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Title: The Children's Book of Celebrated Pictures
Author: Bryant, Lorinda Munson, 1855-1933
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Children's Book of Celebrated Pictures" ***

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Author of "Famous Pictures of Real Boys and Girls," "Famous
Pictures of Real Animals," etc.


Published by The Century Co.
New York

Copyright, 1922, by
The Century Co.




FIGURE                                                          PAGE

1.   The Holy Family. Pintoricchio. Academy, Siena               3

2.   The Valley Farm. Constable. National Gallery, London        5

3.   Madonna and St. Jerome. Correggio. Parma Gallery, Italy     7

4.   The Wood-Gatherers. Corot. Corcoran Art Gallery,
         Washington, D.C.                                        9

5.   The Aurora. Guido Reni. Rospigliosi Palace, Rome           11

6.   Singing Boys. Franz Hals. Cassel Gallery, Germany          13

7.   St. Barbara. Palma Vecchio. Santa Maria Formosa, Venice    15

8.   Charles I and His Horse. Van Dyck. Louvre, Paris           17

9.   The Gale. Homer. Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts       19

10.  Madonna del Gran' Duca. Raphael. Pitti Palace, Florence    21

11.  Joan of Arc. Bastien-Lepage. Metropolitan Museum of Art,
         New York City                                          23

12.  The Fates. Michael Angelo. Pitti Palace, Florence          25

13.  Madonna of the Chair. Raphael. Pitti Palace, Florence      27

14.  Wolf and Fox Hunt. Rubens. Metropolitan Museum of Art,
         New York City                                          29

15.  The Night Watch. Rembrandt. Ryks Museum, Amsterdam         31

16.  The Assumption. Titian. Academy, Venice                    33

17.  The Melon-Eaters. Murillo. Pinakothek, Munich              35

18.  The Muses. Romano. Pitti Palace, Florence                  37

19.  "Come Abide with Us." Fra Angelico. San Marco, Florence    39

20.  The Supper at Emmaus. Rembrandt. Louvre, Paris             41

21.  Children of Charles I. Van Dyck. Dresden Gallery           43

22.  The Buttery. De Hooch. Ryks Museum, Amsterdam              45

23.  Coronation of the Virgin. Botticelli. Uffizi Palace,
         Florence                                               47

24.  The Wolf-Charmer. La Farge. City Art Museum, St. Louis     49

25.  The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails. Rembrandt. Metropolitan
         Museum of Art, New York City                           51

26.  The Spinner. Maes. Ryks Museum, Amsterdam                  53

27.  St. George and the Dragon. Carpaccio. Church of San
         Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice                        55

28.  The Grand Canal. Turner. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
         York City                                              57

29.  Song of the Lark. Breton. Art Institute, Chicago           59

30.  The Holy Night. Correggio. Dresden Gallery                 61

31.  The Gleaners. Millet. Louvre, Paris                        63

32.  St. Cecilia. Raphael. Bologna, Italy                       65

33.  Helena Fourment and Her Son and Daughter. Rubens. Louvre,
         Paris                                                  67

34.  The Harp of the Winds. Martin. Metropolitan Museum of Art  69

35.  The Tribute Money. Titian. Dresden Gallery                 71

36.  The Maids of Honor. Velasquez. Madrid Gallery, Spain       73

37.  The Nymphs. Corot. Louvre, Paris                           75

38.  St. Francis Preaching to the Birds. Giotto. Upper Church,
         Assisi, Italy                                          77

39.  The Governess. Chardin. Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna      79

40.  The Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. Santa Maria delle
         Grazie, Milan                                          81

41.  Sir Galahad. Watts. Eton College, England                  83

42.  The Duchess of Devonshire and Her Child. Reynolds. Royal
         Gallery, Windsor                                       85

43.  St. Agnes and Her Lamb. Andrea del Sarto. Pisa Cathedral,
         Italy                                                  87

44.  Whistler's Mother. Whistler. Luxembourg, Paris             89

45.  St. Christopher. Titian. Doges Palace, Venice              91

46.  The Blue Boy. Gainsborough. Private Gallery, Henry
         Huntington, Los Angeles, California                    93

47.  The Sleeping Girl. Van der Meer. Metropolitan Museum of
         Art, New York City                                     95

48.  St. Anthony and the Christ-Child. Murillo. Museum of
         Seville, Spain                                         97

49.  King Lear. Abbey. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
         City                                                   99

50.  Sunset in the Woods. Inness. Corcoran Art Gallery,
         Washington, D. C.                                     101

_Dear Children:_

The stories I am telling about the pictures and their painters in this
book are gathered from many countries. Some of them belong to very
early times when history was told to grown up people by story-tellers
at banquets and in the homes, on the street corners and public halls.
Some of the stories are legends and traditions that grew up with the
beginnings of the Christian era. All of them are taken from authentic
sources and many of them illustrate some natural law.

The artists who painted these pictures knew history and the early
myths, the fairy-tales, the legends and the traditions, the Bible and
the Apocrypha. We love these pictures because they are beautiful and
true, but really to understand them we must know what the artists had
in mind when they painted them.

If you learn to know these pictures and love them, I will make you
another book soon about statues and their stories.

With love and best wishes, from your friend,




In looking at pictures of the old masters you will often see one
called the "Holy Family." I want you to know who belonged to the Holy
Family. The grown people are Joseph and Mary, the father and mother of
Jesus; they had no last names at that time. The children are Jesus and
his cousin, John the Baptist, six months older than Jesus. Sometimes
the little John's mother, Elizabeth, is in the picture and sometimes
his father, Zacharias, is there also.

In this picture painted by Pintoricchio, Jesus is about four years old
and John four and a half. The Bible story gives very little about the
growing up of these children. Of Jesus it says, "And the child grew,
and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom; and the grace of God
was upon him." And of John it says, "And the child grew, and waxed
strong in spirit, and he was in the deserts till the day of showing
unto Israel."

One story from a very old book, "The Infancy," tells about Jesus
playing with the other boys. It says:

"And when Jesus was seven years of age, he was on a certain day with
other boys, his companions about the same age. Who when they were at
play, made clay into several shapes, namely, asses, oxen, birds, and
other figures, each boasting of his work, endeavoring to exceed the

"Then the Lord Jesus said to the boys, I will command these figures
which I have made to walk. And immediately they moved, and when he
commanded them to return they returned. He also made figures of birds
and sparrows, which, when he commanded to fly, did fly, and when he
commanded to stand still, did stand still; and if he gave them meat
and drink, they did eat and drink."

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute



JOHN CONSTABLE (1776-1837)

An old man, eighty-four years of age, lived in this house on "The
Valley Farm," in England. He was born here and he used to say that he
had never been away from this house but four days in all his life. He
asked Constable to come and paint a picture of his home. And what a
beautiful picture it is! The old house, snuggled down so close to the
little stream, could paddle its feet--if it had any--in the cool
water. And see how tenderly the tall trees keep guard over it. How we
wish that we could be there too! If only we could be in the punt--I am
sure it is a punt-boat even if one end of it is pointed--and be rowed
up and down in the delightful shade. Those two in the boat have no
doubt been for the cows and are driving them home to be milked.

John Constable liked to choose his subjects for his pictures from the
familiar scenes near his home. He used to say to his friends:

"I have always succeeded best with my native scenes. They have always
charmed me, and I hope they always will."




Correggio loved to paint darling babies, lovely angels, beautiful
women and splendid men. In this picture of "the Madonna and St.
Jerome," I want you specially to see St. Jerome and his lion. St.
Jerome, a very noted man who lived four centuries after Christ, was
the first person to translate the New Testament into Latin. It was
called "The Vulgate," because of its common use in the Latin Church.

When St. Jerome was thirty years old he went away from the city of
Rome and became a hermit and lived in desert places in the East. One
day, so the story goes, as he sat at the gate of the monastery a lion
came up limping as though he had been hurt. The other hermits ran away
but St. Jerome went to meet the lion. The lion lifted up his paw and
St. Jerome found a thorn in his foot. He took out the thorn and bound
up the poor paw, so the lion stayed with St. Jerome and kept guard
over an ass that brought the wood from the forest.

One day when the lion was asleep a caravan of merchants came along and
stole the ass. The poor ashamed lion hung his head before the saint,
and Jerome thought he had killed and eaten the ass. To punish him St.
Jerome had him do the work of the ass and bring the wood from the
forest. One day some time afterward the lion saw the ass coming down
the road leading a caravan of camels. The Arabs often have an ass lead
the camels. The lion knew that it was the stolen ass, so he led the
caravan into the convent grounds. The merchant found that he was
caught. St. Jerome was very glad to find that his lion was honest and
true. Whenever you see a picture of a saint with a lion you must
remember that it is St. Jerome, the great Latin scholar.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




The picture of "The Wood Gatherers" is very precious to us. It is the
last picture Corot signed after he was confined to the bed, a few days
before he died.

A curious story is told of Corot's painting this picture. He had an
old study of another artist's of a landscape with St. Jerome at
prayer: you remember I told you the story of St. Jerome and his lion.
Corot took the study and made a number of sketches of it. Somehow his
landscape would not fit St. Jerome, so he painted a man on horseback
and a dog going off into the woods. Then in the place of St. Jerome
praying he put a woman gathering bits of wood and another woman with a
bundle of fagots under her arm. Now the picture must have another name
and he called it "The Wood Gatherers." When you go to Washington, you
must not fail to see this picture in the Corcoran Art Gallery.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. THE WOOD-GATHERERS. COROT. Courtesy of the
Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C.]


GUIDO RENI (1575-1642)

Hyperion had three wonderful children, Apollo, the god of the sun,
Selene, the goddess of the moon, and Aurora, the goddess of the dawn.
When Aurora appears her sister, Selene (the moon), fades and night
rolls back like a curtain. Now let us look at this masterpiece by
Guido Reni carefully that we may know how wonderful is the coming of

Aurora, in a filmy white robe, is dropping flowers in the path of
Apollo (the sun) as he drives his dun-colored horses above the
sleeping Earth. The Horæ (the hours), a gliding, dancing group of
lovely beings, accompany the brilliant god. Each hour is clothed in
garments of a special tint of the great light of day, red, orange,
yellow, green, blue, purple, and violet. The golden-hued Apollo sits
supreme in his chariot of the sun.

The fresco--fresco means painted on fresh plaster--is on the ceiling
of the Rospigliosi Palace, Rome. The painting is as brilliant in color
to-day as it was when painted three hundred and fifty years ago.

Aurora, like most of the gods and goddesses, fell in love with a
mortal. She asked Zeus to make her husband immortal but she forgot to
ask that he should never grow old. And, fickle woman that she was!
when he became gray and infirm, she deserted him and, to put a stop to
his groans, she turned him into a grasshopper.

Her son, Memnon, was made king of the Ethiopians, and in the war of
Troy he was overcome by Achilles. When Aurora, who was watching him
from the sky, saw him fall she sent his brothers, the Winds, to take
his body to the banks of a river in Asia Minor. In the evening the
mother and the Hours and the Pleiades came to weep over her dead son.
Poor Aurora! even to-day her tears are seen in the dewdrops on the
grass at early dawn.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute



FRANS HALS (1584?-1666)

These jolly singers are Dutch boys. They are singing on the street or
in some back yard just as singers do to-day, though they lived nearly
three hundred years ago.

Hals was such a rapid painter that he could make a picture while you
wait. The story is told that one time young Van Dyck, the Flemish
painter who painted "Baby Stuart," went to see Hals in Amsterdam when
Hals was an old man. Van Dyck did not tell the old artist that he was
Van Dyck but simply asked him to paint his portrait, knowing what a
rapid painter Hals was. In an hour the picture was done. Van Dyck
remarked, as he looked at the portrait:

"That seems easy; I believe I could do it."

Hals thought he would have some fun, so he told the young stranger
that he would sit for him just one hour.

Van Dyck set his easel where Hals could not see him work and began to
paint. At the end of an hour he said:

"Your picture is finished, sir."

Hals, ready to laugh at the daub, looked at the portrait and the laugh
went out of his face. He then looked at Van Dyck, and cried out:

"You must be either Van Dyck or a wizard!"

You see, Hals had heard of Van Dyck and his rapid work, and knew that
only a master painter could make the splendid portrait in an hour.

[Illustration: Permission of Franz Hanfstaengl, New York City




St. Barbara, born A. D. 303, was a very beautiful girl. Her father, an
eastern nobleman, loved her so much and was so afraid something might
happen to her that he built a very wonderful tower for her home and
shut her up in it. And in that tower she studied the stars. Night
after night she looked at the heavenly bodies until she knew more
about the sun and the moon and the stars than any of the learned men.
But as she studied the shining bodies she decided that worshiping
idols, made of wood and stone, as her father did, was wrong. Finally
she learned about the Savior, and to show her faith in Christianity
she had some workmen who were making repairs on her tower put in three
windows. When her father came as usual to visit her, he asked in
surprise what the three windows were for. She replied:

"Know, my father, that through three windows doth the soul receive
light, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: and the three are

Her father was very angry when he found she had learned about the
Savior and had become a Christian. He condemned her to death and at
last took her out on a hill and killed her, but he, too, was struck
dead. St. Barbara is always represented with a tower that has three
windows in it.

Palma Vecchio painted this picture for some Venetian soldiers nearly
four hundred years ago. When the Germans bombarded Venice (1918) the
Venetians took the picture from the church to a place of safety.
Scarcely a week had passed before a bomb broke through the roof of the
church tearing everything before it at the exact spot where the
picture had hung. But "St. Barbara," one of the great pictures of the
world, was safe.




The horse in this picture of Charles I is probably the one Rubens gave
to Van Dyck. It is said that Rubens gave it as a present after Van
Dyck had painted a portrait of Helena Fourment, the master's second
wife, and presented it to him. Van Dyck was twenty-two years younger
than Rubens. You will remember that he was the master painter's
favorite pupil. Having Rubens as a teacher did not make the pupil a
great painter. Van Dyck was never more than a prince; just an heir to
the throne. Rubens was a king and sat on the throne.

The story is told that once Rubens was away from his private studio
when the students bribed the servant to open the door for them. They
stole into the master's studio to see "The Descent from the Cross,"
which he was then painting. By some mishap the culprits rubbed against
the wet paint and spoiled that part of the picture. Of course they
were terrified at the damage done. They finally decided that Van Dyck
was the one to repair the spot. The work was so well done that they
hoped Rubens would not see the repairs. But the first thing that
caught the eye of the master was that particular spot. He at once sent
for the students and asked who had worked on his picture. Van Dyck
stepped out from the others and frankly confessed that he was the
culprit. Rubens was so pleased with his frankness and also at the
skill of the work that he forgave them all.

King Charles I invited Van Dyck to come to England, and then he
knighted him and gave him a pension for life. The hundreds of pictures
of the royal family and court people of England left by Van Dyck show
us how rapidly he could paint, for the artist died when he was only
forty-two years old.



WINSLOW HOMER (1836-1910)

Winslow Homer lived in Maine, where he heard the roar of mighty waters
beating the rocks all day and all night. Some days the ocean grew so
angry because the winds whirled its waters about in such a cruel
manner that it would fling itself upon the sands and rocks as though
to tear everything to pieces. The waves would raise up like furious
horses champing their bits and foaming at the mouth. Somehow these
angry waves could never go beyond a certain point, and the mother
carrying her baby along the coast knows just the point at which the
waves must stop. Let us clap our hands and shout with joy that old
ocean cannot hurt that mother and her baby. Fill your lungs full of
that glorious breeze whipping their hair and clothes. Open your eyes
wide like the baby and let the salt air polish them until they sparkle
like diamonds as the baby's do.

Winslow Homer loved old ocean, and so do we! Let us love his pictures
of old ocean for he has taught us that that mighty power is under a
greater Power.

[Illustration: FIG. 9. THE GALE. HOMER. Courtesy of Worcester Art
Museum, Massachusetts]


RAPHAEL SANZIO (1483-1520)

I want you to learn everything you can about Raphael. He was so kind
and gentle and beautiful that everybody loved him. People said that
when he walked on the streets of Rome scores of young men went with
him until one would think him a prince. The pope gave him a large
order to decorate the Vatican, the pope's home. Every artist was
willing to help him because he was always ready to do anything he
could to help his brother artists.

Raphael only lived to be thirty-seven. When he died all Italy mourned
his death, and his funeral was one of the largest of any artist of his

When Raphael was only twenty-one he painted the "Madonna del Gran'
Duca." He had gone to Florence for the first time. We do not know
where the picture was for a hundred years after it was painted; then
the painter Carlo Dolci owned it. Again another hundred years went by,
and we find it in possession of a poor widow. She sold it to a
picture-dealer for about twenty dollars. It then went into the hands
of the grand duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand III, for the big sum of eight
hundred dollars. No amount of money could buy the picture to-day.

Ferdinand loved the picture so much that he always took it with him on
all his travels and the grand duchess, his wife, felt that her baby
boys were purer if she had the picture near her. It got its name
"Madonna of the Grand Duke" from the title of the family.




No young girl in history has had such a wonderful story as Joan of
Arc. She began to hear voices and see visions when she was a little
child. She was born in the tiny village of Domremy, France. Just like
the other little peasant girls around her she helped her mother about
the house and at the spinning. Also she went into the fields with her

One day when she was in the garden the Archangel St. Michael came to
her in a glory of light. He said she was a good little girl and that
she must go to church and that some day she was to do a great act; she
was to crown the dauphin as king of France at Rheims. Joan was afraid
and cried at what the angel told her, but St. Michael said, "God will
help you."

These messages kept coming to her until, when she was sixteen, the
voices insisted, "You must help the king, and save France."

France was in a terrible state at this time, 1428. The English held
most of France. The French king, Charles VI, became insane and died.
The son, Dauphin Charles, was weak and lazy and discouraged; he had no
money, no army, no energy, and like most cowards, ran from his duty
and wasted his time in wickedness.

Joan was still urged by voices to save France. At last a peasant uncle
went with her to a man in power to ask for troops. The man was angry,
and said sharply:

"The girl is crazy! Box her ears and take her back to her father." But
Joan did not give up. She insisted that some one must take her to
Dauphin Charles, that God willed it. She said:

"I will go if I have to wear my legs down to my knees." She went, and
she saved France by crowning the dauphin as Charles VII at Rheims. But
the French and the English people condemned Joan of Arc as a witch and
burned her at the stake. Too late they cried:

"We are lost! We have burned a saint!"

[Illustration: FIG. 11. JOAN OF ARC. BASTIEN-LEPAGE. Courtesy of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City]



When a new baby comes to a home, legend says, three beautiful young
girls come to take care of the baby all through its life, but no one
ever sees these young girls. Each one has a strange work to do. One,
called Clotho, carries a spindle on which is wound flax. The second,
named Lachesis, twists a thread from the spindle, called the thread of
life. And Atropos, the third, has a pair of shears ready to cut the
thread of life.

A funny story is told about Michael Angelo when he designed this
picture of "The Fates." An old woman annoyed the artist very much by
coming every day to see him. She insisted that he should appoint her
son a special place in the fighting line in the seige of Florence
(1529). Michael Angelo took revenge on the old woman by using her as a
model for all of the women in his "Fates." And that is why Michael
Angelo's fates are old women instead of young girls, as legend says
they are.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute



RAPHAEL SANZIO (1483-1520)

We like to believe that Raphael, in one of his daily walks in the
country, really did see this mother and her two little boys sitting in
a doorway. Of course he must paint them, and having no paper with him
he rolled up a barrel and made a sketch on the head of it. The story
says that this barrel was once a part of a great oak-tree that stood
by the hut of an old man, a hermit up in the mountains. And the mother
of the two boys, when a little girl, used to go to see the old man. He
loved these two--the little girl and the big oak-tree--and called them
his daughters.

He used to say that some day they would both be famous. That was more
than four hundred years ago, and to-day this picture of "The Madonna
of the Chair" is one of the most famous Madonna pictures. It is found
in almost every home in America and is a treasure that belongs to all
of us though it hangs in a gallery at Florence, Italy.

We know, too, that Raphael did not let any of his helpers work on "The
Madonna of the Chair"--in Italian, "Madonna della Sedia." He painted
every brush stroke himself, which makes it still more dear to us.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




The stables of Peter Paul Rubens were known the country over. No
prince in the land had more magnificent horses, and no cavalier could
ride with more grace and ease than Rubens.

When Van Dyck, the artist who painted "Baby Stuart," was ready to
leave the studio of Rubens to travel in Italy, the master gave him a
beautiful horse from his own stables. Van Dyck probably used this
horse as a model in his picture of "Charles I and his Horse."

Now look at Rubens on the splendid dappled white horse in "The Fox and
Wolf Hunt." His first wife, Isabel Brant, is on his right hand. She
carries her falcon balanced on her wrist, his wings spread out in
excitement. We feel that Rubens and his horse together are directing
every movement in the hunt. That horse has all the alertness of the
trained dogs and is just as eager in overcoming brute force as men
are. In fact we are so fascinated with his beauty and intelligence
that the cruel sport is almost forgotten in our interest in him and
his master.

Rubens painted a number of hunting scenes, and always he manages the
hunt with the skill of a master. The confusion of the rough-and-tumble
fight between the wild beasts and the horses, dogs, and men in Rubens'
pictures seems to untangle itself under his glorious color and skilful
arrangement. This is a picture you must see. When you go to New York
City never fail to visit the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

[Illustration: FIG. 14. WOLF AND FOX HUNT. RUBENS. Courtesy of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City]



One time, more than two hundred and fifty years ago, two little
children living in Amsterdam were playing at the edge of the city just
at evening. Soon they overheard some Spanish soldiers near-by talking
together. They began to understand that the men were making some kind
of plans and, listening very sharply, they found that the Spaniards
intended to attack the city of Amsterdam that night. The Spaniards
were fighting the Netherlands at that time. You can imagine how
frightened the children were. They knew that they must tell some one
about it at once. Very quietly they crept away from where the men
were, then ran for their lives to the town hall. The Civic Guard were
having a banquet there. Rembrandt has painted the scene just as the
little girl, in the center of the group, has finished her story. The
men are making ready to meet the attack. Some have on their armor,
some are polishing their guns, some have their drums, and all are full
of excitement.

When the painting was to be put in the new Ryks Museum, in Amsterdam,
it was found that the wall was too narrow for the picture. What do you
think the authorities did? The stupid men cut a piece off from each
side of the picture to fit it in its new place. Was ever anything so
silly? Even those pieces cut off would bring more money to-day than
the museum itself cost.

The men who had money at the time Rembrandt painted the picture were
angry because the artist would not make portraits as they wanted them.
They ignored Rembrandt, and he became very poor and died unknown.
To-day those rich men are forgotten and Rembrandt is known the world




Titian lived to be ninety-nine-years old and still painted pictures.
He was working on a painting when an awful plague broke out in Venice,
and he took it and died. Titian painted such wonderful pictures that
kings came to see them and rich noblemen paid big sums of money to own
them. Sometimes King Charles V would ride with Titian and would have
his courtiers pay tribute to Titian and wait on him. This made those
haughty men very jealous and very angry, but Charles V would say, "I
have many nobles, but I have only one Titian."

Titian's picture of the "Virgin going to Heaven" the whole world calls
one of the greatest pictures ever painted. Some day I hope you will go
to Venice, that Queen City of the Sea, and fasten your gondola at the
Museum door while you go in to see this picture. You will be so
dazzled with its bright color that you will hardly see the little
cherubs circling around the blessed mother. But I want you to look at
them; they are darlings: then look at the men all reaching up and the
Father in the sky looking down. The story of the picture is about
Mary, the mother of Jesus, going to heaven.




When the Spanish artist Murillo was a young painter he was very poor
and hardly knew where to get enough to eat. He would go to the
market-place and set up his easel and rapidly paint the scenes around
him. The people who came to the market to buy and sell saw these
pictures and bought them for a mere pittance.

Often beggar boys, who were everywhere in the market snatching fruits
and other eatables from the stalls, would pose for him as they hid in
some corner to eat their stolen dainties. These beggar-boy pictures
that Murillo sold for a song to keep his soul and body together began
to attract attention until finally they were looked upon as the
greatest pictures Murillo ever painted. People outside of Spain,
Murillo's native country, bought them until to-day scarcely a
beggar-boy picture of his is found in Spain.

This picture of "The Melon Eaters" is known far and wide as a great
masterpiece, and yet the boys were little rag-a-muffins, the pests of
the market people. Murillo knew the joys and sorrows of those boys
because he too at that time was very poor and hungry and no one was
giving him a helping hand. Do you suppose that when he was famous as a
painter he ever saw those boys? I think so, for he was greatly beloved
by his townspeople of Seville. They probably came to his studio many
times. Murillo painted many religious pictures for the churches of

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute



GIULIO ROMANO (1492-1546)

I am sure you have heard of the Muses. Romano, a pupil of Raphael's,
has left us this beautiful picture of them dancing with Apollo, their
cousin. The Muses were the daughters of Zeus (Jove or Jupiter), and
Memory. These lovely girls also come to every home to help care for
the new baby.

The Greek names of the Muses are rather hard to pronounce, but you
will want to call them by name. Then, too, each girl's name in Greek
letters is just below where she dances. Now begin at the left of the
circle. The first one, Calliope, stands for narrative poetry; No. 2,
Clio, is history; No. 3, Erato, is love-poetry; No. 4, Melpomene, is
tragedy; No. 5, Terpsichore, is dance and song. Now comes Apollo with
his quiver full of arrows. He is the god of the hunt and twin brother
to Diana, the goddess of hunt; also he is god of music and poetry. No.
6 is Polyhymnia, muse of hymn-music; No. 7, Euterpe, is song poetry;
No. 8, Thalia, is comedy, and No. 9, Urania, muse of astronomy.

Athene gave the Muses the winged horse, Pegasus. But alack and alas!
one of the poets became very poor and sold Pegasus to a farmer. He was
fastened to the plow, but he could not plow through the hard earth.
His spirit was broken and his body was weak. The angry farmer tried to
make him work, but how could he when he had no courage? But just then
a beautiful youth came and asked the farmer to let him try the horse.
Of course the man was glad to have any one help get the plowing done.
The young man petted the horse and slyly unfastened the harness as he
patted him. He mounted upon his back and Pegasus rose in the air, and
away they both went, Pegasus and Mercury. The farmer looked on with
amazement. How could a good-for-nothing horse that could not plow do
such a wonderful thing as fly?

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




Nearly two thousand years ago two men were walking together along a
dusty road in Palestine. They talked earnestly as they walked along of
a great event that had happened. A man called Jesus, the Christ, had
been crucified and buried, but after three days he was not found in
the tomb. As the men talked, a traveler joined them and asked:

"What is it ye talk about and are sad?"

And the men asked if he were a stranger in Jerusalem and did not know
the things that had come to pass.

The stranger said, "What things?"

Then the men told him of Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty
in deed and word before God and all the people. And they said that
they had all hoped He was the mighty one who was to save the world but
that He had been killed.

Then the stranger, who was Jesus himself, but the men did not know
Him, began to tell them the story of all things about himself. Still
they did not know Him, and as they came to the village of Emmaus and
the stranger made as though He would have gone further, the men said,
"Come, abide with us."

This picture, showing the men inviting the stranger, was painted by
Fra Angelico for the Dominican monastery in Florence, Italy. You will
find it over the entrance of San Marco, where it welcomes every
stranger who comes.

Fra Angelico was so kind and gentle and helpful that his companions
called him "Angel Brother"; in Italian, "Fra Angelico."

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




Rembrandt has taken the story of the two men and the stranger on their
way to Emmaus after they have gone into the house. You see the
disciples still did not know that the stranger was Jesus, the Christ.
But when He sat at meat with them, He took bread and blessed it and
brake and gave to them. Then they knew that it was the Savior who was
talking with them and sitting at the table with them. Rembrandt shows
the wondering men as they begin to recognize who their guest is, and
he makes us feel the warmth and gladness that fill their hearts when
they know that it is the risen Lord. The boy, too, lingers at the
Savior's side as though to hear the meaning of the scene. But as they
look, Jesus disappears out of their sight. When He is gone they say to
each other:

"Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way,
and while He opened to us the Scriptures?"

Rembrandt painted this picture after many sorrows had come to him. His
beloved Saskia, the mother of the "golden lad," Titus, was dead;
friends had deserted him and his patrons were gone. But the love of
people still filled the heart of the great painter.




The little boy standing between his brother and sister in this picture
is Baby Stuart, the same child that is in the picture of "Baby Stuart"
that you know so well. When Baby Stuart grew up he was crowned James
II, king of England (1685). His brother was Charles II, king of
England, and his sister was the mother of William III, king of
England. James II, Baby Stuart, had a daughter, Mary, who became Mary,
queen of England. When these cousins, William and Mary, grew up they
were married and crowned king and queen of England in 1689.

A funny story is told of the crowning ceremony. William was very short
and Mary was quite tall. It would not do to have Mary taller than her
husband, so a stool was brought for William to stand on. Now they are
the same height as they are crowned King William III and Queen Mary II
of England. When William and Mary ruled England the country was happy
and prosperous because love reigned in the royal household.

I have seen the stool that William stood on when he was crowned
William III of England. It is in Westminster Abbey, London. That is
another interesting bit of historic setting that you will see when you
go to visit England.

Sir Anthony Van Dyck, the Flemish artist, painted many pictures of the
royal families of England, especially the family of Charles I. He put
little dogs into his pictures so often that the people began to call
these little fellows "King Charles spaniels." To-day, two hundred
years after, they are still called King Charles spaniels.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute



PIETER DE HOOCH (1632?-1681)

Pieter de Hooch is a Dutch artist you are going to love. Usually you
can tell his pictures by the checked or plaid floors. The floors in
the homes in Holland are mostly made of squares of black and white
marble. Did you ever see a cuter little girl than this one in the
picture? She has come for her pitcher of milk. Her mother went to the
"buttery" for it: a buttery is a place for keeping casks and barrels
and bottles. We can see one end of the cask or barrel under the window
in the buttery. Now look into the next room and see the chair on a
little platform. That platform is quite common in the Dutch home and
is probably the place where mother or grandmother sits to read or sew
by the window. What a beautiful day it must be out of doors to make
the rooms so cheerful and bright! Hooch loved the sunshine and used it
to brighten every home he painted. The sunshine on the checked floors
makes his pictures sing with joy and happiness.

We can find very little about the life of the "Dutch little masters,"
yet the pictures they have left us are among our greatest treasures:
just little home scenes that you and I know about.

It is said that de Hooch often put in his people after he had finished
painting his picture. In one picture he has added a girl near a
fireplace to make the picture more balanced. We know that she was
added after the picture was made, for we can see the plaid floor
through her dress where the paint was too thin to cover the original
floor. Such little things tell us something of the method of work of
the Dutch painters.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




The children who are holding the book and ink-bottle in this picture,
"The Coronation of the Virgin," lived four hundred years ago. Their
names are Giovanni and Giulio de' Medici. Botticelli, the artist, knew
them well for he was born and brought up in Florence and used to spend
a great deal of time at the Medici Palace.

The boys were cousins. Giulio, the younger, was left an orphan when a
wee child and his uncle, Lorenzo the Magnificent, adopted him and had
him brought up with his own son Giovanni. The boys were nearly the
same age and grew up to be great and good men. Both of them were popes
of Rome. The older boy, Giovanni, was Pope Leo X and Giulio Pope
Clement VII.

Now look at the picture again. The Madonna is reading to her little
son, Jesus, "The Magnificat," that beautiful song from Luke, Chap. I,
v. 46-56, sung so often in our churches. Let us repeat the song

    My soul doth magnify the Lord,
        And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Savior.
    For He hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden:
        For, behold, from henceforth, all generations shall call me
    For He that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is
            His name.
        And His mercy is on them that fear Him from generation to
    He hath shewed strength with his arm;
        He hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.
    He hath put down the mighty from their seats,
        And exalted them of low degree.
    He hath filled the hungry with good things;
        And the rich he hath sent empty away.
    He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy;
        As He spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute



JOHN LA FARGE (1835-1910)

You see these wolves were once the old women gossips of the town, the
story says; and when these women were unkind in what they said about
people the Fates--I have told you another story about the Fates--the
Fates to punish them turned them into wolves. The Wolf Charmer, who
really is the old gypsy who killed the black cat of the village witch,
goes out into the night. The owl calls the wolves to attack the gypsy.
But the gypsy knew the old women before they were turned into wolves
so he calls them by name: "Kate, Anne, and Bee!" And soon they follow
him down the narrow path between the rocks and listen to his music on
the bagpipes. "A funny story!" you say. You know there are people who
have a strange power over wild animals.

John La Farge said about this picture, "I made it to be one of a
series of some hundred subjects, more or less fantastic and
imaginary." He never finished the pictures nor carried out his plan of
making these books for children. I am giving you "The Wolf Charmer"
because he painted the picture for you. Mr. La Farge named this
picture as the one he liked best of his paintings.

[Illustration: Courtesy of John La Farge

FIG. 24. THE WOLF CHARMER. LA FARGE. Courtesy of the City Art Museum,
St. Louis]



No artist in all history had a sadder life than Rembrandt. It was sad
because the people of Amsterdam were stupid and too blind to know that
a great man was living among them. Rembrandt could paint wonderful
portraits, and the rich people wanted their portraits painted. At
first all went well. The rich flocked to his studio and Rembrandt made
marvelous likenesses. Then the guilds of the great commercial houses
wanted pictures for their halls. They came to Rembrandt for these
pictures, but thinking that their money had bought the great artist
body and soul, they began to tell him how he should make the pictures
that each one might have equal prominence in it. Naturally Rembrandt
would not be bought off with money. His art was bigger than gold. The
picture that was really the turning point in his life was "The Night
Watch." I wish you would look at the picture again. You see the men
away back in the picture were jealous that they were not put in the
front row. All they cared for was to have a fine portrait of
themselves and Rembrandt was only interested in making a great

Rembrandt went on painting but no one bought his pictures. Many
sorrows came to him. It was when the world had forsaken him that he
painted "The Old Woman Cutting her Nails." Now you can understand why
Rembrandt could paint an old woman with human sympathy. We could love
that old woman because the unkindness of the world made her more
tender and true to suffering humanity. She is the old grandmother we
would go to if we were in trouble.

Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City]


NICOLAES MAES (1632-1693)

This old woman is spinning flax. Have you ever seen a flax wheel? When
you go to Holland try to visit Dordrecht, and if possible, go into a
real Dutch home. There you may see some one, the grandmother maybe,
spinning flax; then you will know that this picture is an actual

Nicolaes Maes, who painted the picture, was born in Dordrecht or Dort.
This city is said to be the oldest city in the Netherlands; it was
founded in the tenth century. An old woman spinning was a familiar
scene to Maes. Now look at this spinner closely. She will not mind,
for she is too intent on picking up a thread, possibly a broken or a
knotted one. Maes saw a picture in the old woman's dull red dress and
bright red sleeves. He liked the brown wheel and the yellow floor and
the beautiful bit of blue cloth thrown over the wheel-base. Then he
saw how beautifully the white kerchief and apron and wall caught the
light. He saw the helpfulness of the rugged old hand, worn and scarred
as it was, yet patient and firm in repairing a mistake.

Maes's "The Spinner" and Rembrandt's "The Old Woman Cutting her Nails"
make the tasks of every-day life very human. We in America owe much to
these old Dutch women and to the artists who have made them live for

This picture of "The Spinner" is only sixteen and one fourth inches
high and thirteen inches wide, yet that old woman at her
spinning-wheel is as much a real person in the room where she hangs on
the wall as she was when Maes painted her, nearly three hundred years
ago. I want you to love these little Dutch pictures; they are so
honest and true and tell us about real people and real things, and
they make us feel that beauty is everywhere. Now look at your
grandmother as she mends your stockings and see how beautiful she is
with the light on her dear old face and hair.




St. George, a noble youth of Cappadocia, was one of the oldest and
most noted of the saints. The story always told of him is his killing
the dragon. Once upon a time St. George was going through Palestine on
horseback when he came to the City of Beirut. There he found a
beautiful young girl in royal dress weeping outside the walls of the
city. When he asked her why she was crying, she told him that a
terrible dragon lived in the marshes near the city. And to keep him
from destroying every one in the city, each day two young girls must
be fed to him. These young girls were chosen by lot, and this day she,
Cleodolinda, the king's daughter, must be eaten by the dragon.

St. George told her not to be afraid for he would destroy the dragon.
But she cried:

"O noble youth, tarry not here, lest thou perish with me! but fly, I
beseech thee!" St. George answered:

"God forbid that I should fly! I will lift my hand against the loathly
thing, and will deliver thee through the power of Jesus Christ!"

Then St. George, rushed at the dragon and thrust his spear into his
mouth and conquered him. He then took the young girl's mantle and
bound the beast, and she led him into the city to her father. That day
twenty thousand people of the city were baptized.

As time went on the name of St. George became very great. From the
time that Richard I--the Lion-Hearted--placed his army under the
protection of St. George the saint became the patron saint of England.
In 1330 the order of the Garter, the highest order of knighthood in
Great Britain, was founded and on its emblem is a picture of St.
George and the dragon.

Carpaccio, a Venetian artist, painted this picture of "St. George and
the Dragon." He painted many other stories of saints.




Venice is a very curious city. It is really built on stilts on top of
the water. Its streets are canals. Instead of having street-cars and
horses and taxicabs everybody goes in long boats called gondolas. The
main street in the city is the Grand Canal, and in this canal come all
sorts of people with all sorts of water-crafts.

The children play in the side streets just as you do except that they
swim in the water instead of running on the ground. Even the babies
are in the water fastened to the door-steps by a rope around their
little bodies. How they do coo and gurgle as they paddle their little
hands and feet like young frogs!

Turner shows in this picture the Grand Canal filled with ships from
other countries with gaily colored flags fluttering in the breeze. Do
you see the tower at the left in the picture? That is the Campanile,
the bell-tower. This wonderful tower fell down flat in 1902. I talked
with a man who has a store just opposite the tower, a few weeks after
it fell. He said to me: "I thought it would fall on my store and
destroy everything. It began to tip; then all at once it fell flat
just where it stood." The Venetians soon built it up again.

When Napoleon, the great French emperor, took Venice, he rode up the
inclined plane of this tower on his horse and stood on the very top
overlooking the sea.

[Illustration: FIG. 28. THE GRAND CANAL. TURNER. Courtesy of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City]



    Up with me! up with me into the clouds!
      For thy song, Lark, is strong;
    Up with me, up with me into the clouds!
                Singing, singing,
    With clouds and sky above thee ringing,
      Lift me, guide me till I find
    That spot which seems so to thy mind!


Can you not almost hear this girl singing? The sun is just coming up.
The lark is rising in the sky, singing! The girl has come out to work
in the fields; a peasant girl. Barefooted, barehanded, she stands
straight like a soldier of work with her head lifted to drink in the
morning air as she sings.

One morning early I was driving through the country roads in the south
of England when larks began to rise from the fields where the workmen
were, just like this lark from the French field, and how they did
sing! I stopped and listened, watching them go up higher and higher,
their song growing fainter and fainter, and then they disappeared.
Where did they go? Let us ask this French peasant girl. Do you think
that she can tell us? If she cannot, who can?

[Illustration: FIG. 29. SONG OF THE LARK. BRETON. Courtesy of the Art
Institute, Chicago]



It is a wonderful story, the story of the Holy Night. The mother and
father had traveled a long way; and when they came to Bethlehem every
place was taken so they found a bed in a cave. In the night a baby boy
came to the mother, and she "wrapped Him in swaddling clothes, and
laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in an inn.
And there was in the same country shepherds abiding in the fields,
keeping watch over their flocks by night. And, lo, the angel of the
Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone around about
them; and they were sore afraid.

"And the angel said unto them, Fear not; for behold, I bring you good
tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is
born this day in the city of David, a Savior, which is Christ, the
Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; ye shall find the babe
wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there
was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God,
saying, Glory to God in the Highest, and on earth peace, good will
unto men.

"And it came to pass as the angels were gone away from them into
heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us go even to Bethlehem
and see this thing which has come to pass, which the Lord has made
known to us. And they came with great haste, and found Mary and
Joseph; and the babe lying in a manger. At first a bright cloud
overshadowed the cave but on a sudden the cloud became a great light
in the cave, so that their eyes could not bear it. But the light
gradually decreased until the Infant appeared, and sucked the breast
of his mother, Mary."

The picture shows us the shepherds in the cave worshiping the young
child, Jesus, the Christ.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




Millet was a French peasant boy--very poor. He says his grandmother
would come into his room early in the morning and call:

"Awake, my little François; if you only knew how long a time the birds
have been singing the glory of the good God!"

He would insist when he was helping in the fields that there was
beautiful color over the plowed ground, and when the other fellows
laughed at him, he would say:

"Wait, some day I will paint a picture and show you the color."

After he was an artist he was going by a field one day when a peasant
cutting grain called to him:

"I would like to see you take a sickle."

"I'll take your sickle," Millet answered quickly, "and reap faster
than you and all your family."

Of course the man laughed, for how could an artist cut grain. He soon
stopped laughing, for Millet cut much faster and farther than he

Millet would often go into the forest just back of his house to rest
after painting all day. Then he would say:

"I do not know what those beggars of trees say to each other, but they
say something which we do not understand, because we do not understand
their language."

Millet's work is often called "the poems of the earth."

Once when I was in Barbizon I found the gate open into Millet's
door-yard. Of course I walked in, but the owner insisted that I walk
out again. I shall never forget the peep I had of the little garden
and the doorway and the long rambling house. That Millet lived there
with his large family and there painted the pictures we love makes the
place a joy to us.



RAPHAEL SANZIO (1483-1520)

Did you know that St. Cecilia invented the organ, that wonderful
musical instrument in our churches? Cecilia was born in Rome sixteen
hundred years ago. She was a beautiful young girl who loved music and
composed many hymns. The organ she dedicated to God's service.

When Cecilia was married, her husband, a rich nobleman, was converted
and baptized. He knelt by the side of Cecilia, and an angel crowned
them with crowns made from roses which bloomed in paradise. The first
thing Valerian asked was that his brother, who was a heathen, might be
converted too. They sent for the brother, and when he came and found
the room filled with the sweet fragrance of roses, though it was not
the rose season, then he too became a Christian.

The people of Rome were very unkind to Cecilia and Valerian and his
brother because they preached the story of Jesus, the Christ. At last
they killed them. St. Cecilia is the guardian saint of music and is
always shown in art with the organ, as you see in this picture by
Raphael. The man standing at the left of the picture with his hand up
to his face is St. Paul. This is the most famous picture of St. Paul.
Raphael shows the group listening to the heavenly choir while the
earthly instruments of music have fallen at Cecilia's feet broken and
out of tune.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




This picture of "Helena Fourment Rubens and Her Son and Daughter" was
really painted to honor the boy. It has always been the custom in
Europe to pay special attention to the boys in the home and keep the
girls very much in the background. It is very easy to see how pert the
little Albert Rubens is, and how subdued and meek is his sister. The
boy has the "Lord of Creation" air that would not be good for him in
America. We love the picture, for Rubens, the father, shows us plainly
the old idea that the boy rules the home. Naturally the father would
know the traits of his own children but not always would he allow us
to know them too.

Rubens was so wonderful as an artist, as a man to settle quarrels, and
as a beautiful gentleman that all Europe did him honor. He was sent to
see the ruling powers in England, in Spain, in Italy, and in France.
Each ruler entertained him as a royal guest, and Rubens painted
masterpieces for each in return. His paintings were the wonder of the
age. It is said that his fellow-artists looked with jealous eyes at
his flesh tints, and that all painters since have been in despair
trying to equal him. He left hundreds of pictures and hundreds of
sketches. The sketches alone are bringing many hundreds of times their
weight in gold.



HOMER MARTIN (1836-1897)

About a dozen years ago Europe began to wonder if America had any art
worth considering. She invited us to send samples of our paintings
that her critics might judge of our work. Among the pictures selected
was Homer Martin's "The Harp of the Winds." At once Europe saw that an
American artist had painted a masterpiece.

This scene is on the River Seine, a short distance from Paris. Was
anything ever more simple? Slender willow-trees almost leafless, bare
rocks with a few scrubby bushes, a tiny village sheltered in a curve
of the river--what is there to suggest a picture? And yet something
grips us. We seem to be at the beginnings of creation. Nature is
confiding in us. We are hearing the winds play on the harp to the
listening river. See how lovingly the water mirrors those harp strings
all sparkly with gold and green! I wonder if these willows make a harp
or a lyre with their tall stalks reaching to the sky? Do you remember
how, when Mercury found a tortoise, he took the shell and made holes
on both sides and strung nine strings across it--one for each
Muse--and gave it to Apollo? I think this Harp of the Winds has nine
strings in memory of Mercury's lyre.

[Illustration: FIG. 34. THE HARP OF THE WINDS. MARTIN. Courtesy of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City]



Every child must know "The Tribute Money," painted by Titian, for no
artist understood the scene better than he did. Remember that the bad
men in Palestine were determined to find something that Jesus, the
Christ, had done against the Roman Government so they could trap him.
At last they sent one in authority to question him.

But Jesus said, "Bring me a penny, that I may see it." And they
brought him a penny.

And Jesus said, "Whose is this image and superscription?"

And the man was forced to say, "Cæsar's."

Then Jesus made that famous reply that people use so often to-day:
"Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and to God the things
that are God's."

Titian shows the moment when the tax-gatherer must say that the penny
belonged to Cæsar, the Roman emperor. It had Cæsar's portrait on it
and Cæsar's demands written on it. Look carefully at the two faces and
the two hands, and tell me what you think of the two men as Titian
shows them to us.

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




If it had not been for Velasquez we should know very little about the
little princes and princesses of Spain in the time of Philip IV, about
the middle of the sixteenth century. He made many portraits of these
children, especially of the little Princess Margarita.

One day when Velasquez was painting a portrait of Philip IV, the
king's little daughter Margarita came into the room attended by her
maids of honor and a splendid dog. The king was so delighted with the
little group that he told Velasquez to make a picture of them just as
they stood there before him. Now look at the picture and you will see
in the looking-glass at the back of the room the reflection of the
king and the queen. At the easel stands Velasquez, the artist, with
his palette and brushes. The wee fair-haired princess is the center of
the group. The strange-looking little women, her maids of honor, are
dwarfs. And see what a magnificent fellow the dog is, lying so
contentedly on the floor right in front of us.

When the picture was finished, and the people went to see it, many of
them asked, "Where is the picture?" The little Margarita and her maids
are so alive and those people standing around seem so real that no one
thought they could be painted on canvas.

Velasquez made such wonderfully real likenesses that some one told
this story of one: One day the King came to Velasquez's studio and
seeing, as he supposed, one of his admirals whom he had sent to take a
command a few days before, he spoke angrily:

"What! still here? Did I not command you to depart? Why have you not
obeyed?" Of course the admiral did not answer, and then the king found
that he had been angry at a portrait.




Everybody loved Père Corot--Papa Corot, as he was called. His happy
manner and lovely smile won for him the name of the "happy one." I
want you to know what Papa Corot says, in a letter to a friend, about
himself and his painting. He writes:

"Look you, it is charming, the day of a landscapist. He gets up at
three in the morning, before sunrise, goes and sits under a tree, and
watches and waits. Not much can be seen at first. Nature is behind a
veil. Everything smells sweet.

"Ping! a ray of yellow light shoots up. The veil is torn, and meadow
and valley and hill are peeping through the rent.

"Bing, bing! the sun's first ray--another ray--and the flowers awake
and drink a drop of quivering dew. The leaves feel cold and move to
and fro. Under the leaves unseen birds are singing softly. The flowers
are saying their morning prayers.

"Bam! the sun has risen. Bam! a peasant crosses the field with a cart
and oxen. Ding! ding! says the bell of the ram that leads the flock of

"Bam! bam! all bursts--all glitters--all is full of light, blond and
caressing as yet. The flowers raise their heads. It is adorable. I
paint! I paint!

"Boom! boom! boom! The sun aflame burns the earth. Everything becomes
heavy. Let us go home. We see too much now. Let us go home."

You see now why Corot could paint such a lovely picture as "The
Nymphs." He saw these gauzy creatures in the early morning light and
painted them before the sun scattered them to the four winds.



GIOTTO DI BONDONE (1266?-1337)

One time more than six hundred years ago St. Francis preached the
dearest sermon to "My Sisters the Birds" that you ever heard. He said
to them as they lifted their little heads to listen to his words:

"Ye are beholden unto God your Creator, and always and in every place
it is your duty to praise him! Ye are bounden to him for the element
of the air which he has deputed to you forever-more. You sow not,
neither do you reap. God feeds you and gives you the streams and
fountains for your thirst. He gives you the mountains and the valleys
for your refuge, tall trees wherein to make your nests, and inasmuch
as you neither spin nor reap God clothes you and your children, hence
ye should love your Creator greatly, and therefore beware, my sisters,
of the sins of ingratitude, and ever strive to praise God."

St. Francis then made the sign of the Cross and sent the birds north,
south, east, and west to carry the story of the Cross to all mankind.

When Giotto, who painted this picture of "St. Francis Preaching to the
Birds," was a little boy, he took care of his father's sheep in the
fields. One day a noted painter, Cimabue, found Giotto drawing a sheep
on a flat rock with colored stones. The picture of the sheep was so
lifelike that the great man asked the boy, Giotto, to go with him and
become an artist. He went, and one day years afterward the pope sent
to Giotto for a sample of his work. Giotto sent him a big round O. It
pleased the pope to find a man so original, and he gave Giotto many
orders for pictures. To-day the saying is "Round as Giotto's O."

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




When Chardin began to paint pictures he went into the French homes and
painted pictures of brass pots and kettles, of fruits and vegetables.
Then he took common scenes of life and gave us a number of pictures
showing just what was going on in the homes and back yards.

The French people were not used to having an artist see beauty in the
every-day things they were doing; artists had been painting the rich
for the rich. Everybody began to love the pictures Chardin painted.
This is a very simple story in "The Governess." The child--is it a boy
or a girl?--is now ready to go to school. He--I believe he is a
boy--is hearing some advice, and I do not think he is pleased, for he
has a little frown on his face. His dress is peculiar. The French
children two hundred years ago did not dress as you do to-day. He is
the same kind of a child that you are, I am sure, and you and he would
soon be great friends.

Chardin's color was so wonderful that one of his artist friends cried
out: "O Chardin! it is not white, red, or black that you grind to
powder on your palette; it is the air and the light that you take on
the point of your brush and fix on canvas."

Chardin's pictures are as beautiful and bright to-day as they were
when he painted them.




I want you to know the disciples of Jesus just as Leonardo da Vinci
painted them four hundred years ago. Leonardo spent months among the
men of Milan, Italy, looking into their faces and talking with them.
When he began to paint "The Last Supper" he had gathered men together
so like these twelve disciples that we feel we can know them as Jesus
knew them. For three years those men of old walked with Jesus and
talked with him as they went up and down Palestine; and at last, on
that wonderful night, they met with Him in the upper chamber to eat
with Him the Last Supper. Those disciples did not know that it was the
last meal they would eat with Jesus before he was hung on the cross.

We shall begin in the center of the table and name the disciples as
Leonardo has them in the picture. First is the Savior. At his left is
James with his arms spread out in distress; back of him is Thomas with
his finger uplifted; then Philip rising with his hand on his heart;
next Matthew, his arms pointing to the Savior while he turns toward
the two near the end; next to him is Thaddeus; and then Simon. On the
other side of Jesus sits John, the beloved disciple. His hands are
folded and his eyes are cast down. Next to John is Judas, the
betrayer; he holds the bag clutched in his right hand and near him is
the overturned salt cellar. Leaning back of Judas is Peter with one
hand on John's shoulder; next to Peter is Andrew; then James, the
less, laying one hand on Peter's arm. At the end of the table is
Bartholomew, who has risen resting his hands on the table. These men
are all asking, "Is it I?" For Jesus had said, "He it is to whom I
give a sop."




Of all the stories of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table
none is so strange as that of Sir Galahad. Its beginning is in the
upper chamber at the Last Supper with Jesus and his disciples. Legend
says that the cup used by our Savior at the Last Supper was the Holy
Grail. Joseph of Arimathea, who bought the cup from Pontius Pilate,
used it to catch the blood that flowed from the pierced side of our
Lord. The cup, or Holy Grail, was kept in the Convent of the Holy
Grail by the descendants of Joseph of Arimathea.

The cup had marvelous powers in the hands of a perfect knight.
Centuries passed and no perfect knight came to claim the Holy Grail.
Then King Arthur founded the Knights of the Round Table. One seat at
the round table was always vacant waiting for the sinless youth. Many
tried to sit in the "seat perilous," as it was called, but the seat
let each one down to disappear forever.

At last an old man--Joseph of Arimathea himself--brought a boy and
seated him in the vacant chair. The knights were frightened but the
boy sat unharmed and above the seat appeared the words:


King Arthur knighted him and sent him forth to find the Holy Grail.
Years went by and awful trials and temptations came to Sir Galahad. He
did not yield to the bad things that came, but kept looking for the
Holy Grail. At last he held the cross before his face to keep off his
tormentors when before his eyes he saw the cup, and the power of the
Holy Grail came to him.

This picture of Sir Galahad in Eton College, England, hangs in the
chapel opposite the entrance door where each boy passes in on his way
to morning and evening prayers.




Sir Joshua Reynolds ought to be called "the painter of little girls."
No artist ever painted a larger number of little girls. And no artist
ever knew better than he how to get the confidence of children, boys
or girls.

One time a little boy in London was to carry a flag in a procession.
What do you think he did? He went to Sir Joshua Reynolds, the artist
whom no one dared to interrupt, and asked him if he would paint a flag
for him. This pleased the great man. When the boy proudly displayed
his flag, every one asked:

"Where did you get such a wonderful flag?"

You can guess how proud the boy was to say, "Sir Joshua Reynolds
painted it for me!"

This picture of "The Duchess of Devonshire and her Child" is one of
the greatest pictures Sir Joshua ever painted. The original painting
is now in the magnificent country seat of the Duke of Devonshire at
Chatsworth, England. Sir Joshua had a way of making his pictures
sparkle and glisten that was unknown to other artists. One of our own
artists, Gilbert Stuart, when in London, was copying a very valuable
portrait by Sir Joshua. He thought he saw one of the eyes move. He was
horrified to find that it really was moving down on the cheek. He
grabbed the picture and ran into a cold room and then worked the eye
back in place. The secret was out! Sir Joshua Reynolds had used wax to
make his pictures glitter and, alas, the glitter would not last.



ANDREA DEL SARTO (1486-1531)

One of the most beautiful pictures of "St. Agnes and her lamb" was
painted by Andrea del Sarto,--"Andrea the faultless," as he was
called. It is in the cathedral at Pisa.

St. Agnes was a Roman girl who lived three hundred years after the
birth of Jesus. Her father and mother were heathens, but their little
daughter became a Christian when a mere child. She did not tell her
parents that she loved Jesus, but when she refused to worship idols
they knew that she had become a disciple of the Master Christ. This
made them so angry that they handed her over to the Roman rulers to be
punished. These wicked men tried in every way to persuade Agnes to bow
down to their gods made of wood and stone. When she would not bow down
to them they tried to force her to worship the idols.

They gave her over to the soldiers and ordered them to take her
clothes away, but immediately her hair grew and covered her, and
angels came and gave her a shining white garment. She even refused to
marry the son of the Roman magistrate. The son thought that he could
compel her to consent to the marriage after she was persecuted, but he
was struck blind when he tried to see her.

When St. Agnes saw what great sorrow came to the home of the young
nobleman because he was blind, she prayed for him and his eyesight
came again. His father was so thankful that he pleaded for her life,
but the people said,

"She is a sorceress: she must die." Then they tried to burn her, but
the flames burned her tormentors and did her no harm. At last she was
killed with a sword. She is always represented with a lamb.

Michael Angelo wrote to Raphael about Andrea del Sarto: "There is a
little fellow in Florence who, if he were employed as you are upon
great works, would make it hot for you."

[Illustration: Courtesy of Pratt Institute




The story about Whistler and his mother is rather a sad one. He went
to Europe when he was a young painter and told his mother as he
started that he would come home to her when he had made a success. But
he never made a success in money. He painted this picture of his
mother and for twenty years tried to sell it. He offered it to his own
country--the United States--for five hundred dollars. We were so
stupid that we did not know that the picture was a masterpiece and
that no amount of money could buy it later on. But the people of Paris
began to feel that Whistler, the American artist, was a great master,
and the city bought the picture, "Whistler's Mother." Of course we can
never own the picture now, although it is an American mother, unless
the French people should give it to us. But we do not deserve it, do

After a number of years Whistler's mother went to Europe to make a
home for her wonderful son. She died in Chelsea, and to-day the mother
and son are side by side in the little churchyard of Chiswick, near




Christopher, or Offero, was born in Palestine in the third century. He
was a giant in size but ignorant and poor. He felt that he could not
work for any one who was afraid of any one else. He wandered over the
country and at last he came to a powerful king and offered to work for
him. The king thought it very fine to have a giant for a servant. One
day Offero stood by the king's side while a minstrel sang a song about
Satan. Every time the name of Satan was spoken the king crossed
himself. Offero was puzzled, for he never had heard of Satan, nor of
Jesus. When he found that the king was afraid of Satan, Offero went to
find the man the king was afraid of.

Offero found Satan and became his servant. But as they went through
the land Offero saw that Satan always went away around the little
shrines. Offero asked Satan why he did that. Satan said he did not
like to come near the cross where was the crucified One. Then Offero
knew that he was afraid of Jesus.

He went out to find Jesus. At last an old hermit told Offero to go to
a river where people were often drowned and to carry every one across
on his back, and that maybe he would find Jesus. Offero built himself
a hut and spent years carrying people over the stream and no one was
drowned. One stormy night Offero thought he heard a child's voice
calling him. He went out two or three times. At last the child
appeared and asked Offero to carry him over. Offero started. The storm
grew worse and the water rose high and the child grew very, very
heavy. When Offero set the child down, he said, "I feel as though I
had carried the whole world!" The child answered:

"Offero, you have carried the maker of the world. I am Jesus, whom you have
sought. You shall be called Christ-Offero--the Christ-bearer--from now




Gainsborough began to draw and paint when he was a child. He often
entertained his companions by drawing pictures for them while they
read the lessons to him.

One morning Thomas got up with the sun and went out into the garden to
sketch. There was in the garden a wonderful pear-tree full of ripe
pears, and the pears had been disappearing very mysteriously. While
Thomas was making his drawings he saw a man's face appear suddenly
above the stone wall. He quickly made a sketch of the face, and
frightened the man before he could get away with the fruit. At the
breakfast-table the young artist told his father what he had done and
showed him the sketch. His father knew the man and sent for him. When
the man was accused of stealing the pears he denied it, but when he
was shown the picture Thomas had made of him he confessed that he had
taken the pears.

Artists, like all of us, want to lay down rules for every one to
follow who is doing their same kind of work. Sir Joshua Reynolds said,
"The masses of light in a picture ought to be always of a warm, mellow
colour--yellow, red, or yellowish white; and the blue, the grey, or
green colours should be kept almost entirely out of the masses."
Gainsborough did not agree with him. To show Sir Joshua that he was
wrong Gainsborough painted pictures in blue and green. The famous
"Blue Boy" alone proved that he was right. The boy has on a blue satin
suit and he stands out-of-doors in green grass with green foliage and
blue sky around him. When Sir Joshua saw Gainsborough's blue-green
pictures he said frankly, "I cannot think how he produces his

These two men were never good friends yet when Gainsborough was near
death Sir Joshua Reynolds came to his bedside, and when Gainsborough
died Reynolds was one of the pall-bearers.

[Illustration: FIG. 46. THE BLUE BOY. GAINSBOROUGH. Private Gallery,
Henry Huntington, Los Angeles, California]



I want you to know and love the Dutch pictures. The painters were
called "little masters," simply because they painted small pictures
for the homes. For the homes! The Dutch wanted pictures to hang on
their walls; pictures they could live with. Now what do you think of
the "Sleeping Girl"? Do you know I could live with that picture and
feel that I always had something to make me happy? It is so homy. See
how comfortable the girl is! Of course a good healthy girl has no
business to be sleeping in the daytime, but we can forgive her now
that van der Meer has caught her asleep and let us see her. Then look
at that wonderful rug! Was ever anything so soft and velvety? If we
knew about rugs we might tell its name and maybe its age.

Van der Meer had a way of catching people without their knowing it. He
seems to have cut a piece out of the wall where he peeped in and
painted what he saw. We are glad the girl left the door open into
another room so that we can see the table and pictures and part of the
window-frame. I think these things are reflected in a looking-glass.

Van der Meer painted only about forty pictures, and eight of those are
in the United States. They are among our greatest art treasures.

[Illustration: FIG. 47. THE SLEEPING GIRL. VAN DER MEER. Courtesy of
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City]



Many very curious legends are told of St. Antony of Padua, who died in
1231. He was a close friend of St. Francis (see "St. Francis and his
Birds," page 76). One story says that one time he was preaching about
the Savior when the child Jesus came and sat on his open Bible. It is
this story that Murillo painted his picture to illustrate. Again and
again Murillo has shown us St. Antony with the Christ-child, but never
more beautifully than here. This is one of Murillo's greatest
religious pictures.

Another story is told of St. Antony. One day he was preaching the
funeral sermon of a rich young man when he exclaimed:

"His heart is buried in his treasure-chest; go seek it there and you
will find it."

Sure enough when the friends of the rich young man opened the
treasure-chest there was the heart, and no heart was found in the
young man's dead body.




The story of "King Lear" is one of the most pitiful of Shakespeare's
play. It is about the thanklessness of children to a father. Old _King
Lear_ had three daughters--_Goneril_, _Regan_, and _Cordelia_. He
loved these daughters dearly and he believed that they loved him. As
he grew old in life he thought he would divide his kingdom and
property among them equally; then there would be no trouble about his
wealth after he was dead. Of course he expected to make his home with
them in turn as long as he lived. Naturally he went to _Goneril_, the
eldest daughter, first. Very soon he found that he was not wanted. She
had the money--her father's money--but why should she be troubled with
her old father? He then went to _Regan_, his second child, but she too
refused to make a home for him. The third daughter, _Cordelia_, loved
her father dearly and wanted him to live with her that she might care
for him in his old age. By a strange mishap the old father thought
that _Cordelia_, his beloved child, was false to him. He wandered off
on the heath in a fearful storm and at last found shelter in a hut
where he thinks even his faithful dogs are against him. He cries out

    The little dogs and all,
    Tray, Blanche and Sweetheart, see they bark at me.

Abbey has painted the scene when the old king is leaving heart-broken,
for he thinks _Cordelia_, the child he loves best, is deserting him.
_Cordelia_, knowing how false her sisters are, is saying:

    I know you what you are;
    And, like a sister, am most loath to call
    Your faults as they are named. Love well our father.

Abbey's story of "The Holy Grail" in the Boston Library is one of
America's great series of paintings for wall decoration.

[Illustration: FIG. 49. KING LEAR. ABBEY. Courtesy of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York City.]


GEORGE INNESS (1825-1894)

Whenever you can, I want you to find out what the painter says about
his own pictures. We feel very glad that George Inness told us about
"Sunset in the Woods." He said in 1891: "The material for my picture
was taken from a sketch made near Hastings, on the Hudson, New York,
twenty years ago. This picture was commenced seven years ago, but
until last winter I had not obtained any idea equal to the impression
received on the spot. The idea is to express an effect of light in the
woods at sunset."

What a wonderful glow he has on those trees beyond the big rock away
back in the picture. And see the light on the trunk of the big tree
near us. I believe the light is gradually disappearing as we look.
Somehow we feel the birds are twittering as they go to bed and the
flowers are nodding their heads, they are so sleepy. Soon it will be
dark and the owl will screech and the night insects will buzz. Come,
we must go home or we cannot see our way!

[Illustration: FIG. 50. SUNSET IN THE WOODS. INNESS. Courtesy of the
Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C.]


Abbey, Edwin Austin, 98, 99

Angelico, Fra Giovanni, 38, 39

Angelo, Michael, 23, 24, 86

Arthur, King, 82, 83

Bastien-Lepage, Jules, 22, 23

Botticelli, Sandro, 46, 47

Breton, Jules Adolphe, 58, 59

Cæsar (Tiberius), 70

Carpaccio, Vittore, 54, 55

Chardin, Jean Baptiste Simeon, 78, 79

Charles I, 16, 28, 42

Charles II, 41, 43

Charles V, 32

Charles VI, VII, 22

Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille, 8, 9, 74, 75

Correggio, Antonio, 6, 7, 60, 61

Constable, John, 4, 5

Disciples, The, 80, 81

Dolci, Carlo, 20

Farge, John La, 48, 49

Ferdinand III, 20

Fourment, Helena, 66, 67

Gainsborough, Thomas, 92, 93

Galahad, Sir, 82, 83

Giotto di Bondone, 76, 77

Gods and Goddesses,

  Apollo, 10, 11, 36, 37, 68

  Aurora, 9, 10

  Atropos, (a fate), 24, 25

  Calliope, (a muse), 36, 37

  Clio (a muse), 36, 37

  Clothes, (a fate), 24, 25

  Diana, 36

  Erato (a muse), 36, 37

  Euterpe, (a muse), 36, 37

  Fates, The, 24, 25, 48

  Horæ, 10, 11

  Hyperion, 10, 11

  Lachesis (a fate), 24, 25

  Melpomene (a muse), 36, 37

  Memnon, 10

  Memory, 36

  Mercury, 36, 68

  Muses, The, 36, 37, 68

  Pegasus, 36

  Polyhymnia (a muse), 36, 37

  Selene, 10

  Thalia (a muse), 36, 37

  Urania (a muse), 36, 37

  Zeus, 10, 36

Hals, Frans, 12, 13

Homer, Winslow, 18, 19

Hooch, Pieter de, 44, 45

Inness, George, 100, 101

James II, 42

Jesus, 2, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 60, 64, 80, 81, 90, 91

Joan of Arc, 22, 23

Joseph of Arimathea, 82

Lear, King, 98, 99

Maes, Nicolaes, 52, 53

Magnificent, The, 46

Martin, Homer, 68, 69

Medici, Giovanni de' (Pope Leo X), 46

Medici, Giulio de (Pope Clement VII), 46

Medici, Lorenzo de', 46

Millet, Jean François, 62, 63

Murillo, Bartolome Esteban, 34, 35, 96, 97

Napoleon, 56

Offero, 90, 91

Philip IV, 72

Pintoricchio, Bernardino, 2, 3

Raphael Sanzio, 20, 21, 26, 27, 64, 65, 86

Rembrandt, van Rijn. 30, 31, 40, 41, 50, 51, 86

Reni, Guido, 10, 11

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 84, 85, 92

Romano, Giulio, 36, 37

Rubens, Peter Paul, 16, 28, 29, 66, 67

Stuart, Gilbert, 84

Sarto, Andrea del, 86


  Agnes, 86, 87

  Anthony, 96, 97

  Barbara, 14, 15

  Cecilia, 64, 65

  Christopher, 90, 91

  Elizabeth, 2

  Francis, 76, 77, 96

  George, 54, 55

  Jerome, 6, 7, 8

  John the Baptist, 2

  Joseph, 2, 60

  Mary, (Madonna, virgin), 2, 6, 20, 26, 32, 46, 60

  Michael, 22

  Paul, 64, 65

Titian Vecelli, 32, 33, 70, 71, 90, 91

Turner, Joseph Mallard William, 56, 57

Van der Meer, Jan, 94, 95

Van Dyck, Anthony, 12, 16, 17, 28, 42, 43

Vecchio, Palma, il Jacopo, 14, 15

Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y, 72, 73

Venice, 56, 57

Vinci, Leonardo da, 80, 81

Watts, George Frederick, 82, 83

Whistler, James Abbott McNeill, 88, 89

William III, 42

Wordsworth, 58

Zacharias, 2

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