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´╗┐Title: Mission Furniture - How to Make It, Part I
Author: Windsor, H. H. (Henry Haven), 1859-1924
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Mission Furniture - How to Make It, Part I" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.







Copyrighted, 1909,

This book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being
published by the Popular Mechanics Company.

Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this
series, it is "written so you can understand it."

The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand
for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home
study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects.

The text and illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared
expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the
editor of Popular Mechanics.































A DRESSER,   100







  Suitable for Dining Room Use, 5
  Details of Chair Construction, 6
  The Completed Lamp, 9 Construction of Shade, 11
  Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand, 12
  Details of Home-Made Porch Seat, 14
  Porch Chair Finished, 16 Details of Tabouret, 18
  Tabouret as Completed, 20
  Complete Morris Chair Without Cushion, 23
  Details of a Morris Chair, 24
  Light but Strong, 27
  Details of Stand, 28
  This Picture is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described in
    This Article, 29
  Showing Dimensions of Table, 30
  Details of Table Construction, 32
  Candlestick, 35
  Details of Candlestick, 35
  Mission Chair Complete, 37
  Details of Mission Chair Construction, 39
  Completed Stand, 43
  Details of the Magazine Stand, 45
  The Completed Swing, 47
  Details of Seat, 48
  Showing Construction of Stand, 49
  Table for Outdoor Use, 50
  By Swinging the Top Back the Table is Transformed into the Elegant
    Davenport Seen on the Opposite Page, 52
  The Billiard Table as Converted into a Luxurious Davenport--A Child
    Can Make the Change in a Moment, 53
  Details Showing Dimensions of Parts, 54
  Details of Shoe Rest, 56
  Details of Tabouret Construction, 57
  The Desk Complete, 58
  Details of Tabouret Construction, 59
  The Desk Complete, 61
  Rolltop Details, 62
  Details, 64
  Detail of Pigeonholes, 66
  The Roman Chair, 67
  Details of Parts of Chair, 69
  A Complete Two-Cushion Settee, 71
  Details of a Mission Settee, 72
  Details of the Cushion, 73
  Convenient Pyrographer's Table, 74
  Storage for Apparatus, 75
  Chairs 1, 81
  Chairs 2, 83
  Chairs 3, 85
  Chairs 4, 86
  Piano Bench, 87
  Piano Bench Details, 88
  Shaving Stand Details, 90
  Shaving Stand Complete, 91
  Mirror Frame and Standards Details, 92
  Waste-Paper Basket to Match Library Table, 93
  Detail of Waste-Paper Basket, 94
  Plain-Oak Cellarette Pedestal, 97
  Detail of Cellarette Pedestal, 99
  Dresser in Quarter-Sawed Oak, 101
  Detail of the Dresser, 102
  Detail of the Mission Sideboard, 104
  Mission Sideboard in Quarter-Sawed Oak, 105
  Seat Made of Quarter-Sawed Oak, 107
  Detail of the Hall or Window Seat, 109
  Detail of the Plant Stand, 110
  Complete Plant Stand, 111
  Medicine Stand in Quarter-Sawed Oak, 113
  Detail of the Medicine Stand, 114
  Detail of the Hall Chair, 116
  Complete Hall Chair in Plain Oak, 117


[Illustration: Suitable for Dining Room Use]

[Illustration: Details of Chair Construction]

A mission chair suitable for the dining room can be made from any one of
the furniture woods to match the other articles of furniture. The
materials can be secured from the planing mill dressed and sandpapered
ready to cut the tenons and mortises. The material list can be made up
from the dimensions given in the detail drawing. The front legs or
posts, as well as the back ones, are made from 1-3/4-in. square stock,
the back ones having a slope of 2 in. from the seat to the top. All the
slats are made from 7/8-in. material and of such widths as are shown in
the detail. The three upright slats in the back are 3/4-in. material.
The detail drawing shows the side and back, the front being the same as
the back from the seat down. All joints are mortised in the posts, as
shown. The joints, however, can be made with dowels if desired. If
making dowel joints they must be clamped very tight when glued and put
together. The seat can be made from one piece of 7/8-in. material,
fitted with notches around the posts. This is then upholstered with
leather without using springs. Leather must be selected as to color to
suit the kind of wood used in making the chair. The seat can also be
made with an open center for a cane bottom by making a square of four
pieces of 7/8-in. material about 4 in. wide. These pieces are fitted
neatly to the proper size and dowelled firmly together. After the cane
is put in the opening the cane is covered over and upholstered with
leather in the same manner as with a solid bottom.


A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made
as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width
and thickness of 1-3/4 in. with a length of 13 in. Square up two pieces
of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness, but with a
length of 12 in. each. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3
in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in.

If a planing mill is near, time and patience will be saved by ordering
one piece 1-3/4 in. square and 40 in. long, two pieces 1-1/8 in. thick
and 3 in. square, all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The long
piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above.

The 13-in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. hole bored
the full length through the center. If the bit is not long enough to
reach entirely through, bore from each end, then use a red-hot iron to
finish. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used.

The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut
from the top and of the other from the under side, as shown. Shape the
under sides first. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a
vise, under sides together, and boring two holes with a 1-in. bit. The
center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. from either end and in the crack
between the pieces. The pieces can then be taken out, lines gauged on
each side of each, and the wood between the holes removed with turning
saw and scraper steel.

[Illustration: The Completed Lamp]

The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the
other; a try-square should be used to square the lines across the
pieces; however, gauge for depth, gauging both pieces from their top
surfaces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in
the sketch, using a 3/4-in. radius.

These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of
two long screws from the under side, placed to either side of the
1/2-in. hole. This hole must be continued through the pieces forming the

The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed
to 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Find
the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other
diagonal; at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. hole
in each block.

Saw the two blocks apart, sawing along a diagonal of each. Plane the
surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit.
Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws.

To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather
difficult. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted
in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades can be purchased ready to
attach. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Four small pieces of
strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of
the upright. Electric globes--two, three or four may be attached as

[Illustration: Construction of Shade]

The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the
wooden shade, if shade is purchased. Brown Flemish is obtained by first
staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of
two parts water to one part stain. When this is dry, sandpaper the
"whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark
filler. Directions will be found on the filler cans. When filler has
hardened, apply two coats of wax.

[Illustration: Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand]

The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or
brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Such shades are
frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in
them as suggested in the "layout." This piercing is done by driving the
point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts
are soldered or riveted together. If the parts are to be riveted, enough
additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. No
lap is needed when joints are soldered.

A better way, and one which will permit the use of heavier metal, is to
cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by
riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The shape of this piece can
be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing

For art-glass the metal panels are cut out, the glass is inserted from
the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of
the shade.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal, as brass, and
reinforcing and riveting with another metal, such as copper.

[Illustration: Details of Home-Made Porch Seat]


The illustration shows a very comfortable and attractive porch chair
that can be made with few tools and easily procured material. Most any
kind of wood will answer, says the American Carpenter and Builder, but
if open grained wood, such as oak or chestnut, is used, the parts should
be filled with a paste filler. If the natural color of the wood is not
desired, the wood may first be stained, the filler being colored
somewhat darker than the stain.

Procure enough lumber to make all the pieces shown in the detail drawing
and finish to the dimensions shown, being careful to make the
corresponding pieces exactly alike in order to preserve the perfect
symmetry which is necessary in work of this kind. In boring the holes
care must be taken to keep both edges of the holes sharp and clean. The
holes should each be bored until the spur shows; the bit should then be
withdrawn and the rest of the boring be done from the other side. The
semicircular notches are made by placing the two pieces edge to edge in
the vise and placing the spur of the bit in the crack. The 1-in. bit is
used. As it will be difficult to finish the boring of these blocks from
the second side, the parts remaining may be cut out with the knife after
the pieces have been separated.

Five 1/2-in. dowel rods are needed. It is possible to get these in one
long piece if you happen to live near a mill and then all you will have
to do is to saw off the desired lengths. However, if they cannot be got
easily you can make your own. Two rods each 18-1/4 in. long; two rods
each 20-1/4 in. and one rod 22-1/4 in. give the exact lengths. It is
well to cut each piece a little longer than required so that the ends
which are imperfectly formed may be cut off. These rods should fit tight
and may be fastened in addition with a small screw or nail from the
under or back side.

[Illustration: Porch Chair Finished]

The hand rests should be nailed to the arms with small nails or brads
before the arms are bolted. The illustration of the assembled chair
shows the relative position.

The bolts should be 1/4 in. and of the following lengths: 4 bolts 2-1/4
in. long; 2 bolts 2 in. long; 2 bolts 3 in. long. Washers should be
placed between adjacent pieces of wood fastened together with bolts and
also at both ends of the bolts. This will require 26 washers in all.
While the size of the chair may be varied, it will be necessary to keep
the proportions if the parts are to fold properly.


Secure from the planing mill the following pieces and have them planed
and sandpapered on two surfaces: For the top, one piece 7/8 in. thick
and 17 in. square. For the legs, four pieces 7/8 in. thick, 4-3/4 in.
wide and 18-1/2 in. long. For the lower stretchers, two pieces 7/8 in.
thick, 2-3/4 in. wide and 15-3/4 in. long. For the top stretchers, two
pieces 7/8 in. thick, 2-1/4 in. wide and 13-1/4 in. long. No stock need
be ordered for the keys, as they can be made out of the waste pieces
remaining after the legs are shaped.

Begin work on the four legs first. While both sides of each leg slope,
it will be necessary to plane a joint edge on each leg from which to lay
out the mortises, grooves and to test the ends. It will be necessary to
have a bevel square to use in marking off the slopes and for testing
them. To get the setting for the bevel square, make a full sized "lay
out" or drawing of the necessary lines in their proper relation to one
another and adjust the bevel to those lines.

From the joint edge lay out the mortises, grooves and the slopes of
sides and ends of the legs. Cut the mortises and grooves first, then
shape up the sides. Saw the sides accurately and quite close to the
lines, finishing with the steel cabinet scraper.

[Illustration: Details of Tabouret]

Next make the bottom stretchers. In laying out the cross lap joint, the
working faces are both to be up when the joint is completed, therefore
lay off one groove on the face of one piece and on the side opposite the
face on the other. In gauging for depth, however, be careful to keep the
gauge block against the working face of each piece.

In laying out the mortises for the keys, the opening on the top surface
is to be made 1/8 in. longer than on the under surface. The slope of
the key will therefore be 1/8 in. of slope to each 7/8 in. of length.
The drawing shows the mortise as 7/8 in. from the shoulders of the
tenon. This distance is the same as the thickness of the leg and to
insure the key's pulling the shoulder up against the leg firmly, should
any of the legs happen to be a little less than 7/8 in., it is well to
make the mortise slightly nearer the shoulder than 7/8 in.

It is a good plan to lay out the mortise in the tenon at the same time
the shoulders of the tenons are laid out. Otherwise the joint edge being
cut off in making the tenon there is no convenient way to locate this
mortise accurately.

Lay off the top stretchers according to the dimensions shown in the
drawing. Observe the same precautions about the cross lap joint as were
given for the lower stretchers, except that the joint edges are to be
placed up in this latter case. Make sure the grooves are laid out in the
middle before cutting. As a test, place the pieces side by side, examine
the markings, then turn one of them end for end and again examine.

The grooves into which the legs pass are 1/8 in. deep and must be very
carefully cut. Their purpose is to give rigidity to the tabouret frame.
Bore two holes in each stretcher for the screws that are to fasten the
top in place.

Make the keys, scrape all the parts and sandpaper those that were not so
treated at the mill. Use glue to fasten the tops of the legs to the top
stretchers and assemble these parts.

The top is octagonal or eight-sided. To make it, square up a piece to
16-1/2 by 16-1/2 in. Measure the diagonal, take one-half of it and
measure from each corner of the board each way along the edges to locate
the places at which to cut off the corners. Connect these points, saw
and plane the remaining four sides. There is to be a 5/8-in. bevel on
the under side of the top. Scrape and sandpaper these edges and secure
the top to the stretchers with screws.

[Illustration: Tabouret as Completed]

Much time can be saved and a better result obtained if the wood
finishing is done before the parts are put together. Especially is this
true if stain and filler are used.

A very pretty finish and one easily put on even after the parts are put
together is obtained as follows: Take a barrel and stuff up the cracks
or paste paper over them so as to make it as near airtight as possible.
In some out-of-the-way place put a dish with about 2 oz. of strong
ammonia. Set the tabouret over this dish and quickly invert the barrel
over the tabouret. Allow the fumes to act on the wood for at least 15
hours. Remove the barrel and allow the fumes to escape. Polish with
several coats of wax such as is used upon floors. Directions for waxing
will be found on the cans that contain the wax.. This produces the rich
nut-brown finish so popular in Arts and Crafts furniture and is known as
fumed oak.


The stock necessary to make a morris chair of craftsman design as shown
in the engraving can be purchased mill-planed and sandpapered on four
sides as given in the following list:

  4 posts 1-3/4 by 3 by 26 in.
  2 front and back rails 7/8 by 5-1/2 by 24 in.
  2 side rails 7/8 by 5-1/2 by 28 in.
  2 arm pieces 7/8 by 5-1/2 by 37 in.
  7 slats 3/8 by 2 by 24 in.
  2 cleats 1 by 1 by 22-1/2 in.
  2 back stiles 1 by 2-1/2 by 24-1/2 in.
  2 back rails 1 by 2 by 17 in.
  3 back slats 3/8 by 1-1/2 by 19 in.
  1 back support 3/4 by 3/4 by 24 in.
  2 support rests 1 by 1-1/2 by 8-1/2 in.
  2 dowels 1/2 in. diameter, 6 in. long.

First make and put together the sides of the chair. While the glue is
setting on these parts make and assemble the back. The front and back
rails may next be made and placed and the cleats and bottom slats
fastened. With the adjustment of the back the chair is ready for the

The posts are to be tenoned on the upper ends. These tenons are to
project 3/16 in. above the arm and should be slightly beveled. The lower
ends of the posts, likewise, all other projecting ends, should be
beveled to avoid their splintering. All sharp corners, as on the arms,
should be sandpapered just enough to take their sharpness off, so as not
to injure the hand.

That the chair may be properly inclined, the rear posts are cut 1 in.
shorter than the forward ones. To get the correct slant on the bottoms
of these posts, lay a straightedge so that its edge touches the bottom
of the front post at its front surface, but keep it 1 in. above the
bottom of the rear post. Mark with pencil along the straightedge across
both posts.

[Illustration: Complete Morris Chair Without Cushion]

[Illustration: Details of a Morris Chair]

At the rear ends of the arms are the notched pieces that allow the back
to be adjusted to different angles. These pieces may be fastened in
place either by means of roundhead screws from above or flatheads from
underneath the arms. The notches are to be cut 3/4 in. deep. If more
than three adjustments are wanted, the arms must be made correspondingly

The dimensions for the tenons on all the larger pieces will be found on
the drawing. For the back, the tenons of the cross pieces, the rails,
should be 3/8 by 1-1/4-in. For the slats, the easiest way is to not
tenon them but to "let in" the whole end, making the mortises in the
rails 3/8 by 1-1/2 in. This will necessitate cutting the sides of the
mortises very accurately, but this extra care will be more than
compensated by not having to bother with the cutting of tenons on each
end of the three back slats.

To finish the chair, put on a coat of water stain, first removing all
surplus glue and thoroughly scraping and sandpapering all the parts that
were not so treated at the mill. The color of the stain will depend upon
the finish desired, whether golden, mission, etc. Water stains cause the
grain of the wood to roughen, so it will be necessary to resandpaper the
surfaces after the stain has dried, using fine paper. Next apply a coat
of filler colored to match the stain. Directions for its application
will be found upon the cans in which the filler comes. After the filler
has hardened put on a very thin coat of shellac.

What step is taken next will depend upon what kind of a surface is
desired. Several coats of polishing wax may be put on. This is easily
done--directions will be found on the cans--and makes the most
satisfactory finish for mission and craftsman furniture. It is the
easiest to apply. Several coats of shellac or of varnish might be put on
instead of wax. Each coat of the shellac should be rubbed when
thoroughly dried with curled hair or fine steel wool or fine oiled
sandpaper. Rub the first coats of varnish with hair-cloth or curled hair
and the last coats with pulverized pumice stone and crude oil or raw
linseed oil.

Cushions for the chair can be made at home. They may be made of art
leather such as Spanish roan skin and the top and bottom parts fastened
together by lacing leather thongs through holes previously punched along
the edges of the parts. A very pretty effect is obtained by using thongs
of a different but harmonious color. The manner of lacing may be any one
of the various laces such as are used in lacing belts or as shoestrings.
These cushions may be filled with hair or cotton felt. Denim or burlap
may also be used as a covering and are much less expensive than the
leather. Lace one side and the two ends, then place filling and finish

Art leather cushions retail at from $16 to $20 a pair and the denim and
burlap at $6 to $9.

The bottom cushion should be made the full size of the chair. The front
and back rails extend a little above the slats and thus hold it in
place. The back cushion will settle down a little and therefore may be
made nearly the full length from the slats to the top of the back.


[Illustration: Light but Strong]

When making the book rack as shown in the accompanying photograph use
quarter-sawed oak if possible, as this wood is the most suitable for
finishing in the different mission stains. This piece of furniture is
very attractive and simple to construct. The upper shelf can be used
for vases or a plant of some kind, while the lower shelves afford ample
room for books and magazines.

The slats and legs are fastened to the shelves with 2-in. round-headed
brass screws. These can be purchased from any hardware store. One screw
is used at each joint of a slat and shelf which calls for 32 screws in
all. Holes should be bored into the slats and legs in which to insert
the screws. This will keep the wood from splitting. The dimensions are
given in the diagram sketch, although these may be changed to suit the
requirement of the builder. If no glue is used on the joints when
setting up, the rack can easily be taken apart and put in a small bundle
for moving.

[Illustration: Details of Stand]


The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has
been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made
of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected,
quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in
the effect produced.

[Illustration: This Picture is from a Photograph of the Mission Table
Described in This Article]

If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as
to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if
mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be
enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough."

[Illustration: Showing Dimensions of Table]

For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long.
Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also
specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends.

For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long,
with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for
the top.

For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in.
long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in.
thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side

For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8
in. thick, 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four
sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/8 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in.
long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in.
thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little
wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired.

The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the
description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of
the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side
rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on
the end. Care must be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the
post below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of
the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they
are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the
approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat
and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance
that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs
shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the

[Illustration: Details of Table Construction]

The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden,
after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails

There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or
mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails
permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface
of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be
kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats
is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of
the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the
mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size.

In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must
be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon--about 1/8 in. of play
to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this
table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move
sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf.

In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a
hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be
inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin
may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise
for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted
that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16 in. from the shoulder of the tenon
while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's
pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher.

Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and
structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep
in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface
where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise
made for it in the tenon.

The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden
buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons.

There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A
very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish
water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of two
parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with No. 00
paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark
brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can
in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an
especially smooth surface is desired, a second coat may be applied in a
similar manner.

After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put
on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two
coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for
waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull
gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result
of carefully following these directions.


There are many kinds of mission candlesticks, but few of them carry out
the mission design throughout. Herewith is illustrated a candlestick
which may be made from the various woods that will have the style and
lines of mission craft work. The base is made from 1-in. material, 4-1/2
in. square. Two holes are bored and countersunk for screws to hold the
post and handle. The post is 2-1/4 in. high, bored in one end to fit the
size of a candle. The post is covered with a 3/8-in. thick cap, 2 in.
square. This, also, is bored to fit the candle. The handle is 3/8 in.
thick and 3 in. long with a 3/8-in. square mortise and is notched to fit
the base. The wood may be selected to match any other piece of furniture
and finished in any of the mission stains.


[Illustration: Details of Candlestick]


The material necessary to make a mission chair as shown in the
accompanying illustration may be secured from a planing mill with all
four surfaces squared and sandpapered. The mill can do this work quickly
and the expense will be nothing compared with the time it takes to do
the work by hand.

The following is the stock list:

  4 legs, 2-1/2 by 2-1/2 by 32-1/2 in.
  2 bottom end rails 7/8 by 5-3/4 by 23-1/2 in.
  2 bottom side rails 7/8 by 5-3/4 by 28-1/2 in.
  2 top end rails 7/8 by 4-1/2 by 23-1/2 in.
  1 top back rail 7/8 by 4-1/2 by 28-1/2 in.
  2 cleats 7/8 by 2-1/2 by 26-1/2 in.
  7 slats 1/2 by 2 by 24 in.

This design was purposely made simple. If it is considered too severe
and the worker has had some experience in woodwork, it can easily be
modified by adding vertical slats in back and sides. These should be
made of 1/2-in. stock and their ends should be "let into" the rails by
means of mortises.

Either plain red oak or quarter-sawed white oak will do. Begin by
squaring up one end of each leg, marking and cutting them to length and
planing up the second ends so that they shall be square. Both the top
and bottom of each leg should be beveled or rounded off about 1/4 in. so
that they may not splinter or cause injury to the hand.

When all of the legs have been made of the same length, set them on end
in the positions they are to have relative to one another and mark with
pencil the approximate locations of the mortises. Next, place them on
the bench, side by side, even the ends and square sharp lines across
to indicate the ends of the mortises. The drawing shows the dimensions
to use. A sharp pencil should be used for this marking and the lines
should be carried entirely across the two faces of each piece.

[Illustration: Mission Chair Complete]

Set the gauge for the side of the mortise nearest the face edge. With
this setting, mark all the mortises, then set for the second side of the
mortise and complete the gauging.

There are two ways of cutting small mortises in common use. One is by
using a chisel of a width just equal to that of the mortise. The other
is by using a smaller chisel after the mortise has first been bored with
the brace and bit. In the first method the cutting is begun at the
middle of the mortise where a V-shaped opening is made the full depth of
the mortise that is to be. Continuing from the middle, vertical cuts are
taken first toward one end and then toward the other. The chips are
pried out as the cutting proceeds. In making the last cut this prying
must be omitted, otherwise the edge of the mortise would be ruined. It
will be necessary to stand so as to look along the opening in order to
get the sides plumb.

This method of cutting, when once the "knack" has been attained, will be
found much easier, quicker and more accurate for small openings, such as
these, than the usual method. The second method, which is the usual one,
needs no description.

[Illustration: Details of Mission Chair Construction]

The rails should next have the tenons cut on their ends. It may not be
out of place to remind the amateur that the lengths of the various like
pieces can best be laid off by placing them on the bench, measuring off
the proper distances on one of them and then with try-square marking
across the edges of all of them at once. This not only saves time in
that but one set of measurements need be made, but it insures all the
pieces being similarly laid off. In measuring off for the shoulders of
the tenons, begin at the middle of the length of the rail and measure
half of the distance each way. By doing so, if there are any slight
differences in the lengths of the pieces this difference will be divided
between the two tenons and no harm will be done.

In gauging the tenons take the precaution to mark a working face and
joint edge, even if all the surfaces were finish-planed at the mill. It
is very important that all tenon gauging be done from these faces. The
same is true of the legs or posts, and the slats if there are to be any.

To avoid confusion it is well to number each tenon by means of the
chisel with a Roman numeral and its corresponding mortise with the same.
This will prevent the fitting of one tenon into more than one mortise.

Put the parts together with warm glue if it can be had, otherwise use
the prepared cold glue. In cold weather the wood ought to be warmed
before the glue is applied. Put the ends of the chair together first.
When the glue has set on these put the other rails in place.

When clamping up the second set of rails make sure the frame of the
chair is square. The best way to test for squareness is to measure the
diagonals with a stick. Spring the frame until they measure alike, using
a brace to hold the frame in position until the glue can harden.

Before staining, scrape off any surplus glue, for stain will not adhere
to glue and a white spot will be the result of failing to remove it.
Fasten cleats to the front and back rails with screws. To these cleats
fasten the slats as shown in the drawing. A cushion of Spanish leather,
such as is shown in the photograph, can be bought at the furniture store
or the upholsterer's. It can be made by the amateur quite easily,
however. The two parts are fastened together with leather thongs and the
filling is of hair or elastic felt. A cushion for the back might well be

To finish the wood to match a brown leather proceed as follows: With a
cloth or brush, stain the wood with brown Flemish water stain diluted by
the addition of four parts of water. When this has dried, sandpaper
smooth, using No. 00 paper held on the tips of the fingers. Apply a dark
brown filler. When this has flatted, i.e., when the gloss has
disappeared, which will be in the course of ten or fifteen minutes, wipe
off clean with excelsior and then with waste or a cloth. Allow this to
dry over night, then apply two or three coats of wax. Polish each coat
with a flannel cloth by briskly rubbing it.

A settle can be made after this design by using longer front and back
rails. Rails 42 in. between shoulders will make a good length for a


For the magazine stand shown herewith there will be needed the following

  1 top, 7/8 in. by 15-1/2 in. by 16-1/2 in.
  1 shelf, 7/8 in. by 11-1/2 in. by 12-1/2 in.
  1 shelf, 7/8 in. by 12-1/2 in. by 14-3/4 in.
  1 shelf, 7/8 in. by 13-1/2 in. by 16-1/2 in.
  2 sides, 7/8 in. by 14-1/2 in. by 33-1/2 in.
  1 brace, 7/8 in. by 3-1/4 in. by 17 in.
  1 brace, 7/8 in. by 2-1/2 in. by 11-1/2 in.
  6 braces, 7/8 in. by 2 in. by 2 in.

Order these pieces mill-planed on two surfaces to the thickness
specified above and also sandpapered. Quarter-sawed white oak makes the
best appearance of all the woods that are comparatively easy to obtain.
Plain sawed red or white oak will look well but are more liable to warp
than the quarter-sawed. This is quite an element in pieces as wide as

Begin work on the sides first. Plane a joint edge on each and from this
work the two ends. The ends will be square to the joint edge but beveled
to the working face. A bevel square will be needed for testing these
beveled ends.

To set the bevel make a drawing, full size or nearly so, of the front
view and place the bevel on the drawing, adjusting its sides to the
angle wanted. Work from a center line in laying off the drawing.

Having planed the ends, lay off the sides. This is done by measuring
from the joint edge along the bottom 14 in., from the joint edge along
the top 1-1/2 in. and from this 11 in. Connect the points by means of a
pencil and straightedge.

[Illustration: Completed Stand]

Before cutting off the joint edges of the pieces measure off and square
lines across to indicate the locations of the shelves. Put both pieces
together and mark across both joint edges at once to insure getting both
laid off alike.

The design at the bottom can be varied to suit the fancy of the worker.
For such a design as is shown, draw on paper, full size, half of it;
fold on the center line and with scissors cut both sides of the outline
by cutting along the line just drawn. Trace around this pattern on the
wood, and saw out with compass or turning saw.

The shelves may now be made. The bevel of the ends of the shelves will
be the same as for the ends of the side pieces. The lengths may be
obtained by measuring the drawing. Remember that length is always
measured along the grain and that the end grain of the shelves must
extend from side to side in this stand. The widths may be obtained by
measuring the width of the sides at the points marked out on them for
the location of the shelf ends. It is best not to have the shelves the
full width of the sides, since the edges of the shelves are to be faced
with leather. Make each shelf 1/2 in. less than the width of the side,
at the place that the shelf is to be fastened.

The top will be squared up in the usual manner, 15 in. wide by 16 in.

These parts may now be put together. They may be fastened in any one of
a variety of ways. Round-head blued screws may be placed at regular
intervals through the sides. Finishing nails may be used and the heads
set and covered with putty stained to match the wood. Finish nails may
be placed at regular intervals and fancy headed nails used to cover the

[Illustration: Details of the Magazine Stand]

The braces should be formed and fitted but not fastened until the finish
has been applied. Thoroughly scrape and sandpaper all parts not already
so treated. Probably no other finish appeals to so many people as golden
oak. There is no fixed standard of color for golden oak. Different
manufacturers have set standards in their part of the country, but the
prevailing idea of golden oak is usually that of a rich reddish brown.

Proceed as follows: Egg shell gloss: 1.--One coat of golden oak water
stain, diluted with water if a light golden is desired. 2.--Allow time
to dry, then sandpaper lightly with fine sandpaper. This is to smooth
the grain and to bring up the high lights by removing the stain from the
wood. Use No. 00 sandpaper and hold it on the finger tips. 3.--Apply a
second coat of the stain diluted about one-half with water. This will
throw the grain into still higher relief and thus produce a still
greater contrast. Apply this coat of stain very sparingly, using a rag.
Should this stain raise the grain, again rub lightly with fine worn
sandpaper, just enough to smooth. 4.--When this has dried, put on a
light coat of thin shellac. Shellac precedes filling that it may prevent
the high lights--the solid parts of the wood--from being discolored by
the stain in the filler, and thus causing a muddy effect. The shellac
being thin does not interfere with the filler's entering the pores of
the open grain. 5.--Sand lightly with fine sandpaper. 6.--Fill with
paste filler colored to match the stain. 7.--Cover this with a coat of
orange shellac. This coat of shellac might be omitted, but another coat
of varnish must be added. 8.--Sandpaper lightly. 9.--Apply two or three
coats of varnish. 10.--Rub the first coats with hair cloth or curled
hair and then with pulverized pumice stone, crude oil or linseed oil.
Affix the braces just after filling, using brads and puttying the holes
with putty colored to match the filler. The shelves may be faced with
thin leather harmonizing with the oak, ornamental headed tacks being
used to fasten it in place.


[Illustration: The Completed Swing]

The coming of spring and summer calls forth various kinds of porch and
lawn furniture. A porch or lawn swing to accommodate two or more persons
is a thing desired by most people. The lawn swing as shown in the
picture is portable and does not need stakes to hold it to the ground.
While this swing is substantial and rigid it can be moved from place to
place on the lawn, or the chains can be fastened with heavy hooks to the
ceiling of a porch instead of using the stand. Either ropes or chains
may be used to hang the swing and should be of such length that the seat
will be about 20 in. from the ground or floor.

The drawing giving the dimensions for constructing the seat shows how
the parts are put together. The front and back apron pieces are mortised
to receive a 1-in. square tenon cut on the crosspieces that support the
slats. Each end of the apron pieces extends 4 in., and a hole is bored
at A into which the hanging ropes or chains are fastened. If ropes are
used, bore the holes to fit the rope and when the end of each rope is
put through a hole it is tied in a knot to keep from slipping out.
Chains can be fastened with eye bolts. Small carriage or stove bolts are
used to hold the slats on the framework and cross pieces. The arm rests
are fastened with wood screws.

[Illustration: Details of Seat]

The drawing for the stand gives all the dimensions for its construction.
Split the upright pieces or legs with a saw cut to the length as shown.
A bolt should be put through each piece edgewise at the end of the saw
cut, to keep the wood from splitting any farther when the ends are
spread to receive the bolts through the cross pieces at the top. The
upper ends of the ropes or chains are fastened close to and under the
bolt holding the inside forks of the uprights. This bolt can be long
enough to fasten a clevis that will hang underneath for this purpose.
The whole swing can be painted with a forest green color which is very
suitable for summer outdoor furniture.

[Illustration: Showing Construction of Stand]


[Illustration: Table for Outdoor Use]

A table for outdoor use that can be taken apart, stored or changed from
place to place may be made at small expense. Fasten cleats with screws,
as shown in Fig. 1, to the bottom of a board of suitable size. The legs
are built with a cross piece, A, Fig. 4, at the top which fits into slot
formed by the cleats, CC, and a crosspiece, B, that has two cleats, D,
making a place to receive the bottom end of the brace, E, Fig. 2. The
upper ends of the braces, EE, fit in between two pieces, F, fastened in
the middle of the board. The three pins fitting loosely in DD and F,
Fig. 2, are all that holds table together. The end view is shown in Fig.


A small size billiard table which can be converted quickly into a
davenport is made as follows: Secure clear, selected plain sawed white
oak in sizes as indicated by the drawing. Have these planed at the mill
to the widths and thicknesses specified.

The lower part should be made first. Cut the four posts to length,
chamfering the ends somewhat so that they will not splinter when in use.
Lay out and cut the mortises which are to receive the rails. The lower
rails are to be 1-1/8 in. thick and the mortises are to be laid out in
the legs so as to bring their outer surfaces almost flush with those of
the posts. The upper rails are 2-1/4 in. wide. The slats are 3/4 in.
thick. Tenons should be thoroughly pinned to the sides of the mortises
as shown in the illustration. The braces are 1-3/4 in. thick and are
fastened to place with roundhead screws and glue.

The seat may be made by putting in a solid bottom that shall rest upon
cleats fastened to the inner surfaces of the rails. The top of this
bottom should rest about 3/4 in. below the top edge of the rails. A well
filled leather cushion completes this part.

A more satisfactory result is obtained by putting in springs and
upholstering the seat. Upon this the leather cushion can be placed.

[Illustration: By Swinging the Top Back the Table is Transformed into
the Elegant Davenport Seen on the Opposite Page]

[Illustration: The Billiard Table as Converted into a Luxurious
Davenport--A Child Can Make the Change in a Moment]

The top or table is built upon and about a heavy frame of well seasoned
1-3/4-in. by 5-3/4-in. white pine. The parts to this frame are
thoroughly mortised and tenoned together. Middle stretchers, lengthwise
and crosswise, give added strength and rigidity. Upon this frame the
slate bed is leveled by planing the frame wherever necessary. Slats are
fastened to the bed by screws, the heads of which are countersunk so
that they may be covered over even with plaster of paris.

[Illustration: Details Showing Dimensions of Parts]

The top and side facings are built together, the angle being reinforced
with block and glue, as shown in detail. These facings, to which the
cushions are attached, are afterward made fast to the frame by
ornamental headed screws. The detail and photograph show the manner of
applying the under facing.

Before attaching the top and side facings, the bed cloth should be
placed over the slate and fastened. The nap of the cloth should run from
the head toward the opposite end of the table. Draw the cloth as tight
as possible, taking care that there shall be no wrinkles.

The billiard cushions can be bought ready to cover. The bumpers which
keep the top from striking the front posts can be obtained by making
proper selection from oak door bumpers carried in stock by hardware
dealers. The brass swing bars, most likely, can be obtained at the same

The upholstering on the under side of the top--the back of the
davenport--is to be built upon a stout frame made of some suitable
common wood, and the whole set in the recess formed as shown in the
detail drawing--the whole being fastened from the back before the slate
bed is put in position.

Effort should be made to select leather of a color that will harmonize
with the wood finish which is to be applied.


Very cheap but useful and attractive book shelves are shown in the
accompanying drawing. The vertical strips, A, may be 3/4 in. by 2 in.
and are screwed to four shelves, B, each cut to the shape of a quarter
circle. The screws are all countersunk and as the heads all come on the
side next to the wall, they do not show. The design might be varied
somewhat to suit the fancy of the builder, although the appearance of
the shelves constructed as shown is very pleasing, especially so if the
workmanship is good and the wood carefully stained and varnished. The
total cost of construction was less than 75 cents.




A substantial piece of mission furniture which may be used as a tabouret
or plant stand as well as a blacking case, in which there is a
receptacle for brushes, blacking and a shoe rest, is shown in the
illustration. The stock can be secured mill-planed, sandpapered and in
lengths almost ready to be assembled. The stock list consists of the
following pieces:

  4 posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 17 in.
  4 side rails, 1 by 6-1/2 by 9-1/2 in.
  2 top pieces, 1 by 8-1/4 by 16-1/2 in.
  1 bottom, 1/4 by 9-1/2 by 9-1/2 in.
  1 cleat, 1 by 1 by 18 in.

The posts and cleat are surfaced on four sides, while the other pieces
are surfaced on only two sides. The allowance of 1/2 in. on the side
rails, top and bottom, is for fitting the joints. Be sure the surfaces
of the pieces for the posts are square and the ends sawed square off,
making the posts exactly the same length when they come from the mill.

[Illustration: Details of Shoe Rest]

Square up the four side rails to 6 by 9 in. Cut one end of each post
tapering with a chisel; face and sandpaper the posts and side rails
before making the joints. The side rails are attached to the posts with
three dowels to each joint. The place for each dowel is located by
making a line exactly in the middle lengthwise on each end of each side
rail. Three lines are made to intersect this middle line, as shown in
the detail. Drive a 1/2-in. brad in each intersection allowing a small
portion of each brad to project, and cut off the heads. Gauge a line in
the middle of each post at the top where the joints are to be made and
press the end of a side rail containing the brads against the post. This
will mark the places to bore holes for the dowels. Pull out the brads
and bore holes for the dowel pins.

[Illustration: Details of Tabouret Construction]

When gluing up the side rails and posts, first put on a coat of glue on
the ends of the side rails and let it dry. This will fill up the pores
in the end grain of the wood which will make a strong joint when
finally glued together. The dowel pins are made 3/8 in. square with a
slight taper at the ends. These can be easily forced into the holes,
when the ends of the side rails are coated with glue and ready to be put
together, by clamps pressing on the outside of the posts.

The bottom is held in position with narrow strips tacked on the lower
edge of the side rails. Square up the top pieces to 8 by 16 in. and
fasten one piece to the top with cleats and screws as shown in the
drawing. The other piece is hinged to the first one with two 2-in.

The shoe rest can be made from a block of wood and covered with sheet
tin, copper or brass, or a cast-iron rest can be purchased. The rest is
fastened to the under side of the hinged top. Stain the wood any dark
color and apply a very thin coat of shellac. Put on wax and you will
have a finish that can be renewed at any time by wiping with a little
turpentine and rewaxing.


[Illustration: The Desk Complete]

The materials for this roll top desk can be purchased from a mill
dressed and sandpapered so the hardest part of the work will be
finished. The wood must be selected to suit the builder and to match
other articles of furniture. The following list of materials will be

   68 lineal ft. of 1 by 3 in. hardwood.
   65 lineal ft. of 1 by 2 in. hardwood.
    3 lineal ft. of 1/4 by 24 in. hardwood.
   45 lineal ft. of 1/4 by 10-1/2 in. hardwood.
   36 lineal ft. of 1 by 12 in. hardwood.
   35 lineal ft. of 3/8 by 9 in. soft wood.
  100 sq. ft. of 1/2 by 12 in. soft wood.
    1 piece 34 in. wide and 54 in. long hardwood.
   30 pieces 1 by 1 in. 48 in. long.


The upper and lower back panels are constructed very similar, the only
difference being in the height. The inside edge of the 3-in. pieces is
plowed with a 1/4-in. plow 3/8 in. deep exactly in the center and also
both edges of each 2-in. piece. The 16-in. pieces in the upper back
panel and the 24-in. pieces in the lower back panel must be cut 1/2 in.
longer and a 1/4-in. tongue made on each end to fit into the plowed
groove and form a mortise joint.

The upper back panel is filled in with four boards 9-1/2 in. wide and
16-1/2 in. long, while the four boards in the lower back panel are 9-1/2
in. wide and 24-1/2 in. long cut from the 1/4-in. hard wood. When the
grooves are cut properly, the joints made perfect and the boards fitted
to the right size, these two panels can be assembled and pressed
together in cabinet clamps. This will make the outside dimensions as
given in the drawing.

The end panels are made very similar to the lower back panel, the only
difference being in the width of the filling boards, which are 10-1/2
in. for the outside end panels and 10 in. for the inside panels. One end
panel and one inside panel make the sides of one pedestal. As the end
panels are 1 in. wider than the inside panels they overlap the back
panel and cover up the rough ends of the boards. A 1-in. piece 2 in.
wide is fastened at the top and bottom of each end and inside panels as
shown by the dotted lines. The lower back panel is fastened on by
turning screws through the back and into the ends of these pieces. The
bottom pieces have 2-in. notches cut out, as shown, into which to fit
two crosspieces across the bottom of the pedestal for holding the
casters. The top end panels are made as shown in the drawing, the
inside edge of the pieces being plowed out, making a groove the same
size as in the other pieces of the panels. The panel board is cut to the
proper shape from the 1/4-by 24-in. material. The length given in the
material list will be sufficient if the pointed ends are allowed to pass
each other when laying out the design.


Instead of cutting a groove for the roll top curtain, one is made by
fastening a 1/2-by 3/4-in. strip 7/8 in. down from the edge and on the
inside of the panel. A thin 1/4-by 1-3/4-in. strip is bent to form the
shape of the edge and fastened with round-headed brass screws. A 1-in.
piece is fastened at the back and a groove cut into it as shown by the
dotted line into which to slide a 1/4-in. back board. The top is a
12-in. board 54 in. long.

As both pedestals are made alike, the detail of only one is shown. The
partitions upon which the drawers slide are made up from 1-in. square
material with a 2-in. end fitted as shown. Dimensions are given for the
divisions of each drawer, but these can be changed to suit the builder.
The detail of one drawer is shown, giving the length and width, the
height being that of the top drawer. The roll top curtain is made up
from 1-in. pieces 3/4 in. thick and 48 in. long, cut in an oval shape on
the outside, tacked and glued to a piece of strong canvas on the inside.
The end piece is 2 in. wide, into which two lift holes or grooves are
cut and a lock attached in the middle of the edge. A drawer lock can be
made as shown and attached to the back panel and operated by the back
end of the roll top curtain when it is opened and closed.

The top board, which is 34 by 54 in., can be fitted with end pieces as
shown or left in one piece with the edges made rounding.

At this point in the construction of the parts they can be put together.
The sides of each pedestal are fastened together by screws passed
through the 1-in. square pieces forming the partition and into the sides
of the panels. When each pedestal is put together the lower back panel
is fastened to them with screws turned into the pieces provided as
stated in making the end panels. The top board is now adjusted with
equal edges projecting and fastened in position with finishing nails. As
the top panels cover directly over where the nails are driven, the heads
will not show. The upper back panel is fastened to the curved ends and
the whole top held to the top board with cast corner brackets that can
be purchased at any hardware store. The top should not be drawn
together too close before the 1/4-in. back board is put in the grooves
and the roll top curtain placed in position.


The detail showing the pigeon holes gives sizes for 30 openings 3 by 4
in., two book stalls at the ends, 3 in. wide, and two small drawers.
This frame is built up as shown from the 3/8-in. soft wood, and fastened
in the back part of the top with small brads.


In making this roman chair, as well as other articles of mission
furniture, the materials can be ordered from the mill with much of the
hard work completed. Order the stock to make this chair as follows:

  4 posts, 1-7/8 by 1-7/8 by 30 in.
  2 top rails, 7/8 by 2-3/4 by 20 in.
  2 bottom rails, 7/8 by 2-1/4 by 20 in.
  2 rails, 7/8 by 4 by 16 in.
  2 side rails, 7/8 by 4 by 28 in.
  1 stretcher, 7/8 by 3 by 30 in.

[Illustration: The Roman Chair]

Have all these pieces mill planed on the four sides straight and square,
also have them sandpapered on the four sides of each. Plain sawed white
or red oak finishes nicely and is easily obtained. The sizes are
specified exact as to thickness and width, but the lengths are longer
than is needed. This is to allow for cutting and fitting.

Begin by squaring one end of each post; measure the length 28 in. and,
placing all of them side by side, square a line across the four, saw,
then plane these ends square. The top and bottom side rails are treated
in a similar manner, their length being 19-1/8 in. each. These pieces
extend right through the posts projecting 5/8 in. beyond the surface.
The mortises in the posts must be cut smoothly and of exact size. Wood
pins fasten these rails and posts together. The other rails have tenons
1/2 by 3 in. shouldered on the two edges and one side. The mortise in
the post is placed central. On the ends of the chair the shouldered side
is turned in (see photograph), while on the front and back they are
turned out. Miter the ends of these tenons. These tenons are to be glued
and clamped--the ends of the chair being put together first. When this
is dry the sides are clamped. The stretcher should have its ends
shouldered on the two edges so as to make a 2-1/2-in. tenon. Allow the
tenons to extend 1-1/8 in. beyond the cross rail and cut mortises in
these tenons for the keys.

All projecting tenons, as well as the tops and bottoms of the posts,
should be chamfered about 1/8 in. For the seat, screw cleats to the
insides of the rails and place a platform of thin boards so that its top
surface is 1/2 in. below the top of the rails.

A cushion can be made, as shown in the photograph, by lacing with
leather thongs two pieces of Spanish leather cut to proper length and
width. When nearly laced fill with any of the common upholsterer's

[Illustration: Details of Parts of Chair]

For a brown stain, dissolve by boiling in 4 oz. of water, extract of
logwood the size of a walnut. Apply hot and repeat until the desired
color is obtained. Stains can be bought ready prepared, however, and are
quite satisfactory. Finish by applying several coats of wax.


This handsome piece of mission furniture is designed to be made up in
three different pieces as desired, the only changes necessary being in
the length of the one front and the two back rails. The settee can be
made into a three-cushion length by adding the length of another cushion
to the dimensions of the one front and two back rails. A companion piece
chair can be made by using suitable length rails to admit only one
cushion. The following stock list of materials ordered mill-planed and
sandpapered will be sufficient to make up the settee as illustrated. Oak
is the most suitable wood which can be finished in either mission or a
dark golden oak.

   3 rails 1 by 4 by 52-1/4 in.
   4 end rails 1 by 4 by 24-1/4 in.
   4 posts 2-1/4 in. square by 34-1/2 in.
  13 slats 1/2 by 5 by 21-1/4 in.
   2 cleats 1 in. square by 51 in.

All the rails are mortised into the posts for a depth of 5/8 in., also
the slats are mortised 5/8 in. into the rails. The material list gives
the exact dimensions for the rails and slats as they will not need to be
squared for entering the mortises, provided you are careful to get all
lengths cut to dimensions. When cutting the mortises take care to get
them square and clean. The posts have 1/2 in. extra added for squaring
up and cutting the corners sloping on the top ends.

The joints are all put together with glue. Nails can be driven into the
posts intersecting the tenons of the rails on the inside, as they will
not show and will help to make the settee more solid.

[Illustration: A Complete Two-Cushion Settee]

[Illustration: Details of a Mission Settee]

The cushions can be made with or without springs as desired. If made
without springs, 15 slats must be provided in the material list 1/2 in.
thick, 2 in. wide and 24 in. long to be placed on the cleats fastened
to the inside of each bottom rail. The two cleats are fastened one on
each inside of the front and back rails with screws. The location as to
height of these cleats will depend upon the kind of cushions used. The
parts necessary to make the cushions with springs are as follows:

   4 pieces 1 by 2-1/2 by 26 in.
   8 pieces 1 by 2-1/2 by 24 in.
   4 pieces 1 by 2-1/2 by 22 in.
  32 8-in. springs.
   2 pieces leather about 29 by 31 in.

[Illustration: Details of the Cushion]

An open box is made from two 26-in. and two 22-in. pieces, and across
the bottom are mortised and set in four 24-in. pieces to form slats on
which to set the springs. The tops of the springs are tied or anchored
with stout cords running in both directions and fastened to the inside
of the pieces forming the open box. These should be tied in such manner
as to hold each spring so it cannot slip over and come in contact with
another spring.

Roan or pebbled leather are very popular for cushions for this style of
furniture. The leather is drawn over the springs and tacked to the
outside of the open box frame. When complete the cushions are set in
loose on the cleats, which should, in this case, be placed about 1 in.
from the top of the rails.


[Illustration: Convenient Pyrographer's Table]

Any pyrographer will appreciate the construction of the table and
cabinet as illustrated. Anyone doing burnt wood work will know the
annoyance of building up a steady support for the arm to the level of
the article on which the work is to be done. The size of this table may
be made to suit the surroundings and the space of the builder. Figure 1
shows the table with a slot cut in the side support in which to place
the thumb screw of the bracket as shown on top of the table. It will be
noticed, Fig. 2, that while both drawer and cabinet are available for
storing the apparatus, they are not in the way of the operator while
sitting at his work; the drawer overhangs the knees and the cabinet is
far enough back not to interfere with sitting up close to the work. The
bracket shelf slides in the slot at the side of the table, and is
fastened to any height by the thumb screw There is also a smaller slide
bracket on the shelf to clamp irregular objects to the side of the
table. The thumb screws, hinges and drawer pulls can be purchased from
any hardware store. When the table is not in use for pyrography it can
be used for a writing table or a round top provided and attached on
which to play games. When used for this purpose the bracket, as well as
the pyrographic outfit, is stowed away in the cabinet as shown in Fig.

[Illustration: Storage for Apparatus]


What is mission oak stain? There are many on the market, with hardly two
alike in tone. The true mission oak stain may be said to show a dull
gray, the flakes showing a reddish tint, while the grain of the wood
will be almost a dead black. To produce such a stain take 1 lb. of drop
black in oil and 1/2 oz, of rose pink in oil, adding a gill of best
japan drier, thinning with three half-pints of turpentine. This will
make about 1 qt. of stain. Use these proportions for a larger quantity
of stain. Strain it through cheese cloth. Japan colors will give a
quicker drying stain than that made with oil colors, and in this case
omit the japan and add a little varnish to bind it.

One of the most popular of all the fancy oaks has been that known as
Flemish, and this in spite of its very somber color, says Wood Craft.
There are several ways of producing Flemish finish; you can fill the
wood with a paste filler strained with raw umber, and when dry apply a
stain of transparent flat raw umber, and for the darker shades of finish
use drop black with the umber. Varnish and rub down.

According to a foreign technical journal, French workmen mahoganize
various kinds of woods by the following method: The surface of the wood
to be stained is made perfectly smooth. Then it is given a coating of
dilute nitric acid which is rubbed well into the wood fiber. Then it is
stained with a mixture made by dissolving 1-1/2 oz. of dragon's blood in
a pint of alcohol, this solution being filtered, and then there is added
to it one-third of its weight of sodium carbonate. Apply this mixture
with a brush, and repeat the coats at intervals until the surface has
the appearance of polished mahogany. In case the luster should fail it
may be restored by rubbing with a little raw linseed oil. The
description of the process is meager, and hence he who would try it will
have to experiment a little.

A good cheap mission effect for oak is to mix together equal parts of
boiled linseed oil and good asphaltum varnish, and apply this to the
wood with a brush; in a minute or so you may rub off surplus with a rag,
and when dry give a coat of varnish. A gallon of this stain will cover
about 600 sq. ft.


A very good hardwood filler for oak, either for a natural or golden
effect, may be made from two parts of turpentine and one part of raw
linseed oil, with a small amount of good japan to dry in the usual time.
To this liquid add bolted gilder's whiting to form a suitable paste, it
may be made thin enough for use, if to be used at once, or into a stiff
paste for future use, when it can be thinned down for use, says
Woodworkers' Review. After applying a coat of filler, let stand until it
turns gray, which requires about 20 minutes, depending upon the amount
of japan in the filler, when it should be rubbed off with cotton waste
or whatever you use for the purpose. A filler must be rubbed well into
the wood, the surplus only being removed. The application of a coat of
burnt umber stain to the wood before filling is in order, which will
darken the wood to the proper depth if you rub off the surplus, showing
the grain and giving a golden oak effect. The filling should stand at
least a day and night before applying shellac and varnish.


In wax-finishing hardwoods, use a paste filler and shellac varnish to
get a good surface. Of course, the wax may also be rubbed into the
unfilled wood but that gives you quite a different effect from the
regular wax polish, says a correspondent of Wood Craft. With soft woods
you first apply a stain, then apply a liquid filler or shellac,
according to the quality of work to be done. The former for the cheaper
job. The usual proportion of wax and turpentine is two parts of the
former to one part of the latter, melting the wax first, then adding the
spirits of turpentine. For reviving or polishing furniture you can add
three or four times as much turpentine as wax, all these proportions to
be by weight. To produce the desired egg-shell gloss, rub vigorously
with a brush of stiff bristles or woolen rag.


Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.
This process is rather a difficult one, as it requires an airtight case,
but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a
case as the builder cares to construct.

Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box, or
any other metal receptacle of good proportions, provided it is airtight.
The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely
surround the piece; the article may be propped up with small sticks, or
suspended by a string. The chief point is to see that no part of the
wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. A
saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box, the lid or cover
closed, and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them.
Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and
farther application of the paper will stop the holes. A hole may be cut
in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in, taking care to have all the
edges closed. The process may be watched through the glass and the
article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Wood stained
in this manner should not be French polished or varnished, but waxed.

The process of waxing is simple: Cut some bees-wax into fine shreds and
place them in a small pot or jar. Pour in a little turpentine, and set
aside for half a day, giving it an occasional stir. The wax must be
thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the
preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. This can be applied to
the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush.


When putting a wax finish on oak or any open-grained wood, the wax will
often show white streaks in the pores of the wood. These streaks cannot
be removed by rubbing or brushing. Prepared black wax can be purchased,
but if you do not have any on hand, ordinary floor wax can be colored
black. Melt the floor wax in a can placed in a bucket of hot water. When
the wax has become liquid mix thoroughly into it a little drop black or
lampblack. Allow the wax to cool and harden. This wax will not streak,
but will give a smooth, glossy finish.


There are 40 distinct styles of chairs embracing the period from 3000
B.C. to 1900 A.D.--nearly 7,000 years. Of all the millions of chairs
made during the centuries, each one can be classified under one or more
of the 40 general styles shown in the chart. This chart was compiled by
the editor of Decorative Furniture. The Colonial does not appear on the
chart because it classifies under the Jacobean and other styles. A
condensed key to the chart follows:

     $Egyptian.--3000 B.C. to 500 B.C.$ Seems to have been derived
     largely from the Early Asian. It influenced Assyrian and Greek
     decorations, and was used as a motif in some French Empire
     decoration. Not used in its entirety except for lodge rooms, etc.

     $Grecian.--700 B.C. to 200 B.C.$ Influenced by Egyptian and
     Assyrian styles. It had a progressive growth through the Doric,
     Ionic and Corinthian periods. It influenced the Roman style and the
     Pompeian, and all the Renaissance styles, and all styles following
     the Renaissance, and is still the most important factor in
     decorations today.

     $Roman.--750 B.C. to 450 A.D.$ Rome took her art entirely from
     Greece, and the Roman is purely a Greek development. The Roman
     style "revived" in the Renaissance, and in this way is still a
     prominent factor in modern decoration.

     $Pompeian.--100 B.C. to 79 A.D.$ Sometimes called the Grecian-Roman
     style, which well describes its components. The style we know as
     Greek was the Greek as used in public structures. The Pompeian is
     our best idea of Greek domestic decoration. Pompeii was long
     buried, but when rediscovered it promptly influenced all European
     styles, including Louis XVI, and the various Georgian styles.

     $Byzantine.--300 A.D. to 1450 A.D.$ The "Eastern Roman" style,
     originating in the removal of the capital of the Roman Empire to
     Constantinople (then called Byzantium). It is a combination of
     Persian and Roman. It influenced the various Moorish, Sacracenic
     and other Mohammedan styles.

     $Gothic.--1100 to 1550.$ It had nothing to do with the Goths, but
     was a local European outgrowth of the Romanesque. It spread all
     over Europe, and reached its climax of development about 1550. It
     was on the Gothic construction that the Northern European and
     English Renaissance styles were grafted to form such styles as the
     Elizabethan, etc.


     $Moorish.--700 to 1600.$ The various Mohammedan styles can all be
     traced to the ancient Persian through the Byzantine. The Moorish or
     Moresque was the form taken by the Mohammedans in Spain.

     $Indian.--2000 B.C. to 1906 A.D.$ The East Indian style is almost
     composite, as expected of one with a growth of nearly 4,000 years.
     It has been influenced repeatedly by outside forces and various
     religious invasions, and has, in turn, influenced other far Eastern

     $Chinese.--3500 B.C. to 1906 A.D.$ Another of the ancient styles.
     It had a continuous growth up to 230 B.C., since when it has not
     changed much. It has influenced Western styles, as in the
     Chippendale, Queen Anne, etc.

     $Japanese.--1200 B.C. to 1906 A.D.$ A style probably springing
     originally from China, but now absolutely distinct. It has
     influenced recent art in Europe and America, especially the "New
     Art" styles.

     $Italian Gothic.--1100 to 1500.$ The Italian Gothic differs from
     the European and English Gothic in clinging more closely to the
     Romanesque-Byzantine originals.

     $Tudor.--1485 to 1558.$ The earliest entry of the Renaissance into
     England. An application of Renaissance to the Gothic foundations.
     Its growth was into the Elizabethan.

     $Italian Renaissance, Fifteenth Century.--1400 to 1500.$ The birth
     century of the Renaissance. A seeking for revival of the old Roman
     and Greek decorative and constructive forms.

     $Italian Renaissance, Sixteenth Century.--1500 to 1600.$ A period
     of greater elaboration of detail and more freedom from actual Greek
     and Roman models.

     $Italian Renaissance, Seventeenth Century.--1600 to 1700.$ The
     period of great elaboration and beginning of reckless

     $Spanish Renaissance.--1500 to 1700.$ A variation of the
     Renaissance spirit caused by the combination of three distinct
     styles--the Renaissance as known in Italy, the Gothic and the
     Moorish. In furniture the Spanish Renaissance is almost identical
     with the Flemish, which it influenced.

     $Dutch Renaissance.--1500 to 1700.$ A style influenced alternately
     by the French and the Spanish. This style and the Flemish had a
     strong influence on the English William and Mary and Queen Anne
     styles, and especially on the Jacobean.

     $German Renaissance.--1550 to 1700.$ A style introduced by Germans
     who had gone to Italy to study. It was a heavy treatment of the
     Renaissance spirit, and merged into the German Baroque about 1700.

     $Francis I.--1515 to 1549.$ The introductory period when the
     Italian Renaissance found foothold in France. It is almost purely
     Italian, and was the forerunner of the Henri II.

     $Henri II.--1549 to 1610.$ In this the French Renaissance became
     differentiated from the Italian, assuming traits that were
     specifically French and that were emphasized in the next period.

     $Louis XIII.--1616 to 1643.$ A typically French style, in which but
     few traces of its derivation from the Italian remained. It was
     followed by the Louis XIV.

     $Elizabethan.--1558 to 1603.$ A compound style containing traces of
     the Gothic, much of the Tudor, some Dutch, Flemish and a little
     Italian. Especially noted for its fine wood carving.

     $Jacobean.--1603 to 1689.$ The English period immediately following
     the Elizabethan, and in most respects quite similar. The Dutch
     influence was, however, more prominent. The Cromwellian, which is
     included in this period, was identical with it.

     $William and Mary.--1689 to 1702.$ More Dutch influences. All
     furniture lighter and better suited to domestic purposes.


     $Queen Anne.--1702 to 1714.$ Increasing Dutch influences. Jacobean
     influence finally discarded. Chinese influence largely present.

     $Louis XIV.--1643 to 1715.$ The greatest French style. An entirely
     French creation, marked by elegance and dignity. Toward the end of
     the period it softened into the early Rococo.

     $Georgian.--1714 to 1820.$ A direct outgrowth of the Queen Anne,
     tempered by the prevailing French styles. It includes Chippendale,
     Hepplewhite and Sheraton, but these three great cabinetmakers were
     sufficiently distinct from the average Georgian to be worthy
     separate classification.

     $Chippendale.--1754 to 1800.$ The greatest English cabinet style.
     Based on the Queen Anne, but drawing largely from the Rococo,
     Chinese and Gothic, he produced three distinct types, viz.: French
     Chippendale, Chinese Chippendale and Gothic Chippendale. The last
     is a negligible quantity.

     $Louis XV.--1715 to 1774.$ The Rococo period. The result of the
     efforts of French designers to enliven the Louis XIV, and to evolve
     a new style out of one that had reached its logical climax.

     $Hepplewhite.--1775 to 1800.$ Succeeded Chippendale as the popular
     English cabinetmaker. By many he is considered his superior. His
     work is notable for a charming delicacy of line and design.

     $Louis XVI.--1774 to 1793.$ The French style based on a revival of
     Greek forms, and influenced by the discovery of the ruins of

     $Sheraton.--1775 to 1800.$ A fellow cabinetmaker, working at same
     time as Hepplewhite. One of the Colonial styles (Georgian).

     $R. & J. Adam.--1762 to 1800.$ Fathers of an English classic
     revival. Much like the French Louis XVI and Empire styles in many

     $Empire.--1804 to 1814.$ The style created during the Empire of
     Napoleon I. Derived from classic Roman suggestions, with some Greek
     and Egyptian influences.

     $New Arts.--1900 to date.$ These are various worthy attempts by the
     designers of various nations to create a new style. Some of the
     results are good, and they are apt to be like the "little girl who
     had a little curl that hung in the middle of her forehead," in that
     "when they are good they are very, very good, but when they are bad
     they are horrid."





All the material used in the making of this piano bench is 1 in. thick,
excepting the two rails, which are 7/8 in. thick. The bench can be made
from any of the furniture woods, but the case may demand one made from
mahogany. If so, this wood can be purchased from a piano factory. The
following stock list of materials may be ordered from a mill, planed and

  1 top, 1 by 16 by 36-1/2 in.
  2 ends, 1 by 14 by 18 in.
  1 stretcher, 1 by 4 by 31-1/2 in.
  2 side rails, 7/8 by 4 by 29-1/2 in.
  2 keys, 1 by 1 by 3-1/2 in.
  6 cleats, 1 by 1 by 4 in.

The dimensions given, with the exception of the keys and cleats, are 1/2
in. longer than necessary for squaring up the ends.

The two rails are cut slanting from a point 1-1/2 in. from each end to
the center, making them only 3 in. wide in the middle. The rails are
"let into" the edges of the ends so the outside of the rails and end
boards will be flush. The joints are put together with glue and screws.
The cleats are fastened with screws to the inside of the rails and to
the top. The stretcher has a tenon cut on each end which fits into a
mortise cut in each end. The tenons will have sufficient length to cut
the small mortise for the key.


The kind of wood used will determine the color of the stain for the
finish. This also depends on matching other pieces of furniture.


This attractive and useful piece of mission furniture will be
appreciated by the person that does his own shaving. The shaving stand
can be made at home by a handy man in his spare time as the stock can be
ordered from a mill ready for making the joints and attaching the few
pieces of hardware. The following is a stock list of materials:

  4 posts 1-1/2 in. square by 50-1/2 in.
  4 slats 7/8 by 1 by 32-1/2 in.
  2 cross rails 1 by 1-1/2 by 15 in.
  2 end rails 1 by 1-1/2 by 13 in.
  1 top 7/8 by 16-1/2 by 19-1/2 in.
  1 bottom 7/8 by 15 by 17 in.
  2 ends 7/8 by 12-1/2 in. square.
  1 back 7/8 by 12-1/2 by 14-1/2 in.
  1 door 7/8 by 6-1/2 by 12-1/2 in.
  2 drawer ends 7/8 by 5-1/2 by 7-1/2 in.
  1 partition 7/8 by 12 by 14 in.
  1 partition 7/8 by 7 by 14 in.
  7 pieces of soft wood 1/2 by 7-1/2 by 12 in.
  2 posts 1 in. square by 10-1/2 in.
  1 bottom piece 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 18-1/2 in.
  4 mirror frame pieces 7/8 by 1-1/2 by 14-1/2 in.
  2 sticks for pins.
  2 hinges
  1 lock
  2 drawer pulls
  1 beveled glass mirror 11-1/2 by 11-1/2 in.

While this piece of furniture can be made in any kind of wood, the
novice will find that quarter-sawed oak will work up and finish better
than the other woods. The stock list given has dimensions 1/2 in. larger
in some instances for dressing and squaring where necessary.


The tenons and mortises are first cut for the crosspieces at the bottom
of the posts, and, as it is best to use dowels at the top, holes are
bored in the bottom piece and also the ends of the slats for pins. The
bottom piece is also fastened to the posts with dowels. The bottom must
have a square piece cut out from each corner almost the same size as the
posts. When setting the sides together the end board and posts can be
doweled and glued together and after drying well the posts can be
spread apart far enough to insert the bottom rail and two slats. The
rail and slats should be tried for a bit before putting on any glue,
which may save some trouble.

[Illustration: Shaving Stand Complete]

After the sides are put together, the back is put in and glued. The top
is then put on and fastened with cleats from the inside. The partitions
are put in as shown and the door fitted. Two drawers are made from the
ends and the soft wood material. The drawer ends may be supplied with
wood pulls of the same material or matched with metal the same as used
for the hinges.

[Illustration: Mirror Frame and Standards Details]

The pieces for the mirror frame must be rabbeted 1/2 in. deep to take
the glass, and the ends joined together with a miter at each corner. The
two short posts are tenoned and mortises cut in the bottom piece for
joints and these joints well glued together. The bottom piece is then
fastened to the top board of the stand. This will form the standards in
which to swing the mirror and its frame. This is done with two pins
inserted in holes bored through the standards and into the mirror frame.

After the parts are all put together, cleaned and sandpapered, the stand
is ready for the finish.


[Illustration: Waste-Paper Basket to Match Library Table]

The basket shown in the accompanying sketch is designed to be used with
a library table having slats in the ends and wooden handles on the
drawers. The finish is made to match that of the table by fuming, when
completely assembled, in a large-size size, clean garbage can, with
fumes of concentrated ammonia.

[Illustration: Detail of Waste-Paper Basket]

The following quarter-sawed white-oak stock should be procured in the
exact dimensions given. This may be had, planed and cut to lengths, from
a mill for a slight extra charge. It is advisable not to have them
sandpapered, as the very coarse sandpaper generally used, gives a bad
surface for finishing.

   4 posts, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 16-1/2 in., S-4-S.
   4 rails, 3/4 by 3 by 10-1/4 in., S-2-S.
   4 rails, 3/4 by 2 by 10-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  12 slats, 3/8 by 2-1/4 by 9-1/2 in., S-2-S.
   4 handle pieces, 1 by 1 by 2-1/2 in., S-4-S.
   2 handle pieces, 1/2 by 1/2 by 6 in., S-4-S.
   1 bottom, 3/8 by 9-1/2 by 9-1/2 in., S-2-S.

See that the posts are absolutely square cross section. Mark with a
pencil--not gauge--the chamfers on the ends of the posts and plane them

Carefully mark the tenons on the ends of all the rails with a knife and
gauge lines. Be sure that the distance from the tenon shoulder at one
end of rail to the shoulder at the other end is exactly the same on each
rail. Cut the tenons, using a backsaw and chisel.

Arrange the pieces as they are to stand in the finished basket, and
number each tenon and mortise. Mark all the mortises on the posts, being
sure to keep the distances between the top and lower rail the same on
each post. Cut each mortise to fit the correspondingly numbered tenon.
Next, mark the mortises for the slats in the rails, allowing the whole
slat to go in 1/4 in.

The handles are next in order. The pieces going into the rail should be
fastened with a round 1/2-in. tenon cut on one end and glued in place.
The crosspiece should be mortised all the way through these pieces and
held in place by a brad from the under side.

Now put the whole basket together without gluing, in order that errors,
if any, may be detected.

If everything fits perfectly, the basket is ready to be glued. For best
results hot glue should be used. First glue up two opposite sides with
the slats in place. Clamps must be used. When these have set for at
least 24 hours, the other rails and slats may be glued in place and
clamped. It is a good idea to pin the tenons in place with two 1-in.
brads driven from the inside.

The handles are then glued in place, using hand screws to hold them
until the glue sets. The bottom should rest on thin cleats, without
being nailed to them, so that it may be removed when the basket is to be
emptied of small papers, etc.

Before applying the stain, see that all glue spots are removed and all
surfaces sanded to perfect smoothness. If a fumed finish is not desired,
any good stain may be used, after which a thin coat of shellac and two
coats of wax should be applied. Allow plenty of time for drying between
the coats.


[Illustration: Plain-Oak Cellarette Pedestal]

The illustration shows a unique article for the den. It serves as a
pedestal and has one side which opens on hinges allowing the inside to
be used as a smoker's cabinet or cellarette. All the lines are straight
and the corners square, making it easy to construct. White oak will
make up best, although ash, birch or southern pine may be used with good

Stock of the following sizes should be bought, surfaced and cut to width
and length:

  2 top pieces, 7/8 by 12 by 12 in., S-2-S.
  2 base pieces, 7/8 by 14 by 14 in., S-2-S.
  2 sides, 7/8 by 8 by 35-5/8 in., S-2-S.
  1 back, 7/8 by 6-1/4 by 35-5/8 in., S-2-S.
  1 door, 7/8 by 6-1/4 by 34-3/4 in., S-2-S.
  4 blocks, 7/8 by 4 by 4 in., S-2-S.
  4 shelves, 7/8 by 6-1/4 by 6-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  4 pieces, 7/8 by 1 by 10 in., S-4-S.

Make the top and base of two pieces, glued and screwed together with the
grain crossed. This method prevents warping. To keep the end grain from
showing, a strip of 3/8-in. lumber may be put on all around as shown in
the drawing.

Have the sides, front and back squared up perfectly. The sides are to
overlap the back and to be fastened to it with round-head brass or blue
screws. To the center of the top and base attach one of the 6-1/4-in.
square pieces. Over these, fit the sides and back and fasten them with
screws or nails. The four corner blocks are now put under the base.

Two or more shelves may be set in as shown. Brass or copper hinges will
look well if a dark stain is to be used.

Around the sides and back a 1-in. strip should be fastened to the base
to give added strength.

If a dull finish is desired, apply two coats of stain and two of
prepared wax. If a polished surface is wanted, first fill the pores of
the wood with any standard filler, which can be purchased at a paint
store. After this has dried partly, rub off any surplus filler, rubbing
across the grain of the wood. When perfectly dry apply one coat of
shellac and as many coats of varnish as desired, rubbing down each coat,
except the last, with No. 00 sandpaper and pumice stone.

[Illustration: Detail of Cellarette Pedestal]


The dresser shown in the illustration was made of quarter-sawed white
oak and finished golden and waxed. The mirror is of beveled glass and
the following is the stock bill:

  1 top, 3/4 by 19-1/2 by 33 in., S-2-S.
  4 posts, 1-3/4 by 1-3/4 by 28 in., S-4-S.
  4 end rails, 3/4 by 2-1/4 by 17 in., S-2-S.
  4 stiles, 3/4 by 2-1/2 by 20 in., S-2-S.
  2 panels, 3/16 by 12 by 18 in., S-2-S.
  3 facings, 3/4 by 2-1/4 by 29 in., S-2-S.
  2 top frame pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 32 in., S-2-S.
  2 top frame pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 19 in., S-2-S.
  2 mirror supports, 1 by 2 by 33 in., S-2-S.
  1 mirror support, 3/4 by 2-1/2 by 33 in., S-2-S.
  1 drawer front, 3/4 by 7-1/4 by 28 in., S-2-S.
  1 drawer front, 3/4 by 6-1/4 by 28 in., S-2-S.
  2 drawer fronts, 3/4 by 5-1/4 by 14 in., S-2-S.
  1 partition, 3/4 by 1 by 6 in.
  2 mirror-frame pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 40 in., S-2-S.
  2 mirror-frame pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 20 in., S-2-S.

The following material list may be of common stock and not

  Mirror-backing pieces equivalent to 1/4 by 18-1/2 by 36 in., S-2-S.
  2 cleats, 3/4 by 2 by 10 in., S-4-S.
  4 drawer-support frame pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 29 in.
  7 drawer-support frame pieces, 3/4 by 2 by 15 in.
  Slides taken from scrap stock, 3/4 by 1 by 15 in.
  3 back pieces, 3/4 by 2-1/4 by 28 in., S-2-S.
  2 back pieces, 1/4 by 8 by 28 in., S-2-S.
  8 drawer sides, 1/2 by 7-1/4 by 17 in., S-2-S.
  2 drawer backs, 3/8 by 7 by 27 in., S-2-S.
  2 drawer backs, 3/8 by 7 by 13 in., S-2-S.
  2 drawer bottoms, 3/8 by 15 by 27 in., S-2-S.
  2 drawer bottoms, 3/8 by 15 by 13 in., S-2-S.

In working up the various parts proceed in the usual manner. If not
thoroughly familiar with the various tool processes involved, it will be
necessary to investigate pieces of near-by furniture and to read up some
good text dealing with the processes involved.

[Illustration: Dresser in Quarter-Sawed Oak]

The exact size of the mirror is 18 by 36 in. and the frame should be
rabbeted to correspond.

[Illustration: Detail of the Dresser]

For a finish, a coat of paste filler colored so as to give a rich
golden brown should be applied first. Allow this to harden, after
rubbing and polishing it in the usual manner, then apply a thin coat of
shellac. Sand this lightly when hard, and over this apply a coat of
orange shellac. Over the shellac put several coats of some good rubbing
wax and polish each coat well. If a striking contrast is wanted for the
medullary rays of the quartering, apply a golden-oak stain first. Sand
this lightly, then apply a second coat diluted one-half with solvent and
sand again lightly. Apply a thin coat of shellac, then, when dry, sand
lightly and apply paste, and proceed as before.


Oak is the most suitable material for making this sideboard and it
should be first-class stock, planed and cut to the dimensions given in
the following list:

  1 top, 7/8 by 22 by 48 in., S-2-S.
  1 top shelf, 7/8 by 12 by 48 in., S-2-S.
  1 bottom, 7/8 by 22 by 48 in., S-2-S.
  2 back posts, 2 by 2 by 57 in., S-4-S.
  2 front posts, 2 by 2 by 36 in., S-4-S.
  2 standards, 2 by 2 by 20 in., S-4-S.
  2 mirror rails, 7/8 by 2 by 47 in., S-2-S.
  2 mirror rails, 7/8 by 2 by 20 in., S-2-S.
  3 front and back rails, 7/8 by 3 by 46 in., S-2-S.
  4 end rails, 7/8 by 3 by 20 in., S-2-S.
  4 standard rails, 7/8 by 2 by 10 in., S-2-S.
  2 vertical pieces, 7/8 by 19-1/2 by 22 in., S-2-S.
  1 horizontal piece, 7/8 by 22 by 14-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  1 drawer front, 7/8 by 6 by 14-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  1 piece, 7/8 by 3 by 3 in.
  4 vertical door pieces, 7/8 by 2 by 17 in., S-2-S.
  4 horizontal door pieces, 7/8 by 2 by 15 in., S-2-S.
  2 drawer sides, 7/8 by 5 by 14 in., S-2-S.
  1 drawer bottom, 1/4 by 14 by 14-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  1 back panel, 1/4 by 16-1/2 by 44-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 door panels, 1/4 by 10-1/2 by 15-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  2 side panels, 1/4 by 18-1/2 by 16-1/2 in., S-2-S.

[Illustration: Detail of the Mission Sideboard]

Begin work by cutting the posts to the length indicated in the detail
drawing. The top ends are tapered with a 1/2-in. slant. These posts are
cut in pairs and it is best to stand them up in the same position they
will be in the finished sideboard, and mark the sides to be mortised
with a pencil. Also cut the grooves into which the panels are to fit.
These are to be 1/4 in. wide and a little over 1/4 in. deep.

[Illustration: Mission Sideboard in Quarter-Sawed Oak]

The rails are cut with tenon ends to match the mortises, and also have
grooves to receive the panels.

The bottom part of the back is closed with a panel and two rails, one at
the same height from the floor as the front bottom rail, and the top one
even with the under side of the top. The large panel is for the opening
thus formed.

These parts are now put together, using plenty of good hot glue, and
spreading it well on the mortises and tenon ends.

When drawing the frame together with the clamps, care must be taken to
get it square.

After the glue is hard enough to remove the clamps, the top and bottom
are put in place. The corners of the top are notched out to fit around
the posts, while the bottom is cut to fit on the inside of the rails and
is held in place by putting screws in at an angle through the bottom
into the rails. The top is also fastened in this way, except that the
screws are run through the rails into the top.

The two vertical pieces are now put in place. Drive nails through the
bottom and into these pieces. On the top end use screws driven at an
angle. Glue may be used if desired.

The doors are made to match these openings. The corners are mitered and
the backs rabbeted to receive the panels. These panels may be made in
art glass if so desired.

The horizontal piece for the drawer to rest upon is now put in place and
fastened by driving nails through the vertical pieces. The drawer is
made to fit this opening, and it should be lined with velvet to keep the
silverware in good condition.

The standards and shelves are put on as shown in the drawing. The mirror
is put in a frame, which is made to fit the back opening and has the
corners mitered and the back rabbeted to receive the mirror.

Thoroughly scrape and sandpaper all parts that are visible. The
sideboard is now ready to be finished as desired.


[Illustration: Seat Made of Quarter-Sawed Oak]

A simple design for a hall or window seat is shown in the accompanying
sketch and detail drawing. Anyone who has a few sharp tools, and is at
all handy with them, can make this useful and attractive piece of
furniture in a few spare hours. Quarter-sawed oak is the best wood to
use in its construction, as it looks best when finished and is easy to
procure. If the stock is ordered from the mill ready cut to length,
squared and sanded, much of the labor will be saved. The following is a
list of the material needed:

  4 corner posts, 1-1/2 by 1-1/2 by 28 in., S-4-S.
  2 side rails, 3/4 by 2-1/2 by 36-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 end rails, 3/4 by 4 by 14-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 side braces, 1 by 1 by 36-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 end braces, 1 by 1 by 14-1/2 in. S-4-S.
  1 seat, 1 by 16 by 35-3/4 in., S-4-S.
  2 top end braces, 3/4 by 2 by 14-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  6 slats, 3/4 by 2 by 6-1/2 in., S-4-S.

Square up the four posts and lay out the mortises according to the
drawing. To do this, lay them on a flat surface with the ends square and
mark them with a try-square. The tenons on the end and side rails are
laid out in the same manner as the posts. The end rails should be marked
and mortises cut for the upright slats as shown in the detail drawing.
Fit the end and side braces with mortise and tenon joints.

The two end frames can now be glued and clamped together and set away to
dry. Put all the parts together before gluing to see that they fit
square and tight.

The seat should be made of one piece if possible, otherwise two or more
boards will have to be glued together. The corners should be cut out to
fit around the posts. It rests on the side rails and cleats fastened to
the inner side of the end rails.

When the window seat is complete go over it carefully and scrape all the
surplus glue from about the joints, as the finish will not take where
there is any glue. Remove all rough spots with fine sandpaper, then
apply the stain best liked, which may be any one of the many mission
stains supplied by the trade for this purpose. If this window seat is
well made and finished, it will be an ornament to any home.

[Illustration: Detail of the Hall or Window Seat]


For the mission plant stand shown in the illustration secure the
following list of quarter-sawed white-oak stock, cut and finished to

  1 top, 3/4 by 15-1/2 by 15-1/2 in., S-2-S.
  4 posts, 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 by 20 in., S-4-S.
  4 rails, 3/4 by 3 by 11 in., S-2-S.
  2 rails, 3/4 by 2 by 11 in., S-2-S.
  1 shelf, 3/4 by 6 by 10 in., S-2-S.
  4 slats, 1/4 by 2 by 12-1/4 in., S-2-S.
  2 slats, 1/4 by 2 by 12-3/4 in., S-2-S.

Test all surfaces of the posts with a try-square to see that they are
square with each other. Lay out the tenons on the ends of the rails as
shown in the sketch and cut with a tenon saw and chisel. Arrange the
posts and rails as they are to stand and number each tenon and mortise.
Lay out the mortises in the legs, taking the measurements directly from
the tenon which is to fit that mortise. Cut the mortises, first having
bored to the depth with a 1/4-in. bit.

[Illustration: Detail of the Plant Stand]

The slats should now be made and mortised into the top rail 1/4 in. They
come outside of the lower rail and are held to it with two small brads,
fancy-headed tacks, or round-head screws.

In laying out the mortises for the lower rails, care must be taken to
have them set 1/8 in. farther in than the upper rails so the slats may
come outside.

Set up the stand without glue or screws to see that all pieces fit
accurately. Then glue up the sides with the slats first. After these
have set for 24 hours, fit in the other two rails and the shelf. Three
flat-head screws should be used to hold the shelf in place. These must
be placed so the slats will cover them when they are attached.

[Illustration: Complete Plant Stand]

When this work is completed it is ready for the top. A good method of
attaching the top is shown in the sketch. The screws used for fastening
should be 2-in. No. 10. Bore into the rail 1-1/2 in. with a bit 1/16 in.
larger than the head of the screw. Then bore through the rest of the way
with a bit a little larger than the shank of the screw. Thus a little
space is left for expansion and shrinkage of the top.

Scrape and sandpaper thoroughly to remove all marks or glue spots.
Finish with two coats of weathered-oak stain, followed by two coats of
black wax.


The accompanying sketch and detail drawing show a design of a bedside
stand. This is a very desirable piece of furniture and is simple and
easy to make. Quarter-sawed oak is the best wood to use in its
construction. The material should be ordered from the mill ready cut to
length, squared and sanded. The following list of material will be

  4 posts, 1-3/4 by 1-3/4 by 33 in., S-4-S.
  1 top board, 1 by 19 by 19 in., S-4-S.
  3 intermediate boards, 3/4 by 15-1/2 by 17 in., S-4-S.
  2 side boards, 3/4 by 5 by 15-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  1 back board, 3/4 by 4-1/4 by 14-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  4 side rails, 3/4 by 2 by 16 in., S-4-S.
  1 door, 3/4 by 9 by 14-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  1 back board, 3/4 by 10-1/4 by 14-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 panels, 3/8 by 9-1/2 by 15 in., S-4-S.
  6 slats, 1/4 by 1 by 8-3/4 in., S-4-S.
  1 drawer front, 3/4 by 4-1/4 by 14-1/2 in., S-4-S.
  2 sides for drawer, 1/2 by 4-1/4 by 16 in., S-4-S.
  1 back for drawer, 1/2 by 4-1/4 by 13-1/2 in., soft wood.
  1 bottom for drawer, 1/2 by 13-1/2 by 15 in., soft wood.

[Illustration: Medicine Stand in Quarter-Sawed Oak]

Start work on the four posts by rounding the top corners and shaping the
feet as shown. The four posts are identical and the mortises should be
laid out on all four at once so as to get them all alike. These should
be carefully cut with a sharp chisel. On the inner surface of each leg
cut a groove to hold the side boards of the lower compartment. Next
prepare the two wide and the four narrow crosspieces, tenoning them to
fit the mortises already cut in the legs. The lower crosspieces should
also have grooves cut in them to hold the side boards of the
compartment. The two complete sides can now be glued and clamped
together and set away to dry. While they are drying the remaining parts
of the stand can be made. The three horizontal boards are now made by
notching out the corners to fit around the legs. They are supported by
fastening small cleats to the inner surface of each crosspiece.

[Illustration: Detail of the Medicine Stand]

The two ends can now be set up and connected. Notch out the corners of
the top board and fit it in place. The top is fastened down by means of
screws set in at an angle from below. The back boards can be of soft
wood and are fastened in place in the usual manner. The door should be
of one piece if possible and should have suitable hinges and a catch.

Make and fit the drawer in place, and the stand is ready for the finish.
First scrape all the surplus glue from about the points so the stain
will not be kept from the wood. Finish smooth with fine sandpaper, then
apply stain of the color desired.


This hall chair is designed to take up as little room as possible. For
its construction the following stock will be needed:

  1 back, 7/8 by 14 by 44 in., S-2-S.
  2 sides, 7/8 by 14 by 17 in., S-2-S.
  1 seat, 7/8 by 14 by 14 in., S-2-S.
  1 stretcher, 7/8 by 6 by 16 in., S-2-S.
  1 brace, 7/8 by 5 by 11 in., S-2-S.
  1 piece, 7/8 by 7/8 by 44 in., for cleats.

These dimensions are for finished pieces, therefore 1/4 in. should be
allowed for planing if the stock cannot be secured finished.

Lay out and cut the design on the back, sides, and brace. To cut the
openings, first bore a hole near one corner to get the blade of a coping
saw through and proceed to saw to the lines. Smooth the edges after
sawing by taking a thin shaving with a sharp chisel. A file will not
leave a good surface.

Mark the tenons on the ends of the stretcher and cut them with a backsaw
and make smooth with a chisel. From the tenons mark the mortises in the
sides through which they are to pass.

[Illustration: Detail of the Hall Chair]

[Illustration: Complete Hall Chair in Plain Oak]

To cut these mortises, first bore a row of holes with a 5/8 in. bit,
boring halfway from each side so as not to split off any pieces. Now
make of scrap material the two keys and from them mark the small
mortises in the tenons.

Before putting the chair together, the cleats for holding the seat
should be fastened to the sides, back and brace. Use flat-head screws
for this purpose. Then put the sides and stretcher together, and fasten
the back to the sides with flat-head screws.

The brace should be put in next, using three round-head screws in each
end. There only remains the top, which is held by screws through the
cleats from the under side.

Stain with two coats of weathered or mission-oak stain, and then apply a
thin coat of "under-lac" or shellac and two coats of wax.


       *     *     *     *     *

Transcriber's Notes:

Table of Contents was moved to the front of the doument
Bold text in the original manuscript is indicated with "$...$"
Folio 84: "Chipppendale" changed to "Chippendale".
Folio 90: "2 drawer ends 7/8 x ? x 7-1/2" was changed to an assumed
  5-1/2 from context of the illustration.
A table of contents was added to the front of the text.
A list of illustrations was added to the front of the text.

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