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Title: No Animal Food - and Nutrition and Diet with Vegetable Recipes
Author: Wheldon, Rupert H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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The title of this book is not ambiguous, but as it relates to a subject
rarely thought about by the generality of people, it may save some
misapprehension if at once it is plainly stated that the following pages
are in vindication of a dietary consisting wholly of products of the
vegetable kingdom, and which therefore excludes not only flesh, fish,
and fowl, but milk and eggs and products manufactured therefrom.

                                                      THE AUTHOR.

This work is reprinted from the English edition with changes better
adapting it to the American reader.

                                                  THE PUBLISHERS.


Health and happiness are within reach of those who provide themselves
with good food, clean water, fresh air, and exercise.

A ceaseless and relentless hand is laid on almost every animal to
provide food for human beings.

Nothing that lives or grows is missed by man in his search for food to
satisfy his appetite.

Natural appetite is satisfied with vegetable food, the basis for highest
and best health and development.

History of primitive man we know, but the possibilities of perfected and
complete man are not yet attained.

Adequate and pleasant food comes to us from the soil direct, favorable
for health, and a preventive against disease.

Plant food is man's natural diet; ample, suitable, and available;
obtainable with least labor and expense, and in pleasing form and

Animal food will be useful in emergency, also at other times; still,
plant substance is more favorable to health, endurance, and power of

Variety of food is desirable and natural; it is abundantly supplied by
the growth of the soil under cultivation.

Races of intelligence and strength are to be found subsisting and
thriving on an exclusive plant grown diet.

The health and patience of vegetarians meet the social, mental and
physical tests of life with less disease, and less risk of dependence in
old age.

Meat eaters have no advantages which do not belong also to those whose
food is vegetable.

Plant food, the principal diet of the world, has one serious drawback;
it is not always savory, or palatable.

Plant diet to be savory requires fat, or oil, to be added to it; nuts,
peanut, and olive oil, supply it to the best advantage.

Plant diet with butter, cream, milk, cheese, eggs, lard, fat, suet, or
tallow added to it, is not vegetarian; it is mixed diet; the same in
effect as if meat were used.--Elmer Lee, M.D., Editor, Health Culture




    I--THE URGENCY OF THE SUBJECT                                      9

   II--PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS                                        17

  III--ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS                                         35

   IV--THE ÆSTHETIC POINT OF VIEW                                     46

    V--ECONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS                                      52

   VI--THE EXCLUSION OF DAIRY PRODUCE                                 58

  VII--CONCLUSION                                                     63


    I--SCIENCE OF NUTRITION                                           70

   II--WHAT TO EAT                                                    82

  III--WHEN TO EAT                                                    97

   IV--HOW TO EAT                                                    103

  FOOD TABLE                                                         108

  RECIPES                                                            111




Outside of those who have had the good fortune to be educated to an
understanding of a rational science of dietetics, very few people indeed
have any notion whatever of the fundamental principles of nutrition and
diet, and are therefore unable to form any sound opinion as to the
merits or demerits of any particular system of dietetic reform.
Unfortunately many of those who _do_ realise the intimate connection
between diet and both physical and mental health, are not, generally
speaking, sufficiently philosophical to base their views upon a secure
foundation and logically reason out the whole problem for themselves.

Briefly, the pleas usually advanced on behalf of the vegetable regimen
are as follows: It is claimed to be healthier than the customary flesh
diet; it is claimed for various reasons to be more pleasant; it is
claimed to be more economical; it is claimed to be less trouble; it is
claimed to be more humane. Many hold the opinion that a frugivorous
diet is more natural and better suited to the constitution of man, and
that he was never intended to be carnivorous; that the slaughtering of
animals for food, being entirely unnecessary is immoral; that in adding
our share towards supplying a vocation for the butcher we are helping to
nurture callousness, coarseness and brutality in those who are concerned
in the butchering business; that anyone of true refinement and delicacy
would find in the killing of highly-strung, nervous, sensitive
creatures, a task repulsive and disgusting, and that it is scarcely
fair, let alone Christian, to ask others to perform work which we
consider unnecessary and loathsome, and which we should be ashamed to do

Of all these various views there is one that should be regarded as of
primary importance, namely, the question of health. First and foremost
we have to consider the question of physical health. No system of
thought that poses as being concerned with man's welfare on earth can
ever make headway unless it recognises this. Physical well-being is a
moral consideration that should and must have our attention before aught
else, and that this is so needs no demonstrating; it is self-evident.

Now it is not to be denied when we look at the over-flowing hospitals;
when we see everywhere advertised patent medicines; when we realise
that a vast amount of work is done by the medical profession among all
classes; when we learn that one man out of twelve and one woman out of
eight die every year from that most terrible disease, cancer, and that
over 207,000 persons died from tuberculosis during the first seven years
of the present century; when we learn that there are over 1500 defined
diseases prevalent among us and that the list is being continually added
to, that the general health of the nation is far different from what we
have every reason to believe it ought to be. However much we may have
become accustomed to it, we cannot suppose ill-health to be a _normal_
condition. Granted, then, that the general health of the nation is far
from what it should be, and looking from effects to causes, may we not
pertinently enquire whether our diet is not largely responsible for this
state of things? May it not be that wrong feeding and mal-nutrition are
at the root of most disease? It needs no demonstrating that man's health
is directly dependent upon what he eats, yet how few possess even the
most elementary conception of the principles of nutrition in relation to
health? Is it not evident that it is because of this lamentable
ignorance so many people nowadays suffer from ill-health?

Further, not only does diet exert a definite influence upon physical
well-being, but it indirectly affects the entire intellectual and moral
evolution of mankind. Just as a man thinks so he becomes, and 'a
science which controls the building of brain-cell, and therefore of
mind-stuff, lies at the root of all the problems of life.' From the
point of view of food-science, mind and body are inseparable; one reacts
upon the other; and though a healthy body may not be essential to
happiness, good health goes a long way towards making life worth living.
Dr. Alexander Haig, who has done such excellent and valuable work in the
study of uric acid in relation to disease, speaks most emphatically on
this point: 'DIET is the greatest question for the human race, not only
does his ability to obtain food determine man's existence, but its
quality controls the circulation in the brain, and this decides the
trend of being and action, accounting for much of the indifference
between depravity and the self-control of wisdom.'

The human body is a machine, not an iron and steel machine, but a blood
and bone machine, and just as it is necessary to understand the
mechanism of the iron and steel machine in order to run it, so is it
necessary to understand the mechanism of the blood and bone machine in
order to run it. If a person understanding nothing of the business of a
_chauffeur_ undertook to run an automobile, doubtless he would soon come
to grief; and so likewise if a person understands nothing of the needs
of his body, or partly understanding them knows not how to satisfy them,
it is extremely unlikely that he will maintain it at its normal
standard of efficiency. Under certain conditions, of which we will speak
in a moment, the body-machine is run quite unconsciously, and run well;
that is to say, the body is kept in perfect health without the aid of
science. But, then, we do not now live under these conditions, and so
our reason has to play a certain part in encouraging, or, as the case
may be, in restricting the various desires that make themselves felt.
The reason so many people nowadays are suffering from all sorts of
ailments is simply that they are deplorably ignorant of their natural
bodily wants. How much does the ordinary individual know about
nutrition, or about obedience to an unperverted appetite? The doctors
seem to know little about health; they are not asked to keep us healthy,
but only to cure us of disease, and so their studies relate to disease,
not health; and dietetics, a science dealing with the very first
principles of health, is an optional course in the curriculum of the
medical student.

Food is the first necessary of life, and the right kind of food, eaten
in the right manner, is necessary to a right, that is, healthy life. No
doubt, pathological conditions are sometimes due to causes other than
wrong feeding, but in a very large percentage of cases there is little
doubt that errors in diet have been the cause of the trouble, either
directly, or indirectly by rendering the system susceptible to
pernicious influences.[1] A knowledge of what is the right food to eat,
and of the right way to eat it, does not, under existing conditions of
life, come instinctively. Under other conditions it might do so, but
under those in which we live, it certainly does not; and this is owing
to the fact that for many hundred generations back there has been a
pandering to sense, and a quelling and consequent atrophy of the
discriminating animal instinct. As our intelligence has developed we
have applied it to the service of the senses and at the expense of our
primitive intuition of right and wrong that guided us in the selection
of that which was suitable to our preservation and health. We excel the
animals in the possession of reason, but the animals excel us in the
exercise of instinct.

It has been said that animals do not study dietetics and yet live
healthily enough. This is true, but it is true only as far as concerns
those animals which live _in their natural surroundings and under
natural conditions_. Man would not need to study diet were he so
situated, but he is not. The wild animal of the woods is far removed
from the civilized human being. The animal's instinct guides him aright,
but man has lost his primitive instinct, and to trust to his
inclinations may result in disaster.

The first question about vegetarianism, then, is this:--Is it the best
diet from the hygienic point of view? Of course it will be granted that
diseased food, food containing pernicious germs or poisons, whether
animal or vegetable, is unfit to be eaten. It is not to be supposed that
anyone will defend the eating of such food, so that we are justified in
assuming that those who defend flesh-eating believe flesh to be free
from such germs and poisons; therefore let the following be noted. It is
affirmed that 50 per cent. of the bovine and other animals that are
slaughtered for human food are affected with Tuberculosis, or some of
the following diseases: Cancer, Anthrax, Pleuro-Pneumonia, Swine-Fever,
Sheep Scab, Foot and Mouth Disease, etc., etc., and that to exclude all
suspected or actually diseased carcasses would be practically to leave
the market without a supply. One has only to read the literature dealing
with this subject to be convinced that the meat-eating public must
consume a large amount of highly poisonous substances. That these
poisons may communicate disease to the person eating them has been
amply proved. Cooking does _not_ necessarily destroy all germs, for the
temperature at the interior of a large joint is below that necessary to
destroy the bacilli there present.

Although the remark is irrelevant to the subject in hand, one is tempted
to point out that, quite apart from the question of hygiene, the idea of
eating flesh containing sores and wounds, bruises and pus-polluted
tissues, is altogether repulsive to the imagination.

Let it be supposed, however, that meat can be, and from the meat-eater's
point of view, should be and will be under proper conditions,
uncontaminated, there yet remains the question whether such food is
physiologically necessary to man. Let us first consider what kind of
food is best suited to man's natural constitution.


[Footnote 1: It seems reasonable to suppose that granting the organism
has such natural needs satisfied as sleep, warmth, pure air, sunshine,
and so forth, fundamentally all susceptibility to disease is due to
wrong feeding and mal-nutrition, either of the individual organism or of
its progenitors. The rationale of nutrition is a far more complicated
matter than medical science appears to realise, and until the intimate
relationship existing between nutrition and pathology has been
investigated, we shall not see much progress towards the extermination
of disease. Medical science by its curative methods is simply pruning
the evil, which, meanwhile, is sending its roots deeper into the
unstable organisms in which it grows.]



There are many eminent scientists who have given it as their opinion
that anatomically and physiologically man is to be classed as a
frugivorous animal. There are lacking in man all the characteristics
that distinguish the prominent organs of the carnivora, while he
possesses a most striking resemblance to the fruit-eating apes. Dr.
Kingsford writes: 'M. Pouchet observes that all the details of the
digestive apparatus in man, as well as his dentition, constitute "so
many proofs of his frugivorous origin"--an opinion shared by Professor
Owen, who remarks that the anthropoids and all the quadrumana derive
their alimentation from fruits, grains, and other succulent and
nutritive vegetable substances, and that the strict analogy which exists
between the structure of these animals and that of man clearly
demonstrates his frugivorous nature. This view is also taken by Cuvier,
Linnæus, Professor Lawrence, Charles Bell, Gassendi, Flourens, and a
great number of other eminent writers.' (see _The Perfect Way in Diet_.)

Linnæus is quoted by John Smith in _Fruits and Farinacea_ as speaking
of fruit as follows: 'This species of food is that which is most
suitable to man: which is evidenced by the series of quadrupeds,
analogy, wild men, apes, the structure of the mouth, of the stomach, and
the hands.'

Sir Ray Lancaster, K.C.B., F.R.S., in an article in _The Daily
Telegraph_, December, 1909, wrote: 'It is very generally asserted by
those who advocate a purely vegetable diet that man's teeth are of the
shape and pattern which we find in the fruit-eating, or in the
root-eating, animals allied to him. This is true.... It is quite clear
that man's cheek teeth do not enable him to cut lumps of meat and bone
from raw carcasses and swallow them whole. They are broad,
square-surfaced teeth with four or fewer low rounded tubercles to crush
soft food, as are those of monkeys. And there can be no doubt that man
fed originally like monkeys, on easily crushed fruits, nuts, and roots.'

With regard to man's original non-carnivorous nature and omnivorism, it
is sometimes said that though man's system may not thrive on a raw flesh
diet, yet he can assimilate cooked flesh and his system is well adapted
to digest it. The answer to this is that were it demonstrable, and it is
_not_, that cooked flesh is as easily digested and contains as much
nutriment as grains and nuts, this does not prove it to be suitable for
human food; for man (leaving out of consideration the fact that the
eating of diseased animal flesh can communicate disease), since he was
originally formed by Nature to subsist exclusively on the products of
the vegetable kingdom, cannot depart from Nature's plan without
incurring penalty of some sort--unless, indeed, his natural original
constitution has changed; but _it has not changed_. The most learned and
world-renowned scientists affirm man's present anatomical and
physiological structure to be that of a frugivore. Disguising an
unnatural food by cooking it may make that food more assimilable, but it
by no means follows that such a food is suitable, let alone harmless, as
human food. That it is harmful, not only to man's physical health, but
to his mental and moral health, this book endeavours to demonstrate.

With regard to the fact that man has not changed constitutionally from
his original frugivorous nature Dr. Haig writes as follows: 'If man
imagines that a few centuries, or even a few hundred centuries, of
meat-eating in defiance of Nature have endowed him with any new powers,
except perhaps, that of bearing the resulting disease and degradation
with an ignorance and apathy which are appalling, he deceives himself;
for the record of the teeth shows that human structure has remained
unaltered over vast periods of time.'

According to Dr. Haig, human metabolism (the process by which food is
converted into living tissue) differs widely from that of the
carnivora. The carnivore is provided with the means to dispose of such
poisonous salts as are contained in and are produced by the ingestion of
animal flesh, while the human system is not so provided. In the human
body these poisons are not held in solution, but tend to form deposits
and consequently are the cause of diseases of the arthritic group,
conspicuously rheumatism.

There is sometimes some misconception as regards the distinction between
a frugivorous and herbivorous diet. The natural diet of man consists of
fruits, farinacea, perhaps certain roots, and the more esculent
vegetables, and is commonly known as vegetarian, or fruitarian
(frugivorous), but man's digestive organs by no means allow him to eat
grass as the herbivora--the horse, ox, sheep, etc.--although he is much
more nearly allied to these animals than to the carnivora.

We are forced to conclude, in the face of all the available evidence,
that the natural constitution of man closely resembles that of
fruit-eating animals, and widely differs from that of flesh-eating
animals, and that from analogy it is only reasonable to suppose that the
fruitarian, or vegetarian, as it is commonly called, is the diet best
suited to man. This conclusion has been arrived at by many distinguished
men of science, among whom are the above mentioned. But the proof of the
pudding is in the eating, and to prove that the vegetarian is the most
hygienic diet, we must examine the physical conditions of those nations
and individuals who have lived, and do live, upon this diet.

It might be mentioned, parenthetically, that among animals, the
herbivora are as strong physically as any species of carnivora. The most
laborious work of the world is performed by oxen, horses, mules, camels,
elephants, all vegetable-feeding animals. What animal possesses the
enormous strength of the herbivorous rhinoceros, who, travellers relate,
uproots trees and grinds whole trunks to powder? Again, the frugivorous
orang-outang is said to be more than a match for the African lion.
Comparing herbivora and carnivora from this point of view Dr. Kingsford
writes: 'The carnivora, indeed, possess one salient and terrible
quality, ferocity, allied to thirst for blood; but power, endurance,
courage, and intelligent capacity for toil belong to those animals who
alone, since the world has had a history, have been associated with the
fortunes, the conquests, and the achievements of men.'

Charles Darwin, reverenced by all educated people as a scientist of the
most keen and accurate observation, wrote in his _Voyage of the Beagle_,
the following with regard to the Chilian miners, who, he tells us, live
in the cold and high regions of the Andes: 'The labouring class work
very hard. They have little time allowed for their meals, and during
summer and winter, they begin when it is light and leave off at dusk.
They are paid £1 sterling a month and their food is given them: this,
for breakfast, consists of sixteen figs and two small loaves of bread;
for dinner, boiled beans; for supper, broken roasted wheat-grain. They
scarcely ever taste meat.' This is as good as saying that the strongest
men in the world, performing the most arduous work, and living in an
exhilarating climate, are practically strict vegetarians.

Dr. Jules Grand, President of the Vegetarian Society of France speaks of
'the Indian runners of Mexico, who offer instances of wonderful
endurance, and eat nothing but tortillas of maize, which they eat as
they run along; the street porters of Algiers, Smyrna, Constantinople
and Egypt, well known for their uncommon strength, and living on nothing
but maize, rice, dates, melons, beans, and lentils. The Piedmontese
workmen, thanks to whom the tunnelling of the Alps is due, feed on
polenta, (maize-broth). The peasants of the Asturias, like those of the
Auvergne, scarcely eat anything except chick-peas and chestnuts ...
statistics prove ... that the most numerous population of the globe is

The following miscellaneous excerpta are from Smith's _Fruits and

'The peasantry of Norway, Sweden, Russia, Denmark, Poland, Germany,
Turkey, Greece, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, and of almost every
country in Europe subsist principally, and most of them entirely, on
vegetable food.... The Persians, Hindoos, Burmese, Chinese, Japanese,
the inhabitants of the East Indian Archipelago, and of the mountains of
the Himalaya, and, in fact, most of the Asiatics, live upon vegetable

'The people of Russia, generally, subsist on coarse black rye-bread and
garlics. I have often hired men to labour for me. They would come on
board in the morning with a piece of black bread weighing about a pound,
and a bunch of garlics as big as one's fist. This was all their
nourishment for the day of sixteen or eighteen hours' labour. They were
astonishingly powerful and active, and endured severe and protracted
labour far beyond any of my men. Some of these Russians were eighty and
even ninety years old, and yet these old men would do more work than any
of the middle-aged men belonging to my ship. Captain C. S. Howland of
New Bedford, Mass.'

'The Chinese feed almost entirely on rice, confections and fruits; those
who are enabled to live well and spend a temperate life, are possessed
of great strength and agility.'

'The Egyptian cultivators of the soil, who live on coarse wheaten bread,
Indian corn, lentils, and other productions of the vegetable kingdom,
are among the finest people I have even seen. Latherwood.'

'The Greek boatmen are exceedingly abstemious. Their food consists of a
small quantity of black bread, made of unbolted rye or wheatmeal, and a
bunch of grapes, or raisins, or some figs. They are astonishingly
athletic and powerful; and the most nimble, active, graceful, cheerful,
and even merry people in the world. Judge Woodruff, of Connecticut.'

'From the day of his irruption into Europe the Turk has always proved
himself to be endowed with singularly strong vitality and energy. As a
member of a warlike race, he is without equal in Europe in health and
hardiness. His excellent physique, his simple habits, his abstinence
from intoxicating liquors, and his normal vegetarian diet, enable him to
support the greatest hardships, and to exist on the scantiest and
simplest food.'

'The Spaniards of Rio Salada in South America,--who come down from the
interior, and are employed in transporting goods overland,--live wholly
on vegetable food. They are large, very robust, and strong; and bear
prodigious burdens on their backs, travelling over mountains too steep
for loaded mules to ascend, and with a speed which few of the generality
of men can equal without incumbrance.'

'In the most heroic days of the Grecian army, their food was the plain
and simple produce of the soil. The immortal Spartans of Thermopylæ
were, from infancy, nourished by the plainest and coarsest vegetable
aliment: and the Roman army, in the period of their greatest valour and
most gigantic achievements, subsisted on plain and coarse vegetable
food. When the public games of Ancient Greece--for the exercise of
muscular power and activity in wrestling, boxing, running, etc.,--were
first instituted, the athletæ in accordance with the common dietetic
habits of the people, were trained entirely on vegetable food.'

Dr. Kellogg, an authority on dietetics, makes the following answer to
those who proclaim that those nations who eat a large amount of
flesh-food, such as the English, are the strongest and dominant nations:
"While it is true that the English nation makes large use of animal
food, and is at the same time one of the most powerful on the globe, it
is also true that the lowest, most miserable classes of human beings,
such as the natives of Australia, and the inhabitants of Terra del
Fuego, subsist almost wholly upon flesh. It should also be borne in mind
that it is only within a single generation that the common people of
England have become large consumers of flesh. In former times and when
England was laying the foundation of her greatness, her sturdy yeomen
ate less meat in a week, than the average Englishman of the present
consumes in a single day.... The Persians, the Grecians, and the Romans,
became ruling nations while vegetarians."

In _Fruits and Farinacea_, Professor Lawrence is quoted as follows:
'The inhabitants of Northern Europe and Asia, the Laplanders, Samoiedes,
Ostiacs, Tangooses, Burats, Kamtschatdales, as well as the natives of
Terra del Fuego in the Southern extremity of America, are the smallest,
weakest, and least brave people on the globe; although they live almost
entirely on flesh, and that often raw.'

Many athletic achievements of recent date have been won by vegetarians
both in this country and abroad. The following successes are
noteworthy:--Walking: Karl Mann, Dresden to Berlin, Championship of
Germany; George Allen, Land's End to John-o'-Groats. Running: E. R.
Voigt, Olympic Championship, etc.: F. A. Knott, 5,000 metres Belgian
record. Cycling: G. A. Olley, Land's End to John-o'-Groats record.
Tennis: Eustace Miles, M.A., various championships, etc. Of especial
interest at the present moment are a series of tests and experiments
recently carried out at Yale University, U.S.A., under Professor Irving
Fisher, with the object of discovering the suitability of different
dietaries for athletes, and the effect upon the human system in general.
The results were surprising. 'One of the most severe tests,' remarks
Professor Fisher, 'was in deep knee-bending, or "squatting." Few of the
meat-eaters could "squat" more than three to four hundred times. On the
other hand a Yale student who had been a flesh-abstainer for two years,
did the deep knee-bending eighteen hundred times without exhaustion....
One remarkable difference between the two sets of men was the
comparative absence of soreness in the muscles of the meat-abstainers
after the tests.'

The question as to climate is often raised; many people labour under the
idea that a vegetable diet may be suitable in a hot climate, but not in
a cold. That this idea is false is shown by facts, some of which the
above quotations supply. That man can live healthily in arctic regions
on a vegetable diet has been amply demonstrated. In a cold climate the
body requires a considerable quantity of heat-producing food, that is,
food containing a good supply of hydrocarbons (fats), and carbohydrates
(starches and sugars). Many vegetable foods are rich in these
properties, as will be explained in the essay following dealing with
dietetics. Strong and enduring vegetable-feeding animals, such as the
musk-ox and the reindeer, flourish on the scantiest food in an arctic
climate, and there is no evidence to show that man could not equally
well subsist on vegetable food under similar conditions.

In an article entitled _Vegetarianism in Cold Climates_, by Captain
Walter Carey, R.N., the author describes his observations during a
winter spent in Manchuria. The weather, we are told, was exceedingly
cold, the thermometer falling as low as minus 22° F. After speaking of
the various arduous labours the natives are engaged in, Captain Carey
describes the physique and diet of natives in the vicinity of
Niu-Chwang as follows: 'The men accompanying the carts were all very big
and of great strength, and it was obvious that none but exceptionally
strong and hardy men could withstand the hardships of their long march,
the intense cold, frequent blizzards, and the work of forcing their
queer team along in spite of everything. One could not help wondering
what these men lived on, and I found that the chief article was beans,
which, made into a coarse cake, supplied food for both men and animals.
I was told by English merchants who travelled in the interior, that
everywhere they found the same powerful race of men, living on beans and
rice--in fact, vegetarians. Apparently they obtain the needful proteid
and fat from the beans; while the coarse once-milled rice furnishes them
with starch, gluten, and mineral salts, etc. Spartan fare, indeed, but
proving how easy it is to sustain life without consuming flesh-food.'

So far, then, as the physical condition of those nations who are
practically vegetarian is concerned, we have to conclude that practice
tallies with theory. Science teaches that man should live on a non-flesh
diet, and when we come to consider the physique of those nations and men
who do so, we have to acknowledge that their bodily powers and their
health equal, if not excel, those of nations and men who, in part,
subsist upon flesh. But it is interesting to go yet further. It has
already been stated that mind and body are inseparable; that one reacts
upon the other: therefore it is not irrelevant, in passing, to observe
what mental powers are possessed by those races and individuals who
subsist entirely upon the products of the vegetable kingdom.

When we come to consider the mentality of the Oriental races we
certainly have to acknowledge that Oriental culture--ethical,
metaphysical, and poetical--has given birth to some of the grandest and
noblest thoughts that mankind possesses, and has devised philosophical
systems that have been the comfort and salvation of countless millions
of souls. Anyone who doubts the intellectual and ethical attainments of
that remarkable nation of which we in the West know so little--the
Chinese--should read the panegyric written by Sir Robert Hart, who, for
forty years, lived among them, and learnt to love and venerate them as
worthy of the highest admiration and respect. Others have written in
praise of the people of Burma. Speaking of the Burman, a traveller
writes: 'He will exercise a graceful charity unheard of in the West--he
has discovered how to make life happy without selfishness and to combine
an adequate power for hard work with a corresponding ability to enjoy
himself gracefully ... he is a philosopher and an artist.'

Speaking of the Indian peasant a writer in an English journal says: 'The
ryot lives in the face of Nature, on a simple diet easily procured, and
inherits a philosophy, which, without literary culture, lifts his spirit
into a higher plane of thought than other peasantries know of.
Abstinence from flesh food of any kind, not only gives him pure blood
exempt from civilized diseases but makes him the friend and not the
enemy, of the animal world around.'

Eastern literature is renowned for its subtle metaphysics. The higher
types of Orientals are endowed with an extremely subtle intelligence, so
subtle as to be wholly unintelligible to the ordinary Westerner. It is
said that Pythagoras and Plato travelled in the East and were initiated
into Eastern mysticism. The East possesses many scriptures, and the
greater part of the writings of Eastern scholars consist of commentaries
on the sacred writings. Among the best known monumental philosophical
and literary achievements maybe mentioned the _Tao Teh C'hing_; the
_Zend Avesta;_ the _Three Vedas_; the _Brahmanas_; the _Upanishads;_ and
the _Bhagavad-gita_, that most beautiful 'Song Celestial' which for
nearly two thousand years has moulded the thoughts and inspired the
aspirations of the teeming millions of India.

As to the testimony of individuals it is interesting to note that some
of the greatest philosophers, scientists, poets, moralists, and many men
of note, in different walks of life, in past and modern times, have, for
various reasons, been vegetarians, among whom have been named the

  John Wesley
  Isaac Newton
  Jean Paul Richter
  Quintus Sextus
  The Apostles
    James the Less
  The Christian Fathers
    St. Francis d'Assisi
  Leonardo da Vinci
  William Lambe
  Sir Isaac Pitman
  Herbert Burrows
  George Frederick Watts
  General Booth
  Mrs. Besant
  Bernard Shaw
  Rev. Prof. John E. B. Mayor
  Hon. E. Lyttelton
  Rev. R. J. Campbell
  Lord Charles Beresford
  Gen. Sir Ed. Bulwer
  etc., etc., etc.

The following is a list of the medical and scientific authorities who
have expressed opinions favouring vegetarianism:--

  M. Pouchet
  Baron Cuvier
  Professor Laurence, F.R.S.
  Sir Charles Bell, F.R.S.
  Sir John Owen
  Professor Howard Moore
  Sylvester Graham, M.D.
  John Ray, F.R.S.
  Professor H. Schaafhausen
  Sir Richard Owen, F.R.S.
  Charles Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S.
  Dr. John Wood, M.D.
  Professor Irving Fisher
  Professor A. Wynter Blyth, F.R.C.S.
  Edward Smith, M.B., F.R.S., LL.B.
  Adam Smith, F.R.S.
  Lord Playfair, M.D., C.B.
  Sir Henry Thompson, M.B., F.R.C.S.
  Dr. F. J. Sykes, B. Sc.
  Dr. Anna Kingsford
  Professor G. Sims Woodhead, M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.
  Alexander Haig, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P.
  Dr. W. B. Carpenter, C.B., F.R.S.
  Dr. Josiah Oldfield, D.C.L., M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.
  Sir Benjamin W. Richardson, M.P., F.R.C.S.
  Dr. Robert Perks, M.D., F.R.C.S.
  Dr. Kellogg, M.D.
  Harry Campbell, M.D.
  Dr. Olsen
  etc., etc.

Before concluding this section it might be pointed out that the curious
prejudice which is always manifested when men are asked to consider any
new thing is as strongly in evidence against food reform as in other
innovations. For example, flesh-eating is sometimes defended on the
ground that vegetarians do not look hale and hearty, as healthy persons
should do. People who speak in this way probably have in mind one or two
acquaintances who, through having wrecked their health by wrong living,
have had to abstain from the 'deadly decoctions of flesh' and adopt a
simpler and purer dietary. It is not fair to judge meat abstainers by
those who have had to take to a reformed diet solely as a curative
measure; nor is it fair to lay the blame of a vegetarian's sickness on
his diet, as if it were impossible to be sick from any other cause. The
writer has known many vegetarians in various parts of the world, and he
fails to understand how anyone moving about among vegetarians, either in
this country or elsewhere, can deny that such people look as healthy and
cheerful as those who live upon the conventional omnivorous diet.

If a vegetarian, owing to inherited susceptibilities, or incorrect
rearing in childhood, or any other cause outside his power to prevent,
is sickly and delicate, is it just to lay the blame on his present
manner of life? It would, indeed, seem most reasonable to assume that
the individual in question would be in a much worse condition had he not
forsaken his original and mistaken diet when he did. The writer once
heard an acquaintance ridicule vegetarianism on the ground that Thoreau
died of pulmonary consumption at forty-five! One is reminded of Oliver
Wendell Holmes' witty saying:--'The mind of the bigot is like the pupil
of the eye: the more it sees the light, the more it contracts.'

In conclusion, there is, as we have seen in our review of typical
vegetarian peoples and classes throughout the world, the strongest
evidence that those who adopt a sensible non-flesh dietary, suited to
their own constitution and environment, are almost invariably healthier,
stronger, and longer-lived than those who rely chiefly upon flesh-meat
for nutriment.



The primary consideration in regard to the question of diet should be,
as already stated, the hygienic. Having shown that the non-flesh diet is
the more natural, and the more advantageous from the point of view of
health, let us now consider which of the two--vegetarianism or
omnivorism--is superior from the ethical point of view.

The science of ethics is the science of conduct. It is founded,
primarily, upon philosophical postulates without which no code or system
of morals could be formulated. Briefly, these postulates are, (a), every
activity of man has as its deepest motive the end termed Happiness, (b)
the Happiness of the individual is indissolubly bound up with the
Happiness of all Creation. The truth of (a) will be evident to every
person of normal intelligence: all arts and systems aim consciously, or
unconsciously, at some good, and so far as names are concerned everyone
will be willing to call the Chief Good by the term Happiness, although
there may be unlimited diversity of opinion as to its nature, and the
means to attain it. The truth of (b) also becomes apparent if the matter
is carefully reflected upon. Everything that is _en rapport_ with all
other things: the pebble cast from the hand alters the centre of gravity
in the Universe. As in the world of things and acts, so in the world of
thought, from which all action springs. Nothing can happen to the part
but the whole gains or suffers as a consequence. Every breeze that
blows, every cry that is uttered, every thought that is born, affects
through perpetual metamorphoses every part of the entire Cosmic

We deduce from these postulates the following ethical precepts: a wise
man will, firstly, so regulate his conduct that thereby he may
experience the greatest happiness; secondly, he will endeavour to bestow
happiness on others that by so doing he may receive, indirectly, being
himself a part of the Cosmic Whole, the happiness he gives. Thus supreme
selfishness is synonymous with supreme egoism, a truth that can only be
stated paradoxically.

Applying this latter precept to the matter in hand, it is obvious that
since we should so live as to give the greatest possible happiness to
all beings capable of appreciating it, and as it is an indisputable
fact that animals can suffer pain, _and that men who slaughter animals
needlessly suffer from atrophy of all finer feelings_, we should
therefore cause no unnecessary suffering in the animal world. Let us
then consider whether, knowing flesh to be unnecessary as an article of
diet, we are, in continuing to demand and eat flesh-food, acting morally
or not. To answer this query is not difficult.

It is hardly necessary to say that we are causing a great deal of
suffering among animals in breeding, raising, transporting, and killing
them for food. It is sometimes said that animals do not suffer if they
are handled humanely, and if they are slaughtered in abattoirs under
proper superintendence. But we must not forget the branding and
castrating operations; the journey to the slaughter-house, which when
trans-continental and trans-oceanic must be a long drawn-out nightmare
of horror and terror to the doomed beasts; we must not forget the
insatiable cruelty of the average cowboy; we must not forget that the
animal inevitably spends at least some minutes of instinctive dread and
fear when he smells and sees the spilt blood of his forerunners, and
that this terror is intensified when, as is frequently the case, he
witnesses the dying struggles, and hears the heart-rending groans; we
must not forget that the best contrivances sometimes fail to do good
work, and that a certain percentage of victims have to suffer a
prolonged death-agony owing to the miscalculation of a bad workman. Most
people go through life without thinking of these things: they do not
stop and consider from whence and by what means has come to their table
the flesh-food that is served there. They drift along through a mundane
existence without feeling a pang of remorse for, or even thought of, the
pain they are accomplices in producing in the sub-human world. And it
cannot be denied, hide it how we may, either from our eyes or our
conscience, that however skilfully the actual killing may usually be
carried out, there is much unavoidable suffering caused to the beasts
that have to be transported by sea and rail to the slaughter-house. The
animals suffer violently from sea-sickness, and horrible cruelty (such
as pouring boiling oil into their ears, and stuffing their ears with hay
which is then set on fire, tail-twisting, etc.,) has to be practised to
prevent them lying down lest they be trampled on by other beasts and
killed; for this means that they have to be thrown overboard, thus
reducing the profits of their owners, or of the insurance companies,
which, of course, would be a sad calamity. Judging by the way the men
act it does not seem to matter what cruelties and tortures are
perpetuated; what heinous offenses against every humane sentiment of the
human heart are committed; it does not matter to what depths of Satanic
callousness man stoops provided always that--this is the supreme
question--_there is money to be made by it_.

A writer has thus graphically described the scene in a cattle-boat in
rough weather: 'Helpless cattle dashed from one side of the ship to the
other, amid a ruin of smashed pens, with limbs broken from contact with
hatchway combings or winches--dishorned, gored, and some of them smashed
to mere bleeding masses of hide-covered flesh. Add to this the shrieking
of the tempest, and the frenzied moanings of the wounded beasts, and the
reader will have some faint idea of the fearful scenes of danger and
carnage ... the dead beasts, advanced, perhaps, in decomposition before
death ended their sufferings, are often removed literally in pieces.'

And on the railway journey, though perhaps the animals do not experience
so much physical pain as travelling by sea, yet they are often deprived
of food, and water, and rest, for long periods, and mercilessly knocked
about and bruised. They are often so injured that the cattle-men are
surprised they have not succumbed to their injuries. And all this
happens in order that the demand for _unnecessary_ flesh-food may be

Those who defend flesh-eating often talk of humane methods of
slaughtering; but it is significant that there is considerable
difference of opinion as to what _is_ the most humane method. In England
the pole-axe is used; in Germany the mallet; the Jews cut the throat;
the Italians stab. It is obvious that each of these methods cannot be
better than the others, yet the advocates of each method consider the
others cruel. As Lieut. Powell remarks, this 'goes far to show that a
great deal of cruelty and suffering is inseparable from all methods.'

It is hard to imagine how anyone believing he could live healthily on
vegetable food alone, could, having once considered these things,
continue a meat-eater. At least to do so he could not live his life in
conformity with the precept that we should cause no unnecessary pain.

  How unholy a custom, how easy a way to murder he makes for himself
  Who cuts the innocent throat of the calf, and hears unmoved its
    mournful plaint!
  And slaughters the little kid, whose cry is like the cry of a child,
  Or devours the birds of the air which his own hands have fed!
  Ah, how little is wanting to fill the cup of his wickedness!
  What unrighteous deed is he not ready to commit.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Make war on noxious creatures, and kill them only,
  But let your mouths be empty of blood, and satisfied with pure
    and natural repasts.

                                       OVID. _Metam._, _lib._ xv.

That we cannot find any justification for destroying animal life for
food does not imply we should never destroy animal life. Such a cult
would be pure fanaticism. If we are to consider physical well-being as
of primary importance, it follows that we shall act in
self-preservation 'making war on noxious creatures.' But this again is
no justification for 'blood-sports.'

He who inflicts pain needlessly, whether by his own hand or by that of
an accomplice, not only injures his victim, but injures himself. He
stifles what nobleness of character he may have and he cultivates
depravity and barbarism. He destroys in himself the spirit of true
religion and isolates himself from those whose lives are made beautiful
by sympathy. No one need hope for a spiritual Heaven while helping to
make the earth a bloody Hell. No one who asks others to do wrong for him
need imagine he escapes the punishment meted out to wrong-doers. That he
procures the service of one whose sensibilities are less keen than his
own to procure flesh-food for him that he may gratify his depraved taste
and love of conformity does not make him less guilty of crime. Were he
to kill with his own hand, and himself dress and prepare the obscene
food, the evil would be less, for then he would not be an accomplice in
retarding the spiritual growth of a fellow being. There is no shame in
any _necessary_ labour, but that which is unnecessary is unmoral, and
slaughtering animals to eat their flesh is not only unnecessary and
unmoral; it is also cruel and immoral. Philosophers and
transcendentalists who believe in the Buddhist law of Kârma, Westernized
by Emerson and Carlyle into the great doctrine of Compensation, realize
that every act of unkindness, every deed that is contrary to the
dictates of our nobler instincts and reason, reacts upon us, and we
shall truly reap that which we have sown. An act of brutality
brutalizes, and the more we become brutalized the more we attract
natures similarly brutal and get treated by them brutally. Thus does
Nature sternly deal justice.

'Our acts our angels are, or good or ill,
Our fatal shadows that walk by us still.'

It is appropriate in this place to point out that some very pointed
things are said in the Bible against the killing and eating of animals.
It has been said that it is possible by judiciously selecting quotations
to find the Bible support almost anything. However this may be, the
following excerpta are of interest:--

'And God said: Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, and
every tree in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, to you it
shall be for meat.'--Gen. i., 29.

'But flesh with life thereof, which is the blood thereof, ye shall not
eat.'--Gen. ix., 4.

'It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your
dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood.'--Lev. iii., 17.

'Ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl, or
beast.'--Lev. vii., 26.

'Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the life of all flesh
is the blood thereof: whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.'--Lev.
xvii., 14.

'The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down
with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together;
and a little child shall lead them.... They shall not hurt nor destroy
in all my holy mountain.'--Isaiah lxv.

'He that killeth an ox is as he that slayeth a man.'--Isaiah lxvi., 3.

'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice.'--Matt. ix., 7.

'It is good not to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor to do anything
whereby thy brother stumbleth.'--Romans xiv., 21.

'Wherefore, if meat maketh my brother to stumble I will eat no flesh for
evermore, that I make not my brother stumble.'--1 Cor. viii., 13.

The verse from Isaiah is no fanciful stretch of poetic imagination. The
writer, no doubt, was picturing a condition of peace and happiness on
earth, when discord had ceased and all creatures obeyed Nature and lived
in harmony. It is not absurd to suppose that someday the birds and
beasts may look upon man as a friend and benefactor, and not the
ferocious beast of prey that he now is. In certain parts of the world,
at the present day--the Galapagos Archipelago, for instance--where man
has so seldom been that he is unknown to the indigenous animal life,
travellers relate that birds are so tame and friendly and curious, being
wholly unacquainted with the bloodthirsty nature of man, that they will
perch on his shoulders and peck at his shoe laces as he walks.

It may be said that Jesus did not specifically forbid flesh-food. But
then he did not specifically forbid war, sweating, slavery, gambling,
vivisection, cock and bull fighting, rabbit-coursing, trusts, opium
smoking, and many other things commonly looked upon as evils which
should not exist among Christians. Jesus laid down general principles,
and we are to apply these general principles to particular

The sum of all His teaching is that love is the most beautiful thing in
the world; that the Kingdom of Heaven is open to all who really and
truly love. The act of loving is the expression of a desire to make
others happy. All beings capable of experiencing pain, who have nervous
sensibilities similar to our own, are capable of experiencing the effect
of our love. The love which is unlimited, which is not confined merely
to wife and children, or blood relations and social companions, or one's
own nation, or even the entire human race, but is so comprehensive as to
include all life, human and sub-human; such love as this marks the
highest point in moral evolution that human intelligence can conceive of
or aspire to.

Eastern religions have been more explicit than Christianity about the
sin of killing animals for food.

In the _Laws of Manu_, it is written: 'The man who forsakes not the law,
and eats not flesh-meat like a bloodthirsty demon, shall attain
goodness in this world, and shall not be afflicted with maladies.'

'Unslaughter is the supreme virtue, supreme asceticism, golden truth,
from which springs up the germ of religion.' _The Mahabharata._

'_Non-killing_, truthfulness, non-stealing, continence, and
non-receiving, are called Yama.' _Patanjalis' Yoga Aphorisms._

'A Yogî must not think of injuring anyone, through thought, word or
deed, and this applies not only to man, but to all animals. Mercy shall
not be for men alone, but shall go beyond, and embrace the whole world.'
_Commentary of Vivekânanda._

'Surely hell, fire, and repentance are in store for those who for their
pleasure and gratification cause the dumb animals to suffer pain.' _The
Zend Avesta._

Gautama, the Buddha, was most emphatic in discountenancing the killing
of animals for food, or for any other unnecessary purpose, and Zoroaster
and Confucius are said to have taught the same doctrine.


[Footnote 2: See _Sartor Resartus_, Book I., chap. xi.: Book III., chap.
vii. Also an article by Prof. W. P. Montague, Ph.D.: 'The Evidence of
Design in the Elements and Structure of the Cosmos,' in the _Hibbert
Journal_, Jan., 1904.]



St. Paul tells us to think on whatsoever things are pure and lovely
(Phil. iv., 8). The implication is that we should love and worship
beauty. We should seek to surround ourselves by beautiful objects and
avoid that which is degrading and ugly.

Let us make some comparisons. Look at a collection of luscious fruits
filling the air with perfume, and pleasing the eye with a harmony of
colour, and then look at the gruesome array of skinned carcasses
displayed in a butcher's shop; which is the more beautiful? Look at the
work of the husbandman, tilling the soil, pruning the trees, gathering
in the rich harvest of golden fruit, and then look at the work of the
cowboy, branding, castrating, terrifying, butchering helpless animals;
which is the more beautiful? Surely no one would say a corpse was a
beautiful object. Picture it (after the axe has battered the skull, or
the knife has found the heart, and the victim has at last ceased its
dying groans and struggles), with its ghastly staring eyes, its
blood-stained head or throat where the sharp steel pierced into the
quivering flesh; picture it when the body is opened emitting a sickening
odour and the reeking entrails fall in a heap on the gore-splashed
floor; picture this sight and ask whether it is not the epitome of
ugliness, and in direct opposition to the most elementary sense of

Moreover, what effect has the work of a slayer of animals upon his
personal character and refinement? Can anyone imagine a
sensitive-minded, finely-wrought _æsthetic_ nature doing anything else
than revolt against the cold-blooded murdering of terrorised animals? It
is significant that in some of the States of America butchers are not
allowed to sit on a jury during a murder trial. Physiognomically the
slaughterman carries his trade-mark legibly enough. The butcher does not
usually exhibit those facial traits which distinguish a person who is
naturally sympathetic and of an æsthetic temperament; on the contrary,
the butcher's face and manner generally bear evidence of a life spent
amid scenes of gory horror and violence; of a task which involves
torture and death.

A plate of cereal served with fruit-juice pleases the eye and
imagination, but a plate smeared with blood and laden with dead flesh
becomes disgusting and repulsive the moment we consider it in that
light. Cooking may disguise the appearance but cannot alter the reality
of the decaying _corpse_; and to cook blood and give it another name
(gravy) may be an artifice to please the palate, but it is blood, (blood
that once coursed through the body of a highly sensitive and nervous
being), just the same. Surely a person whose olfactory nerves have not
been blunted prefers the delicate aroma of ripe fruit to the sickly
smell of mortifying flesh,--or fried eggs and bacon!

Notice how young children, whose taste is more or less unperverted,
relish ripe fruits and nuts and clean tasting things in general. Man,
before he has become thoroughly accustomed to an unnatural diet, before
his taste has been perverted and he has acquired by habit a liking for
unwholesome and unnatural food, has a healthy appetite for Nature's
sun-cooked seeds and berries of all kinds. Now true refinement can only
exist where the senses are uncorrupted by addiction to deleterious
habits, and the nervous system by which the senses act will remain
healthy only so long as it is built up by pure and natural foods; hence
it is only while man is nourished by those foods desired by his
unperverted appetite that he may be said to possess true refinement.
Power of intellect has nothing whatever to do _necessarily_ with the
_æsthetic instinct_. A man may possess vast learning and yet be a boor.
Refinement is not learnt as a boy learns algebra. Refinement comes from
living a refined life, as good deeds come from a good man. The nearer we
live according to Nature's plan, and in harmony with Her, the healthier
we become physically and mentally. We do not look for refinement in the
obese, red-faced, phlegmatic, gluttonous sensualists who often pass as
gentlemen because they possess money or rank, but in those who live
simply, satisfying the simple requirements of the body, and finding
happiness in a life of well-directed toil.

       *       *       *       *       *

The taste of young children is often cited by vegetarians to demonstrate
the liking of an unsophisticated palate, but the primitive instinct is
not wholly atrophied in man. Before man became a tool-using animal, he
must have depended for direction upon what is commonly termed instinct
in the selection of a diet most suitable to his nature. No one can
doubt, judging by the way undomesticated animals seek their food with
unerring certainty as to its suitability, but that instinct is a
trustworthy guide. Granting that man could, in a state of absolute
savagery, and before he had discovered the use of fire or of tools,
depend upon instinct alone, and in so doing live healthily, cannot _what
yet remains_ of instinct be of some value among civilized beings? Is not
man, even now, in spite of his abused and corrupted senses, when he sees
luscious fruits hanging within his reach, tempted to pluck them, and
does he not eat them with relish? But when he sees the grazing ox, or
the wallowing hog, do similar gustatory desires affect him? Or when he
sees these animals lying dead, or when skinned and cut up in small
pieces, does this same natural instinct stimulate him to steal and eat
this food as it stimulates a boy to steal apples and nuts from an
orchard and eat them surreptitiously beneath the hedge or behind the

Very different is it with true carnivora. The gorge of a cat, for
instance, will rise at the smell of a mouse, or a piece of raw flesh,
but not at the aroma of fruit. If a man could take delight in pouncing
upon a bird, tear its still living body apart with his teeth, sucking
the warm blood, one might infer that Nature had provided him with
carnivorous instinct, but the very _thought_ of doing such a thing makes
him shudder. On the other hand, a bunch of luscious grapes makes his
'mouth water,' and even in the absence of hunger he will eat fruit to
gratify taste. A table spread with fruits and nuts and decorated with
flowers is artistic; the same table laden with decaying flesh and blood,
and maybe entrails, is not only inartistic--it is disgusting.

Those who believe in an all-wise Creator can hardly suppose He would
have so made our body as to make it necessary daily to perform acts of
violence that are an outrage to our sympathies, repulsive to our finer
feelings, and brutalising and degrading in every detail. To possess fine
feelings without the means to satisfy them is as bad as to possess
hunger without a stomach. If it be necessary and a part of the Divine
Wisdom that we should degrade ourselves to the level of beasts of prey,
then the humanitarian sentiment and the æsthetic instinct are wrong and
should be displaced by callousness, and the endeavour to cultivate a
feeling of enjoyment in that which to all the organs of sense in a
person of intelligence and religious feeling is ugly and repulsive. But
no normally-minded person can think that this is so. It would be
contrary to all the ethical and æsthetic teachings of every religion,
and antagonistic to the feelings of all who have evolved to the
possession of a conscience and the power to distinguish the beautiful
from the base.

When one accustomed to an omnivorous diet adopts a vegetarian régime, a
steadily growing refinement in taste and smell is experienced. Delicate
and subtle flavours, hitherto unnoticed, especially if the habit of
thorough mastication be practised, soon convince the neophyte that a
vegetarian is by no means denied the pleasure of gustatory enjoyment.
Further, not only are these senses better attuned and refined, but the
mind also undergoes a similar exaltation. Thoreau, the
transcendentalist, wrote: 'I believe that every man who has ever been
earnest to preserve his higher or poetic faculties in the best
condition, has been particularly inclined to abstain from animal food,
and from much food of any kind.'



There is no doubt that the yield of land when utilized for pasturage is
less than what it will produce in the hands of the agriculturist. In a
thickly populated country, such as England, dependent under present
conditions on foreign countries for a large proportion of her food
supply, it is foolish, considering only the political aspects, to employ
the land for raising unnecessary flesh-food, and so be compelled to
apply to foreign markets for the first necessaries of life, when there
is, without doubt, sufficient agricultural land in England to support
the entire population on a vegetable regimen. As just said, a much
larger population can be supported on a given acreage cultivated with
vegetable produce than would be possible were the same land used for
grazing cattle. Lieut. Powell quotes Prof. Francis Newman of University
College, London, as declaring that--

     100 acres devoted to sheep-raising will support 42 men: proportion

     100 acres devoted to dairy-farming will support 53 men: proportion

     100 acres devoted to wheat will support 250 men: proportion 6.

     100 acres devoted to potato will support 683 men: proportion 16.

To produce the same quantity of food yielded by an acre of land
cultivated by the husbandman, three or four acres, or more, would be
required as grazing land to raise cattle for flesh meat.

Another point to note is that agriculture affords employment to a very
much larger number of men than cattle-raising; that is to say, a much
larger number of men are required to raise a given amount of vegetable
food than is required to raise the same amount of flesh food, and so,
were the present common omnivorous customs to give place to
vegetarianism, a very much more numerous peasantry would be required on
the land. This would be physically, economically, morally, better for
the nation. It is obvious that national health would be improved with a
considerably larger proportion of hardy country yeomen. The percentage
of poor and unemployed people in large cities would be reduced, their
labor being required on the soil, where, being in more natural,
salutary, harmonious surroundings the moral element would have better
opportunity for development than when confined in the unhealthy, ugly,
squalid surroundings of a city slum.

It is not generally known that there is often a decided _loss_ of
valuable food-material in feeding animals for food, one authority
stating that it takes nearly 4 lbs. of barley, which is a good wholesome
food, to make 1 lb. of pork, a food that can hardly be considered safe
to eat when we learn that tuberculosis was detected in 6,393 pigs in
Berlin abattoirs in one year.

As to the comparative cost of a vegetarian and omnivorous diet, it is
instructive to learn that it is proverbial in the Western States of
America that a Chinaman can live and support his family in health and
comfort on an allowance which to a meat-eating white man would be
starvation. It is not to be denied that a vegetarian desirous of living
to eat, and having no reason or desire to be economical, could spend
money as extravagantly as a devotee of the flesh-pots having a similar
disposition. But it is significant that the poor of most European
countries are not vegetarians from choice but from necessity. Had they
the means doubtless they would purchase meat, not because of any
instinctive liking for it, but because of that almost universal trait of
human character that causes men to desire to imitate their superiors,
without, in most cases, any due consideration as to whether the supposed
superiors are worthy of the genuflection they get. Were King George or
Kaiser Wilhelm to become vegetarians and advocate the non-flesh diet,
such an occurrence would do far more towards advancing the popularity of
this diet than a thousand lectures from "mere" men of science. Carlyle
was not far wrong when he called men "clothes worshippers." The
uneducated and poor imitate the educated and rich, not because they
possess that attitude of mind which owes its existence to a very deep
and subtle emotion and which is expressed in worship and veneration for
power, whether it be power of body, power of rank, power of mind, or
power of wealth. The poor among Western nations are vegetarians because
they cannot afford to buy meat, and this is plain enough proof as to
which dietary is the cheaper.

Perhaps a few straightforward facts on this point may prove interesting.
An ordinary man, weighing 140 lbs. to 170 lbs., under ordinary
conditions, at moderately active work, as an engineer, carpenter, etc.,
could live in comfort and maintain good health on a dietary providing
daily 1 lb. bread (600 to 700 grs. protein); 8 ozs. potatoes (70 grs.
protein); 3 ozs. rice, or barley, or macaroni, or maize meal, etc. (100
grs. protein); 4 ozs. dates, or figs, or prunes, or bananas, etc., and 2
ozs. shelled nuts (130 grs. protein); the cost of which need not exceed
10c. to 15c. per day; or in the case of one leading a more sedentary
life, such as clerical work, these would be slightly reduced and the
cost reduced to 8c. to 12c. per day. For one shilling per day, luxuries,
such as nut butter, sweet-stuffs, and a variety of fruits and vegetables
could be added. It is hardly necessary to point out that the housewife
would be 'hard put to' to make ends meet 'living well' on the ordinary
diet at 25c. per head per day. The writer, weighing 140 lbs., who lives
a moderately active life, enjoys good health, and whose tastes are
simple, finds the cost of a cereal diet comes to 50c. to 75c. per week.

The political economist and reformer finds on investigation, that the
adoption of vegetarianism would be a solution of many of the complex and
baffling questions connected with the material prosperity of the nation.
Here is a remedy for unemployment, drink, slums, disease, and many forms
of vice; a remedy that is within the reach of everyone, and that costs
only the relinquishing of a foolish prejudice and the adoption of a
natural mode of living plus the effort to overcome a vicious habit and
the denial of pleasure derived from the gratification of corrupted
appetite. Nature will soon create a dislike for that which once was a
pleasure, and in compensation will confer a wholesome and beneficent
enjoyment in the partaking of pure and salutary foods. Whether or no the
meat-eating nations will awake to these facts in time to save themselves
from ruin and extinction remains to be seen. Meat-eating has grown side
by side with disease in England during the past seventy years, but there
are now, fortunately, some signs of abatement. The doctors, owing
perhaps to some prescience in the air, some psychical foreboding, are
recommending that less meat be eaten. But whatever the future has in
store, there is nothing more certain than this--that in the adoption of
the vegetable regimen is to be found, if not a complete panacea, at
least a partial remedy, for the political and social ills that our
nation at the present time is afflicted with, and that those of us who
would be true patriots are in duty bound to practise and preach
vegetarianism wheresoever and whensoever we can.



It is unfortunate that many flesh-abstainers who agree with the general
trend of the foregoing arguments do not realise that these same
arguments also apply to abstinence from those animal foods known as
dairy produce. In considering this further aspect it is necessary for
reasons already given, to place hygienic considerations first.

Is it reasonable to suppose that Nature ever intended the milk of the
cow or the egg of the fowl for the use of man as food? Can anyone deny
that Nature intended the cow's milk for the nourishment of her calf and
the hen's egg for the propagation of her species? It is begging the
question to say that the cow furnishes more milk than her calf requires,
or that it does not injure the hen to steal her eggs. Besides, it is not

Regarding the dietetic value of milk and eggs, which is the question of
first importance, are we correct in drawing the inference that as Nature
did not intend these foods for man, therefore they are not suitable for
him? As far as the chemical constituents of these foods are concerned,
it is true they contain compounds essential to the nourishment of the
human body, and if this is going to be set up as an argument in favor of
their consumption, let it be remembered that flesh food also contains
compounds essential to nourishment. But the point is this: not what
valuable nutritive compounds does any food-substance contain, but what
value, _taking into consideration its total effects_, has the food in
question as a wholesome article of diet?

It seems to be quite generally acknowledged by the medical profession
that raw milk is a dangerous food on account of the fact that it is
liable from various causes, sometimes inevitable, to contain impurities.
Dr. Kellogg writes: Typhoid fever, cholera infantum, tuberculosis and
tubercular consumption--three of the most deadly diseases known; it is
very probable also, that diphtheria, scarlet fever and several other
maladies are communicated through the medium of milk.... It is safe to
say that very few people indeed are fully acquainted with the dangers to
life and health which lurk in the milk supply.... The teeming millions
of China, a country which contains nearly one-third of the entire
population of the globe, are practically ignorant of this article of
food. The high-class Hindoo regards milk as a loathsome and impure
article of food, speaking of it with the greatest contempt as
"cow-juice," doubtless because of his observations of the deleterious
effect of the use of milk in its raw state.

The germs of tuberculosis seem to be the most dangerous in milk, for
they thrive and retain their vitality for many weeks, even in butter and
cheese. An eminent German authority, Hirschberger, is said to have found
10 per cent of the cows in the vicinity of large cities to be affected
by tuberculosis. Many other authorities might be quoted supporting the
contention that a large percentage of cows are afflicted by this deadly
disease. Other germs, quite as dangerous, find their way into milk in
numerous ways. Excreta, clinging to the hairs of the udder, are
frequently rubbed off into the pail by the action of the hand whilst
milking. Under the most careful sanitary precautions it is impossible to
obtain milk free from manure, from the ordinary germs of putrefaction to
the most deadly microbes known to science. There is little doubt but
that milk is one of the uncleanest and impurest of all foods.

Milk is constipating, and as constipation is one of the commonest
complaints, a preventive may be found in abstinence from this food. As
regards eggs, there is perhaps not so much to be said, although eggs so
quickly undergo a change akin to putrefaction that unless eaten fresh
they are unfit for food; moreover, (according to Dr. Haig) they contain
a considerable amount of xanthins, and cannot, therefore, be considered
a desirable food.

Dairy foods, we emphatically affirm, are not necessary to health. In the
section dealing with 'Physical Considerations' sufficient was said to
prove the eminent value of an exclusive vegetable diet, and the reader
is referred to that and the subsequent essay on Nutrition and Diet for
proof that man can and should live without animal food of any kind. Such
nutritive properties as are possessed by milk and eggs are abundantly
found in the vegetable kingdom. The table of comparative values given,
exhibits this quite plainly. That man can live a thoroughly healthy life
upon vegetable foods alone there is ample evidence to prove, and there
is good cause to believe that milk and eggs not only are quite
unnecessary, but are foods unsuited to the human organism, and may be,
and often are, the cause of disease. Of course, it is recognized that
with scrupulous care this danger can be minimized to a great extent, but
still it is always there, and as there is no reason why we should
consume such foods, it is not foolish to continue to do so?

But this is not all. It is quite as impossible to consume dairy produce
without slaughter as it is to eat flesh without slaughter. There are
probably as many bulls born as cows. One bull for breeding purposes
suffices for many cows and lives for many years, so what is to be done
with the bull calves if our humanitarian scruples debar us from
providing a vocation for the butcher? The country would soon be overrun
with vast herds of wild animals and the whole populace would have to
take to arms for self-preservation. So it comes to the same thing. If
we did not breed these animals for their flesh, or milk, or eggs, or
labour, we should have no use for them, and so should breed them no
longer, and they would quickly become extinct. The wild goat and sheep
and the feathered life might survive indefinitely in mountainous
districts, but large animals that are not domesticated, or bred for
slaughter, soon disappear before the approach of civilisation. The Irish
elk is extinct, and the buffalo of North America has been wiped out
during quite recent years. If leather became more expensive (much of it
is derived from horse hide) manufacturers of leather substitutes would
have a better market than they have at present.



'However much thou art read in theory, if thou hast no practice thou art
ignorant,' says the Persian poet Sa'di. 'Conviction, were it never so
excellent, is worthless until it converts itself into Conduct. Nay,
properly, Conviction is not possible till then,' says Herr
Teufelsdrockh. It is never too late to be virtuous. It is right that we
should look before we leap, but it is gross misconduct to neglect duty
to conform to the consuetudes of the hour. We must endeavour in
practical life to carry out to the best of our ability our philosophical
and ethical convictions, for any lapse in such endeavour is what
constitutes immorality. We must live consistently with theory so long as
our chief purpose in life is advanced by so doing, but we must be
inconsistent when by antinomianism we better forward this purpose. To
illustrate: All morally-minded people desire to serve as a force working
for the happiness of the race. We are convinced that the slaughter of
animals for food is needless, and that it entails much physical and
mental suffering among men and animals and is therefore immoral.
Knowing this we should exert our best efforts to counteract the wrong,
firstly, by regulating our own conduct so as not to take either an
active or passive part in this needless massacre of sub-human life, and
secondly, by making those facts widely known which show the necessity
for food reform.

Now to go to the ultimate extreme as regards our own conduct we should
make no use of such things as leather, bone, catgut, etc. We should not
even so much as attend a concert where the players use catgut strings,
for however far distantly related cause and effect may be, the fact
remains that the more the demand, no matter how small, the more the
supply. We should not even be guilty of accosting a friend from over the
way lest in consequence he take more steps than otherwise he would do,
thus wearing out more shoe-leather. He who would practise such absurd
sansculottism as this would have to resort to the severest seclusion,
and plainly enough we cannot approve of such fanaticism. By turning
antinomian when necessary and staying amongst our fellows, making known
our views according to our ability and opportunity, we shall be doing
more towards establishing the proper relation between man and sub-man
than by turning cenobite and refusing all intercourse and association
with our fellows. Let us do small wrong that we may accomplish great
good. Let us practise our creed so far as to abstain from the eating of
animal food, and from the use of furs, feathers, seal and fox skins, and
similar ornaments, to obtain which necessitates the violation of our
fundamental principles. With regard to leather, this material is, under
present conditions, a 'by-product.' The hides of animals slaughtered for
their flesh are made into leather, and it is not censurable in a
vegetarian to use this article in the absence of a suitable substitute
when he knows that by so doing he is not asking an animal's life, nor a
fellow-being to degrade his character by taking it. There is a
substitute for leather now on the market, and it is hoped that it may
soon be in demand, for even a leather-tanner's work is not exactly an
ideal occupation.

Looking at the question of conviction and consistency in this way, there
are conceivable circumstances when the staunchest vegetarian may even
turn kreophagist. As to how far it is permissible to depart from the
strictest adherence to the principles of vegetarianism that have been
laid down, the individual must trust his own conscience to determine;
but we can confidently affirm that the eating of animal flesh is
unnecessary and immoral and retards development in the direction which
the finest minds of the race hold to be good; and that the only time
when it would not be wrong to feed upon such food would be when, owing
to misfortunes such as shipwreck, war, famine, etc., starvation can only
be kept at bay by the sacrifice of animal life. In such a case, man,
considering his own life the more valuable, must resort to the
unnatural practice of flesh-eating.

The reformer may have, indeed must have, to pay a price, and sometimes a
big one, for the privilege, the greatest of all privileges, of educating
his fellows to a realisation of their errors, to a realisation of a
better and nobler view of life than they have hitherto known. Seldom do
men who carve out a way for themselves, casting aside the conventional
prejudices of their day, and daring to proclaim, and live up to, the
truth they see, meet with the esteem and respect due to them; but this
should not, and, if they are sincere and courageous, does not, deter
them from announcing their message and caring for the personal
discomfort it causes. It is such as these that the world has to thank
for its progress.

It often happens that the reformer reaps not the benefit of the reform
he introduces. Men are slow to perceive and strangely slow to act, yet
he who has genuine affection for his fellows, and whose desire for the
betterment of humanity is no mere sentimental pseudo-religiosity, bears
bravely the disappointment he is sure to experience, and with undaunted
heart urges the cause that, as he sees it, stands for the enlightenment
and happiness of man. The vegetarian in the West (Europe, America, etc.)
is often ridiculed and spoken of by appellations neither complimentary
nor kind, but this should deter no honorable man or woman from entering
the ranks of the vegetarian movement as soon as he or she perceives the
moral obligation to do so. It may be hard, perhaps impossible, to
convert others to the same views, but the vegetarian is not hindered
from living his own life according to the dictates of his conscience.
'He who conquers others is strong, but the man who conquers himself is
mighty,' wrote Laotze in the _Tao Teh Ch'ing_, or 'The Simple Way.'

When we call to mind some heroic character--a Socrates, a Regulus, a
Savonarola--the petty sacrifices our duties entail seem trivial indeed.
We do well to remember that it is only by obedience to the highest
dictates of our own hearts and minds that we may obtain true happiness.
It is only by living in harmony with all living creatures that nobility
and purity of life are attainable. As we obey the immediate vision, so
do we become able to see yet richer visions: but the _strength of the
vision is ours only as we obey its high demands_.




The importance of some general knowledge of the principles of nutrition
and the nutritive values of foods is not generally realised. Ignorance
on such a matter is not usually looked upon as a disgrace, but, on the
contrary, it would be commonly thought far more reprehensible to lack
the ability to conjugate the verb 'to be' than to lack a knowledge of
the chemical properties of the food we eat, and the suitability of it to
our organism. Yet the latter bears direct and intimate relation to man's
physical, mental, and moral well-being, while the former is but a
'sapless, heartless thistle for pedantic chaffinches,' as Jean Paul
would say.

The human body is the most complicated machine conceivable, and as it is
absurd to suppose that any tyro can take charge of so comparatively
simple a piece of mechanism as a locomotive, how much more absurd is it
to suppose the human body can be kept in fit condition, and worked
satisfactorily, without at least some, if only slight, knowledge of the
nature of its constitution, and an understanding of the means to
satisfy its requirements? Only by study and observation comes the
knowledge of how best to supply the required material which, by its
oxidation in the body, repairs waste, gives warmth and produces energy.

Considering, then, that the majority of people are entirely ignorant
both of the chemical constitution of the body, and the physiological
relationship between the body and food, it is not surprising to observe
that in respect to this question of caring for the body, making it grow
and work and think, many come to grief, having breakdowns which are
called by various big-sounding names. Indeed, to the student of
dietetics, the surprise is that the body is so well able to withstand
the abuse it receives.

It has already been explained in the previous essay how essential it is
if we live in an artificial environment and depart from primitive
habits, thereby losing natural instincts such as guide the wild animals,
that we should study diet. No more need be said on this point. It may
not be necessary that we should have some general knowledge of
fundamental principles, and learn how to apply them with reasonable

The chemical constitution of the human body is made up of a large
variety of elements and compounds. From fifteen to twenty elements are
found in it, chief among which are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen,
calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and sulphur. The most important compounds
are protein, hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, organic mineral matter, and
water. The food which nourishes the body is composed of the same
elements and compounds.

Food serves two purposes,--it builds and repairs the body tissues, and
it generates vital heat and energy, burning food as fuel. Protein and
mineral matter serve the first purpose, and hydrocarbons (fats) and
carbohydrates (sugars and starches) the second, although, if too much
protein be assimilated it will be burnt as fuel, (but it is bad fuel as
will be mentioned later), and if too much fat is consumed it will be
stored away in the body as reserve supply. Most food contains some
protein, fat, carbohydrates, mineral matter, and water, but the
proportion varies very considerably in different foods.

Water is the most abundant compound in the body, forming on an average,
over sixty per cent. of the body by weight. It cannot be burnt, but is a
component part of all the tissues and is therefore an exceedingly,
important food. Mineral matter forms approximately five or six per cent.
of the body by weight. Phosphate of lime (calcium phosphate), builds
bone; and many compounds of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron are
present in the body and are necessary nutrients. Under the term protein
are included the principal nitrogenous compounds which make bone, muscle
and other material. It forms about 15 per cent. of the body by weight,
and, as mentioned above, is burnt as fuel for generating heat and
energy. Carbohydrates form but a small proportion of the body-tissue,
less than one per cent. Starches, sugars, and the fibre of plants, or
cellulose, are included under this term. They serve the same purpose as

All dietitians are agreed that protein is the essential combined in
food. Deprivation of it quickly produces a starved physical condition.
The actual quantity required cannot be determined with perfect accuracy,
although estimates can be made approximately correct. The importance of
the other nutrient compounds is but secondary. But the system must have
all the nutrient compounds in correct proportions if it is to be
maintained in perfect health. These proportions differ slightly
according to the individual's physical constitution, temperament and

Food replenishes waste caused by the continual wear and tear incidental
to daily life: the wear and tear of the muscles in all physical
exertion, of the brain in thinking, of the internal organs in the
digestion of food, in all the intricate processes of metabolism, in the
excretion of waste matter, and the secretion of vital fluids, etc. The
ideal diet is one which replenishes waste with the smallest amount of
suitable material, so that the system is kept in its normal condition of
health at a minimum of expense of energy. The value, therefore, of some
general knowledge of the chemical constituents of food is obvious. The
diet must be properly balanced, that is, the food eaten must provide
the nutrients the body requires, and not contain an excess of one
element or a deficiency of another. It is impossible to substitute
protein for fat, or _vice versa_, and get the same physiological result,
although the human organism is wonderfully tolerant of abuse, and
remarkably ingenious in its ability to adapt itself to abnormal

It has been argued that it is essentially necessary for a well-balanced
dietary that the variety of food be large, or if the variety is to be
for any reason restricted, it must be chosen with great discretion.
Dietetic authorities are not agreed as to whether the variety should be
large or small, but there is a concensus of opinion that, be it large or
small, it should be selected with a view to supplying the proper
nutrients in proper proportions. The arguments, so far as the writer
understands them, for and against a large variety of foods, are as

If the variety be large there is a temptation to over-feed. Appetite
does not need to be goaded by tasty dishes; it does not need to be
goaded at all. We should eat when hungry and until replenished; but to
eat when not hungry in order to gratify a merely sensual appetite, to
have dishes so spiced and concocted as to stimulate a jaded appetite by
novelty of taste, is harmful to an extent but seldom realised. Hence the
advisability, at least in the case of persons who have not attained
self-mastery over sensual desire, of having little variety, for then,
when the system is replenished, over-feeding is less likely to occur.

In this connection it should be remembered that in some parts of the
world the poor, although possessing great strength and excellent health,
live upon, and apparently relish, a dietary limited mostly to black
bread and garlics, while among ourselves an ordinary person eats as many
as fifty different foods in one day.[3]

On the other hand, a too monotonous dietary, especially where people are
accustomed to a large variety of mixed foods, fails to give the
gustatory pleasure necessary for a healthy secretion of the digestive
juices, and so may quite possibly result in indigestion. It is a matter
of common observation that we are better able to digest food which we
enjoy than that which we dislike, and as we live not upon what we eat,
but upon what we digest, the importance of enjoying the food eaten is

Also as few people know anything about the nutritive value of foods,
they stand a better chance, if they eat a large variety, of procuring
the required quantity of different nutrients than when restricted to a
very limited dietary, because, if the dietary be very limited they
might by accident choose as their mainstay some food that was badly
balanced in the different nutrients, perhaps wholly lacking in protein.
It is lamentable that there is such ignorance on such an all-important
subject. However, we have to consider things as they are and not as they
ought to be.

Perhaps the best way is to have different food at different meals,
without indulging in many varieties at one meal. Thus taste can be
satisfied, while the temptation to eat merely for the sake of eating is
less likely to arise.

It might be mentioned, in passing, that in the opinion of the best
modern authorities the average person eats far more than he needs, and
that this excess inevitably results in pathological conditions. Voit's
estimate of what food the average person requires daily was based upon
observation of what people _do_ eat, not upon what they _should_ eat.
Obviously such an estimate is valueless. As well argue that an ounce of
tobacco daily is what an ordinary person should smoke because it is the
amount which the average smoker consumes.

A vegetarian needs only to consider the amount of protein necessary, and
obtained from the food eaten. The other nutrients will be supplied in
proportions correct enough to satisfy the body requirements under normal
conditions of health. The only thing to take note of is that more fat
and carbohydrates are needed in cold weather than hot, the body
requiring more fuel for warmth. But even this is not essential: the
essential thing is to have the required amount of protein. In passing,
it is interesting to observe the following: the fact that in a mixed
fruitarian diet the proportion of the nutrient compounds is such as to
satisfy natural requirements is another proof of the suitability of the
vegetable regimen to the human organism. It is a provision of Nature
that those foods man's digestive organs are constructed to assimilate
with facility, and man's organs of taste, smell, and perception best
prefer, are those foods containing chemical compounds in proportions
best suited to nourish his body.

One of the many reasons why flesh-eating is deleterious is that flesh is
an ill-balanced food, containing, as it does, considerable protein and
fat, but no carbohydrates or neutralising salts whatever. As the body
requires three to four times more carbohydrates than protein, and
protein cannot be properly assimilated without organic minerals, it is
seen that with the customary 'bread, meat and boiled potatoes' diet,
this proportion is not obtained. Prof. Chittenden holds the opinion that
the majority of people partake greatly in excess of food rich in

No hard and fast rule can be laid down to different persons require
different foods and foods and amounts at different times under different

|[Transcriber's note: It is regretted that a line has been missed by the|
|typesetter.]                                                           |

regulate the amount, or proper proportions, of food
material for a well-balanced dietary, as amounts, and the same person
requires different ferent conditions. Professor W. O. Atwater, an
American, makes the following statement: 'As the habits and conditions
of individuals differ, so, too, their needs for nourishment differ, and
their food should be adapted to their particular requirements. It has
been estimated that an average man at moderately active labor, like a
carpenter, or mason, should have (daily) about 115 grams (1750 grains)
or 0.25 pound of available protein, and sufficient fuel ingredients in
addition to make the fuel value of the whole diet 3,400 calories; while
a man at sedentary employment would be well nourished with 92 grams
(1400 grains) or 0.20 pound of available protein, and enough fat and
carbohydrates in addition to yield 2,700 calories of energy. The demands
are, however, variable, increasing and decreasing with increase and
decrease of muscular work, or as other needs of the person change. Each
person, too, should learn by experience what kinds of food yield him
nourishment with the least discomfort, and should avoid those which do
not "agree" with him.'

It has been stated that unless the body is supplied with protein, hunger
will be felt, no matter if the stomach be over-loaded with
non-nitrogenous food. If a hungry man ate heartily of _only_ such foods
as fresh fruit and green vegetables he might soon experience a feeling
of fulness, but his hunger would not be appeased. Nature asks for
protein, and hunger will continue so long as this want remains
unsatisfied. Similarly as food is the first necessity of life, so is
protein the first necessity in food. If a person were deprived of
protein starvation must inevitably ensue.

Were we (by 'we' is meant the generality of people in this country), to
weigh out our food supply, for, say a week, we should soon realise what
a large reduction from the usual quantity of food consumed would have to
be made, and instead of eating, as is customary, without an appetite,
hunger might perhaps once a day make itself felt. There is little doubt
but that the health of most people would be vastly improved if food were
only eaten when genuine hunger was felt, and the dietary chosen were
well balanced, _i.e._, the proportions of protein, fat, carbohydrates
and salts being about 3, 2, 9, 2-3. As aforesaid, the mixed vegetarian
dietary is, in general, well-balanced.

While speaking about too much food, it may be pointed out that the
function of appetite is to inform us that the body is in need of
nutriment. The appetite was intended by Nature for this purpose, yet how
few people wait upon appetite! The generality of people eat by time,
custom, habit, and sensual desire; not by appetite at all. If we eat
when not hungry, and drink when not thirsty, we are doing the body no
good but positive harm. The organs of digestion are given work that is
unnecessary, thus detracting from the vital force of the body, for there
is only a limited amount of potential energy, and if some of this is
spent unnecessarily in working the internal organs, it follows that
there is less energy for working the muscles or the brain. So that an
individual who habitually overfeeds becomes, after a time, easily tired,
physically lazy, weak, perhaps if temperamentally predisposed, nervous
and hypochondriacal. Moreover, over-eating not only adds to the general
wear and tear, thus probably shortening life, but may even result in
positive disease, as well as many minor complaints such as constipation,
dyspepsia, flatulency, obesity, skin troubles, rheumatism, lethargy,

Just as there is danger in eating too much, so there is much harm done
by drinking too much. The evil of stimulating drinks will be spoken of
later; at present reference is made only to water and harmless
concoctions such as lime-juice, unfermented wines, etc. To drink when
thirsty is right and natural; it shows that the blood is concentrated
and is in want of fluid. But to drink merely for the pleasure of
drinking, or to carry out some insane theory like that of 'washing out'
the system is positively dangerous. The human body is not a dirty barrel
needing swilling out with a hose-pipe. It is a most delicate piece of
mechanism, so delicate that the abuse of any of its parts tends to throw
the entire system out of order. It is the function of the blood to
remove all the waste products from the tissues and to supply the fresh
material to take the place of that which has been removed. Swilling the
system out with liquid does not in any way accelerate or aid the
process, but, on the contrary, retards and impedes it. It dilutes the
blood, thus creating an abnormal condition in the circulatory system,
and may raise the pressure of blood and dilate the heart. Also it
dilutes the secretions which will therefore 'act slowly and
inefficiently, and more or less fermentation and putrefaction will
meanwhile be going on in the food masses, resulting in the formation of
gases, acids, and decomposition products.'

Eating and drinking too much are largely the outcome of sensuality. To
see a man eat sensually is to know how great a sensualist he is.
Sensualism is a vice which manifests itself in many forms. Poverty has
its blessings. It compels abstinence from rich and expensive foods and
provides no means for surfeit. Epicurus was not a glutton. Socrates
lived on bread and water, as did Sir Isaac Newton. Mental culture is not
fostered by gluttony, but gluttony is indulged in at the expense of
mental culture. The majority of the world's greatest men have led
comparatively simple lives, and have regarded the body as a temple to be
kept pure and holy.

We have now to consider (_a_) what to eat, (_b_) when to eat, (_c_) how
to eat. First, then, we will consider the nutritive properties of the
common food-stuffs.


[Footnote 3: This is not an exaggeration. 'Genoa Cake,' for instance,
contains ten varieties of food: butter, sugar, eggs, flour, milk,
sultanas, orange and lemon peel, almonds, and baking powder.]



Among the foods rich in protein are the legumes, the cereals, and nuts.
Those low in protein are fresh fruits, green vegetables, and roots. Fat
is chiefly found in nuts, olives, and certain pulses, particularly the
peanut; and carbohydrates in cereals, pulses, and many roots. Fruit and
green vegetables consist mostly of water and organic mineral compounds,
and in the case of the most juicy varieties may be regarded more as
drink than food. We have, then, six distinct classes of food--the
pulses, cereals, nuts, fruits, green vegetables, and roots. Let us
briefly consider the nutritive value of each.

Pulse foods usually form an important item in a vegetarian dietary. They
are very rich in their nutritive properties, and even before matured are
equal or superior in value to any other green vegetable. 'The ripened
seed shows by analysis a very remarkable contrast to most of the matured
foods, as the potato and other tubers, and even to the best cereals, as
wheat. This superiority lies in the large amount of nitrogen in the
form of protein that they contain.' Peas, beans, and lentils should be
eaten very moderately, being highly concentrated foods. The removal of
the skins from peas and beans, also of the germs of beans, by
parboiling, is recommended, as they are then more easily digested and
less liable to 'disagree.' These foods, it is interesting to know are
used extensively by the vegetarian nations. The Mongol procures his
supply of protein chiefly from the Soya bean from which he makes
different preparations of bean cheese and sauce. It is said that the
poorer classes of Spaniards and the Bedouins rely on a porridge of
lentils for their mainstay. In India and China where rice is the staple
food, beans are eaten to provide the necessary nitrogenous matter, as
rice alone is considered deficient in protein.

With regard to the pulse foods, Dr. Haig, in his works on uric acid,
states that, containing as they do considerable xanthin, an exceedingly
harmful poison, they are not to be commended as healthful articles of
diet. He states that he has found the pulses to contain even more
xanthin than many kinds of flesh-meat, and as it is this poison in flesh
that causes him to so strongly condemn the eating of meat, he naturally
condemns the eating of any foods in which this poison exists in any
considerable quantity. He writes: 'So far as I know the "vegetarians" of
this country are decidedly superior in endurance to those feeding on
animal tissues, who might otherwise be expected to equal them; but
these "vegetarians" would be still better if they not only ruled out
animal flesh, but also eggs, the pulses (peas, beans, lentils and
peanuts), eschew nuts, asparagus, and mushrooms, as well as tea, coffee
and cocoa, all of which contain a large amount of uric acid, or
substances physiologically equivalent to it.'

Dr. Haig attributes many diseases and complaints to the presence of uric
acid in the blood and its deposits in the tissues: 'Uric acid diseases
fall chiefly in two groups: (a) The arthritic group, comprising gout,
rheumatism, and similar affections of many fibrous tissues throughout
the body; (b) the circulation group including headache, epilepsy, mental
depression, anæmia, Bright's disease, etc.' Speaking with regard to
rheumatism met with among the vegetarian natives of India, Dr. Haig
writes: 'I believe it will appear, on investigation, that in those parts
of India where rice and fresh vegetables form the staple foods, not only
rheumatism, but uric acid diseases generally are little known, whereas
in those parts where pulses are largely consumed, they are
common--almost universal.'

The cereals constitute the mainstay of vegetarians all the world over,
and although not superior to nuts, must be considered an exceedingly
valuable, and, in some cases, essential food material. They differ
considerably in their nutritive properties, so it is necessary to
examine the worth of each separately.

Wheat, though not universally the most extensively used of the cereals,
is the most popular and best known cereal in this country. It has been
cultivated for ages and has been used by nearly all peoples. It is
customary to grind the berries into a fine meal which is mixed with
water and baked. There are various opinions about the comparative value
of white and whole-wheat flour. There is no doubt but that the
whole-wheat flour containing, as it does, more woody fibre than the
white, has a tendency to increase the peristaltic action of the
intestines, and thus is valuable for persons troubled with
constipation.[4] From a large number of analyses it has been determined
that entire wheat flour contains about 2.4 per cent. more protein than
white flour (all grades), yet experiments have demonstrated that the
_available_ protein is less in entire wheat-flour than in white
flour.[5] This is probably due to the fact that the protein which is
enclosed in the bran cannot be easily assimilated, as the digestive
organs are unable to break up the outer walls of woody fibre and extract
the nitrogenous matter they contain. On the other hand whole-wheat flour
contains considerably more valuable and available mineral matter than
does white flour. The two outer layers contain compounds of phosphorus,
lime, iron, and soda. Analyses by Atwater show entire-wheat flour to
contain twice as much mineral matter as white flour. It is affirmed by
Broadbent and others, that this mineral matter is exceedingly valuable
both as a nutrient, and because of its neutralising effect upon proteid
wastes, and that it is because of this that flour made from the
entire-wheat berry has very superior food value to that made from the
berry minus the outer cuticles. Many dietetists look upon whole-wheat
bread as one of the most salutary of all foods and strongly advise its
use in place of white bread. A well-known doctor states that he has
known it a cure for many diseases, and thinks that many nervous
complaints due to 'saline starvation' can be cured by substituting
whole-meal for white bread.

But in opposition to these views Dr. Haig thinks that as the outer brown
husk of all cereals contains some xanthin, it should on this account be
removed. He therefore recommends white flour, (not superfine, but
cheap-grade), in place of the entire-wheat. Others, however, are of the
opinion that the amount of xanthin present in the bran is so small as
not to be considered, especially when, by the removal of the xanthin,
valuable mineral matter is also removed.

Of course, it is difficult for a layman to form an opinion when experts
differ. Perhaps the best thing to do is to use whole-wheat bread if
there is any tendency to constipation. If not, then choose that which is
the more palatable, or change from one to the other as inclination
dictates. This adds to variety, and as digestion is better when the food
is better relished, no doubt, in this case, that which pleases the taste
best is the best to eat. At least, we can hold this view tentatively for
the present.

Wheat flour (entire), ranks the highest of all the cereals in protein,
excepting oatmeal, averaging 13 per cent. In fat it exceeds rice and
rye, is equal with barley and maize, but considerably below oatmeal:
averaging about 1.9 per cent. In carbohydrates it averages about
seventy-two per cent., all the cereals being very much alike in quantity
of these nutrients. It is a well-balanced food, as indeed, all cereals
are, and is palatable prepared in a variety of ways, although, made into
unleavened, unsalted bread, the sweet, nutty flavour of the berry itself
is best preserved.

Oatmeal is not extensively used, comparatively speaking, although it has
an excellent reputation. It is decidedly the richest cereal in protein
and fat, especially fat, and this is probably why people living in cold
climates find it such a sustaining food. In protein it averages 16.1 per
cent.: in fat 7.2 per cent. It is very commonly used as porridge. When
well cooked, that is to say, for several hours, this is a good way to
prepare it, but a better is to eat it dry in the form of unsweetened
oatcakes, scones, etc., these being more easily digested because
necessitating thorough mastication. The above remarks regarding the
removal of the bran from wheat-flour are precisely as applicable to
oatmeal, as well as rye, so no more need be said on that point.

Rye flour is not unlike wheat, and is used more extensively than wheat
in many parts of Europe. It has 2 per cent. less protein than wheat and
its gluten is darker in colour and less elastic and so does not make as
light a loaf; but this does not detract from its nutritive value at all.
Being more easily cultivated than wheat, especially in cold countries,
it is cheaper and therefore more of a poor man's food.

Indian corn, or maize, or Turkish wheat, is one of the finest of
cereals. It is used extensively in America, North and South, in parts of
the Orient, in Italy, the Balkans, Servia, and elsewhere. It is used as
a green vegetable and when fully matured is ground into meal and made
into bread, porridge, biscuits, Johnny-cake, etc., etc. Corn compared to
wheat is rich in fat, but in protein wheat is the richer by about 3 per
cent. Sugar corn, cooked and canned, is sold in England by food-reform
dealers. It is perhaps the most tasty of all the cereals.

Rice is the staple of the Orientals. The practice of removing the dark
inner skin in order to give the uncooked grain a white and polished
appearance, is not only an expensive operation, but a very foolish one,
for it detracts largely from the nutritive value of the food, as
considerable protein and other valuable matter is removed along with the
bran. We are told that the Burmese and Japanese and other nations who
use rice as their principal food-stuff, use the entire grain. As
compared to undressed rice, the ordinary, or polished rice is deficient
3 per cent. of protein; 6 per cent. of fat; 5 per cent. of mineral
matter. 'Once milled' rice can be procured in this country, but has to
be specially asked for. Rice is not nearly so nitrogenous as wheat, but
is equal to it in fuel value, this being due to the large amount of
starch it contains. It is an excellent food, being easily digested and
easily prepared.

Millet, buckwheat, wild rice, sesame, and Kaffir corn, are cereals
little known in this country, although where they are raised they are
largely used by the natives. However, we need not trouble to consider
their food value as they are not easily procurable either in Europe or

Nuts are perhaps the best of all foods. There is no doubt but that man
in his original wild state lived on nuts and berries and perhaps roots.
Nuts are rich in protein and fat. They are a concentrated food, very
palatable, gently laxative, require no preparation but shelling, keep
well, are easily portable, and are, in every sense, an ideal food. They
have a name for being indigestible, but this may be due to errors in
eating, not to the nuts. If we eat nuts, as is often done, after having
loaded the stomach with a large dinner, the work of digesting them is
rendered very difficult, for the digestive apparatus tires itself
disposing of the meal just previously eaten. Most things are
indigestible eaten under such conditions. Nuts should be looked upon as
the essential part of the meal and should be eaten first; bread, salad
stuffs and fruit help to supply bulk and can follow as dessert if
desired. Another cause of nuts not being easily digested is insufficient
mastication. They are hard, solid food, and should be thoroughly chewed
and insalivated before being swallowed. If the teeth are not good, nuts
may be grated in an ordinary nut-mill, and then, if eaten slowly and
sparingly, will generally be found to digest. Of course with a weak
digestion nuts may have to be avoided, or used in very small quantities
until the digestion is strengthened; but with a normal, healthy person,
nuts are a perfect food and can be eaten all the year round. Perhaps it
is best not to eat a large quantity at once, but to spread the day's
supply over four or five light meals. With some, however, two meals a
day seems to work well.

Pine kernels are very suitable for those who have any difficulty in
masticating or digesting the harder nuts, such as the brazil, filbert,
etc. They are quite soft and can easily be ground into a soft paste with
a pestil and mortar, making delicious butter. They vary considerably in
nitrogenous matter, averaging about 25 per cent. and are very rich in
fat, averaging about 50 per cent. Chestnuts are used largely by the
peasants of Italy. They are best cooked until quite soft when they are
easily digested. Chestnut meal is obtainable, and when combined with
wheatmeal is useful for making biscuits and breadstuffs. Protein in
chestnuts averages 10 per cent. Walnuts, Hazelnuts, Filberts, Brazils,
Pecans, Hickory nuts, Beechnuts, Butternuts, Pistachio nuts and Almonds
average 16 per cent. protein; 52 per cent. fat; 20 per cent.
carbohydrates; 2 per cent. mineral salts. As each possesses a distinct
flavour, one can live on nuts alone and still enjoy the pleasure of
variety. A man weighing 140 lbs. would, at moderately active labour,
require, to live on almonds alone--11 ozs. per day. 10 ozs. of nuts per
day together with some fresh fruit or green salad in summer, and in
winter, some roots, as potato, carrot, or beetroot, would furnish an
ideal diet for one whose taste was simple enough to relish it.

Fruits are best left alone in winter. They are generally acid, and the
system is better without very acid foods in the cold weather. But fruits
are health-giving foods in warm and hot weather, and living under
natural, primitive conditions, this is the only time of the year we
should have them, for Nature only provides fruit during the months of
summer. The fraction of protein fruit contains, 1 per cent. or less, is
too small to be of any account. The nutritive value of fruits consists
in their mineral salts, grape-sugar and water.

Much the same applies to green vegetables. In cooking vegetables care
should be taken that the water they are cooked in is not thrown away as
it contains nearly all the nutrient properties of the vegetable; that is
to say, the various salts in the vegetable become dissolved in the water
they are boiled in. This water can be used for soup if desired, or
evaporated, and with flour added to thicken, served as sauce to the
vegetable. Potatoes are a salutary food, especially in winter. They
contain alkalies which help to lessen the accumulation of uric acid.
They should be cooked with skins on: 16 grains per lb. more of valuable
potash salts are thus obtained than when peeled and boiled in the
ordinary way. The ideal method, however, of taking most vegetables is in
the form of uncooked salads, for in these the health-giving, vitalising
elements remain unaltered.

If man is to be regarded, as many scientists regard him, as a frugivore,
constitutionally adapted and suited to a nut-fruit diet, then to regain
our lost original taste and acquire a liking for such simple foods
should be our aim. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to make a
sudden change after having lived for many years upon the complex
concoctions of the chef's art, for the system resents sudden changes,
but with proper care, changing discreetly, one can generally attain a
desired end, especially when it involves the replacing of a bad habit by
a good one.

In the recipes that follow no mention is made of condiments, _i.e._,
pepper, salt, mustard, spice, _et hoc genus omni_. Condiments are not
foods in any sense whatever, and the effect upon the system of
'seasoning' foods with these artificial aids to appetite, is always
deleterious, none the less because it may at the time be imperceptible,
and may eventually result in disease. Dr. Kellogg writes: 'By contact,
they irritate the mucous membrane, causing congestion and diminished
secretion of gastric juice when taken in any but quite small quantities.
When taken in quantities so small as to occasion no considerable
irritation of the mucous membrane, condiments may still work injury by
their stimulating effects, when long continued.... Experimental evidence
shows that human beings, as well as animals of all classes, live and
thrive as well without salt as with it, other conditions being equally
favorable. This statement is made with a full knowledge of counter
arguments and experiments, but with abundant testimony to support the
position taken.... All condiments hinder natural digestion.'

Condiments, together with such things as pickles, vinegar, alcohol, tea,
coffee, cocoa, tobacco, opium, are all injurious, and undoubtedly are
the cause of an almost innumerable number of minor, and, in some cases,
serious, complaints. Theine, caffeine, and theobromine, all stimulant
drugs, are present in tea, coffee, and cocoa, respectively. Tea also
contains tannin, a substance which is said to seriously impair

Alcohol, tea, coffee, etc., are stimulants. Stimulants do not produce
force and should never be mistaken for food. They are undoubtedly
injurious, as they are the cause, among other evils, of _loss_ of force.
They cause an abnormal metabolism which ultimately weakens and exhausts
the whole system. While these internal activities are taking place,
artificial feelings of well-being, or, at least, agreeable sensations,
are produced, which are unfortunately mistaken for signs of benefit.
Speaking of alcohol Dr. Haig writes: 'It introduces no albumen or force,
it merely affects circulation, nutrition, and the metabolism of the
albumens already in the body, and this call on the resources of the body
is invariably followed by a corresponding depression or economy in the
future.... It has been truly said that the man who relies upon
stimulants for strength is lost, for he is drawing upon a reserve fund,
which is not completely replaced, and physiological bankruptcy must
inevitably ensue. This is what the stimulants such as tea, coffee,
alcohol, tobacco, opium and cocaine do for those who trust in them.'

He who desires to enjoy life desires to possess good physical health,
for a healthy body is almost essential to a happy life; and he who
desires to live healthily does not abuse his body with poisonous drugs.
It may require courage to reform, but he who reforms in this direction
has the satisfaction of knowing that his good health will probably some
day excite the envy of his critics.

The chemical composition of all the common food materials can be seen
from tables of analyses. It would be to the advantage of everyone to
spend a little time examining these tables. It is not a difficult
matter, and the trouble to calculate the quantity of protein in a given
quantity of food, when once the _modus operandi_ is understood, is
trifling. As it has not unwisely been suggested, if people would give,
say, one-hundredth the time and attention to studying the needs of the
body and how to satisfy them as they give to dress and amusement, there
is little doubt that there would be more happiness in the world.

The amount of protein in any particular prepared food is arrived at in
the following manner: In the first place those ingredients containing a
noticeable amount of protein are carefully weighed. Food tables are then
consulted to discover the protein percentage. Suppose, for instance, the
only ingredient having a noticeable quantity of protein is rice, and 1
lb. is used. The table is consulted and shows rice to contain eight per
cent. protein. In 1 lb. avoirdupois there are 7,000 grains; eight per
cent. of 7,000 is 70.00 × 8 = 560 grains. Therefore, in the dish
prepared there are 560 grains of protein. It is as well after cooking to
weight the entree or pudding and divide the number of ounces it weighs
into 560, thus obtaining the number of grains per ounce. Weighing out
food at meals is only necessary at first, say for the first week or so.
Having decided about how many grains of protein to have daily, and
knowing how many grains per ounce the food contains, the eye will soon
get trained to estimate the quantity needed. It is not necessary to be
exact; a rough approximation is all that is needed, so as to be sure
that the system is getting somewhere near the required amount of
nutriment, and not suffering from either a large excess or deficiency of


[Footnote 4: Entire-wheat flour averages .9 per cent. fibre; high-grade
white flour, .2 per cent. fibre.]

[Footnote 5: See United States Dept. of Agriculture, Farmer's Bulletin,
No. 249, page 19, obtainable from G. P. O., Washington, D. C.]



The question of when to eat is of some importance. The Orientals eat
fewer meals than we do, and in their abstemiousness they set us an
example we should do well to follow. Sufficient has already been said to
show that it is a mistake to imagine a great deal of food gives great
strength. When we eat frequently, and especially when we 'live well,'
that is, are accustomed to a large variety of food, we are tempted to
eat far more than is good for us. Little and often may work
satisfactorily so long as it does not develop into much and often,
which, needless to say, it is very likely to do. Most people on this
account would probably be much better in their health if they ate but
twice daily, at noon, and five or six hours before going to bed. Then
there is less chance of over-feeding. If, however, we experimentally
determine the quantity of food that our particular system requires in
order to be maintained in good health, and can trust our self-command in
controlling the indulgence of sense, probably the best method is to eat
anyway three times daily, and four, five, or even six times, or doing
away with set meals altogether, would be a procedure which, judging
from analogy of the anthropoids, ought to be a better method than eating
a whole day's supply at once, or at two or three meals.

It is not wise to sit down to a meal when the body is thoroughly
fatigued. A glass of hot or cold water will be found reviving, and then,
after a short rest, the system will be far better able to assimilate
food. When the body is 'tired out,' it stands to reason it cannot
perform digestion as easily and as well as when in fit condition.

Also it is unwise to eat immediately before undertaking vigorous
muscular work. Strenuous exercise after meals is often the cause of
digestive disorders. Starting on exercise after a hearty meal may
suspend the gastric digestion, and so prevent the assimilation of
protein as to produce a sensation of exhaustion. If, however, rest is
taken, the digestive organs proceed with their work, and after a short
time recuperation follows, and the exercise can be continued. It is
unwise to allow such a suspension of digestion because of the danger of
setting up fermentation, or putrefaction, in the food mass awaiting
digestion, for this may result in various disorders.

For the same reason it is a bad plan to eat late at night. It is unwise
to take a meal just before going to bed, for the digestive organs cannot
do their work properly, if at all, while the body is asleep, and the
food not being digested is liable to ferment and result in dyspepsia.
The 'sinking feeling' sometimes complained of if a meal is not eaten
late at night and described as a kind of hunger is probably due to an
abnormal secretion of acid in the stomach. A glass of hot water will
often relieve this discomfort. This feeling is seldom experienced by
vegetarians of long standing. The natives of India, it is said, do not
experience it at all, which fact leads us to surmise the cause to be in
some way connected with flesh-eating. Farinaceous foods, however,
prepared as soup, porridge, gruel, pultaceous puddings, etc., when
eaten, as is customary, without proper insalivation, are liable to be
improperly digested and to ferment, giving rise to the sensation
described as a 'sinking feeling' and erroneously thought to be hunger.

It is an excellent rule that prescribes fasting when without hunger.
When there is no appetite do not eat. It is an example of conventional
stupidity that we eat because it is 'meal time,' even though there be
not the slightest feeling of genuine hunger. Leaving out of
consideration the necessitous poor and those who for their living engage
themselves in hard physical toil, it is safe to say that hardly one
person in a thousand has ever felt real hunger. Yet no one was ever the
worse for waiting upon appetite. No one was ever starved by not eating
because of having no appetite. Loss of appetite is a sign that the
digestive organs require a rest. It is better to go without food for a
time than to force oneself to eat against inclination. The forcing of
oneself to eat to 'keep up one's strength,' is perhaps the quickest way
to bring down one's strength by overworking the system and burdening it
with material it does not need. Eat by appetite, not by time. Eat
frequently when the appetite demands frequent satisfaction, and seldom
when seldom hungry. These rules hold good at all times and for everyone.
Loss of appetite during sickness should not be looked upon as anything
serious in itself, but as a sign that the system does not require food.
A sick man like a well man will feel hunger as soon as food is needed,
and the practice of tempting the appetite with rich and costly foods is
not only a waste of money but is injurious physiologically. Possibly
there may be pathological conditions under which hunger cannot make
itself felt, but it would seem contrary to Nature as far as the writer,
a layman, understands the matter. At least, leaving abnormal conditions
of health out of consideration, we can say this much affirmatively: if a
man is hungry enough to relish dry bread, then, and then only, does he
really require nourishment.

Hunger is always experienced when nutriment is needed, and will be felt
a dozen times a day if the food eaten at each of a dozen meals has
supplied only sufficient nutriment to produce the force expended between
each meal. If the meal is large and supplies sufficient nutriment to
produce the force expended in a whole day, then the one meal is all that
is required. Never eat to be sociable, or conventional, or sensual; eat
when hungry.

Professor Pavlov says: 'Appetite is juice'; that is to say, the
physiological condition existing when the body has run short of
food-fuel, produces a psychological effect, the mind thinking of food,
thereby causing through reaction a profuse secretion of saliva, and we
say 'the mouth waters.' It is true the appetite is amenable to
suggestion. Thus, though feeling hunger, the smell of, or even thought
of, decayed food may completely take away appetite and all inclination
to eat. This phenomenon is a provision of Nature to protect us from
eating impure food. The appetite having thus been taken away will soon
return again when the cause of its loss has been removed. Therefore the
appetite should be an infallible guide when to eat.

There is one further point to be noted. Food should not be eaten when
under the influence of strong emotion. It is true that under such
conditions there probably would be no appetite, but when we are so
accustomed to consulting the clock that there is danger of cozening
ourselves into the belief that we have an appetite when we have not, and
so force ourselves to eat when it may be unwise to do so. Strong
emotions, as anger, fear, worry, grief, judging by analogy, doubtless
inhibit digestive activity. W. B. Cannon, M.D., speaking of experiments
on cats, says: 'The stomach movements are inhibited whenever the cat
shows signs of anxiety, rage, or distress.' To thoroughly enjoy one's
food, it is necessary to have hunger for it, and if we only eat when we
feel hungry, there is little likelihood of ever suffering from

In passing, it is appropriate to point out that as when food is better
enjoyed it is better digested, therefore art, environment, mental
disposition, indirectly affect the digestive processes. We should,
therefore, remembering that simplicity, not complexity, is the essence
of beauty, ornament our food and table, and be as cheerful, sociable,
and even as merry as possible.



The importance of thorough mastication and insalivation cannot be
overestimated. The mouth is a part of the digestive apparatus, and in it
food is not only broken down, but is chemically changed by the action of
the saliva. If buccal (mouth) digestion be neglected, the consequence is
that the food passes into the stomach in a condition that renders it
difficult for that organ to digest it and any of a great number of
disturbances may result.

Mastication means a thorough breaking up of the food into the smallest
particles, and insalivation means the mixing of the small particles with
the saliva. The mechanical work is done with the jaws and tongue, and
the chemical work is performed by the saliva. When the mechanical work
is done thoroughly the chemical work is also thorough, and the test for
thoroughness is loss of taste. Masticate the food until all taste has
disappeared, and then it will be found that the swallowing reflex
unconsciously absorbs the food, conscious swallowing, or at least, an
effort to swallow, not being called for.

It may take some while to get into the habit of thorough mastication
after having been accustomed to bolting food, but with a conscious
effort at the first, the habit is formed, and then the effort is no
longer a laborious exercise, but becomes perfectly natural and is
performed unconsciously.

This ought to be common knowledge. That such a subject is not considered
a necessary part of education is indeed lamentable, for the crass
ignorance that everywhere abounds upon the subject of nutrition and diet
is largely the cause of the frightful disease and debility so widespread
throughout the land, and, as a secondary evil of an enormous waste of
labour in the production and distribution of unneeded food. Were
everyone to live according to Nature, hygienically and modestly, health,
and all the happiness that comes with it, would become a national asset,
and as a result of the decreased consumption of food, more time would be
available for education, and the pursuit of all those arts which make
for the enlightenment and progress of humanity.

To become a convert to this new order, adopting non-animal food and
hygienic living, is not synonymous with monastical asceticism, as some
imagine. Meat eaters when first confronted with vegetarianism often
imagine their dietary is going to be restricted to a monotonous round of
carrots, turnips, cabbages, and the like; and if their ignorance
prevents them from arguing that it is impossible to maintain health and
strength on such foods, then it is very often objected that carrots and
cabbages are not liked, or would not be cared for _all_ the time. The
best way to answer this objection is to cite a few plain facts. From a
catalogue of a firm supplying vegetarian specialties, (and there are now
quite a number of such firms), most of the following information is

Of nuts there are twelve varieties, sold either shelled, ground, or in
shell. Many of these nuts are also mechanically prepared, and in some
cases combined, and made into butters, nut-meats, lard, suet, oil, etc.
The varieties of nut-butters are many, and the various combinations of
nuts and vegetables making potted savouries, add to a long list of
highly nutritious and palatable nut-foods. There are the pulses dried
and entire, or ground into flour, such as pea-, bean-, and lentil-flour.
There are the cereals, barley, corn, oats, rice, rye, wheat, etc., from
which the number of preparations made such as breakfast foods, bread,
biscuits, cakes, pastries, etc., is legion. (One firm advertises
twenty-three varieties of prepared breakfast foods made from cereals.)
Then there are the fruits, fresh, canned, and preserved, about
twenty-five varieties; green vegetables, fresh and canned, about
twenty-one varieties; and roots, about eleven varieties.

The difficulty is not that there is insufficient variety, but that the
variety is so large that there is danger of being tempted beyond the
limits dictated by the needs of the body. When, having had sufficient
to eat, there yet remain many highly palatable dishes untasted, one is
sometimes apt to gratify sense at the expense of health and
good-breeding, to say nothing of economy. Simplicity and purity in food
are essential to physical health as simplicity and purity in art are
essential to moral and intellectual progress. 'I may say,' says Dr.
Haig, 'that simple food of not more than two or three kinds at one meal
is another secret of health; and if this seems harsh to those whose day
is at present divided between anticipating their food and eating, I must
ask them to consider whether such a life is not the acme of selfish
shortsightedness. In case they should ever be at a loss what to do with
the time and money thus saved from feasting, I would point on the one
hand to the mass of unrelieved ignorance, sorrow, and suffering, and on
the other to the doors of literature and art, which stand open to those
fortunate enough to have time to enter them; and from none of these need
any turn aside for want of new Kingdoms to conquer.'

This question of feeding may, by superficial thinkers, be looked upon as
unimportant; yet it should not be forgotten that diet has much more to
do with health than is commonly realized, and health is intimately
connected with mental attitude, and oftentimes is at the foundation of
religious and moral development. 'Hypochondriacal crotchets' are often
the product of dyspepsia, and valetudinarianism and pessimism are not
unrarely found together. 'Alas,' says Carlyle, 'what is the loftiest
flight of genius, the finest frenzy that ever for moments united Heaven
with Earth, to the perennial never-failing joys of a digestive apparatus
thoroughly eupeptic?'

Our first duty is to learn to keep our body healthy. Naturally, we
sooner expect to see a noble character possess a beautiful form than one
disfigured by abuse and polluted by disease. We do not say that every
sick man is a villain, but we do say that men and women of high
character regard the body as an instrument for some high purpose, and
believe that it should be cared for and nourished according to its
natural requirements. In vegetarianism, _scientifically practised_, is a
cure, and better, a preventative, for many physical, mental, and moral
obliquities that trouble mankind, and if only a knowledge of this fact
were to grow and distil itself into the public mind and conscience,
there would be halcyon days in store for future generations, and much
that now envelops man in darkness and in sorrow, would be regarded as a
nightmare of the past.


The following table exhibits the percentage chemical composition of the
principal vegetable food materials; also of dairy produce and common
flesh-foods for comparison.

 FOOD MATERIAL               Protein   Fat   Carbo-    Salts  Water   Fuel
                                             hydrates               Value cals.
 Vegetable Foods             p. ct.  p. ct.   p. ct.   p. ct. p. ct.   p. lb.

 Wheat Flour (entire)         18.8    1.9      71.9     1.0   11.4     1,675
 Oatmeal                      16.1    7.2      67.5     1.9    7.3     1,860
 Rice                         8.0      .3      79.0      .4   12.3     1,630
 Barley                       8.5     1.1      77.8     1.1   11.5     1,650
 Corn Meal                    9.2     1.9      75.4     1.0   12.5     1,655
 Rye                          0.8      .9      78.7      .7   12.9     1,630
 Lentils (dried)             25.7     1.0      59.2     5.7    8.4     1,620
 Beans (dried)               22.5     1.8      59.6     3.5   12.6     1,605
 Peas (dried)                24.6     1.0      62.0     2.9    9.5     1,655
 Nuts, various (_aver._)     16.0    52.0      20.0     2.0   10.0     2,640
 Dates                        2.1     2.8      78.4     1.3   15.4     1,615
 Figs                         4.3      .3      74.2     2.4   18.8     1,475
 Potatoes                     2.2      .1      18.4     1.0   78.3       385
 Apples                        .4      .5      14.2      .3   84.6       290
 Bananas                      1.3      .6      22.0      .8   75.3       460

 Dairy Foods

 Milk, whole (not skim)       3.3     4.0       5.0      .7   87.0       325
 Cheese, various (_aver._)    24.5    28.4      2.1     4.0   41.0     1,779
 Hens' Eggs (_boiled_)        14.0    12.0      0.0      .8   73.2       765

 Flesh Foods

 Beef                         18.6    19.1      0.0     1.0   61.3     1,155
 Mutton (_medium fat_)        18.2    18.0      0.0     1.0   62.8     1,105
 Ham (_fresh_)                15.6    33.4      0.0      .9   50.1     1,700
 Fowl                         19.0    16.3      0.0     1.0   63.7     1,045
 White Fish (_as purchased_)  22.1     6.5      0.0     1.6   69.8       700

[The amount of heat that will raise one kilogram of water 1 deg. C. is
termed a _calorie_. Fuel value, or food units, means the number of
calories of heat equivalent to the energy it is assumed the body obtains
from food when the nutrients thereof are completely digested.]



The following recipes are given as they appear in the English edition of
this book and were prepared for English readers. While some of these
will be difficult for American readers to follow, we give them as in the
original edition, and many of the unusual ingredients called for can be
obtained from the large grocers and dealers, and if not in stock will be
obtained to order. 'Nutter' is a name given a nut butter used for
cooking. It is, so far as we know, the only collection of strictly
vegetarian recipes published.

Readers interested in the foreign products referred to, should write to
Pitman's Health Food Company, Aston Brook St., Birmingham, England, and
to Mapleton's Nut Food Company, Ltd., Garston, Liverpool, England, for
price list and literature.

                                                  THE PUBLISHERS.


=1.--Vegetable Soup=

1 large cupful red lentils, 1 turnip, 2 medium onions, 3 potatoes, 1
carrot, 1 leek, 1 small head celery, parsley, 1 lb. tomatoes, 3-1/2
quarts water.

Wash and cut up vegetables, but do not peel. Boil until tender, then
strain through coarse sieve and serve. This soup will keep for several
days and can be reheated when required.

=2.--Semolina Soup=

4 oz. semolina, 2 chopped onions, 1 tablespoonful gravy essence,[6] 2
quarts water or vegetable stock.[7]

=3.--Spinach Soup No. 1=

1 lb. Spinach, 1 tablespoonful gravy essence, 1 quart water.

Cook spinach in its own juices (preferably in double boiler). Strain
from it, through a hair sieve or colander, all the liquid. Add essence
and serve.

=4.--Spinach Soup No. 2=

1 lb. spinach, 1 lb. can tomatoes, 1 tablespoonful nut-milk
(Mapleton's), 1-1/2 pints water.

Dissolve nut-milk in little water, cook all ingredients together in
double-boiler for 1-1/2 hours, strain and serve.

=5.--Pea Soup=

4 ozs. pea-flour, 2 potatoes, 1 large onion, 1 tablespoonful gravy
essence, 2 quarts water.

Cook potatoes, (not peeled), and onion until soft. Skin and mash
potatoes and chop onion. Mix pea-flour into paste with little water.
Boil all ingredients together for 20 minutes, then serve.

=Lentil and Haricot Soups=

These are prepared in the same way as Recipe No. 5 substituting lentil,
or haricot flour for pea-flour.

=6.--Tomato-Pea Soup=

4 ozs. pea-flour, 1 lb. tin tomatoes, 1 chopped leek, 1 quart water.

Mix pea-flour into paste with little water. Boil ingredients together 30
minutes, then serve.

=Tomato-Lentil and Tomato-Bean Soups=

These are prepared in the same way as Recipe No. 6, substituting
lentil-, or bean-flour for pea-flour.

=7.--Rice-Vermicelli Soup=

2 ozs. rice-vermicelli, 1 tablespoonful nut-milk, 1 dessertspoonful
gravy essence, 1 quart water.

Boil vermicelli in water until soft. Dissolve nut-milk in little water.
Boil all ingredients together 5 minutes, then serve.

=8.--Pea-Vermicelli Soup=

2 ozs. pea-vermicelli, 1 tablespoonful nut-milk, 1 tablespoonful tomato
purée, 1 quart water.

Boil vermicelli in water until soft, dissolve nut-milk in little water.
Boil all ingredients together 5 minutes, then serve.

=9.--Pot-barley Soup No. 1=

4 ozs. pot-barley, 1 onion, 1 tablespoonful gravy essence, 2 quarts
water, corn flour to thicken.

Cook barley until quite soft; chop onion finely; mix a little corn flour
into paste with cold water. Stir into the boiling soup. Boil all
ingredients together for 20 minutes, then serve.

=Wheat and Rice Soups=

These are prepared in the same way as Recipe No. 9, substituting wheat
or rice grains for barley.

=10.--Pot-barley Soup No. 2=

4 ozs. pot-barley, 1 dessertspoonful nut-milk, 1 chopped onion, 1
dessertspoonful tomato purée, 1 quart water.

Cook barley until soft; dissolve nut-milk in little water; boil all
ingredients together for 20 minutes, then serve.

=11.--Corn Soup=

1 lb. tin sugar-corn, 1/2 lb. tin tomatoes, 2 chopped onions, 2 ozs.
corn flour, 1 quart water.

Boil onion until soft; mix corn flour into paste with cold water. Place
sugar-corn, tomatoes, onions, and water into stew pan; heat and add corn
flour. Boil ingredients together 10 minutes, and serve.


[Footnote 6: There are several brands of wholly vegetable gravy essence
now on the market. The best known are 'Vegeton,' 'Marmite,' 'Carnos,'
and Pitman's 'Vigar Gravy Essence.']

[Footnote 7: Vegetable stock is the water that vegetables have been
boiled in; this water contains a certain quantity of valuable vegetable
salts, and should never be thrown away.]


=12.--Nut Rissoles=

3 ozs. mixed grated nuts, 3 ozs. breadcrumbs, 1 oz. nut butter, 1
chopped onion, 1 large cupful canned tomatoes.

Mix ingredients together; mould into rissoles, dust with flour and fry
in 'Nutter.' Serve with gravy.

=13.--Lentil Cakes=

8 ozs. red lentils, 3 ozs. 'Grape Nuts,' 1 small onion, 1 teaspoonful
gravy essence, breadcrumbs.

Cook lentils until soft in smallest quantity of water; chop onion
finely; mix all ingredients, using sufficient breadcrumbs to make into
stiff paste; form into cakes and fry in 'Nutter.' Serve with gravy.

=14.--Marrow Roast=

1 vegetable marrow, 3 ozs. grated nuts, 1 onion, 1 oz. 'Nutter,' 1 cup
breadcrumbs, 2 teaspoonfuls tomato purée.

Cook marrow, taking care not to allow it to break; when cold, peel, cut
off one end and remove seeds with spoon. Prepare stuffing:--chop onion
finely; melt nut fat and mix ingredients together. Then stuff marrow and
tie on decapitated end with tape; sprinkle with breadcrumbs and bake 30
minutes. Serve with gravy.

=15.--Stewed Celery=

1 head celery, 4 slices whole-meal bread, nut butter.

Slice celery into suitable lengths, which steam until soft. Toast and
butter bread, place celery on toast and cover with pea, bean, or lentil
sauce, (see Recipe No. 39).

=16.--Barley Entrée=

4 ozs. pot-barley, 1 lb. tin tomatoes, 1 chopped onion, 2 tablespoonfuls
olive oil.

Cook barley until quite soft in smallest quantity of water (in double
boiler). Then add tomatoes and oil, and cook for 10 minutes. To make
drier, cook barley in tomato juice adding only 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of

=Rice, Wheat, Macaroni, Lentil, Bean, Split-pea Entrées=

These are prepared in the same way as Recipe No. 16, substituting one of
these cereals or légumes for barley.

=17.--Savory Pie=

Paste (Recipe No. 59), marrow stuffing (Recipe No. 14).

Line sandwich tin with paste; fill interior with stuffing; cover with
paste or cooked sliced potatoes; bake in sharp oven.

=18.--Baked Bananas=

Prepare the desired number by washing and cutting off stalk, but do not
peel. Bake in oven 20 minutes, then serve.

=19.--Barley Stew=

4 ozs. pot-barley, 2 onions, parsley.

Chop onions and parsley finely; cook ingredients together in very small
quantity of water in double boiler until quite soft. Serve with hot
beetroot, or fried tomatoes or potatoes.

=Corn, Rice, Frumenty, Pea-Vermicelli Stews=

These are prepared in the same way as Recipe No. 19, substituting one of
the above cereals or pulses for barley.

=20.--Mexican Stew=

1 cupful brown beans, 2 onions, 2 potatoes, 4 tomatoes, 1 oz. sugar, 1
cupful red grape-juice, rind of 1 lemon, water.

Soak beans overnight; chop vegetables in chunks; boil all ingredients
together 1 hour.

=21.--Vegetable Pie=

5 ozs. tapioca, 4 potatoes, 3 small onions, paste, (see Recipe No. 59),
tomato purée to flavor.

Soak tapioca. Partly cook potatoes and onions, which then slice. Place
potatoes, onions, and tapioca in layers in pie-dish; mix purée with a
little hot water, which pour into dish; cover with paste and bake.

=22.--Rice Rissoles=

6 ozs. unpolished rice, 1 chopped onion, 1 dessertspoonful tomato purée,

Boil rice and onion until soft; add purée and sufficient breadcrumbs to
make stiff; mould into rissoles; fry in 'Nutter,' and serve with parsley
sauce, (Recipe No. 38).

=23.--Scotch Stew=

3 ozs. pot-barley, 2 ozs. rolled oats, 1 carrot, 1 turnip, 2 potatoes, 1
onion, 4 tomatoes, water.

Wash, peel, and chop vegetables in chunks. Stew all ingredients together
for 2 hours. Dress with squares of toasted bread.

=24.--Plain Roasted Rice=

Steam some unpolished rice until soft; then distribute thinly on flat
tin and brown in hot oven.

=25.--Nut Roast No. 1=

1 lb. pine kernels (flaked), 4 tablespoonfuls pure olive oil, 2
breakfastcupfuls breadcrumbs, 1/2 lb. tomatoes (peeled and mashed).

Mix ingredients together, place in pie-dish, sprinkle with breadcrumbs,
and bake until well browned.

=26.--Nut Roast No. 2=

1 lb. pine kernels (flaked), 1 cooked onion (chopped), 1/2 cupful
chopped parsley, 8 ozs. cooked potatoes (mashed).

Mix ingredients together, place in pie-dish and cover with layer of
boiled rice. Cook until well browned.

=27.--Maize Roast=

8 ozs. corn meal, 1 large Spanish onion (chopped), 2 tablespoonfuls
nut-milk, 1 dessertspoonful gravy essence.

Cook onion; dissolve nut-milk thoroughly in about 1/2 pint water.

Boil onion, nut-milk, and essence together two minutes, then mix all
ingredients together, adding sufficient water to make into very soft
batter; bake 40 minutes.

=28.--Plain Savory Rice=

4 ozs. unpolished rice, 1 lb. tin tomatoes.

Boil together until rice is cooked. If double boiler be used no water
need be added, and thus the rice will be dry and not pultaceous.

=29.--Potato Balls=

4 medium sized potatoes, 1 large onion (chopped), 1 dessertspoonful pure
olive oil, breadcrumbs.

Cook onion and potatoes, then mash. Mix ingredients, using a few
breadcrumbs and making it into a very soft paste. Roll into balls and
fry in 'Nutter,' or nut butter.

=30.--Bean Balls=

4 ozs. brown haricot flour, 1 onion (chopped), 1 dessertspoonful pure
olive oil, 1 tablespoonful tomato purée, breadcrumbs.

Cook onion; mix flour into paste with purée and oil; add onion and few
breadcrumbs making into soft paste. Fry in 'Nutter.'

=31.--Lentil and Pea Balls=

These are made in the same way as Recipe No. 30, substituting lentil-or
pea-flour for bean-flour.

=31.--Lentil Patties=

4 ozs. lentils, 1 small onion (chopped), 1 oz. 'Nutter,' or nut butter,
1 teaspoonful gravy essence, paste (see Recipe No. 59).

Cook ingredients for filling all together until lentils are quite soft.
Line patty pans with paste; fill, cover with paste and bake in sharp

=Barley, Bean, Corn, Rice, and Wheat Patties=

These are prepared in the same way as in Recipe No. 31, substituting
one of the above cereals or beans for lentils.

=32.--Lentil Paste=

8 ozs. red lentils, 1 onion (chopped), 4 tablespoonfuls pure olive oil,

Boil lentils and onions until quite soft; add oil and sufficient
breadcrumbs to make into paste; place in jars; when cool cover with
melted nut butter; serve when set.

=33.--Bean Paste=

8 ozs. small brown haricots, 2 tablespoonfuls tomato purée, 1
teaspoonful 'Vegeton,' 2 ozs. 'Nutter' or nut butter, 1 cup breadcrumbs.

Soak beans over night; flake in Dana Food Flaker; place back in fresh
water and add other ingredients; cook one hour; add breadcrumbs, making
into paste; place in jars, when cool cover with nut butter; serve when

=34.--Spinach on Toast=

Cook 1 lb. spinach in its own juice in double boiler. Toast and butter
large round of bread. Spread spinach on toast and serve. Other
vegetables may be served in the same manner.


=35.--Clear Gravy=

1 teaspoonful 'Marmite,' 'Carnos,' 'Vegeton,' or 'Pitman's Vigar Gravy
Essence,' dissolved in 1/2 pint hot water.

=36.--Tomato Gravy=

1 teaspoonful gravy essence, 1 small tablespoonful tomato purée, 1/2
pint water. Thicken with flour if desired.

=37.--Spinach Gravy=

1 lb. spinach, 1 dessertspoonful nut-milk, 1/2 pint water.

Boil spinach in its own juices in double boiler; strain all liquid from
spinach and add it to the nut-milk which has been dissolved in the

=38.--Parsley Sauce=

1 oz. chopped parsley, 1 tablespoonful olive oil, a little flour to
thicken, 1/2 pint water.

=39.--Pea, Bean, and Lentil Sauces=

1 teaspoonful pea-, or bean-, or lentil-flour; 1/2 teaspoonful gravy
essence, 1/2 pint water.

Mix flour into paste with water, dissolve essence, and bring to a boil.


=40.--Fig Pudding=

1 lb. whole-meal flour, 6 ozs. sugar, 6 ozs. 'Nutter,' or nut butter,
1/2 chopped figs, 1 teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Melt 'Nutter,' mix ingredients together with water into stiff batter;
place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=31.--Date Pudding=

1 lb. breadcrumbs, 6 ozs. sugar, 6 ozs. 'Nutter,' 1/2 lb. stoned and
chopped dates, 1 teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Melt 'Nutter'; mix ingredients together with water into stiff batter;
place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=Prune, Ginger, and Cherry Puddings=

These are prepared the same way as in Recipe No. 40, or No. 41,
substituting prunes or preserved ginger, or cherries for figs or dates.

=42.--Rich Fruit Pudding=

1 lb. whole-meal flour, 6 ozs. almond cream, 6 ozs. sugar, 3 ozs.
preserved cherries, 3 ozs. stoned raisins, 3 ozs. chopped citron, 1
teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Mix ingredients together with water into stiff batter; place in greased
pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=43.--Fruit-nut Pudding No. 1=

1/2 lb. white flour, 1/4 lb. whole meal flour, 1/4 lb. mixed grated
nuts, 6 ozs. 'Nutter' or nut butter, 6 ozs. sugar, 6 ozs. sultanas, 2
ozs. mixed peel (chopped), 1 teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Melt nut-fat, mix ingredients together with water into stiff batter;
place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=44.--Fruit-nut Pudding No. 2=

1/2 lb. white flour, 1/4 lb. ground rice, 1/4 lb. corn meal, 4 ozs.
chopped dates or figs, 4 ozs. chopped almonds, 6 ozs. almond nut-butter,
6 ozs. sugar, 1 teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Melt butter, mix ingredients together with water into stiff batter;
place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=45.--Maize Pudding No. 1=

1/2 lb. maize meal, 3 ozs. white flour, 3 ozs. 'Nutter,' 3 ozs. sugar,
1/2 tin pineapple chunks, 1 teaspoonful baking powder.

Melt fat, cut chunks into quarters; mix ingredients with very little
water into batter; place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=46.--Maize Pudding No. 2=

6 ozs. corn meal, 3 ozs. white flour, 2 ozs. 'Nutter,' 2 ozs. sugar, 3
tablespoonfuls marmalade, 1 teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Melt 'Nutter,' mix ingredients together with little water into batter;
place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=47.--Cocoanut Pudding=

6 ozs. whole wheat flour, 2 ozs. cocoanut meat, 2 ozs. 'Nutter,' 2 ozs.
sugar, 1 small teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Melt fat, mix ingredients together with water into batter; place in
greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=48.--Tapioca Apple=

1 cup tapioca, 6 large apples, sugar to taste, water.

Soak tapioca, peel and slice apples; mix ingredients together, place in
pie-dish with sufficient water to cover and bake.

=49.--Oatmeal Moulds=

4 ozs. rolled oats, 2 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. sultanas, water.

Cook oatmeal thoroughly in double boiler, then mix ingredients together;
place in small cups, when cold turn out and serve with apple sauce, or
stewed prunes.

=50.--Carrot Pudding=

4 ozs. breadcrumbs, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' 4 ozs. flour, 4 ozs. mashed
carrots, 4 ozs. mashed potatoes, 6 ozs. chopped raisins, 2 ozs. brown
sugar, 1 dessertspoonful treacle, 1 teaspoonful baking powder.

Mix ingredients well, place in greased pudding basin and steam 2 hours.

=51.--Sultana Pudding=

1/2 lb. whole meal flour, 1 breakfastcupful breadcrumbs, 4 ozs. ground
pine kernels, pignolias or almonds, 1/2 lb. sultanas, 4 ozs. sugar,

Mix ingredients together into a stiff batter; place in greased basin and
steam 2 hours.

=52.--Semolina Pudding=

4 ozs. semolina, 1 oz. corn flour, 3 ozs. sugar, rind of one lemon,
1-1/2 pints water.

Mix corn flour into paste in little water; place ingredients in double
boiler and cook for 1 hour, place in pie-dish and brown in sharp oven.

=53.--Rice Mould=

4 ozs. ground rice, 1 oz. sugar, 1/2 pint grape-juice.

Cook ingredients in double boiler, place in mould. When cold turn out
and serve with stewed fruit.

=54.--Maize Mould=

6 ozs. corn meal, 2 ozs. sugar, 1/2 pint grape-juice, 1-1/2 pints water.

Cook ingredients in double boiler for 1 hour; place in mould. When cold
turn out and serve with stewed fruit.

=55.--Lemon Sago=

4 ozs. sago, 7 ozs. golden syrup, juice and rind of two lemons, 1-1/2
pints water.

Boil sago in water until cooked, then mix in other ingredients. Place in
mould, turn out when cold.

=56.--Lemon Pudding=

4 ozs. breadcrumbs, 1 oz. corn flour, 2 ozs. sugar, rind one lemon, 1
pint water.

Mix corn flour into paste in little water; mix ingredients together,
place in pie-dish, bake in moderate oven.

=57.--Prune Mould=

1 lb. prunes, 4 ozs. sugar, juice 1 lemon, 1/4 oz. agar-agar, 1 quart

Soak prunes for 12 hours in water, and then remove stones. Dissolve the
agar-agar in the water, gently warming. Boil all ingredients together
for 30 minutes, place in mould, when cold turn out and decorate with
blanched almonds.

=58.--Lemon Jelly=

1/4 oz. agar-agar, 3 ozs. sugar, juice 3 lemons, 1 quart water.

Soak agar-agar in the water for 30 minutes; add fruit-juice and sugar,
and heat gently until agar-agar is completely dissolved, pour into
moulds, turn out when cold.

This jelly can be flavoured with various fruit juices, (fresh and
canned). When the fruit itself is incorporated, it should be cut up into
small pieces and stirred in when the jelly commences to thicken. The
more fruit juice added, the less water must be used. Such fruits as
fresh strawberries, oranges, raspberries, and canned pine-apples,
peaches, apricots, etc., may be used this way.


1 lb. flour, 1/2 lb. nut-butter or nut fat, 2 teaspoonfuls baking
powder, water.

Mix with water into stiff paste. This is suitable for tarts, patties,
pie-covers, etc.


=60.--Wheatmeal Fruit Cake=

6 ozs. entire wheat flour, 3 ozs. nut-butter, 3 ozs. sugar, 3 ozs.
almond meal, 10 ozs. sultanas, 2 ozs. lemon peel, 2 teaspoonsful baking

Rub butter into flour, mix all ingredients together with water into
stiff batter; bake in cake tins lined with buttered paper.

=61.--Rice Fruit Cake=

8 ozs. ground rice, 4 ozs. white flour, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' 3 ozs. sugar, 6
ozs. stoned, chopped raisins, 1 large teaspoonful baking powder, water.

Rub 'Nutter' into flour, mix all ingredients together with water into
stiff batter; bake in cake tins lined with buttered paper.

=62.--Maize Fruit Cake=

8 ozs. corn meal, 6 ozs. white flour, 4 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. nut-butter, 8
ozs. preserved cherries, 2 ozs. lemon peel, 2 teaspoonfuls baking
powder, water.

Rub butter into flour, mix all ingredients together with water into
stiff batter; bake in cake tins lined with buttered paper.

=63.--Apple Cake=

1 lb. apples, 1/4 lb. white flour, 1/2 lb. corn meal, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' 4
ozs. sugar, 2 small teaspoonfuls baking powder, water.

Cook apples to a sauce and strain well through colander, rejecting
lumps. Melt fat and mix all ingredients together with water into stiff
batter; bake in cake tins lined with buttered paper.

=64.--Corn Cake (plain)=

1/2 lb. maize meal, 3 ozs. 'Nutter,' 3 ozs. sugar, 1 teaspoonful baking

Melt fat, mix all ingredients together into batter; bake in cake tins
lined with buttered paper.

=65.--Nut Cake=

12 ozs. white flour, 4 ozs. ground rice, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' or nut butter,
5 ozs. sugar, 6 ozs. mixed grated nuts, 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder.

Melt fat, mix ingredients together into batter, and place in cake tins
lined with buttered paper.

=66.--Mixed Fruit Salads=

2 sliced bananas, 1 tin pineapple chunks, 2 sliced apples, 2 sliced
oranges, 1/2 lb. grapes, 1/4 lb. raisins, 1/4 lb. shelled walnuts, 1/2
pint grape-juice.

=67.--Fruit Nut Salad=

1 lb. picked strawberries, 1/4 lb. mixed shelled nuts, 1/2 pint
grape-juice. Sprinkle over with 'Granose' or 'Toasted Corn Flakes' just
before serving.

=68.--Winter Salad=

2 peeled, sliced tomatoes, 2 peeled, sliced apples, 1 small sliced
beetroot, 1 small sliced onion, olive oil whisked up with lemon juice
for a dressing.

=69.--Vegetable Salad=

1 sliced beetroot, 1 sliced potato (cooked), 1 sliced onion, 1 sliced
heart of cabbage, olive oil dressing; arrange on a bed of water-cress.


The following biscuits are made thus:--Melt the 'Nutter,' mix all
ingredients with sufficient water to make into stiff paste; roll out and
cut into shapes. Bake in moderate oven.

These biscuits when cooked average 20 grains protein per ounce.

=70.--Plain Wheat Biscuits=

1/2 lb. entire wheat flour, 4 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' little
chopped peel.

=71.--Plain Rice Biscuits=

3-4 lb. ground rice, 4 ozs. sugar, 3 ozs. 'Nutter,' vanilla essence.

=72.--Plain Maize Biscuits=

1/2 lb. maize meal, 4 ozs. sugar, 3 ozs. 'Nutter.'

(If made into soft batter these can be dropped like rock cakes).

=73.--Banana Biscuits=

1/2 lb. banana meal, 4 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. 'Nutter.'

=74.--Cocoanut Biscuits=

1/2 lb. white flour, 3 ozs. sugar, 2 ozs. 'Nutter,' 4 ozs. cocoanut

=75.--Sultana Biscuits=

3-4 lb. white flour, 4 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' 6 ozs. minced
sultanas and peel 2 ozs. almond meal.

=78.--Fig Biscuits=

1/2 lb. entire wheat flour, 3 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. 'Nutter,' 3 ozs. minced

(If made into soft batter these can be dropped like rock cakes).

=Date, Prune, Raisin, and Ginger Biscuits=

These are prepared in the same way as Recipe No. 76, using one of these
fruits in place of figs. (Use dry preserved ginger).

=77.--Brazil-nut Biscuits=

8 ozs. white flour, 2 ozs. ground rice, 3 ozs. sugar, 4 ozs. grated
brazil kernels.

(If made into a soft batter these can be dropped like rock cakes).

=78.--Fruit-nut Biscuits=

3/4 lb. white flour, 4 ozs. ground rice, 4 ozs. sugar, 5 ozs. 'Nutter,'
6 ozs. mixed grated nuts, 6 ozs. mixed minced fruits, sultanas, peel,

=79.--Rye Biscuits=

1 lb. rye flour, 8 ozs. sugar, 8 ozs. nut butter, 8 ozs. sultanas.

=80.--Xerxes Biscuits=

3/4 lb. whole wheat flour, 2 ozs. sugar, 1/2 breakfastcupful olive oil.

BREADS (unleavened)

These are prepared as follows: Mix ingredients with water into stiff
dough; knead well, mould, place in bread tins, and bake in slack oven
for from 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 hours (or weigh off dough into 1/2 lb. pieces,
mould into flat loaves, place on flat tin, cut across diagonally with
sharp knife and bake about 1-1/2 hours).

=81.--Apple Bread=

2 lbs. entire wheat meal doughed with 1 lb. apples, cooked in water to a

=82.--Rye Bread=

2 lbs. rye flour, 3/4 lb. ground rice.

=83.--Plain Wheat Bread=

2 lbs. finely ground whole wheat flour.

=84.--Corn Wheat Bread=

1 lb. whole wheat flour, 1 lb. cornmeal.

=85.--Rice Wheat Bread=

1 lb. ground rice, 1 lb. whole wheat flour, 1 lb. white flour.

=86.--Date Bread=

2 lbs. whole wheat flour, 3/4 lb. chopped dates.

=87.--Ginger Bread=

3/4 lb. whole wheat flour, 3/4 lb. white flour, 1/4 lb. chopped
preserved ginger, a little cane sugar.

=88.--Cocoanut Bread=

1 lb. whole wheat flour, 1 lb. white flour, 1/2 lb. cocoanut meal, some
cane sugar.

=89.--Fig Bread=

1-1/2 lbs. whole wheat flour, 1/2 lb. white flour, 1/2 lb. chopped figs.

=90.--Sultana Bread=

1/2 lb. ground rice, 1/2 lb. maize meal, 1/2 lb. white flour, 1/2 lb.

=91.--Fancy Rye Bread=

1-1/2 lbs. rye flour, 1/2 lb. currants and chopped peel, a little cane


=92.=--Maize, Meal, Rolled Oats, Ground Rice, etc., thoroughly cooked make
excellent porridge. Serve with sugar and unfermented fruit-juice.


The following uncooked fruit foods are prepared thus: Mix all
ingredients well together; roll out to 1/4 inch, or 1/2 inch, thick; cut
out with biscuit cutter and dust with ground rice.

=93.--Date Cakes=

1-1/2 lbs. stoned dates minced, 1/2 lb. mixed grated nuts.

=94.--Fig Cakes=

1-1/2 lbs. figs minced, 1/2 lb. ground almonds.

=95.--Raisin-Nut Cakes=

1/2 lb. stoned raisins minced, 6 ozs. mixed grated nuts.

=96.--Ginger-Nut Cakes=

1/2 lb. preserved ginger (minced), 1/2 lb. mixed grated nuts. 4 ozs.
'Grape Nuts.'

=97.--Prune-Nut Cakes=

1/2 lb. stoned prunes (minced), 1/2 lb. grated walnuts.

=98.--Banana-Date Cakes=

8 ozs. figs (minced); 4 bananas; sufficient 'Wheat or Corn Flakes' to
make into stiff paste.

=100.--Cherry-Nut Cakes=

8 ozs. preserved cherries (minced); 1/2 lb. mixed grated nuts;
sufficient 'Wheat or Corn Flakes' to make into stiff paste.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Health Culture Co.

For more than a dozen years the business of the Health-Culture Co. was
conducted in New York City, moving from place to place as increased room
was needed or a new location seemed to be more desirable.

In 1907 the business was removed to Passaic, N. J., where it is
pleasantly and permanently located in a building belonging to the
proprietor of the company.

There has never been as much interest in the promotion and preservation
of personal health as exists to-day. Men and women everywhere are
seeking information as to the best means of increasing health and
strength with physical and mental vigor.

HEALTH-CULTURE, a monthly publication devoted to Practical Hygiene and
Bodily Culture, is unquestionably the best publication of its kind ever
issued. It has a large circulation and exerts a wide influence,
numbering among its contributors the best and foremost writers on the

THE BOOKS issued and for sale by this Company are practical and include
the very best works published relating to Health and Hygiene.

THE HEALTH APPLIANCES, manufactured and for sale, include Dr. Forest's
Massage Rollers and Developers, Dr. Wright's Colon Syringes, the Wilhide
Exhaler, etc. and we are prepared to furnish anything in this line,
Water-Stills, Exercisers, etc.

CIRCULARS and price lists giving full particulars will be sent on

INQUIRIES as to what books to read or what appliances to procure for any
special conditions cheerfully and fully answered. If you have any doubts
state your case and we will tell you what will best meet it. If you want
books of any kind we can supply them at publisher's prices.

DR. FOREST'S Massage Rollers

Dr. Forest is the inventor and originator of MASSAGE ROLLERS, and these
are the original and only genuine MASSAGE ROLLERS made. The making of
others that are infringements on our patents have been stopped or they
are inferior and practically worthless. In these each wheel turns
separately, and around the centre of each is a band or buffer of elastic

The rollers are made for various purposes, each in a style and size best
adapted for its use, and will be sent prepaid on receipt of price.

=No. 1. Six Wheels, Body Roller, $2.=

The best size for use over the body, and especially for indigestion,
constipation, rheumatism, etc. Can also be used for reduction.

=No. 2, Four Wheels, Body Roller, $1.50.=

Smaller and lighter than No. 1; for small women it is the best in size,
for use over the stomach and bowels, the limbs, and for cold feet.

=No. 3, Three Wheels, Scalp Roller, $1.50.=

Made in fine woods and for use over the scalp, for the preservation of
the hair. Can be used also over the neck to fill it out and for the

=No. 4, Five Wheels, Bust Developer, $2.50.=

The best developer made. By following the plain physiological directions
given, most satisfactory results can be obtained.

=No. 5, Twelve Wheels, Abdominal Roller, $4.=

For the use of men to reduce the size of the abdomen, and over the back.
The handles give a chance for a good, firm, steady, pressure.

=No. 6, Three Small Wheels, Facial Roller, $2.50.=

Made in ebony and ivory, for use over the face and neck, for preventing
and removing wrinkles, and restoring its contour and form.

=No. 7, Three Wheels, Facial Massage Roller, $1.50.=

Like No. 6, made in white maple. In other respects the same.

=No. 8, Eight Wheels, Abdominal Roller, $3.50.=

This is the same as No. 5, except with the less number of wheels. Is
made for the use of women, for reducing hip and abdominal measure.

With each roller is sent Dr. Forest's Manual of Massotherapy; containing
100 pages, giving full directions for use. Price separately 25c.


Rational Methods of Developing Health and Personal Power

By W. R. C. Latson M. D., Author of "Common Disorders," "The Enlightened
Life," Etc.

This work by Dr. Latson indicates the avenues that lead to efficient and
successful living, and should be read by every man and woman who would
reach their best and attain to their highest ambitions in business,
professional, domestic or social life. Something of the scope of this
will be seen from the following


     =How to Live the Efficient Life.=--Man a Production of
     Law--Determining Factors in Health and Power--The Most Wholesome
     Diet--Practical Exercises for Efficiency--Influence of Thought

     =Mental Habits and Health.=--All is Mind--Seen in Animals--Formative
     Desire in the Jungle--Mind the Great Creator--Mind the One Cause of
     Disease--Faulty Mental Habits.

     =The Conquest of Worry.=--Effects Upon Digestion--Anarchy of the
     Mind--A Curable Disorder.

     =Secret of Mental Supremacy.=--Practical Methods--The Key
     Note--Mental Power a Habit.

     =The Nobler Conquest.=--Life a Struggle--Who Are the Survivors?--The
     Art of Conquest--The Struggle with the World--Effects of

     =Firmness One Secret of Power.=--Without Firmness no Real Power--How
     it Grows with Exercise--Gaining the Habit of Firmness.

     =Self-Effacement and Personal Power.=--Growing Older in Wisdom--The
     Fallacy of Identity--Self-Preservation the First Law.

     =The Power of Calmness.=--The Nervous System--Effects of Control.

     =How to Be an Efficient Worker.=--How to Work--Making Drudgery a Work
     of Art.

     =The Attainment of Personal Power.=--An Achievement--Know
     Yourself--Learning from Others.

     =The Secret of Personal Magnetism.=--What is Personal
     Magnetism?--Effects of the Lack of It--How to Gain It.

     =The Prime Secret of Health.=--What is Essential?--What to Do--How to
     Do It.

     =How to Increase Vitality.=--The Mark of the Master--What Is
     Vitality?--Possibility of Increase--Spending Vitality.

     =The Attainment of Physical Endurance.=--Essential to Success--The
     Secret of Endurance--Working Easily--Economizing
     Strength--Exercises for Promoting Endurance.

     =The Attainment of Success.=--The Secret of Success--What to Do to
     Acquire It.

     =The Way to Happiness.=--A Royal Road to Happiness--The Secret of

     =How to Live Long in the Land.=--Characteristics--Essentials--Bodily

     =The Gospel of Rest.=--All Need It--Few get It--The Secret of
     Rest--Its Effects.

     =Sleeping as a Fine Art.=--Causes of Sleeplessness--The Mind. How to
     Control It.

     =Common Sense Feeding.=--What is Proper Feeding?--Many
     Theories--Mental Conditions--The Kind of Food.

     =Grace and How to Get It.=--What is Grace--Hindrances to
     Grace--Exercises for Grace.

     =Style and How to Have It.=--The Secret of Style--Carriage of the
     Body--Exercises for Stylishness.

     =How to Have a Fine Complexion.=--What Effects the Complexion?--The
     Secret of a Good Complexion--Effects of Food.

     =The Secret of a Beautiful Voice.=--What the Voice Is--Easily

     =How to Cure Yourself When Sick.=--It is Easy--What is
     Disease?--Nature's Efforts--Best Remedies.

One of the most practical and helpful works published on personal
improvement and the acquiring of physical and mental vigor; a key to
efficient manhood and womanhood and a long, happy and helpful life. All
who are striving for success should read it.

Artistically bound in Ornithoid covers. Price 50c. An extra edition is
issued on heavy paper, bound in fine cloth. Price $1.00.


_In Form and Features._

Containing specially written chapters from well-known authorities on the
cultivation of personal beauty in women, as based upon Health-Culture;
fully illustrated. Edited by Albert Turner. Bound in extra cloth, price;

This is the best and most comprehensive work ever published on Beauty
Culture, covering the entire subject by specialists in each department,
thus giving the work a greatly increased value. It is profusely and
beautifully illustrated; a handsome volume. Some idea of the scope of
this may be seen from the


=Introduction.= By ELLA VAN POOLE.

=Womanly Beauty: Its Requirements.= By Dr. JACQUES.

=Why It Lasts or Fades.= By Dr. C. H. STRATZ.

=Temperamental Types.= By SARAH C. TURNER.

=Breathing and Beauty.= By Dr. W. R. C. LATSON.

=Curative Breathing.= By MADAME DONNA MADIXXA.

=Sleep; Its Effect on Beauty.= By ELLA VAN POOLE.

=The Influence of Thought Upon Beauty.= By Dr. W. R. C. LATSON.

=Health and Beauty.= By Dr. CHAS. H. SHEPARD.

=The Home A Gymnasium.= By MRS. O. V. SESSIONS.

=Facial Massage.= By ELLA VAN POOLE.

=The Hair; Its Care and Culture.= By ALBERT TURNER.

=Care of the Hands and Feet.= By STELLA STUART.

=Exercising for Grace and Poise.= ILLUSTRATED.

=A Good Form, and How to Secure It.= From HEALTH-CULTURE.

=How to Have a Good Complexion.= By SUSANNA W. DODDS M. D.

=Bust Development; How to Secure It.=

=Exercise: Who Needs It; How to Take It.= EDWARD B. WARMAN.

=Perfumes and Health.= By FELIX L. OSWALD, M. D.

=The Voice as an Element of Beauty.= By Dr. LATSON.

=How to be Beautiful.= By RACHEL SWAIN, M. D.

=The Ugly Duckling.= A Story. By ELSIE CARMICHAEL.

=Dress and Beauty.= By ELLA VAN POOLE.

=Some Secrets About a Beautiful Neck.= By ELEANOR WAINWRIGHT.

=Hints in Beauty Culture.= COMPILED BY THE EDITOR.

It is an encyclopedia on the subject, covering every phase of the
question in a practical way, and should be in the hands of every woman
who would preserve her health and personal appearance and her influence.
Agents wanted for the introduction and sale of this great work. Sent
prepaid on receipt of price, $1.00. Address

Publications of the Health-Culture Co.,
45 Ascension St., Passaic, N.J.


     The largest and best illustrated monthly magazine published on the
     preservation and restoration of health, bodily development and
     physical culture for men, women and children. $1.00 a year; 10c. a

=The Enlightened Life.=

     And How to Live It. By Dr. Latson; 365 pages, with portrait of the
     author. Cloth, $1.00.

This contains the leading editorials from Health-Culture, many of them
revised and enlarged.

=Common Disorders.=

     With rational Methods of Treatment. Including Diet, Exercise,
     Baths, Massotherapy, etc. By Latson. 340 pages, 200 illustrations.

=The Attainment of Efficiency.=

     Rational Methods of Developing Health and Personal Power. By Dr.
     Latson. Paper, 50c.; cloth, $1.00.

=The Food Value of Meat.=

     Flesh Food Not Essential to Physical or Mental Vigor. By Dr.
     Latson. Illustrated. Paper, 25c.

=Walking for Exercise and Recreation.=

     By Dr. Latson. 15c.

=Dr. Latson's Health Chart.=

     Presenting in an Attractive and Comprehensive Form a Complete
     System of Physical Culture Exercises, fully Illustrated with Poses
     From Life, with Special Directions for Securing Symmetrical
     Development, for Building up the Thin Body, for Reducing Obesity,
     and for the Increase of General Vitality. 18×25 inches, printed on
     fine paper, bound with metal, with rings to hang on the wall. 50c.

=Uncooked Food.=

     And How to Live on Them. With Recipes for Wholesome Preparation,
     Proper Combinations and Menus, with the Reason Uncooked Food Is
     Best for the Promotion of Health, Strength and Vitality. By Mr. and
     Mrs. Eugene Christian. Cloth, $1.00.

=The New Internal Bath.=

     An Improved Method of Flushing the Colon or Administering an Enema.
     For the relief of Acute and Chronic Diseases. By Laura M. Wright,
     M. D. Illustrated. 25c.

=Womanly Beauty.=

     Of Form and Feature. The Cultivation and Preservation of Personal
     Beauty Based upon Health and Hygiene. By Twenty Well-known
     Physicians and Specialists. With 80 half-tone and other
     Illustrations. Edited by Albert Turner. 300 pages, cloth and gold.
     Price, $1.00.

In this volume the Editor has brought together the teachings of those
who have made a study of special features of the subject, and the result
is a work that is unique and practical, not filled with a medley of
receipts and formulas, so often found in books on beauty.

=Manhood Wrecked and Rescued.=

     How Strength and Vigor Is Lost and How it may be Restored by
     Self-Treatment. A Series of Chapters to Men on Social Purity and
     Right Living. By Rev. W. J. Hunter, Ph. D., D. D. Cloth $1.00.

It contains the following chapters: The Wreck--An Ancient Wreck--A
Modern Wreck--A Youthful Wreck--A Wreck Escaped--The Rescue Begun--The
Rescue Continued--The Rescue Completed.

=Illustrated Hints upon Health and Strength for Busy People.=

     Text and Illustrations by Adrian Peter Schimdt, Professor of Higher
     Physical Culture. Price $1.00.

The best System of Physical Culture published.

=Courtship Under Contract.=

     The Science of Selection. A Tale of Woman's Emancipation. By J. H.
     L. Eager 440 pages, with portrait of the author. Price, $1.20 net.
     By mail, $1.30.

A novel with a purpose, higher than that of any other ever published,
not excepting even "Uncle Tom's Cabin," as it aims to secure more of
happiness in Marriage and the doing away with the divorce evil. The
author presents, in the form of a clean, wholesome love story, some new
ideas on the subject of Love, Courtship, Marriage and Eugenics.

=Human Nature Explained.=

     A new Illustrated Treatise on Human Science for the People. By
     Prof. N. N. Riddell. Illustrated. 400 pages. Extra cloth binding,

Men and women differ in character as they do in looks and temperament;
no two are just alike. If you would know these "Signs of Character,"
read "Human Nature Explained," and you can read men as an open book. It
gives the most complete system of reading character ever published.

=Human Nature Indexed.=

     A Descriptive Chart for use of Phrenologists. By N. N. Riddle. 25c.

=What Shall We Eat?=

    The Food Question, from the Standpoint of Health, Strength and
    Economy. Containing Numerous Tables Showing the Constituent Elements
    of over Three Hundred Food Products and Their Relations, Cost and
    Nutritious Values, Time of Digestion, etc., Indicating Best Foods
    for all Classes and Conditions. By Alfred Andrews. Price,
    leatherette, 50c.; cloth binding. 75c.

=The New Method.=

    In Health and Disease. By W. E. Forest, B.S., M.D., Fellow of N. Y.
    Academy of Medicine. Sixteenth Edition. Revised and enlarged by
    Albert Turner, Publisher of Health-Culture. 350 pp., clo. binding,

It makes the way from weakness to strength so plain that only those who
are past recovery (the very few) need to be sick, and the well who will
follow its teachings cannot be sick, saving the need of calling a
physician and all expenses for medicine.


    Or the Use of Massage Rollers and Muscle Beaters in Indigestion,
    Constipation, Liver Trouble, Paralysis, Neuralgia and Other
    Functional Diseases. By W. E. Forest, M. D. 25c.


    Its Causes and Proper Treatment Without the Use of Drugs. By W. E.
    Forest, M. D. The only rational method of cure. 10c.

=Hygienic Cookery.=

    Or Health in the Household. By Susanna W. Dodds, M. D. $2.00.

It is unquestionably the best work ever written on the healthful
preparation of food, and should be in the hands of every housekeeper who
wishes to prepare food healthfully and palatably.

=The Diet Question.=

    Giving Reasons Why--Rules of Diet. By Dr. Dodds. 25c.

=The Liver and Kidneys.=

    With a Chapter on Malaria. Part I. The Liver and Its Functions,
    Diseases and Treatment. Part II. The Kidneys, Their Healthy Action
    and How to Secure It. Part III. Malarial Fever, Rational Treatment
    by Hygienic Methods. By Dr. Dodds. 25c.

=Race Culture.=

    The Improvement of the Race through Mother and Child. By Susanna W.
    Dodds, M. D. Nearly 500 pages, $1.50.

Dr. Dodds' experience as a physician, teacher and lecturer has given her
the preparation needed for the writing of this book. It is certainly
safe to say that every woman, especially the mothers of young children
and prospective mothers, should read it. No other work covers so
completely the subject of health for women and children as in "Race

=Scientific Living.=

    For Prolonging the Term of Human Life. The New Domestic Science,
    Cooking to Simplify Living and Retaining the Life Elements in Food.
    By Laura Nettleton Brown. $1.00.

This work presents new views on the health question, especially as
related to food. It treats of the life in food, showing that in the
preparation of food by the usual methods the life-giving vitality is
destroyed; that is, the organic elements become inorganic. The reason is
clearly stated and recipes and directions for cooking, with menus for a
balanced dietary, are given.

=Cooking for Health.=

    Or Plain Cookery, With Health Hints. By Rachel Swain, M. D. $1.00.

This book is the outcome of progress in the kitchen, and provides for
the preparation of food with direct reference to health. It is not an
invalids' Cook Book, but for all who believe in eating for strength, and
the use of the best foods at all times.

=The No-Breakfast Plan and Fasting Cure.=

    By Edward Hooker Dewey, M. D. Cloth, $1.00.

Presents his theories in a clear, concise, practical way, together with
specific and definite instructions for the carrying out of this method
of living and treatment.

=Experiences of the No-Breakfast Plan and Fasting Cure.=

    A letter in answer to the many questions asking for special details
    as to methods and result. By Dr. Dewey, 50c.

=Chronic Alcoholism:=

    Its Radical Cure. A new method of treatment for those afflicted with
    the alcohol habit, without the use of drugs. By Dr. Dewey. 50c.

=Health in the Home.=

    A Practical Work on the Promotion and Preservation of Health, with
    Illustrated Prescriptions of Swedish Gymnastic Exercises for Home
    and Club Practice. By E. Marguerite Lindley. $1.00.

Unquestionably the best and most important work ever published for the
promotion of the health of women and children.

=The Temperaments;=

    Or Varieties of Physical Constitution in Man in Their Relations to
    Mental Character and the Practical Affairs of Life, etc. By D. H.
    Jacques, M. D. Nearly 150 Illustrations. $1.50.

The only work published on this important and interesting subject. The
author made it the special subject of study and was thoroughly familiar
with all temperamental questions.

=The Avoidable Causes of Disease;=

    Insanity and Deformity, Together with Marriage and Its Violations.
    By John Ellis, M. D. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged by the
    Author, with the Collaboration of Dr. Sarah M. Ellis. $1.00.

This book should be in every library, and if read and its teachings
followed nearly all sickness and disease would be avoided with the
accompanying suffering and expense--one of the most valuable works ever

=Facial Diagnosis.=

    Indications of Disease as shown in the Face. By Dr. Louis Kuhne.
    Illustrated. $1.00.


=For Prolonging term of Human Life=

The New Domestic Science, Cooking to Simplify Living and Retaining the
Life Elements in Food.


A great truth is emphasized in this book, namely, that in the ordinary
processes of cooking the organic elements become inorganic and food
values are destroyed. This dietetic idea is most important, and it is
claimed by the author that when generally known and made practical it
will restore the racial vigor as nothing else can, free woman from the
slavery of the cook stove and become a large factor in the solution of
the servant problem.

The author does more than inform; she arouses and inspires; she also
enters into the practical demonstration of the new way; food tables,
recipes and menus are numerous and enlightening and will prove
exceedingly helpful not only to busy housekeepers, but also to all
persons who desire to get the greatest benefit and fullest enjoyment
from the daily meals.

She refrains from urging the exclusive use of uncooked foods, but shows
what kind of cooking can be made useful. A most interesting and
practical feature of this work is the clear and discriminating
instructions given for the application of heat in preparing food. From
the author's point of view it becomes evident that the present mode of
preparing food is not only unnecessarily laborious, but that it involves
great waste of the raw material and puts a severe tax upon the digestive
organs of the consumer.

The best thing about the new way to many minds, however, will be that it
greatly enhances the appetizing qualities of the viands. It treats of
the chemistry of food in a way that is easily understood and made
practical. The concluding chapter of the book deals with "Associate
Influences," and gives sound advice upon other factors than diet.

The volume is thoroughly sensible and enlightening; original without
being cranky; radical without being faddish;
withal, practical plain and entirely helpful. No one who is interested
in the all-important question of scientific living can afford to be
without this book. It will be found of interest to teachers and students
of domestic economy. It is very carefully and thoroughly indexed, adding
to its usefulness.

Printed on fine paper. Handsomely bound in extra cloth. $1.00 by mail on
receipt of price. If not entirely satisfactory, money will be returned.

The New Internal Bath

The benefits and great importance of properly flushing the colon is now
fully recognized and it has led to a large and increasing demand for
syringes used for this purpose. The appliances in general use have one
very serious fault, the water is discharged into the lower part of the
rectum, which is distended, and thus produces an irritation which often
proves injurious, causing and aggravating piles and other rectal
troubles. It in frequently a cause of constipation and creates a
necessity for continuing the use of enemas indefinitely.

Dr. Wright's New Colon Syringe

Consists of a strong, well made, four quart rubber bag or reservoir with
two long SOFT RUBBER FLEXIBLE TUBES, by the use of which the water is
easily carried past the rectum and into the sigmoid flexure, and by the
use of the longest tube may be carried up to the transverse colon. The
water is then discharged where it needed and the cleansing is made much
more perfect than it can be in any other way. The tubing and the outlets
are extra large, securing a rapid discharge of the water, which reduces
the time required to less than one-half that usually taken, which is a
very great advantage over other syringes. This new syringe will prove a
most important help in the taking of "Internal Baths" in the "New
Method" treatment as recommended by Dr. Forest and others, and will
prove curative in many cases when all others fail.

Dr. Wright's manual on the taking of the "Internal Bath," containing
full directions for its use in Constipation, Diarrhoea, Dyspepsia,
Biliousness, Sick Headache, Kidney Troubles, Convulsions, Jaundice,
Rheumatism, Colds, Influenza, La Grippe, Diseases of Women, Worms and
Constipation in Children and other diseases, price 25c., is given free
with each syringe.

Carefully packed in a fine polished wooden case, will be sent prepaid to
any address on receipt of price, $5.00, with a copy of Dr. Forest's
great work, "The New Method," the very best work on Health and Disease
published. (Price, $1.00), both for $5.50.

An Infants' Flexible Rubber Tube will be sent for 75c. extra; New
improved Vaginal Irrigator, $1.00; two Hard Rubber Rectal Tubes if
desired, 25c extra. Agents wanted to introduce and sell this.

Health Culture Appliances

=DR. WRIGHT'S COLON SYRINGE=, for taking the New Internal Bath.

This consists of a one-gallon reservoir, one each, long and short
flexible rubber colon tube, one box of antiseptic powder, and Dr.
Wright's Manual of the New Internal Bath, all packed in a polished
wooden case. Price, prepaid, $5.00.

=THE PRIMO LADIES' SYRINGE=. Price, $2.00. The only properly constructed
Vaginal Syringe made.

Every woman should have a good syringe for use in emergencies and for
purposes of cleanliness, which is essential to health, comfort and

All women, married or single, should have a Primo. With each is sent
full directions for use in all emergencies.


These rollers are coming into general use wherever massage is needed and
are a cure for many of the functional disorders as Dyspepsia,
Constipation, Biliousness, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Sleeplessness,
Obesity, and wherever there is a lack of a good circulation of the
blood; and the developers and facial rollers are used successfully for
building up the form and the prevention of wrinkles and age in the face.
The rollers consist of wheels about 1-1/2 inches in diameter: around the
centre is a band or buffer of elastic rubber.

=No. 1, Body Roller, 6 Wheels, $2.=--The best size for use over body, and
especially for indigestion, constipation, rheumatism, etc.

=No. 2, Body Roller, 4 Wheels, $1.50.=--Smaller and lighter than No. 1,
for small women it is best in size for use over the stomach and bowels,
the limbs and for cold feet.

=No. 3, Scalp Roller, $1.50.=--Made in fine woods, and for use over the
scalp, for the preservation of the hair.

=No. 4, Bust Developer, $2.50.=--The best developer made. By following the
plain, physiological directions given, most satisfactory results can be

=No. 5, Abdominal Roller, 12 Wheels, $4.=--For the use of men to reduce
the size of the abdomen and over the back.

=No. 6, Facial Roller, $2.50.=--Made in ebony; very fine for use over the
face and neck, for preventing and removing wrinkles and restoring its
contour and form.

=No. 7, Facial Roller, $1.50.=--Like No. 6. Made in white maple. In other
respects the same.

=No. 8, Abdominal Boiler, 8 Wheels, $3.50.=--This is the same as No. 5,
except with the less number of wheels. Is made for the use of women, for
reducing hip and abdominal measure.

=No. 1 Massage Vibrator, 24 Balls, price $2.00.

No. 2 Massage Vibrator, 12 Balls, price $1.25.=

Dr. Forest's Manual of Massotherapy, containing nearly 100 pages, giving
full directions for use, sent with each of the above.


No. 1, a Double Walled Cabinet, the best made, with new and improved
heater and manual giving full instructions for using the Cabinet for the
Cure of Colds, Catarrh, Rheumatism, LaGrippe, Neuralgia, Kidney Trouble,
Lumbago, Malaria, and many other disorders. Price $12.50.

No. 2 Cabinet Single Walled, with heater and instructions as above.
Price $7.50.

Price, $2.00.


Special descriptive circulars of any of the above sent on application.

Uncooked Foods And How to Use Them.

With recipes for wholesome preparation, proper combinations and menus,
with the reason why it is better for the promotion of health, strength
and vitality to use uncooked than cooked foods, by Mr. and Mrs. Eugene
Christian, with an Introduction by W. R. C. Latson, M. D.

It will meet a widespread want filled by no other work that has ever
been published, and will do very much to solve the question of how to
live for health, strength, and happiness.

It will simplify methods of living--help to solve the servant question
and financial problems, as well as point the way for many to perfect
health. The following chapter headings show something of the scope and
value of this.



Why This Book Was Written,
The Emancipation of Women,
The Functions of Foods,
Food Products,
Selection of Foods,
Raw Foods,
Preparation of Foods,
Preparation of Uncooked Wood,
Effects of Cooking Food,
Tables Giving Nutritive Values, etc.
Food Combinations,
Economy and Simplicity,
As a Remedy.


How to Begin the Use of Uncooked Foods.
   Recipes for--
Salads (35 kinds),
Eggs, Meat and Vegetables,
Bread, Crackers and Cakes,
Fruits and Fruit Dishes,
Evaporated Fruits,
Jellies and Ices,

It is the most important work on the food question ever published. Bound
in cloth. Price, $1.00; with a year's subscription to Health-Culture,


Including Diet, Exercise, Baths, Exercise, Massotherapy, Etc.


This is a practical handbook and guide for the home treatment of the
sick without the use of drugs, with suggestions for the avoidance of
disease and the retaining of health and strength. A book for those who
would get well and keep well.


Introduction.--What the Body Is. Cell
Life and Its Construction. Circulation
of the Blood and What
It Is. What Exercise Does.

Massage. Principles and Practice.
How It Acts as a Remedy.

Massotherapy. Showing How It Is

Special Exercises. Including Those for
Development and Remedial

Tissue Building. Special Diet, with

Obesity. Its Cause and Treatment
Instructions for General Reduction.

Indigestion. Causes of Dyspepsia.
What to Do to Secure Good

Constipation. Its Causes. Treatment
by Hygienic Measures.

Rheumatism. Muscular and Articular.

Gout. Causes. Symptoms. General
and Local Treatment.

Neuralgia. Causes and Symptoms.
The Only Rational Treatment.

Sprains and Synovitis. Symptoms.

Varicose Veins and Swollen Glands.
The Cause and Treatment.

Baldness. Treatment for Restoring
the Hair.

Lung Disorders. How to Improve
Breathing. The Prevention and
Treatment of Consumption.

Round Shoulders and Protruding Collar
Bones. How to Overcome Them,
with Special Exercises.

How to Strengthen the Back. The
Cause of Spinal Weakness.

How to Strengthen the Trunk. The
Importance of Strong Bodily

A Chair as a Gymnasium. How to
Use a Bedroom Chair as a
Complete Gymnasium Apparatus.

The Hygiene of the Skin. Nerves of
the Skin. Sun Baths.

Modern Nervousness. The Best Treatment.

Smallpox. Its Nature. Prevention.
Treatment of Smallpox.

Sunstroke. Causation and Treatment.
How to Avoid It. What to Do
When Prostrated.

In this work the author sets forth the methods he has pursued and found
be practical and successful. Over 300 pages and 200 Illustrations. Price


Dodds, M. D.

A large 12mo. volume bound in extra cloth, price, $1.50

The time has come when parents must consider the responsibilities that
rest upon them in relation to their children and make a study of
Eugenics. This cannot be avoided or shirked and especially should
prospective mothers study the subject in all its bearing, and know what
you should do and what you should not do to insure the best possible for
your unborn child. What conditions will promote the best for health, and
afford the highest degree of intellectual and moral development. What
limit you shall place upon the number of children. Race Suicide is not
so serious a question as Race Culture, which may be easily attained by
giving proper attention to the subject.

The author of "RACE CULTURE" has made a most careful study of the whole
subject, starting from the foundation, taking up pre-natal culture in
all its bearings, including the marriage relations and the father's
responsibilities. Considering the health and the well-being of the
prospective mother and her diseases. How childbearing may be made easy,
the first care of and the feeding of the babe, all the diseases of
infancy and childhood and their treatment without the use of drugs.

The avoidable causes of disease in children and adults are fully
considered and a voluminous appendix treats of the use of water,
massage, exercise, food and drinks, and how to prepare them as remedial

It is safe to say that no greater or more important work on this subject
has ever been written.

Every woman and especially every prospective mother should read it. Its
cost is as nothing compared to its value. Price, $1.50 by mail.

The Food Value of Meat

Flesh Food Not Essential to Mental or Physical Vigor.

By W. R. C. LATSON, M. D.,

The most valuable work on Practical Dietetics that has been published.
The Food Question is considered in its relation to health, strength and
long life. Some idea of the scope may be seen from the following


INTRODUCTION. Importance of the Subject. Influence of Foods on the
Health and Morality of the Community. The Most Important Question of
Dietetics. Classes of Foods. Description of Proteids. The Starches.
Conversion of Starches into Sugars. Fruit Sugar. The Fats. Salts. Effect
of Cooking Upon Foods.

DIGESTION. Definition of the Process. Saliva. The Ptyalin. Effect of
Eating Sugar with Starchy Foods. Gastric Digestion. The Stomach; The
Gastric Juice; Peptones; Digestion In the Intestines; Importance of
Digestion; Tabular Statement of the Digestive Process.

COMPOSITION OF FOODS. The Four Elements of Food; Proper Proportion of
Each Element; Selection of Balanced Foods; Table of Food Analyses; Value
of Cooked Vegetables; The Reason Why Many Vegetarians Fail; Fresh
Fruits; Pure Water; The Grains; The Legumes; Nuts.

FOOD VALUES OF FLESH MEATS. The Question at Issue; Biological Data, What
They Indicate; The Intestinal Tract; The Food Value of Meat; Poisons;
Disease Infection; The Strongest Argument Against the Use of Flesh Meat;
Vigorous Vegetarians; Intellectual Vegetarians; Vegetarianism and Vigor.

COMBINATIONS OF FOODS. Principles; Cooked and Uncooked Foods; Model
Menus; Breakfast; Luncheon; Dinner; Advantages of Vegetable Foods.

Price by Mail, in Paper. 25c, Cloth Binding, 50c.


Causes, Symptoms, and Hygienic Treatment, by the use of Water,
Massotherapy, and other Rational Methods.

By W. R. LATSON, M. D.

Among the diseases considered may be mentioned Indigestion,
Constipation, Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Lung Troubles, Gout, Nervousness
and other minor complaints. The work contains nearly 300 pages,
profusely illustrated. Bound in Cloth. Price, $1.00. Sent by mail on
receipt of price.

The Up-to-date Woman

needs to know something more than simply How to Cook and follow recipes
brought to her attention in Cook Books


What are the Best Foods for her family.
What Foods will keep all Well and Strong.
What is best for the Children.
What do the Men Need.
What Foods are Economical and Nutritious.
What are best Food Combinations.
How often is Meat Necessary.
What are the Best Meat Substitutes.
What is the Food Value of Fish.
What is the Food Value of Milk.
What is the Food Value of Nuts.
Are Beans Nutritious and Healthful.
Is Nut Butter better than Cow Butter.
Are Tea and Coffee Injurious.
Which Food Digests Quickly and which Slowly.
How to Get the Most Food Value for the Least Money.

All these and many other questions are answered in

Prof. Andrews Great Book

What Shall We Eat?

The Food Question from the standpoint of Health, Strength and Economy.
Indicating Best Foods for all Classes and Conditions.

This work covers every phase of the food question in a practical way.

Shows how food is digested and gives the constituent elements of all
food products, their cost, food values, time of digestion, etc.,
Comparative value of beef, mutton, pork, eggs, fish, fowl, oysters, the
grains, breads, peas, beans, milk, butter, cheese, sugar, beer, fruits,
nuts, etc., which make flesh, bone, nerve; which gives most for least
money. 25 tables showing results of nearly 1500 food analyses. Price in
leatherette binding, 50 cents, cloth 75 cents, postpaid.

If not satisfied money promptly returned. Every man should order this
for his wife, or some other woman. Send stamps.

The Enlightened Life and How to Live it

By W. R. C. LATSON, M. D.

Author of "Common Disorders," "The Attainment of Efficiency," "Food
Value of Meat," Etc.

This work contains a collection of Dr. Latson's strong editorials that
have appeared in Health-Culture, carefully revised and enlarged, with
other matter. The great interest that has been manifested in these
leaders will insure a demand for this work. The scope will be seen from
the following chapter headings:

Introduction--The Ultimate Ideal--The Mind and Its Body--What Shall a
Man Take in Exchange for His Soul?--Health as an Asset--The Waste of
Life--Health as a Factor in Business Success--The Causation of
Disease--Are Weakness and Disease Increasing?--The Detection of
Disease--The Prevention of Disease--Heredity and Disease--Disease: Its
Nature and Conquest--Methods of Healing--Drug Medication in the
Treatment of Disease--Religion and Medicine--Worry the Epidemic of the
Day--Race Suicide--"Race Suicide," Pro and Con--Simplified Living--The
Death-Dealing Detail--The Slaughter of the Innocents--Crimes Against
Children--Sleep and Rest--Mental and Physical Effects of Music--The
Common Sense of Foods and Feeding--The Mission of Pain--Drugs--The
Surgical Operation Frenzy--Vaccination; Blessing or Curse?--Free Water
Drinking as a Hygienic Measure--Evil Effects of Alcohol--The Pinnacles
of Absurdity.

Published in large, clear type, handsomely bound in cloth. Price, sent
prepaid, $1.00.

The Health Culture Magazine



Health Culture seeks the advancement of humanity by declaring the
obvious teachings of nature.

Health Culture aims to educate the people out of superstition,
misunderstanding and fear arising from the imperfect interpretation of
natural principles.

Health Culture recognizes that health and comfort, happiness and long
life are desirable and attainable by the faithful observance of hygiene.
That neglect and abuse of natural and simple living inevitably leads to
weakness, degeneracy, disease and death.

Health Culture from the scientific sense as well as on grounds of
sentiment opposes the taking of life needless to obtain food for man.

Health Culture holds that food products of the vegetable kingdom are
ample and favorable for a safe, complete and full development of the
kingdom of man.

Health Culture opposes as needless and wasteful of life those research
activities known as vivisection, also as contrary to human interest the
use of drugs, serums, vaccines and chemicals as medicines or preventives
of disease by legal compulsion.

Health Culture is an illustrated Monthly, Standard Magazine size; $1.00
a year, 15 cents a No., Canadian subscriptions $1.25, Foreign $1.50.

=Address, The Health Culture Co., Passaic, N. J.=

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