woman,
  serpent's blood,
  swallowing of,
  of seven heads,
Seven, as a sacred number,
Simeon, Remi, his notes to Sahagun's _Historia_,
Slaves, sacrifice of,
Soul, place in Aztec mythology,
South, the, as origin of deities,
Sun-god, the,

  its signification,
  the houses of,
Teatlahuiani, a name of the god of the pulque,
Temple of Tenochtitlan,
Tenochtitlan, ancient name of the city of Mexico, temple of,
Tepeyacac, temple at,
Tequechmecaniani, a name of the god of drunkenness,
Teteuinan, hymn of,
Tezcatlipoca, the god,
Tezcatzoncatl, god of the pulque,
  hymn to,
Thorns, diviners with,
Tlaloc, the god:
  song of,
  house of,
  functions of,
  figure of,
Tlalocan, the terrestrial Paradise,
  guide to,
Tlazolteotl, the love goddess,
Toçi, our mother, a goddess,
Toltecs, the fabulous nation of,
Torquemada, quoted,
Totec, the god:
  hymn to,
  a companion of Quetzalcoatl,
Totochtin, gods of intoxication,
Tochtli, the rabbit, as a god of drunkards,
Tonan _or_ Tonantzin, the goddess,
Travelers, the deity of,
Tulan, the site of,
Turquoises as ornaments,
Twins, the goddess of,
Tzatzitepec, the hill of proclamation,
Tziuactitlan, a place name,
Tzocatzontlan, a place name,

Uitznahuac. _See_ Huitznabruac.

Venus impudica, the Mexican,
Vitzilopochtli. _See_ Huitzilopochtli.

  the god of,
  goddess of,
Water cypress, the,
Waters, master of the,
Woman, sacrifice of,

Xilonen, goddess of green corn,
Xippe Totec, the god, hymn to,
Xiuhtecutli, a name of the god of fire,
Xochipilli, the god of flowers:
  hymn to,
  functions of,
Xochitlycacan, name of the earthly Paradise, its meaning,
Xochiquetzal, the goddess:
  hymn to,
  functions of,
  reference to,

Yacatecutli, god of travelers, hymn to,
Yoatzin, the god of night,
Youallauan, the nocturnal tippler, high priest of Totec,

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