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Title: How to Become Rich - A Treatise on Phrenology, Choice of Professions and Matrimony
Author: Windsor, William, 1857-
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber’s note

      Printer errors: A number of printer errors have been corrected. 
      In addition, some punctuation errors have been corrected, but
      inconsistent hyphenation has been left as in the original.

      Table of Contents: The original had a Table of Contents only
      for Part II (page 127), and it omits one of the sections.
      For the reader’s convenience, a full Table of Contents has been
      provided after the Preface.



HOW TO BECOME RICH

A Treatise on Phrenology
Choice of Professions
and
Matrimony.

by

PROF. WILLIAM WINDSOR, LL. B., PH. D.

Phrenologist and Anthropologist,

Author of "Science of Creation," "Loma, A Citizen
of Venus," Etc., Etc.



_Brain is Money; Character is Capital; Knowledge of your Resources_
_is the Secret of Success._



Third Edition Revised.

M. A. Donohue & Company
Chicago        New York

Copyright, 1898.
by
Prof. Wm. Windsor, Ll. B.
All Rights Reserved.

Made in U. S. A.



PREFACE.


The unremitting demand made by an indulgent and appreciative public for
a printed edition of the lectures delivered by me in my professional
capacity, has furnished the motive for the publication of the present
edition, comprising the three most popular lectures of my usual course,
to mixed audiences. The work has been prepared for the press hurriedly,
while under the strain of enormous professional and personal
responsibilities, and during the busiest season of a professional
practice, which already imposes the burden of fifteen hours per day of
incessant labor, which may account for any inaccuracies, typographical
or otherwise, which may appear. My lectures on Sexual and Creative
Science, delivered to the sexes separately, are now in course of
preparation, and will be given to the public in similar form as soon as
practicable.

With the hope that this publication may serve to crystallize the
doctrines I have so earnestly advocated in years past, and that they
may, in this form, reach thousands who have not been able to come under
my personal influence, in public lectures,

    I am, fraternally,
        WILLIAM WINDSOR.



[Illustration: WILLIAM WINDSOR, LL. B., Ph. D.]



Phrenology.


_LADIES AND GENTLEMEN_:--

In presenting the Science of Phrenology to you to-night, I make one
request, and hope you will grant it as a personal favor to me, that is,
that you will dismiss from your minds everything that you ever heard
about Phrenology and listen to my argument with your minds freed from
the prejudices, favorable or unfavorable, that may have been created by
other lecturers upon the subject, for this reason: There are, I regret
to say, in our country, a class of men lecturing upon Phrenology, who
have never mastered even the rudiments of the science; who have merely
learned the location and nomenclature of the organs of the brain, and
who, by flattery and cheap wit, degrade this noble science to the level
of mere "bumpology," until the average good citizen who has never
investigated the subject has come to look upon the term Phrenologist as
signifying one who goes about over the country feeling the bumps on the
heads of those who consult him, looking for hills and hollows,
depressions and ridges of the cranium, and predicating thereon a
delineation of character.

It is my happy privilege to-night to disabuse your minds of this
conception, and to present Phrenology in its true light, and I bespeak
from you the thoughtful consideration which an honest man may demand
from honest thinking men and women in the investigation of a practical
science.

I am always able to recognize in my audience, three classes of persons.
I can tell them by their phrenological appearances whenever they are
before me. The first class is composed of those who have already tested
phrenology and found it valuable, who have studied the subject and
appropriated its truths, and before whom I need not argue its utility. I
shall be able to please the members of my audience who belong to this
class, and to lead them further in the paths they have already found
pleasant and profitable. I shall unfold some new truths and add to their
store of valuable knowledge.

The second class is composed of that large number of intelligent
persons, in every community, who have not investigated this subject, who
are willing to approach it in a spirit of candor and honest inquiry,
anxious to accept anything which is reasonable and good, and equally
intent upon rejecting that which is fraudulent and evil, and I invite
the careful criticism of this class; and if, in my exposition of this
subject, I announce a single proposition which will not bear the closest
scrutiny; if I say aught which conflicts with common sense or reason,
nay, if you can find one single natural fact to militate against the
principles which I announce as fundamental to this science, I will be
obliged to the gentleman or lady who will raise the question with me,
and I will either prove my position to the satisfaction of this audience
or retire from the field forever.

[Illustration: Idiot.]

The third class, unfortunately, are always with us, but I do not expect
to convince them. They never were known to be convinced of anything. You
can easily learn to distinguish an individual of this class by the shape
of his head. Here is one I carry for illustration. He argues that the
world is flat and does not revolve on its axis once in 24 hours,
because, if it did, the water would all be spilled out of the
Mississippi river. Life is too short to argue with this class, and I can
only promise them that before I leave this platform they will be in the
same category that a fellow was once who went to a prayer-meeting
slightly intoxicated and fell asleep. Toward the close of the meeting
everybody began to get happy, and the preacher called on everybody who
wanted to go to Heaven to stand up. Everybody stood up but our
intoxicated friend, who was awakened by the uprising. Then the preacher
called on everybody who wanted to go to hell to stand up. Our friend by
this time comprehended that something was before the house and staggered
to his feet. He took one look at the preacher standing at the other end
of the church and said: "Parson, (hic) I don't know what the question,
is (hic) before the house, but you and I (hic) are in the smallest
minority that ever I saw."

So it is with you, my friends. If you don't believe in Phrenology when I
dismiss you to-night, remember that you are in the minority in this
audience, and a very small minority at that, composed of unprogressive
mossbacks and persons of small mental capacity, and if you will call at
my rooms to-morrow, I'll tell you to which of these classes you belong.

In the study of scientific topics it is well in the outset to establish
definitions. I will, therefore, commence by looking our subject squarely
in the face, and establishing a concise definition of Phrenology.

PHRENOLOGY is the science of intelligence. It is derived from two Greek
words--_Phren_ intelligence _Logos_ "discourse" or science. But before
we can properly understand this definition we must have a definition of
the term "Science," which is about as often misused as any word I know.

_Science_ is classified knowledge. The word itself in its etymology
signifies what we _know_ about a particular subject. And whenever we
learn two facts about any subject, and we differentiate and classify
those two facts, we have a science of that subject. Thus we have the
science of Astronomy, containing the classified facts that intelligent
observers have learned concerning the stars. The science of Mathematics,
a classification of knowledge concerning numbers, and the science of
Phrenology, which simply means the facts that intelligent observers have
collected concerning intelligence, classified and reduced to rules
to serve a practical purpose.

Before I leave this term "Science," I wish to draw a distinction between
a science and an art. The science is the classified knowledge; the art
is the process of turning that knowledge to practical account. The
science of Astronomy never discovered a star, the science of Arithmetic
never computed the value of a fraction. The sciences are merely icebergs
of cold, hard facts piled up in crystallized principles and rules. Art
is the warm, living application of these principles and rules to serve
the needs of mankind. The art of Astronomy, with the assistance of its
handmaiden, the art of Mathematics, astounds the world with its
achievements, and holds in one hand the balances with which it weighs
the sun, and in the other the chain with which it surveys the distance
to the Pleiades.

So with the Science and Art of Phrenology. The science is as absolute as
Mathematics. In its principles there are no fallacies. To its rules
there are absolutely no exceptions. The Art of Phrenology, on the other
hand, is estimative, and the results of its application will depend on
the graces, the gifts and the abilities of him who seeks to apply it. As
we have brilliant astronomers and poor astronomers, as we have correct
mathematicians and incorrect ones, so we may have phrenologists whose
discoveries and whose workmanship may command the admiration of the
world, those whose talents are of the order of mediocrity, and those who
blunder on all occasions.

You have had Phrenology defined to you as the Science of Intelligence,
and you naturally ask for a definition of intelligence itself.

Intelligence is the result of the radiation of magnetism from every
object in the universe. Magnetism is radiated by different bodies in
different degrees of intensity. Man is provided with seven distinct
organs of sense, which receive and interpret these radiations. The
lowest rate of vibration is received and interpreted by the sense of
gender and the next stage by the sense of touch. Above that we have the
senses of taste, hearing, sight, smell and clairvoyance. So that the
human body is in reality a magnetic musical instrument of seven octaves,
each octave constituting a separate sense and each sense subdivided into
seven degrees. The radiation of magnetism from exterior objects strikes
the human body in these different degrees of vibration and it is the
ability of the body to receive these vibrations and of the brain to
analyze them, which constitutes the intelligence of the individual. The
absence of any organ of sense or the absence of any part of the brain
needed in its analysis is accompanied by the corresponding absence or
diminution of intelligence. Reasoning therefor from these premises it
follows that by inspection of the organization of an individual and by
careful examination of his organs of sense and brain capacity we are
able to determine how much intelligence he possesses and in what
direction it will be projected.

When we study its development and its deterioration, its faculties and
their manifestation, we amass a glittering pile of brilliant facts; we
classify those facts, reduce them to rules to serve the needs of the
human race, and we have the science of Phrenology; and when we apply
those rules in the practical delineation of character, we have the Art.

In regard to Phrenology being an exact science, I have shown you that
the distinction must be drawn between the principles of the science and
the results of their estimative application. The principles of the
science are absolute. In his application of them the examiner is
hampered by the frailties and fallibilities of the human intellect, just
to the same extent that the skilled surgeon or the bright astronomer is
subject to the same drawbacks. Would any sensible man decline the
services of a skilled surgeon in the hour of need, because surgeons
differ in judgment, or, in some cases, make mistakes. Astronomy is
regarded as a wonderfully exact science because an eclipse can be
computed one hundred years in advance to the fraction of a second, yet
astronomers differ in regard to the distance of the sun from the earth
to the trifling extent of six million miles. Shall we therefore reject
astronomy?

Phrenology is not a fully-developed science. I am glad it is not. I
would regret it if a bar should be set to the acquisition of knowledge
upon this subject. As long as human intelligence advances, as long as
the race improves, as long as men have eyes to see and intellects to
comprehend scientific facts, Phrenology will advance. But when you ask
me whether Phrenology is sufficiently developed to be of practical value
to mankind in its application; when you ask me to compare its
development with that of any other science, I answer unhesitatingly that
Phrenology is the queen regnant of all sciences, of greater value to the
human race than all other sciences combined, because it is the science
of humanity itself. Greater than Astronomy because humanity is worth
more than all the stars that scintillate in the heavens. Greater than
Mathematics, because humanity is better than numbers. Greater than
Geology and Zoology, as humanity is above the rocks and animals. Greater
than Theology, because it teaches man to know himself, instead of
presumptively speculating upon gods and dogmas. Greater than all
combined because Phrenology bears upon her resplendent crown the jewels
of knowledge, virtue, morality, culture, temperance, wealth and
progress, and is pregnant with possibilities of good, beyond the present
comprehension of the human imagination.

And when you ask me if Phrenology is developed in the number of
practical facts at her command, I answer, that for every principle and
rule of Mathematics that are serviceable, I will give you two in
Phrenology. For every discovery in Geology, I will give you four in the
domain of the mind. For every fact in Zoology, Entomology or Botany that
has been of value, I will give you six in the science of humanity. Then
you may begin to comprehend the appeal which Phrenology makes to-night
to your selfish interests.

I wish now to draw a distinction between _Phrenology_ and _Physiognomy_,
because I don't believe I ever went into any community to lecture in my
life, that I did not hear some old fossil say that he believed in the
science of Physiognomy, but he didn't take much stock in Phrenology. Now
I beseech you, as friends of mine (and after I have lectured to an
audience for twenty minutes I always feel that I have so many friends in
it that I am personally interested in the welfare of each one) that if
you have ever made that remark, you will not expose your ignorance of
scientific terms in that way again. I'll excuse you for what you have
done heretofore, but if you make that remark after hearing my lectures,
I shall feel ashamed of you, just as I always feel humiliated when any
friend of mine makes a fool of himself.

PHYSIOGNOMY is the science of external appearances. The etymology of the
word signifies the knowledge of nature derived from examination or
observation. We may speak of the physiognomy of a landscape, of a
country, a state, a continent, or an individual, and by that we mean the
external appearance, that which conveys a knowledge of the character of
the object to the eye. We judge the character of the thing by its
appearances; and in the relation which Physiognomy bears to
character-reading, we judge the character of the man by the external
appearances. We study the size and form of the body, its color, its
texture, its temperament, the expression of the face and the contour of
the head, all of which are physiognomical. We draw certain conclusions
from this inspection of the physiognomical signs, and these conclusions
are phrenological, for every variation of color, form or size indicates
a corresponding variation in a particular kind or intelligence possessed
by the individual. Physiognomy, therefore, is the grand channel through
which we draw our phrenological conclusions, and in this relation
physiognomy forms a part of the grand science of Phrenology,
inseparable from it, and bearing about the same relation to it that
addition does to arithmetic.

There are those who advertise themselves as delineators of character,
under the term Physiognomists. I believe that such persons do so because
they lack the ability and learning to comprehend Phrenology, and are
unable to combat the prejudices of the ignorant. I have never seen a
so-called "Physiognomist" who was not an empirical mountebank of the
purest stamp, and who did not trim his sails to pander to the silly
sentiment which I have just exposed. The delineations of such persons
are worse than valueless, because they are pure guess-work. They pursue
a shadow while they reject the substance.

Having thus established our definitions, we may proceed to state the
principles of Phrenology. And I believe that I can best do so by taking
you through the successive steps of a phrenological examination, and by
thus practicing the art, illustrate the science.

In forming an estimate of the character of any person, the practical
phrenologist proceeds upon the following physiological postulates, which
I shall not stop to demonstrate, because they may be regarded as
established facts upon which all physiological authorities are agreed,
viz:

1. The brain is the keyboard of the body and the central seat of
intelligence.

2. The power of the brain depends upon the anatomical and physiological
condition of the body which supports it.

3. The character of any object depends upon its physical attributes,
viz: Size, weight, color, form, texture, density, etc.

In applying these postulates to a delineation of character before we
pass to an examination of the brain itself, we must notice three great
modifying conditions. Without taking these modifying conditions into
account, a correct estimate of brain-power is impossible. And it is
because these modifying conditions have been ignored by many professed
teachers of Phrenology, and but poorly expressed by others who did
recognize them, that many eminent physiologists have condemned
phrenology hastily, as having no sound basis in physiology. The
exponents of Phrenology are themselves to blame for this. They have been
too content to rest under the imputation of feeling heads for bumps.
They have not been sufficiently versed, in many instances, in
physiological science to dare to debate the ground with high
authorities. I challenge the world to bring one single natural fact to
militate against the principles here announced. I will debate the
question with any skilled medical, legal or clerical authority, and I
claim, without fear of contradiction, that the world does not hold a
head whose character will differ from that which Phrenology ascribes to
it, when the developments of the brain are measured in the light of
these modifying conditions.

When I was lecturing in Indiana in 1885, Gov. Will Cumback of that
state, propounded this question:

"Professor, what would you do if you found a man whose head, in the
light of Phrenological principles, showed a certain character, and you
found on intimate acquaintance and positive proof that he, in fact,
possessed a character radically different."

"My dear Governor," I replied, "I would wait until the sun rose in the
west, and then watch to see what you would do and follow suit. Such men
do not exist, they never have existed, and they never will exist until
the order of nature is reversed."

These three great modifying conditions which must be taken into
consideration before we estimate the brain itself, are as follows:

    1st. The State of the Health.
    2nd. The Quality of the Organization.
    3rd. The Temperament of the Constitution.

And we will consider them in the order named, therefore first,


THE STATE OF THE HEALTH.

It is a great fact in the constitution of man, that whatever affects the
body, affects the manifestations of intelligence, and conversely,
whatever affects intelligence affects the body. The body is the harp of
a thousand strings, manifesting its intelligence by different degrees
of vibration. If either the musician or his instrument is out of order,
the music will be discordant. It is not necessary for me to argue that a
man must be in perfect health to exhibit perfect mentality. But as
perfect health is the exception and not the rule, we rarely find
mentality even approximating perfection. We are obliged, in our estimate
of the character of men, to allow for various bodily infirmities, in a
word, for the eccentricities of disease. These diseases may be inherited
or acquired since birth; they may be acute or chronic in their stages;
they may be mild or malignant in type; they may produce long, continued
illness, terminating in death, or they may be only what we call a
temporary indisposition, like that of the country boy, who went to
Boston for the first time to see the sights. As he wandered around he
became hungry, and, entering a restaurant began to experiment with
strange dishes. He ate first a porterhouse steak, then some fried
oysters, then a lobster salad, a lot of pickles, ice cream, cake and
bologna sausage, drank a bottle of champagne and retired to his
lodgings, and dreamed that he was lying on Boston Common, and that the
devil was sitting on his stomach, holding Bunker Hill monument in his
lap.

If you eat an indigestible meal, you are unable to perform good
brain-work after it. If you feed the body on material that will not
nourish it, the brain refuses to work. If you are in the clutches of
disease, we cannot expect of you a high measure of brain-power; in other
words, the manifestations of the mind are weakened by the disorder of
its instrument, the body.

The phrenologist, therefore, who essays to read your character, must be
able to trace the signs of disease in your appearance. He must needs be
an expert Physiologist and Anatomist. He must understand Pathology. He
must have the diagnosing skill to detect disease and allow for it in his
estimate of your mentality, or his delineation is worth less than
nothing; nay, more, he may do you a positive damage, by advising you to
adopt a course of life which would be disastrous to your constitution.
He must be able to do all this and do it rapidly and with precision.
Never trust yourself under the hands of a professed phrenologist unless
you are confident of his skill in estimating and diagnosing your
physical condition.


QUALITY.

The second step in a phrenological examination is the determination of
the quality of the organization. Perhaps there is no branch of the
science of phrenology which has received such crude treatment at the
hands of phrenological writers as this subject of organic quality. Many
use the term interchangeably with temperament, some confound it with
temperament and hereditary disposition, others recognize it as a
distinct modifying condition; but I know of no writer, except myself,
who has yet attempted a classification of the subject, or who has dared
to recognize its importance as a modifying condition of character.

Quality is the texture of organization, and in this respect must be
regarded entirely independently of temperament. The latter is conceded
to depend upon the preponderance or relative energy of some part of the
system, anatomically or pathologically; but each of the conditions
denominated as temperaments may exist, with widely different
manifestations of the peculiar conditions we describe as quality, with a
corresponding modification of the character of the subject in each case.
Hence the necessity of a rational classification, based upon the
independent observation of these modifications of quality as a distinct
subject, in order to apply it as a distinct step in a phrenological
examination.

The trees of the forest present distinct variations of quality,
depending on the texture of the wood. The hickory is hard, the ash is
brittle, the pine is soft, etc. An examination of the texture of the
human organization will disclose variations, different, it is true, but
some times strikingly analogous, and no less important in determining
the fitness of the individual for particular purposes.

We determine quality by a critical inspection of the general contour of
the body, its relative size, the adaptation of its parts to each other,
the color and grain of the skin, the relative harmony of the features,
the relative brightness of the eyes, the color and texture of the hair,
the movements of the body, the tone of the voice, and the rapidity of
mental process. To determine quality accurately may sometimes require a
series of experiments on the individual, and the success of the examiner
will of course depend on his own acuteness of perception and judgment.

[Illustration: Jack Langrishe.--Quality Strong.]

Quality is, (1) Strong; (2) Delicate; (3) Responsive. And conversely,
(1) Weak; (2) Coarse; (3) Sluggish, and in proportion as these elements
unite to form an efficient and powerful organization, we may speak of
the quality as "high," or as we find them wanting, we may call the
quality "low."

_Strong Quality_ is exhibited by an organization harmoniously
constructed, full size, compact and firm. The limbs, trunk and head are
generally well formed, the muscles firm, the walk steady, the carriage
erect, and the movements generally graceful, but all indicating power.
The features of the face are strongly marked and prominent, the lines
well marked and the entire structure is definite and established. A hair
from the head of such an individual will be harder to break than another
from an organization of different quality. It will also be harder to
pull from the scalp. The grasp of the hand is steady and firm,
indicating muscular power. The eyesight is good and the eye steady and
clear, well formed and powerful in range of vision. If the perceptives
are large it will be penetrating. The skin is firm to the touch, though
the grain may be either fine or coarse. The entire organization is built
upon the principle of strength, but the direction in which this strength
will be applied will depend upon the temperamental conditions. With the
mental temperament well developed, a strong mind will be manifested;
with the vital and motive temperaments, strong physical and muscular
functions. The relative absence of this quality will be marked by
corresponding weakness, and although we may have a pronounced mental
temperament, the individual will exhibit but little mental strength,
and with a pronounced motive temperament he will be incapable of strong
muscular action.

_Delicate Quality_ is denoted by delicacy and refinement of
structure. It may or may not be co-existent with strength.

The strands of silk thread are fine and delicate, but also very strong.
Other substances are refined and delicate, but possess little of the
element of strength.

Delicate quality in the human organization is accompanied by
corresponding manifestations. The texture of the skin is close grained,
delicate and soft. The hair is fine; the eye is clear and bright, the
features smooth and very harmonious. The mental processes are brilliant,
facile, rapid; their depth and power, however, depending upon the
combination of the element of strength with delicacy. Persons possessing
delicate quality are very acute.

Such persons are able to appreciate nice shades of thought and to
cultivate the graces in an eminent degree. They are adapted to pursuits
requiring delicacy of the senses and acute perception, such as music,
painting, manufacturing of delicate articles, etc. In literature they
display refined taste, and the head is symmetrical and generally well
developed. Those who are low in delicacy lack refinement and grace and
should carefully cultivate these qualities.

The relative absence of this element entirely or proportionately unfits
the individual for these mental processes requiring delicacy and
acuteness. He may possess a well-balanced organization as to temperament
and cerebral development, but without the element of delicate quality he
will be utterly incapable of those mental processes requiring delicate
shades of thought.

[Illustration: Sol Smith Russell--Quality Responsive.]

The individual who unites the elements of strong and delicate quality
will exhibit both power and fineness. He will be able to display more
versatility of talent than the individual possessing the element of
strength or delicacy alone. Those persons who have displayed great
intelligence coupled with brilliancy, have uniformly united both
of these elements.

The element of _Responsiveness_ depends upon a certain sensitiveness of
texture, resembling the resonance of a well tuned musical instrument,
and a certain harmonious adjustment of parts which renders the
individual capable of receiving a mental impression promptly and
responding to its action. Persons possessing this quality have such
delicate sympathy of the entire organization that the mental processes
are exceedingly rapid, and the physical manifestations are equally
prompt. The movements of the body are quick, the brain is active, the
eye bright, intelligent and keen sighted, the expression of the face
vivacious, the voice musical, the speech rapid, and the individual often
anticipates the thought of those with whom he converses; if you hesitate
on a word he will instantly supply it. Such persons are keenly sensitive
to surrounding circumstances, easily impressed, and the entire
organization seems to vibrate in unison with the impressions made upon
it. It is not uncommon to find this condition mistaken by observers for
the nervous temperament of the pathological classification. The true
distinction lies in the fact that the latter is a diseased condition,
resulting in a super-sensitiveness of the nervous system, while
responsive quality exists in perfect health, and is a perfectly normal
condition of a character frequently resulting in great advantage to the
individual, and absolutely essential in many vocations. It is
indispensable to the musician, the artist, the poet, etc., and I depend
upon it in estimating the capacity of my subjects for various
professions and trades, especially those involving the fine arts,
literature, and many of the departments of merchandising.

[Illustration: Mme. Janauschek. Quality Strong and Responsive.]

The absence of this responsive element is marked by a general
sluggishness of all the mental and physical processes. The movements of
the body are slow, and the brain, while it may be capable of strong
thought, is correspondingly slow in action. The individual does not
yield readily to the strongest impressions, and his conversation will be
slow, frequently tedious. Such individuals are incapable of doing
anything in a hurry, and when urged by others frequently become
confused. Left to their own methods, with plenty of time, they are
frequently capable of displaying great strength and delicacy of quality,
both in physical and mental manifestations.

The intelligent reader will readily comprehend that the best
organization is that in which the elements of strength, delicacy and
responsiveness are harmoniously blended.

The relative predominance of each element will in all cases decide
the particular class of purposes, vocations, professions or other
pursuits to which the subject is best adapted, other things being equal.
Quality results from a variety of causes. Like all other personal
peculiarities, it is, to a certain extent, hereditary. Children are, to
a greater or less extent, certain to inherit the quality of their
parents and immediate ancestors. But the inherited quality of offspring
is subject to great modifications. It is definitely established that the
temporary condition of mind and body of the parents at the moment of
conception, materially affects the permanent quality of the offspring.
Thus it is possible for parents to transmit to children a much better or
much worse permanent condition of quality than they themselves possess.
Observation also justifies the belief that children born of loving and
affectionate parents surpass in quality those born of incompatible
natures. The occupation and surroundings of the parents at the time of
conception, and particularly the influences brought to bear upon the
mother while the offspring is _in utero_, produce a lasting effect upon
the quality of the latter. Science has long since demonstrated the fact
that every part of the human organization is susceptible to educational
development. Quality, like every other modifying condition, is
susceptible to development in either direction, and the success
attending an effort to develop either strength, delicacy or
responsiveness of quality in any given individual, will in all cases be
commensurate with the intelligence and vigor of the efforts expended to
that end.

The study of quality being thus understood, I introduce you now to the
most beautiful study in the curriculum of human science, the third step
in the phrenological estimate of character, viz.:


TEMPERAMENT.

By the term Temperament, is meant the preponderance in development of
some element or system of organs in the body, to such an extent as to
give to the character a distinctive recognizable type, a temper or
disposition resulting from the predominance of some one element in the
character which modifies and gives tone to all the rest, resulting from
its superior development. As a matter of fact, there are as many
different temperaments as there are individuals, no two individuals
having the same constitution; but science classifies them under
distinctive heads, as their developments are approximately the same, or
as their developments are in the same general direction, regardless of
exact degrees.


ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TEMPERAMENTS.

THE ELECTRIC TEMPERAMENT exists when electricity dominates over
magnetism in the organization. Its characteristics are Gravity,
Receptivity, Darkness, and Coldness. This temperament was formerly
called the Bilious or Brunette Temperament. It is distinguished by dark,
hard, dry skin, dark, strong hair, dark eyes, olive complexion, and
usually by a long, athletic form of body. It is remarkable for
concentrativeness of design and affections, strong gravity, drawing
power and cohesiveness, strong will, resolution, dignity, serious
disposition and expression; moderate circulation and coolness of
temperature. It is produced by a dry, hot climate, common in southern
latitudes and almost universal in tropical natives. Persons of this
temperament are better adapted to hot climates because electricity
dominates over magnetism, and they do not antagonize the climate by the
radiation of magnetism, but rather thrive on the magnetism which they
absorb. This temperament is closely analogous to the condition of
tropical animals and birds.

THE MAGNETIC TEMPERAMENT exists when magnetism dominates over
electricity in the organization. Its characteristics are Vibration,
Radiation, Heat, and Light. This temperament was formerly called the
Sanguine or Blonde Temperament. It is distinguished by a light colored,
warm, moist skin, light colored or red hair, fresh ruddy or florid
complexion, light colored or blue eyes, rounded form of body, often
plump or corpulent, large chest, square shoulders, indicating a very
active heart and vital organs. It is remarkable for versatility of
character, jovial disposition, fond of good living and great variety,
changeableness, activity, and vivaciousness. The temperature of the body
is warm and the circulation very strong. This temperament vibrates
between great extremes of disposition, develops great force of radiation
and driving power, and is universally characterized by warmth,
enthusiasm, and high color. It is produced by the climates of northern
and temperate latitudes, and is almost universal in the natives of
extreme northern countries. Persons of this temperament are better
adapted to cold climates, because magnetism dominates over electricity,
consequently they produce more animal heat, and are better able to
endure the rigors of a cold climate. The same general conditions are
found to exist in birds and animals inhabiting northern latitudes.


ANATOMICAL TEMPERAMENTS.

The Temperaments are also classed anatomically as:

MOTIVE, where the bones are large and strong and the muscular
development is stronger than the nutritive or mental system. Persons of
this temperament are active, energetic, and best adapted to out-door
pursuits and vigorous employment.

VITAL, in which the nutritive or vital system is most active, large
lungs, stomach and blood vessels, and corpulent and plump figure.
Persons possessing temperament are inclined to sedentary occupations,
and if the brain is large and of good quality, are able to do an immense
amount of mental labor without breaking down. They should take
systematic exercise and avoid fats and stimulating foods and drinks to
obtain the best results.

MENTAL, in which the brain and nerves are most active. The body is not
adapted to hard muscular labor, and there is not enough vitality of
nutritive power to nourish the brain in the heavy demands made upon it.
Such persons incline to mental effort and literary work, and for a time
display great brilliancy, but sooner or later collapse, unless this
condition is corrected, by regular hours, plenty of sleep, the absence
of stimulants and the cultivation of muscular and vital force. This
temperament is distinguished by a relatively large head and small body,
pyriform face, high, wide forehead, and usually sharp features.


CHEMICAL TEMPERAMENTS.

There are three principal fluids which circulate through the body, viz.,
arterial blood, venous blood, and lymph. As the blood passes out
from the heart through the arteries it is strongly charged with
magnetism and is very strongly acid in quality. As it returns to the
heart through the veins it has expended its magnetism and its acidity
has been very much neutralized. The lymph is an alkali fluid, and it
circulates through the lymphatic vessels as a reserve force of vital
food. The predominance of either of these fluids in the constitution
greatly modifies the character and gives rise to the classification of
the chemical temperaments. As every cell in the body comes in contact
with an acid and an alkali fluid, we may, by estimating the relative
quantities of each fluid, arrive at a very accurate judgment of the
chemical condition of the body, and these elements are also valuable in
estimating the amount of magnetism that will be produced by the
organization through chemical action, as every cell by its contact with
these fluids is constituted a magnetic battery.

THE ACID TEMPERAMENT exists where arterial blood predominates. It is
distinguished by convexity of features and sharpness of angles. The face
is usually round in general outline and convex in profile, the forehead
prominent at the eyebrows and retreating as it rises, the nose Roman,
the mouth prominent, the teeth convex in form and arrangement and sharp,
the chin round and sometimes retreating. The body is angular and
generally convex in outline, with sharpness at all angles. This
temperament is usually accompanied with great activity of mind and
vivaciousness of disposition, and sometimes develops great energy and
asperity. It is very likely to exhaust itself prematurely.

THE ALKALI TEMPERAMENT exists where lymph is in excess over arterial
blood. It is distinguished by concavity of features and obliquity of
angles, or rather the absence of angles. The face is usually broad in
general outline, and concave in profile, the forehead prominent and wide
at the upper part, and medium in development at the eyebrows, the nose
concave, the mouth retreating, the teeth flat in form and arrangement,
the chin concave and prominent at the point. The body is round and
inclined to corpulency, without angles. This temperament is usually well
stocked with vitality, but unless actively employed is likely to become
dull and overloaded with adipose tissue and lymph.

From the foregoing observations it is evident that the temperaments
combine in each individual according to whichever temperament is found
to predominate in these three divisions. Thus one man will have an
electric-motive-acid temperament, another a magnetic-mental-acid
temperament, another a magnetic-vital-alkali, and so on through all the
combinations which can be made from the seven elementary temperaments.
This blending when finally estimated constitutes the temperament of the
individual. The ideal condition would, of course, be a perfect
equilibrium of the elements of each division, in which case the
individual would be said to have a perfectly balanced temperament.

ELECTRICITY is the genitive passion of Space. It is manifested by the
states of gravity, receptivity, coldness, and darkness.

MAGNETISM is the genitive passion of Matter. It is manifested by the
states of vibration, radiation, heat, and light.

The eternal affinities which exist between these conditions produce all
the phenomena of _Growth_.

GROWTH is the change which takes place in a structure in obedience to
the law of conformity to the changes which take place in its
environment.

Man is the most complex organism known to this planet. He stands at the
end of a long line of development, extending from the simplest form of
mineral, through the vegetable and animal kingdoms, to his own position
in the cosmos, and embracing and including in his own structure a
representation of every form below him. But when this exceedingly
complex structure is analyzed it is found to consist wholly of
combinations of the simpler forms which existed before him.

In the light of a rational philosophy, therefore, we are forced to
consider man as a creature of growth and subject to exactly the same
natural laws as the objects which surround him. Any attempt to regard
him as an exception results in the calamities which must always attend
presumption and ignorance.

The well balanced temperament, the _temperamentum temperatum_, of the
ancients is an ideal condition in which there is in fact no temperament,
all the organs of the body being perfectly in harmony, and exhibiting no
preponderance of one over the other. Many persons approximate this
condition, but it is difficult to find one in which it is so nearly
attained as to make the proper classification of his temperament under
the above heads a difficult matter. However desirable such a condition
may be from a purely physiological standpoint, the fact remains that all
great and powerful natures, the men who have been the leaders in the
battles of literature, art, science and war itself, have had well
defined and pronounced temperamental conditions of organization.

We have now fully demonstrated that in his scientific delineation of
character the professional phrenologist depends upon something more than
mere configuration of skull. The great modifying conditions of health,
quality and temperament in every case give us the foundation of the
character. It will be seen, some medical authorities to the contrary,
notwithstanding, that the science of Phrenology has a firm basis on the
established principles and known facts of Physiology and Anatomy.
Bearing these facts in mind we will now proceed to the discussion of the
scientific principles governing the phrenological examination of

SIZE AND CONFIGURATION OF BRAIN, or the theory of the localization in
different organs of the brain of the corresponding faculties of the
mind.

THE BRAIN is the key-board of the body. It is an error to claim that it
is the exclusive organ of intelligence. The brain performs substantially
the same function for the body which the key-board does for the piano,
or which the central office of the telephone system performs for its
various subscribers.

Magnetism received from the exterior of the body is transmitted to the
brain where it produces a result. This result in turn is transmitted to
various portions of the body. Properly, therefore, intelligence is
distributed over the entire body and the amount of intelligence which
any individual possesses will be found to be in exact proportion to the
size and quality of his body and the perfect adaptation, coöperation and
adjustment of its parts.

The brain is an oval mass of soft tissue which completely fills the
internal cavity of the skull. It is composed of two substances, a white
fibrous substance which forms the internal portion and a gray, cortical
tissue which forms the external layer. This gray substance lies in folds
or convolutions, the furrows or sulci, dipping deeply into the interior
of the brain.

[Illustration: Brain with Skull Removed.]

It is found by dissection that the brain of an intellectual man exhibits
a larger number of convolutions than one of small intellectual calibre,
and that the convolutions are deeper and the layer of gray substance
thicker, and in consequence of the increase in number and depth of
convolutions there is a wider expanse of surface as well, for the
distribution of gray matter. Hence the relative proportion of gray
matter in different brains has come to be regarded by physiologists as a
test of mental power. Many idiots have large and well formed brains but
the convolutions are shallow and few and the gray matter small in
quantity and extent of surface. Physicians often ask me how I can
estimate the relative quantity of gray matter in a living head without
cutting into it. I refer them to the study of quality and temperament
which I have clearly expounded in this lecture. Do you ever find hickory
leaves growing on a pine tree? Show me the bark of a tree and I'll tell
you the quality of the wood within; show me the skin, the hair, the eyes
of a man and I'll tell you the quality of every organ in his body as
well as the quality of the brain. I recently astonished the
superintendent of an insane asylum by pointing out to him that the
quality of the hair, the eyes and the skin of idiots was essentially
different from the quality of those of more highly endowed persons, and
could be told in the dark by a person of educated sensibilities. The
quality and texture of the brain being determined, the next step is the
consideration of its size.

Other things being equal in all natural objects, size is the measure of
power. By the term "other things" in relation to the brain, we mean
temperament, quality and health. This simple principle explains why a
great many people who carry large heads are endowed with but little
intellectual power. Their heads are filled with "sawdust," in other
words, a brain of poor quality, supported by a feeble body, or vitiated
by excessive temperamental conditions.

Men who carry small and misshapen heads are often brilliant in certain
directions, and this limited brilliancy in special lines causes them to
be spoken of by superficial observers as men of great ability and
apparent exceptions to the phrenological rule. The fact remains,
however, that in no case is comprehensive greatness ever exhibited in a
head of small dimensions.

[Illustration: Small Head. Brilliant in Observation, Deficient in
Reflection.]

Large size of brain, accompanied with robust health, high quality and
good temperamental conditions, gives the highest phase of powerful
mentality and comprehensive greatness. Small size of brain, with poor
health, low quality and erratic temperamental conditions gives the
lowest form of mentality and constitutional inferiority. Between these
two extremes we may find every conceivable modification and form of
human character according to the various combinations of normal and
abnormal conditions.

Size of brain then is a measure of power when judged by an enlightened
understanding of physiological, anatomical and pathological conditions.
The phrenologist goes one step farther and asserts that size of brain
in any particular region, judged by the same standards of comparison, is
an indication of local power.

[Illustration: Criminal.]

[Illustration: Philosopher.]

Every portion of the body is created for a specific function. You never
see with your ears, you do not taste with your eyes, you do not walk
with your teeth. There is no waste in nature. Every part has its special
duty to perform. The part of the brain which lies in front of the ears
has a different function from that which lies behind them. The parietal
lobes of the brain are not placed in the skull for the same purposes
which the frontal and occipital lobes represent. Every fibre has its
function, every convolution its purpose. All that remains for us to do
is to compare known forms of heads and note the coincidence of character
exhibited by similar developments and the divergences of character
accompanying diverse developments. In the past century these
observations have been sufficiently successful to locate the general
functions of the external portions of the brain which are situated so
that observation and comparison are possible. Forty-two general organs
are now located with definite certainty, and these have been subdivided
with sufficient accuracy so that there are over one hundred localized
centres of cerebral development which can be accurately measured and
their mental power determined to the advantage of the individual and the
benefit of society at large.

The brain is double. It is divided into two hemispheres by the _falx
cerebri_, a partition which follows the middle line of the skull. Each
hemisphere contains one organ pertaining to each faculty of the mind.
The size of each organ is estimated, not by feeling for bumps or
depressions, but by measuring the length of the fibres of the brain from
their common center in the _medulla oblongata_, at the head of the
spinal column, and at a point equi-distant from the ears in the interior
of the head. From this common centre the fibres of the brain range
horizontally and upward in all directions like the branches of a tree.
Development of brain fibre laterally gives a wide head, longitudinally,
from the _medulla oblongata_ to the forehead and to the occiput, a long
head. Development upward raises the crown; and I have in my collection
skulls which show by actual measurement a relative difference of over
three inches in development of brain fibre to certain localities of
brain surface. Viewed in the light of these facts and principles as here
expounded, the phrenological position is established, and the childish
objections of those who sneer at this beautiful science, fall crumbling
to the dust. The last great fact to be considered is this: Exercise of
any portion of the body develops it, enlarges it and adds to its
strength. Disuse weakens, paralyzes and ultimately destroys. This rule
applies to all parts of the body, and to the brain more particularly
because the nervous tissue of which the brain is composed is more
rapidly used up and renewed than any other portion of the body and hence
more susceptible to change. Phrenology solves all problems of education
and enables every individual to develop a symmetrical and well formed
brain, and with it a harmonious character, by pointing out those
portions that are deficient and those that are strong, and thus enabling
him to secure a really well trained mind.

By memorizing the different organs and their functions, particularly
those in which you are marked as excessive or deficient, and by
practicing the observation of your daily conduct and learning to analyze
it phrenologically, _i. e._, to note those occasions when deficient
faculties have failed to act, and when predominating faculties have
caused you to act hastily or contrary to good judgment, you will soon
become painfully aware of your true faults, and by a conscientious
action of reason and exercise of self-control will be able to correct
them. In the same manner predominating talents may be tested and proved
and you will rejoice in the birth of new aspirations, hopes and
impulses, in a word you may be, by means of this science, placed in full
command of your mental powers and learn to control and direct them as
the skillful engineer controls and directs his locomotive.

Concede the fact that these differences in form, quality, temperament
and health mean anything, and all that we claim for Phrenology follows
logically and as a matter of course. In the light of this demonstration
of known facts, it follows that character can be read, and if read, then
it can be assigned to the position of its best usefulness in the
profession, trade or avocation suitable to the employment of the talents
demonstrated to exist. If Phrenology gives the index to your character,
as we have proved it does, then it also forms the key to the solution of
the problem of matrimony by describing the character which will
harmonize with yours in congenial companionship, financial success and
the improvement of offspring. It likewise is a trusty guide in the
formation of business relations as partners, employers or employees, and
directs us in the choice of associates, teachers or companions in social
life. It gives to the anxious parent the knowledge of inherited and
acquired talents in cherished darlings of the household, and in every
relation of life; at every moment of existence it is an advantage, a
comfort, an assistance, a thing of beauty and a joy forever.

In this lecture, ladies and gentlemen, I have demonstrated the theory of
Phrenology. To-morrow night and on each of the succeeding nights of
this course, I shall give you practical applications. To-morrow night I
shall lecture on the "Choice of Professions and Trades," illustrating to
you the qualities that insure success in Law, Medicine, the Ministry,
Journalism and Teaching, in Manufacturing and the various Mechanical
Trades, as well as the qualifications for Commercial Life in its various
departments, wholesale and retail. I shall follow with my celebrated
lecture on Matrimony, in which I shall expound the principles upon which
a correct marriage may be consummated, securing amiable association,
perfect offspring and financial success, after which I shall separate
the sexes and continue the subject of matrimony in its physiological
relations, under the head of "Sexual and Creative Science."

[Illustration: The Phrenological Location of Faculties and Organs of the
Brain.]



Choice of Professions and Trades,

OR

HOW TO BECOME RICH.


LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:

Every young man and woman of reasonable intelligence is, or ought to be,
possessed of a laudable ambition to be self-sustaining. To win a
competency, to secure the necessities, to have even the luxuries of
life, is perfectly praiseworthy, provided they are obtained in a
legitimate manner. Every rational man seeks the occupation, trade or
profession which ensures the profitable employment of his best talents,
and the science which discloses to the youth at the beginning of his
education what those talents are and how they may be developed to
perfection in early manhood, and in what profession, trade or occupation
he will display the greatest ability, confers upon him the greatest
favor within the gift of knowledge, from a financial standpoint. That
Phrenology does this, and more, it is the purpose of this lecture to
show.

The world is apt to measure a man's success by the amount of money he
accumulates. That is properly one element of success, but it is not all.
The real criteria of a man's success in business are, 1st, the volume
and quality of his work; 2d, the compensation he receives for it; and
3d, the pleasure he derives from it.

[Illustration: Pugilist. Illegitimate.]

Business is legitimate or illegitimate. A legitimate business
contributes to the welfare of society, as well as to the support of the
individual who follows it. The cobbler who mends shoes and the genius
who builds a steamship are equally legitimate, though one contributes
only to the comfort of a country neighborhood and the other promotes the
welfare of a continent. Both may be successful within the limits of
widely different capacities. An illegitimate business promotes
temporarily the financial interests of the individual at the expense of
the health, morals and wealth of the public. In my public and private
examinations I have directed thousands of young men and women into
channels of legitimate business. The fact is, there is such a tremendous
demand for skilled labor in all departments of legitimate employment
that it is difficult to find material to fill it. We hear much of the
warfare between capital and labor, and strikes frequently paralyze the
channels of legitimate trade, but the cause of the difficulty lies not
in any real or imaginary conflict between capital and labor. The
solution lies in the fact that every branch of legitimate labor is
burdened with incompetent workmen, men who are in wrong occupations, who
were never intended by nature for such work as the branches of trade
they infest, and the skilled workmen are obliged to carry the load;
while capital is often in the hands of those unfit to be trusted with
its use, who manipulate it merely as the instrument of oppression and
wrong, until the social discord is produced. If men were all graded to
their proper vocations, if capital were entrusted only to those of
financial skill, and labor, in its various departments, assigned to
those of proper qualifications, every man would be employed at a fair
remuneration, and the burden of pauperism would fall from the backs of
our skilled workmen. There are too many men in the learned professions
who would do better at the forge and on the farm. There are preachers
who ought to be blacksmiths, and lawyers who would look better and feel
better hoeing potatoes. There are those at the anvil and the plow who
can succeed better in literature and art.

[Illustration: Lawyer.]

Young man, it is infinitely more to your credit to be a successful
blacksmith, if that is in accordance with your endowment, respected by
everybody within a radius of twenty miles because you can shoe a horse
better than anybody else, than it is to be starving in an attic as a
briefless lawyer, or lounging about the country as a minister of the
gospel, eating yellow-legged chicken at the expense of the sisters, when
you have no ability to preach.

[Illustration: Minister.]

Whether a man will be able to do good work, to receive lucrative
compensation and to derive pleasure from any occupation, will depend on
the amount and kind of sense that he possesses. Phrenology measures the
amount of sense displayed by each man's brain, determines the kind and
quality of his intelligence, and thus estimates his ability in any given
trade or profession.

If the brain were a single organ, every man would have the same kind of
sense, and men would differ only in the quality and amount of
intelligence. But Phrenology proves that the brain consists of a number
of organs, each one representing a different variety of intelligence, a
different sense, so that we find men varying in volume of brain and
amount of intelligence, in the quality of brain and consequent quality
of intelligence; and also in the relative development of the different
organs of the brain, showing diversity of character in the kind of
intelligence or sense, displayed by different individuals. Thus two men
may have the same relative volume of brain, similar in quality, and
supported by good constitutions, but widely different in development of
the organs of the brain. One may be a gifted orator and astute lawyer,
but utterly unable to comprehend colors or use the pencil and brush. The
other is a talented artist but so deficient in language that he cannot
describe his own pictures. Both are successful in their proper
vocations, reverse their positions and ignominious failure is the result
in both cases.

[Illustration: Capable.]

To constitute a success in any business a man must have _capacity_, that
is, he must have enough of intelligence to meet the demands of the
business, and he must have physical strength to support it. A man may
have apparently the kind of sense required by a branch of business, and
for a time display ability in it, but as the business increases, and its
demands become more in volume and intensity, he fails because he has not
enough of comprehensive intellect to take it all in. There are also
those who have comprehensive greatness of intellect, who are fully
capable of understanding all the requirements of a business, but who
fail because the body beneath the brain is not sufficient in endurance
and nourishment. Dismal failures result, and many useful lives are
shortened, because men make the mistake of entering vocations for which
they have insufficient mental or physical capacity. A phrenological
examination determines beforehand the capacity of the individual and
establishes a proper limit, within which he finds success, health,
happiness, and the gratification of proper ambition. On the other hand
there are many who do not realize how much their capacity is, and
consequently remain inert to the great deterioration of body and mind.
Nature demands that every man should use his full capacity, and the
phrenological examination which reveals to an individual the extent of
his usefulness is a magnificent acquisition to him who acts upon it.
Action is the natural condition of every part of man. Action develops
character, strength and health. Inaction results in paralysis and
disease. It is vitally essential that every man should find out his
capacity and use it all--no more, no less. This, Phrenology enables him
to do.

[Illustration: Incapable.]

The question of capacity being thus understood, the next is the quality
of organization.

Quality is the inherent grain or texture of the substance. Men differ in
quality as much as do the trees of the forest. You do not use the
hickory or the oak for the same purposes that you do the pine or the
poplar. There are differences also in the grain of metals, in the
texture of fabrics. Gold differs essentially from iron as silk does
from flax. Men display an infinite variety of quality, from the strong
lumberman of the pine forests, with his corded muscles and angular
frame, to the delicate young man who presides gracefully over the ribbon
counter in the dry goods store.

To illustrate this topic of quality: Riding on the cars one day I
noticed a gentleman sitting near me and asked him the rather impertinent
question, whether he had not been engaged for many years in handling
_delicate_ machinery.

"Ah," said he, smiling, "you are a Phrenologist."

"Yes, sir," I replied, "we have evidently sized each other up."

"Now, before I answer your question," said the gentleman, "tell me why
you asked about _delicate_ machinery. Several men of your profession
have approached me with similar questions about machinery. There is
evidently something in my head which betrays that; but tell me why you
drew the distinction in favor of delicate machinery?"

"Why, my dear sir," I replied, "you are a delicate piece of machinery
yourself. You would not harmonize with anything else. Your bones are
small, your eyesight microscopic, your fingers tapering, your touch as
delicate as a woman's, your _quality_ is delicate. You are not the man
to handle heavy bars of iron, to repair locomotives, or to build
threshing machines. I should say, sir, that watches would be about
right for you, certainly nothing heavier than sewing machines and
type-writers."

"You are quite right, sir," said he, "I have been a watchmaker for
twenty years."

The quality of the man determines the quality of the work he should do.
The strong, coarse, sluggish organization is adapted to occupations
requiring power and momentum. The refined, delicate, responsive
character will succeed best in positions calling for agility, dexterity
and sensitiveness. The blacksmith may ruin a watch if he attempts to
mend it, while the jeweler would not be a safe man to shoe a valuable
horse. There is an eternal fitness of things.

The occupation of an individual should be in harmony with his
temperament. The brilliant versatility of the magnetic permits a greater
variety of selection to the individual than the positive and
concentrative energies of the electric temperament. The latter is
dignified, sombre and severe, with a ready inclination to
forego comfort and convenience to carry out a cherished object.
It works, not better than the magnetic but more willingly. Men of the
magnetic temperament succeed best in the cultivation of the social
graces, the fine arts, and in those departments of literature that call
for brilliancy of imagination, versatility of talent and variety of
accomplishment. The leaders of great and successful armies, the
powerful statesmen and the literary men of the world, distinguished by
fervid genius and concentrative application, have been on the other hand
strongly endowed with the electric temperament.

When the motive temperament is in the ascendency, the character is
marked by an almost uncontrollable desire for physical exercise. This
temperament demands activity of body as well as brain, and the
occupation should be such as will combine both. The vital temperament on
the other hand is more inclined to sedentary habits, and is capable of
doing an immense amount of mental work without breaking down. It seems
to thrive best when loaded with responsibilities of a mental character.
The mental temperament on the other hand will display great brilliancy
of intellect and versatility of talent, but is in constant danger of a
physical collapse unless constantly subjected to conditions favorable to
recuperation.

To subject a person of the delicately organized and sensitive mental
temperament, for a long period of time, to the hardships and privations
of an occupation requiring exposure and severe muscular exertion is the
height of cruelty and folly. A person of the extreme vital temperament,
under the same conditions, would find life a weary burden, though a
limited experience in muscular exercise, under conditions favorable to
health, would be beneficial to both. On the other hand, the motive
temperament, confined in an office or room to books and study, with
insufficient exercise, is in much the same condition of misery as a
caged bird.

Temperament, quality, and capacity having been duly considered, the
ability of an individual in any given direction, depends upon the
special development of the organs of the brain. The special sense of
each individual is determined by an examination of the special organs of
the brain. And it is upon this special development, in the case of every
man, that his prerequisites for success depend, namely, the ability to
do much good work, the remuneration for his services, and the pleasure
derived from the occupation.

I desire to call your attention to some examples of special ability,
which are familiar enough to the experience of most of you to be
accepted without argument.

There are those who are gifted in the sense of touch above their
fellows, who can judge of the quality of goods in the dark. There are
others blest with penetrating eyesight. Others with a sense of hearing
most acute. Also those with nice discriminating sense of taste and
smell. These distinctions for a long time were regarded as the five
senses of man, and he was believed to have only those five avenues of
perception. Phrenology, however, subdivides these and adds others,
vastly increasing the number of the sources of knowledge and the springs
of human action.

A great many cases of defective eyesight, so called, are in reality
defective brain. The mechanism of the eye may be perfect, the retina and
the optic nerve may faithfully perform their duties, but if the brain
behind the eye be defective, the comprehension of the object or some of
its properties is lost to the intelligence of the individual. Some
people are "color blind." Their eyes are good enough, but they don't see
colors; they comprehend no difference in the shades of different colored
objects exhibited to the view. At the same time they fully comprehend
the size, form, distance, etc., of the object. An examination discloses
the fact that they are deficient in a portion of the brain just behind
the middle of the eyebrow. Give such a man every material and brush of
the painter and request him to paint a landscape and the result will be
a daub. He has no sense of colors, he has no fitness for that kind of
work. At the same time he may be entirely capable of a very creditable
performance in drawing a picture with a pencil in white and black
because that does not involve his weakness. This particular element of
sense may, like all others, be only partially defective, but an
examination by a competent phrenologist will disclose its exact state,
whatever it may be. I once examined a man and remarked to him that he
was thoroughly endowed with the qualities essential to a good locomotive
engineer, except that the organ of color was slightly deficient. I
remarked, "You will never experience the slightest inconvenience in
distinguishing switch-lights and signals when you are in good health and
sober, but a slight indigestion, or a glass of liquor, decreasing the
power of your brain, would render your vision of colors unreliable and
might cause a wreck, hence I advise you to keep out of the business."
The man was a railroad engineer, and admitted that he could generally
distinguish colors without difficulty, but that his color sense was
lost, under the conditions I described.

Those who are large in the organ of color, are artists in its
appreciation, for the simple reason that they have more sense in this
particular direction. On the other hand, color may be large, but
appreciation of form, size, etc., may be deficient. The individual may
try to paint a picture and get the colors all right, but if form is
deficient his figures will be grotesque in their absurdity; or he may
have good sense as to form and color, and get the sizes of his objects
all wrong. Mechanical skill depends in a great measure upon these
"Perceptive Faculties," as they are called: that is, those portions of
the brain that comprehend and give the ideas pertaining to the
properties of material objects, such as individuality, form, size,
weight, color, etc. The trained eye and hand of the blacksmith are alike
directed by these faculties of the mind acting through these organs of
the brain, as he moulds a piece of iron to the proper size and form to
fit the horse's foot. What folly then to expect good work, in a
blacksmith shop, of a man deficient in these special senses requisite in
that department of work; and as we study all trades and professions we
shall find that aptitude in any line depends on the possession of
superior development of the organs of the brain representing the
faculties of intelligence most used and depended upon in that business.

There are those who are wonderfully gifted in the organ of calculation,
the seat of the special sense of the number of things. One who has this
organ large will be able to count rapidly and correctly, to add,
subtract or multiply, and he understands the relation of numbers to each
other, their properties, and because of his superior sense in this
direction he becomes a "lightning calculator" and is regarded as a
mathematical prodigy. There are others who have this sense deficient,
but they may be superior in development to the mathematical prodigy in a
dozen other faculties.

One may be developed in those organs which contribute to talent for
music. He may have a sensitive organization, highly responsive in
quality, a fair intellect, such an exquisite sense of time and tune,
aided by good Constructiveness, Imitation and executive ability that he
is able to produce music which charms the listening ear of thousands. If
this talent is discovered in time, and he has adequate instruction and
advantages, he becomes a magnificent success. Place him in the counting
room, the work-shop, or on the farm and he is not in harmony with his
surroundings, he is awkward and inefficient, he does poor work and but
little of it, and he is regarded by his associates as an inferior
person.

[Illustration: Musician.]

Some men are wonderful in their ability to comprehend machinery, and in
dexterity in the use of tools, the special sense represented by the
organ of Constructiveness. They seem to be perfectly at home with a
piece of new and complicated machinery in five minutes, while others
will work on the same thing for hours, growing more and more bewildered,
and exhibiting little or no mechanical genius whatever, literally making
a botch of everything they undertake. When I was lecturing in Austin,
Texas, in 1887, several gentlemen came to see me and asked if I would be
willing to submit to a test. They said, "We have a man in this city who
is unquestionably a genius in a certain direction, and we would like to
call him out for a public examination and see if you can locate him." I
urged them to do so, at the same time remarking that that was the kind
of a man I liked to get hold of. That night when I called for
nominations, Mr. Geo. P. Assman was immediately elected. He came
forward, and as I measured his head I said, "This man is a genius as a
machinist. He has only ordinary ability in other directions, but as a
machinist he is a marvel. He has thoughts on machinery far beyond the
comprehension of other men, and especially in the practical handling of
complicated work." Somebody in the audience sung out at this point
"You've got him," and the audience broke into applause. They then
informed me that he was a most celebrated locksmith and machinist whose
specialty was opening combination locks on valuable safes when the
combination was lost by the owners, or when the works were injured by
the blasts of burglars. On one occasion he had opened a safe in New
Orleans in a few minutes when the trained locksmiths of the safe factory
had worked for hours and failed. He was in the right business, was
regarded as a genius, and was respected and admired by a whole section
of the United States simply because he employed his best element of
sense.

Some men have wonderful intellectual development and are specially
gifted with the ability to acquire knowledge, but they may be most
wonderfully deficient in that kind of executive force which makes use of
it. They are largely developed in the frontal lobe of the brain where
the intellectual organs reside, but are deficient in the regions of
moral and physical energy; while others are largely endowed with
ambition, physical and moral energy,--the parietal lobes are large and
the head rises high in the crown, and they are able to use all the
knowledge they acquire. Their intellectual capacity may be limited, but
they are able to put their knowledge to account, and what gems of
information they possess are made to glitter by constant use. Men of the
first class are always rated at less than their true value of
intellectual ability; those of the second class at a greatly
over-estimated premium. The first may be compared to capacious barns
where knowledge is stored like hay to become musty because it is never
used. I have seen hundreds of boys of this character, graduate with
great honor in college (where the only criterion applied was the
capacity to absorb knowledge as a sponge does water), only to be
eclipsed in after years by the boys who graduated at the foot of the
class, who were practically in disgrace on Commencement day. In our
popular public school and collegiate system, there is too much stuffing
of knowledge, and too little attention given to developing the practical
sense of the student.

There are special senses which give physical and moral energy, ambition
and industry. One man is splendidly equipped with knowledge and is
thoroughly posted in regard to how a business should be conducted in all
of its practical and theoretical details, but he is afflicted with
inertia, he does not move. The unscientific observer says he is lazy,
and that is true, but Phrenology analyzes even laziness and finds that
it is caused by a lack of sense. Develop the organs of physical and
moral energy, which can be easily done, and the character of the man
becomes transformed, and he becomes a cyclone of business push and
executive ability. Another man may be gifted with energy, but
deficient in knowledge and business tact, and he wastes his force in
tremendous efforts at the accomplishment of small matters. He puts as
much mental force into opening a can of oysters as would suffice to
destroy a building. Figuratively speaking he loads a cannon to kill a
mosquito, the result is a great waste of energy and vitality. By proper
cultivation of knowledge, and adaptation to pursuits employing his
splendid energies with large enterprise, a character of this description
is brought into harmony with the eternal fitness of things.

[Illustration: Physical Energy.]

There are men endowed with the sense which gives appreciation of values
and the knowledge of property to such an extent that they are artists in
the manipulation of finances. They accumulate fortunes, and the world
admires their accomplishments; and one who has less of this world's
goods is accustomed to wish that he had as much sense as Vanderbilt or
Gould. The fact may be, that he has more sense in the aggregate than
either, but it is not the same kind of sense. Other things being equal,
the man with large Acquisitiveness will exhibit more sense in acquiring
property, and the man with large Caution and Secretiveness more sense in
economizing, than those having these organs small. It is curious to
observe the different phases of financial sense in different
individuals. One man will be a miser, eager to get and anxious to hold
property; another will be close and cautious in taking care of the
property he inherits, but will exhibit no special ability in increasing
his riches; another displays great ability in making money, but spends
it lavishly; while still another may show indifference to the
acquisition of property or the care of it. All of these various
combinations I have delineated correctly with utter strangers, in
thousands of instances. They all depend on the development of the
various organs of special sense, and a man may be educated at any period
of life, so as to correct his financial sense and make him more
successful in accumulating and holding property.

Some men are good collectors, while others fail to exact their just
dues. One man will dun his debtors with a persistence and regularity,
and with a force and dignity which compels payment even from those who
wish to avoid it; while another will be diffident, and often suffer the
most humiliating emotions in presenting his demands--in fact, often
failing to exact payment from those who are perfectly able and willing
to meet the account. Others are careless about paying their debts, and
lose financial standing in the community by neglecting their dues,
without any desire whatever to avoid payment, while others are
punctilious in financial matters to the greatest degree. All of
which variety of financial dispositions are the result of development of
special combinations of brain organs, and susceptible to material
modification by proper influences.

It is as absolutely essential to the success of the man of commerce that
he should be well developed in the organs which give the financial
instincts, as it is that the artist should be developed in those which
give a sense of artistic effect. Hundreds of men go into bankruptcy
every year because of deficient development in this respect, being
crowded to the wall by the superior strength of men of greater business
sagacity. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the young business
men of this country that the true road to fortune is in a correct
knowledge of adaptation in business and in constantly educating the
financial senses.

In my written delineations of character I furnish every applicant with a
careful analysis of his business adaptation, showing the exact condition
of his financial instincts, as well as all others. I have also composed
directions whereby deficient organs may be strengthened by special
mental exercises, and I claim that the financial sense can be developed
and strengthened as well as any other part of man's nature; and in no
part of my professional work have I met with more satisfactory results.

I once examined an utter stranger, and as I proceeded, I said, "You
should never enter mercantile life, sir, with your present development.
You would be bankrupt within a year, because you would trust everybody,
and you cannot collect your small accounts." The gentleman, in great
surprise, asked me if I knew anything of his past history personally.
"No, sir, I never saw you nor heard of you until you entered my room a
moment ago." He then informed me that he had failed in business three
times, because he could not collect his small accounts, and that he had
over $1500 due him in the city--small items against respectable
customers that he had not succeeded in collecting. "Now, sir," he
continued excitedly, "I want to know why that is and how you can tell
it." I explained to him his deficient organs, and gave him my special
rules for the cultivation of financial ability; and after instructing
him, I told him to try some of his most collectable accounts
according to my rules. I remained in his town a few days longer, and
before I left he called on me with a list of over six hundred dollars'
worth of claims he had collected, and he was jubilant. "There!" said he,
"that is what your examination and chart has been worth to me." And by
persistently following my instructions he developed into a very good
collector.

A man may be entirely idiotic in the sense which gives the desire for
property and the impulse to acquire it (Acquisitiveness), while he
exhibits excellent sense in other directions. I once examined a
gentleman of high intellectual development who was entirely destitute of
this sense, and I remarked to him that he was financially worthless,
that he had no sense of value, was indifferent to the acquisition of
property and utterly unable to make a living, as he would not be able to
ask for money that was due him from a friend who was perfectly willing
to pay him. He replied, "All you say is true, sir; my wife supports the
family by sewing and washing, and I am unable to command any financial
resources whatever."

Subsequently I employed this man, as a matter of charity, to do some
work for me, and returning to the city from a brief absence, I found
that I owed him five dollars. I met him on the street that night and he
informed me that his family were suffering for the necessities of life.
Said he, "It was a scramble at our house this morning to get anything
for breakfast, and I don't know where the next meal is coming from." My
first impulse was, of course, to pay him the money I owed him, but I
restrained it and waited to see if he would ask for it. He poured his
tale of woe into my sympathizing ear for twenty minutes, and finally
turned away and left me without his dues. As he walked away, I called
him back and said, "Look here, my friend, do you know you are a fool?"

"Oh, yes, Professor, I found that out long ago. But on what particular
point do you find me a fool to-night?"

"Don't you know that I owe you five dollars?"

"Yes, sir."

"Why didn't you ask for it?"

"I don't know," he said in a dazed sort of way, "I simply couldn't; I
came to you for it; I told you my circumstances hoping you would pay me,
but I couldn't ask you for it."

And he could not. His case was an extreme one; but there are many in the
same position. The simple fact is, he did not have financial sense
enough to ask for it. I gave him his money and told him if he needed
more to come to me and I would help him further, and I did; but the best
thing I did for him was to instruct him in the development of financial
sense, and I got him far enough along, to enable him to ask for money
when due him; but it would be a hopeless task to undertake to make a
financier out of such a man. I also examined his oldest boy, and finding
that he had inherited his father's weakness, I gave him and his mother
special instruction for the development of financial ability. Two years
later, when I visited the same city, I found him supporting his mother
and the younger children from his own wages; and his mother brought her
entire family to me for written examinations, and I found them well
dressed and well fed; and the mother, with an expression of gratitude I
shall never forget, informed me that the splendid financial energies of
her son, were entirely due to the faithful performance of my
instructions. And as she paid me a handsome fee for my services, and I
looked upon her happy family, I felt that the gratuitous examination I
had given the boy two years before had borne good fruit.

I could multiply instances to prove the existence and working of each of
the various special senses of the individual, represented by the
phrenological organs, but I assume that the foregoing are sufficient for
the purposes of the present lecture.

It is a common mistake of parents to suppose that if a child has a
special endowment of sense in any particular direction, it will manifest
such strong inclinations in that direction, that these natural
inclinations may be taken for a guide. Sometimes this is true, but
oftener it is not the case, so that the natural inclinations of children
are by no means safe guides in the choice of a profession, occupation or
trade.

When the circus is in town, the natural inclination of every healthy boy
is to be a clown or bareback rider, but it does not follow, that if his
inclinations are gratified, it is the best course he can pursue. Some of
the most magnificent talents, on the other hand, lie dormant until they
are carefully called out and trained by the teacher. There are also
periods in the life of every boy and girl when new faculties seem to be
awakened, and for a time engage the entire attention; and the watchful
parent is apt to mistake one of these periodical outbreaks for the
manifestation of a talent deciding the destiny of a child. At one period
of a boy's existence he may manifest great fondness for tools and
working in machinery; at another, for music; at another, for trading and
merchandizing; while comparatively dormant may lie a masterly
ability to grapple with the problems of philosophy and science, which in
later years marks him as a genius in literature and scientific
investigation.

Sometimes a talent manifests itself at an early age, but the parent does
not realize its scope and value, or the full character of the child, and
he is placed in an occupation far inferior to his actual merit, or the
measure of his capacity.

A father brought his son to me exclaiming with pride, "This boy is a
genius, and I am going to make a first-class carpenter of him, unless
you can suggest something better, and prove that he has talent for it.
He can take a pen-knife and a board, and carve out anything he may
desire to make. He certainly has a genius for mechanical work."

"Yes," I said, "this boy will make a first-class carpenter; he will
succeed well in carving boards and in doing delicate joining, and as a
foreman, or as the owner of a planing mill, he will make a good living;
his wages may run up to five or ten dollars per day; but such an
occupation is beneath his capacity. This boy has, in addition to his
mechanical genius, a wonderful endowment of intellectual ability and
scientific proclivities; and if you will send him to a first-class
medical college and make a surgeon of him, his mechanical skill will
have a higher field to display itself and he will _carve men_ at fifty
dollars per day."

The old gentleman hadn't thought of that, but he wisely acted on my
suggestion, and his boy is to-day one of the brightest young surgeons in
the state in which he lives, and he carves men, instead of boards, at
higher prices.

The ability to command a high grade of compensation for labor of any
kind depends largely upon a man's own confidence in his skill, and his
ability to perform work rapidly, as well as skillfully. A factory which
can turn out double the quantity of work of its competitor, will secure
the best contracts and give the greatest satisfaction. In the same way,
a man who can do double the quantity of work done by a fellow-workman
will, if his labor be equally skillful, be regarded as worth three or
four times as much as his slower competitor. The pride and dignity
attached to superior accomplishments doubles the value of the service.
The best man in any department of work commands his own price, and
people are willing to give him the full margin of profits. The _best_
surgeon is always demanded when human life is at stake; the best lawyer
when property of great value is involved in litigation. And when a man
knows that he is the best in his department of work, whatever it may be,
he has that confidence in himself which will enable him to exact good
wages. As long as a man realizes that he is inferior, his work is at a
discount and he himself deficient in dignity and self-confidence.

An old darkey, who was famed for his skill as a butcher, was employed by
a stranger to slaughter a hog. The service being well performed, Pompey
demanded five dollars in payment.

"Five dollars!" gasped the astonished owner of the pork, "for
slaughtering one hog! outrageous!"

"No, sah," said Pompey with dignity, "I'se only charged you one dollar
for de work, sah. De balance am for de _know how_."

It is absolutely essential, in order that one may rise to eminence in a
profession, trade or occupation, that he should select one where he can
use his best faculties; because he will be rated as a successful man, a
man of mediocre talents, or a complete failure, according to the amount
of sense displayed by the faculties he uses in his business. If a young
man has an excellent talent for music, an ordinary degree of ability in
mathematics, and none in regard to art, he will be a success in the
orchestra; he may make a precarious living as a book-keeper; but if he
starts a photograph gallery, he will disgust his customers and prove a
dismal failure. In the first, he will be respected and admired; in the
second, tolerated; in the third, despised.

In my professional experience I have met thousands of men who were
admired and respected as master-minds, because they were using strong
faculties, the best they had, and the world gave them more than their
dues, because they were ranked in mentality at the grade of their
strongest faculties, and their weaknesses were overlooked, hidden in
fact by the brightness of the few talents they did possess and use to
advantage.

I have examined thousands of men of equal ability who were regarded as
very ordinary, because they were in walks of life which called forth
only the inferior elements of their characters. I have examined
thousands of others of equal ability, and many of magnificent endowment,
who were limping, staggering and blindly groping down the dismal path of
despair, because they were depending on their weakest elements, and the
world despised and judged them unjustly, because they were ranked in
mentality at the grade of their weakest faculties--their virtues and
talents hidden by the fact that they were never used. It has been my
happy privilege to place them, for the first time, in possession of the
true estimate of their elements of strength and weakness, and to direct
them with the absolute certainty of success into paths of usefulness,
prosperity and enjoyment.

I might confer a favor upon you, by giving you a letter of introduction
to some rich and powerful friend of mine who could aid you in your
business, but I confer a greater favor upon you when I give you my
written delineation of character. It is an introduction to yourself. For
the first time you are made acquainted with your own character. There it
stands in bold relief; your talents and how to make the most of them;
your faults and how to correct them; your adaptation in business,
analyzed in such a manner that every business qualification is described
and the reasons given why you will succeed. You are not left in the dark
concerning the matter. The business is stated and the reasons given, and
the reasons you can test _seriatim_ before you go to any expense in
making a change, or in qualifying yourself for the business.

The enjoyment that a man gets from his business is a legitimate part of
the profits. It is also one proper criterion of success. A man may
accumulate a bank account, but if it is done at the expense of the
enjoyment of life, if every task is a burden, and every day's work a
monotonous round of dreary duties, he is no better than a slave.

When he uses the strongest faculties of his nature the result is
constant gratification. The use of weaker elements is always at the
expense of extra effort and pain. The muscular woodsman enjoys the
exercise of chopping, and swings his glittering axe with dexterity and
pride. Put a college professor at the same task, and he would be clumsy
and suffer fatigue and mortification as well, if he escaped without
injury to his shins. But in his school-room the professor would display
dignity, enjoyment and skill in expounding some intricate problem to
admiring pupils. The skillful musician becomes identified with his
instrument, and thrills with the melody evoked by his own fingers. The
trained accountant becomes wonderfully gifted in mathematical
computation, and enjoys his work in like manner. The accountant might
find the work of the musician an impossibility, and what little he did
accomplish, a vexation; while the confinement of the counting-room, with
its prosaic duties, would be the worst form of slavery for the musician,
his work inferior, his capacity limited, his situation intolerable but
for the meagre salary it might afford.

A bank president called on me with his son, requesting an examination
for the latter. As he came in, I saw that he was in a bad humor. Said
he, "This boy is a fool. If you can find any talent in him you will
succeed better than I have. My desire is, that he should occupy a
position in my bank and ultimately become cashier. Our present cashier
is a first-class business man and can add up four columns of figures at
once, and I have sent this boy to several business colleges with the
request that he be taught the same accomplishment. I have spent seven
hundred and fifty dollars on this boy's mathematics, and he can't add up
one column of figures with any certainty of being correct. If there is
any sense in him, I would like to have you find it."

I examined the boy carefully, and I did not find an idiot. I said, "Sir,
you are doing this boy an injustice. He has but little mathematical
sense, it is true, and he will never be able to add more than one column
of figures with speed and correctness. Nature intended him for something
different from a bank cashier. Give this boy a good violin, place him
under competent instructors, spend seventy-five dollars on his musical
education and he will display such magnificent talent that you will be
willing to continue."

The old gentleman arose in wrath, and stamped out of the room, and said
he didn't want any fiddlers in his family. The next day, however, he
came back and apologized. Said he, "I suppose it is better for the boy
to be a good violinist than a poor accountant; at all events, I've
failed so far, and I'll try your advice to the extent of seventy-five
dollars; if he displays talents as a musician, he shall have the best
instruction money can obtain."

He kept his word, and placed the boy in a musical conservatory under
first-class instructors, and before the seventy-five dollars was
expended, the boy was the pride of the institution. He led his classes;
graduated with first honors; is to-day the leader of a first-class
orchestra and a professor in a leading conservatory; commands better
compensation than any accountant in the city, and has an _entree_ into
the best society at all times by reason of his accomplishments. He
stands to-day a king among his fellows because he is using his strongest
faculties. But the best of it lies in the fact that he enjoys his
profession; his position is one of dignity and pleasure. Whether he
stands before audiences at the head of his orchestra, in the drawing
rooms of _elite_ society, or in the solitude of his study, his brain
vibrates with the harmony of his own grand usefulness.

I have a friend who holds the position of first book-keeper in a leading
bank, and he is master of the situation because he is able to add four
columns of figures at once with absolute accuracy. He commands a
first-class salary for first-class work, and it is pleasurable to watch
the pride, the dignity, and the evident enjoyment with which he performs
the duties of his station. On one occasion I went into the bank to
settle an account of long standing, and at the request of the cashier,
my friend, the book-keeper, made out the account and added it up in his
usual quick way. The cashier, being desirous of preventing any possible
mistake, said, "Mr. B----, will you please add that up again and see
that your figures are correct." The book-keeper was insulted. The idea
that he might make a mistake was not to be tolerated. With an expression
of lofty dignity that I shall never forget, he handed back the account
without looking at it, saying, "The account is correct, sir." And as the
cashier laboriously added it one column at a time he found that it was.
The book-keeper was master of the situation, and he was able to
humiliate anybody who dared to question his work. And as I saw his
satisfaction in the discomfiture of the cashier, I said to myself,
Verily the enjoyment of a man's business is a legitimate part of the
profits.

The enjoyment of my own business is a large share of the profits. I
enjoy lecturing, and I enjoy examinations, because I know when I examine
a head that I know more about it than the man who wears it, and that
what I am about to say will do him more good than anything he ever
heard in his life if he will heed it. And when some young man comes up
to me in Texas, and shakes hands and thanks me for something he heard me
say in a lecture in California, and another shows me his prosperity in
Colorado, and draws out a chart I made for him in Missouri, telling him
to enter that business, I enjoy it. And when I examine some diffident
young lady and encourage her to learn accomplishments and show her the
occupation she should follow, and years later I find her succeeding in
all of them and developed into a grand self-sustaining woman, a mighty
power for good in her neighborhood, I enjoy that. And when I give my
professional sanction to the marriage of some brave young man and
beautiful young woman, and later I find them surrounded by superb
offspring, a good home and every indication of prosperity, and I see
that the beauty of the wife has not faded, and that the husband is
stronger and braver and more tender than he was, I enjoy that.

Commercial reports show that only a fraction over two per cent. of
business enterprises are successful. The rest are failures because they
are managed by men who do not possess the kind of sense required.

The question presents itself to every young man and woman at this
moment: Will you be a success, or will you join the long, dismal
procession of failures? If you really desire to succeed, you should
first find out the true measure of your abilities. My delineation of
your character is the surest guide, because it is the estimate placed
upon your capacity, your quality, your temperament, your special
development of sense, by an impartial friend, a skillful critic, guided
by the light of science and a conscientious regard for your welfare.

In coming to me for examinations, come prepared to know the truth. I am
not here to flatter you, nor am I here to ridicule or abuse your
weaknesses. I have for many years enjoyed a magnificent practice, gained
by strict candor and honesty with my patrons, who have long since
learned that I spare no pains to know the facts, and knowing them I fear
no consequences in relating them as they are.

I will tell you every element of your character as nature and
circumstances have combined to develop them. I will not flatter you, but
I promise you that I will find more good in you than you have ever found
in your own organization, and I will tell you how to turn that good to
the best practical account. I will describe your business qualities, and
analyze them, showing you how to improve and correct them; and if you
are in the proper business already, this knowledge will enable you to
develop more perfect usefulness and strengthen your confidence for the
future. If you are not in the right profession, trade or occupation, the
sooner you find it the better, and make use of your opportunities. I
will tell you the very best you can do, and prove it to you by reasons
_seriatim_, and convince you that it will be as natural for you to
succeed in that business as it is for a cork to swim, and for the same
reason, because the law of nature commands that it should be so. Brain
is money, character is capital, knowledge of your resources is the
secret of success.

I wish to say a word to the ladies at this point. In this lecture I have
used the term "man" in its generic sense, as the old preacher did when
he announced that his congregation numbered two hundred and fifty
brethren, and then qualified it by remarking that the brethren
"embraced" the sisters. Phrenology discloses the fact that women have as
many varieties of temperament, quality, capacity and size and special
development of brain organs, as men. Every woman as well as every man is
endowed with a certain line of talents, and when she enters her proper
vocation she succeeds at it, no matter what it may be. Women have
succeeded wherever men have, as rulers, as leaders of armies, as
physicians, lawyers, in the world of commerce, in the shop, the factory,
and on the farm. There is a great deal of bosh written and spoken about
"woman's sphere." The proper sphere of every individual man or woman is
in that line of work for which nature intended them, and for which they
are endowed with the proper development of brain and brawn. And, ladies,
when you come to me for examinations I shall be just and honest enough
to tell you where you belong; and if I can find you something which will
take you out of competition with the Negroes and Chinamen I shall
certainly do so.

To parents, also, I wish to say that this is the opportunity you must
not neglect. You have no right to bring children into the world unless
you are willing to promote their welfare and give them the best
opportunities to enjoy whatever nature has endowed them with, in the
nature of talent. Do not allow the trifling cost of an examination to
stand in the way of obtaining this priceless knowledge, which will
enable you to direct their growing minds into the channels which promise
so much of usefulness, so much of health, happiness and financial
prosperity.

Some parents have an idea that children are too young to be examined,
and they make this excuse at every age, from one month to twenty years.
They seem to doubt our ability to impart valuable information about a
child until the character is "developed." They lose sight of the true
object of an examination, which is to determine _in what direction the
child shall be developed_. The parent is often the architect of the
child's fortunes, but what would we think of an architect who waited
until the building was completed before he planned it? When the
character is "developed," according to the idea of these people, the
greatest advantage of an examination has been lost. We can tell the
youth of twenty-one, or the business man of forty, what his talents are,
and how they may best be employed, and how they may also be improved to
the extent of that limited development which can be made after maturity
by persistent effort; but in the case of the young and growing child the
information given in time, is a thousand fold more valuable, because it
is in that formative, plastic condition where it is like the clay of the
potter in the hands of the skillful parent or teacher. And when parents
ask me how young a child may receive the benefits of an examination, I
answer as soon as you are able to bring them to me, the younger the
better; and when you reflect upon the fact that more than half the
children die in infancy, the value of competent phrenological advice may
be appreciated. In thousands of cases I have warned parents of
predispositions to disease in their little darlings, and enabled them to
avoid the conditions which, in the absence of my advice, would have
certainly destroyed the health and life of the little ones. Moreover, at
an early age a defect may be easily overcome, which at a later period
would ripen into a permanent deformity, such as defects of vision, color
blindness, defects of speech, stammering, stuttering, lisping, defects
of walk, and every other defect caused by a deficient development of
brain organs.

To know with scientific accuracy the special talents of an individual in
early youth, is to make his fortune. Without this knowledge much
valuable time is lost by parent, teacher and pupil in useless
experiments. With the knowledge which Phrenology imparts, intelligently
acted upon, the development of a strong mind, sound body, brilliant
accomplishments, splendid talents and successful business, is an assured
fact, and the youth enters upon his early manhood fully equipped with
everything which will enable him to accomplish a vast volume of good
work, achieve financial success, and enjoy that happiness which can only
come to the successful man.

Our rooms are open from 10 o'clock A. M. until 6 P. M. The reception
room opens at 9, for the accommodation of those who wish to come early
and be first served. Take your seat in the reception room, and I will
reach you as rapidly as I can. I never hurry my work at the expense of
thoroughness, and when I have a subject under my hands I tell him
everything which will do him good, no matter how many others may be
waiting. When it comes your turn you may expect the same courtesy. But I
never waste time, and if you desire to ask any questions please have
them written down, and I will answer them promptly and correctly. While
you are in the reception room you will be elegantly entertained, and
when I reach your case you may expect the best results which scientific
knowledge, careful examination, lucid explanation, and a fraternal
interest in your welfare can give.

To-morrow night I lecture on the soul-absorbing topic of Matrimony, at
the conclusion of which lecture I shall examine several young ladies and
select husbands for them from the audience.



Matrimony


[Illustration]

_LADIES AND GENTLEMEN_:--

As I stand committed, before the public, as the originator of a system
of Matrimonial Selection and Creative Science, you have a right to
demand of me that I shall present to you to-night a statement of
something practical that will stand the test of your criticism. And I
desire to say, in the outset, that in this lecture I shall endeavor to
lift my subject above the plane in which it is ordinarily treated. I
don't believe I ever announced a lecture on Matrimony, that I did not
detect the ripple of a smile on the face of my audience, as if they
regarded the whole subject as a huge practical joke, something
wonderfully funny, on no account to be considered seriously.

Marriage is in fact a serious and a scientific problem, the solution of
which may well engage the attention of the most profound intellects, and
may well engage yours, because in its proper solution is embodied the
advancement of society, the happiness of its members--nay, more, the
salvation of the race itself; and yet it is, of all questions, most
neglected. Young ladies and gentlemen reach maturity and marry without
the first rudiments of knowledge in regard to the importance of the
relation; in most cases in absolute ignorance of all the great
physiological facts pertaining to conjugal selection and improvement of
offspring, with little or no knowledge of the characters of either
themselves or their consorts. The result is, what might be expected, a
fruitful harvest of misery, crime, pauperism, disease, and death.
Occasionally circumstances produce a happy combination, and the result
is a reasonably correct union in spite of ignorance; but such cases are
so rare that they are like oases in the desert, and the subject of
universal admiration and comment when they occur. The most casual
observer notes, that unhappiness is the rule in the married state, and
conjugal felicity the exception. A recent discussion of the question,
"Is Marriage a Failure?" has brought out so many exhibitions of
domestic misery that society is startled into a serious consideration of
the question at last.

It is my purpose to show, in this lecture, that there is a sensible
solution of this great problem. That whenever we bring to bear upon this
question the same amount of scientific thought and reasoning common
sense, that we display in all things pertaining to financial values, the
results would be fully as satisfactory. I plead for Investigation; I ask
for Knowledge; I beg for Candid Thought and Scientific Experimentation.

When I was lecturing in Kansas, some years ago, I had occasion to visit
an old friend, a wealthy farmer, who had an interesting family of seven
very marriageable daughters. And in conversation with me, the old
gentleman expressed himself as greatly concerned about their matrimonial
prospects. Knowing that I was investigating the scientific bearings of
matrimony, he said to me, that if there was any light which I could
throw upon the subject, which would aid him or his daughters in the
selection of suitable husbands for them, he would consider himself under
obligations to me for life. "But," said the old man, sadly, "it's no
use, marriage is a lottery anyhow. If you draw a prize, well and good;
if you draw a blank, you must make the best of it. You may lecture from
now until doomsday and it won't do any good. When they fall in love,
they're going to marry, and they won't listen to reason."

"Well, my friend," I replied, "I should regret to have to entertain or
express the opinion of your daughters that you have just uttered. If I
did so, I should consider you entirely justifiable in ejecting me from
your premises. It is an insult to the intelligence of your daughters to
assert that they would not display sense and reason in the selection of
a husband, as in anything else, _if they had any knowledge upon which to
act_. Let me ask you a few questions which will prove my position. I
want to buy a valuable horse, could your daughters aid me in the
selection of the animal?"

"Oh, yes," exclaimed my old friend, with evident pride, "my daughters
know all about horses, sir. They have broken the most unruly colts that
were ever raised on this farm. They can tell whether a horse is most
suitable for draft, speed or breeding purposes, as soon as they look at
him. They can tell how much it will take to feed him, and how far he can
travel in a day without injury. My daughters are accomplished
horsewomen, sir."

"Good," I answered, "valuable knowledge, sir, for young ladies to
possess, especially if they expect to become farmer's wives. I also want
to buy a valuable farm, could your daughters aid me in the selection of
the property?"

"Certainly, sir," said the old gentleman, warming up with the subject,
"my daughters have been instructed in all that pertains to scientific
agriculture. They can not only select a good farm, from practical
experience, but they have had scientific, theoretical training as well,
under competent teachers. They can analyze the soil and tell you its
chemical constituents, and they know what kind of soil is suitable for
every crop you can name."

"Capital, sir; I rejoice to know that your daughters are so well
informed, and have had such excellent instruction and advantages. I now
wish to select a good man, can your daughters aid me now?"

"Ah!" said my old friend, sadly, "I see, sir, that you have us all at a
disadvantage on that question. My daughters have been neglected in that
branch of education, and with my sixty years of experience, I must also
admit that I am incompetent to aid either you or my daughters in the
selection of a _man_."

Here is the solution of the whole question. While the human race is
interested in everything pertaining to literature, the arts,
manufacture, commerce, religion, and science, the welfare of the race
itself has been sadly overlooked. And the admission of my old farmer
friend can well be made by all of you. And what I said to him in
concluding our conversation, I now say to you. You have spent many hours
in instructing your children in all that was desirable in literature,
art, science, commerce, and religion. You have surrounded them with
educational advantages; but you have neglected to instruct them on this
vital topic of matrimony. You have treated it lightly or with
indifference. You have left them in ignorance of the great social and
physiological facts which surround it; and then you wonder when they
marry upon blind impulse, and you call it lottery. Of course, they can't
display judgment when they have no facts to exercise judgment upon. And
you feel offended when your child marries contrary to your advice, when
you have been exposing your ignorance to that child ever since it was
able to comprehend anything. You set yourself up as an authority on this
question, when your youngest baby is fully alive to the fact that you
are a total ignoramus in regard to it.

For my part, I admire the spirit of the young man or woman who,
realizing the discouraging failure of the old folks, starts out on a new
line in obedience to one of nature's impulses, independent alike of
paternal wrath or criticism. If such a one will consult the dictates of
science in shaping and directing the impulse, the marriage will be much
more likely to be happy, than those formed in deference to parental
wishes, which, in a majority of cases, we regret to say, are dictated by
merely prudential if not sordid reasons.

Before we discuss the main issue of our subject to-night, it may be
interesting and instructive to ask: Why do people marry, anyhow? Did
you ever think about that? There are a number of reasons, and we will
discuss some of them.

A great many people marry because it is fashionable. They never stop to
reason about it; they simply observe that nearly everybody else marries,
and consequently they jump to the conclusion that it is the proper thing
to do. Like most devotees of fashion in other things, they find it a
very unprofitable investment.

A great many men marry, because they want a servant. That's unprofitable
also. Young man, you can hire your washing and ironing done by a
Chinaman, and live in a first-class boarding house with much less
expense. It don't pay.

Some women marry because they want a home, and they find--a
penitentiary. I visited a state prison a few days ago, and I found
inside the walls a lot of convicts that were having a much better time
than some married people of my acquaintance.

A large number of men and women marry for money. That don't pay either
in the long run. Young man, don't marry a hundred thousand dollars with
a girl attached, because some of these days you'll find that the money
has taken wings and flown away, and you'll have a girl on your hands,
and you won't know what to do with her. Right here, I want to say to my
friends who are disposed to look upon money as the most valuable of all
things, that if you marry according to my instructions you will marry
the conditions which produce money. To marry for money, or to marry a
person who possesses a fortune for no other reason, is a monstrous
wrong, sure to be punished.

Some refined people marry for beauty. The motive is correct as far as it
goes, but in practice we find few people competent to judge of beauty,
or to use it correctly. The result is, that most people make the mistake
of marrying a fragment of beauty only, or they marry beauty which is not
of the kind or quality available in their cases. A man falls in love
with a pretty hand, a shapely figure, a handsome mouth, or a pair of
beautiful eyes, and he finds upon the more intimate acquaintance of
marriage that the _tout ensemble_ is far from being what he desired in a
wife.

A young lady becomes enamoured of a magnificent specimen of physical
manhood, but she finds to her sorrow that, notwithstanding his beauty,
his whole character, in fact, is totally inharmonious with her own.

Some young ladies marry in a hurry, because they imagine that good
husbands are going to be scarce in the future, and they live to wonder
what a supply the market affords in later years. Young ladies, take my
advice and be deliberate. There are going to be hundreds of good men
after you are all grandmothers.

The real reason why people marry, is because it is natural to do so. It
is in accordance with a law of nature. To understand this fully we must
study natural history for a few moments. As we observe the various
orders of plants and animals, we find that in the lower forms of life,
in vegetable or animal, the male and female principles are embodied in
one individual; and that individual, being entirely capable of
reproducing the species to which he belongs, stands as a perfect
representative of that kind or species. We observe, however, that in the
higher orders of plants and animals, the male and female principles are
separated--are embodied in two separate individuals, and it requires the
union of two of these individuals of different sex to reproduce the
species, and it takes the two individuals, the male and female, to
furnish us with a complete representation of that species.

Man is created in two parts, male and female, man and woman, and it
requires the union of these two to reproduce the race, and to furnish us
with the perfect specimen of the unit of humanity. The man or woman,
considered separately, do not furnish us this complete ideal of
humanity, but on the contrary each is incomplete without the other.

The conclusion which I wish you to draw from this argument is: that the
old bachelor is only half of a man, which is a correct way of expressing
his status in society. Why, my dear sir, you might as well expect to
pull across the Atlantic Ocean in a water-logged skiff, with only one
oar, and make a successful voyage of it, as to pull across the ocean of
life without the help of a good woman. And I have my suspicions of the
morals, as well as my contempt for the taste of a man, who can wander
through this country and see as many bright eyes, ruby lips, rosy
cheeks, and shapely figures, as one may encounter any day in the week,
and who does not marry.

Marriage then may be regarded as the natural condition of every mature
man and woman. And, because it is natural to marry, there is all the
more reason why it should be carefully studied, and why the human race
should learn to form marriages in accordance with Natural Law.

When we study Matrimony in the light of Science, we find that it is
surrounded and governed by Natural Laws, as inevitable in their
consequences as the law of gravitation, and that the marriage relation
is happy or unhappy as these laws have been obeyed or broken.

To constitute a perfect marriage, three great objects must be attained.
The absence of any one of these from the marriage will cause its
ignominious failure. There must be

_First._--Such physiological conditions as will insure the improvement
of offspring and the perpetuation of the race, for the accomplishment of
which object, marriage is primarily established.

_Second._--Amiable Companionship and Congenial Association. The married
pair must live together, and their mutual interests, as well as the
interests of society, demand that the association be pleasant.

_Third._--Mutual helpfulness in financial affairs and the
maintainance of the establishment.

It is absolutely necessary that all three of these elements should
combine to form the perfect marriage. Many good people imagine that if
they can only live together in an amiable way, and have no serious
quarrels, that they have reached the beau ideal of happiness. There are
others who look only to the financial welfare of the union, and if the
conditions seem favorable to the production of wealth, they approve of
the marriage; but the fact remains that both of these conditions may be
present and the marriage still be most unhappy.

When I was lecturing in the State of Indiana, some years ago, I had
occasion to discuss this subject with the Mayor of a certain city, who
informed me, with great glee, that he had "sold out" a Phrenologist, as
he expressed it, on the occasion of his marriage. Said he, "My wife and
I were examined the day before we married, by an eminent Phrenologist,
who pronounced us totally unfitted for each other, and strongly urged us
not to marry. Now, sir, I have lived with that good woman for forty
years, and we've never had a quarrel, and we've made a good living into
the bargain."

I did not want to hurt the old man's feelings, and I felt that if he
could get any comfort out of that marriage, I would be the last one to
take it from him, so I kept silent; but when I looked over his family,
and I counted five children that were partially idiotic, I thought that
the Phrenologist had decidedly the best of the argument.

And suppose you do live with a good woman for forty years and never have
a quarrel, is that anything to your credit? Certainly not. The man who
couldn't live with a good woman for forty years, and not insult her,
ought to be ridden out of town on a rail. And the woman who can't live
with a good man, the same length of time, without getting her name on
the police court records for smashing a frying-pan over his head, is not
fit to move in good society.

It is desirable that the association of man and woman in marriage should
be amiable, but that is not all that is to be desired. Neither is the
physiological improvement of offspring the sole thing to be considered.
The married pair may surround themselves with beautiful children, but if
the conditions of the marriage have made them poor, if the parents are
unable to educate their children, or to give them the necessities and
advantages which are prompted by a laudable ambition, life will be shorn
of most of its charms. And, on the other hand, if life is spent in one
long scramble for riches, and there is in the union nothing but the
elements of sordid wealth, the actual standard of that marriage, as to
the true richness of life, will be poor indeed.

These three grand consummations of Amiable Association, Financial
Success, and Physiological Improvement are most devoutly to be wished,
but how shall they be attained?

Before I proceed to give you my own theory, I want to tear down one or
two others. I am nothing if not combative, and believe that the best way
to establish truth is to begin by tearing down error. I wish to attack,
in the first place, a theory much taught and too generally practiced,
that one should seek, in matrimony, a companion as near like himself as
possible. It is astonishing to see what a hold this theory has upon the
public mind, considering the fact that it never has had any good results
to support it. A distinguished Physiologist, in a recent work which has
been extensively circulated, uses these words in speaking of a proper
selection in matrimony:--

"What should be sought for is a congenial companion. A congenial
companion is one who, under any given set of circumstances, will think,
feel and act exactly as we would, not for the sake of agreeing with us,
but of his own free will, etc."

We consent that a congenial companion should be sought for, but we
differ very much from the learned gentleman, just quoted, as to what
constitutes a congenial companion. To comply with the conditions he
expresses, presupposes that the persons, who are to be congenial
companions, must be alike in character, temperament, disposition; for if
they differ in any of these, Phrenology proves that they will, under the
same combination of circumstances, think, feel and act differently also.
We will examine this theory in the light of results and see how it will
work.

We will suppose the case of a man of the Bilious Temperament, dark
complexion, hair and eyes; Moderate Caution; small Vitativeness, Hope
and Self-esteem; large Destructiveness and Acquisitiveness. Such a
combination gives a strong tendency to suicide in cases of financial
loss. We marry him to a wife exactly like himself, and one day he comes
home and informs her that an unlucky speculation has carried away their
fortune, and he has resolved upon suicide. His wife, being a person "who,
under any combination of circumstances, thinks, feels and acts" exactly
as he does, raises no objection. "All right, my love. You take arsenic,
and I'll take strychnine," and they go to perdition together. There is
not enough vitality in such a marriage to last them over one disaster.

Study this theory to its legitimate conclusion in all cases, and you
will find that its results are disastrous. Moreover, it is contrary to
nature. It is not because a man is like a woman that she admires him. If
this were true, the little emasculated dudes, who cannot raise
moustaches, would be more in demand. It is not because a woman is like a
man that he loves her. If this were true, the bearded lady in the Dime
Museum would be at a premium on the matrimonial market. It is because
each is unlike the other, and because each recognizes in the other
something, without which nature is incomplete, that love exists, and
each is attracted to the other by a force as irresistible as gravitation
itself.

But another fellow comes along and proposes to remedy the whole matter
with another theory. And he tells you to marry somebody who is your
opposite in everything; somebody who, under every combination of
circumstances, will think, feel and act differently from your own
impulses. And he hopes, by the fact that you will pull one way and your
companion another, to establish some sort of an equilibrium that will
keep you on your feet. If we follow this theory, like the other, to its
legitimate conclusion, we will find the old problem repeating itself,
"When an immovable body meets an irresistible body, what is the result?"
According to this theory, I should step into this audience and select
the most delicate, refined and accomplished lady among you and marry her
to a South African cannibal, and I would produce correct results.

The Mormon and the Mohammedan advocate polygamy. The Koran says a man
must have four wives in order to always be able to find one in a good
humor. There is one answer to polygamy which forever settles the
question. The highest orders of animals and men are gifted by nature
with an instinct prompting the union, in pairs, for life of the male and
female. This instinct is located in the occipital region of the brain,
and is called, in Phrenological language, Conjugality. It is large in
the lion and the eagle, and in all mating birds and animals. Those
animals which associate promiscuously are devoid of this sense. There is
no grander example of conjugal fidelity than the eagle, the monarch of
birds, building, with his consort, their rugged home on the breast of
some beetling crag, and there rearing their offspring and remaining true
to each other for a lifetime, and at last, when disabled by age,
nourished and fed by the young birds, no doubt impelled to the filial
task by respect for their magnificent virtues.

If the sense of conjugality is omitted from the organization of a man or
woman, they cannot be held responsible if they fail to conform to its
impulses. But let every man or woman, in the possession of a complete
brain, conform to the instincts of nature and emulate the virtue of the
eagle. Those who practice polygamy, or who associate promiscuously, or
are guilty of conjugal infidelity, are, in plain scientific language,
_deficient in sense_--the sense of conjugality.

It being, therefore, the law of nature that man and woman should unite
in matrimony, what rule of selection may we establish which, in all
cases, shall be productive of agreeable association, financial success
and such physiological conditions as will result in the improvement of
offspring?

It has been stated that Order is Heaven's first law. With equal force it
might be added that Harmony is the first law of nature. The law of
Harmony pervades all nature, and men and women have long since learned
to recognize it in many departments of study, inferior in dignity and
importance to the topic of this lecture. As you have long studied
harmony in its application to music, and colors, I introduce the study
of harmony to you to-night, but it is harmony in its relation to
Humanity in the law of matrimonial selection. There is harmony and
discord in music; there is harmony and discord in the science of colors;
and in the grand symphony of Humanity, the law is just as applicable;
its obedience results in the beauty and accord of domestic felicity, its
disobedience furnishes the deformity and discord of society.

All ladies recognize the law of harmony in colors; and in the selection
of a dress or bonnet, they try to secure colors that will harmonize with
their complexions. They do not all understand the law sufficiently to
always conform to it, as I frequently see ladies in my audience who have
blundered in this respect, and who wear articles hideously unbecoming.
But they all try, and you cannot inflict a greater punishment upon a
woman than to compel her to appear in church, or at a lecture, in a
costume in which she knows she has violated this law. But, ladies, just
think for a moment, if it is a misfortune to have to wear for a season a
dress or bonnet which is not becoming to you, what a calamity it is to
be compelled to wear a husband who does not harmonize with you, and that
for life. And the worst of it is, they never wear out.

Every musician in my audience understands that, in music, if I strike
two notes, of the same pitch and quality, I have produced no harmony, I
have only intensified the volume of the tone. If I strike a first and
third, or a first and fifth, I produce harmony, because the vibrations
of those notes, in combination, are such as produce an agreeable sound.
If I strike certain other notes, I produce a discord, and the sound is
unpleasant. We cannot have harmony without a difference in pitch and
quality, but we can have difference in pitch and quality without
harmony. To produce perfect music, we must have soprano, alto, tenor and
bass to carry all the parts. The tenor and soprano would furnish us a
very poor concert, and the alto and bass alone would produce rather
monotonous music. But we have studied harmony in music until we have
evoked divine results, and our achievements in harmony of colors has
beautified the world with transcendent art.

In the Science of Humanity there are certain combinations of
constitution which, in matrimonial association, are harmonious. There
are certain other combinations which are discordant. The union of
harmonious natures results in agreeable association, financial success
and perfection of offspring. The attempted union of discordant natures
results in domestic misery, divorces by wholesale, pauperism, disease
and crime, and worst of all, the perpetuation of all these evils in a
deformed, diseased and vicious posterity.

In stating the law of harmonious selection, the general rule is, that
the parties should bear a _complementary_ relation to each other. That
is to say, there should be such a combination of temperaments,
dispositions and appearances, that any departure from the correct ideal
of perfect humanity in the one should be supplied by the development of
the other, in order that the two organizations, when added together,
should constitute a perfect type of Humanity.

The reasonableness of this rule is apparent the moment that its effects
upon offspring are comprehended. The child inherits the joint
organization of the parents. It can never be better than the sum total
of the parental organizations. It may be better or worse than either of
these, according to circumstances. It can never be better than both,
except as education may develop possibilities as inherited from both.
If, therefore, the father is capable of transmitting to the child
certain vigorous elements of constitution, which were weak in the
mother, and on the other hand the mother endows the child with certain
graces of intellect which were deficient in the father, the result is
perfection of offspring through complementary association.

The same rule holds good in the matter of amiable association. When each
contributes to the other, elements of character necessary to convenience
and happiness, the mutual esteem and respect generated by the knowledge
of the indispensableness of each to the other's interest, is the surest
guard to amiability.

Likewise as to financial affairs. It is easy to understand that the
individual will be most successful in the affairs of life, who unites in
himself all the elements of a perfect organization. Therefore, in the
consummation of all partnerships, matrimonial or purely commercial, the
application of this rule unites in the organization every element
essential to success.

In the application of this rule, it is necessary to consider, First, the
character of the individual under examination; Second, the type of
humanity we desire to form; Third, the ideal character necessary to the
accomplishment of the end in view.

The error committed by most physiologists, who have experimented with
this question, lies in the fact that they have had in mind only one
ideal as a perfect type of humanity, and they have tried to grade all
their subjects up to this solitary ideal. Humanity, however, presents as
many phases as the various climates, occupations, stages of culture, and
conditions of life might be expected to produce, in various combination,
and we may have a perfect type of humanity, adapted to every climate, to
every occupation, to every grade of society, but differing in each.
Every individual, under every condition of life, may find his proper
complementary associate, adapted to the same conditions of life, but
possessing a different character, harmonious with his own.

Nature has not left us in the dark with reference to this question. She
surrounds us with every incentive to obey her laws, rewards her obedient
children with every pleasure the senses can afford, and punishes the
disobedient with pains and penalties too numerous and severe to
catalogue. Observation is all that is necessary to teach us the law of
harmony. We know that the bright red of the rose is heightened in effect
by the dark green of the leaf behind it. We observe that chords in music
are agreeable to the ear. And we have only to use the same observation,
in respect to matrimony, to distinguish certain combinations that
produce all that is rich and grand and beautiful in domestic life, and
to know others in which the effect is altogether wrong.

Society has long since learned the distinction between the Brunette and
Blonde the Electric and the Magnetic Temperaments. And the fact is also
known that it is natural for those of light complexion to admire those
of dark, and _vice versa_. The novelist and the actor recognize this
principle, and if the story is well told, and the drama well made up,
the hero and the heroine are made to conform to these complexions. The
society belle who gives a party, if she be a blonde, invites some
dark-eyed lady friend as a foil to her beauty; and the dark-complexioned
friend responds cheerfully to the invitation, conscious that her own
beauty will be heightened by the contrast. The blonde and brunette are
complementary to each other, as far as the temperament is concerned. The
Magnetic Temperament is distinguished for its rich arterial circulation
and versatility of character, which is deficient in the Electric. The
Electric on the other hand, is noted for its strength of bone and muscle
and concentrativeness of character, traits deficient in the Magnetic.
United, the combination possesses the warmth and versatility of the
Blonde with the endurance and power of the Brunette. In the union of the
Blonde and Brunette, the law of color is also conformed to, and both
appear better than either would apart, or than either would, combined
with a person of the same temperament.

To illustrate this principle more completely, I will give a few
examples.

I will take first the case of any man who is a complete type of the
extreme brunette or Electric Temperament, and marry him to a lady of the
same type. At once we see that the law of harmony has been violated.
They are too much alike. They look like brother and sister. They are, in
fact, physiologically related. They were created under the same general
conditions of birth, and have inherited the same peculiarities of
constitution. They do not look as well together as either would
separately. They possess the same virtues, it is true, but there is an
excess of their peculiar good traits, so that they are in danger of
becoming vices. Two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same
time; they jostle each other and promote discord. Notice that, in this
couple, each possesses the immense base of brain, the narrow pyramidal
form of forehead, the serious expression and the indications of dynamic
energy peculiar to the Electric Temperament. In this combination there
is an absence of versatility, of blandness, agreeableness, sympathy and
warmth. All is cold, hard, forcible, unyielding and serious on both
sides. The brunette is essentially, a fighting character, the man to
fight the battles of his country, of his clients, of his political
faction or party. United to such a character as shown in this
combination, he would have a wife possessing the same aggressive
qualities, and he would return from the battles of the day to find a new
conflict awaiting him at his own fireside; and in couples mis-mated in
this way, the conflict usually lasts all night, to the great disturbance
of the neighborhood.

But if we conform to the law of nature, and unite the brunette to a
superbly vitalized blonde, a different effect is produced. Combined with
such a character as the brunette her versatility, refinement, warmth and
enthusiasm are exactly what he needs to round out the rugged phases of
his character, and supply the elements deficient in his constitution.
While she in turn needs his executiveness, his dignity, his seriousness
and positive elements to balance her tendency to frivolity, and make her
accomplishments and versatility valuable. Recognizing, each in the
other, characteristics indispensable to happiness, amiable association
and financial success is assured, while the offspring is sure to inherit
an excellently well balanced organization if other conditions are at all
favorable.

Let us now consider the Magnetic Temperament, of which any blonde man
furnishes us an excellent example. If we marry him temporarily to a
blonde lady, we have produced discord again. They do not look as well
together as either would apart. They are too much like brother and
sister. There is too much warmth, enthusiasm, versatility and
inflammability about this combination. There is not enough of
seriousness, dignity, steadfastness and endurance. Their dispositions
clash, because every fault in one is aggravated by the same fault in the
other. The versatility and genius of the blonde is not assisted by
contact with a lady possessing the same characteristics, because he has
enough to supply his needs. When we observe marriages of this class, we
find results far from satisfactory, and offspring with a decided
tendency to insanity, after a succession of such marriages.

What this blonde character demands is just what the brunette possesses,
and when we unite the blonde to a lady of the brunette type, we find
results that are far more satisfactory. Here again we have followed the
law of nature, and harmony is the result--each is the complement of the
other. The genius and versatility of the blond are here fortified with
executiveness and endurance, while her concentrative and intense nature
is vitalized and warmed with the enthusiasm, the geniality and
adaptiveness of the Magnetic Temperament.

These four types of character represent the application of the law in
persons of relatively the same grade of social position, and surrounded
by the same general conditions of life. Between these extreme types of
temperamental development, we may find every grade and blending of
temperament, but the law remains the same. It requires the trained skill
of the professional examiner to determine for each individual the exact
type necessary for the complementary character, but this being done, and
the description being given correctly, the application of the law
becomes an easy task. In my written delineations of character, which
many of you have already, and which all should possess, this
complementary character is marked out for you with great precision; by
following the instruction there given, you have the scientific key to
matrimonial happiness.

Persons possessing a predominance of the Mental Temperament should seek
consorts having more of the Vital and Motive. Those having an excess of
Vitality, a consort more largely endowed with the Mental and Motive.
While those endowed with the large bones and strong muscles, peculiar to
the Motive Temperament, need the electrifying influence of the Mental,
combined with the nourishment of the Vital.

It does not follow that perfect blending of temperamental conditions
will produce a happy marriage. This is the physiological foundation
always of a correct relation, but there are other considerations quite
as likely to produce important modifications. It does not follow from
this law, that a blonde heiress should marry her father's coachman,
though he may be a perfect type of the brunette. We should not advise a
graduate of one of our cosmopolitan universities to marry an
uncultivated country maiden, even though their temperaments were
perfectly balanced. We expect our subjects to exercise common sense in
the application of our advice, and marry with due regard to the purposes
of the union socially, financially and physiologically.

A young gentleman or lady may take my written description of the proper
complementary character, and in any village of two thousand inhabitants
there will presumably be a half dozen eligible persons sufficiently
corresponding to the temperamental description. Our candidate will
consider the claims of the six with probably the following result: He
will reject No. 1, because she is too old; No. 2, because she is too
young; No. 3, because she is diseased; No. 4, because she has
insufficient culture. He may profitably hesitate a year between Nos. 5
and 6, but ultimately prefer No. 6 for reasons which he has
discovered in that time, and marry happily, and with the proud
satisfaction of having married intelligently.

"But," says some objector, "you would have marriage reduced to a matter
of cold calculation. You leave out all sentiment and _love_."

Now, hold on, my friend, and we will see whether that is true or not.
What is this sentiment, this love, which most people seem to think
desirable in matrimony, and which others, we may add, hold in profound
contempt. Love is the impulse of desire toward that which gratifies it.
A young man loves a young woman because he sees something in her
character, her personal beauty, her mental attributes, which gratifies
him. For precisely the same reason the young lady reciprocates the
sentiment. Now the question simply reduces itself to this: Shall this
sentiment, this love, be founded on a complete and accurate knowledge of
what is necessary to the complete gratification of the whole nature, or
shall it be founded upon mere caprice or whim, the gratification of a
mere fragmentary instinct which has never been educated to the
comprehension of its true needs? Ponder on these questions for a few
moments and you will realize that, instead of eliminating the sentiment
of love from the question of matrimonial selection, I have really
introduced you to a grander, broader, better ideal of true love than you
have ever comprehended before.

This perfect comprehension of the needs of a natural existence
culminates in a wonderful attractive force between the sexes. A force as
evident to the senses as the force of gravitation when properly studied,
but unfortunately too little understood. This force, however, exists--is
governed by natural laws and exerts its influence for good or evil
between every man and woman in the universe; and the man who marries in
ignorance of this force, or who violates its laws, is as foolish as he
who tempts the law of gravitation by jumping from the brow of a
precipice without calculating the distance to the ground beneath. This
force is an emanation from the body according to temperament, it is
identical with gravitation in its phenomena, and I introduce it to-night
to your consideration under the name of Sexual Magnetism.

I hold in my hand a bar of iron; if I let go, it falls to the ground,
impelled by an unseen but very tangible force which you call
gravitation. The scientist will tell you that gravitation exists because
the earth is a great magnet, attracting to itself all negative bodies
which come within the reach of its positive influence. But the principle
of magnetic attraction implies, also, the principle of magnetic
repulsion. Every child is familiar with the practical results of
magnetic attraction, because he feels the force of it every time he
falls down, or drops a plaything. But you are not so familiar with
magnetic repulsion, yet if, by any combination of circumstances, you
could be made positive to the earth instead of negative, you would be
repelled from it with exactly as much force as you are now attracted to
it, and shot into space to wander among the asteroids.

[Illustration: P. Positive Pole. N. Negative Pole. The curved arrows
show the direction of revolution.]

To illustrate this principle of magnetic attraction and repulsion, I
have prepared these two bar magnets, which are simple bars of steel
which have been charged with magnetic properties. I mount one of them on
a pivot so that it will revolve when subjected to any force. One end of
the magnet is called the positive pole, the other the negative pole,
because they have been found to exert two different forces. If I present
the positive pole of the magnet I hold in my hand to the negative pole
of the mounted magnet, they will _attract_ each other, and the mounted
magnet will revolve _toward_ the one in my hand. But if I reverse the
conditions, and I present the positive pole of this magnet to the
positive pole of the mounted magnet, they will _repel_ each other, and
the mounted magnet will revolve in the opposite direction with equal
force. This beautiful experiment illustrates the repelling force of
magnetism as well as its attractive power.

[Illustration: Magnetic Repulsion.]

The human body is magnetic in its action. Its every phenomenon is
governed by the laws of electricity and magnetism. The human body is a
divine instrument upon which the mind plays, is a wonderful magnet,
exhibiting all the phenomena of attraction and repulsion. Between
certain constitutions there are positive and negative conditions,
resulting in a natural attraction, conducive to the highest matrimonial
felicity. Between other constitutions there is a natural antagonism, as
relentless as the force of gravitation itself, and when companionship is
attempted, in violation of this law, nature drives them apart by the
most fearful visitation of her penalties in domestic misery, depraved
and deformed offspring, pauperism, insanity and crime.

If any of you doubt the existence of this force, I will cite you to an
experiment, which most of you have tried. Put your arm around your
sister, and you will not be able to notice any very remarkable
sensations. But just get your arm around some other fellow's sister, and
you will feel like you were struck by lightening in half a minute. That
is Sexual Magnetism.

This force exists in different degrees of intensity, according to the
constitutions of the parties affected. It may be highly attractive, it
may be weakly so; it may be neutralized, it may be weakly antagonistic;
it may be violently repulsive in its effects.

The great difficulty with most people is that they are insensible to the
effects of this force. The senses may be educated to a keen perception
of it, or they may be deadened by disease and sexual depravity.

I am frequently asked if the natural instincts of men and women will not
guide aright in the selection of a consort, and my answer is yes, if the
instincts of men and women _were natural_. But when we reflect that the
sexual instincts of the present generation are blunted, warped and
paralyzed by the sexual sins of a long line of ignorant and depraved
ancestors, they cannot be trusted. But they can be educated, and every
man of refined sensibilities can, by learning to recognize his true
affinity, so educate his sexual instincts that they will be as true as
the needle to the pole, and he will learn to so distinguish the
conditions of magnetic attraction and repulsion that he will be
attracted by that which is favorable to his own constitution, and
repelled by that which is unfavorable, as sensitively as these magnets.
And every woman of refined sensibilities may reach the same exalted
plane of true sexual intelligence.

And when this degree of sexual intelligence is attained, vice is an
impossibility. The education of this refined, sensitive sexual instinct
renders adultery abhorrent. The true sexual consort once found, the
chief joy of existence consists in the perpetuation of mutual
attraction. The consort satisfies; the union is complete; harmony is
established, and existence itself becomes a grand, sweet symphony of
mutual love, respect and adoration.

I respectfully submit the principles here, for the first time expounded,
as the foundation of a proper marriage relation, and a solution of the
social problem.

I now discuss the important question of age. There are great
possibilities of good and evil involved in this branch of the subject,
and nature's laws are violated in this as in every other department.

The proper age for the consummation of marriage is maturity. This varies
much in different constitutions and in different climates, but is not
hard to determine. A general average for the temperate zone would place
the proper age at from 22 to 27 in the male, and from 18 to 23 in the
female.

There are a thousand arguments against premature marriages, which I
shall not stop to discuss in this lecture. You will hear this subject
fully discussed in my lectures on Sexual Science, and you will also find
it elucidated at length in my "Science of Creation." Those who have
neglected to marry until past the ages above given, if in sound health
and good character, may consider that they have my consent as soon as
they can find a proper complementary consort, according to my full
written delineation.

The female should be about three years younger than the male. This rule
applies at all stages of life. Under no circumstances should a man marry
a woman older than himself. Neither should he marry one more than five
years his junior; and three above stated is better, because the female
matures three years younger than the male, as a rule, and this allows
for both to marry at the same stage of maturity. There are most weighty
physiological reasons for the support of this rule, the full discussion
of which I reserve until my lectures on Sexual Science. But I will
answer one common objection to this rule right here:

It is quite a common belief that, unless a man marries a woman ten years
his junior, in a few years his wife will look too old for him. This
belief is based upon the fact that most married women break down and
look old in a very short time. This is lamentably true, but there is no
good reason why it should be so. It is contrary to nature, and whenever
a result is contrary to nature, the cause which produces it is a
violation of nature's laws; and the violation of nature's laws, which
results in the premature decay of American women, is found mainly in
improper marriages, wrong sexual conditions, unhygienic habits, and the
woful ignorance of both husband and wife in all that pertains to a
proper marriage relation. And, ladies, if you will see that your
husbands attend my lectures on Sexual Science, I will promise to
educate them to that point where they will be able to preserve your
beauty. And in my lectures to ladies on the same subject, I shall impart
knowledge which will aid you in preserving your charms and also
increasing the manliness of your husbands.

There is no part of my professional work that I approach with as great a
feeling of responsibility as this sacred question of Matrimony. And when
I am consulted by a young man or woman and requested to give my
professional sanction to a proposed union, I study the characters of the
parties with my most conscientious skill, and in the light of science I
approve it or condemn it, regardless of everything but the great laws of
nature, which, knowing, I dare not disobey.

It frequently happens that I am obliged to condemn the aspirations of
youthful minds, who up to that time have fondly imagined that they are
perfectly suited to each other. But I have fearlessly passed an adverse
judgment upon thousands of such cases, and in no case have I had cause
to regret my decision. But in many cases, when parties have married in
defiance of nature's laws, as explained by me, have they had cause to
regret it. And many, very many, whom I have advised against improper
marriages, have returned to thank me for my counsel.

Some years ago I examined a young Methodist preacher, and when I
described his adaptation in matrimony he seemed dejected, and remarked
that it did not correspond at all with his sweetheart. I told him he was
lucky to find out the truth before it was too late. He then brought the
young lady to me for a personal examination, and both requested me to be
candid and to give them the benefit of my highest professional skill. I
did so. I said to the young man, "You are a preacher, a man of strong
magnetic power, upon which you depend for success; your social organs
are very large, and you depend on them to attract and hold those with
whom you come in friendly contact. You need a wife who will fortify
these elements in your character with strong magnetic and social
qualities of her own. This lady, on the contrary, will neutralize in a
great degree what you already possess. She is cold and exclusive, and,
married to her, you would not be as successful as you would be single.
Moreover, you are a man of warm, affectionate nature, demanding a great
deal of caressing and amative demonstration from your wife. This lady
would freeze you out in one week.

"You have, also, some inharmonious similarities. You are argumentative,
dogmatic and commanding in disposition, unyielding, inflexible and
positive. This lady is like you in these respects, and if you get into
an argument, neither would yield a point, and the result would be sure
to be domestic discord. The attachment you both feel for each other is
merely fraternal. There is not the first element of sexual magnetism in
your constitutions."

They were convinced, and broke the engagement then and there. Two years
later I found them both happily married to other parties, according to
my instructions, and both took occasion to thank me for saving them from
a sad mistake.

I once examined a young artist, of great ability in his professional
attainments, but greatly deficient in financial qualifications, and as I
described to him his proper adaptation in matrimony, his countenance
fell, and he informed me that, in most respects, I had described a type
of character quite opposite from what his affianced was. He brought the
young lady to me, subsequently, with the request that I should be as
candid as possible. I found the young lady also gifted in artistic
skill, but utterly wanting in physical stamina and business
qualifications. I then said, "You are too much alike. You are, in a
physiological sense, brother and sister. The offspring of such a
marriage would be weak physically and mentally, if you had any, which is
doubtful. You are both the embodiment of delicacy and refinement,
artistic taste and sensitiveness, without one element of robust physique
or business ability. You never made a dollar in your life."

"No," said the young man, "my father supports me."

"Now," I continued, "you have the one element of a pleasant
companionship, derived from the same accomplishment, but it is such a
companionship as we might look for in a brother and sister. There is
nothing in your union which will contribute the wherewith to fight the
battle for existence. What you both need, is an organization of
executive ability and strength of business qualifications, robust
physique and aggressive force for offensive and defensive action, to
make your artistic talent effective. You might marry and never quarrel,
and as long as your parents contribute to your support, you might exist,
but your marriage is wrong in every physiological and scientific sense."

They were also convinced, and broke their engagement, and I have had the
pleasure of congratulating both of them upon their marriage, according
to correct principles, resulting in complete happiness, financial
success and beautiful offspring.

In subsequent lectures, ladies and gentlemen, to the sexes separately, I
will elucidate my theory to the full extent of its physiological laws.
For the present I have only presented its general principles, but I
submit it to your criticism as the only true relation of the sexes,
conducive to the improvement of the race, and of its individual members.
I submit it as the solution of the great social problem of the age, as
the foundation of correct morals, as the guide to health, happiness and
that substantial prosperity which rests upon obedience to the laws of
nature.

Mankind has long realized that the acme of human enjoyment is reached in
the perfect companionship of harmonious association of the sexes.

   "Two souls with but a single thought;
    Two hearts that beat as one."

And in the grand possibilities of existence, I can conceive of no
greater joy, I crave no higher destiny than vibrating in harmonious
association in one sweet chord of love, with a companion whose nature is
in all respects complimentary to my own.



PREFACE TO PART II.


The following interviews, published in various papers during my past
professional experience, relate to interesting subjects pertaining to
human character, and have been the object of so much favorable criticism
from my friends, that I have decided to give them wider circulation in
this form. The papers from which these interviews are quoted, are among
the leading journals of the United States, and in each case due credit
has been given. I also take this opportunity as a _quondam_ journalist
to return to my brethren of the press, my sincere thanks for their
uniform courtesy, both in reporting my lectures, and in the wide
circulation they have given my doctrines in these interviews.

Fraternally,

WILLIAM WINDSOR.



PART II.

PROFESSIONAL INTERVIEWS.


       I. Physiognomy of Matrimony.

      II. Study in Ancient Skulls--The Cliff Dwellers.

     III. A Phrenological Study--Henry W. Grady.

      IV. Was Hawes Insane?

       V. How Living Heads and Dead Skulls are Measured.

      VI. Crime and its Causes.

     VII. A Murderer's Mentality--Fritz Anschlag.

    VIII. Phrenology in Politics.



PART II.

PHYSIOGNOMY OF MATRIMONY.

    How Mental Characteristics are Displayed in Personal Appearance.

    [From the Dallas (Texas) _Times_.]


"Now," said Prof. Windsor to a representative of the _Times_ last
evening at the Opera-house as they took seats commanding a view of the
audience, "if you'll pay attention I'll give you some points on
matrimony from a phrenological standpoint, illustrated with practical
examples from this audience:

"Notice that couple just behind the usher in the middle aisle. The
gentleman, as you see, is a brunette, tall, angular, with a prominent
Roman nose, and a firm step. He is one of our promising young attorneys,
as the papers say. An aggressive executive disposition is written in
every line of his face. He is not so noted for legal knowledge as for
his ability in handling the facts in the case. Notice his chin, which is
rather narrow, round, and projects well forward."

"What does that signify?"

"An intense desire to love. His affections, like the rest of his
character, are aggressive and must find expression. His conjugality is
large and he will center all his affections on one beloved object.

"Now, notice the lady. She has taken the seat beside him, and the
average observer would not detect anything wrong, but I can see from
here that she does not enjoy his company. There is no compatibility
between them, and if they marry they can expect nothing but misery."

"Upon what evidence do you base these conclusions?"

"Well, her temperament is similar to his, as you will see if you notice
her features and complexion; but that isn't all. Notice her position.
The lines of her figure are all inclined away from him. She smiles at
his conversation, out of politeness, and is not conscious of the fact
that she is betraying her dislike by any act; but she is, nevertheless.

"Now notice that couple over there on the left, three seats back of the
one we have just observed. You see the lady is a blonde with a wide
forehead and a nose which has a regular curve from the root to the tip.
That is what we call the celestial nose, because it is always pointing
skyward and serves as a perpetual interrogation point. She can ask more
questions between the acts than her companion can answer in a fortnight.
Her chin is narrow and pointed, which signifies congenial love and a
wealth of affection which she is anxious to bestow on somebody. Her
companion, you see, is a semi-brunette with a rather wide head. He is
one of our prominent retail merchants and the lady is his _fiancée_."

"What are the prospects for their future happiness?"

"Good. Notice that indentation in the middle of his chin, signifying an
intense desire to be loved, a passive form of the passion, but admirably
adapted to her equally strong desire to manifest the active form by
caresses and endearments. Notice how closely they sit together, the
lines of both figures inclining to each other. Why, you couldn't put a
piece of tissue paper between their shoulders. His nose is slightly
modeled after the Roman type, and as hers curves the other way the
circle of adaptability is complete."

"Is the nose reliable as an indication of character?"

"Always. Do you see that gentleman on the front seat with the pug nose?
Well, his character is equally undeveloped, as his friends will tell
you. The shortness of the organ from root to tip signifies a distressing
lack of executive ability.

"The lady beside him is much the better man of the two. She has
executive force enough for a whole family, and the fact is betrayed by
the strong features, large nose, wide head and firmly set jaws and
lips."

"Does the mouth indicate as much character as the nose?"

"Yes, the character is written on every feature. You see that lady on
the second row of seats, back of our pug-nosed specimen? When she
smiles, her upper lip curls up on one side, and when her countenance is
at rest, her upper teeth are slightly exposed. That is the sign of
approbativeness, love of applause, compliments, desire to attract
attention, etc. You can see the same element of character in the fact
that she inclines her head to one side nearly all the time. Her costume
is almost loud. Her voice certainly is, for we have heard it at this
distance several times."

"Approbativeness is not a very desirable element of character, then."

"That depends upon perversion. In the present instance it is turned to
bad account. The young lady is admirably adapted to the stage, and if
she would adopt that profession the very faculty of approbativeness
would be her most powerful stimulus in ambition to excel.

"Approbativeness is often mistaken for self-esteem. Do you see that
gentleman coming down the middle aisle? From his walk you would suppose
he owned most of Dallas. He displays a good deal of jewelry and is
evidently 'stuck on himself,' as the boys say. He is a well-known lawyer
of very moderate talent, and the fact is that self-esteem is very low in
his organization, as he is very deficient in dignity. That aggressive
display is an effort on his part to supply a deficiency of which he is
painfully conscious.

"His wife, who accompanies him, is very modest and apparently
unassuming in demeanor, but she has plenty of self-esteem and firmness,
and the result is that she is the controlling member of the firm. If it
were not for her large benevolence and suavity, which makes her a very
agreeable woman, he would be badly henpecked. As it is, she uses more
tact than force, but he obeys implicitly, nevertheless."

"What benefits do you claim, Professor, to result from the practice of
phrenology as applied to matrimony?"

"Simply the results of knowledge and observation in any direction. If
parties will walk into matrimony blindly, without observing or
attempting to discover the signs of character, the result is likely to
prove disastrous. It is the old story of 'buying a pig in a poke,' to
use an ancient Irish expression. In matrimony, as in everything else,
the best plan is to make your transaction with your eyes open, and if
your eyes are not sufficiently educated to discern the signs of human
character, then to avail yourself of professional skill, as you would do
in every other department of life."



SOME PEOPLE YOU MEET.

    [From the Atlanta (Ga.) _Constitution_.]


"Is that my picture, or that of the Three-Dollar Shoe Man, you're
studying so carefully?"

The speaker was a large, fine-looking specimen of American manhood, who
walked into _The Constitution_ office yesterday.

A splendid head, placed firmly upon a Grover Cleveland neck, silken,
sandy mustache, and side whiskers cut on the William H. Vanderbilt
pattern, and piercing blue eyes, which seemed to look straight through
you--these were the striking features of a rather striking face.

Then he introduced himself. It was Professor William Windsor, LL.B.,
"phrenologist and anthropologist."

"I have been an active practitioner in my line," said the Professor, in
answer to a question, "for many years now. For some time before that I
studied phrenology and practiced law, but in later years I have devoted
all my time to the active practice of that which I have now made my
profession. This is the first time I have been to Atlanta, though I am
very much of a Southerner. I was born in Kentucky, and my father was a
Virginian. He made a fortune on the Mississippi during the war, and
after that was over he left the river and moved to Wisconsin, where I
was educated. I graduated in law at the University of Wisconsin; but as
I lived several years in Texas, I consider that I am very much of a
Southerner."

"And as to phrenology?"

"I love it. There is so much to it--so much more than many people
imagine. Of course, I am working for money, but above and beyond that is
the desire to do good to my fellow-men. How? Why, nobody has a better
opportunity of doing good than a conscientious phrenologist, for he can
look into a man's character, into the inmost recesses of his heart, as
it were."

"Is there anything in palmistry?"

"Oh, yes. There is no reason why character should not be read in any
feature. It can be read, I have no doubt, in the feet as well as in the
head and the hands, but the trouble would be in getting comparisons. You
couldn't very well ask every man you meet to pull off his shoes, that
you might study his feet, but every man studies the character of his
neighbor as he reads it in his face. He may say he doesn't believe in
phrenology, but, unconsciously, perhaps, he practices it."

"You spoke of doing good. Can you give me an instance?"

"Hundreds of them, I am happy to say. By pointing out to people their
faults and how to correct them, I know I have done good. This year I was
out in Pueblo, Colo., where I had been three years ago. While there, a
young man called on me, and brought with him his wife. Upon my last
visit I had examined him, and had pointed out several things to him. One
was that he was too cautious. He is a young business man, and is one of
those fellows who are always afraid to take risks. I told him of this,
and then, at his request, told him of the sort of young lady he should
marry. Well, he found the girl and married her, and he told me he could
point out where he had made seven thousand dollars by following my
advice as to risks. That is only one instance; but I believe I have done
much good."

"And anthropology?"

"That means the study of human nature. In its application it includes
man in all his physical, mental and social conditions. Phrenology is the
science of the mind--mental philosophy; anthropology is the science of
man--human philosophy. I contend that to the proper understanding of
these great subjects we must look for the solution of all social
problems."



STUDY IN ANCIENT SKULLS.

    What a Specialist in Cranial Architecture Can Read--The Skulls
    of the Cliff Dwellers[A] Viewed by the Light of Science and
    Tapers.

[Footnote A: NOTE.--The "Cliff Dwellers" is a name given to an ancient
aboriginal race who once inhabited the mountain fastnesses of the Rocky
Mountains in Colorado. They had their homes in caverns of almost
inaccessible cliffs, and undoubtedly possessed an advanced state of
civilization, as evidenced from the pottery, implements, musical
instruments, etc., found in the ruins of their homes, as well as what is
indicated by the skulls described in this interview. Their dwellings
exhibit remarkable constructiveness in the inmates, and in many
instances a high power of decorative art.]

    [Denver (Col.) _Republican_.]


At one of his lectures last week at Warren's Academy, Professor William
Windsor, LL. B., delineated the character of a skull submitted to him by
one of the audience. The Professor recognized it instantly as that of
one of the Cliff Dwellers, and proceeded to give a description of the
individual to whom the skull belonged. A _Republican_ representative who
was present, called on Professor Windsor at the Brunswick yesterday.

"The Cliff Dwellers," said Professor Windsor, "present a most
interesting study to the anthropologist. I have examined the collection
of relics on Larimer street, and I have here the skull I examined
Tuesday evening, as well as two others kindly loaned to me by the
proprietors of that collection."

"Can you tell anything of the mental characteristics of the wearers of
these skulls, Professor?"

"Oh, yes," said the phrenologist, smiling. "The skull is an absolute
index of the character, and, as long as it holds together, is a better
monument than 'storied urn or animated bust' to those who have the skill
to read it. The skulls of these Cliff Dwellers furnish us with much more
accurate information than the other relics, concerning their habits and
character.

"For example, one of their striking peculiarities is a decided talent
for music. Nearly every skull in the collection shows it. After I had
remarked this fact to the proprietor of the exhibit, Mr. McLoyd, showed
me a very well-preserved fragment of a flute which is in the collection.
The skulls of these people, however, bear a more eloquent testimonial to
their musical genius than this fragment of their musical instrument.

"The peculiar form of the Cliff Dweller's skull is produced by some
custom of the tribe in binding the infant upon a board or other
substance. This is proved by the fact that the flatness of the back head
is uniformly at the same angle, and that the upper tables of the skull
give evidence of abnormal pressure. There is also in this collection one
skull which is an exception, and shows exactly the development we would
expect to find in a normal form when such pressure was not applied. The
skull is that of a young female, and in outline it is strikingly like
that of the ordinary Caucasian skull. In fact, I would pronounce it a
Caucasian skull were it not for the structure of the superior maxillary
bone, which shows a radical departure from the type of either of the
five present races. The Cliff Dwellers are more like the Caucasian than
the Indian, and more like the Hindoo than either. That they possessed a
higher order of intellect than any Indian tribe of which we have
knowledge does not admit of doubt.

"The most striking peculiarity of these skulls is their delicate and yet
strong quality. The grain or texture of the bone is much more delicate
and fine than the average of Caucasian skulls that belong to the
uneducated classes. The illumination of the skull discloses some
interesting facts. It is well known to phrenologists that the skull is
thinner in those regions that are most constantly used in the mental
habits of the individual. The illumination of the skulls of these two
youths (here Professor Windsor inserted a lighted taper in each)
discloses a nearly uniform thinness of the entire skull, showing that
they exercised all the faculties of the mind. The skull of this old
warrior, however, presents a different appearance under the same test.
You will notice that the illumination is confined to that portion of the
skull lying around the base of the brain, and running highest in the
forehead. The conclusion to be drawn from this is that the individual
who once wore this skull was a man of very practical intellect. The
perceptive organs, the knowing and reasoning faculties, executive
ability and the social organs of amativeness and friendship,
particularly the latter, are all bright and particularly well developed.

"The abnormal width of the Cliff Dweller's skull through the middle
section, and the massive, dome-like forehead, is due in a measure to the
crowding forward of the brain from the pressure which produced the
flattening of the occiput. Any normal head with such a development would
show a thinness of the bone in that region, whereas the opacity of the
warrior's skull is remarkable in that region. If we may take the skull
of this female, which has not been subjected to this pressure, as a type
of the race, we are justified in considering the Cliff Dwellers as a
people remarkably agreeable in traits of character. All the domestic
propensities which form the basis of the family relation, the love of
offspring, of friends and neighbors, are remarkably well developed.
There is a magnificent moral influence shown in the development of
conscientiousness, approbativeness and caution. The latter organ is so
large as to suggest cowardice, but these people undoubtedly lived in an
age when circumspection and eternal vigilance was the price of existence
as well as of liberty.

"I notice that the writer of the article on the Cliff Dwellers in last
_Sunday's Republican_ makes the statement that they apparently had
neither literature nor religion. He bases his assertions on the fact
that he does not find altars or writings among their possessions. But
appearances are against him. They apparently had both, from the
structure of their skulls. The Cliff Dweller is largely endowed with the
artistic and constructive organs of the brain with an unlimited capacity
for invention and designing. Savage races far below him in these
qualities have literature, and it is unreasonable to suppose that having
these qualities both large and active, he did not use them. As to his
religion, the single exception to the uniform opacity of the warrior's
skull above mentioned in the crown of the head is in the organ of
veneration. He did not have enough of spirituality and faith to supply a
Methodist camp meeting, but he undoubtedly reverenced the Great Spirit
and invoked the patronage of the god which he could comprehend. The
other two skulls show as good a development of the religious organs as
you will find in a general average of any Sunday-school in Denver. The
Cliff Dwellers were undoubtedly religious.

"In physical structure the Cliff Dweller presents a greater variety than
is found in any race except the Caucasian. Their warriors were
undoubtedly men of great endurance and strong physique with a good size
of body. There were also among them types of character delicate in the
extreme and possessing but little endurance. As a race they depended on
prudence rather than strength for safety. They were shrewd, circumspect
and diplomatic. In complexion they were darker than the Caucasian and
much lighter than the American Indian. In diet they were almost if not
quite exclusively graminivorous, living on grain and eating that raw."

"How do you tell that? Professor," asked the scribe. "Isn't that getting
things down very fine for so long a lapse of time?"

"Oh, no; just look at the teeth of all these skulls and you will see
that they are worn--even these young skulls which have not developed the
wisdom teeth have the molars half worn away. The canine teeth are almost
rudimentary in these skulls--in the carnivorous races of men they are
very large. The condition of these teeth could only be produced by such
a diet. If the Cliff Dweller had subsisted to any extent on meat or had
eaten his grain cooked, he would not have worn the teeth one-quarter as
much at the age of these younger skulls. Moreover, he did not use
tobacco, which also leaves its mark on the skull, in the deterioration
of certain organs of the brain, which, to the credit of the Cliff
Dwellers, are well developed.

"If it is true that--

   'The evil that men do lives after them,
    The good is oft interred with their bones--'

it is equally true, that by resurrecting the bones we may read the
history of both the evil and the good."



A PHRENOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Henry W. Grady's Character Analyzed by an Expert. What a Study
    of the Mask and of Photograph Shows--His Wonderful Brain and its
    Wonderful Capacity.

    _Atlanta Constitution._


"Yes, I have given the character of Henry W. Grady considerable study,
as I do in the case of all men who attract public attention by their
graces, gifts and accomplishments, or by the lack of those attributes."

The speaker was Professor William Windsor, LL. B., phrenologist and
anthropologist, whose lectures last week at the Guard's armory
interested the people of Atlanta in the study of human character.

"Mr. Grady has interested me ever since I first heard of him, and I had
looked forward to meeting him personally here in Atlanta this winter,
ever since my route was mapped out for the season. I feel a sense of
personal bereavement in his death, for his characteristics were as
vividly impressed upon my mind by the study I had made of the man as
others experience from personal contact."

"Perhaps you can tell us something of the character of Mr. Grady as
viewed from the standpoint of your science that will be interesting,
Professor," suggested a representative of THE CONSTITUTION, and the
party of interested gentlemen drew more closely around the philosopher.

"Yes, indeed," answered Professor Windsor, "but to me the contemplation
of the character of Mr. Grady, at this time, is too much like viewing
the wreck of a grand ship which was freighted with a precious cargo, and
trying to estimate the loss. There isn't much comfort in it, except in
the fact that a correct estimate of the virtues and accomplishments of
such a man, at a time when the community is still shocked at the
calamity of his demise, is a powerful incentive to emulation on the part
of other and younger men.

"From the phrenological standpoint Mr. Grady's characteristics present
an interesting study, while his known accomplishments are a wonderful
confirmation of the correctness of the theory upon which we estimate
mental power, namely, that size of brain is the measure of power, when
temperament, quality and health of body are sufficient to support the
brain. Comprehensive greatness is never manifested by a small brain. I
have been placed in possession of very accurate measurements of Mr.
Grady's head through the courtesy of Mr. Frazee, the Atlanta
sculptor who has a cast of the face and forehead made from the body
of Mr. Grady, and hence strictly correct in dimensions. I have also had
the benefit of numerous photographs, in which the phrenological features
are distinctly preserved.

"Mr. Grady possessed a strong endowment of the magnetic temperament
which gives a strong circulation of blood and a great activity of
mentality. His height and weight show him to have had sufficient
vitality to sustain his brain, and there was just enough of the electric
temperament in him to darken his eyes and hair and give him intensity of
feeling and action. His quality was exceedingly responsive and delicate,
and these attributes are necessary to the class of orators to which he
belonged.

"The size of his brain compares favorably with what is known of other
intellectual giants, as the following measurements will demonstrate. The
actual circumference of the head around the base of the brain was
twenty-four inches. The measurement from ear to ear over the top of the
head fifteen and a half inches, while the forehead measures from ear to
ear over the perceptives twelve and a half inches, and from the same
points over the region of sympathy fourteen inches. The massing of the
intellect, it will be seen, was in the upper portion of the forehead;
and that region shows a remarkable development of benevolence, suavity,
causality, comparison and imitation.

"The most remarkable development, however, is in the organ of
constructiveness, which gives a lateral expansion to the forehead which
is almost enormous. This faculty is necessary to the correlation of
thoughts and ideas, the construction of sentences and the formation of
schemes and plans. As an inventor, Mr. Grady was superb, and his large
sympathy would naturally lead him to the invention of social plans and
philanthropic enterprises rather than machinery.

"His large language is indicated by the fullness under the eye. The
phrenological organ of language lies above and behind the eye, and when
large presses the eyeball forward and downward causing a fullness or
sack under the eye which is very prominent in Mr. Grady's portraits. In
the power and scope of this feature he had more development than either
Webster or Ingersoll.

"His large suavity enabled him to use his language in a way that pleased
even his antagonists. Mr. Grady was emphatically combative, as shown by
full development behind and between the ears, where the cast measures
six inches in diameter, but it was the combativeness which showed itself
in force and energy rather than contention. His combativeness was
harnessed to his suavity, and he could be forcible and at the same time
persuasive.

"These qualities were re-inforced by remarkable firmness, as shown by
the measurement over the top of the head, where the development is a
half-inch in excess of that of Daniel Webster, and a quarter inch above
that of Napoleon Bonaparte. This characteristic is also shown in the
projection forward of the lower lip, caused by habitual compression in
the exercise of this faculty.

"In this connection, it is interesting to note a comparison of Mr.
Grady's head with the measurement of other noted personages. Here is a
table which I have compiled, and which you will find entertaining,"
continued the phrenologist, as he unfolded a paper with the figures
herewith reproduced:

    _________________________________________________
                       |             |
                       | Size around | Size from ear
                       | the head    |  to ear over
           NAME.       | at base of  |  top of head
                       | brain.      |  at organ of
                       |             |  firmness.
    ___________________|_____________|_______________
                       |             |
    Henry W. Grady     |   24  in.   |   15½ in.
    Henry Clay         |   23¼  "    |   14¾  "
    Daniel Webster     |   25   "    |   15   "
    John Quincy Adams  |   22½  "    |   15   "
    Thomas H. Benton   |   23   "    |   15   "
    Napoleon Bonaparte |   23½  "    |   15¼  "
                       |_____________|_______________
                       |             |
    Average            |   23½ in.   |   15  in.
                       |_____________|_______________
                       |             |
    Average of human   |             |
      race             |   21  in.   |   14  in.
   ____________________|_____________|_______________

"From these figures," continued Professor Windsor, "we may draw a
melancholy conclusion of the power Mr. Grady might have exhibited had he
lived to ripen into perfect development. It will be seen at once that
only one of these distinguished characters had the advantage of him in
size of brain at the base, and that is Daniel Webster, whose character
was more remarkable for ponderous greatness than brilliancy, and Mr.
Grady's head rises a half inch higher than his in the moral region.
Between the two measurements there is a comparative difference of one
and a half inches, in the heads of Webster and Grady. That inch and a
half marks the difference between the debauched sensuality of the 'Lion
of the North' and the moral graces of the 'Apostle of the New South.'

"The extra inch in the basilar circumference of the head of Daniel
Webster was due to an enormous development of social propensities which
in his case carried him beyond a correct balance and resulted in
notorious licentiousness, because there was not enough of the moral
sentiments in the crown of the head to control them. Mr. Grady's head,
on the other hand, was not remarkable in the development of these
propensities. He had enough of amativeness to give him a proper
appreciation of women and the delights of sociability, but his love
manifested itself more through the intellect than the passions, and his
social nature was of that diffusive character which manifests itself
in the formation of popular attachment rather than exclusive
friendships. There are many men undoubtedly to-day who pride themselves
on being among the intimate friends of the deceased who would be
surprised to know how many others have reason to entertain the same
feeling. When the social propensities are larger than Mr. Grady's, the
possessor is likely to form such exclusive attachments that the energies
are expended in promoting the interests of individuals rather than those
of the masses."

"From your view of the nature of the man, Professor, what would you
consider Mr. Grady's chief fault?"

"The lack of self-esteem. That organ is one of the smallest in the whole
line of development, and was, unquestionably, his weakness, as it is
unfortunately of too many of our best men. He did not comprehend his own
importance, nor realize the value of his own personality. This defect is
directly chargeable with his illness and death. Had he possessed a
larger development of this organ, he would have been more cautious
concerning his health and personal exposure. There is a kind of
unselfish extravagance in this direction which leads to deplorable
results. A more selfish nature will husband its strength and escape
calamity. Had he realized his own value sufficiently, he would not have
gone to Boston on that fatal trip, and overtaxed his vitality. He did
not comprehend the dignity of his character on any occasion. His friends
say that he was as genial and approachable as a school boy, and that is
what I should expect to find in a head like his. We might have contented
ourselves, however, with a more distant manner and a more haughty
nature, for the sake of his self-preservation.

"There is profit in the study of human nature. We may contemplate the
characters of the great to arouse emulation, of the moderately endowed
to suggest improvement, and of the weak to guard against their failures.
Phrenology enables us to form correct estimates in each case, to praise
without flattery and to criticise without injustice. There is value in
the perpetuation of the physical forms of the illustrious dead upon
'storied urn and animated bust,' as well as in polished granite and
enduring marble. For while these monuments cannot

   'Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath,'

still the inspired features and lines of development bear eloquent
testimony to the practicability of human improvement, just as

   'Lives of great men all remind us,
      We can make our lives sublime;
    And, departing, leave behind us,
      Footprints in the sands of time.'"



WAS HAWES INSANE?

    A Scientist's Theory of a Most Atrocious Crime--What Professor
    Windsor Says of Hawes' Mental Peculiarities--Insanity Which the
    Courts Will Soon Recognize.

    [From the Birmingham (Ala.) _Age-Herald_.]


Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the noted specialist in phrenology and
medical jurisprudence, was seen by an _Age-Herald_ reporter at the
Caldwell hotel last night, and in answer to interrogatories, made a
number of interesting statements concerning the Hawes tragedy.

Professor Windsor has had many years of experience as an expert in the
study of insanity in its various phases, and particularly in reference
to crimes and their origin. He enjoys a national reputation in his
special lines of study, and his conclusions have the weight of
scientific authority.

In regard to the subject of discussion, he said: "I have been greatly
interested in the case of Dick Hawes ever since the publication of the
tragedy, and have made an exhaustive study, both of the man and the
circumstances of the case. Of course, in the mass of conflicting
statements contained in the evidence, it is impossible to know with
definite certainty just how the crime was committed; but the confessions
of Hawes and the testimony all agree that the man deliberately planned
and executed the murder of his family. Whether he had the bloody work
done or accomplished it with his own hands does not concern us so much
as the fact that motives and impulses existed in the mind of a husband
and father for the destruction of the lives of those he was bound to
protect, and that those impulses were sufficiently strong to accomplish
the execution of the crime.

"The study of the origin of these motives and impulses are highly
interesting, in view of the fact that they point to conditions of
society that are potent for the breeding of similar crimes.

"To my mind the key-note to the whole case is found in one of the
remarks made by Hawes while standing on the gallows, to-wit: 'I want all
you boys to let liquor and vile women alone; see what it has done for
me.'

"A careful phrenological estimate of Dick Hawes discloses the fact that
he was above an average in appearance, physique and mentality. His brain
is massive and of good quality, though uncultivated. It is not lacking
in the organs of benevolence, sympathy and agreeableness; in reason,
perception or reflection. He had sufficient caution and
conscientiousness to understand right and wrong, and the consequences of
both. There was enough of the affections and social qualities to make
him very attractive to women and children, as his history fully shows,
all of which is fully shown by the fact that he discharged the duties of
a responsible position for years, and commanded a reasonable degree of
respect. Such men do not commit crime while in a normal condition. It is
as physically impossible as it is for water to run up hill.

"When the domestic relations of such men are blasted by association with
prostitutes or by the unchastity of their own wives, a species of
insanity results, which completely reverses the ego or personality of
the man. I have observed hundreds of such cases, and have never seen an
exception to the rule. In scientific parlance his condition is known as
'reversed amativeness,' or a revolution of character, brought about by
an inflamed or abnormal condition of amativeness, the organ of sexual
love. As in a normal state this organ electrifies and strengthens every
natural affection, making every faculty more exquisitely perfect, so in
its inflamed or reversed state it leads to the entire obliteration of
every rational sentiment.

"The particular direction in which this obliteration may manifest itself
depends largely on the temperament of the individual and the
circumstances of the case. In some men it results in paralysis of the
energies, changing the character into shiftlessness. In other cases it
results in destroying the moral sense, but does not amount to positive
viciousness, while on the other hand it may result as it unquestionably
did in this case, in absolutely perverting the affections so as to
render the man incapable of the natural feelings of a husband and
father, and supplying motives which seem to be of the most inhuman
character. They are inhuman and unnatural, but in such cases it is not
correct to hold the man as responsible for the deplorable results unless
it is clearly proved that the mental unbalance was brought about by his
own acts, performed in a state of conscious free will. The law clearly
recognizes that the drunken man is insane, and holds him responsible for
his acts committed while drunk, if he became drunk through his own
volition. If the liquor is proved to have been forced down his throat or
he has been drugged by some one else and his mental balance dethroned
thereby, he is not responsible.

"It is a very nice question to decide in this Hawes case whether the
depraved condition alluded to was the result of his own acts or of his
domestic troubles. There is no doubt in my mind but that the species of
insanity referred to, existed in the mind of Hawes at the time of the
tragedy.

"It is a principle in medical jurisprudence that the more atrocious the
crime the stronger is the presumption of insanity in the perpetrator. It
is a fact wholly creditable to human nature that horrible crimes are
rarely, if ever, committed by persons in a normal state of existence.
The popular mind is not prepared to receive evidence of insanity in such
cases because of the revengeful feeling which naturally animates the
minds of men under such circumstances. And there is another difficulty
in the way of justice in the fact that this form of insanity is rarely
accompanied by such evidences of mania as the uninstructed would demand
as necessary to constitute insanity. The perverted state of the
affections and the judgment are not necessarily accompanied by the wild
ravings and glassy eyes of the lunatic. Emotional insanity of this type
is only temporary. It may, also, only affect a few faculties of the mind
necessary to the perpetration of the deed, while the mental balance of
nine-tenths of the man may remain undisturbed.

"The great fact remains, in any case, that by harlotry, licentiousness
and prostitution the grandest intellects are overturned and the most
harrowing discords produced in society. As long as society tolerates
conditions of ignorance in regard to sexuality, and fosters or permits
establishments having for their avowed purpose the excitement of the
passions and the obliteration of the virtues, we will continue to have
repetitions of tragedies similar to the case of Hawes."



HOW LIVING HEADS AND DEAD SKULLS ARE MEASURED.

    An Interview With Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the
    Distinguished Phrenologist, Lecturer and Traveler.

    [From the Memphis (Tenn.) _Appeal_.]


For several years the citizens of Memphis have not had an opportunity to
hear a discussion of the principles of the science of phrenology, or
character reading. The announcement in yesterday's _Appeal_ of the
series of entertainments to be given in the Young Men's Hebrew
Association Hall, by Prof. Wm. Windsor, LL. B., beginning to-night,
prompted a reporter to call at the Gayoso hotel last night, and send his
card to the Professor. He was cordially received by the Professor's
wife, Mme. Lilla D. Windsor, a lady of elegant presence and charming
affability of manner, in their private parlors on the first floor, and
agreeably entertained until the Professor dismissed several who had
called for professional services.

"The science of phrenology," said Professor Windsor, smiling, after the
usual greetings and upon learning the object of the visit, "is very much
misunderstood. It is a popular error to suppose that we depend upon an
examination of depressions and ridges in the cranium, commonly termed
'bumps,' when, in fact, a phrenological examination is based upon a
critical inspection of the entire physiological structure and condition,
including comparative development of size and configuration of brain,
as I shall demonstrate in the lectures.

"Come this way," said the Professor, leading to another apartment where
a uniformed employé was engaged in unpacking several enormous
trunks. "Look at these skulls. Here is the skull of a man executed at
forty years of age who murdered a family of six persons in Mississippi
in 1842. Contrast it with this skull of a harmless old negress who died
at the comfortable age of 108, and you will see how much difference
there is in heads," and the phrenologist demonstrated by actual
measurement that there was over four inches difference in comparative
development. He also exhibited to the reporter a number of other crania
showing equal diversity of growth.

"I shall exhibit these crania at the free lectures and demonstrate the
scientific principle upon which phrenology rests," continued the
Professor, as he conducted the reporter through an inspection of the
outfit. "Here are the three smallest mummies in the world, besides many
other specimens which I use in my physiological lectures to the sexes
separately. I also use a number of portraits and diagrams in my lectures
on matrimony and physiognomy; but the real demonstration, of the utility
of the work is made in public examinations of leading citizens selected
by the audience. It is a fact that character can be read, and read
correctly, and if this be true, all that I claim for the science in
adapting young men, women and children to proper studies, professions,
trades, etc., follows logically and as a matter of course. It also
follows that if one character can be measured scientifically, a proper
choice for associates in matrimony, business partnerships, etc., can be
indicated. It is the purpose of the lectures to demonstrate these facts
to the satisfaction of the public.

"The first lecture will be devoted to an exposition of scientific
principles, the second to the application of these principles in choice
of professions and trades, the third to the consideration of matrimony."

"What shade of meaning do you attach to the word 'anthropologist' as
used by you, Professor?"

"The word signifies, in its broadest sense, a student of human nature.
In its application it includes man in all his physical, mental and
social conditions. Phrenology is the science of the mind--mental
philosophy. Anthropology is the science of man--human philosophy. To the
proper understanding of these great subjects we must look for the
solution of all social problems, concerning the mental, moral and
physical advancement of the race, or races, as the case may be."

A pleasant half hour was devoted to conversation, when the reporter
withdrew. Professor Windsor is a gentleman of genial social qualities,
and scholarly in language and appearance. He possesses a magnificent
physique, which he claims to have gained by a strict conformity to his
rules of diet and habits of living. He weighs 200 pounds, uses no
stimulants--tea, coffee or tobacco--and prides himself on being able to
sustain fifteen hours per day of professional labor, made necessary by
his large practice and business management. He has just closed a
successful course of twenty-seven consecutive lectures in Kansas City,
and does not seem in the least fatigued. The Kansas City _Star_, in
referring to his closing lecture, speaks of it as one of the finest ever
delivered in that metropolis.



CRIME AND ITS CAUSES.

    What a Noted Specialist Has to Say of It--Cranial Malformation
    the Genesis of Much Crime Traced to Other Sources--An
    Interesting Talk.

    [From the Birmingham (Ala.) _Age-Herald_.]


Prof. William Windsor, of New York, is in the city. He has a reputation
that is almost international in his specialty; for, as a phrenologist,
his discussion of the physical conditions which lead to crimes, have had
a wide notoriety.

Chatting with an _Age-Herald_ reporter last night, he gave a most
interesting and instructive talk on the noted crimes that have occurred
during the past ten years. Professor Windsor has studied most of the
criminals that have become prominent, and in a purely scientific way he
has gone back of the outward evidences of criminal depravity to
understand the physical and possibly hereditary conditions that brought
about the overt acts. His fund of information on this subject is almost
an inexhaustible one.

In discussing the Maxwell murder, he said: "I was in Texas at the time
of the St. Louis tragedy. A friend of mine sent me a picture of the
alleged murderer, with a request that I give my theory of the crime.
Like many newspaper cuts, it was decidedly unsatisfactory; but the man
who made it had caught enough of the likeness to enable me to know the
chief characteristics of Maxwell.

"Explaining the disadvantages under which I labored, I at once wrote to
him, and gave my theory of the crime; and when, at last, the matter came
out, I found that I was right."

"Do you study every criminal case that comes under your observation?"

"Of course I do. A man who is alive to science can not help doing it.
Whenever I hear of a crime and learn the circumstances of its
commission, I at once begin to devote my own mind to the combination of
mental qualities which could have rendered it possible. Of course it is
impossible to understand how some of the terrible acts could have been
committed; but you would be surprised to know how much is revealed
by seeing either the man or a good portion of him.

"The mental characteristics of criminals have much to do with not only
the crimes they commit, but the manner in which they perpetrate their
deeds, and in a consideration of what has been accomplished, heredity
plays a strong part. Some men are born with an adeptness for crime of a
certain character. Let the opportunity arise, and they yield to the
stress of circumstance and become guilty men. I have seen a number of
noted criminals who would not have been such, except for the unfortunate
circumstances that made them do an act which left them notorious."

"How about these bank cashiers who keep skipping off to Canada?" was
asked.

"Well, there is one singular fact about them. The men who leave seldom
have acquisitiveness well developed. They have not a sense of values,
and when they are put in positions of trust, they fail to appreciate how
much is entrusted to them."

"Then they go to squandering?"

"Yes, in one way that is true. They fail to appreciate their
responsibilities and take chances. Their carelessness soon tells, and
before they know it they are involved. This is the story of more than
half the defalcations that have been made public during the past decade.
It is not that the men were dishonest to begin with, but they did not
appreciate the value of the securities that were entrusted to them, and
by their laxity allowed themselves to become involved, and then yielded
to temptation through a sense of shame. There are not nearly as many men
who are criminals _per se_ as the world believes.

"Many of the criminals so called are not responsible for their acts.
Their apparent moral obliquity is, in reality, a mental deficiency, for
which they are not any more to blame than you or I. I have seen men who
had been guilty--yes, even convicted of most heinous crimes, who from
the very conformation of their heads revealed certain things that, to
say the least, should have been considered in mitigation of their
supposed guilt.

"I have made a study of criminals for years, and I think that it is safe
to say that in most cases that have come under my observation there were
either congenital or hereditary deformities to which the special
obliquity could be traced. Such has been the history of crimes in all
eras, and one only has to turn to the medical history of the world to
see that scientific men have even given greater cognizance to these
causes than can ever be brought before juries composed of men whose
training has not been such as to enable them to appreciate how much
these physical conditions have to do with the commission of crime.

"I see men every day who would be criminals if the stress of
circumstances forced them to it, and they would not be entirely
responsible for their action. Crime has more origin in the head than the
heart, and it is in the study of phrenology that we have the fact
revealed."



A MURDERER'S MENTALITY.

    Fritz Anschlag, a German Farmer in Los Angeles county,
    California, in 1888 murdered Charles Hitchcock and wife, a
    highly respected couple living at Garden Grove in that county,
    to obtain possession of their farm, for which a deed had been
    executed to him, but not delivered, awaiting payment. He was
    tried, convicted, and sentenced to hang, but defeated the law by
    committing suicide. An interesting feature of his case was the
    receipt of a letter from his sister in Germany, before his
    trial, informing him of the fact that she, his parents and all
    his relatives had utterly disowned him and regarded him with no
    sympathy whatever. As this was done before he was proven guilty,
    and upon mere knowledge of the accusation, it is significant in
    showing that the whole family were as deficient in the social
    propensities as was Anschlag himself.


DOOMED ANSCHLAG.

    A Phrenologist Examines the Murderer's Head.--The Brute Becomes
    Angry at His Visitors, But Says Nothing--A Report of the
    Examination.

    [From the Los Angeles (Cal.) _Express_.]

This morning, through the kindness of Jailor Henry Russell, an _Express_
reporter was allowed to enter the cell of Fritz Anschlag, the condemned
murderer of Charles Hitchcock and wife, of Garden Grove, to witness an
examination of Anschlag's head by Prof. William Windsor, assisted by his
wife. Jailor Russell swung open the iron door of the death-watch cell
and allowed the reporter and the Professor, accompanied by his wife, to
enter, and then followed himself.

As the little party entered the place of confinement, Anschlag looked
nervously around, and seeing the visitors, frowned and mumbled some
incoherent words in German. The reporter was asked to speak to the
murderer in German and make known to him the object of the morning's
visit. Anschlag at first was not willing to have his head examined, but
when assured it might be for his benefit, he readily consented.

Professor Windsor smoothed back Anschlag's long straight hair from his
forehead and running his fingers through the murderer's hair, began to
make an examination.

As the professor was going through the preliminary movements, the brute
trembled and turned color several times. During the examination
Professor Windsor would explain as he went along, and when finished,
kindly gave the reporter the following written report:

Anschlag's head measures twenty-two inches around the base of the brain
and fourteen inches across the crown. His nature is peculiar in the fact
that the organs of the brain which deal with property values, and the
ability to make a living by ordinary transactions, are almost entirely
idiotic. He shows a fair development of memory and perception, but his
ability to reason upon moral questions of right and wrong, property and
the rights of others, and the consequences of his own acts, is almost
absolutely wanting. He is, in all respects, a moral idiot, and it is a
noteworthy fact that the most atrocious crimes are committed by this
class of criminal idiots. The great difficulty in his case is in
getting the public or a jury to believe that a man may be capable of
reasoning on one point and displaying absolutely no power to think
correctly on the moral side of the question. The physical fact remains,
however, that to give Anschlag correct judgment on any question
involving property, ethics or the consequences of his own acts to
himself or others, his head would have to be enlarged at least an inch
in the occipital region and the posterior part of the crown.


ANSCHLAG'S MENTALITY.

    A Scientific Estimate of the Murderer's Brain--What Prof.
    William Windsor, LL. B., the Eminent Phrenologist, Says of his
    Mental Caliber--He Calls Him an Idiot--No More Moral Sense Than
    a Dog--The Fault His Ancestors'.

    [From the Los Angeles (Cal.) _Tribune_].

Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the phrenologist whose lectures, in Los
Angeles, last January, excited such general interest, returned to the
city yesterday, _en route_ for San Diego. He visited the jail yesterday
and made an examination of Fritz Anschlag, the noted murderer of the Mr.
and Mrs. Hitchcock. A representative of the _Tribune_ called on
Professor Windsor at the St. Elmo and requested him to give the readers
of this journal the results of his examination of the man whose
atrocious crime has absorbed the attention of the public ever since its
committal.

"Anschlag is a moral idiot," said Professor Windsor, in answer to the
first interrogatory of the scribe. "He belongs to a class of beings who,
from the circumstances of birth and education, are destitute of the
requisite amount of sense necessary to form a correct judgment on moral
questions as well as many others.

"It is a popular error to suppose that phrenology depends upon 'bumps,'
so called, or protuberances or hollows in the conformation of the skull.
The conclusions of the phrenologist are based upon estimates of brain
fiber, their quality and length from a point in the base of the brain
directly between the ears, to the surface. This measurement in different
heads will show a comparative difference of three or four inches in many
cases, though the heads may be smooth in contour and destitute of
'bumps.' Just look at these two skulls, for instance," placing two
ghastly objects on the table, which, by actual measurement, differed
more than three inches.

"Does Anschlag's head resemble either of these?"

"Not in all particulars. This," holding up the broader of the two, "is
the skull of Andrew J. McCannon, executed in Mississippi, more than
forty years ago, for the murder of the Adock family, two adults and
three children. It is a case of moral idiocy more pronounced than
Anschlag's."

"What distinction do you make, Professor, in the case of Anschlag or
this murderer, and a case of total idiocy such as we all recognize?"

"The difference is partly in degree, and partly in the fact that a man
may be idiotic in one faculty and have all or a majority of the other
faculties in the mind in good working order. Cases of color-blindness
furnish a familiar example. Color-blindness is not a defect of the eye,
but a defect of the brain. In other words, the party is destitute of the
sense of color, and it may be readily detected by a deficiency of brain
just above the eye.

"This head of McCannon shows a good development of the base of the
brain, giving fine energies and observation, but the entire upper story
is taken away. Anschlag, on the other hand, shows a good development in
front of the ears, sufficient memory, sympathy and observation to
display more than average intelligence on some points. The organs in the
back part of the crown and the occipital region generally, are almost
destitute of power, and render him incapable of comprehending social
relations, his duties towards others, or the consequences of his acts.
He can not form a correct judgment in regard to the rights of property,
and if he wanted anything he would steal it, without giving a thought to
the question of right or wrong. If he were questioned whether it were
right or wrong to steal or murder, he would answer 'wrong,' because he
has heard others say it was wrong, and he answers from memory alone. If
the question could be left entirely to his own judgment, he would be as
absolutely incapable of solving it as a man who is color-blind would be
incapable of distinguishing shades of color."

"If Anschlag's head was as deficient in all points as he is in the
region behind the ears, what would be the result?" inquired the
reporter.

"It would be much the same as this," replied the phrenologist, producing
a cast of the head of an adult idiot "destitute of all resemblance to
the head of a human being, and showing a short development of brain
fiber at all points. It is a noteworthy fact that the most revolting
crimes are generally committed by the insane and the morally idiotic
because their condition renders them incapable of understanding the
moral side of the question. A single life or a dozen lives which stand
in the way of their accomplishing a purpose, are regarded by them as
simply so many obstacles to be overcome, and if, as in Anschlag's case,
the organs giving conscientiousness and fear of consequences are weak,
they will not hesitate to destroy life to carry out a design."

"Do you consider Anschlag insane within the meaning of the law as to
responsibility for crime?"

"He is idiotic in the particulars mentioned, and is incapable of
exercising moral responsibility in any case. He is likely to commit
homicide upon any occasion which may seem to him to be expedient. I
would not hold him responsible more than I would hold a horse, dog, or
any other animal incapable of correct reason."

"Where, then, would you fix the responsibility for the murder of the
victims?"

"Upon Anschlag's parents and ancestors generally, and upon the condition
of society which permits marriages and sexual conditions in parents
which can not bring about other than deplorable results. Anschlag's
condition is the result of ignorant violation of natural law on the part
of his ancestors, dating back for generations. Much could have been done
for him by a proper education. That it was not done is merely another
unfortunate link in a melancholy chain of calamities."



PHRENOLOGY IN POLITICS.

    Some Important Facts in Physiology Which Politicians Do not Take
    into Account--The Lessons of the Recent Election Considered From
    a Phrenological Standpoint--Characteristics of Some Leading Men.

    [From the Dallas (Texas) _News_, Nov. 10, 1888.]


"There are some facts which play an important part in politics," said
Prof. Wm. Windsor, the phrenologist, to a _News_ representative last
night after the professor had dismissed his audience in Hill's business
college hall after an interesting lecture on physiognomy, "which
politicians, as a rule, do not consider. Of course any man of
intelligence who plays long at the game of politics comes to possess a
certain kind of shrewdness in judging human nature; but very few of
them are able to recognize and define the subtile constitutional
influences which predetermine the success or failure of the aspirant for
political honors. Such influences, however, exist, and other things
being equal, or approximately so, it is entirely possible to select, out
of a number of candidates, the ones who will succeed by sheer force of
physical attributes. There are men who are by nature qualified to lead
in great enterprises, and they owe their success in attracting the
support of their followers not so much to the development of intellect
and shrewdness as to the strong attachment arising from a large
development of the brain back of the ears in those regions which give
courage and social fraternity. After many years' careful study of the
subject, I am positive in the opinion that a strong preponderance of the
electric temperament is of the greatest importance in the constitutional
qualifications of a man who assumes the task of a political race in
anything of higher moment than a county election. The magnetic
temperament seems to be particularly unfortunate in political contests."

"What are the distinguishing characteristics of these temperaments?"

"The electric is the brunette, the magnetic is the blonde. Of the
former, General Harrison is a fine example; so were his ancestors, who
have played a conspicuous part in history. The electric temperament is
dark and swarthy in complexion, angular in configuration, tenacious and
strong in texture, and possesses a well-rounded back head, giving large
organs of social fraternity, courage, caution and self-reliance. In
General Harrison, these traits are somewhat softened by a superabundant
vitality, but the traits are all there. John A. Logan was a magnificent
type of this temperament. Abraham Lincoln personified it in all its
angularity and simplicity. Governor Ross, of this State, is strongly
marked with it; while, to come nearer home, your own Barney Gibbs is as
good an example of the vital phase of it as Lincoln was of the motive.
Nearly all the Presidents of the United States were strongly endowed
with this temperament, except Rutherford B. Hayes, who, on the contrary,
was a fine example of the magnetic. You will remember that he was a sort
of accidental President, anyhow, and that he was the result of a
compromise in his own party, in a convention in which several electric
temperament candidates had produced a deadlock. You will also remember
that his administration was characterized by no act of National
importance and that at its close he was relegated to an obscurity such
as has never befallen any other ex-President."

"How about the National legislature?"

"Three-fourths of the members of Congress and a greater proportion of
the Senate are brunettes. The same rule holds good in State legislatures
as far as I have observed. The temperament which stands second best in
political preferment is the magnetic mental. Sam J. Tilden, Levi P.
Morton and Thomas A. Hendricks represent this type. It owes its success
to the depth and intensity of its intellectual development, which
frequently creates a demand for its services in great emergencies. It is
characterized by brilliancy, integrity and the ability to accumulate a
barrel of money, which is also useful in political emergencies."

"If the blonde is a failure in politics, wherein does he find his proper
sphere of usefulness?"

"The blonde is an organization of wonderful versatility and commands
influence and wins applause in vocations calling for spirit and vigor
displayed at short and frequent intervals, rather than for continued
tension on the nerves and muscles. He is warm, enthusiastic, generous,
impulsive, and deficient in the selfish propensities and in ambition. He
loves display and would like to have power, but is inadequate to the
continued effort and the endurance necessary to obtain it. He wields a
more potent influence in the pulpit, on the rostrum or in journalism.
George W. Peck, T. DeWitt Talmage and R. B. Hayes represent three
different types of this temperament all possessing these attributes."

"What about Cleveland and Blaine?"

"Cleveland and Blaine are both examples of modified forms of the
Magnetic temperament, more marked in Blaine's case than in Cleveland's.
The student of politics will do well to observe that the defeat of
Blaine in 1884 and of Cleveland in 1888 were both due to defections from
their own ranks toward opponents of greater power in the particulars
mentioned. Reasoning from purely physiological grounds, I believe
Cleveland would have defeated Blaine had he been renominated in 1888.
The study of human nature from any standpoint is interesting; doubly so
when viewed in the light of great events which 'try men's souls,' in
fact, whether they be Presidential elections, the clash of armies or the
great discoveries of scientific students."



[Illustration: PHRENOLOGY SYMBOLIZED.

  Copyright, 1895-
  BY
  PROF. WM. WINDSOR, LL. B., Ph. D.

The Symbolical Phrenological Head, Showing the Location of the organs of
the Brain.]



[Illustration: GROUPS OF ORGANS.]

DEFINITIONS OF THE FACULTIES OF INTELLIGENCE.


PHYSICAL LOVE.

_Amativeness_--Reproductive love; love of the opposite sex, and desire
to unite in sexual relations and enjoy its company.

_Sexuality_--Sexual friendship and fidelity.

_Philoprogenitiveness_--Parental love; love of offspring and pets.

_Friendship_--Adhesiveness; gregariousness; love of family; desire for
companionship; attachment to friends.

_Inhabitiveness_--Love of home, place of abode; love of country and
offensive and defensive patriotism.

_Continuity_--The faculty of connection. The ability to comprehend
continuousness or interruption; to give undivided and continued
attention to one subject, or to interrupt intelligently; application,
connectedness.


ENERGY.

_Vitativeness_--The love of life; desire to exist.

_Combativeness_--Defense; courage; defiance; force of character, energy
and indignation.

_Executiveness_--Executive ability; extermination; thoroughness and
severity.

_Alternativeness_--Desire for food and drink; faculty of discriminating
taste.

_Acquisitiveness_--Desire for property; industry; economy in acquiring
property; realization of value.

_Secretiveness_--Reserve; concealment; policy; conservatism.

_Caution_--Prudence; solicitude; timidity; fear; apprehension of
danger.


DIGNITY.

_Approbativeness_--Love of display; the desire to please; ambition to
gain admiration and popularity.

_Self-esteem_--Dignity; governing power; independence; self-love.

_Firmness_--Stability; perseverance; decision; inflexibility of purpose.

_Justice_--Righteousness; integrity; circumspection; scrupulousness in
matters of duty.


SYMPATHY.

_Hope_--Belief in future joy; tendency to high expectations.

_Faith_--Trust and belief. Confidence.

_Veneration_--Reverence and worship; deference for superiors, and
submission to superior power.

_Benevolence_--The desire to do good; sympathy; philanthropy.

_Imitation_--The copying faculty. The ability to conform to existing
customs, conditions and facts by imitating them.

_Sympathy_--The power to discern motives, character and qualities in
other persons by sympathetic action.

_Suavity_--Agreeableness; tendency to speak and act in a pleasant
manner.


OBJECTIVE INTELLECT.

_Individuality_--Observation and desire to see things, to identify and
separate objects.

_Form_--Observation of the shape of things. Sensitiveness to correctness
or the lack of it in shapes.

_Size_--Power to measure distances, quantities and sizes.

_Weight_--Perception of the effect of gravity, and sense of the
perpendicular.

_Color_--The discrimination of hues and colors.

_Order_--Faculty of arrangement; method; system; neatness.

_Number_--The power to count, enumerate, reckon, etc.; faculty of
calculation.

_Motion_--Ability to comprehend movement. Love of motion, sailing,
navigation, riding, dancing, etc.

_Experience_--The historic faculty; faculty of experience and
occurrence.

_Locality_--Discernment of position, perception of place.

_Time_--Consciousness of duration; faculty of time, promptness.

_Tune_--Appreciation of sound; ability to distinguish musical tones.

_Constructiveness_--Dexterity and ingenuity; ability in construction;
faculty of adjustment.

_Language_--Power of expression and ability to talk; verbal expression;
vocabulary.


SUBJECTIVE INTELLECT.

_Causality_--The ability to comprehend principles, and to think
abstractly; to understand the relation between cause and effect.

_Comparison_--The analyzing, illustrating and comparing faculty.

_Ideality_--Love of the beautiful; desire for perfection, refinement.

_Sublimity_--Love of grandeur and the stupendous; appreciation of the
terrific.

_Mirthfulness_--Wit; humor; love of fun.



THE PHRENOLOGICAL EXAMINATION.


The Phrenological Examination is designed to show in an accurate and
scientific manner the size and development of _Brain_ of the person
measured, and to furnish a basis upon which an accurate and reliable
knowledge of the character may be determined. The measurements can only
be correctly made by an expert familiar with the principles of
_Phrenology_. When these measurements are determined according to the
system, the Phrenologist is enabled to make a Complete Delineation of
the character, describing the amount and kind of sense possessed by the
individual, his adaptation to a particular _Business, Trade or
Profession_, where that kind and amount of Intelligence is required, the
adaptation in _Matrimony or Business Partnership_, together with special
directions as to faults and how to correct them, health and longevity
and how to secure both. The expert must be able to judge the
Physiological Condition, Temperament and Organic Quality of the
individual with scientific accuracy, and these are important elements in
a scientific delineation of character.

Phrenological Examinations are said to be given _orally_ when no record
is made of the conclusions of the examiner. A Phrenological Chart is a
blank prepared for concise written statements; and the chart filled out
is said to constitute a Delineation of Character.

Phrenometrical Measurements are given by means of the _Phrenometer_, an
instrument used for measuring the head, by which the exact form and size
of sections of the head can be reproduced upon diagrams prepared for the
purpose. This is the most valuable and reliable way of making an
examination.

A phrenograph is a written description of the character of an
individual, giving all the minute points and shadings of character in
the language of the examiner, and its value depends upon the perspicuity
and literary expression of the writer not less than upon his skill as a
phrenologist.

[Illustration: PROF. WINDSOR'S ASSISTANTS MAKING A PHRENOMETRICAL SURVEY.]

It must be evident from the foregoing that the value of the service
rendered by the phrenologist varies, as in all other professions,
according to his education and training, the instruments with which he
works, the elaborateness of the product and the adaptation of the
phrenologist to his own business.

The public should be warned against patronizing men who practice
Phrenology in a way that would bring any business into ridicule. Men who
are uneducated, who do not use the latest and best equipments, who have
never had any professional training, who do not comprehend professional
ethics or dignity, and who do not possess the elements of success in
their own characters, are hardly the ones to whom an intelligent man
would submit the most important questions concerning his own welfare
with the hope of receiving competent advice. But Phrenology has been
cursed with this class of quacks, perhaps even more than the profession
of medicine. And it is largely due to the stupendous blunders of such
pretenders that Phrenology is not recognized more generally by
intelligent scientists. Considered in its beauty and simplicity, it
certainly offers a more rational and practical system of mental
philosophy than has ever been otherwise formulated.


EXAMPLES OF PHRENOMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. COMBATIVE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2. NON-COMBATIVE.]

Sections of base of brain, showing development of physical energy. The
dotted lines in Fig. 2 show the deficiency in alimentiveness,
executiveness and combativeness.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. NON-SYMPATHETIC.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. SYMPATHETIC.]

Profile sections showing development of sympathy and dignity. The dotted
line in Fig. 3 shows deficiency in Human Nature and Benevolence.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. MODERATE CAPACITY.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6. GREAT CAPACITY.]

Two sections of the region of subjective intellect, showing different
capacities of two individuals.


EXAMINATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS.

Phrenological examinations can be made from photographs with accuracy,
provided the photograph is a correct likeness, and some additional
information can be supplied. Owing to obvious difficulties, absolute
correctness cannot be guaranteed, but the results are sufficiently
valuable to justify the expedient wherever it is impossible to submit
the living head.

To obtain satisfactory results the photograph should be cabinet size,
and should show the form of the head and face as plainly as possible.
Very little can be told from a photograph when a hat is worn, or when
the personality is covered with millinery, wigs, bangs, uniforms, etc.,
etc.

A plain photograph, showing a three-quarter view of the face, is best.
Front views and profiles are valuable for some points and worthless for
others. When it is possible, a three-quarter view, front and profile may
all be submitted with good results.

The forms of examinations and charts from photographs and prices charged
for the service are the same as for the living subject, except that the
Phrenometer measurements cannot be given from a photograph, and an oral
examination cannot be given by mail.

Persons who have already been examined by me and who hold certificates
for Forms II, III or IV, may have opinions on Business Partnership or
Matrimony at one dollar for short opinions, and five dollars for the
elaborate form.

In all other cases prices are as follows:

    Business Chart and General Advice                $ 5 00
    Business Chart and Adaptation in Matrimony        10 00
    Adaptation in Matrimony only                       5 00
    Elaborate Phrenograph on all subjects             25 00


Information Required.

[Illustration]

Take the following measurements of the head: Pass a tape measure around
the circumference of the base of the brain, passing just above the
eyebrows and just above the ears. This is called the _basilar
circumference_. Also measure the distance from the bottom of the orifice
of one ear to the corresponding point of the other, over the top of the
head at the highest point. This is called the _trans-coronal_
measurement. Then copy and fill out the following blank, and submit with
the photograph:


    --> Do not cut or mutilate this page.
    Name of original of photo__________________________
    Address____________________________________________
    Age____________Weight____________Height____________
    Sex______Color of hair________Color of eyes________
    Basilar circumference of head________________inches.
    Trans-coronal measurement____________________inches.
    Circumference of chest, lungs empty__________inches.
    Circumference of chest, lungs filled_________inches.
    Condition of health_________________________________
    ____________________________________________________
    Amount of education received________________________
    ____________________________________________________
    Present occupation__________________________________
    Information most especially desired_________________
    ____________________________________________________
    Number of photographs enclosed______________________
    To be returned to___________________________________
    (Write return address plainly)______________________
    Form of examination requested_______________________
    Fee enclosed, $_____ Stamps enclosed for return_____

When all the above points can be stated it is desirable that it should
be done. When it is impossible to do so, the blanks may be filled out in
part, and I will in all cases do the best that can be done with
information at hand. Address all correspondence on this subject to

    DR. WILLIAM WINDSOR,
        Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.



THE GRAND TABLE OF VITOSOPHY and Supplementary Tables.


Printed in large type on heavy cardboard 10×4 inches, suitable for
hanging, containing four pages of valuable information as follows:

PAGE I.

The Grand Table of Vitosophy, consisting of seven columns comprising the
Conditions of Life, the Seven Senses, the Temperaments, the Vital
Organs, the Functions, the Seven Virtues and the Elements of Happiness
arranged in juxtaposition with notes and explanations. In two colors.

PAGE II.

The Supplementary Tables of Vitosophy, comprising the Vital Organs and
their Indicators, the table of Vices and Consequences. The table of
Virtues, Results and Attributes, the table of Temperaments and Colors.
The Vitosophical Symbols, their Significance and related colors with
notes and explanations. Each Symbol on this page is painted by hand,
giving its appropriate color.

PAGE III.

Contains a large Phrenological Head with names and Symbols of the
Phrenological Areas and Names and Definitions of the corresponding
Faculties of Intelligence. In two colors.

PAGE IV.

The Vitosophist's Creed. Beautifully printed in two colors in Old
English Text and giving the seven articles of belief of the true
vitosophist, expressing rationally his belief in and relation to the
subjects of God, Life Eternal, Death, Immortality, Evil and Good, the
forces of Nature, the practice of the Virtues and the attainment of
Happiness. This is a work of Art and is worthy of a place of honor in
the library, study or school room. Mailed flat, to any address, securely
packed, postpaid. Price One Dollar.

Address Dr. Wm. Windsor, Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.



EAT SOME SAND!

   "Let good digestion wait on
    appetite, and Health on both."
                    _Shakespeare_.


[Illustration: Dr. Wm. Windsor "THE SAND MAN"]

PURIFIED SAND

  FOR TABLE USE
  Price per Pound 50 Cents
  Prepared and Sold by

  DR. WILLIAM WINDSOR

  Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.
  583 Riverside Drive, New York
  1426 Fourth Ave. Seattle, Wash.

The Fairy Tale of your youth described the "Sand Man" as the good spirit
who brought sleep to your eye-lids. Dr. Windsor has brought restful
sleep to thousands by producing a good digestion, without which perfect
sleep is impossible.

DIRECTIONS

A Tablespoonful of Purified Sand taken after each meal promotes
digestion, disinfects the Alimentary Canal, sweetens the Breath and
positively cures Indigestion, Constipation, Chronic Diarrhoea, Summer
Complaint and all disorders of the Stomach and Bowels.

  This Sand is absolutely pure and
  contains no medication whatever.

Drink liberal quantities of pure water for best results.



THE VITOSOPHY CLUB LESSONS

    A Course of Instruction By Mail, Extending Over a Year of Time,
    Which Makes You Happy, Healthy and Prosperous.


Hundreds of young men and women drag along in comparative poverty and
uncongenial occupations and surroundings, because they have never
learned how to get away from these conditions. Many others wonder why
they never get ahead when they work so faithfully and try so hard. Often
the reason of failure is found in some mild form of disease, so mild in
fact that it escapes the notice of the sufferer himself. Sometimes it is
a wrong personal habit, or some fault of dress or manner which
continually destroys the possibility of success.

For a quarter of a century Dr. William Windsor has been the friend and
advisor of young men and women in the art of self-improvement. In
hundreds of instances of which testimonials are on file, he has in one
short interview, set a man on the path of success and a woman in the
possession of happiness. He writes a great many long letters to
individuals who lay the story of their lives and their struggles before
him and solves many of their heart-breaking problems. THE VITOSOPHY CLUB
LESSONS are the result of this large experience and are now for the
first time presented in the form of a concise course of study in
elegantly printed lessons, which are issued in monthly installments of
from four to six lessons at a time--a year's issue covering fifty-two
lessons--one for each week of the year. Members of the Vitosophy Club
make a practice of taking each lesson as a subject of thought and action
for one week, carefully conforming conduct and observation to it for
self-improvement and experiment, with wonderfully satisfactory results.


LEARN TO READ CHARACTER.

The Elementary and Ethical Lessons Nos. 1 to 27, constitute an excellent
elementary instruction in the science of Vitosophy, embracing the basic
principles of Genetics, Phrenology and Ethics, and enable the member to
acquire a very comprehensive knowledge of the greatest of all
educational subjects--Human Character.

The Health Lessons Nos. 28 to 39, cover all the essential instructions
necessary to applying the Vitosophical principles of healing, enabling
the member to keep himself in perfect Health, and extend his Knowledge
to others who ignorantly suffer.

THE LESSONS ON PERSONAL HABITS

inculcate the highest form of personal agreeableness and the conditions
essential to success. Read the titles of Nos. 40 to 50 which speak for
themselves.

The two Financial Lessons at the close of the series contain information
which has directly caused the financial success of many prosperous men
and women who gratefully attest the value of Dr. Windsor's advice and
counsel.

These Lessons must not be confounded with The Delineation of Character
which is furnished by Dr. Windsor in his private interviews with
individuals, or by mail from photographs, which is an entirely distinct
service. You need the Delineation of your Character to show you your
personal weak and strong points, your faults and how to correct them,
talents and how to use them; your adaptation in Business, Marriage,
Climate and Place of Residence, etc., all of which is based on your
personal conditions. Then you should take the Vitosophy Club Lessons to
learn the principles of the Science and how to apply them to yourself
and others in reading character, healing diseases, and making yourself
socially and financially successful.

You can take the Delineation of Character without the Lessons, or the
Vitosophy Club Lessons without the Delineation, but you need both and
both are essential to your health, your education, your financial
success and your personal happiness.


LIST OF VITOSOPHY CLUB LESSONS

This splendid course of instruction is sold at Ten Dollars. Delineations
of Character are given at various prices, according to what you require.

I. Elementary and Ethical

    1. Vitosophy--The Wise Way of Living.
    2. The Vitosophy Club.
    3. Phrenology.
    4. The Elements of Character.
    5. Explanation of the Symbolical Head.
    6. The Study of Temperament.
    7. How to use the Grand Table of Vitosophy.
    8. How to use the Supplementary Tables.
    9. How to Cure the Poverty Disease.
   10. The Cure of Catarrh.
   11. The Seven Symbols of Vitosophy.
   12. The Seven Commandments.
   13. The Vitosophist's Creed.
   14. The Forty-nine Vitosophical Resolutions.
   15. Phrenology as an Element in Business Success.
   16. Vitosophical Education.
   17. Crimes, Criminals and Punishments.
   18. The Study of Justice.
   19. How Children are Developed into Criminals.
   20. Analysis of Love and Friendship.
   21. The Value of Song.
   22. Dancing as a Means of Physical and Mental Culture.
   23. Matrimony or the Selection of Companions.
   24. How to Improve Memory.
   25. The Conquest of the Vices.
   26. The Individual Flavor.
   27. Companionship--The Central Fact in Life.

II. Health.

   28. How to be Healthy.
   29. The Current of Magnetism and How to Control It.
   30. Condensed Directions for the Practice of Vitosophy in all Forms
       of Disease.
   31. The Cure of Weak Nutrition.
   32. Letter to a Kentucky Editor Afflicted with Indigestion and
       Constipation.
   33. Letter to a Young Lady Supposed to be Afflicted with Tuberculosis.
   34. The Cure of Catarrhal Deafness.
   35. The Cure of Rheumatism.
   36. The Cure of Epilepsy, Fits or Convulsions.
   37. The Cure of Consumption.
   38. The Cure of Constipation in Infants.
   39. Why You Should Eat Sand.

III. Personal Habits.

   40. Keeping the Body Clean.
   41. The Art of Eating.
   42. The Art of Bathing.
   43. The Art of Sleeping.
   44. The Art of Drinking.
   45. The Art of Personal Agreeableness.
   46. Improvement of Personal Appearance.
   47. Improvement of Personal Manners.
   48. The Promotion of Comfort.
   49. The Harmony of Colors and Persons.
   50. The Care of the Nostrils.

IV. Financial.

   51. Vitosophical Rules for Business Success.
   52. The Secret of Salesmanship or Negative and Positive Dollars.

Address Dr. Wm. Windsor, Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.



Just Published! Send in Your Order!
The New Vitosophical Text Book

"The Solution of the Problem of Human Life"

According To Vitosophy "The Wise Way of Living"

By WILLIAM WINDSOR, LL.B., Ph. D.

This new and attractive volume of about two hundred pages is a complete
revision of the Elementary Text Book, formerly sold exclusively at Dr.
Windsor's Class Lectures, to which has been added the complete set of
"Vitosophical Health Lessons" which have heretofore been sold at the
regular price of ten dollars. The entire work has been reviewed and
rearranged, and some parts of the Health Lessons entirely rewritten,
bringing the subject matter fully abreast of the latest and best
discoveries in the science. It is the design of this work to present a
complete elementary instruction in the principles of Vitosophy,
especially in its bearings on character study and health culture and the
prevention and cure of all forms of disease that do not call for the
services of a surgeon.

(SEE NEXT PAGE)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

Chapter I.--ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF VITOSOPHY, Definitions,
    Genetics, Phrenology, Ethics.

The Temperaments, Explanation of Electric, Magnetic, Alkali, Acid,
    Vital, Mental, Motive, Organic Quality.

Chapter II.--Definitions of the FACULTIES OF INTELLIGENCE.

Chapter III.--The Seven Conditions of Life. The EARTH and its Uses.

Chapter IV.--WATER, Rules for Drinking and Bathing.

Chapter V.--FOOD, The Vitosophical Law of Diet. Seven Rules for the
    Selection and Eating of Food.

Chapter VI.--COMPANIONSHIP, its uses and abuses.

Chapter VII.--MAGNETISM. Complete exposition of the Nature of
    Electricity and Magnetism according to the System of Genetics.

Chapter VIII.--AIR. Correct Principles of Ventilation.

Chapter IX.--LIBERTY. Seven Kinds of Liberty essential to Happiness.

Chapter X.--THE GIFT OF HEALING. A Complete Exposition of the
    Functions and their Derangements Causing Disease, and the
    Vitosophical Remedies.

Chapter XI.--NERVOUSNESS. Principal causes and the means of cure and
    inducement of Dreamless Sleep. Cure of Insomnia.

Chapter XII.--THE CURRENT OF MAGNETISM AND HOW TO CONTROL IT. Simple
    Rules for the treatment of all Diseases not requiring Surgery.

Price $2.00 Postpaid
Address Dr. Wm. Windsor
Box 66 St. Paul, Minn.



TWO COMPANION BOOKS
UNIFORM IN SIZE

HAND BOOK

of Universal Information

AND ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACTICAL RECIPES


[Illustration]

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Is the opinion of thousands who have had occasion to use a few of the
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Price, $1.00

  In paper cover, 50¢


DONOHUE'S MANUAL

of General Information


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  In paper cover 50¢

For sale by all book and newsdealers or sent postpaid to any address in
the United States, Canada or Mexico upon receipt of price in currency,
postal or express money order.

M. A. DONOHUE & CO.
701-707 S DEARBORN STREET :: CHICAGO



ALWAYS _ASK FOR THE_ DONOHUE
Complete Editions and you will
get the best for the least money

THERE IS MONEY IN POULTRY

AMERICAN STANDARD PERFECTION POULTRY BOOK,
By I. K. FELCH.


[Illustration]

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By I. K. FELCH.

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Price, prepaid, $1.00

For sale by all book and newsdealers, or will send to any address in the
United States, Canada or Mexico upon receipt of price, in currency,
money order or stamps.

M. A. DONOHUE & CO. 701-727 S DEARBORN
STREET CHICAGO





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