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Title: The American Architect and Building News, Vol. 27, Jan-Mar, 1890
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Architect and Building News, Vol. 27, Jan-Mar, 1890" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


        VOL XXVII



S. J. PARKHILL & CO. Printers
Boston Mass.




Abattoirs, 128

Aberbrothwick. The Abbey of, 13

Aboriginal Races of America. The, 151

  Fall of a Hotel in Sydney, N.S.W., 184
   "   "  " Scaffold, 104
   "   "  St. Louis Academy of Music, 66
   "   "  the Roof of the Flora Hall, Hamburg, 196

Agreement between Architect and Client, 30

Albany Capitol. Defective Gutters on the, 97

Aluminium from Bauxite, 194

Alva. Statue of the Duke of, 74

America. The Aboriginal Races of, 151

_American Architect_ Travelling-Scholarship Design for a New White
    House. The, 158

American Bricks, 77

A.I.A. Convention. The, 79
  "    Illinois Chapter of, 182
  "    Philadelphia Chapter, 46
  "    St. Louis Chapter, 206
  "    Washington Chapter, 43

Amsterdam. High-level Bridge for, 47

Ancient Architecture, 19, 35, 51

André, Architect. Death of Jules, 145 " The Career of M. Jules, 162

"Angelus." Millet's, 12

Apartment-house. The, 3

  Burial Mounds, 99, 151
  Cleopatra's Tomb, 141
  Delphi. The Proposed Excavations at, 65
  Dighton Rock. The, 93
  Hissarlik Controversy. The, 144
  History of Habitation. The, 149, 168
  Locrian Town. The Site of a, 16
  Maya. Temples of Ancient, 204
  Mesopotamia. Explorations in, 160
  Obelisk. Protecting the New York, 178, 207
  Persian Court Art, 16
  Rome. Discovery of an Ancient Viaduct in, 80
  St. Emilion. The Monolithic Church of, 16
  Scandinavia. Discoveries in, 63
  Uxmal, 204
  Vikings. The Art of the, 37, 53
  Yucatan. Ancient Temples in, 204
     "     Exploring Expedition. A New, 112
     "     Ruins and Works of Art in, 58

Arches. Concrete, 1

  New York State. The, 206

  Annoyances of. The, 194
  Chimney-flues and, 146
  Dismissal of. The Right of, 158
  Examinations and Diplomas, 162
  in Canada. The Registration of, 183
   " Spanish America, 18
  Incomes of. The, 1, 47, 127
  Libel-suit Between. A, 206
  New South Wales Institute of. Quarrel in the, 183
  of Mons Cathedral. The, 114
  Office. A Chicago, 50
  Ontario Association of, 41
  Philadelphia Master-Builders and the, 161
  Reputation of. The Influence of Architectural Journals on the, 17
  Responsibility of. The, 2, 130
  Stray Thoughts for Young, 90
  Suit against a Railroad. An, 194

  Club. Boston, 95
  Drawings at the League Exhibition, 40, 57, 143
      "    Philadelphia Exhibitions of, 107, 146
  Education at Munich, 181
      "     in France, 162
  Exhibition at the Pennsylvania Academy, 107
  Journals on the Reputation of Architects. The Influence of, 17
  League Exhibition. The, 40, 57, 143
  Prints. Arranging, 207
  Shades and Shadows, 56
  Styles. Changes of, 108
  Water-color Drawings, 107

  Ancient, 19, 35, 51
  at Evanston, Ill., 118
  Civil and Domestic, 19, 35, 51, 67, 83
  Decoration and, 6
  Funerary, 99, 115, 131, 147, 163
  History of. The, 150
  in Baltimore, 187
   " Brooklyn, 5
  of the Brooklyn Institute. Department of, 206
  Military, 179, 195
  Sculpture and, 7
  Spanish. Sir Frederick Leighton on a Device of, 146
  Study of. The, 6

Army Engineer and our Public Buildings. The, 143

Arranging Architectural Prints, 207

Art Museum. The Cost of a Small, 23
 "  of the Vikings. The, 37, 53
 "  The Tariff on Works of, 18

Artificial-ice Skating-rink. An, 145

Artists. Quarrel among French, 80

Asphalt Paving, 82

Assyrian Architecture, 20
   "     Fortifications, 179
   "     Tombs, 116, 144

Australia. Engineering Triumphs in, 106
    "      Letters from, 106, 183
    "      Roman Catholic Buildings in, 107

Automatic Sprinklers in Mills, 177

  Architecture in, 187
  Building-permits in, 97
  Letters from, 187
  Pennsylvania Steel Company's Works near. The, 188
  Railway. The proposed "Belt Line," 188

Balveny Castle, Scotland, 61

Barye Exhibition. The, 10

Barye's English Admirer, 15

Bauxite. Aluminium from, 194

Belgian Prizes and Honors, 34

Belle Isle Dam. The Straits of, 48

Belt Line Railway for Baltimore. A, 188

Berlin Industrial Museum Exhibition, 174
  "    Technical College. The, 140

Beryt or Fluid Marble, 160

Bids. The Right of Revising, 194

"Black-lining"? What is, 65

Books on School-houses, 207

Borrowing Suburban Fire-Engines, 18, 146

  Architectural Club, 95
  Building Laws. The, 109
  Fires. Water Used in, 79
  Letter from, 190
  Lock-out in the Freestone-Cutting Trade, 161, 177
  Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. Annual Report of, 177
  Museum of Fine Arts. The, 175, 190
  Society of Architects, 14
  Walking-delegate's Power. A, 193

Botticher _vs._ Dr. Schliemann. Dr., 144

Bourse du Commerce, Paris. The New, 185

Brentano, Architect. Death of Signor, 130

Brick. Cheap Unbaked Colored, 176

Bricks. American, 77

Bridge at London. The Tower, 192
   "   for Amsterdam. High-level, 47
   "   Testing the Forth, 160
   "   The Hawkesbury Railway, 106

Bridges in China. Ancient, 96

British Museum. Electric-Light at the, 104

Brooklyn. Architecture in, 5
   "      Institute. Department of Architecture of the, 206

Bronze Gates for Cologne Cathedral, 135

Brunswick Monument at Geneva. The, 18

Buenos Ayres, 18

Builders. Convention of National Association of Master, 34, 81

  Committee. A Competitor's Suit against a, 104
  Contracts. German, 82
  Laws. The Boston, 109
  Permits in Baltimore, 97
  Safe, 121, 135, 197
  Stones. Decay of, 98
  Swedish Penalties for Bad, 72
  Syndicate. Proposed, 81
  Trades. Troubles in the, 193

Bull-fights in Paris, 130

Bull-ring for Paris. Proposed, 50

Bureau of Ethnology's Fifth Annual Report. The, 151

Burial-mounds, 99, 151

Building and the Underwriters. Safe, 49, 97

Burmese Temples. Jewels in, 58

Burnham & Root's Office, 50

Byzantine Architecture, 52

Canada. Letters from, 41, 104, 182
   "    Proposed Public Buildings in, 104
   "    The History of Education in, 183
   "    The Registration of Architects in, 183

Cast-iron and its Treatment for Artistic Purposes, 201
    "     Pavements, 192

Castle Campbell, Scotland, 127
  "    of St. Angelo, Rome. The, 208
  "    "  Vincigliata, Italy. The, 62

Casts at the Boston Art Museum, 190

Catacombs, 147

Cathedral. Bronze Gates for Cologne, 135
    "      Drawings at the League Exhibition, 30, 62
    "      of Mons. The, 114
    "      "  St. Machar. The, 27
    "      Strasbourg, 153
    "      The Completion of Milan, 130
    "      Towers, 92, 102

Cathedrals. Clearing away Buildings around, 162

Cats. Egyptian Mummy, 208

Cawdor Castle, Scotland, 110

Celtic Tumuli, 99

Cement. Palming off Poor, 113

Cemented Surfaces. Painting on, 146

Cemeteries. Mediæval, 164

Cemetery Vaults, 47

Centennial Hall, Sydney, N.S.W., 184

Charges. A Question of, 207

  Letters from, 118, 182
  Suburban Building in. Rapid Transit and, 182
  World's Fair. The, 177, 182

Chimney. A Tall, 16
   "     flues. Architects and, 146

China. Ancient Bridges in, 96

Chinese Architecture, 19

Christians. The Primitive, 147

Church-restoring by Lottery, 128
  "    Towers, 91, 92, 102

Churches. The Picturesque Lighting of, 146

Cippi, 134

Circular Annoyance. The, 194

"City of the Gods," Mexico. The, 172

Civil and Domestic Architecture, 19, 35, 51, 67, 83

Clark, Architect. Death of George, 63

Cleopatra's Tomb, 141

Clerk-of-works Question. The, 79, 111, 159

Cohesive Construction, 123

Cologne Cathedral. Bronze Gates for, 135
   "        "      Clearing away Buildings around, 162

Color Changes in New York Buildings, 108

Colored Brick. Cheap unbaked, 176

Columbaria, 134

Columns. Ventilating Wooden, 31

Commission on a Standing Party-wall, 142

Commissioner of the Albany Capital The, 206

Commissions. The Question of, 31, 159

Compensation. A Question of, 207

  Drawings, 40, 62, 65
  Grant Monument. The, 145
  Hartford Railroad Station. The, 194
  Montreal Insane Asylum, 104
  New York Episcopal Cathedral, 40, 62
  Quebec City-hall. The, 63
  Sheffield Municipal Buildings. The, 33

Competitor's Suit against a Building-committee. A, 104

Composite Metal. A New, 93

Concentrated Residence in various Countries, 88, 119

Concrete Arches, 1

"Concrete." Laying a Foundation of Dry, 113

Concrete. Wrong Methods of Mixing, 114

Condé. Fremiet's Figure of, 76

Congressional Palace. The Mexican, 96

Construction. Cohesive, 123
      "       German, 155
      "       Improvements in Mill, 177
      "       Slow-burning, 29, 97

Contract. The Lowell City-hall, 194
    "      "  "Standard Form" of, 81
    "     taking Labor Syndicates, 194

Contracting Syndicate. Proposed, 81

Contractors. Great, 95

Contractor's Profit-sharing. A, 2, 43

Contracts. German Building, 82
    "      Importance of Written, 65

Convention of National Association of Master-Builders, 34, 81

Copan in Yucatan. The Ruins of, 59

Copper-rolling. Remarkable, 80

Corrections, 79

Cotman. John Sell, 174

Count and his Machine. A Mysterious, 112

County Council. The London, 104

Coverings for Steam-pipes, 22, 157

Craigievar Castle, Scotland, 189

Dalmeny Church, Scotland, 189

Dam. The Straits of Belle Isle, 48

Dangers of Electricity. The, 15, 27

Dead. The Disposition of the, 24

Deaths from Electricity, 15, 27

Decay of Building Stones. The, 98

Decoration and Architecture, 6

Decorative Paintings in the new Bourse du Commerce, Paris. The, 185

Delphi. The Proposed Excavations at, 65

Dessication of the Dead, 25

Dighton Rock. The, 93

Directory. A Lamp-post, 98

Dismissal of an Architect. The Right of, 158

Divining-rod. The, 15

Domes. Spires, Towers and, 91, 101

Domestic Architecture. Civil and, 19, 35, 51, 67, 83

Doors. Fire, 156

Drawing Instruments. A Yale Professor's Trouble through Prescribing,

Drawings at Architectural League Exhibition, 40, 57, 143
   "     "  Philadelphia. Exhibition of Architectural, 107, 146
   "     "Black-lining" Competition, 65

Durand, Architect. Death of George F., 1

Duty on Window-glass. The, 31

Earnings of Architects. The, 1

East River Tunnel. The Proposed, 178

Education in Canada. The History of, 183

Effigies. Funeral, 164

Egyptian Architecture, 20
   "     Fortifications. Ancient, 179
   "     Tombs, 99, 115

Eight-hour Movement. The, 1, 93, 194

  Light at the British Museum, 104
  Lights and Motors, 79
  Railways, 64, 111, 128
  Reading light for Railways, 50
  Welding, 176
  Wire. The Queen of Greece and an, 128

Electrical Terms, 44

Electricity and Insurance, 79
     "      The Dangers of, 15, 27

Elevator in Stockholm. An American, 111

Emperor Frederick. A Statue of the, 208

Engine. A new Style of Railway, 82

Engineer and our Public Buildings. The Army, 143

  Bridge. A complete Account of the Forth, 177
     "    for Amsterdam. High-level, 47
     "    London's Tower, 192
     "    Testing the Forth, 160
     "    The Hawkesbury Railway, 106
     "    in China. Ancient, 96
  Dam. The Straits of Belle Isle, 48
  Docks at Vizagapatam. Mud, 63
  Electric Railways, 64, 111
  Elevator in Stockholm. American, 111
  Railroad. A Pneumatic Street, 95
     "      for Baltimore. A Proposed Belt-line, 188
  Tower for the Exhibition of 1892. High, 177
    "   The Watkin, 16, 105
  Tunnel. The East River, 178
     "     "  St. Clair River, 128
     "     "  Washington Aqueduct, 103
  Water-power. A Remarkable, 47

"Entombment" in Mexico. A Titian, 60

Entombment. Sanitary, 24

Episcopal Cathedral, New York, Competition, 40, 62

Equestrian Monuments, 72, 170

Estimates. Builders' and Sub-Contractors', 161

Ethnology's Fifth Annual Report. The Bureau of, 151

Etruscan Architecture, 36
   "     Tombs, 131

Evanston, Ill. Architecture at, 118

Evaporation of Water in Traps, 15

Examinations and Diplomas. Architects', 162

  Architectural League. The, 40, 57, 143
  Boston Architectural Club, 95
  of 1892. The Chicago, 177

  of Architectural Drawings at Philadelphia, 107, 146

  Algerian Pavilion at the, 105
  Buildings of the, 21, 105
  Cairo Street at the, 105
  Cochin-Chinese Pavilion at the, 106
  Colonial Sections at the, 105
  Double Statue at the, 32
  Forestry Pavilion at the, 105
  History of Habitation at the, 149, 168
  Indian Pavilion at the, 105
  Palaces of Liberal and Fine Arts, 21
  Pavilions at the. The City of Paris, 21
  Portuguese Pavilion at the, 105
  Sanitary Exhibits at the, 21
  Spanish Pavilion at the, 105
  Tunisian Pavilion at the, 106
  Views of Old Paris at the, 21

Fall of a Hotel in Sydney, N.S.W., 184
  "  "  St. Louis Academy of Music, 66
  "  "  the Roof of the Flora Hall, Hamburg, 196

Ferstel. Baron, 66

Feudal Military Architecture, 195

Fifteenth Century "Working-day." A, 155

  Apparatus, 29
  Backs, 201, 203
  Destruction of Toronto University by, 182
  Doors, 156
  Engines. Borrowing Suburban, 18, 146
  in Secretary Tracy's House. The, 186
  Loss. Reducing the, 28

Fireplace Throat. The Open, 159

Fireproof Floor. The Schneider, 158
    "     Whitewash, 208

  in American Cities, 97
  "  Mills. Extinguishing, 177
  Water Used in Boston, 79

"Flats," 3

Flues. Floor-beams and, 146

Floor. Beams and Flues, 146
  "    The Schneider Fireproof, 158

Font in St. Peter Mancroft, 62

Forth Bridge Issue of "_Engineering_," 177
  "     "    Testing the, 160

Fortifications. Ancient Egyptian, 179
      "         Assyrian, 179
      "         Greek, 179
      "         Modern, 195
      "         Roman, 180

Foundation of Dry "Concrete." A, 113

Foundations. A New Process of Preparing, 160

France. Architectural Education in, 162

Frederick the Great's Tomb, 144

Freestone-Cutters. Lock-out among Boston, 161, 177

Fremiet's Figure of Condé, 76

French Architects. Proposed Licensing of, 162
  "         "      The Responsibility of, 2

Frost on Stone. The Action of, 98

Funerary Architecture, 99, 115, 131, 147, 163

Gallic Architecture, 52

Garnier's History of Habitation, 149, 168

Gates for Cologne Cathedral. Bronze, 135

Geneva. The Brunswick Monument at, 16

German Building Contracts, 82
   "   Construction, 155

Glass. The Duty on Window, 31
   "   The Salviati Murano, 207
   "   Lined Tubes for Underground Wires, 160

Grant Monument Competition. The, 145

Gravity Transit, 178

Great Wall of China. The, 19

Greek Architecture, 35
  "   Fortifications, 179
  "   Mouldings, 139
  "   Tombs, 131

"Gods," Mexico. "The City of the," 172

Gustavus Adolphus. Statue of, 74

Gutters on the Albany Capitol. Defective, 97

Habitation. History of, 149, 168

Halls. The Sizes of Some Large, 184

Hand _vs._ Machine Work, 108

Hawkesbury Railway Bridge. The, 106

Hawthorn Tree of Cawdor. The, 110

Hay Fuel, 159

Heat. Loss of Power by Radiation of, 22, 157

Heating by Hot-water, 33

Hindoo Architecture, 19
  "    Tombs, 148

History of Habitation, 149, 168

Horse in Sculpture. The, 72, 170

Hot-water Heating, 33

Hotel. A Paper, 160
  "    at the Pyramids. A, 160

House of St. Simon, Angoulême, 61

Houses for Workingmen, 105

Hungary. Railway Zones in, 178

Hydraulic Power in London, 155
    "     Pressure. Rocks Upheaved by, 26

Hypogea, 115

Ice for Domestic Use, 34
 "  Skating-rink. An Artificial, 145
 "  The Power of, 118

Illinois Chapter A.I.A. The, 182

Incomes of Architects. The, 1, 47, 127

India-rubber Paving, 192

Industrial Museum. The Berlin, 174

Inspection of Buildings in New York, 31
     "     "  School-houses. State, 129

Insurance. A Question of, 18, 146
    "      and Electricity, 79
    "      and Safe Building, 49, 97
    "      Company. Annual Report of Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire, 177
    "      Companies and Building Construction. The, 49, 97

Interiors. Photographing, 96

International Edition. Our, 17, 18, 65

Iron and its Treatment for Artistic Purposes. Cast, 201

Japanese Collections at the Boston Art Museum. The, 192

Jewels in Burmese Temples, 58

Jewish Architecture, 20

Judean Tombs, 117

Keely, Architect. Death of Charles, 18

Kirby's Drawings. Mr. H. P., 107

Labor Syndicates. Contract-taking, 194
  "   Troubles, 130, 161, 177, 193

Lamp-post Directory. A, 98

Land Values in Milwaukee, 160

"Lantern of the Dead." The, 164

Laths. A Corner in, 192

Lead-pencils, 178

League Exhibition. The Architectural, 40, 57, 143

Leclère Prize. The Achille, 50

  Alterations and Old Material, 109
  Boston Building Laws. The, 109
  Commission on a Standing Party-wall, 142
  Compensation for Designs, 31
  Competitor's Suit against a Building-committee. A, 104
  Contracts. Importance of Written, 65
  Dismissal. Right of, 158
  Libel Suit between Architects. A, 206
  Lien Law. The New Rhode Island, 113
  Owner's Right to Build. An, 97
  Responsibility of Architects. The, 2, 130
  Suit against a Railroad. An Architect's, 194
  "Trolley" System. Decision against the, 128
  Understanding between Architect and Client, 159
  Van Beers Suits. The, 80

Leighton on a Device of Spanish Architecture. Sir Frederick, 146

  Australia, 106, 183
  Boston, 190
  Canada, 41, 104, 182
  Chicago, 118, 182
  London, 42, 104
  New York, 108
  Paris, 21, 105, 185
  Philadelphia, 197
  Washington, 43, 186

Libel-suit between Architects. A, 206

Licensing of Architects. The, 162

Lien Law. The New Rhode Island, 113

Light-house at Houstholm. The, 88

Lighting Effects. Picturesque Interior, 146

Lime in Architect's Specifications, 161

Lock-out among Boston Freestone-Cutters, 161, 177

Locomotive. A New Style of, 82

Locrian Town. The Site of a, 16

  British Museum. Electric-light at the, 104
  County Council. The, 104
  Houses for Workingmen, 105
  Hydraulic Power. The Distribution of, 155
  Letters from, 42, 104
  National Portrait Gallery. The New, 208
  Prize-men of the R.I.B.A., 104
  St. Saviour's, Southwark, 43
  Subways for. Proposed, 43
  Tower Bridge. The, 192
  Waterhouse's Annual Address before the R.I.B.A. Mr., 42
  Watkin Tower. The, 16, 105

Lottery. Church Restoring by, 128

Louis XIV. Equestrian Statues of, 170

Lowell City-hall Contracts. The, 194

Machine-work. Hand _vs._, 103

Magnesia Coverings for Steam-pipes, 23, 157

Manual Training-school Pupils, 96

Marble and Freestone Cutters, 161
   "   Beryt or Fluid, 160

Marcus Curtius. Statue of, 172

Massachusetts. State Inspection of School-houses in, 129

Master-builders' Attempt to Discipline Architects. The
    Philadelphia, 161

Mausoleums, 133

Maximilian at Innsbruck. Tomb of, 61

Maximilian I. Statue of, 76

Maya. Temples of Ancient, 204

McAlpine, Civil Engineer. Death of, W. J., 129

McArthur, Jr., Architect. Death of John, 33
   "       "   The Late John, 48

Mediæval Architecture, 52, 67
    "    Cemeteries, 164
    "    Tombs, 163

Mesopotamia. Explorations in, 160

Metal. A new Composite, 93

Mexican Congressional Palace. The Proposed, 96
   "    Pyramids, 172

Mexico. A Titian "Entombment" in, 60
  "     "The City of the Gods," 172

Milan Cathedral. The Completion of, 130

Military Architecture, 179, 195

Mill-construction. Improvements in, 177

Millet's "Angelus," 12

Milwaukee. Land Values in, 160

Missouri State Association of Architects, 46

Modern Fortifications, 195
  "    Tombs, 166

Monolithic Church of St. Emilion, 16

Mons. The Cathedral of, 114

Monument to the Emperor William. National, 32
   "     "  Prison-ship Martyrs, 128

Monuments. Equestrian, 72, 170
    "      Funerary, 99, 115, 131, 147, 163
    "      New York, 151

Mosaic. The Salviati, 208

Mouldings. Greek, 139

Mud-docks at Vizagapatam, 63

Mummy Cats. Egyptian, 208

Munich. The Royal Polytechnicum at, 181

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The, 175, 190
  "    The Cost of a small, 23

Mussulman Architecture, 52

Naples. Heavy Rains at, 95

National Portrait Gallery, London. The New, 208

Natural-gas Supply. The, 32

Neutral Axis. To Find the, 111

New South Wales Institute of Architects. Quarrel in the, 183

  Architectural League Exhibition, 40, 57, 143
  Architecture. Color in, 108
  Barye Exhibition. The, 10
  City-hall Park. The, 138
  East River Tunnel. The, 178
  Episcopal Cathedral Competition. The, 40, 62
  Inspection of Buildings in, 31
  Letters from, 108
  Monuments, 151
  Obelisk. The Protection of the, 178, 207
  Paintings at the Barye Exhibition, 11
  Tenement-houses, 89, 119

Newark Architectural Sketch-Club, 30

Northwestern University. The Buildings of the, 118

Nun. A Written Contract Necessary even when Dealing with a, 65

Oak-trees built into Chimney-walls, 146
    "     Warfare on, 10

Obelisk. Protection of the New York, 198, 207

  André. Jules, Architect, 145
  Brentano. Signor, Architect, 130
  Clark. George, Architect, 63
  Durand. George F., Architect, 1
  Keely. Charles, Architect, 18
  McAlpine. W. J., Civil Engineer, 129
  McArthur, Jr. John, Architect, 33
  Oudinot. Eugène, Glass-stainer, 81
  Roberts. E. L., Architect, 177
  Sidel. Edouard, Architect, 113
  Wells. Joseph M., Architect, 95

Office. A Chicago Architect's, 50

Ontario Association of Architects, 41

Open-fireplace Throat. The, 159

Oriental Textiles at Berlin, 175
   "     Tombs, 148

Oudinot, Glass-stainer. Death of Eugène, 81

Owner's Right to Build. An, 97

Paint for Underground Work. A Cheap, 146

Painting on Cemented Surfaces, 146

Paintings at the Barye Exhibition, 11
   "      "   "  Boston Art Museum, 191

Palace of San Giorgio, Genoa, 64

Paper Hotel. A, 160

Paraffine Process used on the Egyptian Obelisk. The, 178, 207

  Bourse du Commerce. The New, 185
  Bull-fights in, 130
  Bull-ring Proposed for. A, 50
  Halle au Blé. The, 185
  Lamp-post Directory. A, 98
  Letters from, 21, 105, 185
  Model School-house. A, 82
  Peabody Homes in, 56
  Plasterers, 94
  _Salons_. The Proposed two, 80
  Skating-rink. An Artificial Ice, 145

  Algerian Pavilion at the, 105
  Buildings of the, 21, 105
  Cairo Street at the, 105
  Cochin-Chinese Pavilion at the, 106
  Colonial Sections at the, 105
  Double Statue at the, 32
  Forestry Pavilion at the, 105
  History of Habitation at the, 149, 168
  Indian Pavilion at the, 105
  Palaces of Liberal and Fine Arts, 21
  Pavilions at the. The City of Paris, 21
  Portuguese Pavilion at the, 105
  Sanitary Exhibits at the, 21
  Spanish Pavilion at the, 105
  Tunisian Pavilion at the, 106
  Views of Old Paris at the, 21

Pavement. India-rubber, 192

Pavements. Cast-iron, 192

Paving. Asphalt, 82

Peabody Homes in Paris, 56

Pencils. Lead, 178

Persian Court Art, 16
   "    Tombs, 117

  Architectural Exhibition at the Art Club, 146
       "            "      at the Penn. Academy, 107
  Chapter, A.I.A., 46
  Letters from, 107
  Master-builders' Attempt to Discipline Architects. The, 161
  T-Square Club, 206

Phoenician Architecture, 20
    "      Tombs, 117

Photographing Interiors, 96

Pirating Sculpture, 160

Planning of School-buildings. The, 81

Plaster-of-Paris and Marshmallow, 48

Plasterers. Paris, 94

Plate-glass. Protecting, 8
     "       Works Convention. The, 176

Pneumatic Street Railroad. A, 95

Polytechnicum at Munich. The Royal, 181

Polytechnique. The Zurich, 154

Power in London. Hydraulic, 155
  "    Lost by Radiation of Heat, 22, 156

Prehistoric Ruins of Yucatan. The, 58

Prints. Arranging Architectural, 207

Prison-ship Martyrs' Monument. The, 128

Prize-winners. The R.I.B.A., 104

Profit-sharing. A Contractor's, 2, 43

Protecting Building Stone, 98

Public Buildings in Canada. Proposed, 104

Pueblo Indians and the Works of the Rio Grande Irrigation Co. The, 63

Pyramids, 100
   "      A Hotel at the, 160
   "      Mexican, 172

Quebec City-hall Competition. The, 63

Queen of Greece and an Electric-wire. The, 128

Radiation of Heat. Loss of Power by, 22, 156

Railroad. A Pneumatic Street, 95
    "     An Architect's Suit against a, 194

Railway Bridge. The Hawkesbury, 106
   "    Zones in Hungary, 178

Railways. Electric, 64, 111, 128

Rains at Naples. Heavy, 95

Rantzau. Statuette of Marshal, 76

Rapid Transit for Chicago, 182

Ravenna. The Early Christian Tombs at, 147

Reading-light for Railways. Electric, 50

Registration of Architects in Canada. The, 183

Renaissance Architecture, 69
     "      Tombs, 165

Report of Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. Annual, 177
  "    The Bureau of Ethnology's Fifth Annual, 151

Reputation of Architects. The Influence of Architectural Journals on
    the, 17

Residence in Various Countries. Concentrated, 88, 119

Responsibility of Architects. The, 2, 130

Revising Bids. The Right of, 194

Rhode Island Lien Law. The New, 113

Richardson, H. H., 145

Rio Janeiro. The Sewage of, 156

Roberts, Architect. Death of E. L., 177

Rock. The Dighton, 93

Rocks Upheaved by Hydraulic Pressure, 26

Roman Architecture, 36, 51
  "   Catholic Buildings in Australia, 107
  "   Fortifications, 180
  "   Tombs, 133

Romanesque Tombs, 163

  Castle of St. Angelo. The, 208
  Vandalism in, 79
  Vatican Museum. The, 208
  Viaduct in. Discovery of an Ancient, 80

Rotting. To Prevent Wood from, 146

Royal Institute of British Architects. Prize-winners, 104

Ruskin and His Work. John, 49

Safe Building, 121, 135, 197

St. Alban's Abbey. The Restoration of, 42
 "  Angelo, Rome. The Castle of, 208
 "  Clair River Tunnel. The, 128
 "  Emilion. The Monolithic Church of, 16
 "  Louis Academy of Music. Fall of, 66
 "    "   Chapter, A.I.A., 206
 "  Regulus Church. St. Andrews, 45
 "  Salvator's Church, St. Andrews, 46
 "  Saviour's, Southwark. The Restoration of, 43
 "  Sebald. Restoring the Church of, 128

_Salons_. The Proposed Two, 80

Salviati. Death of Dr., 208

Sandstone. The Structure of, 9

Sandy Foundations, 160

  Concentrated Residence in Various Countries, 88, 119
  Dessication of the Dead, 25
  Entombment, 24
  Exhibits at the Paris Exposition, 21
  Inspection of New York Buildings, 31
  Sewage of Rio Janeiro. The, 156
  Tenement-houses, 88, 119
  Ventilation of School-buildings, 82, 129

Sarcophagi, 163

Scaffold Accidents, 104

Scandinavian Art, 37, 53, 63

Schliemann _vs._ Dr. Botticher. Dr., 144

Schmiedbarenguss, 93

Schneider Fireproof Floor. The, 158

Scholar. Our Travelling. 153, 181

School-buildings. The Planning of, 81
  "    House at Evanston, Ill. A, 118
  "      "   The Model, 82
  "    Houses. Books on, 207
  "      "     The Ventilation of 82, 129

Sculpture and Architecture, 7
    "     Pirating, 160
    "     The Horse in, 72, 170

Sewage of Rio Janeiro. The, 156

Sgraffito-work, 154

Shades and Shadows. Architectural, 56

Sidel, Architect. Death of Edouard, 113

Skating-rink in Paris. An Artificial-Ice, 145

Slater Memorial Museum. The, 23

Slow-burning Construction, 29, 97

Soldiers' Home at Washington. The, 143

South America. Architects in, 18

Spanish Architecture. A Device of, 146

Specifications Should be _Specific_. Good, 161

"Spectator" on the Underwriters' Interest in Building. The, 49

Spires, Towers and Domes, 91, 101

Sprinklers in Mills. Automatic, 177

Stand-pipes and the Underwriters, 49

State Architect. The New York, 206

Statue Giving a Double Image, 32
  "    of the Emperor Frederick. A, 208

Steam-pipes and Woodwork, 48
     "      Coverings for, 22, 156

Steel Company's Works near Baltimore. The Pennsylvania, 188

Stelæ, 99, 115

Stevens, Sculptor. Alfred, 201, 203

Stockholm. An American Elevator in, 111

Stones. The Decay of Building, 98

Straightening Walls, 22

Strasbourg Cathedral, 153
    "      University, 154

Stray Thoughts for Young Architects, 90

Strikes and Lockouts. Threatened, 130

Styles. Changes of Architectural, 108

Subterranean Tombs, 115, 147

Suburban Building in Chicago, 132

Subways in London. Proposed, 43

Suspension-bridges. Chinese, 96

Swedish Penalties for Bad Building, 72

Syndicate. Proposed Contracting, 81

Syndicates. Contract-taking Labor, 191

Tapestries at Berlin. Exhibition of Textiles and, 174

Tariff on Works of Art. The, 18

Taxation of Roman Catholic Property in Montreal. The Exemption
    from, 42

Technical College. The Berlin, 140

Temples of Ancient Maya, 204

Tenement-houses, 88, 119

Teotihuacan, Mexico, 172

Testing the Forth Bridge, 160

Textiles and Tapestries at Berlin. Exhibition of, 174

Thirty Year's War. The, 72

Thoughts for Young Architects. Stray, 90

Titian "Entombment" in Mexico. A, 60

Tobacco in England. The first Use of, 110

Tomb. Cleopatra's, 141
  "   Frederick the Great's, 144
  "   of Cecilia Metella, 134
  "   "  Maximilian at Innsbruck, 61

  Assyrian, 116
  Egyptian, 99, 115
  Etruscan, 131
  Greek, 131
  Hindoo, 148
  Judean, 117
  Mediæval, 163
  Modern, 166
  Oriental, 148
  Persian, 117
  Phoenician, 117
  Renaissance, 165
  Roman, 133
  Romanesque, 163
  Subterranean, 115, 147

  Architectural Sketch-Club, 142
  Burning of the University. The, 182
  Proposed Improvements in, 42

Tower for the Exhibition of 1892. High, 177
  "   The Watkin, 16, 105

Towers and Domes. Spires, 91, 101

Towns. The Laying-out of, 184

Tracy's House. The Fire in Secretary, 186

Trade Surveys, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176,
    192, 208

Trades-unions, 193

Training-school Pupils, 96

Traps. Evaporation of Water in, 15

Travelling-Scholar. Our, 153, 181

"Trolley" System. Decision against the, 128

T-Square Club, Philadelphia. The, 206

Tumuli. Celtic, 99

Tunnel. The East River, 178
   "     "  St. Clair River, 128
   "     "  Washington Aqueduct, 103

Underground Wires. Glass-lined Tubes for, 160
     "      Work. A Cheap Paint for, 146

Understanding between Architect and Client. The, 159

Underwriter's Interest in Building. The _Spectator_ on the, 49

Undermining. Well-sinking by, 98

University. Strasbourg, 154

Uxmal, 204

Van Beers. The Artist Jan, 80

Vandalism in Rome, 79

Vane in Burmah. A Jewelled, 58

Vatican. Art at the, 208

Ventilating Wooden Columns, 31

Ventilation of School-buildings, 82, 129

Verplanck Homestead. The, 26

Viaduct in Rome. Discovery of an Ancient, 80

Vikings. The Art of the, 37, 53

Walking Delegate. The Power of a, 193

Wall. Collapse of a Retaining, 113

Walls. Straightening, 22

Walnut Logs, 192

Warren's Sketches at the League Exhibition. Mr., 57, 143

  Aqueduct Tunnel. The, 103
  Building in. Recent and Future, 44
  Chapter, A.I.A., 43
  Letters from, 43, 186
  Railroad. A Pneumatic Street, 95
  Soldiers' Home Building. The, 143
  Tracy's House. The Fire in Secretary, 186

Water-color Drawings. Architectural, 107
     "      Painting. Books on, 31

Waterhouse's Annual Address before the R.I.B.A. Mr., 42

Water-power. A Remarkable, 47
  "   supply of London. The, 156
  "   used in Boston Fires, 79

Watkin Tower. The, 16, 105

Wattle-tree. The, 10

Welding. Electric, 176

Well-sinking by Undermining, 98

Wells, Architect. Death of Joseph M., 95

White House. The _American Architect_ Travelling-scholarship Design
    for a new, 158

Whitewash. Fireproof, 208

Will. The Power of the, 112

William of Orange. Statue of, 74

Wood from Rotting. To Prevent, 146

"Working-day." A Fifteenth-century, 155

Working-drawings, 63

World's Fair. The Chicago, 177, 182

Yucatan. Ancient Temples of, 204
   "     Exploring Expedition. A New, 112
   "     Ruins and Works of Art in, 58

Zones in Hungary. Railway, 178


[_The figures refer to the number of the journal, and not to the


Old Iron and Brasswork at Providence, R.I., 737

Renaissance Doorways, Toulouse, France, 737


Balveny Castle, Scotland, 735

Block of Houses for E. K. Greene, Kearney, Neb. Frank, Bailey &
    Farmer, Architects, 741

Cottage at Tuxedo, N.Y. Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell, Architects, 744
   "    for Dr. T. H. Willard, Jr., Greenville, N.Y. Adolph Haak,
            Architect, 737

House at Malden, Mass. Chamberlin & Whidden, Architects, 738
  "   "  Rochester, N.Y. W. C. Walker, Architect, 736

  J. R. Burnett, Orange, N.J.  F. W. Beall, Architect, 743
  C. H. Elmendorff, Kearney, Neb. Frank, Bailey & Farmer, Architects, 737
  C. De Lacey Evan, Ruxton, Md. E. G. W. Dietrich, Architect, 734
  Geo. W. Frank, Kearney, Neb. Frank, Bailey & Farmer, Architects, 743
  Capt. Jesse H. Freeman, Brookline, Mass. W. A. Rodman, Architect, 738
  Prof. C. E. Hart, New Brunswick, N.J. H. R. Marshall, Archt., 736
  J. H. Howe, Rochester, N.Y. Nolan Bros., Architects, 736
  Julius Howells, Chicago, Ill. Wm. H. Pfau, Architect, 740
  A. H. Stem, Minnetonka Beach, Minn. A. H. Stem, Architect, 741
  W. S. Wells, Newport, R.I. G. E. Harding & Co., Architects, 736
  Albert Will, Rochester, N.Y. Otto Block, Architect, 735

Houses for Potter Palmer, Chicago, Ill. C. M. Palmer, Architect, 735
   "    "  Dr. A. Wharton, St. Paul, Minn. A. H. Stem, Architect, 739

Netley Corners, Minneapolis, Minn. J. C. Plant, Architect, 744

Premises of G. G. Booth, Detroit, Mich. Mason & Rice, Architects, 740

Suggestion for the Executive Mansion by Theodore F. Laist. Successful
    Design for the American Architect Travelling-Scholarship.

Workman's Dwelling-house on the Cohesive System, 739


Aberbrothwick Abbey, Arbroath, Scotland, 732

Baptist Church, Gardiner, Me. Stevens & Cobb, Architects, 737

Cathedral of St. Machar, Aberdeen, Scotland, 733

Chapel, St. Paul's School, Concord, N.H. Henry Vaughan, Architect, 742

Competitive Design for First Baptist Church, Malden, Mass. Lewis &
    Phipps, Architects, 740

  Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York, N.Y.
    Glenn Brown, Architect, 732
    Cram & Wentworth, Architects, 738 (_Imp._)
    B. G. Goodhue, Architect, 738 (_Imp._)
    J. R. Rhind, Architect, 743 (_Imp._)

Congregational Church, Wakefield, Mass. Hartwell & Richardson,
    Architects, 744

Dalmeny Church, Linlithgow, Scotland, 743 (_Imp._)

Design for Presbyterian Church, Memphis, Tenn. W. Albert Swasey,
    Architect, 742

First Baptist Church, Elmira, N.Y. Pierce & Dockstader, Architects,

Memorial "Church of the Angels," Los Angeles, Cal. E. A. Coxhead,
    Architect, 733

St. Augustine Roman Catholic Church Buildings, Brooklyn, N.Y. Parfitt
    Bros., Architects, 733
 "  Luke's Church, Mansfield, O. W. G. Preston, Architect, 744
 "  Regulus's Church, St. Andrews, Scotland, 734 (_Imp._)
 "  Salvator's Church, St. Andrews, Scotland, 734 (_Imp._)

Sketch for a Church. Edward Stotz, Architect, 742

Throop Ave. Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N.Y. Fowler & Hough,
    Architects, 742


High School, Cambridge, Mass. Chamberlin & Austin, Architects, 743
  "     "    Los Angeles, Cal. J. N. Preston & Son, Architects, 738

School-house, Lewiston, Me. Geo. F. Coombs, Architect, 735

University, Strasbourg, Germany. Prof. Worth, Architect, 741


Aberbrothwick Abbey, Arbroath, Scotland, 732

Balveny Castle, Scotland, 735

Cathedral of St. Machar, Aberdeen, Scotland, 733

Central Dome of Exhibition Buildings, Paris, France, 740

Dalmeny Church, Linlithgow, Scotland, 743 (_Imp._)

Hall, Craigievar Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland, 743 (_Imp._)

Renaissance Doorways, Toulouse, France, 737

St. Regulus's Church, St. Andrews, Scotland, 734 (_Imp._)
 "  Salvator's Church, St. Andrews, Scotland, 734 (_Imp._)

Tower, St. Etienne du Mont, Paris, France, 737

Town Hall, Sydney, N.S.W., 743

University, Strasbourg, Germany. Prof. Worth, Architect, 741


Alicia Springs Hotel, Pennfield, Pa. E. Culver, Architect, 738

Hotel de Soto, Savannah, Ga. W. G. Preston, Architect, 733

Sketch for Hotel at Norton, Va. Geo. T. Pearson, Architect, 734


Hall, Craigievar Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland, 743 (_Imp._)
 "    in House of W. R. Ray, Los Angeles, Cal. W. Redmore Ray,
          Architect, 740

Sitting-room in House of J. H. Howe, Rochester, N.Y. Nolan Bros.,
    Architects, 736


Anniston City Land Co. Building, Anniston, Ala. Chisolm & Green,
    Architects, 734

Building for the Boston Real Estate Trust. Cabot, Everett & Mead,
    Architects, 744

Design for an Office-building, Boston, Mass. C. H. Blackall, Archt.,

Factory Building, on the Cohesive System, 739

Sketch of Store, Boston, Mass. Wait & Cutter, Architects, 732


Alcove Sleeping-car, 742

Heads of Mexican Gods, 742

Vault, Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, N.Y. Renwick, Aspinwall &
    Russell, Architects, 744


Central Dome of Exhibition Buildings, Paris, France, 740

Town-hall, East Providence, R.I. W. K. Walker & Son, Architects, 738
    "      Sydney, N.S.W., 743


Competitive Designs for Railroad-stations, by the Rochester
    Architectural Sketch Club, 738


Sketch of Stable, Paterson, N.J. C. Edwards, Architect, 735


Tower, St. Etienne du Mont, Paris, France, 737
  "    Sketched from the Competitive Design of C. B. Atwood, Architect,
           for the New City-hall, New York, N.Y., 736

Town Clock-tower. Designed by Willis Polk, Architect, 736


Aberbrothwick Abbey, 732

Balveny Castle, 735

Castle Campbell, 739 (_Int._)

Cawdor Castle, 738 (_Int._)

Craigievar Castle, 743 (_Imp._)

Dalmeny Church, 743 (_Imp._)

St. Machar's Cathedral, 733
 "  Regulus's Church, 734 (_Imp._)
 "  Salvator's Church, 734 (_Imp._)


[_Published only in the Imperial and International Editions._]

Angers Cathedral, 734 (_Imp._)

Catania, 734 (_Imp._)

Nôtre Dame, Poitiers, 734 (_Imp._)

Pierrefonds, 734 (_Imp._)

St. Ours, Loches, 731 (_Imp._)


[_The figures refer to the number of the journal and not to the


[_Published only in the Imperial and International Editions._]

Detail of Entrance, Osborn Hall, New Haven, Conn. Bruce Price,
    Architect, 744 (_Imp._)

House of W. A. Burnham, Boston, Mass. E. C. Curtis, Archt., 739

Ruined Chapel of Charles V, Yuste, Spain, 732

Street View in Dinan, France, 736

Torre del Vino, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 732

U.S. Trust Co.'s Building, New York, N.Y. R. W. Gibson, Architect, 734


Capitals from Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, O. H. H. Richardson and
    Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, _Successors_, Architects, 740 (_Gel._)

Detail of Entrance, Osborn Hall, New Haven, Conn. Bruce Price,
    Architect, 744 (_Gel._)

Entrance, Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Architect, 739

Font and Canopy, St. Peter, Mancroft, Norwich, Eng. Frank T.
    Baggallay, Architect, 735

House-gable on Taubenstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Herr Holst, Architect,
    742 (_Gel._)

Piers of the Cathedral Portico, Lucca, Italy, 739 (_Gel._)

Porte Cochère, Paris, France, 744 (_Gel._)

Portico, Ecole de Medicine, Paris, France, 741 (_Gel._)

Window in Grisaille Glass. W. R. Lethaby, Designer, 740

Wrought-iron Gates, Chelmsford, Eng., 732


A Country House. Horace R. Appelbee, Architect, 732

Black Knoll, Brockenhurst, Eng. R. T. Blomfield, Architect, 742

Butler's Wood, Chislehurst, Eng. Ernest Newton, Architect, 733

Castle Campbell, Clackmannan, Scotland, 739

Cawdor Castle, Nairn, Scotland, 738

Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France, 733 (_Gel._)

Coombe Warren, Kingston, England. George Devey, Architect, 732, 734

Folkton Manor House, Eng. E. J. May, Architect, 743

Hall Place, Tonbridge, Eng. George Devey, Architect, 741

Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Architect, 735, 738

House at Exeter, Eng. James Crocker, Architect, 733
  "   "  Goring-on-Thames, Eng. Geo. W. Webb, Architect, 740
  "   "  Tunbridge Wells, Eng. George Devey, Architect, 741

House-gable on Taubenstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Herr Holst, Archt., 742

House, James St., Buckingham Gate, London, Eng. R. T. Blomfield,
           Architect, 742
  "    near Birmingham, Eng. Essex & Nicol, Architects, 743

  J. Benic, Karlstadt, Austria. Hans Pruckner, Architect, 743 (_Gel._)
  Mrs. Charles Blake, Boston, Mass. Sturgis & Cabot, Archts., 732
  Charles F. Brush, Cleveland, O. George H. Smith, Archt., 742 (_Gel._)
  W. A. Burnham, Boston, Mass. E. C. Curtis, Architect, 739 (_Gel._)
  Mrs. Consino, Santiago, Chili, 733, 734
  Señor Cuda, Santiago, Chili, 740 (_Gel._)
  Mrs. S. T. Everett, Cleveland, O. C. F. & J. A. Schweinfurth,
      Architects,  735 (_Gel._)
  Herr Hatner, Buda-Pesth, Austria. Alfred Wellisch, Archt., 744 (_Gel._)
  Mrs. T. T. Haydock, Cincinnati, O. J. W. McLaughlin, Archt., 743
  Edwin Long, R.A., Hampstead, Eng. R. Norman Shaw, Architect, 744
  Mr. McKenna, Santiago, Chili, 740 (_Gel._)
  E. D. Pearce, Providence, R.I. Rotch & Tilden, Architects, 740
  G. M. Smith, Providence, R.I. Stone, Carpenter & Willson, Architects,
      733 (_Gel._)
  St. Simon, Angoulême, France, 735

House on the Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Kaiser & Grossheim,
                 Archts., 741 (_Gel._)
  "   "   "  Yorkstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Herr Rintz, Architect, 744

Mill Pond Farm, Cranbrook, Eng. M. E. Macartney, Architect, 743

Official Residence of the Intendente, Santiago, Chili, 734

Palace of Count Pallavicini, Vienna, Austria. Herr Von Hohenberg,
    Architect, 743 (_Gel._)

Residence of the Former Viceroy of the Province, Santiago, Chili, 738

Semi-detached Houses, Ripon, Eng. T. Butler Wilson, Architect, 740

The Gables, Felixstowe, Eng. William A. Thorp, Architect, 740

Vicarage, Tweedmouth, Eng. F. R. Wilson, Architect, 744

Villa Blanca, near Innsbruck, Austria. J. W. Deininger, Archt., 740


All Saints' Church, Leek, Eng. R. Norman Shaw, Architect, 735
 "     "       "    London, Eng. Christopher & White, Architects, 743

Cathedral, Quimper, France, 742 (_Gel._)

Chapel of St. Mary of Nazareth, Edgware, Eng. James Brooks, Architect,

Church of All Saints, Falmouth, Eng. J. D. Sedding, Archt., 737
   "   "  St. John the Baptist, Reading, Eng. E. Prioleau Warren,
              Architect, 737
   "   "   "  Martin, Seamer, Eng. C. Hodgson Fowler, Architect, 742

Cloister, Poblet, Spain, 737 (_Gel._)

  Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York, N.Y.
  Edward C. Casey, Architect, 736
  Stephen C. Earle, Architect, 736
  John L. Faxon, Architect, 736

Design for a Village Church. Gerald C. Horsley, Architect, 740
  "     "  Church of the Good Shepherd, London, Eng. T. Phillips Figgis,
               Archt., 733

Episcopal Church, West Medford, Mass. H. H. Richardson, Archt., 737

Font and Canopy, St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, Eng. Frank T. Baggallay,
    Architect, 735

Interior of St. Paul Extra Muros, Rome, Italy, 734 (_Gel._)
    "    "  the Cathedral, Albi, France, 734 (_Gel._)
    "    "   "  Hofkirche with Tomb of Maximilian I, Innsbruck, Austria,
                    735 (_Gel._)
    "    "   "  Recoletu Church, Santiago, Chili, 735 (_Gel._)

Parish Room and School, Charleton, Devon, Eng. F. J. Commin,
    Architect, 739

Ruined Chapel of Charles V, Yuste, Spain, 732

Wesleyan Chapel, Leeds, Eng. T. Butler Wilson, Architect, 734


Board School, Bromley, Kent, Eng. Vacher & Hellicar, Architects, 739

  Gymnasium for Brown University, Providence, R.I.
    Gould & Angell, Architects, 741
    Stone, Carpenter & Willson, Architects, 741

Design for a Board School. Geo. W. Webb, Architect, 733

Old Façade, Ecole de Medecine, Paris, France, 741 (_Gel._)

Osborn Hall, New Haven, Conn. Bruce Price, Architect, 741 (_Gel._)

Parish Room and School, Charleton, Devon, Eng. F. J. Commin,
    Architect, 739

Swimming-bath and Gymnasium, Grocers' Company's Schools, Hackney
    Downs, Eng. Henry C. Boyes, Architect, 736


All Saints' Church, Leek, Eng. R. Norman Shaw, Architect, 735
 "    "       "     London, Eng. Christopher & White, Archts., 743

Arch of Septimus Severus, Rome, Italy, 734

Auditorium of the Palace of the Trocadéro, Paris, France, 732 (_Gel._)

"Bargello," Florence, Italy. The, 734

Black Knoll, Brockenhurst, Eng. R. T. Blomfield, Architect, 742

Board School, Bromley, Kent, Eng. Vacher & Hellicar, Architects, 739

Business Premises, London, Eng. Frederick Wallen, Architect. 738

Butler's Wood, Chislehurst, Eng. Ernest Newton, Architect, 733

"Ca' d'Oro," Venice, Italy. The, 734

Castle Campbell, Clackmannan, Scotland, 739

Cathedral, Quimper, France, 742 (_Gel._)

Cawdor Castle, Nairn, Scotland, 738

Chapel of St. Mary of Nazareth, Edgware, Eng. James Brooks, Architect,

Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France, 733 (_Gel._)

Church of All Saints, Falmouth, Eng. J. D. Sedding, Archt., 737
  "    "  St. John the Baptist, Reading, Eng. E. Prioleau Warren,
                  Architect, 737
  "    "   "  Martin, Seamer, Eng. C. Hodgson Fowler, Architect, 742

Clee Park Hotel, Grimsby, Eng. E. W. Farebrother, Architect, 738

Cloister, Poblet, Spain, 737 (_Gel._)

Congress Hall and Chamber of Deputies, Santiago, Chili, 738 (_Gel._)

Coombe Warren, Kingston, England. George Devey, Architect, 732

Corridor in House of Edwin Long, R.A., Hampstead, Eng. R. Norman Shaw,
    Architect, 744

Design for Church of the Good Shepherd, London, Eng. T. Phillips
    Figgis, Architect, 733

Dining-room, Coombe Warren, Kingston, Eng. George Devey, Archt., 734

Drawing-room, Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Architect, 736

Entrance, Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Architect, 739

Folkton Manor House, Eng. E. J. May, Architect, 743

Font and Canopy, St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, Eng. Frank T. Baggallay,
    Architect, 735

Frome Union Offices, Frome, Eng. Drake & Bryan, Architects, 744

Grand Hotel, Vienna, Austria. Carl Tietz, Architect, 741 (_Gel._)

Hall, Castle Campbell, Clackmannan, Scotland. The, 739
  "   Coombe House, near Shaftesbury, Eng. E. Towry White, Architect, 736
  "   Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. The, 738

Hill Place, Tonbridge, Eng. George Devey, Architect, 741

Holcombe, Chatham, England. John Belcher, Architect, 733, 736

House at Exeter, Eng. James Crocker, Architect, 733
  "   "  Goring-on-Thames, Eng. Geo. W. Webb, Architect, 740
  "   "  Tunbridge Wells, England. George Devey, Archt., 741

House-gable on Taubenstrasse, Berlin, Germany, 742 (_Gel._)

House, James St., Buckingham Gate, London, Eng. R. T. Blomfield,
           Architect, 742
  "    near Birmingham, Eng. Essex & Nicol, Architects, 743

  J. Benic, Karlstadt, Austria. Hans Pruckner, Architect, 743 (_Gel._)
  Mrs. Consino, Santiago, Chili, 733, 734
  Señor Cuda, Santiago, Chili, 740 (_Gel._)
  Herr Hatner, Buda-Pesth, Austria. Alfred Wellisch, Archt., 744 (_Gel._)
  Edwin Long, R.A., Hampstead, Eng. R. Norman Shaw, Archt., 744
  Mr. McKenna, Santiago, Chili, 740 (_Gel._)
  St. Simon, Angoulême, France, 735

House on the Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Kaiser & Grossheim,
                 Archts., 741 (_Gel._)
  "   "   "  Yorkstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Herr Rintz, Architect, 744

Interior in the Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France, 732, 733
   "     of St. Paul Extra Muros, Rome, Italy, 734 (_Gel._)
   "     "  the Cathedral, Albi, France, 734 (_Gel._)
   "     "   "  Hofkirche, with Tomb of Maximilian I, Innsbruck, Austria,
                    735 (_Gel._)
   "     "   "  Recoletu Church, Santiago, Chili, 735 (_Gel._)

Italian Sketches, 734

Kitchen, Castello di Vincigliata, Italy. G. Fancelli, Architect, 735

"Lloyds," Trieste, Austria. Baron Heinrich von Ferstel, Architect, 740

Mill Pond Farm, Cranbrook, Eng. M. E. Macartney, Architect, 743

New Bourse du Commerce, Paris, France. H. Blondel, Architect, 735
 "  Premises, Chester, Eng. T. M. Lockwood, Architect, 737

Official Residence of the Intendente, Santiago, Chili, 734

Old Façade, Ecole de Medecine, Paris, France, 741 (_Gel._)

Painting by Puvis de Chavannes in the Grand Hall of the Sorbonne,
    Paris, France, 743 (_Gel._)

Palace of Count Pallavicini, Vienna, Austria. Herr Von Hohenberg,
              Architect, 743 (_Gel._)
  "    "  the Liberal Arts, Paris, France. J. C. Formigé, Architect, 735

Parish Room and School, Charleton, Devon, Eng. F. J. Commin,
    Architect, 739

Piers of the Cathedral Portico, Lucca, Italy, 739 (_Gel._)

Porte Cochère, Paris, France, 744 (_Gel._)

Portico, Ecole de Medecine, Paris, France, 741 (_Gel._)

Railway Tavern, Grimsby, Eng. E. W. Farebrother, Architect, 738

Residence of the Former Viceroy of the Province, Santiago, Chili, 738

Ruined Chapel of Charles V, Yuste, Spain, 732

Savings Bank, Linz, Austria. Austrian Building Co., Architects, 742

Semi-detached Houses, Ripon, Eng. T. Butler Wilson, Architect, 740

Stables, Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Architect, 739

Street View in Dinan, France, 736
  "     "   "  Santiago, Chili, 736 (_Gel._)

Swimming-bath and Gymnasium, Grocers' Company's Schools, Hackney
    Downs, Eng. Henry C. Boyes, Architect, 736

Temples of Faustina and Romulus, Rome, Italy, 734

The Gables, Felixstowe, Eng. William A. Thorp, Architect, 740

Torre del Vino, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 732

Vicarage, Tweedmouth, Eng. F. R. Wilson, Architect, 744

Villa Blanca, near Innsbruck, Austria. J. W. Deininger, Architect, 740

Warehouse, Stockholm, Sweden. A. Egendomen, Architect, 735

Wesleyan Chapel, Leeds, Eng. T. Butler Wilson, Architect, 734

Wrought-iron Gates, Chelmsford, Eng., 732


[_Published only in the Imperial and International Editions._]

Auditorium of the Palace of the Trocadéro, Paris, France, 732

Capitals from Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, O. H. H. Richardson and
    Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge _Successors_, Architects, 740 (_Imp._)

Cathedral, Quimper, France, 742

Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France, 733

Cloister, Poblet, Spain, 737

Congress Hall and Chamber of Deputies, Santiago, Chili, 738

Detail of Entrance, Osborn Hall, New Haven, Conn. Bruce Price,
    Architect, 744 (_Imp._)

Entrance Hall in House of Prof. C. E. Hart, New Brunswick, N.J. H. R.
    Marshall, Architect, 736, (_Imp._)

Episcopal Church, West Medford, Mass. H. H. Richardson, Archt., 737

Grand Hotel, Vienna, Austria. Carl Tietz, Architect, 741

House-gable on Taubenstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Herr Holst, Archt., 742

  J. Benic, Karlstadt, Austria. Hans Pruckner, Architect, 743
  Mrs. Charles Blake, Boston, Mass. Sturgis & Cabot, Archts., 732
  Charles F. Brush, Cleveland, O. George H. Smith, Archt., 742 (_Imp._)
  Señor Cuda, Santiago, Chili, 740
  Mrs. S. T. Everett, Cleveland, O. C. F. & J. A. Schweinfurth,
      Architects, 735 (_Imp._)
  Herr Hatner, Buda-Pesth, Austria. Alfred Wellisch, Architect, 744
  Mrs. T. T. Haydock, Cincinnati, O. J. W. McLaughlin, Architect, 743
  Mr. McKenna, Santiago, Chili, 740
  G. M. Smith, Providence, R.I. Stone, Carpenter & Willson, Architects,
      733 (_Imp._)

House on the Rauchstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Kaiser & Grossheim,
    Architects, 741

House on the Yorkstrasse, Berlin, Germany. Herr Rintz, Archt., 744

Interior in the Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France, 732, 733
   "     of St. Paul Extra Muros, Rome, Italy, 734
   "     "  the Cathedral, Albi, France, 734
   "     "   "  Hofkirche with Tomb of Maximilian I, Innsbruck,
                    Austria, 735
   "     "   "  Recoletu Church, Santiago, Chili, 735

Interiors in House at Malden, Mass. Chamberlin & Whidden, Architects,
    738 (_Imp._)

"Lloyds," Trieste, Austria. Baron Heinrich von Ferstel, Architect, 740

Old Façade, Ecole de Medecine, Paris, France, 741

Osborn Hall, New Haven, Conn. Bruce Price, Architect, 741 (_Imp._)

Painting by Puvis de Chavannes in the Grand Hall of the Sorbonne,
    Paris, France, 743

Palace of Count Pallavicini, Vienna, Austria. Herr Von Hohenberg,
    Architect, 743

Piers of the Cathedral Portico, Lucca, Italy, 739

Porte Cochère, Paris, France, 744

Portico, Ecole de Medecine, Paris, France, 741

Residence of the Former Viceroy of the Province, Santiago, Chili, 738

Savings Bank, Linz, Austria. Austrian Building Co., Architects, 742

Street View in Santiago, Chili, 736

Villa Blanca, near Innsbruck, Austria. J. W. Deininger, Architect, 740


Clee Park Hotel, Grimsby, Eng. E. W. Farebrother, Architect, 738

Grand Hotel, Vienna, Austria. Carl Tietz, Architect, 741 (_Gel._)

Railway Tavern, Grimsby, Eng. E. W. Farebrother, Architect, 738


Auditorium of the Palace of the Trocadéro, Paris, France, 732 (_Gel._)

Church of All Saints, Falmouth, Eng. J. D. Sedding, Archt., 737
   "   "  St. Martin, Seamer, Eng. C. Hodgson Fowler, Architect, 742

Corridor in House of Edwin Long, R.A., Hampstead, Eng. R. Norman Shaw,
    Architect, 744

Dining-room, Coombe Warren, Kingston, Eng. George Devey, Archt., 734

Drawing-room, Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Archt., 736

Entrance Hall in House of Prof. C. E. Hart, New Brunswick, N.J. H. R.
    Marshall, Architect, 736 (_Gel._)

Hall, Castle Campbell, Clackmannan, Scotland. The, 739
 "    Coombe House, near Shaftesbury, Eng. E. Towry White, Architect, 736
 "    Holcombe, Chatham, Eng. John Belcher, Architect, 738

Interior in the Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France, 732, 733
    "    of All Saints' Church, Leek, Eng. R. Norman Shaw, Architect, 735
    "    "  St. Paul Extra Muros, Rome, Italy, 734 (_Gel._)
    "    "  the Cathedral, Albi, France, 734 (_Gel._)
    "    "   "  Hofkirche with Tomb of Maximilian I, Innsbruck, Austria,
                    735 (_Gel._)
    "    "   "  Recoletu Church, Santiago, Chili, 735 (_Gel._)

Interiors in House at Malden, Mass. Chamberlin & Whidden, Architects,
    738 (_Gel._)

Kitchen, Castello di Vincigliata, Italy. G. Fancelli, Architect, 735

Painting by Puvis de Chavannes in the Grand Hall of the Sorbonne,
    Paris, France, 743 (_Gel._)

Swimming-bath and Gymnasium, Grocers' Company's Schools, Hackney
    Downs, Eng. Henry C. Boyes, Architect, 736


Business Premises, London, England. Frederick Wallen, Architect, 738

"Lloyds," Trieste, Austria. Baron Heinrich von Ferstel, Architect, 740

New Premises, Chester, Eng. T. M. Lockwood, Architect, 737

Savings Bank, Linz, Austria. Austrian Building Co., Archts., 742

U.S. Trust Co.'s Building, New York, N.Y. R. W. Gibson, Architect, 734

Warehouse, Stockholm, Sweden. A. Egendomen, Architect, 735


Historical Figures from the Lord Mayor's Procession, 732

Italian Sketches, 734

"Lion and Serpent." A. L. Barye, Sculptor, 732

New Year's Day in the Olden Time, 735

Norwich, from the Cromer Road, by John Sell Cotman, 742

Painting by Puvis de Chavannes in the Grand Hall of the Sorbonne,
    Paris, France, 743 (_Gel._)

Sketches in Normandy, by Herbert Railton, 739

Street View in Dinan, France, 736
  "      "  "  Santiago, Chili, 736 (_Gel._)

Swimming-bath and Gymnasium, Grocers' Company's Schools, Hackney
    Downs, Eng. Henry C. Boyes, Architect, 736

Winter, from a Painting by Nicolas Lancret, 741


Interior of the Hofkirche with Tomb of Maximilian I, Innsbruck,
    Austria, 735 (_Gel._)


Congress Hall and Chamber of Deputies, Santiago, Chili, 738 (_Gel._)

Frome Union Offices, Frome, England. Drake & Bryan, Architects, 744

New Bourse du Commerce, Paris, France. H. Blondel, Architect, 735

Palace of the Liberal Arts, Paris, France. J. C. Formigé, Archt., 735


Stables, Holcombe, Chatham, England. John Belcher, Architect, 739


Torre del Vino, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 732


[_These figures refer to the page of text, not to the plates._]

Arch at Naples, 77

Axe-head, 89

Bracteates, 53, 54

Capitals, 60, 91, 94, 156

Cartoon for Sgraffito, 3

Centennial Hall, Sydney, 184

Chair from Khorsabad, 72

  Basilica. A Roman, 51
  Baths of Caracalla. Plan of, 36
  Colonnade of the Louvre, Paris, 70
  Foscari Palace, Venice, 68
  Fountain, Place Stanislas, Nancy, 85
  Garde-Meuble, Paris, 83
  Gare d'Orléans, Paris, 88
  Halle au Blé, Paris, 83, 84
  Halles Centrales, Paris, 87, 88
  Hôtel de Ville, Brussels, 67
    "   "    "    Paris, 69
    "   "    "    St. Antonin, France, 51
    "   des Invalides, Paris, 70, 71
  Library of St. Geneviève, Paris, 87
  Mint, Paris. The, 83
  Monument of Lysicrates, 35
  Odéon, Paris. The, 84
  Opéra-House, Paris, 86
  Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, 67
  Place Stanislas, Nancy, 85
  Procurazie Nuove, Venice, 68
  Strozzi Palace, Florence, 70
  Theatre of Herculaneum, 51
  Tower of the Winds, 36

Copper-plates from Etowah Mound, 153

"Dance," Paris Opéra-House. Carpeaux's, 101

Doorway, Newport, R.I., 28

Doorways. Carved Church, 38, 39

Dormer, 58

Entrance, Stokesay Castle, 155

Equestrian Designs, 72, 170

  Condé. The Great, 76
  Louis XIV, 170, 171
  Gustavus Adolphus, 73
  Maximilian I, 74
  Marcus Curtius, 170
  Marshal Rantzau, 76
  William of Orange, 72

Fibula, 54

  Absalom's Tomb, 116
  Campo Santo at Genoa, 167
    "     "   "  Pisa, 164
  Catacombs, 147
  Celtic Tumuli, 99
  Egyptian Tombs, 100
  Etruscan Tombs, 131
  Hypogea, 115
  Mausoleum of Taghlak, 148
  Mediæval Tombs, 163
  Mougheir Tombs, 115
  Phoenician Tombs, 116
  Pyramids. The, 100
  Roman Cippus, 134
    "   Columbarium, 134
    "   Funerary Urn, 134
  Sepulchral Chapel at Paris, 167
  Stelæ, 116
  Tomb at Montmorency, 166
  Tomb at Palmyra, 134
  Tomb at Pompeii, 133
  Tomb in S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, 165
  Tomb of
    Louis de Brézé, Rouen, 165
    Cecilia Metella, Rome, 132
    Hadrian, 132, 133
    Louis XII, St. Denis, 164
    Mazarin, Paris, 166
    Nakschi Roustam, 117
    Paul III, Rome, 166
    St. Stephen, Obazine, 163
    Marshal Saxe, Strasbourg, 167
    Theodoric, Ravenna, 147
  Tombs at Mycenæ, 131
  Tombs at Telmissus and Theron, 131
  Tombs in India, 148
  Tombs in Judea and Asia Minor, 117
  Tomb of the Caliphs at Cairo, 148
  Urn Containing Heart of Francis I, 164

George Inn, Norton, Eng., 44

Hall in House of J. H. Howe, Rochester, N.Y. Nolan Bros.,
    Architects, 78

Hinge. Wrought-iron, 135

  Aztec Dwelling. An, 169
  Byzantine House, 151
  Egyptian House, 150
  Etruscan House, 168
  Gallo-Roman House, 150
  Hebrew House, 169
  Inca Dwelling, 149
  Pelasgian Hut, 149
  Phoenician House, 168

Horns. Golden, 55, 56

House of A. A. Carey, Cambridge, Mass. Sturgis & Brigham,
    Architects, 23

Impost, 50

Martyrs Column, Naples, Italy, 22

  Arch of Austria. The Louvre, 195
  Assyrian Fortress, 179
  Bastioned City. A, 196
  Enceinte of Constantinople, 180
  Fortification. Section of a, 196
  Fortresses. Egyptian, 179
  Plan of Tiryns, 179
  Towers of Messene, 180
  Tyre, 180
  Wall of Castellum of Jublaius, 180
  Wall of Château Gaillard, 195
  Walls of Pompeii, 180
  Walls of Verona, 180

"Modern Improvements." "All the," 109, 141, 156, 174

Monument. Scandinavian, 55
   "      to Egmont and Horn, Brussels, 9
   "      "  Liszt, 5
   "      "  Minine and Pojarsky, Russia, 27
   "      "  the Heroes of the Franco-Prussian War, Berlin, 19

Pulpit, 10

Quintus Church, Mainz, 172

Scabbard Ornament, 40

Sculpture, Campanile of St. Mark's, 57, 93

Sword Hilt, 37

Tower, 24

Turret, Rothenburg, Ger., 204

Verplanck Homestead, Fishkill, N.Y., 26

Waterspout, 90

Window at Ulm, 201


[_The figures refer to the number of the journal, and not to the

Aberdeen, Scotland. Cathedral of St. Machar, 733 (_Reg._)
   "          "     Hall, Craigievar Castle, 743 (_Imp._)

Albi, France. Interior of the Cathedral, 734 (_Int._)

Angoulême, France. House of St. Simon, 735 (_Int._)

Anniston, Ala. Anniston City Land Co. Building. Chisolm & Green,
    Architects, 734 (_Reg._)

Arbroath, Scotland. Aberbrothwick Abbey, 732 (_Reg._)

Balveny Castle, Scotland, 735 (_Reg._)

Berlin, Ger. House-gable on Taubenstrasse. Herr Holst, Architect, 742
  "      "   House on the Rauchstrasse. Kaiser & Grossheim, Architects,
                 741 (_Int._)
  "      "   House on the Yorkstrasse. Herr Rintz, Architect, 744 (_Int._)

Birmingham, Eng. House near, Essex & Nicol, Architects, 743 (_Int._)

  Building for the Boston Real Estate Trust, 744 (_Reg._)
  Design for an Office-building. C. H. Blackall, Architect, 734 (_Reg._)
  House of Mrs. Charles Blake. Sturgis & Cabot, Architects, 732 (_Imp._)
    "   "  W. A. Burnham. E. C. Curtis, Archt., 739 (_Imp._)
  Sketch of Store. Wait & Cutter, Architects, 732 (_Reg._)

Brockenhurst, Eng. Black Knoll. R. T. Blomfield, Architect, 742

Bromley, Eng. Board School. Vacher & Hellicar, Architects, 739

Brookline, Mass. House of Capt. Jesse H. Freeman. W. A. Rodman,
    Architect, 738 (_Reg._)

Brooklyn, N.Y. St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church Buildings.
                   Parfitt Bros., Architects, 733 (_Reg._)
   "       "   Throop Avenue Presbyterian Church. Fowler & Hough,
                   Architects, 742 (_Reg._)
   "       "   Vault, Greenwood Cemetery. Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell,
                   Archts., 744 (_Reg._)

Buda-Pesth, Austria. House of Herr Hatner. Alfred Wellisch, Architect,
    744 (_Int._)

Cambridge, Mass. High School. Chamberlin & Austin, Architects, 743

Castle of Vincigliata, Italy. Kitchen. G. Fancelli, Architect, 735

Charleton, Eng. Parish Room and School. F. J. Commin, Architect, 739

Chatham, Eng. Holcombe. John Belcher, Architect, 735, 736, 738, 739

Chelmsford, Eng. Wrought-iron Gates, 732 (_Int._)

Chester, Eng. New Premises. T. M. Lockwood, Architect, 737 (_Int._)

Chicago, Ill. House of Julius Howells. Wm. H. Pfau, Architect, 740
   "      "   Houses for Potter Palmer. C. M. Palmer, Architect, 735

Chislehurst, Eng. Butler's Wood. Ernest Newton, Architect, 733

Cincinnati, O. Capitals from Chamber of Commerce. H. H. Richardson and
                   Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Successors, Architects,
                   740 (_Imp._)
     "      "  House for Mrs. T. T. Haydock. J. W. McLaughlin,
                   Architect, 743 (_Imp._)

Clackmannan, Scotland. Castle Campbell, 739 (_Int._)

Cleveland, O. House of Chas. F. Brush, George H. Smith, Architect, 742
    "      "  House of Mrs. S. T. Everett. C. F. & J. A. Schweinfurth,
                  Architects, 735 (_Imp._)

Concord, N.H. Chapel, St. Paul's School. Henry Vaughan, Architect, 742

Cranbrook, Eng. Mill Pond Farm. M. E. Macartney, Architect, 743

Detroit, Mich. Premises of G. G. Booth. Mason & Rice, Architects, 740

Dinan, France. Street View, 736 (_Int._)

East Providence, R.I. Town-hall. W. R. Walker & Son, Archts., 738

Edgware, Eng. Chapel of St. Mary of Nazareth. James Brooks, Architect,
    736 (_Int._)

Elmira, N.Y. First Baptist Church. Pierce & Dockstader, Archts., 739

Exeter, Eng. House at. James Crocker, Architect, 733 (_Int._)

Falmouth, Eng. Church of All Saints. J. D. Sedding, Architect, 737

Felixstowe, Eng. The Gables. William A. Thorp, Architect, 740 (_Int._)

Frome, Eng. Frome Union Offices. Drake & Bryan, Architects, 744

Gardiner, Me. Baptist Church. Stevens & Cobb, Architects, 737 (_Reg._)

Goring-on-Thames, Eng. House. Geo. W. Webb, Architect, 740 (_Int._)

Granada, Spain. Torre del Vino, Alhambra, 732 (_Int._)

Greenville, N.Y. Cottage for Dr. T. H. Willard, Jr. Adolph Haak,
    Architect, 737 (_Reg._)

Grimsby, Eng. Clee Park Hotel. E. W. Farebrother, Architect, 738
  "       "   Railway Tavern. E. W. Farebrother, Architect, 738 (_Int._)

Hackney Downs, Eng. Swimming-bath and Gymnasium, Grocers' Company
    Schools. H. C. Bowes, Archt., 736 (_Int._)

Hampstead, Eng. House of Edwin Long, R.A. R. Norman Shaw, Architect,
    734 (_Int._)

Innsbruck, Austria. Interior of the Hofkirche, with Tomb of Maximilian I,
                        735 (_Int._)
  "           "     Villa Blanca, near. T. W. Deininger, Architect, 740

Karlstadt, Austria. House of J. Benic. Hans Pruckner, Architect, 743

Kearney, Neb. Block of Houses for E. K. Greene. Frank, Bailey &
                  Farmer, Architects, 741 (_Reg._)
  "       "   House of C. H. Elmendorff. Frank, Bailey & Farmer,
                  Architects, 737 (_Reg._)
  "       "   House of Geo. W. Frank. Frank, Bailey & Farmer, Architects,
                  743 (_Reg._)

Kingston, Eng. Coombe Warren. George Devey, Archt., 732, 734 (_Int._)

Leeds, Eng. Wesleyan Chapel. T. Butler Wilson, Architect, 734 (_Int._)
  "     "   All Saints' Church. R. Norman Shaw, Architect, 735 (_Int._)

Lewiston, Me. School-house. Geo. F. Coombs, Architect, 735 (_Reg._)

Linlithgow, Scotland. Dalmeny Church, 742 (_Imp._)

Linz, Austria. Savings Bank. Austrian Building Co., Architects, 742

  All Saints' Church. Christopher & White, Architects, 743 (_Int._)
  Business Premises.  Frederick Wallen, Architect, 738 (_Int._)
  Design for Church of the Good Shepherd. T. Phillips Figgis, Architect,
      733 (_Int._)
  House, James Street, Buckingham Gate. R. T. Blomfield, Architect, 742

Los Angeles, Cal. Hall in House of W. R. Ray. W. Redmore Ray,
    Architect, 740 (_Reg._)
 "    "       "   High-School. J. N. Preston & Son, Archts., 738 (_Reg._)
 "    "       "   Memorial "Church of the Angels." E. A. Coxhead, Archt.,
                      733 (_Reg._)

Lucca, Italy. Piers of the Cathedral Portico, 739 (_Int._)

Malden, Mass. Competitive Design for the First Baptist Church. Lewis &
                  Phipps, Architects, 740 (_Reg._)
  "      "    House. Chamberlin & Whidden, Architects, 738 (_Reg._)
  "      "    Interiors in House at. Chamberlin & Whidden, Architects,
                  738 (_Imp._)

Mansfield, O. St. Luke's Church. W. G. Preston, Architect, 744

Memphis, Tenn. Design for Presbyterian Church. W. Albert Swasey,
    Architect. 742 (_Reg._)

Minneapolis, Minn. Netley Corners. J. C. Plant, Architect, 744

Minnetonka Beach, Minn. House of A. H. Stem. A. H. Stem, Architect,
    741 (_Reg._)

Morbihan, France. Château de Josselin, 733 (_Int._)
  "         "     Interior in the Château de Josselin, 732, 733 (_Int._)

Nairn, Scotland. Cawdor Castle, 738 (_Int._)

New Brunswick, N.J. Entrance-hall in House of Prof. C. E. Hart. H. R.
                        Marshall, Architect, 736 (_Imp._)
 "     "        "   House of Prof. C. E. Hart. H. R. Marshall, Architect,
                        736 (_Reg._)

New Haven, Conn. Osborn Hall. Bruce Price, Architect, 741, 744

Newport, R.I. House of W. S. Wells. G. E. Harding & Co., Archts., 736

  Competitive Design for the Cathedral of St. John the Divine.
    Glenn Brown, Architect, 732 (_Reg._)
    Edward C. Casey, Archt., 736 (_Int._)
    Cram & Wentworth, Architects, 738 (_Imp._)
    Stephen C. Earle, Archt., 736 (_Int._)
    John L. Faxon, Architect, 736 (_Int._)
    B. G. Goodhue, Archt., 738 (_Imp._)
    J. R. Rhind, Architect, 743 (_Imp._)
  U.S. Trust Co.'s Building. R. W. Gibson, Architect, 734 (_Imp._)

Normandy. Sketches in. By Herbert Railton, 739 (_Int._)

Norton, Va. Sketch for Hotel at. Geo. T. Pearson, Architect, 734

Norwich, Eng. Font and Canopy, St. Peter, Mancroft. Frank T.
    Baggallay, Architect, 735 (_Int._)

Orange, N.J. House of J. R. Burnett. F. W. Beall, Architect, 743

  Auditorium of the Palace of the Trocadéro, 732 (_Int._)
  Central Dome of Exhibition Buildings,  740 (_Reg._)
  Ecole de Medecine, 741 (_Int._)
  New Bourse du Commerce. H. Blondel, Architect, 735 (_Int._)
  Painting by Puvis de Chavannes in the Grand Hall of the Sorbonne,
      743 (_Int._)
  Palace of the Liberal Arts. J. C. Formigé, Architect, 735 (_Int._)
  Porte Cochère, 744 (_Int._)
  Tower, St. Etienne du Mont, 737 (_Reg._)

Paterson, N.J. Sketch of Stable. C. Edwards, Architect, 735 (_Reg._)

Pennfield, Pa. Alicia Springs Hotel. E. Culver, Architect, 738

Poblet, Spain. Cloister, 737 (_Int._)

  Competitive Design for Gymnasium for Brown University. Gould & Angell,
      Architects, 741 (_Int._)
  Competitive Design for Gymnasium for Brown University. Stone, Carpenter
      & Willson, Archts., 741 (_Int._)
  House of E. D. Pearce. Rotch & Tilden, Archts., 740 (_Int._)
   "    "  G. M. Smith. Stone, Carpenter & Willson, Architects, 733
  Old Iron and Brass Work, 737 (_Reg._)

Quimper, France, Cathedral, 742 (_Int._)

Reading, Eng. Church of St. John the Baptist. E. Prioleau Warren,
    Architect, 737 (_Int._)

Ripon, Eng. Semi-detached Houses. T. Butler Wilson, Architect, 740

Rochester, N.Y. House of J. H. Howe. Nolan Bros., Architects, 736
  "         "   House of Albert Will. Otto Block, Architect, 735 (_Reg._)
  "         "   House on Portsmouth Terrace. W. C. Walker, Architect, 736

Rome, Italy. Interior of St. Paul Extra Muros, 734 (_Int._)

Ruxton, Md. House of C. De Lacey Evan. E. G. W. Dietrich, Architect,
    734 (_Reg._)

St. Andrews, Scotland. Churches of St. Regulus and St. Salvator, 734

St. Paul, Minn. Houses for Dr. A. Wharton. A. H. Stem, Archt., 739

  Congress Hall and Chamber of Deputies, 738 (_Int._)
  House of Mrs. Consino, 733, 734 (_Int._)
   "    "  Señor Cuda, 740 (_Int._)
   "    "  Mr. McKenna, 740 (_Int._)
  Interior of the Recoletu Church, 735 (_Int._)
  Official Residence of the Intendente, 734 (_Int._)
  Residence of the former Viceroy of the Province, 738 (_Int._)
  Street View, 736 (_Int._)

Savannah, Ga. Hotel de Soto. W. G. Preston, Architect, 733 (_Reg._)

Seamer, Eng. Church of St. Martin. C. Hodgson Fowler, Archt., 742

Shaftesbury, Eng. Hall, Coombe House, near. E. T. White, Archt., 736

Stockholm, Sweden. Warehouse. A. Egendomen, Architect, 735 (_Int._)

Strasbourg, Germany. University. Prof. Worth, Architect, 741 (_Reg._)

Sydney, N.S.W. Town-hall, 743 (_Reg._)

Tonbridge, Eng. Hall Place. George Devey, Architect, 741 (_Int._)

Toulouse, France. Renaissance Doorways, 737 (_Reg._)

Trieste, Austria. Lloyds. Baron Heinrich von Ferstel, Architect, 740

Tunbridge Wells, Eng. House. George Devey, Architect, 741 (_Int._)

Tuxedo, N.Y. Cottage at. Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell, Architects, 744

Tweedmouth, Eng. Vicarage. F. R. Wilson, Architect, 744 (_Int._)

Vienna, Austria. Grand Hotel. Carl Tietz, Architect, 741 (_Int._)
  "      "       Palace of Count Pallavicini. Herr Von Hohenberg,
                     Archt., 743 (_Int._)

Wakefield, Mass. Congregational Church. Hartwell & Richardson
    Architects, 744 (_Reg._)

West Medford, Mass. Episcopal Church. H. H. Richardson, Architect, 737

Yuste, Spain. Ruined Chapel of Charles V, 732 (_Int._)


VOL. XXVII. Copyright, 1890, by TICKNOR & COMPANY, Boston, Mass. No.

Entered at the Post-office at Boston as second-class matter.

JANUARY 4, 1890.

[Illustration: CONTENTS]


The Incomes of Architects.--Death of Mr. George F.
Durand, Architect.--Concrete Arches.--An Architect's
Responsibility for Exceeding the Stipulated Cost of a
Building.--A French Case in Point.--A Contractor
Engages in Profit-Sharing with his Workmen.                          1

THE APARTMENT-HOUSE.                                                 3

ARCHITECTURE IN BROOKLYN.                                            5

THE STRUCTURE OF SANDSTONE.                                          9

THE BARYE EXHIBITION.                                               10


"The Lion and the Serpent."--Auditorium of the Palace
of the Trocadéro, Paris, France.--An Interior in the
Château de Josselin, Morbihan, France.--Torre del Vino,
Alhambra, Granada, Spain.--Ruins of the Chapel of
Charles V, Yuste, Spain.--Coombe Warren, Kingston,
England: Garden Front.--Coombe Warren, Kingston,
England: Entrance Front.--A Gentleman's Country
House.--Wrought-Iron Gates, Duke Street,
England.--Historical Figures from Lord Mayor's
Procession, 1889.--House of Mrs. Charles Blake, Beacon
Street, Boston, Mass.--Competitive Designs for the
Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York, N.Y.--Abbey
of Aberbrothwick: Gallery over Entrance.--Abbey of
Aberbrothwick: The Western Doorway.--Design for a
Store.                                                              12

SOCIETIES.                                                          14


Barye's Admirer.--Evaporation of Water in Traps.                    15

NOTES AND CLIPPINGS.                                                15

TRADE SURVEYS.                                                      16

       *       *       *       *       *

That extraordinary phenomenon, which those who read many newspapers
sometimes encounter, of the inspiration of two writers following
tracks so closely parallel that their effusions are word for word the
same from beginning to end, was recently to be observed in the case of
the New York _Herald_ and the Pittsburgh _Leader_, which published on
the same day an article devoted to architects or, rather, to their
incomes, which held up these fortunate professional men as objects to
be envied, if not by all the world, at least by journalists, many of
whom have just now a way of writing about rich men or women which
suggests the idea that the journalist himself was brought up in a
jail, and sees nothing but the pockets of those whom he favors with
his attention. The present writers, after half a column or so of
rubbish about the grandeur of American buildings, furnish the New York
and Pittsburgh public with the information that "there are in the city
of New York at least ten architects whose annual net income is in
excess of a hundred thousand dollars, while in Philadelphia, Chicago,
Boston and St. Louis there are quite as many who can spend a like
amount of money every year without overdrawing their bank accounts."
This is certainly very liberal to the architects, but what follows is
even more so. "There are," we are told, in addition to the magnates
just mentioned, "hosts of comparatively small fry whose annual profits
will pass the fifty-thousand-dollar mark." If an architect whose net
income is only a thousand dollars a week belongs to the "small fry,"
what name would these journalists have for the remaining insignificant
beings who practise architecture faithfully and skilfully, and thank
Providence sincerely if their year's work shows a profit of three
thousand dollars? Yet, with a tolerably extended acquaintance in the
profession, we are inclined to think that this list includes the
greater part of the architects in this country. As to the architects
whose usual income from their business is a hundred thousand dollars,
they are pure myths. The New York-Pittsburgh authority mentions by
name Mr. R. M. Hunt as one of them. As a counterpoise to this piece of
information, we will mention what a worthy contractor once said to us
about Mr. Hunt. The builders were not, in those days, very fond of our
venerated President. He had altogether too many new ideas to suit
their conservatism, which looked with horror on anything out of the
common way. "The fact is," said the contractor, in a burst of
confidence, "Mr. Hunt never could get a living at all if he hadn't a
rich wife." By averaging these two pieces of misinformation, after
the manner of the commissioners of statistics, one may, perhaps, get
some sort of notion of what a very able and distinguished architect in
New York, seconded by skilful and devoted assistants, can make out of
his business; but men so successful are extremely rare exceptions in
the profession, and the "hosts" of "small fry" whose annual profits
amount to fifty thousand dollars, of course, do not exist. It would be
a waste of time to notice such ridiculous assertions, were it not that
they do a great deal of harm to the profession and the public: to the
profession by making people believe that architects are combined to
extort an unreasonable compensation for their work; and to the public
by spreading the idea that the profession of architecture is just the
one in which their sons can become rapidly rich without much trouble.
It would be a useful thing to publish here, as is done in England, the
value of the estate left at their death by architects of distinction,
although in many cases this is greatly increased by inheritance, by
marriage, by fortunate investments or by outside employment; but, if
this should be done, it would be not less useful to publish also a few
true accounts of the early trials and struggles of architects. How
many of them have we known who have given drawing-lessons, illustrated
books, designed wall-papers, supervised laborers, delivered
lyceum-lectures or written for newspapers, happy if they could earn
two dollars a day while waiting for a vacancy in the "hosts" of
architects with a thousand dollars a week income. How many more, who
were glad of the help of their faithful young wives in eking out the
living which had love for its principal ingredient. And of those who
have persisted until time and opportunity have brought them a
comparatively assured, though modest position, how many have found
their way to it through architecture? If we are not mistaken, less
than half of the trained students in architecture turned out by our
technical schools are to be found in the profession six years later.
The others, ascertaining, on a closer view, that their expected income
of fifty thousand dollars a year is farther off than they anticipated,
and that fifty thousand cents is about as much as they can expect for
a good many years to come, drift away into other employments, and some
of them, no doubt, will be much astonished to learn from the newspaper
reporters what they have missed.

       *       *       *       *       *

We regret very much to hear of the death of Mr. George F. Durand,
Vice-President of the Canadian Society of Architects; which occurred
at London, Ontario, last week. Mr. Durand was young in the profession,
being only thirty-nine years old, but was very widely and favorably
known among architects and the public, both in Canada and elsewhere.
He was a native of London, but after spending a short time in the
office of the city engineer there, he went to Albany, N.Y., where he
was employed by Mr. Thomas Fuller as his chief assistant in the work
on the new capitol, which was then in Mr. Fuller's hands. When Mr.
Fuller was superseded, Mr. Durand left Albany with him, and, after a
year spent in Maine, with a granite company, he returned to his native
city, where he soon found constant and profitable employment, having
for several years built a large part of the most important structures
in Western Ontario. The London _Advertiser_, to which we owe most of
our information as to his works, offers to his relatives and friends
the sincere sympathy of the public which it represents, and we are
sure that the architects of the United States will join with their
brethren in Canada in mourning the loss of one who, at so early an
age, had conquered for himself so conspicuous a place in his laborious

       *       *       *       *       *

Some interesting experiments on concrete arches were made recently,
during the construction of the new railway station at Erfurt. Some of
the rooms were to be covered with concrete floors, carried on iron
beams, while others, of smaller size, were intended to be spanned by
arches extending from wall to wall. One of the latter, something over
seven feet in width, was covered with concrete, flat on top, and
forming on the underside a segmental arch, the thickness of the
material at the crown of the arch being four inches, and about eleven
inches at the springing. The concrete was made of "Germania" Portland
cement, mixed dry with gravel, moistened as required, and well rammed
on the centring; and skew-backs were cut in the brick walls at the
springing line, extending two courses higher, so as to give room for
the concrete to take a firm hold on the walls. Fourteen days after
completion, this floor was loaded with bricks and sacks of cement to
the amount of more than six hundred pounds per square foot, without
suffering any injury, although, after the load was on, a workman
hammered with a pick on the concrete, close to the loaded portion, so
as to provoke the cracking of the arch if there had been any tendency
to rupture. In the other cases, the concrete arches being turned
between iron beams, the strength of the floor was limited by that of
the beams, so the extreme load could not be put on; but the curious
fact was established that a section of concrete flat on top, and
forming a regular segmental arc beneath, was far stronger than one in
which a portion of the under surface was parallel to the upper;
showing, apparently, that the arched form, even with homogeneous
concrete, causes the conversion of a large part of a vertical pressure
into lateral thrust, reducing by so much the tendency of the load to
break the concrete transversely. This observation is important
theoretically as well as practically. It has been of late generally
maintained that a concrete arch is not an arch at all, but a lintel,
without thrust, and that the common form, flat above and arched
beneath, is objectionable, as it gives least material at the centre,
where a lintel is most strained. The Erfurt experiments directly
contradict this view, and it remains for some students of architecture
to render the profession a service by repeating them, and, at the same
time, actually determining the thrust, for a given load, of arches of
particular forms. Until this is done, the concrete construction, which
is likely, we may hope, to become before many years the prevailing one
in our cities, will be practised with difficulty and uncertainty, if
not with danger. Incidentally, a trial was made of the effect of
freezing on the concrete. The floor of a room arched in four bays,
between iron beams, had just been finished when the weather became
cold, and on the morning after its completion the thermometer stood at
twenty above zero. The concrete had not been protected in any way, and
the contractor was notified that it had been frozen, and must be
removed. This was early in December, and it was about the first of
April before the work of removal, preliminary to replacing the
concrete with new material, was begun. Three bays had been wholly or
partly removed when the hardness of the concrete under the workmen's
tools attracted attention, and the arch remaining intact was tested
with a load of three hundred pounds per square foot, which it bore

       *       *       *       *       *

The question how far an architect can be held responsible in damages,
in cases where the cost of work exceeds the estimates, is examined in
a recent number of _La Semaine des Constructeurs_, and some
considerations are mentioned which are new to us. According to
Frémy-Ligneville, the most familiar authority on the subject, the
architect incurs no responsibility whatever, either for his own
estimates or those of other people, unless he intentionally and
fraudulently misleads his client by a pretended estimate. In this
case, as in that of any other fraud, he is liable for the results of
his crime. Except under such circumstances, however, the architect's
estimate of cost is simply an expression of opinion, the correctness
of which he does not guarantee, any more than a lawyer guarantees the
correctness of an opinion, although important interests may depend
upon it. The owner can estimate the value of the architect's opinion,
as of the lawyer's, by the professional reputation of the man who
gives it, and, if he wishes to be more secure, he can go to another
architect, as he would to another lawyer, for an independent estimate.
Moreover, if the owner of the projected building is still anxious that
the cost should be strictly limited to the sum estimated by the
architects, he can have a contract drawn by which the builder shall be
obliged to complete it for that sum, and can have his plans and
specifications examined by competent authority, to see if they include
everything necessary. This ought to make him reasonably sure what his
house will cost him, provided he does not himself make changes in the
plans or specifications. If he has omitted to take this precaution,
and, as his building goes on, he finds that it is likely to exceed the
estimate, he has another excellent opportunity to protect himself, by
ordering immediately such changes in the plans and specifications for
the work yet remaining to be done as may reduce the expense to the
desired amount, and by doing so he generally suffers no damage, as, if
he does not get all he expected to for his money, he gets all his
money will pay for.

       *       *       *       *       *

With all these opportunities for revising and testing the correctness
of an architect's estimate, the man who neglects to avail himself of
any of them, and who allows the work on his house to go on, after it
has become evident that it will cost more than the estimate, has,
according to M. Frémy-Ligneville, no claim against any one on account
of his disappointment. Of course, the architect should be as careful
in his estimates as his experience allows him to be, and any
conscientious man would try not to mislead a client, but both he and
his client must remember that when the tenders of the builders
themselves usually vary from fifty to a hundred per cent for the same
piece of work, an architect's estimate cannot be anything more than an
opinion. Moreover, the architect should not forget that, being an
opinion, and not a guaranty, he is not only at liberty to modify it as
much and as often as he sees fit, but is bound to do so, and to inform
his client at once of the change, when fuller information, or
alteration in the circumstances, shall show him that the original
estimate is likely to be exceeded. If he does this frankly, although
his client may be disappointed, he cannot reproach the architect with
trying to deceive him, and there will probably still be time to make
the changes necessary for reducing the expense to the desired point.
In a case decided in Paris in July, 1855, a man was condemned to pay
fifty-four thousand francs for repairs done on a house. He proved that
his architect had estimated the expense at seven or eight thousand,
but it was shown that the architect had subsequently informed him that
it would be necessary to do more work than was at first contemplated,
and that he had made inquiries about the matter, and had turned out
his tenants so that the work might be done, and had paid the
contractors more than the sum originally estimated; and the court
thought he had no case at all against the architect.

       *       *       *       *       *

The great building firm of Peto Brothers, in England, having been
awarded a contract for a large public building, have taken advantage
of what, as they say, they consider a favorable opportunity to
initiate a system of profit-sharing with their men, in accordance with
a circular which is printed in the _Builder_. The system described by
the circular is very simple. It is to apply for the present, only to
the contract mentioned, but, if it works well, will be extended to
future cases. Under the arrangement proposed one-quarter of the net
profits of the contract are, when the building is done and the
accounts settled, to be divided, as a bonus above their wages, among
the men who have worked on it, in proportion to the wages they have
earned. The conditions under which each man is entitled to his share
are that he shall have worked long enough on the contract to have
earned five pounds, at the regular rate of wages; that he shall not
have neglected his duty, or misconducted himself, or wasted his time,
or in other ways have acted so as to diminish the profits of the
contract, or injure the reputation of the firm for good and honest
work; and, that he shall not have engaged in any strike for shorter
hours, or for wages above the schedule of wages which prevailed at the
time the contract was made, and upon which the contract price was
based. That the workmen may assure themselves of the fairness with
which the division is carried out they are invited by the circular to
send a representative to watch the making-up of the accounts by the
auditor of the firm, and to sign the balance-sheet. In order to
identify the claimants, every man must obtain a printed ticket from
the time-keeper, on beginning his work, countersigned by the foreman,
and noting the day and hour when his employment commenced, with his
name, number and wages. This is to be again signed and countersigned
when he leaves, and must be produced to secure a share in the
dividend. Unpretending as it is, this bids fair to be one of the most
interesting experiments in social science yet tried, and unless the
trades-unions in England have forgotten their prowess, it will not be
carried out without a struggle. Our readers will remember Mr. Lewis H.
Williams's experiences in trying a similar plan with his carpenters in
New York, and his final victory, but he had only one union to contend
with, and that not a very compact one, while Messrs. Peto Brothers
will have all the building trades about their ears at once, and the
great question whether men shall be allowed to do only a fixed amount
of work in a day, and that amount as small as possible, or whether
they shall be allowed to work as they please, will be fairly brought
before the parties for decision.



From _Building News_.

Most people are willing to admit that they cannot afford to pay over
twice as much for a thing as it is worth; but few in this country are
aware that they do this very thing when they build for themselves an
independent city dwelling-house or pay a rent equivalent to or greater
than the interest on this outlay.

In the old country the secret of obtaining luxury and economy combined
in building has been learned, and rich and poor, fashionable and
unfashionable alike live in "flats." In America, people have not yet
learned this lesson, but cling to the old and barbarous custom of
living _perpendicularly_ in isolated towers, with all the cares and
worries that go with isolated management.

[Illustration: Figure 1.]

Nothing shows more clearly than this, how much man is a creature of
habit. In his savage state, the nature of his existence necessitated
the isolated hut. As civilization advanced, however, the necessity
for, and enormous advantages of coöperation became evident, but habit
perpetuated the isolated dwelling long after the reasons for its
existence had disappeared, and it required centuries for civilized men
to learn that coöperation is an element as essential to perfection in
the arrangement of their habitations as it is in other things.

_A given accommodation may be obtained in the form of a "flat" for
less than one-half the outlay required to obtain it in the form of an
independent dwelling built on the same land._

The form of comparison herein presented has never, to my knowledge,
been heretofore made, and the results are as surprising as they are
important and interesting.

The estimates of cost have been made by several competent contractors
on scale drawings and accurate specifications, are easily verified and
hence may be accepted as reliable.

Figure 1 is one of the plans of our apartment-house which is to be
built on the Back Bay, Boston.

Figure 2 shows the floor-plans of an independent house which might be
built on the same land. Both figures are drawn to the same scale for
convenience in comparing the dimensions. The independent-house (which
I shall, in contradistinction to the "flat," designate as the "tower"
to mark its prominent point of difference from the "flat" in form)
contains a kitchen, pantry, furnace-room, fuel-cellar, laundry,
dining-room, china-closet, parlor, eight bed-chambers provided with
suitable closets, two bath-rooms, a trunk-room, a front staircase
extending from the first floor to the attic, and a back staircase
extending from the basement to the third floor. What will these
accommodations cost in this form and what in the form of a "flat" in
an apartment-house?

The apartment-house contains a public kitchen, steam-heating,
ventilating and electric-lighting isolated plants, fuel-cellar,
laundry, café, billiard-room, gentlemen's smoking-room, ladies'
parlor, small public dining-rooms, and eighty suites, _averaging_ five
rooms, a bath-room and closets in each, and with a trunk or
storage-room in the basement for each suite; four elevators and four
fireproof staircases of iron and marble enclosed in brick walls from
basement to roof.

The suites are of different sizes to suit the proposed occupants, and
will have from two to twelve or more rooms of varying dimensions as
desired. They are partly "housekeeping" suites, _i. e._, having
kitchens and dining-rooms; partly "hotel" suites, _i. e._, having
neither kitchens nor dining-rooms, the occupants preferring to use the
public café and dining-rooms; and partly "semi-housekeeping" suites,
_i. e._, having dining-rooms and china-closets with dumb-waiters
connecting them with the public-kitchen, but no independent kitchen.
The "housekeeping" suites require one more bed-room than the others,
to accommodate a private cook.

Assuming now at first in our comparison those conditions which are
least favorable to the apartment-house, we will take one of the
"housekeeping" suites, having precisely the same number and size of
rooms as we find in our independent house or "tower" and compare

The only difference in the accommodation in each case is that, in the
"flat," the rooms are accessible to one another without the use of
stairs, while in the "tower" six flights of stairs in all are used,
constituting in the aggregate a ladder, as it were, of about a hundred
steps; also in the fact that in the "tower" the owner has to manage
his own heating, ventilating and hot-water supply apparatus, while in
the "flat" this work is done for him; that in the "tower" wooden
staircases and no elevators are used, while in the "flat" fireproof
staircases enclosing elevators are provided; that in the "tower" the
main partitions are often of wood while in the flat they are of brick
a foot thick and each "flat" is separated from its neighbor by a brick
wall a foot thick and all the floors are completely deadened against
the transmission of sound; and finally that in the "tower" no external
fire-escape is provided, while the "flat" has convenient external
fire-escapes of iron. Otherwise the accommodations are in both cases
precisely the same.

The total cost of this apartment-house, including the building-lot
valued at, say, $5 a square foot, has been carefully estimated at

This is the highest of two competitive estimates given by two
responsible builders, and comprises general cooking-plant,
electric-lighting, steam-heating and ventilating apparatus, iron
staircases and fire-escapes, elevators, copper roofing, architect's
commission, and, in short, everything required for occupancy and use
except wall-paper.

The first floor contains 16,688 square feet of available room. (By
"available" I mean room which is directly occupied by, and which must
be separately provided for each owner. That is, it excludes
staircases, furnace, laundry, etc., which might be used in common by
many owners and therefore need not be duplicated for each, and which
are only indirectly serviceable to each owner in contributing to the
usefulness of those which are directly enjoyed.) The six floors above
contain 23,288 square feet of available room each, making a total of
156,416 square feet. Adding 10,880 square feet for basement storage
and trunk-room for the suites, and 2,000 square feet in the basement
for barber's shop, apothecary, carriage and other offices along the
street fronts, we have a total of 169,296 square feet of available
room in the entire apartment-house. Dividing the total cost $617,771
by this figure we have $3.65 for the cost of each square foot of
available room in the building.

Our "tower" measures twenty-five feet front on party lines, by seventy
feet deep. Its available rooms comprise parlor, library, music-room,
eight closeted-chambers, two bath-rooms, a trunk-room, a dining-room,
and we may add a kitchen for those who still believe in having an
independent cook.

The area of these rooms is as follows:

    Parlor            374 sq. ft.
    Library           374    "
    Music-room        154    "
    Chamber No. 1     384    "
    Chamber No. 2     528    "
    Chamber No. 3     170    "
    Chamber No. 4     252    "
    Chamber No. 5     162    "
    Chamber No. 6     286    "
    Chamber No. 7     242    "
    Chamber No. 8     315    "
    2 Bath-rooms      144    "
    Trunk-room        136    "
    Dining-room       408    "
    Kitchen           384    "
    China-closet      136    "
    Other closets     410    "

Making a total of 4,859 square feet of available room in the "tower."
Its total cost on a twenty-five foot lot of the average depth on the
Back Bay, _i. e._, 112 feet, the land being valued as before at $5 per
square foot, would be at the lowest estimate $32,000 at the present
prices, the wood finish being equally good with that in the "flat." If
we figure, however, for the same style of lighting, heating,
ventilating and fireproofing, and provide an elevator and outside
fire-escape, the cost could not be put below $40,000.

The same amount of available space, _i. e._, 4,859 square feet in our
"flat" would cost at $3.65 per square foot as above estimated,

If now we consider that the management of a private kitchen and an
Irish cook does not actually constitute the essence of a home in its
broadest sense, but, that on the contrary, it really deprives a home
of its greatest charm, namely, peace of mind and rest of body, the
kitchen and the cook's bed-chamber may be omitted from our "flat" in
view of the public kitchen. The area of our "flat" then becomes 4,475
square feet, which, at $3.65 per foot, brings the cost down to a
little over $16,000.

Finally, if we omit the dining-room also, with its china-closet, our
area becomes 3,931 square feet, and the cost only $14,350 for the
"flat," against $40,000 for the "tower," the former being but little
over a third of the latter.

So much for the saving in the case of a large family and large suite.
For a small suite, such as would be required for a single person, or a
small family of two or three persons, the saving at once mounts to a
very much larger figure; so much so, indeed, as to render the use of
the isolated house in such cases a most inordinate extravagance,
except for the very rich. Thus a single person, or a family of two or
three, could be very comfortably provided for with three or four
rooms, and a bath-room in an apartment-house having a good café.
Estimating the rooms to measure 18 x 22 feet, their area would be a
little over 400 feet each, including closets, and their cost $1,460
apiece; or for smaller rooms of, say, 14 x 15 feet, or 224 square-feet
surface, the cost would be but $818 apiece. An isolated dwelling, on
the same land, of only eighteen feet frontage and fifty feet deep,
would cost, including the lot at $5 a foot, not less than $18,000 or
$8,000, without the land. Of course, in such an isolated dwelling,
electric-lighting, steam-heating, fireproof stairs, and other luxuries
of the "flat," would hardly be expected.

By the arrangement of our apartment-house, there are twenty-four
corner-suites out of the eighty. These have direct sunlight on either
one or both of their exposed fronts, and may be estimated as worth
fifty per cent more than the rest. In other words, 3/10 of the whole
available room space is worth fifty per cent more, and 7/10
correspondingly less than the average price of $3.65 per foot.
Therefore, $3.65 x 1-1/2 = $5.47 = price of corner-suites per foot,
3/10 x the total area 169,296 square feet = 50,788 square feet x $5.47
= $277,810, which, deducted from $617,771, leaves $339,961 to
represent the total cost of the remaining 7/10. The total area 169,296
x 7/10 = 118,507 square feet of available space in the inner-suites.
Hence $339,961/118,507 = $2.86 as the price per square foot of the
inner-suites, or all suites which are not corner-suites.

Now, as our estimates on the "tower" were made on the basis of its
being an inner building in a block and not a corner-house, our
estimates for the "flat" should be on a basis of $2.86, instead of
$3.65, as taken. Therefore, our suite of 4,859 square feet would be
but $13,896 if the "flat" were any other than a corner one, and if the
public kitchen and café were used, it would be $11,242, or _but a
little more than a quarter of that of the "tower!"_

The foregoing figures are easily explained, and their correctness
verified by the following simple diagrams and considerations:

[Illustration: Figure 2.]

In Figure 2 the shaded parts of the plans represent the unavailable
room which, under the apartment-house system, are rendered
unnecessary, and they are practically wasted. Thus the eighty
families, by uniting their eighty homes in one coöperative apartment,
save 156 staircases consisting of seventy-six front and eighty back
staircases, seventy-eight furnaces, seventy-nine laundries, etc., and
nearly all the space they occupy, and the land, foundation and roof
they represent.

[Illustration: Figure 3.]

This waste space may be graphically shown by the diagrams in Figure 3.
The large black-and-white line represents the "tower," and the shorter
the "flat." The black part of each line denotes unavailable, and the
white part available room, the sum of the two denoting the total
cubical contents of each dwelling. The white parts of the lines
measure the same length in each case, because the amount of available
room in "tower" and "flat" is assumed at the outset to be the same.
Thus in the "tower," the front and back staircases and halls take up
22,000 cubic feet out of the total 106,000 cubic feet covered by the
entire building. In the "flat" the proportional part of the halls and
staircases for each suite is represented by a comparatively
insignificant quantity as shown.

Again, an enormous waste is shown in the flooring, roof and air-spaces
of the "tower," while this item is but a trifle in the "flat." The six
floors, each 16 inches thick, and the roofing make up together in the
"tower" 12,000 cubic feet, or nearly the equivalent of an entire
story. Add to this 12,000 cubic feet of air-space under the roof and
over the concrete, and we have in these items a waste of 24,000 cubic
feet, against only 4,000 in the "flat."

Thus we see that the waste space in the "tower" actually exceeds the
available. Yet it must be paid for at the same rate with the latter.
Deducting the waste in the "flat" from that in the "tower," we find
the balance of waste space in the "tower" to be equal to the
available, showing graphically that the "tower" must cost, in these
items alone, just twice as much as the "flat."

[Illustration: Figure 4.]

Figure 4 shows a block-plan on a very small scale of the
apartment-house, and a block-plan on the same scale of 40 "towers"
adjoining each other, and having the same available space as the
apartment-house. These plans show how much more land is required to
give the same accommodations (minus the conveniences and luxuries of
an apartment-house) in the "tower" system than in the "flat."

The shaded portions in each block-plan represent the aggregate of
available room in each case. This shows very strikingly what an
enormous proportion of land and material is wasted in the "tower"

In short, the possible saving in first cost for each family adopting
the "flat" system of building lies between $14,265 and $28,758, making
an aggregate saving for the 80 families occupying the apartment of
between one and two millions of dollars.

The annual running expenses are also greatly in favor of the "flat"
system when the advantages of coöperation are used to its greatest

Eighty independent Irish cooks give way to a professional _chef_ and
half-a-dozen _attachés_. The wages and maintenance of the 80 cooks
would amount to an annual sum of not less than $40,000; those of the
_chef_ and his assistants to hardly $10,000, making in this one item a
possible annual saving of $30,000.

The management of the 80 independent Irish cooks, if possible at all,
could only be accomplished by the constant struggle of 80 worried and
largely inexperienced owners or their wives. The management of the
_chef_ and his _attachés_ could more easily be managed by a single
person, either selected from among the 80 families and suitably
recompensed, or employed as a professional manager at a regular
salary. Or the entire control of the _café_, and kitchen could be let
out by contract to some suitable caterer, if preferred.

Corresponding savings are evidently possible in every other department
of housekeeping, including steam-heating, ventilating, laundry-work,
lighting and elevator-work. In all of these particulars, coöperation,
judiciously conducted, has been shown to yield surprising economies.

But there are other advantages even more important than its economy in
favor of the "flat." Freedom from housekeeping cares has already been
touched upon. In the "tower," life is spent in training and treating
with servants, mechanics and market-men. The private cook is a volcano
in a house, slumbering at times, but always ready to burst forth into
destructive eruption. True repose is out of the question, and we are
told that "the motive for foreign travel of perhaps one-half of
Americans is rest from household cares and the enjoyment of good
attendance, freed from any responsibility in its organization and

Security against burglary and fire is another. In a good
apartment-house, trained watchmen stand on guard night and day to
protect the occupants, and stand-pipes, hose and fire-buckets are
provided in all the halls, and kept in repair for emergency.

The family may leave their apartments for travel summer or winter,
knowing that their property is as secure as modern appliances, system
and ingenuity can make it. Not so with our isolated dwelling. The cost
of providing all these means of protection is too great to make them
practicable. The result is that the fear of burglary and fire at all
times causes uneasiness, particularly on the part of the wife during
the absence of her husband.

Beauty in the architectural arrangement of the rooms is a third
advantage of the "flat." In this it has all the advantage of the
double house or residence of the immensely rich. The rooms may be
grouped in a manner which renders possible the highest architectural
effect, whereas in the "tower" the perpendicular arrangement evidently
precludes such opportunity by limiting the design to a wearisome and
monotonous repetition from basement to attic.

No argument can be sustained against the "flat" on the ground of
transmission of sound or want of privacy and isolation, for sound may
be as fully deadened as in the "tower" by means of the 12-inch brick
separating walls shown in our plan, and the most improved deafening
treatment of the floor-joists.

Isolation may be made complete in the "flat," the private halls and
front doors of each suite being in every respect the equivalent of
those in the "tower"; the only difference being that with the "flat"
the outer world begins with the public hall and its elevator, while
with the "tower" it begins with the public street and its horse-car.

Add to these advantages the possibility for a greatly enlarged and
delightful social intercourse which a properly arranged and conducted
apartment-house provides, and we have as near an approach to the ideal
of a human habitation as has yet been devised.




The city of Brooklyn has at last waked up to realize her size and
importance architecturally. Brooklyn, though growing very rapidly and
having many buildings of importance, has really had very little good
architecture, for the simple reason that the profession, not being in
any way organized, could not, as a rule, receive the treatment due
respectable architects. For this reason many young men who would not
be capable of practising elsewhere, have flocked to this city, and by
various methods, many of which are far from honorable, have succeeded
in getting control of most of the work. However, we hope for better

The Brooklyn Institute some time ago decided to organize a Department
of Architecture, and for this purpose a meeting of architects was
called, which led to several more meetings and the attendance at these
was exceedingly hopeful for the new department, some forty or fifty
architects signifying their willingness to help along in the work;
finally a public meeting was held in the Institute on Friday December
13, at which some six or seven hundred persons were present, and the
Department was fully organized; the constitution carefully thought-out
at the previous meetings was adopted, and the following list of
officers chosen:

_President_, G. L. Morse; _Vice-President_, Louis De Coppet Berg;
_Secretary_, William B. Tubby; _Treasurer_, Gustave A. Jahn;
_Committee on Current Work_, Richard M. Upjohn, R. L. Daus and Louis
De Coppet Berg; _Committee on Museum and Library_, Walter E. Parfitt,
Pierre Le Brun; and Wm. Hamilton Gibson; _Committee on Competitions
and Awards_, R. L. Daus, D. E. Laub, Russell Sturgis; _Committee on
Professional Practice_, Walter Dickson, Albert F. D'Oench, Richard M.
Upjohn; _Committee on Social Intercourse_, H. P. Fowler, Charles T.
Mott and General Ingram.

During the necessary intervals of balloting, etc., the President, Mr.
George L. Morse, made a short address, setting forth the history of
the previous meetings, and congratulating the local architects on the
prospect of having a strong and well-organized society.

Mr. Louis De Coppet Berg, of the firm of J. C. Cady & Co., Architects,
then addressed the meeting as follows:--

      When a young man enters a profession, and particularly
      the profession of architecture, if perchance he gets
      an original idea, or a little knowledge, he at once
      becomes very secretive, tries to keep it all to
      himself for fear some one else will benefit by it, and
      marks all his drawings "The property of...," and "Not
      to be copied, or used, without the consent of the
      author, _under penalty of the law_." As he grows a
      little older in his profession he begins to find out
      that a few others have ideas as well as himself, and
      know a little something once in a while; and as he
      grows still older he finds that there are a great many
      others, who know a great deal more than he does, and
      who have a great many better ideas than he has; and
      then it is, that he longs for communication with his
      professional brethren, and he finds that, in order to
      get the benefit of their ideas and knowledge, he must
      freely communicate his own to them. Hence it is that
      in most of the large cities we find some association
      of architects; Brooklyn, however, the third city of
      the Union, is unique in this respect, that it has
      absolutely no place where professional architects can
      meet and discuss the different problems of their

      To remedy this evil, the Brooklyn Institute proposed
      to establish a Department of Architecture, and for
      this purpose called together a large number of local

      Now, we have decided that, if we have any Department
      at all, it shall be a live one; and this reminds me of
      a squib I read in the paper the other day, telling
      how, somewhere in Spain, they had unearthed an old
      painting, which was pronounced a genuine Murillo. It
      was said that the experts could not as yet determine
      whether the subject of the cracked and dingy old
      canvas was a Madonna or a Bull Fight, but that,
      nevertheless, they did not hesitate to declare that it
      was a great acquisition to art. Now, that is the
      trouble with most associations of architects; if the
      subject for discussion is only old, cracked and dingy
      enough, they are happy. Nothing delights them more
      than to spend all their time and energies in
      discussing Etruscan or other antique architectures, or
      the exact differentiations between the many styles of
      architecture. Now, while we value the history of an
      art, and shall give it all due attention, we propose
      to remember that the modern architect, besides being
      an artist, must be one of the most practical and
      executive of business men.

      We admit that our ancestors in the profession designed
      beautiful castles, magnificent cathedrals and lovely
      châteaux, but we remember that these castles, these
      cathedrals, these châteaux were planned without any
      comfort; that they had no plumbing devices, no methods
      for cooking, no systems of heating or ventilation, and
      no way of getting light but the miserable taper; while
      to-day the architect, besides being a thorough artist,
      who knows how to design and to color, besides being
      thoroughly up in the history of his art, must know how
      to plan for comfort, to construct for strength and
      stability; must understand all the details of boilers,
      machinery, dynamos, electric-wiring, heating and
      ventilating systems, plumbing and sanitation, and
      lastly must be able to manage the complicated finances
      of large undertakings.

      Now, to carry out these ideas in our work, we shall,
      in the first place, establish a museum and library, to
      which we shall welcome all gifts of books, pictures,
      models, casts, etc., whether illustrating the
      artistic, or the practical side of the profession.
      Then we shall have a course of monthly, public
      lectures by competent authorities, the subjects of
      which will probably be very largely chosen from the
      artistic side of the profession. We also propose to
      have stated meetings of the Department monthly, at
      which some carefully selected papers will be read by
      experts, the subjects of which will be given out as
      long in advance as possible, in order that all may be
      thoroughly prepared for a full and open discussion;
      and then, after these meetings, in order to promote
      sociability amongst the members, and to show how
      thoroughly practical we are, we propose to have
      something to eat. We also hope later to establish
      schools, not only for young men, but particularly for
      draughtsmen, where they can be taught, not only the
      art of drawing, but also the many practical branches
      connected with the profession.

The meeting was also addressed by the Rev. Dr. Chas. H. Hall,
President of the Associate Members. He spoke at great length and kept
his audience intensely interested by describing his own acquaintance
with architecture, beginning with the original negro log-house down
South, then the prim buildings of old Andover and Harvard, and finally
how he saw the great former St. Ann's of Brooklyn, the likeness of
which, he said, could be seen any day on the piers of New York when
they were unloading dry-goods boxes; and how he finally went abroad
and saw the beautiful architecture of Paris, which he could not praise
enough. He was also unstinted in his praise of the modern beauty and
architecture of Washington. He also spoke of his visits to London,
and, while he admitted that Englishmen thought their architecture
beautiful, he took exception, and claimed that the great St. Paul's,
though beautiful to the English eye, was a cold barren building,
blacked with smoke inside and out, a place where you could not be
comfortable, nor hear the speaker at any distance. We regret that we
are not able to give a verbatim account of his witty address.

At the end of Dr. Hall's address, the lecturer of the evening,
Professor Russell Sturgis, architect, of New York, addressed the
meeting as follows, his subject being "The Study of Architecture,"
with particular reference to the architecture of to-day.


With regard to architecture and all the arts of decoration, there is a
strange difference between the practice of them, and such study as
looks toward practice, on the one hand, and the history and theory of
them, with such study as that involves, on the other. Quite completely
are these two studies separated, each from the other. A man may be
most active and successful as a practising designer, and successful in
an artistic way, too, with no knowledge and little thought of the
history of his own branch of art, and with little curiosity as to its
philosophy or its poetry. And, on the other hand, a man may be a very
earnest student, and a happy and delighted student of the history and
criticism of art, and know nothing, and care as little, about the
profession or practice of any art, or about studio ways and studio
traditions. I do not know that in any branch of human study this
distinction is so marked and so strong. This is to be regretted, for
many reasons, but it can hardly be done away with so long as the
community is generally careless of both the theoretical and the
practical--so long as the students and the practitioners alike feel
themselves nearly isolated units, floating in a sea of good-humored
indifference. This state of things only time can alter. Only time can
civilize our new community in intellectual and perspective matters;
but there are some other conditions which are more immediately in our
power to modify, perhaps--let us see:

It is as true as if it had not been repeated, even to fatigue and
boredom, that the arts of decoration have been in a bad way for a good
part of the century past, at least among some European and
Europeanized nations. I do not imagine that a Frenchman would admit
that architecture and the arts of decoration had ever languished in
his own society. Your cultivated Frenchman would say that some periods
were better than others, but that there were no bad periods; he would
say that, to be sure, the style of the First Napoleon's Empire was not
a very fortunate style,--too stiff, too absurdly pseudo-classic,
unworthy of France, a poor enough successor of the dainty and playful
art of Louis XV, or the somewhat more refined and restrained art of
Louis XVI: but he would say that it was art still, and the period a
not wholly inartistic period; and even of the dull times of the
Napoleon of Peace, from 1830 to 1848, while he would confess to a
great deal of languor and lack of public spirit of all sorts, except
in the struggle which the Romantic artists, headed by Delacroix, waged
with the Classicists, headed by Ingres; while he would admit that the
abundant wood-cuts and lithographs, the painting and statues much less
abundant even in proportion, and the buildings very few and
unimportant, were not sufficient to make up a great artistical epoch,
that is, for France; yet as for its being an epoch without art,--such
a thing as that, he would say France had not known since she was
France. And he would be right.

But if said of England it would be pretty nearly true, if it were said
that the whole amount of art of the decorative kind that existed in
England between 1810 and 1850, for instance, would fill but a small
museum, and that its quality would fill but slight requirements, it
would require a bold Anglophil to contradict. There came a dull pall,
like that of her own black fogs, over social London, and the
stucco-fronted languors of Baker Street and Portland Place are no
worse than were the dull monotony of the interiors behind them.
Veneered and polished mahogany furniture, very much too large and too
heavy for the rooms; black haircloth, like the grave clothes of Art,
for the covering of everything that could be sat upon; cold,
brownish-red curtains, of shiny but not lustrous material; silver
candlesticks of monstrous design,--these, and such as these, were the
decorative objects which our fathers or our grandfathers admired, or
felt that they must admire for want of better, during the unhappy
years that I have cited. The delicate carvings that the furniture of a
generation just previous had received, were forgotten. People put up
with Chippendale chairs in their dining-rooms because they had
belonged to their fathers and nothing special was offered to take
their place; but there is no record that they cared for them. The
richer and more fantastic carvings of Grinling Gibbons had never
obtained any general recognition nor availed to modify the woodwork of
the domestic interiors of England. The brocades and flowered silks
which the eighteenth century had revelled in, and if in England not
strong enough artistically to produce them itself, had brought into
England from other lands;--these were replaced by the dismal things I
have alluded to, and no vestige of them seems to have remained in the
parlors of that unhappy time.

Richness of costume had disappeared with the wars of the French
Revolution. Embroidered silk coats had given place gradually to
claret-colored and blue broadcloth, and this gave place to black, and
all variety in costume had disappeared completely; and now, from 1810
to 1850, fantastically varied and interesting house-furnishing and
decoration had followed, as I suppose it inevitably must follow;
costume, being, one fears, a necessary part of anything like a
prosperous artistic epoch.

Out of this gloomy depression the Anglo-Saxon world, in England and in
this country, is trying to emerge. It began its efforts with the
perfectly natural conviction that by studying the artistic history of
the past, something could be done to benefit the arts of the present.
The Gothic revival, which you have heard of so much, and which was
followed with real ardor and with unquestioning zeal by crowds of
devotees for years, beginning with, perhaps, 1840, was an attempt
along the most obvious lines,--along what seemed to be the line of
least resistance, to change the metaphor. To develop anew an old art,
which had flourished so greatly in the past,--how easy! and how
certain! How certain were the enthusiasts of that time, that by
earnestly poring over and closely analyzing and heartily loving the
buildings of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, such buildings,
and others like them, could be built in the nineteenth! How happy was
the conviction of all these men that it was not more difficult than
that! The secret of what had been done was to be found in the
phenomena themselves. There, in this parish church, in this cathedral,
lay the secret of their charm. Let us analyze first, they said, and
let us put together again the ingredients that our analysis shall have
discovered, and we will re-create the thing that we are in search of.

In like manner, in the minor arts, the people of 1850 felt, or some of
them did, that they did not know how to weave curtains that it was
worth any one's while to hang up, except to shut out the light and
shut in the warmth; that so far as beauty of texture, beauty of
pattern, and beauty of color went, they were powerless to produce
anything of any avail. But they saw that the Venetians of the
sixteenth century and the Florentines of the seventeenth century and
the French of the eighteenth century had produced splendid stuffs; and
although there were no museums in those days that condescended to
anything so humble, such stuffs were still to be bought of the
bric-à-brac dealers, and very cheap, too, and still existed, rolled up
in some old garrets. By studying them, surely the art of making others
like them could be learned. And so around the whole circle of the arts
of decoration, it was believed, and in thoroughly good faith, and
with, as it seemed, perfectly good reason, that the study of what had
been would suffice, with zeal and patience and good will, to the
production of what should be.

Well, the experiment has failed. Archæology is the most delightful of
pursuits, but it is not particularly conducive of good art. The German
professor, who knows the most about Phidian sculpture, is as far as
his youngest pupil from being able to produce anything Phidian, but,
of course, this is not a fair example. The German professor does not
profess to be a sculptor. Let us say then, that that sculptor now
alive who knows the most, theoretically and historically about Greek
art, is as far as his most ignorant contemporary and rival from having
Greek methods of work. This is a safe proposition. I do not know who
he is, nor can any one tell me. It is not a question of men, but of
principles. The study of the monuments of art is one thing, their
analysis, their criticism, their comparison, is one of the most
attractive, the most fascinating, the most stimulating, the most
absorbing of studies, one that I shall never cease commending in the
most earnest way to all those persons to whom scholarship is dear and
to whom it is a question of recommending a study which is worthy of
their most earnest and hearty devotion, but it is not the study of
practical art, that is another and a very different thing.

The way to make good sculpture is to let the youth thumb and punch and
dabble in wet clay, and see what he can make of it; and the way to
make a painter is to give the boy now a burnt stick, and at another
time a pin and a back of a looking-glass, and see what he can
delineate with such materials as these and with all other materials
with which a line can be drawn. To look at the world, and what it
contains, and to try and render what is suggested to him,--that is the
training for the artist, and it has more to do with our beloved study
of archæology than if they were not concerned with the same subject.
This, I say, has been proven. Sad experience, the waste of forty years
of work, disappointment and despair, have taught some of our artists
what others did not need to learn,--that the way to succeed was not
through study of the past. The artist has no primary need of
archæological knowledge; the archæologist has no need of any fact that
the artist can furnish him with.

Suggestions; yes! Each side can furnish the other with suggestions in
abundance, and suggestions which each can immediately profit by. An
able artist, if a fellow of modesty and frank speech, can hardly talk
without giving the student of the theory of art hints which the latter
should study over at home before he sleeps upon them; for the secret
of much that is vital and essential in his study is to be found in
these hints; and on the other hand, I imagine that an artist would be
better off, and have more play of mind, and readier and fresher
conceptions, if he would now and then listen to what the student of
old art has to tell him about what is to be observed in this or that
monument of the past. But beyond that there is no connection between
them. I will run two _ateliers_ side by side, one for archæologists,
and one for practical students of architecture and they need never

This will be more readily admitted, perhaps, in the case of the arts
of expression than in the case of arts of decoration and let us define
these terms. If you will allow me, I will quote from an address
delivered a year ago before the New York Architectural League. Any
work of art whose object is to explain and express the thing
represented, or to convey the artist's thought about the thing
represented, is art of representation, or, if you please, art of
expression, or if you please, expressional art. I offer these as
nearly synonymous terms. But if, on the other hand, the work of art
has for its object the adornment of a surface of any sort, as a
weapon, a utensil, an article of costume, and if the natural objects
represented or suggested are used only as suggestions to furnish
pretty lines and pleasant tints, which lines and tints might have been
after all represented apart from the object were man's mind more
creative than it is,--that is art of decoration.

Now, architecture, you see, is primarily an industrial affair, a
method of covering men in from the rain, and admitting light into
their protected interiors, and of warming those interiors, and in a
few rare cases of ventilating them, and in providing a variety of
apartments, communications, and the like for the varied requirements
of a complicated existence; and it need not put on any artistic
character at all. But as architecture becomes a fine art, it is
perforce one of the arts of decoration. It has nothing to do with the
arts of expression. Mr. Ruskin and all his life work to the contrary,
notwithstanding, the business of building is not to tell tales about
the world and its contents, not to set forth the truths of botany or
of zoology, or of humanity, or of theology. If zoological or botanical
or human objects are introduced, or representations of them, it is not
for the sake of information that can be given about these interesting
things, nor for the sake of expressing the artist's mind about them,
nor for the sake of saying anything whatever in regard to them. It is
for the sake of making the building beautiful. When the Oxford Museum
stood presenting to the street a flat-fronted wall, diversed with
pointed arches, and carvers were set to work bands of rich sculpture
around the windows; although Mr. Ruskin had a great deal to do with
that edifice, and architects of his own choosing were in charge of it,
and clever Irish workmen of his own approval were producing the
interesting carvings of those archivolts and tympanums, in spite of
all theories, the object aimed at and the object attained by that
outlay of time and money and skill was the beautifying of the
building, and this was achieved to an extent probably beyond what its
planners proposed to themselves, for the effect of well-applied
sculpture upon a building is beneficial to an extent that would never
be believed by one who has not often watched the changes that can be
wrought in this way. They who have said that the Gothic Cathedral is
nothing but a work of associated sculpture are not far wrong, and to
produce a lovely building, one would rather have the blankest
malt-house or brewery in New York, and some good carvers set to work
upon it, than to have the richest architectural achievement of our
time, devoid as it is and must be of decorative sculpture. For to get
decorative sculpture, you must have your sculptors; and they, you
know, are wanting. Where are the men who will model capitals and
panels in clay, with some sense of ornamental effect? We have the men
who can make a copy in relief of an architect's drawings: but then the
architect, even if he have the sense of ornamental effect, in the
first place can never draw out, full size and with care, all the work
required in a rich building, and, in second place, can never design
sculptured form aright by mere drawings on the flat. The architects of
New York and Brooklyn are employing today, I suppose, 3,000
draughtsmen, of which number two or three hundred at least are engaged
most of the time in making large scale and full-size drawings of
architectural detail, in which sculpture plays a large part. Well, we
need as many modellers, who, either in architects' offices, or in
stone-cutters' yards and terra-cotta works, shall be putting into
tangible form the dreams and thoughts of the designer's brain. "As
many," do I say? Once it is found that architectural sculpture can be
got promptly and cheaply, and conveniently, it is not 200 modellers
only that this big community around the big bridge will need; but
architects will engage three or four or a dozen at a time, as they now
engage draughtsmen when big jobs come in.

For so the relative success and power today of the arts of expression
seem to assure us. When we come to look into the subject, we find that
modern life, which finds its expression freely in prose and in verse,
and to a slight extent in music, finds some expression also in those
arts which deal with expression. It is perhaps not a great artistic
epoch that we are living in, although, if some one were to rise by and
by, and maintain that it was, I would not be sure that he was wrong.
It is certainly a kind of novel and in many ways admirable art in the
way of expression. Great thoughts have found expression almost worthy
of them in painting, in sculpture, in etching, in wood-engravings, in
color and in black-and-white; in the single costly work of art and in
the easily multiplied and cheap productions of the press. It is true
that in these the thoughts are not always worthy of the expression
they receive. This is partly because we have nearly lost the desire of
talking about our religious beliefs in line and color and modelled
form, and that no other subject of equal universal interest has taken
the place of the ancient, simple and popular theology.

Patriotism, as shown in scenes of battle and pictures of deeds of
gallantry and self-sacrifice; poetry, as seen in pictures which
suggest sweet thoughts of young love and of home affections and of
childish grace; the love of wild nature, as seen in our school of
landscape art, now nearly fifty years old and flourishing--none of
these nor all of them together have quite replaced the priestly
theology of the Middle Ages as a subject for art, for none are quite
so universal or appeal quite so readily to the untutored eye and mind.
And so the uniform is better painted than the soldier very often, and
the outside of nature than her inward spirit, and the flesh of the
baby or the golden hair of the girl better than the baby nature or the
girl nature in each instance. But this is to be stated merely as a
drawback from praise which would otherwise be too unmeasured and too
universal. The world contains a vast amount of good art of very recent
date, and every year adds to the amount. The worst thing that can be
said of the time is that it should be capable of producing so
incalculably great an amount of bad art at the same time; that the
walls of the Paris _Salon_ should be so hung with inferior work every
year that the important pictures are lost in chaos; and that, while
this is true of the _Salon_, it is true to an immeasurably greater
degree of the Royal Academy, of the New York Academy and every other
exhibition in the world, except where a selected few paintings hang on
reserved walls.

And as for sculpture, that is to say expressional sculpture, it is
even more true in this case that the poor works terribly outnumber the
good ones, though this is less noticed and makes less impression on
the public. Our English-speaking communities do not even think of
sculpture as a thing to look to for any refined enjoyment. How far the
labors of a dozen living men, all Frenchmen but two or three, may have
sufficed during the past score of years to change the public mind in
this matter, I am not ready to say; but, surely, it has not been the
general thought that sculpture is anything more than an expensive and
perfunctory way of doing one's duty to a great occasion or a great
man. This, however, is temporary. The good sculpture exists and will
be recognized. So much for expressional art.

But, as for the arts of decoration, once more, there is not so much to
be said. As yet the way to subdue technicalities and enthrone design
has not been discovered. The way to produce beautiful buildings is
known to none. The way to produce good interior decoration, good
furniture, good jewelry, beautiful stuffs, has only been seen by here
and there one, and his lead no one will follow. The fact of his having
done a fine thing, or of his doing fine things habitually, acts not as
an attraction to others, but as a warning to them to keep off. Every
artist strives to do, not as his neighbor has done, and better, but as
his neighbor has not done. The potteries work no better, because of
one pottery which turns out beautiful work. The wall-paper makers
still copy, slavishly from Europe and Japan, fortunately if they do
not spoil in copying, in spite of the occasional production of a
wall-paper which an artist has succeeded in. The carpet-weavers
caricature Oriental designs by taking out of them all movement and
spirit, while their best customers buy the original rugs. If some rich
man were to make a museum of modern decorative art, from which he
would carefully exclude all that which was not in some way fresh and
intelligent, and if not good, at least promising, a room like this one
would hold all his trophies, even though he should use his millions to
ransack Europe and America. It is nobody's fault, least of all is it
the architect's fault. For see what you expect of an architect. He
must know about digging deep holes; and about sheath-piling, that he
may retain the loose soil and keep it from smothering the workmen at
the bottom of his excavation; and he must know the best machines to
use for drilling rock and the best method for removing it; he must
know about all the stones in the country and the best way of making
concrete; he must be familiar with the thousand new inventions, and
discriminate carefully and rightly between this range and that, and
between this form of trap and the other, between a dozen different
steam-heaters and twenty systems of ventilation; he must be prepared
to give his owners exactly what they want in the way of windows and
chimney-corners, of cupboards, shelves in available corners, and
recesses to put away step-ladders and brooms. But observe that if he
fails in any one of these things, he will fail in that which his owner
really cares about; still more, if he fails in the economical
administration of the funds allowed for the building, will he fail in
that which the owner most cares about. Less beauty, less success in
producing a novel, an original, a thoughtful, a purposeful design will
hurt him but little, but insufficient care as to the circulation of
hot-water will ruin him.

Now, no man can do all that, and still produce delicate and thoughtful
designs. No man can be busy laying out work, superintending work,
explaining to contractors and reasoning with employers, and still be
producing delicate and thoughtful designs. An extraordinary fellow
here and there may surprise us by what he does under such
circumstances, but it will be but little and feeble in comparison with
what he might do. The community must see its way to paying some to
eschew plumbing and stick to design, if they mean to have any design.
This has been done, indeed, in the matter of monumental-glass, and to
a certain extent in wall-decoration by means of painting; but it must
be done in what is more vital yet--in architectural sculpture of all
sorts and all grades; of vegetable, animal and human subjects; in low
relief, in high relief and in the round; in detached work and
associated groups--or no architecture for us. I say, then, that as
things are constituted, the architects are not particularly to blame
for not having achieved much in the way of decorative art, either on
the exteriors of their great buildings or in the beauty of their
interiors. Not much to blame; but yet they are so far to blame as that
no one else is to do this work if they do not. The architects and the
artists who are associated with them in the work of supplying us with
what we call decorative arts of all sorts, form the only class of the
community to whom the rest of the community can look to for
advancement in this direction. It is probable, then, that what such an
associate has to do is two-fold; or rather it has two things to do:
One is to study the beautiful art of the past, and to study it
patiently and lovingly, feeling confident of this that the interests
of the pursuit grow more absorbing every day; and the other is to
watch the arts of the present, and to keep an open and perspective
mind with regard to them, feeling sure of this that they will grow
more complex and interesting every day, and that now and again some
chance of something good will appear, here and there, giving us great
opportunities to help, if we are clever enough to perceive them.

The study of the arts of the past is more entrancing every day because
we are so much better informed, because we are daily better informed
about them. Archæology, having gone through a long apprenticeship, is
doing wonders today; and, although ancient buildings are suffering
from the accursed restorer, they are also more thoroughly known, more
rightly judged, more sympathetically analyzed than ever before; while
monuments other than buildings, those, that is, that are not open to
the attacks of the restorer, are preserved in practical safety, and
they also are minutely and honestly studied in a way of which our
ancestors knew nothing. There is, therefore, more pleasure to be got
out of the study of ancient art today than ever before, and that
condition of things is a permanent one. Our children will have even
better opportunities than we.

And, as for the arts of the present, the arts that are being produced
around us, they are to be looked at as calmly and temperately; with,
on the other hand, as little as possible of that provincial which
makes cathedrals out of carpenters' Gothic churches, and, on the other
hand, without carping, but with good-natured patience, with a feeling
that if things are not very good, they can hardly be expected to be
better; that we, in this country at least, are only half-civilized in
the ways of cultivation, and we do uncommonly well for such babes as
we are in literature and art. With patience then, and with impatience
about nothing but this, that we deny ourselves the study of the great
works of art of Europe and Asia by thirty per cent and forty per cent
and sixty per cent duty, and deny to the author all proper
remuneration for his work by the lack of common honesty. No other
nation of European blood does these things. It is not a matter of
politics. No protectionists so ardent in the Bismarck ranks as to
propose to levy a tax on literature and science. No selfish grabber so
small, even among peoples whom we consider less honest than we, who
approves of stealing an author's books under color of the law. While
we send to Washington Congressmen who keep such laws on the
statute-books, our community is not "barbarous" so much as savage; for
such acts are the acts of savages; that is, of men who have no
reasonable motive for their acts, but act impulsively, like grown-up

And now, after this evening, let us return from theory and general
principles, to practice and details, and see whether we can find out
how it is that Indians combine color, how Japanese use natural form
decoratively, how Chinamen make porcelain lovely and noble; how Greeks
of old time have sculptured and Frenchmen have created Gothic
architecture, and Italians have raised painting to the highest heaven
of achievement. There is happiness, if study can give it. And for
those to whom scholarship is less attractive than action and
production, there is sculpture in small and large, in stone, marble,
terra-cotta, wax, clay, plaster, bronze, iron, lead, gold and silver;
there is inlay of all material and styles, from square tiles to minute
glass tesseræ; there is painting with all known vehicles and of all
sorts; the whole to be devoted to the beautifying of buildings in
which we have to live and work and rest. There is a plenty to do for
those who know how to begin.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PROTECT PLATE-GLASS IN BUILDING.--Passing along Dearborn Street,
recently, I saw a crowd watching closely the placing in position of
some enormous panes of glass in a handsome new building. The glass was
the best French plate, and the workmen handled it as carefully as if
it were worth something more than a week's wages. The task of putting
it in place was no sooner completed than one of the workmen grabbed a
pot of whiting and with a big brush daubed a lot of meaningless marks
on it. I thought it about as silly a thing as a man could do, and with
the usual reportorial curiosity asked the foreman why he allowed it.
The answer was a crusher. "Why," said he, "we have to mark them in
that way or they'd be smashed in no time." My look of amazement
doubtless prompted him to further explanation, for he said: "You see,
the workmen around a new building get in the custom of shoving lumber,
etc., through the open sash before the glass is put in. They would
continue to do it even after the glass is in if we didn't do something
to attract their attention. That's the reason you always see new
windows daubed with glaring white marks. Even if a careless workman
does start to shove a stick of timber through a costly plate of glass
he will stop short when his eye catches the danger sign. That white
mark is just a signal which says, 'Look out; you'll break me if you
are not careful.'"--_Chicago Journal._




The native stones we Liverpool architects have at command are all
sandstones belonging to the geological division called the Trias, or,
in older phraseology, the "New Red Sandstone," which lies above the
coal-measures. The term "New Red" was given to distinguish these rocks
from the "Old Red," which lies below the Mountain Limestone, the
lowest division of the carboniferous rocks. It is, perhaps, needless
to remark that the "New Red" is not always red; sometimes it is
yellow, at others, like some of the Storeton stone, white. These red
rocks occupy a large part of Lancashire and Cheshire, and especially
in the latter county give the characteristic scenery which
distinguishes it. The escarpment of the Peckforton Hills of which
Beeston Castle Hill is an outlier, and that at Malpas, farther south,
gives rise to some very beautiful scenery; and again at Grinshill and
Hawkstone, in Shropshire, we have a repetition of much the same kind
of landscape. It will be necessary for my purpose to say briefly that
these red rocks have been divided into the "Bunter" and "Keuper"; the
lower division, the Bunter, occupying most of the ground about
Liverpool; the upper, the Keuper, being more developed on the Cheshire
side. All these sandstones are not fit for building purposes, and
those that are so used differ considerably in their durability. It is
my object in this short Paper to show upon what the perfection or
imperfection of the various stones for building purposes depends--a
matter of great moment to an architect or engineer who is desirous
that his work should last.

Sandstones, or, in masons' language, "free-stones," from the freedom
with which most of them are worked when freshly taken from the quarry,
are plastic or sedimentary rocks. That is, they are composed of
separate particles which have once existed as sand, like that we see
on our own shores, or in the sand dunes of Hoylake or Crosby.
Sandstones are usually more or less laminated, and are stronger to
transverse stress at right angles to their natural bedding than in any
other direction, a fact recognized in every architect's specification,
which states "all stones must be laid on their natural bed," a
direction that unfortunately sometimes begins and ends in the
specification. The cause of the superior strength is not, however,
generally understood.

I have devoted some considerable time to an investigation of the
internal structure of sandstones, which I have communicated from time
to time to various scientific societies and publications, and will now
briefly explain it in a manner I judge will be most likely to interest
architects and engineers. The particles or grains of which the rock is
built up are of various forms and sizes, from a thoroughly rounded
grain, almost like small shot, to a broken and jagged structure, and
to others possessing crystalline faces. These grains, most of them
possessing a longer axis, have been rolled backwards and forwards by
the tides or by river-currents. The larger grains naturally lie on
their sides when freshly deposited, with their axes in the plane of
bedding; the smaller and more rounded particles naturally tend to
occupy the interstices between the others, and in this way rude
divisional planes or laminations are formed. Each layer forms a sort
of course like coursed-rubble in a wall, and by the necessities of
deposition a certain rude geometric arrangement results, by which the
particles of the future rock overlap each other, and thereby gain what
is known to architects as bond.

But, so far, this is only like "dry walling," the mass wants cementing
together to make it solid. The cementing process happens in this way
in our rocks, which are almost purely silicious: Water containing a
minute quantity of carbonic acid in solution, which most rain-water
does, especially when it comes into contact with decaying vegetation,
has the power of dissolving silica to a slight extent. This is proved
in various ways, and is shown in the fact that all river water
contains more or less silica in solution.

The circulation of water through the sand deposit of which our rocks
are made dissolves part of the grains, and the silica taken up is
redeposited on others. I cannot explain the chemical reaction that
produces this deposition, but that it takes place in the rock during
some period of its history is certain. I exhibit a quartzite pebble
taken from the Triassic sandstone at Stanlow Point, which, as can be
easily seen, was at one time worn perfectly smooth by attrition and
long-continued wear, for the quartzite is very hard. Upon this worn
surface you will see spangles and facets which reflect the light, and
on closer inspection it will be evident that they are crystals of
quartz that have been deposited upon the surface of the worn pebble
after it became finally enclosed in the rock.

A microscopic examination of the granules of the rock itself will show
that many of them have had crystalline quartz deposited upon their
surfaces, and in some cases rounded grains have in this way become
almost perfect crystals.

An examination of the best sandstones for building purposes shows that
they possess more of these crystalline particles than the inferior
ones, and a good silicious sandstone shows its good quality by a fresh
fracture sparkling in the sun. In addition to these crystalline
deposits of silica I believe it exists also as a cement which binds
the particles together when in contact.

It certainly is, however, with this secondary silica that the original
sand has become a building stone, and the particles have become
interlaced and bound together. Thus, in building parlance, the grains
are the rubble of the wall, the currents the quarrymen, masons and
laborers, and the silicious infiltration the mortar.

And now, when I am on the subject, I may point out that this hard and
compact quartzite pebble was also once loose sand. The only difference
between the sandstone in which it was imbedded and itself is that in
the latter case the process of silicious deposit has gone further, so
that all the interstices between the grains have been absolutely
filled up with the cement.

It is not possible to see this clearly with the naked eye, but by the
aid of a slice of the rock prepared for the microscope the granular
structure of the quartzite is made perfectly plain. So much for the
mechanical, chemical, and molecular structure of sandstone, all of
which affect the strength and quality of the stone; but to architects
there is another element of consequence, namely, the color. The rich
red of our Triassic sandstones is due to a pellicle of peroxide of
iron coating each of the grains. That this is merely surface coloring
is shown by the fact that hydro-chloric acid will discharge the color
and leave the grains translucent. Unfortunately the most brilliantly
colored stone is not the most durable, and it so happens that these
brilliant red sandstones are often composed of exceedingly rounded
grains. Also some of the very red sandstone has an interfilling of a
loose argillaceous irony matter detrimental to the stone as a building
stone. The most durable of the red sandstones are those having a paler
or grayer hue, like those of Woolton, Everton, and Runcorn. This
distinction of color was brought freshly to my mind a short time since
in looking at the church of Llandyrnog, in the Vale of Clwyd, a few
miles from Ruthin. Some of the dressings, quoins for instance, were of
a very brilliant-colored red sandstone, and others of a pale gray or
purple red. It struck me that these latter must be of Runcorn stone,
which I was afterwards informed was the case. The very red stone was
the natural stone of the Vale, originally used for dressings, which
were replaced, on the restorations being made, with Runcorn stone. The
original stone was æsthetically the best, but the introduced stone the
best structurally. The old stone of Chester Cathedral was a very red
Bunter sandstone, which decayed badly. It has been replaced in the
restorations by Runcorn stone, which belongs to the Keuper division,
which has caused the Geological Surveyors to say that the Keuper is a
better building stone than the Bunter. In this case it is; but, on the
other hand, the Bunter sandstones, or Pebble-beds, as they are called,
near Liverpool, are often better than the Runcorn Keuper. The Runcorn
building stone lies between two beds of very red loose rock, showing
that it is not its geological position, but its _structure_, that
makes it a good durable stone.

It is a remarkable fact that most of the pebbles included in the red
rocks are quartzites, or indurated silicious sandstones; and, as
showing that their solidity and hardness are due only to a further
continuance of the deposit of silica in the interstices, it has been
proved that the purple quartzites are purple only by reason of the
original coloration of the grains which have been enclosed between the
original grains and the secondary silica. Yellow sandstone is colored
also by iron, and I have frequently seen the red sandstone shading of
to the yellow without any division whatever. The various shades and
tints of sandstone are necessarily due to the coloration of the
individual grains.

Most of you will, no doubt, have observed the sort of marbling or
grain upon the stone of our old buildings, such as the Town-Hall,
which I believe was obtained from quarries occupying the site of the
St. James's Cemetery. This is due to what is called current bedding;
that is to say, the grains have been arranged along oblique lines and
curves instead of in parallel laminæ. This stone, which is
geologically equivalent to the Storeton Stone, and of the same nature,
has stood very well. Some of the Storeton Stone, if free from clay
galls, although very soft when quarried, becomes hardened by exposure,
and will stand the weather much better than a harder and more
pretentious material.

The stone of Compton House is in a very good condition, although the
mason told me such was the hurry in rebuilding that they could not
stop to select the stone, and also that it is placed in all sorts of
positions with respect to its quarry bed. Perhaps the circumstances
that the stone is not in parallel laminæ may have something to do with
its durability, notwithstanding this latter fact.

It would take a long Paper, and several evenings, to exhaust the
subject even of our local stones. I may mention, however, that the
quarries of Grinshill, between Shrewsbury and Hawkstone, yield a
beautiful white sandstone, of a finer grain than Storeton, but of a
similar quality.

Most of the public buildings of Shrewsbury are built of it, and I am
informed that it was to some extent used in the Exchange buildings.
The rocky substratum of a district can be well seen in its ancient
buildings, for in old times carriage was so important an item that the
old builders could not go far for their stone; hence we see that the
old churches of part of Lancashire and most of Cheshire, and a large
portion of Shropshire, are of red sandstone. Some of it has stood very
well, while some has decayed into shapeless masses. There is a
tendency to exfoliate parallel to the exposed or worked surface, in
all stones, irrespective of the way of the bed, but more so where the
stone is set up on edge, or at right angles, to its quarry bed. It is
interesting and peculiar to see in some of the old buildings erected
with pebbly sandstone how the white quartz pebbles stand out from the
surface like _warts_. This is due to the greater indestructibility of
the quartz pebbles, and the weathering away, or denudation, of the
sandstone face.

Before leaving the subject of local sandstones it will be necessary to
refer to one quality they have which is of excellent utility as
regards the storage of water, but which is decidedly a disadvantage in
building stone--that is, their porosity. I have proved by actual
experiment that a cubic foot of Runcorn Stone will take up three
quarts of water by capillarity, and that it is possible to make a
syphon of solid sandstone which will empty a vessel of water into
another vessel by capillarity alone.[2] This shows the absolute
necessity of damp-proof courses, not only in the main walls of
buildings of stone, but even in fence walls, for the continual sucking
up of moisture from the earth, and its evaporation at the surface of
the stone, make it rapidly decay. I think I could show you this fact
in almost any stone building in Liverpool or elsewhere where the stone
is in direct connection with the earth. It also shows the necessity of
taking care that no stones go through the wall to the interior
surface, and of precautions for backing up stone walls with less
porous materials, or the introduction of a cavity. If you could
suppose such a sandstone wall 40 feet long, 20 feet high, and 1 foot 6
inches thick fully saturated, it would hold almost a ton of water! Of
course, it never would be fully saturated, because of the evaporation
from the surfaces, but with a southwest aspect, and very wet weather,
it might become half saturated. But what does evaporation mean? It
means the loss of so much heat and the burning of so much coal to
supply its place. From this it will be seen that a pure sandstone wall
is a thing to be avoided.

The subject is so wide a one that I have felt compelled to restrict my
remarks to local sandstones, but the general principles of structure
apply to all sandstones alike.

It is difficult by written description to tell you how to select a
good stone, but one essential is that there shall be a good deposition
of secondary quartz, as shown by the crystalline sparkling on the
freshly fractured surface.

It must also be free from very decided laminations, for these
constitute planes of weakness and are often indications of the
deposition of varying materials, or the same material in various
grades of fineness. It must also not be full of argillaceous and
iron-oxide infillings. It should possess a homogeneous texture. The
best way to study building stones is to study them in old buildings,
for nature has then dissected their weaknesses.


[1] Read before the Liverpool Architectural Society, on the 18th
November, 1889, by Mr. T. Mellard Reade, F.S.G.S. _Fellow_,
President of the Society, and printed in the _R.I.B.A. Journal_.

[2] This experiment was made before the audience.--T. M. R.

       *       *       *       *       *

WARFARE ON OAK TREES.--"The world seems to have waged a special
warfare upon oak trees," says a St. Louis man. "Before iron ships were
built, and that was only twelve years ago, oak was the only thing
used. When this drain ceased oak came into demand for furniture, and
it is almost as expensive now as black walnut. No one feels the
growing scarcity of oak like the tanner, and the substitution of all
sorts of chemical agencies leads up to the inquiry as to whether other
vegetable products cannot be found to fill the place of oak bark. The
wattle, a tree of Australian growth, has been found to contain from
twenty-six to thirty per cent of tannic acid. Experiments have been
made on the Pacific Slope, where the wattle readily grows, and in a
bath of liquor, acid was made from it in forty-seven days, whereas in
liquor made from Santa Cruz oak, the best to be found in all the
Pacific States, the time required is from seventy-five to eighty days.
The wattle will readily grow on the treeless plains of Texas, New
Mexico and Arizona, the bark of which ought to yield five dollars per
acre counting the fuel as nothing."--_Invention._



Entering the handsome galleries of the American Art Association, one
finds the lower floor given up to the Barye bronzes, while the upper
rooms are devoted to the "Angelus" and the paintings by Millet and
other contemporaries of the great French sculptor. Passing on the left
of the entrance the superb, large bronze of "Theseus battling with the
Centaur," one is fronted by the great cast of the "Lion and Serpent,"
which from the centre of the gallery dominates the surrounding
exhibits. Both of these are the property of the Metropolitan Museum of
Art, the cast having lately been presented to that institution by the
French government. Upon the right hangs Bonnat's vigorous portrait of
Barye, on the left wall one sees the water-color of the "Tiger Hunt,"
and all around are cases, groups and isolated pieces of the bronzes.

Here are over 450 works in wax, plaster and bronze, of which Mr. W. T.
Walters contributes one-fourth, while the Corcoran Gallery sends its
entire collection, numbering nearly a hundred, Mr. Cyrus J. Lawrence
loans sixty-two pieces, Mr. James F. Sutton fifty-two and Mr. Samuel
P. Avery thirty. Other contributors, who have followed their generous
example, are Messrs. R. Austin Robertson, Theodore K. Gibbs, Robert
and Richard M. Hoe, James S. Inglis, Richard M. Hunt and Albert
Spencer. Of many of the subjects there are several copies, and
amateurs can study proofs and patinas to their heart's content. From
Mr. Walters's famed collection are the four unique groups modelled for
the table of the Duke of Orleans, chief of which is the "Tiger Hunt,"
where two of the huge cats attack an elephant from whose back three
Indians defend themselves with courage. The giant pachyderm writhes
his serpent-like trunk in air and plunges forward open-mouthed,
trumpeting with pain from the keen claws of the tigers hanging on his
flanks. The Hunts of the Bull, the Bear and the Elk are worthy
companions of this magnificent bronze, offering wonderfully fine
examples of condensed composition in the entwined bodies of men and
beasts, and filling the eye with the grand sweeps of their circling
forms. The same liberal patron of art also lends his unique piece of a
walking lion, in silver, made in 1865 for a racing prize, and a
plaster-proof of the little medallion of "Milo of Crotona attacked by
a Lion," executed by Barye in 1819 for the Prix de Rome competition at
the École des Beaux-Arts. This little gem, worthy of the antique, did
not secure the prize, however, which went to a now-forgotten sculptor
named Vatinelle. It had often been so before, it has often been so
since down to our day (Comerre was preferred to Bastien Lepage in
1875) and doubtless it will be so for who knows how many years to

All the phases of that terrific struggle for existence where beast
hunts beast, which have been depicted by Barye's genius, are here.
Here is the "Tiger devouring a Crocodile" (with which Barye made his
first appearance at the _Salon_, in 1831); the "Jaguar devouring a
Hare"; the "Lion devouring a Doe," the "Crocodile devouring an
Antelope," the "Python swallowing a Doe," the "Tiger devouring a
Gazelle," the "Bear on a tree devouring an Owl" and the "Lion
devouring a Boar." What a series of banquets on blood and warm, almost
living flesh is here presented! How cruel these creatures are to each
other, is the thought that first comes to us, but a second, reminds
that it is but their instinct and a necessity of natural law, and
repulsion is lost in astonishment and delight at the marvellous
fidelity with which the sculptor has rendered these links in the great
chain of animal life. Their (as we call it) savage eagerness, their
almost blind rage for their appointed food, the tenacity with which
they clutch and the ravening _anxiety_ (caused by the dread of losing
their prey) with which they tear the flesh of their victims, is
portrayed to the life. We speak of a death-grip, but here is a death
and life grip--death to the victim whose palpitating body furnishes
life to its destroyer. It is the hot-cold-bloodedness of nature, the
disregard for suffering of the tornado, the earthquake and the
avalanche shown in little in the fangs and claws of these wild
creatures. Then there are the battles of the more evenly-matched
animals--not always as a result of the need of sustenance--such are
the tiger transfixed by the elephant; the python's folds crushing the
crocodile; and the bear dragging the bull to earth, or itself, in
turn, overthrown by mastiffs. Then comes those groups into which man
enters--the African horseman surprised by a great serpent whose
formidable folds already enclose his struggling body; the Arabs
killing a lion; and the "Theseus overcoming the Minotaur," wherein the
calmly irresistible hero is about to bury his keen, short sword in the
bull-neck of the gross monster. The success with which Barye has
combined the human and bestial characteristics of the minotaur is most
remarkable and a similar triumph is won in the hippogriff--the winged
horse, with forefeet of claws and beaked nose, which leaps so swiftly
over the coiled-shape of the dolphin-serpent, which serves for his
pedestal--bearing upon his back the charming, nude figure of Angelica
held in the mail-clad arms of Ariosto's hero. To this category _seems_
to belong the "Ape riding a Gnu," the forms, however, being true to
nature though appearing fantastic when placed in juxtaposition.

The horse as we know him, and carrying more familiar burdens, is shown
in numerous equestrian statuettes, the best of which is the slender,
nervous figure of Bonaparte as First Consul, mounted on a
proudly-stepping Arab. There is another one of Napoleon, showing him
at a later period of his life, and the other equestrian portraits
include one of the Duke of Orleans, who looks every inch a gentleman;
one of Gaston de Foix, the hero of Ravenna; and one of Charles VII.
Then there is a spirited statuette of a Tartar warrior in chain armor
sharply pulling back his steed, and a graceful figure of a lady
wearing the riding-dress of 1830. A painful contrast is presented by
the doomed horse unwillingly carrying a lion whose dreadful grip his
frantic rearing cannot loosen. In addition there are many studies of
horses, various in breed and attitude, and the small wax model of a
young man mastering a horse which though but a rough "first sketch"
has all the "go and fire" possible. It would have been of interest if
some illustration of Barye's equestrian monument of Napoleon at
Ajaccio could have been shown, and this reminds me that except a
photograph of the Château d'Eau at Marseilles, showing the four groups
of animals designed by him (which Mr. Cyrus J. Lawrence was thoughtful
enough to send), and the two reclining river-gods from the Louvre
(sent by Mr. Walters), there is nothing which gives any idea of
Barye's public work. Not even photographs of the War, Order, Glory and
Peace groups of the Louvre, which could have easily been taken from
the copies given by Mr. Walters to Baltimore, now on Mount Vernon
Place, are present. But, in face of the admirable collection here
gathered together, this may savor of ingratitude, and I will return to
the consideration of the remaining sculptures.

Among them are some masterly pieces of decoration, the most important
being the superb candelabra made for the Duc de Montpensier. These
have seated at their base nude figures of the three chief goddesses of
classic mythology, whose noble proportions and purity of outline prove
the versatility and completeness of the sculptor's art. Juno is
accompanied by her peacock and bears the rod of power; Minerva lifts a
sword, and Venus holds the golden apple. The candelabra are further
enriched with masks and chimeras, and bear at their top a charming
circular group of the three graces, small undraped figures, with arms
entwined and faces turned toward each other. The general design and
exquisite detail of this work is worthy of the Renaissance. There are
some more candlesticks and other works of decorative art, all of which
bear the marks of a master-hand.

The humorous side of things is presented by some of the groups: in the
ungainly figure of the elephant of Senegal running; in the bear lying
on his back in a trough and eating with great gusto some sweet morsel
which he holds between his paws; and in the meditative stork standing
on the back of a turtle. Some of the animals are shown as sleeping or
reclining, and there is a cat sitting, a goat feeding, a deer
scratching its side and a pheasant walking, among others, but the
tragic note is struck in most of them. Probably the best works are to
be found among those pieces representing members of the feline race,
which were always the subject of Barye's most thorough study. The
sculptures of horses are also very numerous, and it strikes one at
first as curious that, after all the rebuffs he received from the
academic faction, who recognized no animals but the horse and lion as
worthy of representation in sculpture, he should have modelled so many
of these very creatures. But, after all, Barye's lions and horses
belong to an entirely different race from those which the
tradition-bound old fogies were pleased with. The collection embraces
many admirable bronzes of birds: an eagle holding a dead heron; an owl
with a rat; a paroquet on a tree, and a strikingly fine composition of
a hawk killing a heron; and there are some beautiful studies of dogs,
especially a large seated greyhound, belonging to Mr. Walters. There
are rabbits, badgers, wolves and camels, but I remember no cows or
pigs, and only one group of sheep. Wild life, much more than domestic,
touched the sympathies of Barye.

Mr. Walters loans twenty-three of Barye's powerful water-colors of
animals and a fine oil, of unusual size for this artist, of a tiger.
One of the most striking of the water-colors shows a great snake
swallowing an antelope, whose head is partly engulfed, and it is
almost exactly the same as one of the bronzes from the Walters
collection. Other gentlemen have contributed water-colors and
oil-paintings by Barye, among them being several landscapes at
Fontainebleau, and there are various etchings and prints after his
works and some of his lithographs, pencil-sketches and autographs,
with a copy of the only etching--a stag fighting a cougar--which,
according to so good an authority as Mr. Avery, he ever made. These
remarkable water-colors alone would suffice to show the genius of
Barye, for they are full of the same qualities of truth and
originality of expression which we see in his bronzes. Their color is
exceedingly fine, and their topics are generally tigers, lions,
elephants and serpents. It is a source of wonder how Barye, who never
visited the East, could have so well depicted the tropical landscapes
in which he has placed these tawny tigers and majestic lions. The
drawings, like the sculptures, impress us with their air of absolute
veracity, and, even in their most dramatic moments, suggest a
reticence behind. Barye does not exhaust himself or his subject, yet
he seems to have said the last word in this direction of art, and I
cannot imagine that his profound and searching genius will ever be

The managers of the galleries announce the exhibition of a hundred
"masterpieces" by the contemporaries and friends of Barye, but I do
not think that the visitor will find so large a number which can
rightly be thus classed. To me it appears that something less than
one-half are works of the first order, but among the remainder are
many good things worthy of attention. Here again the treasures of Mr.
Walters's collection are drawn upon and he sends some twenty-five
pictures, prominent among which is the great "Martyrdom of St.
Sebastian," by Corot; the "Evening Star," by the same master; Troyon's
"Cattle Drinking"; Diaz's "Storm" and "Autumn Scene in the Forest of
Fontainebleau"; Rousseau's "Le Givre"; Decamps's "Suicide"; Daubigny's
large "Sunset on the Coast of France"; Delacroix's "Christ on the
Cross"; and Millet's "Breaking Flax." One of the finest Millets I have
ever seen is here, lent by Mr. Walters. This is the "Sheepfold at
Night," which with several others of Mr. Walters's paintings here
shown, was in the exhibition of "One Hundred Masterpieces" held at
Paris in 1883. In its foreground a line of sheep pass by toward the
gate of the fold through which some have already entered under the
guidance of the shepherd and his dog, who stand near. The horizon is
low, and just above it swings a swollen moon, shaped like a cup, from
which floods of pale light fill the scene with color. If this were Mr.
Walters's only contribution it would be sufficient to place us under a
heavy obligation to him. The "St. Sebastian" is a large canvas,
measuring four feet wide by eight feet high, which was first shown at
the _Salon_ of 1853, and afterwards twice received important changes
at the artist's hands. It shows an opening in a great wood, with the
saint reclining on the ground tended by two holy women, while above
appear some angels who bear the martyr's palm and crown. Rousseau's
"Le Givre" is well described by Sensier, who says in his "_Souvenirs
sur Th. Rousseau_," it represents "the hills of Valmondois as seen a
mile away across the Oise, along the des Forgets road. The composition
could not be more simple. Little hillocks heaped in the foreground are
covered with half-melted snow, and the sun, red in the midst of a
leaden sky, is seen dying and threatening through the clouds." The
"Suicide," of Decamps, shows the body of a young artist stretched
lifeless on his pallet in a gloomy room, and is painted with
extraordinary force. The "Sunset," by Daubigny, describes a scene on
the French coast with some cows near a pool separated from the sea
only by a few yards. The foreground is rich in sombre greens and
browns, the ocean a glorious blue and the sky tinged with the roses of

A superb specimen of the lately dead veteran, Jules Dupré, "The Old
Oak," is lent by Mr. John G. Johnson, who contributes several other
pictures, among them a fine "Going to the Fair," by Troyon, in which
is seen a drove of cattle and sheep, with a woman on horseback behind
talking to a man. Another still finer Troyon, the "Drove of Cattle and
Sheep," which brought $26,000 at the Spencer sale, is lent by Mr.
Cornelius Vanderbilt. It will be recalled as showing a flock of sheep
coming along a road toward the spectator, while behind are two cows,
one with head uplifted to avoid the threatening stick of the drover--a
dumb but eloquent protest against man's cruelty. Corot's lovely "Lake
Nemi," the property of Mr. Thomas Newcombe, is here, while Mr. Jay
Gould sends his "Evening"; Mr. William F. Slater, of Norwich, Conn.,
the "Fauns and Nymphs," and Mr. Charles A. Dana his beautiful "Dance
of Loves." To the same gentleman the public is indebted for an
opportunity to admire Millet's admirable "Turkey-keeper." Mr. D. C.
Lyall has Delacroix's splendid page of romance, "The Abduction of
Rebecca," and among the numerous paintings which come from Mr. George
I. Seney's gallery, is the same artist's well-known "Convulsionaries,"
a crowd of self-tortured fanatics wildly rushing through the
white-walled streets of Tangiers. There are several other works by
Delacroix, including examples of his vivid renditions of lions and
tigers, and Mr. Slater has here his "Christopher Columbus," Mr. Potter
Palmer, of Chicago, lending the "Giaour and Pacha." Gericault is
represented by but one picture, a noble couchant lion, but in addition
to the "Suicide," there are several other Decamps, notably the
magnificently colored "Turkish Butcher's Shop," which, with a
splendid Rousseau, the "Forest of Fontainebleau," comes from the
collection of Mr. Henry Graves. The gorgeous blues and crimsons of
Diaz's "Coronation of Love," which Mr. Brayton Ives is fortunate
enough to own, glow in a corner of one of the galleries--a bouquet of
living color. It was pleasant to meet again a familiar picture in
Millet's "Waiting," which the writer recalls often seeing at the
Boston Art Museum when it belonged to Mr. Henry Sayles. It is now the
property of Mr. Seney, and will be at once remembered by any who have
ever seen its homely but touching figures of the old mother looking
down the road for the coming of her absent son, and the blind father
stumbling hastily over the steps to the door. I renewed my
acquaintance with the inimitable cat which arches its back, elevates
its tail and miaows on the bench outside, its ginger-colored coat
relieved against the cool blue-grays of the stone wall. It is the
apocryphal story of Tobit and Anna, with the waiting parents made into
peasants of Millet's own country, and when it was exhibited at the
_Salon_ of 1861, the public, of course, passed it by to gaze at the
"Phryne" of Gérôme. Millet has doubtless painted better pictures, but
for direct simple pathos it would be hard to surpass this.

Boston, through Mr. Quincy Shaw and other gentlemen, sends to the
exhibition some of the best paintings shown. Mr. Shaw exhibits his
"Potato-planters," to me the most beautiful in its rosy tones of any
example of the artist here; of the same size, a fine "End of the
Village of Greville," walled with graystone, its little street
monopolized by geese and ducks, and the sea-gulls flying above; and
the "Buckwheat Threshers," with two smaller canvases. Mr. F. L. Ames,
lends two Millets, a beautiful Rousseau, "The Valley of Tiffauge,"
Decamps's splendid picture of an African about to sling a stone at a
vulture sitting on some ruins, and the superbly painted dogs of
Troyon's "Gardechasse." Dr. H. C. Angell's fine Jules Dupré,
"Symphony," is also here.

The Millets number about a third of the paintings and among them is an
interesting variation of the "Sower," narrower in shape than the
others and with a steeper hillside. It would have been a delight to
have seen Mr. Shaw's "Sower" temporarily lifted from its place in the
modest house which conceals so many treasures, and brought here,
especially as it was not possible to borrow the replica belonging to
the estate of the late W. H. Vanderbilt, but such good fortune was not
in store for us. A beautiful little nude by Millet, "After the Bath,"
has been sent by Mr. A. C. Clark. I think it must be the same one
which was at the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund Exhibition some years ago,
when it belonged to Mr. Erwin Davis. Messrs. Boussod, Valadon & Co.,
have lent an important and beautiful "November" by Millet, showing a
sloping field with a harrow lying on the foreground and a man shooting
at a flock of birds from behind a tree at the top of the hill.

The "Angelus," draped with crimson, is given the entire end of the
long upper gallery and, I think, proves a disappointment to most, if
not all. One chief reason for this is its small size,--it is but about
21 x 25 inches--and then it is certainly not to be compared for
painting with half a dozen other Millets which are here. Its sentiment
is lasting, however, but it is not new to us, on the contrary it is a
household word now, and the painting gives but little more than does
Waltner's etching. Mr. Walters loans the crayon sketch for it and one
of "The Sower" and the "Sheepfold by Moonlight," with others, and
there are some very interesting pastels and water-colors by Millet,
Rousseau and Delacroix.

Altogether the exhibition is an extraordinarily good one, unapproached
as to the Baryes and not easily surpassable as to the paintings of the
Fontainebleau school, and any lover of art would find himself amply
repaid by it for a journey to New York.


[_Contributors are requested to send with their drawings full and
adequate descriptions of the buildings, including a statement of


[Photogravure issued only with the International Edition.]

See article elsewhere in this issue.


[Gelatine Plate issued only with the International Edition.]


[Gelatine Plate issued only with the International Edition.]


[Grano-chrome issued only with the International Edition.]


[Grano-chrome issued only with the International Edition.]


[Issued only with the International Edition.]


[Issued only with the International Edition.]


[Issued only with the International Edition.]

This design is founded upon the Francis I style of architecture,
though it by no means slavishly follows it. It was required to obtain
a house suited in all respects to modern requirements, including such
things as sash-windows, and in places plate-glass. These hardly
harmonize with the ordinary character of English country-houses of the
Elizabethan and Queen Anne types, with their many mullioned windows
and lead-glazed casements, nor is the other extreme of heavy Classic
with ponderous detail and a portico two stories high at all desirable.
The style of Francis I offers a mean between these, giving emphasis to
the principal block by a certain amount of symmetrical planning,
together with picturesqueness, with rich and refined detail, which a
gentleman's country-house certainly requires. The exterior would be of
long and thin red bricks, with stone cornices and other dressings, and
roofed with green slates. The interior has oak-work and enriched
plaster ceilings to the principal rooms, with the exception of the
hall, where the ceiling would be of oak. The hall and the staircase
would have some stained-glass in the windows. The original drawing was
exhibited in this year's Academy.


[Issued only with the International Edition.]


[Issued only with the International Edition.]

These figure sketches embrace five typical examples from the late Lord
Mayor's show, in which Mediæval, Tudor and Stuart costumes were
(thanks to the research and artistic knowledge of Hon. Lewis
Wingfield) so pleasantly associated. We have selected five, both on
account of their diversity and also because of their being
representative costumes of different eras in English history. The
dresses, for magnificence and accuracy of detail, have rarely been


[Issued only with the Imperial and International Editions.]


Although the selection of material is a matter that can be well
dispensed with until the general design has been determined, the
architect suggests as in harmony with the treatment, Westerly, R.I.
granite for the body of the cathedral, with trimmings of carved
capitals, bases, columns, belts, arches and other ornamental stonework
of a Georgia marble. The granite is cream color, with a suspicion of
red, and the marble is of the same shade but a trifle darker and more
positive. Both from chemical and physical tests they are apparently of
equal strength and durability. The colors suggested would not give the
building the cold appearance of white marble, or the somewhat sombre
appearance produced by gray granite.

The stones are to be laid in square blocks, regular courses and
rock-face in the body of the building, with square and sharp corners.
The columns, lintels, sills, belts, finials and mouldings are to be
close hammered work, with carving where indicated on the drawings.

The different tower roofs are to be fine-hammered or rubbed granite.
The distinction between the tower roofs and the body of the building
is not brought out clearly in the different drawings, as this would
require shading all the granite stonework except the tower roofs, and
shading is prohibited by the instructions.

The interior of the church is designed to be finished in marbles of
harmonious colors, with carved and other decorated work, as shown in
the section. The surface of the floor is to be laid in mosaic tile,
the presumption being that fixed pews will not be used in the
cathedral. Ample storage can be obtained for portable seats in the

The floors are laid on terra-cotta arches, built on iron beams, and
the beams are protected by terra-cotta casings.

The roof of the building is to be covered with slate [preferably red],
laid on terra-cotta and supported by iron trusses and beams; the
iron-work to be protected by a fireproof covering. The tower roofs
contemplate granite, lapped and jointed so as to be weatherproof, laid
on iron beams and supported by iron trusses. If a cheaper covering is
desired, slate or tile can be used without affecting the design.

The ceiling is a barrel-vault with large and small arched ribs
pierced in each bay by the small vaults in which the clerestory
windows open. It may be treated in one of three ways: first, finished
in marble; second, marble ribs, the larger surfaces being terra-cotta
blocks covered with mosaic tile; third, the larger surfaces frescoed
on plaster. The ceiling of the lantern in the centre of the cathedral
will be supported by arch trusses, and show metallic ribs on the
interior, glazed with cathedral glass.

The screens between the choir and aisles and between the aisle and
vestries and chapels are intended to be of wrought-iron, bronze or
brass, or a combination. They should be arranged so as to slide down
into the cellar and leave the entire building open and unobstructed
whenever it might be thought desirable.

The outside doors are to be bronze, with figures on them in low

The size of columns and piers, and the weights imposed upon them, the
thrusts of arches and trusses, their proper abutments and ties and
other constructional problems have been calculated with a sufficient
degree of accuracy to determine the feasibility of the execution of
the design according to the drawings.

In the lantern where the frescoing is contemplated the wall will be
faced with porous brick, on which the proper fresco plaster can be

The plan is arranged to facilitate the ingress and egress of large
assemblages of people, five doorways being provided in the nave
entrance and two in each of the transepts. The galleries over the nave
and transept vestibules and the triforium have stairways with
entrances on the side porches. Including the clergy entrances, fifteen
outside doors are planned. The vestibules and porches connect with
each other so that worshippers can pass from one to the other under

The arrangement adopted for the central tower allows a central
auditorium about one hundred feet in diameter, unobstructed by columns
or piers, with the nave transepts and choir opening into it. The
aisles are not decreased by this central enlargement, as they deflect
through the four abutting towers.

The different vestry-rooms, library or sacristy and the treasury are
grouped conveniently to the choir, with separate entrances for the
church officials. The meeting-room for the clergy or chapter and the
chapel have entrances independent of the church, or by lowering the
screen they can be thrown open into the cathedral. Toilet-rooms,
custodian's and a committee-room are located on the transept
vestibules, as these entrances would most probably be constantly open.

Elevators are placed in two of the supplemental towers, and stairways
in the ones adjoining the choir, landing visitors on the triforium
gallery, which encircles the building, and in the two galleries which
encircle the central lantern. From the lantern galleries visitors can
obtain fine interior views of the building, and comprehend the crucial
form of the plan at a glance.


                          Length.    Breadth.    Height.   Square feet.
Ground-floor including
  walls height to the
  ridge of roof             400     156 to 230     148        69,000

Lantern or central tower
  exterior                  106         106        400        11,236

Nave interior               125          50        100         6,250

Transepts interior           30          50        100         3,000 for
                                                                the two

Choir interior               95          50        100         4,750

Central tower interior       88          88        200

Aisles interior                          16         40

Chapel and Chapter           52          26

Square feet of auditorium exclusive of aisles, columns
  and space between columns, triforium and galleries          20,486

Auditorium including everything except choir                  48,106



The traveller by sea, along the east coast of Scotland, is liable to
be reminded with startling emphasis of the demolition to which the
ecclesiastical architecture of the country has been subjected. Leaving
behind him on his northward course the fragments of the metropolitan
Cathedral of St. Andrews, he crosses a wide arm of the sea, and when
he again approaches the shore, the objects most prominent against the
sky are the still more disastrously shattered remnants of the great
Abbey of Aberbrothwick. One lofty fragment presents in its centre a
circle, doubtless once filled with richly moulded mullions and
stained-glass, but through which the blue sky is now visible. This
vacant circle is the only symmetrical form in these lofty masses that
at a distance strikes the eye--all else is shapeless and fragmentary.
Around these huge unsightly vestiges of ancient magnificence the types
of modern comfort and commercial wealth cluster thickly, in the shape
of a small but busy manufacturing town, with its mills, tall chimneys
and rows of substantial houses.

The ruins, which are interesting only in their details, scarcely
present a more inviting general aspect as they are approached. Nearing
them from the High Street of the burgh, the first prominent object is
a grim, strong, square tower, the sole remaining complete edifice of
the great establishment, now used as a butcher's shop. It was not
perhaps without design that this formidable building was so placed as
to frown over the dwellings of the industrious burghers--it was the
prison of the regality of the abbey--the place of punishment or
detention through which a judicial power, scarcely inferior to that of
the royal courts, was enforced by this potent brotherhood; and thus it
served to remind the world without, that the coercive power of the
abbot and his chapter was scarcely inferior to their spiritual dignity
and their temporal magnificence. Passing onward, the whole scene is
found to be a chaos of ruin. Fragments of the church, with those of
the cloisters and other monastic edifices, rise in apparently
inseparable confusion from the grassy ground; but, with a little
observation, the cruciform outline of the church can be traced, and
then its disjointed masses reduce themselves into connected details.
The dark-red stone of which the building was constructed is friable,
and peculiarly apt to crumble under the moist atmosphere and dreary
winds of the northeast coast. The mouldings and tracery are thus
wofully obliterated, and the facings are so much decayed as to leave
the original surface distinguishable only here and there. At
comparatively late periods large masses of the ruins have fallen down;
and Pennant mentions such an event as having taken place just before
he visited the spot. This palpable progress towards the complete
extinction of the relics of one of the finest Gothic buildings in
Scotland, certainly rendered it not only justifiable but highly
praiseworthy that the Exchequer should make some effort for preserving
so much of the pile as was preservable. Restoration was not to be
expected--the preservation of the existing fragments was all that
could be reasonably looked for. It must be confessed, however, that
the operations, by means of which this service was accomplished, have
given no picturesque aid to the mass of ruins, but have rather
introduced a new element of discordance and confusion, in the contrast
between the cold, flat, new surfaces of masonry and the rugged,
weatherbeaten ruins in which they are embodied.

There are few buildings in which the Norman and the early English are
so closely blended, and the transition so gentle. The great western
door has the Norman arch, with an approach to the later types in some
of its rather peculiar mouldings, while the broad and equally peculiar
gallery above it--the only interior portion of the church remaining in
a state of preservation--shows the pointed arch, with all the
simplicity of the Norman pillar and capital. All the material
fragments of the church now remaining are represented in the four
accompanying plates, from which as full an idea of the shape and
character of the remains may be derived as the visitor could acquire
on the spot. It will be seen that over the gallery, at the western end
of the nave, there widens the lower arc of a circular window, which
must have been of great size. The only portions of the aisle windows
still existing are on the south side of the nave. None of the central
pillars remain, but their bases have been carefully laid bare: and it
is supposed, from the greater size of those at the meeting of the
cross, that here there had been a great central tower.

Among the tombs of more modern date, in the grave-yard near the
church, there are many which bear sculptural marks of a very remote
antiquity; and among the ornaments they present, the primitive form of
the cross is conspicuous. During the operations for cleaning out the
ruins, which were conducted under the authority of the Exchequer in
1815,[3] some pieces of monumental sculpture were discovered, two of
which are curious and remarkable. The one is the mutilated figure of a
dignified churchman--probably an abbot. The head, the hands--which
appear to have been clasped--and the feet, are broken off and lost;
but the fragment thus truncated has much appearance of grace in the
folds of the drapery and the disposition of the limbs, while a series
of rich ceremonial ornaments appear to have been brought out with
great force and minuteness. The other figure, still more mutilated, is
simpler in the ordinary details, but has attached to it some adjuncts
which have perplexed the learned. The feet appear to have rested on
the effigy of a beast, the remains of which indicate it to have
represented a lion. It has, from this circumstance, been inferred that
the statue was that of William the Lion, the founder of the abbey. The
figure has, however, been attired in flowing robes, and a purse hangs
from the girdle. But the portions of this fragment which chiefly
contributed to rouse curiosity, are some incrustations, which had at
first the appearance of the effigies of lizards crawling along the
main figure. It was supposed that these reptiles were intended to
embody the idea of malevolent spirits, and that the piece of sculpture
might have been designed to represent a myth, probably in reference to
the machinations of the infernal world. But, upon a closer inspection,
it was found that these tiny figures represented pigmy knights in
armor, scrambling, as it were, up the massive figure. One appears to
be struggling with the drapery below; another has reached the waist;
and the fracture, which is across the shoulder, leaves dangling the
mailed heels of two others, which must have reached the neck. Is it
possible that there can be here any reference to the slaughter of
Becket, to whom the abbey was dedicated?


[3] New Stat. Account, Forfar, p. 80.


The historical circumstances connected with the foundation of this
monastic institution are remarkable. It was founded and endowed by
William the Lion, King of Scots, in the year 1178, and dedicated to
St. Thomas à Becket, the martyr of the principle of ecclesiastical
supremacy, whose slaughter at the high altar of Canterbury Cathedral
occurred in 1170, and who was canonized in 1173. This great
establishment, richly endowed, was thus a magnificent piece of homage
by the Scottish King to a principle which, especially under the bold
and uncompromising guidance of its great advocate, had solely
perplexed and baffled his royal neighbor on the English throne, and
boded future trouble and humiliation to all thrones and temporal
dignities. Much antiquarian speculation has been exerted, but without
very obvious success, to fathom the motives for this act of
munificence. William had invaded those parts of the north of England
which were previously held in a species of feudality by the Kings of
Scotland, and was disgracefully defeated at Alnwick, and committed to
captivity, just at the time when the English monarch, whose forces
accomplished the victory and capture, was enduring his humiliating
penance at the tomb of the canonized archbishop. Lord Hailes, who says
that "William was personally acquainted with Becket, when there was
little probability of his ever becoming a confessor, martyr and
saint," endeavoring to discover a motive for the munificence of the
Scottish King, continues to say: "Perhaps it was meant as a public
declaration that he did not ascribe his disaster at Alnwick to the
ill-will of his old friend. He may, perhaps, have been hurried by the
torrent of popular prejudices into the belief that his disaster
proceeded from the partiality of Becket towards the penitent Henry;
and he might imagine that if equal honors were done in Scotland to the
new saint as in England he might, on future occasions, observe a
neutrality."[4] It is remarkable that several of the early chroniclers
allude to this friendship between the Scottish monarch, who was a
resolute champion of temporal authority, and the representative of
ecclesiastical supremacy....

Princes may be induced, by personal circumstances, to change their
views, and in the times when they were not controlled by responsible
ministers, they gave effect to their alterations of opinion. It is
quite possible that at the time when he founded the Abbey, William was
partial to Church ascendency, for his celebrated contest with the
ecclesiastical power arose out of subsequent events. This King's
disputes with the Church have a somewhat complex shape. The clergy of
his own dominions had a spiritual war against the English hierarchy,
who asserted a claim to exercise metropolitan authority over them; and
it might have been supposed that William, if he sought to humble his
own clergy, would have found it politic to favor the pretensions of
those of England. But the interests of the two clerical bodies became
in the end united. Thus the war which had so long raged in England,
passed towards the north, with this difference, that the King of Scots
had to encounter not only his own native hierarchy, but the victorious
Church of England, just elated by its triumph over Henry. The Chapter
of St. Andrews had elected a person to be their bishop, not acceptable
to William, who desired to give the chair to his own chaplain. The
King seized the temporalities, and prevailed on the other bishops to
countenance his favorite. The bishop-elect appealed to Rome. Pope
Alexander III issued legatine powers over Scotland to the Archbishop
of York, who, along with the Bishop of Durham, after an ineffectual
war of minor threats and inflictions, excommunicated the King, and
laid the kingdom under interdict. At this point Alexander III died,
and the new pope thought it wise to make concessions to an
uncompromising adversary in a rude and distant land, who had shown
himself possessed of an extent of temporal power sufficient to
counteract the power of Rome, even among the ecclesiastics themselves.

It was before this great feud commenced that the Abbey was founded;
but during its continuance the institution received, from whatever
motives, many tokens of royal favor, as well as precious gifts from
the great barons. Among the list of benefactors we find many of those
old Norman names, which cease to be associated with Scottish history
after the War of Independence. It is a still more striking instance of
the community of interest between the two kingdoms anterior to this
war, that while we find a Scottish king devoting a great monastic
establishment to the memory of an English prelate, we should find an
English king conferring special privileges and immunities within his
realm on the Scottish brotherhood....

The Abbey was founded for Tyronesian monks, and the parent stock
whence it received its first inmates was the old Abbey of Kelso. In
the year of the foundation, Reginald, elected "Abbot of the Church of
St. Thomas," was, with his convent, released of all subjection and
obedience to the abbot and convent of Kelso. The church was completed
and consecrated under the abbacy of Ralph de Lamley, in 1233.
Aberbrothwick was one of those ecclesiastical institutions immediately
connected with the spread of the Roman hierarchy, which gradually
sucked up the curious pristine establishment of the Culdees; and the
muniments of the Abbey thus afford some traces of the character and
history of this religious body, at least towards the period of their
extinction. Thus, while the Church of Abernethy, an ancient seat of
the Culdees, is granted by King William to his new foundation, Orme of
Abernethy, who is also styled Abbot of Abernethy, grants the half of
the tithes of the property of himself and his heirs, the other half of
which belongs to the Culdees of Abernethy, while some disposals of a
strictly ecclesiastical character are made by the same document. Thus
we find an abbot who makes disposal for his heirs--a counterpart to
those references to the legitimate progeny of churchmen, which
frequently puzzle the antiquary in his researches through early
Scottish ecclesiastical history.

The Abbot of Aberbrothwick possessed a peculiar privilege, the origin
of which is in some measure associated with the Culdees--the custody
of the Brecbennach, or consecrated banner of St. Columba. The lands of
Forglen, the church of which was dedicated to Adomnan the biographer
of Columba, were gifted for the maintenance of the banner. The
privilege was conferred on the Abbey by King William, but as it
inferred the warlike service of following the banner to the King's
host, the actual custody was held by laymen, the Abbey enjoying the
pecuniary advantages attached to the privilege, as religious houses
drew the temporalities of churches served by vicars.

It will readily be believed that this, one of the richest and most
magnificent monastic institutions in Scotland, numbered many eminent
men among its abbots, who from time to time connect it with the early
history of Scotland. It is even associated with a literature that has
survived to the present day, in having been presided over by Gavin
Douglas, the translator of Virgil. The two Beatons, Cardinal David and
Archbishop James, also successively its abbots, give it a more
ambiguous reputation. At the Reformation, the wealth of the Abbey was
converted into a temporal lordship, in favor of Lord Claude Hamilton,
third son of the Duke of Chatelherault, and the greater part of the
temporalities came, in the seventeenth century, into the hands of the
Panmure family.

In a tradition immortalized by a fine ballad of Southey's, it is said
that the abbots of Aberbrothwick, in their munificent humanity
preserved a beacon on that dangerous reef of rock in the German Ocean,
which is supposed to have received its name of the "Bell Rock" from
the peculiar character of the warning machinery of which the abbot
made use:

    "The Abbot of Aberbrothwick
    Had placed that bell on the Inchcape rock,
    On a buoy in the storm it floated and swung,
    And over the waves its warning rung.

    "When the rock was hid by the surge's swell,
    The mariners heard the warning bell;
    And then they knew the perilous rock,
    And bless'd the Abbot of Aberbrothwick."

The tradition represents a rover, in the recklessness of prosperity
and sunshine, cutting the bell-rope, and afterwards returning in foul
weather to be shipwrecked on the rock from which he had impiously
removed the warning beacon. No evidence of the existence of the bell
is found in the records of the Abbey; and on the subject of its wanton
removal, the sagacious engineer of the Northern Lights say, "It in no
measure accords with the respect and veneration entertained by seamen
of all classes for landmarks; more especially as there seems to be no
difficulty in accounting for the disappearance of such an apparatus,
unprotected, as it must have been, from the raging element of the


[4] Annals, 1178.

[5] Stevenson on the Bell Rock Light-house, 69.


[Illustration: SOCIETIES]


Recommendations by the Boston Society of Architects, in regard to
practice in obtaining estimates from contractors:

1. Drawings, when offered for final or competitive estimates, should
be sufficient in number and character to represent the proposed works
clearly; should be at a scale of not less than one-eighth of an inch
to the foot, and be rendered in ink or some permanent process.

2. Proper details should be furnished for work that is not otherwise
sufficiently described for estimate.

3. Specifications should be in ink. They should be definite where not
sufficiently defined and explained by drawings, and every distinctive
class of work to be included in contract should be mentioned and
placed under its appropriate heading.

4. Contractors should be notified, at time of estimate, if they are to
be restricted in the employment of their subcontractors.

5. Sub-bids received by architects should be held as confidential
communications until all the estimates in a given class of work have
been submitted.

The principal contractor should add to his bids all these subestimates
while in the architect's office, and should sign a tender in which the
names of these above-mentioned subcontractors should be enumerated.

6. A subcontractor should not (without his free consent) be placed
under a general contractor, and no general contractor should be
compelled to accept (without his free consent) the estimate of any

7. Should a contractor decline to assume in his contract the estimate
for any work not included in his original estimate, he should not
thereby be denied the contract upon the portions of the work covered
by his original estimate.

8. Estimates should not be binding more than thirty days after

9. Unless previous notification has been given to the contrary in the
specification or otherwise, the lowest invited bidder is entitled to
the contract. If radical changes are made, the whole competition
should be reopened.

10. After bids have been received, and before the award, bidders
should not be allowed to amend their estimates.

[Illustration: COMMUNICATIONS]

[_The editors cannot pay attention to demands of correspondents who
forget to give their names and addresses as guaranty of good faith;
nor do they hold themselves responsible for opinions expressed by
their correspondents._]


NEW YORK, N.Y., December 28, 1889.


_Dear Sirs,_--I have just seen a letter from "Anglo-American" in your
issue of December 14, in which he calls for the name of the English
artist who said concerning the French sculptor, Barye: "Had he been
born in Great Britain, we would have had a group by Barye in every
square in London."

Théophile Silvestre reports this remark as if uttered in his presence.
He says (1856) that the speaker was Mr. Herbert, an artist of
distinction. Probably this was Arthur J. Herbert. Your correspondent
takes the remark perhaps too literally, when it merely meant to
express admiration through a slight exaggeration. Mr. Herbert would
have been content to see a few squares only decorated with groups by
an English equivalent of Barye, had one existed.

As to the assertion by "Anglo-American" that Alfred Stevens was "an
artist not inferior to Barye" it will be shared by few who have
studied the works of the great French sculptor of animals and men.

"Anglo-American" is right in saying that my short paper in _Harper's
Weekly_ errs in giving two bronze groups after Barye to Mount Vernon
Square, Baltimore, instead of four. Were I a resident of that city, I
could hardly have known this better, and how the error got there
puzzles me. Certainly had I been permitted to see a proof of that
paper the mistake would have been corrected, unimportant as it is, so
far as Barye is concerned. I must compliment your correspondent on the
quickness of eye that detected the slip and regret that the
proof-reader of _Harper's Weekly_ did not know his Baltimore to the
same degree. But he is himself in error when he speaks of the "_Life
and Works of Antoine Louis Barye_," written by me and published by the
Barye Monument Association as a catalogue. The catalogue is quite
another thing from the _édition deluxe_, which is the only edition of
the "_Life_."




_Dear Sirs,_--In a late issue of your journal an advocate of
Trap-venting, says of ordinary S-traps "If the traps are filled even
once in two months they will keep their seals intact."

Most persons now agree that S-traps which are back-vented in the
ordinary manner require refilling by hand as often as once a
fortnight. It is, therefore, clear that the system of back-venting is
a very dangerous one. Its original object was to afford security. It
is now found (and strangely enough, even by its advocates) that it
totally fails in this respect and that it requires an amount of
attention which experience and common-sense show us it will never

My experiments on the rate of seal-reduction through evaporation
produced by back-venting were made with the greatest care and show a
more rapid loss than is generally supposed. If the reports of these
experiments are studied, it will be seen that every precaution was
taken to secure trustworthy results. Although my experiments on
siphonage were made during the same year and on the same system of
piping with those on evaporation, it will be seen by studying the
drawings and text of the report that the former in no wise interfered
with the latter. No experiments on siphonage were made while the water
stood high in the traps during the tests for evaporation, and no
disturbance of the water seals was made by this or any other cause
during the evaporation tests. It would have been exceedingly careless
and totally unnecessary to allow of any such disturbance. Moreover,
most of the experiments on evaporation were made, as shown, on a stack
so connected with the rest of the system of piping that such
disturbance would have been impossible. Even had we not so carefully
closed the inlet or house-side of the traps.

I found that a warm flue caused the back-vent pipe to evaporate enough
of the water from the seal of the trap to break it in less than a
week, and I am confident that this often happens in practice.

How short-sighted and foolish is it to endeavor to throw discredit on
these experiments which were made with the greatest care and honesty
and which were witnessed and subscribed to by impartial experts, and
to argue that, because other experiments made under different
conditions showed a somewhat slower rate of evaporation, therefore
cases could never occur in which the more rapid rate might be
encountered in practice.

It is likely that the public will very soon awake to a sense of the
importance of investigating this matter for themselves. Their Boards
of Health will then find that with a very small outlay they can obtain
the truth; and that a vast amount of unnecessary complication and
expense can be saved in plumbing and, at the same time greater
security be obtained.

When we consider, too, the well-known unreliability of the vent-pipe
in other ways and the frequency with which it is found totally closed
by grease, it becomes something more than folly to recommend the
public to place implicit reliance upon it.

    J. P. PUTNAM.


THE DIVINING-ROD.--Professor Ray Lankester, having recently expressed
some doubts of the alleged powers of a boy "water-finder." Dr.
McClure, who is chairman of the company by whom the boy is employed,
has denied emphatically that the boy, whose name is Rodwell, is an
impostor. He says that the lad, when tested, never failed to find
either water or mineral veins, the lodes having always been found
exactly at the places indicated. The divining-rod which he holds only
moves in obedience to the muscular contraction of his hands, and a rod
of any kind of wood, or even of any material substance whatever, can
be used, provided it be a conductor of electricity. Dr. McClure's
statements have excited considerable comment in England. The phenomena
of tests by the divining-rod are not by any means new. They have never
been described from a scientific point-of-view, nor has any
philosophical explanation of them ever been advanced, but there is no
question whatever of their existence, and of their being now regarded
by the most advanced scientists as beyond the region of chicanery and
imposture. Mr. W. J. Jenks, in a recent lecture on "The Protection of
Electric Light Stations from Lightning," treats the subject very
exhaustively, and shows that where the ability to locate electrical or
magnetic attraction is vested in an individual the results are
absolutely reliable. He instances the case of two gentlemen of
Merrimac, Massachusetts, named Prescott, who for several years have
given displays of this rare faculty. As an illustration of the
certainty with which the Prescott brothers could indicate the location
of electrical attraction, Mr. Jenks gives a well-authenticated
incident which took place at Amesbury not long ago. Several old
citizens were sceptical as to the accuracy of the conclusions supposed
to have been reached, and determined on a severe test. Taking twenty
or more citizens as witnesses, they requested the Prescott brothers to
accompany them, and indicating a stretch of highway before them, some
forty or fifty rods in length, stated that some years previous
lightning had struck on that road, and wished to be informed as to the
exact spot. Proceeding several rods, two cross currents were marked
out; both extending for some distance in the travelled pathway and
crossed by another at right angles. Testing carefully the roads in
both directions, this electrical centre was pointed out as the
greatest danger in the vicinity. The party was then invited to examine
an ancient volume of official records, where it was chronicled that on
the 7th of October, 1802, a man who was driving two yoke of cattle was
struck by lightning in that exact spot and, with all his animals, was
instantly killed. The occurrence had been deemed at the time so
remarkable that the circumstance, with a minute description of the
locality, had been recorded, though long forgotten by all but perhaps
a few of the oldest citizens.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE DANGERS OF ELECTRICITY.--The rapid spread of electric lighting
in America has not been accomplished without very considerable loss
of life. From a list compiled by Mr. Harold P. Brown, of New York,
we learn that eighty-seven persons have been killed up to the
commencement of this year. This is a very serious total, and if
there were any likelihood of the rate being maintained, it would
supply ample reason for very stringent legislative control being
exercised over all electric installations. Happily many of the
accidents may be attributed to the want of knowledge which always
characterizes a new manufacture, while numbers of them are also due
to the hasty and careless methods of erection adopted in America.
Both these causes may be expected to decrease rapidly in the future,
particularly if the municipalities insist on the mains being placed
underground, instead of being strung on poles in the streets. Mr.
Brown is well-known from his persistent opposition to the alternate
current system; he never misses an opportunity of insisting upon its
dangers, and of comparing it, to its detriment, with the
direct-current system. Now as the alternate system is rapidly
spreading all over London and also in many parts of the kingdom,
this is a question which interests us directly. Are we running
special risks by permitting its establishment? As far as lighting
currents of fifty or one hundred volts are concerned, it certainly
matters little or nothing whether they are direct or alternate, for
neither will produce any serious injury on the human frame. When it
comes to currents of distribution of two thousand volts, then it is
quite conceivable that death is more certain by the alternate
current, but unfortunately it is also fairly certain with the direct
current, so that there is very little to choose between them. A
house in which the fittings were charged to such a potential would
be as dangerous as a battlefield. What is wanted is sufficiently
good workmanship to prevent contact ever being made between the
distributing mains and the service wires, and this there should be
no difficulty in obtaining. Even if a leak should occur the device
of putting the service main to earth at one point will prevent it
doing any harm. Mr. Brown refers to two cases in which men were
killed by contact with a perfectly insulated wire, their death being
caused by the static charge. We feel considerable doubt as to the
possibility of any one being killed by a static charge under these
circumstances; we prefer to believe that the insulator was bad,
probably a mere taping of non-waterproof material. Just as the
death-rate on a railway varies inversely as the perfection of the
signalling appliances, so the fatalities in America from electricity
will decrease as better materials are adopted, and more care is
expended in erection.--_Engineering._

       *       *       *       *       *

THE MONOLITHIC CHURCH OF ST. EMILION.--About twenty miles to the
north-east of Bordeaux is Libourne, one of the principal towns founded
by Edward I. This flourishing commercial town was the ruin of its
neighbor, St. Emilion, which affords a fine field for the antiquary,
nearly the whole town consisting of buildings of the Middle Ages. A
considerable part of the town wall of the twelfth century remains,
with the ditch, now turned into vineyards, and at one corner is a fine
house of the same period, which is called the Palace of the Cardinal
de la Mothe, who may perhaps have resided in it; but it is at least a
century older than his time, and can hardly be later than 1200, as
will at once be seen by the details. The French antiquaries say that
it was built by the Cardinal in 1302, and speak of it as a remarkable
synchronism in art; but the fact appears to me simply incredible. The
most remarkable feature of St. Emilion is the monolithic church, which
is probably one of the most curious of its class. It is cut entirely
out of the solid rock, and is of early Romanesque character. The
precise date is uncertain, but it appears most probable that the work
was commenced in the eleventh century, and carried on through the
whole of the twelfth. St. Emilion is said to have lived in the eighth
century. A fragment of an inscription remains, the characters of which
agree with the eleventh century; but some of the French antiquaries
attribute it to the ninth. Others consider it as merely the crypt of
the church above on the top of the rock; but that church is of much
later character, and it is much more probable that the subterranean
church was first made, and the other built long afterwards, when the
country was in a more settled state. This church is 115 feet long by
80 wide. It consists of three parallel aisles, or rather a nave and
two aisles, with plain barrel-shaped vaults, if they can be so called,
with transverse vaults or openings, and round arches on massive square
piers; the imposts are of the plain early Norman character, merely a
square projection chamfered off on the under side, but one of them is
enriched with the billet ornament. There are recesses for tombs down
the sides, and a fourth aisle or passage has been cut out on the south
side, apparently for tombs only, as it has recesses on both sides to
receive the stone coffins. Still farther to the south, but connected
by a passage, is a circular chamber in an unfinished state, with a
domical vault, and an opening in the centre to a shaft which is
carried up to the surface. Whether this was intended for a
chapter-house, or for a sepulchral chapel in imitation of the Holy
Sepulcre, is an undecided point. I incline to the latter opinion. This
subterranean church or crypt is necessarily lighted from one end only,
where it is flush with the face of the rock; and these openings are
filled with Flamboyant windows, which are very evident insertions. On
the surface of the hill over this church, but with a large space of
solid rock intervening, is the tower and spire belonging to it. The
tower is of late Norman and Transitional character surmounted by a
Flamboyant crocketed spire. There is a kind of well or flue cut
through the rock under the tower into the church below, apparently for
the bell-ropes. In the church are remains of early painting, and some
shallow sculpture, the character of which appears to be of the twelfth
century. Adjoining to the church, on the south side, is a detached
chapel of transition Norman work, with an apse vaulted with good ribs
and vaulting shafts. A considerable part of the old painting is
preserved; some of the ribs are painted with zigzags. Under this
chapel is a crypt or cave cut out of the rock called the Grotto of St.
Emilion, with a spring of water in it. The work is of the same early
character as the other vaults.--_J. H. Parker._

       *       *       *       *       *

ANOTHER TALL CHIMNEY.--A factory chimney, said to be the highest in
the world, is now being erected at the Royal Smelting-Works, near
Freiberg, in Saxony. The horizontal flue from the works to the chimney
is 1,093 yards long; it crosses the river Mulde, and then takes an
upward course of 197 feet to the top of the hill upon which the
chimney is being built. The base of the structure is thirty-nine feet
square by thirty feet in height, on which is placed a short octagonal
transition, from which the round shaft starts. This is 430 feet high,
or altogether, with the base 460 feet high, with an inside diameter of
twenty-three feet at the bottom, and sixteen feet and six inches at
the top. It will take 1,500,000 bricks, and the cost is

       *       *       *       *       *

SITE OF A LOCRIAN TOWN.--The site of an ancient city of the Locri in
modern Calabria, Italy, is in progress of excavation, under the
direction of Dr. Orsi. The modern name of the spot is Gerace. A temple
of six columns has been unearthed, and among the prizes is a Greek
group in Parian marble, showing a divinity with a fishtail, a horse
and a nude youth. The group is supposed to have been placed in the
pediment of the west gable. Other finds are awaited.--_New York

       *       *       *       *       *

THE WATKIN TOWER.--Four hundred plans have already been received by
the committee who offered prizes for the best and second-best plan for
the proposed Watkin tower--the English Eiffel. It has been said that
it will be so high that all that need be done when fog comes on will
be to enter the lift and in a few minutes be up in the clear
blue.--_Boston Post._

       *       *       *       *       *

PERSIAN COURT ART.--M. Georges Perrot will maintain in his
forthcoming volume on Persian art, being the fifth volume of "The
History of Art," that the old art of Persia had nothing to do with
the Persian people, being simply official or Court art. The
designers and builders, sculptors and artists, were, he thinks, not
Persians, but Greeks. The architect of the palaces of Darius was a
Greek or a Phoenician.--_New York Times._

[Illustration: TRADE SURVEYS]

There are signs of a subsidence of popular hostility to railroad
combinations, trusts and commercial and manufacturing organizations of
various kinds intended to conserve mutual interests. If the granger
spirit had its own way it would, through its control of the
legislative mills, grind a good many corporations to powder, and do
tenfold more damage by its destructive methods than could possibly be
repaired by mistaken remedies. It is, after all, a question whether
any form of combination is possible which can very long do much damage
to the people at large. These gigantic commercial and railroad
organizations with which we have recently become familiar are
giant-like efforts of enormous interests to rise up out of old
conditions. Progress and development must take place, and the efforts
of trusts, associations and combinations by whatever name known are
simply the preliminary movements of mighty interests to reorganize
themselves upon a broader and higher platform. The people in their
jealousy and anxiety to protect themselves have, in some sections of
the country, run into the adoption of extreme measures. They are
already preparing to retrace their steps, and for several reasons.
They are discovering that they have been fighting a bugbear; also,
that their legislation against the bugbear cannot legislate. Also,
that money stays away from radical communities, that many possible
advantages are lost; that combinations properly controlled have,
within themselves, the capabilities of accomplishing much good.
Despite the threatened damage of these monster combinations prices
have been quietly and steadily declining in nearly every direction;
railroad freights have slipped down, notch after notch. Association
after association has come and gone, and the Interstate Railway Law
itself is in danger of being set aside for something better. The
people are learning to have less fear of these combinations, and more
confidence in themselves and for the underlying laws of trade. The
year ends with gratifying results to business men in every avenue of
activity. The action of the Treasury Department furnishes a hint to
the country that a large supply of currency may soon become a
necessity. The evil that would result from an unexpected and prolonged
financial stringency cannot be measured. Over five thousand new
corporations, firms and business associations have started in the
South last year, as against something like 3,700 for 1888. Never in
our history was there such an incubation of new business ventures. A
stringency in money will destroy these by the thousand. Two or three
scores of railroad enterprises which have reached the stage of
bond-issuing would also be thrown aside, and thousands of enlargements
of manufacturing and mining properties would be postponed; but it is
useless to borrow trouble, or to paint dismal possibilities, as it is
to be presumed that the people and their spokesmen fully understand
the question. There is not a single branch of business in which
reasonable fault can be found with results, excepting the one general
result of very narrow margins. Consuming-capacity, on the whole, has
increased. The wage-earners are earning as much as for years past, and
are receiving more for their expenditures; that is to say, less of the
product of labor in the aggregate is being absorbed by middlemen, or
what might be termed non-productive agencies. The production of labor
is being more evenly and equitably distributed than ever before. The
ideal justice dreamed of by the philosophic socialists is within
reach. In short, the wage-worker is better off, has more advantages,
greater opportunities, and is yearly becoming a more important factor
in the Government.

As long as railway gross and net earnings continue to improve no
reaction is to be feared, according to the dictum of Wall Street.
There are strong probabilities that the favorable showing will
continue. The anthracite coal production for 1889 foots up 35,200,000
tons, as against 38,145,718 tons for 1888. The distribution of soft
coal throughout the New England and Middle States for steam-raising
and general manufacturing purposes is gradually increasing. Last
week's distribution of Connellsville coke reached the unprecedented
figures of 125,000 tons. The production for the year foots up over
4,500,000 tons. The expansion and development of industries throughout
the Middle and Southern States continues, and hundreds of new
enterprises will take shape early in the spring. Iron and steel makers
are projecting new furnaces and mills in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky,
Tennessee and Alabama. Some forty or fifty cotton mills are projected
between Georgia and Texas. Mining companies representing fully forty
million dollars of capital--that is, actual working capital--will
begin operations this winter along the eastern slope of the Rocky
Mountains. Industrial and building activity will take a fresh start
upon the Pacific coast. Among the branches which will be developed
will be saw-mill and foundry building. Machinery, engines, castings of
all kinds, stoves and small iron and wood work are in great demand all
along the coast from the Columbia River to Los Angeles. A great deal
of capital and enterprise has been encouraged thither during 1889,
and, as a result, manufacturing is greatly stimulated. The Dominion
Government is also alive to the importance of developing relations
with Asiatic and other foreign countries, and ship-lines are projected
from its western seaports to foreign countries. Railroad-building is
also being greatly stimulated by private enterprise. A vast amount of
capital is drifting into the Rocky Mountain and Pacific coast regions
from Eastern cities, and a great empire is being built up there which
will be a source of wealth to those who obtain possession of land,
timber, minerals and manufacturing facilities before the general
enhancement of values takes place. The benefits originally
contemplated by the construction of the trans-continental roads are
now only being felt in their intensity. Irrigation companies, heavily
capitalized, are doing excellent work in reclaiming vast tracts which
geographers declared lost to all future utility. Mining engineers who
have made a very careful examination and survey of much Western
territory in the interest of Boston and New York moneyed men furnish
evidences of wealth in those sections, which cannot but bring to them
the money and enterprise necessary to their full development. The
smaller industries throughout the States east of the Mississippi River
are all doing well. Manufacturers are making money, but not as rapidly
as they would like. Competition is exercising a healthy restraining
influence. Like interests are being drawn together through the spirit
of organization. Manufacture and agriculture are evenly balancing
themselves. Commercial failures for 1889 show a moderate increase,
but, considering the rashness with which ill-equipped persons enter
into business and manufacturing, it is surprising that the failures
are so few.

       *       *       *       *       *

S. J. PARKHILL & CO., Printers, Boston.

Transcriber's Note:

Minor printer errors (omitted or incorrect punctuation, missing or
transposed letters etc.) have been corrected without note. All
remaining variations in spelling, hyphenation, etc. are preserved as
in the original, with the following exceptions:

 Page iv--Concontractors amended to Contractors--"Estimates.
 Builders' and Sub-Contractors', 161"

 Page iv--Judæan amended to Judean--"Judean Tombs, 117"

 Page v--Scandinavan amended to Scandinavian--"Scandinavian
 Art, 37, 53, 63"

 Page v--Maxmilian amended to Maximilian--"Tomb. [of]
 Maximilian at Innsbruck, 61"

 Page vii--place name and page reference transposal
 reversed--"Strozzi Palace, Florence, 70"

 Page viii--Ruitz amended to Rintz--"Berlin, Ger. ... House
 on the Yorkstrasse. Herr Rintz, ..."

 Page viii--Willisch amended to Wellisch--"Buda-Pesth,
 Austria. House of Herr Hatner. Alfred Willisch, ..."

 Page viii--Felixtowe amended to Felixstowe--"Felixstowe,
 Eng. The Gables." etc.

 Page viii--repeated 'the' deleted--"Painting by Puvis de
 Chavannes in the Grand Hall ..."

 Page 5--succedded amended to succeeded--"... far from
 honourable, have succeeded in getting control ..."

 Page 7--scholorship amended to scholarship--"... to whom
 scholarship is dear ..."

 Page 9--argillacious amended to argillaceous--"... of a
 loose argillaceous irony matter ..."

 Page 9--repeated 'is' deleted--"... showing that it is not
 its geological position ..."

 Page 11--gripe amended to grip--"... carrying a lion whose
 dreadful grip his frantic rearing cannot loosen."

The index entry on p vi, Suggestion for the Executive Mansion by
Theodore F. Laist, etc. has no page reference in the original

The word Phoenician was printed with an oe ligature. This has not been
retained in this version.

Illustrations have been shifted slightly so as not to fall in the
middle of paragraphs.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Architect and Building News, Vol. 27, Jan-Mar, 1890" ***

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