Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Birds Found on the Arctic Slope of Northern Alaska
Author: Bee, James W.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Birds Found on the Arctic Slope of Northern Alaska" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



  ==================================================================
                  University of Kansas Publications
                     Museum of Natural History

      Volume 10, No. 5, pp. 163-211, pls. 9-10, 1 fig. in text
  ----------------------    March 12, 1958    ----------------------


                    Birds Found on the Arctic Slope
                          of Northern Alaska


                                  BY
                             JAMES W. BEE


                        University of Kansas
                               Lawrence
                                 1958



     University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History

       Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Henry S. Fitch,
                Robert W. Wilson

     Volume 10, No. 5, pp. 163-211, plates 9-10, 1 fig. in text
                    Published March 12, 1958

                        University of Kansas
                           Lawrence, Kansas

                              PRINTED IN
                       THE STATE PRINTING PLANT
                            TOPEKA, KANSAS
                                 1958
                      [Illustration: union label]
                               27-1766



                       Birds Found on the Arctic Slope
                          of Northern Alaska

                                  BY
                             JAMES W. BEE



INTRODUCTION


In the summers of 1951 and 1952 some data on birds were gathered
incidental to a study of the mammals of the Arctic Slope of northern
Alaska (see Bee and Hall--Mammals of Northern Alaska ..., Univ. Kansas
Mus. Nat. Hist., Miscl. Publ., 8, March 10, 1956). Other students,
currently preparing comprehensive accounts of the birds of northern
Alaska, have urged that the information obtained in 1951 and 1952 be
made available. For that reason, and because relatively little is on
record concerning birds of the area visited, I have prepared the
following account. The aim is to include only non-published data
because the comprehensive accounts alluded to above, by others, can
more appropriately include data from previously published accounts.

The area is the treeless tundra delimited by the crest of the Brooks
Range to the south, the international boundary to the east and the
Arctic Ocean to the north and west.

Three hundred and fifty-one birds of 44 species (Nos. 30371-30866, and
31301-31355) were collected. Twenty-nine additional species were seen.
All specimens are skeletons, unless otherwise noted in the text, and
are catalogued and housed at the Museum of Natural History, University
of Kansas. Photographs are by the author.

The report results from a contract (Nonr-38700) between the Office of
Naval Research and the Museum of Natural History of the University of
Kansas. Field headquarters were at the Arctic Research Laboratory at
Point Barrow, Alaska. Professor John Fields and Dr. Louis O. Quam of
the Office of Naval Research, Professor Ira L. Wiggins, Scientific
Director of the Arctic Research Laboratory, and Mr. M. R. Lipman of
the University of Kansas Regional Office of the Office of Naval
Research are four of the persons to whom I am deeply indebted. J. Knox
Jones, Jr., and Edward G. Campbell, students at the University of
Kansas, participated in the field work and deserve credit for a large
part of the accomplishment registered in the field.

The author is greatly indebted to Professor E. Raymond Hall for
assistance at many stages in the work. I am grateful to Professor
Harrison B. Tordoff for numerous suggestions and for verifying the
identifications of the specimens. The skeletons were identified by
measurement and comparison of feet, bills, and the dried, flat skins
that had been removed and labeled with the field numbers of the
corresponding skeletons. Where subspecific identification was
difficult because of the fashion in which the material was preserved
it should be understood that the subspecific name assigned was based
largely or entirely on geographic probability. This is wholly true for
sight records. Robert G. Bee read the manuscript in its entirety and
offered editorial comments and my wife, Annette, typed the manuscript
and made numerous corrections. The names of several other individuals
who rendered assistance appear at appropriate places in the following
pages.



ITINERARY


Camps and collecting localities on the Arctic Slope of northern Alaska
in 1951 and 1952 (Bee and Jones, July 3-September 6, 1951; Bee,
September 6-11, 1951; Bee and Campbell, June 14-August 25, 1952; Bee,
Campbell, and Hall, August 26-September 12, 1952) were as shown in
Fig. 1.

Camps, and localities in the vicinity of each camp, are arranged
geographically from north to south. The localities listed below under
camps are only those which one or more of us (Bee, Campbell, Jones and
Hall) visited. Travel between camps was by airplane; heavy black
lines show routes followed.

Point Barrow (1951: July 3-5, 10-12, 18-20, 27-29, Aug. 5-7, 28-30,
Sept. 4-11. 1952: June 14-24, Aug. 23-27, Aug. 31-Sept. 12).
Longitudes and latitudes taken from U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
map No. 9445, 2nd edition, Point Barrow and vicinity, corrected May
21, 1951.

 Point Barrow, 156°27'25", 71°23'11", 3 ft. (June 20, 21, Aug. 25,
 1952).

 Point Barrow, 156°30'00", 71°22'10", 0 ft. (Sept. 11, 1952).

 4½ mi. SW Point Barrow, 5 ft. (Sept. 7, 8, 1951), but in the second
 year (June 14, 16, 1952) specimens from this same place were
 inadvertently labeled at "Birnirk Mounds, 156°36'02", 71°20'40", 8
 ft.".

 NW Elson Lagoon, 156°35'45", 71°20'27", 0 ft. (Sept. 2, 1952).

 Point Barrow, 156°40'40", 71°19'30", 8 ft. (Sept. 9, 1952).

 Point Barrow, 156°35'45", 71°19'30", 8 ft. (Sept. 9, 1952).

 Point Barrow, 156°39'40", 71°19'03", 6 ft. (Sept. 3, 4, 7, 8,
 1952).

 West side Salt Water Lake [Lagoon], 156°42'00", 71°18'41", 4 ft.
 (June 18, 19, 1952).

 1/10 mi. W Salt Water Lake [Lagoon], 156°42'02", 71°18'26", 10 ft.
 (June 16-19, 1952).

 9/10 mi. E and 8/10 mi. N Barrow Village, 156°44'15", 71°18'20", 8
 ft. (June 22, 23, 1952).

 1-4/10 mi. S and 6/10 mi. E Barrow Village, 156°45'25", 71°16'20",
 20 ft. (June 20, 1952).

 7½ mi. S and 7 mi. W Point Barrow, 156°49', 71° 17' (September 6,
 1952).


Teshekpuk Lake (1951: July 29-Aug. 4). Shown on a map, titled "Trails
and Caches 1951 Season, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4, ... traced and
reproduced from U. S. Geological Survey Maps, March 1945, compiled
from AAF Trimetrogon photography for Aeronautical Chart Service."

 NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 12 ft.


Topagaruk (1951: July 5-10). Named on map "Trails and Caches 1951 ..."
cited immediately above, but is actually seven miles due south of name
shown on that map. Correct position is 155°55', 70°34', 10 feet; but
specimens are incorrectly labeled 155°48'....


Kaolak River (1951: July 12-18). River shown on map cited above under
Teshekpuk Lake.

 [Actual camp on] Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft.


Kaolak (1951: July 20-27). Longitude and latitude computed from map cited
above under Teshekpuk Lake.

 Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft.


Gavia Lake (Aug. 19-23, 1952). Longitude and latitude computed from
World Aeronautical Chart (63) Brooks Range, U. S. Coast and Geodetic
Survey, 5th ed., February 2, 1949.

 Gavia Lake, N White Hills, 150°00', 69°35', 460 ft.


Umiat (1951: Aug. 30-Sept. 4. 1952: June 24-July 3, 18-23, Aug. 16-19,
23, Sept. 12). Longitude and latitude taken from U. S. Geological
Survey Topographic Map.

 Bearpaw Creek, 1-7/10 mi. E and 1-7/10 mi. N Umiat, 152°04'50",
 69°23'30", 550 ft. (June 28, 1952).

 1-3/10 mi. E and 1-3/10 mi. N Umiat, 152°05'30", 69°23'12", 350 ft.
 (June 26, 27, 1952).

 9/10 mi. W and 9/10 mi. N Umiat, 152°10'58", 69°22'53", 380 ft.
 (June 29, 30, July 1, 1952).

 1½ mi. W and ¾ mi. N Umiat, 152°08'10", 69°22'18", 370 ft. (Aug.
 30, Sept. 4, 1951).

 Umiat, 152°08', 69°22', 337 ft. (Aug. 19, 1952).

 Umiat, 152°09'30", 69°22'08", 352 ft. (June 24, 26, July 21, 22,
 1952).

 As shown on fig. 1 a reconnaissance flight was made from Umiat to
 Sadlerochit River and return (July 22, 1952).


Lake Schrader-Lake Peters (July 23-Aug. 16, 1952). Longitudes and
latitudes taken from map entitled "Preliminary Copy," U. S. Petroleum
Reserve No. 4, U. S. Geological Survey, March 1948, scale 1-6900.

 Spawning Creek, W side Lake Schrader, 145°11'40", 69°25'08", 2908
 ft.

 SW Lake Schrader, 145°11'30", 69°24'32", 2925 ft. (July 27, 28,
 1952).

 Lake Schrader, 145°09'50", 69°24'28", 2900 ft. (July 23, 24-30,
 1952).

 East side Lake Schrader--Lake Peters Channel, 145°09'30",
 69°24'15", 2905 ft. (July 29, 30, 1952).


    [Illustration: Fig. 1. Routes of travel and base camps of field
        party in 1951 and 1952.

    1. Point Barrow              8. Umiat
    2. Teshekpuk Lake            9. Lake Schrader-Lake Peters
    3. Topagaruk                10. Wahoo Lake
    4. Kaolak River             11. Driftwood
    5. Kaolak                   12. Porcupine Lake
    6. Reconnaissance flight    13. Chandler Lake
    7. Gavia Lake
    ]


 Mouth Chamberlin Canyon, S end Lake Peters, 145°08'34", 69°20'58",
 3690 ft. (Aug. 4, 5, 1952).

 SE end Lake Peters, 145°09'26", 69°20'56", 2950 ft., Romanzof
 Mountains (Aug. 1-9, 14, 1952).

 Mount Mary, S end Lake Peters, 145°10'05", 69°20'35", 3012 ft. (The
 mountain between Carnivore River on the east, Whistler Creek on the
 west, mouth of Whistler Creek on the north, and the crest of the
 Brooks Range on the south.) (Aug. 13-16, 1952.)

 Mount Mary, S end Lake Peters, 145°10'02", 69°20'30", 2920 ft.
 (July 30-Aug. 11, 1952).

 S end Lake Peters, 145°09'50", 69°20'15", 2906 ft. (Aug. 15, 1952).

 Weasel Point, S end Lake Peters, 145°09'30", 69°20'15", 2920 ft.
 (Aug. 9-11, 1952).

 Carnivore Lakes (Carnivore is the name of the three lakes at
 elevations of 3260, 3385 and 3400 ft. between 69°18' and 69°17' on
 Carnivore River, which flows from James Robert Lake to Lake
 Peters). (Aug. 8, 1952.)

 James Robert Glacier, 145°09', 69°16', approximately 3700 ft. (Aug.
 8, 1952).


Wahoo Lake (July 3-11, 1952). Longitude and latitude taken from map
entitled "Preliminary Copy," Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4, U. S.
Geological Survey (of same series as map used at Porcupine Lake, see
below).

 Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft.


Driftwood (Aug. 27-31, 1952). Longitude and latitude computed from map
cited above under Teshekpuk Lake.

 2 mi. W Utukok River, 161°15'30", 68°54'50", 1275 ft. (Aug. 30,
 1952).

 Driftwood, Utukok River, 161°12'10", 68°53'47", 1200 ft. (Aug.
 27-31, 1952).


Porcupine Lake (July 11-18, 1952). Longitude and latitude computed
from map titled "Preliminary Copy," Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4,
compiled by U. S. Geological Survey, May, 1949, Alaska, K6, scale
1:4800.

 Porcupine Lake, 146°29'50", 68°51'57", 3140 ft. (July 12-16, 18,
 1952).

 Mount Annette, 146°28'51", 68°50'38", approximately 5700 ft. (Mount
 Annette is in the Annette Range south of Porcupine Lake between the
 Canning River and the Ivashak River.) (July 17, 1952.)


Chandler Lake (Aug. 9-25, 1951). Longitude and latitude taken from
World Aeronautical Chart (63) Brooks Range, U. S. Coast and Geodetic
Survey, 5th ed., February 2, 1949.

 Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900 ft.



ACCOUNTS OF SPECIES


+Gavia adamsii+ (Gray): Yellow-billed loon.--Specimens, 3: Kaolak
(Kuk) River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., No. 30571, ad. female,
July 18, 1951; Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft. (a breeding
pair), No. 31301, ad. male and No. 31302, ad. female, July 9, 1952.

Upon our arrival at Wahoo Lake (July 3, 1952), two yellow-billed loons
were swimming, side by side, on the east end of the lake. On July 8,
the pair were seen swimming close together 400 feet distant from the
nest. It was located on July 4 and held two fresh eggs. Three days
later at 3:00 A.M. one of the pair called directly in front of our
camp, which was approximately 4000 feet from the nest at the other end
of the lake. The call was the first uttered in the area since our
arrival. Except for the two instances noted above, only a single loon
was seen at any one time almost certainly because the other was
sitting on the eggs. At 3:00 P.M. on July 9, by means of a boat, we
visited the nesting area; the male was incubating and the female was
absent from the area. As we approached to within 30 feet of the nest,
the male, conspicuous as it sat upon the nest with neck held low and
extended, became nervous. When we were 25 feet away the bird plunged
into the lake. His feet and wings beat the water, increasing his
speed; he flew to our right approximately 30 feet from the nest and
was shot. The nest and eggs were photographed and we left the area. At
5:30 P.M., the female was swimming on the lake in the general area of
the nest. In an effort to obtain the bird we pursued her down the
middle of the lake, approximately 1000 feet from her nest and in the
direction from which we came. Turning shoreward she dived and
resurfaced approximately 300 feet in the opposite direction from which
she was being pursued. Two additional dives brought her to the
vicinity of the nest. No cry was uttered by either of the birds during
our pursuit.

Although the female had been incubating two nearly fresh eggs, her
ovary, 35 mm long and 19 mm in diameter, contained ova of various
sizes up to six mm in diameter. The female measured 850 mm in total
length and weighed 4536 grams; the male was 900 mm in total length and
weighed 6804 grams.

The nest, approximately 60 cm in diameter, of sedges, grasses and an
assortment of plant debris, was on a mound of soil 23 cm above, and 40
cm from, the open water. The cup of the nest measured 37 mm in depth.
The site of the nest (southeast corner of the lake) was near the area
supporting the most lake trout (_Cristivomer namaycush_). Between open
water of the lake and the shore, 20 feet of sedges and grasses
deterred wolves (_Canis lupus_), red foxes (_Vulpes fulva_), and
caribou (_Rangifer arcticus_) from molesting the nest; tracks of these
mammals were numerous on contiguous shore areas.

The early run-off entering the lake created a variable water level
(the overflow decreased 60 per cent in the period July 2 to July 11).
The loons lay their eggs when the lake's level is fairly well
stabilized. The cotton-grass (_Eriophorum_) at the latter date was
developing white flowers and the sedges, growing in dense stands, were
showing springtime green.

The force with which the excrement of the loon is expelled while
standing on land, accounts for long white lines upwards of one meter
in length. These lines of dried excrement, reaching as far as one and
one-tenth meters landward, were noted at several places along the
shore.

At Topagaruk on July 9, 1951, a single yellow-billed loon was
observed. At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951) the yellow-billed loon
was occasionally heard at night and, at times in the day. On July 18,
an Eskimo, Atanak, accompanied by two companions from Wainwright, shot
two loons of this species approximately two miles down the Kaolak
River from our camp. They had planned to prepare the birds for their
evening meal. With the exception of twelve pebbles averaging 3.5 mm in
diameter in the one, the stomachs of the loons were empty. The female
was given to us by the Eskimos. It measured 870 mm in total length,
1600 mm in wing spread, and 5897 grams in weight. The ovaries
contained many ova, the largest eight mm in diameter. Many of the
individual ova were black.

At Porcupine Lake a yellow-billed loon was seen every day (July 13-18,
1952) but was not heard until 8:00 P.M. on July 17; its call was the
first since our arrival on July 13. Thereafter its long drawn-out wail
or raucous, hilarious call was uttered at intervals in the evening and
well toward midnight.

A yellow-billed loon was on the south end of Lake Peters on August 4,
1952. At 9:00 A.M. it caught a small fish at the mouth of Carnivore
River. The loon flew north approximately five miles to Lake Schrader
where it was known to have young.

Of the three species of loons observed on the Arctic Slope, the
yellow-billed loon is the least numerous. Owing to its large size this
loon is more often taken than either of the others. Eskimos consider
its dark, fine grained flesh a delicacy. On the more isolated areas of
the Arctic Slope the yellow-billed loon remains common; elsewhere it
needs protection.

Additional specimens, especially from the contact zone between the
areas of geographical distribution of _Gavia immer_ and _Gavia
adamsii_, are needed in order to decide on the subspecific _versus_
specific status of these two kinds of loons.


+Gavia arctica pacifica+ (Lawrence): Arctic loon.--Specimens, 2:
Barrier Lake, NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., No.
30570, ad. female, July 29, 1951; Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10
ft., No. 30572, ad. female, July 7, 1951.

On July 3, 1952, between Umiat and Ivashak River, pairs of Arctic
loons were on only small and medium sized lakes; on this date they
mostly were free of ice whereas large lakes were ice covered and thus
unavailable to this species of loon. The use of small and medium sized
lakes by this loon may result from the described unavailability of
large lakes at nesting time. The tundra, at this time, when nesting
has begun, is free of snow except for cornices and deposits in deep
gullies. Willows and alders at Umiat on July 3 were without foliage,
whereas these plants farther east were in leaf. On July 4, 1951, at
two-tenths of a mile south of the Arctic Research Laboratory, a single
bird flew over the tundra and onto the Arctic Ocean beyond. It called
regularly as it passed overhead. At Topagaruk (July 5, 1951) the pairs
of Arctic loons were nesting on the vegetated edges of lakes of medium
size. This species of loon constituted less than one per cent of the
avian population of the area. A nest of this loon on a promontory
between two lakes and within 30 centimeters of deep water was damp,
shallow, slightly depressed and held eggs exposed to view. On July 7,
the female was killed as she left the nest. The wind blowing offshore
drifted her toward the center of the lake. Later, as she reached a
point near the opposite side, the male alighted near the dead female
and indulged in its courtship display of raising and lowering its head
and neck. Swimming around the mate several times he continued to
solicit attention from the lifeless form. An hour later we examined
the off-shore and found the dead female among the sedges. By this time
the male had abandoned its mate and was observed feeding in an
adjacent lake. Arctic loons on several adjacent lakes could be heard.
The male that had been deprived of its mate, did not respond.

The female weighed 1200 grams. The largest ovum was eight mm in
diameter; others were smaller and the smallest were in clusters. On
leaving the nest we placed mosses and grasses over it to protect the
single egg from the parasitic jaegers. We wished to learn whether the
male returned and incubated the egg. On our approach on July 8 he was
on the nest but left and swam approximately 200 feet under water
before surfacing. On the afternoon of the same day the single egg was
cold and unattended. The male was swimming on a nearby lake some 300
yards distant. Two pairs of the Arctic loon were observed swimming on
adjacent lakes. On July 9, the male was again incubating the egg.

The Arctic loon calls frequently when flying overhead. The Eskimos
were adept at imitating the loon's call and were successful in having
the birds respond.

At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951), pairs of the Arctic loon used the
course of the stream as a flight lane.

On an airflight from east to west between the mouth of the Canning
River Canyon and Umiat (July 18, 1952) I noted an increase in the
numbers of this loon, especially over the lakes near the Colville
River.

Seven pairs and two singles of this species were observed between the
mouth of the Avalik River and a point 23.3 miles from the Arctic Ocean
when I flew directly from Kaolak to Point Barrow. In the above
33 miles of coastal plain, the greatest interval between loons was
9.7 miles, the shortest 1.9 miles, the average 5.9 miles. The last
23.3 miles before reaching the Arctic Ocean, produced no records of
the loon. On a lake near the Arctic Ocean, 3.8 miles southwest from
Barrow Village, a single pair was observed.

Upon our arrival at Barrier Lake, northeast of Teshekpuk Lake (July
29, 1951), there were two adult and two young Arctic loons at the
south end of the lake at a point approximately 300 feet from where we
camped. During our stay at the lake, the loons nearly all of the time
remained on approximately 1½ acres of water in spite of being
disturbed and having their territory periodically invaded by us.
Adjacent to the area of the lake used by this family of loons were
three small lakes connected by wide channels to Barrier Lake. Other
small lakes to the east were connected by smaller channels. The loons
preferred to feed in the lakes having larger connecting channels.

In the evening of the first day of observation, the female together
with her two young was on land. The male was swimming approximately
200 feet out on the lake. The female was shot as she was flushed from
the bank. The largest ovum was four mm in diameter. On the morning of
the second day (15 hours after the female was shot) the male was
observed tending the young; one young was by his side and the other
had wandered to a point 40 feet away. A parasitic jaeger came and
hovered above the straying young loon and then dived vertically to
seize it. The male loon was too far away to reach its young before the
jaeger departed. As the jaeger was leaving the area, three other
parasitic jaegers pursued the first in an attempt to wrest from its
beak the young loon. The contest for possession of the young loon
continued as far as the eye could follow the contestants.

On August 2, at 3:35 P.M. the surviving members of this loon
family--the male and the one young--rested on the water of the lake,
approximately 200 feet from shore. The adult dozed with its head
tucked under its wing--head end oriented into the wind except for
occasional complete turns. These were made without visible change of
posture. The young one alternated by swimming around its parent and
resting at which time it tucked its head under its wing. Toward
evening, the male was shot. A survey of the area the following morning
disclosed the absence of the young loon, not to be seen again during
our stay. It was noted that during our sojourn of seven days, when the
male was left with the orphaned young, the parent would fly to
Teshekpuk Lake some 1½ miles to the south to procure food. The young
loon when left alone would dive under water when approached.

On August 4, a pomarine jaeger pursued the male loon as it was
returning from fishing on Teshekpuk Lake. When the birds first were
seen, the jaeger was approximately 200 feet behind the loon, but in a
distance of approximately 300 feet the jaeger overtook the loon which
had reached the shore of Barrier Lake. When the jaeger was ready to
strike in order to make the loon drop the fish it was carrying, the
loon dropped over the erosional cliff and splashed into the water.
After 30 seconds of hovering over the submerged loon, which remained
under water for one minute, the jaeger departed to the west. The loon
came to the surface holding the fish tightly crosswise in its beak.

Numerous calls of the Arctic loon were heard on the Barrier Lake area.
When a person enters the territory of a family of loons, the male
makes a sound similar to a courting tomcat. The female responds with a
like sound and in addition concludes her call with a high pitched
note. When mildly disturbed, low guttural notes are uttered by both
sexes, and are continued as a person penetrates farther into the
territory of the loons, especially when young are present. In addition
to the above-mentioned calls, loons have a ravenlike call, one
resembling the cackling of a domestic fowl, and another resembling the
bleating of a lamb.

The male concerns himself less than does the female with the safety of
the family; nevertheless, attempts were noted in which the male
endeavored to decoy the intruder and allow the female and young to
retreat from the area. The loons react to caribou, if these animals
approach too closely to the shore line adjacent to the territory of
the loons.

On July 30, 1951, pairs of loons were flying over the tundra between
Barrier Lake and Teshekpuk Lake.

On an airflight from Teshekpuk Lake to Point Barrow (Aug. 4, 1951) I
saw Arctic loons as follows: 63 miles from Point Barrow, one; 25 miles
from Point Barrow, two; 10 miles from Point Barrow, four.

At Chandler Lake (Aug. 12, 1951), a single Arctic loon was frequently
heard at the southeast end near the mouth of the Chandler River. In
the evening of August 13, the wind changed from the normal southern
wind to a cold wind from the north. Thereafter no Arctic loon was
detected at the mouth of the river until August 22 when a bird there
called at three intervals in the day. Presumably the change in
direction of wind caused the fish and the loon to leave the south end
of the lake. Arctic loons in other parts of the lake were heard every
day from August 8 to August 25 inclusive.

On August 19, 1952, when we flew from Umiat to Gavia Lake, the loons
seemed to be more restless and more easily disturbed than on our
earlier flights. Wariness probably increases as the season advances.

On August 20, 1952, through August 23, 1952, six pairs of Arctic loons
and 10 old squaw ducks were on Gavia Lake (named after the Arctic
loon, genus _Gavia_). These were the only large birds on the lake on
these dates. The loons dove as they sensed danger, emitting, before
the dive, a single doglike yelp.

On September 2, 1952, at ½ mile northeast of Barrow Village, we passed
an Arctic loon on the beach six feet from the waters of the Arctic
Ocean. On the return trip, two hours later, the loon was again seen in
the same area, now preening its feathers. As we approached it walked
to the water and began to swim through the breakers of the ocean. Snow
was falling, telling of the approach of the migratory season for this
species.


+Gavia stellata+ (Pontoppidan): Red-throated loon.--Specimens, 4: NE
Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., No. 30576, ad. male and
No. 30577, ad. female, July 29, 1951; Kaolak River, 159°47'40",
70°11'15", 30 ft., No. 30574, ad. male, July 18, 1951 and No. 30575,
ad. female, July 14, 1951.

At the west side of Salt Water Lagoon (June 17,1952) we observed a
single red-throated loon feeding in the lake. At Point Barrow (June
21, 1952) 15 birds in one loose flock flew east along the shore of the
Arctic Ocean.

At Kaolak River (July 13, 1951) three pairs of red-throated loons
nested among high sedges along the edges of small lakes (some as small
as 100 × 40 feet). Of the three species of loons on the Arctic Slope,
this one chooses the smallest bodies of water for nesting. Each of two
nests held two eggs approximately ½ incubated. One nest and that of an
Arctic tern were approximately 30 feet apart on an island in the
center of the lake. The loons arrived and departed from the lake
without molestation by the terns, but whenever we approached the lake
a tern would fly 300 feet out on the lake to meet us. On July 14, the
female loon was shot. The largest ovum was 8 mm in diameter. On July
16, we again visited the above mentioned nest. The male was incubating
and left unnoticed. While we were inspecting the nest the loon
reappeared only six feet away and uttered one guttural note seemingly
of surprise. The loon hurriedly swam away keeping its head turned
toward us and when at a distance of 25 feet, dove again. Fifteen
minutes after we left the nest the bird could still be seen swimming
about in the lake. On July 18 the male was shot. It weighed 2268 grams
and its testes were 10 mm long. The eggs, measuring 73 × 42 and 69 ×
43 mm, of this pair of loons held embryos having natal down. Although
the loon usually approached the nest from the direction of open water,
several trails led to the nest among sedges. One call by these birds
resembled that of a wolf and was generally given between 11:00 P.M.
and 2:00 A.M. Other calls were froglike, humanlike and birdlike in
quality.

On a small lake between Barrier Lake and Teshekpuk Lake (July 29,
1951) a male and female attracted our attention by uttering guttural
notes and occasionally a sound resembling the meowing of a cat. This
lake was approximately 200 feet long and 40 feet wide and was bordered
by exceptionally high sedges. Several points of sedges projected into
the lake from its edge. When the loons were approached they dove
under water with a splash suggesting the sound made by a beaver as it
strikes its tail against the water before submerging. A loud
high-pitched shrieklike call was given just before diving. They
remained under water for about 20 seconds, came to the surface, and
repeated the behavior. These birds were capable of leaving the lake
but remained in close proximity to their young that were hiding in the
grasses and sedges along the side of the lake. Both adult birds were
collected. A broken egg was on one of the points of vegetation that
projected into the lake. This lake was approximately 600 feet from
feeding grounds at Teshekpuk Lake where small fish three-fourths of an
inch in length were numerous (30 per square foot) along the edge of
the lake. Other red-throated loons were noted on July 29 through
August 4.

At Chandler Lake (Aug. 15, 1951), two red-throated loons frequently
fed in a small meandering creek at the south end of the lake.


+Olor columbianus+ (Ord): Whistling swan.--On July 16, 1951, a boat
with three Eskimos neared a point of land approximately 1/3 mile north
of our camp on the Kaolak (Kuk) River. At 200 feet from the point, two
adult whistling swans and three cygnets left the edge of the river.
The female pretended to have a crippled wing and flapped upstream on
the surface of the water for 100 feet and then continued at normal
cruising speed. The male left the area but returned in a few minutes
and joined the female as she endeavored to lure the hunters up the
river. The Eskimos inspected the shore where the swans had been
resting and then returned to their boat and continued up the river in
the wake of the female swan which was then 200 yards upstream. As the
boat approached the female, she fluttered out of their way and the
boat passed at approximately 30 feet. The Eskimos did not attempt to
shoot at the male, the female, or the three cygnets. The following day
we inspected the area from which the swans had been flushed. Four
molted primary feathers of the adults were found. Twenty feet from the
edge of the river was an old nest which had been occupied the previous
year. This nest was in willows and grasses one foot high. At our camp
(July 12), numerous foot prints measuring 160 mm in length and 142 mm
in width of the swan were noted on the north side of a sand bar in the
river.

Atanak and his companions from Wainwright told us that other whistling
swans were observed (July 16-17, 1951) from our camp on the Kaolak
River to a point seven miles up the Kaolak River from the junction of
the Avalik and Ketik rivers. In the previous month (June), these same
Eskimos had observed 12 pairs of swans between Wainwright and our
camp.


+Branta canadensis minima+ Ridgway: Canada goose.--On July 8 and 9,
1951, four geese fed on a large lake at Topagaruk and when disturbed,\
flew from the lake in groups of two or four, never as single
individuals. Upon returning to the lake they reformed in a group of
four. Drilling for oil was underway there but geese, ducks and smaller
water birds 300 or more feet away from the well were relatively
unmolested and present in normal numbers. Men at the well told us that
birds were not so plentiful in 1951 as in the previous year and that
it was the latter part of May, this year being earlier than last year,
when waterfowl and shore-birds arrived on the tundra. In late May 50
per cent or more of the ground is covered with snow and the lakes are
frozen. Creeks and rivers are used until lakes open up. This is a time
of loud clamor and nuptial performances when geese and brant call all
night. The noise and much of the activity ceases at nesting time. In
the cool weather of autumn (September 1), lakes freeze and the birds
leave the tundra and congregate along the shores of the Arctic Ocean
preparatory to flock formation and migration. Geese and ducks tarry
but the shore-birds leave suddenly. The fall migrations at Point
Barrow begin in the middle of August.


+Branta nigricans+ (Lawrence): Black brant.--On June 19, 1951, two
black brant flew east over the tundra at Salt Water Lagoon and
continued in that direction as far as we could follow the birds with
binoculars. On August 25, 1952, between Birnirk and Point Barrow, we
flushed a flock of 60 brant seven times; they were loathe to leave the
peninsula. On the following day, 58 brant were seen in the same area.


+Anser albifrons frontalis+ Baird: White-fronted goose.--Specimen,
1: 9/10 mi. W and 9/10 mi. N Umiat, 152°10'58", 69°22'53", 380 ft.,
No. 31303, ad. female, July 1, 1952.

As late as June 24, 1952, white-fronted geese were in flock formation
at Umiat. Eight days later (July 1), 9/10 mile west and 9/10 mile
north of Umiat, a nest held six incubated eggs; the embyros showed
natal down. The nest was in a depression of moss (not excavated) on a
mound 45 cm above water level among polygons. The concavity of the
nest was 320 mm in diameter and was lined with an 80 mm thickness of
sticks, pieces of moss, stems of grass and miscellaneous material. The
cup, 160 mm wide and 80 mm deep, was lined with down feathers from the
bird. The nest and brooding bird blended with the vegetation of
_Vaccinium_, _Arctagrostis_, mosses and lichens. When the observer was
25 feet distant the female left the nest. She measured 685 mm in total
length and weighed 2268 grams. The largest ovum was three mm in
diameter.

On August 30 and 31, 1951, 16 white-fronted geese were feeding on the
tundra along Seabee Creek. They called frequently at night.

When we flew from Point Barrow to Kaolak (July 20, 1951),
approximately 100 miles southwest of Point Barrow, 12 white-fronted
geese were in one group, and on a return trip (July 27) along the same
route we noted several small groups.

Upon our arrival at Barrier Lake, northwest of Teshekpuk Lake on July
29, 1951, 12 white-fronted geese were resting at the south end of the
lake. They had consistently used this shore, as well as the entire
east shore line as evidenced there by fecal deposits. In the seven
days that we camped at this lake the geese remained in the area but
never returned to their original resting grounds. In the mud and silt
of a lagoon on the west side of the lake, numerous tracks of these
geese were associated with tracks of caribou, Arctic fox, wolf and
small shore-birds. On August 1, thirty-five white-fronted geese left
the north end of the lake and flew west approximately one mile where
they remained feeding and calling until midnight. On the morning of
August 3, two geese flew south over our camp to Teshekpuk Lake and at
8:45 P.M., 15 flew to the west.


+Chen hyperborea hyperborea+ (Pallas): Snow goose.--Atanak, an
Eskimo, told us that snow geese were common along the coast at
Wainwright in the early spring of 1951. On the date of interrogation
(July 18, 1951) he reported that none was in the area.


+Anas acuta+ Linnaeus: Pintail.--Specimens, 2: 2 mi. W Utukok River,
161°15'30", 68°54'50", 1275 ft., No. 31304 and 31305, ad. females,
Aug. 30, 31, 1952.

At Kaolak River (July 15, 1951), the primary feathers of a female in
breeding plumage were being replaced by new feathers then 25
millimeters long. She was unable to fly and had secluded herself in
the sedges and grasses along the edge of a lake. On July 18, a male
flew over this lake. These were the only two pintails observed in this
area.

At Kaolak (July 21-27, 1951), within one mile of our camp there were
four females with young in groups of 4, 5, and 6. The young birds of
the group of five were 75 mm in length. On June 17, 1952, several
pintails were feeding in the Salt Water Lagoon at Point Barrow.

The largest of two adult females collected on August 30 and 31, 1952,
two miles west of Driftwood, was 536 mm in total length and weighed
729 grams.

On August 25, 1951, three pintails fed in a small creek at the
southwest corner of Chandler Lake. They were the first observed in the
area where we began camping on August 9.


+Anas carolinensis+ Gmelin: Green-winged teal.--On September 4,
1951, one green-winged teal was on a small lake approximately 1¼ miles
northwest of Umiat.


+Aythya marila nearctica+ Stejneger: Greater scaup.--On July 8,
1952, approximately ½ mile southwest of the east end of Wahoo Lake, a
nest of seven eggs of this species was located on the edge of a small
lake. Three males swam together in the lake.


+Clangula hyemalis+ (Linnaeus): Old squaw.--Specimens, 5; Barrier
Lake, NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., No. 35080, ad.
female and 30581, ad. female, July 30, 1951; Topagaruk River, 155°48',
70°34', 10 ft., No. 30582, ad. female, July 7, 1951; Kaolak River,
159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., No. 50579, ad. female, July 14, 1951
and No. 50578, ad. sex?, July 15, 1951.

Two old squaws were feeding in Salt Water Lagoon on June 17, 1952. On
June 30, 1952, a nest of seven eggs was 20 feet from the edge of a
lake at Umiat. One of the eggs was infertile and in the others embryos
had barely begun to form. The nest was unattended but the eggs were
warm and covered with down feathers. The next day the male was in the
lake adjoining the nest and the female was on the nest; we collected
the eggs on this date. The nest was in a natural depression in the
moss on top of a hummock one foot high. A dwarf alder gave overhead
protection.

Each night, at approximately 10:00 P.M. (July 3-11, 1952) a male lit
in Wahoo Lake and preened, ruffled and adjusted its feathers. This
behavior indicated to us that he had just been relieved from
incubating eggs. Old squaws were noted also on a small lake
approximately ½ mile southeast of Wahoo Lake on July 8.

Most of the old squaws (July 4-10, 1951) were in pairs or small groups
at Topagaruk. They constituted less than one per cent of the avian
population and were more commonly seen around the edges of stabilized
lakes of medium size than elsewhere. One adult female shot on July 7,
weighed 600 grams and had ova as large as 17 millimeters in diameter.

On July 8, 1952, between 1:00 A.M. and 2:00 A.M., the ice started to
move and formed leads near the shore of the Arctic Ocean at Point
Barrow. Ordinarily the ice does not leave until approximately the 20th
of the month. These new leads brought greater numbers of old squaws
nearer shore. At 6:00 P.M. that same day eighteen old squaw ducks sat
on the ice off-shore and approximately 100 flew to the east in three
separate groups.

At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951), old squaws were observed every
day. On a four hour field trip (July 15), four adults were seen. On
July 18 an old squaw was flying in company with a male pintail. An
Eskimo hunting party of three men had killed a female (July 18) near
our camp and were going to prepare it for food that evening.

At Kaolak (July 21-27, 1951) we observed one pair with young and two
single adults.

At Barrier Lake, northeast of Teshekpuk Lake (July 29-Aug. 4, 1951),
old squaw ducks were in evidence at least once or twice a day. On July
30, three birds were sitting on an island in a small lake adjoining
Barrier Lake. They were molting and although capable of flight were
using the island as a place of refuge. Two females shot on July 30,
weighed 650 grams and had masses of ova smaller than those in the
female shot at Topagaruk 23 days earlier. The largest ovum in the
latter female was 2.3 mm in diameter. On a flight on August 4, 1951,
from Teshekpuk Lake to Point Barrow we saw two flocks of 18 each when
73 and 34 miles southwest of Point Barrow.

Between the mouth of the Canning River Canyon and Umiat (July 18,
1952), old squaws were more numerous in lakes adjacent to the Colville
River than in lakes to the east.

Upon our arrival at Gavia Lake (Aug. 20, 1952) a family of two adults
and two juveniles and another family of one adult and six juveniles
were the only ducks on the lake. One of the juveniles rested on the
bank instead of feeding in the lake with the other ducks, and on
August 23 died. On August 21, one duckling in the second family
strayed out toward the center of the lake, whereupon the adult female
swam out and herded the young bird back toward the group nearer the
shore line. On August 22, the female and two ducklings of the first
family were shot. The adult was 390 mm in total length whereas the
young were 300 mm in total length and weighed 320 grams. Neither young
birds nor the mother could fly. The breast of each young consisted of
only a few thin layers of muscles whereas the adult's breast was made
up of thick muscles. The second family had frequented the south shore,
but moved to the north side of the lake when fired upon. On August 22,
one duckling was 214 mm long and weighed 119 grams. Although the
season was far advanced and the snows of autumn were already falling,
ducklings of the sizes specified above were still unable to fly and
the females were still molting the essential flight feathers.

At Driftwood (Aug. 30, 1952) an adult and two juveniles were feeding
in a lake northeast of camp.


+Polysticta stelleri+ (Pallas): Steller's eider.--Specimen, 1:
Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., No. 30325, ad. female, July 10,
1951.

An incubating female was shot at Topagaruk on July 10, 1951. Her ovary
was 30 mm long, and the largest ovum was 3 mm in diameter. Her nest
was in a depression of a high-centered polygon some 300 feet from any
large body of water, contained five fresh eggs, and was lined with
black down feathers of an adult. On each of three occasions when
approached, the female left the nest when I was six feet away.

On September 7, 1952, a flock of eight Steller's eiders was swimming
in a large lake approximately one mile southeast of the Arctic
Research Laboratory.


+Somateria mollissima v. nigra+ Bonaparte: Common eider.--On August
25, 1952, approximately 100 yards southwest of Point Barrow, 30
Pacific eiders were resting on the beach in company with 90 king
eiders. When approached some swam and others flew out onto the Arctic
Ocean where they remained until we withdrew from the area, after which
time the birds returned to their resting place on the beach.


 PLATE 9

 [Illustration: Fig. 1. A male yellow-billed loon setting on eggs in
 nest at Wahoo Lake on July 9, 1952.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 2. Nest and eggs shown in figure 1, July 9,
 1952. Incubation had just begun.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 3. Arctic loon (upper) and red-throated loon
 (lower) from Teshekpuk Lake, August 1, 1951.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 4. Nest and eggs of white-fronted goose at
 Umiat, July 1, 1952. Incubation three fourths completed.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 5. Adult male surf scoters, July 16, 1952, at
 Porcupine Lake. Scoters are uncommon on the Arctic Slope.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 6. Arctic tern shot at Teshekpuk Lake on August
 1, 1951. A common breeding bird in northern Alaska.]


 PLATE 10

 [Illustration: Fig. 1. Shore of Arctic Ocean at Point Barrow, June
 19, 1952. Many birds already were nesting on the tundra.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 2. Tundra and oriented lakes 80 mi. S Point
 Barrow, August 28, 1952, are breeding places for water birds.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 3. Luxuriant vegetation used by breeding birds
 in intermontane valley at Porcupine Lake, July 18, 1952.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 4. Willow-lined creek at Chandler Lake, August
 25, 1951. Willows and alders offer nesting sites for birds.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 5. NW face of Mt. Chamberlin, 9131 ft.; terrain
 inhospitable to most breeding birds. August 5, 1952.]

 [Illustration: Fig. 6. Destruction of bird communities by caribou
 trampling south of Lake Peters. August 8, 1952.]


+Somateria spectabilis+ (Linnaeus): King eider.--Specimen 1: Point
Barrow, 156°27'25", 71°23'11", 3 ft., No. 31306, ad. male, August 25,
1952.

Robert McKinley told us that in the last week of April of 1952, eiders
(king?) arrived in the vicinity of the Arctic Research Laboratory in
large numbers and continued to pass to the east for the next three
weeks. King eiders were observed at Point Barrow on July 3, 1951.

Ninety king eiders and 30 Pacific eiders were resting on the shore of
the Arctic Ocean at Point Barrow on August 25, 1952. The following day
200 king eiders were in the same area. A male, shot there, measured
560 millimeters in total length. The muscles were only a third the
size of those on a normal bird. Another eider found dead also was
emaciated and may have died from gun shot wounds inflicted by the guns
of the Eskimos. For every bird killed by Eskimos, several are injured;
many of these die along the migration route. On July 28, king eiders
were flying northwest along the shore of Elson Lagoon, thence across
the Point Barrow Peninsula at Birnirk, and thence southwest along the
coast of the Arctic Ocean. This day was foggy and wind was from the
east. On clear days and especially when wind blows from the northwest,
king eiders cross the peninsula a fifth of a mile or so nearer Point
Barrow, which is the most northern extension of the Peninsula. More
eiders moved by on clear days than on cloudy or foggy days. In one
hour, ten flocks, averaging 400 birds each, passed overhead at Birnirk
(July 28); three days earlier flocks of from 50 to 300 passed
approximately every 20 minutes. Eskimos on this date were shooting
into these flocks of eider and bagging them in excess of the winter
needs of the hunters. One Eskimo had 40 king eiders undressed and
hanging on a drying rod at his home at Barrow Village (Sept. 2, 1952).

On July 29, 1951, we flew from Point Barrow to Teshekpuk Lake and
observed (2:00-3:00 P.M.) only two small flocks of king eiders. On
August 1, 1951, at Barrier Lake, three large flocks were flying west
beyond the north end of the lake. This was the first day since July
29, on which we had seen such large flocks so far inland.

On September 11, 1952, eight king eiders were resting on the shore of
the Arctic Ocean at Point Barrow.


+Lampronetta fischeri+ (Brandt): Spectacled eider.--On July 28,
1951, at Birnirk, several flocks were flying along the Arctic Ocean.


+Melanitta perspicillata+ (Linnaeus): Surf scoter.--Specimens, 2:
Porcupine Lake, 146°29'50", 68°51'57", 3140 ft., No. 31307 and 31308,
ad. males, July 15, 1952.

Two males shot at Porcupine Lake on July 15, 1952, measured as
follows: Total length, 489 mm, 495 mm; length of testis, 9 mm, 11 mm;
weight, 1134 grams, 998 grams. These birds were frequently seen
together along the south side of the lake. At Lake Schrader (July 27,
1952), 15 scoters, in loose groups of two to six, fed in the southwest
corner of the lake.


+Buteo lagopus s. johannis+ (Gmelin): Rough-legged hawk.--On July 2,
1952, a nest of three young approximately six days old was examined ½
mile southeast of Umiat Mountain. The young were being fed small
mammals. Another nest containing three addled eggs was also examined
near Umiat. Many infertile and addled eggs of several kinds of birds
were noted on the Arctic Slope.


+Aquila chrysaëtos canadensis+ (Linnaeus): Golden eagle.--Marvin
Mangus told us that he had seen young in nests at the following
localities: Kurupa River, 155°11', 68°38', on July 1, 1946; 10 miles
south of Driftwood in latter part of June, 1950; 11 miles NW from the
north end of Chandler Lake, 152°56', 68°25' on June 10, 1951; Awuna
River, 157°03', 69°12' July 4, 1952. Single adult birds were seen by
us at Gavia Lake (Aug. 21, 1952) and at Driftwood (Aug. 31, 1952).

Atanak and his companions from Wainwright saw 12 eagles while hunting
(July 16-18, 1951) from the junction of the Avalik and Ketik rivers to
a point seven miles up the Kaolak River, but no eagles were seen
between the junction of the above rivers and Wainwright.

Golden eagles daily hunted prey along ridges where Arctic ground
squirrels (_Spermophilus undulatus_) were abundant, for example, at
Wahoo Lake (July 3-12, 1952) and at Porcupine Lake (July 13-18, 1952).
This species of eagle hunted also in areas where marmots (_Marmota
caligata_) were abundant, as on the slopes adjoining Lake Peters.
There (August 6, 1952) three eagles soaring at 3800 feet elevation
south of the mouth of Chamberlin Canyon elicited from each of four
marmots three warning calls. Thereafter the marmots remained silent
until the eagles had left the area. One eagle that consistently hunted
(July 17, 1952) on the lower slope of Mount Annette along the Canning
River was three times harassed by two ravens.

At the south end of Lake Peters (July 31, 1952), a pair of adult
eagles soared along the slopes of Mount Mary approximately 1000 feet
above the lake. Twenty minutes later these birds flew by camp at the
base of the mountain. On August 2, at 8:00 P.M., two birds, one a
large dark adult and one a bird of the year (?) dropped with partly
closed wings from high on the east side of the lake to an undisturbed
meadow on the west side. After circling the meadow once, the two birds
spiralled upward to approximately 4500 feet elevation in one steep
canyon, leveled off and after gaining the head of the next canyon,
plummetted down to the base of the mountain some 1500 feet below. The
high-speed flight continued across the ridge to the mouth of the next
canyon where they circled twice and then soared upward to repeat the
act. The objective probably was to surprise and prey upon small game
at the mouths of each canyon. On August 13, the eagles were still in
the area at the south end of Lake Peters in spite of an abrupt
seasonal change; snow and rain increased and the temperature dropped.

On August 15, a Dall sheep (_Ovis dalli_) crossed the canyon from
Mount Mary to the mouth of Chamberlin Canyon. As the sheep reached the
east side of the canyon an eagle flew across the canyon and alighted
approximately 150 feet from the sheep. A large group of small birds
immediately harassed the eagle.

Two eagles fed on a dead caribou on a delta on the east side of Lake
Peters. Eagles were noted every day at Lake Peters from July 31 to
August 15 inclusive.


+Falco rusticolus obsoletus+ Gmelin: Gyrfalcon.--At the southwest
corner of Barrier Lake on July 29, 1951, a gyrfalcon sat on a bank 10
feet above the water level. A dead Arctic tern was on the beach only
90 feet away and visible to the gyrfalcon. When approached to within
250 feet, the gyrfalcon, rather than flying north over the lake and
lowlands, flew south across the upland tundra. On August 3, on the
edge of the upland tundra approximately 3½ miles farther east a
gyrfalcon ate a Sabine's gull--a bird of the year. Its feathers had
been plucked and only the stomach and intestines remained. The
gyrfalcon left the feeding area when approached to within 450 feet
and, as did the other gyrfalcon, flew south over the upland tundra
rather than over the lowlands of inundated sedges. On July 4, one
gyrfalcon sat on a promontory at the south end of Barrier Lake. This
bird flew south.

At Umiat (Sept. 1-5, 1951) a gyrfalcon each day hunted the same areas
of marsh in the river valley where tundra voles (_Microtus oeconomus_)
were numerous and along the side of the valley where ground squirrels
were common. On several occasions, this bird hovered 30 feet up and
inspected us. This confidence was in contrast to that of the
gyrfalcons at Teshekpuk Lake; they evaded us by leaving the ground
several hundred feet away and flying out of sight.

Westley Redhead told us that a gyrfalcon was at Umiat as early as the
latter part of May, 1952. We saw them there on September 1 and 2 in
the same year. Gyrfalcons feed on ptarmigan in the river valley and on
ground squirrels and small birds on the uplands by striking their prey
on the ground. These falcons fly like prairie falcons and are of the
same nervous disposition.


+Falco peregrinus anatum+ Bonaparte: Peregrine falcon.--A nest was
found on June 27, 1952, on the south slope of Mount Umiat
approximately 225 feet above the Colville River, 40 feet from the top
of the cliff and 30 feet west of the top of the mountain. The nest,
three feet in depth at the front, two feet in depth at the rear, and
2½ feet wide was made of sticks of many years accumulation and was
placed on a pinnacled platform 12 feet high. The nest contained one
infertile egg and two others in which embryos were approximately one
third developed. The female remained near us the one hour that we were
in the area. She flew back and forth in front of the nest terminating
each flight in an upswing arc and occasionally rested on top of the
ridge to the west. She dove at us but never came closer than 10 feet
before swerving upward. The male was not present. In a canyon 1/5 mile
northeast of the nest two dead ptarmigan were at the edge of a willow
cotton-grass swale. A nest of a peregrine falcon used three years
before was 1-7/10 miles east and 1-7/10 miles north of Umiat. The nest
was eight feet up on the face of a cliff 13 feet in height and easily
accessible to either fox or wolf. Along the Colville River the falcon
feeds on small shore-birds and other small birds.


+Falco columbarius bendirei+ Swann: Pigeon hawk.--On a benchland
between Chandler Lake and mountains to the west on August 12, 1952, a
pigeon hawk hunted back and forth across a meadow, fearlessly
inspecting us from distances of 20 to 30 feet as it searched the
meadow for food. This falcon systematically searched those areas where
longspurs were known by us to be most frequently found. Twice it
flushed Lapland longspurs and darted at them but without success. Of
the four pigeon hawks at Chandler Lake three were moving south and one
was moving north down the canyon. We saw this species at Chandler Lake
also on August 17, 20 and 21, 1951, and at Driftwood on August 27,
1952.

Approximately 1/10 mile north of James Robert Lake (Aug. 8, 1952) a
pigeon hawk was harassing five ravens that were feeding on a dead
caribou. This falcon flew back and forth above the ravens.


+Falco sparverius sparverius+ Linnaeus: Sparrow hawk.--One seen in
the summer of 1952 at the mouth of the Colville River by Clifford
Fiscus.


+Lagopus lagopus alascensis+ Swarth: Willow ptarmigan.--Specimens, 5:
Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., No. 50587, ad. female, July 8, 1951;
Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., No. 30586, ad. female, July
14, 1951 and No. 30585, ad. male, July 15, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51",
69°56'00", 178 ft., No. 30583, ad. male and No. 30584, ad. female, July
23, 1951.

Wherever ptarmigan were found, there was evidence that they were
resident in the area throughout the year. At Topagaruk, informants
said the ptarmigan were not so numerous in the summer (1949-1950) as
in the winter. The apparent relative abundance of these birds in these
two seasons could conceivably result from the birds being less
conspicuous and more seclusive in the summer because of nesting
activities. In summer these birds are protectively colored; at times a
female only a few feet away is hardly distinguishable from the tundra.
We observed only two adults and three juveniles in the area (July
5-10, 1952) although we saw considerable sign associated with the
winter season. Sand dunes derived from material along the edge of the
river formed a conspicuous feature of the landscape. These dunes, 20
to 30 feet high, were deeply cut by winds from the west-northwest.
Ptarmigan tracks and sign were on all sides of the dunes, but the lee
side was more commonly used than any other because of the protection
from winds and the presence there of large willows and other plants.
At Barrier Lake (July 29-Aug. 4, 1952) we noted numerous droppings of
ptarmigan on the uplands between Barrier Lake and Teshekpuk Lake but
we did not see any birds there. The sign could have been deposited
either in the winter or in a previous season.

There are perhaps local migrations of ptarmigan. Harmon Helmericks,
for instance, told us that in either April or May of 1946 he saw a
ptarmigan on the ice of the Arctic Ocean 10 miles north of Pingok
Island. At Gavia Lake (August 22) we observed a local shift of a group
of ptarmigan. One day there were 19 birds in an area; the following
day only seven birds were counted. On the third day the full
complement of 19 birds were again in the area.

Ptarmigan are generally distributed on the Arctic Slope. On an
airflight (July 3, 1952) from the mouth of the Canning River Canyon to
Umiat the number of ptarmigan increased as we approached the drainage
system of the Colville River. On this date, when these birds are
nesting, the willows were just starting to grow new leaves and other
vegetation of the tundra still was undeveloped. On August 16, along
this same route, when young ptarmigan were nearly as large as adults,
willows and alders were in full leaf and dominated the vegetation
along water courses; the tundra was mature in appearance with
considerably more green and yellow color in the landscape. The water
in rivers and especially ponds was clear but brownish.

In the river valley at Umiat (June 28, 1952) a nest of seven eggs (½
incubated) was on an elevated mound supporting dwarf willow and birch
averaging 1½ feet high. The nest was merely a concavity in sphagnum
moss depressed by the weight of the bird. The female refused to leave
the nest until bodily removed.

Dusting pits are actively used in the period of nesting. At Umiat
(June 25, 1952), ptarmigan were using seven dusting pits on the
shoulder of the airstrip. On the upland at Kaolak River (July 12,
1951), ptarmigan developed dusting pits on abandoned diggings made by
Arctic ground squirrels. Most of the mounds were covered with mosses
and lichens and other vegetation.

Individuals and family groups were noted at various localities on the
Arctic Slope. At Kaolak River (July 15, 1951) on a four hour field
trip, we saw three pairs of birds and their families of four to six
young. One flock of eight adults was seen from the air at the mouth of
the Canning River Canyon on July 22, 1952. At Kaolak (July 21-27,
1951) they were common; ten pairs of adults (males and female) were
within a one mile radius of our camp. The families of young were in
groups of 1-3-4-6-8-9-10-11-14. One group consisted of one male, two
females and four young. While on a flight from Kaolak to Point Barrow
(July 27, 1951) we observed several ptarmigan on the tundra. At Gavia
Lake (Aug. 21, 1951) ptarmigan were in groups or singles as follows:
two adult singles, group of seven young and one adult, group of four
young and one adult and one group of five young and two adults.
According to Harmon Helmericks, ptarmigan were high in population
numbers on the Arctic Slope in 1952.

Ptarmigan were associated with most of the communities of the Arctic
Slope but were noted more commonly in the following situations than
elsewhere: At Kaolak (July 21-27) and at Kaolak River (July 21, 1951)
in damp swales of grasses and sedges in poorly drained areas where
soils were damp to supersaturated and among the dwarf willows
bordering lakes and creeks; at Gavia Lake (Aug. 21, 1952) among
willows and alders (4 feet high) along the edges of ox-bow lakes. On
windy, cold days the ptarmigan were mainly on south exposures among
grasses and sedges along lakes and on windless days were on flat
tundra of polygons but near dwarf shrubs. On June 27, 1/5 mile
northwest of Mount Umiat, two dead willow ptarmigan were noted along
the edge of a willow and cotton-grass swale. The feathers had been
plucked by a raptor (?) preparatory to his eating the ptarmigan.

Variations in parental display are indicated by the following
observations. At Kaolak River (July 12) we flushed a family of adults
and young. The male called as he left the ground and then he flew
across the lake. The female, when flushed at a distance of 10 feet
from the observer, feigned injury for 12 seconds before following the
male. Seven young, averaging seven inches in length, left the ground
and flew in the opposite direction from that taken by the male and
female, to swales of cotton-grass and willow on the hillside. Another
adult male and female were at the side of a young bird held in a trap.
The female first left the young and fluttered over the vegetation for
40 feet and the male flew out of the area. Four other young were
flushed 30 feet from the trap that held the captured ptarmigan. On
July 17, while walking through a wet meadow of grasses and sedges, we
flushed a male, female and four young (150 mm in length). The female
crawled through vegetation for 30 feet and then rose into the air. At
this same moment four young left the ground. The female, while in the
air, reversed her course and joined the young, which had alighted
some 300 feet away. On July 23, 1951, a family of two adults and 10
young were flushed. The male returned and chattered until the female
arrived. The male then retreated 15 feet beyond the observer and
remained close to the female while she tried to distract our attention
from the young by pretending to have an injured wing. In a group of
one male, two females and four young at Kaolak (July 21, 1951) the
male and young left after the females fluttered along the ground for
30 feet.

Adults and young do not always escape by flying; on July 20, 1951, we
were enroute from the landing lake to Kaolak when an adult male and
female with eight young ran 200 feet down established tracks of a
weasel vehicle. It was necessary to reduce the speed of the vehicle to
spare the young. A male at Kaolak River (July 12, 1951) ran 150 feet
under the protection of willows to an opening where it remained until
flushed. It flew 50 feet, then alighted in another patch of willows.

At Gavia Lake at 11:30 P.M. a ptarmigan called because one of its
young was caught in a trap at the edge of a lake. The juvenal bird,
unharmed, was released and inadvertently was dropped into the water
where it floated but finally, becoming confused, got its head and bill
under water and drowned.

On July 15, 1951, at 11:00 P.M. at Kaolak River, we heard a ptarmigan
joining an Arctic tern and several sandpipers in protest to a passing
red fox.

For three consecutive days a family (male, female and young) at
Topagaruk was within 50 feet of one place.

The following measurements of juveniles show increase in size as
correlated with advance of season: Topagaruk (July 6, 1951) two
juveniles averaging 110 mm in length weighed 21 grams; Kaolak River
(July 17, 1951) young of one family averaged 178 mm in length and
another individual was 162 mm in length and weighed 38 grams; Kaolak
(July 21-27, 1951) individuals in a group of nine were approximately
¾ the size of parents and other groups were 1/3 to 2/3 the size of
adults.

In a brooding female 600 mm long from Topagaruk (July 8, 1951) the
largest ovum was two mm in diameter. Females, averaging 650 mm long
from Kaolak (July 23, 1951) had ovaries smaller than the normal size
for breeding birds; the largest ovum was only ½ mm in diameter. Males
of the same size had testes six mm in length.


+Lagopus mutus nelsoni+ Stejneger: Rock ptarmigan.--Specimen, 1:
Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft., No. 31309, ad. male, July 11,
1952.

At Wahoo Lake (July 6, 1952), young of one brood for the first time
since July 3, called continually throughout the day and part of the
night. Members of three other broods, only a few days old, did not
call in the same persistent way.

Along a deeply eroded western outlet of Wahoo Lake there was an
unusual concentration of fecal droppings, spaced approximately every
two or three feet. This sheltered place offered protection from cold
and winds of winter. Adults were associated with willows along creeks
and on adjoining sidehills where willows gave way to open tundra. One
family left the willows and the female flew back and forth behind the
young as she herded them. The largest adult male seen here was shot on
July 11. It was 365 mm in total length, weighed 460 grams, and had
testes 7 mm long.

At the south end of Lake Peters (August 14, 1952), a female and her
two young, along with other kinds of birds, were attracted to our tent
during snowstorms. On July 18 at Wahoo Lake, a juvenile was 200 mm in
total length and weighed 100 grams whereas on August 9 at Lake Peters
a juvenal male was 261 mm in length and 226 grams in weight.

Rock ptarmigan were uncommon at Chandler Lake. We observed the first
bird in the area on August 22, 1952, 13 days after our arrival.
Droppings of the birds were only occasionally seen there.


+Grus canadensis canadensis+ (Linnaeus): Sandhill crane.--In 1952,
two sandhill cranes called in the river valley north of Umiat on June
24. On June 26, 27 and 28, a single bird was seen there. It remained
in the general area and called occasionally. Sandhill cranes are only
occasionally seen along the Colville River. A pair of these cranes was
seen near Meade River on August 16, 1952, by Marvin Mangus.


+Charadrius semipalmatus+ Bonaparte: Semipalmated plover.--A pair of
semipalmated plovers in company with their young along the edge of
Seabee Creek at Umiat were seen on four consecutive days, July 18-21,
1952. A male and female measured, respectively, total length, 180 and
175 mm; weight, 50 and 55 grams.


+Pluvialis dominica dominica+ (Müller): American golden
plover.--Specimens, 10: Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft.,
Nos. 30592-30596 including 2 ad. males and 3 ad. females, July 12, 14,
18, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., Nos. 30588-30591
including 3 ad. males and 1 ad. female, July 21-23, 1951; Umiat,
152°09'30", 69°22'08", 352 ft., No. 31312 of an adult of unknown sex,
July 21, 1952.

On July 29, 1952, we noted a pair of golden plover 3/10 mile northwest
of Umiat. At Kaolak River (July 12, 1951) golden plovers could be
approached to within 80 feet and were less wary than black-bellied
plovers at Topagaruk. When one bird was shot the mate remained near
the dead bird.

At Kaolak (July 21-27) four families of plovers were within a radius
of ½ mile of camp. Each of these families remained apart from the
others whereas at Kaolak River the physiography of the terrain
permitted the pairs to form social groups of several families of
adults and young. At Kaolak males flew to meet any intruder and
attempted to decoy the intruder while the female remained with the
young, but at Kaolak River an observer would approach to within 80
feet of a nest or young whereupon the female feigned injury by
fluttering her wings and moving on her belly in an effort to decoy the
intruder, the male meanwhile remaining within 40 feet of the observer.
At Kaolak River, birds stayed in the nesting or feeding territory
until approached to within a hundred or so feet. Young birds (July 21)
were approximately ¾ the size of adults. The largest bird collected at
Umiat (July 21) weighed 155 grams and measured 26 mm in length. Five
males, shot on July 12-23 at Kaolak and Kaolak River, averaged 144
(130-150) grams. The testes were 4.4 (4.0-5.0) mm long. Four females
collected at the same time from this area, averaged 144 (140-150)
grams. The ovaries were 7.7 (5.0-10.0) mm long and the largest ovum
was 2.0 mm in diameter.

The call of the adult was two distinct curlewlike notes that differed
from the slurred call of the black-bellied plover. Golden plovers can
be decoyed by imitating their call.

At Barrier Lake, in a two hour field trip (July 29, 1951) we observed
a flock of eight birds and one single; golden plovers were active
there all day and night.

At Kaolak River (July 12, 1951) six pairs and their young were on open
and exposed surfaces.


+Squatarola squatarola+ (Linnaeus): Black-bellied
plover.--Specimens, 2: Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., No. 30597,
ad. male and No. 30598, ad. female, July 9, 1951.

At Barrier Lake, on July 4, 1951, two adults were feeding together in
a bare lane which had been made and maintained by caribou. At
Topagaruk on July 7, 1951, these plovers made up less than one per
cent of the avian population. They were frequently on polygons having
raised centers. Non-nesting or non-breeding birds were on bare
wind-blown knolls adjacent to the river. On these knolls they fed with
semipalmated sandpipers, pectoral sandpipers, and ruddy turnstones. On
July 9, we visited polygons having raised centers and young called
continually but we could not locate them. The call resembles that of
the long-billed curlew but is more plaintive. Ordinarily these plovers
kept beyond the range of our collecting gun but when one of the pair
was killed the other, especially the male, remained near the dead bird
until the collector approached to within 20 feet. Of a pair shot on
this date the male weighed 207 grams and had testes 7 mm long; the
female weighed 232 grams and the largest ovum was 3 mm in diameter.
The species was recorded at Topagaruk from July 4 to 10, 1951,
inclusive.

At the west edge of Smith Bay on July 29, 1951, while flying from
Point Barrow to Teshekpuk Lake, we observed one group of approximately
40 black-bellied plovers flying along the edge of the lake. At Gavia
Lake on August 21, 1952, two young were just able to fly but preferred
to run on the ground.


+Arenaria interpres interpres+ (Linnaeus): Ruddy
turnstone.--Specimens, 5: Topagaruk River, 155°48',
70°34', 10 ft., No. 30599-30603 including 4 ad. males and 1 ad.
female, July 6, 8, 9, 1951.

Four males shot at Topagaruk July 6-9, 1951, weighed 105 (96-116)
grams. The testes were 2.8 (2.5-3.0) mm long. A female from the above
locality, shot on July 6, weighed 125 grams. These birds constituted
less than one per cent of the avian population at Topagaruk and were
more frequently on polygons with high centers and on high windswept
knolls than elsewhere and were in company with black-bellied plovers,
pectoral sandpipers and semipalmated sandpipers. One bird was observed
on July 3, 1951, at ¼ mile southeast of the Arctic Research Laboratory
at Point Barrow.


+Capella gallinago delicata+ (Ord): Common snipe.--At Umiat (June
25, 1952) at 11:00 P.M. a female was sitting and calling from the top
of a leafless alder tree some 210 feet from any favorable nesting
grounds. A male was performing a nuptial flight overhead. Three other
birds in the air were heard.

On July 13, 1952, at Porcupine Lake, we flushed a female from a damp
meadow of grasses and sedges at the west end of the lake. She
pretended to have a crippled wing. Seventy-five feet from this bird an
abandoned nest and fragments of egg shells rested on top of a mound
six inches from water and 10 feet from the west end of the lake. Two
dwarf willows on top of the mound partly concealed the nest. Two days
later (July 15), juveniles were caught in a line of traps set in this
marsh. Four tree sparrows, one savannah sparrow and three species of
small mammals also were taken from this marsh. At this time of year
(July 15) all the terrain was free of snow and ice except that two
patches of snow, one 8 × 12 feet and another 6 × 6 feet remained on
the protected south shore of the lake and a few ice slivers remained
in the deep crevasses on some mounds in the marsh. One bird was seen
on August 13, 1952, in wet low polygons between Lake Schrader and Lake
Peters.


+Actitis macularia+ (Linnaeus): Spotted sandpiper.--At the south end
of Lake Peters on August 15, 1952, after snow covered the valley, a
juvenal spotted sandpiper remained along the shore line nearer camp
than it had been for four previous days.


+Heteroscelus incanum+ (Gmelin): Wandering tattler.--On each of the
days July 3-11, 1952, a wandering tattler was flushed from dense high
willows along an 8-foot-deep creek channel that carried water from the
west end of Wahoo Lake into the East Fork of the Ivashak River. The
bird was at home in the willows and had considerable dexterity in
perching on limbs. Although the bird favored one section of the creek,
an exhaustive search for young, eggs or nest was fruitless. A loud
call was given by this bird when disturbed.


+Erolia melanotos+ (Vieillot): Pectoral sandpiper.--Specimens, 52:
Barrier Lake, NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., 33,
Nos. 30616-30636, 30638-30648, 30754 including 5 ad. males, 12 juv.
males, 1 ad. female and 15 juv. females, July 30, Aug. 1-3, 1951;
Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 7, Nos. 30649-30655, including 3 ad. males
and 4 ad. females, July 6, 8, 9, 1951; Kaolak River, 159°47'40",
70°11'15", 30 ft., 6, Nos. 30610-30615 of ad. females, July 12, 14,
15, 18, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 6, Nos.
30604-30609 including 1 juv. male and 5 ad. females, July 20-23, 1951.

The earliest record of young (135 mm in length and 26 grams in weight)
was at Kaolak River on July 14, 1951. On July 9, 1952, at Topagaruk
the oviduct of an adult female, 86 grams in weight, contained an egg
in a shell 200 mm in diameter. Her second largest ovum was 10 mm.
Breeding males on this date had testes averaging 11 mm in length. The
average length of testis of 15 juveniles shot on August 3, 1951, at
Teshekpuk Lake was 1.9 (1.5-2.0) mm. The average weight of these
juveniles was 60 (50-81) grams. A comparison of male and female
juveniles shows no significant differences. Nevertheless, adult males
in both the breeding and post-breeding seasons are longer bodied and
heavier than adult females.

In the period June 14-25, 1952, in the Point Barrow area, pectoral
sandpipers were puffing their throats and cooing. On June 23, several
birds were defending territories, and one half mile northeast of
Barrow Village (June 23, 1952) we noted a male pectoral sandpiper that
crouched low when a pomarine jaeger flew directly overhead. After the
jaeger passed, the sandpiper assumed normal posture and continued
feeding.

At Topagaruk (July 7, 1951) these birds represented less than one per
cent of the avian population, were common on polygons having low
centers, and frequently joined black-bellied plovers, ruddy
turnstones, and semipalmated sandpipers to form discrete flocks.

On a four hour field trip at Kaolak River (July 15, 1951), the
pectoral sandpipers (45 by actual count) were the most common of the
sandpipers and were always calling overhead. The young on this date
were not yet capable of flight and were being fed by adult females.
One of the immatures bathed in water at the edge of the beach. On July
18, females were still attempting to decoy intruders by pretending to
have broken wings. Eight adults with young were observed at Kaolak
(June 21-27, 1951) but the species was not so aggressive as at Kaolak
River, nor so numerous. The fewer birds may have been correlated with
lack of sand dunes, river beaches and open areas.

A group of five pectoral sandpipers frequented the shore of Barrier
Lake (July 29, 1951) but the group was not seen the following day. On
August 3, there was a sudden increase of pectoral sandpipers in the
area; most of them were in flocks of six to 50. From one point along
edge of the uplands, we shot 20 birds from several different flocks
consisting mostly of juveniles. They seemed curious about our presence.
When a bird was shot from the flock, the entire group circled back and
forth over the dead or injured bird, sometimes only three or four feet
above our heads. In the late evening of this same day, the number of
pectoral sandpipers increased and although some were moving westward,
most of them were moving eastward. On the following day they were
still present in great numbers. The day before the arrival of these
migrating birds, two adults (Aug. 2) acted as if they were still
attending young. On July 30, we shot at a lone bird as it flew by and
thereupon it climbed upward until nearly out of sight as they
frequently did when chased by falcons.

At Lake Schrader (July 23, 1952) pectoral sandpipers were active 24
hours of the day.

On August 4, 1952, at the south end of Lake Peters, a group of eight
pectoral sandpipers fed near camp. On August 5, one was shot and on
the following day only seven were seen, suggesting that they were
established in the area and were not migrants. They left on August 12.

At James Robert Lake (3600 feet elev., August 8, 1952), which is the
most southern body of water in the canyon south of Lake Peters,
several pectoral sandpipers were feeding along the edge of the lake
and on the alluvium outwash below James Robert Glacier.

At Gavia Lake there was a decided trend in movement of groups of
pectoral sandpipers. On August 22, 1952, groups of 2, 4, 6, 8, 8, 8,
16, 17, 18 flew by to the east. The day before there were only a few
sandpipers and these were not especially on the move. Comparison
between dates of active movements of sandpipers in 1951 and 1952
indicate that migration was considerably earlier in 1951 than in 1952.


+Erolia bairdii+ (Coues): Baird's sandpiper.--Specimens, 5: Topagaruk,
155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 4, Nos. 30657-30660 including 2 ad. males and 2
ad. females, July 7, 9, 10, 1951; Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15",
30 ft., 1, No. 30656, ad. male, July 12, 1951.

On June 14, 1952, at Birnirk mounds, when snow still covered most of
the ground, Baird's sandpipers were already established on
territories. A nest of four eggs was examined ¼ mile southeast of the
Arctic Research Laboratory on July 4. The female left the nest when
the observer approached to within 20 feet and flew directly toward him
and then dropped to the ground and pretended to have a broken wing. We
pursued this bird for 50 feet before she took flight. The male, which
flew at a much greater speed than the female, was nearby and soon
joined her in flight. The female repelled her mate by chasing him, but
the male persisted in accompanying her. If one or more males of this
species (on one occasion as many as five) approached the territory of
these nesting birds, the male would leave the female and chase the
trespassers. On one occasion, after we left the nesting area, the
female returned to the nest after approximately four minutes. Her
approach to it was direct and without hesitation. After ½ hour we
returned to the nest and the male was standing one foot away from the
brooding female with his head resting on his wing. The male, followed
by the female, left the nest and feigned injury. Shore-birds and water
birds were more numerous on this date on the tundra and lakes nearer
the Arctic Ocean (in the Point Barrow area) than in the direction of
the Brooks Range.

At Topagaruk (July 5-10, 1952) adults of this species were the fourth
most common bird, representing four per cent of the avian population.
They were near lakes among polygons some of which had low centers
whereas others had high centers. One bird had a nest and four eggs
approximately 150 feet from an oil derrick, surrounded on all sides by
the tracks of vehicles. This bird feigned injury at the nest notably
more than did Baird's sandpipers that inhabited undisturbed tundra
beyond. Three adult males, shot at Topagaruk (July 7-10, 1951),
averaged 44(42-47) grams in weight and had testes averaging
3.5(3.0-4.5) mm long. Two females, collected in the same period and at
the same place averaged 44 grams in weight. The largest ovum was one
mm in diameter and the largest ovary three mm long.

Other occurrences were: Kaolak River, July 12-18, 1951 (four juveniles
observed in one four hour field trip July 15); Lake Schrader, July
24-28, 1952; Point Barrow, July 27, 1951 (most common shore-bird at
fresh-water ponds adjacent to the Arctic Ocean); 2 mi. S Wahoo Lake,
on a high divide between the Ivashak and Sadlerochit rivers, July 8,
1952; Lake Schrader, July 23-31, 1952 (active at all hours); S end
Lake Peters, August 1 and 2 but not seen there later.


+Erolia alpina pacifica+ (Coues): Dunlin.--Specimens, 21: Barrier
Lake, NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., 1, No. 30661,
ad. male, Aug. 1, 1951; Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 20,
Nos. 30662-30681, 12 ad. males and 8 ad. females, July 6-9, 1951.

Specimens shot at Topagaruk River (July 6-9, 1951) yielded weights of
57(53-64) grams for eleven adult males and 59(55-65) grams for six
females. Testes were 3.5(2.0-5.0) mm long, the largest ova were
1.2(.5-2.0) mm, and ovaries were 3.5(3.0-4.0) mm long. An adult female
from Teshekpuk Lake (August 1, 1951) weighed 48 grams. Her largest
ovum was one mm in diameter and the ovary was 3.5 mm long.

At Topagaruk we observed the species every day (July 5-10, 1951) and
on July 7, located a nest and four eggs. Each of the seven times that
the brooding female was approached she left the nest when we were
approximately 80 feet away and she flew approximately 150 feet before
alighting at which time she called. The call resembled that of the
western grebe. The wary nature of this sandpiper was in contrast to
that of the other smaller shore-birds; they left the nest only when
almost stepped on. On July 9, the nest still held four eggs. Adults
were the fifth most common bird and made up three per cent of the
avian population. They frequented polygons having low centers adjacent
to stabilized lakes. At Kaolak River (July 17, 1951) a dunlin was
feeding and flying with a group of four semipalmated sandpipers. At
Point Barrow (July 27, 1951) dunlins were congregating in small groups
at ponds and small lakes adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. At Barrier Lake
(July 29-Aug. 4, 1951) three dunlins fed in the area but did not show
territorial behavior.


+Limnodromus scolopaceus+ (Say): Long-billed dowitcher.--Specimens,
5: Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 2, Nos. 30687, ad. male,
July 7, 1951 and 30688, ad. female, July 8, 1951; Kaolak River,
159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., 3, Nos. 30684-30686, 3 ad. males, July
12, 14, 1951.

Four males shot at Topagaruk and Kaolak River (July 7-14, 1951)
averaged 104(100-110) grams in weight and had testes 4.7(4-6) mm long.
An adult female (July 8) from Topagaruk, weighed 130 grams and her
ovary was 7.8 mm long. Her largest ovum was 3.5 mm in diameter. A
juvenile from Kaolak River on July 14, 1951, was 150 mm in length and
weighed 28 grams; thirteen days later, at Kaolak, a juvenile was shot
that measured 265 mm in length and weighed 70 grams.

At Kaolak on July 15, 1951, we saw eight pairs of adults in a four
hour field trip. Their young were approximately ½ grown. One pair of
adults and four young, the size of parents, were seen daily in the
same general area at Kaolak (July 21-27). One bird was observed on
August 4, 1951, at Teshekpuk Lake.


+Ereunetes pusillus+ (Linnaeus): Semipalmated sandpiper.--Specimens,
28: Barrier Lake, NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., 4,
Nos. 30692-30695 including 3 juv. males and 1 juv. female, July 30,
August 1, 3, 1951; Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 21, Nos.
30682, 30683, 30696-30714 including 12 ad. males and 9 ad. females,
July 6-9, 1951; Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., 3, Nos.
30689-30691 including 2 ad. males and 1 ad. of unknown sex, July 12,
14, 15, 1951.

Eleven adult males and nine adult females shot at Topagaruk from July
5-10, 1951, weighed 29(22-30) and 28(25-31) grams, respectively. The
greatest length of skulls of each of the above sexes averaged 39.2 mm.
The shortest juvenile, having a skull measuring 35.9 mm long, was a
male shot at Kaolak River on July 15, 1951. Juveniles shot at
Teshekpuk Lake on August 1 and 3, 1951, averaged 25 grams in weight
and 28.4 mm in greatest length of skull. Testes of adults decreased in
size from an average of 4 mm on July 6, to an average of 2 mm on July
14. Testes of juveniles on August 3 averaged 1.3 mm in length. The
ovaries of seven adults from Topagaruk, shot on July 8 and 9, averaged
2.4 mm in length and the average diameter of the largest ovum was 7/10
mm.

A nest of four eggs, first examined on July 5, 1951, ¼ mile southeast
of the Arctic Research Laboratory, was abandoned on July 11.

At Topagaruk (July 7, 1951) we flushed several adult semipalmated
sandpipers whose behavior suggested that they were nesting. Two days
later one nest held newly hatched young. This species was third in
abundance there, adults constituting 15 per cent of the avian
population. They were numerous on polygons having low centers and on
high windswept knolls in association with black-bellied plovers, ruddy
turnstones and pectoral sandpipers. The call resembled that of the
Hammond flycatcher and was accompanied by wing vibration.

At Topagaruk (July 9, 1951) a female semipalmated sandpiper fluttered
off a nest, uttered a sharp cry, feigned injury by fluttering around
the observer, became seemingly indifferent but refused to return to
her nest, uttered sharp cries, came to within seven feet of the
observer who was sitting within three feet of the nest and alternately
chattered, ate several large dipterous insects from the ground and in
approximately five minutes went back on the nest, within easy reach,
although she still was not completely quiet. When the observer rose to
leave she again fluttered off the nest and feigned injury (the bird
was preserved as a specimen). The nest was concealed in a small
depression surrounded on all sides by tufts of vegetation and
contained four young, one of which had hatched no more than three
hours before.

On a four field trip at Kaolak River (July 15, 1951) we counted 14
juveniles in large stands of willows among sand dunes. These juveniles
were making short flights of from 15 to 40 feet. In contrast to the
situation at Topagaruk (July 5-10), there were fewer semipalmated
sandpipers than Baird's sandpipers at Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951).
July 16 was the first date on which family groups of sandpipers here
ventured out on the exposed sand bars along the river for feeding. One
juvenile was carried by wind over the river where it dropped into the
water. When last seen the juvenile was being floated upstream by the
wind. Next day in the same general area where winds had driven water
on the sand, four semipalmated sandpipers were feeding with dunlin.
These five birds kept together both on the ground and in flight.

At Point Barrow (July 27, 1951) semipalmated sandpipers were forming
small groups and feeding on small lakes and ponds adjacent to the
Arctic Ocean. At the south end of Lake Peters (Aug. 3, 1952) several
semipalmated sandpipers were feeding in dry areas of alluvium trampled
by caribou.


+Limosa lapponica baueri+ Naumann: Bar-tailed godwit.--At Kaolak
River on July 18, 1951, one godwit was in company with a pair of
golden plovers on a bare slope of an old sand dune along the edge of
the river. The godwit when approached flew 150 feet and alighted and
when pursued again flew another 150 feet and then departed for a lake
1/5 mile away.


+Phalaropus fulicarius+ (Linnaeus): Red phalarope.--Specimens, 11:
Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 11, Nos. 30715-30725
including 10 ad. males and 1 ad. female, July 6-9, 1951.

At Topagaruk (July 5, 1951), we located a nest and four eggs on the
edge of a small drainage channel on the tundra. The nest was among
mosses and lichens, one foot from open water. The bird left the nest
when the observer was only four feet distant but on a second approach
one hour later, left when the observer was 20 feet away. In each
instance the bird pretended to have an injured wing. On July 7, this
nest held four eggs. On July 8, there were four young, hatched either
the previous afternoon or night and the female left the nest when the
observer was 30 feet away. Ten adult males, shot at Topagaruk (July
5-10, 1951), averaged 50(45-54) grams in weight. These birds had
testes that averaged 6.5(2.5-9.0) mm long. The red phalarope on July 7
was the fifth most common bird in the area, making up two per cent of
the avian population and was commonly seen on polygons having high
centers.

At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1952) red phalaropes were uncommon. On
July 15, a female was noted but seemed not to have young or to be
nesting. A juvenile from Kaolak (July 22, 1951) was 180 mm in length
and weighed 31 grams. On September 6 and 7, we observed hundreds of
these birds, mostly juveniles, feeding in the ocean two to three feet
beyond beaches at Point Barrow. Small lakes and open water in marshes
had been frozen over since September 5, but larger lakes still were
open. Except for a few birds around edges of open bodies of water, the
great bulk of red phalaropes was (Aug. 7, 1951) on the Arctic Ocean.
On September 11, there was none at Point Barrow. Thomas Brower, a
resident at Barrow Village, stated that he had never before seen this
species congregate on the Arctic Ocean bordering the shore.


+Lobipes lobatus+ (Linnaeus): Northern phalarope.--Specimens, 5:
Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 2, Nos. 30729, ad. male,
July 9, 1951, and 30730, ad. female, July 8, 1951; Kaolak River,
159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., 3, Nos. 30726-30728 including 2 ad.
males and 1 ad. of unknown sex, July 14, 15, 1951.

In the period July 8-15, 1951, four adult males at Topagaruk and
Kaolak River averaged 31(28-33) grams in weight. Their testes
averaged 2.3(2-3) mm long. A female (July 8) weighed 37 grams. Her
largest ovum was 2 mm in diameter. A juvenile from Kaolak River (July
16) was 176 mm long and weighed 35 grams. Young northern phalaropes at
Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951) were more numerous than at Topagaruk
(July 4-10, 1951) and were almost the size of adults. On July 15, on a
four hour field trip, we counted 24 individuals including adults and
juveniles. On this date the juveniles were almost ready for flight. At
Kaolak (July 22, 1951) a young bird 212 millimeters in length was
flying and feeding alone. In our seven day stay at Teshekpuk Lake only
one northern phalarope was seen. It was near camp on August 3, 1951.
Between Birnirk and Point Barrow (Aug. 25, 1952), approximately 3000
northern phalaropes had collected on fresh water ponds, salt water
lagoons and on the Arctic Ocean. Many of them were feeding while
others were nesting on matted green mosses bordering ponds. Their
habit of spinning in water was noted. Those feeding on the Arctic
Ocean were on the relatively smooth water immediately beyond the point
where the breakers formed. On September 11, at Point Barrow, we did
not see the species.


+Stercorarius pomarinus+ (Temminck): Pomarine jaeger.--At Birnirk
(June 14, 1952) while snow still covered most of the ground, pomarine
jaegers hunted for lemmings by flying approximately 20 feet above the
tundra and occasionally hovering. On June 15, one had eaten parts of
two large lemmings caught in traps along the edge of a snow-bound
lake. On June 17, these birds were preying on live lemming and
swallowing them whole. One flew 50 meters with a brown lemming in its
mouth and after alighting, consumed it. The backs of several lemmings
caught in traps had scars probably made by jaegers or conceivably by
snowy owls. West of Salt Water Lagoon (June 17, 1952), 12 jaegers were
counted with the aid of a 6 × 30 power binocular in a 90° arc to the
southward. Three snowy owls also were hunting in this area. In
traveling one and three-eighths miles south by east from Barrow
Village on June 20, 1952, we counted eight single pomarine jaegers in
the air and on the return trip the same day, five pomarine jaegers
(one was dead, another was resting on a lake and 3 were in flight).

At Point Barrow (June 21, 1952) two pomarine jaegers left the land and
flew north out of sight over the Arctic Ocean. At a point 9/10 mile
east and 4/5 mile north of Barrow Village (June 23, 1952) we observed
a pomarine jaeger cruising three feet above ground. It dropped to the
tundra and picked up a lemming by its back and after adjusting the
lemming swallowed it tail first. On a lake one mile southwest of the
Arctic Research Laboratory a group of six and two pairs all facing
into the wind were resting on ice. In an area of 240 acres (outlined
by the tripod communication line to the west, "Y" line to east, and
row of 50 gallon drums following the ground line to south), we counted
19 pomarine jaegers in groups of from one to four or one per 12 square
acres; one snowy owl was in the area.

At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951) pomarine jaegers were the second
most common jaeger in the area. In walking for four hours on July 15,
two pairs were noted. Ordinarily, however, these birds are seen singly
not in pairs. At Lake Schrader (July 23-31, 1952) pomarine jaegers
were active both day and night, especially at night. At Barrier Lake
(Aug. 2, 1951) two pomarine jaegers flew close together along the edge
of the south end of the lake. As they left the lake and flew over the
extensive marsh to the east they separated and flew as single
individuals. On August 4, a pomarine jaeger was chasing an Arctic loon
that had a fish in its bill. On August 10, 1951, a single pomarine
jaeger was noted at Chandler Lake. As late as September 7, 1952, one
half mile south of the Arctic Research Laboratory, seven pomarine
jaegers were foraging for brown lemmings.


+Stercorarius parasiticus+ (Linnaeus): Parasitic jaeger.--Specimens,
3: Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34, 10 ft., 2, Nos. 30732-30733, ad.
females, July 6, 8, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 1,
No. 30731, ad. male, July 21, 1951.

At Topagaruk (July 5-10, 1951) parasitic jaegers ranged over nearly
all plant and animal associations, but flew more frequently over
polygons with low centers than elsewhere. Data on two adult females,
shot on July 6 and 8, in that order are as follows: weight, 525, 320
grams; largest ovum, 3, 1 mm; length of ovary ----, 5.5 mm. The bird
killed on July 6 was in the black color phase.

At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951) the parasitic jaeger was the least
common of the three species of jaegers.

At Kaolak (July 21-27, 1951) two birds nested near camp while others
passed through the area. These passing birds generally were seen
singly or in pairs; long-tailed jaegers commonly are in groups of four
or five. The parasitic jaegers were not so noisy nor so much given to
chasing others of their own species as were long-tailed jaegers.
Several single birds hunted in areas of sedges and grasses that
yielded lemmings. On July 21, a parasitic jaeger was flying with three
glaucous gulls, and demonstrating its usual flight tactics of gliding,
climbing and swooping as it accompanied the gulls. An adult male shot
on July 21, weighed 460 grams.

On alluvial outwash at the southwest end of Lake Schrader (July 27,
1952) a male and female parasitic jaeger defended their territory by
diving at us. Periodically both birds alighted approximately 60 feet
away and each pretended to have a crippled wing for approximately a
minute. The female acted as if herding the young but was not. On each
of our daily inspections an adult defended the area. In a period of
four days the area defended was shifted approximately 1/5 of a mile
south in the marsh area adjacent to the lake. Parasitic jaegers were
noted in the Lake Schrader area from July 23 to July 31 inclusive.

At Barrier Lake (July 30, 1951) two parasitic jaegers were harassing a
glaucous gull that responded as if being attacked by a hawk. The
plunging of the jaeger continued while the gull was flying 300 feet
horizontally. One other jaeger chased a glaucous gull for one-fourth
of a mile and finally having caught up with it dove at the gull
several times, each time almost making contact. From our camp on
Barrier Lake (July 29-Aug. 4, 1951) we watched parasitic jaegers hunt
along the south end of the lake, following precisely the edge of the
water. The wind drove debris to the south end of the lake. The
long-tailed jaeger was the more numerous here; it flew along ridges
and over marshes. On July 30, a single jaeger flew over the lake and
after hovering above a young Arctic loon, which had strayed from its
parent, dove down and picked it up. Three other parasitic jaegers
arrived and competed for the prey.

A single parasitic jaeger was noted at Chandler Lake on August 10 and
one on August 11, 1951. At Gavia Lake (Aug. 21, 1952) there were six
jaegers in one group.


+Stercorarius longicaudus+ Vieillot: Long-tailed jaeger.--Specimens,
5: Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., 1, No. 30738, ad.
female, July 12, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 4, Nos.
30734-30737 including 2 ad. males and 2 ad. females, July 21, 1951.

The long-tailed jaeger was the second most abundant of the three
jaegers at Topagaruk (July 5-10, 1951). The greatest number seen on
any one day was three. At Kaolak River (July 12-19, 1951) this species
was the most common jaeger. On a four hour field trip (July 15 and 18)
we saw six birds. When in groups of three or more, they frequently
chased each other and called vigorously. One adult female shot on July
12, weighed 300 grams. The largest ovum in the female was 1.2 mm in
diameter and the ovaries were 5 and 6 mm long.

Within 1/5 of a mile of our camp at Kaolak (July 21-27, 1951) there
were three breeding pairs of jaegers. On a four hour trip beyond this
limit we saw as many as 14 individuals. Most of these were in groups
of three and were commonly seen flying over meadows and along ridges.
Single birds hunted by hovering or swinging upward. Territories
vacated by our collecting adult birds were not immediately filled by
other nesting jaegers. One pair of jaegers nested in a broad grassy
meadow. The female was aggressive and demonstrative and called
continually above her young. The male was less demonstrative but
joined the female when she began calling. On July 24, four jaegers
flew over areas where brown lemmings had been trapped in greatest
numbers. Two adult males shot on July 21, weighed 270 and 250 grams.
The testes of these two birds were 5.5 and 8.0 mm long. Two adult
females from the same area, and shot on the same date as the males,
were larger than the males. The females weighed 285 and 298 grams.

At Barrier Lake (July 29, 1951) we observed three long-tailed jaegers,
all chasing and harassing a glaucous gull. These jaegers hunted mostly
along ridges and over marsh. At midnight these birds were still
hunting and flying about. Other long-tailed jaegers were on the lake
from July 29 to August 4 inclusive.

At Gavia Lake (Aug. 21-23, 1952) two long-tailed jaegers fed from our
refuse pile only 30 feet from our tent. A single individual was noted
at Lake Peters on July 25, 1952, and one at Driftwood on August 27,
1952.


+Larus hyperboreus barrovianus+ Ridgway: Glaucous gull.--Specimen,
1: Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., No. 30739, ad. male, July 9,
1951.

Robert McKinley told us that on May 16, 1952, approximately 25 gulls,
probably glaucous gulls, arrived at the Arctic Research Laboratory and
remained until May 25. On July 4, 1951, there, we recorded all gulls
passing over the ice from 8:45 A.M. to 9:45 A.M. At this time the
shore line and first 100 feet of water was free of ice; beyond,
seaward, the ice was rough and dark for ¼ mile, succeeded by white ice
for ¼ mile, next the high pressure ridge, and then open water of the
Arctic Ocean. Glaucous gulls, singly, passed to the southwest and to
the northeast at intervals of 6(3-10) minutes at a distance of
500(300-800) feet from the shore line, except for one bird that was
approximately one mile off-shore.

On July 10, 1952, off-shore from the Laboratory, where garbage from
camp was deposited on the ice, approximately 130 glaucous gulls were
present--some resting on the ice and some flying. At six P.M., four
hours later, 84 gulls including several immatures remained. Birds in
groups were constantly walking about or flying short distances, but
lone individuals stood perfectly still for long periods. On July 11,
only 22 birds remained; they were flying up and down the shore line.
At Topagaruk (July 5-10) glaucous gulls fed on the refuse pile at
camp. The number varied from day to day, from as few as 10 to as many
as 22; a few remained at the feeding grounds at all times.

The testes of an adult male (30739), shot on July 9, 1951, at
Topagaruk were 15 mm long and 9 mm thick.

At Kaolak River (July 12-19, 1951) gulls occasionally cruised up or
down the river, but did not remain in the area. When we flew from the
mouth of Canning River Canyon to Umiat (July 16, 1952) the only
glaucous gulls noted were in the vicinity of the Colville River. At
the Will Rogers Monument 12 miles southwest of Barrow Village (July
18, 1951), 275 glaucous gulls were at the mouth of one of the streams
entering the Arctic Ocean, and 50 miles southwest from Point Barrow
along the ocean six gulls flew over the water where a muddy stream
from the land was discharging into the Arctic Ocean. On July 20, 400
of these gulls were near the Arctic Research Laboratory and in the
large lake southwest of camp. At Kaolak (July 21-27, 1951) five to
eight birds remained near camp. Along the larger creeks they flew by
approximately every two hours.

On an air trip along the Arctic Ocean 56.2 miles southwest of Barrow
Village (July 27, 1951) we counted 312 gulls, most or all glaucous
gulls, in small groups as follows: average size of flock, 34(2-70);
average distance between flocks, 5.8(1.9-13.6) miles. A large flock of
188 glaucous gulls, on this date, was in the environs of Barrow
Village and the Arctic Research Laboratory. On an airflight between
Point Barrow and Smith Bay (July 29, 1951) we observed three groups
(1-2-7) equally spaced between the two points. The glaucous gulls were
seen in only small numbers at Barrier Lake (July 29-Aug. 4, 1951)
generally as individuals or groups of two or three, and frequently
were harassed by jaegers. On August 3, a glaucous gull on three
occasions inspected but did not touch a freshly killed pectoral
sandpiper floating on the surface of the water. On a flight from
Teshekpuk Lake to Point Barrow (Aug. 4, 1951) we observed groups of
gulls as follows: one at 40 miles (miles are from Point Barrow), four
at 34 miles, four at 10 miles and twenty-three at 8 miles. At
Driftwood (Aug. 27-31, 1952) groups of from one to 12 glaucous gulls
were seen every day. At Umiat (Aug. 30-Sept. 4, 1951) several birds
were flying up and down the river. In 1952 (July 18) at 10 miles east
of Umiat we observed a single bird. On August 25, 1952, at Point
Barrow, 33 glaucous gulls flew along the edge of the Arctic Ocean.
Between Birnirk and Point Barrow (Sept. 11, 1952) a group of 230
glaucous gulls rested along the shore of the Arctic Ocean. Glaucous
gulls were noted also at the following places in the Point Barrow area
(1952): west side Salt Water Lagoon, June 17; 9/10 mile east and
8/10 mile north Barrow Village, June 23; 1 mile southwest Barrow
Village, September 6; ½ mile south Arctic Research Laboratory,
September 7.


+Larus canus brachyrhynchus+ Richardson: Mew gull.--Specimens, 2: SE
Lake Peters, 69°20'56", 145°09'26", 2950 ft., 1 imm. female No. 31314
(Aug. 6, 1952) and one adult female 31313 (Aug. 9, 1952).

At the southwest end of Lake Schrader, from July 23 to 31, 1952, a
pair of mew gulls defended a territory and two young in the marsh
bordering the edge of the lake and flew to meet us whenever we
approached. They were active day and night. On August 3, 4, and 5, the
female of this pair fed at the mouth of the river that flowed into the
south end of Lake Peters 4.9 miles south of the nesting territory. On
August 6, both adults and the two juveniles were at the south end of
Lake Peters. The young called frequently and the adults, when we came
near their young, called loudly and dived at us, but remained higher
in the air than they did when protecting their young on the nesting
territory. On August 6, the female (435 mm long and 290 grams in
weight) was shot and prepared as a specimen. The two juveniles and the
male remained in the area and on August 9, one of the juveniles
(female) 422 mm in length and 362 grams in weight, was shot. On August
12 the male and one juvenile were still in the same area, and active
day and night.


+Pagophila eburnea+ (Phipps): Ivory gull.--Pete Savolik told us that
whenever the pack ice came near shore at Point Barrow, a few ivory
gulls were generally present.


+Rissa tridactyla pollicaris+ Ridgway: Black-legged
kittiwake.--Specimen, 1: 7½ mi. S and 7 mi. W Point Barrow, 156°49',
71°17', sea level, 1 (skin) No. 31315 of an adult of unknown sex,
September 6, 1952.

The kittiwakes (Sept. 6, 1952), were in the air along the Arctic Ocean
at Barrow Village and all along the coast at least as far as a point
10 miles southwest of Barrow Village (only a few were seen northeast
of Barrow Village) and were feeding on material floating in the
pre-breaker area of the ocean and to a lesser extent on debris washed
up on the sands of the beach.


+Xema sabini sabini+ (Sabine): Sabine's gull.--Specimens, 8: 7½ mi.
S and 7 mi. W Point Barrow, 156°49', 71°17', sea level, 1 (skin) No.
31316, ad. male, Sept. 6, 1952; Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 7,
Nos. 30740-30746 including 4 ad. males and 3 ad. females, July 6, 8,
9, 1951.

At Topagaruk the species was seen daily from July 4 through July 10,
1951. Six adults were nesting on July 5. They constituted less than
one per cent of the avian population inhabiting stabilized lakes of
medium size. On July 8, one nest held young. When we approached the
nesting grounds they flew 150 feet to meet us and then returned,
hovered, or flew directly over their nests. One nest was on an island
one foot in diameter; other islands inhabited were as large as one
square meter. The vegetation at the nest was bright green and lawnlike
because of trampling and fertilization of the grasses and sedges by
the birds. Correspondingly green, lawnlike areas of grass were noted
on the resting grounds of ducks and geese. The Sabine's gull and
Arctic tern are compatible and nest within 20 feet of each other. The
young freely circulate through each other's territory. The average
weight of three adult males (July 6-8) was 202(190-214) grams. The
average length of the testes of these birds was 10(8-14) mm. Four
adult females collected at the same place and time weighed
177(158-190) grams. The ovaries averaged 8 mm long and the largest
ovum was 2.8(2.0-4.5) mm in diameter.

At Kaolak River on July 17, 1951, one gull flew along the river but
did not seem to be nesting in the area. On July 20, 1951, 105 miles
southwest of Point Barrow, we observed Sabine's gulls, Arctic tern and
several pairs of loons on one lake. On a return trip from Kaolak to
Point Barrow by air (July 27, 1951) we found Sabine's gulls generally
distributed across the Coastal Plains. On an air trip from Point
Barrow to Teshekpuk Lake on July 29, 1951, we noted two Sabine's gulls,
one 9.7 miles southeast of Point Barrow and one 5.9 miles northwest of
the central western edge of Smith Bay.

Three miles east of our camp on Barrier Lake (Aug. 3, 1951) a Sabine's
gull had been eaten by a gyrfalcon. The gull was a bird of the year
with the downy feathers extending beyond the ends of seven primary
feathers. Three primary feathers were newly molted and of full length.

On an air flight (Aug. 4, 1951) from Teshekpuk Lake to Point Barrow we
saw two Sabine's gulls 63 miles southwest of Point Barrow and two at
23 miles southwest of Point Barrow. At Point Barrow (Aug. 26, 1952),
250 Sabine's gulls were resting or flying in the area. On September 6
at 7½ miles south and 7 miles west of Point Barrow, Sabine's gulls
constituted 60 per cent of the larger birds that were flying and
feeding along the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic tern constituted 20 per
cent, the kittiwake 5 per cent and the glaucous gulls 15 per cent of
the population. An adult male shot here (Sept. 6) weighed 213 grams.
Between Birnirk and Point Barrow (Sept. 11, 1952) we counted 17
Sabine's gulls feeding and resting along the shore of Elson Lagoon.


+Sterna paradisaea+ Pontoppidan: Arctic tern.--Specimens, 11: 7½ mi.
S and 7 mi. W Point Barrow, 156°49'15", 71°16'52", sea level, 2, Nos.
31315 and 31318, ad. male, Sept. 6, 1952; NE Teshekpuk Lake,
153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8 ft., 3, Nos. 30750-30752 including 2 ad.
males and 1 ad. female, Aug. 1, 1951; Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34',
10 ft., 3, Nos. 30753, ad. female, July 7, 1951, and 30754, ad. male,
July 9, 1951, and 30637, male, July 9, 1951; Kaolak River, 159°47'40",
70°11'15", 30 ft., 3, Nos. 30747-30749 including 2 ad. males, July 14,
18, 1951, and 1 ad. female, July 12, 1951.

Adult males and females prepared for specimens at Topagaruk (July 7,
9, 1951) showed signs of molting, especially in the primary wing
feathers. Three adult males averaged 92(87-93) grams in weight (the
largest male collected on the Arctic Slope was from Teshekpuk Lake on
August 1, 1951, and weighed 106 grams). The testes of these males
averaged 4.2 (3-5) mm in length (in late autumn testes recede to
approximately 1.0 mm in length). Two females from the same place and
shot on July 7 and 12, weighed 99 and 100 grams. The average diameter
of the largest ovum was 2.0 mm and the longest ovary was 6 mm.

At Kaolak River (July 12-18, 1951) an adult hunted day and night over
shallow water on a sand bar approximately 500 yards from its nest.
Water from lakes in an abandoned section of the river valley caused a
creek to flow at night into the river. In the day ephemeral pools were
formed because more water evaporated or sank into the sands. As pools
were formed, small fish one inch in length were trapped. Before the
pools disappeared, the tern captured all these fish. One of the terns
that had been feeding on these fish flew out over the upland tundra
approximately 500 feet from the river valley. This tern dove at us
twice and then returned to the river valley and its nest some 800 feet
away.

The nest of this bird was on one of three islands in a small lake. The
nesting island was three square yards in area and had been built to a
height of four feet above the level of the mainland by many years use
of the island. The nest was within 30 feet of a nest of a red-throated
loon, which was accepted in the territory of the tern without
molestation.

Northeast of Teshekpuk Lake (July 29-Aug. 4, 1951) a pair of terns had
young on a small island in a chain of lakes opening into the south end
of Barrier Lake. The adults hunted small fish along the south end of
Barrier Lake but especially in small lakes surrounding their nest.
These birds seemed to be the only terns nesting on this large lake. As
food was plentiful, available nesting sites may have governed the size
of the tern population.

Six pairs of Arctic terns, constituting less than one per cent of the
avian population in the area, were nesting on small islands of the
larger lakes at Topagaruk in the period July 5-10, 1951. On July 8,
one nest held both eggs and young; other nests held either eggs or
young. These birds and the Sabine's gulls showed no hostility to one
another. On July 9, three miles north of camp 13 terns were among
sedges in standing water. They seemed to be nesting but we could not
reach them.

On June 23, 1952, at a point 9/10 mile east and 8/10 mile north of
Barrow Village, Arctic terns were in flocks; one of eight flew
northeast across the tundra. At a point 105 miles northwest of Point
Barrow on an air trip to Kaolak (July 20, 1951) we saw Arctic terns,
Sabine's gulls, and several pairs of loons in the same lake. The trip
from Point Barrow to Kaolak was characterized by relatively few large
birds. On the return trip (July 27) on a straight line flight from
Kaolak to Point Barrow, only two terns were seen, one 33 miles
northeast of the junction of the Avalik and Kaolak rivers and another
9.7 miles beyond. On our return trip from Teshekpuk Lake to Point
Barrow (Aug. 4, 1951) we saw only a single tern; it was 63 miles
southeast of Point Barrow. At Gavia Lake (Aug. 21, 1952) there were
three pairs of terns. At 8:00 A.M. three other pairs appeared and
then left. No young were observed. At Point Barrow (Aug. 26, 1952) 130
terns fished or rested on the lee side of the peninsula. Arctic terns
were the second most common bird flying and feeding along the shore
line of the Arctic Ocean 10½ miles southeast of Point Barrow on
September 6, 1952. Associated species were Sabine's gulls, kittiwakes
and glaucous gulls.


+Nyctea scandiaca+ (Linnaeus): Snowy owl.--Harmon Helmericks told us
of seeing a snowy owl catch a brown lemming that was swimming in open
water 30 nautical miles north of Thetis Island in April of 1946.

On a 1000 linear meter transect (1000 × 1) east of Barrier Lake we
collected (Aug. 3, 1951) 19 pellets from the edge of the uplands and
from prominent mounds on the lowlands. One pellet contained a complete
radius-ulna of an Arctic fox and another a foot of a ptarmigan.

At Kaolak River (July 12, 1951) the only sign of owls was pellets on
the upland tundra. They were covered with green algae and fungus
several years old.

On an air flight from Point Barrow to Kaolak River (July 11, 1951) we
saw one snowy owl on the Coastal Plain and on the return flight (July
19) two more; one was approximately 40 miles south of the Will Rogers
monument and the other about one half way between the monument and
Point Barrow. When flying from Teshekpuk Lake to Point Barrow (Aug. 4,
1951) we saw one snowy owl flying over the tundra.

Greater abundance was indicated by observations in 1952, a year in
which brown lemming were at a high peak in their cyclic fluctuation:
Entrails of a brown lemming were on top of a mound used by snowy owls
as evidenced by the numerous fresh owl pellets, at the west side of
Salt Water Lagoon on June 17; three snowy owls fed in the surrounding
area (June 17-27); one owl seen at Driftwood on August 30-31; eight
owls recorded on our two mile trip south of Barrow Village on
September 6; four owls observed one half mile south of the Arctic
Research Laboratory on September 7; three owls seen at Point Barrow on
September 11.


+Asio flammeus flammeus+ (Pontoppidan): Short-eared owl.--Specimen,
1: 2 mi. W Utukok River, 161°15'30", 68°54'50", 1275 ft., 1, No.
31319, ad. male, August 31, 1952.

A short-eared owl was seen at Chandler Lake on August 16, 1951.
Another flew across the middle of Gavia Lake on August 22, 1952,
hunted the south shore, caught two small rodents and pursued one
Lapland longspur that escaped. From August 27 to 31, 1952, at
Driftwood individual short-eared owls were noted daily. On August 31,
a family group of five flew in close formation and fed in the low wet
marsh in the valley adjacent to the river. An adult male from two
miles west of Driftwood (Aug. 31, 1952) was 370 mm in length and
weighed 417 grams.


+Chordeiles minor minor+ (Forster): Common nighthawk.--Clifford
Fiscus told us that a nighthawk was seen by an Eskimo in the summer of
1952 at Wainwright.


+Tachycineta thalassina lepida+ Mearns: Violet-green swallow.--At
6:00 P.M. on August 17, 1951, at Chandler Lake, a northern
violet-green swallow came to our camp, inspected us at a distance of
four feet, fluttered over and around the tent for two minutes, then
flew over the water, and continued south.


+Corvus corax principalis+ Ridgway: Common raven.--Specimen, 1:
Umiat, 152°08', 69°22', 337 ft., No. 31320, juv. female, August 19,
1952.

William Wyatte of Umiat told us that ravens were the only birds that
remained at Umiat throughout the winter of 1951-52. He observed them
flying when temperatures were so low that moisture from the ravens
froze into floating ice crystals.

At Wahoo Lake (July 9, 1952) two ravens fed on a dead lake trout (18
inches in length) at the east end of the lake. The fish seemed to have
died of malnutrition as it had an abnormally slender body and large
head. No other carrion or dead fish was in the area. At 6:00 P.M. on
August 8, 1952, in the main canyon 1/10 mile north of James Robert
Lake, five ravens fed on remains of a dead caribou by extracting flesh
from between the vertebrae; carnivorous mammals could not conveniently
reach the flesh. A pigeon hawk harassed the ravens. Ravens were at
Porcupine Lake, every day from July 13 to 18, 1952, mostly flying
along the crest of high mountain ridges. One pair controlled a
territory in the Canning River drainage east of Mount Annette and
repelled an eagle on three occasions.

At the south end of Lake Peters (Aug. 10) a raven hunted low over the
ground. Here, only occasionally were they seen so low in the valley.
At Chandler Lake ravens were noted flying high along the crests of the
mountains on August 11, 12, 13, and 25, 1951.

One juvenile female that was shot at Umiat on August 19, 1952, was 682
mm long and 1360 grams in weight. Between August 30 and September 4,
1951, ravens were noted at Umiat every day; the largest group was six.
Most of the time they fed at the refuse pile near camp.

On our first day at Gavia Lake (Aug. 21, 1952) a pair of ravens
arrived from the west and calling continually circumnavigated the
shore line. They left in the same direction from whence they came.

Clifford Fiscus told us that in the summer of 1952, ravens were seen
along the Arctic Coast between Pitt Point and Point Barrow. The
largest congregation was at the mouth of the Colville River. Ravens
were noted on August 27 and 28, 1952, at Driftwood.


+Turdus migratorius migratorius+ Linnaeus: Robin.--From the tops of
alder trees at the mouth of Bearpaw Creek on June 27, 1952, three
robins sang more frequently in the evening between 6:00 P.M. and
11:00 P.M. than at any other period of the 24 hours of continuous
daylight.

At Wahoo Lake on July 3, 1952, a nest held four eggs, on July 6 two
eggs and two young, and on July 10 one egg and three young. On July 12
the single egg was determined to be infertile. In the canyon south of
Wahoo on July 6 two adults and a single young bird were feeding 50
feet from a recently abandoned nest that was superimposed upon an old
nest of a previous year. Other robin nests in high willows in the
bottom of this canyon were spaced approximately 1/5 of a mile apart.
Occasionally robins foraged on the open tundra beyond willow-lined
creeks. As compared with robins in the temperate regions, those in the
Arctic Life-zone were notably less "fearless"; they came to within
three feet of the nest when nestlings were being inspected by an
observer. The robins at Wahoo Lake on July 3-12, 1952, generally sang
at about 10:00 P.M., a time equivalent to twilight in temperate
regions to the south.


+Hylocichla minima minima+ (Lafresnaye): Gray-cheeked
thrush.--Specimens, 2; Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft., 1, No.
31321, ad. female, July 11, 1952; Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900
ft., 1, No. 30755, juv. male, August 23, 1951.

On June 27, 1952, we frequently heard thrushes singing on the side of
the valley north of Umiat. Large alder, birch and willow gave adequate
protection to these birds.

At Wahoo Lake (July 3-12, 1952) thrushes were seen every day along
willow-lined creeks. An adult female on July 11, was 191 mm long and
weighed 34 grams. A male from Chandler Lake on August 23, 1951, was
186 mm long and weighed 34 grams. It was caught in a mouse trap on an
alluvial outwash at the mouth of a canyon in a willow community in
which some willows were as high as nine feet. Fifteen tree sparrows,
two white-crowned sparrows, one northern shrike, two wheatears and a
few redpolls were noted there.


+Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe+ (Linnaeus): Wheatear.--Specimens 2:
Mount Mary, S end Lake Peters 145°10'02", 69°20'30", 2920 ft., 1, No.
31322, juv. female, August 1, 1952; Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12',
2900 ft., 1, No. 30756, ad. male, August 12, 1951.

On the top of Mount Annette (July 17, 1952), which is the highest peak
in the valley and the center of several drainage systems, the insects
had collected in unusual numbers. There, an adult wheatear was feeding
insects to her young, which were three fourths the size of the parent.

From records kept of trap catches at Lake Peters (July 31-Aug. 15,
1952) the wheatears were always caught in those areas that supported
the greatest number of red-backed voles (_Clethrionomys rutilus_). On
August 10, among rocks at the base of moraines, the wheatear was the
second most common species. On August 15, after snow had fallen on the
mountain and in the valley and the skies there were cloudy, wheatears
moved onto the alluvium but always within at least 150 feet of
moraines to which the birds retreated when alarmed. An adult female,
shot on August 1, on the lower slopes of Mount Mary at the south end
of Lake Peters, was 158 mm long and weighed 26 grams.

At Chandler Lake (Aug. 9-25, 1951) the wheatear was characteristically
a bird of the rock fields and rockslides and in many places was the
only bird present. It did not inhabit the glaciated canyons leading
west from Chandler Lake, except at their mouths. From August 10-19,
wheatears decreased in numbers. On August 25 the two remaining birds
noted were among willows and rock ridges. Three adult males, shot on
August 14, averaged 24(23-26) grams in weight and their testes
averaged 1.2(1.0-1.5) mm long.


+Luscinia svecica svecica+ (Linnaeus): Bluethroat.--Specimens, 7:
Gavia Lake, 150°00', 69°35', 460 ft., 2, Nos. 31323 and 31328, males
August 22, 23, 1952; 9/10 mi. W and 9/10 mi. N Umiat, 152°10'58",
69°22'53", 380 ft., 1, No. 31324, ad. female, June 30, 1952;
Driftwood, Utukok River, 161°12'10", 68°53'47", 1200 ft., 3 (skins)
Nos. 31326 and 32620, ad. females and 31327, ad. male?, August 29,
1952, and 1, No. 31325, ad. female, August 28, 1952.

The average length and weight of six adult males and adult females
from Gavia Lake and Driftwood (Aug. 23-29, 1952) are, respectively, as
follows: 153(148-165) mm and 19(18-21) grams. One female from Umiat
shot on June 30, 1952, weighed 22 grams. The ovary was 5 mm long and
the largest ovum was 1 mm in diameter.

At Umiat (June 30, 1952) a bluethroat was captured in one of 200 traps
placed around the edge of a small lake. The trap that held the bird
was in a soil fracture 15 centimeters in depth in an area that
supported alder, willow, birch and ericaceous shrubs. At Driftwood, a
bluethroat was caught on August 28, 1952, in a trap set among willows.


+Phylloscopus borealis kennicotti+ (Baird): Arctic warbler.--On the
north side of the valley at Umiat on June 27, 1952, willow warblers
sang loudly and continually in accompaniment with white-crowned
sparrows, tree sparrows, gray-cheeked thrushes and bluethroats.


+Motacilla flava tschutschensis+ Gmelin: Yellow-wagtail.--Specimens,
2: Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 1, No. 30757, ad. female,
July 27, 1951; Umiat, 152°09'30", 67°22'08", 352 ft., 1, No. 31329,
ad. female, June 26, 1952.

At Umiat on June 25, 1952, a nest of the wagtail was on the side of a
mound of earth three feet high. The nest, 130 mm in diameter and 14
grams in weight, was completely protected overhead. The lower half of
the cup, 59 mm in diameter and 35 mm in depth, was lined (3 mm in
thickness) with hair of caribou and brown lemming; the upper half was
of feathers. Beneath the lining of the cup was 38 mm of moss. The
outer nest, 33 mm in thickness, was, of coarse stems of grasses and
other material. The nest was not so carefully constructed nor so well
insulated as nests of tree sparrows, longspurs and snow buntings; it
lacked the fine yellow grasses and symmetrical lamination of the
materials and had more large chunks of material thus producing an
irregular shape. Both male and female remained in the air directly
overhead for 15 minutes as we examined the nest and then followed us
for 100 yards as we left the area. An adult male shot on June 26, was
incubating four eggs. He was 165 mm in length and weighed 19 grams.

On July 27, 1951, seven days after our arrival at Kaolak, a male and
female were seen for the first time. They flew back and forth overhead
and called as if defending a territory but probably were not as we had
been through this same area many times without either seeing or
hearing these birds; also the female's ovary was undeveloped.


+Anthus spinoletta rubescens+ (Tunstall): Water pipit.--Specimens,
3: Mount Mary, S end Lake Peters, 145°10'02", 69°20'30", 2920 ft., 1,
No. 31330, juv. female, August 3, 1952; Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08',
2350 ft., 2, Nos. 31331, female, July 7, 1952 and 31332, ad. male,
July 8, 1952.

On July 8, 1952, approximately two miles south of Wahoo Lake on a high
divide an adult was feeding a young bird 114 millimeters in total
length and just able feebly to fly. On July 17, 1952, an adult female
was feeding young on top of Mount Annette south of Porcupine Lake.
Numerous insects had converged there--the highest point in the range
of mountains. At Porcupine Lake, we observed water pipits on each of
the five days July 13 to 18, 1952.

At Lake Peters there was a definite increase in numbers and in
movement of water pipits with the approach of winter. This increase
was correlated with a decrease in temperature and an increase in rain
and snow. The many individuals and family groups, which, prior to our
arrival, were generally distributed on the higher slopes and in the
canyons of the Brooks Range, left the lower snow-covered slopes and
congregated on the lake shore. On July 19, 1952, at the north end of
Lake Peters, for example, we did not see water pipits in their usual
haunts. On July 31 a single individual was noted at the south end of
Lake Peters and on August 3, a single family appeared. On August 10,
the water pipits were the most common bird at the edge of the lake,
five or six usually being seen in a half hour trip. One flock of 14
bathed in shallow pools along the edge of the lake. These birds in the
last few days had been congregating in small and large groups. On
August 13, on a trip along the west shore line from the south end to
the north end of the lake, the only birds seen were water pipits and
these were in great numbers. On the morning of August 15, there was a
dramatic increase in the number of pipits along the edge of the lake.
Twenty of these birds fed 10 feet in front of our tent and others
perched on its top. A juvenile shot on August 3 on Mount Mary was
approximately the size of the adults, being 162 mm in length and 17
grams in weight.

At Chandler Lake (Aug. 12, 1951) pipits fed along the sandy edge of
the lake and among short sedges. These birds also fed on scraps of
food at the entrance of our tent door. From August 10 to 25, water
pipits were more commonly found in the east-west canyons whereas other
kinds of small birds were almost wholly confined to the north-south
valley and were of only accidental occurrence in areas inhabited by
water pipits.


+Lanius excubitor invictus+ Grinnell: Northern shrike.--A bird was
noted on August 23 and 25, 1951, in an extensive stand of willows at
Chandler Lake.

This bird was one of a few birds that had not yet departed from the
area with the advent of winter.


+Acanthis flammea holboellii+ (Brehm): Common redpoll.--Specimens, 12:
Topagaruk River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 1, No. 30767, ad. male,
July 9, 1951; Kaolak River, 159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., 5, Nos.
30762-30766 including 4 ad. males and 1 ad. male (?), July 12, 14,
16-18, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 4, Nos. 30758-30761
including 1 ad. male, 2 ad. females and 1 ad. of unknown sex, July 21,
23, 1951; Umiat, 152°09'30", 69°22'08", 352 ft., 1, No. 31333, ad.
female, June 26, 1952; Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft., 1, No.
31334, ad. male, July 11, 1952.

At Umiat on June 26, 1952, a nest of five eggs (embryos with natal
down) was located in a patch of willows that covered approximately two
square meters. As these willows had not as yet acquired leaves, the
nest was clearly visible. It was 300 millimeters from the ground and
so compactly made as to support its own weight. The outer structure
was of various plant fibers and other stems of willows. The cup had an
inwardly reflected rim, was made of stems of cotton-grass, and was
well insulated with 15 mm of down feathers. The measurements of this
circular nest were: entire nest, 78 mm in diameter and 50 mm in depth:
cup, 42 mm in diameter and 35 mm in depth; weight, 9 grams. Another
nest of three eggs from the same area was in a dwarf willow 350 mm
from the ground. The leaves of the willow were undeveloped. A third
nest of six young approximately three days old, was two feet up in a
dwarf willow having no leaves. The young birds in the nest were three
days old. One female 123 mm in length shot on June 26 had ova up to
two mm in diameter. At Umiat (June 28, 1952) a nest of three young and
two eggs was found and on June 30 another nest with one fresh egg.

At Wahoo Lake (July 3-12, 1952) the redpolls were observed every day
but we considered them relatively uncommon there.

At Topagaruk (July 5-10, 1951) redpolls were among willows growing on
the sides of a creek channel ten feet below the level of the tundra.
This creek had overflowed in early spring covering the willows. One of
the birds approached us to within five feet and after making a close
inspection returned to the willows.

Upon our arrival at Kaolak River (July 12, 1951) most of the redpolls
were living among willows and only occasionally flew overhead. On July
15, they were flying in small groups about 100 feet above the ground
and were calling continually. On July 15, on a four hour field trip,
we counted 28 birds. The young birds on this date could fly well.

At Porcupine Lake these birds were uncommon but a few were seen (July
17, 1952) flying south across divides in the higher mountains.

At Kaolak (July 20-27, 1951) redpolls were associated with willows
along creeks that had cut channels 20 feet deep. In late July the
flowing water was six feet wide and from a few inches to three or four
feet deep. The first erosional bench supported grasses and sedges and
the slopes were covered with willows from a few inches to seven feet
high. These willows afforded nesting sites for redpolls. In a two-mile
stretch along this creek, which drained east into the Kaolak River
(July 21), there were approximately 200 redpolls, 100 Lapland
longspurs, 80 savannah sparrows, six willow ptarmigans, six pintail
ducks and several other smaller unidentified birds. On this same date
when I walked four miles on the open tundra, there were, of the
smaller birds, only six redpolls, 20 Lapland longspurs and 13 savannah
sparrows. In one interval of 1/3 of a mile, I did not see a single
individual of any of these three species. In the two miles of creek
bottom that I examined, there were several nests that had been used
that spring, several that had been used the year before, and one that
held four eggs containing embryos nine millimeters in length (no
feathers or bone development). Most of the nests were approximately
three feet above ground in willows near the creek. The nest of four
eggs was three feet above the ground, three feet from the edge of the
willows bordering the creek, and 10 feet from the creek proper. The
nest was 10 cm in diameter and 55 mm in height. The cup was 5 cm in
diameter at the upper rim, six cm in width and 35 mm in depth. The
outer base and side were constructed of dry willow sticks, twigs and
grass stems; the main body of the nest was fine grass stems, rootlets
and a few mosses. This lining was a layer 18 mm thick of white
feathers. The weight of this nest was 12 grams. The four eggs measured
19.2 × 12.9, 18.3 × 12.5, 18.3 × 12.8, 17.7 × 12.9. This nest of four
eggs was either a second nesting or an interrupted or exceptionally
late first nesting of redpoll on the Arctic Slope. Two abandoned nests
200 feet apart were in willows along the edge of an oxbow lake at
Gavia Lake (August 23, 1952).

On August 10, 1952, at the south end of Lake Peters, there was only a
slight increase in the number of redpolls over the previous week. At
Chandler Lake (Aug. 25, 1951) a few redpolls were among willows, this
was the first time in 15 days that we had noted these birds. One
redpoll was taken in a trap at Umiat on August 30, 1951.

The testes of six adult males (average 14(13-15) grams in body weight
and that were shot at several localities on the Arctic Slope from July
9 to July 28, 1951) averaged five mm in length.


+Spinus pinus pinus+ (Wilson): Pine siskin.--An adult male, which
weighed 12 grams, was caught in a trap at Chandler Lake on August 14,
1951. The testes were two mm long.


+Passerculus sandwichensis anthinus+ Bonaparte: Savannah
sparrow.--Specimens, 19: Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 12,
Nos. 30770-30781 including 3 ad. males, 3 juv. males, 4 ad. females, 1
juv. female and 1 ad. female (?), July 21-23, 25, 26, 1951; Gavia
Lake, 150°00', 69°35', 460 ft., 1, No. 31336, juv. male, August 22,
1952; Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft., 1, No. 31337, ad. male,
July 5, 1952; Porcupine Lake, 146°29'50", 68°51'57", 3140 ft., 1, No.
31339, ad. female, July 13, 1952; Driftwood, Utukok River, 161°12'10",
68°53'47", 1200 ft., 1 (skin) No. 31338, male and 1, No. 31335, ad.
female, August 29, 1952; Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900 ft., 2,
Nos. 30768-30769, 1 ad. male and 1 juv. male, August 10, 15, 1951.

Savannah sparrows were caught in traps in the following communities:
damp meadow of sedges, Chandler Lake, August 10, 1951; among sedges
bordering a lake, Wahoo Lake, July 5, 1952; damp to wet meadow of
sedges, grasses, and hummocks of cotton-grass, Porcupine Lake, July
14, 1952; along the edge of a deeply incised stream running through a
marsh, Porcupine Lake, July 16, 1952.

At Kaolak (July 21, 1951) on a windy day the greater number of
savannah sparrows were in protected valleys of willows along the
creeks and not on the open tundra where they are normally found. In a
two mile course along one creek there were 80 birds, whereas on the
open tundra there were, in four miles, only 13 birds.

Weights of 10 males and 10 females, shot in the period July 14-August
29, 1951, at several localities on the Arctic Slope were: male
20(17-24), female 18(16-20) grams. In an adult male, shot on July 22
at Kaolak, the testes were two mm long but in other males, shot in the
period July 14-August 29, the testes averaged 1.2 mm. The ovaries of
adult females for this same period also had receded to normal
non-breeding size. Juveniles on July 13 at Porcupine Lake averaged 20
grams in weight; the shortest was 125 mm in total length and the
largest 140 mm. Adults in this same period averaged 144 mm in total
length. Two adult males collected on July 22 and 24, 1951, at Kaolak,
were molting.


+Spizella arborea ochracea+ Brewster: Tree sparrow.--Specimens, 10:
Gavia Lake, N White Hills, 150°00', 69°35', 460 ft., 1, No. 31340,
juv. male, August 22, 1952; 9/10 mi. N and 9/10 mi. W Umiat,
152°10'58", 69°22'53", 380 ft., 1, No. 31347, ad. female, July 1,
1952; Umiat, 152°09'30", 69°22'08", 352 ft., 1, No. 31341, ad. male,
June 26, 1952; Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft., Nos.
31342-31343, ad. males, July 6, 8, 1952; Driftwood, Utukok River,
161°12'10", 68°53'47", 1200 ft., 2 (skins) Nos. 31345, ad. male,
August 29, 1952, and 31346, ad. female, August 28, 1952, and 1, No.
31344, ad. male, August 28, 1952; Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900
ft., 2, Nos. 30783, juv. male, 30784, a juv. of unknown sex, August
19, 1951.

Four adult males shot in the period July 1-15, at Umiat, Wahoo and
Porcupine lakes averaged 158(155-165) mm in total length and 18(16-18)
grams in weight whereas 12 adult males (Aug. 14-31) from Chandler
Lake, Umiat, Gavia Lake and Driftwood averaged 161(156-165) mm in
length and 19(16-21) grams in weight. A male (June 26) from Umiat was
160 mm long, weighed 15 grams, and had testes 4 mm long. Males from
Wahoo Lake (July 6 and 8) had testes 9 and 5 mm long. Males (August
19) from Chandler Lake were molting on the entire body.

On June 24, 1952, at Umiat, we examined three nests. One of the three
contained incubated eggs; skeletal elements were present in the
embryos. This nest, 150 mm in diameter and 52 mm in depth, was on the
side of a mound three feet high covered with grass. The cup was 55 mm
in diameter. The lining, 14 mm thick, was ptarmigan feathers averaging
one inch long mixed with successive layers of stems of fine grass. The
cup weighed four grams and rested directly on the ground. The outer
part of the nest was coarse stems of a grass and was 30 mm thick. The
edge and upper side, away from the mound, had a 40-millimeter
thickness of mosses and lichens that may have served primarily as
camouflage rather than as insulation. The nest, minus the lining
weighed nine grams. The second nest held four eggs containing embryos.
The top was flush with the surface of the ground on a slightly
elevated bench on a hillside supporting _Ledum_, _Vaccinium_, _Alnus_,
mosses and lichens. The greatest width of the nest was 120 mm; the
lining, 11-millimeters thick, was of ptarmigan feathers succeeded by
13 mm of alternating layers of new dry grass stems and ptarmigan
feathers. The down-slope side of the nest was protected by 29 mm of
sphagnum, old grass stems and other dry plant material. The third nest
of four eggs was among grasses at the base of a willow. The new leaves
on this willow were just visible and the catkins had attained full
growth.

The earliest date that juvenal tree sparrows were noted in the field
was on July 10, 1952, at Wahoo Lake. One juvenile shot on this date
was 85 mm long and could not fly. The parent bird was still attending
the young bird.

Tree sparrows on the Arctic Slope usually live among high dwarf
willows at the mouths of canyons. At Porcupine Lake (July 13-18, 1952)
however, they inhabited marshes of sedges, grasses and hummocks of
cotton-grass. At night they roosted in depressions in the ground or
between hummocks of sedges, where, without overhead protections they
endured temperatures of as low as 34 degrees Fahrenheit.

In one mile of a glaciated canyon southwest of the south end of
Chandler Lake (Aug. 19, 1951) tree sparrows were the commonest species
but there were few birds of any kind there. This canyon extended in an
east-west direction and was bordered by high mountains, the sun being
excluded in early morning and late afternoon. In the valley of
Chandler Lake, on the same day, the tree sparrows were numerous
especially among willows on the side of the valley. On this date there
was an abrupt increase in numbers of tree sparrows; the number of
Lapland longspurs and wheatears was less than a week before. On August
22, we did not see tree sparrows at Chandler Lake whereas three days
earlier there were hundreds in the area. On August 23 only 15 were
noted and these were in willows. On August 25, only a single bird was
noted.

At Umiat (Aug. 30, 1951) a few tree sparrows were present. In this
area (Sept. 1) the birches were turning a brilliant red, even more
brilliant than on the previous day. The large alders were nearly all
yellow. The season was not so far advanced here, however, as at
Chandler Lake on August 25. At Driftwood tree sparrows were noted from
August 27 to 31 inclusive. On August 28 a flock of 12 was observed.


+Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii+ (Nuttall): White-crowned
sparrow.--Specimens, 3: Mount Mary, S Lake Peters, 145°10'02",
68°20'30", 2920 ft., 1, No. 31348, juv. female, August 3, 1952;
Driftwood, Utukok, 161°12'10", 68°53'47", 1200 ft., 1 (skin) No.
31349, ad. male, August 29, 1952; Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900
ft., 1, No. 30786, an ad. of unknown sex, August 19, 1951.

On the north side of the valley at Umiat, the white-crowned sparrows
were calling (June 27, 1952) throughout the day. At Wahoo Lake (July
3-11, 1952) singing birds were frequently heard on south-facing slopes
of the valley. At Lake Peters (Aug. 3, 1952) one bird was at the base
of a moraine some distance from willows or high vegetation. Only two
birds were seen at Chandler Lake (Aug. 19 and 25, 1952); they were
feeding in a dense growth of willows. The juvenal female shot on
August 3, 1952, at Mount Mary was 180 mm long and weighed 26 grams.


+Zonotrichia atricapilla+ (Gmelin): Golden-crowned sparrow.--Specimen,
1: Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900 ft., No. 30787, ad. male, August
19, 1951.


+Passerella iliaca zaboria+ Oberholser: Fox sparrow.--Specimen, 1:
Driftwood, Utukok River, 161°12'10", 68°53'47", 1200 ft., No. 31350
(skin), male, August 29, 1952.

At 1/10 mile west and 9/10 mile east of Umiat (June 30, 1952) a nest
the top of which was flush with the ground in a clearing among willows
and alders, both bare of leaves, had four young approximately five
days old. At Driftwood (Aug. 29, 1952) a male was caught in a mouse
trap in the same area where a male was singing on the previous day. At
the time the male was trapped a female sat on low vegetation only a
few feet from the trap that held the dead bird.


+Calcarius lapponicus alascensis+ Ridgway: Lapland
longspur.--Specimens, 75: NE Teshekpuk Lake, 153°05'40", 70°39'40", 8
ft., 22, Nos. 30827-30848 including 10 ad. males, 9 juv. males, 2 ad.
females and 1 juv. female, July 29, 30, August 1, 3, 1951; Topagaruk
River, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 13, Nos. 30849-30861 including 9 ad.
males and 4 ad. females, July 6, 8, 10, 1951; Kaolak River,
159°47'40", 70°11'15", 30 ft., 18, Nos. 30809-30826 including 2 ad.
males, 10 juv. males, 3 ad. females and 3 juv. females, July 12, 14,
17, 1951; Kaolak, 160°14'51", 69°56'00", 178 ft., 13, Nos. 30796-30808
including 4 ad. males, 4 juv. males, 5 juv. females, July 20-27, 1951;
Gavia Lake, 150°00', 69°35', 460 ft., 1, No. 31351, female, August 22,
1952; Umiat, 152°09'30", 69°22'08", 352 ft., 1, No. 31352, female,
June 26, 1952; Chandler Lake, 152°45', 68°12', 2900 ft., 7, Nos.
30789-30795 including 1 ad. male, 1 juv. male, 1 ad. female, 4 juv.
females, August 11, 12, 16, 18, 23, 1951.

The Lapland longspur and snow bunting were two of the early arrivals
on the Arctic Slope of northern Alaska. Robert McKinley told us that
this species of longspur arrived at Barrow Village shortly after April
20, 1952. On our arrival at Point Barrow on June 14, 1952, longspurs
already were established on territories, and many of the birds had
full complements of fresh eggs, although snow still covered the lakes
and all but a few mounds and high points of the tundra.

On June 17, 1952, on the west side of Salt Water Lagoon, in an area of
approximately six acres of raised polygons we located eight nests of
the Lapland longspur. The first contained five fresh eggs, and its top
was flush with the bare ground in an old excavation made by brown
lemmings between three bunches of cotton-grass. Fecal pellets of the
brown lemming were beneath the nest. The bulk of the nest was soiled
grasses which insulated the bottom and sides of the nest from the damp
soil. This supporting bulk was lined first with stems of new yellow
grass, and then with white down feathers of the snowy owl. The female
repeatedly repelled the male from the immediate vicinity of the nest.
After observing the nest for a few minutes I moved it one foot. The
female returned three times to the original site of the nest, ignoring
the nest nearby. On the fourth trip, six minutes after the original
nest was taken, she returned with feathers in her bill and started to
line the original depression.

The second nest, superimposed on a nest of the previous year, held six
fresh eggs and was under an overhanging piece of tundra sod. The cup
was entirely beneath the sod but the outer rim of the nest was
exposed. The nest faced northwest and was 100 centimeters above the
general level of the tundra. Measurements, in millimeters, of this
nest were: height, 52; width, 120; inside diameter of cup, 50; depth
of cup, 30; width of layer of fine grasses and feathers of cup, 16. In
cross section successive layers of nest material from outside in were
as follows: mosses; old, dry, brownish-gray grasses; new, fine,
loosely arranged, yellow grasses; down feathers of the snowy owl. The
first two layers were on only one side and did not extend under the
cup of the nest. The cup was lined with 12 down feathers of the snowy
owl.

The third nest, containing six fresh eggs, was at the edge of a clump
of cotton-grass and was exposed from directly above. The lining of the
cup of white feathers and dry lichens was against the soil. Two layers
of dry brownish-gray grasses and dry mosses were outward extensions
from the cup.

The greater part of the third nest was stems of the grass _Dupontia
fischeri_; newer yellow stems were near the cup and the older stems
were toward the periphery. The measurements (in millimeters) of this
nest were: height, 60; width, 210; width of cup, 50; depth of cup, 40.

A fourth nest of three fresh eggs held four eggs the following day. A
fifth nest of six fresh eggs was only 10 centimeters from a well-used
trail of a brown lemming and within 1/3 of a meter from the
underground nest of the lemming. This longspur nest, among polygons of
low hummocks, was bordered by mosses and grasses nine inches high. The
sixth nest held five fresh eggs. Its top was flush with the ground and
the nest was protected by an overhead canopy of _Dupontia fischeri_. A
seventh nest, containing six fresh eggs, was among pieces of tundra
displaced by a vehicle. Only the outer edge of this nest was exposed
from above. The cup was lined with white feathers and with the hair of
_Rangifer_. On June 20, an eighth nest of five fresh eggs was located
near the above. The nest was 1/3 concealed under overhead protection.

At a point 1-2/5 miles south and 3/5 of a mile east of Barrow Village
(June 20, 1952) we examined a ninth nest, containing six fresh eggs,
among raised polygons. It was circular and the cup was centrally
placed. The entire nest weighed 14 grams; the inner cup of fine stems
of grass and white feathers weighed two grams. The nest was 118 mm
wide; the cup was 56 mm wide and 38 mm deep. The outer structure of
last year's nest, mosses and larger gray stems of grass, was 30 mm
wide. Enroute to this locality from Barrow Village we saw only two
longspurs (2:00 P.M.) and only three on the return trip.

At a place 9/10 mile east and 8/10 mile north of Barrow Village (June
23, 1952) a tenth nest, containing five fresh eggs, was noted in a
lemming runway that had been enlarged from a soil fracture. The top of
the nest was flush with the surface of the ground and there was no
overhead protection. This nest had the least nesting material of any
nest of this species examined to date; there was no nesting material
of any kind on the sides adjoining the walls of the fracture. At Umiat
(June 26, 1952) an eleventh nest, containing six eggs, was so placed
that its top was flush with the surface of a raised polygon, and
closely resembled those at Point Barrow except that the cup was lined
with brown and white feathers of the willow ptarmigan. Additional data
are as follows: weight of entire nest, 20 grams; weight of inner cup,
7 grams; diameter of cup, 65 mm; depth of cup, 30 mm; width of entire
nest, 100 mm. As was usual with other nests of this species, the outer
edge of one side was covered with moss.

In the period July 13-August 15, from several localities on the Arctic
Slope, Lapland longspurs were caught in traps (20 feet apart) set in
linear lines among sedges. The average distance between traps catching
longspurs was 1400 feet. Other Lapland longspurs observed in the same
period at these same localities averaged one per 400 feet of walking
on my part. The greatest number of longspurs trapped was at Kaolak on
July 24, 1951; 100 traps yielded 6 longspurs. The greatest number
observed--one per 100 feet--was at Topagaruk on July 5, 1951. Although
the longspur on the Arctic Slope is the most common bird, it is absent
from some areas there. On each of two trips (July 29-30) across one
mile of upland plateau between Barrier Lake and Teshekpuk Lake, we did
not see longspurs. This plateau is a travel lane maintained by
caribou.

Juveniles were first trapped on July 5, 1951, at Topagaruk; others
were observed on this date but they could not fly. The first juvenile
noted in flight was on July 9, also at Topagaruk. The increase of
juveniles there caused the longspur to be the most common bird in the
field (50 per cent in abundance). On July 15 at Kaolak River, most of
the longspurs noted were juveniles, but they were able to fly well.
The adult males and females, which were molting at this time, were
more secretive in their movements than longspurs at Topagaruk on July
5. Adult males were molting as early as July 2 at Kaolak. On July 25
at Kaolak longspurs were mainly in groups of five or six; others were
in groups of 18 or more. As late as August 21 (Gavia Lake) longspurs
were still in family groups or occurred as singles.

At Chandler Lake, the decrease in numbers of Lapland longspurs was
synchronized with autumnal changes in weather. On August 15, 1951, the
longspurs were numerous; 40 or 50 individuals were seen in the course
of an hour's walk. On August 19 there was a noticeable decrease in
numbers of individuals and by August 22, only three were seen. In this
period of decreasing numbers, they were more numerous and active in
the morning than in the evening or in inclement weather. The behavior
pattern of leaving the ground with an audible commotion and flapping
of wings on the vegetation also was characteristic of this period of
decreasing numbers of the longspur population. At ½ mile south of the
Arctic Research Laboratory (Sept. 7, 1952) only a single longspur was
noted.

The short-eared owl and especially the pigeon hawk consistently preyed
on longspurs.

Only one longspur (an adult female No. 30854) in 75 specimens examined
had the bone of the skull damaged by parasites.

Adult males are larger than adult females (July). In the breeding
season adult females average 3 grams lighter than males. In the latter
part of summer, however, females "catch up" in weight with the males.
As early as the middle of July, juveniles are nearly as large as
adults in cranial measurements. The increase in weight in juveniles
was from 21.5(18-25) in ten juvenal males shot in the period July
12-16, at Kaolak River to 25.2(22-27) grams in nine juvenal males shot
in the period July 29-August 2 at Teshekpuk Lake.

The testes of adults gradually decrease in size from July to August;
their average length was 7.7(4.0-12.0) mm in nine adult males shot in
the period July 6-10 at Topagaruk but only 2.2(1.5-3.0) in six adult
males shot in the period July 12-26, at Kaolak and Kaolak River. By
August 1, at Teshekpuk Lake the testes of nine adult males averaged
1.4(1.0-1.5) in total length, which is only slightly larger than the
average size of the testes 1.2(1.0-2.0) of nine juveniles shot in the
period July 29-Aug. 2, at Teshekpuk Lake.


+Calcarius pictus+ (Swainson): Smith's longspur.--Specimens, 2:
Wahoo Lake, 146°58', 69°08', 2350 ft., No. 31353, ad. male, July 9
and No. 31354, ad. female, July 7, 1952.

On July 7, 1952, at Wahoo Lake, a single longspur was trapped in one
of 200 traps set for small mammals. On July 9, a line of 120 traps set
in a community of cotton-grass, other sedges, grasses and dwarf willow
also yielded one longspur--an adult male 172 mm long that weighed 28
grams. Smith's longspurs were uncommon at Wahoo Lake from July 3 to
July 11, and when seen were associated with open tundra supporting
cotton-grass, generally on flat areas adjacent to the lake. Singing
from the air was heard on several occasions. On the alluvial outwash,
between Lake Peters and Lake Schrader, two Smith's longspurs were
recorded on July 24, 1952, and flocks of 11-16-18-20 were seen there
in the damp meadows on August 13, 1952. Those seen on the latter date
had moved into the area since July 23, when we first arrived.


+Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis+ (Linnaeus): Snow bunting.--Specimens, 6:
Topagaruk, 155°48', 70°34', 10 ft., 5, Nos. 30862-30866 including 4 ad.
males and 1 ad. female, July 6, 7, 9, 10, 1951; Mount Mary, S end Lake
Peters, 145°10'02", 69°20'30", 2920 ft., 1, No. 31355, August 1, 1952.

Robert McKinley reported to us that snow buntings were at Barrow
Village at least as early as April 20, 1952, when snow covered most of
the ground. On June 14, 1952, at Birnirk mounds when snow still
covered most of the ground, snow buntings were already established on
territories.

At Point Barrow (June 21, 1952), the most northerly extension of land
on the Arctic Slope of northern Alaska, five pairs of snow bunting
were nesting in abandoned subterranean Eskimo houses. The houses were
in different stages of deterioration from one almost usable by man to
one that was no more than a flattened mound. Sides of some houses were
exposed by the sea cliff that was advancing inland. Logs and skulls of
baleen whales had been set on end for walls, and mandibles and ribs of
whales had been used as rafters. This framework had been covered with
tundra sod. Most of the nests were between the roof support and the
upper ends of the whale skulls. Each nest contained five fresh eggs
and was completely protected from rain, sun and wind. One nest weighed
24 grams and measured (in millimeters) 155 wide, 68 high, 38 in depth
of cup, 70 in width of cup, and was in the brain cavity of the
cranium. Another nest on top of a skull in the interior room, weighed
24 grams. This nest was built upon material of a nest of the previous
year. The old material weighed four grams and the new inner mass
weighed 20 grams. The new nest consisted of successive layers of new
yellow grass stems and feathers. The lining of the cup had feathers in
the 20 mm-thick layer of fine hairlike plant fibers. The feathers were
from birds larger than the bunting. The nest was well insulated in
comparison with those of the Lapland longspur, but like most of those
had the cup offset toward the inner side of the nest, and more nest
material of large size outward toward the entrance, than elsewhere. In
the same area, especially in grass on and around low mounds, there
were approximately 50 brown lemmings (18 lemming nests examined), many
of which used the mounds inhabited by the bunting. On August 26, in
the same area at Point Barrow, we noted 28 birds feeding and resting
but on September 11 found none there.

A nest of five young (July 4, 1951) at a place 1/5 mile south of the
Arctic Research Laboratory was under an overhanging ledge of an unused
burrow of a brown lemming. The burrow had been excavated by lemmings
on a mound of earth thrown up by a bulldozer. An adult female snow
bunting was carrying insects to the nest and fecal pellets away from
it. Another nest of five young (July 4) was in a fifty gallon oil
drum. An adult female gained entrance to the nest through a small hole
on the side of the container, the only hole present. Other nests on
this date were examined that contained both eggs and young, or eggs,
or young. Most of these nests were in holes in the ground or under the
protection of overhanging ledges of earth. On July 4, snow buntings
were in their black and white plumage, but on July 27, were in
brown-white plumage.

At Topagaruk (July 5, 1951) a nest containing young birds fully
feathered was noted five feet above the ground in a horizontal pipe
six inches in diameter. One dead bird, two to three days old, was in
the water and mud at the base of the stack of pipes. Other young birds
from other family groups had short tails and were capable of feeble
flight. Adults were seen only in the immediate vicinity of the camp.

The average weight of four adult males shot in the period July 6-10,
1951, was 36 grams. The average length of their testes was
9.2(7.0-11.0) mm.

At Kaolak (July 21-27, 1951) we did not see the snow bunting. The
camp, however, was built the previous winter and was inhabited (July
10) for the first time in summer. The birds were at Topagaruk, our
collecting station next nearest to the eastward in the same general
type of environment and we assumed that eventually the birds would
become established at Kaolak.

A juvenal female shot on August 1, 1952, at Mount Mary was 183 mm long
and weighed 34 grams.


_Transmitted November 14, 1957._



UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS

MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


Institutional libraries interested in publications exchange may obtain
this series by addressing the Exchange Librarian, University of Kansas
Library, Lawrence, Kansas. Copies for individuals, persons working in
a particular field of study, may be obtained by addressing instead the
Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
There is no provision for sale of this series by the University
Library which meets institutional requests, or by the Museum of
Natural History which meets the requests of individuals. However, when
individuals request copies from the Museum, 25 cents should be
included, for each separate number that is 100 pages or more in
length, for the purpose of defraying the costs of wrapping and
mailing.


  * An asterisk designates those numbers of which the Museum's
  supply (not the Library's supply) is exhausted. Numbers published
  to date, in this series, are as follows:

  Vol. 1, Nos. 1-26 and index. Pp. 1-638, 1946-1950.

 *Vol  2. (Complete) Mammals of Washington. By Walter W. Dalquest.
          Pp. 1-444, 140 figures in text. April 9, 1948.

  Vol. 3. *1. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and
              distribution. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 1-359, 16 figures
              in text. June 12, 1951.

          *2. A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds.
              By George H. Lowery, Jr. Pp. 361-472, 47 figures in text.
              June 29, 1951.

           3. Phylogeny of the waxwings and allied birds. By M. Dale
              Arvey. Pp. 473-530, 49 figures in text, 13 tables.
              October 10, 1951.

           4. Birds from the state of Veracruz, Mexico. By George H.
              Lowery, Jr. and Walter W. Dalquest. Pp. 531-649,
              7 figures in text, 2 tables. October 10, 1951.

          Index. Pp. 651-681.

 *Vol. 4. (Complete) American weasels. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 1-466,
          41 plates, 31 figures in text. December 27, 1951.

  Vol. 5.  1. Preliminary survey of a Paleocene faunule from the
              Angels Peak area, New Mexico. By Robert W. Wilson.
              Pp. 1-11, 1 figure in text. February 24, 1951.

           2. Two new moles (Genus Scalopus) from Mexico and Texas.
              By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 17-24. February 28, 1951.

           3. Two new pocket gophers from Wyoming and Colorado.
              By E. Raymond Hall and H. Gordon Montague. Pp. 25-32.
              February 28, 1951.

           4. Mammals obtained by Dr. Curt von Wedel from the barrier
              beach of Tamaulipas, Mexico. By E. Raymond Hall.
              Pp. 33-47, 1 figure in text. October 1, 1951.

           5. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of
              some North American rabbits. By E. Raymond Hall and
              Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 49-58. October 1, 1951.

           6. Two new subspecies of Thomomys bottae from New Mexico
              and Colorado. By Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 59-71, 1 figure in
              text. October 1, 1951.

           7. A new subspecies of Microtus montanus from Montana and
              comments on Microtus canicaudus Miller. By E. Raymond
              Hall and Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 73-79. October 1, 1951.

           8. A new pocket gopher (Genus Thomomys) from eastern
              Colorado. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 81-85. October 1, 1951.

           9. Mammals taken along the Alaskan Highway. By Rollin H.
              Baker. Pp. 87-117, 1 figure in text. November 28, 1951.

         *10. A synopsis of the North American Lagomorpha. By E.
              Raymond Hall. Pp. 119-202, 68 figures in text.
              December 15, 1951.

          11. A new pocket mouse (Genus Perognathus) from Kansas.
              By E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 203-206. December 15, 1951.

          12. Mammals from Tamaulipas, Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker.
              Pp. 207-218. December 15, 1951.

          13. A new pocket gopher (Genus Thomomys) from Wyoming and
              Colorado. By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 219-222.
              December 15, 1951.

          14. A new name for the Mexican red bat. By E. Raymond Hall.
              Pp. 223-226. December 15, 1951.

          15. Taxonomic notes on Mexican bats of the Genus Rhogeëssa.
              By E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 227-232. April 10, 1952.

          16. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of
              some North American woodrats (Genus Neotoma). By Keith R.
              Kelson. Pp. 233-242. April 10, 1952.

          17. The subspecies of the Mexican red-bellied squirrel,
              Sciurus aureogaster. By Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 243-250,
              1 figure in text. April 10, 1952.

          18. Geographic range of Peromyscus melanophrys, with
              description of new subspecies. By Rollin H. Baker.
              Pp. 251-258, 1 figure in text. May 10, 1952.

          19. A new chipmunk (Genus Eutamias) from the Black Hills.
              By John A. White. Pp. 259-262. April 10, 1952.

          20. A new piñon mouse (Peromyscus truei) from Durango,
              Mexico. By Robert B. Finley, Jr. Pp. 263-267.
              May 23, 1952.

          21. An annotated checklist of Nebraskan bats. By Olin L.
              Webb and J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 269-279. May 31, 1952.

          22. Geographic variation in red-backed mice (Genus
              Clethrionomys) of the southern Rocky Mountain region.
              By E. Lendell Cockrum and Kenneth L. Fitch. Pp. 281-292,
              1 figure in text. November 15, 1952.

          23. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of
              North American microtines. By E. Raymond Hall and
              E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 293-312. November 17, 1952.

          24. The subspecific status of two Central American sloths.
              By E. Raymond Hall and Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 313-337.
              November 21, 1952.

          25. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of
              some North American marsupials, insectivores, and
              carnivores. By E. Raymond Hall and Keith R. Kelson.
              Pp. 319-341. December 5, 1952.

          26. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of
              some North American rodents. By E. Raymond Hall and
              Keith R. Kelson. Pp. 343-371. December 15, 1952.

          27. A synopsis of the North American microtine rodents.
              By E. Raymond Hall and E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 373-498,
              149 figures in text. January 15, 1953.

          28. The pocket gophers (Genus Thomomys) of Coahuila, Mexico.
              By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 499-514, 1 figure in text.
              June 1, 1953.

          29. Geographic distribution of the pocket mouse, Perognathus
              fasciatus. By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 515-526, 7 figures
              in text. August 1, 1953.

          30. A new subspecies of wood rat (Neotoma mexicana) from
              Colorado. By Robert B. Finley, Jr. Pp. 527-534, 2 figures
              in text. August 15, 1953.

          31. Four new pocket gophers of the genus Cratogeomys from
              Jalisco, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 535-542.
              October 15, 1953.

          32. Genera and subgenera of chipmunks. By John A. White.
              Pp. 543-561, 12 figures in text. December 1, 1953.

          33. Taxonomy of the chipmunks, Eutamias quadrivittatus and
              Eutamias umbrinus. By John A. White. Pp. 563-582,
              6 figures in text. December 1, 1953.

          34. Geographic distribution and taxonomy of the chipmunks of
              Wyoming. By John A. White. Pp. 584-610, 3 figures in text.
              December 1, 1953.

          35. The baculum of the chipmunks of western North America.
              By John A. White. Pp. 611-631, 19 figures in text.
              December 1, 1953.

          36. Pleistocene Soricidae from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon,
              Mexico. By James S. Findley. Pp. 633-639. December 1, 1953.

          37. Seventeen species of bats recorded from Barro Colorado
              Island, Panama Canal Zone. By E. Raymond Hall and
              William B. Jackson. Pp. 641-646. December 1, 1953.

           Index. Pp. 647-676.

 Vol.  6.  (Complete) Mammals of Utah, _taxonomy and distribution_.
           By Stephen D. Durrant. Pp. 1-549, 91 figures in text,
           30 tables. August 10, 1952.

 Vol.  7. *1. Mammals of Kansas.  By E. Lendell Cockrum. Pp. 1-303,
              73 figures in text, 37 tables. August 25, 1952.

           2. Ecology of the opossum on a natural area in northeastern
              Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch and Lewis L. Sandidge.
              Pp. 305-338, 5 figures in text. August 24, 1953.

           3. The silky pocket mice (Perognathus flavus) of Mexico.
              By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 339-347, 1 figure in text.
              February 15, 1954.

           4. North American jumping mice (Genus Zapus). By Philip H.
              Krutzsch. Pp. 349-472, 47 figures in text, 4 tables.
              April 21, 1954.

           5. Mammals from Southeastern Alaska. By Rollin H. Baker and
              James S. Findley. Pp. 473-477. April 21, 1954.

           6. Distribution of Some Nebraskan Mammals. By J. Knox Jones,
              Jr. Pp. 479-487. April 21, 1954.

           7. Subspeciation in the montane meadow mouse, Microtus
              montanus, in Wyoming and Colorado. By Sydney Anderson.
              Pp. 489-506, 2 figures in text. July 23, 1954.

           8. A new subspecies of bat (Myotis velifer) from
              southeastern California and Arizona. By Terry A. Vaughn.
              Pp. 507-512. July 23, 1954.

           9. Mammals of the San Gabriel mountains of California.
              By Terry A. Vaughn. Pp. 513-582, 1 figure in text,
              12 tables. November 15, 1954.

          10. A new bat (Genus Pipistrellus) from northeastern Mexico.
              By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 583-586. November 15, 1954.

          11. A new subspecies of pocket mouse from Kansas. By
              E. Raymond Hall. Pp. 587-590. November 15, 1954.

          12. Geographic variation in the pocket gopher, Cratogeomys
              castanops, in Coahuila, Mexico. By Robert J. Russell and
              Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 591-608. March 15, 1955.

          13. A new cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from
              northeastern Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker. Pp. 609-612.
              April 8, 1955.

          14. Taxonomy and distribution of some American shrews.
              By James S. Findley. Pp. 613-618. June 10, 1955.

          15. The pigmy woodrat, Neotoma goldmani, its distribution
              and systematic position. By Dennis G. Rainey and Rollin
              H. Baker. Pp. 619-624, 2 figs. in text. June 10, 1955.

           Index. Pp. 625-651.

 Vol  8.   1. Life history and ecology of the five-lined skink,
              Eumeces fasciatus. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 1-156, 26 figs.
              in text. September 1, 1954.

           2. Myology and serology of the Avian Family Fringillidae, a
              taxonomic study. By William B. Stallcup. Pp. 157-211,
              23 figures in text, 4 tables. November 15, 1954.

           3. An ecological study of the collared lizard (Crotaphytus
              collaris). By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 213-274, 10 figures in
              text. February 10, 1956.

           4. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog, Gastrophryne
              olivacea. By Henry S. Fitch. Pp. 275-306, 9 figures in
              text. February 10, 1956.

           5. Check-list of the birds of Kansas. By Harrison B.
              Tordoff. Pp. 307-359, 1 figure in text. March 10, 1956.

           6. A population study of the prairie vole (Microtus
              ochrogaster) in northeastern Kansas. By Edwin P. Martin.
              Pp. 361-416, 19 figures in text. April 2, 1956.

           7. Temperature responses in free-living amphibians and
              reptiles of northeastern Kansas. By Henry S. Fitch.
              Pp. 417-476, 10 figures in text, 6 tables. June 1, 1956.

           8. Food of the crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, in
              south-central Kansas. By Dwight Platt. Pp. 477-498,
              4 tables. June 8, 1956.

           9. Ecological observations on the woodrat, Neotoma
              floridana. By Henry S. Fitch and Dennis G. Rainey.
              Pp. 499-533, 3 figures in text. June 12, 1956.

          10. Eastern woodrat, Neotoma floridana: Life history and
              ecology. By Dennis G. Rainey. Pp. 535-646, 12 plates,
              13 figures in text August 15, 1956.

           Index. Pp. 647-675.

 Vol. 9.   1. Speciation of the wandering shrew. By James S. Findley.
              Pp. 1-68, 18 figures in text. December 10, 1955.

           2. Additional records and extensions of ranges of mammals
              from Utah. By Stephen D. Durrant, M. Raymond Lee, and
              Richard M. Hansen. Pp. 69-80. December 10, 1955.

           3. A new long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) from northeastern
              Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker and Howard J. Stains.
              Pp. 81-84. December 10, 1955.

           4. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus
              pennsylvanicus, in Wyoming. By Sydney Anderson.
              Pp. 85-104, 2 figures in text. May 10, 1956.

           5. The condylarth genus Ellipsodon. By Robert W. Wilson.
              Pp. 105-116, 6 figures in text. May 19, 1956.

           6. Additional remains of the multituberculate genus
              Eucosmodon. By Robert W. Wilson. Pp. 117-123, 10 figures
              in text. May 19, 1956.

           7. Mammals of Coahuila Mexico. By Rollin H. Baker.
              Pp. 125-335, 75 figures in text. June 15, 1956.

           8. Comments on the taxonomic status of Apodemus peninsulae,
              with description of a new subspecies from North China.
              By J. Knox Jones, Jr. Pp. 337-346, 1 figure in text,
              1 table. August 15, 1956.

           9. Extensions of known ranges of Mexican bats. By Sydney
              Anderson, Pp. 347-351. August 15, 1956.

          10. A new bat (Genus Leptonycteris) from Coahuila. By Howard
              J. Stains. Pp. 353-356. January 21, 1957.

          11. A new species of pocket gopher (Genus Pappogeomys) from
              Jalisco, México. By Robert J. Russell. Pp. 357-361.
              January 21, 1957.

              More numbers will appear in volume 9.

 Vol 10.   1. Studies of birds killed in nocturnal migration.
              By Harrison B. Tordoff and Robert M. Mengel. Pp. 1-44,
              6 figures in text, 2 tables. September 12, 1956.

           2. Comparative breeding behavior of Ammospiza caudacuta and
              A. maritima. By Glen E. Woolfenden. Pp. 45-75, 6 plates,
              1. figure. December 20, 1956.

           3. The forest habitat of the University of Kansas Natural
              History Reservation. By Henry S. Fitch and Ronald R.
              McGregor. Pp. 77-127, 2 plates, 7 figures in text, 4
              tables. December 31, 1956.

           4. Aspects of reproduction and development in the prairie
              vole (Microtus ochrogaster). By Henry S. Fitch.
              Pp. 129-161, 8 figures in text, 4 tables.
              December 19, 1957.

           5. Birds found on the Arctic Slope of northern Alaska. By
              James W. Bee. 163-211, 2 pls., 1 figure in text.
              March 12, 1958.

           More numbers will appear in volume 10.



       *       *       *       *       *       *

  Transcriber's Notes

  This file was derived from scanned images. With the exception of
  some minor corrections (for example missing commas or periods) which
  mary have been made that are not noted here and the list of
  typographical errors that were corrected below, the original text is
  presented. Some text may have been moved to rejoin paragraphs split
  in the original by Tables or images.


  Emphasis Notation

    _Text_  =  Italic

    +Text+  =  Bold-Italic


  Typographical Errors Corrected:

  Several minor typographical corrections were made (missing periods,
  commas, incomplete italicization, etc.); but are not indicated here.
  More substantial changes are listed below:

      Page 172 Para. 5: Koalak    => Kaolak
      Page 173 Para. 3: gutteral  => guttural
      Page 182 Para. 2: logopus   => lagopus
      Page 184 Para. 4: was       => were
      Page 186 Para. 3: Topagurak => Topagaruk
      Page 192 Para. 1: averages  => averaged
      Page 195 Para. 4: few       => flew
      Page 197 Para. 4: 70"       => 74°
      Page 197 Para. 5: (93-87)   => (87-93)
      Page 210 Para. 4: then      => than

       *       *       *       *       *       *





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Birds Found on the Arctic Slope of Northern Alaska" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home