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´╗┐Title: Boy Scouts Handbook - The First Edition, 1911
Author: Boy Scouts of America
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Boy Scouts Handbook - The First Edition, 1911" ***

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Transcriber's note:
  Page numbers in this book are indicated by numbers enclosed
  in curly braces, e.g. {99}. They have been located where page
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End Transcriber's note.



BOY SCOUTS HANDBOOK
_The First Edition, 1911_

[Illustration: Boy Scouts at camp. (tr)]


BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA

Boy Scouts of America
Official National Out
SIGMUND EISNER

New York Salesrooms
103 Fifth Avenue
Red Bank. N. J.


[Illustration: Two Boy Scouts in full uniform. (tr)]
Each part of the uniform is stamped with the official seal of the Boy
Scouts of America.

If there is no agency for the official uniform in your city write for
samples.

SIGMUND EISNER

Manufacturer of U. S. Army and National Guard Uniform


The Best Food for The Boy Scouts is

[Illustration: Cereal bowl. (tr)]

Shredded Wheat

because it has all the muscle-building, bone-making material in the
whole wheat grain prepared in a digestible form, supplying all the
strength needed for work or play. It is ready-cooked and ready-to-eat.
It has the greatest amount of body-building nutriment in smallest
bulk. Its crispness compels thorough mastication, and the more you
chew it the better you like it. Shredded Wheat is the favorite food of
athletes. It is on the training table of nearly every college and
university in this country. The records show that the winners of many
brilliant rowing and track events have been trained on Shredded Wheat.

_The BISCUIT is in little loaf form. It is baked a crisp, golden brown.
It is eaten with milk or cream, or fruit, or is delicious when eaten
as a toast with butter. TRISCUIT is the Shredded Wheat wafer---the
ideal food for the camp or the long tramp_.

_Building buster boys is bully business--that's the reason we want to
help the Boy Scout movement_.

The Shredded Wheat Company
Niagara Falls, N. Y.



[Illustration: Getting the final word before hiking.]



BOY SCOUTS of AMERICA
THE OFFICIAL HANDBOOK
FOR BOYS


[Illustration: First Class Scout Emblem. (tr)]


_Published for_
THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA
200 FIFTH AVENUE
NEW YORK
GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
1911



COPYRIGHT 1911
BY BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA



BOY SCOUT CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that _________
of ___________ State of _________
Street and City or Town address


Age_____ Height_____ Weigh_____

is a member of ________ Patrol, of Troop No. _____

________________
Scout Master


SCOUT HISTORY

Qualified as Tenderfoot ________ 191_

Second Class Scout _________ 191_

First Class Scout _______ 191_


QUALIFIED FOR MERIT BADGES
SUBJECT              DATE
1________________    ________________
2________________    ________________
3________________    ________________
4________________    ________________
5________________    ________________

Qualified as Life Scout ________________

Qualified as Star Scout ________________

Qualified as Eagle Scout ________________

Awarded Honor Medal      ________________



{v}

PREFACE

The Boy Scout Movement has become almost universal, and wherever
organized its leaders are glad, as we are, to acknowledge the debt we
all owe to Lieut.-Gen. Sir Robert S. S. Baden-Powell, who has done so
much to make the movement of interest to boys of all nations.

The BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA is a corporation formed by a group of men
who are anxious that the boys of America should come under the
influence of this movement and be built up in all that goes to make
character and good citizenship. The affairs of the organization are
managed by a National Council, composed of some of the most prominent
men of our country, who gladly and freely give their time and money
that this purpose may be accomplished.

In the various cities, towns, and villages, the welfare of the boy
scouts is cared for by local councils, and these councils, like the
National Council are composed of men who are seeking for the boys of
the community the very best things.

In order that the work of the boy scouts throughout America may be
uniform and intelligent, the National Council has prepared its
"Official Handbook," the purpose of which is to furnish to the patrols
of the boy scouts advice in practical methods, as well as inspiring
information.

The work of preparing this handbook has enlisted the services of men
eminently fitted for such work, for each is an expert in his own
department, and the Editorial Board feels that the organization is to
be congratulated in that such men have been found willing to give
their time and ripe experience to this movement. It would be
impossible adequately to thank all who by advice and friendly
criticism have helped in the preparation of the book, or even to
mention their names, but to the authors whose names are attached to
the various chapters, we acknowledge an especial obligation. Without
their friendly help this book could not be. We wish especially to
express our appreciation of the helpful suggestions made by Daniel
Carter Beard.

We have carefully examined and approved all the material which goes to
make up {vi} the manual, and have tried to make it as complete as
possible; nevertheless, no one can be more conscious than we are of
the difficulty of providing a book which will meet all the demands of
such widely scattered patrols with such varied interests. We have
constantly kept in mind the evils that confront the boys of our
country and have struck at them by fostering better things. Our hope
is that the information needed for successful work with boy scouts
will be found within the pages of this book.

In these pages and throughout our organization we have made it
obligatory upon our scouts that they cultivate courage, loyalty,
patriotism, brotherliness, self-control, courtesy, kindness to
animals, usefulness, cheerfulness, cleanliness, thrift, purity and
honor. No one can doubt that with such training added to his native
gifts, the American boy will in the near future, as a man, be an
efficient leader in the paths of civilization and peace.

It has been deemed wise to publish all material especially for the aid
of scout masters in a separate volume to be known as "The Scout
Masters' Manual."

We send out our "Official Handbook," therefore, with the earnest wish
that many boys may find in it new methods for the proper use of their
leisure time and fresh inspiration in their efforts to make their
hours of recreation contribute to strong, noble manhood in the days to
come.

THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA
Editorial Board.
WILLIAM D. MURRAY
GEORGE D. PRATT,
A. A. JAMESON,


{vii}

OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL
BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA
THE FIFTH AVENUE BUILDING, 200 FIFTH AVENUE
NEW YORK CITY

Honorary President            THE HON. WILLIAM H. TAFT
Honorary Vice-President       Colonel THEODORE ROOSEVELT
President                     COLIN H. LIVINGSTONE, Washington, D. C.
1st Vice-President            B. L. DULANEY, Bristol, Tenn.
2d Vice-President             MILTON A. McRAE, Detroit, Mich.
3d Vice-President             DAVID STARR JORDAN, Stanford, Ca.
Chief Scout                   ERNEST THOMPSON SETON, Cos Cob, Conn.
National Scout Commissioner   DANIEL CARTER BEARD, Flushing, L. I., N.Y.
National Scout Commissioner   Adj.-Gen. WILLIAM VERBECK, Albany, N.Y.
National Scout Commissioner   Colonel PETER S. BOMUS, New York City
Treasurer                     GEORGE D. PRATT, Brooklyn, N. Y.


MEMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD

COLIN H. LIVINGSTONE, Chairman
Daniel Carter Beard
Milton A. McRae
Mortimer L. Schiff
Col. Peter S. Bomus
William D. Murray
Ernest Thompson Seton
B. L. Dulaney
George D. Pratt
Seth Sprague Terry
Lee F. Hanmer
Frank Presbrey
Adj.-Gen. William Verbeck
George W. Hinckley
Edgar M. Robinson
JAMES E. WEST, Executive Secretary


MEMBERS OF NATIONAL COUNCIL

Charles Conrad Abbott
Arthur Adams
Dr. Felix Adler
Harry A. Allison
Henry Morrell Atkinson
B. N. Baker
Ray Stannard Baker
Evelyn Briggs Baldwin
Clifford W. Barnes
Daniel Carter Beard
Henry M. Beardsley
Martin Behrman
August Belmont
Ernest P. Bicknell

{viii}

Edward Bok
Colonel Peter S. Bomus
Hon. Charles J. Bonaparte
William D. Boyce
H. S. Braucher
Roeliff Brinkerhoff
Dr. Elmer E. Brown
Luther Burbank
Dr. Richard C. Cabot
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman
Arthur A. Carey
E. C. Carter
Richard B. Carter
W. D. Champlin
Thomas Chew
Winston Churchill
G. A. Clark
P. P. Claxton
Randall J. Condon
C. M. Connolly
Ernest K. Coulter
Dr. C. Ward Crampton
George H. Dalrymple
Dr. George S. Davis
E. B. DeGroot
Judge William H. De Lacy
William C. Demorest
Dr. Edward T. Devine
Admiral George Dewey
Gov. John A. Diz
Myron E. Douglas
Benjamin L. Dulaney
Hon. T. C. Du Pont
Dr. George W. Ehler
Griffith Ogden Ellis
Robert Erskine Ely
Henry P. Emerson
Hon. John J. Esch
J. W. Everman
Eberhard Faber
Dr. George J. Fisher
Horace Fletcher
Homer Folks
Dr. William Byron Forbush
Dr. Lee K. Frankel
Robert Ives Gammell
Hon. James R. Garfield
Hamlin Garland
Robert Garrett
William H. Gay
Bishop David H. Greer
Jesse A. Gregg
George B. Grinnell
S. R. Guggenheim
Luther Halsey Gulick, M. D.
Dr. G. Stanley Hall
Dr. Winfield Scott Hall
Lee F. Hanmer
Dr. Hastings H. Hart
Hon. W. M. Hays
Prof. C. R. Henderson
Clark W. Hetherington
George W. Hinckley
Allen Hoben
Hon. R. P. Hobson
Rev. R. W. Hogue
John Sherman Hoyt
C. R. H. Jackson
Prof. Jeremiah W. Jenks
G. E. Johnson
Dr. David Starr Jordan
Mayor William S. Jordan
Otto Herman Kahn
Dr. William J. Kerby
Charles H. Kip
Dr. J. H. Kirkland
Judge Henry E. Klamroth
Rev. Walter Laidlow
Charles R. Lamb
Joseph Lee
Samuel McC. Lindsay
Judge Ben B. Lindsey
Colin H. Livingstone
Col. Frank L. Locke
Hon. Nicholas Longworth
Hon. Frank O. Lowden
Hon. Lee McClung
William McCormick

{ix}

Hon. Henry B. F. Macfarland
J. Horace McFarland
C. W. McKee
Hon. William B. McKinley
J. S. McLain
Francis H. McLean
Milton A. McRae
Charles G. Maphis
George W. Manton
Edgar S. Martin
Frank S. Mason
Frank Lincoln Masseck
Dr. William H. Maxwell
Lieut.-Gen. Nelson A. Miles
John F. Moore
Arthur C. Moses
William D. Murray
Dr. Cyrus Northrop
Frank W. Ober
Hon. C. S. Page
Dr. C. H. Parkhurst
Hon. Herbert Parsons
Hon. Gifford Pinchot
David R. Porter
George D. Porter
Perry Edwards Powell
Frederic B. Pratt
George D. Pratt
Frank Presbrey
G. Barrett Rich, Jr.
Jacob A. Riis
Clarence C. Robinson
Edgar M. Robinson
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Lincoln E. Rowley
Oliver J. Sands
Dr. D. A. Sargent
Henry B. Sawyer
Mortimer L. Schiff
Charles Scribner
George L. Sehon
Rear Admiral Thomas Oliver Selfridge
Jefferson Seligman
Jesse Seligman
Ernest Thompson Seton
Samuel Shuman
Rear Admiral Charles Dwight Sigsbee
William F. Slocum
Fred. B. Smith
Hon. George Otis Smith
Lorillard Spencer
Lorillard Spencer, Jr.
Judge William H. Staake
Hon. Adlai Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
A. E. Stilwell
C. H. Stoddard
Rev. John Timothy Stone, D.D.
Isidor Straus
Hon. Oscar S. Straus
Josiah Strong
Hon. William H. Taft
Edward K. Taylor
Graham Romeyn Taylor
Judge Harry L. Taylor
William L. Terhune
Seth Sprague Terry
John E. Thayer
Rev. James I. Vance
Dr. Henry Van Dyke
Adj. Gen. William Verbeck
John Wanamaker
Henry L. Ward
Lucien T. Warner
Richard Benedict Watrous
Rear Admiral J. C. Watson
W. D. Weatherford
Dr. Benjamin Ide Wheeler
Eli Whitney
Mornay Williams
Gen. George W. Wingate
A. E. Winship
Henry Rogers Winthrop
Major-Gen. Leonard Wood
Surgeon-Gen. Walter Wyman
Major Andrew C. Zabriskie


{x}

A MESSAGE FROM THE CHIEF SCOUT

TO THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA:

There was once a boy who lived in a region of rough farms. He was wild
with the love of the green outdoors--the trees, the tree-top singers,
the wood-herbs and the live things that left their nightly tracks in
the mud by his spring well. He wished so much to know them and learn
about them, he would have given almost any price in his gift to know
the name of this or that wonderful bird, or brilliant flower; he used
to tremble with excitement and intensity of interest when some new
bird was seen, or when some strange song came from the trees to thrill
him with its power or vex him with its mystery, and he had a sad sense
of lost opportunity when it flew away leaving him dark as ever. But he
was alone and helpless, he had neither book nor friend to guide him,
and he grew up with a kind of knowledge hunger in his heart that
gnawed without ceasing. But this also it did: It inspired him with the
hope that some day he might be the means of saving others from this
sort of torment--he would aim to furnish to them what had been denied
to himself.

There were other things in the green and living world that had a
binding charm for him. He wanted to learn to camp out, to live again
the life of his hunter grandfather who knew all the tricks of winning
comfort from the relentless wilderness the foster-mother so rude to
those who fear her, so kind to the stout of heart.

And he had yet another hankering--he loved the touch of romance. When
he first found Fenimore Cooper's books, he drank them in as one
parched might drink at a spring. He reveled in the tales of courage
and heroic deeds, he gloated over records of their trailing and
scouting by red man and white; he gloried in their woodcraft, and
lived it all in imagination, secretly blaming the writer, a little,
for praising without describing it so it could be followed. "Some
day," he said, "I shall put it all down for other boys to learn."

As years went by he found that there were books about most of the
things he wished to know, the stars, the birds, the {xi} quadrupeds,
the fish, the insects, the plants, telling their names; their hidden
power or curious ways, about the camper's life the language of signs
and even some of the secrets of the trail. But they were very
expensive and a whole library would be needed to cover the ground.
What he wanted--what every boy wants--is a handbook giving the broad
facts as one sees them in the week-end hike, the open-air life. He did
not want to know the trees as a botanist, but as a forester; nor the
stars as an astronomer, but as a traveler. His interest in the animals
was less that of anatomist than of a hunter and camper, and his
craving for light on the insects was one to be met by a popular book
on bugs, rather than by a learned treatise on entomology.

So knowing the want he made many attempts to gather the simple facts
together exactly to meet the need of other boys of like ideas, and
finding it a mighty task he gladly enlisted the help of men who had
lived and felt as he did.

Young Scouts of America that boy is writing to you now. He thought
himself peculiar in those days. He knows now he was simply a normal
boy with the interests and desires of all normal boys, some of them a
little deeper rooted and more lasting perhaps--and all the things
that he loved and wished to learn have now part in the big broad work
we call Scouting.

"Scout" used to mean the one on watch for the rest. We have widened
the word a little. We have made it fit the town as well as the
wilderness and suited it to peace time instead of war. We have made
the scout an expert in Life-craft as well as Wood-craft, for he is
trained in the things of the heart as well as head and hand. Scouting
we have made to cover riding, swimming, tramping, trailing,
photography, first aid, camping, handicraft, loyalty, obedience,
courtesy, thrift, courage, and kindness.

Do these things appeal to you? Do you love the woods?

Do you wish to learn the trees as the forester knows them? And the
stars not as an astronomer, but as a traveler?

Do you wish to have all-round, well-developed muscles, not those of a
great athlete, but those of a sound body that will not fail you? Would
you like to be an expert camper who can always make himself
comfortable out of doors, and a swimmer that fears no waters? Do you
desire the knowledge to help the wounded quickly, and to make yourself
cool and self-reliant in an emergency?

Do you believe in loyalty, courage, and kindness? Would {xii} you like
to form habits that will surely make your success in life?

Then, whether you be farm boy or shoe clerk, newsboy or millionaire's
son, your place is in our ranks, for these are the thoughts in
scouting; it will help you to do better work with your pigs, your
shoes, your papers, or your dollars; it will give you new pleasures in
life; it will teach you so much of the outdoor world that you wish to
know; and this Handbook, the work of many men, each a leader in his
field, is their best effort to show you the way. This is, indeed, the
book that I so longed for, in those far-off days when I wandered,
heart hungry in the woods.

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON,
Chief Scout.
Headquarters Boy Scouts of America,
200 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
June 1, 1911.


{xiii}

CONTENTS

                                                             PAGE
Boy Scout Certificate                                         iii
Preface                                                         v
Officers and Members of the National Council                  vii

CHAPTER I.

Scoutcraft                                                      3
  AIM OF SCOUT MOVEMENT                John L. Alexander

  WHAT SCOUTING MEANS                  John L. Alexander

  SCOUT VIRTUES                        John L. Alexander

  THE BOY SCOUT ORGANIZATION           Special Committee

  SCOUT OATH                           Special Committee

  SCOUT LAW                            Special Committee

  TENDERFOOT, SECOND CLASS, AND
  FIRST CLASS SCOUT REQUIREMENTS       Special Committee

  BADGES, AWARDS AND EQUIPMENT         Special Committee

  KNOTS EVERY SCOUT SHOULD KNOW.       Samuel A. Moffat


CHAPTER II.

Woodcraft                                                    57
  WOODLORE                          Ernest Thompson Seton

  BIRDCRAFT                     National Association Audubon Societies

  SHELLS AND SHELLFISH              Dr. Wm. Healey Dall

  REPTILES                          Dr. Leonhard Stejneger

  INSECTS AND BUTTERFLIES           United States Bureau of Entomology

  FISHES AND ANGLING                Dr. Hugh M. Smith

  AQUARIUM                          Dr. Wm. Leland Stowell

  ROCKS AND PEBBLES                 United States Geological Survey

  FLOWERS, FERNS AND GRASSES        Dr. L. C. Corbett

  MUSHROOMS, FUNGI OR TOADSTOOLS    Ernest Thompson Seton

  COMMON NORTH AMERICAN TREES       Ernest Thompson Seton

  NATIVE WILD ANIMALS               Ernest Thompson Seton


CHAPTER III.

Campcraft                                                     145
  HIKING AND OVER-NIGHT CAMPS       H. W. Gibson

  TENT MAKING MADE EASY             H. J. Holden

  AN OPEN OUTING TENT               Warren H. Miller

  CANOEING, ROWING, AND SAILING     Special Committee


{xiv}


CHAPTER IV.
Tracks, Trailing, and Signaling     Ernest Thompson Seton     187


CHAPTER V.
Health and Endurance                George J. Fisher, M.D.    219


CHAPTER VI.
Chivalry                            John L. Alexander         237


CHAPTER VII.
First Aid and Life Saving           Major Charles Lynch       255

  WATER ACCIDENTS                   Wilbert E. Longfellow


CHAPTER VIII.
Games and Athletic Standards                                  291

  INDOOR AND OUTDOOR GAMES          Ernest Thompson Seton

  ATHLETIC STANDARDS                Special Committee


CHAPTER IX.
Patriotism and Citizenship          Waldo H. Sherman          323

  PRACTICAL CITIZENSHIP             Col. Theodore Roosevelt


APPENDIX.
  EQUIPMENT                                                   359
  BOOKS FOR REFERENCE                                         369
  INDEX                                                       393

ADVERTISEMENTS



HANDBOOK FOR BOYS



{3}

CHAPTER I

SCOUTCRAFT

_This chapter is the result of the work of the Committee on Scout Oath,
Scout Law, Tenderfoot, Second-class and First-class Requirements; the
Committee on Badges, Awards, and Equipment; the Committee on Permanent
Organization and Field Supervision, and John L. Alexander and Samuel
A. Moffat_.


Aim of the Scout Movement
_By John L. Alexander, Boy Scouts of America_

The aim of the Boy Scouts is to supplement the various existing
educational agencies, and to promote the ability in boys to do things
for themselves and others. It is not the aim to set up a new
organization to parallel in its purposes others already established.
The opportunity is afforded these organizations, however, to introduce
into their programs unique features appealing to interests which are
universal among boys. The method is summed up in the term Scoutcraft,
and is a combination of observation, deduction, and handiness, or the
ability to do things. Scoutcraft includes instruction in First Aid,
Life Saving, Tracking, Signaling, Cycling, Nature Study, Seamanship,
Campcraft, Woodcraft, Chivalry, Patriotism, and other subjects. This
is accomplished in games and team play, and is pleasure, not work, for
the boy. All that is needed is the out-of-doors, a group of boys, and
a competent leader.


What Scouting Means

In all ages there have been scouts, the place of the scout being on
the danger line of the army or at the outposts, protecting those of
his company who confide in his care.

The army scout was the soldier who was chosen out of all the army to
go out on the skirmish line.

The pioneer, who was out on the edge of the wilderness, {4} guarding
the men, women, and children in the stockade, was also a scout. Should
he fall asleep, or lose control of his faculties, or fail on his
watch, then the lives of the men, women, and children paid the
forfeit, and the scout lost his honor.

But there have been other kinds of scouts besides war scouts and
frontier scouts. They have been the men of all ages, who have gone out
on new and strange adventures, and through their work have benefited
the people of the earth. Thus, Columbus discovered America, the
Pilgrim Fathers founded New England, the early English settlers
colonized Jamestown, and the Dutch built up New York. In the same way
the hardy Scotch-Irish pushed west and made a new home for the
American people beyond the Alleghanies and the Rockies.

These peace scouts had to be as well prepared as any war scouts. They
had to know scoutcraft. They had to know how to live in the woods, and
be able to find their way anywhere, without other chart or compass
than the sun and stars, besides being able to interpret the meaning of
the slightest signs of the forest and the foot tracks of animals and
men.

They had to know how to live so as to keep healthy and strong, to face
any danger that came their way, and to help one another. These scouts
of old were accustomed to take chances with death and they did not
hesitate to give up their lives in helping their comrades or country.
In fact, they left everything behind them, comfort and peace, in order
to push forward into the wilderness beyond. And much of this they did
because they felt it to be their duty.

These little-known scouts could be multiplied indefinitely by going
back into the past ages and reading the histories and stories of the
knights of King Arthur, of the Crusaders, and of the great explorers
and navigators of the world.

Wherever there have been heroes, there have been scouts, and to be a
scout means to be prepared to do the right thing at the right moment,
no matter what the consequences may be.

The way for achievement in big things is the preparing of one's self
for doing the big things--by going into training and doing the little
things well. It was this characteristic of Livingstone, the great
explorer, that made him what he was, and that has marked the career of
all good scouts.

To be a good scout one should know something about the woods and the
animals that inhabit them, and how to care for one's self when
camping.

{5}

The habits of animals can be studied by stalking them and watching
them in their native haunts.

The scout should never kill an animal or other living creature
needlessly. There is more sport in stalking animals to photograph
them, and in coming to know their habits than in hunting to kill.

But woodcraft means more than this. It means not only the following of
tracks and other signs, but it means to be able to read them. To tell
how fast the animal which made the tracks was going; to tell whether
he was frightened, suspicious, or otherwise.

Woodcraft also enables the scout to find his way, no matter where he
is. It teaches him the various kinds of wild fruit, roots, nuts, etc.,
which are good for food, or are the favorite food of animals.


[Illustration: Scout Stalking.]


By woodcraft a scout may learn a great number of things. He may be
able to tell whether the tracks were made by an animal or by man,
bicycle, automobile or other vehicle.

By having his power of observation trained he can tell by very slight
signs, such as the sudden flying of birds, that someone is moving very
near him though he may not be able to see the person.

{6}

Through woodcraft then, a boy may train his eye, and be able to
observe things that otherwise would pass unnoticed. In this way he may
be able to save animals from pain, as a horse from an ill-fitting
harness. He may also be able to see little things which may give him
the clew to great things and so be able to prevent harm and crime.


[Illustration: Horse with head pulled back. (tr)]
Torture (Note the check or bearing-rein)

[Illustration: Horse with head relaxed. (tr)]
Comfort

Besides woodcraft one must know something of camp life. One of the
chief characteristics of the scout is to be able to live in the open,
know how to put up tents, build huts, throw up a lean-to for shelter,
or make a dugout in the ground, how to build a fire, how to procure
and cook food, how to bind logs together so as to construct bridges
and rafts, and how to find his way by night as well as by day in a
strange country.

Living in the open in this way, and making friends of the trees, the
streams, the mountains, and the stars, gives a scout a great deal of
confidence and makes him love the natural life around him.

[Illustration: Camp loom, for making mats and mattresses.]

To be able to tell the difference between the trees by their bark and
leaves is a source of pleasure; to be able to make a {7} bed out of
rough timber, or weave a mattress or mat out of grass to sleep on is a
joy. And all of these things a good scout should know.

Then too, a good scout must be chivalrous. That is, he should be as
manly as the knights or pioneers of old. He should be unselfish. He
should show courage. He must do his duty. He should show benevolence
and thrift. He should be loyal to his country. He should be obedient
to his parents, and show respect to those who are his superiors. He
should be very courteous to women. One of his obligations is to do a
good turn every day to some one. He should be cheerful and seek
self-improvement, and should make a career for himself.

All these things were characteristics of the old-time American scouts
and of the King Arthur knights. Their honor was sacred. They were
courteous and polite to women and children, especially to the aged,
protected the weak, and helped others to live better. They taught
themselves to be strong, so as to be able to protect their country
against enemies. They kept themselves strong and healthy, so that they
might be prepared to do all of these things at a moment's notice, and
do them well.

So the boy scout of to-day must be chivalrous, manly, and gentlemanly.

When he gets up in the morning he may tie a knot in his necktie, and
leave the necktie outside his vest until he has done a good turn.
Another way to remind himself is to wear his scout badge reversed
until he has done his good turn. The good turn may not be a very big
thing--help an old lady across the street; remove a banana skin from
the pavement so that people may not fall; remove from streets or roads
broken glass, dangerous to automobile or bicycle tires; give water to
a thirsty horse; or deeds similar to these.

The scout also ought to know how to save life. He ought to be able to
make a stretcher; to throw a rope to a drowning person; to drag an
unconscious person from a burning building, and to resuscitate a
person overcome by gas fumes. He ought also to know the method of
stopping runaway horses, and he should have the presence of mind and
the skill to calm a panic and deal with street and other accidents.

This means also that a boy scout must always be in the pink of
condition. A boy cannot do things like these unless he is healthy and
strong. Therefore, he must be systematically taking exercise, playing
games, running, and walking. It means that he must sleep enough hours
to give him the necessary strength, and if possible to sleep very much
in the open, or at least {8} with the windows of his bedroom open both
summer and winter.

It means also that he should take a cold bath often, rubbing dry with
a rough towel. He should breathe through the nose and not through the
mouth. He should at all times train himself to endure hardships.

In addition to these the scout should be a lover of his country. He
should know his country. How many states there are in it, what are its
natural resources, scope, and boundaries. He ought to know something
of its history, its early settlers, and of the great deeds that won
his land. How they settled along the banks of the James River. How
Philadelphia, New York, and other great cities were founded. How the
Pilgrim Fathers established New England and laid the foundation for
our national life. How the scouts of the Middle West saved all that
great section of the country for the Republic. He ought to know how
Texas became part of the United States, and how our national heroes
stretched out their hands, north and south, east and west, to make one
great united country.

He ought to know the history of the important wars. He ought to know
about our army and navy flags and the insignia of rank of our
officers. He ought to know the kind of government he lives under, and
what it means to live in a republic. He ought to know what is expected
of him as a citizen of his state and nation, and what to do to help
the people among whom he lives.

In short, to be a good scout is to be a well-developed, well-informed
boy.


Scout Virtues

There are other things which a scout ought to know and which should be
characteristic of him, if he is going to be the kind of scout for
which the Boy Scouts of America stand. One of these is obedience. To
be a good scout a boy must learn to obey the orders of his patrol
leader, scout master, and scout commissioner. He must learn to obey,
before he is able to command. He should so learn to discipline and
control himself that he will have no thought but to obey the orders of
his officers. He should keep such a strong grip on his own life that
he will not allow himself to do anything which is ignoble, or which
will harm his life or weaken his powers of endurance.

Another virtue of a scout is that of courtesy. A boy scout {9} ought
to have a command of polite language. He ought to show that he is a
true gentleman by doing little things for others.

Loyalty is also a scout virtue. A scout ought to be loyal to all to
whom he has obligations. He ought to stand up courageously for the
truth, for his parents and friends.

Another scout virtue is self-respect. He ought to refuse to accept
gratuities from anyone, unless absolutely necessary. He ought to work
for the money he gets.

For this same reason he should never look down upon anyone who may be
poorer than himself, or envy anyone richer than himself. A scout's
self-respect will cause him to value his own standing and make him
sympathetic toward others who may be, on the one hand, worse off, or,
on the other hand, better off as far as wealth is concerned. Scouts
know neither a lower nor a higher class, for a scout is one who is a
comrade to all and who is ready to share that which he has with
others.

The most important scout virtue is that of honor. Indeed, this is the
basis of all scout virtues and is closely allied to that of
self-respect. When a scout promises to do a thing on his honor, he is
bound to do it. The honor of a scout will not permit of anything but
the highest and the best and the manliest. The honor of a scout is a
sacred thing, and cannot be lightly set aside or trampled on.

Faithfulness to duty is another one of the scout virtues. When it is a
scout's duty to do something, he dare not shirk. A scout is faithful
to his own interest and the interests of others. He is true to his
country and his God.

Another scout virtue is cheerfulness. As the scout law intimates, he
must never go about with a sulky air. He must always be bright and
smiling, and as the humorist says, "Must always see the doughnut and
not the hole." A bright face and a cheery word spread like sunshine
from one to another. It is the scout's duty to be a sunshine-maker in
the world.

Another scout virtue is that of thoughtfulness, especially to animals;
not merely the thoughtfulness that eases a horse from the pain of a
badly fitting harness or gives food and drink to an animal that is in
need, but also that which keeps a boy from throwing a stone at a cat
or tying a tin can on a dog's tail. If a boy scout does not prove his
thoughtfulness and friendship for animals, it is quite certain that he
never will be really helpful to his comrades or to the men, women, and
children who may need his care.

{10}

And then the final and chief test of the scout is the doing of a good
turn to somebody every day, quietly and without boasting. This is the
proof of the scout. It is practical religion, and a boy honors God
best when he helps others most. A boy may wear all the scout uniforms
made, all the scout badges ever manufactured, know all the woodcraft,
campcraft, scoutcraft and other activities of boy scouts, and yet
never be a real boy scout. To be a real boy scout means the doing of a
good turn every day with the proper motive and if this be done, the
boy has a right to be classed with the great scouts that have been of
such service to their country. To accomplish this a scout should
observe the scout law.

Every boy ought to commit to memory the following abbreviated form of
the Scout law.

The Twelve Points of the Scout Law
1.  A scout is trustworthy.
2.  A scout is loyal.
3.  A scout is helpful.
4.  A scout is friendly.
5.  A scout is courteous.
6.  A scout is kind.
7.  A scout is obedient.
8.  A scout is cheerful.
9.  A scout is thrifty.
10. A scout is brave.
11. A scout is clean.
12. A scout is reverent.


The Boy Scout Organization
(Result of work of Committee on Permanent Organization and Field
Supervision:--H. S. Braucher, Chairman. Lorillard Spencer. Jr., Colin
H. Livingstone. Richard C. Morse. Mortimer Schiff, Dr. George W.
Ehler, C. M. Connolly, E. B. DeGroot, Lee F. Hamner.)

To do good scouting a boy must understand the organization of which he
is a part. The Boy Scouts of America is promoted and governed by a
group of men called the National Council. This National Council is
made up of leading men of the country and it is their desire that
every American boy shall have the opportunity of becoming a good
scout.

The National Council holds one meeting annually at which it elects the
officers and the members of the Executive Board. It copyrights badges
and other scout designs, arranges for their manufacture and
distribution, selects designs for uniforms and scout equipment, issues
scout commissioners' and scout masters' certificates, and grants
charters for local councils.

{11}

A local council through its officers--president, vice-president,
secretary, treasurer, and scout commissioner, its executive committee,
court of honor, and other committees--deals with all local matters
that relate to scouting.

The scout commissioner is the ranking scout master of the local
council and presides at all scout masters' meetings as well as at all
scout field meets. It is also the duty of the scout commissioner to
report to and advise with the Chief Scout through the Executive
Secretary concerning the scouts in his district. The scout
commissioner's certificate is issued from National Headquarters upon
the recommendation of a local council after this council has been
granted a charter.

The scout master is the adult leader of a troop, and must be at least
twenty-one years of age. He should have a deep interest in boys, be
genuine in his own life, have the ability to lead, and command the
boys' respect and obedience. He need not be an expert at scoutcraft; a
good scout master will discover experts for the various activities.
His certificate is granted upon the recommendation of the local
council.

An assistant scout master should be eighteen years of age or over. His
certificate is granted by the National Council upon the recommendation
of the scout master of his troop and the local council.


Chief Scout and Staff


The Chief Scout is elected annually by the National Council and has a
staff of deputies each of whom is chairman of a committee of
scoutcraft. These deputies are as follows:
Chief Scout Surgeon.
Chief Scout Director of Health.
Chief Scout Woodsman.
Chief Scout Athletic Director.
Chief Scout Stalker.
Chief Scout Citizen.
Chief Scout Master.
Chief Scout Director of Chivalry.
Chief Scout Camp Master.

Scouts are graded as follows:
Chief Scout and Staff.
Scout Commissioner.
Scout Master.
Assistant Scout Master.
Patrol Leader.
Assistant Patrol Leader.


Eagle Scout.
Star Scout.
Life Scout.
First-class Scout.
Second-class Scout.
Tenderfoot.


How to Become a Boy Scout

The easiest way to become a boy scout is to join a patrol that has
already been started. This patrol may be in {12} a Sunday School,
Boys' Brigade, Boys' Club, Young Men's Christian Association, Young
Men's Hebrew Association, Young Men's Catholic Association, or any
other organization to which you may belong. If there is no patrol near
you, get some man interested enough to start one by giving him all the
information.

A patrol consists of eight boys, one of whom becomes the patrol leader
and another the assistant patrol leader.

A troop consists of three or more patrols, and the leader of the troop
is called a scout master. There can be no patrols or troops of boy
scouts without this scout master.


The Scout Motto

The motto of the boy scouts is Be Prepared, and the badge of the boy
scouts is a copyrighted design with this motto, "Be Prepared," on a
scroll at its base.

The motto, "Be Prepared," means that the scout is always in a state of
readiness in mind and body to do his duty. To be prepared in mind, by
having disciplined himself to be obedient, and also by having thought
out beforehand any accident or situation that may occur, so that he
may know the right thing to do at the right moment, and be willing to
do it. To be prepared in body, by making himself strong and active and
able to do the right thing at the right moment, and then to do it.


The Scout Badge

The scout badge is not intended to represent the fleur-de-lis, or an
arrowhead. It is a modified form of the sign of the north on the
mariner's compass, which is as old as the history of navigation. The
Chinese claim its use among them as early as 2634 B. C., and we have
definite information that it was used at sea by them as early as 300
A. D. Marco Polo brought the compass to Europe on his return from
Cathay. The sign of the north on the compass gradually came to
represent the north, and pioneers, trappers, woodsmen, and scouts,
because of this, adopted it as their emblem. Through centuries of use
it has undergone modification until it has now assumed the shape of
our badge.

This trefoil badge of the scouts is now used, with slight local
variations, in almost every civilized country as the mark of
brotherhood, for good citizenship, and friendliness.

Its scroll is turned up at the ends like a scout's mouth, because he
does his duty with a smile and willingly.

The knot is to remind the scout to do a good turn to someone daily.

{13}

The arrowhead part is worn by the tenderfoot. The scroll part only is
worn by the second-class scout. The badge worn by the first-class
scout is the whole badge.

The official badges of the Boy Scouts of America are issued by the
National Council and may be secured only from the National
Headquarters. These badges are protected by the U. S. Patent Laws
(letters of patent numbers 41412 and 41532) and anyone infringing
these patents is liable to prosecution at law.

In order to protect the Boy Scout Movement and those who have
qualified to receive badges designating the various degrees in
scoutcraft, it is desired that all interested cooperate with the
National Headquarters in safeguarding the sale and distribution of
these badges. This may be done by observing the following rules:

1. Badges should not be ordered until after boys have actually
complied with the requirements prescribed by the National Council and
are entitled to receive them.

2. All orders for badges should be sent in by the scout master with a
certificate from the local council that these requirements have been
complied with. Blanks for this purpose may be secured on application
to the National Headquarters.

Where no local council has been formed, application for badges should
be sent direct to Headquarters, signed by the registered scout master
of the troop, giving his official number.

Scout commissioners', scout masters', and assistant scout masters'
badges can be issued only to those who are registered as such at
National Headquarters.

_Tenderfoot Badge_--Gilt metal.

_Patrol Leader's Tenderfoot Badge_--Oxidized silver finish.

These badges are seven eighths of an inch wide and are made either for
the button-hole or with safety-pin clasp. Price 5 cents.

_Second-Class Scout Badge_--Gilt metal.

_Patrol Leader's Second-Class Scout Badge_--Oxidized silver.

These badges--safety-pin style--to be worn upon the sleeve. Price 10
cents.

_First-Class Scout Badge_--Gilt metal.

_Patrol Leader's First-Class Scout Badge_--Oxidized silver.

Both badges safety-pin style--to be worn upon the sleeve. Price 15
cents.

_Scout Commissioner's, Scout Master's, and Assistant Scout Master's Arm
Badges_.

These badges are woven in blue, green, and red silk, and are to be
worn on the sleeve of coat or shirt. Price 25 cents.

{14}

_Buttons_--The official buttons worn on the scout uniforms sell for 10
cents per set for shirt and 15 cents per set for coat.

_Merit Badges_--Price 25 cents each.

_Boy Scout Certificates_--A handsome certificate in two colors, 6 x 8
inches, has been prepared for boy scouts who wish to have a record of
their enrolment. The certificate has the Scout Oath and Law and the
official Seal upon it, with place for the signature of the scout
master. The price is 5 cents.


Directions For Ordering

Important! When ordering supplies send exact remittance with order, If
check is used add New York exchange. Make checks and money orders
payable to Boy Scouts of America. All orders received without the
proper remittance will be shipped C. O. D., or held until remittance
arrives.


The Scout Oath

Before he becomes a scout a boy must promise:

On my honor I will do my best:
1. To do my duty to God and my country, and to obey the scout law;
2. To help other people at all times;
3. To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.

[Illustration: Hand position. (tr)]
When taking this oath the scout will stand, holding up his right hand,
palm to the front, thumb resting on the nail of the little finger and
the other three fingers upright and together.


The Scout Sign

This is the scout sign. The three fingers held up remind him of his
three promises in the scout oath.


The Scout Salute

When the three fingers thus held are raised to the forehead, it is the
scout salute. The scout always salutes an officer.


The Scout Law

(Result of work of Committee on Scout Oath, Scout Law, Tenderfoot,
Second-class and First-class Scout Requirements:--Prof. Jeremiah W.
Jenks, Chairman. Dr. Lee K. Frankel, George D. Porter, E. M. Robinson,
G. W. Hinckley, B. E. Johnson, Clark W. Hetherington, Arthur A. Carey.)

There have always been certain written and unwritten laws regulating
the conduct and directing the activities of men. {15} We have such
unwritten laws coming down from past ages. In Japan, the Japanese have
their Bushido or laws of the old Samurai warriors. During the Middle
Ages, the chivalry and rules of the Knights of King Arthur, the
Knights Templar and the Crusaders were in force. In aboriginal
America, the Red Indians had their laws of honor: likewise the Zulus,
Hindus, and the later European nations have their ancient codes.

The following laws which relate to the Boy Scouts of America, are the
latest and most up to date. These laws a boy promises to obey when he
takes his scout oath.

1. A scout is trustworthy.

  A scout's honor is to be trusted. If he were to violate his honor by
  telling a lie, or by cheating, or by not doing exactly a given task,
  when trusted on his honor, he may be directed to hand over his scout
  badge.

2. A scout is loyal.

  He is loyal to all to whom loyalty is due: his scout leader, his
  home, and parents and country.

3. A scout is helpful.

  He must be prepared at any time to save life, help injured persons,
  and share the home duties. He must do at least one good turn to
  somebody every day.

4. A scout is friendly.

  He is a friend to all and a brother to every other scout.

5. A scout is courteous.

  He is polite to all, especially to women, children, old people, and
  the weak and helpless. He must not take pay for being helpful or
  courteous.

6. A scout is kind.

  He is a friend to animals. He will not kill nor hurt any living
  creature needlessly, but will strive to save and protect all
  harmless life.

7. A scout is obedient.

  He obeys his parents, scout master, patrol leader, and all other
  duly constituted authorities.

8. A scout is cheerful.

  He smiles whenever he can. His obedience to orders is prompt and
  cheery. He never shirks nor grumbles at hardships.

9. A scout is thrifty.

  He does not wantonly destroy property. He works faithfully, wastes
  nothing, and makes the best use of his {16} opportunities. He saves
  his money so that he may pay his own way, be generous to those in
  need, and helpful to worthy objects.

  _He may work for pay but must not receive tips for courtesies or good
  turns_.

10. A scout is brave.

  He has the courage to face danger in spite of fear and has to stand
  up for the right against the coaxings of friends or the jeers or
  threats of enemies, and defeat does not down him.

11. A scout is clean.

  He keeps clean in body and thought, stands for clean speech, clean
  sport, clean habits, and travels with a clean crowd.

12. A scout is reverent.

  He is reverent toward God. He is faithful in his religious duties
  and respects the convictions of others in matters of custom and
  religion.


The Three Classes of Scouts

There are three classes of scouts among the Boy Scouts of America, the
tenderfoot, second-class scout, and first-class scout. Before a boy
can become a tenderfoot he must qualify for same. A tenderfoot,
therefore, is superior to the ordinary boy because of his training. To
be a tenderfoot means to occupy the lowest grade in scouting. A
tenderfoot on meeting certain requirements may become a second-class
scout, and a second-class scout upon meeting another set of
requirements may become a first-class scout. The first-class scout may
then qualify for the various merit badges which are offered in another
part of this chapter for proficiency in scouting. The requirements of
the tenderfoot, second-class scout, and first-class scout, are as
follows:


_Tenderfoot_

To become a scout a boy must be at least twelve years of age and must
pass a test in the following:

1. Know the scout law, sign, salute, and significance of the badge.

2. Know the composition and history of the national flag and the
customary forms of respect due to it.

3. Tie four out of the following knots: square or reef, sheet-bend,
bowline, fisherman's, sheepshank, halter, clove hitch, timber hitch,
or two half hitches.


[Illustration: Tenderfoot badge. (tr)]
Tenderfoot

{17}

He then takes the scout oath, is enrolled as a tenderfoot, and is
entitled to wear the tenderfoot badge.


[Illustration: Second-class Scout badge. (tr)]
Second-class Scout


_Second-class Scout_

To become a second-class scout, a tenderfoot must pass, to the
satisfaction of the recognized local scout authorities, the following
tests:

1. At least one month's service as a tenderfoot.

2. Elementary first aid and bandaging; know the general directions for
first aid for injuries; know treatment for fainting, shock, fractures,
bruises, sprains, injuries in which the skin is broken, burns, and
scalds; demonstrate how to carry injured, and the use of the
triangular and roller bandages and tourniquet.

3. Elementary signaling: Know the semaphore, or American Morse, or
Myer alphabet.

4. Track half a mile in twenty-five minutes; or, if in town, describe
satisfactorily the contents of one store window out of four observed
for one minute each.

5. Go a mile in twelve minutes at scout's pace--about fifty steps
running and fifty walking, alternately.

6. Use properly knife or hatchet.

7. Prove ability to build a fire in the open, using not more than two
matches.

8. Cook a quarter of a pound of meat and two potatoes in the open
without the ordinary kitchen cooking utensils.

9. Earn and deposit at least one dollar in a public bank.

10. Know the sixteen principal points of the compass.


_First-class Scout_

To become a first-class scout, the second-class scout must pass the
following tests:

1. Swim fifty yards.

2. Earn and deposit at least two dollars in a public bank.

3. Send and receive a message by semaphore, or American Morse, or Myer
alphabet, sixteen letters per minute.

4. Make a round trip alone (or with another scout) to a point {18} at
least seven miles away, going on foot or rowing boat, and write a
satisfactory account of the trip and things observed.

5. Advanced first aid: Know the methods for panic prevention; what to
do in case of fire and ice, electric and gas accidents; how to help in
case of runaway horse, mad dog, or snake bite; treatment for
dislocations, unconsciousness, poisoning, fainting, apoplexy,
sunstroke, heat exhaustion, and freezing; know treatment for sunburn,
ivy poisoning, bites and stings, nosebleed, earache, toothache,
inflammation or grit in eye, cramp or stomach ache and chills;
demonstrate artificial respiration.

6. Prepare and cook satisfactorily, in the open, without regular
kitchen utensils, two of the following articles as may be directed.
Eggs, bacon, hunter's stew, fish, fowl, game, pancakes, hoe-cake,
biscuit, hardtack or a "twist," baked on a stick; explain to another
boy the methods followed.

7. Read a map correctly, and draw, from field notes made on the spot,
an intelligible rough sketch map, indicating by their proper marks
important buildings, roads, trolley lines, main landmarks, principal
elevations, etc. Point out a compass direction without the help of the
compass.

8. Use properly an axe for felling or trimming light timber; or
produce an article of carpentry or cabinet-making or metal work made
by himself. Explain the method followed.

9. Judge distance, size, number, height and weight within 25 per cent.

10. Describe fully from observation ten species of trees or plants,
including poison ivy, by their bark, leaves, flowers, fruit, or scent;
or six species of wild birds by their plumage, notes, tracks, or
habits; or six species of native wild animals by their form, color,
call, tracks, or habits; find the North Star, and name and describe at
least three constellations of stars.

11. Furnish satisfactory evidence that he has put into practice in his
daily life the principles of the scout oath and law.

12. Enlist a boy trained by himself in the requirements of a
tenderfoot.

_NOTE.--No deviation from above requirements will be permitted unless
in extraordinary cases, such as physical inability, and the written
consent of the National Headquarters has been obtained by the
recognized local scout authority_.


[Illustration: First-class Scout badge. (tr)]
First-class Scout


{19}

Patrol Signs

Each troop of boy scouts is named after the place to which it belongs.
For example, it is Troop No. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., of New York or Chicago.
Each patrol of the troop is named after an animal or bird, but may be
given another kind of name if there is a valid reason. In this way,
the Twenty-seventh New York Troop, for instance, may have several
patrols, which may be respectively the Ox, Wolf, Jackal, Raven,
Buffalo, Fox, Panther, and Rattlesnake.


[Illustration: Boy Scout in uniform. (tr)]
  Positions of Various Badges

Each scout in a patrol has a number, the patrol leader being No. 1,
the assistant patrol leader No. 2, and the other scouts the remaining
consecutive numbers. Scouts in this way should {22} work in pairs,
Nos. 3 and 4 together; 5 and 6 together; 7 and. 8 together.


{20}

[Illustration: Outline of animals. (tr)]
  MONGOOSE
  Squeak--"Cheep"
  BROWN AND ORANGE

  HAWK
  Cry (same as Eagle)--"Kreeee"
  PINK

  WOLF
  Howl-"How-oooo"
  YELLOW AND BLACK

  PEEWIT
  Whistle-"Tewitt"
  GREEN AND WHITE


  HOUND
  Bark "Bawow-wow"
  ORANGE

  CAT
  Cry--"Meeaow"
  GRAY AND BROWN

  JACKAL
  Laughing Cry-"Wahwah-wah-wah-wah."
  GRAY AND BLACK

  RAVEN
  Cry-"Kar-kaw"
  BLACK

  BUFFALO
  Lowing (same as Bull) "Um-maouw"
  RED AND WHITE

  PEACOCK
  Cry-"Bee-oik"
  GREEN AND BLUE

  BULL
  Lowing-"Um-maouw"
  RED

  SEAL
  Call-"Hark"
  RED AND BLACK

  OWL
  Whistle "Koot-koot-koo"
  BLUE

  TIGER
  Purr-"Grrrao"
  VIOLET

  LION
  Roar-"Eu-Ugh"
  YELLOW AND RED

  KANGAROO
  Call-"Coo-ee"
  RED AND GRAY

  HORSE
  Whinney-"Hee-e-e-e"
  BLACK AND WHITE

{21}

  FOX
  Bark-"Ha-ha"
  YELLOW AND GREEN

  BEAR
  Growl-"Boorrr"
  BROWN AND RED

  STAG
  Call-"Baow"
  VIOLET AND BLACK

  STORK
  Cry-"Korrr"
  BLUE AND WHITE

  PANTHER
  Tongue in side of mouth--"Keeook"
  YELLOW

  CURLEW
  Whistle--"Curley"
  GREEN

  HYENA
  Laughing Cry-"Ooowah-oowah-wah"
  YELLOW AND BROWN

  RAM
  Bleat--"Ba-a-a"
  BROWN

  WOOD PIGEON
  Call--"Book-hooroo"
  BLUE AND GRAY

  EAGLE
  Very shrill cry--"Kreeee"
  GREEN AND BLACK

  HIPPO
  Hiss-"Brrussssh"
  PINK AND BLACK

  RATTLESNAKE
  Rattle a pebble in a small potted meat tin.

  WILD BOAR
  Grunt--"Broof-broof"
  GRAY AND PINK

  COBRA
  Hiss--"Pssst"
  ORANGE AND BLACK

  CUCKOO
  Call--"Cook-koo"
  GRAY

  OTTER
  Cry--"Hoi-oi-oick"
  BROWN AND WHITE

  BEAVER
  Slap made by clapping bands
  BLUE AND YELLOW


{22 continued}

Each scout in a patrol should be able to imitate the call of his
patrol animal. That is, the scouts of the Wolf patrol should be able
to imitate a wolf. In this way scouts of the same patrol can
communicate with each other when in hiding, or in the dark of night.
It is not honorable for a scout to use the call of any other patrol
except his own.

The patrol leader calls up his patrol at will by sounding his whistle
and by giving the call of the patrol.

When the scout makes signs anywhere for others to read he also draws
the head of his animal. That is to say, if he were out scouting and
wanted to show that a certain road should not be followed by others,
he would draw the sign, "not to be followed," across it and add the
name of his patrol animal, in order to show which patrol discovered
that the road was bad, and by adding his own number at the left of the
head to show which scout had discovered it.


[Illustration: Outline of animals. (tr)]
  BLUE BUFFALO on white ground

  FLYING EAGLES
  "Yeh-yeh-yeh"
  Black and white on red

  BLUE HERONS
  "Hrrrr"
  Blue and green

  HORNED KINGBIRDS

  SINAWA
  Black on red

  BLACKBEARS
  Black on red

  AHMEEKS

  SILVER FOXES

  RED TRAILERS

  MOON BAND
  Yellow on blue

  OWNEOKES

  BLAZING ARROW


Each patrol leader carries a small flag on the end of his staff {23} or
stave with the head of his patrol animal shown on both sides. Thus the
Tigers of the Twenty-seventh New York Troop should have the flag shown
below.


[Illustration: Banner with tiger and "27 N.Y." (tr)]


The Merit Badges
(Result of work of Committee on Badges, Awards and Equipment: Dr.
George J. Fisher, Chairman, Gen. George W. Wingate, Dr. C. Ward
Crampton, Daniel Carter Beard. C. M. Connolly, A. A. Jameson. Ernest
Thompson Seton.)


When a boy has become a first-class scout he may qualify for the merit
badges.

_The examination for these badges should be given by the Court of Honor
of the local council. This examination must not be given any boy who
is not qualified as a first-class scout. After the boy has passed the
examination, the local council may secure the merit badge for him by
presenting the facts to the National Council. These badges are
intended to stimulate the boy's interest in the life about him and are
given for general knowledge. The wearing of these badges does not
signify that a scout is qualified to make his living by the knowledge
gained in securing the award_.

Scouts winning any of the following badges are entitled to place after
their names the insignia of the badges won. For instance, if he has
successfully passed the signaling and seamanship tests, he signs his
name in this manner--


[Illustration: Signature of "James E. Ward" with insignia. (tr)]


{24}

Agriculture

[Illustration: Plow insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Agriculture a scout must

1. State different tests with grains.

2. Grow at least an acre of corn which produces 25 per cent. better
than the general average.

3. Be able to identify and describe common weeds of the community and
tell how best to eliminate them.

4. Be able to identify the common insects and tell how best to handle
them.

5. Have a practical knowledge of plowing, cultivating, drilling,
hedging, and draining.

6. Have a working knowledge of farm machinery, haymaking, reaping,
loading, and stacking.

7. Have a general acquaintance of the routine seasonal work on the
farm, including the care of cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs.

8. Have a knowledge of Campbell's Soil Culture principle, and a
knowledge of dry farming and of irrigation farming.


Angling

[Illustration: Fish insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Angling a scout must

1. Catch and name ten different species of fish: salmon or trout to be
taken with flies; bass, pickerel, or pike to be caught with rod or
reel, muskallonge to be caught by trolling.

2. Make a bait rod of three joints, straight and sound, 14 oz. or less
in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a strain of 1-1/2 lbs.
at the tip, 13 lbs. at the grip.

3. Make a jointed fly-rod 8-10 feet long, 4-8 ozs. in weight, capable
of casting a fly sixty feet.

4. Name and describe twenty-five different species of fish found in
North American waters and give a complete list of the fishes
ascertained by himself to inhabit a given body of water.

5. Give the history of the young of any species of wild fish from the
time of hatching until the adult stage is reached.


Archery

[Illustration: Bow and Arrow insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Archery a scout must

1. Make a bow and arrow which will shoot a distance of one hundred
feet with fair precision.

2. Make a total score of 350 with 60 shots in one or {25} two meets,
using standard four-foot target at forty yards or three-foot target at
thirty yards.

3. Make a total score of 300 with 72 arrows, using standard target at
a distance of fifty yards.

4. Shoot so far and fast as to have six arrows in the air at once.


Architecture

[Illustration: Column and Lintel insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Architecture a scout must

1. Present a satisfactory free-hand drawing.

2. Write an essay on the history of Architecture and describe the five
orders.

3. Submit an original design for a two-story house and tell what
material is necessary for its construction, giving detailed
specifications.


Art

[Illustration: Brushes and Pallet insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Art a scout must

1. Draw in outline two simple objects, one composed of straight lines,
and one of curved lines, the two subjects to be grouped together a
little below the eye.

2. Draw in outline two books a little below the eye, one book to be
open; also a table or chair.

3. Make in outline an Egyptian ornament.

4. Make in outline a Greek or Renaissance ornament from a cast or
copy.

5. Make an original arrangement or design using some detail of
ornament.

6. Make a drawing from a group of two objects placed a little below
the eye and show light and shade.

7. Draw a cylindrical object and a rectangular object, grouped
together a little below the eye, and show light and shade.

8. Present a camp scene in color.


Astronomy

[Illustration: Star insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Astronomy a scout must

1. Have a general knowledge of the nature and movements of stars.

{26}

2. Point out and name six principal constellations; find the North by
means of other stars than the Pole-star in case of that star being
obscured by clouds, and tell the hour of the night by the stars and
moon.

3. Have a general knowledge of the positions and movements of the
earth, sun and moon, and of tides, eclipses, meteors, comets,
sun-spots, and planets.


Athletics

[Illustration: Winged foot insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Athletics a scout must

1. Write an acceptable article of not less than five hundred words on
how to train for an athletic event.

2. Give the rules for one track and one field event.

3. Make the required athletic standard according to his weight,
classifications and conditions as stated in chapter eight.


Automobiling

[Illustration: Wheel insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Automobiling a scout must

1. Demonstrate how to start a motor, explaining what precautions
should be taken.

2. Take off and put on pneumatic tires.

3. Know the functions of the clutch, carburetor, valves, magneto,
spark plug, differential cam shaft, and different speed gears, and be
able to explain difference between a two and four-cycle motor.

4. Know how to put out burning gasoline or oil.

5. Have satisfactorily passed the requirements to receive a license to
operate an automobile in the community in which he lives.


Aviation

[Illustration: Biplane insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Aviation a scout must

1. Have a knowledge of the theory of aeroplanes, balloons, and
dirigibles.

2. Have made a working model of an {27} aeroplane or dirigible that
will fly at least twenty-five yards; and have built a box kite that
will fly.

3. Have a knowledge of the engines used for aeroplanes and dirigibles,
and be able to describe the various types of aeroplanes and their
records.


Bee Farming

[Illustration: Bee insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Bee Farming a scout must

1. Have a practical knowledge of swarming, hiving, hives and general
apiculture, including a knowledge of the use of artificial combs.

2. Describe different kinds of honey and tell from what sources
gathered.


Blacksmithing

[Illustration: Anvil insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Blacksmithing a scout must

1. Upset and weld a one-inch iron rod.

2. Make a horseshoe.

3. Know how to tire a wheel, use a sledge-hammer and forge, shoe a
horse correctly and roughshoe a horse.

4. Be able to temper iron and steel.


Bugling

[Illustration: Bugle insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Bugling a scout must

1. Be able to sound properly on the Bugle the customary United States
Army calls.


Business

[Illustration: Quill Pen insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Business a scout must

1. Write a satisfactory business, and a personal letter.

2. State fundamental principles of buying and selling.

3. Know simple bookkeeping.

4. Keep a complete and actual account of personal receipts and
expenditures for six months.

{28}

5. State how much money would need to be invested at 5 per cent. to
earn his weekly allowance of spending money for a year.


Camping

[Illustration: Tent insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Camping a scout must

1. Have slept in the open or under canvas at different times fifty
nights.

2. Have put up a tent alone and ditched it.

3. Have made a bed of wild material and a fire without matches.

4. State how to choose a camp site and how to prepare for rain; how to
build a latrine (toilet) and how to dispose of the camp garbage and
refuse.

5. Know how to construct a raft.


Carpentry

[Illustration: Wood plane insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Carpentry a scout must

1. Know the proper way to drive, set and clinch a nail.

2. Know the different kinds of chisels, planes and saws, and how to
sharpen and use them.

3. Know the use of the rule, square, level, plumb-line and mitre.

4. Know how to use compasses for scribing both regular and irregular
lines.

5. Make an article of furniture with three different standard joints
or splices, with at least one surface of highly polished hard or
decorative wood. All work to be done without assistance.


Chemistry

[Illustration: Chemical retort insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Chemistry a scout must be able to pass the
following test:

1. Define physical and chemical change. Which occurs when salt is
dissolved in water, milk sours, iron rusts, water boils, iron is
magnetized and mercuric oxide is heated above the boiling point of
mercury?

2. Give correct tests for oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and
carbon dioxide gases.

3. Could you use the above gases to extinguish fire? How?

4. Why can baking soda be used to put out a small fire?

{29}

5. Give tests for a chloride, sulphide, sulphate, nitrate, and
carbonate.

6. Give the names of three commercial forms of carbon. Tell how each
is made and the purpose for which it is used.

7. What compound is formed when carbon is burned in air?

8. Tell process of making lime and mortar from limestone.

9. Why will fresh plaster harden quicker by burning charcoal in an
open vessel near it?


Civics

[Illustration: Ax insignia (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Civics a scout must

1. State the principal citizenship requirements of an elector in his
state.

2. Know the principal features of the naturalization laws of the
United States.

3. Know how President, Vice-President, senators, and congressmen of
the United States are elected and their terms of office.

4. Know the number of judges of the Supreme Court of the United
States, how appointed, and their term of office.

5. Know the various administrative departments of government, as
represented in the President's Cabinet.

6. Know how the governor, lieutenant-governor, senators,
representatives, or assemblymen of his state are elected, and their
terms of office.

7. Know whether the judges of the principal courts in his state are
appointed or elected, and the length of their terms.

8. Know how the principal officers in his town or city are elected and
for what terms.

9. Know the duties of the various city departments, such as fire,
police, board of health, etc.

10. Draw a map of the town or city in which he lives, giving location
of the principal public buildings and points of special interest.

11. Give satisfactory evidence that he is familiar with the {30}
provisions and history of the Declaration of Independence, and the
Constitution of the United States.


Conservation

[Illustration: Sunset over forest insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Conservation a scout must

1. Be able to recognize in the forest all important commercial trees
in his neighborhood; distinguish the lumber from each and tell for
what purpose each is best suited; tell the age of old blazes on trees
which mark a boundary or trail; recognize the difference in the forest
between good and bad logging, giving reasons why one is good and
another bad; tell whether a tree is dying from injury by fire, by
insects, by disease or by a combination of these causes; know what
tools to use, and how to fight fires in hilly or in flat country.
Collect the seeds of two commercial trees, clean and store them, and
know how and when to plant them.

2. Know the effect upon stream-flow of the destruction of forests at
head waters; know what are the four great uses of water in streams;
what causes the pollution of streams, and how it can best be stopped;
and how, in general, water power is developed.

3. Be able to tell, for a given piece of farm land, whether it is best
suited for use as farm or forest, and why; point out examples of
erosion, and tell how to stop it; give the reasons why a growing crop
pointed out to him is successful or why not; and tell what crops
should be grown in his neighborhood and why.

4. Know where the great coal fields are situated and whether the use
of coal is increasing, and if so at what rate. Tell what are the great
sources of waste of coal, in the mines, and in its use, and how they
can be reduced.

5. Know the principal game birds and animals in his neighborhood, the
seasons during which they are protected, the methods of protection,
and the results. Recognize the track of any two of the following:
rabbit, fox, deer, squirrel, wild turkey, ruffed grouse and quail.


Cooking

[Illustration: Cooking pot insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Cooking a scout must

1. Prove his ability to build a fireplace out of stone or sod {31} or
logs, light a fire, and cook in the open the following dishes in
addition to those required for a first-class scout: Camp stew, two
vegetables, omelet, rice pudding; know how to mix dough, and bake
bread in an oven; be able to make tea, coffee, and cocoa, carve
properly and serve correctly to people at the table.


Craftsmanship

[Illustration: Drafting compass insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Craftsmanship a scout must

1. Build and finish unassisted one of the following articles: a round,
square or octagonal tabouret; round or square den or library table;
hall or piano bench; rustic arm chair or swing to be hung with chains;
or rustic table.

2. He must also make plans or intelligent rough sketch drawing of the
piece selected.


Cycling

[Illustration: Wheel insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Cycling a scout must

1. Be able to ride a bicycle fifty miles in ten hours.

2. Repair a puncture.

3. Take apart and clean bicycle and put together again properly.

4. Know how to make reports if sent out scouting on a road.

5. Be able to read a map and report correctly verbal messages.


Dairying


[Illustration: Butter churn insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Dairying a scout must

1. Understand the management of dairy cattle.

2. Be able to milk.

3. Understand the sterilization of milk, and care of dairy utensils
and appliances.

{32}

4. Test at least five cows for ten days each, with the Babcock test,
and make proper reports.


Electricity


[Illustration: Fist holding lightening insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Electricity a scout must

1. Illustrate the experiment by which the laws of electrical
attraction and repulsion are shown.

2. Name three uses of the direct current, and tell how it differs from
the alternating current.

3. Make a simple electro-magnet.

4. Have an elementary knowledge of the action of simple battery cells
and of the working of electric bells and telephones.

5. Be able to remedy fused wire, and to repair broken electric
connections.

6. Construct a machine to make static electricity or a wireless
apparatus.

7. Have a knowledge of the method of resuscitation and rescue of a
person insensible from shock.


Firemanship

[Illustration: Fire hose nozzle insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Firemanship, a scout must

1. Know how to turn in an alarm for fire.

2. Know how to enter burning buildings.

3. Know how to prevent panics and the spread of fire.

4. Understand the use of hose; unrolling, joining up, connecting two
hydrants, use of nozzle, etc.

5. Understand the use of escapes, ladders, and chutes, and know the
location of exits in buildings which he frequents.

6. Know how to improvise ropes and nets.

7. Know what to do in case of panic, understand the fireman's lift and
drag, and how to work in fumes.

8. Understand the use of fire extinguishers; how to rescue animals;
how to save property; how to organize a bucket brigade, and how to aid
the police in keeping back crowds.


First Aid

[Illustration: Large "X" insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for First Aid a scout must

1. Be able to demonstrate the Sylvester and Schaefer methods of
resuscitation.

{33}

2. Carry a person down a ladder.

3. Bandage head and ankle.

4. Demonstrate treatment of wound of the neck with severe arterial
hemorrhage.

5. Treat mangling injury of the leg without severe hemorrhage.

6. Demonstrate treatment for rupture of varicose veins of the leg with
severe hemorrhage.

7. Show treatment for bite of finger by mad dog.

8. Demonstrate rescue of person in contact with electric wire.

9. Apply tourniquet to a principal artery.

10. State chief differences between carbolic poisoning and
intoxication.

11. Explain what to do for snake bite.

12. Pass first aid test of American Red Cross Society.


First Aid to Animals

[Illustration: Bandaged dog insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for First Aid to Animals a scout must

1. Have a general knowledge of domestic and farm animals.

2. Be able to treat a horse for colic.

3. Describe symptoms and give treatment for the following: wounds,
fractures and sprains, exhaustion, choking, lameness.

4. Understand horseshoeing.


Forestry

[Illustration: Pine cone insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Forestry a scout must

1. Be able to identify twenty-five kinds of trees when in leaf, or
fifteen kinds of deciduous (broad leaf) trees in winter, and tell some
of the uses of each.

2. Identify twelve kinds of shrubs.

3. Collect and identify samples of ten kinds of wood and be able to
tell some of their uses.

4. Determine the height, and estimate the amount of timber,
approximately, in five trees of different sizes.

{34}

5. State laws for transplanting, grafting, spraying, and protecting
trees.


Gardening

[Illustration: Corn cob insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Gardening, a scout must

1. Dig and care for during the season a piece of ground containing not
less than 144 square feet.

2. Know the names of a dozen plants pointed out in an ordinary garden.

3. Understand what is meant by pruning, grafting, and manuring.

4. Plant and grow successfully six kinds of vegetables or flowers from
seeds or cuttings.

5. Cut grass with scythe under supervision.


Handicraft

[Illustration: Hammer and Screwdriver insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Handicraft a scout must

1. Be able to paint a door.

2. Whitewash a ceiling.

3. Repair gas fittings, sash lines, window and door fastenings.

4. Replace gas mantles, washers, and electric light bulbs.

5. Solder.

6. Hang pictures and curtains.

7. Repair blinds.

8. Fix curtains, portiere rods, blind fixtures.

9. Lay carpets and mend clothing and upholstery.

10. Repair furniture and china.

11. Sharpen knives.

12. Repair gates.

13. Fix screens on windows and doors.


Horsemanship

[Illustration: Horseshoe insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Horsemanship a scout must

1. Demonstrate riding at a walk, trot, and gallop.

2. Know how to saddle and bridle a horse correctly.

3. Know how to water and feed and to what amount, and how to groom a
horse properly.

{35}

4. Know how to harness a horse correctly in single or double harness
and to drive.

5. Have a knowledge of the power of endurance of horses at work and
know the local regulations concerning driving.

6. Know the management and care of horses.

7. Be able to identify unsoundness and blemishes.

8. Know the evils of bearing or check reins and of ill-fitting harness
or saddlery.

9. Know two common causes of, and proper remedies for, lameness, and
know to whom he should refer cases of cruelty and abuse.

10. Be able to judge as to the weight, height, and age of horses; know
three breeds and their general characteristics.


Interpreting

[Illustration: Handshake insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Interpreting, a scout must

1. Be able to carry on a simple conversation.

2. Write a simple letter on subject given by examiners.

3. Read and translate a passage from a book or newspaper, in French,
German, English, Italian, or any language that is not of his own
country.


Invention

[Illustration: Gear insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Invention a scout must

1. Invent and patent some useful article;

2. Show a working drawing or model of the same.


Leather Working

[Illustration: Awl insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Leather Working a scout must

1. Have a knowledge of tanning and curing.

{36}

2. Be able to sole and heel a pair of  boots, sewed or nailed, and
generally repair boots and shoes.

3. Be able to dress a saddle, repair traces, stirrup leathers, etc.,
and know the various parts of harness.


Life Saving

[Illustration: Lifesaving buoy insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Life Saving a scout must

1. Be able to dive into from seven to ten feet of water and bring from
bottom to surface a loose bag of sand weighing five pounds.

2. Be able to swim two hundred yards, one hundred yards on back
without using the hands, and one hundred yards any other stroke.

3. Swim fifty yards with clothes on (shirt, long trousers, and shoes
as minimum).

4. Demonstrate (a) on land--five methods of release; (b) in the
water--two methods of release; (c) the Schaefer method of
resuscitation (prone pressure).


Machinery

[Illustration: Pipewrench insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Machinery a scout must

1. State the principles underlying the use and construction of the
lathe, steam boiler and engine, drill press and planer.

2. Make a small wood or metal model illustrating the principles of
either levers, gears, belted pulleys, or block and fall.


Marksmanship

[Illustration: Target insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Marksmanship a scout must

1. Qualify as a marksman in accordance with the regulations of the
National Rifle Association.


Masonry

[Illustration: Trowel insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Masonry a scout must

1. Lay a straight wall with a corner.

{37}

2. Make mortar and describe process.

3. Use intelligently a plumb-line, level, and trowel.

4. Build a stone oven.

5. Demonstrate a knowledge of various uses for cement.

6. Build a dry wall.


Mining

[Illustration: Shovel insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Mining a scout must

1. Know and name fifty minerals.

2. Know, name and describe the fourteen great divisions of the earth's
crust (according to Geikie).

3. Define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum,
dip; and identify ten different kinds of rock.

4. Describe methods for mine ventilation and safety devices.


Music

[Illustration: Lyre insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Music a. scout must

1. Be able to play a standard musical instrument satisfactorily.

2. Read simple music.

3. Write a satisfactory essay of not less than five hundred words on
the history of American music.


Ornithology

[Illustration: Bird insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Ornithology a scout must

1. Have a list of one hundred different kinds of birds personally
observed on exploration in the field.

2. Have identified beyond question, by appearance or by note,
forty-five different kinds of birds in one day.

3. Have made a good clear photograph of some wild bird, the bird image
to be over one half inch in length on the negative.

4. Have secured at least two tenants in bird boxes erected by himself.

{38}

5. Have daily notes on the nesting of a pair of wild birds from the
time the first egg is laid until the young have left the nest.

6. Have attracted at least three kinds of birds, exclusive of the
English sparrow, to a "lunch counter" which he has supplied.


Painting

[Illustration: Paintbrush insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Painting a scout must

1. Have knowledge of how to combine pigments in order to produce
paints in shades and tints of color.

2. Know how to add positive colors to a base of white lead or of white
zinc.

3. Understand the mixing of oils; turpentine, etc., to the proper
consistency.

4. Paint a porch floor or other surface evenly and without laps.

5. Know how and when to putty up nail holes and uneven surfaces.

6. Present for inspection a panel covered with three coats of paint,
which panel must contain a border of molding, the body of the panel to
be painted in one color and the molding in another.


Pathfinding

[Illustration: Indianhead insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Pathfinding a scout must

1. Know every lane, by-path, and short cut for a distance of at least
two miles in every direction around the local scouts' headquarters in
the country.

2. Have a general knowledge of the district within a five mile radius
of his local headquarters, so as to be able to guide people at any
time, by day or night.

3. Know the general direction and population of the five principal
neighboring towns and be able to give strangers correct directions how
to reach them.

4. Know in the country in the two mile radius, approximately, the
number of horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs owned on the five
neighboring farms: or in a town must know in a half-mile radius what
livery stables, garages and blacksmiths there are.

5. Know the location of the nearest meat markets, bakeries, groceries,
and drug stores.

{39}

6. Know where the nearest police station, hospital, doctor, fire
alarm, fire hydrant, telegraph and telephone offices, and railroad
stations are.

7. Know something of the history of the place, its principal public
buildings, such as town or city hall, post-office, schools, and
churches.

8. As much as possible of the above information should be entered on a
large scale map.


Personal Health

[Illustration: Heart insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Personal Health a scout must

1. Write a statement on the care of the teeth.

2. State a principle to govern in eating, and state in the order of
their importance, five rules to govern the care of his health.

3. Be able to tell the difference in effect of a cold and hot bath.

4. Describe the effect of alcohol and tobacco on the growing boy.

5. Tell how to care for the feet on a march.

6. Describe a good healthful game and state its merit.

7. Describe the effects of walking as an exercise.

8. Tell how athletics may be overdone.


Photography

[Illustration: Camera and tripod insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Photography a scout must

1. Have a knowledge of the theory and use of lenses, of the
construction of cameras, and the action of developers.

2. Take, develop, and print twelve separate subjects: three interiors,
three portraits, three landscapes, and three instantaneous "action
photos."

3. Make a recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a
robin, while on its nest; or a wild animal in its native haunts; or a
fish in the water.


Pioneering

[Illustration: Pickaxe and hatchet insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Pioneering a scout must

1. Fell a nine-inch tree or pole in a prescribed direction neatly and
quickly.

{40}

2. Tie six knots of knots quickly.

3. Lash spars properly together for scaffolding.

4. Build a modern bridge or derrick.

5. Make a camp kitchen.

6. Build a shack of one kind or another suitable for three occupants.


Plumbing

[Illustration: Faucet insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Plumbing a scout must

1. Be able to make wiped and brazed joints.

2. Repair a burst pipe.

3. Mend a ball or faucet tap.

4. Understand the ordinary hot and cold water system of a house.


Poultry Farming

[Illustration: Chicken insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Poultry Farming a scout must

1. Have a knowledge of incubators, foster-mothers, sanitary fowl
houses, and coops and runs.

2. Understand rearing, feeding, killing, and dressing birds for
market.

3. Be able to pack birds and eggs for market.

4. Raise a brood of not less than ten chickens.

5. Report his observation and study of the hen, turkey, duck, and
goose.


Printing

[Illustration: Ink roller insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Printing a scout must

1. Know the names of ten different kinds of type and ten sizes of
paper.

2. Be able to compose by hand or machines.

3. Understand the use of hand or power printing machines.

4. Print a handbill set up by himself.

5. Be able to read and mark proof correctly.


Public Health

[Illustration: Torch insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Public Health a scout must

1. State what the chief causes of each of the following disease are:
tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria.

{41}

2. Draw a diagram showing how the house-fly carries disease.

3. Tell what should be done to a house which has been occupied by a
person who has had a contagious disease.

4. Tell how a scout may cooperate with the board of health in
preventing disease.

5. Describe the method used in his community in disposing of garbage.

6. Tell how a city should protect its foods; milk, meat, and exposed
foods.

7. Tell how to plan the sanitary care of a camp.

8. State the reason why school children should undergo a medical
examination.


Scholarship

NOTE: The requirements for the merit badge for Scholarship had not
been decided upon when this book was published. Information about same
may be secured upon application to National Headquarters.


Sculpture

[Illustration: Bust insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Sculpture a scout must

1. Make a clay model from an antique design.

2. Make a drawing and a model from nature, these models to be faithful
to the original and of artistic design.


Seamanship

[Illustration: Anchor insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Seamanship

1. Be able to tie rapidly six different knots.

2. Splice ropes.

3. Use a palm and needle.

4. Fling a rope coil.

5. Be able to row, pole, scull, and steer a boat; also bring a boat
properly alongside and make fast.

6. Know how to box the compass, read a chart, and show use of parallel
rules and dividers.

7. Be able to state direction by the stars and sun.

8. Swim fifty yards with shoes and clothes on.

{42}

9. Understand the general working of steam and hydraulic winches, and
have a knowledge of weather wisdom and of tides.


Signaling

[Illustration: Signal flags insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Signaling a scout must

1. Send and receive a message in two of the following systems of
signaling: Semaphore, Morse, or Myer, not fewer than twenty-four
letters per minute.

2. Be able to give and read signals by sound.

3. Make correct smoke and fire signals.


Stalking

[Illustration: Leaf insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Stalking a scout must

1. Take a series of twenty photographs of wild animals or birds from
life, and develop and print them.

2. Make a group of sixty species of wild flowers, ferns, or grasses,
dried and mounted in a book and correctly named.

3. Make colored drawings of twenty flowers, ferns, or grasses, or
twelve sketches from life of animals or birds, original sketches as
well as the finished pictures to be submitted.


Surveying

[Illustration: Theodolite insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Surveying a scout must

1. Map correctly from the country itself the main features of half a
mile of road, with 440 yards each side to a scale of two feet to the
mile, and afterward draw same map from memory.

2. Be able to measure the height of a tree, telegraph pole, and church
steeple, describing method adopted.

3. Measure width of a river.

4. Estimate distance apart of two objects a known distance away and
unapproachable.

5. Be able to measure a gradient.


Swimming

[Illustration: Swimmer insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Swimming a scout must

1. Be able to swim one hundred yards.

{43}

2. Dive properly from the surface of the water.

3. Demonstrate breast, crawl, and side stroke.

4. Swim on the back fifty feet.


Taxidermy

[Illustration: Talon insignia. (tr)]

To obtain a merit badge for Taxidermy a scout must

1. Have a knowledge of the game laws of the state in which he lives.

2. Preserve and mount the skin of a game bird, or animal, killed in
season.

3. Mount for a rug the pelt of some fur animal.


Life Scout

[Illustration: Life Scout insignia. (tr)]

The life scout badge will be given to all first-class scouts who have
qualified for the following five-merit badges: first aid, athletics,
life-saving, personal health, and public health.


Star Scout

[Illustration: Star Scout insignia. (tr)]

  The star scout badge will be given to the first-class scout who has
  qualified for ten merit badges. The ten include the list of badges
  under life scout.


Eagle Scout

[Illustration: Eagle Scout insignia. (tr)]

  Any first-class scout qualifying for twenty-one merit badges will be
  entitled to wear the highest scout merit badge. This is an eagle's
  head in silver, and represents the all-round perfect scout.


{44}

Honor Medals

[Illustration: Honor medal insignia. (tr)]

A scout who is awarded any one of the following medals is entitled to
wear the same on the left breast:

Bronze medal. Cross in bronze with first-class scout badge
superimposed upon it and suspended from a bar by a red ribbon. This is
awarded to a scout who has saved life.

Silver Medal. Silver Cross with first-class scout badge superimposed
upon it and suspended from bar by blue ribbon. This medal is awarded
to a scout who saves life with considerable risk to himself.

Gold Medal. Gold Cross with first-class scout badge superimposed upon
it and suspended from bar by white ribbon. This medal is the highest
possible award for service and heroism. It may be granted to a scout
who has saved life at the greatest possible risk to his own life, and
also to anyone who has rendered service of peculiar merit to the Boy
Scouts of America.

The Honor Medal is a national honor and is awarded only by the
National Council. To make application for one of these badges the
facts must first be investigated by the Court of Honor of the Local
Council and presented by that body to the Court of Honor of the
National Council.

_The Local Court of Honor may at any time invite experts to share in
their examinations and recommendations_.

When the National Court of Honor has passed upon the application, the
proper medal will be awarded.


Badges of Rank

The following devices are used to distinguish the various ranks of
scouts:

Patrol Leader

[Illustration: Patrol leader insignia. (tr)]

Patrol Leader: The patrol leader's arm badge consists of two bars,
1-1/2-inches long and 3/8-inch wide, of white braid worn on the sleeve
below the left shoulder. In addition he may {45} wear all oxidized silver
tenderfoot, second-class or first-class scout badge according to his
rank. The assistant patrol leader wears one bar.


[Illustration: Service Stripe insignia. (tr)]


Service Stripes: For each year of service as a boy scout, he will be
entitled to wear a stripe of white braid around the sleeve above the
wrist, three stripes being changed for one red one. Five years of
scouting would be indicated by one red stripe and two white stripes.
The star indicates the position for wearing merit badges.


[Illustration: Scoutmaster insignia. (tr)]

Scout Master: The badge of the scout commissioner, scout master, and
assistant scout master is the first-class scout's badge reproduced in
blue, green, and red, respectively, and are worn on the sleeve below
the left shoulder.


[Illustration: Star insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout: The badge of the Chief Scout is the first-class scout
badge with a five-pointed star above it embroidered in silver.


[Illustration: Caduceus (snakes on pole) insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout Surgeon: The badge of the Chief  Scout Surgeon is the
first-class scout badge with a caduceus above it embroidered in
green. (The Chief Scout's staff wear the badge of rank in the same
manner as the Chief Scout.)


[Illustration: Crossed hatchets insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout Woodsman: The badge of the Chief Scout Woodsman is the
first-class scout badge with two crossed axes above it embroidered in
green.


[Illustration: Leaf insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout Stalker: The badge of the Chief Scout Stalker is the
first-class scout badge with an oak leaf above it embroidered in
blue.


[Illustration: Tongues of fire insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout Director of Health: The badge of the Chief Scout Director
of Health is the first-class scout badge with {46} tongues of fire
above it embroidered in red.


[Illustration: Moccasin insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout Camp Master: The badge of the Chief Scout Camp Master is
the first-class scout badge with a moccasin above it embroidered in
green:


[Illustration: Winged foot insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout of Athletics: The badge of the Chief Scout Director of
Athletics is the first-class scout badge with a winged Mercury foot
above it embroidered in green.


Chief Scout Director of Chivalry: The badge of the Chief Scout
Director of Chivalry is the first-class scout badge with the scout
sign above it embroidered in gold.


[Illustration: American Flag insignia. (tr)]

Chief Scout Citizen: The badge of the Chief Scout Citizen is the
first-class scout badge with the United States flag above it in
silver.


Appropriate badges for national and local councilmen may be secured
from the National Headquarters.


Equipment

_It should be clearly understood by all interested in the Scout
Movement that it is not necessary for a boy to have a uniform or any
other special equipment to carry out the scout program. There are a
great many troops in the country which have made successful progress
without any equipment whatever_.

However, for the convenience of boys who wish to secure a uniform or
other equipment, the National Council has made arrangements with
certain manufacturers to furnish such parts of the equipment as may be
desired by the boys. Such arrangements have been made with these
manufacturers only after a great number of representative firms have
been given an opportunity to submit samples and prices; the prices
quoted to be uniform throughout the country. These manufacturers {47}
are given the privilege of using for a limited period an imprint of
the official badge as an indication that the Committee on Equipment is
willing to recommend the use of that particular article. The official
badge is fully protected by the U. S. Patent Laws and anyone using it
without expressed authority from National Headquarters is subject to
prosecution at law.

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in the selection of the
material used in making coats, breeches, and shirts. The material used
in the boy scout coat, breeches, and shirt has been submitted to a
thirty-day sun test, the acid and strength test and is guaranteed to
be a fast color and durable. To show the result of the selection made,
the manufacturer of these articles has been given the privilege of
using the imprint of the official seal and the right to use the
official buttons. We recommend the purchase of the articles having
this imprint through any local dealer or through National
Headquarters. However, where a local council exists, buttons will be
supplied on order of the Executive Committee for use on such uniforms
as the Committee may desire to have made locally. In communities where
no local council has been formed, they may be supplied on order of a
registered scout master. Prices of the buttons per set for coat is 15
cents and per set for shirt 10 cents.

Every effort is made to have all parts of the uniform and equipment
available to scouts through local dealers. If such arrangements have
not been made in a community, the National Headquarters will be glad
to help in making such an arrangement. Many scout masters prefer to
order uniforms and other supplies direct from National Headquarters.
In order to cover the expense involved in handling these supplies, the
manufacturers have agreed to allow National Headquarters the same
trade discount allowed to local dealers. Trade through National
Headquarters if sufficiently large will help to meet a part of the
current expenses of the National Organization. Any combination desired
may be made from this list. A fairly complete equipment may be secured
at the very nominal sum of $2.15. For instance, the Summer equipment
which consists of: Hat, 50 cents; Shirt, 75 cents; Shorts, 50 cents;
Belt, 40 cents.

Where it is desired to equip the members of the troop with a standard
uniform the following equipment is suggested: Hat, Shirt, Coat,
Breeches or Knickerbockers, Belt, Leggings or Stockings, shoes,
Haversack.

{48}

Other combinations may be made according to the resources of the boys
forming the troop.

However, it is recommended that each troop decide upon a definite
combination to be worn by its members so that all of the scouts in the
troop may dress alike. Each boy should pay for his own supplies and
equipment. Soliciting donations for this purpose should be prohibited.


A complete list of all supplies and equipment with full information
about places where same can be secured is given in the appendix of
this book.


KNOTS EVERY SCOUT SHOULD KNOW

_By Samuel A. Moffat, Boy Scouts of America_

Every scout knows what rope is. From the earliest moment of his play
life he has used it in connection with most of his games. In camp life
and on hikes he will be called upon to use it again and again. It is
therefore not essential to describe here the formation of rope; its
various sizes and strength. The important thing to know is how to use
it to the best advantage. To do this an intelligent understanding of
the different knots and how to tie them is essential. Every day
sailors, explorers, mechanics, and mountain-climbers risk their lives
on the knots that they tie. Thousands of lives have been sacrificed to
ill-made knots. The scout therefore should be prepared in an
emergency, or when necessity demands, to tie the right knot in the
right way.

There are three qualities to a good knot: 1. Rapidity with which it
can be tied. 2. Its ability to hold fast when pulled tight, and 3. The
readiness with which it can be undone.

The following knots, recommended to scouts, are the most serviceable
because they meet the above requirements and will be of great help in
scoutcraft. If the tenderfoot will follow closely the various steps
indicated in the diagrams, he will have little difficulty in
reproducing them at pleasure.

In practising knot-tying a short piece of hemp rope may be used. To
protect the ends from fraying a scout should know how to "whip" them.
The commonest method of "whipping" is as follows:


[Illustration: Whipping.]

Lay the end of a piece of twine along the end of the rope. {49} Hold
it to the rope with the thumb of your left hand while you wind the
standing part around it and the rope until the end of the twine has
been covered. Then with the other end of the twine lay a loop back on
the end of the rope and continue winding the twine upon this second
end until all is taken up. The end is then pulled back tight and cut
off close to the rope.

For the sake of clearness a scout must constantly keep in mind these
three principal parts of the rope:


[Illustration: Rope loop. (tr)]

1. _The Standing Part_--The long unused portion of the rope on which
he works;

2. _The Bight_--The loop formed whenever the rope is turned back
upon itself; and,

3. _The End_--The part he uses in leading. Before proceeding with the
tenderfoot requirements, a scout should first learn the two primary
knots: the overhand and figure-of-eight knots.


[Illustration: Overhand knot.]

_The Overhand Knot_.

Start with the position shown in the preceding diagram. Back the end
around the standing part and up through the bight and draw tight.


[Illustration: Figure eight knot.]

_The Figure of Eight Knot_. Make a bight as before. Then lead the end
around back of the standing part and down through the bight.

After these preliminary steps, the prospective tenderfoot may proceed
to learn the required knots.

{50}

[Illustration: Reef knot.]

_Square or Reef Knot_. The commonest knot for tying two ropes together.
Frequently used in first-aid bandaging. Never slips or jams; easy to
untie.


[Illustration: False reef knot.]

_False Reef or Granny_. If the ends are not crossed correctly when
making the reef knot, the false reef or granny is the result. This
knot is always bad.


[Illustration: Sheet bend knot.]

_Sheet Bend or Weaver's Knot_. This knot is used in bending the sheet to
the clew of a sail and in tying two rope-ends together.

Make a bight with one rope A, B, then pass end C, of other rope up
through and around the entire bight and bend it under its own standing
part.


[Illustration: Bowline knot.]

_The Bowline_. A noose that neither jams nor slips. Used in lowering a
person from a burning building, etc.

Form a small loop on the standing part leaving the end long enough for
the size of the noose required. Pass the end up through the bight
around the standing part and down through the bight again. To tighten,
hold noose in position and pull standing part.


[Illustration: Halter knot.]

_Halter, Slip, or Running Knot_. A bight is first formed and an overhand
knot made with the end around the standing part.


[Illustration: Sheepshank knot.]

_Sheepshank_. Used for shortening ropes. Gather up the amount to be
shortened, then make a half hitch round each of the bends as shown in
the diagram.


{51}

[Illustration: Clove hitch knot.]

_Clove Hitch_. Used to fasten one pole to another in fitting up
scaffolding; this knot holds snugly; is not liable to slip laterally.
Hold the standing part in left hand, then pass the rope around the
pole; cross the standing part, making a second turn around the pole,
and pass the end under the last turn.


[Illustration: Fisherman's bend knot.]

_The Fisherman's Bend_. Used aboard yachts for bending on the gaff
topsail halliards. It consists of two turns around a spar or ring,
then a half hitch around the standing part and through the turns on
the spar, and another half hitch above it around the standing part.


[Illustration: Timber hitch knot.]

_Timber Hitch_. Used in hauling timber. Pass the end of the rope around
the timber. Then lead it around its standing part and bring it back to
make two or more turns on its own part. The strain will hold it
securely.


[Illustration: Two half hitches knot.]

_Two Half Hitches_. Useful because they are easily made and will not
slip under any strain. Their formation is sufficiently indicated by
the diagram.


[Illustration: Blackwall hitch knot.]

_Blackwall Hitch_. Used to secure a rope to a hook. The standing part
when hauled tight holds the end firmly.


[Illustration: Becket hitch knot.]

_Becket Hitch_. For joining a cord to a rope. May be easily made from
diagram.


{52}


[Illustration: Fisherman's knot.]

_The Fisherman's Knot_. Used for tying silk-worm gut for fishing
purposes. It never slips; is easily unloosed by pulling the two short
ends.

The two ropes are laid alongside one another, then with each end an
overhand knot is made around the standing part of the other. Pull the
standing parts to tighten.


[Illustration: Carrick bend knot.]

_Carrick Bend_. Used in uniting hawsers for towing. Is easily untied by
pushing the loops inwards.

Turn the end of one rope A over its standing part B to form a loop.
Pass the end of the other rope across the bight thus formed, back of
the standing part B over the end A, then under the bight at C, passing
it over its own standing part and under the bight again at D.


[Illustration: Mariner's compass.]

The Mariner's Compass

Boxing the Compass consists in enumerating the points, beginning with
north and working around the circle as follows:
North
North by East
North, North-east
North-east by North
North-east
North-east by East
East, North-east
East by North
East
East by South
East, South-east
South-east by East
South-east
South-east by South

{53}

South, South-east
South by East
South
South by West
South, South-west
South-west by South
South-west
South-west by West
West, South-west
West by South
West
West by North
West, North-west
North-west by West
North-west
North-west by North
North, North-west
North by West
North


NOTES

{54}

Notes


{55}

Notes


{56}

Notes


{57}

CHAPTER II

WOODCRAFT

Woodlore

_By Ernest Thompson Seton, Chief Scout_

The Watch for a Compass
(From "Boy Scouts of America," by Ernest Thompson Seton. Copyright,
1910, by Doubleday, Page & Company )


The watch is often used to give the compass point exactly. Thus: Point
the hour-hand to the sun; then, in the morning, half-way between the
hour-hand and noon is due south. If afternoon, one must reckon
half-way backward.

Thus: at 8 A. M., point the hour-hand to the sun and reckon forward
half-way to noon; the south is at 10. If at 4 P. M., point the
hour-hand at the sun and reckon back half-way. The south is at two
o'clock.

The "half-way" is because the sun makes a course of twenty-four hours
and the clock of but twelve. If we had a rational timepiece of
twenty-four hours, it would fit in much better with all nature, and
with the hour-hand pointed to the sun would make 12 o'clock, noon,
always south.

If you cannot see the sun, get into a clear, open space, hold your
knife point upright on your watch dial, and it will cast a faint
shadow, showing where the sun really is, unless the clouds are very
heavy.


Finding Your Latitude by the Stars

The use of the stars to the scout is chiefly to guide him by showing
the north, but the white man has carried the use a step farther: he
makes the Pole-star tell him not only where the north is, but where he
himself is. From the Pole-star, he can learn his latitude.

It is reckoned an exploit to take one's latitude from the North Star
with a cart-wheel, or with two sticks and a bucket of water.


{58}

The first attempt I made was with two sticks and a bucket of water. I
arranged the bucket in the daytime, so that it could be filled from
rim to rim; that is, it was level, and that gave me the horizon line;
next, I fastened my two sticks together at an adjustable angle. Then,
laying one stick across the bucket as a base, I raised the other till
the two sight notches on its upper edge were in straight line for the
Pole-star. The sticks were now fastened at this angle and put away
till the morning. On a smooth board--the board is allowable because it
can be found either far on the plains when you have your wagon, or on
the ship at sea--I mapped out, first a right angle, by the old plan of
measuring off a triangle, whose sides were six, eight, and ten inches,
and applied the star angle to this. By a process of equal subdivision
I got 45 degrees, 22-1/2 degrees, finally 40 degrees, which seemed to
be the latitude of my camp; subsequent looking-up showed it to be 41
degrees 10 minutes.


[Illustration: Bucket and sticks. (tr)]


Of course, it is hard to imagine that the boys will ever be so placed
that it is important for them to take their latitude with home-made
implements; but it is also hard to imagine circumstances under which
it would be necessary to know that the sun is 92,000,000 miles away.
It is very sure, however, that a boy who has once done this has a
larger idea of the world and its geography, and it is likely to help
him in realizing that there is some meaning to the lines and figures
on the border of his school maps, and that they are not put there
merely to add to his perplexities.


[Illustration: Sundial, or hunter's clock.]


{59}

To make a scout's sundial, prepare a smooth board about fifteen inches
across, with a circle divided into twenty-four equal parts, and a
temporarily hinged pointer, whose upper edge is in the middle of the
dial. Place on some dead level, solid post or stump in the open. At
night fix the dial so that the twelve o'clock line points exactly to
north, as determined by the Polestar. Then, using two temporary
sighting sticks of exactly the same height (so as to permit sighting
clear above the edge of the board) set the pointer exactly pointing to
the Pole-star; that is, the same angle as the latitude of the place,
and fix it there immovably. Then remove the two sighting sticks. As a
timepiece, this dial will be found roughly correct for that latitude.
The angle of the pointer, or style, must be changed for each latitude.


Building a Log Cabin
(From Country Life in America. May, 1905 )


There are as many different kinds of log cabins as of any other
architecture. It is best to begin with the simplest. The tools needed
are a sharp ax, a crosscut saw, an inch auger, and a spade. It is
possible to get along with nothing but an ax (many settlers had no
other tool), but the spade, saw, and auger save much work.

For the site select a high, dry place, in or near the woods, and close
to the drinking-water. It should be a sunny place, and with a view,
preferably one facing south or east. Clear off and level the ground.
Then bring your logs. These are more picturesque with the bark left
on, but last longer peeled. Eight feet by twelve feet outside makes a
good cabin for three or four boys.

Cut and carry about twelve logs, each ten feet long; and twelve more,
each fourteen feet long. The logs should be at least six inches
through. Soft wood is preferable, as it is easier to handle; the four
ground logs or sills, at least, should be of cedar, chestnut, or other
wood that does not rot. Lay two of the fourteen-foot logs on the
ground, at the places for the long sides, and seven feet apart. Then
across them, at the end, lay two short ones, eleven feet apart. This
leaves about a foot projecting from each log. Roll the last two into
their resting places, and flatten them till they sit firmly. It is of
prime importance that each log rest immovably on the one below. Now
cut the upper part of each end log, to an edge over each corner. (Fig.
1.)


{60}


[Illustration: Log cabin, figures 1 to 10.]


Next put on two long logs, roll them onto the middle, taking care to
change off, so the big end at a given comer may be followed next time
by the small end and insure the corner rising evenly. Roll one of
these large logs close to where it is to be placed, then cut on its
upper surface at each end a notch corresponding with the ridge on the
log it is to ride on. When ready, half a roll drops it into place. The
log should be one to three inches above the one under it, and should
not touch except at {61} the ends. Repeat the process now with the other
sides, then the two ends, etc., always keeping the line of the corner
plumb. As the walls rise, it will be found necessary to skid the
larger logs; that is, roll them up on two long logs, or skids, leaning
against the wall. (Fig. 2.)

When the logs are in place to the height of four and a half feet from
the ground, it is time to decide where the door and window are to be;
and at that place, while the next long log is lying on top, bottom up,
cut out a piece four feet long and four inches deep. Roll this log
into place. (Fig. 3.) One more log above this, or certainly two, will
make your shanty high enough for boys. Put on final end logs, then two
others across the shanty. (Fig. 4.) Roll up the biggest, strongest log
of all for the ridge (sometimes two are used side by side); it should
lie along the middle of the four cross pieces shown in Fig. 4.

The two cross logs, B and C, and the ridge log should be very strong,
as the roof is heavy. Now we are ready to cut the doorway and window.

First, drive in blocks of wood between each of the logs, all the way
down from A to the ground, and from B down to D, and C to E. (Fig. 5.)
Saw down now from A half-way through the ground log F. Then from B
down to half-way through the log D; now continue from G, cutting down
to half through the ground log. Use the ax to split out the upper half
of the ground log, between the saw-cuts and also the upper half of the
log D.

Hew a flat piece of soft wood, five or six inches wide, about two
inches thick, and as long as the height of this doorway. Set it up
against the ends of the logs A to F. Bore an auger hole through it
into the end of each log (these holes must not be in line lest they
split the jamb), including the top and bottom ones, and drive into
each a pin of oak. This holds all safely. Do the same on the other
side, H to E, and put a small one down B, D, which is the side of the
window.

Now we are ready to finish the roof. Use the ax to bevel off the
corners of the four cross-logs, A and B. (Fig. 6.) Then get a lot of
strong poles, about five feet long, and lay them close together along
the two sides of the roof till it is covered with poles; putting a
very heavy one, or small log, on the outer edge of each, and fastening
it down with a pin into the ridge log. Cut two long poles and lay one
on each of the lower ends of the roof poles, as at A, B, and C (Fig.
7), pinning them to the side logs.

Cover this roof with a foot of hay or straw or grass, and cover {62}
that again evenly with about four inches of stiff clay. Pack this
down. It will soon squeeze all that foot of straw down to little more
than one inch, and will make a warm and water-tight roof. As the clay
is very heavy, it is wise, before going inside, to test the roof by
jumping on it. If it gives too much, it will be well to add a centre
prop.

Now for the door: Hew out planks; two should be enough. Fasten these
together with two cross-pieces and one angle-piece, using oak pegs
instead of nails, if you wish to be truly primitive. For these the
holes should be bored part way with a gimlet, and a peg used larger
than the hole. The lower end of the back plank is left projecting in a
point. (Fig. 8.) This point fits into a hole pecked with a point or
bored with an auger into the door-sill.

Bore another hole near the top of the door (A), and a corresponding
one through the door-jamb between two logs. Set the door in place. A
strip of rawhide leather, a limber willow branch, or a strip of
hickory put through the auger hole of the door and wedged into the
hole in the jamb, makes a truly wild-wood hinge. A peg in the front
jamb prevents the door going too far out, and a string and peg inside
answer for a latch.

The window opening may be closed with a glass sash, with a piece of
muslin, or with the rawhide of an animal, scraped clear of hair and
stretched on a frame.

It now remains to chink and plaster the place.

Chinking is best done from the inside. Long triangular strips and
blocks of wood are driven in between the logs and fastened there with
oak pins driven into the lower log till nothing but small crannies
remain. Some cabins are finished with moss plugged into all the
crannies, but mud worked into plaster does better.

It should be put on the outside first, and afterward finished form the
inside. It is best done really with two plasterers working together,
one inside and one out.

This completes the shanty, but a bunk and fireplace are usually added.

The fireplace may be in one corner, or in the middle of the end. It is
easiest to make in the former.

Across the corner, peg three angle braces, each about three feet long.
These are to prevent the chimney falling forward.

Now begin to build with stone, using mud as mortar, a fireplace this
shape. (Fig. 9.) Make the opening about eighteen inches across; carry
it up two feet high, drawing it in a little, then lay a long stone
across the front, after which build up {63} the flue behind the corner
braces right up to the roof. The top corner-piece carries the rafter
that may be cut off to let the flue out. Build the chimney up outside
as high as the highest part of the ridge.

But the ideal fireplace is made with the chimney on the outside of the
cabin, at the middle of the end farthest from the door. For this you
must cut a hole in the end log, like a big, low window, pegging a jamb
on the ends as before.

With stones and mud you now build a fireplace inside the shanty, with
the big chimney carried up outside, always taking care that there are
several inches of mud or stone between the fire and any of the logs.

In country where stone cannot be found, the fireplace is often built
of mud, sustained by an outside cribbing of logs.

If the flue is fair size, that is, say one quarter the size of the
fireplace opening, it will be sure to draw.

The bunk should be made before the chinks are plastered, as the
hammering is apt to loosen the mud.

Cut eight or ten poles a foot longer than you need the bunk; cut the
end of each into a flat board and drive these between the long logs at
the right height and place for the bunk, supporting the other end on a
crosspiece from a post to the wall. Put a very big pole on the outer
side, and all is ready for the bed; most woodsmen make this of small
fir boughs.

There are two other well-known ways of cornering the logs--one is
simply flattening the logs where they touch. This, as well as the
first one, is known in the backwoods of Canada as hog-pen finish. The
really skilful woodsmen of the North always dovetail the comers and
saw them flush: (Fig. 10)

Sometimes it is desirable to make a higher gable than that which one
ridge log can make. Then it is made thus: (Fig. 11.) This is as much
slope as a clay roof should have; with any more, the clay would wash
off.

This is the simplest way to build a log-cabin, but it illustrates all
the main principles of log building. Shingle roofs and gables, broad
piazzas outside, and modern fitting inside, are often added nowadays in
summer camps, but it must be clear that the more towny you make the
cabin, the less woodsy it is, and less likely to be the complete rest
and change that is desired.

For fuller instructions, see "Log-Cabins and Cottages." By. Wm. S.
Wicks, 1900. (Pub. Forest and Stream, N. Y.)  {64} Also, "The Jack of
All Trades." By Dan C. Beard, Scribner's; and "Field and Forest Handy
Book."


Measuring Distances
(See "Two Little Savages," 1903.)

The height of a tree is easily measured when on a level, open place,
by measuring the length of its shadow, then comparing that with your
own shadow, or that of a ten-foot pole.

Thus, the ten-foot pole is casting a fifteen-foot shadow, and the
tree's shadow is one hundred and fifty feet long, apply the simple
rule of three.

15 : 150 :: 10 : x = 100

But it is seldom so easy, and the good old rule of the triangle can be
safely counted on: Get a hundred or more feet from your tree, on open
ground, as nearly as possible on the level of its base. Set up a
ten-foot pole (A B, page 65). Then mark the spot where the exact line
from the top of the tree over the top of the pole touches the ground
(C). Now measure the distance from that spot (C) to the foot of the
ten-foot pole (B); suppose it is twenty feet. Measure also the
distance from that spot (C) to the base of the tree (D); suppose it is
one hundred and twenty feet, then your problem is:

20 : 10 :: 120 : x = 60

i.e., if at that angle twenty feet from the eye gives ten feet
elevation, one hundred and twenty feet must give sixty.

_To make a right angle_, make a triangle whose sides are exactly six,
eight, and ten feet or inches each (or multiples of these). The angle
opposite the ten must be a true right angle.


[Illustration: To make a right angle.]


There are many ways of measuring distance across rivers, etc., without
crossing. The simplest, perhaps, is by the equilateral triangle. Cut
three poles of exactly equal length; peg them together into a
triangle. Lay {65} this on the bank of the river so one side points to
some point on the opposite bank. Drive in three pegs to mark the exact
points of this triangle (A,B,C). Then move it along the bank until you
find a place (F,E,G) where its base is on line with the two pegs,
where the base used to be, and one side in line with the point across
the river (D). The width of the river is seven eighths of the base of
this great triangle.


[Illustration: Measuring the width of a river by sighting with
a triangle. (tr)]


Another method is by the isosceles triangle. Make a right-angled
triangle as above, with sides six, eight, and ten feet (A,B,C); then,
after firmly fixing the right angle, cut down the eight-foot side to
six feet and saw off the ten-foot side to fit. Place this with the
side D B on the river bank in line with the sight object (X) across.
Put three pegs to mark the three {66} corner places. Then take the
triangle along the bank in the direction of C until C' D' are in line
with the sight object, while B' C' is in line with the pegs B C. Then
the length of the long base B C' will equal the distance from B to X.


[Illustration: Measuring height of tree.]


[Illustration: Measuring the distance between two distant objects.]

To measure the space between two distant objects, D and E. Line A B on
one, then move this right-angled triangle until F G is lined on the
other, with B G in line with G H. B G equals the space between D and E
then.

If the distance is considerable, it may be measured sometimes by
sound. Thus, when a gun is fired, a man is chopping, or a dog barking,
count the seconds between the sight and the hearing of the sound, and
multiply by eleven hundred feet, which is the distance sound travels
in a second.

[Illustration: To climb a tree that is too thick--Place small tree
against it.]

{67}

Occasionally, the distance of an upright bank, cliff, or building can
be measured by the echo. Half the seconds between shout and echo,
multiplied by eleven hundred gives the distance in feet.

The usual way to estimate long distances is by the time they take to
cover. Thus, a good canoe on dead water goes four to five miles an
hour. A man afoot walks three and a half miles an hour on good roads.
A packtrain goes two and a half miles an hour, or perhaps one and a
half on the mountain trails.

A man's thumb is an inch wide.

Span of thumb and longest finger, nine inches. Brisk walking pace is
one yard for men.


What To Do When Lost in the Woods
(Ladies' Home Journal, October, 1902.)


"Did you ever get lost in the woods?" I once asked a company of twenty
campers. Some answered, "Yes; once or twice." Others said, "Many a
time." Only two said, "No, never." Then I said, turning to the two, "I
know that all the others here have had plenty of experience, and that
you two are the tenderfeet, and never lived in the woods."

It is quite certain to come sooner or later; if you go camping, you
will get lost in the woods. Hunters, Indians, yes, birds and beasts,
get lost at times. You can avoid it for long by always taking your
bearings and noting the landscape before leaving the camp, and this
you should always do; but still you will get lost some time, and it is
well to be ready for it by carrying matches, knife, and compass.

When you do miss your way, the first thing to remember is, like the
Indian, "You are not lost; it is the teepee that is lost." It isn't
serious. It cannot be so unless you do something foolish.

The first and most natural thing to do is to get on a hill, up a tree,
or other high lookout, and seek for some landmark near camp. You may
be sure of this much:

You are not nearly so far from camp as you think you are. Your friends
will soon find you.

You can help them best by signaling.

The worst thing you can do is to get frightened. The truly dangerous
enemy is not the cold or the hunger so much as the fear. It is fear
that robs the wanderer of his judgment and of his limb power; it is
fear that turns the passing experience into a final tragedy. Only keep
cool and all will be well.

{68}

If there is snow on the ground, you can follow your back track.

If you see no landmark, look for the smoke of the fire. Shout from
time to time, and wait; for though you have been away for hours it is
quite possible you are within earshot of your friends. If you happen
to have a gun, fire it off twice in quick succession on your high
lookout; then wait and listen. Do this several times and wait plenty
long enough--perhaps an hour. If this brings no help, send up a
distress signal--that is, make two smoke fires by smothering two
bright fires with green leaves and rotten wood, and keep them at least
fifty feet apart, or the wind will confuse them. Two shots or two
smokes are usually understood to mean "I am in trouble." Those in camp
on seeing this should send up one smoke, which means, "Camp is here."

If you have a dog or a horse with you, you may depend upon it he can
bring you out all right; but usually you will have to rely on
yourself. The simplest plan, when there is fresh snow and no wind, is
to follow your own track back. No matter how far around or how crooked
it may be, it will certainly bring you out safely.

If you are sure of the general direction to the camp and determined to
keep moving, leave a note pinned on a tree if you have paper; if not,
write with charcoal on a piece of wood, and also make a good smoke, so
that you can come back to this spot if you choose. But make certain
that the fire cannot run, by clearing the ground around it and by
banking it around with sods. And mark your course by breaking or
cutting a twig every fifty feet. You can keep straight by the sun, the
moon, or the stars, but when they are unseen you must be guided by the
compass. I do not believe much in guidance by what are called nature's
compass signs. It is usual to say, for example, that the north side of
the tree has the most moss or the south side the most limbs, etc.
While these are true in general, there are so many exceptions that
when alarmed and in doubt as to which is north, one is not in a frame
of mind to decide with certainty on such fine points.

If a strong west wind, for example, was blowing when you left camp,
and has blown ever since, you can be pretty sure it is still a west
wind; but the only safe and certain natural compass guides are the
sun, moon, and stars.

The Pole or North Star, and the Great Bear (also called the Dipper and
the Pointers), should be known to every boy as they are to every
Indian. The Pointers always point out the {69} Pole-star. Of course,
they go around it once in twenty-four hours, so this makes a kind of
clock.

The stars, then, will enable you to keep straight if you travel. But
thick woods, fog, or clouds are apt to come up, and without something
to guide you are sure to go around in a circle.

Old woodsmen commonly follow down the streams. These are certain to
bring you out somewhere; but the very worst traveling is along the
edges of the streams, and they take you a long way around. All things
considered, it is usually best to stay right where you are, especially
if in a wild country where there is no chance of finding a farm house.
Make yourself comfortable for the night by gathering plenty of good
wood while it is daylight, and building a wind screen on three sides,
with the fire in front, and something to keep you off the ground. Do
not worry but keep up a good fire; and when day comes renew your two
smokes and wait. A good fire is the best friend of a lost man.

I have been lost a number of times, but always got out without serious
trouble, because I kept cool. The worst losing I ever got was after I
had been so long in the West that I qualified to act as a professional
guide, and was engaged by a lot of Eastern farmers looking for land
locations.

This was in the October of 1883 on the Upper Assiniboin. The main body
of the farmers had remained behind. I had gone ahead with two of them.
I took them over hundreds of miles of wild country. As we went
northward the country improved. We were traveling with oxen, and it
was our custom to let them graze for two hours at noon. One warm day,
while the oxen were feeding, we went in our shirt sleeves to a distant
butte that promised a lookout. We forgot about the lateness till the
sun got low. Even then I could have got back to camp, but clouds came
up and darkness fell quickly. Knowing the general direction I kept on,
and after half an hour's tramp we came to a canyon I had never seen
before. I got out my compass and a match and found that I had been
circling, as one is sure to do in the dark. I corrected the course and
led off again. After another brief turn I struck another match and
learned from the compass that I was again circling. This was
discouraging, but with corrected course we again tramped. I was
leading, and suddenly the dark ground ten feet ahead of me turned
gray. I could not make it out, so went cautiously nearer. I lay down,
reached forth, and then slowly made sure that we were on the edge of a
steep precipice. I backed off, {70} and frankly told the men I did not
know where we were. I got out my match box and compass and found I had
but one match left.

"Any of you got any matches?" I asked. "No; left 'em all in our
coats," was their answer.

"Well," said I, "I have one. Shall I use it to get a new course from
the compass, or shall we make a fire and stay here till morning?"

All voted to camp for the night. There was now a cold rain.

We groped into a hollow where we got some dead wood, and by using our
knives got some dry chips from the inside of a log. When all was ready
we gathered close around, and I got out the one match. I was about to
strike it when the younger of the men said:

"Say, Seton, you are not a smoker; Jack is. Hadn't you better give him
that match?"

There was sense in this. I have never in my life smoked. Jack was an
old stager and an adept with matches. I handed it to him.
"Rrrp-fizz"--and in a minute we had a fire.

With the help of the firelight we now found plenty of dead wood; we
made three blazing fires side by side, and after an hour we removed
the centre one, then raked away all the hot ashes, and all lay down
together on the warm ground. When the morning came the rain ceased. We
stretched our stiffened limbs and made for camp. Yes, there it was in
plain view two miles away across a fearful canyon. Three steps more on
that gloomy night and we should have been over the edge of that canyon
and dashed to the bottom.


How to Make Fire by Rubbing Sticks

"How do the Indians make a fire without matches?" asked a boy who
loved to "play Indian." Most of us have heard the answer to this. "The
Indians use a flint and steel, as our own fathers and mothers did one
hundred years ago, and before they had flint and steel they used
rubbing-sticks." We have all read about bringing fire out of two
sticks by rubbing them together. I tried it once for an hour, and I
know now I never would have got it in a thousand years as I was doing
it. Others have had the same experience; consequently, most persons
look upon this as a sort of fairy tale, or, if they believe it to be
true, they think it so difficult as to be worth no second thought. All
scouts, I find, are surprised and greatly interested to learn that not
only is it possible, it is easy, to make a friction {71} fire, if you
know how; and hopeless, if you don't. I have taught many boys and men
(including some Indians) to do it, and some have grown so expert that
they make it nearly as quickly as with an old-fashioned sulphur match.
When I first learned from Walter Hough, who learned from the Indians,
it took me from five to ten minutes to get a blazing fire--not half an
hour, as some books have it. But later I got it down to a minute, then
to thirty-one seconds from the time of taking up the rubbing-sticks to
having a fine blaze, the time in getting the first spark being about
six seconds.

My early efforts were inspired by book accounts of Indian methods,
but, unfortunately, I have never yet seen a book account that was
accurate enough to guide anyone successfully in the art of
fire-making. All omit one or other of the absolute essentials, or
dwell on some triviality. The impression they leave on those who know
is that the writers did not.

The surest and easiest method of making a friction fire is by use of
the bow-drill. Two sticks, two tools, and some tinder are needed.

The two sticks are the drill and the fire-board, or fire-block. The
books generally tell us that these must be of different kinds of wood.
This is a mistake. I have uniformly gotten the best results with two
pieces of the same kind--all the better, indeed, if they are parts of
the same stick.


What Kind of Wood

This is a very important question, as woods that are too hard, too
soft, too wet, too oily, too gummy, or too resinous will not produce
fire. The wood should be soft enough to wear away, else it produces no
punk, and hard enough to wear slowly, or the heat is not enough to
light the punk, and, of course, it should be highly inflammable. Those
that I have had the best luck with are balsam fir, cottonwood roots,
tamarack, European larch, red cedar, white cedar, Oregon cedar,
basswood, cypress, and sometimes second-growth white pine. It should
always be a dry, sound stick, brash, but not in the least punky.

In each part of the country there seems to be a kind of wood well
suited for fire-making. The Eastern Indians used cedar; the Northern
Indians, cedar or balsam fir; the plains Indians used cottonwood or
sage-brush roots.

Perhaps the most reliable of all is dry and seasoned balsam fir;
either the species in the North woods or in the Rockies will do. It
gives a fine big spark or coal in about seven seconds.

{72}

When in the grinding the dust that runs out of the notch is coarse and
brown, it means that the wood is too soft; when it is very fine and
scanty it means that the wood is too hard.


[Illustration: The rubbing-sticks for fire-making.]


1. The simplest kind of bow; a bent stick with a stout leather thong
fastened at each end. It is about 27 inches long and 5/8 inch thick.

2. A more elaborate bow with a hole at each end for the thong. At the
handle end it goes through a disc of wood. This is to tighten the
thong by pressure of the hand against the disc while using.

3. Simplest kind of drill-socket; a pine or hemlock knot with a
shallow hole or pit in it. 3a is under view of same. It is about 4-1/2
inches long.

4. A more elaborate drill-socket; a pebble cemented with gum in a
wooden holder. 4a is under view of same.

5. A very elaborate drill-socket; it is made of tulip wood, carved to
represent the Thunderbird. It has eyes of green felspar cemented in
with resin. On the under side (5a) is seen, in the middle, a soapstone
socket let into the wood and fastened with pine gum, and on the head a
hole kept filled with grease, to grease the top of the drill before
use.

6. The drill; 12 to 18 inches long and about 3/4 inch thick; it is
roughly eight-sided so the thong will not slip, and pointed at each
end. The best wood for the drill is old, dry brash, but not punky,
balsam fir or cottonwood roots; but basswood, white cedar, red cedar,
tamarack, and sometimes even white pine, will do.

7. Fire-board or block; about 3/4 inch thick and any length handy; a
is notch with pit just begun, b shows the pit after once using and in
good trim for second time, c shows the pit bored through and now
useless; the notch is 1/2 inch wide and 3/4 inch deep.

8. Shows the way of using the sticks. The block (a) is held down with
one foot, the end of the drill (b) is put in the pit, the drill-socket
(c) is held on top in left hand, one end of the bow (d) is held in the
right hand, while the bow is drawn back and forth.

9. Is a little wooden fire-pan, not essential but convenient; its thin
edge is put under the notch to catch the powder that falls.

{73}

I have made many experiments to determine whether there is anything in
the idea that it is better to have the block and the drill of
different woods.

But no hybrid combination was so successful as "two of a kind."

The drill and the bow and socket are fully described in the
illustration.

The preparing of the fire-board is one of the most important things.
At the edge cut a notch half an inch wide and about three fourths of
an inch deep; at the top of this notch make a pit or shallow hole, and
the board is ready. The importance of this notch is such that it is
useless to try fire-making without it.

While these are the essentials, it is well to get ready, also, some
tinder. I have tried a great many different kinds of lint and punk,
including a number that were artificially prepared, soaked with
saltpetre or other combustibles. But these are not really fair play.
The true woodcrafter limits himself to the things that he can get in
the woods, and in all my recent fire-making I have contented myself
with the tinder used for ages by the red men: that is, cedar wood
finely shredded between two stones. Some use the fringes that grow on
birch, improving it by rubbing in powdered charcoal.

Now that he has the tools and material ready, it will be an easy
matter for the matchless castaway to produce a fire.

Pass the leather thong once around the drill--and this should make the
thong taut; put the lower point of the drill in the pit at the top of
the notch in the fire-board, and hold the socket with the left hand on
top of the drill. The notch of the fire-board should be resting on a
chip or thin wooden tray. Hold the bow by the handle end in the right
hand, steady the board under the left foot, and the left arm against
the left knee. Now draw the bow back and forth with steady, even
strokes, its full length. This causes the drill to turn in the pit and
bore into the wood; ground-up wood runs out of the side of the notch,
falling on the chip or tray. At first it is brown; in two or three
seconds it turns black, and then smokes; in five or six seconds it is
giving off a cloud of smoke. A few more vigorous strokes of the bow,
and now it will be found that smoke still comes from the pile of black
wood-dust on the chip. Fan this gently with the hand; the smoke
increases, and in a few seconds you see a glowing coal in the middle
of the dust. (There are never any visible flying sparks.)

Now take a liberal pinch of the cedar tinder--about a teaspoonful;
wrap this in some bark fibre or shredded rope to {74} keep it from
blowing away. Hold it down on the coal, and, lifting tray and all,
blow or fan it until in a few seconds it blazes. Carefully pile over
it the shreds of birch bark or splinters of fat pine prepared
beforehand, and the fire is made.

If you have the right wood and still cannot get the fire, it is likely
because you do not hold the drill steady, or have not cut the side
notch quite into the middle point of the little fire pit.

The advantages of learning this method are threefold:

First: Fire-making by friction is an interesting experiment in
woodcraft.

Second: A boy is better equipped having learned it. He can never
afterward freeze to death for lack of matches if he has wood and an
old shoe lace.

Third: For the very reason that it is difficult, compared with
matches, it tends to prevent the boys making unnecessary fires, and
thus reduces the danger of their setting the woods ablaze or of
smoking the forbidden cigarette.

There is such a fascination in making the rubbing-stick fire that one
of my Western cooks, becoming an expert, gave up the use of matches
for a time and lit his morning fire with the fire-drill, and, indeed,
he did not find it much slower than the usual way.

Walter Hough told me a story of an Apache Indian who scoffed at the
matches of white men, and claimed that he could light a fire with
rubbing-sticks faster than Hough could with matches. So each made
ready. They were waiting for the word "go" when the Indian said:

"Wait. I see if him right." He gave a few strokes with the drill, and
called--"Stop--stop him no good." He rearranged the sticks, and tried
a few more strokes. Just as Mr. Hough was going to strike the match,
he said: "Stop--stop him no good." He did this three times before he
called "Ready." Then the word "Go" was given. The white man struck the
slow, sizzling match. The Indian gave half a dozen twirls to the
drill--the smoke burst forth. He covered it with the tinder, fanned a
few seconds, then a bright flame arose, just before the white man got
his twigs ablaze. So the Indian won, but it was by an Indian trick;
for the three times when he pretended to be trying it, he was really
warming up the wood--that is, doing a large part of the work. I am
afraid that, deft as he was, he would have lost in a fair race. Yet
this incident shows at least that, in point of speed, the old
rubbing-sticks are not very far behind the matches, as one might have
supposed.

{75}

It is, indeed, a wonder that the soldiers at West Point are not taught
this simple trick, when it is so easily learned, and might some day be
the one thing to save the lives of many of them.

Archery

No woodcraft education is complete without a knowledge of archery. It
is a pity that this noble sport has fallen into disuse. We shall find
it essential to some of our best games.

The modern hunting gun is an irresistible weapon of wholesale murder,
and is just as deadly no matter who pulls the trigger. It spreads
terror as well as death by its loud discharge, and it leaves little
clew as to who is responsible for the shot. Its deadly range is so
fearfully great as to put all game at the mercy of the clumsiest tyro.
Woodcraft, the oldest of all sciences and one of the best, has
steadily declined since the coming of the gun, and it is entirely due
to this same unbridled power that America has lost so many of her fine
game animals.

The bow is a far less destructive weapon, and to succeed at all in the
chase the bowman must be a double-read forester. The bow is silent and
it sends the arrow with exactly the same power that the bowman's arm
puts into it--no more, no less--so it is really his own power that
speeds the arrow. There is no question as to which hunter has the
right to the game or is responsible for the shot when the arrow is
there to tell. The gun stands for little skill, irresistible force
supplied from an outside source, overwhelming unfair odds, and sure
death to the victim. The bow, on the other hand, stands for all that
is clever and fine in woodcraft; so, no guns or fire-arms of any kind
are allowed in our boy scout camp.

The Indian's bow was short, because, though less efficient, it was
easier to carry than a long one. Yet it did not lack power. It is said
that the arrow head sometimes appeared on the far side of the buffalo
it was fired into, and there is a tradition that Wah-na-tah, a Sioux
chief, once shot his arrow through a cow buffalo and killed her calf
that was running at the other side.

But the long bow is more effective than the short one. The old English
bowmen, the best the world has ever seen, always shot with the long
bow.

The finest bows and arrows are those made by the professional makers,
but there is no reason why each boy should not make his own.

According to several authorities the best bow woods are mulberry,
osage-orange, sassafras, Southern cedar, black locust, {76} apple,
black walnut, slippery elm, ironwood, mountain ash, hickory,
California yew, and hemlock.

Take a perfectly sound, straight, well-seasoned stick five or six feet
long (your bow should be about as long as yourself); mark off a
five-inch space in the middle for the handle; leave this round and a
full inch thick; shave down the rest, flat on one side for the front
and round on the other for the back, until it is about one inch wide
and three fourths of an inch thick next the handle, tapering to about
one half that at the ends, which are then "nocked," nicked, or notched
as shown in Cut I. These notches are for the string, which is to be
put on early. Draw the bow now, flat side out, not more than the
proper distance, and note carefully which end bends the most; then
shave down the other side until it bends evenly. The middle scarcely
bends at all. The perfect shape, when bent, is shown in Cut II. Trim
the bow down to your strength and finish smoothly with sandpaper and
glass. It should be straight when unstrung, and unstrung when not in
use. Fancy curved bows are weak affairs. The bow for our boy should
require a power of fifteen or twenty pounds (shown on a spring
balance) to draw the string twenty-three inches from the bow; not
more. The best string is of hemp or linen; it should be about five
inches from the middle of the bow when strung (Cut II). The notches
for the string should be two-thirds the depth of the string. If you
have not a bought string make one of strong, unbleached linen thread
twisted together. At one end the string, which is heaviest at the
ends, should be fast knotted to the bow notch (Cut V); at the other it
should have a loop as shown in Cut IV. In the middle it should be
lashed with fine silk and wax for five inches, and the exact place
marked where the arrow fits it.

The arrow is more important than the bow. Anyone can make a bow; few
can make an arrow, for, as a Seminole Indian expressed it to Maurice
Thompson, "Any stick do for bow; good arrow much heap work, ugh."
Hiawatha went all the way to Dakota to see the famous arrow maker. In
England when the bow was the gun of the country, the bow maker was
called a "bowyer," and the arrow maker a "fletcher" (from the Norman
fleche, an arrow). So when men began to use surnames those who
excelled in arrow making were proud to be called the "Fletchers "; but
to make a good bow was not a notable achievement, hence few took
"Bowyer" as their name.

The first thing about an arrow is that it must be perfectly straight.
"Straight as an arrow" refers to the arrow itself, not to its flight;
that is always curved.

{77}

[Illustration: THE ARCHERY OUTFIT (Not all on scale.)]

I.    The five-foot bow as finished, with sections at the point shown.

II.   The bow "braced" or strung.

III.  The bow unstrung, showing the loop slipped down.

IV.   The loop that is used on the upper end of the bow.

V.    The timber hitch always used on the lower end or notch of the bow.

VI.   A turkey feather with split midrib, all ready to lash on.

VII.  End view of arrow, showing notch and arrangement of three feathers.

VIII. Part of arrow, showing feathering and lashing.

IX.   Sanger hunting arrow with wooden point; 25 inches long.

X.    Sanger war arrow with nail point and extra long feathers;
      it also is 25 inches long.

XI.   Quiver with Indian design; 20 inches long.

XII.  The "bracer" or arm guard of heavy leather for left arm with
      two laces to tie it on. It is six inches long.


{78}

The Indians made arrows of reeds and of straight shoots of viburnum or
arrow-wood, and of elder, but we make better arrows out of the solid
heartwood of hard pine for target use, and of hickory or ash for
hunting. The arrow should be twenty-five inches long, round, and three
eighths of an inch thick, and have three feathers set as shown in Cut
VI, about an inch from the notch. The feather B, that stands out at
right angles to notch A, should always be away from the bow in
shooting. This is called the cock-feather, and it is usually marked or
colored in some way to be quickly distinguished.


[Illustration: CORRECT FORM IN SHOOTING. The diagram at bottom is to
show the centres of heels in line with target.]


Turkey and goose wing feathers are the best that grow in our country
for arrow feathers. The Indians mostly use turkey. With a sharp knife
cut a strip of the midrib on which is the vane of the feather; make
three pieces, each two to three inches long. White men glue these on
to the arrow. The Indians leave the midrib projecting at each end and
by these lash the {79} feathers without gluing. The lashed feathers
stand the weather better than those glued, but do not fly so well. The
Indians use sharp flint arrow heads for war and for big game, but for
birds and small game they make arrow heads with a knob of hard wood or
the knuckle bone of some small animal. The best arrow heads for our
purpose are like the ferrule of an umbrella top; they receive the end
of the shaft into them and keep it from splitting.

One of the best arrows I ever shot with was twenty-eight inches long,
five sixteenths of an inch thick, had a ferrule head and very small
feathers.

The finishing touch of an arrow is "painting" it. This is done for
several purposes: First, to preserve it from damp which would twist
the arrow and soften the glue that holds the feathers; second, each
hunter paints all his arrows with his mark so as to know them; third,
they are thus made bright-colored to help in finding them when lost.

There are four other things required by our archer: A smooth, hard
arm-guard, or bracer, usually of hard leather. The Indians who use one
make it of wood, grass, or rawhide. In photographs of famous Indians
you may often see this on the left wrist, and will remember that it
was there as a protection from the blow of the bow cord. Some archers
can shoot with the wrist bent so as to need no guard. The three middle
fingers of the right hand also need protection. An old leather glove,
with thumb and little finger cut away, will do very well for this,
though the ready-made tips at the archery stores are more convenient.
Some archers who practise all their lives can shoot without protecting
the fingers.

The bow case and quiver are important. Any kind of a cover that will
keep them from the rain, and hang on your back, will do, but there are
many little things that help to make them handy. When the cover is off
the arrows should project three or four inches so that they may be
more easily drawn out. The Indians often carried very beautiful
quivers of buckskin ornamented with quills and beads.

One day out West I saw an Omaha brave with a bow case and quiver
covered with very odd material--a piece of common red and white cotton
print. When allowed to examine it, I felt some other material
underneath the print. After a little dickering he sold me bow, arrows,
quiver, and all for a couple of dollars. I then ripped open the print
and found my first suspicions confirmed; for, underneath, the quiver
was of buckskin, beautifully embroidered with red feathers and
porcupine {80} quills of deep red and turquoise blue. The Indian was as
much puzzled by my preference for the quill work as I was by his for
the cotton print.

The standard target for men is four feet across with a nine-inch
bull's-eye, and around that four rings, each four and three quarter
inches wide. The bull's-eye counts nine, the other rings seven, five,
three, one. The bought targets are made of straw, but a good target
may be made of a box filled with sods, or a bank covered with sacking
on which are painted the usual rings.

Now comes the most important point of all--how to shoot. There are
several ways of holding an arrow, but only one good one. Most boys
know the ordinary finger and thumb pinch, or grip. This is all very
well for a toy bow, but a hunter's bow cannot be drawn that way. No
one has strength enough in his fingers for it. The true archer's grip
of the arrow is shown in the cut. The thumb and little finger have
nothing to do with it.


[Illustration: The archer's grip.]


As in golf and all such things, there is a right "form." You attend to
your end of the arrow's flight and the other will take care of itself:

Stand perfectly straight. Plant your feet with the centres of the two
heels in line with the target. (Cut page 78.) Grasp the bow in the
middle with the left hand and place the arrow on the string at the
left side of the bow. Hold the bow plumb, and draw as above till the
notch of the arrow is right under your eye, and the head of the arrow
back to the bow. The right elbow must be in the same line with the
arrow. Let go the arrow by straightening the fingers a little, turning
the hand outward at the bottom and drawing it back one inch. Always do
this in exactly the same way and your shooting will be even. Your left
hand should not move a hair's breadth until the arrow strikes the
target.

To begin shooting put the target very near, within fifteen or twenty
yards; but the proper shooting distance when the archer is in good
practice is forty yards for a four-foot target and thirty yards for a
three-foot target. A good shot, shooting twelve arrows at this, should
score fifty.

{81}

The Indians generally used their bows at short range, so that it was
easy to hit the mark. Rapid firing was important. In their archery
competitions, therefore, the prize was given to the one who could have
the most arrows in the air at once. Their record, according to Catlin,
was eight.


The Stars


As Seen With the Naked Eye

The chief works referred to in this are C. Flammarion's "Popular
Astronomy" (Gore's translation), and Garrett P. Serviss's "Astronomy
with an Opera Glass." (Those who wish to go farther a-sky are referred
to these books.)


Whether he expects to use them as guides or not, every boy should
learn the principal constellations and the important stars. A
non-scientific friend said to me once: "I am always glad that I
learned the principal star groups when I was young. I have never
forgotten them, and, no matter in what strange country I find myself,
I can always look up at night, and see the old familiar stars that
shone on me in my home in my own country."

All American boys know the Dipper or Great Bear. This is, perhaps, the
most important star group in our sky, because of its size, peculiar
form, and the fact that it never sets in our latitude, and last, that
it always points out the Pole-star, and, for this reason, it is
sometimes known as the Pointers. It is called the Dipper because it is
shaped like a dipper with a long, bent handle. Why it is called the
Great Bear is not so easy to explain. The classical legend has it that
the nymph Calisto, having violated her vow, was changed by Diana into
a bear, which, after death, was immortalized in the sky by Zeus.
Another suggestion is that the earliest astronomers, the Chaldeans,
called these stars "the shining ones," and their word happened to be
very like the Greek arktos (a bear). Another explanation (I do not
know who is authority for either) is that vessels in olden days were
named for animals, etc. They bore at the prow the carved effigy of the
namesake, and if the Great Bear, for example, made several very happy
voyages by setting out when a certain constellation was in the
ascendant, that constellation might become known as the Great Bear's
constellation. Certainly, there is nothing in its shape to justify the
name. Very few of the constellations, indeed, are like the thing they
are {82} called after. Their names were usually given for some fanciful
association with the namesake, rather than for resemblance to it.

The Pole-star is really the most important of the stars in our sky; it
marks the north at all times; it alone is fixed in the heavens: all
the other stars seem to swing around it once in twenty-four hours. It
is in the end of the Little Bear's tail. But the Pole-star, or
Polaris, is not a very bright one, and it would be hard to identify
but for the help of the Dipper, or Pointers.

The outside (Alpha and Beta) of the Dipper points nearly to Polaris,
at a distance equal to three and one half times the space that
separates these two stars of the Dipper's outer side.

Various Indians call the Pole-star the "Home Star," and "The Star that
Never Moves," and the Dipper they call the "Broken Back."

The last star but one in the Dipper, away from the pole--that is, the
star at the bend of the handle,--is known to astronomers as Mizar, one
of the Horses; Just above it, and tucked close in, is a smaller star
known to astronomers as Alcor, or the Rider. The Indians call these
two the "Old Squaw and the Pappoose on Her Back." In the old world,
from very ancient times, these have been used as tests of eyesight. To
be able to see Alcor with the naked eye means that one has excellent
eyesight. So also on the plains, the old folks would ask the children
at night, "Can you see the pappoose on the old squaw's back?" And when
the youngster saw it, and proved that he did by a right description,
they rejoiced that he had the eyesight which is the first requisite of
a good hunter.

The Great Bear is also to be remembered as the Pointers for another
reason. It is the hour-hand of the woodman's clock. It goes once
around the North Star in about twenty-four hours, the same way as the
sun, and for the same reason--that it is the earth that is going and
leaving them behind.

The time in going around is not exactly twenty-four hours, so that the
position of the Pointers varies with the seasons, but, as a rule, this
for woodcraft purposes is near enough. The bowl of the Dipper swings
one and one half times the width of the opening (i.e., fifteen
degrees) in one hour. If it went a quarter of the circle, that would
mean you had slept a quarter of a day, or six hours.

{83}

Each fifteen days the stars seem to be an hour earlier; in three
months they gain one fourth of the circle, and in a year gain the
whole circle.

According to Flammarion, there are about seven thousand stars visible
to the naked eye, and of those but nineteen are stars of the first
magnitude. Thirteen of them are visible in the latitude of New York,
the other six belong to the South Polar Region of the sky. Here is
Flammarion's arrangement of them in order of seeming brightness. Those
that can be seen in the Southern Hemisphere only, are in brackets:

1.  Sirius, the Dog-star.
2.  [Canopus, of Argo.]
3.  [Alpha, of the Centaur.]
4.  Arcturus, of Bootes.
5.  Vega, of the Lyre.
6.  Rigel, of Orion's foot.
7.  Capella, of Auriga.
8.  Procyon, or the Little Dog-star.
9.  Betelguese, of Orion's right shoulder.
10. [Beta, of the Centaur.]
11. [Achernar, of Eridanus.]
12. Aldebaran, of Taurus, the Bull's right eye.
13. Antares, of Scorpio.
14. [Alpha, of the Southern Cross.]
15. Altair, of the Eagle.
16. Spica, of Virgo.
17. Fomalhaut, of the Southern Fish.
18. [Beta, of the Southern Cross.]
19. Regulus, of the Lion.


Orion

Orion (O-ri-on), with its striking array of brilliant stars,
Betelguese, Rigel, the Three Kings, etc., is generally admitted to be
the finest constellation in the heavens.

Orion was the hunter giant who went to Heaven when he died, and now
marches around the great dome, but is seen only in the winter,
because, during the summer, he passes over during daytime. Thus he is
still the hunter's constellation. The three stars of his belt are
called the "Three Kings."

Sirius, the Great Dog-star, is in the head of Orion's hound, and
following farther back is the Little Dog-star, Procyon. In old charts
of the stars, Orion is shown with his hound, hunting the bull, Taurus.

{84}

[Illustration: Taurus. Orion, Sirius and Procyon. (tr)]


Pleiades

Pleiades (Ply-a-des) can be seen in winter as a cluster of small stars
between Aldebaran and Algol, or, a line drawn from the back bottom,
through the front rim of the Dipper, about two Dipper lengths, touches
this little group. They are not far from Aldebaran, being on the
shoulder of the Bull, of which Aldebaran is the right eye. They may be
considered the seven arrow wounds made by Orion. They are nearer the
Pole-star than Aldebaran is, and on the side away from the Dipper;
also, they are nearly on a line between Beta of the Dipper (front
bottom) and Capella.

Serviss tells us that the Pleiades have a supposed connection with the
Great Pyramid, because "about 2170 B. C., when the beginning of spring
coincided with the culmination of the Pleiades at midnight; that
wonderful group of stars was visible {85} just at midnight, through the
mysterious southward-pointing passage of the Pyramid."


The Moon

The moon is one fifth the diameter of the earth, about one fiftieth of
the bulk, and is about a quarter million miles away. Its course, while
very irregular, is nearly the same as the apparent course of the sun.
But "in winter the full moon is at an altitude in the sky near the
limit attained by the sun in summer, . . . and even, at certain times,
five degrees higher. It is the contrary in summer, a season when the
moon remains very low" (F.).

The moon goes around the earth in 27-1/4 days. It loses nearly three
fourths of an hour each night; that is, it rises that much later.


BIRDCRAFT

_By the National Association of Audubon Societies_


Any boy who cares enough for out-doors to be a scout is sure to want a
good acquaintance with the birds. Even dull people cannot help taking
notice of our "little brothers of the air," on account of their
beauty, their songs, and their wondrous flight. But most folks never
take the trouble to try and learn the names of any except a few common
birds. Scouts whose eyes are sharp and ears are keen will find the
study of birds a fascinating sport, which may prove to be the best fun
that the woods provide.


Knowing the Birds

It is no easy matter, this trying to get to know the birds; but scouts
are not looking for the easiest jobs, and it is great sport for them
to follow some shy songster through the briery thicket until a really
good look can be had, to sit stock still for half an hour to watch
some unknown bird come home to her nest, or to wriggle on all fours
through the grass to have a glimpse over the top of the knoll at the
ducks in the pool beyond.

The only equipment necessary for bird study is an opera or field
glass, a note-book and a good bird reference book. As soon as you get
a good look at a strange bird, notice its colors and markings, and
then, if it moves, follow it up until you have seen practically all of
its most prominent features. It will be impossible to carry these
facts in your head, and unless some definite memorandum is made at the
time you will probably {86} be hopelessly perplexed when you go to consult
the bird book later. As it is hard to jot down satisfactory notes in
the field, while catching fleeting glances of some timid bird, a handy
little booklet has been prepared in which observations can be recorded
very rapidly. These can be procured for fifteen cents apiece from the
National Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York
City.


Location _______________________ _______________________
Date _______________________Hour  _______________________
Weather  ___________________Wind  _______________________


[Illustration: A bird. (tr)]


SIZE:
Smaller than wren
Between wren and sparrow
Between sparrow and robin
Between robin and crow
Larger than crow
SEEN
Near ground or high up
In heavy woods
Bushy places
Orchard
Garden
Swamp
Open country
Near water

Name  ______________________
Order ______________________  Family _______________________
Genus_______________________  Species  ______________________


{87}

Each booklet contains outline figures of the five leading types of
birds: (1) small perching birds, (2) hawks, (3) snipes, (4) herons,
(5) ducks. On the page opposite is a list of numbers corresponding to
colors. You can quickly mark on the outline the proper numbers, and
note with your pencil any marks on the bird. Then check the other data
on the page, add any additional memoranda, and you have your "bird in
the hand," ready to take back and look up at your leisure.


Careful Observation

Notice particularly the "range" of the birds in your reference book,
and eliminate all those not stated as occurring in your territory.
Notice too, dates of the birds' coming and going, and do not expect to
find species at any other time of year than within the dates
mentioned. By thus narrowing down the possibilities the task is much
simplified. As a final resort, the National Association of Audubon
Societies stands ready to help all scouts who are positively
"stumped," and if the descriptive slips are mailed with return
envelopes to the secretary of the association, 1974 Broadway, New York
City, an identification will be made, if the information furnished
renders it in any way possible.

The next time you see a bird that you have once identified, you will
probably remember its name, and in this way you will be surprised to
find how rapidly your bird acquaintance will grow. After a time even
the flight of a bird or its song will be enough to reveal an old
acquaintance, just as you can often recognize a boy friend by his walk
or the sound of his voice, without seeing his face. And what a new joy
in life there is for anybody that really knows the birds about him. He
can pick from the medley of bird songs the notes of the individual
singers; he knows when to look for old friends of the year before; no
countryside is ever lonely for him, for he finds birds everywhere and
knows that any moment he may make some rare discovery or see a bird
before unknown to him.


Bird Lists

A scout should make a list of all the birds he has positively
identified. This is his "life list" and is added to year by year. In
addition he will keep daily lists of the birds seen on special trips
in the field. Two or more patrols can enjoy a friendly rivalry by
covering different regions and seeing which can observe the largest
variety of birds. Hundreds of well-known {88} ornithologists often
have the fun of this kind of competition, sending in their lists to a
central bureau. As many as one hundred and twenty different kinds of
birds have been counted in a single day by one energetic band of
bird-lovers. Such a list is, however, attainable only under
exceptionally favorable circumstances and by skilled observers who
know their country thoroughly. For most scouts, thirty to forty
species on a summer day, and fifty to sixty during the spring
migration, would be regarded as a good list.


88  Boy Scouts


[Illustration: Bob-white at feeding station.]


Nesting Season

Undoubtedly the most interesting season to study birds is during the
nesting period which is at its height in June. It takes a pair of
sharp eyes to find most birds' nests in the first place, and once
found, there are dozens of interesting little incidents which it is a
delight to watch. Only a foolish scout would rob himself of his chance
to observe the secrets of nest life by stealing the contents, or would
take any delight in piling up a collection of egg shells whose value
at its best is almost nothing, and whose acquisition is necessarily
accompanied by {89} genuine heart pangs on the part of the rightful
owners. It is more exciting to try to hide yourself near the nest so
skilfully that the birds will carry on their domestic duties as though
you were not near. A blind made of green cloth and set up near the
nest like a little tent will often give opportunity for very close
observation. It is surprising how near many birds will allow one to
come in this way. Even though the blind looks very strange and out of
place, the birds soon seem to get used to it, so long as it is
motionless and the inmate cannot be seen. A simple type of blind can
be constructed by sewing the edges of long pieces of green cloth
together, drawing in the top with a cord, and then draping it over an
open umbrella.


[Illustration: Bird blind.]


How to Photograph

From such a hiding place, photographs can often be secured of timid
birds at their nests. In attempting to take photographs it must be
remembered that cameras of the pocket variety or fixed box type are
almost useless. Most of them cannot be worked without special
attachments at closer range than six feet, and, even if the focus is
correctly guessed, the image is apt to be very small. In this work it
is far better to invest in a cheap camera (second-hand if need be)
with which one can obtain a definite image on the ground glass where
the plate or film is to be. Focus the camera on some spot where it is
expected the bird will come; usually this is on the nest or young,
sometimes it is the food, a favorite perch, or some form of decoy. The
next requisite is patience. If the coveted opportunity arrives, set
off the shutter by hand in the {90} blind, or, where this is not
possible, by means of a long thread, after carefully hiding the camera
with boughs, leaves, sods, etc.


How to Know

An idea of the details of a bird's life which a scout may come to
know, may be had from the following table:

1. Description. (Size, form, color, and markings.)

2. Haunts. (Upland, lowland, lakes, rivers, woods, fields. etc.)

3. Movements. (Slow or active, hops, walks, creeps, swims, tail
wagged, etc.)

4. Appearance. (Alert, listless, crest erect, tail drooped, etc.)

5. Disposition. (Solitary, flocking, wary, unsuspicious, etc.)

6. Flight. (Slow, rapid, direct, undulating, soaring, sailing,
flapping, etc.)

7. Song. (Pleasing, unattractive, long, short, loud, faint, sung from
the ground, from a perch, in the air, etc. Season of song.)

8. Call notes. (Of surprise, alarm, protest, warning, signaling, etc.)

9. Season. (Spring, fall, summer, winter, with times of arrival and
departure and variations in numbers.)

10. Food. (Berries, insects, seeds, etc.; how secured.)

11. Mating. (Habits during courtship.)

12. Nesting. (Choice of site, material, construction, eggs,
incubation, etc.)

13. The young. (Food and care of, time in the nest, notes, actions,
flight, etc.)

So varied is a bird's life that there is still plenty to be learned
about even our common birds. It is quite possible for a scout to
discover some facts that have never yet been published in books.


[Illustration: Red-breasted nuthatch.]


What One Boy Did

A boy once originated the idea of varying the usual "bird's nesting"
craze into a systematic study of the breeding of our common birds. In
one spring he found within the limits of a single village one hundred
and seventy robins' nests. "One hundred were in suitable situations on
private places, forty-one were in woods, swamps and orchards, eight
were placed under bridges (two being under the iron girders of the
railroad bridge), four were {91} in quarries, sixteen were in barns,
sheds, under piazzas, etc., and one was on the ground at the foot of a
bush."

In addition to searching out the birds in their natural haunts, there
is a great fascination in trying to attract them to our homes. During
winter evenings boy scouts can busy themselves making nesting boxes.
Even an old cigar box or a tomato can with a hole in it the size of a
quarter will satisfy a house wren. Other boxes which are suitable for
bluebirds, chickadees, tree swallows, purple martins, and starlings,
will, if set up in March, often have tenants the very first season. In
many cases it is feasible to have hinged doors or sides on the nesting
boxes, so that they may occasionally be opened and the progress of
events within observed. It is needless to add, however, that great
caution must be exercised to prevent desertion of the nest, or other
disturbance of the birds' home life. Under favorable circumstances,
even some of the shyer inhabitants of the woods, such as woodpeckers,
owls, and ducks can be induced to patronize artificial cavities, if
they are made right and erected right.


[Illustration: Downy woodpecker.]


[Illustration: Observation box, open.]


Caring for Birds

Another way of attracting birds in summer is by providing drinking and
bathing places. A little artificial pool protected from cats, will be
a source of joy to the birds and of delight to the observer from
morning to night. Apply to the {92} National Association of Audubon
Societies for information as to where ready-made nest boxes and
fountains can be procured, also books on this subject, as well as on
the subject of making friends of the birds through feeding.


[Illustration: House wren and tomato-can house]


[Illustration: Birch-bark house]


The Bird Lunch Counter

How best to feed the birds is almost an art in itself. A winter lunch
counter spread with suet, nuts, hemp seed, meat, and crumbs will
attract nuthatches, chickadees, downy and hairy woodpeckers, creepers,
blue jays, etc. Canary seed, buckwheat, oats and hay-chaff scattered
on the ground beneath will provide an irresistible banquet for other
feathered boarders. A feeding place of this sort can be arranged for
convenient observation from a window, and afford no end of diversion
and instruction. But whether close to home or far afield, the great
secret of success in such work is regularity. Begin to put the food
out early in November, and let the birds get to know that they are
always sure to find a supply of dainties in a certain spot, and the
news will soon spread among them. In wintry weather, especially, it is
amazing what can be accomplished by feeding the birds regularly, and
at least the following birds have been induced to feed from the human
hand: chickadee, white-breasted nuthatch, red-breasted nuthatch, brown
creeper, Carolina wren, cardinal, evening grosbeak, tufted titmouse,
Canada jay, Florida jay, Oregon jay, and redpoll. Even in spring
untiring patience has resulted in the gratification of this supreme
ambition of the bird-lover, and bluebird, robin, cat-bird: chipping
sparrow, oven-bird, brown thrasher and yellow-throated vireo have been
known to feed from the hand of a trusted friend, even with plenty of
food all around. What scout can add to this list?


Protecting the Birds

Many a boy thinks that just because a bird is alive and moves it is a
proper target for his air rifle or his sling shot. {93} Let us be
thankful that there has now arisen a new class of boys, the scouts,
who, like the knights of old, are champions of the defenceless, even
the birds. Scouts are the birds' police, and wo betide the lad who is
caught with a nest and eggs, or the limp corpse of some feathered
songster that he has slaughtered. Scouts know that there is no value
in birds that are shot, except a few scientific specimens collected by
trained museum experts. Scouts will not commend a farmer for shooting
a hawk or an owl as a harmful bird, even though it were seen to
capture a young chicken. They will post themselves on the subject and
find that most hawks and owls feed chiefly on field mice and large
insects injurious to the farmer's crops, and that thus, in spite of an
occasional toll on the poultry, they are as a whole of tremendous
value. The way the birds help mankind is little short of a marvel. A
band of nuthatches worked all winter in a pear orchard near Rochester
and rid the trees of a certain insect that had entirely destroyed the
crop of the previous summer. A pair of rose-breasted grosbeaks were
seen to feed their nest of youngsters four hundred and twenty-six
times in a day, each time with a billful of potato-bugs or other
insects. A professor in Washington counted two hundred and fifty tent
caterpillars in the stomach of a dead yellow-billed cuckoo, and, what
appeals to us even more, five hundred bloodthirsty mosquitoes inside
of one night-hawk.


[Illustration: White-breasted nuthatch]


[Illustration: Bluebird at entrance of nesting-box]


It must not be forgotten that large city parks are among the best
places for observing birds. As an example of what can be accomplished,
even with limited opportunities, there was a boy who happened to know
where some owls roosted. {94} Now all owls swallow their prey whole,
and in digesting this food they disgorge the skulls, bones, fur, and
feathers in the form of hard dry pellets. This boy used to go out on
Saturday or Sunday afternoon and bring home his pockets full of
pellets, and then in the evening he would break them apart. In this
way he learned exactly what the owls had been eating (without killing
them) and he even discovered the skulls of certain field mice that
naturalists had never known existed in that region. He let the owl be
his collector.


Patrol Work

It is a good idea to keep at patrol headquarters a large sheet on the
wall, where a list of the year's bird observations can be tabulated.
Each time a new bird is seen, its name is added, together with the
initial of the observer, and after that its various occurrences are
noted opposite its name. The keenest eyed scouts are those whose
initials appear most frequently in the table. In addition, the tables
will show the appearance and relative abundance of birds in a given
locality. For patrols of young boys, a plan of tacking up a colored
picture of each bird, as soon as it is thoroughly known, has been
found very successful, and the result provides a way to decorate the
headquarters.

Such pictures can be obtained very cheaply from the Perry Pictures
Co., Boston, Mass., or the National Association of Audubon Societies,
1974 Broadway, New York City.



MOLLUSCA--Shells and Shellfish

_By Dr. William Healey Dall, of the United States Geological Survey_


[Illustration: Fig. 1; White lipped snail (Polygyra albolabris)]


Among the shy and retiring animals which inhabit our woods and waters,
or the borders of the sea, without making themselves conspicuous to
man except when he seeks the larger ones for food, are the mollusca,
usually confounded with crabs and crayfish under the popular name of
"shellfish," except the few which have no external shell, which are
generally called slugs. Hardly any part of the world (except deserts)
is without them, but, shy as they are, it takes pretty sharp eyes to
find them. Some come out of their hiding places {95} only at night,
and nearly all our American kinds live under cover of some sort.

The mollusks can be conveniently divided into three groups: those
which inhabit fresh water, those which breathe air and live on dry
land, and lastly those which are confined to the sea. The land shells,
or snails, have generally thin shells of spiral form and live upon
vegetable matter, many of them laying small eggs which look like
minute pearls. Their hiding places are under leaves in shady or moist
places, under the bark of dead trees or stumps, or under loose stone.
They creep slowly and are most active after rain. Some of our larger
kinds are an inch or two in diameter, (see Fig. 1., the white-lipped)
but from this size there are others diminishing in size to the
smallest, which are hardly larger than the head of a pin, In
collecting them the little ones may be allowed to dry up. The big ones
must be killed in boiling water, when the animal can be pulled out
with a hook made of a crooked pin, leaving the shell clean and
perfect. The slugs are not attractive on account of the slime which
they throw out and can only be kept in spirits. Some of the species
found in California are as large as a small cigar, but those of the
states east of the Rocky Mountains are smaller and have mostly been
introduced from Europe, where they do a lot of mischief by eating such
garden plants as lettuce.

Many of the fresh-water snails are abundant in brooks and ponds, and
their relations, the fresh-water mussels, are often very numerous in
shallow rivers. They have a shell frequently beautifully pearly, white
or purple, and sometimes have the brown outer skin prettily streaked
with bright green.


[Illustration: Fig. 2 Whelk (Buccinum umatum)]


[Illustration: Fig. 3 Pond snail (Lymnaea palustris)]


The principal fresh-water snails are the pond snail (_Lymnaea_; see
Fig. 3); the _Physa_ (see Fig. 6), which is remarkable for having the
coil turned to the left instead of the right; and the orb-snail,
(_Planorbis_: see Fig. 4) which has its coil flat. All of {96} these
lay minute eggs in a mass of transparent jelly, and are to be found on
lily pads and other water plants, or crawling on the bottom, while the
mussels bury themselves more or less in the mud or lie on the gravelly
bottom of streams. There is also a very numerous tribe of small
bivalve shells, varying from half an inch to very minute in size,
which are also mud lovers and are known as Sphaerium or Pisidium,
having no "common" English names, since only those who hunt for them
know of their existence.

On the seashore everybody knows the mussel (Mytilus: see Fig. 5), the
soft clam, the round clam, and the oyster, as these are sought for
food; but there is a multitude of smaller bivalves which are not so
well known. The sea-snails best known on the coast north of Chesapeake
Bay are the whelk (Buccinum: see Fig. 2), the sand snail or Natica,
which bores the round holes often found in clam shells on the beach,
in order to suck the juices of its neighbors, and the various kinds of
periwinkles (rock snails or Littorina) found by the millions on the
rocks between tides. These, as well as the limpets, small boat-shaped
or slipper-shaped conical shells found in similar places, are
vegetable feeders. Altogether, there are several hundred kinds found
on the seashore and the water near the shore, and a collection of them
will not only contain many curious, pretty, and interesting things,
but will have the advantage of requiring no preservative to keep them
in good condition after the animal has been taken out.


[Illustration: Fig. 4 Orb-Shell (Planorbis trivolvis)]


[Illustration: Fig. 5 Black Mussel (Mytilus)]


[Illustration: Fig. 6 Bubble snail (Physa heterostropha)]


The squids, cuttle-fishes, octopus, and their allies are also
mollusks, but not so accessible to the ordinary collector, and can
only be kept in spirits.

Books which may help the collector to identify the shells he may find
are:

For the land and fresh-water shells: {97}

"Mollusks of the Chicago Area" and "The Lymnaeidae of North America."
By F. C. Baker. Published by the Chicago Academy of Sciences.

For the American Marine Shells: Bulletin No. 37. Published by the
United States National Museum, at Washington.

For shells in general: "The Shell Book." Published by Doubleday, Page
& Co., Garden City, N.Y.

On the Pacific Coast the "West Coast Shells," by Prof. Josiah Keep of
Mills College, will be found very useful.


REPTILES

_By Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, Curator National Museum_

By reptiles we understand properly a certain class of vertebrate or
backboned animals, which, on the whole, may be described as possessing
scales or horny shields since most of them may be distinguished by
this outer covering, as the mammals by their hair and the birds by
their feathers. Such animals as thousand-legs, scorpions, tarantulas,
etc., though often erroneously referred to as reptiles, do not concern
us in this connection. Among the living reptiles we distinguish four
separate groups, the crocodiles, the turtles, the lizards, and the
snakes.

The crocodiles resemble lizards in shape, but are very much larger and
live only in the tropics and the adjacent regions of the temperate
zone. To this order belongs our North American alligator, which
inhabits the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the coast country
along the Atlantic Ocean as far north as North Carolina. They are
hunted for their skin, which furnishes an excellent leather for
traveling bags, purses, etc., and because of the incessant pursuit are
now becoming quite rare in many localities where formerly they were
numerous. The American crocodile, very much like the one occurring in
the river Nile, is also found at the extreme southern end of Florida.

The turtles are easily recognized by the bony covering which encases
their body, and into which most species can withdraw their heads and
legs for protection. This bony box is usually covered with horny
plates, but in a large group, the so-called soft-shell turtles, the
outer covering is a soft skin, thus forming a {98} notable exception
to the rule that reptiles are characterized by being covered with
scales or plates. While most of the turtles live in fresh water or on
land, a few species pass their lives in the open ocean, only coming
ashore during the breeding season to deposit their eggs. Some of these
marine turtles grow to an enormous size, sometimes reaching a weight
of over eight hundred pounds. One of them is much sought for on
account of the delicacy of its flesh; another because of the thickness
and beauty of its horny plates which furnish the so-called
tortoise-shell, an important article of commerce. Turtles appear to
reach a very old age, specimens having been known to have lived
several hundred years. The box tortoise of our woods, the musk
turtles, the snapping turtles are familiar examples of this order,
while the terrapin, which lives in brackish ponds and swamps along our
sea-coasts, is famous as a table delicacy.


[Illustration: Harlequin snake]


The lizards are four-legged reptiles, usually of small size, living on
the ground or in the trees, out very rarely voluntarily entering
water. The so-called water lizards are not lizards at all, but belong
to the salamanders and are distinguished by having a naked body not
covered with scales. Most of the true lizards are of very graceful
form, exceedingly quick at running; others display the most gorgeous
coloration which, in many of them, such as the chameleons, changes
according to the light, or the temperature, or the mood of the animal.
Not all of them have four legs, however, there being a strong tendency
to develop legless species which then externally become so much like
snakes that they are told apart with some difficulty. Thus our
so-called glass-snake, common in the Southern states, is not a snake
at all, but a lizard, as we may easily see by observing the ear
openings on each side of the head, as no snake has ears. This
beautiful animal is also known as the joint-snake, and both names have
reference to the exceeding brittleness of its long tail, which often
breaks in many pieces in the hands of the enemy trying to capture the
lizard. That these pieces ever join and heal together is of course a
silly fable. As a matter of fact, the body in a comparatively short
time grows a new tail, which, however, is much shorter and stumpier
than the old one. The new piece is often of a different color from the
rest of the body and {99} greatly resembles a "horn," being conical and
pointed, and has thus given rise to another equally silly fable, viz.,
that of the horn snake, or hoop snake, which is said to have a sting
in its tail and to be deadly poisonous. The lizards are all perfectly
harmless, except the sluggish Gila monster (pronounced Heela, named
from the Gila River in Arizona) which lives in the deserts of Arizona
and Mexico, and whose bite may be fatal to man. The poison glands are
situated at the point of the lower jaw, and the venom is taken up by
the wound while the animal hangs on to its victim with the tenacity of
a bulldog. All the other lizards are harmless in spite of the dreadful
stories told about the deadly quality of some of the species in
various parts of the country.


[Illustration: Rattlesnake palate]


The snakes form the last group of the reptiles. Universally legless,
though some of the boas and pythons have distinct outer rudiments of
hind limbs, they are not easily mistaken. And it is perhaps well so,
for unless one is an expert at distinguishing between the poisonous
and the harmless kind it is just as well to keep at a respectful
distance from them. It is safest not to interfere with them,
especially as those that are not poisonous are usually very useful in
destroying rats and mice and other vermin, except perhaps those living
in trees and feeding on eggs and young birds, which certainly do not
deserve our protection. Of course the rattlesnake is not to be
mistaken. The horny appendix to its tail, with which it sounds the
warning of its presence, is enough to distinguish it. It should here
be explained that both lizards and snakes at various intervals shed
the outer layer of their skin, the so-called epidermis. This
transparent layer, after a certain length of time, loosens and is
usually stripped off whole by the animal crawling out of it and
turning it inside out, as a tight glove is turned. Now, at the end of
a rattlesnake's tail there is a horny cap which is {100} called the
button, and being narrowed at the base and more strongly built than
the rest of the epidermis it is not shed with the rest of the skin,
but remains attached.

Thus for each shedding a new joint or ring is added to the rattle. How
often the shedding takes place depends on various circumstances and
may occur an uncertain number of times each year. Such a rattle,
loose-jointed as it is, is rather brittle and the tip of the sounding
instrument is easily broken and lost. It will therefore be easily
understood that the common notion that a rattlesnake's age can be told
by the number of the rings in its rattle is absolutely erroneous.
Another equally common and equally erroneous notion relates to the
tongue of the snake, which the ignorant often term its "sting" and
which they believe to be the death-dealing instrument. Of course, the
soft, forked tongue which constantly darts out and in of the snake's
mouth is perfectly harmless. It serves rather as a "feeler" than as a
taste organ. The wound is inflicted by a pair of large, curved, teeth
or fangs, in the upper jaw. These fangs are hollow and connected by a
duct with the gland on the side of the head, in which the poison is
formed. Pressure on this gland at the time of the strike--for our
poisonous snakes strike rather than bite--squirts the poison into the
wound like a hypodermic syringe. The fangs when shed or damaged are
replaced within a short time with new ones, so that a poisonous snake
can only be made harmless for a short period by breaking them off.
Only in exceptional cases need snake bites prove fatal. It is
estimated that in North America only about two persons in a hundred
bitten are killed by the poison, though many more die from
carelessness or bad treatment, the worst of which is the filling up
with whiskey, which aids the poison rather than counteracts it. The
essential things in case of snake bite are: (1) keeping one's wits;
(2) tying a string, or the like, tightly around the wounded limb
between the wound and the heart, and loosening it about once in
fifteen minutes, so as to admit the poison slowly into the
circulation; (3) making the wound bleed freely by enlarging it with a
knife or otherwise; (4) if permanganate of potash be handy it should
at once be applied to the {101} wound; (5) treat the wound as
antiseptically as it is possible with the means at hand and hurry to a
doctor.


[Illustration: Copperhead]


The danger depends greatly on the amount of the poison injected, hence
upon the size of the snake. It is for this reason that the big Florida
rattlesnakes which grow to six feet and over are more to be feared
than are other poisonous snakes. Of these, we have in our country,
besides the rattlesnakes, the water moccasin, or cotton mouth, the
copperhead, and the coral snake. The latter is a bright-colored snake
of red, yellow, and black rings found in the South, but it is usually
small, and not aggressive, so that but few cases of poisoning are
known. The other two are common enough, the former from Norfolk, Va.,
south, the other all over the eastern country from Texas to
Massachusetts. They are usually confounded, however, with two
perfectly harmless snakes, the cotton mouth with the common water
snake, the copperhead with the so-called spreading adder, but as
their differences have to be learned from actual inspection and are
very hard to express in a description which would help to identify
living specimens, it is wisest to keep away from all of them.

See "The Poisonous Snakes of North America." By Leonard Stejneger,
published by Government Printing office, Washington.


[Illustration: Water moccasin]


[Illustration: Chrysalis]


INSECTS AND BUTTERFLIES

_United States Bureau of Entomology_

(Illustrations are copies from Comstock's "How to Know the
Butterflies," through courtesy of D. Appleton & Company.)


There is an advantage in the study of insects over most other branches
of nature, excepting perhaps plants, in that there is plenty of
material. You may have to tramp miles to see a certain bird or wild
animal, but if you will sit down on the first patch of grass you are
sure to see something going on in the insect world.


Butterflies

Nearly all insects go through several different stages. The young bird
is very much like its parent, so is the young squirrel or a young
snake or a {102} young fish or a young snail; but with most of the
insects the young is very different from its parents. All butterflies
and moths lay eggs, and these hatch into caterpillars which when full
grown transform to what are called pupae or chrysalids--nearly
motionless objects with all of the parts soldered together under an
enveloping sheath. With some of the moths, the pupae are surrounded by
silk cocoons spun by the caterpillars just before finally transforming
to pupae. With all butterflies the chrysalids are naked, except with
one species which occurs in Central America in which there is a common
silk cocoon. With the moths, the larger part spin cocoons, but some of
them, like the owlet moths whose larvae are the cutworms, have naked
pupre, usually under the surface of the ground. It is not difficult to
study the transformations of the butterflies and moths, and it is
always very interesting to feed a caterpillar until it transforms, in
order to see what kind of a butterfly or moth comes out of the
chrysalis.

Take the monarch butterfly, for example: This is a large,
reddish-brown butterfly, a strong flier, which is seen often flying
about in the spring and again in the late summer and autumn. This is
one of the most remarkable butterflies in America. It is found all
over the United States. It is one of the strongest fliers that we
know. It passes the winter in the Southern states as an adult
butterfly, probably hidden away in cracks under the bark of trees or
elsewhere. When spring comes the butterflies come out and begin to fly
toward the north. Wherever they find the milk-weed plant they stop and
lay some eggs on the leaves. The caterpillars issue from the eggs,
feed on the milkweed, transform to chrysalids; then the butterflies
issue and continue the northward flight, stopping to lay eggs farther
north on other milkweeds. By the end of June or July some of these
Southern butterflies have found their way north into Canada and begin
the return flight southward. Along in early August they will be seen
at the summer resorts in the Catskill Mountains, and by the end of
October they will have traveled far down into the Southern states
where they pass the winter.


[Illustration: Empty chrysalis and butterfly]


The caterpillar of the monarch or milkweed butterfly is a very
striking creature. It is nearly two inches long when full grown. Its
head is yellow striped with black; its body is white with narrow black
and yellow cross-stripes on each {103} segment. On the back of the
second segment of the thorax there is a pair of black, whiplash-like
filaments, and on the eighth joint there is a similar shorter pair.
When this caterpillar gets ready to transform to chrysalis, it hangs
itself up by its tail end, the skin splits and gradually draws back,
and the chrysalis itself is revealed--pale pea-green in color with
golden spots. Anyone by hunting over a patch of milkweed anywhere in
the United States during the summer is quite apt to find these
caterpillars feeding. It will be easy to watch them and to see them
transform, and eventually to get the butterfly.

The same thing may be done with anyone of the six hundred and
fifty-two different kinds of butterflies in the United States.


[Illustration: Larva getting ready to transform]


[Illustration: Full grown larva]


Moths

When it comes to moths, there is a much greater variety.

Instead of six hundred and fifty-two, there are fifty-nine hundred and
seventy in Doctor Dyar's big catalogue. Perhaps the most interesting
of these caterpillars are the big native silk-worms, like those of the
cecropia moth, the luna moth, the polyphemus moth, or the promethia
moth. These caterpillars are very large and are to be found feeding
upon the leaves of different trees, and all spin strong silken
cocoons. People have tried to reel these cocoons, thinking that they
might be able to use the silk to make silk cloth as with the domestic
silk-worm of commerce, but they have been unable to reel them
properly. The polyphemus moth, for example, has been experimented with
a great deal. It is found over a greater part of the United States,
and its caterpillar feeds upon a great variety of trees and shrubs
such as oak, Butternut, hickory, basswood, elm, maple, birch,
chestnut, sycamore, and many others. The caterpillar is light green
and has raised lines of silvery white on the side. It grows to a very
large size and spins a dense, hard cocoon, usually attached to leaves.
There {104} are two generations in the Southern states, and one in the
Northern states. The moth which comes out of the cocoon has a wing
spread of fully five inches. It is reddish-gray or somewhat buff in
color with darker bands near the edge of the wings, which themselves
are pinkish on the outside, and with a large clear spot near the
centre of the forewing and a regular eyespot (clear in part and blue
in the rest) in the centre of the hind wing.

One wishing to know about butterflies and moths should consult a book
entitled, "How to Know the Butterflies," by Prof. J. H. Comstock of
Cornell University and his wife, Mrs. Comstock, published by D.
Appleton & Co., of New York, or, "The Butterfly Book," by Dr. W. J.
Holland of Pittsburg, published by Doubleday, Page & Co., of New York,
and "The Moth Book," also by Doctor Holland, and published by the same
firm.


[Illustration: Caterpillar to chrysalis]


Other Insects

There are many more different kinds of insects than there are of
flowering plants, and if we were to add together all of the different
kinds of birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes, crabs, mollusks, and all of
the lower forms of animal life, they would not all together amount to
so many different kinds as there are insects. This makes the
classification of insects quite complicated. There are eighteen or
nineteen main orders, and each one is subdivided almost indefinitely.
There is not one of these that is not full of interest. The habits of
ants, for example, living in communities by themselves, afford a
tremendous opportunity for interesting observation. A good book about
them has been recently written by Dr. W. M. Wheeler, of Harvard,
entitled "Ants, their Structure, Development, and Behavior," published
by the Columbia University Press, New York.

{105}

Many insects live in the water, and to follow their life histories in
small home-made aquaria is one of the most interesting occupations one
could have, and there is a lot to be learned about these insects. Go
to any stagnant pool and you will find it swarming with animal life:
Larvae or "wigglers" of mosquitoes, and a number of other aquatic
insects will be found, feeding upon these wigglers. Water bugs of
different kinds will be found and the life histories of most of these
were until quite recently almost unknown.


Beetles and Wasps

The order _Coleoptera_, comprising what we know as beetles, has
thousands of species, each one with its own distinctive mode of life;
some of them feeding upon other insects, others boring into wood,
others feeding upon flowers, others upon leaves, and so on in endless
variety.

The wasps also will bear study. Here, too, there is a great variety,
some of them building the paper nests known to every one, others
burrowing into the surface of the ground and storing up in these
burrows grasshoppers and other insects for food for their young which
are grub-like in form; others still burrowing into the twigs of
bushes, and others making mud nests attached to the trunks of trees or
to the clapboards of houses or outbuildings.

This is just a hint at the endless variety of habits of insects. The
United States National Museum publishes a bulletin, by Mr. Nathan
Banks, entitled "Directions for Collecting and Preserving Insects,"
which gives a general outline of the classification, and should be
possessed by everyone who wishes to take up the study from the
beginning.


FISHES

_By Dr. Hugh M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner United States Fisheries_

There is no more fascinating and profitable study than the fish life
of the lakes, ponds, rivers, brooks, bays, estuaries, and coasts of
the United States; and no more important service can be rendered our
American boys than to teach them to become familiar with our native
food and game fishes, to realize their needs, and by example and
precept to {106} endeavor to secure for the fishes fair consideration and
treatment.


[Illustration: _Esox lucius_--Common pike pickerel]


[Illustration: _Oncorhynchus tschawytscha_--Chinook salmon]


[Illustration: _Coregonus clupeiformis_--Common whitefish]


[Illustration: _Salvelinus fontinalis_--Brook trout: speckled trout]


[Illustration: _Ictalurus punctatus_--The speckled catfish]


Classes of Fish

Fishes may be roughly classified as (1) fresh water, (2) migratory
between fresh and salt water, and (3) marine. Among the families of
American fresh-water fishes that are conspicuous on account of their
size, abundance, or economic importance, or all of these, there may be
mentioned the sturgeons, the catfishes, the suckers, the minnows or
carps, the pikes, the killifishes, the trouts, salmons, and
whitefishes, the perches, and the basses, and sun fishes.


Migratory Fish

The migratory fishes fall into two groups, the anadromous and the
catadtomous. The anadromous fishes pass most of their lives in the
sea, run up stream only for the purpose of spawning, and constitute
the most valuable of our river fishes. In this group are the shads and
the alewives or river herrings, the white perch, the striped bass or
rock fish, some {107} of the sturgeons, and the Atlantic salmon, all
of which go back to sea after spawning, and the Pacific salmons (five
species), all of which die after spawning. Of the catadromous fishes
there is a single example in our waters--the common eel. It spends
most of its life in the fresh waters and sometimes becomes permanently
landlocked there, and runs down to the sea to spawn, laying its eggs
off shore in deep water.


Marine Fish

The marine fishes that are found in the coastal waters of the United
States number many hundred species, some of them of great value as
food. Among the most important are cod, haddock, hake, halibut,
Flounder, herring, bluefish, mackeral, weakfish or squeteague, mullet,
snapper, drum, and rock fishes.


[Illustration: _Perea flavescens_--Yellow perch]


[Illustration: _Pomolobus altivalis_--The alewife or river herring]


[Illustration: _Micropterus salmoides_--Large-mouth black bass]


[Illustration: _Notropis hudsonius_--Minnow or shiner]


[Illustration: _Acipenser oxyrhynchus_--The Atlantic sturgeon]


Studying Fish

The study of living fishes is most entertaining and is rendered
somewhat difficult by the medium in which they live, by their {108}
shyness, and by the necessity of approaching closely in order to
obtain any accurate view. The spawning, feeding, swimming and other
habits of very few of our fishes are so well known that further
information thereon is not needed; and the boy scout's patience,
skill, and powers of observation will be reflected in the records that
may be and should be kept about the different fishes met with. Fishes
may be studied from a bank, wharf, or boat, or by wading; and the view
of the bottom and the fishes on or adjacent thereto may be greatly
improved by the use of a "water bucket"--an ordinary wooden pail whose
bottom is replaced by a piece of window glass. A more elaborate
arrangement for observation is to provide at the bow of a row-boat a
glass bottom box over which may be thrown a hood so that the student
is invisible to the fishes.


[Illustration: _Fundulus diaphanus_--Killifish: top minnow]


[Illustration: _Catostomus commersonii_--Common sucker: white sucker]


Identification of Specimens

While many of the fishes in a given section are easily recognizable,
there are in every water fishes which, on account of their small size,
rarity, retiring habits, or close similarity to other fishes, are
unknown to the average boy. These latter fishes often afford the most
interesting subjects for study; and in all parts of the country it is
possible for energetic observers and collectors to add to the list of
fishes already recorded from particular districts.

When fishes cannot be identified in the field, the larger ones may be
sketched and notes taken on their color, while the smaller ones may be
preserved with salt, formalin, or any kind of spirits. Specimens and
drawings may be forwarded for identification to the zoological
department of the local state university, to the state fish
commission, to the Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C., or to the
United States National Museum in the same city.


{109}

Angling

This most delightful of outdoor pastimes requires for its enjoyment no
elaborate or expensive paraphernalia: a rod cut on the spot, a cork
float, an ordinary hook baited with angleworm, grasshopper, grub,
may-fly, or any of a dozen other handy lures, will answer for most
occasions. At the same time, the joys of fishing will often be
increased if one possesses and learns how to use a light, jointed rod,
with reel, fine line, and artificial baits. The necessary equipment
for scientific angling is so light and compact that it should form a
part of the outfit of every one who spends much time in the open air.

It should be the invariable practice of anglers to return to the water
all uninjured fish that are not needed for food or study. "It is not
all of fishing to fish," and no thoughtful boy who has the interests
of the country at heart, and no lover of nature, will go fishing
merely for the purpose of catching the longest possible string of
fish, thus placing himself in the class of anglers properly known as
"fish hogs."


Special Service by Boy Scouts

Valuable service may be rendered by boy scouts in all parts of the
country by bringing to the attention of the proper state, county, or
municipal authorities matters affecting the welfare of the fishes.
Among the subjects that should be reported to fish commissioners, fish
wardens, or local legal officers are:

(1) All cases noticed where fish are being killed by dynamite,
poisons, or other illegal and improper means.

(2) Threatened destruction of fish by the drying of streams or ponds.

(3) The existence of obstructions to the passage of fish on their way
to their spawning grounds. All dams in streams in which are migratory
fish should have fish-ways or fish-ladders.


Aquarium

_William Leland Stowell, M. D._

Every boy should have an aquarium. The aquarium will give ten times as
much pleasure as annoyance, and the longer time you have one
undisturbed the greater will be its revelations.

A simple tank can be made from a large water bottle or demijohn. File
a line around the top and carefully break it off. For the back yard,
cut a paint barrel in two or coat a tub inside with spar varnish.
Anything that will hold a few gallons of water, two inches of clean
sand, and some water plants will be a suitable home for fish and other
creatures. A boy handy with tools can make a frame, and with plate
glass and proper cement construct a large tank.


{110}

Starting the Aquarium

You can balance your aquarium by plenty of plants. As they grow they
give off oxygen which purifies the water and is breathed by the fish.
The water need not be changed for years. The swamps and slow streams
afford great numbers of plants. If you know the plants get pond weeds,
Canadian water weed, ludwigia, willow moss, or tape grass. (Look in
the dictionary for official names of the plants or get special books
from the library.) Take some tape grass (vallisneria) to your teacher
or doctor and ask him to show you under his microscope how the sap
flows and the green coloring matter is deposited. The simplest form of
vegetation is algae which grows on the sides of the tank. Lest this
grow too thick, put in a few snails. Watch the snails' eggs develop in
clusters. Buy if you cannot find banded swamp snails that give birth
to their young instead of laying eggs.

Any pond or stream will furnish fish that are beautiful or interesting
to watch, e.g., killies, sunfish, cat-fish, carp, shiners, blacknosed
dace, minnows--the mud minnow that seems to stand on his
tail--darters, etc. If you get your supply from dealers, buy gold
fish, of which there are several varieties, fan-tailed, comets, fringe
tails and telescope eyed. Mirror carp are lively. Paradise fish are as
beautiful as butterflies.


[Illustration: A balanced aquarium]


Fish Nests

Every one knows something of birds' nests. Did you ever watch
sticklebacks build their barrel-like nest, or the Paradise fish his
floating nest, and the father fish take all the care of the young? Did
you ever see the newt roll her eggs in small leaves, or the caddis fly
make a case of bits of stick, leaves, and sand? For a real marvel
watch a pair of diving spiders weave their balloon-like nest under
water and actually carry air down to fill it, so that the young may be
dry though submerged.


{111}

Put in a few fresh-water clams and insects in variety, water boatmen,
diving spiders, and whirligigs. A tank of beetles will be full of
interest. Always add two or three tadpoles as scavengers, and watch
their legs grow out as the tail grows short and they become frogs. You
can find or buy a variety of turtles which will soon be tame and eat
from your fingers. Do not keep turtles with fish.

On every hike or tramp carry a wide-mouthed bottle for specimens and a
piece of rubber cloth in which to bring home water plants. Fish can be
carried wrapped in damp moss for hours and will be found well and
lively when put in the aquarium.


Fish Food

Fish require very little food other than the minute creatures that
develop in the water.

The dealers supply proper foods for aquaria, or you can prepare your
own. Fine vermicelli is good for gold fish, scraped lean beef is just
what the sunfish and Paradise fish want. Ant eggs suit many fish, and
powdered dog biscuit will fill many mouths. It is evident that an
article so brief as this is only suggestive. The libraries contain
many books of which two are recommended:

"Home Aquarium and How to Care For It." By Eugene Smith, 1902.
Published by Dutton, New York.

"Book of Aquaria." By Bateman and Bennett, 1890. Published by L.
Upcott Gill, 170 Strand, W. C., London.


ROCKS AND PEBBLES

_United States Geological Survey_

Geologists study the materials of the earth's crust, the processes
continually changing its surface, and the forms and structures thus
produced. In a day's tramp one may see much under each of these heads.

The earth's crust is made up chiefly of the hard rocks, which outcrop
in many places, but are largely covered by thin, loose, surface
materials. Rocks may be igneous, which have cooled from a melted
condition; or sedimentary, which are made of layers spread one upon
another by water currents or waves, or by winds.

Igneous rocks, while still molten, have been forced into other rocks
from below, or poured out on the surface from volcanoes. They are
chiefly made of crystals of various minerals, such as quartz, felspar,
mica, and pyrite. Granite often contains large crystals of felspar or
mica. Some igneous rocks, especially lavas, are glassy; others are so
fine grained that the crystals cannot be seen.

In places one may find veins filling cracks in the rocks, and {113}
made of material deposited from solution in water. Many valuable
minerals and ores occur in such veins, and fine specimens can
sometimes be obtained from them.


{112}

[Illustration: Fold in stratified rock]


[Illustration: Wearing the soft and hard beds by rain and wind]


[Illustration: Quartz vein in rock]


{113 continued}

Sedimentary rock are formed of material usually derived from the
breaking up and wearing away of older rocks. When first deposited, the
materials are loose, but later, when covered by other beds, they
become hardened into solid rock. If the layers were of sand, the rock
is sandstone; if of clay, it is shale. Rocks made of layers of pebbles
are called conglomerate or pudding-stone; those of limy material,
derived perhaps from shells, are limestone. Many sedimentary rocks
contain fossils, which are the shells or bones of animals or the stems
and leaves of plants living in former times, and buried by successive
beds of sand or mud spread over them. Much of the land is covered by a
thin surface deposit of clay, sand, or gravel, which is yet loose
material and which shows the mode of formation of sedimentary rocks.

Some rocks have undergone, since their formation, great pressure or
heat and have been much changed. They are called metamorphic rocks.
Some are now made of crystals though at first they were not; in others
the minerals have become arranged {114} in layers closely resembling
the beds of sedimentary rocks; still others, like slate, tend to split
into thin plates.

The earth's surface is continually being changed; the outcropping hard
rock is worn away by wind and rain, and is broken up by frost, by
solution of some minerals, etc. The loose material formed is blown
away or washed away by rain and deposited elsewhere by streams in
gravel bars, sand beds, and mud flats. The streams cut away their
beds, aided by the sand and pebbles washed along. Thus the hills are
being worn down and the valleys deepened and widened, and the
materials of the land are slowly being moved toward the sea, again to
be deposited in beds.


[Illustration: Wave-cut cliff with beach and spit built by waves and
currents]


Along the coast the waves, with the pebbles washed about, are wearing
away the land and spreading out its materials in new beds elsewhere.
The shore is being cut back in some places and built out in others.
Rivers bring down sand and mud and build deltas or bars at their
mouths.

Volcanoes pour out melted rock on the surface, and much fine material
is blown out in eruptions. Swamps are filled {115} by dead vegetable
matter and by sand and mud washed in. These materials form new rocks
and build up the surface. Thus the two processes, the wearing down in
some places and the building up in others, are tending to bring the
surface to a uniform level. Another process, so slow that it can be
observed only through long periods of time, tends to deform the
earth's crust and to make the surface more irregular. In times past,
layers of rock once horizontal have been bent and folded into great
arches and troughs, and large areas of the earth's surface have been
raised high above sea-level.


[Illustration: Rock ledge rounded smooth and scratched by ice]


[Illustration: Sand-dune with wind-rippled surface]


At almost any rock outcrop the result of {116} the breaking-up process
may be seen; the outer portion is softer, more easily broken, and of
different color from the fresh rock, as shown by breaking open a large
piece. The wearing away of the land surface is well shown in rain
gullies, and the carrying along and depositing of sand and gravel may
be seen in almost any stream. In the Northern states and Canada, which
at one time were covered by a great sheet of ice, moving southward and
grinding off the surface over which it passed, most of the rock
outcrops are smoothly rounded and many show scratches made by pebbles
dragged along by the ice. The hills too have {117} smoother and rounder
outlines, as compared with those farther south where the land has been
carved only by rain and streams. Along the coast the wearing away of
the land by waves is shown at cliffs, found where the coast is high,
and by the abundant pebbles on the beaches, which are built of
material torn from the land by the waves. Sand bars and tidal flats
show the deposition of material brought by streams and spread out by
currents. Sand dunes and barrens illustrate the carrying and spreading
out of fine material by the wind.


[Illustration: Slab containing fossil shells]


[Illustration: Conglomerate or pudding-stone]


In many regions the beds of sedimentary rocks, which must have been
nearly horizontal when formed, are now found sloping at various angles
or standing on edge, the result of slow deforming of these beds at an
earlier time. As some beds are more easily worn away than others, the
hills and valleys in such regions owe their form and position largely
to the different extent to which the harder and softer beds have been
worn down by weather and by streams. The irregular line of many coasts
is likewise due to the different hardness of the rocks along the
shore.

It is by the study of the rocks and of the remains of life found in
them, by observing the way in which the surface of the earth is being
changed and examining the results of those changes and by concluding
that similar results were produced in former times in the same way,
that geologists are able to read much of the past history of the
earth, uncounted years before there were men upon it.


Plants, Ferns, and Grasses

  _By Dr. L. C. Corbett, Horticulturist,
  United States Bureau of Plant Industry_


The appearance of the blossoms and fruits of the fields and forests in
any locality note the advent and progress of the seasons more
accurately than does the calendar. Plants and seeds which have lain
asleep during the winter are awakened not by the birth of a month, but
by the return of heat and moisture in proper proportions. This may be
early one year and late another, but, no matter what the calendar
says, the plants respond to the call and give evidence of spring,
summer, or autumn as the case may be. The surface of the earth is not
flat. We have valleys and we have mountains; we have torrid and we
have temperate zones. The plant life of the world has been adjusted to
these varied conditions, and as a result we have plants with certain
characteristics growing in the tropics at sea-level, but a very
different class of plants with {118} different habits and
characteristics inhabiting the elevated regions of this same zone. It
must be remembered that even under the tropics some of the highest
mountains carry a perpetual snow-cap. There is therefore all possible
gradations of climate from sea-level to the top of such mountains,
even at the equator, and plant life is as a result as varied as is
climate. Each zone, whether determined by latitude or by altitude,
possesses a distinctive flora.

But altitude and latitude are not the only factors which have been
instrumental in determining the plants found in any particular
locality. This old earth of ours has not always been as we see her
to-day. The nature we know and observe is quite different from that
which existed in earlier ages of the earth's history. The plants, the
trees, and the flowers that existed upon the earth during the age when
our coal was being deposited were very different from those we now
have. There has been a change, but, strange as it may seem, there are
in some places upon the earth to-day some of the same species of
plants which were abundant during the coal-forming periods. These are
among the oldest representatives of the plant world now extant. Then
we are told that there was a period when the north temperate zone was
covered with a great ice field which crowded down as far as southern
Pennsylvania and central Ohio. This naturally brought about a profound
change in the location and character of the plants of this region.
There are in the Black Hills of Dakota species of plants which have no
relatives anywhere in the prairie region, and no means is known by
which these representatives of a Rocky Mountain family could find
their way into the Black Hills, save that, previous to the ice age,
this species was generally scattered over the territory, and that,
during the ice age, the species was perpetuated in the hills, but was
killed out between there and the Rocky Mountains where it is found in
abundance. These are some of the natural reasons for the existence of
varied plants in different localities. They are sufficient to explain
the reason for the existence of local floras.

But nature has provided untold ways for the perpetuation as well as
the dispersal of plants for the purpose of, so far as possible,
enabling the plants of the world to take possession of all parts of
the earth's surface. If this adjustment were complete, the plants
would be practically alike all over the surface of the earth, but we
have already explained why this cannot be and why we have a different
flora in each zone, whether it be marked by lines of latitude or
height of {120} the mountains. Plants are perpetuated by seeds, by
bulbs, and by woody parts. Some seeds are highly perishable and must
be sown as soon as ripe; others remain years without losing their
power to produce plants. Some grow as soon as they come in contact
with the soil; others must fall, be buried and frozen before they will
germinate. Some plants are perpetuated by bulbs, tubers, or roots in
which a supply of food material is stored away to carry the plant over
a period when its above-ground parts cannot thrive owing to frost or
drought. Upon the return of favorable conditions, these resting parts
throw out shoots and again make the round of growth, usually producing
both seeds and underground parts for the preservation of the species.
There are both wild and cultivated plants in nearly all sections which
illustrate these methods of preservation. Besides plants which have
bulbs, tubers, or perennial roots, we have the large, woody plants
which live many years and so perpetuate themselves, not only as
individuals the same as plants with perennial roots; but they, too, as
a rule, produce seed for the multiplication of their kind.


{119}

[Illustration: _Pinkster Flower_--It shows its pink flowers in rocky
woods and thickets during spring.]


[Illustration: _White Pine_--Common evergreen tree of the Northeastern
states. Needle-like leaves in bundles of five.]


[Illustration: _Butterfly Weed_--The bright, orange colored flowers are
conspicuous in dry meadows from June to September.]


[Illustration: _Poison Ivy_--Can be distinguished from the harmless
woodbine by its three-lobed leaves.]


{120 continued}

The agencies which serve to spread plants about over the earth's
surface are very varied and interesting. Nature has provided seeds
with many appendages which assist in their dispersal. Some seeds have
wings, and some parachutes to take advantage of the wind. Some seeds
are provided with hooks and stickers by which they become attached to
the fur of animals and are in this way enabled to steal a free ride.
Other seeds are provided with edible coverings which attract birds,
but the seeds themselves are hard and not digestible; the fruit is
eaten and the seeds rejected and so plants are scattered. Besides
these methods of perpetuation and dispersal, some plants are
perpetuated as well as dispersed by vegetative reproduction, i. e., by
cuttings as in the case of willows; by runners as in the case of the
strawberry; and by stolons as with the black raspberry. (For further
information on this point see Bailey's "Lessons with Plants.")

Some plant characteristics, however, of greatest interest to the scout
may be enumerated. Plants not only mark zones, but they indicate soils
with certain characteristics, and the crop wise say that the soil on
which chestnut abounds is suitable for buckwheat or peaches. Plants
also indicate the influence of local conditions such as lakes, ponds,
or even variations in contour. A knowledge of the local flora of a
region will at once tell one whether he is upon a northern or a
southern hillside by the plants of the area. The creek bottom will
{121} abound with species not to be found on the hillsides, but species
common to both plain and mountain will mark the progress of the season
up the slope.

In the north temperate zone the moss if any will be found growing upon
the north side of the tree trunk. Each hundred feet of elevation in a
given latitude makes from one to two days difference in time of
blooming of plants. The character of the vegetation of a region is an
index to its climate. Certain plants are adapted to frigid regions,
others to temperate, and still others to tropical areas. Some plants
are adapted to humid sections, while others are admirably adjusted to
desert conditions. A knowledge of these differences in plants will be
of the greatest value to the scout, and if this is supplemented by
information about the value and uses of the various plant products
many hardships can be avoided. Many plants produce valuable juices,
gums, and resins, while others yield us valuable timber for building
and cabinet uses.

While it is impossible to even suggest the great variety of plants
found within the confines of the United States, the following books on
botany will be found helpful in each of the different sections for
which they are designed.


Bibliography

For the botany of the Northeastern United States use:

"New Manual of Botany," 7th ed. Asa Gray.

"Illustrated Flora of the United States and Canada." N. L. Britton and
Hon. Addison Brown.


For the botany of the Southern United States use:

"Flora of the Southern United States." A. W. Chapman.

"Southern Wild Flowers and Trees." Alice Lounsberry.


For the Botany of the Rocky Mountain region use:

"New Manual of Botany of the Central Rocky Mountains." John M.
Coulter; Revised by Aven Nelson.

"Rocky Mountain Wild Flower Studies." Burton O. Longyear.

"The Trees of California." Willis Linn Jepson.


For general information regarding the shrubby plants of the United
States use:

"Our Shrubs of the United States." Austin C. Apgar.

"Our Northern Shrubs." Harriet Louise Keeler.


For the wild flowers outside of those already mentioned for the
Southern United States and the Rocky Mountain region use:

"Our Garden Flowers." Harriet Louise Keeler.

"How to Know the Wild Flowers." Frances Theodora Parsons.

"Field Book of American Wild Flowers." F. Schuyler Mathews.

{122}

For the ferns and grasses it will be found worth while to consult:

"How to Know the Ferns." Frances Theodora Parsons.

"The Fern Collector's Guide." Willard Nelson Clute.

"New England Ferns and Their Common Allies." Helen Eastman.

"The Grasses, Sedges, and Rushes of the North United States." Edward
Knobel.


For the study of the monarchs of our forests the following books will
all be found exceedingly useful:

"Manual of the Trees of North America." Charles Sprague Sargent.

"Trees of the Northern United States." Austin C. Apgar.

"Handbook of the Trees of the Northern United States and Canada."
Romeyn Beck Hough.

"North American Trees." N. L. Britton.

"Familiar Trees and Their Leaves." 1911. F. Schuyler Mathews.

Besides these, several states have issued through their state
experiment stations bulletins dealing with the local plant
inhabitants. In some instances these publications cover forest trees,
grasses, and shrubs, either native or introduced. Several of the
educational institutions, as well as the experiment stations, now
regularly issue nature study leaflets or bulletins which treat of
popular subjects of interest in connection with outdoor things. It
would be well to write the state experiment station in your state for
literature of this nature.


MUSHROOMS, FUNGI, OR TOADSTOOLS

  _By Ernest Thompson Seton, Chief Scout
  Revised by Dr. C. C. Curtis_

There are thousands of different kinds of toadstools or mushrooms in
the world; most of them are good to eat, yet all have a bad
reputation, because some are deadly poisonous.

False tests. First of all let us dispose of some ancient false tests
that have led many into disaster.

Cooking or otherwise trying with silver proves absolutely nothing. It
is believed by many that the poisonous mushrooms turn silver black.
Some do; some do not; and some eatable ones do. There is nothing in
it.

Bright colors on the cap also mean nothing; many gorgeous toadstools
are wholesome food. But the color of the pores {123} means a great
deal, and this is determined by laying the fungus cap gills down on
gray paper for six or eight hours under a glass.


[Illustration: Moose horn clavaria.]


[Illustration: Spindle clavaria.]


[Illustration: Club clavaria.]


[Illustration: Golden clavaria.]


Poisonous Toadstools

Of all the poisonous kinds the deadliest are the Amanitas. Not only
are they widespread and abundant, but they are unhappily much like the
ordinary table mushrooms. They have however one or two strong marks:
Their stalk always grows out of a "poison cup" which shows either as a
cup or as a bulb; they have white or yellow gills, and white spores.
The worst of these are:


Deathcup, Destroying Angel, Sure-death, or Deadly Amanita
(_Amanita phalloides_)

One and one half to five inches across the cup; three to seven inches
high; white, green, yellowish olive, or grayish brown; {124} smooth but
sticky when moist; gills white; spores white; on the stem is an
annulus or ring just below the cap.


Fly Amanita (_Amanita muscaria_)

About the same size; mostly yellow, but ranging from orange red to or
almost white; usually with raised white spots or scales on the top;
gills white or tinged yellow; spores white; flesh white.

Hated Amanita (_Amanita spreta_)

Four to six inches high; cap three to five inches across; white,
tinged with brown in places especially in the middle of the cap, where
it has sometimes a bump.


[Illustration: Deadly amanita]


[Illustration: Fly amanita]


[Illustration: Hated amanita]


There are over a score more of amanitas varying in size and color, but
all have the general style of mushrooms, and the label marks of
poison, viz., white or yellow gills, a poison cup, and white spores.


Emetic Russula (_Russula emetica_)

In a less degree this russula is poisonous. It is a short-stemmed
mushroom, two to four inches high, about the size of the Fly Amanita;
its cap is rosy red, pinkish when young, dark red when older, fading
to straw color in age; its gills and spores white. Its peppery taste
when raw is a fair notice of danger.

_Symptoms of Poisoning_: Vomiting and purging, "the discharge from the
bowels being watery with small flakes suspended {125} and sometimes
containing blood," cramps in the extremities. The pulse is very slow
and strong at first but later weak and rapid, sometimes sweat and
saliva pour out. Dizziness, faintness, and blindness, the skin clammy,
cold, and bluish, or livid; temperature low with dreadful tetanic
convulsions, and finally stupor.

_Remedy_: "Take an emetic at once, and send for a physician with
instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and atropine sulphate. The
dose is 1/180 of a grain, and doses should be continued heroically
until 1/20 of a grain is administered, or until, in the physician's
opinion, a proper quantity has been injected. Where the victim is
critically ill, the 1/20 of a grain may be administered." (McIllvaine
& Macadam.)


[Illustration: Emetic russula: russula emetica (after Marshall)]


[Illustration: Mushrooms]


WHOLESOME TOADSTOOLS

IMPORTANT NOTE.--Experimenting with mushrooms is dangerous; it is
better not to eat them unless gathered under expert direction.


The Common Mushroom (_Agaricus campestris_)

Known at once by its general shape and smell, its pink or brown gills,
white flesh, brown spores and solid stem.


Coprinus

Also belonging to the gilled or true mushroom family are the ink-caps
of the genus.

They grow on dung piles and rich ground. They spring up over night and
perish in a day. In the last stage the gills turn as black as ink.


Inky Coprinus (_Coprinus atramentarius_)

This is the species illustrated. The example was from the woods; often
it is less tall and graceful. The cap is one inch {126} to three
inches in diameter, grayish or grayish brown, sometimes tinged lead
color. Wash and stew: Stew or bake from twenty to thirty minutes after
thorough washing, being the recognized mode.

All the Clavarias or Coral Mushrooms are good except Clavaria
dichotoma which is white, and has its branches divided in pairs at
each fork. It grows on the ground under beeches and is slightly
poisonous; it is rare.


The Delicious Morel (_Morchella deliciosa_)

One and a half to three inches high; greenish with brown hollows.
There are several kindred species of various colors. This is known by
the cylindrical shape of its cap. Wash, slice, and stew.


[Illustration: Inky coprinus]


[Illustration: Morel]


Puffballs (_Lycoperdaceae_)

The next important and safe group are the puffballs before they begin
to puff. All our puffballs when young and solid white inside are good,
wholesome food. Some of them, like the brain puffball or the giant
puffball, are occasionally a foot in diameter, and yield flesh enough
to feed a dozen persons.


[Illustration: Brain puffball]


[Illustration: Pear puffball]


[Illustration: Cup puffball]


They are well known to all who live in the country, their smooth
rounded exterior, without special features except the {127} roots, and
their solid white interior are easily remembered. Peel, slice, and
fry.


Bibliography

The following are standard and beautifully illustrated works on
mushrooms and toadstools. They have been freely used for guidance and
illustrations in the preparation of the above:

"Edible Fungi of New York." By Charles H. Peck. Published by New York
State Museum, Albany, 1900.

"The Mushroom Book." By Nina L. Marshall. Published 1902 at New York
by Doubleday, Page & Co. $3.50.

"One Thousand American Fungi." By McIllvaine and Macadam. Published by
the Bobbs-Merrill Company of Indianapolis, 1902. $3.00. Add 40 cents
express.

"Mushrooms." G. F. Atkinson. Holt & Co.

"The Mushroom." M. E. Hard. The Ohio Library Co., Columbus, Ohio.


COMMON NORTH AMERICAN TREES

White Pine  (_Pinus strobus_)

A noble evergreen tree, up to 175 feet high. This is the famous pine
of New England, the lumberman's prize. Its leaves are in bunches of
five, and are 3 to 5 inches long; cones 4 to 6 inches long. Wood pale,
soft, straight-grained, easily split. Newfoundland to Manitoba and
south to Illinois.


[Illustration: White pine]


[Illustration: Hemlock]


[Illustration: Red cedar]


{128}

There are many different kinds of pines. They are best distinguished
by their cones.


Hemlock (_Tsuga Canadensis_)

Evergreen. Sixty to seventy feet high. Wood pale, soft, coarse,
splintery, not durable. Bark full of tannin. Leaves 1/2 to 3/4 inches
long; cones about the same. Its knots are so hard that they quickly
turn the edge of an axe or gap it as a stone might; these are probably
the hardest vegetable growth in our woods. Its topmost twig usually
points easterly. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Delaware and
Michigan.


[Illustration: Cottonwood]


[Illustration: Shagbark]


[Illustration: Walnut]


Red Cedar  (_Juniperus Virginiana_)

Evergreen. Any height up to 100 feet. Wood, heart a beautiful bright
red; sap wood nearly white; soft, weak, but extremely durable as
posts, etc. Makes a good bow. The tiny scale-like leaves are 3 to 6 to
the inch; the berry-like cones are light blue and 1/4 of an inch in
diameter. It is found in dry places from Nova Scotia to Florida and
west to British Columbia.


Cottonwood  (_Populus deltoides_)

Small and rare in the Northeast, but abundant and large {129} in West;
even 150 feet high. Leaves 3 to 6 inches long. Found from Quebec to
Florida and west to the mountains.


Shagbark or White Hickory  (_Hicoria ovata_)

A tall forest tree up to 120 feet high. Known at once by the great
angular slabs of bark hanging partly detached from its main trunk,
forced off by the growth of wood, but too tough to fall. Its leaves
are 8 to 14 inches long, with 5 to 7 broad leaflets.


Black Walnut  (_Juglans nigra_)

A magnificent forest tree up to 150 feet high. Wood, a dark
purplish-brown or gray; hard, close-grained, strong, very durable in
weather or ground work, and heavy; fruit round, 1-3/4 inches through.
Leaflets 13 to 23, and 3 to 5 inches long. Found from Canada to the
Gulf.


White Walnut or Butternut  (_Juglans cinerea_)

A much smaller tree than the last, rarely 100 feet high, with much
smoother bark, leaves similar but larger and coarser, compound of
fewer leaflets, but the leaflet stalks and the new twigs are covered
with sticky down. Leaves 15 to 30 inches long, leaflets 11 to 19 in
number and 3 to 5 inches long; fruit oblong, 2 to 3 inches long. New
Brunswick and Dakota and south to Mississippi.


Common Birch or Aspen-leaved Birch  (_Betula populifolia_)

A small tree on dry and poor soil, rarely 50 feet high. Wood soft,
close-grained, not strong, splits in drying, useless for weather or
ground work. A cubic foot weighs 36 pounds. Leaves 2 to 3 inches long.
It has a black triangular scar at each armpit. The canoe birch is
without these black marks. New Brunswick to Ontario to Pennsylvania
and Delaware.


Black Birch, Sweet Birch, or Mahogany Birch  (_Betula lenta_)

The largest of the birches; a great tree, in Northern forests up to 80
feet high. The bark is scarcely birchy, rather like that of {130}
cherry, very dark, and aromatic. Leaves 2-1/2 to 6 inches long.
Newfoundland to Western Ontario and south to Tennessee.


[Illustration: Ashen-leaved birch]


[Illustration: Black birch]


[Illustration: Beech]


Beech  (_Fagus Americana_)

In all North America there is but one species of beech. It is a noble
forest tree, 70 to 80 and occasionally 120 feet high, readily
distinguished by its smooth, ashy-gray bark. Leaves 3 to 4 inches
long. It shares with hickory and sugar maple the honor of being a
perfect firewood. Nova Scotia to Wisconsin, south to Florida and
Texas.


Chestnut  (_Castanea dentata_)

A noble tree, 60 to 80 or even 100 feet high. The most delicious of
nuts. Leaves 6 to 8 inches long. Maine to Michigan and south to
Tennessee.


Red Oak  (_Quercus rubra_)

A fine forest tree, 70 to 80 or even 140 feet high. Hard, strong,
coarse-grained, heavy. It checks, warps, and does not stand for
weather or ground work. The acorn takes two {131} seasons to ripen.
Leaves 4 to 8 inches long. Nova Scotia to Minnesota, south to Texas
and Florida.


White Oak  (_Quercus alba_)

A grand forest tree, over 100 up to 150 feet high. Wood pale, strong,
tough, fine-grained, durable and heavy, valuable timber. Called white
from pale color of bark and wood. Leaves 5 to 9 inches long. Acorns
ripen in one season. Maine to Minnesota, Florida and Texas.


[Illustration: Chestnut]


[Illustration: Red oak]


[Illustration: White oak]


White Elm or Swamp Elm  (_Ulmus Americana_)

A tall, splendid forest tree, commonly 100, occasionally 120 feet
high. Wood reddish-brown, hard, strong, tough, very hard to split,
coarse, heavy. Soon rots near the ground. Leaves 2 to 5 inches long.
Flowers in early spring before leafing. Abundant, Newfoundland and
Manitoba to Texas.


Sycamore, Plane Tree, Buttonball or Buttonwood  (_Platanus occidentalis_)

One of the largest of our trees; up to 140 feet high; commonly hollow.
Little use for weather work. Famous for shedding {132} its bark as well as
its leaves; leaves 4 to 9 inches long. Canada to Gulf.


Black or Yellow Locust, Silver Chain  (_Robinia pseudacacia_)

A tall forest tree up to 80 feet high; leaves 8 to 14 inches long;
leaflets 9 to 19, 1 to 2 inches long, pods 2 to 4 inches long, 4 to 7
seeded. This is the common locust so often seen about old lawns.


[Illustration: White elm]


[Illustration: Sycamore]


[Illustration: Black locust]


Red, Scarlet, Water, or Swamp Maple  (_Acer rubrum_)

A fine, tall tree, often over 100 feet high. Noted for its flaming
crimson foliage in fall, as well as its red leaf stalks, flowers, and
fruit, earlier. Leaves 2 to 6 inches long. Like all the maples it
produces sugar, though in this case not much. Western North America.

The sugar maple is a larger, finer tree.


[Illustration: Red maple]


[Illustration: White ash]



White Ash  (_Fraxinus Americana_)

A fine tree on moist soil. Seventy to 80 or even 130 feet high. Yellow
in autumn; noted for being last to leaf and first {133} to shed in the
forest. Called white for the silvery under sides of the leaves; these
are 8 to 12 inches long, each leaflet 3 to 6 inches long. Nova Scotia
to Texas.

For a full unbotanical account of one hundred and twenty of our finest
trees with their uses as wood, their properties, and the curious and
interesting things about them see:

"The Forester's Manual: or Forest Trees That Every Scout Should Know."
By Ernest Thompson Seton.


NATIVE WILD ANIMALS

Every scout ought to know the principal wild animals that are found in
North America. He need not know them as a naturalist, but as a hunter,
as a camper. Here is a brief account of twenty-four of them, and those
who wish to know more will find the fullest possible account in "Life
Histories of North America," by E. T. Seton. (Scribners, 1909.) These
two volumes are found in all large libraries.


[Illustration: Elk]


Elk or Wapiti  (_Cervus canadensis_)

This is smaller than the moose. It stands four to five feet at the
shoulder and weighs four hundred to eight hundred pounds. It is known
by its rounded horns and the patch of yellowish-white on the rump and
tail. At one time this splendid animal was found throughout temperate
America from the Atlantic to the Pacific, north to Massachusetts, the
Ottawa River, the Peace River, and British Columbia; and south to
Georgia, Texas, and southern California. It is now exterminated except
in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta; Vancouver Island, Washington,
Wyoming and a few localities in the mountain states and in parks where
it has been reintroduced.

{134}

The elk of Washington is very dark in color; that of the
Southwest is very pale and small.


White-tailed Deer  (_Odocoileus virginianus_)

This is the best known of the common deer of America. It is
distinguished by the forward bend of the horns, with the snags
pointing backward, and by its long tail which is brown or blackish
above and pure white below. Its face is gray, its throat white. A fair
sized buck weighs two hundred pounds, live weight. A few have been
taken of over three hundred and fifty pounds weight. In the Southern
states they run much smaller. Several varieties have been described.
It was found formerly in all of the timber states east of the Rockies;
also in Ontario south of Lake Nipissing, in south Quebec and south New
Brunswick. At present it is exterminated in the highly cultivated
states of the Middle West, but has spread into northern Ontario, New
Brunswick, and Manitoba.


[Illustration: White-tailed deer]


[Illustration: Mule deer]


[Illustration: Moose]


Mule Deer  (_Odocoileus hemionus_)

This is the commonest deer of the hill country in the centre of the
continent. It is found in the mountains from Mexico to British
Columbia and northeasterly Saskatchewan and the Lake of  the Woods. It
is known by its {135} double-forked horns, its large ears, the dark
patch on the forehead, the rest of the face being whitish. Also by its
tail which is white with a black bunch on the end. This is a larger
deer than the White-tail. There are several varieties of it in the
South and West.


Moose  (_Alces americanus_)

This is the largest of the deer tribe. It stands five and a half to
six and a half feet at the withers and weighs eight hundred to one
thousand pounds. It is readily distinguished by its flat horns and
pendulous, hairy muzzle. It is found in all the heavily timbered
regions of Canada and Alaska and enters the United States in Maine,
Adirondacks, Minnesota, Montana, Idaho, and northwestern Wyoming.
Those from Alaska are of gigantic stature.

In all our deer the antlers are grown and shed each year, reaching
perfection in autumn for the mating season. They are found in the
males only, except in the caribou, in which species the females also
have small horns.


[Illustration: Antelope]


Antelope  (_Antilocapra americana_)

The antelope is famous as the swiftest quadruped native in America. It
is a small creature, less than a common deer; a fair-sized buck weighs
about one hundred pounds. It is known by its rich buff color with pure
white patches, by having only two hoofs on each foot, and by the horns
which are of true horn, like those of a goat, but have a snag or
branch and are shed each year. In the female the horns are little
points about an inch long.

Formerly the antelope abounded on all the high plains from Manitoba to
Mexico and west to Oregon and California. It is now reduced to a few
straggling bands in the central and wildest parts of the region.


Mountain Goat  (_Oreamnos montanus_)

The mountain goat is known at once by its pure white coat of wool and
hair, its black horns, and peculiar shape. It is {136} above the size
of a common deer; that is, a full grown male weighs two hundred and
fifty to three hundred pounds; the female a third less. It is famous
for its wonderful power as a rock climber and mountaineer. It is found
in the higher Rockies, chiefly above timber lines, from central Idaho
to Alaska.


[Illustration: Goat]


[Illustration: Woodchuck]


[Illustration: Beaver]


Woodchuck  (_Marmota monax_)

The common woodchuck is a grizzly brown on the back, chestnut on the
breast, blackish on the crown and paws, and whitish on the cheeks. Its
short ears and bushy tail are important characteristics. It measures
about twenty-four inches of which the tail is five and a half inches
and weighs five to ten pounds.

It is found in all the wooded parts of Canada from the Rockies to the
Atlantic and south in the eastern states to about 40 degrees latitude.


Beaver  (_Castor canadensis_)

The beaver is known by its great size--weighing from twenty-five to
fifty pounds--its chestnut color, darker on the crown, its webbed
feet, and its broad, flat, naked, scaly tail. The pelt of this animal
is a valuable fur. The creature is famous for building dams and
digging canals. It was found wherever there was water and timber in
North America north of Mexico, but is now exterminated in most highly
settled regions.


Muskrat  (_Fiber zibethicus_)

The muskrat is about the size of a cat; that is, it is twenty-one
inches long, of which the tail is ten inches. In color it somewhat
resembles the beaver, but its feet are not conspicuously webbed, its
tail is long and flattened vertically, not {137} horizontally. This
abundant animal is found throughout North America within the limit of
trees wherever there is fresh water. It is the most abundant fur on
the market.


[Illustration: Muskrat]


[Illustration: Black-tailed jack rabbit]


Jack Rabbit (_Lepus Californicus_)

The jack-rabbit, famous for its speed and its ears, is known by its
size, which about doubles that of a common rabbit and the jet black
stripe running from its back into its tail. It is found on the plains
from Nebraska to Oregon and south to Mexico. There are several
different varieties.


Cottontail  (_Sylvilagus floridanus_)

The common eastern cottontail is known from the snowshoe by its
smaller feet and its much larger, longer tail, which is gray above,
and snow-white underneath. Sometimes the common tame rabbit resembles
the cottontail in general color, but the latter has the top of its
tail black.

The cottontails do not turn white in winter. They are found in most
parts of the United States, entering Canada only in the Ontario
peninsula and southern Saskatchewan.


[Illustration: Cottontail]


Cougar or Panther (_Felis couguar_)

The cougar has been called the American lion; it is the largest cat in
the western world except the jaguar or American {138} tiger. It is
known by its unspotted brown coat, its long, heavy tail, and its size.
A male cougar weighs one hundred and fifty to two hundred pounds; a
few have been taken over that. The females are a third smaller. The
young in first coat have black spots.

The cougar never attacks man but preys on deer, horses, calves, etc.
There are several different forms; one or other of these is (or was)
found from Ottawa, Minnesota, and Vancouver Island to Patagonia.


[Illustration: Cougar]


[Illustration: Lynx]


[Illustration: Wild cat or bob cat]


Wild Cat or Bob Cat  (_Lynx rufus_)

This is somewhat like the Canada lynx but is more spotted, has smaller
feet, and the tail has several dark bars above and is pure white on
the under side of the tip.

There are several species of bob cats; they cover the timbered states
and enter Canada in Ontario, going north to Lake Simcoe.


Fox  (_Vulpes fulvus_)

The fox is about four feet from snout to tail tip; of this the tail is
sixteen inches or more; it stands about fifteen inches at the
shoulder. It rarely weighs over fifteen pounds and sometimes barely
ten. The fox is known by its bright, sandy-red coat, black ears and
paws, its white throat, and the white tip at the end of the tail. At a
distance the fox's ears and tail look very large. The silver or black
fox is a mere color freak with black coat and white tail tip. Red
foxes are found throughout the heavily timbered parts of North America
north of latitude thirty-five degrees.


Gray Wolf  (_Canis occidentalis_)

The wolf is simply a big wild dog with exceptionally strong jaws and
general gray color, becoming dirty white on the under part. The wolf
is found in all parts of North America, except where settlement has
driven it out, and varies in color with locality. The Florida wolves
are black, Texan wolves are reddish, and Arctic wolves are white.
Wolves weigh from {139} seventy-five to one hundred and twenty pounds
and are distinguishable from coyotes by the heavy muzzle and jaws,
greater size, and comparatively small tail, which is often held aloft.
Wolves nowadays rarely molest man.


Coyote  (_Canis latrans_)

The common coyote is like a small and delicate edition of the gray
wolf. It is much smaller, weighing only twenty to thirty pounds, and
is distinguished by its sharp, fox-like muzzle and large bushy tail,
which is rarely raised to the level. In color it is much like the
ordinary gray wolf but usually more tinged with yellow. It is found in
all the interior country from Wisconsin to Oregon and from Mexico to
Great Slave Lake. There are several different varieties. It never
attacks man.


Otter (_Lutra canadensis_)

The otter is a large water weasel with close, dense, shiny fur and
webbed feet. It is known by its color--dark brown above shaded into
dark gray below and white on the cheeks without any markings--and by
its size. It is about forty inches long and weighs about twenty
pounds. It is found throughout North America within the limit of
trees. Its fur is very valuable. It feeds on fish.


[Illustration: Otter]


[Illustration: Weasel]


Weasel  (_Putorius noveboracensis_)

The common weasel of New England is about the size of a big rat; that
is, it is sixteen inches long and all brown with the exception of
white chin, throat, breast, and paws, and black tip to the tail. In
winter it turns white except the tail tip; that does not change.

The whole continent is inhabited by weasels of one kind or another. To
the north there is a smaller kind with shorter tail; on the prairies a
large kind with a very long tail; but all are of the same general
style and habits. A very small one, {140} the least weasel, is only
six inches long. It is found chiefly in Canada.


Mink (_Putorius vison_)

The mink is simply a water weasel. It is known by its size, larger
than that of a common weasel, as it is twenty-four inches long of
which the tail is seven inches; also by its deep brown color all over
except the throat and chin which are pure white. Its fur is brown,
harder and glossier than that of the marten, and worth about a quarter
as much. It does not turn white in the winter. One form or another of
mink is found over all the unarid parts of North America from the
north limit of trees to the Gulf of Mexico.


[Illustration: Mink]


[Illustration: Skunk]


[Illustration: Badger]


Skunk  (_Mephitis mephitica_)

The skunk is known at once by its black coat with white stripes, its
immense bushy tail tipped with white, and its size, nearly that of a
cat. It weighs three to seven pounds. It ranges from Virginia to
Hudson Bay. In the Northwest is a larger kind weighing twice as much
and with black tip to tail. Various kinds range over the continent
south of latitude 55 degrees. It is harmless and beautiful. The smell
gun for which it is famous is a liquid musk; this is never used except
in the extreme of self-defence.


Badger  (_Taxidea taxus_)

The common badger is known by its general whitish-gray color, the
black and white markings on the head, the black paws, and the strong
claws for digging. It weighs from twelve to twenty-two pounds. That
is, it is about the size of a 'coon. {141} It is found in all the
prairie and plains country from the Saskatchewan Valley to Mexico and
from Wisconsin to the Pacific.


Raccoon  (_Procyon lotor_)

The 'coon looks like a small gray bear with a bushy ringed tail and a
large black patch on each eye. Its paws look like hands, and it has
the full number of five fingers or toes on each extremity. It is found
in all wooded regions from Manitoba south to Mexico and from Atlantic
to Pacific, except the desert and Rocky Mountain region.


[Illustration: Racoon]


[Illustration: Opossum]


[Illustration: Gray Squirrel]


Opossum  (_Didelphis marsupialis_)

The opossum is famous for carrying its young in a pouch in front of
the body. It may be known by its dirty-white woolly fur, its long,
naked, prehensile tail, its hand-like paws, its white face and sharp
muzzle, and the naked pink and blue ears. In size it resembles a cat.
The 'possum is found from Connecticut to Florida and westerly to
California.


Gray-squirrel  (_Sciurus carolinensis_)

America is particularly rich in squirrels. Not counting
ground-squirrels or chipmunks, we have over seventy-five different
forms on this continent. The widest spread is probably the
red-squirrel; but the best known in the United States is the common
gray-squirrel. Its gray coat white breast, and immense {142} bushy
tail are familiar to all eastern children. It is found in most of the
hardwood timber east of the Mississippi and south of the Ottawa River
and the State of Maine. Most of the nut trees in the woods of this
region were planted by the gray-squirrel.


Black Bear  (_Ursus americanus_)

This is the common bear of America. It is known at once by its jet
black color and brown nose. Its claws are short, rarely over an inch
long, and curved, serving better as climbers than do the long claws of
the grizzly. Two hundred pounds would be a good sized female, three
hundred a male; but Florida black bears have been taken weighing five
hundred pounds. Sometimes freaks with cinnamon-brown coats are found.

This bear is found throughout North America wherever there is timber.


NOTES


{143}


Notes


{144}


Notes


{145}

CHAPTER III

CAMPCRAFT
(In treating of camping there has been an intentional omission of the
long-term camp. This is treated extensively in the books of reference
given at the close of this chapter.)

Hiking and Over-night Camp
  _By H. W. Gibson, Boys' Work Secretary,
  Young Men's Christian Association
  Massachusetts and Rhode Island_


Several things should be remembered when going on a hike: First, avoid
long distances. A foot-weary, muscle-tired and temper-tried, hungry
group of boys is surely not desirable. There are a lot of false
notions about courage and bravery and grit that read well in print,
but fail miserably in practice, and long hikes for boys is one of the
most glaring of these notions. Second, have a leader who will set a
good easy pace, say two or three miles an hour, prevent the boys from
excessive water drinking, and assign the duties of pitching camp, etc.
Third, observe these two rules given by an old woodsman: (1) Never
walk over anything you can walk around; (2) never step on anything
that you can step over. Every time you step on anything you lift the
weight of your body. Why lift extra weight when tramping? Fourth,
carry with you only the things absolutely needed, rolled in blankets,
poncho army style.

Before starting on a hike, study carefully the road maps, and take
them with you on the walk for frequent reference. The best maps are
those of the United States Geological Survey, costing five cents each.
The map is published in atlas sheets, each sheet representing a small,
quadrangular district. Send to the superintendent of documents at
Washington, D. C., for a list.

For tramping the boy needs the right kind of a shoe, or the trip will
be a miserable failure. A light-soled or a light-built shoe is not
suited for mountain work or even for an ordinary hike. The feet will
blister and become "road weary." The shoe must be neither too big, too
small, nor too heavy, and be amply broad to give the toes plenty of
room. The shoe should be water-tight. A medium weight, high-topped
lace shoe is about right. Bathing the feet at the springs and streams
along the road will be refreshing, if not indulged in too frequently.
{146} See Chapter on "Health and Endurance" for care of the feet and
proper way of walking.

It is well to carry a spare shirt hanging down the back with the
sleeves tied around the neck. Change when the shirt you are wearing
becomes too wet with perspiration.

The most practical and inexpensive pack is the one made for the Boy
Scouts of America. (Price 60 cents.) It is about 14 x 20 inches
square, and 6 inches thick, made of water-proof canvas with
shoulder-straps, and will easily hold everything needed for a tramping
trip.

A few simple remedies for bruises, cuts, etc., should be taken along
by the leader. You may not need them and some may poke fun at them,
but, as the old lady said, "You can't always sometimes tell." The
amount and kind of provisions must be determined by the locality and
habitation.


The Lean-to


[Illustration: Fig. 1. Frame of lean-to]


Reach the place where you are going to spend the night in plenty of
time to build your lean-to, and make your bed for {147} the night.
Select your camping spot with reference to water, wood, drainage, and
material for your lean-to. Choose a dry, level place, the ground just
sloping enough to insure the water running away from your lean-to in
case of rain. In building your lean-to look for a couple of good trees
standing from eight to ten feet apart with branches from six to eight
feet above the ground. By studying the illustration (No. 1) you will
be able to build a very serviceable shack, affording protection from
the dews and rain. While two or more boys are building the shack,
another should be gathering firewood and preparing the meal, while
another should be cutting and bringing in as many soft, thick tips of
trees as possible, for the roof of the shack and the beds.

How to thatch the lean-to is shown in illustration No. 2. If the camp
site is to be used for several days, two lean-tos may be built facing
each other, about six feet apart. This will make a very comfortable
camp, as a small fire can be built between the two thus giving warmth
and light.


[Illustration: Fig. 2. Method of thatching]


The Bed

On the floor of your lean-to lay a thick layer of the fans or branches
of a balsam or hemlock, with the convex side up, and the butts of the
stems toward the foot of the bed. Now thatch this over with more fans
by thrusting the butt ends through the first layer at a slight angle
toward the head of the bed, so that the soft tips will curve toward
the foot of the bed, and be sure to make the head of your bed away
from the opening of the lean-to and the foot toward the opening. Over
this bed spread your rubber blankets or ponchos with rubber side down,
your sleeping blanket on top, and you will be surprised how soft,
springy, and fragrant a bed you have, upon which to rest your "weary
frame" and sing with the poet:

  "Then the pine boughs croon me a lullaby,
    And trickle the white moonbeams
  To my face on the balsam where I lie
    While the owl hoots at my dreams."
               --_J. George Frederick_.


{148}

Hot-Stone Wrinkle

If the night bids fair to be cold, place a number of stones about six
or eight inches in diameter near the fire, so that they will get hot.
These can then be placed at the feet, back, etc., as needed, and will
be found good "bed warmers." When a stone loses its heat, it is
replaced near the fire and a hot one taken. If too hot, wrap the stone
in a shirt or sweater or wait for it to cool off.

Boys desire adventure. This desire may be gratified by the
establishment of night watchers in relays of two boys each, every two
hours. Their imaginations will be stirred by the resistless attraction
of the camp-fire and the sound of the creatures that creep at night.


Observation Practice

Many boys have excellent eyes, but see not, and good ears but hear
not, all because they have not been trained to observe or to hear
quickly. A good method of teaching observation while on a hike or
tramp is to have each boy jot down in a small note-book or diary of
the trip, the different kinds of trees, birds, animals, tracks, nature
of roads, fences, peculiar rock formation, smells of plants, etc., and
thus be able to tell what he saw or heard to the boys upon his return
to the permanent camp or to his home.


Camera Snap Shots

One of the party should take a small folding camera. Photographs of
the trip are always of great pleasure and memory revivers. A practical
and convenient method of carrying small folding cameras represents an
ordinary belt to which a strap with a buckle has been attached, which
is run through the loops at the back of the camera case. The camera
may be pushed around the belt to the point where it will be least in
the way.


Camp Lamp

A very convenient lamp to use on a hike is the Baldwin Camp Lamp made
by John Simmons Co., 13 Franklin Street, New York City. It weighs only
five ounces when full; is charged with carbide and is but 4-3/4 inches
high. It projects a strong light 150 feet through the woods. A stiff
wind will not blow it out. It can be worn comfortably in your hat or
belt.


Handy Articles

A boy of ingenuity can make a number of convenient things. A good
drinking cup may be made from a piece of bark cut {149} in
parallelogram shape twisted into pyramid form and fastened with a
split stick. A flat piece of bark may serve as a plate. A pot lifter
may be made from a green stick about 18 inches long, allowing a few
inches of a stout branch to remain. By reversing the same kind of
stick and driving a small nail near the other end or cutting a notch
in it, it may be used to suspend a kettle over a fire. A novel
candlestick is made by opening the blade of a knife and jabbing it
into a tree; upon the other upturned blade put a candle. A green stick
having a split which will hold a piece of bread or meat makes an
excellent broiler. Don't pierce the bread or meat. Driving a
good-sized stake into the ground at an angle of 45 degrees and cutting
a notch on which may be suspended a kettle over a fire will provide a
way of boiling water quickly.


Building the Fireplace

Take two or three stones and build a fireplace, a stick first shaved
and then whittled for shavings, a lighted match, a little blaze, some
bark and dry twigs added, a few small sticks, place the griddle over
the fire and you are ready to cook the most appetizing griddle-cakes.
After the cakes are cooked, fry slices of bacon upon the griddle; in
the surplus fat fry slices of bread, then some thinly sliced raw
potatoes done to a delicious brown. Here is a breakfast capable of
making the mouth of a camper water.

Another way: Place the green logs side by side, closer together at one
end than the other. Build the fire between. On the logs over the fire
you can rest a frying-pan, kettle, etc. To start the fire have some
light, dry wood split up fine. When sticks begin to blaze, add a few
more of larger size and continue until you have a good fire. To
prevent the re-kindling of the fire after it is apparently out, pour
water over it and soak the earth for the space of two or three feet
around it. This is very important, for many forest fires have started
through failure to observe this caution.


COOKING RECEIPTS
Cooking for Hikes and Over-night Camps

The following tested receipts are given for those who go on hikes and
over-night camps:


Griddle-cakes

Beat one egg, tablespoonful of sugar, one cup diluted condensed milk
or new milk. Mix enough self-raising flour to {150} make a thick cream
batter. Grease the griddle with rind or slices of bacon for each batch
of cakes. Be sure to have the griddle hot.


Bacon

Slice bacon quite thin; remove the rind, which makes slices curl up.
Fry on griddle or put on a sharp end of a stick and hold over the hot
coals, or better yet remove the griddle, and put on a clean, flat rock
in its place. When hot lay the slices of bacon on the rock and broil.
Keep turning so as to brown on both sides.


Canned Salmon on Toast

Dip slices of stale bread into smoking hot lard. They will brown at
once. Drain them. Heat a pint of salmon, picked into flakes, season
with salt and pepper and turn in a tablespoonful of melted butter.
Heat in a pan. Stir in one egg, beaten light, with three
tablespoonfuls evaporated milk not thinned. Pour the mixture on the
fried bread.


Roast Potatoes

Wash and dry potatoes thoroughly, bury them deep in a good bed of
coals, cover them with hot coals until well done. It will take about
forty minutes for them to bake. Then pass a sharpened hard-wood sliver
through them from end to end, and let the steam escape and use
immediately as a roast potato soon becomes soggy and bitter.


Baked Fresh Fish

Clean well. Small fish should be fried whole with the back bone
severed to prevent curling up; large fish should be cut into pieces,
and ribs loosened from back bone so as to lie flat in pan. Rub the
pieces in corn meal or powdered crumbs, thinly and evenly (that browns
them), fry in plenty of hot fat to a golden brown, sprinkling lightly
with salt just as the color turns. If fish has not been wiped dry it
will absorb too much grease. If the frying fat is not very hot when
fish are put in, they will be soggy with it.


Frogs' Legs

First, after skinning, soak them an hour in cold water to which
vinegar has been added, or put them for two minutes into scalding
water that has vinegar in it. Drain, wipe dry, and cook. {151} To fry:
roll in flour, season with salt and pepper, and fry not too rapidly,
preferably in butter or oil. Water-cress is a good relish with them.
To griddle: Prepare three tablespoonsful melted butter, one half
tablespoonful salt, and a pinch or two of pepper, into which dip the
frogs' legs, then roll in fresh bread crumbs and broil for three
minutes on each side.


Eggs

Boiled: Have water to boiling point. Place eggs in carefully. Boil
steadily for three minutes if you wish them soft. If wanted hard
boiled, put them in cold water, bring to a boil, and keep it up for
twenty minutes. The yolk will then be mealy and wholesome.

Fried: Melt some butter or fat in frying-pan; when it hisses drop in
eggs carefully. Fry them three minutes.

Scrambled: First stir the eggs up and after putting some butter in the
frying-pan, stir the eggs in it after adding a little condensed milk.

Poached: First put in the frying-pan sufficient diluted condensed milk
which has been thinned with enough water to float the eggs in, and let
them simmer three or four minutes. Serve the eggs on slices of
buttered toast, pouring on enough of the milk to moisten the toast.


Coffee

For every cup of water allow a tablespoonful of ground coffee, then
add one extra. Have water come to boiling point first, add coffee,
hold it just below boiling point for five minutes, and settle with one
fourth of a cup of cold water. Serve. Some prefer to put the coffee in
a small muslin bag loosely tied.


Cocoa

Allow a teaspoonful of cocoa for every cup of boiling water. Mix the
powdered cocoa with water or boiled milk, with sugar to taste. Boil
two or three minutes.

These receipts have been tried out. Biscuit and bread making have been
purposely omitted. Take bread and crackers with you from camp.
"Amateur" biscuits are not conducive to good digestion or happiness.
Pack butter in small jar: cocoa, sugar, and coffee in small cans or
heavy paper; also salt and pepper. Wrap bread in a moist cloth to
prevent drying up; {152} bacon and dried or chipped beef in wax paper.
Pickles can be purchased put up in small bottles. Use the empty bottle
as candle-stick.


Sample Menu for an Over-night Camp and a Day Hike or Tramp


Breakfast
Griddle-Cakes, Fried Bacon and Potatoes, Bread, Coffee, Preserves

Dinner
Creamed Salmon on Toast, Baked Potatoes, Bread, Pickles, Fruit

Supper
Fried Eggs, Creamed or Chipped Beef, Cheese, Bread, Cocoa


Ration List for Six Boys, Three Meals

2   pounds bacon (sliced thin)
1   pound butter
1   dozen eggs
1/2 pound cocoa
1/2 pound coffee
1   pound sugar
3   cans salmon
24  potatoes
2   cans condensed milk
1   small package of self-raising flour
Salt and pepper


_Utensils_

Small griddle
Small stew pan
Small coffee-pot
Large spoon
Plate and cup
Matches and candle.

Dish Washing

First fill the frying-pan with water, place over the fire, and let it
boil. Pour out water and you will find the pan has practically cleaned
itself. Clean the griddle with sand and water. Greasy knives and forks
may be cleaned by jabbing {153} them into the ground. After all grease
is gotten rid of, wash in hot water and dry with cloth. Don't use the
cloth first and get it greasy.


Leadership

The most important thing about a camping party is that it should
always have the best of leadership. No group of boys should go camping
by themselves. The first thing a patrol of scouts should do when it
has determined to camp is to insist upon the scout master accompanying
the members of the patrol. The reason for this is that there is less
likely to be accidents of the kind that will break up your camp and
drive you home to the town or city. When the scout master is one of
the party, all of the boys can go in swimming when the proper time
comes for such exercise, and the scout master can stay upon the bank
or sit in the boat for the purpose of preventing accidents by
drowning. There are also a hundred and one things which will occur in
camp when the need of a man's help will show itself. A scout ought to
insist on his scout master going to camp. The scout master and patrol
leader should be present, in order to settle the many questions which
must of necessity arise, so that there may be no need of differences
or quarrels over disputed points, which would be sure to spoil the
outing.


Scout Camp Program

In a scout camp there will be a regular daily program, something
similar to the following:

 6:30  A.M.  Turn out, bathe, etc.
 7:00  A.M.  Breakfast
 8:00  A.M.  Air bedding in sun, if possible, and clean camp ground
 9:00  A.M.  Scouting games and practice
11:00  A.M.  Swimming
12:00  P.M.  Dinner
 1:00  P.M.  Talk by leader
 2:00  P.M.  Water games, etc.
 6:00  P.M.  Supper
 7:30  P.M.  Evening council around camp fire.


_Order of Business_

1. Opening Council
2. Roll-call
3. Record of last council
4. Reports of scouts
5. Left over business
6. Complaints
7. Honors
8. New scouts
9. New business
10. Challenges
11. Social doings, songs, dances, stories
12. Closing Council (devotional services when desired) 8:45 lights out

{154}

Water Supply

Dr. Charles E. A. Winslow, the noted biologist, is authority for the
following statement: "The source of danger in water is always human or
animal pollution. Occasionally we find water which is bad to drink on
account of passage through the ground or on account of passage through
lead pipes, but the danger is never from ordinary decomposing
vegetable matter. If you have to choose between a bright clear stream
which may be polluted at some point above and a pond full of dead
leaves and peaty matter, but which you can inspect all around and find
free from contamination, choose the pond. Even in the woods it is not
easy to find surface waters that are surely protected and streams
particularly are dangerous sources of water supply. We have not got
rid of the idea that running water purifies itself. It is standing
water which purifies itself, if anything does, for in stagnation there
is much more chance for the disease germs to die out. Better than
either a pond or stream, unless you can carry out a rather careful
exploration of their surroundings, is ground water from a well or
spring; though that again is not necessarily safe. If the well is in
good, sandy soil, with no cracks or fissures, even water that has been
polluted may be well purified and safe to drink. In a clayey or rocky
region, on the other hand, contaminating material may travel for a
considerable distance under the ground. Even if the well is protected
below, a very important point to look after is the pollution from the
surface. I believe more cases of typhoid fever from wells are due to
surface pollution than to the character of the water itself. There is
danger which can, of course, be done away with by protection of the
well from surface drainage, by seeing that the surface wash is not
allowed to drain toward it, and that it is protected by a tight
covering from the entrance of its own waste water. If good water
cannot be secured in any of these ways, it must in some way be
purified. ... Boiling will surely destroy all disease germs."

The Indians had a way of purifying water from a pond or swamp by
digging a hole about one foot across and down about six inches below
the water level, a few feet from the pond. After it was filled with
water, they bailed it out quickly, repeating the bailing process about
three times. After the third bailing the hole would fill with filtered
water. Try it.


Sanitation

A most important matter when in camp, and away from modern
conveniences is that of sanitation. This includes not {155} only care
as to personal cleanliness, but also as to the water supply and the
proper disposal of all refuse through burial or burning. Carelessness
in these matters has been the cause of serious illness to entire camps
and brought about many deaths. In many instances the loss of life in
the armies has been greater through disease in the camp than on the
battlefields.

Typhoid fever is one of the greatest dangers in camping and is caused
by unclean habits, polluted water, and contaminated milk, and food.
The armies of the world have given this disease the most careful study
with the result that flies have been found to be its greatest
spreaders. Not only should all sources of water supply be carefully
examined, an analysis obtained if possible before use, but great care
should also be taken when in the vicinity of such a supply, not to
pollute it in any way. In districts where typhoid is at all prevalent
it is advisable for each scout to be immunized before going to camp.

A scout's honor will not permit him to disobey in the slightest
particular the sanitary rules of his camp. He will do his part well.
He will do everything in his power to make his camp clean, sanitary,
and healthful from every standpoint.


General Hints

Two flannel shirts are better than two overcoats.

Don't wring out flannels or woolens.

Wash in cold water, very soapy, hang them up dripping wet, and they
will not shrink.

If you keep your head from getting hot and your feet dry there will be
little danger of sickness.

If your head gets too hot put green leaves inside of your hat.

If your throat is parched, and you cannot get water, put a pebble in
your mouth. This will start the saliva and quench the thirst.


Water Hints

If you work your hands like paddles and kick your feet, you can stay
above water for some time even with your clothes on. It requires a
little courage and enough strength not to lose your head.


[Illustration: Ready for the hike.]



{156}

Many boy swimmers make the mistake of going into the water too soon
after eating. The stomach and digestive organs are busy preparing the
food for the blood and body. Suddenly they are called upon to care for
the work of the swimmer. The change is too quick for the organs, the
process of digestion stops, congestion is apt to follow, and then
paralyzing cramps.


Indian Bathing Precaution

The Indians have a method of protecting themselves from cramps. Coming
to a bathing pool, an Indian swimmer, after stripping off, and before
entering the water, vigorously rubs the pit of the stomach with the
dry palm of his hands. This rubbing probably takes a minute, then he
dashes cold water all over his stomach and continues the rubbing for
another minute, and after that he is ready for his plunge. If the
water in which you are going to swim is cold, try this method before
plunging into the water.


Good Bathing Rule

The rule in most camps regarding entering the water is as follows: "No
one of the party shall enter the water for swimming or bathing except
at the time and place designated, and in the presence of a leader."
Laxity in the observance of this rule will result disastrously.


Clouds

Every cloud is a weather sign: Low clouds, swiftly moving, indicate
coolness and rain; hard-edged clouds, wind; rolled or jagged clouds,
strong wind; "mackerel" sky, twelve hours day.

Look out for rain when
  A slack rope tightens.
  Smoke beats downward.
  Sun is red in the morning.
  There is a pale yellow or greenish sunset.


Rains

Rain with east wind is lengthy.

A sudden shower is soon over.

A slow rain lasts long.

Rain before seven, clear before eleven.

A circle round the moon means "storm."


  "The evening red, the morning gray
  Sets the traveler on his way;
  The evening gray, the morning red
  Brings down showers upon his head."

{157}

  "When the grass is dry at night
  Look for rain before the light."

  "When the grass is dry at morning light
   Look for rain before the night."


Clear

  "When the dew is on the grass
  Rain will never come to pass."

A heavy morning fog generally indicates a clear day.

East wind brings rain.

West wind brings clear, bright, and cool weather.

North wind brings cold.

South wind brings heat.


Direction of the Wind

The way to find which way the wind is blowing is to throw up little
bits of dry grass, or to hold up a handful of light dust and let it
fall, or to suck your thumb, wet it all around and let the wind blow
over it, and the cold side of it will then tell you which way the wind
is blowing.


Weather Flags

The United States Weather Bureau publishes a "Classification of
Clouds" in colors, which may be had for the asking. If you are near
one of the weather signal stations, daily bulletins will be sent to
camp upon request; also the weather map.

A set of flag signals run up each day will create interest. The flags
are easily made or may be purchased.

Keep a daily record of temperature. A boy in charge of the "weather
bureau" will find it to be full of interest as well as offering an
opportunity to render the camp a real service. He will make a weather
vane, post a daily bulletin, keep a record of temperature, measure
velocity of wind, and rainfall.


How to Get Your Bearings

If you have lost your bearings, and it is a cloudy day, put the point
of your knife blade on your thumb nail, and turn the blade around
until the full shadow of the blade is on the nail. This will tell you
where the sun is, and decide in which direction the camp is.

Face the sun in the morning, spread out your arms straight {158} from
body. Before you is the east; behind you is the west; to your right is
the south; the left hand is the north. Grass turns with the sun.
Remember this when finding your way at night.


Building a Camp Fire

There are ways and ways of building a camp fire. An old Indian saying
runs, "White man heap fool, make um big fire--can't git near! Injun
make um little fire--git close! Ugh! good!"

Make it a service privilege for a tent of boys to gather wood and
build the fire. This should be done during the afternoon. Two things
are essential in the building of a fire--kindling and air. A fire
must be built systematically. First, get dry, small, dead branches,
twigs, fir branches, and other inflammable material. Place these on
the ground. Be sure that air can draw under it and upward through it.
Next place some heavier sticks and so on until you have built the camp
fire the required size. An interesting account of "How to Build a Fire
by Rubbing Sticks," by Ernest Thompson Seton, will be found in Chapter
11. In many camps it is considered an honor to light the fire.

Never build a large camp fire too near the tent or inflammable pine
trees. Better build it in the open.

Be sure and use every precaution to prevent the spreading of fire.
This may be done by building a circle of stones around the fire, or by
digging up the earth, or by wetting a space around the fire. Always
have the buckets of water near at hand. To prevent the re-kindling of
the fire after it is apparently out, pour water over it and soak the
earth for a space of two or three feet around it. This is very
important, for many forest fires have started through failure to
observe this caution.

Things to remember: First, it is criminal to leave a burning fire;
second, always put out the fire with water or earth.

"A fire is never out," says Chief Forester H. S. Graves, "until the
last spark is extinguished. Often a log or snag will smolder unnoticed
after the flames have apparently been conquered only to break out
afresh with a rising wind."

Be sure to get a copy of the laws of your state regarding forest
fires, and if a permit is necessary to build a fire, secure it, before
building the fire.

Kephart, in his book on "Camping and Woodcraft" (p. 28), says: "When
there is nothing dry to strike it on, jerk the head {160} of the match
forward through the teeth. Or, face the wind. Cup your hands back
toward the wind, remove the right hand just long enough to strike the
match on something very close by, then instantly resume former
position. Flame of match will run up stick instead of blowing away
from it."


----------------------------------------------------------------
{159}
FOREST FIRES!

The great annual destruction of forests by fire is an injury to all
persons and industries. The welfare of every community is dependent
upon a cheap and plentiful supply of timber, and a forest cover is the
most effective means of preventing floods and maintaining a regular
flow of streams used for irrigation and other useful purposes.

To prevent forest fires Congress passed the law approved May 5, 1900,
which--

  Forbids setting fire to the woods, and

  Forbids leaving any fires unextinguished.

This law, for offenses against which officers of the FOREST SERVICE
can arrest without warrant, provides as maximum punishment--

  A fine of $5000, or imprisonment for two years, or both, if a fire
  is set maliciously, and

  A fine of $1000, or imprisonment for one years, or both, if a fire
  is set carelessly,

It also provides that the money from such fines shall be paid to the
school fund of the county in which the offense is committed.

THE EXERCISE OF CARE WITH SMALL FIRES IS THE BEST PREVENTIVE OF LARGE
ONES. Therefore all persons are requested--

1. Not to drop matches or burning tobacco where there is inflammable
material.

2. Not to build larger camp fires than are necessary.

3. Not to build fires in leaves, rotten wood, or other places where
they are likely to spread.

4. In windy weather and in dangerous places, to dig holes or clear the
ground to confine camp fires.

5. To extinguish all fires completely before leaving them, even for a
short absence.

6. Not to build fires against large or hollow logs, where it is
difficult to extinguish them.

7. Not to build fires to clear land without informing the nearest
officer of the FOREST SERVICE, so that he may assist in controlling
them.

This notice is posted for your benefit and the good of every resident
of the region. You are requested to cooperate in preventing the
removal or defacement, which acts are punishable by law.

JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture
----------------------------------------------------------------

  _The above is a copy of one of a series of notices posted in forests
  by the U. S.  Department of Agriculture, directing attention to U.
  S. laws on this important subject_.


{160 continued}


[Illustration: Around the camp fire.]


The Camp Fire

"I cannot conceive of a camp that does not have a big fire. Our city
houses do not have it, not even a fireplace. The fireplace is one of
the greatest schools the imagination has ever had or can ever have. It
is moral, and it always has a tremendous stimulus to the imagination,
and that is why stories and fire go together. You cannot tell a good
story unless you tell it before a fire. You cannot have a complete
fire unless you have a good story-teller along!

"There is an impalpable, invisible, softly stepping delight in the
camp fire which escapes analysis. Enumerate all its charms and still
there is something missing in your catalogue.

"Anyone who has witnessed a real camp fire and participated in its fun
as well as seriousness will never forget it. The huge fire shooting up
its tongue of flame into the darkness of the night, the perfect shower
of golden rain, the company of happy {161} boys, and the great dark
background of piny woods, the weird light over all, the singing, the
yells, the stories, the fun, and then the serious word at the close,
is a happy experience long to be remembered."


Camp-fire Stunts

The camp fire is a golden opportunity for the telling of stories--good
stories told well. Indian legends, war stories, ghost stories,
detective stories, stories of heroism, the history of life, a talk
about the stars. Don't draw out the telling of a story. Make the story
life-like.

College songs always appeal to boys. Let some leader start up a song
in a natural way, and soon you will have a chorus of unexpected melody
and harmony. As the fire dies down, let the songs be of a more quiet
type like "My Old Kentucky Home," and ballads of similar nature.

When the embers are glowing is the time for toasting marshmallows. Get
a long stick sharpened to a point, fasten a marshmallow on the end,
hold it over the embers, not in the blaze, until the marsh-mallow
expands. Oh, the deliciousness of it! Ever tasted one? Before roasting
corn on the cob, tie the end of the husk firmly with string or cord;
soak in water for about an hour; then put into the hot embers. The
water prevents the corn from burning and the firmly tied husks enable
the corn to be steamed and the real corn flavor is thus retained. In
about twenty minutes the corn may be taken from the fire and eaten.
Have a bowl of melted butter and salt at hand. Also a pastry brush to
spread the melted butter upon the corn. Try it.


Story Telling

For an example of a good story to be told around the camp fire this
excellent tale by Prof. F. M. Burr is printed by permission:


How Men Found the Great Spirit

In the olden time, when the woods covered all the earth except the
deserts and the river bottoms, and men lived on the fruits and berries
they found and the wild animals which they could shoot or snare, when
they dressed in skins and lived in caves, there was little time for
thought. But as men grew stronger and more cunning and learned how to
live together, they had more time to think and more mind to think
with.

Men had learned many things. They had learned that cold weather
followed hot; and spring, winter; and that the sun got up in the
morning and went to bed at night. They said that the great water was
kindly when the sun shone, but when the sun hid its face and the wind
blew upon it, it grew black and angry and upset their canoes. They
found that knocking flints together or rubbing dry sticks would light
the dry moss and that the {162} flames which would bring back summer in the
midst of winter and day in the midst of night were hungry and must be
fed, and when they escaped devoured the woods and only the water could
stop them.

These and many other things men learned, but no one knew why it all
was or how it came to be. Man began to wonder, and that was the
beginning of the path which led to the Great Spirit.

In the ages when men began to wonder there was born a boy whose name
was Wo, which meant in the language of his time, "Whence." As he lay
in his mother's arms she loved him and wondered: "His body is of my
body, but from whence comes the life--the spirit which is like mine
and yet not like it?" And his father seeing the wonder in the mother's
eyes, said, "Whence came he from?" And there was no one to answer, and
so they called him Wo to remind them that they knew not from whence he
came.

As Wo grew up, he was stronger and swifter of foot than any of his
tribe. He became a mighty hunter. He knew the ways of all the wild
things and could read the signs of the seasons. As he grew older they
made him a chief and listened while he spoke at the council board, but
Wo was not satisfied. His name was a question and questioning filled
his mind.

"Whence did he come? Whither was he going? Why did the sun rise and
set? Why did life burst into leaf and flower with the coming of
spring? Why did the child become a man and the man grow old and die?"

The mystery grew upon him as he pondered. In the morning he stood on a
mountain top and stretching out his hands cried, "Whence?" At night he
cried to the moon "Whither?" He listened to the soughing of the trees
and the song of the brook and tried to learn their language. He peered
eagerly into the eyes of little children and tried to read the mystery
of life. He listened at the still lips of the dead, waiting for them
to tell him whither they had gone.

He went out among his fellows silent and absorbed, always looking for
the unseen and listening for the unspoken. He sat so long silent at
the council board that the elders questioned him. To their questioning
he replied like one awakening from a dream:

"Our fathers since the beginning have trailed the beasts of the woods.
There is none so cunning as the fox, but we can trail him to his lair.
Though we are weaker than the great bear and buffalo, yet by our
wisdom we overcome them. The deer is more swift of foot, but by craft
we overtake him. We cannot fly like a bird, but we snare the winged
one with a hair. We have made ourselves many cunning inventions by
which the beasts, the trees, the wind, the water and the fire become
our servants.

"Then we speak great swelling words: 'How great and wise we are! There
is none like us in the air, in the wood, or in the water!'

"But the words are false. Our pride is like that of a partridge
drumming on his log in the wood before the fox leaps upon him. Our
sight is like that of the mole burrowing under the ground. Our wisdom
is like a drop of dew upon the grass. Our ignorance is like the great
water which no eye can measure.

"Our life is like a bird coming out of the dark, fluttering for a
heart-beat in the tepee and then going forth into the dark again. No
one can tell whence it comes or whither it goes. I have asked the wise
men and they cannot answer. I have listened to the voice of the trees
and wind and water, but I do not know their tongue; I have questioned
the sun and the moon and the stars, but they are silent.

"But to-day in the silence before the darkness gives place to light, I
seemed to hear a still small voice within my breast, saying to me,
'Wo, the {163} questioner, rise up like the stag from his lair; away,
alone, to the mountain of the sun. There thou shalt find that which
thou seekest.' I go, but if I fail by the trail another will take it
up. If I find the answer I will return."

Waiting for none, Wo left the council of his tribe and went his way
toward the mountain of the sun. For six days he made his way through
the trackless woods, guided by the sun by day and the stars by night.
On the seventh day he came to the great mountain--the mountain of the
sun, on whose top, according to the tradition of his tribe, the sun
rested each night. All day long he climbed saying to himself, "I will
sleep tonight in the teepee of the sun, and he will tell me whence I
come and whither I go."

But as he climbed the sun seemed to climb higher and higher; and, as
he neared the top, a cold cloud settled like a night bird on the
mountain. Chilled and faint with hunger and fatigue, Wo struggled on.
Just at sunset he reached the top of the mountain, but it was not the
mountain of the sun, for many days' journey to the west the sun was
sinking in the Great Water.

A bitter cry broke from Wo's parched lips. His long trail was useless.
There was no answer to his questions. The sun journeyed farther and
faster than men dreamed, and of wood and waste and water there was no
end. Overcome with misery and weakness he fell upon a bed of moss with
his back toward the sunset and the unknown.

And Wo slept, although it was unlike any sleep he had ever known
before, and as he slept he dreamed. He was alone upon the mountain
waiting for the answer. A cloud covered the mountain but all was
silent. A mighty wind rent the cloud and rushed roaring through the
crags, but there was no voice in the wind. Thunder pealed, lightning
flashed, but he whom Wo sought was not there.

In the hush that followed up the storm Wo heard a voice, low and
quiet, but in it all the sounds of earth and sky seemed to mingle--the
song of the bird, the whispering of the trees, and the murmuring of
the brook.

"Wo, I am he whom thou seekest, I am the Great Spirit. I am the All
Father. Ever since I made man of the dust of the earth, and so child
of the earth and brother to all living, and breathed into his nostrils
the breath of life, thus making him my son, I have waited for a seeker
who should find me. In the fullness of time thou hast come, Wo the
questioner, to the answerer.

"Thy body is of the earth and to earth returns; thy spirit is mine; it
is given thee for a space to make according to thy will; then it
returns to me better or worse for thy making.

"Thou hast found me because thy heart was pure, and thy search for me
tireless. Go back to thy tribe and be to them the voice of the Great
Spirit. From henceforth I will speak to thee, and the seekers that
come after thee in a thousand voices and appear in a thousand shapes.
I will speak in the voices of the woods and streams and of those you
love. I will appear to you in the sun by day and the stars by night.
When thy people and mine are in need and wish for the will of the
Great Spirit, then shall my spirit brood over thine and the words that
thou shalt speak shall be my words."

And Wo awoke, facing the east and the rising sun. His body was warmed
by its rays. A great gladness filled his soul. He had sought and found
and prayer came to him like the song to the bird.

"O Great Spirit, father of my spirit, the sun is thy messenger, but
thou art brighter than the sun. Drive thou the darkness before me. Be
thou the light of my spirit." As Wo went down the mountain and took
the journey back to the home of his people, his face shone, and the
light never seemed to leave it, so that men called him "He of the
shining face."

{164}

When Wo came back to his tribe, all who saw his face knew that he had
found the answer, and they gathered again about the council fire to
hear. As Wo stood up and looked into the eager faces in the circle of
the fire, he remembered that the Great Spirit had given him no message
and for a moment he was dumb. Then the words of the Great Spirit came
to him again. "When thy people and mine shall need to know my will, my
spirit shall brood over thine and the words that thou shalt speak
shall be my words." Looking into the eager faces of longing and
questioning, his Spirit moved within him and he spoke:

"I went, I sought, I found the Great Spirit who dwells in the earth as
your spirits dwell in your bodies. It is from Him the spirit comes. We
are His children. He cares for us more than a mother for the child on
her breast, or the father for the son that is his pride. His love is
like the air we breathe: it is about us; it is within us.

"The sun is the sign of His brightness, the sky of His greatness and
mother-love and father-love, and the love of man and woman are the
signs of His love. We are but His children; we cannot enter into the
council of the Great Chief until we have been proved, but this is His
will, that we love one another as He loves us; that we bury forever
the hatchet of hate, that no man shall take what is not his own and
the strong shall help the weak."

The chiefs did not wholly understand the words of Wo, but they took a
hatchet and buried it by the fire saying, "Thus bury we hate between
man and his brother," and they took an acorn and put it in the earth
saying, "Thus plant we the love of the strong for the weak." And it
became the custom of the tribe that the great council in the spring
should bury the hatchet and plant the acorn. Every morning the tribe
gathered to greet the rising sun, and with right hand raised and left
upon their hearts prayed: "Great Spirit hear us; guide us to-day; make
our wills Thy will, our ways Thy way."

And the tribe grew stronger and greater and wiser than all the other
tribes--but that is another story.


Tent Making Made Easy

_By H. J. Holden_

(Reprinted from Recreation. Apr. 1, 1911. by permission of the Editor.)

The accompanying sketches show a few of the many different tents which
may be made from any available piece of cloth or canvas. The material
need not be cut, nor its usefulness for other purposes impaired,
except that rings or tapes are attached at various points as
indicated. For each tent the sketches show a front elevation, with a
ground plan, or a side view; also a view of the material laid flat,
with dotted lines to indicate where creases or folds will occur.
Models may be made from stiff paper and will prove as interesting to
the kindergartner in geometry as to the old campaigner in camping. In
most of the tents a ring for suspension is fastened at the centre of
one side. This may be supported by a pole or hung by means {165} of a
rope from any convenient fastening; both methods are shown in the
sketches. Guy ropes are required for a few of the different models,
but most of them are pegged down to the ground.

After making paper models, find a stack cover, a tarpaulin, a tent
fly, an awning, or buy some wide cotton cloth, say 90-inch. All the
shapes may be repeatedly made from the same piece of material, if the
rings for changes are left attached. In Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, a
portion of the canvas is not used and may be turned under to serve as
sod-cloth, or rolled up out of the way. If your material is a large
piece, more pegs and guy lines will be required than is indicated in
the sketches. The suspension ring, 1-1/2 inches or 2 inches in
diameter, should be well fastened, with sufficient reinforcement to
prevent tearing out; 1-inch rings fastened with liberal lengths of
tape are large enough for the pegs and guy lines. Also reinforce along
the lines of the strain from peg to pole.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 1.--A square of material hung by one corner, from any convenient
support, in a manner to make a comfortable shelter; it will shed rain
and reflect heat. This square makes a good fly or a good ground cloth
for any of the tents.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Tent from a square of canvas. A 7 x 7 sheet is
ample for a one-man shelter; 9 x 9 will house two.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 2.--A rectangle equal to two squares. A shelter roomy and warm,
with part of one side open toward the fire.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Rectangle tent.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

{166}

Fig. 3.--Here the rectangle is folded to make a "lean-to" shelter,
with the roof front suspended from a rope or from a horizontal pole by
means of cords. The two corners not in use are folded under, making a
partial ground cloth. A square open front is presented toward the camp
fire.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Baker, or lean-to.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 4.--Same in plan as No.3, but has a triangular front and only one
point of suspension.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Same plan as No.3.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

{167}

Fig 5.--Uses all the cloth, has a triangular ground plan, a square
front opening, plenty of head room at the back and requires two or
more guy lines. This shelter resembles a "toque."

[Illustration: Fig. 5. The toque tent.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 6.--Square or "miner's" tent. Two corners are turned under. This
tent is enclosed on all sides, with a door in front.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Miner's tent.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 7.--Conical tent or "wigwam," entirely enclosed, with door in
front. Two corners of the canvas are turned under.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Conical tent, or wigwam/]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 8.--Has a wall on one side and is called a "canoe tent" in some
catalogues. It requires two or more guy lines and is shown with a pole
support. The front has a triangular opening.

[Illustration: Fig. 8. So-called canoe tent. Requires three guy lines,
and can be supported by a rope instead of a pole.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 9.--A combination of No. 8, with No. 1 in use as an awning or
fly. This sketch shows both tent and fly suspended by means of a rope.
The "awning" may be swung around to any angle.

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Canoe tent with fly.]


{168}

Fig. 10.--Combination of Nos. 1 and 2; they may be fastened together
by a coarse seam or tied with tapes. The ground plan is an equal-sided
triangle, with a door opening on one side, as shown. There is no waste
cloth.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Combination of Nos. 1 and 2.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 11.--No. 10 changed to a conical shape and suspended as a canopy.
The circular shape is secured by the use of small-size gas pipe or
limber poles bent into a large hoop. Of course guy lines may be used,
but would probably be in the way. Notice that a little more material
for making a wall would transform the canopy into a "Sibley" tent.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Sibley awning.]

--------------------------------------------------------------------

There are other shapes and combinations, but perhaps these sketches
are enough in the line of suggestion.

The diagram Fig. 12 shows a method for laying out, on your cloth, the
location of all the rings to make the tents and shelters. No
dimensions are given and none is required. The diagram is good for any
size. Most of the fastenings are found on radial lines, which are
spaced to divide a semi-circle into eight equal {169} angles, 22-1/2
degrees each; these intersect other construction lines and locate the
necessary loops and rings. Figures are given at each ring which refer
back to the sketch numbers.


[Illustration: Fig. 12. Showing how ten different tents can be made
with but one piece of canvas.]


Suppose the material at hand is the widest unbleached cotton cloth, 90
inches wide, 5 yards long, or 7-1/2 feet by 15 feet. The accompanying
table will give the dimensions for the various shapes from Fig. 1 to
Fig. 11.

If in doubt about the location of rings on your canvas, suspend the
tent by the centre ring and fasten the loops temporarily by means of
safety pins, draw the tent into shape and shift the fastenings as
required. The guy lines should have hooks or snaps at one end for
ready attachment and removal; the other end should be provided with
the usual slides for "take up." The edge of the cloth where the large
ring for suspension is fastened should be bound with tape or have a
double hem, for it is the edge of the door in most of the tents shown.


TABLE OF DIMENSIONS, 90 IN. MATERIAL

 Size                         Area,    Height   Remarks
                              Sq. Ft.  Ft.
 1     7-1/2 ft. triangle     25       6-1/4    One side open
 2     6-1/2 X 15 ft.         65       6-1/4    One side open
 3     6 x 7-1/2 ft.          45       4-1/2    One side open
 4     7-1/2 x 8 ft.          60       5-1/2    One side open
 5     7-1/2 ft. triangle     25       7-1/2    One side open
 6     6-1/4 x 6-1/4 ft.      39       7        Enclosed
 7     7-1/2 ft. diam.        44       6-1/2    Enclosed
 8     5 x 7-1/2 ft.          37-1/2   6-1/2    2-1/2 ft. wall
 9     7-1/2 x 8 ft.          60       6-1/2    No.8, with fly
 10   15 ft. triangle         97       6-1/4    Enclosed
 11   11-1/4 ft. circle      108       5        Canopy, no sides


{170}

Waterproofing a Tent

Dissolve half a pound of alum in two quarts of boiling water; then add
two gallons of pure cold water. In this solution place the material
and let it remain for a day. Dissolve a quarter of a pound of sugar of
lead in two quarts boiling water, then add two gallons of cold water.
Take the material from the alum solution, wring it lightly, place in
the second solution and leave for five or six hours; then wring out
again lightly and allow it to dry.

[Transcriber's note: Sugar of Lead (Lead Acetate) is toxic.]

If you want to avoid trouble with a leaky tent, the following solution
is a "sure cure;" Take a gallon or two gallons of turpentine and one
or two cakes of paraffin, drug store size. Chip the paraffin fairly
fine; dump it into the turpentine. Place the turpentine in a pail and
set same in a larger pail or a tub of hot water. The hot water will
heat the turpentine, and the turpentine will melt the paraffin. Stir
thoroughly, and renew your supply of hot water if necessary. Then pile
your tent into a tub and pour in the turpentine and paraffin mixture.
Work the tent all over thoroughly with your hands, so that every fiber
gets well saturated. You must work fast, however, as the paraffin
begins to thicken as it cools; and work out of doors, in a breeze if
possible, as the fumes of the turpentine will surely make you sick if
you try it indoors. When you have the tent thoroughly saturated, hang
it up to dry. It is not necessary to wring the tent out when you hang
it up. Just let it drip. If you use too much paraffin the tent may
look a little dirty after it dries, but it will be all right after you
have used it once or twice.


An Open Outing Tent

_By Warren H. Miller, Editor "Field and Stream."_

To make an open outing tent, get thirteen yards of 8 oz. duck canvas,
which can be bought at any department store or dry goods store for
seventeen or eighteen cents a yard. This makes your total expense
$2.21 for your tent. Layout the strip of canvas on the floor and cut
one end square; measure up 8 inches along the edge and draw a line to
the other corner. {171} From this corner layoff 7 ft. 8 in. along the
edge and on the opposite side, layoff 5 ft. 9 in. beginning at the end
of your 8-in. measurement. Now take a ruler and draw another diagonal
across the canvas at the ends of these measurements and you have the
first gore of your tent. Cut it across, turn the gore over, lay it
down on the strip so as to measure off another one exactly like it.
This is the corresponding gore for the other side of the tent. To make
the second pair of gores, layoff 5 ft. 9 in. along one side of the
remaining strip of canvas beginning at the pointed end, and 3 ft. 10
in. on the other side. Join these points with a diagonal and you have
a second gore, a duplicate of which is then cut by using it as a
pattern, reversing and laying it down on the strip of canvas. To make
the third gore, layoff 3 ft. 10 in, on one edge of your strip
beginning at the point, and 1 ft. 11 in. on the other side. Draw a
diagonal across and you have the third gore.


[Illustration: How to cut up your strip of canvas.]


[Illustration: Forester tent pattern.]


[Illustration: Forester tent with hood.]


You have now used up all but two yards of your canvas, plus a little
left-over piece of about two feet long. Out of this little left-over
piece make a triangle 1 ft. 11 in. on the side, which will form the
back triangle of your tent. Now pin your three gores together to make
the side of your tent, just as in the illustrations, and pin the two
sides together along the ridge. Then sew this tent up. Sew in the
little back triangle and hem all around the edges. Leave a hole at the
peak of the little triangle through which the ridge pole must go.

{172}

To set it up, cut three small saplings, one of which should be twelve
feet long and the other two, ten feet long. Tie these two together at
the ends making what the sailors call a "shears." Take the twelve-foot
pole and run it down the ridge inside the tent, and out through the
hole in the back. Now raise the ridge pole with one end stuck in the
ground and the front end resting on the two shear poles and tie all
three of them together. At the end of each seam along the hem you must
work in a little eyelet hole for a short piece of twine to tie to the
tent pegs. Stretch out the back triangle, pegging it down at the two
corners on the ground, and then peg out each hole along the foot until
the entire tent stretches out taut as in our illustrations. Three feet
from the peak along the front edge you must have another eyelet hole
with a little piece of twine and you tie this out to the shear pole on
each side which gives the tent the peculiar gambrel roof which it has,
and which has the advantage of giving you lots more room inside than
the straight tent would. You now have what is known as the "open"
forester tent.


[Illustration: Forester tent with hood.]


If a thunder storm comes up with a driving rain it will surely rain in
at the front unless you turn the tent around by moving the poles one
at a time. If you don't want to do this you can make a hood for the
front out of the two yards of canvas you have left. Simply draw a
diagonal from one corner to the other of this {173} two-yard piece of
duck and cut it down the diagonal, making two thin triangles which are
sewed to the front edges of the open forester tent, making a hood of
the shape shown in our picture. This prevents the rain beating in the
opening of your tent but still lets the heat of your fire strike in
and at the same time it keeps the heat in the tent as it will not flow
out along the ridge pole as it does in the open type.

This tent weighs six pounds and packs into a little package fourteen
inches long by seven inches wide by six: inches thick, and can be
carried as a shoulder strap or put in a back pack or any way you wish
to take it. It will sleep three boys, or two men and a boy, very
comfortably indeed. While it really does not need to be water-proofed,
as it immediately shrinks tight after the first rain, you can
water-proof it if you wish by making a solution of ten ounces of quick
lime with four ounces of alum in ten quarts of water. Stir
occasionally until the lime has slackened. Put the tent in another
pail and pour the solution over it, letting it stand twelve hours.
Take out and hang it on the clothes-line to dry. It will then be
entirely waterproof.

To make a good night fire in front of the tent, drive two stout stakes
three feet long in the ground about three feet from the mouth of the
tent; pile four logs one on top of the other against these stakes or
take a large flat stone and rest it against it. Make two log andirons
for each side of the fire and build your fire in the space between
them. It will give you a fine cheerful fire and all the heat will be
reflected by the back logs into the tent, making it warm and cheerful.
Inside you can put your browse bags stuffed with balsam browse; or
pile up a mountain of dry leaves over which you can stretch your
blankets. Pile all the duffle way back in the peak against the little
back triangle where it will surely keep dry and will form a sort of
back for your pillows. You will find the forester tent lighter and
warmer than the ordinary lean-to, as it reflects the heat better.
After a couple of weeks in it you will come home with your lungs so
full of ozone that it will be impossible to sleep in an ordinary room
without feeling smothered.


Canoeing, Rowing and Sailing
(Prepared with the cooperation of Mr. Arthur A. Carey, Scout Master,
Boy Scout ship Pioneer; Mr. Carleton E. Sholl, Captain Lakanoo Boat
Club Crew; Mr. Frederick K. Vreeland, Camp-Fire Club of America. and
Mr. R. F. Tims, Vice-Commodore, American Canoe Association.)


The birch-bark canoe is the boat of the North American Indians, and
our modern canvas canoes are made, with some {174} variations, on the
Indian model. With the possible exception of the Venetian gondola, the
motion of a canoe is more graceful than that of any other boat
propelled by hand; it should be continuous and gliding, and so silent
that it may be brought up in the night to an animal or enemy, Indian
fashion, without making any sound, and so take them by surprise.


[Illustration: Canoeing stroke (a)]


175  Campcraft


Many accidents happen in canoes--not because they are unsafe when
properly handled, but because they are unsafe when improperly
handled--and many people do not take the trouble even to find out the
proper way of managing a canoe. Many canoes have seats almost on a
level with the gunwale, whereas, properly speaking, the only place to
sit in a canoe is on the bottom; for a seat raises the body too high
above the centre of gravity and makes the canoe unsteady and likely to
upset. It is, however, difficult to paddle while sitting in the bottom
of a canoe, and the best position for paddling is that of kneeling and
at the same time resting back against one of the thwarts. The size of
the single-blade paddle should be in proportion to the size of the boy
who uses it--long enough to reach from the ground to the tip of his
nose. The bow paddle may be a little shorter. The canoeman should
learn to paddle equally well on either side of a canoe. When paddling
on the {175} left side the top of the paddle should be held by the
right hand, and the left hand should be placed a few inches above the
beginning of the blade. The old Indian stroke, which is the most
approved modern method for all-round canoeing, whether racing or
cruising, is made with the arms almost straight--but not stiff--the
arm at the top of the paddle bending only slightly at the elbow. This
stroke is really a swing from the shoulder, in which there is little
or no push or pull with the arm. When paddling on the left side of the
canoe the right shoulder swings forward and the whole force of the
body is used to push the blade of the paddle through the water, the
left hand acting as a fulcrum. While the right shoulder is swung
forward, the right hand is at the same time twisted at the wrist so
that the thumb goes down; this motion of the wrist has the effect of
turning the paddle around in the left hand--the left wrist being
allowed to bend freely--so that, at the end of the stroke, the blade
slides out of the water almost horizontally. If you should twist the
paddle in the opposite direction it would force the head of the canoe
around so that it would travel in a circle. At the recovery of the
stroke the right shoulder swings back and the paddle is brought
forward in a horizontal position, with the blade almost parallel to
the water. It is swung forward until the paddle is at right angles
across the canoe, then the blade is dipped edgewise with a slicing
motion and a new stroke begins. In paddling on the right side of the
canoe the position of the two hands and the motion of the two
shoulders are reversed.


[Illustration: Canoeing stroke (b)]


Something should also be said about double paddles--that is, paddles
with two blades--one at each end--as their use is becoming more
general every year. With the double paddle a novice can handle a
canoe, head on to a stiff wind, a feat which {176} requires skill and
experience with a single blade. The doubles give greater safety and
more speed and they develop chest, arm and shoulder muscles not
brought into play with a single blade. The double paddle is not to be
recommended to the exclusion of the single blade, but there are many
times when there is an advantage in its use.


[Illustration: Canoeing stroke (c)]


In getting in or out of a canoe it is especially necessary to step in
the very centre of the boat; and be careful never to lean on any
object--such as the edge of a wharf--outside of the boat, for this
disturbs your balance and may capsize the canoe. Especially in getting
out, put down your paddle first, and then, grasping the gunwale firmly
in each hand, rise by putting your weight equally on both sides of the
canoe. If your canoe should drift away sideways from the
landing-place, when you are trying to land, place the blade of your
paddle flat upon the water in the direction of the wharf and gently
draw the canoe up to the landing-place with a slight sculling motion.

When it is necessary to cross the waves in rough water, always try to
cross them "quartering," i. e. at an oblique angle, but not at right
angles. Crossing big waves at right angles {177} is difficult and apt
to strain a canoe, and getting lengthwise between the waves is
dangerous. Always have more weight aft than in the bow; but, when
there is only one person in the canoe, it may be convenient to place a
weight forward as a balance; but it should always be lighter than the
weight aft. A skillful canoeman will paddle a light canoe even in a
strong wind by kneeling at a point about one third of the length from
the stern.

For the purpose of sailing in a canoe the Lateen rig is the safest,
most easily handled, and the best all-round sailing outfit. For a
seventeen-foot canoe a sail having forty square feet of surface is to
be recommended, and, in all except very high winds, this can be
handled by one man.


[Illustration: Canoe with sail.]


The Lateen sail is made in the form of an equilateral triangle, and
two sides are fastened to spars which are connected at one end by a
hinge or jaw. The mast--which should be set well forward--should be so
long that, when the sail is spread and the slanting upper spar is
swung from the top of the mast, the lower spar will swing level about
six to eight inches above the gunwale and hang clear above all parts
of the boat in going about. The sail is hoisted by a halyard attached
at, or a little above, the centre of the upper spar, then drawn
through a block attached to the brace which holds the mast in
position, {178} and thus to the cleats--within easy reach of the
sailor. The sheet line is fastened to the lower spar, about two feet
from the outer end; and, when not held in the hand, may be fastened to
another cleat. Both halyard and sheet should at all times be kept
clear, so as to run easily, and with knots about the cleats that can
be instantly slipped.

The leeboard is a necessary attachment to the sailing outfit. It is
made with two blades--about three feet long and ten inches wide would
furnish a good-sized surface in the water--one dropping on each side
of the canoe and firmly supported by a bar fastened to the gunwale.
The blades should be so rigged that, when striking an object in the
water, they will quickly release, causing no strain on the canoe. The
leeboard, like a centre board, is of course intended to keep the canoe
from sliding off when trying to beat up into the wind. When running
free before the wind the board should be raised. The general rules for
sailing larger craft apply to the canoe.

The paddle is used as a rudder and may be held by the sailor, but a
better plan is to have two paddles, one over each side, made fast to
the gunwale or the brace. The sailor can then grasp either one as he
goes about and there is no danger of losing the paddles overboard. In
sailing, the sailor sits on the bottom, on the opposite side from the
sail, except in a high wind, when he sits on the gunwale where he can
the better balance the sail with his weight. The combination of sail,
leeboards, and the balancing weight of the sailor, will render the
canoe stiff and safe, with proper care, in any wind less than a gale.
A crew may consist of two or three in a seventeen foot canoe.

The spars and mast of a sailing outfit should be of spruce or some
other light but strong wood, while cedar or some non-splitting wood is
best for the leeboards. Young canoeists will enjoy making their own
sailing outfits; or a complete Lateen rig as made by various canoe
manufacturers can be purchased either directly from them or through
almost any dealer.

In case of an upset the greatest mistake is to leave the boat. A
capsized canoe will support at least four persons as long as they have
strength to cling to it. A single man or boy, in case of upsetting
beyond swimming distance to land, should stretch himself flat upon the
bottom of the canoe, with arms and legs spread down over the
tumblehome toward the submerged gunwales. He can thus lie in safety
for hours till help arrives. When two persons are upset, they should
range themselves one {179} on each side of the overturned boat; and,
with one hand grasping each other's wrists across the boat, use the
other hand to cling to the keel or the gunwale. If the canoe should
swamp, {180} fill with water, and begin to sink, it should be turned
over in the water. It is the air remaining under the inverted hull
that gives the craft sufficient buoyancy to support weight.

Never overload a canoe. In one of the ordinary size--about seventeen
feet in length--three persons should be the maximum number at
anytime, and remember never to change seats in a canoe when out of
your depth.

{179}
[Illustration: This diagram illustrates some of the angles formed by
the boom and the keel line of the boat in different positions.]

  Running free, or before the wind
  Wind abeam Port tack
  Wind abeam Starboard tack
  Pointing into the wind Port tack
  Pointing into the wind Starboard tack.


{180 continued}

Row-boats

There is a certain caution in the use of boats which you will always
find among sailors and fishermen and all persons who are using them
constantly. Such a person instinctively steps into the middle of the
boat when getting in, and always sits in the middle of the thwart or
seat. This is a matter of instinct with seafaring people, and so is
the habit of never fooling in a boat. Only landlubbers will try to
stand up in a small boat while in motion; and, as for the man who
rocks a boat "for fun," he is like the man "who didn't know the gun
was loaded."


Rowing

Row-boats are propelled either by rowing or by sculling; and rowing is
either "pulling" or "backing water." The usual way of rowing is to
"pull" and to do so, you sit with your back to the bow and propel the
boat by pulling the handles toward your body and so pressing the
blades of the oars against the water toward the stern, while pushing
with your feet against a brace. In backing water you reverse the
action of the oars, pushing the handles away from your body and
pressing the blades of the oars against the water toward the bow.


Turning

To turn your boat to the right, when pulling, you row only with the
left oar; or, if you wish to make a sharp turn "pull" with the left
oar and "back water" with the right. To turn your boat to the left the
action of the oars is reversed.


Feathering

To prevent the momentum of the boat from being checked by the wind
blowing on the blades of the oars, the blades must be turned into a
horizontal position as they leave the water. In "pulling" this is done
by turning the hands backward at {181} the wrist, and in backing water
it is done by turning the hands forward at the wrist.


Sculling

To scull is to propel a boat by a single oar at the stern. The boat
must be provided with rowlock or a semicircular scoop in the stern,
and the boat is propelled by working the oar at the stem, obliquely
from side to side. This is a convenient way of doing when you are
working among boats in the water, and have to go short distances
without the necessity of speed.


Steering

When rowing a boat without the use of a rudder, instead of constantly
turning the head around to see where you are going, it is convenient
to fix upon some object in the landscape on an imaginary line with the
middle of the stern and the middle of the bow; you can then keep your
boat approximately in the right position, without the trouble of
turning your head, by keeping the object selected on a line with the
middle of the stern board.

Coming Alongside

When coming alongside of a boat or wharf always approach on the
leeward side or that opposite from which the wind is blowing, and come
up so that the boat will be headed into the wind and waves. Stop
rowing at a convenient distance from the landing-place and come up
with gentle headway; then take in the oar nearest the landing, and, if
necessary, back water with the other oar.


Keeping Stroke

When two or more are rowing together the length and speed of the
stroke are set by the man sitting nearest the stern.


Rough Weather

Always try to row as nearly as possible into the waves at right
angles. In this way you are likely to ship less water and to avoid
capsizing.


Going Ashore

When going ashore always leave your oars lying flat on the thwarts on
either side of your boat.

The Salute

To salute a passing vessel or boat, hold the oars up at right angles
with the water.

{182}

Every row-boat should be provided with a rough sponge and a tin
dipper to be used in bailing out the water. Always bail out the water
after a rain and keep your boat clean and tidy.


Sailing in Small Boats

The most convenient kind of a boat to learn to sail in is a cat-boat,
which is a boat with a single fore and aft sail held in place by a
boom at the bottom and a gaff at the top.

To understand the principle of sailing we must realize that a
sail-boat, without the use of a rudder, acts in the water and wind
very much the way a weather vane acts in the air. The bow of the boat
naturally turns toward the wind, thus relieving the sail of all
pressure and keeping it shaking. But if by keeping the main sheet in
your hand you hold the sail in a fixed position, and, at the same
time, draw the tiller away from the sail, it will gradually fill with
air beginning at the hoist or mast end of the sail and impel the boat
in the direction in which you are steering. Given a certain direction
in which you want to travel, the problem is, by letting out or hauling
in your main-sheet, to keep the sail as nearly as possible at right
angles with the direction of the wind. We must remember, also, that,
while the sail must be kept full, it should not be kept more than
full; that is, its position must be such that, by the least push of
the tiller toward the sail, the sail will begin to shake at the hoist.
It is even desirable in a strong wind, and especially for beginners,
to always let the sail, close to the mast, shake a little without
losing too much pressure. When you are sailing with the wind coming
over the boat from its port side you are sailing on the port tack, and
when you are sailing with the wind coming across the boat on its
starboard side you are sailing on the starboard tack. The port side of
the boat is the left hand side as you face the bow while standing on
board, and the starboard side is the right hand side. An easy way of
remembering this is by recalling the sentence, "Jack left port."


Direction of Wind

Of course, you will see that, if you should forget which way the wind
is blowing, you could not possibly know the right position for your
sail; and this is one of the first requirements for a beginner. It is
quite easy to become confused with regard to the direction of the
wind, and therefore every boat should be provided with a small flag or
fly at its mast-head and you should keep watching it at every turn of
the boat until the habit {183} has become instinctive. It is
convenient to remember that the fly should always point as nearly as
possible to the end of the gaff, except when you are sailing free or
before the wind.


Close to Wind

Sailing with the boat pointing as nearly as possible against the wind
is called sailing close to the wind; when you have turned your bow to
the right or left so that the wind strikes both boat and sail at right
angles you are sailing with the wind abeam; as you let out your sheet
so that the boom makes a larger angle with an imaginary line running
from the mast to the middle of the stern you are sailing off the wind;
and, when your sail stands at right angles to this same line, you are
sailing free or before the wind.


Before the Wind

Sailing free, or before the wind, is the extreme opposite of sailing
close hauled or on the wind, and the wind is blowing behind your back
instead of approaching the sail from the direction of the mast. If you
are sailing free on the port tack, with the boom at right angles to
the mast on the starboard side, and you should steer your boat
sufficiently to starboard, the wind would strike the sail at its outer
edge or leech and throw the sail and boom violently over to the port
side of the mast. This is called jibing and is a very dangerous thing;
it should be carefully guarded against whenever sailing before the
wind.


Reefing

If you find that the wind is too strong for your boat, and that you
are carrying too much sail, you can let her come up into the wind and
take in one or two reefs. This is done by letting out both the throat
and peak halliards enough to give sufficient slack of sail, then by
hauling the sail out toward the end of the boom, and afterward by
rolling the sail up and tying the points under and around it, but not
around the boom. Always use a square or reef knot in tying your reef
points. In case of a squall or a strong puff of wind, remember that
you can always ease the pressure on your sail by turning the bow into
the wind, and if for any reason you wish to shorten suddenly you can
drop your peak by loosening the peak halliards.


Ready About

Before "going about," or turning your bow so that the wind will strike
the other side of the sail at its mast end, the man {184} at the helm
should always give warning by singing out the words, "ready about."
"Going about" is just the opposite of jibbing.


Right of Way

When two boats approach each other in opposite directions, close
hauled, the boat on the starboard tack has the right of way and should
continue her course. The responsibility of avoiding a collision rests
with the boat sailing on the port tack. But a boat running before the
wind must always give way to a boat close hauled.

When sailing through high waves, always try as far as possible to head
into them directly at right angles. Always steer as steadily as
possible. If you are careful to keep the boat on her course and do not
let your mind wander, only a slight motion of the tiller from side to
side will be necessary.


Flying the Flag

While the "fly" or "pennant" is carried at the top of the mast, the
flag is carried at the peak or upper corner of the sail at the end of
the gaff. The salute consists of tipping or slightly lowering the flag
and raising it again into position.


{185}


Notes


{186}


Notes


{187}

CHAPTER IV

TRACKS, TRAILING AND SIGNALING

_By Ernest Thompson Seton, Chief Scout_


"I wish I could go West and join the Indians so that I should have no
lessons to learn," said an unhappy small boy who could discover no
atom of sense or purpose in any one of the three R's.

"You never made a greater mistake," said the scribe. "For the young
Indians have many hard lessons from their earliest day--hard lessons
and hard punishments. With them the dread penalty of failure is 'go
hungry till you win,' and no harder task have they than their reading
lesson. Not twenty-six characters are to be learned in this exercise,
but one thousand; not clear straight print are they, but dim,
washed-out, crooked traces; not in-doors on comfortable chairs, with a
patient teacher always near, but out in the forest, often alone and in
every kind of weather, they slowly decipher their letters and read
sentences of the oldest writing on earth--a style so old that the
hieroglyphs of Egypt, the cylinders of Nippur, and the drawings of the
cave men are as things of to-day in comparison--the one universal
script--the tracks in the dust, mud, or snow.

"These are the inscriptions that every hunter must learn to read
infallibly, and be they strong or faint, straight or crooked, simple
or overwritten with many a puzzling, diverse phrase, he must decipher
and follow them swiftly, unerringly if there is to be a successful
ending to the hunt which provides his daily food.

"This is the reading lesson of the young Indians, and it is a style
that will never become out of date. The naturalist also must acquire
some measure of proficiency in the ancient art. Its usefulness is
unending to the student of wild life; without it he would know little
of the people of the wood."


There Are Still Many Wild Animals

It is a remarkable fact that there are always more wild animals about
than any but the expert has an idea of. For {188} example, there are,
within twenty miles of New York City, fully fifty different kinds--not
counting birds, reptiles, or fishes--one quarter of which at least are
abundant. Or more particularly within the limits of Greater New York
there are at least a dozen species of wild beasts, half of which are
quite common.

"Then how is it that we never see any?" is the first question of the
incredulous. The answer is: Long ago the beasts learned the dire
lesson--man is our worst enemy; shun him at any price. And the
simplest way to do this is to come out only at night. Man is a daytime
creature; he is blind in the soft half-light that most beasts prefer.

While many animals have always limited their activity to the hours of
twilight and gloom, there are not a few that moved about in daytime,
but have given up that portion of their working day in order to avoid
the arch enemy.

Thus they can flourish under our noses and eat at our tables, without
our knowledge or consent. They come and go at will, and the world
knows nothing of them; their presence might long go unsuspected but
for one thing, well known to the hunter, the trapper, and the
naturalist: wherever the wild four-foot goes, it leaves behind a
record of its visit, its name, the direction whence it came, the time,
the thing it did or tried to do, with the time and direction of
departure. These it puts down in the ancient script. Each of these
dotted lines, called the trail, is a wonderful, unfinished record of
the creature's life during the time it made the same, and it needs
only the patient work of the naturalist to decipher that record and
from it learn much about the animal that made it, without that animal
ever having been seen.

Savages are more skilful at it than civilized folk, because tracking
is their serious life-long pursuit and they do not injure their eyes
with books. Intelligence is important here as elsewhere, yet it is a
remarkable fact that the lowest race of mankind, the Australian
blacks, are reputed to be by far the best trackers; not only are their
eyes and attention developed and disciplined, but they have retained
much of the scent power that civilized man has lost, and can follow a
fresh track, partly at least by smell.

It is hard to over-value the powers of the clever tracker. To him the
trail of each animal is not a mere series of similar footprints; it is
an accurate account of the creature's life, habit, changing whims, and
emotions during the portion of life whose record is in view. These are
indeed autobiographical chapters, {190} and differ from other
autobiographies in this--they cannot tell a lie. We may get wrong
information from them, but it is our fault if we do; we misread the
document that cannot falsify.


{189}

[Illustration: Animal tracks; Deer, Sheep, Mink, Cottontail, Hawk,
Owl, Meadow Mouse.]


{190 continued}

When to Learn Tracking

The ideal time for tracking, and almost the only time for most folk,
is when the ground is white. After the first snow the student walks
forth and begins at once to realize the wonders of the trail. A score
of creatures of whose existence, maybe, he did not know, are now
revealed about him, and the reading of their autographs becomes easy.

It is when the snow is on the ground, indeed, that we take our
four-foot census of the woods. How often we learn with surprise from
the telltale white that a fox was around our hen house last night, a
mink is living even now under the wood pile, and a deer--yes! there is
no mistaking its sharp-pointed un-sheep-like footprint--has wandered
into our woods from the farther wilds.

Never lose the chance of the first snow if you wish to become a
trailer. Nevertheless, remember that the first morning after a night's
snow fall is not so good as the second. Most creatures "lie up" during
the storm; the snow hides the tracks of those that do go forth; and
some actually go into a "cold sleep" for a day or two after a heavy
downfall. But a calm, mild night following a storm is sure to offer
abundant and ideal opportunity for beginning the study of the trail.


How to Learn

Here are some of the important facts to keep in view, when you set
forth to master the rudiments:

_First_.--No two animals leave the same trail; not only each kind but
each individual, and each individual at each stage of its life, leaves
a trail as distinctive as the creature's appearance, and it is obvious
that in that they differ among themselves just as we do, because the
young know their mothers, the mothers know their young, and the old
ones know their mates, when scent is clearly out of the question.

Another simple evidence of this is the well known fact that no two
human beings have the same thumb mark; all living creatures have
corresponding peculiarities, and all use these parts in making the
trail.

_Second_.--The trail was begun at the birthplace of that creature and
ends only at its death place; it may be recorded in visible track or
perceptible odor. It may last but a few {191} hours, and may be too
faint even for an expert with present equipment to follow, but
evidently the trail is made, wherever the creature journeys afoot.

_Third_.--It varies with every important change of impulse, action, or
emotion.

_Fourth_--When we find a trail we may rest assured that, if living, the
creature that made it is at the other end. And if one can follow, it
is only a question of time before coming up with that animal. And be
sure of its direction before setting out; many a novice has lost much
time by going backward on the trail.

_Fifth_.--In studying trails one must always keep probabilities in mind.
Sometimes one kind of track looks much like another; then the question
is, "Which is the likeliest in this place."

If I saw a jaguar track in India, I should know it was made by a
leopard. If I found a leopard in Colorado, I should be sure I had
found the mark of a cougar or mountain lion. A wolf track on Broadway
would doubtless be the doing of a very large dog, and a St. Bernard's
footmark in the Rockies, twenty miles from anywhere, would most likely
turn out to be the happen-so imprint of a gray wolf's foot. To be sure
of the marks, then, one should know all the animals that belong to the
neighborhood.

These facts are well known to every hunter. Most savages are hunters,
and one of the early lessons of the Indian boy is to know the tracks
of the different beasts about him. These are the letters of the old,
old writing.


A First Try


Let us go forth into the woods in one of the North-eastern states when
there is a good tracking snow, and learn a few of these letters of the
wood alphabet.

Two at least are sure to be seen--the track of the blarina and of the
deer mouse. They are shown on the same scale in Figs. 1 and 2, page
198.

In Fig. 3 is the track of the meadow mouse. This is not unlike that of
the blarina, because it walks, being a ground animal, while the deer
mouse more often bounds. The delicate lace traceries of the masked
shrew, shown in Fig. 4, are almost invisible unless the sun be low;
they are difficult to draw, and impossible to photograph or cast
satisfactorily but the sketch gives enough to recognize them by.

The meadow mouse belongs to the rank grass in the lowland {192} near
the brook, and passing it toward the open, running, water we may see
the curious track of the muskrat; its five-toed hind foot, its
four-toed front foot, and its long keeled tail, are plainly on record.
When he goes slowly the tail mark is nearly straight; when he goes
fast it is wavy in proportion to his pace. Page 193.

The muskrat is a valiant beast; he never dies without fighting to the
last, but he is in dread of another brookland creature whose trail is
here--the mink. Individual tracks of this animal are shown in No. 1,
page 161. Here he was bounding; the forefeet are together, the
hindfeet track ahead, and tail mark shows, and but four toes in each
track, though the creature has five on each foot. He is a dreaded
enemy of poor Molly Cottontail, and more than once I have seen the
records of his relentless pursuit. One of these fits in admirably as
an illustration of our present study.


A Story of the Trail

It was in the winter of 1900, I was standing with my brother, a
business man, on Goat Island, Niagara, when he remarked, "How is it?
You and I have been in the same parts of America for twenty years, yet
I never see any of the curious sides of animal life that you are
continually coming across."

"Largely because you do not study tracks," was the reply. "Look at
your feet now. There is a whole history to be read."

"I see some marks," he replied, "that might have been made by some
animal." "That is the track of a cottontail," was the answer. "Now,
let us read the chapter of his life. See, he went in a general
straight course as though making some well-known haunt, his easy pace,
with eight or ten inches between each set of tracks, shows unalarm.
But see here, joining on, is something else."

"So there is. Another cottontail."

"Not at all, this new track is smaller, the forefeet are more or less
paired, showing that the creature can climb a tree; there is a
suggestion of toe pads and there is a mark telling evidently of a long
tail; these things combined with the size and the place identify it
clearly. This is the trail of a mink. See! he has also found the
rabbit track, and finding it fresh, he followed it. His bounds are
lengthened now, but the rabbit's are not, showing that the latter was
unconscious of the pursuit."

After one hundred yards the double trail led us to a great pile of
wood, and into this both went. Having followed his {193} game into
dense cover, the trailer's first business was to make sure that it did
not go out the other side. We went carefully around the pile; there
were no tracks leading out.

"Now," I said, "if you will take the trouble to move that wood pile
you will find in it the remains of the rabbit half devoured and the
mink himself. At this moment he is no doubt curled up asleep."

As the pile was large and the conclusion more or less self-evident, my
brother was content to accept my reading of the episode.


[Illustration: Tracks.]
  Dog tracks, front and back (1/2 life-size)

  Cat tracks, front and bad  (1/2 life-size)

  Uppermost, well-developed human foot

  Middle, a foot always cramped by boots

  Bottom, a bare foot, never in boots

  Muskrat tracks, (1/3 life-size)


What About Winter Sleepers

Although so much is to be read in the wintry white, we cannot now make
a full account of all the woodland four-foots, for there are some
kinds that do not come out on the snow; they sleep more or less all
winter.


{194}

Thus, one rarely sees the track of a chipmunk or woodchuck in truly
wintry weather; and never, so far as I know, have the trails of
jumping mouse or mud turtle been seen in the snow. These we can track
only in the mud or dust. Such trails cannot be followed as far as
those in the snow, simply because the mud and dust do not cover the
whole country, but they are usually as clear and in some respects more
easy of record.


How to Make Pictures of Tracks

It is a most fascinating amusement to learn some creature's way of
life by following its fresh track for hours in good snow. I never miss
such a chance. If I cannot find a fresh track, I take a stale one,
knowing that, theoretically, it is fresher at every step, and from
practical experience that it always brings one to some track that is
fresh.

How often I have wished for a perfect means of transferring these wild
life tales to paper or otherwise making a permanent collection. My
earliest attempts were in free-hand drawing, which answers, but has
this great disadvantage--it is a translation, a record discolored by
an intervening personality, and the value of the result is likely to
be limited by one's own knowledge at the time.

Casting in plaster was another means attempted; but not one track in
ten thousand is fit to cast. Nearly all are blemished and imperfect in
some way, and the most abundant--those in snow--cannot be cast at
all.

Then I tried spreading plastic wax where the beasts would walk on it,
in pathways or before dens. How they did scoff! The simplest ground
squirrel knew too much to venture on my waxen snare; around 'it, or if
hemmed in, over it, with a mighty bound they went; but never a track
did I so secure.

Photography naturally suggested itself, but the difficulties proved as
great as unexpected, almost as great as in casting. Not one track in
one thousand is fit to photograph; the essential details are almost
always left out. You must have open sunlight, and even when the
weather is perfect there are practically but two times each day when
it is possible--in mid-morning and mid-afternoon, when the sun is high
enough for clear photographs and low enough to cast a shadow in the
faint track.


The Coon that Showed Me How

Then a new method was suggested in an unexpected way. A friend of mine
had a pet coon which he kept in a cage in his bachelor quarters up
town. One day, during my friend's {195} absence the coon got loose and
set about a series of long-deferred exploring expeditions, beginning
with the bachelor's bedroom. The first promising object was a writing
desk. Mounting by a chair the coon examined several uninteresting
books and papers, and then noticed higher up a large stone bottle. He
had several times found pleasurable stuff in bottles, so he went for
it. The cork was lightly in and easily disposed of, but the smell was
far from inviting, for it was merely a quart of ink. Determined to
leave no stone unturned, however, the coon upset the ink to taste and
try. Alas! it tasted even worse than it smelt; it was an utter failure
as a beverage.

And the coon, pushing it contemptuously away, turned to a pile of fine
hand-made, deckle-edge, heraldry note-paper--the pride of my friend's
heart--and when he raised his inky little paws there were left on the
paper some beautiful black prints. This was a new idea: the coon tried
it again and again. But the ink held out longer than the paper, so
that the fur-clad painter worked over sundry books, and the adjoining
walls, while the ink, dribbling over everything, formed a great pool
below the desk. Something attracted the artist's attention, causing
him to jump down. He landed in the pool of ink, making it splash in
all directions; some of the black splotches reached the white
counterpane of the bachelor's bed. Another happy idea: the coon now
leaped on the bed, racing around as long as the ink on his feet gave
results. As he paused to rest, or perhaps to see if any places had
been neglected, the door opened, and in came the landlady. The scene
which followed was too painful for description; no one present enjoyed
it. My friend was sent for to come and take his coon out of there
forever. He came and took him away, I suppose "forever." He had only
one other place for him--his office and there it was I made the
animal's acquaintance and heard of his exploit--an ink and paper, if
not a literary affair.

This gave me the hint at the Zoo I needed, a plan to make an authentic
record of animal tracks. Armed with printer's ink and paper rolls I
set about gathering a dictionary collection of imprints.

After many failures and much experiment, better methods were devised.
A number of improvements were made by my wife; one was the
substitution of black paint for printer's ink, as the latter dries too
quickly; another was the padding of the paper, which should be light
and soft for very light animals, and stronger and harder for the
heavy. Printing from a mouse, for example, is much like printing a
delicate {196} etching; ink, paper, dampness, etc., must be exactly
right, and furthermore, you have this handicap--you cannot regulate
the pressure. This is, of course, strictly a Zoo method. All attempts
to secure black prints from wild animals have been total failures. The
paper, the smell of paint, etc., are enough to keep the wild things
away.

In the Zoo we spread the black pad and the white paper in a narrow,
temporary lane, and one by one drove, or tried to drive, the captives
over them, securing a series of tracks that are life-size, properly
spaced, absolutely authentic, and capable of yielding more facts as
the observer learns more about the subject.

As related here, all this sounds quite easy. But no one has any idea
how cross, crooked, and contrary a creature can be, until he wishes it
to repeat for him some ordinary things that it has hitherto done
hourly. Some of them balked at the paint, some at the paper, some made
a leap to clear all, and thereby wrecked the entire apparatus. Some
would begin very well, but rush back when half-way over, so as to
destroy the print already made, and in most cases the calmest,
steadiest, tamest of beasts became utterly wild, erratic, and
unmanageable when approached with tracklogical intent.


Trying It on the Cat

Even domestic animals are difficult. A tame cat that was highly
trained to do anything a cat could do, was selected as promising for a
black track study, and her owner's two boys volunteered to get all the
cat tracks I needed. They put down a long roll of paper in a hall,
painted pussy's feet black, and proceeded to chase her up and down.
Her docility banished under the strain. She raced madly about, leaving
long, useless splashes of black; then, leaping to a fanlight, she
escaped up stairs to take refuge among the snowy draperies. After
which the boys' troubles began.


Drawing is Mostly Used

These, however, are mere by-accidents and illustrate the many
practical difficulties. After these had been conquered with patience
and ingenuity, there could be no doubt of the value of the prints.
They are the best of records for size, spacing, and detail, but fail
in giving incidents of wild life, or the landscape surroundings. The
drawings, as already seen, are best for a long series and for faint
features; in fact, the {197} drawings alone can give everything you
can perceive; but they fail in authentic size and detail.

Photography has this great advantage--it gives the surroundings, the
essential landscape and setting, and, therefore, the local reason for
any changes of action on the part of the animal; also the aesthetic
beauties of its records are unique, and will help to keep the method
in a high place.

Thus each of the three means may be successful in a different way, and
the best, most nearly perfect alphabet of the woods, would include all
three, and consist of a drawing, a pedoscript and a photograph of each
track, and a trail; i.e., a single footprint, and the long series of
each animal.

My practice has been to use all whenever I could, but still I find
free-hand drawing is the one of the most practical application. When I
get a photograph I treasure it as an adjunct to the sketch.


A Story of the Trail

To illustrate the relative value as records, of sketch and photograph,
I give a track that I drew from nature, but which could not at any
place have been photographed. This was made in February 15, 1885, near
Toronto. It is really a condensation of the facts, as the trail is
shortened where uninteresting. Page 189, No. 2.

At A, I found a round place about 5 x 8 inches, where a cottontail had
crouched during the light snowfall. At B he had leaped out and sat
looking around; the small prints in front were made by his forefeet,
the two long ones by his hind feet, and farther back is a little
dimple made by the tail, showing that he was sitting on it. Something
alarmed him, causing him to dart out at full speed toward C and D, and
now a remarkable change is to be seen: the marks made by the front
feet are behind the large marks made by the hind feet, because the
rabbit overreaches each time; the hind feet track ahead of the front
feet; the faster he goes, the farther ahead those hind feet get; and
what would happen if he multiplied his speed by ten I really cannot
imagine. This overreach of the hind feet takes place in most bounding
animals.

Now the cottontail began a series of the most extraordinary leaps and
dodgings (D,E,F.) as though trying to escape from some enemy. But what
enemy? There were no other tracks. I began to think the rabbit was
crazy--was flying from an imaginary foe--that possibly I was on the
trail of a March hare. But at G I found for the first time some spots
of blood. {198} This told me that the rabbit was in real danger but
gave no due to its source. I wondered if a weasel were clinging to its
neck. A few yards farther, at H, I found more blood. Twenty yards
more, at I, for the first time on each side of the rabbit trail, were
the obvious marks of a pair of broad, strong wings. Oho! now I knew
the mystery of the cottontail running from a foe that left no track.
He was pursued by an eagle, a hawk, or an owl. A few yards farther and
I found the remains (J) of the cottontail partly devoured. This put
the eagle out of the question; an eagle would have carried the rabbit
off boldly. A hawk or an owl then was the assassin. I looked for
something to decide which, and close by the remains found the peculiar
two-paired track of an owl. A hawk's track would have been as K, while
the owl nearly always sets its feet in the ground {199} with two toes
forward and two toes back. But which owl? There were at least three in
the valley that might be blamed. I looked for more proof and got it on
the near-by sapling--one small feather, downy, as are all owl
feathers, and bearing three broad bars, telling me plainly that a
barred owl had been there lately, and that, therefore, he was almost
certainly the slayer of the cottontail. As I busied myself making
notes, what should come flying up the valley but the owl himself--back
to the very place of the crime, intent on completing his meal no
doubt. He alighted on a branch ten feet above my head and just over
the rabbit remains, and sat there muttering in his throat.

The proof in this case was purely circumstantial, but I think that we
can come to only one conclusion; that the evidence of the track in the
snow was complete and convincing.


{198}

[Illustration: TRACKS; 1. Blarina in snow; 2. Deermouse; 3. Meadow
mouse; 4. Masked shrew.]


{199 continued}

Meadow Mouse

The meadow mouse autograph (page 189) illustrates the black-track
method. At first these dots look inconsequent and fortuitous, but a
careful examination shows that the creature had four toes with claws
on the forefeet, and five on the hind, which is evidence, though not
conclusive, that it was a rodent; the absence of tail marks shows that
the tail was short or wanting; the tubercules on each palm show to
what group of mice the creature belongs. The alternation of the track
shows that it was a ground-animal, not a tree-climber; the spacing
shows the shortness of the legs; their size determines the size of the
creature. Thus we come near to reconstructing the animal from its
tracks, and see how by the help of these studies, we can get much
light on the by-gone animals whose only monuments are tracks in the
sedimentary rocks about us--rocks that, when they received these
imprints, were the muddy margin of these long-gone creatures' haunts.


What the Trail Gives--The Secrets of the Woods

There is yet another feature of trail study that gives it exceptional
value--it is an account of the creature pursuing its ordinary life. If
you succeeded in getting a glimpse of a fox or a hare in the woods,
the chances are a hundred to one that it was aware of your presence
first. They are much cleverer than we are at this sort of thing, and
if they do not actually sight or sense you, they observe, and are
warned by the action of some other creature that did sense us, and so
cease their occupations to steal away or hide. But the snow story will
{201} tell of the life that the animal ordinarily leads--its method of
searching for food, its kind of food, the help it gets from its
friends, or sometimes from its rivals--and thus offers an insight into
its home ways that is scarcely to be attained in any other way.
The trailer has the key to a new storehouse of Nature's secrets,
another of the Sybilline books is opened to his view; his fairy
godmother has, indeed, conferred on him a wonderful {202} gift in opening
his eyes to the foot-writing of the trail. It is like giving sight to
the blind man, like the rolling away of fogs from a mountain view, and
the trailer comes closer than others to the heart of the woods.

  Dowered with a precious power is he,
    He drinks where others sipped,
  And wild things write their lives for him
    In endless manuscript.


{200}

[Illustration: Tracks: Wild Turkey, Toad, Crow,
  1. Jackrabbit
  2. Cottontail
  3. Gray squirrel
  4. Coon
  5. Ground bird, such as quail
  6. Tree-bird
  7. A bird living partly in tree, partly on ground]


{201}

Horses' Track
_N.B.--The large tracks represent the hind feet_.

[Illustration: Tracks; Walking, Trotting, Canter, Galloping, Lame
Horse Walking: Which leg is the lame in?]

  These are the tracks of two birds on the ground. One lives generally
  on the ground, the other in bushes and trees. Which track belongs to
  which bird?
  (_From Sir Robert Baden Powell's book_)



{202 continued}

The American Morse Telegraph Alphabet

[Illustration: Morse codes. (tr)]


Signals
  4.  Start me.
  5.  Have you anything for me?
  9.  Train order (or important military message)--give away.
 13. Do you understand? {203}
 25. Busy.
 30. Circuit closed (or closed station).
 73. Accept compliments.
 92. Deliver (ed).


Abbreviations
  Ahr--Another.
  Ans--Answer.
  Ck--Check.
  Col--Collect.
  D H--Dead head.
  G A--Go ahead.
  G E--Good evening.
  G M--Good morning.
  G N--Good night.
  G R--Government rate.
  N M--No more.
  Min--Wait a moment
  O B--Official business.
  O K--All right
  Opr--Operator.
  Pd--Paid.
  Qk--Quick.
  Sig--Signature.


Rememberable Morse or Re-Morse Alphabet

[Illustration: Rememberable Morse or Re-Morse Alphabet.]

By this method it is possible to learn the Morse alphabet in less than
an hour.


{204}

[Illustration: Scouts using signal flags. (tr)]
From A to B in both figures, illustrates method of making a dot.


A complete swing from A to C in both figures indicates method of
making a dash.

Wig-Wag or Myer Code

_Instructions for Using the System_

The whole number opposite each letter or numeral stands for that
letter or numeral.

A     22
B     2112
C     121
D     222
E     12
F     2221
G     2211
H     122
I     1
J     1122
K     2121
L     221
M     1221
N     11
O     21
P     1212
Q     1211
R     211
S     212
T     2
U     112
V     1222
W     1121
X     2122
Y     111
Z     2222
tion  1112


Numerals
1     1111
2     2222
3     1112
4     2221
5     1122
6     2211
7     1222
8     2111
9     1221
0     2112


Conventional Signals

End of word             3
Wait a moment           1111  3
End of sentence         33
Repeat after (word)     121 121 3 22 3 (word)
End of message          333
x x 3                   numerals follow (or) numerals end.
Repeat last word        121 121 33
Repeat last message     121  121 121 333
sig 3                   signature follows.
Error                   12  12  3
Move a little to right  211  211 3
Acknowledgment,
  or "I understand"     22  22  3
Move a little to left   221 221 3
Cease signaling         22  22  22  333
Signal faster           2212  3


{205}


Abbreviations
a     after
b     before
c     can
h     have
n     not
r     are
t     the
u     you
ur    your
w     word
wi    with
y     yes


Rememberable Myer Code

The elements--a thick and a thin, i. e. 2 and 1

[Illustration: Rememberable Myer Code.]


To Signal with Flag or Torch Wig-Wag

There is but one position and three motions.

The first position is with the flag or other appliance held
vertically, the signalman facing squarely toward the station with
which it is desired to communicate.

{206}

The first motion ("one" or "1") is to the right of the sender and will
embrace an arc of 90 degrees, starting with the vertical and returning
to it, and will be made in a plane at right angle to the line
connecting the two stations.

The second motion ("two" or "2") is a similar motion to the left of
the sender.

The third motion ("front," "three" or "3") is downward, directly in
front of the sender, and instantly returned upward to the first
position.

Numbers which occur in the body of a message must be spelled out in
full. Numerals may be used in signaling between stations having naval
books, using the code calls. To break or stop the signals from the
sending station, make with the flag or other signal 12 12 12
continuously.


To Send a Message

To call a station signal its letter until acknowledged; if the call
letter be not known, signal "E" until acknowledged. To acknowledge a
call, signal "1 understand," followed by the call letter of the
acknowledging station.

Make a slight pause after each letter and also after "front." If the
sender discovers that he has made an error he should make 3 followed
by 12 123, after which he begins the word in which the error occurred.


The Semaphore Signal Code

The scout may learn the correct angles at which to hold the flags from
the diagram. The easiest method of learning the alphabet is by
grouping the various letters together as follows:

For all letters from A to G, one arm only is used, making a quarter of
a circle for each letter in succession.

The letters from H to N (except J)--the right arm stands at A while
the left moves round the circle for the other letters.

For O to S, the right arm stands at B--the left arm moves round as
before.

For T, U, Y and the "annul," the right arm stands at C, the left
moving to the next point of the circle successively.

The numerical sign J (or alphabetical sign) and V--the right arm
stands at position for letter D the left arm only being moved.

{207}

W and X--the left arm stands at position for letter E, the right in
this case moving down 45 degrees to show letter X.

For the letter Z, the left arm stands at the position G--the right arm
crosses the breast taking the position F.


[Illustration: Semaphore code. (tr)]


{208}

The letters A to I also stand for the figures 1 to 9 (K standing for
0), if you make the numerical sign to show that you are going to send
numbers followed by the alphabetical sign (J) when the figures are
finished. They will be checked by being repeated back by the receiving
station. Should figures be wrongly repeated by the receiving station
the sending station will send the "annul" sign (which is answered by
the same sign) and then send the group of figures again.

The sender must always face the station to which he is sending. On a
word failing to make sense, the writer down will say, "no," when the
reader will at once stop the sending station by raising both arms
horizontally to their full extent (letter R). This demand for
repetition the sending station will acknowledge by making J. The
signaller receiving the message will then send the last word he has
read correctly, upon which the sender will continue the message from
that word.


Whistle Signs

1. One long blast means "Silence," "Alert," "Look out for my next
signal." Also approaching a station.

2. Two short blasts means "All right."

3. A succession of long, slow blasts means "Go out," "Get farther
away," or "Advance," "Extend," "Scatter."

4. A succession of short, sharp blasts means "Rally," "Close in,"
"Come together," "Fall in," "Danger," "Alarm."

5. Three short blasts followed by one long one from scout master calls
up the patrol leaders--i.e., "Leaders, come here."

Any whistle signal must be instantly obeyed at the double--as fast as
you can run--no matter what other job you may be doing at the time.


Hand or Flag Signals

Hand signals, which can also be made by patrol leaders with their
patrol flags when necessary:

Hand waved several times across the face from side to side or flag
waved horizontally, from side to side opposite the face, means "No,"
"Never mind," "As you were."

Hand or flag held high, and waved as though pushing forward, at full
extent of arm, or whistle a succession of slow blasts means "Extend,"
"Go farther out," "Scatter."

Hand or flag held high, and waved rapidly from side to side, at full
extent of arm, or a succession of short, quick blasts on the whistle,
means "Close in," "Rally," "Come here," "Danger," "Cattle on track."

{209}

Hand or flag pointing in any direction means "Go in that direction."

Clenched hand or flag jumped rapidly up and down several times means,
"Hurry," "Run."

The movement, pushing or beckoning, indicates whether "Hurry here" or
"Hurry there."

Hand (or flag) held straight up over head, palm forward, means "Stop,"
"Halt."

When a leader is shouting an order or message to a scout who is some
way off, the scout, if he hears what is being said, should hold up his
hand level with his head all the time. If he cannot hear, he should
stand still, making no sign. The leader will then repeat louder, or
beckon to the scout to come in nearer.

The following signals are made by a scout with his staff when he is
sent out to reconnoitre within sight of his patrol, and they have the
following meaning:

Staff held up horizontally, that is, level, with both hands above the
head, means, "I have found."

The same, out with staff moved up and down slowly, means, "I have
found, but a long way off."

The same, staff moved up and down rapidly, means, "I have found, and
close by."

The staff held straight up over the head means, "Nothing in sight."


Indian Signs and Blazes

Shaking a blanket: I want to talk to you.

Hold up a tree-branch: I want to make peace.

Hold up a weapon, means war: I am ready to fight.

Hold up a pole horizontally, with hands on it: I have found something.


[Illustration: Indian Signs and Blazes.
  This is good water.
  Good water not far in this direction.
  A long way to good water, go in direction of arrow.
  We camped here because one of us was sick.]

{210}

[Illustration: Indian Signs and Blazes.
  War or trouble about.
  Peace.
  Road to be followed.
  Letter hidden three paces from here in the direction of arrow.
  This path not to be followed.
  "I have gone home."]


WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY

_The Boy Scout Wireless Club
Y. M. C. A., Newark, N.J._

The following directions are given for an up-to-date wireless
apparatus for stationary use in the home or at the meeting place of
each patrol.

We will consider the receiving apparatus first:


[Illustration: Diagram of wireless transmitter and receiver. (tr)]


The first thing to do is to build an aerial. First find out how long
your location will allow you to build it, and how high. It ought to be
at least 50 to 60 feet high and about 70 to 100 feet long. The main
point in building an aerial is to have it {211} well insulated from
the ground, and all connections in wire perfectly solid. It is
advisable to solder every connection and to make your aerial strong as
it has a great deal to do with the working qualities of the station.

After this is completed, the inside work on instruments should begin.

1. A pair of watch-case receivers having a resistance of 1,000 ohms
each, manufactured by a reliable firm.

2. A loose coupler tuning coil of about 800 meters.

3. One of Mordock's metal detectors or one of similar design.

4. A variable condenser of about 5-10 plates.

5. A fixed condenser so arranged that its capacity can be changed if
desired.

With these instruments the receiving set is complete, so we next take
up the sending apparatus.

1. A two-inch induction coil.

2. A heavy spark gap (zinc preferable).

3. One wireless key with heavy contacts.

4. A plate condenser which can be easily made by any scout. Good glass
is the main point.

5. A triple pole, double throw aerial switch. (Can be made by scouts.)


Now you have everything necessary to go ahead and assemble your
station. The next thing is to connect them up.

Above is a diagram which will make a good station for a scout. This
station, if the aero is of the proper height, is capable of sending
messages from 8 to 10 miles.


The Receiving Set

Perhaps the most fundamentally important part of a wireless telegraph
station is the aerial. Its construction varies with each station, but
a few general suggestions may be of use.

The builder should aim to get as high and as long an aerial as
possible, height being the more important factor. In a stationary set
the aerial may be fastened to a tree or pole or high building while in
a field set a tree or an easily portable pole must be used.

The aerial itself should be made of copper wire and should be hung
between spreaders as long as convenient and insulated from them by two
cleat insulators in series at each end.

The experimenter should see that his leading-in wire is placed
conveniently and comes in contact with the walls, etc., {212} as
little as possible. All points of contact must be well insulated with
glass, porcelain, or hard rubber.

The tuning coil is very simple in construction. A cardboard tube,
about three inches in diameter, is mounted between two square heads.
This tube is wound with No. 24 insulated copper wire and very well
shellaced to avoid loosening of the wire.

Two pieces of one quarter inch square brass rod, to be fastened
between the heads, are secured, and a slider, as shown in drawing, is
made. The rods are fastened on the heads and the insulation in the
path of the slides is then well scraped off. Binding posts are then
fastened to rods and coil ends.


[Illustration: Details of instruments for field use.]


{213}

The detector, although the most important of the instruments, is
perhaps the simplest. It is constructed of a hardwood base with a
small brass plate fastened on by means of a binding post. On the other
end of the base is fastened a double binding post which holds a brass
spring, as in the drawing. On the end of this spring is fastened a
copper point made by winding a few inches of No. 36 or 40 wire on it
and allowing about three sixteenths of an inch to project. This
completes the detector but, for use in this instrument, lead sulphide
or Galena crystals must be secured.

The condenser is made of two pieces of tin-foil, four by ten, and
three pieces of waxed paper a little larger than the foil. A piece of
wire is twisted into the end of each piece of foil, and then one sheet
of foil is laid on a sheet of paper. This is then covered by another
sheet of paper upon which is laid the second sheet of foil. On top of
this is laid the third sheet of paper and the whole is folded into a
convenient bundle. The sheets of foil must be well insulated from each
other and the wires must project from the condenser.

The ground connection is made by soldering a wire to a cold water
pipe. In the case of a portable set the ground may be made by driving
a metal rod into the ground or sinking metal netting into a body of
water.

The telephone receivers cannot well be made and must therefore be
bought. The type of phones used will therefore depend entirely on the
builder's purse.


The Sending Set

The same aerial and ground are used for sending as were used for
receiving, and for the experimenter, it will be far cheaper to buy a
spark coil for his sending set than to attempt to make one.

For a field set there will be very little need of a sending helix, as
close tuning will be hardly possible; but for the stationary set this
is very useful.

The helix is made by building a drum with square heads fastened
together by six or eight uprights, arranged on the circumference of a
circle. On this then are wound ten or twelve turns of No. 10 or 12,
brass or copper wire. Binding posts are fastened to the ends of the
wire and variable contact made on the turns by means of metal spring
clips.

The spark gap is made of a hard-wood base with two uprights to which
are fastened strips of brass. Under these strips are {214} placed two
pieces of battery zincs so as to make the gap between their ends
variable. Binding posts are fastened to the strips for contact.


The sending condenser is the same as the receiving in construction,
but different in material. The dielectric is glass while the
conducting surfaces are tin-foil, arranged in a pile of alternate
sheets of glass and foil. The foil is shaped as in drawing and
alternate sheets have their lugs projecting on opposite sides, all
lugs on same side being connected together. For a one-inch coil but a
few of these plates are needed, but for higher power a greater number
are necessary.


[Illustration: Wireless Telegraph Set Designed for Boy Scouts of
America by L. Horle.]


All that now remains is the setting up of the instruments. They are
arranged as in the drawing, a double-point, {215} double-throw switch
being used to switch from sending to receiving.

After having connected up the receiving instruments, the receiver is
placed at the ear and the point of the detector placed on the various
parts of the mineral until the signals are heard clearly. Then the
tuning coil is adjusted until the signals are loudest.

The sending apparatus is set up, the key and batteries having been
bought or made, and used to call some other station. The clip is put
on various twins of the helix until the other station signals that the
signals are loudest. The station is then ready for actual operation.


NOTES


{216}


Notes


{217}


Notes


{218}


Notes


{219}

CHAPTER V

HEALTH AND ENDURANCE

 _George J. Fisher, M. D.
  Secretary, Physical Department International Committee
  Young Men's Christian Association_


Fitness

Two things greatly affect the conditions under which a boy lives in
these days. One is that he lives in-doors for the greater part of the
time, and the other is that he must attend school, which is pretty
largely a matter of sitting still. Two things therefore are needs of
every boy: out-door experience and physical activity.

To secure endurance, physical power, physical courage, and skill, the
first thing needful is to take stock of one's physical make-up, put
the body in the best possible condition for doing its work and then
keep it in good order.


Proper Carriage

Head up, chin in, chest out, and shoulders back is a good slogan for a
boy scout who desires an erect figure. One can scarcely think of a
round-shouldered scout. Yet there are such among the boys who desire
to be scouts.

There is no particular exercise that a boy can take to cure round
shoulders. The thing to remember is that all exercise that is taken
should be done in the erect position, then the muscles will hold the
body there.

An erect body means a deeper chest, room for the important organs to
work and thus affords them the best chance to act.

A few setting-up exercises each day in the erect position will help
greatly to get this result.


{220}

[Illustration: Exercise 1]
Position: Heels together, arms down and at sides, palms in.
Movement: Swing arms, sideways, upward to vertical, and return.


[Illustration: Exercise 2]
Same as Exercise I, except that arms
are swung forward, upward to vertical.


[Illustration: Exercise 3.]
Position: Arms extended to side horizontal.
Movement: Swing forward and return.
(Emphasis upon backward movement.)


[Illustration: Exercise 4.]
Position: Arms at side, horizontal, back slightly arched.
Movement: Circle arms backward.

Setting-up Exercises


{221}

[Illustration: Exercise 5.]
Position: Forearms flexed at side of chest.
Movement: Thrust arms forward and return.


[Illustration: Exercise 6.]
Position: Arms at front, horizontal,
forearms flexed, fingers on shoulders.
Movement: Swing backward to side,
horizontal in position.


[Illustration: Exercise 7.]
Position: Same as Exercise 6.
Movement: Swing downward, forward, bringing arms beyond sides
of body. Rise on toes with end of backward swing.


[Illustration: Exercise 8a.]
Position: Arms at vertical, thumbs locked, head fixed between arms.


[Illustration: Exercise 8b.]
Movement: Bend forward as far as possible,
without bending knees, and return.

Setting-up Exercises


{222}


[Illustration: Exercise 9.]
Position: Arms at vertical.  Repeat exercise 8b


[Illustration: Exercise 9b.]
Movement: Arm circles, downward, inward,
across chest. Reverse the movement.


[Illustration: Exercise 10.]
Position: Arms on hips.
Movement: Forward bend.


[Illustration: Exercise 11.]
Position: Same as Exercise 10.
Movement: Backward bend.


[Illustration: Exercise 12.]
Position: Same as Exercise 10.
Movement: Sideward bend, right and left.

Setting-up Exercises


{223}


[Illustration: Exercise 13.]
Position: Same as Exercise 10.
Movement: Rotate body of waist.


[Illustration: Exercise 14.]
Position: Same as Exercise 10.
Movement: Raise high on toes. (Hold shoulders back firmly)


[Illustration: Exercise 15.]
Position: Same as Exercise 10.
Movement: Full knee bend.


Setting-up Exercises


Growth

The chief business of a boy is to grow. He may have other affairs, but
this is his chief concern. He should, therefore, have a few simple
rules for living and make them a part of his daily life.


Out-door Exercises

Each day should have its out-door exercises. Walking is a splendid
form of exercise. Walk to school or business; don't ride unless
absolutely necessary because of unusual distance. Walk with a good,
swinging stride with chest well up and spine fairly straight. Slow
running across country is great; it lacks strain and yet affords
splendid stimulation to heart and lungs. Cross-country running and
hiking should be favorite sport for scout patrols and troops. A boy
ought to have at least two hours of sport daily in some good, vigorous
game, such as baseball or tennis, and, if he can possibly afford it,
at least two periods a week, of an hour each, in a gymnasium, where he
can receive guidance in body building. Boys under sixteen should avoid
exercise of strain, such as weight lifting, or sprint running over one
hundred yards, or long distance racing. They should have careful
guidance in all gymnastic work. Work on apparatus may prove harmful
unless of the right sort. The horse {224} and parallel bars should be used
largely to jump over rather than perform upon. Exercises demanding a
sustained support of the body with the arms are not helpful, but may
be harmful. The chief activity should be of the legs, to strengthen
heart and lungs. A boy should be careful not to overdo. In his
excitement to win in a contest he is likely to do this unless
cautioned. A boy should never try to reduce his weight. Now that there
are weight classes in sports for boys there is a temptation to do this
and it may prove very serious. Severe training for athletics should be
avoided. All training should be in moderation.


Medical Examinations

Every boy ought to have, as he takes up his boy-scout work, a thorough
medical examination. Some physician who is interested in boys will be
willing to act as examiner for a patrol or troop. A boy should know
the condition of his heart and lungs before entering any contest. If
he has any defects in his breathing apparatus--nose, throat, or lungs,
these should be attended to or they will seriously interfere with his
endurance tests.


Baths

Beside exercises a boy should have simple, workable rules for living.
A boy ought to take a good soap bath at least twice a week and always
after he has played a hard game or performed work of a nature that has
caused him to perspire freely.

Each morning a quick sponge bath should be the first order of the day,
in water as cool as he can stand it, followed by a good rub with a
coarse towel. If there is a feeling of warmth after the bath, it is
helpful, if not, the water should be slightly warm or only a portion
of the body should be bathed at a time.


Pain

One thing that should be regarded seriously is pain in any form in any
part of the body. If there is a dull headache frequently, find out
what causes it. Pain in the knee, the arch of the foot, or at any
point, should be taken seriously. Pain means something wrong. It may
be brave to bear it, but it {225} is not wise. It may mean something
serious. Remember that pain felt in one part of the body may be the
result of something wrong in another part. See a wise doctor about it.


Eating

And now in reference to what one shall eat. The average boy ought to
have and usually does have an appetite like an ostrich. Three points
to remember are; don't eat too much, most healthy boys do; don't eat
meat more than once a day; and, third, don't eat anything that you
always taste for several hours after you have eaten it, even though
you like it.


Digestion

The fact that you taste it is an indication that your stomach is
having a wresting match with the food. Some people can't digest
onions, others thrive upon them. Some can't eat cucumbers, others can
do so readily. The one must give them up; the other can continue to
eat them. Each person has some peculiarity of diet and must observe it
to be happy. Many a race has been lost through failure to obey this
rule. A simple diet is best. Most boys eat too much of a mixed nature.
They mix pickles, soda water, frankfurters, and chocolate without fear
or favor. No wonder there is so much stomach ache. In boys' camps the
chief trouble is indigestion caused by this riot of eating. Such boys
are laying up for themselves for the future some beautiful headaches
and bilious attacks, which, when they become chronic later, will cry
out against them and seriously impair their value. Don't eat when very
tired; lie down a while and get rested. Don't eat heavily before
exercising, or, better, put it the other way around, don't exercise
immediately after eating. Never eat when excited or angry and very
lightly when worried or when expecting to study hard. We should learn
to eat slowly and chew the food thoroughly remembering that all food
before it can be taken up in the blood must be as thin as pea soup.
Chewing well will help the digestive organs greatly. Always wash the
hands before eating. Be careful about eating food that has been
exposed to the dust unless it has been washed. Drink freely of clean
water between meals. Never use a public drinking cup without
thoroughly rinsing it. Don't touch your lips to the rim of the cup.

Boys who cook their own meals when in camp should be {226} careful to
have their food well done. Half-baked and soggy food proves
indigestible.


Coffee and Tea

Should a boy drink coffee or tea? This is a question often asked by
boys. Coffee and tea are the greatest stimulants known. But does a
strong boy need a stimulant? What is a stimulant and what does it do?
A stimulant is a whip, making the body do more at a given time than it
ordinarily would. It doesn't add any fibre to the tissues, doesn't add
any strength, isn't a food, but merely gets more out of the tissues or
nervous system than they would ordinarily yield. Of course there is a
reaction, because the tissues have had nothing to feed on. Herbert
Fisher says that Peary's men, who drank lots of tea on their voyage
north, during the most trying time of their trip showed it in their
haggard faces and loss of tissue. Their own tissues had turned
cannibal and fed on their own material. Stimulants are not foods. They
add no strength to the body. They exact of the body what ought not to
be exacted of it. There is always a reaction and one is always worse
off as a result. Growing boys especially should have nothing to do
with tea, coffee, or any stimulant.


Alcohol and Tobacco

Alcohol is not a stimulant, but is really a narcotic that is very
depressing. It dulls rather than stimulates. The same is true of
nicotine in tobacco. No growing boy should use either. The first
athletes to drop out of a race are usually drinkers and all trainers
know that smoking is bad for the wind.


Constipation

Those boys who find their digestion sluggish and are troubled with
constipation may find the following plan helpful in overcoming the
condition:

Drink a cool, copious draught of water upon arising. Then take some
body-bending exercises. Follow this with the sponge bath. Then, if
possible, take a walk around the block before breakfast. After school,
play some favorite game for at least an hour. In the absence of this,
take a good hike of three or four miles or a longer bicycle ride. At
least twice a week, if possible, enter a gymnasium class and make
special emphasis of body-bending exercises.

{227}

Have a regular time for going to stool. A good plan is to go just
before retiring and immediately upon arising. Go even though you feel
no desire to do so. A regular habit may be established by this method.
Always respond quickly to any call of nature. Toasted bread and graham
bread and the coarser foods and fruit will be found helpful.


The Teeth

Closely related to the matter of eating is the proper care of the
teeth.

Perhaps--without care--the mouth is the filthiest cavity of the body.
We spend a great deal of energy trying to keep food clean and water
pure, but what is the use if we place them in a dirty cavity as they
enter the body. Full 90 per cent. of the children examined in our
schools have decayed and dirty teeth. These decayed teeth provide
cavities in which food particles decay and germs grow, and through
which poisons are absorbed. These conditions need not exist. Now just
a few suggestions about the care of the teeth. Every boy should own
his own tooth brush. The teeth should be scrubbed at least twice a
day. At night they should receive most careful cleansing, using a good
tooth paste or powder. Then again in the morning they should be rinsed
at which time simply clean water is sufficient. Time should be taken
in the cleansing of the teeth. The gums should be included in the
scrubbing, as this acts as a good stimulant to the circulation of the
blood to the teeth. Not only should the teeth be brushed with a
backward and forward stroke, as we ordinarily do, but also upward and
downward the length of the teeth. In addition to the scrubbing,
particles of food which are lodged between the teeth should be removed
after meals, or at least after the last meal of the day. This is most
safely done by the use of a thread of a fair degree of thickness.
Dentists and druggists furnish this thread in spools. Hard toothpicks
often cause bleeding and detach fillings. A dentist should be visited
once every six months so as to detect decay immediately. Never have a
tooth pulled unless absolutely necessary.


Care of the Eyes

Most troubles with the eyes come from eye strain. Styes and red lids
are usually due to this cause. See how foolish, therefore, it is to
treat these conditions as causes, when really {228} they are only the
result of something else. Of course there are exceptions. Sometimes
wild hairs and skin disease affect the eyes. Eye strain should be
removed by wearing well-fitting glasses and then these other
conditions will disappear. If constant headache is experienced or the
eyes itch or become tired easily, there is possibly eye strain.

One way to test the eye is for vision. Place the following letters
fifteen feet from you. If you cannot read them clearly with both eyes
and with each eye separately, consult a first-class oculist.

C L V F O T

E A C F D L O T

D V C L A E O T F

Never buy eye-glasses unless fitted by an expert. Such glasses should
be worn in proper relation to the eyes. They should not be permitted
to slide forward on the nose or tilt. They may need to be changed
often as the eyes grow better.

For reading, a good, steady light is needed. Never sit in front of a
window facing it to read. Always have the light come from the rear and
over the left shoulder preferably. The book should be held on a level
with the face and not too close. Sit {229} erect. Reading when lying
down or from the light of a fireplace is unwise.


Care of the Ears

Affections of the ears are exceedingly serious and may lead to grave
results. Any trouble with them should be given very prompt attention
and a good specialist consulted. Pain in the ear, or ringing or
hissing sounds, and particularly any discharge from the ear, should
not be neglected. Any sign of deafness must be heeded. Sometimes
deafness occurs in reference to some particular sounds while hearing
is normal to others. No matter what the degree of deafness may be do
not neglect to see a physician about it. Ordinarily the tick of a
watch can be heard at a distance of thirty inches. If you cannot hear
it at that distance and can hear it say at fifteen inches then you are
just one half from the normal in your hearing. The test should be made
with one ear closed.

Ear troubles are often caused by sticking foreign objects in the ear,
such as hair pins, pins, matches, toothpicks and lead pencils. Never
pick the ear with anything. Often the ear drum is pierced in this way.
The normal ear does not require anything more than the usual cleansing
with the wash rag over the end of the finger.

If wax to any extent accumulates in the ear it should be removed by
syringing, but ought to be done by a physician.

In camp an insect might crawl into the ear and if alive cause pain.
Putting oil or other fluids in the ear to drown it is unwise. If a
foreign body should get in the ear it should not cause great alarm
unless attended with severe pain. If a physician is not available at
once such objects may remain for a day or two without serious results.
Syringing usually removes them, but it should be remembered that some
objects like peas or beans swell if made wet. In swimming water is apt
to get into the ear and cause annoyance. A rubber ear stop can be
secured and placed in the ear at the time of swimming, thus keeping
the water out. Cotton should not be stuffed into the ear to keep water
out, as it may get inside.

One thing to keep in mind is that catarrh of the nose and throat often
extends into the ear passages through a tube which reaches from the
throat to the ear and that syringing of the nose and throat frequently
causes trouble in the ear.


Care of Nose and Throat

Always breathe through the nose. Air passing through the nose is
warmed and moistened and cleansed; thus it gets to {230} the lungs in
a better condition. If you cannot breathe clearly through the nose,
have it examined. There may be a growth present which needs to be
removed. To become a good runner this is important. Adenoids, which
are growths far back in the mouth, often interfere with nose breathing
and are serious in other ways. Don't stick anything in the nose; and
nose picking is not cleanly. If crusts form in the nose, use a little
vaseline to soften them. Don't blow the nose too vigorously. It may
cause trouble.

Frequent sore throat may be due to enlarged tonsils which either need
treatment or removal. To one who has frequent colds in the head, the
out-of-door life and morning sponge bath and moderate eating will be
of help.


Care of the Feet

This is an important matter with scouts, as they will make frequent
hikes and tramps. The first thing to do is to walk right. The straight
foot is the normal foot. The normal foot is broad at the ball with
space between the toes. How different from the awful feet we see with
toes twisted upon each other and crowded together. Walk with feet
pointing straight forward. The feet that turn outward are weak feet.
Shoes therefore should be straight on the inner border, broad across
the ball, and have a low, broad heel. The shoe adopted by the scout
movement is a good design.

When a foot is normal, the inner border does not touch the floor. By
wetting the foot one can see readily whether he is flat-footed by the
imprint made. The following exercises are good to strengthen the
arches of the foot if there is a tendency to flat feet: (1) Turn toes
in, raise the heels, and come down slowly on the outer borders of the
feet; (2) Walk with heels raised and toes pointing inward, or walk on
the outer borders of the foot, inner borders turned up.

Shoes should fit the feet comfortably. Tight shoes, or shoes that fit
loosely, will cause callouses or corns. The way to get rid of these is
to remove the cause--namely, the badly-fitting shoes. Soft corns are
due to pressure between the toes. The toes in such cases should be
kept apart with cotton. Pointed shoes should be avoided.
Patent-leather shoes are non-porous and hot. Ingrown toe nails are
exceedingly painful. The pain comes from the nail piercing the soft
parts. Allowing the nail to grow long and beyond the point of the
tender spot will help; {231} and on the side of the nail and under it
cotton should be inserted to protect the soft parts.

Hot foot baths will generally relieve tired feet. Boys should be very
careful in trimming corns for fear of blood poisoning. Never buy
plates at a store for flat feet. They may not be adapted to your
needs. Always consult a foot specialist for treatment and buy plates
if needed on his order. Only severe cases need plates.

Many boys are troubled with perspiring feet and are frequently annoyed
by the odor resulting. Those who are thus troubled should wash the
feet often and carefully, especially, between the toes. By dusting the
feet with boric acid the odor will disappear. At first it may be
necessary to change the stockings daily. In severe cases two pairs of
shoes should be used, changing alternately.


Care of the Finger Nails

The chief thing in the care of the finger nails is to keep them clean.
Each boy should possess and use a nail brush. Always wash the hands
thoroughly before eating, and use the end of a nail file to remove the
accumulation still remaining under the nails. Keep the nails properly
trimmed. They should not be too long nor too short. If long they are
liable to break and if short to be sensitive. Biting the nails is a
filthy practice and mutilates the fingers dreadfully and makes them
unsightly. It is a very hard habit to overcome ofttimes and will
require persistent effort in order to succeed. By keeping the nails
smooth the tendency to bite them will to some extent be overcome. A
bitter application to the nails will often remind one of the habit, as
often the biting is done unconsciously. The nails should never be
pared with a knife; a curved pair of scissors is better as the cutting
should be done in a curved direction; but the best method is to use a
file. The skin overhanging the nails should be pressed back once a
week to keep them shapely. Rubbing the nails with a nail buffer or
cloth will keep them polished.


Sleep

One thing a growing boy wants to be long on is sleep, and yet he is
most apt to be careless about it. It is during sleep that a boy grows
most and catches up. During his waking hours he tears down and burns
up more tissue than he builds. Good, sound and sufficient sleep is
essential to growth, strength, {232} and endurance. A boy scout should
have at least nine or ten hours sleep out of every twenty-four. If you
lose out on this amount on one day, make it up the next. Whenever
unusually tired, or when you feel out of trim, stay in bed a few hours
more if it is possible. A boy should wake up each morning feeling like
a fighting cock. When he doesn't he ought to get to bed earlier that
night. Sleep is a wonderful restorative and tonic. It helps to store
up energy and conserve strength.


Sleeping Out of Doors

The conditions under which one sleeps are as important as the length
of time one sleeps. Many people are finding it wonderfully helpful and
invigorating to sleep out of doors. Often a back porch can be
arranged, or, in summer, a tent can be pitched in the yard. But, by
all means, the sleeping room should be well ventilated. Windows should
be thrown wide open. Avoid drafts. If the bed is in such relation to
the windows as to cause the wind to blow directly on it, a screen can
be used to divert it or a sheet hung up as protection. Good, fresh,
cool air is a splendid tonic. In winter open windows are a splendid
preparation for camping out in summer.


Conservation

In this chapter much has been said of the active measures which a boy
should take in order to become strong and well. We should be equally
concerned in saving and storing up natural forces we already have. In
the body of every boy, who has reached his teens, the Creator of the
universe has sown a very important fluid. This fluid is the most
wonderful material in all the physical world. Some parts of it find
their way into the blood, and through the blood give tone to the
muscles, power to the brain, and strength to the nerves. This fluid is
the sex fluid. When this fluid appears in a boy's body, it works a
wonderful change in him. His chest deepens, his shoulders broaden, his
voice changes, his ideals are changed and enlarged. It gives him the
capacity for deep feeling, for rich emotion. Pity the boy, therefore,
who has wrong ideas of this important function, because they will
lower his ideals of life. These organs actually secrete into the blood
material that makes a boy manly, strong, and noble. Any habit which a
boy has that causes this fluid to be discharged from the body tends to
weaken his strength, to make him less able to resist disease, and
often unfortunately fastens upon him habits which later in life he
{233} cannot break. Even several years before this fluid appears in
the body such habits are harmful to a growing boy.

To become strong, therefore, one must be pure in thought and clean in
habit. This power which I have spoken of must be conserved, because
this sex function is so deep and strong that there will come times
when temptation to wrong habits will be very powerful. But remember
that to yield means to sacrifice strength and power and manliness.

For boys who desire to know more of this subject we would suggest a
splendid book by Dr. Winfield S. Hall, entitled, "From Youth into
Manhood." Every boy in his teens who wants to know the secret of
strength, power, and endurance should read this book.

NOTES


{234}


Notes


{235}


Notes


{236}


Notes


{237}

CHAPTER VI

CHIVALRY

_By John L. Alexander, Boy Scouts of America_


Ancient Knighthood

A little over fifteen hundred years ago the great order of knighthood
and chivalry was founded. The reason for this was the feeling on the
part of the best men of that day that it was the duty of the stronger
to help the weak. These were the days when might was right, and the
man with the strongest arm did as he pleased, often oppressing the
poor and riding rough shod without any regard over the feelings and
affections of others. In revolt against this, there sprang up all over
Europe a noble and useful order of men who called themselves knights.
Among these great-hearted men were Arthur, Gareth, Lancelot, Bedivere,
and Alfred the Great. The desire of these men was "To live pure, speak
true, right wrong, follow the king." Of course in these days there
also lived men who called themselves knights, but who had none of the
desire for service that inspired Arthur and the others. These false
knights, who cared for no one but themselves and their own pleasure,
often brought great sorrow to the common people. Chivalry then was a
revolt against their brutal acts and ignorance and a protest against
the continuation of the idea that might was right.

Nowhere in all the stories that have come down to us have the acts of
chivalry been so well told as in the tales of the Round Table. Here it
was that King Arthur gathered about him men like Sir Bors, Sir
Gawaine, Sir Pellias, Sir Geraint, Sir Tristram, Sir Lancelot, and Sir
Galahad. These men moved by the desire of giving themselves in
service, cleared the forests of wild animals, suppressed the robber
barons, {238} punished the outlaws, bullies, and thieves of their day,
and enforced wherever they went a proper respect for women. It was for
this great service that they trained themselves, passing through the
degrees of page, esquire, and knight with all the hard work that each
of these meant in order that they might the better do their duty to
their God and country.


[Illustration: Ancient knight.]


Struggle for Freedom

Of course this struggle of right against wrong was not confined to the
days in which chivalry was born. The founding of the order of
knighthood was merely the beginning of the age-long struggle to make
right the ruling thought of life. Long after knighthood had passed
away, the struggle continued. In the birth of the modern nations,
England, Germany, France, and others, there was the distinct feeling
on the part of the best men of these nations that might should and
must give way to right, and that tyranny must yield to the spirit of
freedom. The great struggle of the English barons under King John and
the wresting from the king of the Magna Charta, which became the basis
of English liberty, was merely another development of the idea for
which chivalry stood. The protest of the French Revolution, and the
terrible doings of the common people in these days, although wicked
and brutal in method, were symptoms of the same revolt against
oppression.


[Illustration: Pilgrim father.]


The Pilgrim Fathers

When the Pilgrim Fathers founded the American colonies, the work of
Arthur and Alfred and the other great men of ancient days was renewed
and extended and fitted to the new conditions and times. With the
English settlements of Raleigh and Captain John Smith we might almost
say that a new race of men was born and a new kind of knight was
developed. All over America an idea made itself felt that in the eyes
of the law every man should be considered just as good as every other
man, and that every man ought to have a fair and square chance {239}
at all the good things that were to be had in a land of plenty. It was
this spirit that compelled the colonists to seek their independence
and that found its way into our Declaration of Independence as
follows:

   We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created
   equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
   inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty and the
   pursuit of happiness.

The fight of the colonists was the old-time fight of the knights
against the oppression and injustice and the might that dared to call
itself right.


[Illustration: Pioneer.]


American Pioneers

No set of men, however, showed this spirit of chivalry more than our
pioneers beyond the Alleghanies. In their work and service they
paralleled very closely the knights of the Round Table, but whereas
Arthur's knights were dressed in suits of armor, the American pioneers
were dressed in buckskin. They did, however, the very same things
which ancient chivalry had done, clearing the forests of wild animals,
suppressing the outlaws and bullies and thieves of their day and
enforcing a proper respect for women. Like the old knights they often
were compelled to do their work amid scenes of great bloodshed,
although they loved to live in peace. These American knights and
pioneers were generally termed backwoods men and scouts, and were men
of distinguished appearance, of athletic build, of high moral
character and frequently of firm religious convictions. Such men as
"Apple-seed Johnny," Daniel Boone, George Rogers Clark, Simon Kenton
and John James Audubon, are the types of men these pioneers were. They
were noted for their staunch qualities of character. They hated
dishonesty and were truthful and brave. They were polite to women and
old people, ever ready to rescue a companion when in danger, and
equally ready to risk their lives for a stranger. They were very
hospitable, dividing their last crust with one another, or with the
stranger whom they happened to meet. They were ever ready to do an act
of kindness. {240} They were exceedingly simple in their dress and
habits. They fought the Indians, not because they wished to, but
because it was necessary to protect their wives and children from the
raids of the savages. They knew all the things that scouts ought to
know. They were acquainted with the woods and the fields; knew where
the best fish were to be caught; understood the trees, the signs and
blazes, the haunts of animals and how to track them; how to find their
way by the stars; how to make themselves comfortable in the heart of
the primeval forest; and such other things as are classed under the
general term of woodcraft. And, with all this, they inherited the
splendid ideas of chivalry that had been developed in the thousand
years preceding them, and fitted these ideas to the conditions of
their own day, standing solidly against evil and falsehood whenever
they lifted their head among them. They were not perfect, but they did
their best to be of service to those who came within their reach and
worked conscientiously for their country.


[Illustration: Modern knight.]


Modern Knighthood

A hundred years have passed since then, and the conditions of life
which existed west of the Alleghanies are no more. Just as the life of
the pioneers was different from that of the knights of the Round
Table, and as they each practised chivalry in keeping with their own
sur-roundings, so the life of to-day is different from both, but the
need of chivalry is very much the same. Might still tries to make
right, and while there are now no robber barons or outlaws with swords
and spears, their spirit is not unknown in business and commercial
life. Vice and dishonesty lift their heads just as strongly to-day as
in the past and there is just as much need of respect for women and
girls as there ever was. So to-day there is a demand for a modern type
of chivalry. It is for this reason that the Boy Scouts of America
have come into being; for there is need of service in these days, and
that is represented by the good turn done to somebody every day. Doing
the good turn daily will help to form the habit of useful service. A
boy scout, then, while living in modern times, must consider himself
the heir of ancient chivalry {241} and of the pioneers, and he must
for this reason give himself to ever renewed efforts to be true to the
traditions which have been handed down to him by these great and good
leaders of men. The boy-scout movement is a call to American boys
to-day to become in spirit members of the order of chivalry, and a
challenge to them to make their lives count in the communities in
which they live--for clean lives, clean speech, clean sport, clean
habits, and clean relationships with others. It is also a challenge
for them to stand for the right against the wrong, for truth against
falsehood, to help the weak and oppressed, and to love and seek the
best things of life.


Abraham Lincoln

[Illustration: Portrait of Abraham Lincoln. (tr)]

Perhaps there is no better example of chivalry than the life and
experience of Abraham Lincoln, the greatest of all our American men.
Every boy ought to read the story of his life and come to understand
and appreciate what it means. Lincoln was born in the backwoods of
Kentucky. He was a tall, spare man of awkward build, and knew very
little of the school room as a boy. He fought for his education. He
borrowed books wherever he could. Many long nights were spent by him
before the flickering lights of the log cabin, gleaning from his
borrowed treasures the knowledge he longed to possess. He passed
through all the experiences of life that other scouts and pioneers
have experienced. He split rails for a livelihood, and fought his way
upward by hard work, finally achieving for himself an education in the
law, becoming an advocate in the courts of Illinois. Wherever he
went, he made a profound impression on the lives and minds of the
people and won over his political opponents by his strength, sympathy,
{242} and breadth of mind. At the period when storms threatened to
engulf our Ship of State, he became President of our country. Although
Lincoln was an untried pilot, he stood by the helm like a veteran
master. A man of earnest and intense conviction, he strove to
maintain the glory of our flag and to keep the Union un-broken.
Hundreds of stories are told of his great heart and almost boundless
sympathy for others. The generals of the Civil War were deeply
attached to him, and the rank and file of the sold-iers who fought
under these generals loved and revered him. He was familiarly known as
"Honest Abe." He could always be relied upon to give help and
encouragement. His smile cheered the defenders of the Union, and his
wise counsel gave heart to the men who were helping him to shape the
destinies of the nation. At the close of the war which saw the Union
more firmly established than ever, he fell by the hand of the
assassin, mourned deeply both by his own country and by the world at
large.

The further we get from the scene of his life and work the more firmly
are we, his countrymen, convinced of his sincerity, strength, wisdom,
and bigness of heart. The two men who stand out preeminently in
history among great Americans are Washington and Lincoln, the former
as the founder of the Union and the latter as the man who gave it
unbreakable continuity and preserved it, as we hope and believe, for
all time.


[Illustration: Using every opportunity.]


Lincoln's life and career should be the study and inspiration of every
boy scout. He became familiar with all of the things for which the Boy
Scouts of America stand. He was a lover of the wild things in the
woods, and loved and lived the life of the out-of-doors. He had a high
sense of honor and was intensely chivalrous, as the many hundred
stories told about {243} him testify. He did many times more than one
good turn a day; he sincerely loved his country; he lived, fought, and
worked for it; and finally he sealed his loyalty by giving his life.
The path that he travelled from the log cabin to the White House
clearly shows that an American boy who has well defined ideas of truth
and right, and then dares to stand by them, can become great in the
councils of the nation. The life, then, of Abraham Lincoln should be a
steady inspiration to every boy who wishes to call himself a scout.


Challenge of the Present

Thus we see that chivalry is not a virtue that had its beginning long
ago and merely lived a short time, becoming a mere story. Chivalry
began in the far-distant past out of the desire to help others, and
the knights of the olden days did this as best they could. Later the
new race of men in America took up the burden of chivalry, and did the
best they could. Now the privilege and responsibility comes to the
boys of to-day, and the voices of the knight of the olden time and of
the hardy pioneers of our own country are urging the boys of to-day to
do the right thing, in a gentlemanly way, for the sake of those about
them. All of those men, whether knights or pioneers, had an unwritten
code, somewhat like our scout law, and their motto was very much like
the motto of the boy scouts, "Be Prepared."


[Illustration: Politeness.]


Good Manners

The same thing that entered into the training of these men, knights,
pioneers, and Lincoln, then, must enter into the training of the boy
scouts of to-day. Just as they respected women and served them, so the
tenderfoot and the scout must be polite and kind to women, not merely
to well-dressed women, but to poorly-dressed women; not merely to
young women, but to old women: to women wherever they may be found--
{244} wherever they may be. To these a scout must always be courteous and
helpful.

When a scout is walking with a lady or a child, he should always walk
on the outside of the sidewalk, so that he can better protect them
against the jostling crowds. This rule is only altered when crossing
the street, when the scout should get between the lady and the
traffic, so as to shield her from accident or mud. Also in meeting a
woman or child, a scout, as a matter of course, should always make way
for them even if he himself has to step off the sidewalk into the mud.
When riding in a street car or train a scout should never allow a
woman, an elderly person, or a child to stand, but will offer his
seat; and when he does it he should do it cheerfully and with a smile.

When on the street, be continually on a quest, on the lookout to help
others, and always refuse any reward for the effort. This kind of
courtesy and good manners is essential to success. It was this
unselfish desire to protect and help that made these men of olden time
such splendid fellows.

Good manners attract and please, and should be cultivated by every boy
who expects to win success and make his life interesting to others. In
the home, on the street, in the school, in the workshop or the office,
or wherever one may be, his relationship to others should be
characterized as gentle, courteous, polite, considerate and
thoughtful. These are virtues and graces that make life easier and
pleasanter for all.


Cheerfulness

As has been said, whatever a scout does should be done with
cheerfulness, and the duty of always being cheerful cannot be
emphasized too much.

  Why don't you laugh, and make us all laugh too,
  And keep us mortals all from getting blue?
  A laugh will always win.
  If you can't laugh--just grin.
  Go on! Let's all join in!
  Why don't you laugh?

Benjamin Franklin said: "Money never yet made a man happy, and there
is nothing in its nature to produce happiness, One's personal
enjoyment is a very small thing, but one's personal usefulness is a
very important thing." Those only are happy who have their minds fixed
upon some object other and higher than their own happiness. Doctor
Raffles once said, {245} "I have made it a rule never to be with a
person ten minutes without trying to make him happier." A boy once
said to his mother, "I couldn't make little sister happy, nohow I
could fix it, but I made myself happy trying to make her happy."

There was once a king who had a tall, handsome son whom he loved with
his whole heart, so he gave him everything that his heart desired--a
pony to ride, beautiful rooms to live in, picture books, stories, and
everything that money could buy. And yet, in spite of this, the young
prince was unhappy and wore a wry face and a frown wherever he went,
and was always wishing for something he did not have. By and by, a
magician came to the court, and seeing a frown on the prince's face,
said to the king, "I can make your boy happy and turn his frown into a
smile, but you must pay me a very large price for the secret." "All
right," said the king, "whatever you ask, I will do." So the magician
took the boy into a private room, and with white liquid wrote
something on a piece of paper; then he gave the boy a candle and told
him to warm the paper and read what was written. The prince did as he
was told. The white letters turned into letters of blue, and he read
these words; "Do a kindness to some one every day." So the prince
followed the magician's advice and became the happiest boy in all the
king's realm.

To be a good scout one must remain cheerful under every circumstance,
bearing both fortune and misfortune with a smile.


[Illustration: Cheer up.]


Character

If a scout is cheerful, follows the advice of the magician to the
king's son, and does a good turn to some one every day, he will come
into possession of a strong character such as the knights of the Round
Table had; for, after all, character is the thing that distinguishes a
good scout from a bad one. Character is not what men say about you. A
great writer {246} once said, "I can't hear what you say for what you
are," and another one said, "Your life speaks louder than your words."
It was not the words of the knights of old that told what they were.
It was their strong life and fine character that gave power to their
words and the thrust to their spears.

It is necessary that a boy should live right and possess such a
character as will help him to do the hardest things of life. Every boy
should remember that he is in reality just what he is when alone in
the dark. The great quests of the knights were most often done singly
and alone.


Will

Another thing that entered into the make-up of a knight was an iron
will. He had staying powers because he willed to stick; and the way he
trained his will to do the hard things was to keep himself doing the
small things. Not long ago, there was a lad whom the boys nicknamed
"Blockey" and "Wooden Man." When they played ball in the school play
ground, Blockey never caught the ball. When they worked together in
the gymnasium, Blockey was always left out of the game because he
couldn't do things, and was slow and unwieldy in his motions. But one
day, a great change came over Blockey and he began to train his will.
He worked hard in the gymnasium: he learned to catch the ball, and, by
sticking to it, was not only able to catch the ball but became
proficient. Then there came a time when the first one chosen upon the
team was Blockey; and it all came about because he had trained his
will so that when he made up his mind to do a thing, he did it.


Thrift

Another thing which entered into the training of a knight was his
readiness to seize his opportunities. The motto of the scout is "Be
Prepared." He should be prepared for whatever opportunity presents
itself. An interesting story is told by Orison Swett Marden. He says
that a lad, who later became one of the millionaires of one of our
great Western cities, began his earning career by taking advantage of
an opportunity that came to him as he was passing an auction shop. He
saw several boxes of a kind of soap which his mother was accustomed to
buy from the family grocer. Hastening to the grocery store he asked
the price of the soap. "Twelve cents a pound" was the reply. On being
pressed for a lower figure the shopkeeper remarked in a bantering tone
that he would buy all that the boy could bring to his store at {247}
nine cents a pound. The boy hurried back to the auction and bought the
soap at six cents a pound. It was in this way that he made his first
money in trade and laid the foundation of his fortune.

The knight never waited for opportunity to come to him. He went out
looking for it, and wore his armor in order that he might be ready for
it when it came. There is a story of a Greek god who had only one lock
of hair upon his forehead. The remainder of his head was shining bald.
In order to get this ancient god's attention, it was necessary to grip
him by his forelock, for when he had passed, nothing could check his
speed. So it is with opportunity, and the hour of opportunity. A good
scout is ready for both and always grips "time by the forelock."


Individuality

If the foregoing qualities enter into a scout's training, an
individuality will be developed in him, which will make itself known
and felt.

Every scout should read over the following list of scout virtues, and
should strive at all times to keep them before him in his training,
thus making them a part of his life:

Unselfishness:  The art of thinking of others first and one's self
                afterward.

Self Sacrifice: The giving up of one's comfort, desires, and pleasures
                for the benefit of some one else.

Kindness:       The habit of thinking well of others and doing good
                to them.

Friendliness:   The disposition to make everyone you meet feel at
                ease, and to be of service to him if possible.

Honesty:        The desire to give to every one a square deal and the
                same fair chance that you yourself wish to enjoy. It
                means also respect for the property and rights of
                others, the ability to face the truth, and to call
                your own faults by their right name.

Fair Play:      Scorning to take unfair advantage of a rival and
                readiness even to give up an advantage to him.

Loyalty:        The quality of remaining true and faithful not only
                to your principles but also to your parents and
                friends.

Obedience:      Compliance with the wishes of parents or those in
                places of authority.

Discipline:     That self-restraint and self-control that keep a boy
                steady, and help him in team work.

Endurance:      A manly moderation which keeps a boy fit and strong
                and in good condition.

{248}

Self Improvement: The ambition to get on in life by all fair means.

Humility:         That fine quality which keeps a scout from
                  boasting, and which generally reveals a boy of
                  courage and achievement.

Honor:            That great thing which is more sacred than anything
                  else to scouts and gentlemen; the disdain of telling
                  or implying an untruth; absolute trustworthiness and
                  faithfulness.

Duty to God:      That greatest of all things, which keeps a boy
                  faithful to his principles and true to his friends
                  and comrades; that gives him a belief in things that
                  are high and noble, and which makes him prove his
                  belief by doing his good turn to some one every day.

This list of virtues a scout must have, and if there are any that
standout more prominently than the others, they are the following:


[Illustration: Scout protecting child from mad dog.]


Courage

It is horrible to be a coward. It is weak to yield to fear and heroic
to face danger without flinching. The old Indian who had been mortally
wounded faced death with a grim smile on his lips and sang his own
death song. The soldier of the {249} Roman legions laughed in the face
of death, and died often with a "Hail, Imperator!" for the Roman
Caesar upon his lips.

One of the stories connected with the battle of Agincourt tells us
that four fair ladies had sent their knightly lovers into battle. One
of these was killed. Another was made prisoner. The third was lost in
the battle and never heard of afterward. The fourth was safe, but owed
his safety to shameful flight. "Ah! woe is me," said the lady of this
base knight, "for having placed my affections on a coward. He would
have been dear to me dead. But alive he is my reproach."

A scout must be as courageous as any knight of old or any Roman
soldier or any dying Indian.


Loyalty

Loyalty is another scout virtue which must stand out prominently,
because it is that which makes him true to his home, his parents, and
his country. Charles VIII, at the Battle of Foronovo, picked out nine
of his bravest officers and gave to each of them a complete suit of
armor, which was a counterpart of his own. By this device he outwitted
a group of his enemies who had leagued themselves to kill him during
the fight. They sought him through all the ranks, and every time they
met one of these officers they thought they had come face to face with
the king. The fact that these officers hailed such a dangerous honor
with delight and devotion is a striking illustration of their loyalty.

The scout should be no less loyal to his parents, home, and country.


Duty to God

No scout can ever hope to amount to much until he has learned a
reverence for religion. The scout should believe in God and God's
word. In the olden days, knighthood, when it was bestowed, was a
religious ceremony, and a knight not only considered himself a servant
of the king, but also a servant of God. The entire night preceding the
day upon which the young esquire was made knight was spent by him on
his knees in prayer, in a fast and vigil.

There are many kinds of religion in the world. One important point,
however, about them is that they all involve the worship of the same
God. There is but one leader, although many ways of following Him. If
a scout meets one of another religion, he should remember that he,
too, is striving for the best. {250} A scout should respect the
convictions of others in matters of custom and religion.


[Illustration: Scout helping old lady across street.]


A Boy Scout's Religion

The Boy Scouts of America maintain that no boy can grow into the best
kind of citizenship without recognizing his obligation to God. The
first part of the boy scout's oath or pledge is therefore: "I promise
on my honor to do my best to honor my God and my country." The
recognition of God as the ruling and leading power in the universe,
and the grateful acknowledgement of His favors and blessings is
necessary to the best type of citizenship and is a wholesome thing in
the education of the growing boy. No matter what the boy may
be--Catholic, or Protestant, or Jew--this fundamental need of good
citizenship should be kept before him. The Boy Scouts of America
therefore recognize the religious element in the training of a boy,
but it is absolutely non-sectarian in its attitude toward that
religious training. Its policy is that the organization or institution
with which the boy scout is connected shall give definite attention to
his religious life. If he be a Catholic boy scout, the Catholic Church
of which he is a member is the best channel for his training. If he be
a Hebrew boy, then the Synagogue will train him in the faith of his
fathers. If he be a Protestant, no matter to what denomination of
Protestantism he may belong, the church of which he is an adherent or
a member should be the proper organization to give him an education in
the things that pertain to his allegiance to God. The Boy Scouts of
America, then, while recognizing the fact that the boy should be
taught the things that pertain to religion, insists upon the boy's
religious life being stimulated and fostered by the institution with
which he is connected. Of course, it is a fundamental principle of the
Boy Scouts of America to insist on {251} clean, capable leadership in
its scout masters, and the influence of the leader on the boy scout
should be of a distinctly helpful character.


Work, Not Luck

Life, after all, is just this: Some go through life trusting to luck.
They are not worthy to be scouts. Others go through life trusting to
hard work and clear thinking. These are they who have cleared the
wilderness and planted wheat where forests once grew, who have driven
back the savage, and have fostered civilization in the uncultivated
places of the earth. The good scout is always at work--working to
improve himself and to improve the daily lot of others.

The thing that is to be noticed in all of these men, those of the
Round Table, and those of American pioneer days, is the fact that they
were ever ready to do a good turn to some one. The knights of the
Round Table did theirs by clash of arms, by the jousts and the
tourney, and by the fierce hand-to-hand fights that were their delight
in open battle. The old scouts, our own pioneers, very often had to
use the rifle and the hatchet and the implements of war. However,
those days have passed, and we are living in a non-military and
peace-loving age; and the glory of it is that, whereas these men took
their lives in their hands and by dint of rifle and sword did their
part in helping others, our modern civilization gives the Boy Scouts
of America an opportunity to go out and do their good turn daily for
others in the thousand ways that will benefit our American life the
most. Sometimes they will have to risk their lives, but it will be in
case of fire or accident or catastrophe. At other times they will be
given the privilege of showing simple deeds of chivalry by their
courteous treatment of their elders, cripples, and children, by giving
up their seats in street cars, or by carrying the bundles of those who
are not as physically strong as themselves. And in it all will come
the satisfying feeling that they are doing just as much and perhaps a
great deal more than the iron-clad men or the buckskin clothed scouts
in making their country a little safer and a little better place to
live in. Chivalry and courtesy and being a gentleman mean just as much
now as they ever did, and there is a greater demand in these days to
live pure, to speak true, and to help others by a good turn daily than
ever before in the world's history.


{252}


Notes


{253}

Notes


{254}


Notes



{255}

CHAPTER VII

FIRST AID AND LIFE SAVING

_Major Charles Lynch, Medical Corps, U. S. A.
Acting for the American Red Cross_


PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS

General

Considerably over a million persons are seriously injured in the
United States each year. The enormous loss of life and the great
suffering involved certainly demand that every boy scout do what he
can to improve conditions in this respect. Some accidents happen under
all circumstances, but, on the other hand a great many accidents are
avoidable and probably quite one half of the injuries which occur in
the United States yearly could be prevented if common care were
exercised.


Panics and Their Prevention

In case of a panic, at an in-door assembly, scouts, if they live up to
their motto, "Be Prepared," will be able to save hundreds of lives.
There is usually plenty of time for people to get out of a building if
the exits are not blocked by too many crowding them at once. One
should, if possible, try to arrange to have the performance go on, and
the others could reassure the people and get them to go out quietly
through the exits provided. Almost all scouts know how quickly and
safely our school buildings are cleared by means of the fire drill.


Fires

Fires constitute a danger as great as panics, and scouts should be
equally well informed what to do in case of fire. It is the duty of a
scout to know how to prevent fires. Many fires are caused by
carelessness. Never throw away a lighted match, for it may fall on
inflammable material and start a fire. Reading in bed by the light of
a lamp or candle is dangerous, for if the reader goes to sleep the bed
clothing is likely to catch fire. {256} A scout may often have to dry
his clothes before a fire and if so, they should be carefully watched.
Hot ashes in wooden boxes, or in barrels, are responsible for many
fires. In camp, dry grass should be cut away from the locality of the
camp fire; and not to put out a camp fire on leaving a camp is
criminal. Many of the great fires in our forests have been due to
carelessness in this respect. Fires also result frequently from
explosions of gas or gunpowder. A room in which the odor of gas is
apparent should never be entered with a light, and in handling
gunpowder a scout should have no matches loose in his pockets.


How To Put Out Burning Clothing

If your own clothing should catch fire do not run for help as this
will fan the flames. Lie down and roll up as tightly as possible in an
overcoat, blanket, or rug. If nothing can be obtained in which to wrap
up, lie down and roll over slowly at the same time beating out the
fire with the hands. If another person's clothing catches fire, throw
him to the ground and smother the fire with a coat, blanket, or rug.


What To Do in Case of Fire

A fire can usually be put out very easily when it starts, and here is
an occasion when a scout can show his presence of mind and coolness.
At first a few buckets of water or blankets or woollen clothing thrown
upon a fire will smother it. Sand, ashes, or dirt, or even flour, will
have the same effect.

[Transcriber's note: Flour dust suspended in air is explosive.]

If a scout discovers a building to be on fire, he should sound the
alarm for the fire department at once. If possible he should send some
one else, as the scout will probably know better what to do before the
fire-engine arrives. All doors should be kept closed so as to prevent
draughts. If you enter the burning building, close the window or door
after you, if possible, and leave some responsible person to guard it
so it will not be opened and cause a draught. In searching for people,
go to the top floor and walk down, examining each room as carefully as
possible. If necessary to get air while making the search, close the
door of the room, open a window, and stick the head out until a few
breaths can be obtained. Afterward close the window to prevent a
draught. If doors are found locked and you suspect people are asleep
inside, knock and pound on doors to arouse them. If this produces no
results, you will have to try to break down the door. While searching
through a burning building it will be best to tie a wet handkerchief
or cloth {257} over the nose and mouth. You will get a little air from
the water.

Remember the air within six inches of the floor is free from smoke, so
when you have difficulty in breathing, crawl along the floor, with the
head low, dragging anyone you have rescued behind you.

If you tie the hands of an insensible person together with a
handkerchief and put them over your head, you will find it fairly easy
to crawl along the floor dragging him with you.


[Illustration: Learning by doing.]


Never jump from a window unless the flames are so close to you that
this is the only means of escape.

If you are outside a building, put bedding in a pile to break the
jumper's fall, or get a strong carpet or rug to catch him, and have it
firmly held by as many men and boys as can secure hand holds.

In country districts, scouts should organize a bucket brigade which
consists of two lines from the nearest water supply to the fire.
Scouts in one line pass buckets, pitchers, or anything else that will
hold water from one to another till the last scout {258} throws the
water on the fire. The buckets are returned by the other line.


Drowning

Drowning accidents are very common. Every scout should know how to
swim and to swim well, but this is not all that is necessary. He
should also know how to prevent accidents that may result in drowning.
In summer, boating and bathing accidents are common. Remember a light
boat is not intended for heavy seas; do not change seats except in a
wide and steady boat; and above all things do not put yourself in the
class of idiots who rock a boat.

At the sea-shore, unless you are a strong swimmer, do not go outside
the life line, and if the undertow is strong be careful not to walk
out where the water is so deep it will carry you off your feet. Very
cold water and very long swims are likely to exhaust even a strong
swimmer and are therefore hazardous unless a boat accompanies the
swimmer.


Rescue of the Drowning
(_See pages 279 to 285_)


Ice Rescue

To rescue a person who has broken through the ice you should first tie
a rope around your body and have the other end tied, or held, on
shore. Then secure a long board or a ladder or limb of a tree, crawl
out on this, or push it out, so that the person in the water may reach
it. If nothing can be found on which you can support your weight do
not attempt to walk out toward the person to be rescued, but lie down
flat on your face and crawl out, as by doing this much less weight
bears at anyone point on the ice than in walking. If you yourself
break through the ice remember that if you try to crawl up on the
broken edge it will very likely break again with you. If rescuers are
near, it would be much better to support yourself on the edge of the
ice and wait for them to come to you.


Restoring the Drowning and Artificial Respiration
(_See pages 286 to 288_)


Electric Accidents

For his own benefit and that of his comrades, the scout should know
how to avoid accidents from electricity. The third rail is always
dangerous, so do not touch {259} it. Swinging wires of any kind may
somewhere in their course be in contact with live wires, so they
should not be touched.

A person in contact with a wire or rail carrying an electric current
will transfer the current to the rescuer. Therefore he must not touch
the unfortunate victim unless his own body is thoroughly insulated.
The rescuer must act very promptly, for the danger to the person in
contact is much increased the longer the electric current is allowed
to pass through his body. If possible, the rescuer should insulate
himself by covering his hands with a mackintosh, rubber sheeting,
several thicknesses of silk, or even dry cloth. In addition he should,
if possible, complete his insulation by standing on a dry board, a
thick piece of paper, or even on a dry coat. Rubber gloves and rubber
shoes or boots are still safer, but they cannot usually be procured
quickly.

If a live wire is under a person and the ground is dry, it will be
perfectly safe to stand on the ground and pull him off the wire with
the bare hands, care being taken to touch only his clothing, and this
must not be wet.

A live wire lying on a patient may be flipped off with safety with a
dry board or stick. In removing the live wire from the person, or the
person from the wire, do this, with one motion, as rocking him to and
fro on the wire will increase shock and burn.

A live wire may be safely cut by an axe or hatchet with dry, wooden
handle. The electric current may be short circuited by dropping a
crow-bar or poker on the wire. These must be dropped on the side from
which the current is coming and not on the farther side, as the latter
will not short circuit the current before it is passed through the
body of the person in contact. Drop the metal bar; do not place it on
the wire or you will then be made a part of the short circuit and
receive the current of electricity through your body.


What To Do for Electric Shocks

Always send for a doctor, but do not wait for him. Treatment should be
given even if the man appears to be dead. Loosen the clothing around
neck and body. Proceed to restore breathing by artificial respiration
as in drowning. (See pages 286, 287.)


Gas Accidents

The commonest gas encountered is the ordinary illuminating gas. To
prevent such gas from escaping in dangerous {260} quantities, leaks in
gas pipes should be promptly repaired. Be careful in turning off gas
to make sure that gas is actually shut off. It is dangerous to leave a
gas jet burning faintly when you go to sleep: as it may go out if
pressure in the gas pipe becomes less, and if pressure is afterward
increased gas may escape into the room.

Coal gas will escape through red-hot cast-iron, and very big fires in
such stoves are dangerous, especially in sleeping rooms. Charcoal
burned in open vessels in tight rooms is especially dangerous. In
underground sewers and wells other dangerous gases are found. If a
lighted candle or torch will not burn in such a place, it is very
certain the air will be deadly for any person who enters.

To rescue an unconscious person in a place filled with gas, move
quickly and carry him out without breathing yourself. Take a few deep
breaths before entering and if possible hold breath while in the
place. Frequently less gas will be found near the floor of a building,
so one may be able to crawl where it would be dangerous to walk.


What To Do for Gas Poisoning

Proceed to restore breathing by artificial respiration as in drowning.
(See pages 286, 287.)


Runaway Horses

The method for checking a horse running away is not to run out and
wave your arm in front of him, as this will only cause him to dodge to
one side and to run faster, but to try to run alongside the vehicle
with one hand on the shaft to prevent yourself from falling, seizing
the reins with the other hand and dragging the horse's head toward
you. If when he has somewhat slowed down by this method, you can turn
him toward a wall or a house he will probably stop.


Mad Dog

The first thing to do is to kill the mad dog at once. Wrap a
handkerchief around the hand to prevent the dog's teeth from entering
the flesh and grasp a club of some kind. If you can stop the dog with
a stick you should hit him hard over the head with it, or kick him
under the jaw. A handkerchief held in front of you in your
outstretched hands will generally cause the dog to stop to paw it
before he attempts to bite you. This will give you an opportunity to
kick him under the lower jaw.

{261}

Another way suggested is to wrap a coat around the left arm and let
the dog bite it; then with the other hand seize the dog's throat and
choke him.


FIRST AID FOR INJURIES

General Directions

Keep cool. There is no cause for excitement or hurry. In not one case
in a thousand are the few moments necessary to find out what is the
matter with an injured man going to result in any harm to him, and of
course in order to treat him intelligently you must first know what is
the matter. Commonsense will tell the scout that he must waste no
time, however, when there is severe bleeding, or in case of poisoning.

If possible, always send for a doctor, unless the injury is a trivial
one. Don't wait until he arrives, however, to do something for the
injured person. A crowd should always be kept back and tight clothing
should be loosened. If the patient's face is pale, place him on his
back with his head low. If his face is flushed, fold your coat and put
it under his head so as to raise it slightly.

In case of vomiting, place the patient on his side. Do not give an
unconscious person a stimulant, as he cannot swallow, and it will run
down his windpipe and choke him.

If the injury is covered by clothing, remove it by cutting or tearing,
but never remove more clothing than necessary, as one of the results
of injury is for a person to feel cold. Shoes and boots should be cut
in severe injuries about the feet.


Shock

For example, a scout is riding on a trolley-car. The car runs into a
loaded wagon. The wagon is overturned and the driver thrown to the
pavement. Part of the load falls upon his body and when you reach him
he is unconscious. So far as you can find out, nothing else is the
matter with him. This is called shock. It accompanies all serious
injuries and is itself serious, as a person may die without ever
recovering from shock. Of course, there are different degrees of
shock. In severe shock the person is completely unconscious or he may
be only slightly confused and feel weak and uncertain of what has
happened.

In shock always send for a doctor when you can. Before he comes, warm
and stimulate the patient in every possible way. Place him on his back
with his head low and cover him with {262} your coat or a blanket. Rub
his arms and legs toward his body but do not uncover him to do this.
If you have ammonia or smelling salts, place them before the patient's
nose so he may breathe them.

This is all you can do when unconsciousness is complete. When the
patient begins to recover a little, however, and as soon as he can
swallow, give him hot tea or coffee, or a half teaspoonful of aromatic
spirits of ammonia in a quarter glass of water.

Warning: Remember always that a person with shock may have some other
serious injuries. These you should always look for and treat if
necessary.


Injuries in Which the Skin is Not Broken--Fractures

A fracture is the same thing as a broken bone. When the bone pierces
or breaks through the skin, it is called a compound fracture, and when
it does not, a simple fracture.


[Illustration: Splints for broken thigh.]


A scout is in the country with a comrade. The latter mounts a stone
wall to cross it. The wall falls with him and he calls out for help.
When the other scout reaches him, he finds the injured scout lying
flat on the ground with both legs stretched out. One of these does not
look quite natural, and the scout complains of a great deal of pain at
the middle of the thigh and thinks he felt something break when he
fell. He cannot raise the injured leg. Carefully rip the trousers and
the underclothing at the seam to above the painful point. When you
have done this the deformity will indicate the location of the
fracture. You must be very gentle now or you will do harm, but if one
hand is put above where you think the {263} break occurred and the
other below it and it is lifted gently you will find that there is
movement at the broken point.


[Illustration: Splints for broken leg.]


Send for a doctor first, if you can, and, if you expect him to arrive
very soon, let your comrade lie where he is, putting his injured leg
in the same position as the sound one and holding it there by coats or
other articles piled around the leg. But if the doctor cannot be
expected for some time, draw the injured limb into position like the
sound one and hold it there by splints. Splints can be made of
anything that is stiff and rigid. Something flat like a board is
better than a pole or staff; limbs broken off a tree will do if
nothing else can be found. Shingles make excellent splints. In
applying splints remember that they should extend beyond the next
joint above and the next joint below; otherwise, movements of the
joint will cause movement at the broken point. With a fracture of the
thigh, such as that described, the outer splint should be a very long
one, extending below the feet from the arm pit. A short one extending
just below the knee will do for the inner splint. Splints may be tied
on with handkerchiefs, pieces of cloth torn from the clothing, or the
like. Tie firmly but not tight enough to cause severe pain. In a
fracture of the thigh it will also be well to bind the injured leg to
the sound one by two or three pieces of cloth around both. The
clothing put back in place will serve as padding under the splint, but
with thin summer clothing it is better to use straw, hay, or leaves in
addition. Fractures of the lower leg and of the upper and lower arm
are treated in the same way with a splint on the inner and outer sides
of the broken bone. A sling will be required for a fracture of the
arm. This may be made of the triangular bandage, or of a triangular
piece of cloth, torn from your shirt.

{264}

The Red Cross First Aid Outfit is very convenient to use in
fractures as well as in other injuries. The gauze bandage may be used
for the strips to tie on the splints and the triangular bandage for an
arm sling; or, if a sling is not needed, for strips to fix the splints
firmly in place.


Compound Fractures

The edges of a broken bone are very sharp and may cut through the skin
at the time of an injury, but more often afterward, if the injured
person moves about or if the splints are not well applied so as to
prevent movement at the point where the bone is broken. If a compound
fracture has occurred, the wound produced by the sharp bone must
always be treated first. The treatment is the same for any other
wound.

_Warning_: You will not always be able to tell whether or not a
fracture has occurred. In this case do not pull and haul the limb
about to make sure, but treat as a fracture. There will always be a
considerable amount of shock with fracture and this must also be
treated.


[Illustration: Splints and sling for fracture of upper arm.]


Bruises

Everybody has suffered from a bruise at some time in his life and
knows just what it is. A slight bruise needs no treatment. For a
severe one, apply very hot or very cold water to prevent pain and
swelling.


Sprains

A scout slips and twists his ankle and immediately suffers severe
pain, and in a little while the ankle begins to swell. {265} The
sprained joint should be put in an elevated position and cloths wrung
out in very hot or very cold water should be wrapped around it and
changed very frequently. Movement of any sprained joint is likely to
increase the injury, so this ought not to be permitted. Walking with a
sprained ankle is not only exceedingly painful but it generally
increases the hurt.


[Illustration: Triangular sling for arm.]


Dislocation

A dislocation is an injury where the head of a bone has slipped out of
its socket at a joint. A scout is playing foot-ball. He suddenly feels
as though his shoulder has been twisted out of place. Comparison with
the other side will show that the injured shoulder does not look like
the other one, being longer, or shorter, and contrary to the case with
fracture there will not be increased movement at the point of injury
but a lessened movement. Do not attempt to get a dislocated joint back
in place. Cover the joint with cloths wrung out in very hot or very
cold water, and get the patient into the hands of a doctor as soon as
possible.


Injuries in Which the Skin is Broken

Such injuries are called wounds. There is one very important fact
which must be remembered in connection with such injuries. Any injury
in which the skin is unbroken is much less dangerous, as the skin
prevents germs from reaching the injured part. The principle to be
followed in treating a wound is to apply something to prevent germs
from reaching the injury.

{266}

All wounds unless protected from germs are very liable to become
infected with matter, or pus. Blood poisoning and even death may
result from infection. To prevent infection of wounds, the scout
should cover them promptly with what is called a sterilized dressing.
This is a surgical dressing which has been so treated that it is free
from germs. A number of dressings are on the market and can be
procured in drug stores. In using them, be very careful not to touch
the surface of the dressing which is to be placed in contact with the
wound. The Red Cross First Aid Dressing is so made that this accident
is almost impossible. In taking care of a wound, do not handle it or
do anything else to it. Every one's hands, though they may appear to
be perfectly clean, are not so in the sense of being free from germs;
nor is water, so a wound should never be washed.


[Illustration: Head bandage.]


It will be a good thing for a scout always to carry a Red Cross First
Aid Outfit, or some similar outfit, for with this he is ready to take
care of almost any injury; without it he will find it very difficult
to improvise anything to cover a wound with safety to the injured
person. If no prepared dressing is procurable, boil a towel if
possible for fifteen minutes, squeeze the water out of it without
touching the inner surface, and apply that to the wound. The next best
dressing, if you cannot prepare this, will be a towel or handkerchief
which has been recently washed and has not been used. These should be
held in place on the wound with a bandage. Do not be afraid to leave a
wound exposed to the air; germs do not float around in the air and
such exposure is much safer than water or any dressing which is not
free from germs. Of course you can bind up a {267} wound with a towel
not boiled or piece of cotton torn from your shirt, but you cannot do
so without the liability of a great deal of harm to the injured
person.


Snake Bites

While snake bites are wounds, the wounds caused by venomous snakes are
not important as such but because the venom is quickly absorbed and by
its action on the brain may cause speedy death. The rattlesnake and
the moccasin are the most dangerous snakes in the United States.

In order to prevent absorption of the poison, immediately tie a
string, handkerchief, or bandage above the bite. This can only be done
in the extremities, but nearly all bites are received on the arms or
legs. Then soak the wound in hot water and squeeze or suck it to
extract the poison. Sucking a wound is not dangerous unless one has
cuts or scrapes in the mouth. Then burn the wound with strong ammonia.
This is not aromatic spirits of ammonia, but what is commonly known as
strong ammonia in any drug store. Aromatic spirits of ammonia should
also be given as a stimulant.

If you have nothing but a string to tie off the wound, be sure to do
that and to get out as much poison as you can by squeezing or sucking
the wound. A doctor should of course always be sent for when
practicable in any injury as severe as a snake bite. Leave your string
or bandage in place for an hour. A longer period is unsafe, as cutting
off the circulation may cause mortification. Loosen the string or
bandage after an hour's time, so that a little poison escapes into the
body. If the bitten person does not seem to be much affected, repeat
at the end of a few moments, and keep this up until the band has been
entirely removed. If, however, the bitten person seems to be seriously
affected by the poison you have allowed to escape into his body, you
must not loosen the bandage again, but leave it in place and take the
chance of mortification.


Wounds Without Severe Bleeding

These constitute the majority of all wounds. Use the Red Cross Outfit
as described in the slip contained in the outfit. The pressure of a
bandage will stop ordinary bleeding if firmly bound into place.


Wounds With Severe Bleeding

A scout must be prepared to check severe bleeding at once, and he
should then dress the wound. Bleeding from an {268} artery is by far
the most dangerous. Blood coming from a cut artery is bright red in
color and flows rapidly in spurts or jets. As the course of the blood
in an artery is away from the heart, pressure must be applied on the
heart side just as a rubber pipe which is cut must be compressed on
the side from which the water is coming in order to prevent leakage at
a cut beyond. The scout must also know the course of the larger
arteries in order that he may know where to press on them. In the arm
the course of the large artery is down the inner side of the big
muscle in the upper arm about in line with the seam of the coat. The
artery in the leg runs down from the centre of a line from the point
of the hip to the middle of the crotch, and is about in line with the
inseam of the trousers. Pressure should be applied about three inches
below the crotch. In making pressure on either of these arteries, use
the fingers and press back against the bone. You can often feel the
artery beat under your fingers, and the bleeding below will stop when
you have your pressure properly made. Of course you cannot keep up the
pressure with your fingers indefinitely in this way as they will soon
become tired and cramped. Therefore, while you are doing this have
some other scout prepare a tourniquet. The simplest form of tourniquet
is a handkerchief tied loosely about the limb. In this handkerchief a
smooth stone or a cork should be placed just above your fingers on the
artery. When this is in place put a stick about a foot long under the
handkerchief at the outer side of the limb and twist around till the
stone makes pressure on the artery in the same way that your {269}
fingers have. Tie the stick in position so it will not untwist.


[Illustration: How to apply first aid dressing.]


_Warning_: When using a tourniquet remember that cutting off the
circulation for a long time is dangerous. It is much safer not to keep
on a tourniquet more than an hour. Loosen it, but be ready to tighten
it again quickly if bleeding re-commences.

Another method to stop bleeding from an artery when the wound is below
the knee or elbow is to place a pad in the bend of the joint and
double the limb back over it holding the pad in tightly. Tie the arm
or leg in this position. If these means do not check the bleeding put
a pad into the wound and press on it there. If you have no dressing
and blood is being lost very rapidly, make pressure in the wound with
your fingers. Remember, however, that this should only be resorted to
in the case of absolute necessity as it will infect the wound.

Blood from veins flows in a steady stream back toward the heart and is
dark in color. From most veins a pad firmly bandaged on the bleeding
point will stop the bleeding. If a vein in the neck is wounded, blood
will be lost so rapidly that the injured person is in danger of
immediate death, so you must disregard the danger of infection and jam
your hand tightly against the bleeding point.

Keep the patent quiet in all cases of severe bleeding, for even if it
is checked it may start up again. Do not give any stimulants until the
bleeding has been checked unless the patient is very weak. The best
stimulant is aromatic spirits of ammonia, one teaspoonful in half a
glass of water.


[Illustration: How to apply tourniquet to upper arm.]


{270}

Unconsciousness and Poisoning

Unconsciousness, of course, means lack of consciousness, or, in other
words; one who is unconscious knows nothing of his surroundings or of
what is happening. A person may, however, be partially, as well as
wholly, unconscious.

Unconsciousness may be due to so many causes that, in order to give
the best treatment, the scout should first know the cause. Always try
to find this out if you can. If you cannot do this, however, you
should at least determine whether unconsciousness is due to poison, to
bleeding, to sunstroke, or to freezing; for each of these demand
immediate, special treatment. If it is not due to one of these causes,
and the patient is pale and weak, have him placed with his head low,
and warm and stimulate him in every possible way. If the face is red
and the pulse is bounding and strong, that patient should have his
head raised on a folded coat. No stimulants should be given him and
cold water should be sprinkled on his face and chest.

The common causes of unconsciousness are shock, electric shock,
fainting, apoplexy and injury to the brain, sunstroke and heat
exhaustion, freezing, suffocation, and poisoning. The first two have
already been described and the treatment of any form of suffocation in
artificial respiration.


Fainting

Fainting usually occurs in overheated, crowded places. The patient is
very pale and partially or completely unconscious. The pupils of the
eye are natural, the pulse is weak and rapid. The patient should be
placed in a lying-down position with the head lower than the rest of
the body so that the brain will receive more blood. Loosen the
clothing, especially about the neck. Keep the crowd back and open the
windows if in-doors so that the patient may get plenty of fresh air.
Sprinkle the face and chest with cold water. Apply smelling salts or
ammonia to the nose, rub the limbs toward the body. A stimulant may be
given when the patient is so far recovered that he is able to swallow.


Apoplexy and Injury to the Brain

Apoplexy and unconsciousness from injury to the brain are due to the
pressure of blood on the brain so that they {271} may be described
together. Apoplexy is of course much harder to distinguish than injury
to the brain as in the latter the scout can always see that the head
has been hurt. With both, unconsciousness will usually be complete.
Pupils are large and frequently unequal in size, breathing is snoring,
and the pulse is usually full and slow. One side of the body will be
paralyzed. Test this by raising arm or leg; if paralyzed, it will drop
absolutely helpless. Send for a doctor at once. Keep patient quiet and
in a dark room if possible. Put in lying-down position with head
raised by pillows. Apply ice or cold cloths to head. No stimulants.
Drunkenness is sometimes mistaken for apoplexy. If there is any doubt
on this point always treat for apoplexy.


Sunstroke and Heat Exhaustion

Anyone is liable to sunstroke or heat exhaustion if exposed to
excessive heat. A scout should remember not to expose himself too much
to the sun nor should he wear too heavy clothing in the summer. Leaves
in the hat will do much to prevent sunstroke. If the scout becomes
dizzy and exhausted through exposure to the sun he should find a cool
place, lie down, and bathe the face, hands, and chest in cold water
and drink freely of cold water.

Sunstroke and heat exhaustion, though due to the same cause, are quite
different and require different treatment. In sunstroke
unconsciousness is complete. The face is red, pupils large, the skin
is very hot and dry with no perspiration. The patient sighs and the
pulse is full and slow. The treatment for sunstroke consists in
reducing the temperature of the body. A doctor should be summoned
whenever possible. The patient should be removed to a cool place and
his clothing loosened, or better the greater part of it removed. Cold
water, or ice, should be rubbed over the face, neck, chest, and in arm
pits. When consciousness returns give cold water freely.

Heat exhaustion is simply exhaustion or collapse due to heat. The
patient is greatly depressed and weak but not usually unconscious.
Face is pale and covered with clammy sweat, breathing and pulse are
weak and rigid. While this condition is not nearly as dangerous as
sunstroke, a doctor should be summoned if possible. Remove the patient
to a cool place and have him lie down with his clothing loosened.
Don't use anything cold {272} externally, but permit him to take small
sips of cold water. Stimulants should be given just as in fainting.


Freezing

The patient should be taken into a cold room and the body should be
rubbed with rough cloths wet in cold water. The temperature of the
room should be increased if possible. This should be done gradually
and the cloths should be wet in warmer and warmer water. As soon as
the patient can swallow give him stimulants. It will be dangerous to
place him before an open fire or in a hot bath until he begins to
recover. You will know this by his skin becoming warmer, by his better
color, and by his generally improved appearance.


Frost-Bite

Remember that you are in danger of frost-bite if you do not wear
sufficient clothing in cold weather, and that rubbing any part of the
body which becomes very cold helps to prevent frostbite, because it
brings more warm blood to the surface. The danger is when, after being
cold, the part suddenly has no feeling.

The object of the treatment is gradually to restore warmth to the
frozen part. To do this the part should be rubbed first with snow or
cold water; the water should be warmed gradually. The use of hot water
at once would be likely to cause mortification of the frozen part.


Poisoning

For all poisons give an emetic. Send for a doctor at once and if
possible have the messenger tell what poison has been taken so that
the doctor may bring the proper antidote. Do not wait for him to
arrive, but give an emetic to rid the stomach of the poison. Good
emetics are mustard and water, salt water, or lukewarm water alone in
large quantities. Never mind the exact dose and if vomiting is not
profuse repeat the dose.


Fits

A person in a fit first has convulsive movements of the body, then he
usually becomes unconscious. A scout should have no difficulty in
making out what is the matter with a person in a fit.

Put the sufferer on the floor or the ground where he can not hurt
himself by striking anything. Loosen tight clothing and do not try to
restrain the convulsive movements. A wad of {273} cloth thrust in the
mouth will prevent biting the tongue. When he becomes quiet do not
disturb him.


INJURIES DUE TO HEAT AND COLD

Burns and Scalds

For slight burns in order to relieve the pain some dressing to exclude
the air is needed. Very good substances of this character are pastes
made with water and baking soda, starch, or flour. Carbolized
vaseline, olive or castor oil, and fresh lard or cream are all good.
One of these substances should be smeared over a thin piece of cloth
and placed on the burned part. A bandage should be put on over this to
hold the dressing in place and for additional protection.

Severe burns and scalds are very serious injuries which require
treatment from a physician. Pending his arrival the scout should
remember to treat the sufferer for shock as well as to dress the
wound.

Burns from electricity should be treated exactly like other burns. Do
not attempt to remove clothing which sticks to a burn; cut the cloth
around the part which sticks and leave it on the burn.


FIRST AID FOR EMERGENCIES

Besides the accidents which have been mentioned, certain emergencies
may demand treatment by a scout.

The commonest of these are described here.


Something in the Eye

No little thing causes more pain and discomfort than something in the
eye. Do not rub to remove a foreign body from the eye, as this is
likely to injure the delicate covering of the eyeball. First, close
the eye so the tears will accumulate, these may wash the foreign body
into plain view so that it may be easily removed. If this fails, pull
the upper lid over the lower two or three times, close the nostril on
the opposite side and have the patient blow his nose hard. If the
foreign body still remains in the eye, examine first under the lower
and then the upper lid. For the former have the patient look up, press
lower lid down, and if the foreign body is seen lift it out gently
with the corner of a clean handkerchief. It is not so easy {274} to
see the upper lid. Seat the patient in a chair with his head bent
backward. Stand behind him and place a match or thin pencil across the
upper lid one half an inch from its edge, turn the upper lid back over
the match, and lift the foreign body off as before. A drop of castor
oil in the eye after removing the foreign body will soothe it.


[Illustration: Eye bandage.]


Sunburn

This is simply an inflammation of the skin due to action of the sun.
It may be prevented by hardening the skin gradually. Any toilet powder
or boracic acid will protect the skin to a considerable extent. The
treatment consists of soothing applications such as ordinary or
carbolized vaseline.


Ivy Poisoning

Poison ivy causes a very intense inflammation of the skin. Better
avoid, even though it has not harmed you before. Baking soda made in a
thick paste with water or carbolized vaseline are good remedies. In
severe cases a doctor should be consulted.


Bites and Stings

Ammonia should be immediately applied. Wet salt and wet earth are also
good applications.


Nosebleed

Slight nosebleed does not require treatment as no harm will result
from it. When more severe the collar should be {275} loosened. Do not
blow the nose. Apply cold to the back of the neck by means of a key or
cloth wrung out in cold water.

A roll of paper under the upper lip, between it and the gum, will also
help. When the bleeding still continues shove a cotton or gauze plug
into the nostrils, leaving it there until the bleeding stops.


[Illustration: Position of hands.]


[Illustration: Chair carry.]


Earache

This is likely to result seriously and a doctor should be consulted in
order to prevent bad results with possible loss of hearing. Hot
cloths, a bag of heated salt, or a hot bottle applied to the ear will
often cure earache. A few drops of alcohol on a hot cloth so placed
that the alcohol fumes enter the ear will often succeed. If neither is
effective, heat a few drops of sweet oil as hot as you can stand, put
a few drops in the ear and plug with cotton. Be careful that it is not
too hot.


Toothache

Remember that toothache indicates something seriously wrong with the
teeth which can only be permanently corrected {276} by a dentist. In
toothache if you can find a cavity, clean it out with a small piece of
cotton or a toothpick. Then plug it with cotton, on which a drop of
oil of cloves has been put if you have it. If no cavity is found, soak
a piece of cotton in camphor and apply it to the outside of the gum.
Hot cloths and hot bottles or bags will help in toothache, just as
they do in earache.


Inflammation of the Eye

Cover with a cloth wrung out in cold water and change cloths from time
to time when they get warm. See a doctor in order to safeguard your
sight.


Cramp or Stomachache

This is usually due to the irritation produced by undigested food. A
hot bottle applied to the stomach or rubbing will often give relief. A
little peppermint in hot water and ginger tea are both excellent
remedies. The undigested matter should be gotten rid of by vomiting or
a cathartic.

Remember this kind of pain is sometimes due to something serious and
if it is very severe or continues for some time, it is much safer to
send for a doctor.


Hiccough

This is due to indigestion. Holding the breath will often cure, as
will also drinking a full glass of water in small sips without taking
a breath. If these fail vomiting is an almost certain remedy.


[Illustration: Arm carry.]


{277}

Chills

In order to stop a chill drink hot milk or hot lemonade and get into
bed. Plenty of covers should be used, and hot water bottles or hot
milk or lemonade help to warm one quickly.


[Illustration: Improvised stretcher.]


Carrying Injured

A severely injured person is always best carried on a stretcher. The
easiest stretcher for a scout to improvise is the coat stretcher. For
this two coats and a pair of poles are needed. The sleeves of the coat
are first turned inside out. The coats are then placed on the ground
with their lower sides touching each other. The poles are passed
through the sleeves on each side, the coats are buttoned up with the
button side down. A piece of carpet, a blanket, or sacking can be used
in much the same way as the coat, rolling in a portion at each side.
Shutters and doors make fair stretchers. In order not to jounce the
patient in carrying him the bearers should break step. The bearer in
front steps off with the left foot and the one in the rear with the
right. A number of different methods for carrying a patient by two
bearers are practiced. The four-handed {278} seat is a very good one.
To make this each bearer grasps his left wrist in his right hand, and
the other bearer's right wrist in his left hand with the backs of the
hands uppermost. The {279} bearers then stoop and place the chair
under the sitting patient who steadies himself by placing his arms
around their necks.


[Illustration: First position.]


[Illustration: Fireman's lift.]


It will sometimes be necessary for one scout to carry an injured
comrade. The scout should first turn the patient on his face; he then
steps astride his body, facing toward the patient's head, and, with
hands under his arm-pits, lifts him to his knees; then, clasping hands
over the abdomen, lifts him to his feet; he then, with his left hand,
seizes the patient by the left wrist and draws his left arm around his
(the bearer's) neck and holds it against his left chest, the patient's
left side resting against his body, and supports him with his right
arm about the waist. The scout, with his left hand, seizes the right
wrist of the patient and draws the arm over his head and down upon his
shoulder, then, shifting himself in front, stoops and clasps the right
thigh with his right arm passed between the legs, his right hand
seizing the patient's right wrist; lastly, the scout, with his left
hand, grasps the patient's left hand, and steadies it against his side
when he arises.


WATER ACCIDENTS

_Wilbert E. Longfellow,
United States Volunteer Life Saving Corps_

The scout's motto, "Be Prepared," is more than usually applicable to
the work of caring for accidents which happen in the water.

To save lives, the scout must know first how to swim, to care for
himself, and then to learn to carry another and to break the clutch,
the "death grip," which we read so much about in the newspaper
accounts of drowning accidents. By constant training, a boy, even
though not a good swimmer, can be perfectly at home in the water,
fully dressed, undressed, or carrying a boy of his own size or larger.
In fact two boys of twelve or fourteen years can save a man.


Swimming

For physical development the breast stroke is useful, for it is one
that is used in carrying a tired swimmer and is used to go to the
bottom for lost articles and to search for a person who has sunk
before help has reached him. It is possible, you know, to go to the
bottom and bring a body to the surface and swim with it to shore
before life is extinct and to restore consciousness by well-directed
efforts. The body of an unconscious person weighs little when wholly
or partially submerged and {280} in salt water weighs less than in
fresh water, and is consequently more readily carried. Training makes
a small boy the equal or superior of an untrained boy much larger and
of greater strength, and the way to learn to carry a drowning person
is to carry a boy who is not drowning to get used to handling the
weights. A little struggle now and then lends realism to the work and
increases the skill of the scout candidate for a life saver's rating.
Speed swimming for itself alone is a very selfish sport so that the
scout should develop his ability to make it generally useful to
others.


[Illustration: Breast stroke for tired swimmer.]


[Illustration: Under-arm carry.]


Floating

After the breast stroke is learned, floating on the back for rest and
swimming on the back, using feet only for propulsion, leaving the
hands free to hold a drowning person, should be learned. This can be
readily acquired with a little practice, carrying the hands on the
surface of the water, arms half bent, with the elbows close to the
sides at the waist line. To carry a man this way the hands are placed
at either side of the {281} drowning man's head and he is towed
floating on his back, the rescuer swimming on his back, keeping the
other away. It is well to remember to go with the tide or current, and
do not wear your strength away opposing it. Other ways of carrying are
to place the hands beneath the arms of the drowning man, or to grasp
him firmly by the biceps from beneath, at the same time using the knee
in the middle of his back to get him into a floating position, the
feet acting as propellers. Methods which enable the rescuer's use of
one arm in addition to the feet are known as the "German army" and the
"cross shoulder." In the first, the swimmer approaches the drowning
person from the back, passes the left arm under the other's left arm,
across in front of the chest, and firmly grasps the right arm, either
by the biceps or below the elbow, giving him control. This leaves the
right arm to swim with. The other one-arm hold mentioned is one in
which the rescuer passes an arm over {282} the shoulder of the one to
be carried, approaching from the back as before, and getting a hold
under the other's arm, which makes the drowning man helpless. The
breast stroke carry previously mentioned is used only for helping a
tired swimmer, and one in possession of his faculties who will not try
to grasp the rescuer. The tired swimmer lies on the back and,
extending his arms fully in front, rests a hand on either shoulder of
the swimmer who rests facing him in the regular breast position
allowing the feet of the other to drop between his own. Quite good
speed can be made in this way, and all of these methods are practical
as a trial will show. A little practice will enable the beginner to
see which he can do most readily and then he can perfect himself in it
for instant use.


{281}

[Illustration: Swimming on back without hands.]


[Illustration: Head carry-swim on back.]


[Illustration: Break for wrist hold.]


[Illustration: Breaking back strangle hold.]


{282 continue}

Breaking "Death Grips"

If one uses care in approaching a frightened or drowning person in the
water, there will be no use for the release methods; but the best of
swimmers get careless at times and all swimmers need to know how to
get clear when gripped.


Wrist Grip

Of these the simplest is the one where the wrists of the swimmer have
been grasped by the drowning man in his {283} struggles. The swimmer
throws both hands above his head which forces both low in the water
and then turns the leverage of his arms against the other's thumbs,
breaking the hold easily. It should be borne in mind that a drowning
man grasps what he can see above the surface of the water, so he will
not attempt to grasp his rescuer below the points of the shoulders.
Remember also that a tall man and a short man would have about the
same amount of their body projecting above the surface of the water.


[Illustration: Break for front strangle hold.]


Neck Grip

For the grip around the swimmer's neck from the front, for both arms
around the shoulders, and for a grip in which the drowning man had the
other over one shoulder and under the other arm, the break is much the
same. As soon as the rescuer feels the hold, he covers the other's
mouth with the palm of his hand, clasping the nostrils tightly between
his first two fingers, at the same time pulling the drowning man to
him with the left hand in the small of the back, treading water in the
meantime. Then, taking a full breath, he applies his knee {284} in the
other's stomach, forcing him to expel the air in his lungs and at the
same time preventing him from getting more by pressure on the nostrils
and mouth. Should the pressure of the grip around the body be too
great to allow freedom of the arms, the preliminary move in that case
would be to bring both arms to the level of the shoulder, thus sliding
the other's arms to the neck, leaving the rescuer's arms to cover the
nose.


Back Strangle

The back strangle hold is an awkward one to break and one which must
be broken without an instant's delay, or the would-be rescuer himself
will be in great need of help. In practice it will be found that, by
grasping the encircling arms at the wrists and pushing back with the
buttocks against the other's abdomen, room to slip out can be
obtained. In a life and death struggle, sharper measures are needed,
and if the rescuer throws his head suddenly back against the nose of
the drowning man, he will secure his freedom very readily and have him
under control by the time he has recovered from his dazed condition.


Rescue From Shore or Boat

It is not always necessary to go into the water to attempt a rescue,
and in many cases, when some one has fallen off a bridge or dock, a
line or buoy or boat can be used to advantage without placing more
lives in danger than the one in the water. Discretion in such matters
is worthy of recognition rather than too much recklessness in swimming
out. Use a boat when possible. Practice in throwing a life buoy should
be indulged in where possible, and a good scout should always leave
the line coiled over pegs and the buoy hanging on top to bind it in
place for instant use in an emergency.


Diving From the Surface

When a bather or victim from a boating accident sinks to the bottom of
a river or pond of from seven to twenty feet in depth, prompt rescue
methods may bring him to the surface, and resuscitation methods,
promptly applied, will restore breath. If there is no current in the
pond or lake, bubbles from the body will indicate its whereabouts
directly beneath the place where it sank. Should there be tide or
currents, the bubbles are carried at an angle with the streams and the
searcher must go from the spot where the person disappeared and look
along {285} the bottom going with the current. When a drowning man
gives up his struggle and goes down, his body sinks a little way and
is brought up again by the buoyancy within it and the air is expelled.
It sinks again and next rises less high and air is again expelled.
This happens several times until enough water is taken into the
stomach and air passages to offset the floating capacity. The floating
capacity is barely overcome, so the body weighs but little. It is very
simple, as almost any youthful swimmer knows, to go to the bottom if
one can dive from a float, pier, or boat, but to be able to dive down
ten feet from the surface requires practice. In most cases to go
deeper would require a weight after the manner of the Southern sponge
and pearl fishers. Grasp a ten or fifteen pound stone and dive in; to
come up the swimmer lets go and rises to the top.


[Illustration: Throwing feet for dive from surface.]


Diving For Lost Objects

In covering a considerable area in search for bodies or lost objects,
several ropes can be anchored with grapnels or rocks in squares and a
systematic search thus maintained by divers. Going down from the
surface is not so simple and the knack is attained by practice,
especially by athletic lads. The secret is to swim to a point where a
sounding is to be made, and to plunge the head and shoulders under,
elevating the hips above the surface to drive the shoulders deep and
give chance for a few strokes--breast stroke preferred--until the
whole body in a vertical position is headed for the bottom. The
elevation of the feet and lower legs in the air gives the body
additional {286} impetus downward, and when the object is attained a
push-off from the bottom with both feet sends the swimmer to the
surface in quick order. To carry any weight ashore, it is necessary to
carry it low on the body, hugged close to the waist line, allowing one
hand and both feet for swimming, or if on the back, hold by both hands
using the feet as propellers.


[Illustration: Artificial respiration (a)]


[Illustration: Artificial respiration (b)]


Restoring Breathing

Knowledge of resuscitation of the apparently drowned is an important
part of the equipment of a first-class scout, and a great many lives
could have been saved had it been more general. To be effective no
time must be lost in getting the apparently drowned person out of the
water and getting the {287} water out of him. The Schaefer or prone
method requires but one operator at a time and no waste of time in
preliminaries.

When taken from the water the patient is laid on the ground face
downward, arms extended above the head, face a little to one side, so
as not to prevent the free passage of air. The operator kneels astride
or beside the prone figure and lets his hands fall into the spaces
between the short ribs. By letting the weight of the upper body fall
upon his hands resting on the prone man, the air is forced out of the
lungs; by relaxing the pressure, the chest cavity enlarges and air is
drawn in to take the place of that forced out. By effecting this
change of air--pressing and relaxing, twelve to fifteen times a minute
(time it by watch at first, and then count) artificial breathing is
performed. Sometimes it is necessary to work an hour or two before the
flicker of an eyelid or a gasp from the patient rewards the life
saver's efforts, and then he must carefully "piece in" the breathing
until natural breathing is resumed. When breathing starts, then
promote circulation by rubbing the legs and body toward the heart. Do
not attempt to stimulate by the throat until the patient can swallow.
Give a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia, in half a glass of
water.

_Remember that by laying the patient face downward fluids in the air
passages will run or be forced out and the tongue will drop forward,
and require no holding, always an awkward task_.


Treatment After Respiration Begins

The after treatment is important. Put the patient to bed, keep quiet
and warm. Always get the services of a physician as soon as possible,
but do not wait for him to come. Start work instantly. The patient
needs oxygen, so keep spectators away. They are robbing the man of the
life-giving properties of the air. For this reason, in all but the
most severe weather, it is well to work on the patient in the open.


Life Buoys

If one is to place a life buoy for instant use in emergencies it
should be hung upon four pegs driven into holes in two pieces of wood
nailed together in the form of the diameter of a two-foot square or
three pegs in strips of wood arranged in the form of a T, about
eighteen or twenty inches high, the two pegs at either side of the top
bar of the T and the other one on the upright near the bottom. Most
life buoys used on shore have fifty or seventy-five feet of light line
attached to draw the {288} rescued person ashore or to recover the
buoy after a faulty throw. Commencing at the free end of the line,
where a small wooden float is often attached, the rope should first be
coiled on the pegs, hanging the buoy outside the coil to bind it in
place so wind or jars will not loosen it. Then, when the buoy is
needed, the ring is grasped by the throwing hand which clasps the buoy
itself, and the coil is clasped in the free hand, the end of the rope
being secured ashore by standing upon it with one foot. After each use
or practice the buoy line should be restored to its pegs for instant
use.

[Illustration: Life buoy and ice ball/]


{289}


Notes


{290}


Notes


{291}

CHAPTER VIII


GAMES AND ATHLETIC STANDARDS THE GAMES

_By Ernest Thompson Seton, Chief Scout_


Deer Hunting

The deer hunt has proved one of our most successful games.

The deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is
wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all is covered with
open burlap. A few touches of white and black make it very realistic.

If time does not admit of a well-finished deer, one can be made of a
sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack for
head and neck, and set on four thin sticks.

The side of the deer is marked with a large oval, and over the heart
is a smaller one.

Bows and arrows only are used to shoot this deer.


[Illustration: Wooden Legged Deer.]


A pocketful of corn, peas, or other large grain is now needed for
scent. The boy who is the deer for the first hunt takes the dummy
under his arm and runs off, getting ten minutes' start, or until he
comes back and shouts "ready!" He leaves a trail of corn, dropping two
or three grains for every yard and making the trail as crooked as he
likes, playing such tricks as a deer would do to baffle his pursuers.
Then he hides the deer in any place he fancies, but not among rocks or
on the top of a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be
broken, and in the other, lost.

The hunters now hunt for this deer just as for a real deer, either
following the trail or watching the woods ahead; the {292} best
hunters combine the two. If at any time the trail is quite lost the
one in charge shouts: "Lost Trail!" After that the one who finds the
trail scores two. Anyone giving a false alarm by shouting "Deer" is
fined five.


[Illustration: Burlap Deer, 3 ft. high.]


Thus they go till some one finds the deer. He shouts: "_Deer!_" and
scores ten for finding it. The others shout: "_Second_," "_Third_,"
etc., in order of seeing it, but they do not score.

The finder must shoot at the deer with his bow and arrow from the very
spot whence he saw it. If he misses, the second hunter may step up
five paces, and have his shot. If he misses, the third one goes five,
and so on till some one hits the deer, or until the ten-yard limit is
reached. If the finder is within ten yards on sighting the deer, and
misses his shot, the other hunters go back to the ten-yard limit. Once
the deer is hit, all the shooting must be from the exact spot whence
the successful shot was fired.

A shot in the big oval is a body wound; that scores five. A shot
outside that is a scratch; that scores two. A shot in the small oval
or heart is a heart wound; it scores ten, and ends the hunt. Arrows
which do not stick do not count, unless it can be proved that they
passed right through, in which case they take the highest score that
they pierced.

If all the arrows are used, and none in the heart, the deer escapes,
and the boy who was deer scores twenty-five.

The one who found the dummy is deer for the next hunt.
A clever deer can add greatly to the excitement of the game.

Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It littered the
woods; yesterday's trail was confused with that of {293} to-day, etc.
Corn proved better, because the birds and the squirrels kept it
cleaned up from day to day, and thus the ground was always ready for a
fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof mark for the shoe. These
iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail much
like a real deer. This has several advantages. It gives the hunter a
chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the deer was
going, It is more realistic, and the boy who can follow this
skillfully can follow a living deer. In actual practice it is found
well to use a little corn with this on the hard places, a plan quite
consistent with realism, as every hunter will recall.


[Illustration: Shoe with iron hoof. (tr)]


It is strictly forbidden to any hunter to stand in front of the firing
line; all must be back of the line on which the shooter stands.

There is no limit to the situations and curious combinations in this
hunt. The deer may be left standing or lying. There is no law why it
should not be hidden behind a solid tree trunk. The game develops as
one follows it. After it has been played for some time with the iron
hoof mark as above, the boys grow so skilful on the trail that we can
dispense with even the corn. The iron mark like a deer hoof leaves a
very realistic "slot" or track, which the more skilful boys readily
follow through the woods. A hunt is usually for three, five, or more
deer, according to agreement and the result is reckoned by points on
the whole chase.


The Bear Hunt

This is played by half a dozen or more boys. Each has a club about the
size and shape of a baseball club, but made of straw {294} tied around two
or three switches and tightly sewn up in burlap.--One big fellow is
selected for the bear. He has a school bag tightly strapped on his
back, and in that a toy balloon fully blown up. This is his heart. On
his neck is a bear-claw necklace of wooden beads and claws. (See cut.)


[Illustration: Bear-claw necklace, claw and bead.]


He has three dens about one hundred yards apart in a triangle. While
in his den the bear is safe. If the den is a tree or rock, he is safe
while touching it. He is obliged to come out when the chief hunter
counts one hundred, and must go the rounds of the three till the hunt
is settled.

The object of the hunters is to break the balloon or heart; that is,
to kill the bear. He must drop dead when the heart bursts. The hunter
who kills him claims the necklace.

But the bear also has a club for defence. Each hunter must wear a hat,
and once the bear knocks a hunter's hat off, that one is dead and out
of this hunt. He must drop where his hat falls.


[Illustration: Straw club.]


Tackling of any kind is forbidden.

The bear wins by killing or putting to flight all the hunters. In this
case he keeps the necklace.

The savageness of these big bears is indescribable. Many lives are
lost in each hunt, and it has several times happened that the whole
party of hunters has been exterminated by some monster of unusual
ferocity.

This game has also been developed into a play.


{295}


Spearing the Great Sturgeon

This water game is exceedingly popular and is especially good for
public exhibition, being spectacular and full of amusement and
excitement.


[Illustration: Wooden Sturgeon.]


The outfit needed is:

(1) A sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood; it should be about three
feet long and nearly a foot thick at the head. It may be made
realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends will serve.

(2) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about
three feet long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs.
Sometimes the barbs are omitted altogether. Each head should have an
eye to which is attached twenty feet of one-quarter inch rope. On each
rope, six feet from the spearhead, is a fathom mark made by tying on a
rag or cord.

(3) Two boats with crews. Each crew consists of a spearman, who is
captain, and one or two oarsmen or paddlers, of whom the after one is
the pilot. All should be expert swimmers or else wear life-belts
during the game.


[Illustration: Spearhead.]


The Game.--Each boat has a base or harbor; this is usually part of the
shore opposite that of the enemy; or it obviates all danger of
collision if the boats start from the same side. The sturgeon is left
by the referee's canoe at a point midway between the bases. At the
word "Go!" each boat leaves its base and, making for the sturgeon,
tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to his base. When both get
their spears into it the contest becomes a tug of war until one of the
spears pulls out.

{296}

The sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow
touches its proper base, even though the spear of the enemy is then in
the fish: or it is landed when the fish itself touches base. The boats
change bases after each heat.

Matches are usually for one, three, or five sturgeon. Points are
counted only for the landing of the fish, but the referee may give the
decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the delinquent may be
set back one or more boat lengths.

Sometimes the game is played in canoes or boats, with one man as
spearman and crew.

_Rules_.--It is _not allowable_ to push the sturgeon into a new position
with the spear or paddle before striking.

It is _allowable_ to pull the sturgeon under the boat or pass it around
by using the line after spearing.

It is _allowable_ to lay hands on the other boat to prevent a collision,
but otherwise it is forbidden to touch the other boat or crew or
paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish, or to touch it
with the paddle or oar, or touch your own spear while it is in the
fish, or to tie the line around the fish except so far as this may be
accidentally done in spearing.

It is _allowable_ to dislodge the enemy's spear by throwing your own
over it. The purpose of the barbs is to assist in this.

It is _allowable_ to run on to the sturgeon with the boat.

_It is absolutely forbidden to throw the spear over the other boat or
over the heads of your crew_.

In towing the sturgeon the fathom mark must be over the gunwale--at
least six feet of line should be out when the fish is in tow. It is
not a foul to have less, but the spearman must at once let it out if
the umpire or the other crew cries "fathom!"

The spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle or oar at
will, but not to resign his spear to another of the crew. The spearman
must be in his boat when the spear is thrown.

If the boat is upset the referee's canoe helps them to right. Each
crew must accept the backset of its accidents.


Tilting In The Water

For this we usually have two boats or war canoes manned by four men
each. These are a spearman, who is also a captain, a pilot, and two
oarsmen.

The spearman is armed with a light pole or bamboo eight or ten feet
long, with a soft pad on the end. Sometimes this is {297} further
provided with a hook. This is a forked branch with limbs a foot long;
one is lashed to the bamboo, the other projecting out a foot, and
slightly backward. The end of the spear and the fork are now
thoroughly padded with burlap to the shape of a duck's head and bill.
And it must be cased in waterproof, to keep it from getting wet and
heavy. The object of the hook is to change suddenly from pushing, and
to pull the enemy by hooking round his neck. Each boat should have a
quarter-deck or raised platform at one end, on which the spearman
stands.


[Illustration: Tilting spear.]


The battle is fought in rounds and by points.

To put your opponent back into the canoe with one foot counts you
five; two feet, ten. If he loses his spear you count five (excepting
when he is put overboard). If you put him down on one knee on the
fighting deck, you count five; two knees, ten. If you put him
overboard it counts twenty-five. One hundred points is a round.

A battle is for one or more rounds, as agreed on. It is forbidden to
hook or strike below the belt. The umpire may dock for fouls.


Canoe Tag

Any number of canoes or boats may engage in this. A rubber cushion, a
hot-water bag full of air, any rubber football, {298} or a cotton bag
with a lot of corks in it is needed. The game is to tag the other
canoe by throwing this into it.

The rules are as in ordinary cross-tag.


Scouting

Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A number of points are marked
on the map at equal distances from camp, and the scouts draw straws to
see where each goes. If one place is obviously hard, the scout is
allowed a fair number of points as handicap. All set out at same time,
go direct, and return as soon as possible.

Points are thus allowed:

Last back, zero for travelling.

The others count one for each minute they are ahead of the last.

Points up to one hundred are allowed for their story on return.

Sometimes we allow ten points for each turtle they have seen; ten for
each owl seen and properly named; five for each hawk, and one each for
other wild birds; also two for a cat one for a dog.

No information is given the scout; he is told to go to such a point
and do so and so, but is fined points if he hesitates or asks how or
why, etc.


[Illustration: Quicksight Game.]


The Game of Quicksight

Make two boards about a foot square, divide each into twenty-five
squares; get ten nuts and ten pebbles. Give to one player one board,
five nuts, and five pebbles. He places {299} these on the squares in
any pattern he fancies, and when ready the other player is allowed to
see it for five seconds. Then it is covered up, and from the memory of
what he saw the second player must reproduce the pattern on his own
board. He counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for
each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about.

This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize
quickly.


[Illustration: Farsight game.]


Farsight, or Spot the Rabbit

Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood.
On each of these draw an outline rabbit, one an exact duplicate of the
other. Make twenty round black wafers or spots, each half an inch
across. Let one player stick a few of these on one rabbit-board and
set it up in full light. The other, beginning at one hundred yards,
draws near till he can see the spots well enough to reproduce the
pattern on the other which he carries. If he can do it at seventy-five
yards he has wonderful eyes. Down even to seventy (done three times
out of five), he counts high honor; from seventy to sixty counts
honor. Below that does not count at all.


Pole-star

Each competitor is given a long straight stick in daytime, and told to
lay it due north and south. In doing this he may guide himself by sun,
moss, or anything he can find in nature--anything, indeed, except a
compass.

{300}

The direction is checked by a good compass corrected for the locality.
The one who comes nearest wins.

It is optional with the judges whether the use of a timepiece is to be
allowed.


Rabbit Hunt

The game of rabbit hunting is suited for two hunters in limited
grounds.

Three little sacks of brown burlap, each about eight inches by twelve,
are stuffed with hay.

At any given place in the woods the two hunters stand in a ten-foot
circle with their bows and arrows. One boy is blindfolded; the other,
without leaving the circle, throws the rabbits into good hiding places
on the ground. Then the second hunter has to find the rabbits and
shoot them without leaving the circle. The lowest number of points
wins, as in golf. If the hunter has to leave the circle he gets one
point for every step he takes outside. After he sees the rabbit he
must keep to that spot and shoot till it is hit once. One shot kills
it, no matter where struck. For every shot he misses he gets five
points.

After his first shot at each rabbit the hider takes alternate shots
with him.

If it is the hider who kills the rabbit, the hunter adds ten points to
his score. If the hunter hits it, he takes ten off his score.

If the hunter fails to find all the rabbits, he scores twenty-five for
each one he gives up.

The hider cannot score at all. He can only help his friend into
trouble. Next time the two change places.

A match is usually for two brace of rabbits.


Hostile Spy

Hanging from the totem pole is a red or yellow horse-tail. This is the
grand medicine scalp of the band. The hostile spy has to steal it. The
leader goes around on the morning of the day and whispers to the
various braves, "Look out--there's a spy in camp." At length he gets
secretly near the one he has selected for spy and whispers, "Look out,
there's a spy in camp, and you are it." He gives him at the same time
some bright-coloured badge, that he must wear as soon as he has
secured the medicine scalp. He must not hide the scalp on his person,
but keep it in view. He has all day till sunset {301} to get away with
it. If he gets across the river or other limit, with warriors in close
pursuit, they give him ten arrow heads (two and one half cents each),
or other ransom agreed on. If he gets away safely and hides it, he can
come back and claim fifteen arrow heads from the council as ransom for
the scalp. If he is caught, he pays his captor ten arrow heads ransom
for his life.


The Man-Hunt

This is played with a scout and ten or more hostiles, or hounds,
according to the country, more when it is rough or wooded.

The scout is given a letter addressed to the "Military Commandant"
(usually the lady of the house that he gets to) of any given place a
mile or two away. He is told to take the letter to anyone of three
given houses, and get it endorsed, with the hour when he arrived, then
return to the starting-point within a certain time.

The hostiles are sent to a point half-way, and let go by a starter at
the same time as the scout leaves the camp. They are to intercept him.

If they catch him before he delivers the letter he must ransom his
life by paying each two arrow heads (or other forfeit) and his captor
keeps the letter as a trophy. If he gets through, but is caught on the
road back, he pays half as much for his life. If he gets through, but
is over time, it is a draw. If he gets through successfully on time he
claims three arrow heads from each hostile and keeps the letter as a
trophy.

They may not follow him into the house (that is, the fort), but may
surround it at one hundred yards distance. They do not know which
three houses he is free to enter, but they do know that these are
within certain limits.

The scout should wear a conspicuous badge (hat, shirt, coat, or
feather), and may ride a wheel or go in a wagon, etc., as long as his
badge is clearly visible.

To "tag" the scout is not to capture. "The blockade to be binding must
be effectual."


Hunt the Coon

This is an in-door game, founded on the familiar "Hunt the Thimble."

We use a little dummy coon; either make it or turn a ready-made toy
rabbit into one by adding tail and black mask, and cropping the ears.

{302}

All the players but one go out of the room. That one places the coon
anywhere in sight, high or low, but in plain view; all come in and
seek. The first to find it, sits down silently, and scores one. Each
sits down, on seeing it, giving no clue to the others.

The first to score three coons is winner, usually. Sometimes we play
till everyone but one has a coon; that one is the booby. The others
are first, second, etc.

Sometimes each is given his number in order of finding it.

Then, after seven or eight coons, these numbers are added up, and the
lowest is winner. If no coon is available use a thimble.


Spear Fights

This is an in-door game with out-door weapons. The soft-headed, eight
foot spears of the tilting-match are used. The contestants stand on
barrels eight feet apart. Each tries to put the other off his barrel.
It is well to have a catcher behind each player to save him if he
falls.

Games are for seven, eleven, or thirteen points.


Navajo Feather Dance

An eagle feather hung on a horse-hair, so as to stand upright, is
worked by a hidden operator, so as to dance and caper. The dancer has
to imitate all its motions. A marionette may be used. It is a great
fun-maker.


Feather Football or Feather Blow

This is an in-door, wet-weather game.

The players hold a blanket on the knees or on the table. A soft
feather is put in the middle. As many may play as can get near. They
may be in sides, two or four or each for himself. At the signal, "Go!"
each tries to blow the feather off the blanket at the enemy's side,
and so count one for himself.

A game is usually best out of seven, eleven, or thirteen.


Cock-Fighting

Get two stout sticks, each two feet long (broomsticks will do). Pad
each of these on the end with a ball of rag. These are the spurs. Make
an eight-foot ring. The two rivals are on their hunkers, each with a
stick through behind his knees, his hands clasped in front of the
knees, and the arms under the ends of the spurs.

{303}

Now they close; each aiming to upset the other, to make him lose his
spurs, or to put him out of the ring, any of which ends that round and
scores one for the victor. If both fall, or lose a spur, or go out
together, it is a draw. Battle is for seven, eleven, or thirteen
rounds.


Hand-Wrestling

This is a jiujitsu game, introduced by Dr. L. H. Gulick. The two
contestants stand right toe to right toe, each right hand clasped,
left feet braced, left hand free. At the word, "Go!" each tries to
unbalance the other: that is, make him lift or move one of his feet. A
lift or a shift ends the round.

Battles are for best out of five, seven, eleven, or thirteen rounds.


Badger-Pulling

The two contestants, on hands and knees, face each other.

A strong belt or strap is buckled into one great loop that passes
round the head of each: that is, crosses his nape. Half-way between
them is a dead line. The one who pulls the other over this line is
winner.

The contestant can at any time end the bout by lowering his head so
the strap slips off; but this counts one against him.

Game is best out of five, seven, eleven, or thirteen points.


Poison

This is an ancient game. A circle about three feet across is drawn on
the ground. The players, holding hands, make a ring around this, and
try to make one of the number step into the poison circle. He can
evade it by side-stepping, by jumping over, or by dragging another
fellow into it.

First to make the misstep is "it" for the time or for next game.


Hat-Ball

When I was among the Chepewyan Indians of Great Slave Lake, in 1907, I
made myself popular with the young men, as well as boys, by teaching
them the old game of hat-ball.

The players (about a dozen) put their hats in a row near a house,
fence, or log (hollows up). A dead line is drawn ten feet from the
hats; all must stand outside of that. The one who is "it" begins by
throwing a soft ball into one of the hats. If he misses the hat, a
chip is put into his own, and he tries over. As soon as he drops the
ball into a hat, the owner runs {304} to get the ball; all the rest
run away. The owner must not follow beyond the dead line, but must
throw the ball at some one. If he hits him, a chip goes into that
person's hat; if not, a chip goes into his own.

As soon as some one has five chips, he wins the booby prize: that is,
he must hold his hand out steady against the wall, and each player has
five shots at it with the ball, as he stands on the dead line.


Duck-on-a-Rock

This is a good old grandfather game.

Each player has a large, smooth, roundish stone, about five or six
inches through. This is his duck. He keeps it permanently.

Toe rock is any low bowlder, block, stump, bump, or hillock on level
ground. A dead line is drawn through the rock, and another parallel,
fifteen feet away, for a firing line.

The fellow who is "it," or "keeper," perches his duck on the rock. The
others stand at the firing line and throw their ducks at his. They
must not pick them up or touch them with their hands when they are
beyond the dead line. If one does, then the keeper can tag him (unless
he reaches the firing line), and send him to do duty as keeper at the
rock.

But they can coax their ducks with their feet, up to the dead line,
not beyond, then watch for a chance to dodge back to the firing line,
where they are safe at all times.

If the duck is knocked off by anyone in fair firing, the keeper is
powerless till he has replaced it. Meantime, most of the players have
secured their ducks and got back safely to the firing line.


Road-side Cribbage

This is a game we often play in the train, to pass the time
pleasantly.

Sometimes one party takes the right side of the road, with the windows
there, and the other the left. Sometimes all players sit on the same
side.

The game is, whoever is first to see certain things agreed on scores
so many points.

Thus:
A crow or a cow counts  1
A cat                   2
A hawk                  3
An owl                  4
A sheep                 5
A goat                  6
A horse                 7

{305}

The winner is the one who first gets twenty-five or fifty
points, as agreed.

When afoot, one naturally takes other things for points, as certain
trees, flowers, etc.


Lion Hunting

(The games from Lion Hunting to Hare and Hounds are from General
Baden-Powell.)

A lion is represented by one scout, who goes out with tracking irons
on his feet, and a pocketful of corn or peas, and six lawn-tennis
balls or rag balls. He is allowed half an hour's start, and then the
patrol go after him, following his spoor, each armed with one tennis
ball with which to shoot him when they find him. The lion may hide or
creep about or run, just as he feels inclined, but whenever the ground
is hard or very greasy he must drop a few grains of corn every few
yards to show the trail.

If the hunters fail to come up to him neither wins the game.

When they come near to his lair the lion fires at them with his tennis
balls, and the moment a hunter is hit he must fall out dead and cannot
throw his tennis ball. If the lion gets hit by a hunter's tennis ball
he is wounded, and if he gets wounded three times he is killed.

Tennis balls may only be fired once; they cannot be picked up and
fired again in the same fight.

Each scout must collect and hand in his tennis balls after the game.
In winter, if there is snow, this game can be played without tracking
irons, and using snowballs instead of tennis balls.


Plant Race

Start off your scouts, either cycling or on foot, to go in any
direction they like, to get a specimen of any ordered plant, say a
sprig of yew, a shoot of ilex, a horseshoe mark from a chestnut tree,
a briar rose, or something of that kind, whichever you may order, such
as will tax their knowledge of plants and will test their memory as to
where they noticed one of the kind required and will also make them
quick in getting there and back.


Throwing the Assegai

Target, a thin sack, lightly stuffed with straw, or a sheet of
card-board, or canvas stretched on a frame.

Assegais to be made of wands, with weighted ends sharpened or with
iron arrow heads on them.

{306}

Flag Raiding

Two or more patrols on each side.

Each side will form an outpost within a given tract of country to
protect three flags (or at night three lanterns two feet above
ground), planted not less than two hundred yards (one hundred yards at
night) from it. The protecting outpost will be posted in concealment
either all together or spread out in pairs. It will then send out
scouts to discover the enemy's position. When these have found out
where the outpost is, they try to creep round out of sight till they
can get to the flags and bring them away to their own line. One scout
may not take away more than one flag.

This is the general position of a patrol on such an outpost:


 Pair of Scouts        Pair of Scouts           Pair of Scouts

                       Patrol Leader

                         P. P. P.
                          Flags



Any scout coming within fifty yards of a stronger party will be put
out of action if seen by the enemy; if he can creep by without being
seen it is all right.

Scouts posted to watch as outposts cannot move from their ground, but
their strength counts as double, and they may send single messages to
their neighbors or to their own scouting party.

An umpire should be with each outpost and with each scouting patrol.

At a given hour operations will cease, and all will assemble at the
given spot to hand in their reports. The following points might be
awarded:

For each flag or lamp captured and brought in--5

For each report or sketch of the position of the enemy's outposts up
to five--5

For each report of movement of enemy's scouting patrols--2

The side which makes the biggest total wins.

The same game may be played to test the scouts in stepping
lightly--the umpire being blindfolded. The practice should preferably
be carried out where there are dry twigs lying about, and gravel, etc.
The scout may start to stalk the blind enemy at one hundred yards'
distance, and he must do it fairly fast--say, in one minute and a
half--to touch the blind man before he hears him.

{307}

Stalking and Reporting

The umpire places himself out in the open and sends each scout or pair
of scouts away in different directions about half a mile off. When he
waves a flag, which is the signal to begin, they all hide, and then
proceed to stalk him, creeping up and watching all he does. When he
waves the flag again, they rise, come in, and report each in turn all
that he did, either by handing in a written report or verbally, as may
be ordered. The umpire meantime has kept a lookout in each direction,
and, every time he sees a scout he takes two points off that scout's
score. He, on his part, performs small actions, such as sitting down,
kneeling, looking through glasses, using handkerchief, taking hat off
for a bit, walking round in a circle a few times, to give scouts
something to note and report about him. Scouts are given three points
for each act reported correctly. It saves time if the umpire makes out
a scoring card beforehand, giving the name of each scout, and a number
of columns showing each act of his, and what mark that scout wins,
also a column of deducted marks for exposing themselves.


Spider and Fly

A bit of country or section of the town about a mile square is
selected as the web, and its boundaries described, and an hour fixed
at which operations are to cease.

One patrol (or half-patrol) is the "spider," which goes out and
selects a place to hide itself.

The other patrol (or half-patrol) go a quarter of an hour later as the
"fly" to look for the "spider." They can spread themselves about as
they like, but must tell their leader anything that they discover.

An umpire goes with each party.

If within the given time (say, about two hours) the fly has not
discovered the spider, the spider wins. The spiders write down the
names of any of the fly patrol that they may see.


Stalking

Instructor acts as a deer--not hiding, but standing, moving a little
now and then if he likes.

Scouts go out to find, and each in his own way tries to get up to him
unseen.

Directly the instructor sees a scout, he directs him to stand up as
having failed. After a certain time the instructor calls {308} "time,"
all stand up at the spot which they have reached, and the nearest
wins.

_Demonstrate the value of adapting color of clothes to background by
sending out one boy about five hundred yards to stand against
different backgrounds in turn, till he gets one similar in color to
his own clothes._

_The rest of the patrol to watch and to notice how invisible he becomes
when he gets a suitable background. E. g., a boy in a gray suit
standing in front of dark bushes, etc., is quite visible but becomes
less so if he stands in front of a gray rock or house; a boy in a dark
suit is very visible in a green field, but not when lie stands in an
open door-way against dark interior shadow_.


Scout Hunting

One scout is given time to go out and hide himself, the remainder then
start to find him; he wins if he is not found, or if he can get back
to the starting point within a given time without being touched.


Relay Race

One patrol pitted against another to see who can get a message sent a
long distance in shortest time by means of relays of runners (or
cyclists). The patrol is ordered out to send in three successive notes
or tokens (such as sprigs of certain plants), from a point, say, two
miles distant or more. The leader in taking his patrol out to the spot
drops scouts at convenient distances, who will then act as runners
from one post to the next and back. If relays are posted in pairs,
messages can be passed both ways.


Track Memory

Make a patrol sit with their feet up, so that other scouts can study
them. Give the scouts, say, three minutes to study the boots. Then
leaving the scouts in a room or out of sight, let one of the patrol
make some footmarks in a good bit of ground. Call up the scouts one by
one and let them see the track and say who made it.


Spot the Thief

Get a stranger to make a track unseen by the scouts. The scouts study
his track so as to know it again.

Then put the stranger among eight or ten others and let them all make
their tracks for the boys to see, going by in rotation. Each scout
then in turn whispers to the umpire which man, {309} made the original
track--describing him by his number in filing past. The scout who
answers correctly wins; if more than one answers correctly, the one
who then draws the best diagram, from memory, of the footprint wins.


Smugglers Over the Border

The "border" is a certain line of country about four hundred yards
long, preferably a road or wide path or bit of sand, on which foot
tracks can easily be seen. One patrol watches the border with sentries
posted along this road, with a reserve posted farther inland. This
latter about half-way between the "border" and the "town"; the "town"
would be a base marked by a tree, building, or flags, etc., about half
a mile distant from the border. A hostile patrol of smugglers assemble
about half a mile on the other side of the border. They will all cross
the border, in any formation they please, either singly or together or
scattered, and make for the town, either walking or running, or at
scouts' pace. Only one among them is supposed to be smuggling, and he
wears tracking irons, so that the sentries walk up and down their beat
(they may not run till after the "alarm"), waiting for the tracks of
the smuggler. Directly a sentry sees the track, he gives the alarm
signal to the reserve and starts himself to follow up the track as
fast as he can. The reserves thereupon cooperate with him and try to
catch the smuggler before he can reach the town. Once within the
boundary of the town he is safe and wins the game.


Shop Window Out-doors in Town

Umpire takes a patrol down a street past six shops, gives them half a
minute at each shop, then, after moving them off to some distance, he
gives each boy a pencil and card, and tells him to write from memory,
or himself takes down, what they noticed in, say, the third and fifth
shops. The one who sets down most articles correctly wins. It is
useful practice to match one boy against another in heats--the loser
competing again, till you arrive at the worst. This gives the worst
scouts the most practice.


Similar Game In-doors

Send each scout in turn into a room for half a minute; when he comes
out take down a list of furniture and articles which he notices. The
boy who notices most wins.

{310}

The simplest way of scoring is to make a list of the articles in the
room on your scoring paper with a column for marks for each scout
against them, which can then easily be totalled up at foot.


Follow the Trail

Send out a "hare," either walking or cycling, with a pocketful of
corn, nutshells, confetti paper, or buttons, etc., and drop a few here
and there to give a trail for the patrol to follow.

Or go out with a piece of chalk and draw the patrol sign on walls,
gate posts, pavements, lamp posts, trees, etc., every here and there,
and let the patrol hunt you by these marks. Patrols should wipe out
all these marks as they pass them for tidiness, and so as not to
mislead them for another day's practice.

The other road signs should also be used, such as closing up certain
roads as not used, and hiding a letter at some point, giving
directions as to the next turn.


Scout's Nose In-doors

Prepare a number of paper bags, all alike, and put in each a different
smelling article, such as chopped onion in one, tan in another, rose
leaves, leather, anise-seed, violet powder, orange peel, etc. Put
these packets in a row a couple of feet apart, and let each competitor
walk down the line and have five seconds sniff at each. At the end he
has one minute in which to write down or to state to the umpire the
names of the different objects smelled, from memory, in their correct
order.


Scout Meets Scout in Town or Country

Single scouts, or complete patrols or pairs of scouts, to be taken out
about two miles apart, and made to work toward each other, either
alongside a road, or by giving each side a landmark to work to, such
as a steep hill or big tree, which is directly behind the other party,
and will thus insure their coming together. The patrol which first
sees the other wins. This is signified by the patrol leader holding up
his patrol flag for the umpire to see, and sounding his whistle. A
patrol need not keep together, but that patrol wins which first holds
out its flag, so it is well for the scouts to be in touch with their
patrol leaders by signal, voice, or message.

Scouts may employ any ruse they like, such as climbing into trees,
hiding in carts, etc., but they must not dress up in disguise.

This may also be practised at night.

{311}

Shoot Out

Two patrols compete. Targets: bottles or bricks set up on end to
represent the opposing patrol. Both patrols are drawn up in line at
about twenty to twenty-five yards from the targets. At the word
"fire," they throw stones at the targets. Directly a target falls, the
umpire directs the corresponding man of the other patrol to sit
down--killed. The game goes on, if there are plenty of stones, till
the whole of one patrol is killed. Or a certain number of stones can
be given to each patrol, or a certain time limit, say one minute.


Kim's Game

Place about twenty or thirty small articles on a tray, or on the table
or floor, such as two or three different kinds of buttons, pencils,
corks, rags, nuts, stones, knives, string, photos--anything you can
find--and cover them over with a cloth or coat.

Make a list of these, and make a column opposite the list for each
boy's replies.

Then uncover the articles for one minute by your watch, or while you
count sixty at the rate of "quick march." Then cover them over again.

Take each boy separately and let him whisper to you each of the
articles that he can remember, and mark it off on your scoring sheet.

The boy who remembers the greatest number wins the game.


Morgan's Game

Scouts are ordered to run to a certain boarding, where an umpire is
already posted to time them. They are each allowed to look at this for
one minute, and then to run back to headquarters and report to the
instructor all that was on the boarding in the way of advertisements.


Snow Fort

The snow fort may be built by one patrol according to their own ideas
of fortification, with loopholes, etc., for looking out. When
finished, it will be attacked by hostile patrols, using snowballs as
ammunition. Every scout struck by a snowball is counted dead. The
attackers should, as a rule, number at least twice the strength of the
defenders.

{312}

Siberian Man Hunt

One scout as fugitive runs away across the snow in any direction he
may please until he finds a good hiding place, and there conceals
himself. The remainder, after giving him twenty minutes' start or
more, proceed to follow him by his tracks. As they approach his hiding
place, he shoots at them with snowballs, and every one that is struck
must fall out dead. The fugitive must be struck three times before he
is counted dead.


Hare and Hounds

Two or more persons representing the hares, and provided with a large
quantity of corn, are given a start of several minutes and run a
certain length of time, then return by another route to the starting
point, all the time scattering corn in their path. After the lapse of
the number of minutes' handicap given the hares, those representing
the hounds start in pursuit, following by the corn and trying to catch
the hares before they reach the starting-point in returning.

The handicap given the hares should be small, depending on the running
abilities of the hares and hounds. The fastest runners are usually
picked for the hounds.


Chalk the Arrow

This is usually played in the city streets, one player running and
trying to keep out of sight of the others who follow. The runner is
given time to disappear around the first corner before the others
start after him, and at every corner he turns he marks (with chalk) an
arrow pointing in the direction he takes. Those pursuing follow by the
arrow, the first one seeing him being the runner for the next time.

This may also be played by having any number run and only one follow,
the first becoming "it" for the next time.


Dodge Ball

Of any number of players, half of that number form a circle, while the
other half stand inside of the ring (centre) facing outward. Now, the
game for those in the centre is to dodge the ball which is thrown by
any of those forming the circle with the intention of striking the
centre ones {313} out. Every time a member is struck he is dead, and
takes his place among those of the circle. Now he has a chance to
throw at those remaining in the centre. This arrangement keeps all
taking part busy. Only one is out at a time. This being kept up until
finally only one is left. He is hailed the king. For next round,
players exchange places, i. e., those who were in the centre now form
the circle.

Note: If the touch is preceded by a bound of the ball it does not
count.


Prisoner's Base

Goals are marked off at both ends of the playground, the players
divided into two equal divisions, occupying the two goals. About ten
paces to the right of each goal is a prison. A player advances toward
the opposite goal, when one from that goal starts out to catch him. He
retreats, and one from his side runs to his rescue by trying to catch
the pursuer--who in turn is succored by one from his side, and so on.
Every player may catch anyone from the opposite side who has been out
of goal longer than he has. Any player caught is conducted to the
prison by his captor and must remain there until rescued by some one
from his side, who touches him with the hand. The one who does this is
subject to being caught like any other player.


Throwing the Spear

The game is an old Greek and Persian pastime. "Throw the spear and
speak the truth," was a national maxim of the Persians that we may
copy with advantage.

The apparatus required is some light spears and an archery target. The
spears should vary from five to six feet in length; the point should
be shod with a steel tip, having a socket into which the wooden handle
is fitted, and made fast by small screws passing through holes in the
sides of the metal, and then into the wood itself. The wood, for about
a foot above the barb, should be about three quarters of an inch in
diameter, and from thence gradually taper to about a quarter of an
inch in thickness until the end of the spear is reached.

Some spears are fitted with feathers, like an arrow, but these are not
necessary to obtain a good throw, and soon get dismantled in
continually falling upon the ground. Any ordinary target will serve.
It may be an archery target, a sack full of straw, or a sod bank.

{314}

The object of the contest is to hit the target from a given mark, the
firing line. Whoever throws nearest to the centre of the target the
greatest number of times out of six shots is hailed the winner.

The best form for throwing is with the left foot forward, the leg
perfectly straight, body well back, its weight resting on the right
leg. Now extend the left arm forward, in a line with the shoulder, and
over the left leg; poise the spear horizontally in the right hand,
holding at the centre of gravity by the forefinger and thumb. Bring
the right arm backward until the hand is behind the right shoulder.

Now, inclining the point of the spear slightly upward, make your cast,
bringing the right arm forward, followed by the right side of the
body, the right leg forward and the left arm backward. Count yourself
fortunate if you even hit the target in the first few attempts, but
practice will make a wonderful difference. The distance should be
mutually agreed upon, but fifty feet for a boy of fifteen and one
hundred feet for an adult will be found about right.

To "throw the javelin" is another phase of this pastime. The javelin
is four to five feet in length, three quarters of an inch in
thickness, and fitted with a barbed end, slightly heavier than the
spear end. The "object of the game" is to throw the javelin as far as
possible but not at a target; instead, the javelin must stick into the
ground.

In throwing the javelin, hold it in the right hand, the left leg and
hand being advanced; the barb and arm at this point should be at the
rear. Then, describing a semicircle with the arm over the right
shoulder, and leaning well to the rear, hurl the weapon as far as
possible forward.


Arctic Expedition

Each patrol make a bob sleigh with ropes, harness, for two of their
number to pull or for dogs if they have them and can train them to do
the work. Two scouts or so go a mile or two ahead, the remainder with
the sleigh follow, finding the way by means of the spoor, and by such
signs as the leading scouts may draw in the snow. All other drawings
seen on the way are to be examined, noted, and their meaning read. The
sleigh carries rations and cooking pots, etc.

Build snow huts. These must be made narrow, according to the length of
the sticks available for forming the roof, which can be made with
brushwood and covered with snow.

{315}

Dragging Race

A line of patients from one patrol is laid out fifty feet distant from
the start. Another patrol, each carrying a rope, run out, tie ropes to
the patients, and drag them in. Time taken of last in. Patrols change
places. The one which completes in the shortest time wins. Knots must
be carefully tied, and patients' coats laid out under their heads.


Far and Near

Umpire goes along a given road or line of country with a patrol in
patrol formation. He carries a scoring card with the name of each
scout on it.

Each scout looks out for the details required, and directly he notices
one he runs to the umpire and informs him or hands in the article, if
it is an article he finds. The umpire enters a mark accordingly
against his name. The scout who gains the most marks in the walk wins.


Details like the following should be chosen to develop the scout's
observation and to encourage him to look far and near, up and down,
etc.

The details should be varied every time the game is played; and about
eight or ten should be given at a time.

Every match found                    1 point
Every button found                   1 point
Bird tracks                          2 points
Patch noticed on
   stranger's clothing or boots      2 points
Gray horse seen                      2 points
Pigeon flying                        2 points
Sparrow sitting                      2 points
Ash tree 2                           points
Broken chimney-pot                   2 points
Broken window                        1 point


Fire-lighting Race

To collect material, build, and light a fire till the log given by
umpire is alight.


Follow My Leader

With a large number of boys this can be made a very effective display,
and is easy to do at a jog trot, and occasional "knee-up" with musical
accompaniment. It also can be done at night, {316} each boy carrying a
Chinese lantern on top of his staff. If in a building all lights, of
course, would be turned down. A usual fault is that the exercise is
kept on too long, till it wearies both audience and performers.


Games in Path-finding

Instructor takes a patrol in patrolling formation into a strange town
or into an intricate piece of strange country, with a cycling map. He
then gives instructions as to where he wants to go, makes each scout
in turn lead the patrol, say, for seven minutes if cycling, fifteen
minutes if walking. This scout is to find the way entirely by the map,
and points are given for ability in reading.


Mountain Scouting

This has been played by tourists' clubs in the lake district, and is
very similar to the "Spider and Fly" game. Three hares are sent out at
daybreak to hide themselves about in the mountains: after breakfast a
party of hounds go out to find them before a certain hour, say 4
o'clock P.M. If they find them even with field-glasses, it counts,
provided that the finder can say definitely who it was he spotted.
Certain limits of ground must be given, beyond which anyone would be
out of bounds, and therefore disqualified.


Knight Errantry

Scouts go out singly, or in pairs, or as a patrol. If in a town, to
find women or children in want of help, and to return and report, on
their honor, what they have done. If in the country, call at any farms
or cottages and ask to do odd jobs--for nothing. The same can be made
into a race called a "Good Turn" race.


Unprepared Plays

Give the plot of a short, simple, play and assign to each player his
part, with an outline of what he has to do and say, and then let them
act it, making up the required conversation as they go along.

This develops the power of imagination and expression on points kept
in the mind, and is a valuable means of education.

It is well before starting to act a play in this way to be a little
less ambitious, and to make two or three players merely {317} carry
out a conversation on given topics leading up to a given point, using
their own words and imaginations in doing so.


The Treasure Hunt

The treasure hunt needs observation and skill in tracking, and
practically any number can take part in it.

Several ways of playing the game are given below.

1. The treasure is hidden and the scouts know what the treasure is;
they are given the first clew, and from this all the others can be
traced. Such clews might be (a) written on a gate post: "Go west and
examine third gate on north side of stream"; (b) on that gate, scout's
sign pointing to notice board on which is written, "Strike south by
south-east telegraph post, No. 28," and so on. The clews should be so
worded as to need some skill to understand, and the various points
should be difficult of access from one another. This method might be
used as a patrol competition, starting off patrols at ten-minute
intervals, and at one particular clew there might be different orders
for each patrol, to prevent the patrols behind from following the
first.

2. The clews may be bits of colored wood tied to gates, hedges, etc.,
at about three-yard intervals, leading in a certain direction, and
when these clews come to the end it should be known that the treasure
is hidden within so many feet. To prevent this degenerating into a
mere game of follow my leader, several tracks might be laid working up
to the same point, and false tracks could be laid, which only lead
back again to the original.

3. Each competitor or patrol might be given a description of the
way--each perhaps of a slightly different way; the description should
make it necessary to go to each spot in turn; and prevent any
"cutting" in the following way: "Go to the tallest tree in a certain
field, from there go one hundred yards north, and then walk straight
toward a church tower which will be on your left," etc. All the
descriptions should lead by an equal journey to a certain spot where
the treasure is hidden. The first to arrive at that spot should not
let the others know it is the spot, but should search for the treasure
in as casual a manner as possible.


Will-o'-the-Wisp

This game should take place across country at night. Two scouts set
off in a given direction with a lighted bull's-eye {318} lantern.
After two minutes have passed the patrol or troop starts in pursuit.

The lantern bearer must show his light at least every minute
concealing it for the rest of the time. The two scouts take turns in
carrying the light, and so may relieve each other in difficulties, but
either may be captured. The scout without the light can often mingle
with the pursuers without being recognized and relieve his friend when
he is being hard pressed. They should arrange certain calls or signals
between themselves.


Treasure Island

A treasure is known to be hidden upon a certain island or bit of shore
marked off, and the man who hid it leaves a map with clews for finding
it (compass, directions, tide marks, etc.). This map is hidden
somewhere near the landing-place; the patrols come in turn to look for
it--they have to row from a certain distance, land, find the map, and
finally discover the treasure. They should be careful to leave no foot
tracks, etc., near the treasure, because then the patrols that follow
them will easily find it. The map and treasure are to be hidden afresh
for the next patrol when they have been found. The patrol wins which
returns to the starting place with the treasure in the shortest time.
(This can be played on the river, the patrols having to row across the
river to find the treasure.)


Horse and Rider Tourney

In playing this game it is necessary to have a soft, velvety piece of
grass, or if in doors, in the gymnasium, cover the floor with regular
gymnasium mats. It requires four boys to play the game, two being
horses and the other two riders. The riders mount their horses and
dash at each other with great caution, striving to get a good hold of
each other in such a way as to compel the opponent to dismount. This
can be done either by dragging him from his mount or by making the
horse and rider lose their balance so as to throw them off their feet.
A great deal of sport can be gotten out of this game, and boys become
very skilful after a little practice.


Mumbly Peg
(From Daniel Carter Beard, National Scout Commissioner)

First: Hold the right fist with the back to the ground and with the
jack-knife, with blade pointing to the right, resting {319} on top of
the closed fingers. The hand is swung to the right, up and over,
describing a semicircle, so that the knife falls point downward and
sticks, or should stick, upright in the ground. If there is room to
slip two fingers, one above the other, beneath the handle of the
knife, and if the point of the knife is hidden in the ground, it
counts as a fair stick or throw.

Second: The next motion is the same as the one just described, but is
performed with the left.

Third: Take the point of the blade between the first and second
fingers of the right hand, and fillip it with a jerk so that the knife
turns once around in the air and strikes the point into the ground.

Fourth: Do the same with the left hand.

Fifth: Hold the knife as in the third and fourth positions, and bring
the arm across the chest so that the knife handle touches the left
ear. Take hold of the right ear with the left hand and fillip the
knife so that it turns once or twice in the air and strikes on its
point in the earth.

Sixth: Do the same with the left hand.

Seventh: Still holding the knife in the same manner, bring the handle
up to the nose and fillip it over through the air, so that it will
stick in the ground.

Eighth: Do the same with the handle at the right eye.

Ninth: Repeat with the handle at the left eye.

Tenth: Place the point of the blade on the top of the head. Hold it in
place with the forefinger, and with a downward push send it whirling
down to earth, where it must stick with the point of blade in the
earth.

Eleventh to Fifteenth: Hold the left hand with the fingers pointing
upward and, beginning with the thumb, place the point of the knife on
each finger as described above, and the forefinger of the right hand
on the end of the knife handle. By a downward motion, throw the knife
revolving through the air, so that it will alight with the point of
the blade in the sod.

Sixteenth to Twentieth: Repeat, with the right hand up and the
forefinger of the left hand on the knife handle.

Twenty-first, twenty-second: Do the same from each knee.

Twenty-third: Hold the point of the blade between the first and second
fingers, and, placing the hand on the forehead, fillip the knife back
over the head, so that it will stick in the ground behind the person
ready for the next motion.

Twenty-fourth: After twenty-three the knife is left in the ground.
Then with the palm of the hand strike the knife handle a smart blow
that will send it revolving over the ground {320} for a yard, more or
less, and cause it to stick in the ground where it stops. This is
called "ploughing the field."

When a miss is made the next player takes his turn, and when the first
player's turn comes again he must try the feat over that he failed to
perform last. A good player will sometimes go through almost all the
twenty-four motions without failing to make a "two finger," that is, a
fair stick, each time; but it is very unusual for anyone to run the
game out in one inning. This is the game in twenty-four motions; many
boys play it double that number.


Outdoor Athletic Standards

The athletic standards given below are those which most boys ought to
be able to attain. They are the result of the experience of several
physical directors who have made a special study of athletics and
physical work among boys.

The rules governing the events are found in the official handbook of
the Athletic League of North America. These rules must be strictly
adhered to.

EVENTS                      UNDER      UNDER    UNDER     UNDER     OVER
                     90 LBS. 110 LBS. 125 LBS.  140 LBS.  140 LBS.

(1) Running Broad Jump    12'     13'      14'       15'      16'
(2) Running High Jump      3' 11"  4' 1"    4' 4"     4' 7"    4' 10"
(3) Standing Broad Jump    6' 6"   7'       7' 6"     8'       8' 6"
(4) Standing High Jump     3' 2"   3' 4"    3' 6"     3' 8"    3' 10"
(5) Pull-Up  (times)       5       7        9        11       13
(6) 20-Yard Swim          20 sec. 18 sec.  16 sec.   14 sec.  12 sec.
(7) 40-Yard Swim          40 sec. 39 sec.  38 sec.   37 sec.  36 sec.
(8) 50-Yard Dash         7.8 sec. 7.4 sec.  7 sec.   6.6 sec.  6.2 sec.
(9) Eight-Potato Race     45 sec. 43 sec.  41 sec.   39 sec.  37 sec.
(10) 8 lb.-Shot Put        *      25'      30'       35'      40'
(11) Push-Up from Floor    *      11       13        15       17
(12) Rope Climb            *      14 sec.  12 sec.   10 sec.   8 sec.
(13) 100-Yard Dash         *       *       13 sec.   12.6 sec. 12.2 sec.
  * Should not attempt this event

For merit badge a boy under ninety pounds must qualify in seven of the
first nine events; a boy under one hundred and ten pounds must qualify
in ten of the first twelve events; all others must qualify in their
proper class in eleven of the thirteen events.


{321}


Notes


{322}


Notes


{323}

CHAPTER IX

PATRIOTISM AND CITIZENSHIP

_By Waldo H. Sherman,
Author of "Civics--Studies in American Citizenship"_


OUR COUNTRY

America is the home of social, religious, and political liberty--"the
land of the free and the home of the brave."

As a nation, we have always been rich in land, and for this reason
millions of people have sought our shores. We have come into
possession of our territory through treaty, purchase, and annexation.
In speaking of our territorial area we usually speak of the "original
territory" and "additions" to same. When we speak of "original
territory" we mean that part of the United States which was ceded to
us by Great Britain in the peace treaty of 1783, at the close of the
War of the Revolution. This territory, in brief, is described as
follows: East to the Atlantic Ocean, west to the Mississippi River,
north to the Great Lakes and Canada, and as far south as the northern
line of Florida. We sometimes hear it spoken of as the territory of
the "Thirteen Original States," meaning the states that formed the
Government of the Constitution in 1789. However if we look at the map
we shall see that the original territory includes not only the
territory of the thirteen original states, but comprises also land out
of which twelve other states have been formed. Looking at this area
to-day, however, it seems a small part of our country compared with
our present limits.


Additions

_Louisiana Purchase_: What is known as the Louisiana Purchase we bought
from France in 1803. It consisted of 875,025 square miles, for which
we paid $15,000,000. It is described as follows: west of the
Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, north to Canada, and south
to the Gulf of Mexico, exclusive of Texas. This is a territory greater
than the present combined areas of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Hungary,
and the Balkan states.

{324}

_Florida Purchase_: In 1819, we purchased Florida from Spain at a cost
of over $5,000,000, and this single state is larger in territorial
area than the combined territory of Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, and
Switzerland.

_Texas_: In 1845, Texas came to us by annexation, but the outcome of
this annexation later on was our war with Mexico. In territorial area
this is an empire in itself--larger than the whole German Empire.

_Oregon Territory_: In 1846, by treaty with Great Britain, we acquired
what is known as the Oregon Territory. This includes the states of
Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.

_Mexican Cession and Purchase from Texas_: As an outcome of the Mexican
War, we obtained from Mexico, in 1848, the territory of California,
Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and a part of New Mexico at a cost of
$15,000,000; and in 1850, we purchased from Texas the remaining part
of New Mexico and that part of Colorado not included in the Louisiana
Purchase, at a cost of $10,000,000.

_Gadsden Purchase_: In 1853, we made what is known as the Gadsden
Purchase, acquiring thus from Mexico a needed tract of land on the
boundary between Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico, paying for this
tract $10,000,000.

_Alaska_: In 1867, we paid Russia $7,000,000, and added Alaska to our
possessions. This purchase is spoken of in history as "Seward's
Folly," because the transaction, made while he was secretary of state,
was not generally considered a good bargain. Nevertheless it has
proved one of our most valuable possessions.

_Hawaii_: In 1898, we reached out into the Pacific waters and annexed
the beautiful Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands.

_Porto Rico, Pine Islands, Guam, Philippine Islands_: In 1898, the
island of Porto Rico with an area of 3600 square miles came into our
possession as an outcome of the Spanish-American War; likewise the
Pine Islands with their 882 square miles; Guam with 175 square miles;
and the Philippine Islands with a territorial area of 143,000 square
miles. But for these latter in settlement of a number of private
claims, and to gain peaceable possession of various public lands, we
paid Spain $20,000,000.

_Samoan Islands_: In 1899, we acquired the Samoan Islands, with an area
of 73 square miles; and, in 1901, some additional islands in the
Philippines.

{325}

Land Settlements

The first permanent English settlements in America were made at
Jamestown, Va., in 1607, and at Plymouth, Mass., in 1620; and from
these two settlements we may trace in large part the growth,
character, and development of our national life. The story of the
"Pilgrim Fathers" in Massachusetts has been told for generations in
literature and in song, and can never cease to be of romantic and
thrilling interest.

The story of the settlement and dispersal of other nationalities in
America--the Swedes in Delaware, the Dutch in New York, the Spanish
and French in Florida and along the banks of the Mississippi and Ohio
Rivers--all this is summed up in what is known as "colonial history."

In 1763, at the close of the French and Indian wars, England had come
into possession of practically all the territory east of the
Mississippi--that territory which was ceded in 1783 as the original
territory of the United States.

You will sometimes hear it said that thirteen is an unlucky number.
Indeed you may have known people so superstitious that they refuse to
sit down at a table when the number is thirteen. Again you may know it
to be a fact that some hotels do not have a room numbered thirteen,
and that many steamboats likewise follow the same custom in state-room
arrangement. Strange superstition for Americans! It took thirteen
states to make our Union; we have made thirteen additions to our
territory; when George Washington was inaugurated as president, a
salute of thirteen guns was fired; and, finally, the foundation of the
flag of our country bears thirteen stripes.


The American Revolution

The story of the American Revolution (1775-1783)--Declaration of
Independence (1776), the adoption of the Articles of Confederation
(1781), and, finally, the making and adoption of the Constitution of
the United States in 1789--all is summed up in a period of fourteen
years, and may be told and written in the life of George Washington,
who was indeed the "Father of His Country."

The cause of the American Revolution was England's oppression of her
American colonists; and the injustice of taxation without
representation, with other injustices, finally brought about
rebellion. The war began in Massachusetts with the battles of
Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775, and ended at Yorktown, Va.,
October 19, 1781. The treaty of peace was {326} signed at Paris,
France, September 3, 1783, and November 25 of that year, known in
history as "Evacuation Day," the British took their departure down the
bay of New York harbor and America was free.

Now do we find ourselves at the fireside of American patriotism. Here
is Washington. He is a Virginian, and the American people know him at
this time as Colonel Washington. It is the 13th day of June, 1775, and
the second Continental Congress is in session at Philadelphia. John
Adams of Massachusetts has the floor. He is to show himself at this
time the master statesman. Justly has he been called the "Colossus of
the Revolution." On his way to Independence Hall this morning he meets
his cousin, Samuel Adams, and tells him what he is going to do. "We
must," he says; "act on this matter at once. We must make Congress
declare for or against something. I'll tell you what I am going to do.
I am determined this very morning to make a direct motion that
Congress shall adopt the army before Boston, and appoint the
Virginian, Colonel Washington, commander of it."

Adams is now stating to the Congress the gravity of the situation; he
points out the necessity of immediate action the colonies must be
united, the army must be brought together, disciplined, and trained
for service, and, under Congress, a fitting commander appointed. "Such
a gentleman," he said, "I have in mind. I mention no names, but every
gentleman here knows him at once as a brave soldier and a man of
affairs. He is a gentleman from Virginia, one of this body, and well
known to all of us. He is a gentleman of skill and excellent universal
character and would command the approbation of all the colonies better
than any other person in the Union."

George Washington is in the hall. The eyes of all Congress have turned
toward him. He is surprised, confused, and embarrassed, leaves his
seat and hurries into the library.

Congress spent two days considering Adams's motion, for there were
other men who had hoped for the appointment; but finally, on the 15th
of June, 1775, a ballot was taken, and Washington was unanimously
elected commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

On July 2, 1775, he took command of the army at Cambridge, Mass., and
March 17, 1776, the British were expelled from Boston.

{327}

We now come to the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. It was
written by Thomas Jefferson, at that time a young man of thirty-three.
The committee of the General Congress appointed to draft it, consisted
of the following: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin,
Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston.

The strong feeling of Thomas Jefferson as he wrote the Declaration is
indicated by his statement that, "Rather than submit to the right of
legislating for us assumed by the British Parliament, I would lend my
hand to sink the whole island in the ocean." Here also we get a
glimpse of one of the most interesting and delightful characters in
the history of this period--Benjamin Franklin. History records that
while Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, a few
verbal suggestions were made by Doctor Franklin, as the following
conversation reported to have taken place between them would indicate:
"Well, Brother Jefferson," said Franklin, "is the fair copy made?"
"All ready, doctor," replied Jefferson. "Will you hear it through once
more?" "As many times as you wish," responded the smiling doctor, with
a merry twinkle in his eyes. "One can't get too much of a good thing,
you know." Jefferson then read to Franklin the Declaration of
Independence, which has been pronounced one of the world's greatest
papers. "That's good, Thomas! That's right to the point! That will
make King George wince. I wish I had done it myself." It is said
Franklin would "have put a joke into the Declaration of Independence,
if it had fallen to his lot to write that immortal document."

The Declaration of Independence went forth to the world signed by one
man, John Hancock--which explains the expression you sometimes hear,
"Put your John Hancock there." It was, however, signed later by all
the members of that Congress--fifty-four in number. This immortal
document has been carefully preserved and the original may be seen at
Washington.

The Declaration was a notice to Great Britain and to all the world
that the American colonists would no longer be subject to Great
Britain; that henceforth they were to be a free and independent
people, holding Great Britain as they held the rest of mankind,
"enemies in war--in peace friends." This Declaration marks the birth
of our nation.

Our government fathers fully realized the step they were taking. They
knew it meant a final breaking with the home government of England,
but--"with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence," in
support of this {328} Declaration, they pledged to each other "their
lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor."

Following the expulsion of the British from Boston, the battle field
of the Revolution changes to New York, moving to Harlem Heights and
White Plains; then to New Jersey; Trenton, and Princeton; then to
Pennsylvania; Brandywine, Westchester, Germantown, Valley Forge, and
on to Monmouth.

But here let us pause. It has been a terrible winter at Valley Forge.
While the British at Philadelphia, twenty miles away, have been living
in luxury, our Washington and his men have suffered bitterly with
hunger and cold; and out of a list of eleven thousand men, three
thousand at Valley Forge lay sick at one time. But at last the spring
has come and Washington has now been nearly three years in service.
Listen! The order has gone forth! At 10:30 o'clock comes the signal,
and the firing of a cannon sees all men under arms! At 11:30 o'clock
the second signal is given and the march begins. It is May 7, 1778,
and Washington is assembling his men. Great news has come and it is
fitting to return thanks to Divine Providence--so reads his
proclamation.

Now comes the third signal, the firing of thirteen cannon! Another
signal! and the whole army breaks into a loud huzza "Long live the
King of France!" followed by a running fire of guns.

On this same day in the afternoon, Washington gives a banquet to his
officers, aides, and guests, to which they march arm-in-arm, thirteen
abreast. What does it mean? It means that Benjamin Franklin has been
heard from, and that an alliance with France, England's bitterest
enemy, has been made. Some day when you are in Washington, you may see
directly in front of the White House, Lafayette Park, and, knowing the
story of the Revolution, you understand why it is there. You also
understand why Washington's army on that May morning shouted, "Long
live the King of France."

But it is not our purpose here to tell the whole story: we can only
touch the high points. Again the army moves to White Plains and on to
Middlebrook and New Windsor; and Washington spends the winter (1781)
at Morristown, N. J. The end is approaching. He joins Lafayette at
Yorktown, Va., and on October 19th, Cornwallis, the British general,
surrenders to George Washington, commander-in-chief of the American
Army. Thus the conflict begun in one English settlement is ended in
the other. Massachusetts marks the beginning and Virginia the ending
of the War of the Revolution.

{329}

The War of 1812-1815

The War of 1812 was a naval war. It was a battle for rights--the
rights of our sailors, the rights of our commerce. American ships and
cargoes were being confiscated. France and England and the Barbary
pirates were engaged in a profitable war on our commerce, and last but
not least twenty thousand American seamen had been pressed into
service and were slaves on ships that were foreign, England especially
claiming the right to search American ships and press into service all
men found on board who were English by birth, though American by
choice and adoption.

"Once a subject always a subject," said Great Britain, but our answer
in 1812 was as it is now: any foreigner after five years' residence
within our territory, who has complied with our naturalization laws
and taken the oath of allegiance to our flag, becomes one of our
citizens as completely as if he were native born.

This war is sometimes spoken of as a "leaderless war," but great
leaders came out of it. The names of Hull, Perry, and Lawrence are
memorable in its history; it was the war which made Andrew Jackson,
known as "Old Hickory," President of the United States in 1828. You
will read the story of his great victory in the Battle of New Orleans.

Some day you will read the life story of David Glasgow Farragut of
whom it is said that, with the exception of Nelson, the great English
admiral, "he was as great an admiral as ever sailed the broad or
narrow seas." Although the great work of Farragut was in the Civil
War, the story of his life began in the War of 1812 when he was but
ten years old. Admiral Farragut is reported as giving this
explanation, in the late years of his life, of his success in the
service of his country

"It was all owing to a resolution that I formed when I was ten years
old. My father was sent to New Orleans with the little navy we had, to
look after the treason of Burr. I accompanied him as cabin-boy. I had
some qualities that I thought made a man of me. I could swear like an
old salt, could drink as stiff a glass of grog as if I had doubled
Cape Horn, and could smoke like a locomotive. I was great at cards,
and was fond of gambling in every shape. At the close of dinner one
day, my father turned everybody out of the cabin, locked the door, and
said to me:

"David, what do you mean to be?"

"'I mean to follow the sea,' I said."

{330}

"'Follow the sea!' exclaimed my father; 'yes, be a poor, miserable,
drunken sailor before the mast, kicked and cuffed about the world, and
die in some fever hospital in a foreign clime?'

"'No, father,' I replied, 'I will tread the quarter-deck, and command
as you do!'

"'No, David; no boy ever trod the quarter-deck with such principles
as you have, and such habits as you exhibit. You will have to change
your whole course of life if you ever become a man.'

"My father left me and went on deck. I was stunned by the rebuke, and
overwhelmed with mortification. 'A poor, miserable, drunken sailor
before the mast, kicked and cuffed about the world, and die in some
fever hospital!' That's my fate is it? I'll change my life, and I will
change it at once. I will never utter another oath, never drink
another drop of intoxicating liquor, never gamble, and as God is my
witness I have kept these three vows to this hour."


The Star Spangled Banner

The sun is slowly sinking in the west. The men of the army and navy
are drawn up at attention. At every fort, army post, and navy yard,
and on every American battle-ship at home or abroad, the flag of our
country is flying at full mast. The sunset gun will soon be fired, and
night will follow the day as darkness follows the light. All is ready,
the signal is given, the men salute, and the flag to the band's
accompaniment of "The Star Spangled Banner" slowly descends for the
night to be folded and kept for the morning's  hoisting.

  "And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
  While the land of the free is the home of the brave."

In the cemetery of Mt. Olivet, near Frederick, Md., there is a spot
where the flag of our country is never lowered. It is keeping watch by
night as by day over the grave of Francis Scott Key, author of "The
Star Spangled Banner." He was born in Frederick County, Md., August 1,
1779, and died in Baltimore, January 11, 1843.

The Congress of the United States has never formally adopted "The Star
Spangled Banner" as a national anthem, but it has become such through
the recognition {331} given to it by the army and navy. It is played
on all state occasions at home or abroad and is the response of our
bands at all international gatherings. In the theatre, at a public
meeting, or at a banquet--whenever it is played, the people rise and
remain standing to the end as a tribute to the flag of our country.

The poem itself is descriptive of what the author saw and felt on the
night of September 13, 1814, as he watched the bombardment of Fort
McHenry by the British during the War of 1812. The city of Washington
had been sacked, bombarded, and burned by the British, and now in
their march of destruction, they were bombarding the fort to gain
entrance to Baltimore's harbor, in which city they had purposed to
spend the winter. We can well imagine the joy of Key's heart, the son
of a Revolutionary patriot, held in custody on a British battle-ship,
to see in the morning "that our flag was still there," and to know,
therefore, that there was still hope for our country.

  "Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
  And this be our motto, 'In God is our Trust'."


The Birth of New States

The history of the fifty-six years between 1789 and 1845 is marked by
the development of new states formed out of the territorial settlement
of the wilderness. The people of our country have always been
pioneering, going ahead of civilization, so to speak, but always
taking it with them. Scouts they have been in every sense of the word.
Following the rivers, clearing the forests, fording the streams,
braving the dangers, living the wild life--brave men and women!

The first state to come into the Union of the thirteen original states
was Vermont, the "Green Mountain" state (1791); next came Kentucky
(1792), the "Blue Grass" state, the home of Daniel Boone, the great
hunter and pioneer. Four years later, (1796) came Tennessee, the
"Volunteer" state, receiving this name because of its large number of
volunteer soldiers for the Seminole war and the War of 1812; next
comes Ohio (1803), the "Buckeye," so called because of the large
number of buckeye trees, the nut of which bears some resemblance to a
buck's eye. This is the first state to be formed out of the public
domain, known at this time as the "Northwest Territory." The land
ordinance bill of 1785 and the homestead act of 1862 {332} relate to
the development and settlement of the public domain, the first being a
plan of survey applied to all public lands owned by the United States
government; the other being a law by which the possession of these
lands was made possible to settlers.

Following Ohio into the Union came Louisiana (1812), the "Creole"
state whose people were descendants of the original French and Spanish
settlers. This was the first state to be formed west of the
Mississippi, and New Orleans, its chief city, known as the "Crescent
City," is one of the oldest in our country and full of historic
interest.

After the War of 1812 the new states began to come in rapidly. The
admission of Indiana (1816), "The Hoosier"; Mississippi (1817), the
"Bayou"; Illinois, the "Prairie" (1818); Alabama (1819), the "Cotton,"
show that the pioneer settlements of our people had been closing in
along the banks of the Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers.

We now go back to the far East, for the state of Maine, our "Pine
Tree" state, has now been developed, and its admission (1820)
completes the coast line of states as far south as Georgia. The next
state admitted is Missouri (1821), the "Iron," followed by Arkansas,
the "Bear" (1836), to be followed in turn by Michigan (1836), the
"Lake" or "Wolverine" state, the thirteenth state to be admitted; and
the stars in our flag are now doubled.

The first census of the United States was taken in 1790, and the
Constitution provided that it must be taken every ten years
thereafter. In that year, the order of states in rank of population
was as follows: Virginia first, Pennsylvania second, North Carolina
third, Massachusetts fourth, and New York fifth.

The census of 1820 makes a decided change, we find, in the order of
population, and New York comes first, Virginia second, Pennsylvania
third, North Carolina fourth, Ohio fifth, Kentucky sixth, and
Massachusetts seventh.

The states of Florida and Texas came into the Union in the same
year--the one March 3 and the other December 29, 1845; and thereby
hangs a tale. It had been claimed by our government that Texas was
included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; but the Mexicans claimed
it also, and, in 1819, in order to close the deal for the purchase of
Florida, our government was obliged to relinquish its claim to Texas.
At this time the possession of Florida was more desirable and
necessary to the peace of our country than the {333} possession of
Texas; it was under Spanish rule, overrun with outlaws and a most
undesirable neighbor, besides being very necessary to the rounding out
of our coast territory.


The Mexican War

The annexation and admission of Texas into the Union in 1845 came
about through the pioneering and settlement of our people in her
territory; where at first welcomed and encouraged by the Mexicans,
they were later deluged in blood. The spirit of Americanism grew
rampant under the barbaric and military despotism of the Mexican
government, and in 1835 there was an uprising of the settlers led by a
pioneer, an ex-governor of Tennessee, Gen. Samuel Houston, the man
for whom the city of Houston, Texas, was named. At this time there
were about ten thousand Americans in Texas, and on March 2, 1836,
through their representatives in convention assembled, these Americans
in true Revolutionary spirit declared Texas an independent republic.
The Mexican government tried to put down this rebellion, but met with
a crushing defeat, and Texas, the "Lone Star" state, remained an
independent republic up to the time of her annexation and admission as
a state of the Union.

The cause of the war with Mexico, then, was her resentment because
Texas began to move for annexation to the United States. The fact that
Texas had been for many years an independent republic and been so
recognized by the United States, Great Britain, France, and some
smaller countries, gave Texas the right on her part to ask for
annexation, and the United States the right to annex her. But in order
to bring Texas into the Union and save her people from the Mexicans,
the United States was obliged to declare war against Mexico. This she
did May 13, 1845, although Texas was not admitted as a state until
December 29th of that year. The war lasted nearly three years, peace
being declared February 2, 1848. As an outcome of the war the peaceful
possession of Texas was secured, and also possession of the territory
of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and a part of Colorado and New
Mexico, for which territory, however, our government in final
settlement paid Mexico, $15,000,000.


New States--1845-1861

During the Mexican War, Iowa (1846), the "Hawkeye" state, came into
the Union, followed by the state of Wisconsin (1848), {334} the
"Badger." Next comes the story of the "Forty-niners," and California
(1850), the "Golden State," enters the Union; and then comes Minnesota
(1858), the "North Star" State, and the Great Lakes are walled in,
this state completing the circuit. Oregon, (1859), the "Beaver"
follows, then the "Garden of the West," Kansas (1861), and the Civil
War is upon us. Of course, we do not mean to say that Kansas was the
cause of the Civil War, although it had much to do with it.


The Civil War--1861-1865

The Civil War was a war between states, in the government of the
United States between states that were slave and states that were
free.

The rights of property ownership are involved in state rights, and
slaves held as property in slave-holding states were not recognized as
such in states that were free. Therefore, the principle of slavery
became involved not alone in the individual ownership of slaves, but
also in the rights of a state, and the relationship of states to each
other in the government of the United States.

At the close of the Revolutionary War, one of the first things to be
settled was the boundaries as between states of the land comprising
the thirteen original states; and as an outcome of this settlement,
there came into possession of the United States all of that territory
ceded by Great Britain in 1783, which was not included in the
boundaries of those states. This territory, in brief, may be described
as the territory east of the Mississippi, and north and south of the
Ohio River; and out of this territory and that west of the Mississippi
added later (1803) through the Louisiana Purchase, most of the new
states were formed that came into the Union before the Civil War. And
this was the beginning of what is known as the "public domain"--that
is, land owned by the Federal Government.

In 1785, Congress passed a law which has become general in its
application to all public lands of the United States. It is a law for
the uniform survey of public lands into townships six miles square,
subdivided into sections containing 640 acres, and quarter sections
containing 160 acres. The purpose of the government in making this
survey was to make public lands in the territories of the government
easy of settlement, and as the townships became settled, to develop in
them the local township form of government.

{335}

The territory north of the Ohio River was designated the "Northwest
Territory." As soon as the public lands in this territory were thrown
open to settlers, they began to pour in. Indeed, in many instances,
they went ahead of the survey.

The next step taken by Congress was to pass a law, in 1787, for the
government and protection of those settlers in this Northwest
Territory, and in this law Congress made provision that slavery should
be prohibited. Therefore, states formed in this territory had to come
into the Union as free states. This was a restriction of slavery,
however, which did not apply to the territory south of the Ohio, nor
west of the Mississippi; so that when a new state came into the Union,
formed out of either one of these territories, it became a great
political factor in our government either for or against slavery.

In the passing of the years, many changes were taking place in our
government, but there came a time when the people began to realize
that slavery was spreading and that our government was politically
divided between states that were slave and states that were free--or,
in other words, that in the principle of slavery the peace and
preservation of the Union were involved.

And thus it happened that the slave-holding states, not being able to
live at peace in the Union, decided to go out of it, and live by
themselves. The right of a state to leave the Union was called "the
right of secession"--a right which the North held did not exist under
the Constitution.

Nevertheless, one by one, under the leadership of South Carolina,
December 20, 1860, the slave-holding states announced their secession,
either by act of state legislature or in convention assembled; and on
February 4, 1861, there had been formed in our government a Southern
confederacy. At this time the whole number of states in the Union was
thirty-two, and of this number eleven entered the Southern
confederacy.

The first shot was fired by the Southern confederacy on April 12,
1861, against Fort Sumter, a fortification of the Federal Government
over which floated the stars and stripes. The war lasted four years,
ending on April 9, 1865, when Robert E. Lee, commander-in-chief of the
army of the Southern confederacy, surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant,
commander-in-chief of the Federal army.


Abraham Lincoln

The central figure in the Civil War is Abraham Lincoln--in heart,
brain, and character, not only one of our greatest Americans, but one
of the world's greatest men.

{336}

Lincoln was born February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. His
parents had come to this then pioneer state from Virginia, and his
grandfather, whose Christian name he bore, moved there as early as
1781, where, a few years later, he was killed by the Indians while
trying to make a home in the forest. When Lincoln was eight years old,
his people moved to the new state of Indiana about the time it came
into the Union, and there he lived until he was twenty-one, when he
went to Illinois, from which state, eventually, he was elected
President.

In 1859, when he was beginning to gain some recognition as a national
figure, he was asked to write a little sketch of his life, and in the
letter enclosing it he said: "There is not much of it, for the reason,
I suppose, there is not much of me." In this sketch, which is indeed
brief, he tells us he was raised to farm work until he was twenty-two;
that up to that time he had had little education; and when he became
of age he did not know much beyond reading, writing, and ciphering to
the "rule of three." He clerked for one year in a store and was
elected and served as captain of the volunteers in the Black Hawk War;
later on he ran for the state legislature (1832) and was defeated,
though successful in the three succeeding elections. While in the
state legislature, he studied law and later went to Springfield to
practise it. The only other public office he makes note of is his
election to the lower house of Congress for one term (1846). He
returned to Springfield and took up more earnestly the study and
practice of law; he entered with spirit into the political campaigns,
and constantly was growing in public esteem. His public debates with
Douglas (1858) made him a familiar figure throughout the state of
Illinois, and his profound knowledge and masterful handling of
questions debated, his convincing and unanswerable arguments, his
clear grasp of the political situation, began to gain the attention of
Eastern politicians, convincing them and the country at large that
they had a mighty force to reckon with in the prairie state of
Illinois.

Although he lost the election to the United States Senate, and Douglas
won, the campaign had pushed him to the front as a national figure,
and paved the way for his presidential nomination.

In 1860, at the Republican convention assembled in Chicago, Abraham
Lincoln was nominated for President. In November he was elected and
March 4, 1861, he was inaugurated. His address at this time was an
earnest plea for peace and friendship {337} between the North and the
South: "We are not enemies but friends. We must not be enemies. Though
passion may have strained, it must not break our bond of affection."

But the war tide was rising and could not be stemmed; four years of
bitter conflict ensued. Lincoln's emancipation of the slaves was made
only after he had convinced himself it could not be longer deferred
and preserve the Union. "My paramount duty," he said, "is to save the
Union, and not either to destroy or save slavery. What I do about
slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save
the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it
would save the Union." His Emancipation Proclamation, officially
freeing the slaves, was finally issued in September, 1862, to take
effect Jan, 1st of the following year.

Lincoln was elected to the Presidency for the second term and
inaugurated March 4, 1865, while the war was still on. His second
inaugural address closes with these words with which every boy should
be familiar, voicing as they do the exalted spirit of a great and good
man:

   With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the
   right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish
   the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him
   who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and for his
   orphan; to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting
   peace among ourselves, and with all nations.

The war ended on April 9th of this same year, and on April 14th, the
President, weary with the cares of state, but with the burden of the
war clouds lifted, had gone to Ford's Theatre in Washington for an
evening's entertainment and pleasure, accompanied by Mrs. Lincoln. The
box which the President occupied had been most elaborately decorated
with the flag of the country. His coming had been heralded abroad and
the audience that had assembled in his honor was large, brilliant, and
joyously happy over the assured preservation of the Union. In the
midst of the play, the assassin, J. Wilkes Booth, entered the box and
fired the fatal shot. The body of the bleeding President was taken to
a house across the street where the next morning at 7:20 o'clock he
died. Thus the emancipator of the slave, the friend of the whole
people and the savior of our country died, a martyr to the cause of
freedom.

Washington has been called "the aristocrat," and Lincoln "the man of
the people." The one had culture, wealth, and social position; the
other lacked all of these in his early years. Lincoln's early life was
cradled in the woods, and all of life out of doors had been his in the
new and pioneer states of the {338} wilderness. He grew up not knowing
many people, but somehow in his up-coming there was developed in his
life a great heart full of tenderness and kindly feeling. Doubtless it
was the very hardships of life that made him what he was. At any rate,
he was one of the greatest and noblest figures in all history. He was
called "Honest Abe" by those who knew him because always, even in
little things, he wanted to see perfect justice done; and thus it was,
when he came to things of large importance, that the man was only a
boy grown tall, not only in stature but in the things that make for
righteousness in a nation.


The Spanish-American War--1889

The war with Spain was not of this country's seeking. The island of
Cuba, whose distress had aroused the sympathy of the whole world, was
our near neighbor, and to sit idly by and witness the inhuman
treatment practised by the Spanish soldiery upon the helpless
islanders would hardly be a part creditable to any people. It was not
our intention at first to do other than to relieve the suffering and
distress of Cuba, near at hand, and this we tried to do peaceably in
the supplying of food and other necessities of life.

As the next step, the United States sent a remonstrance to Spain
telling her she should send a more humane governor to the island. But
as matters grew worse instead of better, even under a change of
governors, the sympathy of the United States became daily more deeply
enlisted in the freedom of the Cubans.

The battleship Maine was sent to Havana Harbor to protect, if need be,
the Americans and American interests in Cuba. On the night of February
15th, 1898, an explosion occurred, sinking the ship almost
immediately.

With the destruction of the Maine--whether by accident or intent--with
the appalling loss of two hundred and fifty-six men, including two
officers, relations with Spain became more and more strained, until
war seemed inevitable. On April 11, 1898, President McKinley in a
special message to Congress, said: "In the name of humanity and
civilization, the war in Cuba must stop."

War indeed was formally declared April 25th, and in the brief space of
one hundred and fourteen days history had added to its annals: the
blockading of Cuban ports whereby the Spanish fleet was trapped; the
invasion and siege of the island by United States regulars,
volunteers, and rough riders; the {339} destruction of the Pacific
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay by Admiral Dewey; and, finally, the
destruction of the remainder of the Spanish fleet under command of
Admiral Cervera, Sunday morning, July 3d. The final outcome of this
war was the freedom of Cuba and the possession by the United States of
Porto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands.


Peace

There is no country in the world less warlike than ours, and no
country in the world that more potently argues for universal peace. We
have never departed from the spirit of our Declaration of
Independence, "that all men are created equal; that they are endowed
by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." We put it into our
Constitution when we said, "in order to form a more perfect union,
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the
common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity" we "do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of America." Such has been,
then, and always must be, our programme--the chart and compass of all
our ways.


The American Flag

"_A star for every state and a state for every star_."

The flag of one's country is its dearest possession--emblem of home,
and country, and native land. This is what one thinks and feels when
he sees the flag, and this is what it means. Our flag is the emblem of
liberty--the emblem of hope--the emblem of peace and good-will toward
men.

There is a story, quite generally believed, that the first flag was
planned and made in 1776 by Betsy Ross, who kept an upholstery shop on
Arch Street, Philadelphia, and that this, a year later, was adopted by
Congress. The special committee appointed to design a national flag
consisted of George Washington, Robert Morris, and Col. George Ross,
uncle of the late husband of Betsy Ross. The star that the committee
decided upon had six points, but Mrs. Ross advised the five-pointed
star, which has ever since been used in the United States flag. The
flag thus designed was colored by a local artist, and from this
colored copy Betsy Ross made the first American flag.

When Washington was in command at Cambridge, in January, 1776, the
flag used by him consisted of a banner of {340} thirteen red and white
stripes with the British Union Jack in the upper left-hand comer.

The Betsy Ross house has been purchased by the American Flag House and
Betsy Ross Memorial Association, and is pointed out as one of the
interesting historical places in Philadelphia.

The official history of our flag begins on June 14, 1777, when the
American Congress adopted the following resolution proposed by John
Adams:

   Resolved: That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen
   stripes, alternate red and white: that the Union be thirteen stars,
   white on a blue field, representing a new constellation.

"We take," said Washington, "the star from Heaven, the red from our
mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we
have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to
posterity representing liberty."

In designing the flag there was much discussion as to the arrangement
of the stars in the field of blue. It was thought at one time that a
new stripe as well as a new star should be added for each new state
admitted to the Union. Indeed, in 1794, Congress passed an act to the
effect that on and after May 1, 1795, "the flag of the United States be
fifteen stripes, alternate red and white; and that the union be
fifteen stars, white in a field of blue." These additional stars and
stripes were for the states of Vermont and Kentucky.

The impracticability of adding a stripe for each state was apparent as
other states began to be admitted. Moreover, the flag of fifteen
stripes, it was thought, did not properly represent the Union;
therefore, on April 14, 1818, after a period of twenty-one years in
which the flag of fifteen stripes had been used, Congress passed an
act which finally fixed the general flag of our country, which reads
as follows:

  An Act to Establish the Flag of the United States.

  Sec. 1. Be it enacted, etc.. That from and after the fourth day of
  July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal
  stripes, alternate red and white; that the union have twenty stars,
  white in a blue field.

  Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, that, on the admission of every new
  state into the  union, one star be added to the union of the flag;
  and that such addition shall take effect on the fourth day of July
  succeeding such admission.


341  Patriotism and Citizenship


Flag Day

June 14th, the anniversary of the adoption of the flag, is celebrated
as flag day in many of our states.

{341}

In order to show proper respect for the flag, the following rules
should be observed:

  It should not be hoisted before sunrise nor allowed to remain up
  after sunset.

  At "retreat," sunset, civilian spectators should stand at attention
  and give the military salute.

  When the national colors are passing on parade or review, the
  spectators should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand
  at attention and uncover.

  When the flag is flown at half staff as a sign of mourning it should
  be hoisted to full staff at the conclusion of the funeral. In
  placing the flag at half mast, it should first be hoisted to the top
  of the staff and then lowered to position, and preliminary to
  lowering from half staff it should first be raised to top.

  On Memorial Day, May 30th, the flag should fly at half mast from
  sunrise until noon, and full staff from noon to sunset.

  (Taken from the "Sons of the Revolution," state of New York.)


The Scout's Pledge to the Flag

"I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the republic for which it
stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."


Congress

The Congress of the United States is its law-making body, and is
composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. Senators are
elected for six years, two from each state; representatives for two
years, each state being represented in proportion to its population.
The Vice-president of the United States is the president of the
Senate, and the presiding officer of the House of Representatives is
chosen by the members from their number; he is called the speaker. The
salary of the senators and representatives is $7,500 a year and 20
cents per mile is allowed for traveling to and from Washington. The
speaker's salary is $12,000 a year.


The President

The President is elected for a term of four years. He lives during his
term of office at the White House, where presidential receptions and
social affairs of state are held. The President's offices are
connected with the White House. Here he receives his callers and here
the meetings of his Cabinet are held. The salary of the President is
$75,000, a year.


The Cabinet

The members of the Cabinet are the officers and heads of the several
departments of the administrative government. {342} They are appointed
by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The
members of the Cabinet are as follows: secretary of state, secretary
of the treasury, secretary of war, attorney general, postmaster
general, secretary of the navy, secretary of the interior, secretary
of agriculture, secretary of commerce and labor. The members of the
Cabinet are such men as the President believes are qualified to serve
during his administration of office, and are usually members of the
same political party as the President.


United States Courts

The Supreme Court of the United States is at Washington, D. C., but
there are other courts of the United States held in the several
states, called district courts.


Washington, D. C.

The capitol at Washington is the home of Congress, and the Supreme
Court. The Library of Congress, the Treasury, Army and Navy, Pension,
Post-office, and many other buildings of public character are located
in Washington. These during certain hours are open to visitors.


The Army

The President, in accordance with the Constitution, is
commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States and of
the militia of the several states when called to the actual service of
the United States. The law provides that the total strength of the
army shall not exceed at any one time 100,000. As now organized (1910)
the total strength of the staff and line is 76,911 not including the
provisional force and the hospital corps. These figures include the
Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry, the Service School Detachments, the
Military Academy (officers, soldiers and cadets), the Indian Scouts,
52,000 native scouts in the Philippine Islands, 193 First Lieutenants
of the Medical Reserve Corps on active duty, and 11,777 recruits, etc.
They do not include the veterinary surgeons, the officers of the
Medical Reserve Corps not on active duty, nor the retired officers and
enlisted men of the army. The appropriation for the maintenance of the
army for the year 1909-10 was $100,330,181.


Militia

The law of our country states that in time of war every able-bodied
male citizen, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, {343} shall
be counted a member of the state militia. The state militia is divided
into two classes: one, the organized, known as the national guard; and
the other the unorganized, known as the reserve militia.

The membership of the national guard is voluntary. One may join or
not, as he chooses, except that in some states the law requires that
students at the state university shall receive military training for
at least a part of their university course, and during that time they
are accounted a part of the national guard of the State. The governor
of each state holds the same relationship to the state militia as the
President to the army and navy: he is commander-in-chief.


Military Academy

The United States Military Academy is at West Point, N. Y., on the
Hudson River. The number of students is limited to 533, and
appointments to the academy are made in accordance with the rule which
permits each United States senator and each congressman to have one
representative, and also gives the President the right to make forty
appointments at large. Candidates for appointment must be between the
ages of seventeen and twenty-two; must pass the required physical
examination; also an examination in English grammar, composition and
literature, algebra and geometry, geography and history. The course of
instruction is four years; the discipline very strict. Only one leave
of absence is granted during the entire four years, and this comes at
the close of the second year. The pay is $709.50 per year, and on
graduation a cadet is commissioned a second lieutenant. To receive an
appointment to West Point, one must apply to his United States senator
or to a congressman in the state in which he lives, or to the
President.


The Navy

The enlisted strength of the navy, as in the army, is limited. The law
allows 47,500 men and apprenticed seamen. The number of officers and
enlisted men at the present time is 46,898, and the annual expenditure
for the support of the navy at this date (1911) is about $130,000,000.


Naval Enlistment

The enlistment of men in the United States navy, as in the army, is
voluntary. The term is four years. To be eligible for enlistment one
must be between the ages of eighteen and {344} twenty-two. He must be
of good moral character, must pass the physical examination, must be
able to write English, and take the oath of allegiance.


Naval Militia

In the District of Columbia and in twenty of the states we have what
is known as the naval militia. The assistant secretary of the navy
stands in a special relation to the naval militia through the governor
and the adjutant-general of the several states. The naval militia
holds the same relationship to the navy that the national guard does
to the United States army.


Naval Academy

The United States Naval Academy is at Annapolis, Md. The students are
called midshipmen, and candidates for appointment must be between the
ages of sixteen and twenty. The appointment of candidates is made as
at West Point--through senators and congressmen and the President, the
only difference being in the number of appointments that may be made:
each senator and representative may be represented by two midshipmen
at Annapolis, while at West Point he is represented by but one cadet.
The President has the appointment of seven men to the Naval
Academy--two from the District of Columbia and five from the United
States at large. He may also appoint one from Porto Rico, who must be
a native. The midshipmen's course is six years--four at Annapolis, and
two at sea. The pay is $600 per year.


Civil Service

In the administration of the government of the United States,
thousands of men and women are employed in the various offices at
Washington, and are sometimes termed the great "peace army."

In one period of our country's history, it was believed that each
President, when he came into office, had the right to turn out of
office every person employed by the government in any of its civil
departments, should it please him to do so, and to put into office his
own friends or the friends of his party. This right was claimed on the
ground that "to the victor belong the spoils"--a theory of government
administration that has been severely dealt with and reformed through
what is known as the "Civil Service Act." The Civil Service Act was
passed {345} by Congress January 16, 1883, and by this act a civil
service commission was brought into existence. The three members of
this commission are appointed by the President with consent of the
Senate, not more than two of whom may be members of the same party.
Thus, by this civil service act, positions in the government service
are now obtained for the most part through competitive examinations,
and such positions are not affected in any way by the incoming of a
new President or the appointment of a new head of a department.

In some states and in most of the large cities civil service
appointments are now made through competitive examinations. Anyone
interested in learning what positions may be secured in the service of
the government, may apply to the Civil Service Commission at
Washington, D. C., or make inquiry at the local post-office.


Foreign Service

The foreign service of our government is carried on through the
diplomatic corps and the consular service. In the diplomatic corps, we
have ambassadors, envoys, ministers, diplomatic agents, and
secretaries; in the consular service, consuls general, consuls, and
consular agents.

Our diplomatic representatives abroad look after our interests as a
nation in the family of nations. They represent us socially as well as
politically in the great foreign capitals of the world. They are
received as our representatives of state, and it is their duty to
sustain and promote good-will and friendly feeling between us and
other nations. The consular service is more directly responsible for
our trade relationships in the great centres of the world. Through our
foreign service, also, Americans abroad, whether as tourists, or
residents, are protected in person and in property interests.
Appointments to the foreign service are made by the President with the
advice of the Senate.

As we send our representatives abroad, so the countries to which our
representatives go in turn send their representatives to us. In the
city of Washington, one may see representatives of all the principal
nations of the earth living there as ambassadors, for the purpose of
promoting friendly commercial and political relationships. The
secretary of state is the representative of our government through
whose office the great work of the foreign service is directly carried
on, and upon him devolves therefore the great affairs of state
relationships with other countries. When our independence as a nation
was declared in 1776, it {346} was important to gain as quickly as
possible from other nations a recognition of our independence and of
our entrance into the family of nations. France was the first to give
us recognition, and the first to enter into a treaty relationship.
Some of the most thrilling and interesting stories of our national
life are to be found in the adventurous determination of our
representatives to gain the recognition of our independence as a
nation from the great powers of the earth. The name of Benjamin
Franklin, sent to the court of France, stands at the head of our
diplomatic service; and we may read with interest of the first
appearance of our diplomatic representative, John Adams, at the court
of Great Britain. When we speak of court in this sense, we mean, of
course, the king's court--the place of meeting--usually the throne
room. In our country, foreign representatives are received by the
President at the White House, or by the secretary of state in his
office apartments. Some foreign countries have built for their
representatives in Washington palatial and beautiful residences, over
which floats the flag of the country to which the palace or residence
belongs. Our own country has already begun to make this residential
provision for her representatives abroad, and in time will undoubtedly
own residences in all of the principal foreign capitals.


State Government

The states of the United States are not all alike either in
constitution or government, although there is a likeness at many
points. For instance, each state has about the same officers, a
governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor,
adjutant general, superintendent of schools, etc.

Each state has its own state legislature: a senate to which state
senators are elected, and a house of representatives sometimes called
the assembly, to which state representatives or assemblymen are
elected. Each state legislature makes laws only for its own state;
therefore not all state laws are alike. Indeed, there is a great deal
of individuality to each state, and rightly so. As each person has his
own individuality, and as each family has its own characteristics, so
each state has an individuality and characteristics peculiar to
itself. The history of each state reveals its character, so also the
climate, the hills, the valleys, the mountains, the plains, the lakes,
the rivers, the harbors, the schools, the colleges, the towns, the
villages, and the cities within its borders, all help in forming the
character of a state.

{347}

Towns, Villages, and Cities

The government of the town, or the village, or the city is called
local government. It is government close at hand--home government. And
out of the home government of each town, village, and city in a state
must come, by the votes of the people at the ballot-box, the men whom
they choose as their representatives, in the government of the state
and the nation--for the people rule through representatives of their
own choosing.


Politics

In every presidential election, the people, through the rule of the
majority, as determined by the Constitution, elect their chief
magistrate, the President, who becomes the "first citizen" of the
nation and is entitled "Mr. President." The people of a state by the
same rule elect their chief magistrate and entitle him "His
Excellency, the Governor"; he is the state's chief or leading citizen.
The people of the city by the same rule elect their chief magistrate
and entitle him "His Honor, the Mayor," the city's leading citizen.
The people of the town, in the New England States, elect their chief
officers three to five men--and entitle them the "Selectmen"; although
in towns of the middle and western states, they are called
"Supervisors."

So, likewise, the people in town, village, and city by the same "rule
of the majority" elect aldermen, councilmen, state senators,
representatives or assemblymen, and congressmen.

And the state legislatures in turn elect, according to the
Constitution of the United States, the state's United States senators,
two in number. Thus, by the rule of the majority, are all officers of
town, village, and city, county and state elected, except such few as
are appointed by law to offices by superior officers, heads of
departments, bureaus, or districts of supervision or administration.


Property

The ownership of property, both real and personal, and the protection
of that ownership, is made possible in the organization of
society--termed the government--and in the power of that government to
make and enforce its laws. Real property is the kind of property which
pertains to land, the ownership of which is transferred from one
person to another, either by a deed recorded in the office of the
register of deeds in the county court house, or else transferred by
descent, or by will through the {348} administration of the county
court, usually called the probate court. This latter proceeding is in
the case of the owner's death when his property is divided by the
court and distributed to the heirs--the family or other relatives
according to his will; or in case no will is left the law provides for
the manner of its distribution.


The Register of Deeds: County Court House

The record title, therefore, of all real property is to be found in
the office of the register of deeds in the county court house. It
makes no difference what kind of real property it is, acre property or
city property, here the title of ownership is always to be found, the
books of record being always open to the public. Thus when one buys a
piece of real property, a home for instance, he should receive from
the owner a deed and an abstract of title, which is a paper showing
the title as it appears on the records, and this title when not
vouched for as perfect by an abstract title company, should be passed
upon by a lawyer in order that any flaw or defect therein may be made
right before the deed is passed from one owner to another. In some
states, however, the law does not require the owner to furnish an
abstract. When the title is proved or pronounced good, the deed should
at once be placed on record.


Personal Property

Personal property is that form of property which in general terms is
stated as movable, such as animals, furniture, clothing, tools,
implements, money, stocks, bonds, mortgages, etc., the transfer of
which from one owner to another is not as a rule a matter of public
record, although in the case of a bill of sale--sometimes made of some
forms of personal property--the county record may give evidence
thereof. Therefore it is, that in the matter of taxation, the tax
record or assessment comes under two general heads--a tax on real
property and a tax on personal property.


Property and Government

It is desirable to be a property owner so long as the government under
which one lives protects one in his property ownership. The government
must do two things: it must protect the person and his personal rights
as a citizen, and it must also protect property and the rights of
property ownership from enemies within, as from without. In order that
this may {349} be done and done in all fairness and justice, we elect
some citizens to make laws and term them legislators. We elect others
to enforce or administer the laws, and term them executives--the
President, the governor, and the mayor coming under this head. We
elect other citizens to enforce and interpret the laws, and we term
them judges and officers of the court. In fact, it is a principle in
our government that no man or set of men shall have authority in all
departments of government, legislative, executive, and judicial. You
will see that the Constitution of the United States is divided into
these three departments of government, and the state constitutions and
city charters are, as a rule, likewise divided.

You will understand that any property you may obtain will be valuable
to you only in proportion as you are protected in your rights of
ownership by the government, and that the government not only protects
your property, it also protects your life and its interest as well as
the life and interests of all other citizens.

The building and maintenance of schools and colleges, libraries, art
and natural history museums, parks, playgrounds, hospitals, etc., are
carried on at the expense of the government by means of taxation,
inasmuch as these things are in the interests of mankind and for its
upbuilding. In the city the protection of life and property is found
in one or the other of these different departments: police, fire,
health, street cleaning, parks, water supply, etc.; and every good
citizen should lend his hand to help in every way possible the
enforcement of law in each department.


Citizenship

In any form of government, problems are continually arising as to the
rights of property and the rights of persons, and it is well for us to
remember this distinction: that the end of society (and by that term
we mean government) is not the protection of property, but rather the
upbuilding of mankind. If we bear this in mind and act upon it as a
principle in life, we shall find ourselves standing and voting on the
right side of public questions. We shall also be able to mark the man
in private or public life who shows by his talk or his actions that he
thinks more of property rights than he does of the rights of
individuals. Any business that does not benefit society, but on the
other hand degrades it, whether run by an individual or individuals in
a firm, company, or corporation, is a business that ought by the law
to be put out of existence. This is why {350} the business of
gambling, for instance, is made unlawful; also why the government had
the right to make lotteries unlawful; also why some states (for
instance New York) have passed laws making book-making at race tracks
unlawful. For all of these things degrade and do not upbuild mankind.
It is for every one then, to apply this principle to the town, village
or city in which he lives, and determine just what stand he will take
as to endorsing and protecting such business interests in his
community. One is likely to find in any community men who seem to care
nothing for any interests other than their own. They stand for
property rights because it is for their interest to do so; but for the
rights of mankind, the rights of society, apparently they care
nothing. Here is the distinction then between the good citizen, and
the bad citizen, the desirable and "the undesirable" citizen.


Practical Citizenship

In nearly every town, village, and city of any size or importance,
there is at least one individual, and usually groups of individuals,
working for the "betterment of society." They are people who take an
interest in the people about them and do what they can to improve the
conditions of life in the community. If one were to take a survey of
the whole country and make a study of the social workers--the men and
the women who give freely of their time and of their money to make the
world a better and happier place to live in--he would come to see that
such service is a kind of service that grows out of the heart, and is
the fruit of the kindly spirit which prompts the "good turn daily."

In doing the "good turn daily," then, one has abundant opportunity to
do his part toward the social betterment of the community in which he
lives. There are so many ways that one hardly knows what to write down
as the most important, because all are important. It is not alone in
big things, but in the little things as well, that the really great
work is done.

The community--the town, the village, or the city in which one
lives--has many problems to solve. The streets in the community are
always interesting and one can do much in the streets to help keep
them clean, attractive, and pleasing, as well as safe for the people
and horses passing through. In a city where there is a large
population the lives of the people are in greater danger at all times
than in the country, and that is the reason why the city has to be so
organized in its government that it can make special laws, or
ordinances as they are {351} called, for its own special protection against
the dangers of city life. The policemen of a city, wherever stationed
in the daytime or in the night time, are there to protect the lives
and property of individuals, at street crossings, at public buildings,
at theatres, in the parks, and on playgrounds; and it is the privilege
as well as the duty of all citizens to help them in every way possible
to do their work well. In the "good turn daily," one may be able to
help in more ways than one if he is on the lookout.

"A scout's honor is to be trusted" to obey the laws and to see that
they are not disobeyed by others. "A scout's duty is to be useful and
to help others. He must be prepared at any time to save life or to
help injured persons." There are often accidents in the streets--many
avoidable ones--due simply to carelessness. For instance, some boys
were careless and threw broken glass bottles into the street, and a
passing automobile came to a standstill because of a punctured tire.
The man who owned the automobile and was driving it got out and called
one of the boys on the street to come over to him. He did not call
this particular boy because he thought he had thrown the glass, but
because he thought he was a boy who would appreciate what he wanted to
say to him. He told the boy that he had just had a new tire put on his
machine and appealed to him as to whether or not he thought he had
been treated right through the carelessness of the one who threw that
glass into the street. The boy said no, he didn't think he had been,
and, after a little more talk, added that he would do all in his power
in that neighborhood to see that such things were kept out of the
street in the future. That boy was in line for the making of a
first-class scout, and the man to whom he had been talking, being a
good scout commissioner, had won the boy, because instead of being
angry, he had been kind, courteous, and friendly--all qualifications
of a good scout.

"A scout is a friend to animals." "Yes," said a stable keeper, "I have
two good horses laid up, each injured by stepping on a nail in a board
in the street. You know people are awfully careless about such
things." There are some people who never go out of their way to do
helpful things, just as some people never go out of their way to know
people, and for that reason are often alone and lonesome. It is the
little things that count, just such little things as picking up from
the street a board with a nail in it, and putting it aside--even that
is a good turn.

Lincoln once said in speaking of a man whom he thought lacking in
sympathy: "He is so put up by nature that a {352} lash upon his back
would hurt him, but a lash upon anybody's else back does not hurt
him." There are many people in the world who seem to be like that
man--not so many who feel that way towards mankind, possibly, but many
who thoughtlessly feel and act that way toward animals. The lash on
the back of an animal--the horse, the cow, the dog--hurts, and the
good scout always takes the animal's part. He is kind to animals.

In the city, people often become careless as to the necessary
precautions against fire and for this reason many lives are lost. In
all well-regulated school systems, each school building is properly
provided with fire escapes and the children regularly disciplined in
fire drills. Proper fire precautions are not yet generally required by
law as they should be in great buildings, factories, or workshops
where men and women are employed in large numbers. If a scout should
be employed in such a place, he might make himself very serviceable in
case of a fire, because having thought of it beforehand, he would know
what to do--his motto being, "Be Prepared."

One very important thing in city life is the protection of one's
health: it is essential to have good food, pure water, plenty of good,
fresh air--things not always easily obtainable, but always most
necessary. The scout learns through the many activities of scouting
something of the market places and sources of supply for food; he has
some idea as to the cost of living in his own home, and should become
a good marketer himself, making himself competent to judge of the
quality and prices of food. If he is wide-awake and intelligent, he
knows the products of his own county as well as those of the state. He
knows what food products are shipped in and sometimes finds that it
would be cheaper, and more profitable as well, to produce them in his
own community. An industrious scout may often make his own pocket
money in this way or provide funds towards his own education.

In the Constitution of the United States is written this law: "No
title of nobility shall be granted by the United States." The purpose
of this law is to defeat any attempt to elevate one citizen above
another in rank of social or political preferment. Ours is a country
free from the entanglements of social distinction such as mark one man
or family from another by way of title or patent of nobility; and yet,
in our country of uncrowned kings and unknighted men, we would not
forget the real deeds of valor, the services rendered, or the
victories won. For it was the purpose {353} in the mind and in the
heart of our fathers who framed the Constitution that each succeeding
generation should rise to the duties and responsibilities of the
State; that the virtues of the State should not descend or be lodged
in one family, or any selected number of families, but rather should
be in the keeping of all the families, in the care and keeping of all
the people.

Thus do we remember our Washington and our Lincoln. They served the
generation to which they belonged; they lived and passed out of their
generation having served the State: and all the virtues, cares, and
responsibilities of the State--the government that is--they left to
the generations that should come after them. And, therefore, each
generation as it comes and goes must rise or fall in proportion as it
raises or lowers the citizenship standard, for each generation must
prove its own worth as must each individual his own virtues.


Practical Citizenship

As set forth in a letter from Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, Honorary
Vice-president, Boy Scouts of America:

THE OUTLOOK
287 Fourth Avenue,
New York

Office of
Theodore Roosevelt
July 20th, 1911.

My DEAR SIR:

I quite agree with Judge Lindsey that the Boy Scout Movement is of
peculiar importance to the whole country. It has already done much
good, and it will do far more, for it is in its essence a practical
scheme through which to impart a proper standard of ethical conduct,
proper standards of fair play and consideration for others, and
courage and decency, to boys who have never been reached and never
will be reached by the ordinary type of preaching, lay or clerical. I
have been particularly interested in that extract of a letter from a
scout master in the Philippines, which runs as follows:

"It might interest you to know that at a recent fire in Manila which
devastated acres of ground and rendered 3,000 people homeless, that
two patrols of the Manila scouts reached the fire almost with the fire
companies, reported to the proper authorities and worked for hours
under very trying conditions {354} helping frightened natives into
places of safety, removing valuables and other articles from houses
that apparently were in the path of the flames, and performing
cheerfully and efficiently all the tasks given to them by the firemen
and scout master. They were complimented in the public press, and in a
kind editorial about their work."

"During the recent Carnival the services of the boys were requested by
the Carnival officers, and for a period of ten days they were on duty
performing all manner of service in the Carnival grounds, directing
strangers to hotels, and acting as guides and helpers in a hundred
ways."

What these boy scouts of the Philippines have just done, I think our
boy scouts in every town and country district should train themselves
to be able to do. The movement is one for efficiency and patriotism.
It does not try to make soldiers of boy scouts, but to make boys who
will turn out as men to be fine citizens, and who will, if their
country needs them, make better soldiers for having been scouts. No
one can be a good American unless he is a good citizen, and every boy
ought to train himself so that as a man he will be able to do his full
duty to the community. I want to see the boy scouts not merely utter
fine sentiments, but act on them; not merely sing, "My Country 'Tis of
Thee," but act in a way that will give them a country to be proud of.
No man is a good citizen unless he so acts as to show that he actually
uses the Ten Commandments, and translates the Golden Rule into his
life conduct--and I don't mean by this in exceptional cases under
spectacular circumstances, but I mean applying the Ten Commandments
and the Golden Rule in the ordinary affairs of every-day life. I hope
the boy scouts will practise truth and square dealing, and courage and
honesty, so that when as young men they begin to take a part not only
in earning their own livelihood, but in governing the community, they
may be able to show in practical fashion their insistence upon the
great truth that the eighth and ninth commandments are directly
related to every-day life, not only between men as such in their
private relations, but between men and the government of which they
are part. Indeed the boys even while only boys can have a very real
effect upon the conduct of the grown up members of the community, for
decency and square dealing are just as contagious as vice and
corruption.

Every healthy boy ought to feel and will feel that in order to amount
to anything, it is necessary to have a constructive, {355} and not
merely a destructive, nature; and if he can keep this feeling as he
grows up he has taken his first step toward good citizenship. The man
who tears down and criticises and scolds may be a good citizen, but
only in a negative sense; and if he never does anything else he is apt
not to be a good citizen at all. The man who counts, and the boy who
counts, are the man and boy who steadily endeavor to build up, to
improve, to better living conditions everywhere and all about them.

But the boy can do an immense amount right in the present, entirely
aside from training himself to be a good citizen in the future; and he
can only do this if he associates himself with other boys. Let the boy
scouts see to it that the best use is made of the parks and
playgrounds in their villages and home towns. A gang of toughs may
make a playground impossible; and if the boy scouts in the
neighborhood of that particular playground are fit for their work,
they will show that they won't permit any such gang of toughs to have
its way. Moreover, let the boy scouts take the lead in seeing that the
parks and playgrounds are turned to a really good account. I hope, by
the way, that one of the prime teachings among the boy scouts will be
the teaching against vandalism. Let it be a point of honor to protect
birds, trees and flowers, and so to make our country more beautiful
and not more ugly, because we have lived in it.

The same qualities that mean success or failure to the nation as a
whole, mean success or failure in men and boys individually. The boy
scouts must war against the same foes and vices that most hurt the
nation; and they must try to develop the same virtues that the nation
most needs. To be helpless, self-indulgent, or wasteful, will turn the
boy into a mighty poor kind of a man, just as the indulgence in such
vices by the men of a nation means the ruin of the nation. Let the boy
stand stoutly against his enemies both from without and from within,
let him show courage in confronting fearlessly one set of enemies, and
in controlling and mastering the others. Any boy is worth nothing if
he has not got courage, courage to stand up against the forces of
evil, and courage to stand up in the right path. Let him be unselfish
and gentle, as well as strong and brave. It should be a matter of
pride to him that he is not afraid of anyone, and that he scorns not
to be gentle and considerate to everyone, and especially to those who
are weaker than he is. If he doesn't treat his mother and sisters
well, then he is a poor creature no matter what else he does; just as
a man who {356} doesn't treat his wife well is a poor kind of citizen
no matter what his other qualities may be. And, by the way, don't ever
forget to let the boy know that courtesy, politeness, and good manners
must not be neglected. They are not little things, because they are
used at every turn in daily life. Let the boy remember also that in
addition to courage, unselfishness, and fair dealing, he must have
efficiency, he must have knowledge, he must cultivate a sound body and
a good mind, and train himself so that he can act with quick decision
in any crisis that may arise. Mind, eye, muscle, all must be trained
so that the boy can master himself, and thereby learn to master his
fate. I heartily wish all good luck to the movement.

  Very sincerely yours,
  THEODORE ROOSEVELT.

  Mr. James E. West,
    Executive Secretary
      Boy Scouts of America,
        New York City.

{357}

America

MY country, 'tis of thee,
Sweet land of liberty,
  Of thee I sing;
Land where my fathers died,
Land of the Pilgrims' pride,
From every mountain side
  Let freedom ring.

My native country, thee
Land of the noble free,
  Thy name I love;
I love thy rocks and rills,
Thy woods and templed hills;
My heart with rapture thrills
  Like that above.

Let music swell the breeze,
And ring from all the trees
  Sweet freedom's song;
Let mortal tongues awake,
Let all that breathe partake,
Let rocks their silence break,
  The sound prolong!

Our father's God, to Thee,
Author of liberty,
  To thee we sing:
Long may our land be bright
With freedom's holy light;
Protect us by Thy might,
  Great God, our King.

--Samuel F. Smith, 1832.


{358}


The Star-Spangled Banner

O Say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
  What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight,
  O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming;
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
  Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there!
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen thro' the mists of the deep,
  Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes.
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
  As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
  In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream--
'Tis the star-spangled banner. O long may it wave
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore,
  'Mid the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country they'd leave us no more?
  Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
  From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave--
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
  O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand
  Between their loved homes and foul war's desolation,
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land
  Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
  And this be our motto, "In God is our trust"
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
  While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

--Francis Scott Key, 1814.


{359}


APPENDIX

BOY SCOUT EQUIPMENT

As stated in the chapter on "Scoutcraft," for the convenience of boys
who wish to secure uniforms or other equipment, the National Council
has made arrangements with certain manufacturers to furnish such parts
of the equipment as are most needed by boys. A number of these
manufacturers have taken advertising space in this book and it is
desired that in case goods are ordered as a result of their
advertisement they be informed of the fact. Some of them have made
arrangements for the distribution of material through Mr. Sigmund
Eisner, of Red Bank, New Jersey, who has the contract for making the
official uniforms.

It should be remembered at all times that the sole purpose of the
National Council in entering into any arrangement whatever with
manufacturers is to secure a low price on the very best material
possible. The manufacturers have agreed to sell all the material
listed in this book at a uniform price in all parts of the country. In
case local dealers or agents for the National Outfitter ask a price
different from that given in the price list herewith, National
Headquarters should be notified.

Every effort is made to have all parts of the uniform and equipment
available to scouts through local dealers. If such arrangements have
not been made in your community, the National Headquarters will be
glad to help in making such an arrangement. Many scout masters prefer
to order uniforms and other supplies direct from National
Headquarters. In order to cover the expense involved in handling these
supplies, the manufacturers in some cases have agreed to allow
National Headquarters the same trade discount allowed to local
dealers. Trade through National Headquarters, if sufficiently large,
will help to meet a part of the current expenses of the National
Organization.

In this suggested list of equipment all articles marked with a star
(*) may be secured either through a local dealer or by {360} ordering
direct through National Headquarters in New York City.


Directions for Ordering

_Important_: When ordering supplies care should be taken to see that the
exact amount of remittance is included with the order. If check is
used add New York Exchange. Make checks and money orders payable to
Boy Scouts of America. All orders received without the proper
remittance will be shipped C. O. D., or held until remittance arrives.


[Illustration: Axe]
* _Axe_: Any local hardware dealer can suggest quite a variety of good
axes which may be used by the scout, but because of quality and price,
the Boy Scout axe is suggested. Weight without handle, 12 oz. Made
of one piece of solid steel--special temper, axe pattern hickory handle,
missionized hand forged--non-rusting finish. Price 35 cents. Axe
scabbard or shield, 25 cents extra.


_Bandanna or Neckerchief_: These are so common that every boy will
recognize at once what is mean by a bandanna. The members of each
patrol wear bandanas made in the colors of their patrol. These can be
purchased at any local dry goods store at ten or fifteen cents each.


[Illustration: Belts]
* _Belts_: Any good belt will meet the scout's needs. But for his
convenience the belt illustrated herewith is suggested. Price 40
cents.


[Illustration: Breeches]
* _Breeches_: Standard material--belt guides--pockets--full pattern-legs
laced below the knee, the lacing to be covered by stockings or
leggings. Order by age according to following table: Boys' sizes:
Price $1.00.


Age-size   Waist   Seat    Inseam   Calf     Ankle
18         32      37      26       13-1/2   9-1/2
17         31      36-1/2  25-1/2   13-1/2   9
16         30      35      25       13       9
15         29      34      24-1/2   12-3/4   8-3/4
14         28      32-1/2  24       12-1/2   8-1/2
13         27      31      23       12-1/2   8-1/4
12         26-1/2  30-1/2  22       12       8-1/4


{361}


Extra Sizes: Breeches above eighteen-year size will be made to order
and will cost twenty-five cents more per garment.

    Waist   Seat   Inseam   Calf      Ankle
1   32      38     27       13-1/2    9-1/2
2   33      39     27       13-3/4    9-3/4
3   34      40     28       14        9-3/4
4   35      41     27       14-1/2    9-3/4
5   36      42     28       15        10
6   37      43     27       15-1/4    10-1/4
7   38      44     28       15-1/2    10-1/2


[Illustration: Bugle]
_Bugle_: It is recommended that the standard bugle used in an army or
drum corps be used. Each patrol should purchase these from a local
music store.


[Illustration: Camp Knives, Forks and Spoons]
_Camp Knives, Forks and Spoons_: Ordinary table-knives, forks and spoons
may be used. An inexpensive knife, fork and spoon for use in camps,
like set illustrated herewith, may be secured for about eight cents
per dozen through almost any local hardware store.


[Illustration: Canteen]
_Canteen_: A canteen of this design may be carried by each scout on
hikes and long tramps. Many army supply houses carry these in stock,
where they may be secured if desired.


[Illustration: Coat]
* _Coats_: Standard material--four bellows pockets--standing collar--
dull metal buttons with Boy Scout emblem. Order by age according/to
following table:

Boys' sizes: Price $1.35.

Age   Breast   Waist    Length   Sleeve   Collar
18    34       32       26       31       16
17    33       31       25       30-1/2   15-1/2
16    32       30-1/2   24-1/2   29-1/2   15
15    31       30       24       28-1/2   14-1/2
14    30       29       23-1/2   27-1/2   14
13    29       28-1/2   23       26       13-1/2
12    28       27-1/2   22       25       13


{362}


Extra Sizes: Coats above eighteen-year size will be made as extra size
and will cost twenty-five cents more per garment than boys' sizes.

    Breast   Waist   Length   Sleeve Length   Collar Finish
1   35       32      27       32              16-1/4
2   36       33      27-1/2   32              16-1/2
3   37       34      28       32-1/2          16-3/4
4   38       35      28-1/2   32-1/2          17-1/4
5   39       36      29       33              17-1/4
6   40       37      29-1/2   33              18
7   42       38      30       33-1/2          18-1/2


[Illustration: Norfolk Coat]
* _Norfolk Coat for Scout Masters_: Made of standard olive drab cotton
cloth, two pleats, back and front, with belt. Price, $3.00.


_Compass_: Every scout should learn how to use his watch as a compass.
However, should he desire to own a compass, he will find no difficulty
in securing one at any local jeweler's.


[Illustration: Drinking Cup]
* _Drinking Cup_: A drinking cup for individual use is recommended. The
folding cup shown in the illustration is made of brass and is nickel
plated. Price 10 cents.


_Drum_: The selection of this is left to each local troop desiring this
piece of equipment. Place your order with local music dealer.


[Illustration: First Aid Kit]
_First Aid Kit_: This kit for the use of the individual scout can be
secured through this office or the Red Cross Society in Washington,
New York and San Francisco. Price 25 cents.


* _Hats_: Four hats are suggested as follows:

1. _Boy Scout Hat_. Olive drab felt--standard quality--detachable ties.
Price $1.15.


[Illustration: Boy Scout Hats]
No. 1   No. 2   Nos. 3 and 4


{363}


2. _Boy Scout Summer Hat_. Olive drab drill, inside seams reinforced
with leather, eyelets in crown for ventilation, detachable ties. Price
50 cents.

3. _Boy Scout Hat_. Extra fine, fur felt, made for hard service. Price
$2.00.

4. _Scout Master's Hat_. Quality same as above, but larger dimensions.
Price $2.50. Be sure to indicate size desired when ordering.


[Illustration: Haversack]
* _Haversack_: Waterproof canvas, leather straps--buckles and separate
pockets--scout emblem on flap. Price 60 cents.


[Illustration: Hospital Corps Pouch]
_Hospital Corps Pouch_: This pouch has been made up specially by the
American Red Cross Society and contains the following:
1 Shears
1 Tweezers
1 Carbolized Vaseline
1 Pkg. Safety Pins
2 Wire Gauze Splints
1 2-oz. Bottle Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia
1 A.R.C. First Aid Outfit (cardboard)
2 1-yd. packages Sterilized Gauze.
3 1-inch Bandages.
3 2-1/2 inch Bandages
2 Triangular Bandages (cartons)
1 U. S. A. Tourniquet
Arrange with the American Red Cross Society for purchase of these.
Price $.1.00.


[Illustration: Knickerbockers]
* _Knickerbockers_: Boy Scout olive drab drill, belt guides, pockets,
knee buckles, full pattern. Price 75 cents.
Age-Size   Waist
19         32
17         31
16         30
15         29
14         28
13         27
12         26-1/2


[Illustration: Knives]
* _Knives_:
No. 1, Price $1.00.
A Stag handle, brass lining, german silver bolsters and shield. Large
polished cutting blade, screw driver, can-opener and leather boring
tool (U. S. Pat. 6-10-02.)


Number 2, Price 50 cents.
Genuine ebony handle, brass lining, german silver bolsters and shield.
Large cutting blade can be opened without using the fingernail.
Shackle for hanging to belt.


{364}


[Illustration: Lanyard]
_Lanyard_: This piece of equipment is so simple in construction that
every scout ought to make his own lanyard. These are used for carrying
the scout whistle or knife.


[Illustration: Leggings]
* _Leggings_: (Puttees). The style of leggings is the same as United
States Army puttee legging. Made of best waterproof army duck. Price
55 cents.


[Illustration: Mess Kits]
* _Mess Kits_:

Number 1. Price 75 cents.
Coffee or tea can, cup, stew or fry pan, with cover, one broiler
two handles.

Number 2. Price 50 cents.
Coffee or tea can, cup, stew or fry pan, one handle.


[Illustration: Patrol Flag]
_Patrol Flags_: The patrol flags are made from a good quality muslin or
wool bunting in the colors of the local patrol. Scouts make their own
patrol flags. Material may be purchased at a local dry goods store.
The size of the flag is 11 in. by 27 in. Emblems can be secured from
National Headquarters.


* _Ponchos_: A good poncho is almost an absolute necessity for the scout
when on a march or in camp. Ponchos suitable for scout purposes can be
secured from local dealers at prices from $2.50 upward.


_Shelter Tents_: Scouts should make their own tents. Directions for
making tents are given in the text of this book.


[Illustration: Shirts]
* _Shirts_: Boy Scout shirt, standard material--two bellows pockets--
open front, coat style--standard button same as coat. Order by size.
Price $1.00

_Summer Shirts_: Same as above, light weight. Price 75 cents.

{365}

[Illustration: Shorts]
* _Shorts_: Standard material--belt guides. Full running pant pattern--
especially desirable for summer use. Order according to age and waist
measurement. Price 50 cents.


[Illustration: Shoes]
* _Shoes_: Any good shoe that is made up for the purpose of ease, and
comfort in tramping will serve the boy scout's needs. The Boy Scout
shoe is convenient, inexpensive and especially designed for scouting.
Price $2.50.


[Illustration: Signal Flags]
_Signal Flags_: These can be made from muslin or bunting which may be
secured at local stores. It is recommended that each scout make his
own flags. Regulation sizes of the semaphore 18 in. by 18 in. and the
Morse or Myer flag 24 in. by 24 in. as shown in illustration.


[Illustration: Staff]
_Staff_: Ash or bamboo, two metres, (6 ft. 6-1/2 in.), in length and
about one and one-half inches in diameter; marked off on one side in
centimetres up to one-half metre, and the balance in metres. On the
other side it should be marked off in inches up to one foot and the
balance in feet. The staff should have a blunt end. Scouts should make
their own staffs whenever it is possible for them to secure the
lumber. Hoe or rake handles make excellent staffs. These can be
procured through any local dealer at a nominal sum.


The Scout Staff and Its Uses

Many boys, upon taking up the Scout Movement, are dubious about the
value of the scout staff and many friends of the movement ask "Why
does a boy scout carry a staff?"

Experience has proven it to be one of the most helpful articles of
equipment. In order to show this we are reproducing, through the
courtesy of Lieut-Gen. Sir Robert S. S. {366} Baden-Powell,
illustrations from printed matter used by the English boy scouts.
These illustrations show a number of different ways in which the staff
will prove a handy and valuable article; in fact, essential to the
Scout outfit.

[Illustration: Uses of the Staff.]

  The staff is very useful for beating out brush fires and outbreaks
  which occur on open heaths.

  Wading a stream. Two or three Scouts grasp the Staff like this.

  Both patrol tents and tepees can be made with the aid of the Staff.

  An improvised stretcher of coats and staves.

  A line of Scouts linked together on a night march.

  When anyone falls through some ice, throw him your Staff so that he
  can grasp it like this until you can get a rope and pull him out.

  When climbing gates you can give yourself a push up with your Staff.

  For erecting a flagstaff and forming a fence, the Staff is very
  useful.

  A clear view can be had by looking through a small hole drilled in the
  Staff.

  Measuring Distances.

  Self-defence.

  Making Splints.

  Jumping Ditches.

  Making Rafts.

  Bridge Building.

  Climbing a Mountain.--Carry the Staff cross-wise, and if you slip,
  lean inwards upon it, against the side of the mountain. The weight
  of your body will then drive the end of the staff into the earth,
  and so anchor you.

  Levering up Logs and Stones.

  Rope ladders,

  Feeling the way over marshy ground.

  Recovering Objects Floating in the Water--

  First tie a line to the centre of the staff. Then tie a piece of
  string to each end of the staff, and the other ends of these strings
  being tied to the centre. That will keep the staff at right angles to
  the line that is in your hand.

  By swinging the staff out over the water, beyond the floating
  article, you will be able to draw the latter in close to shore.


* _Stockings_: To match uniforms, made of heavy material and suitable
for scouting. Price 30 cents in cotton, $1.25 in wool.


_Sweaters_: Any local clothing store will be able to secure for the
scout the kind and quality of sweater needed.


* _Telegraph Instruments_: Beginners' telegraph {367} instruments, to be
used in learning the Morse code, may be secured through any electrical
supply house. The instrument illustrated, five ohms, price, $1.30.


_Tracking Irons_: Excellent tracking irons can be made of 7/8-inch heavy
band iron, using the design presented here. Any local blacksmith will
gladly assist the boys in making their irons.


* _Troop Colors_: Made of superior wool bunting upper half, red; lower
half, white. Reproduction of the official badge super-imposed in green
and gold. Sufficient space left for troop number and name of city.
Size of flag, 22 in. by 36 in. Letters to be attached by the local
troop. Price without letters $1.00.


* _Trousers_: Full length for scout masters: Made of Standard olive drab
cotton cloth, belt loop. Price $2.00. If breeches are preferred, they
may be had at same price. Better quality of boy scout suits--made of
U. S. Army standard olive drab cloth. Coat $2.50, breeches $2.00.


_Watch_: Every scout should possess a good watch. No particular make of
watch is recommended. The choice of this article is left entirely with
the boy and may be bought through a local jeweler.


_Water Bottle_: In some cases where the individual scout is not
furnished with a canteen, the patrol may desire to carry a supply of
water on the march. For this purpose water bottles capable of carrying
a large quantity of water may be secured. These should be purchased
through some army supply house.


* _Whistles_: Scout standard whistle, for use in signaling by whistle.
Made of brass, gun metal finish, ring at end to attach to lanyard.
Price 10 cents.


{368}


Suggestions for Measuring

Name
Street
City

Coat Measure
L--All around at breast under coat
M--All around at waist under coat

Sleeve
C to D--From centre of collar seam to shoulder seam
Then
E--To elbow.
F--To full length

Breeches
M--All around at waist under coat

Leggings
G--Size of calf
H--Size of instep


[Illustration: Scout's clothing. (tr)]


{369}


Hat
Size of hat
Size of linen collar worn

Answer following questions plainly:
Age?     Height?       Weight?


BOOKS FOR REFERENCE


This list of reference books has been prepared for the use of scouts,
to supplement information given in the handbook prepared for their
use. It has been the aim to give as wide a selection as possible, in
order that the boy scout might not fail to find in the local public
library, some book on any subject in which he may have particular
interest. The list includes literature directly or indirectly related
to scouting, as well as some appropriate books of fiction.

For convenience the books have been listed in accordance with the
subject headings of the various chapters of the Handbook. Some of the
most experienced librarians of the country have submitted material
which has aided in the preparation of this list. For this kindly
cooperation, sincere thanks is given.

Many of the books have been carefully reviewed by someone connected
with the boy scouts, and in many cases through the courtesy of the
publishers copies of these books are available for reference purposes
at the office of the National Headquarters. Suggestions for additions
or improvements upon this list will be gladly received at any time.
Communications should be addressed to the Executive Secretary, 200
Fifth Avenue, New York City.


[Transcriber's note: In the following list of books the first line
is the title, the second the author, the third the publisher. The
author and/or publisher may be omitted.]

Scoutcraft

Notes on Scouting and Reconnaissance
Jas. F. M. Livingston
London, Clowes

Pioneering and Mapmaking for Boy Scouts
C. R. Enock
London, Pearson

Scouting for Boys
Lieut.-Gen. Robert Baden-Powell
C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd. Henrietta St., London

Three Amateur Scouts
Jadberns
Lippincott

The Boy Scouts
Chipman
Burt Co.

Yarns for Boy Scouts
Lieut.-Gen. Robert Baden-Powell
C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd.
Henrietta St., London


Woodcraft

ANIMALS


American Natural History
Hornaday

Animal Artisans
C. J. Cornish
Longmans, Green & Co.

Animals at Home
Lillian Bartlett
American Book Co.

{370}

Animal Heroes
Seton
Century Co.

A Wilderness Dog

Biography of a Grizzly
Seton
Scribners

Biography of a Silver Fox
Seton
Scribners

Claws and Hoofs
James Johonnot
American Book Co.

Dan Beard's Animal Book and Campfire Stories
D. C. Beard
Scribners

Familiar Animals and Their Wild Kindred
John Monteith
American Book Co.

Four-footed Americans and their Kin
M. C. Wright

Good Hunting
Theodore Roosevelt
Harper Bros.

Habits of Animals
E. Ingersoll

Half-hours with the Lower Animals
C. G. Holder
American Book Co.

Haunter of Pine Gloom
C. G. D. Roberts

Haunters of the Silences
C. G. D. Roberts
Grosset & Dunlap

Homes, Haunts and Habits of Wild Animals
I. T. Johnson

House in the Water
C. G. D. Roberts

Jock of the Bushvold
Sir. P. Fitzpatrick
Longmans, Green & Co.

Jungle Book
Kipling

Second Jungle Book
Kipling

Kindred of the Wild
C. G. D. Roberts

King of the Mamozekel
C. G. D. Roberts

Krag and Johny Bear
Seton
Scribners

Life Histories of North America
Seton
Scribners

Little Beasts of Field and Wood
Cram

Little Brother to the Bear
W. J. Long
Ginn & Co.

Lives of the Fur Folk
M.D.Haviland
Longmans Green & Co.

Living Animals of the World, Vol. I,
II, III
The University Society

Lobo, Rag and Vixen
Seton
Scribners

Lives of the Hunted
Seton
Scribners

Mooswa
W. A. Fraser

My Dogs in the Northland
E. R. Young
Revell Co.

Monarch, the Big Bear of Tallac
Seton
Scribners

Red Fox
C. G. D. Roberts

Shaggycoat
C. Hawkes

Shovelhorns, Biography of a Moose
C. Hawkes

Some Curious Flyers, Creepers and Swimmers
J. Johonnot
American Book Co.

Some Useful Animals and What They Do for Us
J. C. Monteith
American Book Co.

{371}

Squirrel and Other Fur Bearers
John Burroughs

Stories of Animal Life
C. F. Holder
American Book Co.

Stories of Humble Friends
Katharine Pyle
American Book Co.

Story of the Trapper
A. C. Laut

The Romance of Animal Arts and Crafts
H. Coupin and John Lea
Lippincott

The Romance of the Animal World
Edmund Selous
Seeley & Co.

The Wolf Patrol
John Finnemore

Trapper Jim
Edwin Sandys

Ways of Wood Folk
W. J. Long

Wild Animals at Play
Seton
Doubleday Page & Co.

Wild Animals I Have Known
Seton
Scribners

Wilderness Ways
W. J. Long

Wild Life in the Rockies
Enos A. Mills
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Wild Life of Orchard and Field
Ingersoll

Wolf, the Storm Leader
Frank Caldwell
Dodd, Mead & Co.

Wood Folk at School
W. J. Long
Ginn & Co.


ASTRONOMY


A Field Book of the Stars
W. F. Olcutt
Putnam

Astronomy
Julia McNair Wright
Penn Pub. Co.

Astronomy by Observation
Eliza A. Bowen
American Book Co.

Astronomy for Everybody
Simon Newcomb
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Astronomy with an Opera Glass
G. P. Serviss

A Study of the Sky
H. A. Howe
Scribners

Astronomy with the Naked Eye
P. Serviss
G Harper Bros.

Children's Book of the Stars
Milton
Macmillan Co.

Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know
J. E. Rogers

How to Identify the Stars
W. J. Milham

How to Locate the Stars
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Popular Astronomy
G. Flammarion

Round the Year with the Stars
G. P. Serviss

Starland
Ball
Ginn & Co.

Steele's Popular Astronomy
J. D. Steele
American Book Co.

The Friendly Stars
M. E. Martin

The Romance of Modern Astronomy
McPherson
Lippincott

{372}

BIRDS

Bird Guide--Part 1  Water Birds
Chester A. Reed
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Bird Guide--Part 2   Land Birds
Neltje Blanchan
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Bird Homes
A. E. Dugmore
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Birds in their Relation to Men
Weed & Beerborn
Lippincott

Bird Life
Frank Chapman
Appleton

Bird Neighbours
Neltje Blanchan
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Bird Neighbors
John Burroughs
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Birds of Eastern North America
Chapman
Appleton

Birds that Every Child Should Know
Neltje Blanchan
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Birds that Hunt and Are Hunted
Neltje Blanchan
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Birds Through the Year
A. F. Gilmore
American Book Co.

Citizen Bird
M. O. Wright

Elo the Eagle and Other Stories
Floyd Brallian
Pacific Pub. Co.

Everyday Birds
Bradford Torrey

Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music
F. S. Mathews
Putnam's Sons

First Book of Birds
H. M. Miller

Second Book of Birds
H. M. Miller

Flamingo Feather
Munroe

How to Attract the Birds
Neltje Blanchan
Doubleday, Page & Co.

How to Attract the Birds
Trafton

How to Know the Birds
H. & E. Parkhurst
Scribners

How to Know the Wild Birds of Ohio
Dietrich Lange

How to Study Birds In Birdland
Leander S. Kyser
McClurg Co.

Land Birds East of the Rockies
C. A. Reed

Lord of the Air
C. G. D. Roberts

Nestlings of Forest and Marsh
Irene G. Wheelock
McClurg Co.

Our Birds and Hew to Know Them
J. B. Grant
Scribners

Our Own Birds
Wm. L. Baily
Lippincott

Tenants of the Trees
C. Hawkes

The Blue Goose Chase
H. K. Job

The Romance of Bird Life
John Lea
Lippincott

Short Stories of our Shy Neighbors
Mrs. M. A. B. Keely
American Book Co.

The Sport of Bird Study
Job
Outing Pub. Co.

Wild Birds of City Parks

{373}

FISH AND FISHING

Book of Aquaria
Bateman & Bennett
L. Upcott Gill

Boy's Own Guide to Fishing
J. H. Keene

Denizens of the Deep
Frank T. Bullen
Revell Co.

Familiar Fish
Eugene McCarthy

Favorite Fish and Fishing
J. A. Henshall
Outing Pub. Co.

Fine Art of Fishing
S. G. Camp
Outing Pub. Co.

Fishing and Shooting Sketches
Grover Cleveland
Outing Pub. Co.

Fishing Kits and Equipment
G. S. Camp
N. Y. Outing Co.

Fish Stories
Holder and Jordan

Half Hours with Fishes Reptiles, and Birds
Holder
American Book Co.

Home Aquarium and How to Care for It
Eugene Smith
Dutton

The Angler's Guide
Wainwright Randall

The Book of Fish and Fishing
Louis Rhead
Scribners

The Little Water Folks
Hawkes
Crowell Co.

Tricks and Knacks of Fishing
(Horton Mfg. Co.)

Water Wonders Every Child Should Know
J. M. Thompson


FLOWERS, FERNS AND GRASSES


Botany
Julia McNair Wright
Penn Pub. Co.

Botany for Children
Harriet C. Cooper
Crowell Co.

Common Plants
George O. Goodall
D. C. Heath & Co.

Elementary Botany with Spring Flora
W. A. Kellerman
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Field Book of American Wild Flowers
P. Schuyler Mathews

Flora of the Southern United States
A. W. Chapman

Flower Guide
C. A. & C. K. Reed

Gardening for Profit.
P. Henderson

Grasses, Sedges and Rushes of the North United States
Edward Knoble

How to Collect and Preserve Plants and Sea-weeds
Hinds, Noble & Co.

How to Know the Ferns
Frances Theodora Parsons

How to know the Wild Flowers
Parsons

Illustrated Flora of the United States and Canada
N. L. Britton and Addison Brown

{374}

Lessons with Plants
Bailey

Manual of Gardening
L. H. Bailey

Nature's Garden
Neltje Blanchan
Doubleday, Page & Co.

New England Ferns and Their Common Allies
Helen Eastman

New Manual of Botany
Asa Gray

New Manual of Botany of the Central Rocky Mountains
John M. Coulter, revised by Aven Nelson

Our Garden Flowers
Harriet Louise Keeler

Plants and Their Children
Wm. Starr Dana
American Book Co.

Rocky Mountain Wild Flower Studies
Burton O. Longyear

Southern Wild Flowers and Trees
Alice Lounsbery

The Fern Collector's Guide
Willard Nelson Clute

The Garden Yard
B. Hall

Young Folk's Nature Field Book
J. Alden Loring
Dana Estes Co.


FUNGI


Edible Fungi of New York
Charles H. Peck
N. Y. State Museum

Flowerless Plants: Ferns, Mushrooms, Mosses, Lichens and Sea weeds.
E. H. Hale

Mushrooms
Atkinson
Holt & Co.

One Thousand American Fungi
McIllvain & Macadam
Bobbs, Merrill & Co.

Studies of American Fungi
Atkinson

The Mushroom
M. E. Hard
Ohio Library Co.

The Mushroom Book
Nina L. Marshall
Doubleday, Page & Co.


HANDICRAFT


Clay Modelling
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Dynamos and Electric Motors
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Electric Bells
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Electro-Plating
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Glass Writing, Embossing and Facia Work
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

How to Make Baskets.
Mary White
Doubleday, Page & Co.

Leather Working
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Photography
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Photographic Cameras
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Photographic Chemistry
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Photographic Studies
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

Upholstery
Paul N. Hasluck
David McKay

{375}

INSECTS AND BUTTERFLIES

Ants, their Structure, Development and Behavior
W. M. Wheeler
Columbia Univ. Press

Beehives and Appliances
Paul Hasluck
David McKay

Directions for Collecting and Preserving Insects
Nathan Banks
U. S. National Museum Bulletin

Everyday Butterflies

How to Keep Bees
Anna B. Comstock
Doubleday, Page Co.

How to Know the Butterflies
J. H. and Mrs. Comstock
D. Appleton & Co.

Insect Life
Comstock

Little Busy Bodies
Marks Moody
Harper Bros.

Manual for the Study of Insects
J. H. and A. B. Comstock

Moths and Butterflies
Julia P. Ballard
Putnam's Sons

Our Insect Friends and Enemies
J. B. Smith
Lippincott

Our Insect Friends and Foes
B. S. Cragin
Putnam's Sons

The Butterfly Book
W. J. Holland
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The House-Fly--Disease Carrier
L. O. Howard
Stokes Co.

The Moth Book
W. J. Holland
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Romance of Insect Life
Edmund Selous
Seeley & Co.

The Way of the Six-Footed


ROCKS AND PEBBLES

About Pebbles
Alpheus Hyatt
D. C. Heath & Co.

Boy Mineral Collectors
J. G. Kelley

Common Minerals and Rocks
Wm. O. Crosby
D. C. Heath & Co.

Stories of Rocks and Minerals
H. W. Fairbanks

The Boy Geologist at School and in Camp
E. G. Houston

The Earth and Its Story
A. Heilprin

The Romance of Modern Geology
Grew
Lippincott


REPTILES

Poisonous Snakes of  North America
Leonard Stejneger
Gov. Printing Office

The Reptile Book
Ditmar
Doubleday, Page & Co.


SHELLS AND SHELLFISH

American Marine Shells. Bulletin No. 37
U. S. National Museum, Washington

{376}

Mollusks of the Chicago Area
F. C. Baker
Chicago Academy

The Little Water Folk
C. Hawkes
Crowell Co.

The Lymnaedae of North America
F. C. Baker
Chicago Academy of Sciences

The Shell Book
Julia E. Rogers
Doubleday, Page & Co.

West Coast Shells
Josiah Keep

Worms and Crustacea
Hyatt
D. C. Heath & Co.


TREES AND SHRUBS


A Guide to the Trees
Alice Lounsbery

Familiar Trees and Their Leaves
Mathews

Field and Forest Handy Book
Dan C. Beard

First Book of Forestry
Roth

Forest Trees and Forest Scenery
Schwartz
Grafton Press

Handbook of Trees of New England
Dame and Brooks
Ginn & Co.

Handbook of the Trees of the Northern United States and Canada
Hough

How to Tell the Trees
Hinds, Noble & Co.

How to Know Wild Fruits
Maude C. Peterson

Manual of the Trees of North America
Charles Sprague Sargent

North American Trees
Britton

North American Forests and Forestry
Bruncken
Putnam

Our Native Trees
Keeler
Scribners

Our Northern Shrubs
Harriet L. Keeler

Our Shrubs of the United States
Apgar

Practical Forestry for Beginners in Forestry
J. C. Gifford

School of the Woods
W. J. Long

Studies of Trees in Winter
Huntington
Sargent

Ten Common Trees
Susan Stokes
American Book Co.

The Forest
S. E. White

The Forester's Manual or Forest Trees that Every Scout Should Know
Seton
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Magic Forest
White
Grosset & Dunlap

The Tree Book
Julia E. Rogers
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Way of the Woods.
Breck
Putnam's Sons

Trees of the Northern United States
Austin C. Apgar

{377}

The Trees of California
Jepson

The Woodsman's Handbook
United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 36

Trees That Every Child Should Know
J. E. Rogers


MISCELLANEOUS--WOODCRAFT


Adventures in the Great Forests
H. W. Hyrst
Lippincott

Adventures of Buffalo Bill
Cody

Adventures of Four-footed Folk
Belle M. Brain
Fleming H. Revell

A Journey to Nature
J. P. Mowbray
Grosset & Dunlap

American Boys' Handy Book
Beard

Amateur Taxidermist
Scorso

A Watcher in the Woods
D. L. Sharp
Century Co.

Bent Iron Work
Hasluck
David McKay

Birch Bark Roll
Seton

Boots and Saddles
Custer

Boy Craftsman
A. W. Hall

Boy Pioneers
Dan Beard
Scribners

Boy's Book of Airships
H. Delacomb

Boy's Workshop
Craigin

Boy with the United States
Foresters
Robert Wheeler

Box Furniture
Louise Brigham
Century Co.

Diomed
Sargent
Grosset & Dunlap

Chats on Photography
Wallington
Lippincott

Electricity
Fowler
Penn Pub. Co.

Electric Instrument Making for Amateurs
Bottome

Electricity for Boys
Adams

Electricity for Everybody
Atkinson

Electricity for Young People
Jencks

Electricity Made Easy
E. J. Houston and A. E. Kennelly

Excursions
Thoreau
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Famous Indian Chiefs
Johnston

Field and Forest Handy Book
Beard
Scribners

Four Afoot
Barbour

Frank, the Young Naturalist
Castleman
Hurst Co.

Frontiersman's Pocketbook
Pocock

Harper's How to Understand Electricity
Onken and Baker

{378}

Harper's Indoor Book for Boys
Adams
Harper Bros.

Harper's Outdoor Book for Boys
Adams

Home Mechanics for Amateurs
G. M. Hopkins

How Two Boys Made Their Own Electrical Apparatus
T. M. St. John

In American Fields and Forests
H. D. Thoreau, et al.

Indoor and Outdoor Handicraft
Beard
Scribners

Jack of All Trades
Dan Beard
Scribners

Lakerim Athletic Club
Hughes

Last of the Mohicans
Cooper
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Log Cabins and Cottages
Wicks
Forest & Stream

Long Trail
Garland

Making Wireless Outfits
Harrison

Nature Study
F. L. Holtz
Scribners

On Horseback in Virginia
C. D. Warner
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Our National Parks
John Muir
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Outdoor Handy Book
Dan Beard
Scribners

Outdoors, Indoors and up the Chimney
C. McIllvain
Sunday School Times

Out-of-Doors
M. Ellsworth Olson
Pacific Pub. Co.

Romance of Modern Photography
Gibson
Lippincott

Scholar's ABC of  Electricity
Meadowcraft
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Bond
Munn & Co.

Scientific American Boy at School
Bond

Scientific American Reference Book
Bond
Munn & Co.

Secret of the Woods
Wm. J. Long
Ginn & Co

Sportsman Joe
Sandys

Taxidermy
Hasluck
McKay

The Boy Electrician
Huston
Lippincott

The Boy's Book of Conservation
Small
Maynard & Co.

The Boy's Book of Inventions
Bacon
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Boy's Second Book of Inventions
Baker
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Boy's Book of Model Aeroplanes
Collins
Century Co.

The Boy's Book of Steamships
Howden

Bond

The Frog Book
Dickerman
Doubleday, Page & Co.

{379}

The Complete Photographer
Bailey
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Mountains
S. E. White

The Open Window
Grosset & Dunlap

The Young Electrician
H. Hall
Macmillan Co.

The Young Mechanic
Putnam's Sons

Things a Boy Should Know about Electricity
T. M. St. John

Things a Boy Should Know about Wireless
St. John

Trapper Jim
Sandys

Two Little Savages
Seton

Vehicles of the Air
Longheed
Reilly & Britton Co.

Walden, or Life in the Woods
Thoreau
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Ways of Nature
Burroughs
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Wilderness Homes
Kemp
Outing Pub. Co.

Wild Neighbors
Ingersoll

Wireless Telegraphy
A. F. Collins

Woodcraft
Sears
Century Co.

Woodmyth and Fable
Seton
Century Co.

Wonders of Man and Nature
R. Whiting

Woodcraft
Nessmuk
Forest & Strean

Woodworking for Beginners
Wheeler

Young Folk's Nature Field Book
J. A. Loring
Dana Estes Co.


CAMPCRAFT


Around the Campfire
C. G. D. Roberts

An Old Fashioned Sugar Camp
P. G. Huston
Revell Co.

At Home in the Water
Corson
Association Press

Billy in Camp
Carr
McClurg Co.

Boat Building and Boating for Beginners.
Dan Beard
Scribners

Boat Sailing
Kensaly
Outing Co.

Building Model Boats
Hasluck
David McKay

Camp and Trail.
Isabel Hornabrook

Camp and Trail
S. E. White
Outing Pub. Co.

Camp and Trail Methods
Kephart

Camp Cookery
Horace Kephart
Outing Pub. Co.

Camp Fire and Wigwam
Ellis
Winston Co.

Camp Fire Musings
W. C. Gray
Revell

Camping and Camp Cooking
Bates

Camping and Camp Outfits
G. O. Shields

Camping for Boys
Gibson
Association Press

Camping Out
Stephens
Hurst & Co.

Camp Kits and Camp Life
Hanks
Scribners

{380}

Camp Life in the Woods
Gibson

Campmates
C. K. Munroe

Canoemates
Kirk Munroe

Canoe and Boat Building
Stephens
Forest and Stream

Canoe and Camp Cookery
Seneca
Forest and Stream

Canoe Boys and Camp Fires
Graydon
Grosset and Dunlap

Captain Thomas A. Scott, Master Diver
F. H. Smith

Comrades in Camp
Victor
Chatterton Co.

Economical Cook Book
Mrs. Sarah Paul
John C. Winston & Co.

Every Boy His Own Cook
Atkinson Rice

Guns, Ammunition and Tackle
Money, et al.

Harper's Camping and Scouting
Grinnell & Swan

How to Swim
Dalton

Knotting and Splicing Ropes and Cordage
Hasluck

Plates Accompanying Canoe and Boat Building for Amateurs
Forest & Stream Pub. Co.

Practical Rowing, with Scull and Sweep
Stevens

Ropes: Their Knots and Splices
Kunardt

Swimming
Brewster
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Swimming
Sinclair

The Art of Swimming
Nelligan

The Boat Sailor's Manual
Qualtrough
Scribners

The Book of Camping and Woodcraft
Kephart
Outing Pub. Co.

The Kidnapped Campers
Canfield

Watchers of the Camp Fires
C. G. D. Roberts


TRACKS, TRAILING, AND SIGNALING


Along Four Footed Trails
Ruth A. Cook
James Pott & Co.

Black Bear
Wright

Comrades of the Trails
Roberts

First to Cross the Continent
Brooks

Footprints in the Forest
Ellis
Winston Co.

Graphology
Howard
Penn Pub. Co.

Grizzly Bear
Wright

International Code of Signals
U. S. Government Printing Office

{381}

Northern Trails (Books 1 and 2)
Wm. J. Long
Ginn & Co.

Our Country's Flag  .
E. S. Holden

Phrenology
Olin
Penn. Pub. Co.

Physiognomy
Lomlax
Penn. Pub. Co.

Return to the Trails
C. G. D. Roberts

Sign Language
Seton
Doubleday, Page & Co.

The Trail of the Badger
Hamp

The Trail to the Woods.
Hawkes
American Book Co.

Tracks and Tracking
Brunner
Outing Pub. Co.

Trail of the Sand Hill Stag
Seton

Watchers of the Trails
C. G. D. Roberts

Young Trailers
Altsheler


HEALTH AND ENDURANCE

Body and its Defences
Jewett

Confidential Talks with Young Men
Sperry
Revell

Control of Body and Mind
Jewett
Ginn & Co.

Daily Training
Benson & Miles

From Youth into Manhood
Hall

Good Health
Jewett
Ginn & Co.

Health
Walter C. Wood
Penn Pub. Co.

Health, Strength and Power
Sargent

Home Treatment and Care of the Sick
Lovering
Otis Clapp & Son

How to Keep Well
Wilson
Crowell

Japanese Physical Training
Hancock

My System
Muller

Rural Hygiene
Brewer
Lippincott


CHIVALRY

Adaptability
Ellen E. Kenyon Warner
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Adventure Among Red Indians
Hyrst
Lippincott

Age of Chivalry
Bullfinch

An Iron Will
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell

A Skilled Workman
W. A. Bodell
Revell Co.

Aspiration and Achievement
Frederick A. Atkins
Revell Co.

Aspirations and Influence
H. Clay Trumbull
Sunday School Times

Book of Famous Verse
Agnes Repplier

Boy's King Arthur
Lanier

Boy's Life of Captain John Smith
Johnson

Careers of Danger and Daring
Cleveland Mofett

{382}

Character Shaping and Character Working
H. Clay Trumbull
Sunday School Times

Character the Grandest Thing
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Cheerfulness as a Life Power
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Daniel Boone, Backwoodsman
Forbes Lindsay
Lippincott

Duty
Ellen E. Kenyon Warner
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Duty Knowing and Duty Doing
H. Clay Trumbull
Sunday School Times

Economy
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Every Man a King
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Famous Scouts
Johnston

Fidelity
Ellen E. Kenyon Warner
Hinds Noble & Co.

First Battles
Frederick A. Atkins
Revell Co.

Four American Pioneers
Perry and Beebe

Getting One's Bearings
Alexander McKenzie
Revell Co.

Good Manners and Success
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

He Can Who Thinks He Can
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Heroes Every Child Should Know
H. W. Mabie
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Heroes of Chivalry
Louise Maitland

Heroes of Pioneering
Sanderson
Lippincott

Heroes of the Storm
O'Connor
Houghton

Hero Myths and Legends of the British Race
M. O. Erbutt
Crowell Co.

John James Audubon
Audubon
Putnam

John Smith, Gentleman and Adventurer.
Lindsay
Lippincott

Knight Errant
Davidson
Lippincott

Knighthood in Germ and Flower
Cox

Last of the Great Scouts
Wetmore

Lessons on Manners
Julia M. Dewey
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Levels of Living
Henry F. Cope
Revell

Life of Kit Carson
Ellis
Grosset & Dunlap

Little Jarvis
Seawell

Loyalty
McClure
Revell Co.

Making the Most of Ourselves
Calvin Dill Wilson
McClurg Co.

Men of Iron
Pyle

Moral Muscle
Frederick A. Atkins
Revell Co.

My Young Man
Louis Albert Banks
Funk & Wagnalls Co.

Ourselves and Others
H. Clay Trumbull
Sunday School Times

Page, Esquire and Knight.
Lansing

Peace, Power and Plenty
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Possibilities
McClure
Revell Co.

Rising in the World or Architects
H. Clay Trumbull
Sunday School Times

Practical Paradoxes
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Royal Manhood
James I. Vance
Revell Co.

{383}

Rushing to the Front
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Seeing and Being
H. Clay Trumbull
Sunday School Times

Self Control and Its Kingship and Majesty
Wm. Coe Jordan
Revell Co.

Self Reliance
Ellen E. Kenyon Warner
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Stories of Charlemagne
Church

Stories of King Arthur
Waldo Cutler
Crowell Co.

Stories of King Arthur and His Knights
Pyle

Stories of King Arthur and the Round Table
Beatrice Clay

Stories of the Great West
Roosevelt

Story of the Cowboy
Hough

Successful Men of To-day
Wilbur F. Crafts
Funk & Wagnalls

Success in Life
Emil Reich
Duffield Co.

Successward
Edward Bok
Revell Co.

Talks with Great Workers
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Tendency
James I. Vance
Revell Co.

The Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights
Mary MacLeod
Fred'k A. Stokes

The Boys Gughulain
Eleanor Hull
Crowell Co.

The Christian Gentleman
Louis Albert Banks
Funk & Wagnalls

The Crown of Individuality
Wm. George Jordan
Revell Co.

The Hour of Opportunity
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

The Kingship of Self Control
Wm. George Jordan
Revell Co.

The Majesty of Calmness
Wm. George Jordan
Revell Co.

The Making of a Man
Robert Elliot Speer
Revell Co.

The Marks of a Man
Robert Elliot Speer
Revell Co.

The Optimistic Life
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

The Oregon Trail
Parkman
Lippincott

The Power of Personality
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

The Romance of Early Exploration
Williams
Lippincott

The Secret of Achievement
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

The Story of Hereward
Douglas C. Stedman
Crowell Co.

The Vision of Sir Launfal
James Russell Lowell
Barse & Hopkins

The Young Man Entering Business
Orison Swett Marden
Crowell Co.

Thoroughness
Davidson
Revell Co.

True Manhood
James, Cardinal Gibbons
McClurg Co.

Twentieth Century Knighthood
Banks
Funk & Wagnalls

What Shall our Boys Do For a Living
Charles F. Wingate
Doubleday, Page & Co.

{384}

Winning Their Way
Faris

With Spurs of Gold
F. W. Green and D. V. Kirk

Young Men Who Overcame
Robert E. Speer
Revell Co.


FIRST AID TO THE INJURED

American Red Cross Abridged Text-book and First Aid
Major Chas. Lynch

Backwoods Surgery and Medicine
Moody

Boys Coastwise
Rideing

Emergencies
C. V. Gulick

Exercise in Education and Medicine
R. T. McKenzie

Fighting a Fire
C. T. Hill

First Aid in Illness and Injury
Pilcher

First Aid to the Injured
F. J. Warwick
Penn Pub. Co.

Health, Strength and Power
D. A. Sargent

Heroes of the Life-boat and Rocket
Ballantyne

Heroes of the Storm
Douglas

Life Boat and Its Work
Lewis

Nursing
S. Virginia Leves
Penn Pub. Co.

Our Seacoast Heroes
Daunt

Stories of the Life-boat.
Mundell

The Beach Patrol
Drysdale

The Life-boat
Ballantyne


GAMES


Book of Athletic and Out-door Sports
Bingham

Book of College Sports
Walter Camp

Boy's Book of Sports
Fannie Thompson
Century Co.

Boys' Drill Regulations

Games for Everybody
May C. Hofman
Dodge Pub. Co.

Games for All Occasions
Mary E. Blain
Barse & Hopkins

Games and Songs of American Children
Newell
Harper Bros.

Education by Play and Games
G. E. Johnson
Ginn & Co.

Money Making Entertainments
Rook & Goodfellow
Penn Pub. Co.

Play
Emmett D. Angell
Little, Brown & Co.

Practical Track and Field Athletics
Graham and Clark
Duffield Co.

Social Activities for Men and Boys
A. M. Chesley
Association Press

Outdoor Games for All Seasons
Beard
Scribners

{385}

PATRIOTISM AND CITIZENSHIP

Abraham Lincoln
Baldwin
American Book Co.

Abraham Lincoln--Boy and Man
Morgan

American Hero Stories
Eva M. Tappan
Houghton

American Leaders and Heroes
W. F. Gordy
Scribners

A Message to Garcia
Hubbard

An American Book of Golden Deeds
James Baldwin
American Book Co.

Battles for the Union
Prescott Holmes
Henry Altemus Co.

Battle of the War for Independence
Prescott Holmes
Henry Altemus Co.

Boy's Life of Abraham Lincoln
Nicolay
Century Co.

Boy's Life of Ulysses S. Grant.
Nicolay
Century Co.

Civics--Studies in American Citizenship.
Sherman
Macmillan Co.

Discovery of the Old Northwest
J. Baldwin

Essentials in Civil Government
S. E. Formyn
American Book Co

Famous American Statesmen
Sarah K. Bolton
Crowell Co.

Famous Voyages and Explorers
Sarah K. Bolton
Crowell Co.

Four American Explorers
Kingsley
American Book Co.

Four American Indians
Edson L. Whitney and Frances M. Perry
American Book Co.

Four Great Americans
James Baldwin
American Book Co.

Good Citizenship
Julia Richman

Good Citizenship
Grover Cleveland
Henry Altemus Co.

Great Words from Great Americans
G. P. Putnam's Son

Guide to United States History
Henry W. Elson
Baker, Taylor Co.

Heroes of the Army in America
Charles Morris
Lippincott

Heroes of Discovery in America
Charles Morris
Lippincott

Heroes of the Navy in America
Charles Morris
Lippincott

Heroes of Progress in America
Charles Morris
Lippincott

Heroes of the United States Navy
Hartwell Jones
Henry Altemus Co.

Hero Tales from American History
Lodge and Roosevelt

History of New York City
Chas. E. Todd
American Book Co.

Historic Americans
E. S. Brooks
Crowell Co.

{386}

Home Life in Colonial Days
Alice Morse Earle
Grosset & Dunlap

How the People Rule
Hoxie

Lessons for Junior Citizens
Mabel Hill

Lewis and Clark
Lighton
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Life at West Point
Hancock
Putnam

Life of Lincoln for Boys
Sparhawk
Crowell & Co.

Lyra Heroica
Wm. Ernest Henley
Scribners

Makers and Defenders of America
Anna E. Foote & A. W. Skinner
American Book Co.

Man Without a Country
E. E. Hale
Crowell & Co.

New Century History of the United States.
Edward Eggleston
American Book Co.

North America
Frank G. Carpenter
American Book Co.

Our Country's Flag and the Flags of Foreign Countries
Holden

Our Country's Story
Eva M. Tappan
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Pathfinders of the West
Laut
Grosset & Dunlap

Patriotic Citizenship

Poor Boys Who Became Famous
Sarah K. Bolton
Crowell

Poems of American Citizenship
Brander Matthews
Scribners

Politics for Young Americans
Charles Nordhoff
American Book Co.

Poor Richard's Almanac.
Benjamin Franklin
Duffield Co.

Popular Patriotic Poems Explained
Murphy
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Potter's Advanced Geography
Eliza H. Horton
Hinds, Noble & Co.

Stories of Heroic Deeds
James Johonnot
American Book Co.

Stories of Our Country
James Johonnot
American Book Co.

Story of the American Merchant Marine
J. R. Spears
Macmillan Co.

Story of the Great Republic
H. A. Guerber
American Book Co.

Ten Boys From History
Sweetser, Duffield Co.

Ten Great Events in History
James Johonnot
American Book Co.

The True Citizen and How to Become One
W. F. Marwick & W. A. Smith
American Book Co.

The Century Book for Young Americans
Brooks

The Citizen
Shaler

The Community and the Citizen
Arthur Dunn
D. C. Heath & Co.

The Good Neighbor in the Modern City
Mary Richmond
Lippincott

The Ship of State
Youth's Companion
Ginn & Co.

The Pilgrims
F. S. Noble
Pilgrim Press

{387}

The Story of our Navy for Young Americans
Abbott
Dodd, Mead & Co.

The Story of our Great Lakes
E. Channing & M. F. Lansing
Macmillan Co.

The Story of the Thirteen Colonies
Guerber
American Book Co.

The Young Alaskans
Hough

The Young Citizen
Dole
Heath

Training for Citizenship
Smith
Longmans, Green Co.

Uncle Sam's Business
Marriott

U. S
Townsend
Lothrop

Washington and His Generals
Headley
Hurst & Co.

Washington's Farewell Address
Duffield Co.

When America Became a Nation
Jenks
Crowell Co.

When America was New
Tudor Jenks
Crowell Co.

When America Won Liberty
Tudor Jenks
Crowell Co.

Young Americans
Judson

Young Continentals at Bunker Hill
McIntyre
Penn Pub. Co.

Young Continentals at Lexington
McIntyre
Penn Pub. Co.

Young People's History of the War with Spain
Prescott Holmes
Henry Altemus Co.


MISCELLANEOUS

A Guide to Biography
Burton E. Stevenson
Baker, Taylor Co.

American Indians
Yonge

A Vagabond Journey Around the World
Franck
Century Co.

Book of Golden Deeds
Catlin

Boy's Life of Captain John Smith
Eleanor Johnson
Crowell Co.

"Boy Wanted"
W. Waterman

Childhood of Jishib, the Ojibwa
Jenks

Choosing a Life Work
L. R. Fiske
Eaton & Mains Co.

Choosing a Vocation
Parsons

Christopher Carson, known as Kit Carson
J. S. C. Abbott

Courage
Charles Wagner

David Crockett: His Life and Adventures
J. S. C. Abbott

Dashing Paul Jones
Frank Sheridan
David McKay

David Crockett, Scout
Allen

Famous Indian Chiefs
O. W. Howard
Century Co.

First Across the Continent
N. Brooks

Handy Parliamentary Rules
Craig
Hinds, Noble & Co.

{388}

Heroes of the Polar Seas
J. K. Maclean
Lippincott

How George Rogers Clark won the Northwest
R. G. Thwaites

Incentives for Life
J. W. Ludlow
Revell Co.

Indian Boyhood
Eastman

Indian Fights and Fighters
Brady

Indian Story and Song
Fletcher

Letters to American Boys
Carruth

Life of David Crockett
E. S. Ellis

Life of John Gutenberg
Emily C. Pearson
Hurst & Co.

Life Questions of High School Boys
Jenks
Association Press

Living Races of Mankind, Vol IV and V
The University Society.

Loyalty
J. G. R. McCleeve
Revell Co.

Lure of the Labrador Wild
Wallace

Northland Heroes
Florence Holbrook
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Old Santa Fe Trail
H. Inman

Pony Tracks
F. Remington

Punishment of the Stingy
Grinnell

Pushing to the Front
Marden

Romance of Early Exploration
Williams
Seeley Co.

Self-Help
Smiles

Some Merry Adventures of Robin Hood.
Pyle
Scribners

Story of a Scout
Finnemore

Starting in Life
Fowler

Story of the Indian
Grinnell

Success
O. S. Marden

Successful Careers
Thaye
Crowell Co.

The American Shotgun
Askins
Outing Pub. Co.

The Children's Life of  Lincoln
M. Louise Putnam
McClurg Co.

The Blazed Trail
White

The Boy General
Mrs. E. B. Custer

The Boy on a Farm at Work and at Play
Jacob Abbott
American Book Co.

The Heart of the Ancient Wood
C. G. D. Roberts
Wessels Co.

The Romance of Polar Exploration
G. F. Scott
Seeley & Co.

The Seven Ages of  Washington
Owen Wister
Grosset & Dunlap

The Way of an Indian
F. Remington


STORIES FOR SCOUTS

Adrift on an Icepan
W. T. Grenfell

American Life and Adventure
Eggleston
American Book Co.

{389}

Arizona Nights
S. E. White

Around the World with the Battleships
Miller
McClurg Co.

Backwoodsmen
D. Roberts

Black Rock
Gordon (Ralph Connor, pseud)

Bob Burton
Horatio Alger, Jr
Winston Co.

Bar B. Boys or the Young Cow Punchers.
Edwin S. Sabin
Crowell Co.

Battling for Atlanta
Byron A. Dunn
McClurg Co.

Boys of Other Countries
Taylor
Putnam's Sons

Boy Trappers
Harry Castleman
Hurst & Co.

Camping on the St. Lawrence
E. T. Tomlinson

Cattle Brands
A. Adams

Cattle Ranch to College
Russell
Doubleday

Chilhowee Boys
Morrison
Crowell Co.

Chilhowee Boys in Harness
Sarah E. Morrison
Crowell Co.

Chilhowee Boys in War Times
Sarah E. Morrison
Crowell Co.

Cast up by the Sea
Sir Samuel W. Baker
Hurst & Co.

Cruise of the Canoe Club
W. L. Alden

Cruise of the Ghost
W. L. Alden

Dale and Fraser, Sheep-men
S. F. Hamp

Dashing Paul Jones
Sheridan
David McKay

Dare Boys of 1776
Stephen Angus Co
A. L. Chatterton Co.

Dorymates
C. R. Monroe

Forest Runners
Altsheler

For Freedom's Cause
T. C. Harbauch
David McKay

Fox Hunting
C. A. Stephens
Hurst & Co.

Frank in the Woods
Castleman
Hurst & Co.

Freckles
Porter
Grosset & Dunlap

From Atlanta to the Sea
Byron A. Dunn
A. C. McClurg Co.

Frontier Boys on the Overland Trail.
Wyn. Roosevelt
Chatterton Co.

General Nelson's Scout
Byron A. Dunn
A. C. McClurg

Huckleberry Finn
Twain

Hans Brinker of the Silver Skates
Mary Mapes Dodge
Grosset & Dunlap

In the Clouds for Uncle Sam
Ashton Lamar
Reilly & Britton

Ivanhoe
Scott

Jack Among the Indians.
G: B. Grinnell

Kim
Kipling

Kidnapped
Stevenson

Knights Who Fought the Dragon
Edwin Leslie
Sunday School Times Co.

Larry Deeter's Great Search
Howard R. Garis
Grosset & Dunlap

Little Metacomet
Hezekiah Butterworth
Crowell Co.

{390}

Little Smoke
W. O. Stoddard

Log of a Cowboy
A. Adams

Luke Walton
Horatio Alger, Jr
Winston Co.

Marching Against the Iroquois
Everett T. Tomlinson

Marion and His Men
John De Morgan
David McKay

Master of the Strong Hearts
E. S. Brooks

Off the Rocks
Grenfell
S. S. Tirnes

On the Indian Trail
Egerton R. Young
Revell Co.

On the Old Kearsarge
Cyrus Townsend Brady
Scribners

On General Thomas's Staff
Byron A. Dunn
McClurg

Paul Revere
John De Morgan
David McKay

Peggy Owen
Lucy Foster Madison
Penn Pub. Co.

Raiding with Morgan
Byron A. Dunn
McClurg

Range and Trail or the Bar B's Great Drive
Edwin L. Sabin
T. Y. Crowell Co.

Rip Van Winkle
Washington Irving
Burse & Hopkins

Robinson Crusoe
Defoe
Houghton Mifflin Co.

Silent Places
S. E. White

Stories of the Good Green Wood
C. Hawkes
Crowell Co.

Story of Sonny Sahib
S. J. Duncan

Sheridan's Troopers on the Borders
De B. Randolph Keirn
David McKay

Sir Raul
James M. Ludlow
Revell Co.

Stories from Life
Orison Swett Marden
American Book Co.

Struggling Upward
Alger, Jr
Winsted Co.

Swiss Family Robinson
J. D. Wyss

Talking Leaves
W. O. Stoddard

Tan and Freckles
C. L. Bryson
Revell Co.

Ten Years Before the Mast.
Dana, Jr
Houghton Mifflin Co

The Air Ship Boys
Sayler
Reilly & Britton

The Boy Aviators in Nicaragua
Wilbur Lawton
Hurst & Co.

The Boy Aviators in Africa
Wilbur Lawton
Hurst & Co.

The Boy Aviators' Polar Dash
Wilbur Lawton
Hurst & Co.

The Boy Aviators in Record Flight
Wilbur Lawton
Hurst & Co.

The Boy Aviators in Secret Service
Wilbur Lawton
Hurst & Co.

The Boy Aviators' Treasure Quest
Wilbur Lawton
Hurst & Co.

The Boy Fortune Hunters in Alaska
F. Akes
Reilly & Britton

The Boy Fortune Hunters in Panama
F. Akes
Reilly & Britton

The Hill
Horace A. Vachell
Dodd, Mead & Co.

The Pilot
Cooper

The Pioneers
Cooper

The Spy
Cooper

{391}

Washington's Young Spy
T. C. Harbauch
David McKay

Waste Not Want Not Stories
Clifton Johnson
American Book Co.

With Fighting Jack Berry
John T. McIntyre
Lippincott

With Flintlock and Fife
Everett T. Tomlinson
Grosset & Dunlap

With Sully Into the Sioux Land
Joseph Mills Hansen
McClurg

Wolf Hunters
Joseph Oliver Curwood
Bobbs, Merrill Co.

Work and Win
Edward S. Ellis
A. L. Burt Co.


{392}


{393}


{394}


INDEX

{395}

INDEX

                                               PAGE
Accidents, prevention of                        255
Additions to Territory of the United States     323
A First Try in Tracking                         191
Aim of the Scout Movement                         3
Alaska Purchase (1867)                          324
Alcohol                                         226
Ambassadors                                     345
America (Hymn)                                  357
American Morse Telegraph Alphabet               202
American Morse Telegraph Abbreviations          203
American Morse Telegraph Numerals               202
American Morse Telegraph Punctuations           202
American Morse Telegraph Signal                 202
American Revolution. The (1775-1783)        325-328
Angling                                         109
Animals, Native, Wild                           133
  Antelope                                      135
  Badger                                        140
  Bear, Black                                   142
  Beaver                                        136
  Cottontail                                    125
  Cougar or Panther                             137
  Coyote                                        139
  Deer, Mule                                    134
  Deer, White Tailed                            134
  Elk or Wapiti                                 133
  Fox                                           138
  Goat, Mountain                                135
  Mink                                          140
  Moose                                         135
  Muskrat                                       136
  Opossum                                       141
  Otter                                         139
  Panther or Cougar                             137
  Rabbit, Cottontail                            137
  Rabbit, Jack or Black Tailed                  137
  Raccoon                                       141
  Squirrel, Gray                                141
  Skunk                                         140
  Weasel                                        139
  Wild Cat or Bob Cat                           138
  Wolf. Gray                                    138
  Woodchuck                                     136
Annapolis, Md., Naval Academy                   344
Apoplexy and Injury to Brain                    270
Aquarium, Home                                  109
Aquarium Fish Food                              111
Aquarium Fish Nets                              110
Aquarium, Starting the                          110
Archery                                         255
Arm Carry                                  240, 276
Army of the United States                       342
Articles of Confederation (1781)                325
A Story of the Trail                        192-197
Athletic Standards, Outdoor                     320
Axes                                            360

Badges of Rank                                   44
  Chief Scout                                    45
  Chief Scout Camp Master                        46
  Chief Scout Citizen                            46
  Chief Scout Director of Athletics              46
  Chief Scout Director of Chivalry               46
  Chief Scout Director of Health                 45
  Chief Scout Stalker                            45
  Chief Scout Surgeon                            45
  Chief Scout Surveyor                           45
  Chief Scout Woodsman                           45
  Scout Master                                   45
  Service Stripes                                45
Back Strangle                                   284
Bandanna                                        360
Bathing Rules                                   156
Baths                                           224
Battleship Maine (1898)                         338
Bed. The Camp                                   147
Beetles and Wasps                               105
Belts                                           360
Bird Box                                         92
Bird Craft                                    85-94
Bird Blind                                       89
Bird Lists                                       87
Bird Lunch Counter                               92
Bird Patrol Man                                  94
Birds, Caring For                                91
Birds, How to Photograph                         89
Birds, Knowing the                            85-90
Birds, Nesting Season                            88
Birds, Protecting the                            92
Birth of New States. The                        331
Bites and Stings                                274
Books for Reference                         369-391
Boy Scout Equipment                         359-369
Boy Scout Organization, The                      10
Breeches                                        360
Bruises                                         264
Bugle                                           361
Building a Lot Cabin                             59
Burns and Scalds                                273
Butterflies                                     101
Butterfly Weed                                  119

Cabinet, President's                            341
Campcraft                                   145-186
Camera Snap Shots                               148
Camp Fire, The                                  160
Camp Fire Building                              158
Camp Fire Fireplace                             149
Camp Fire Story Telling                         161
Camp Fire Stunts                                161
Camp Lamp                                       148
Camp Site                                       147


{396}

                                               PAGE
Canoeing, Rowing and Sailing                173-184
Clear Weather Signs                             157
Clouds as Weather Signs                         156
Cooking Receipts                            149-152
  Bacon                                         150
  Cocoa                                         151
  Coffee                                        151
  Eggs--Boiled, fried, scrambled, poached       151
  Fish, baked                                   150
  Frog Legs                                     150
  Griddle Cakes                                 149
  Potatoes, Roast                               150
  Salmon on Toast                               150
Camp Knives                                     361
Carrying Injured                                277
Canteen                                         361
Census of United States (1790-1820)
             taken every ten years              332
Chair Carry                                     275
Challenge of the Present                        243
Character                                       245
Cheerfulness                                    244
Chief Scout and Staff                            11
Chills                                          277
Chivalry                                    237-254
Citizenship                                     349
Civil Service, United Stales. State and City    344
Civil War, The (1861-1865)                      334
Clothing on Fire--How to Put Out                256
Coats                                           361
Coffee                                          226
Compass                                         362
Confederacy, Southern (1861)                    335
Congress                                        341
Conservation                                    232
Constipation                                    226
Constitution of the United States (1789)        325
Consuls                                         345
County Court House                              348
Courage                                         248
Courts of the United States                     342
Cramps or Stomach Ache                          276
Cuba (1898)                                     338

"Death Grips"--How to Break                     282
Declaration of Independence (1776)              327
Digestion                                       225
Directions for Ordering                         360
Dish Washing                                    152
Dislocation                                     265
Diving for Lost Objects                         285
Diving from the Surface                         284
Drawing Tracks                                  196
Drinking Cup                                    362
Drowning                                        258
Drum                                            362
Dutch in New York                               325
Duty to God                                     249

Ear Ache                                        275
Ears, Care of                                   229
Eating                                          225
Electric Accidents                              258
Electric Shocks, What to do                     259
Emancipation Proclamation (1862)                337
Emergencies, First Aid For                      273
English Settlements (t607) (1620)               325
Equipment                                   359-369
Evacuation Day (1783)                           326
Exercise, Setting-Up                        188-191
Exercises. Outdoor                              223
Eye Bandage                                     274
Eyes--Care of                                   226
Eye--Inflammation of                            276
Eye--Something in the                           273

Fainting                                        270
Farragut, Admiral--Life Story                   329
Feet, Care of                                   230
Ferns    117
Finding your latitude by the Stars               57
Finger Nails, Care of                           230
Fire by Rubbing Sticks. How to Make              70
Fire, Building the                              158
Fireman's Lift                                  278
Fires                                           255
Fires. How to Put Out--What to Do               255
First Aid and Life Saving                   255-290
First Aid                                       251
First Aid Kit                                   362
First Class Scout                                17
Fitness                                         219
Fits                                            272
Fishes                                      105-109
  Classes of                                    106
    Identification of Specimens                 108
    Bass, Black--large mouth                    107
    Catfish, Speckled                           106
    Herring, River or Alewife                   107
    Killifish. Tip minnow                       108
    Perch, Yellow                               107
    Pickerel, Common Pike                       106
    Salmon, Chinook                             106
    Sturgeon, The Atlantic                      107
    Sucker, Common White                        108
    Trout,  Brook or Speckled                   106
    Whitefish, Common                           106
Marine                                          107
Migratory                                       106
Studying                                        107
Flag Day--June 14th                             340
Flag. The History of American (1777)            337
Flag Rules Observed                             341
Floating                                        280
Florida and Texas                               333
Florida Purchase (1819)                         324
Foreign Service                                 345
Forest Fires                                    159
Forks                                           361
Fort Sumter (1861)                              335
Fractures, Compound                             264
Franklin. Benjamin                              327
Freezing                                        272
French and Indian Wars, (1763)                  335
Frost Bite                                      272
Gadsend Purchase (1853)                         324
Games                                           291
  Arctic Expedition                             314
  Badger Pulling                                303
  Bear Hunt                                     293
  Canoe Tag                                     297
  Chalk the Arrow                               312
  Cock Fighting                                 302
  Deer Hunting                                  291
  Dodge Ball                                    312
  Dragging Race                                 351


{397}

                                               PAGE
  Duck-on-a-rock                                304
  Far and Near                                  315
  Far Sight                                     299
  Feather Football or Feather Blow              302
  Fire Lighting Race                            315
  Flag Raiding                                  305
  Follow My Leader                              315
  Follow the Trail                              310
  Hand Wrestling                                303
  Hare and Hound                                312
  Hat Ball                                      303
  Horse and Rider Tourney                       318
  Hostile Spy                                   300
  Hunt the Coon                                 301
  Kim's Game                                    311
  Knight Errantry                               316
  Lion Hunting                                  305
  Man-Hunt, The                                 301
  Morgan's Game                                 311
  Mountain Scouting                             316
  Mumbly Peg                                    318
  Navajo Feather Dance                          302
  Pathfinding, Games in                         316
  Plant Race                                    305
  Poison                                        303
  Pole-star                                     299
  Prisoner's Base                               313
  Quick Sight, The Game of                      298
  Rabbit Hunt                                   300
  Relay Race                                    308
  Roadside Cribbage                             304
  Scouting                                      298
  Scout Hunting                                 308
  Scout Meets Scout                             310
  Scout's Nose (Indoors)                        310
  Shop Window (Indoors in Town)                 309
  Shop Window (Outdoors in Town)                309
  Shoot Out                                     311
  Siberian Man Hunt                             312
  Smugglers on the Border                       309
  Snow Fort                                     311
  Spear Fights                                  302
  Spearing the Great Sturgeon                   295
  Spider and Fly                                307
  Spot the Rabbit or Far Sight                  299
  Spot the Thief                                308
  Stalking                                      307
  Stalking and Reporting                        307
  Throwing the Assegai                          305
  Throwing the Spear                            313
  Tilting in the Water                          296
  Track Memory                                  308
  Treasure Hunt, The                            317
  Treasure Island                               318
  Unprepared Plays                              316
  Will-o-the-Wisp                               317
Gas Accidents                                   259
Gas Poisoning, What to Do                       260
General Hints                                   155
Grant, Ulysses S.                               335
Grasses                                         117
Growth                                          223
Guam Acquired (1808)                            324

Hancock, John                                   327
Hand or Flag Signals                            209
Handy Articles in Camp                          148
Hats                                            362
Haversack                                       363
Hawaii Annexed (1898)                           324
Head Bandage                                    266
Health and Endurance                        219-236
Hiccough                                        276
Hiking and Over Night Camps                     145
Honor Medals                                     44
Hospital Corps Pouch                            363
Hot Stone Wrinkle                               148
How the Great Spirit was Found                  161
How to Become a Boy Scout                        11
How to Get Your Bearings                        157
How to Make Pictures of Tracks                  194

Ice Rescue                                      258
Indian Bathing Precaution                       156
Indian Signs and Blazes                         209
Individuality                                   247
Injuries Due to Heat or Cold                    273
Injuries When Skin is Broken                    265
Injuries When Skin is Not Broken                262
Insects and Butterflies                     101-105
Insects, Other                                  104
Ivy Poisoning                                   247

Key. Francis Scott, Author                      330
Knickerbockers                                  363
Knighthood, Ancient                             237
Knighthood, Modern                              240
Knives                                          363
Knots Every Scout Should Know                 48-52
  Becket Hitch                                   51
  Blackwall Hitch                                51
  Bowline                                        50
  Carrick Bend                                   52
  Clove Hitch                                    51
  Fisherman's Bend                               51
  Fisherman's Knot                               52
  False Reef or Granny                           50
  Figure of Eight Knot                           49
  Halter, Slip or Running Knot                   50
  Overhand Knot. The                             49
  Sheet Bend or Weaver's Knot                    50
  Square or Reef Knot                            50
  Sheepshank                                     50
  Timber Hitch                                   51
  Two Half Hitches                               51
  Whipping a Rope                                49

Land Ordinances (1785) (1787)                   334
Land Settlements                                325
Lanyard                                         364
Leadership                                      152
Lean-to, The                                    146
Lee, Robert E                                   335
Leggings                                        364
Letter from Col. Theodore Roosevelt             353
Lexington and Concord (1775)                    325
Life Buoys                                      287
Lincoln, Abraham                           241, 335
Louisiana Purchase (1803)                       323

Mad Dog                                         260
Manners, Good                                   243
Mariner's Compass, The                           52
Meadow Mouse                                    199
Measurement, Hand                               368
Measuring Distances                              64
Medical Examinations                            224
Memorial Day--May 30th                          341
Menu for Camp and Hike                          152
Mess-Kits                                       364


{398}

                                               Page
Mexican Cession and Purchase from Texas (1848)  324
Military Academy West Point                     343
Militia, Naval                                  344
Militia, State                                  308
Molusca--Shells and Shellfish                 94-97
Moon, The                                        85
Moths                                           103
Mushrooms, Fungi or Toadstools                  122
Mushrooms, Common                               125
Mushrooms, Coprinus                             125
Mushrooms, Delicious Morel                      126
Mushrooms, Inky Coprinus                        125
Mushrooms, Puff Balls                           126
Merit Badges
  Agriculture                                    24
  Angling                                        24
  Archery                                        24
  Architecture                                   25
  Art                                            25
  Astronomy                                      25
  Athletics                                      26
  Automobiling                                   26
  Aviation                                       26
  Bee Farming                                    27
  Blacksmithing                                  27
  Bugling                                        27
  Business                                       27
  Camping                                        28
  Carpentry                                      28
  Chemistry                                      28
  Civics                                         29
  Conservation                                   30
  Cooking                                        30
  Craftsmanship                                  31
  Cycling                                        31
  Dairying                                       31
  Eagle Scout                                    43
  Electricity                                    32
  Firemanship                                    32
  First Aid                                      32
  First Aid to Animals                           33
  Forestry                                       33
  Gardening                                      34
  Handicraft                                     34
  Horsemanship                                   34
  Interpreting                                   35
  Invention                                      35
  Leather Working                                35
  Life Saving                                    36
  Life Scout                                     43
  Machinery                                      36
  Marksmanship                                   36
  Masonry                                        36
  Mining                                         37
  Music                                          37
  Ornithology                                    37
  Painting                                       38
  Pathfinding                                    38
  Personal Health                                39
  Photography                                    39
  Pioneering                                     39
  Plumbing                                       40
  Poultry Farming                                40
  Printing                                       40
  Public Health                                  40
  Scholarship                                    41
  Sculpture                                      41
  Seamanship                                     41
  Signalling                                     42
  Stalking                                       42
  Star Scout                                     43
  Surveying                                      42
  Swimming                                       42
  Taxidermy                                      43

Naval Enlistment                                343
Naval Academy                                   344
Navy of United States                           343
Neckerchief                                     360
Neck Grip                                       283
New States (1845-1861)                          333
Norfolk Coat                                    362
"Northwest Territory"                           335
Nose Bleed                                      274
Nose, Care of                                   229

Observation, Practice                           148
Open Outing Tent                            170-173
Order of Business--Camp                         153
Oregon Territory Acquired (1846)                324
Original Territory (1783)                       323
Orion                                            83

Pain                                            224
Panics, Prevention of                           255
Patriotism and Citizenship                  323-356
Patrol Flags                                    364
Patrol Signs                                     19
Patrol Work                                      83
Peace                                           339
Peace Treaty (1783)                         291-292
Philippine Islands Acquired (1898)              324
Pilgrim Fathers                            238, 325
Pine Island Acquired (1898)                     324
Pioneers. American                              239
Plants, Ferns and Grasses                   117-122
Pleiades                                         84
Poisoning                                       272
Poison Ivy                                      119
Politics                                        347
Ponchos                                         364
Porto Rico Acquired (1898)                      324
Practical Citizenship                           353
President--Term of Office, Salary, etc.         341
Program, Scout Camp                             153
Proper Carriage                                 219
Property--
  Real. Personal--Relationship to Government    348
Public Domain                                   322
Purchase from Texas (1850)                      324
Puttees                                         364

Rains, Signs of                                 156
Ration List                                     152
Register of Deeds                               347
Religion, Boy Scouts                            250
Rememberable Morse or Re-Morse Alphabet         203
Reptiles                                     97-101
Rescue from Shore or Boat                       284
Restoring Breathing                             286
Rocks and Pebbles                           111-117
  Rocks, Stratified                             112
  Rocks, Quartz vein                            113
  Fossill, Shells                               116
  Pudding-Stone                                 116
Row Boats                                       180
  Coming Alongside                              181
  Feathering                                    180
  Going Ashore                                  181
  Keeping Ashore                                181
{399}
  Rowing                                        181
  Sculling                                      181
  Steering                                      181
  Salute, The                                   181
  Turning. The                                  180
Runaway Horse                                   260


                                               PAGE
Sailing Small Boats                             182
Sailing Before Wind                             183
Sailing Close to Wind                           183
Sailing, Direction of Wind                      182
Sailing--Flying the Flag                        184
Sailing--Reefing                                183
Sailing--Right of Way                           184
Samoan Islands Acquired (1899)                  324
Sanitation                                      154
Scout Badge, The                                 12
Scout Law, The                                   14
Scout Motto, The                                 12
Scout Oath, The                                  14
Scout Salute, The                                14
Scout Sign, The                                  14
Scout Virtues                                     8
Scout Master, The                               153
Scouts Pledged to the Flag                      341
Scout Staff and its Uses                        365
Secession of States                             335
Second Class Scout                               17
Secrets of the Woods                            199
Semaphore Signal Code                           206
Shells and Shell Fish                         94-97
Shelter Tents                                   364
Shirts                                          364
Shock--What to do in Case of                    261
Shoes                                           365
Signal Flags                                    365
Signalling by Flag or Torch                     305
Slavery                                         335
Sleep                                           231
Sleeping out of doors                           232
Snake Bites                                     237
Snakes, Water Moccasin                          101
Southern Confederacy formed (1861)              335
Spanish American War, The (1898)                338
Spanish and French                              325
Speaker, House of Representatives               341
Special Service by Boy Scouts                   109
Splints and Sling for Arm                       264
Splints for Broken Leg                          263
Splints for Broken Thigh                        262
Spoons                                          361
Sports                                          364
Sprains                                         264
Staff                                           365
Star Spangled Banner, The (1815)                330
Star Spangled Banner, Hymn                      358
Stars, The                                       81
State Government                                346
Stockings                                        66
Stomach Ache                                    276
Stretcher Improvised                            277
Struggle for Freedom                            238
Sunburn                                         274
Sun Dial or Hunter's Clock                       53
Sun Stroke and Heat Exhaustion                  274
Sweaters                                        361
Swedes in Delaware                              325

Taxes                                           349
Tea                                             226
Teeth                                           227
Telegraph Instruments                           366
Tenderfoot                                       16
Tent Making Made Easy                       164-170
Texas Annexed                                   324
Three Classes of Scouts, The                     16
Thrift                                          246
Throat                                          229
Toadstools                                      122
Toadstools, Deadly Cup                          123
Toadstools, Deadly Amanita                      123
Toadstools, Destroying Angel                    123
Toadstools, Fly Amanita                         124
Toadstools, Hated Amanita                       124
Toadstools, Poisonous                           123
Toadstools, Sure Death                          123
Toadstools, Wholesome                           125
Tobacco                                         226
Toothache                                       275
Torniquet to Upper Arm                          269
Towns, Villages and Cities                      347
Tracking Irons                                  367
Tracks, Tracking and Signaling              187-218
  The Coon that Showed How                      194
  Tracking                                      188
  Tracking, How to Learn                        190
  Tracking, When to Learn                       190
  Trying It on the Cat                          196
Treatment After Respiration Begins              287
Trees. Common North American                127-133
  Ash, White                                    132
  Beech                                         130
  Birch, Black. Sweet or Mahogany               129
  Birch, Common or Aspen Leaved                 129
  Butternut or White Walnut                     129
  Cedar, Red                                    128
  Chestnut                                      130
  Cottonwood                                    128
  Elm, White or Swamp                           131
  Hemlock                                       128
  Hickory, White                                128
  Locust, Black or Yellow                       132
  Maple, Red, Scarlet. Water or Swamp           132
  Oak, Red                                      130
  Oak, White                                    131
  Pine, White                                   127
  Shagbark, or White Hickory                    128
  Sycamore, Plane Tree,
            Buttonball or Buttonwood            131
  Walnut, Black                                 129
  Walnut, White or Butternut                    129
Troop Colors                                    367
Trousers                                        367
Twelve Points of the Scout Law, The              10

Unconsciousness                                 270

Valley Forge                                    328
Vice-President--President of Senate             341

War of 1812                                     329
Washington, D. C                                342
Washington, George                              325
Wasps                                           105
Watch                                           367
Watch for a Compass                              57
Water Accidents                             279-288
Water Bottle                                    367
Water Hints                                     155

{400}


                                               PAGE
Waterproofing a Tent                            170
Water Supply                                    154
Waves                                           179
Weather Flags                                   157
West Point Military Academy                     343
What One Boy Did                                 90
What Scouting Means                               3
What to do When Lost in the Woods                67
Whistles                                        367
Whistle Signs                                   208
White House                                     341
White Pine                                      119
Wig-Wag or Myer Code                            204
Will                                            246
Wind, How to Tell Direction of                  157
Wireless Telegraphy                             210
Wireless Abbreviations                          205
Wireless Signs                                  204
Wireless Numbers                                204
Wireless. Receiving Set                         211
Wireless Sending Set                            213
Woodcraft                                    57-145
Woodlore                                      57-85
Work not Luck                                   251
Wounds Without Severe Bleeding                  267
Wounds With Severe Bleeding                     267
Wrist Grip                                      282

Yorktown, Va. (1781)                            328


THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS. GARDEN CITY. N. Y.



[Transcriber's Note: The following pages are advertisements.]

{401}

Do You Know This Manual From Cover To Cover?

Well, here is another rule for you to memorize:

"Whenever Hungry Eat Peter's Chocolate"

Alpine climbers, hunters, campers, and woodsmen of all descriptions
consider Peter's Chocolate the regulation food for camp or trail.

It is absolutely the most sustaining; has the most delicious taste
that always makes you want more, and does not create thirst.

Don't you go camping this summer without a liberal supply. You can get
the nut chocolate or the plain chocolate as you prefer, but be sure to
ask for Peter's, the Original Milk Chocolate.

Peter's comes in several varieties:

Peter's Milk Chocolate

Peter's Milk Chocolate Croquettes

Peter's Almond Milk Chocolate

Peter's Milk Chocolate with Roasted Hazelnuts

Peter's Bon-Bons

-----------------------------------------------------------
{402}

World Famous "SCOUTS"

Now on Sale!

Now's your chance to get the "Boy
Scout" Shoe, boys--that world famous shoe
about which you have read so much in the
magazines. It's making just as big a hit in
this town as it has made in the big cities.
Boys are "wild" about them--say they
never saw anything like them for baseball,
running, jumping, and all outdoor sports.

The "Boy Scout" Shoe

Toughest, lightest, most sensible,
everyday shoe made. Uppers are soft as
gloves. Soles wear two to three times as
long as ordinary soles. No linings. Coolest
and most healthful boy's shoe ever
invented.

COLORS
Olive, Tan and Black

Tell your pa that "Boy Scouts" outwear
two to three pairs of ordinary shoes.

Good-Luck Charm FREE
with each pair of genuine BOY SCOUT SHOES

Write us direct if your dealer does not
handle them and we will forward booklet
immediately.

The Excelsior Shoe Co., Portsmouth, Ohio

Little Boys', size 10 to 13-1/2; $2.00
Boys', size 1 to 5-1/2, $2.50
Big Boys' and Men's, size 6-10, $3.00

-----------------------------------------------------------
{403}

In conjunction with the Boy SCOUTS OF AMERICA we have published a book
called "Boy Scouts." The text of the book is written by Mr. J. L.
Alexander and the illustrations are by Gordon Grant. It is the only
illustrated book of the Boy Scouts. We have made arrangements with the
National Headquarters of the Boy Scouts of America to allow a
commission of two cents to any patrol on each book sold for ten cents
by the members of that patrol. We will send express collect, to the
Scoutmaster any number of these books which he thinks can be disposed
of within thirty days by the boys under him. At the end of that time
he is to send us eight cents for each book sold and return the
remaining books.

If a local organization is in need of funds to purchase pictures,
furniture, uniforms or anything else needful for its rooms or
activities, this affords an excellent opportunity for the boys to earn
part or all of the necessary amount.

This book, "BOY Scouts," will be sent anywhere for ten cents in stamps
or coin by

Minute Tapioca Co., Orange, Mass.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{404}

The Soft, Sure Silent Step of the Indian, the trapper and the guide is
yours in the city as well as on the trail, if you will simply attach
O'Sullivan's Heels of New Live Rubber to your ordinary shoes.

As you carry home with you the high, wholesome ideas of the woods, so
also retain the noiseless tread of the true scout by always wearing
O'Sullivan Heels.

The best known men today are wearing these heels. They give that
quiet, springy tread which shows the strong, self-reliant man.

Put O'Sullivan's on all your shoes. 50 cents per pair attached.

We have a free booklet especially for you on the subject.

O'Sullivan Rubber Company
131 Hudson Street
New York


-----------------------------------------------------------
{405}

SCOUT'S AXE


The Official Axe of the Boy Scout

Furnished with a Sheath of Chrome Tanned Leather to carryon the belt.

Manufactured by the makers of the famous Plumb "Anchor Brand" tools.

Solid steel of special analysis, from head to cutting edge. Double
tempered, making a good keen edge, hard--yet tough.

Highest grade Hickory handles, with special Forest finish, which
blends with the colors of the woods.

The best axe that money can buy or skill produce.

For use in forest or camp it is the handiest tool in a woodsman's kit.



FAYETTE R. PLUMB, INC.
Philadelphia     U. S. A.     St. Louis.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{406}

Scout Masters' Manual

A handbook especially prepared to aid the scout master in his work
with boys.

It is full of suggestions!

Programs for Scout Meetings; indoors and out, summer and winter; long
term camp, Scout games, etc.

Price 60 cent. postpaid
National Headquarters
200 Fifth Avenue
New York, N. Y.


-----------------------------------------------------------


Give a Flood of Light

This 14-candle-power lamp projects a bright, white light 150 feet and
fulfils every lighting requirement for the camper, Hunter and Angler.

The Baldwin Camp Light is only 3-1/2 inches high and weighs but 5
ounces. 25 cents worth of carbide gives fifty hours' light. Can be
hung up in the tent, fastened to bow of boat or worn on cap or belt,
leaving both hands free.

Sold by leading Hardware and Sporting Goods Dealers, or sent prepaid
upon receipt of regular price, $1.00

John Simmons Company
22 Franklin Street
New York

Write for this interesting booklet, sent free if you mention your
dealer's name and address


-----------------------------------------------------------


The Official Boys Scout Whistle

LOUD TONE Heavy Metal Gun Metal Finish

Secure from your dealer, or mailed on receipt of price and 2c extra
for postage.

BEHREND & ROTHSCHILD
Price 10 cents
355 Broadway
New York City
Strauss Bros. & Co., Sole Selling Agents


-----------------------------------------------------------
{407}

Boy Scouts and ScoutMasters

The Hill & Loper Co., Danbury, Conn., are making a special hat for
you--a hat that's built for scouting--one that will hold its shape and
color and all the snap and dash that are put into it, in spite of
"wind and weather." It's made to supply the increasing demand for a
better Boy Scout Hat. It's made from Fine Fur Felt--from the same
stock and by the same skilled workmen that produce the Hill & Loper
Co.'s famous "HI-LO" Felt Hats which are sold to the most particular
trade all over the country. It's "Scout" style, through and through,
and built on the thorough, thoroughly honest principles that your
great organization stands for. It is approved by your National
Council, and you'll approve it as soon as you see it and try it on.
You can get one of these Boy Scout or Scout Master Hats from your
local dealer or from National Headquarters, Boy Scouts of America. Be
sure to look for the Scout Seal, stamped on the Sweat Leather. None
genuine without this seal. If there is no dealer in your locality send
your size and the regular price--$2.00 for "Boy Scout" or $2.50 for
"Scout Master" Hat, direct to

National Outfitter
SIGMUND EISNER
Red Bank, New Jersey


-----------------------------------------------------------
{408}

BOY SCOUT SHOES

Joseph M. Herman & Co., of Boston, the world famous manufacturers of
Herman's U. S. Army Shoes, the kind the soldiers, sailors, marines and
militia wear, have created the moat comfortable and best wearing shoe
for boys that ever was known. It is made on the sensible orthopedic
last designed by army surgeons. The regular army stamp is on these
shoes and so is the official Boy Scout seal. Look for these marks when
buying. The genuine

U. S. Army--Boy Scout Shoe

is made of Shrewsbury leather with double sole of solid oak leather
reinforced so that it cannot break away. The upper has a cool lining
and is soft and pliable. This is not only the best shoe for wear that
a boy can put on but is handsome and snappy--one that any boy will be
proud to show to his friends. Be sure to mention your size when
ordering.

Price $2.50


Official Seal

Bottom Stamp
Herman's US Army Shoe
For Boy Scouts of America
T. E. O'Donnell
Inspector


-----------------------------------------------------------
{409}


Bailey's
Boy Scout Underwear
Consisting of Knit Shirts
Drawers and Union Suits

Made in plain and open mesh effect cloth, in olive drab regulation
color, also in Egyptian and white.

Shirts made athletic style as shown in cut.

Drawers finished with strong ribbed cuffs that reach just below the
knee which insures comfort to wearer.

Union suits also made in athletic finish.

Sizes from 24 to 34.

PRICES
Athletic Shirts    $.25
Athletic Drawers    .25
Union Suits         .50

If you cannot get these goods from your dealer, advise us and we will
mail or express them to you prepaid on receipt of price.

THE BAILEY KNITTING MILLS
FORT PLAIN. N. Y.

N. B. Boy Scout Underwear suggested by Master Charles S. Bailey of
Troop 2, Boy Scouts of America, Fort Plain, N. Y.


Showing Use of Shirt as a Jersey
Ideal for Use in Camp. Color, Olive
Drab, Matching Uniform


-----------------------------------------------------------
{410}


Official Equipments
'Tabloid' First-Aid
No. 709, for Patrol Leaders and Scout Masters      $2.00
No. 710, for Scouts                                $1.00

Special discount on orders for 1/2 doz. or more when ordered through
the local organization.

Burroughs, Wellcome & Co. 35 West 33d Street New York City

No. 709. 'Tabloid' First-Aid


-----------------------------------------------------------


Outfitters for Explorers, Campers, Prospectors, Hunters and Boy Scouts
Light Weight Water and Rot Proof Tents. Ask About Our Green Tents

ABERCROMBIE'S CAMP
TRADE MARK

Outing Clothes, Camp Outfits, Footwear
Canoes, Fishing Tackle, Guns  and Ammunition
DAVID T. ABERCROMBIE CO., 311 Broadway, New York
American Agents.
NEWLAND, TARLTON & CO., Safari Outfitters.
Nairobi, B.E. Africa

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Please Note Name and Address


-----------------------------------------------------------
{411}

Knives Recommended by Committee on Equipment of Boy Scouts of America
Ask your hardware dealer for these knives
Made to cut and stay sharp
Two Blades, Ebony Handle, "Easy Opener,"
Brass Lined, and German Silver Bolsters
Price 50 cents

Made to cut and stay sharp.
Stag Handle, Large Blade, Screwdriver,
Leather Punch, Can Opener, Brass Lining,
German Silver Bolsters
Price $1.00
New York Knife Co.
226 Fifth Ave., New York Works
Walden, N. Y.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{412}


"It's time you owned a Waltham"

The Watch for the Boy Scout as well as for the veteran. The boy of
today doesn't want a clock watch bought in a notion store at the price
of a toy. He wants an accurate watch bought from a jeweler--one he can
take pride in and one that teaches him to respect time. An accurate
time-piece, like scouting, cultivates habits of precision and
punctuality.

WALTHAM

Watches are noted time-keepers in every grade. There are moderate
priced Waltham watches that keep perfect time. Even low priced
Walthams maintain wonderful records for accuracy. The pride of owning
a watch of the world-wide reputation of Waltham, adds immensely to any
boy's happiness.

Send for Descriptive Booklet of Waltham Movements or Ask Your Jeweler.

WALTHAM WATCH CO.--Waltham, Mass.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{413}


Boy Scout Knit Union Suits
A New Kind of Underwear

Slip into the Suit, fasten it on the shoulders--and there you are!
That is the whole idea in a nutshell. A simple, sensible undergarment,
easy to get into, comfortable to wear, and very serviceable.

There is no "pull" or strain on any part, the suit fits smoothly and
comfortably and allows free action of the whole body.

Only four buttons on the whole garment, and they are so well sewn that
not even the most strenuous boy is apt to pull them off.

Boy Scout Union Suit
This label on every garment--None other genuine.
Made in sizes to fit every boy and youth

PATENT APPLIED FOR
Price. 50c per Suit
Ask your store-keeper for them,
if he hasn't, them, we'll supply you direct.
H. L Nelke & CO.
Manufactures
Nelke Building
Philadelphia


-----------------------------------------------------------
{414}


[Illustration: Photograph of two Scouts.]
MADE WITH A BROWNIE CAMERA.

The Camera for Field Service:

BROWNIE

Easy to carry on the march; simple to operate. Loads in daylight with
Kodak Film Cartridges. Ideal for the equipment of every detachment of
Boy Scouts. Negatives can be easily developed in the field--No
dark-room required.

Write for the Book of Brownies.

EASTMAN KODAK CO., Rochester, N. Y.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{415}


ATTENTION SCOUTS!
DAN BEARD
One of the National Scout Commissioner.

Has written a Library of Scout Books--books you must have for they
tell all about the life in fields and forests and on rivers and
streams--the things you want to know in your business.

READ THIS LIST

The Boy Pioneer Sons of Daniel Boone.  Illustrated by the author.
$2.00 net

  "The reader is told how to take part in all the old Pioneer games."
  --Phila. Press.


The Field and Forest Handy Book.  Illustrated by the author. $2.00

  "A book to be coveted by every active-minded boy capable of handling
  tools."--Chicago News,


The Jack of All Trades. Illustrated by the author. $2.00

  "Any boy who is handy with tools of any sort will enjoy this book."
  --Youths' Companion,


The Out Door Handy Book.  Illustrated by the author. $2.00

  "It makes a man of a boy and a boy of a man."--Charles Dana Gibson,


The American Boy's Handy Book.  Illustrated by the author. $2.00

  "It tells how to make all kinds of things--boats, traps, toys,
  fishing tackle, balloons, rear wild birds, train dogs,
  etc."--Indianapolis Journal.

Charles Scribner's Sons
New York City


-----------------------------------------------------------

THE NATIONAL CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION

Offers to Boy Scouts an immediate opportunity to earn good returns
from useful work in a great cause by acting as Subscription Agents for

American Conservation

The new illustrated monthly magazine published by the Association.

Handsomely printed, magnificently illustrated; every article written
by a recognized authority; full of interest, each month, for every
thoughtful man and boy in America.

Write for full details of our plan for enabling boys to earn money by
helping to put into more American homes a magazine in which every
thinking American is interested at sight.

American Conservation
Colorado Building
Washington, D. C.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{416}


"Be Prepared"
When you get your camp supplies don't forget to buy a box of
"STEERO"  Bouillon Cubes
Reg. U. S. Pat. Off
Made by American Kitchen Products Co., New York

Add them to the list of supplies on page 152 of your Handbook. A box
of 100 Steero Cubes is the right size for six boys for a week.

Steero Cubes will save a lot of cooking in camp. All you have to do is
to put a Steero Cube in a cup and pour boiling water on it. You can
make dandy soup for dinner, supper, or any time you're hungry. You
can't help getting it just right every time, and there isn't any waste
because

"A Cube Makes a Cup"

Send for Free Samples and try them at home, so you'll know just what
they are.

If the grocer, druggist, or sporting goods dealer doesn't have Steero
Cubes, send 35c for a box of 12 Cubes, prepaid, enough to make 12
cups. We also put them up in boxes of 50 and 100 Cubes--they are
cheaper this way.

Distributed and Guaranteed by
Schleffelin & Co.
215 William St.,
New York
Under Pure Food Law, Serial No. 1


-----------------------------------------------------------
{417}


SCOUTS!
Chief Scout Ernest Thompson Seton has written Books without which no
Scout Library is first-rate.

Here is a List of Them:

Animal Heroes     Illustrated by the author $2.00

  "The Histories of a dog, a cat, a lynx, a rabbit, two wolves and a
  reindeer * * * Written in a vein of fiction. Yet the general habits
  and mode of living of the animals are accurately
  described."--Philia. Press


Monarch, the Big Bear of Tallac. Illustrated by the author. $1.25$ net

  "A fascinating account of a Bear Family."--Providence Journal.


Lives of the Hunted.    Illustrated by the author. $2.00

  "There is nothing in Kipling's "Jungle Books" more intensely
  dramatic and absorbing than The Story of Krag, the Kookney Ram,
  Scotty's long hunt and its ending."--Brooklyn Eagle.


Wild Animals I Have Known.  Illustrated by the author.

  Tells the histories of such wild creatures as a wolf, a fox, a molly
  cottontail and others.


The Trail of the Sand Hill Stag.  Illustrated by the author. $1.50

  "Ought to make any boy happy and will furnish him some delightful
  hours." --Detroit Free Press.


Krag and Johnny Bear.      Illustrated by the author. 50 cents net


Tobo Rag and Vixen.     Illustrated by the author. 50 cents net


Charles Scribner's Sons    New York City


-----------------------------------------------------------


American Red Cross Abridged Text-Book on FIRST AID
GENERAL EDITION
By MAJOR CHARLES LYNCH
Medical Corps, United States Army

The attention of all Boy Scouts is invited to this small TEXTBOOK on
FIRST AID. It is now in use by a great number of Boy Scout
organizations throughout the country. In no respect can the Boy Scout
better fit himself for helping others than by learning First Aid and
this text-book will enable him to do so in a thoroughly satisfactory
manner and in the shortest space of time. The book contains everything
on the subject of First Aid which the Boy Scout ought to know and is
free from technical details which serve no useful purpose and only
result in confusing the student.

With 55 Illustrations. xii + 183 Pages. Paper Cover. 30c Postpaid

Can be purchased through any bookseller, American Red Cross Society.
or National Headquarters, Boy Scouts of America

P. BLAKISTON'S SON &: CO., PUBLISHERS
1012 WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA


-----------------------------------------------------------
{418}


Camping for Boys
H. W. Gibson

Illustrated, Cloth, $1

A Knapsack Full of Outdoor Wisdom

The author has put into this book his experience of twenty-two summers
of actual camping with boys. The twenty-three chapters are filled with
information such as this: where to go; what to take; how to layout a
camp, pitch tent, build a camp fire; what to cook and how to cook it,
how to get well if you eat too much of it; directions for long trips,
short trips, any trip at all; something to do every hour of the day,
from reveille to taps; first aid, games, nature study and that's not
half. 294 pages. 100 pictures.


-----------------------------------------------------------


At Home in the Water

Swimming, Diving. Water Sports, Life-Saving.
GEORGE H. CORSAN, Swimming Instructor, University of Toronto.
Cloth, 75 cents; paper, 50 cents.

The author has started thousands of men and boys on the way to mastery
of the various strokes--under arm, over arm, crawl, etc. Over one
hundred practical illustrations are shown. More value for less money
than can be found in any other book of the kind. "The methods of
illustrating are the best that can be devised, and the pictures convey
an extremely clear idea of what is meant. Mr Corsan's book stands with
the best, of which there are few, as a most complete work."--CHARLES
M. DANIELS, Champion swimmer of the United States, in the Playground.


-----------------------------------------------------------


From Youth Into Manhood.
WINFIELD S. HALL. M. D., Professor of Physiology. Northwestern University

Medical School. Cloth. 50 cents, postpaid. The standard hook on Sexual
Hygiene. "It is the only book of this order which I should care to
recommend. It compactly puts the physical facts of male life; adds a
very valuable chapter of practical advice on personal hygiene; then
stops, and lets the boy do his own thinking."
--Professor G. WALTER FISKE, Oberlin.


-----------------------------------------------------------


Life Questions of High School Boys

J. W. JENKS. Cloth, 40 cents; paper, 25 cent. The distinguished
Cornell Professor has given here brief discussions of Habit, Cheating,
Societies, etc., in a way that starts the boy thinking in the right
direction.

The boy has the brain and the will, he doesn't need anybody to think
for him or to decide for him. He needs to be guided into right ways of
thinking and deciding for himself. This book is such a guide. It
simply says, Here are two ways--which do you think is right. Very
well, do that.


-----------------------------------------------------------


Social Activities for Men and Boys

A. M. CHESLEY, Editor. Illustrated, cloth, $1. A book of nearly 300
plans and programs for cheerful occasions, gathered from all available
sources. All the material has been successfully used.

The book tells how to carry on receptions of different sorts; how to
play interesting and original games, indoors and outdoors, in the
water, as well as on land; how to promote an amateur circus or a
dramatic entertainment as well as a summer campaign or outing.
Considerable attention is given to the organization of clubs of all
kinds, civic, educational, and athletic.


-----------------------------------------------------------


Complete Catalog Sent on Request
ASSOCIATION PRESS
124 East 28th Street, New York
The five books bound in cloth, postpaid $3.00


-----------------------------------------------------------
{419}


More Ponies for Boys

Two Blooded Shetlands, each with Cart and Harness made especially to
fit the pony, will be given each month to boys who sell

The Saturday Evening Post


COUNTRY AND CITY BOYS

No matter whether your town is a large one or a small one, you have as
good a chance to earn a Pony Outfit as has a boy in any other town or
city. The ways of scoring equalize the opportunities of country and
city boys. Thus, Harry Royster, Yazoo City, Mississippi, earned our
last Pony Outfit by selling only 555 copies within two months.

Start Now To Earn Your Pony.

Your pony, guaranteed to be well-broken and safe for you to drive,
will yet be full of life and a good traveler. The complete outfit is
worth $150.00. (You can have cash if you prefer.)  If you want a pony,
write at once for details and for copies of the weekly. These you can
sell at five cents each. Full information will be sent you with the
weekly. Write today. Gold watches and other premiums for boys who do
good work.

The Curtis Publishing Company,
405 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{420}


The New Boy's Leather-Stocking

By Ernest Thompson Seton

Rolf in The Woods


Chief Scout Ernest Thompson Seton

Being the Adventure of a Boy Scout with Indian Quonab and Little Dog
Skookum in the War of 1812.

When Rolf Kittering crawled out of the window of his little attic room
that night to escape his infuriated and brutal uncle, there was no
refuge for him to seek except the camp of his chance friend, old
Quonab the Indian. The story of his life outdoors, of the fight with
the monster snapping turtle, of the journey to the great North Woods,
and how the boy came to know the intimate life of the wild creatures,
will make any boy's, or man's, heart beat faster with admiring envy.

The most exciting portion of all is where Rolf comes to put his new
knowledge into practice as a daring scout during the War of 1812.

Profusely illustrated and with marginal decorations by the author.
Fixed price, $1.50

By the Same Author

Two Little Savages.
Net $1.75 (postage 17c.)


Foresters Manual.
Cloth. Net, $1.00 (postage 10c.) Paper, net, 50c. (postage 5c.)


Manual of Signs and Sign Language (In Preparation.)
Cloth, Net, $1.00 (postage 10c.) Paper. Net. 50c. (postage 5c.)


By STEWART EDWARD WHITE

The Rule of the Game.
Fixed price, $1.40 (postage 15c.)

The Cabin

The Forest.
Illustrated.  Net, $1.50 (postage 15c.)

The Mountains.
Illustrated. Net, $1.50 (upstage 15c.)

The Pass.
Illustrated.  Net, $1.25 (postage 12c.)

Camp and Trail.
Illustrated. Net, $1.25 (postage 12c.)


Garden City
Doubleday, Page & Co.
New York


-----------------------------------------------------------
{421}


You Can't Be a Scout
  unless you learn how to use your hands in useful work: Carpentry,
  electrical work and so on.


You Need a Guide
  to show you the way, for all these mechanical matters are easy when
  you know how, but terribly difficult to puzzle out by yourself.


There's Only One Set of Books
  ever published which really does this, so simply and clearly that
  anybody can understand it. It's called


"The Library of Work and Play"
  and its ten volumes tell you all most people ever need to learn
  about

Carpentry
Mechanics
Electricity
Outdoor Work
Metal Work
Gardening and Farming
Home Decoration
Games and Sports
Housekeeping
Needlecraft

Cut off this coupon to-day and mail it to us and we'll send you full
information of this most useful and interesting set of books.

Doubleday, Page & CO.
Garden City, N. Y.

-------------------------------------------
Doubleday, Page & CO.
Garden City, N. Y.
Sent me the booklet descriptive of the
Library of Work and Play, and containing
colored plates, illustrations, etc.

Name     _____________________________
Address _____________________________
-------------------------------------------


-----------------------------------------------------------
{422}


The Boys' Magazine

is unquestionably the finest magazine in the world for boys. Each
issue is filled with fascinating stories and absorbing articles all of
intense interest to every live boy. Also each issue contains
departments devoted to Electricity, Mechanics, Photography, Carpentry,
Stamps and Coins. A big Athletic department, edited by Walter Camp is
a regular feature. Every one knows that Mr. Camp is the highest
authority on this subject in the country. This department is of great
value to every boy who wishes to excel in Athletic sports.

It will be of interest to our Boy Scout friends to know that we have
recently inaugurated a special department devoted entirely to the BOY
SCOUTS OF AMERICA. The manuscript and illustrations for this
department are specially prepared for us and forwarded each month
direct from National Headquarters.

A New Handsome Cover in Colors Each Month. Beautifully Illustrated
Throughout.

A BIG BARGAIN

FOR ONLY FIFTY CENTS we will send you THE BOYS' MAGAZINE for six
months AND a copy of the cleverest little book you ever read,
entitled, "Fifty Ways for Boys to Make Money" AND a "Reach" Base Ball
Fielder's Glove, (This glove is made of fine brown tan leather, felt
padded and leather lined, patent wide hump, web thumb and deep
pocket.)

Think of it! All the Above for Only Fifty Cents

Don't put this off but send in your subscription to-day. We will
refund your money promptly if you are not more than pleased with your
investment. (References as to our Responsibility, Hamlin Bank & Trust
Co., Smethport. Pa., or Dun or Bradstreet's Mercantile Agencies.)

Address
The Scott F. Redfield Co. 595 Main Street Smethport, Pa.

(THE BOYS' MAGAZINE is on sale for 10c a copy at practically every
news stand in America. Should you prefer to purchase copies each month
rather than subscribe, then your newsdealer will be glad to get our
magazine for you in case, of course, he does not already handle it.)


-----------------------------------------------------------

{423}


All Boy Scouts Should Subscribe for this Best Boys' Magazine in the World!

The American Boy

PAGES are given to the Boy Scout movement. Its Editor is a member of
the National Council. Ernest Thompson Seton, the Chief Scout,
contributes a page for each issue.

And listen to this! You're a bright, up-to-date fellow, you know
what's good, and you like the best of everything. But so far, you've
missed the best reading--the liveliest, truest, most fascinating
reading you ever set eyes on. 500,000 boys now read it.

You're probably used to reading the ordinary magazines that come to
the house, or newspapers or books. They are all good, but why not have
a magazine all your own, that comes every month to you, addressed in
your own name, and that is filled from cover to cover with stories and
anecdotes, and illustrated talks and latest news on sports, and--oh,
hundreds of things you want to know about--all written by the biggest
boys' authors in the country. And pictures! Say there are hundreds of
them! Beats sensational trash all hollow!

SUBSCRIBE TODAY!
Subscription Price $1.00 a Year.
Address:
THE SPRAGUE PUBLISHING CO.
No.128 Majestic Building, DETROIT, MICH.


-----------------------------------------------------------
{424}


For the Boy Scouts of America
Remington UMC .22 Rifles
Repeater, Single Shot

Quickness Of Eye, Steady Judgment, Self Confidence--these Are The
Characteristics Of Men And Boys Who Shoot.

Buy A Remington-UMC .22 Single Shot Or Repeater. It Is As Keen A Rifle
For Its Size As The Most Highly Developed Military Arm.

Remington-UMC--Single Shot Rifles List At $4.00 And Up, And The Boys'
Scout Special At $5.00--as Shown In The Illustration. It Is Especially
Built For Drill Use.

Remington-UMC--repeating Rifles List At $12.65 And Up.

These Rifles Are Built In The Same Factory By The Same Experts As The
Famous Remington-U.M.C. Big Game Rifles.

Send 10c in stamps for a beautifully bound and illustrated history of
the development of fire arms and ammunition from sling shot to present
day high power repeating rifles. This book contains many intensely
interesting stories of adventure.

Address Boy Scout Department
REMINGTON ARMS--UNION METALLIC CARTRIDGE CO.
299 Broadway,  New York





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