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Title: Buchanan's Journal of Man, August 1887 - Volume 1, Number 7
Author: Buchanan, Joseph R. (Joseph Rodes), 1814-1899 [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Buchanan's Journal of Man, August 1887 - Volume 1, Number 7" ***

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                             BUCHANAN'S
                           JOURNAL OF MAN.

             VOL. I.        AUGUST, 1887.        NO. 7.



CONTENTS OF JOURNAL OF MAN.


  Creation's Mysteries
  A True Poet--The Poetry of Peace and the Practice of War
  The Volapük Language
  Progress of the Marvellous
  Glances Round the World
  MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE--Photography Perfected; The Cannon King;
    Land Monopoly; The Grand Canals; The Survival of Barbarism;
    Concord Philosophy; The Andover War; The Catholic Rebellion;
    Stupidity of Colleges; Cremation; Col. Henry S. Olcott; Jesse
    Shepard; Prohibition; Longevity; Increase of insanity;
    Extraordinary Fasting; Spiritual Papers
  Cranioscopy (Continued)
  Practical Utility of Anthropology in its Psychic Department



CREATION'S MYSTERIES


Dr. B. Cyriax, editor of the _Spiritualistische Blätter_, published at
Liepsic, Ger., has given in the issue of March 31st the following
communications from Dr. Hahnemann and Dr. Spurzheim, delivered through
a trance medium. They are valuable essays, whatever may be their
source, and the reader will not fail to observe their general
coincidence with the doctrine presented by myself in the May number of
the JOURNAL OF MAN in the article on the "Genesis of the Brain."

Wishing to have a psychometric test, I placed in the hands of Mrs.
Buchanan a portion of the manuscript of Spurzheim, who died fifty-five
years ago, to see if her conception of his thought would coincide with
the report from the trance medium. Her nervous system being somewhat
disturbed at the time, she was unable to go as far as I wished, but
she gave the following impressions:

    "This has been written sixty or seventy years ago, written by a
    person of very broad, elevated mind, progressive, a teacher or
    writer--perhaps both. He had a great deal of will power, strong,
    and decisive, was very independent, not afraid to give his
    views, but had a great deal of opposition to his sentiments. He
    was of a scientific cast of mind, was acquainted with medical
    science, and was more interested in the brain than anything
    else. He would talk, lecture, and write about the brain, and had
    very correct views in advance of others. He is in spirit life
    now. There is a warmth and nearness in the impression as though
    he would be attracted to the science you are engaged in. His
    mind broadens out into different lines of thought in spirit
    life--things appertaining to what he was interested in here, and
    kindred subjects. He thinks you are developing in the right
    direction. I think he has communicated with you. I think he has
    an overshadowing approval of your work. He feels that you are in
    an original line of thought, not dominated by any other minds.
    There seems an overshadowing influence that stimulates you."

As to his having communicated with me, it is true that over thirty
years ago I received some remarkable communications from him, through
a rapping medium, the messages being spelled out by the alphabet, and
his suggestions entirely in consonance with my teachings.

I then asked, "What views does he have of the process of creation and
development of life on the globe?" Which was answered "His views are
such as have been expressed by the believers in evolution, from the
lower to the higher orders of creation. I feel a pressure of
intellectual conceptions, but my nervous system is not in a state to
express it."

I then read through the statement of Spurzheim's views (his name being
still unknown to Mrs. B.), and asked how they coincided with the
sentiments she perceived in the person she described. She replied, "I
think he accepts or approves it generally. He would certainly sanction
such ideas. I think he has communicated, and that he would, in control
of a medium, express such ideas."

The messages of Hahnemann and Spurzheim have been so well translated
by a correspondent of the _Golden Gate_, that I reproduce them as
given in that journal, as follows:

    "If you consider the high development of the Caucasian race, it
    is repulsive to your sentiments to believe that man belongs to
    the animal kingdom as its highest link, and springs from this
    kingdom. Yet this feeling is false, and must be destroyed, since
    it originates only in self-conceit and it is not so very
    difficult to arrive at a juster view. Only go back to the time
    of Charlemagne or to that of Augustus, and observe the great
    mass of your forefathers, and you will find so great a
    difference, that you will be as much alarmed as if in the
    presence of Indians, when such a tribe of Germans is brought
    before you. Then go still further back into the pre-historic
    times, and form an image of the pile-builders and their mode of
    life, and of the cave-dwellers and their imperfect weapons and
    tools, and you will have to confess that these are separated
    from the present Europeans by a greater gap than are the
    uncultured inhabitants of the earth of to-day. And yet these
    cave-dwellers and pile-builders had already reached a high
    degree of culture in comparison with those who had preceded them
    by thousands of years; and if we thus join link to link in the
    chain backwards, we must come to the conclusion that the
    original men were but little distinguished in form and bodily
    structure, as well as in intellectual capacity, and at first
    hardly at all, from the animals standing next them, the
    four-handed ones.

    "The assumption that God has created man perfect, _i. e._, in
    body, but without power of judgment, and that he obtained this
    only by transgressing a command and a prohibition, and thus by a
    crime, so that he first began to degenerate upon the awakening
    in him of the divine intellect and reason, we leave wholly one
    side as absolutely contradicted by positive science, and only
    inquire, how, then, did man originate in so low a form? There
    are but two answers to this question. The one is, that man was
    placed upon the earth by an outside power in full size, rudeness
    and stupidity, in order to be left to his fate there in an
    unknown land, and to struggle for his existence with unknown
    animals. Or, on the other hand, that man was developed in a
    quite natural way, according to the law of evolution, out of the
    class of animals standing next below him. You are aware that we
    do not favor the first view, but so much the more earnestly
    embrace the latter. According to the law of evolution and
    adaptation the talents and capacities of animals were steadily
    changed in the course of thousands of years, following the
    changed relations of climate and soil, so as to fit themselves
    for the new conditions of sustenance and existence. In
    proportion as all nature became changed, so that at the end of a
    so-called geological period no comparison could be made with the
    beginning of the next preceding one, in that same proportion and
    measure the plants and animals had also changed, so that
    scarcely any more resemblance existed between these and those
    from which they originated. It is self-evident that amid such
    changes only those specimens continued to exist, which had
    adapted themselves in their progressive development in their
    organs and capacities in the best way to the new conditions of
    their existence. All those which had not thus changed lost the
    conditions of their existence and died out. But where did these
    organs and capacities, fitted to the newer relations, gain their
    form and development? In the mother-pouch of the female,
    undoubtedly! And of course this improvement advanced with each
    succeeding generation, so that animals which originally only
    lived in water, through gradual efforts to go on dry land also,
    to which, perhaps, they were forced to preserve their species,
    thereby changed the original fins into legs and later into
    web-feet by which they were adapted to live in water as well as
    on land (amphibia).

    "Now likewise there was developed in the gigantic four-handed
    Saurians such a change in the mother-pouch of the female animals
    as the ever finer organized brain created, so that in the course
    of thousands of years, a creature was gradually developed which
    overstepped the last stage of the sense-developed understanding
    and comprehension, and was in a position, through the putting
    into activity of the upper and front brain, to distinguish evil
    from good and to think independently. Of these creatures,
    likewise, only those survive that had in themselves the capacity
    for further development, while the rest perished. The survivors
    were the original men; those that perished formed the
    intermediate link between man and the brute. Thus, out of the
    infinite efforts of nature to create a finer organized species
    from the four-handed Saurians, came forth not only men, but the
    failures, the apes. So man does not descend from the ape, but
    both have only one stock, which is the four-handed animals
    sprung from the flesh-devouring Saurians.

    "Thus we can settle whence man comes and how he arose, but that
    does not solve the problem whence comes life or how it arose,
    yet on this point I will give place to friend Spurzheim.

    "Dr. Spurzheim then took control and spoke over half an hour in
    his peculiarly striking, logical and convincing way, yet it is
    quite impossible to repeat this discourse as it was given. It
    ran about as follows:

    "Worthy friends, friend Hahnemann has just given you an
    explanation of the origin of man to which I have nothing to add.
    The question whether the egg existed before the hen or the hen
    before the egg has often been called an idle one, and yet it
    obtrudes itself upon everybody. Our eyesight teaches that the
    egg comes from the hen, but at the same time also that the hen
    is developed from the egg, and if we go farther back we are lost
    in infinity. The theological view that God put into the world
    all that exists, all animals from the smallest seen by the
    microscope to the largest gigantic creatures in pairs and fully
    grown, seems to solve the problem of the egg and the hen, but
    has long since been refuted by science, so that we need not
    further meddle with it, and so much the less as thereby the
    question of the origin of life is not even touched. Let us now
    make a violent leap from man out into infinite space and back
    millions of years before the origin of man upon the earth. What
    do we see there? Unnumbered worlds, all which, like the sun,
    have brought forth other worlds dependent on them, and these by
    their development taking place according to like uniform laws in
    their infinite differences in size and specific gravity, yet
    ever striving after the same great end, the production of beings
    endowed with reason, offer the most glorious picture of Godlike
    power and harmony. The worlds born of these suns (planets) all
    originated in like manner, since the parts lying along the
    circumference of the suns, by their motion in space cooled off
    the sooner, broke away in irregular masses, and while
    contracting into globular shapes and revolving upon their own
    axis, yet by the force of attraction and their original motion
    bound to the bodies, whirl around these and with these move on
    in space. And though these balls of glowing gas, as the earth
    for example in its origin, in contrast with the mother-body
    (sun) are somewhat cooled off, yet is the heat of the same still
    so great (some reckoning it at two or six thousand degrees while
    others hold it incomputable) that absolutely no life can exist
    within such balls of fire. But after the more solid parts are
    formed (granite, porphyry, etc.,) gradually by cooling off and
    contracting, and these are fused together into larger masses,
    then begin the ribs of the earth-structure, the rocky
    foundations of the super-structure, and as soon as the
    development of the earth is so far advanced that oxygen and
    hydrogen can be formed into water, which falls down in frightful
    masses upon the hot rocks and dissolves them on the surface,
    then begins the condition productive of cells and carbon
    entering into the connection, and the first plants are brought
    forth; the algæ first, then the lichens and ferns, which are
    developed into gigantic dimensions. Prior to and simultaneous
    with the formation of cells went on the production of crystals
    and the mineral as well as the vegetable kingdoms were further
    and further developed. Contemporary with the first plant-cells
    the conditions were plainly offered for the formation of the
    first life-cells. And now the question arises, What is life?
    Whence comes it? Although it is certain that in the process of
    development of the earth after its separation from the sun no
    life was present.

    "It is asserted that life is motion and is an attribute of
    matter; yet that is something wholly different from what is
    understood by the term. Thus far science has pointed out no
    distinction between dead and living protoplasm, and the
    affirmation that the primordial cells are the source of life is
    not tenable, since the cell is an organization that presupposes
    life, and so, at most, the original cell could be designated as
    but the first expression of life. For a short time it was
    assumed that life came to the earth through meteors or parts of
    worlds that had gone to pieces, but this idea was soon given up,
    because neither the manifold nature of life nor the origin of
    the same could thereby be explained or determined, and thus the
    question was only pushed farther back, since what was desired to
    be known, was, how life originated on the world that was
    destroyed.

    "When, and under what circumstances, life began on the earth can
    not be accurately fixed, yet it is clear that at the time when
    the ocean still covered nearly all the earth and was so hot that
    not a single one of the now existing plants and living beings
    could then exist, the life in that ocean and on its bottom was
    so infinitely grand in its proportions that men can now form no
    adequate conception of the same. The force of growth as well as
    of decay was immense, and all that was grown or made by its
    decay only increased the mass of life-producing substance.

    "There are three theories as to the origin of living beings:

    "1. God made all animals, including man, in pairs and of full
    size.

    "2. The elements of physical nature and the forces dwelling in
    matter by a lucky arrangement of atoms developing living organs
    out of matter.

    "3. An intelligent, intellectual force permeates matter, and
    wherever this in its development attains the conditions for the
    maintenance of life (and so a higher manifestation of force than
    in the mineral) it brings forth the intellectual life in the
    protoplasmic germ for the finest organism. Through the laws of
    inheritance, of change, of the multiplication of progressive
    development, of natural selection and of the persistence of the
    most gifted individuals, living beings are developed through all
    classes and species up to man.

    "With the first theory we need not concern ourselves further, as
    we have already branded it as hostile to reason and knowledge,
    although theologians have sought to maintain that Almighty God
    has made the earth with all that is in it and upon it, just as
    it now exists, and have even gone so far as to affirm in
    opposition to the effect of geological discoveries, that God
    himself had created or deposited the fossil remains of animals
    found under the bed of the Euphrates (the spot where paradise is
    said to have been) exactly there and in a petrified condition.

    "The second theory seems more probable; it assumes that force
    and matter are one and the same, matter possessing force as a
    quality; but overlooks the fact that what is called matter first
    came forth as a product out of the glowing mass of primary gas
    or world-material, and hence that matter, or world-material, to
    which the life-producing force is attached, is to be sought away
    back before the time when began the formations of worlds in
    their incandescent state, whereby it is, of course, conceded
    that life in the ordinary sense was destroyed, if it really
    subsisted before the heating of the particles of matter.

    "Another objection to this theory is this, that if organizations
    spring from the favorable union of atoms, this surrenders the
    rule to chance and excludes a unitary order of the world, while
    failing to explain the origin of thinking, moral and
    reason-gifted beings; since, if thinking, reason and moral
    sentiment spring from matter, they must be attributes of the
    same; and since the product is always less than the producer, it
    follows that intelligence, reason and ethics must be present
    somewhere in matter in a concentrated form; and this reflection
    brings us quite naturally to the third theory.

    "The intellectual, divine principle penetrates matter as the
    positive element, which under definite conditions steadily works
    upon the negative element of the original substance and forces
    the same under constant changing of form and combining parts, to
    realize definite, universally similar ideas, and to attain
    definite aims; and wherever matter in the process of development
    offers certain conditions, there the intellectual element
    produces what is called life. And this takes for granted that
    life may spring up spontaneously there where there was no life
    before; and this fact has been established beyond all reasonable
    doubt. The juice of mutton, beef and a mixture of gelatine and
    sugar have been put in separate vessels, these made air-tight
    and exposed for a long time to a heat of as much as three
    hundred degrees of Fahrenheit, so as to be quite sure that all
    living germs were destroyed. Yet after the lapse of weeks in
    some cases and of months in others, living beings were developed
    in the vessels.

    "Under the relation of the earth as existing to-day, life would
    again be developed, if we were in a condition instantaneously to
    annihilate all life; yet the same results would not be produced
    as in the original period, because the needed materials are no
    longer present in the mighty masses, nor in the requisite fluid
    and gaseous conditions to attain so powerful effects, to which
    belong also as necessary conditions the far higher temperature
    and the greater humidity of the atmosphere of that epoch. In the
    first creative period the force as well as the material were
    present in colossal measure and then arose those gigantic plants
    and animals, which laid the foundation for all later organisms.
    Without the colossal ferns and lichens and palm-like growths of
    the early ages, the plants of to-day would have been impossible,
    and without the monstrous giant creatures of old, which became
    more and more refined through gradual adaptation to altered
    relations, the modern animal kingdom could not have arisen. This
    adaptation is one of the most wonderful phenomena in the history
    of the development of the earth and is found as well in the
    realm of plants as in that of animals. Originally there were
    only aquatic animals, but as the relations changed so that it
    became necessary, partly for the procuring of food and partly
    for the safety of the offspring, that animals should go on land,
    their attempts constantly repeated to do so, gradually produced
    a change in the limbs fitted for motion, and so came about the
    transformation of fins into wings in the creatures that wanted
    to rise out of the water into the air, which then had far more
    carrying power than at the present day.

    "Whatever may be said about the qualities of matter and the
    force united with it (more truly the force manifesting itself
    therein), it cannot be denied, that the plan of creation is a
    unitary one, moving on according to definite laws and striving
    towards definite final results. This presupposes that a
    conscious idea lies at the basis of the creative plan, and this
    implies an original consciousness which we call God. God and
    nature are one, just as intellect and body are one in man.
    Nature, _i. e._, substance, changes according to the impulses
    that go out from God, but God remains unchanged. All that
    possesses form, all organization must be destroyed in the
    incandescent process of forming world-bodies, but the divine,
    the intellectual principle is indestructible; and when matter
    under the impulses that went forth from God, has reached the
    grade of development at which organization is possible, then the
    divine principle steps into force as the positive element, and
    that is life. This positive element works on and on, steadily
    producing higher forms and higher organizations, until in man it
    fashions itself into a self-recognizing, conscious and
    individual essence, which, as derived from God, is
    indestructible, and after the consummation of its earthly
    organism, is capable, as an individual, intellectual being, of
    an infinitely progressive development.

    "So far man can attain by a chain of logical deductions; but to
    define the idea that lies at the basis of the world-order is
    impossible; just as also a man will never be in a condition to
    find out or to comprehend how the working of the intellectual
    element, upon the substance capable of change, is made possible.
    Life is the self-manifested working of the intellectual element
    upon matter. Man never understands the laws of life, though he
    can understand the laws necessary for the preservation of life,
    since he can deduce them from the outward manifestations of
    life. Man must be contented with this; he can never understand
    God; and since life is the expression of the divine activity,
    its origin must ever remain a mystery to him."

Though concurring generally in the foregoing views (which may have
been materially modified by their channel) I do not accept them as a
finality. That a brooding spiritual power has to do with all
development and progress I do not doubt. But this power is not
_necessarily_ a monotonous and universal influence like gravitation or
caloric. There is no reason to forbid special acts of the creative
spiritual energy, for we observe to-day the production of plants and
of beautiful fabrics by spiritual power where the necessary conditions
exist. Moreover, the greatest potency of spiritual power is at the
beginnings in the most plasmic conditions of matter. It is in the
animal germ and the vegetable seed that the invisible world is most
potential, and I am inclined to think that naturalists have attached
too much importance to the exterior environment, and too little to the
interior conditions in which the higher potencies of organization are
to be found, and in which alone we may find the entrance of life from
the true world of life.

The hasty conclusions of naturalists as to _evolution_ do not explain
the evolution and the vast variety of the vegetable kingdom. To
attribute this to any power of modification by environment, when we
see how little environment can do to make any _essential_ change in
vegetation, would require more credulity than I would consider
justifiable in the pursuit of scientific truths. So in the evolution
of the animal kingdom, I believe the power of the physical environment
has been greatly overrated.



A TRUE POET--THE POETRY OF PEACE AND THE PRACTICE OF WAR.


It is nearly thirty years since I met the English poet, Charles
Mackay, at Louisville, on his travels in America. At that time he gave
me the following poem suggested by our conversation. I do not think
that he has ever published it:

  Why, this longing, clay-clad spirit?
    Why this fluttering of wings?
  Why this striving to discover
    Hidden and transcendent things?

  Thou wouldst fathom Life and Being,
    Thou wouldst see through Birth and Death.
  Thou wouldst solve the eternal Riddle,
    Thou, a speck, a ray, a breath!

  Be at peace, thou struggling spirit,
    Great Eternity denies
  The unfolding of its secrets
    In the circle of thine eyes.

                                       CHARLES MACKAY,
                              Louisville, Kentucky, Jan. 31, 1858.

It is the function of the poet to realize and revere the mystery, but
it is the duty of philosophy to explore and dissipate it, as far as
possible, for _mystery is the foe of human progress_.

Mackay, though not the poet of psychic science, is profoundly the poet
of practical, humanitarian progress, as was shown in his sublime poem,
beginning,

  "The man is thought a knave or fool,
    Or bigot plotting crime,
  Who for the advancement of his kind
    Is wiser than his time."

The psychometric impression from the manuscript of the foregoing poem
was as follows:

    "This seems like a poetical influence. I think the person who
    wrote this, was adapted to intellectual pursuits,--a man of fine
    powers of mind, but not fully progressed in thought. As far as
    he knew, at the time of this writing, he was appreciative of
    your suggestions, and of scientific progress. He was a
    cool-headed man,--not a light or superficial thinker, but
    thought on deep subjects. He was a brain worker; it makes my
    brain tired. I think he published books--poems. I think he was
    more a poet than a prose writer. He was not like Tom
    Moore--there was nothing light or superficial--his poetry was
    grand, solid, deep, stirring. He could write upon warlike
    scenes, vividly and descriptively, but was not in favor of war.
    He would deplore any appearance of war, but he had a patriotic
    spirit, a proud spirit, and would defend the right and assail
    the wrong."

This description was verified in his numerous volumes of poetry, such
as "Legends of the Islands," "Poetry of the English Lakes," "The
Battle," "Town Lyrics," etc. He also published three volumes of
"Memoirs of Popular Delusions," edited the _London Review_, and was
the war correspondent of the _London Times_ from this country during
the rebellion.

His opposition to war is shown in the following admirable poem, the
reading of which revived my recollection of its author.


FREEDOM'S WARFARE. BY CHARLES MACKAY.

  We want no flag, no flaunting rag,
    For Liberty to fight;
  We want no blaze of murderous guns
    To struggle for the right.
  Our spears and swords are printed words
    The mind our battle plain;
  We've won such victories before,
    And so we shall again.

  We love no triumphs sprung of force--
    They stain the brightest cause;
  'Tis not in blood that Liberty
    Inscribes her civil laws.
  She writes them on the peoples' hearts
    In language clear and plain;
  True thoughts have moved the world before
    And so they shall again.

  We yield to none in earnest love
    Of Freedom's cause sublime;
  We join the cry "Fraternity!"
    We keep the march of Time.
  And yet we grasp not pike nor spear,
    Our vict'ries to obtain;
  We've won without their aid before,
    And so we shall again.

  We want no aid of barricades,
    To show a front to wrong;
  We have a citadel in truth,
    More durable and strong.
  Calm words, great thoughts, unflinching faith
    Have never striv'n in vain;
  They've won our battles many a time,
    And so they will again.

  Peace, Progress, Knowledge, Brotherhood;
    The ignorant may sneer,
  The bad deny; but we rely
    To see their triumphs near.
  No widow's groans shall load our cause,
    Nor blood of brethren slain;
  We've won without such aid before,
    And so we shall again.

This poem expresses the sentiment and policy of the JOURNAL OF MAN.
But, ah, how utterly antagonistic to these noble sentiments is the way
of the world at present, and the policy of the world's strong
governments, upheld as they are by the so-called church of Christ,
which is not the church of Christ but the church of Athanasius.

Everywhere men are trained with skill and perseverance for the work of
homicide, as if murder were the most glorious work in which man could
be employed.

Every Frenchman in his twenty-first year is held by the government
(with very few exceptions) to five years service in the active army,
four years in the reserve of the active army, five years in the
territorial army, and four in the reserve of the territorial
army--eighteen years altogether! Could his Satanic Majesty have
devised any better plan for destroying the moral distinction between
men and carnivorous beasts? The only mitigation of this horror is that
college students are allowed to pass by one year's service, and a
lottery of long and short terms allows a large number to escape with
terms of abridged length.

Germany, like France, forces everybody through the army, and it is but
five months since the continental governments were buying in England
millions of cartridges for the expected war which psychometry
pronounced a terrible delusion.

All governments are busy in preparing the deadliest possible weapons.
European nations have generally adopted magazine guns for their
soldiers. France has adopted the Kropatochek magazine rifle, Germany
the Manser rifle, Austria the Mannlicher magazine rifle, Italy the
Bertoldo magazine rifle, Russia the Berdan breechloader, Turkey the
American rifle. The magazine guns seem to have almost unlimited
capacities--firing 30 to 50 shots per minute which are fatal at a mile
distance. The only mitigation of these horrors is that of a German
chemist's invention--an anæsthetic bullet which is claimed to produce
complete insensibility, lasting for hours.

Explosive shells of melinite are the leading idea in France. It is
manufactured at Bourges and is said to be a hundred times as powerful
as gunpowder, or ten times nitroglycerine, and reduces what it strikes
to a fine powder. They have also a new rifle powder which explodes
without smoke.

Russia has a new explosive, fifteen times as strong as any gunpowder,
which produces no smoke.

America is not behind in explosives. Lieut. Graydon has been giving
exhibitions near Washington of a new patent shell said to be seven
times more powerful than dynamite, and yet so safe that it can be
fired with powder from a common gun. Mr. Bernard Fannon of Westboro,
Mass., has invented and patented a shell of terrific power. It is made
of iron, three inches thick, and weighs 540 pounds. The effects of its
explosion in a swamp near Westboro were wonderful. It is also said to
be perfectly safe.

The rivalry of cannon and armor plates is going on, the development of
torpedoes and shells is reaching its maximum, and the power of taking
a nation to the edge of starvation, for the building of monster ships,
costing each millions of dollars, is the study of CHRISTIAN (!!)
governments.

Thirty years ago, the largest British cannon was a sixty-eight
pounder, costing $561, which might be fired for $275. Now they have a
110-ton gun costing $97,500 to manufacture, and $935 to fire once.

The British government has gone into such matters deeply, paying Mr.
Brennan over half a million dollars for his torpedo invention.

The British ship "Victoria" uses 900 pounds of powder to one of its
110-ton guns which send a missile of 1,800 pounds.

Nelson's flag ship "Victory" used no larger powder charge than eight
pounds, and its heaviest shot was only sixty-eight pounds. A broadside
upon the "Victoria" consumes 3,000 pounds of powder. Its 110-ton gun
is moved by hydraulic machinery. Such a metallic monster would seem
almost incredible, but Krupp has constructed a still larger gun for
Italy, 46 feet long and weighing over 118 tons.

It could not be sent overland by railway, but was sent to Antwerp for
shipping on a specially constructed carriage 105 feet long, running on
32 wheels.

The American steel cruiser "Atlanta" has two guns of eight-inch bore,
24 feet long, sending out a projectile of 300 pounds which explodes on
striking,--firing correctly five miles. It costs $150 to to fire once.

Lieut. Zalinski is using a light steel tube, sixty feet long and one
foot in diameter, to fire explosive shells by air pressure. Great
results are expected from it, and it would save us from the enormous
cost of modern cannon.

Fortunately, America, being out of the great maelstrom of war, can
cultivate humane sentiments and abolish the barbarism of dueling,
which still holds its ground in France and Germany in the highest
ranks of society.

We have had one terrible war to demoralize our nation, but now peace
is secure and the old Federal and Confederate soldiers are active in
exchanging visits and generous hospitalities North and South in a
permanent and peaceful Union.

  "No vision of the morrow's strife
    The warrior's dream alarms,
  No braying horn, nor screaming fife,
    At dawn shall call to arms."

A re-established Union saves us from the wars and the military
despotism in which other republics have perished, and all can unite
now in the following beautiful tribute to the dead heroes:

  "By the flow of the inland river,
    Whence the fleets of iron have fled,
  Where blades of the green grass quiver,
    Asleep are the ranks of the dead;
  Under the sod and the dew,
    Waiting the judgment day;
  Under the one, the blue,
    Under the other, the gray.

  "These, in the robings of glory,
    Those in the gloom of defeat;
  All with the battle-blood gory,
    In the dusk of eternity meet.

  "From the silence of sorrowful hours
    The desolate mourners go,
  Lovingly laden with flowers,
    Alike for the friend and the foe.

  "So, when the summer calleth,
    On forest and field of grain,
  With an equal murmur falleth
    The cooling drip of the rain.

  "Sadly, but not with upbraiding,
    The generous deed was done;
  In the storm of the years that are fading,
    No braver battle was won.

  "No more shall the war-cry sever,
    Or the winding rivers be red;
  They banish our anger forever,
    When they laurel the graves of our dead.
  Under the sod and the dew,
    Waiting the judgment day;
  Love and tears for the blue,
    Tears and love for the gray."--_F. M. Finch._

THE GOSPEL OF PEACE has been illustrated in a Chattanooga Journal by a
beautiful incident, the meeting of the blue and gray in church, during
the war as follows:

    "At the bar banquet given Saturday night in honor of Judges Key
    and Trewhitt, Mr. Templeton of Knoxville related an incident
    which occurred during the war at a revival service held by his
    father in North Georgia.

    "About the time that Sherman was driving Johnson toward
    Atlanta," said he, "some time in the early part of August, 1864,
    my father was conducting a revival at a little house called Pine
    Log Creek Church, about ten miles from Calhoun. The times were
    most terrible about then; murder, robbery and rapine were of
    daily occurrence, and the whole country was subject to
    visitations by marauding parties from both armies. One day the
    old gentleman was preaching a sermon of unusual power, and
    before he had gotten well under way a gang of Confederate
    soldiers rode up, and, dismounting out back of the church, asked
    if they might be admitted to the church. Of course they were
    cordially invited in, and took prominent seats in the church.

    "Not long afterward a cloud of dust was seen in the road from
    the opposite direction to what the rebels had come, and pretty
    soon the tramp of horses' hoofs was heard, and it was soon
    discovered that it was a squad of Federal troops, and before the
    Confederates in the church could be apprised of the approach,
    they had ridden up to the door. Perceiving that religious
    services were being held, they alighted and asked to be
    admitted. They were told that there were Confederate soldiers in
    the church, but they insisted on going in, and they were
    admitted.

    "Naturally the strange spectacle created some consternation in
    the congregation, and for a time it seemed as if the confusion
    would break up the meeting. But my father raised his voice and
    began most fervently to plead a better life, beseeching his
    soldier hearers to become religious and abandon their sins. He
    preached with unusual force and power, the strange scene lending
    him inspiration. When he had concluded his sermon, as was the
    custom then, he invited those who were converted to come forward
    to the mourner's bench and pray and talk with him on the
    all-important subject.

    "Then it was that one of the grandest sights ever witnessed
    occurred. Those soldiers, enemies to each other, engaged in a
    bloody war, arose as one man, friend and foe together, and
    marched to the front of the church and kneeled together,
    Confederate by Federal, their muskets joining and crossing each
    other; their revolvers touching each other as they kneeled;
    their heads bowed upon the same altar, and their tears mingling
    almost in their deep contrition and profound feeling. All
    animosities were forgotten, all strife forgotten--they were
    together as brothers around a common altar.

    "After the service they met on the outside of the church, shook
    hands, pledged fraternity, and each party went off, taking
    opposite directions. They had been looking for each other,
    perhaps with murderous intent. They found each other, but they
    separated with love instead of hate, friendly instead of angry."



THE VOLAPÜK LANGUAGE.


In the attempt to form a universal language, no one has proceeded more
philosophically than the late Stephen Pearl Andrews, who attempted to
construct a language in which all the sounds should be selected in
accordance with nature, being such as are naturally associated with
the ideas they are used to express.

Mr. Andrews, by his personal amiability, enthusiasm, and lucid
intelligence, interested a number of disciples who have studied his
language called the _Alwato_, and it may be hoped will not allow it to
disappear with the life of its highly gifted and philosophic teacher.

The Volapük language which has no such pretention to philosophic
construction, is coming into such prominence as to deserve the
attention of the readers of this JOURNAL, hence I present the
following sketch which has been abridged from an article in the
_American Magazine_ for June, written by Richard Walker:

    "VOLAPÜK is the invention of the Rev. Father Johann Martin
    Schleyer, of Constance, Baden, Germany. He is an accomplished
    linguist, having for forty-six years been interested in the
    study of language. He can speak and write twenty-eight tongues,
    including the Chinese and three African languages, and is also
    eminent as a priest, hymnologist and religious editor. He
    invented his universal language in 1878, announced it in 1879,
    and had so far perfected it in 1881 as to publish in that year a
    small book, entitled "Entwurf einer Weltsprache für alle
    gebildte Erdbewohner" ("Plan of a Universal Language for all the
    Civilized Inhabitants of the Earth"). Thus the name, Volapük;
    _vola_ meaning of the world, and _pük_ language.

    "Schleyer does not propose that Volapük shall supercede any
    living language. He has attempted to make it so scientific and
    natural, so regular in all the rules of construction, and
    therefore so easy to learn, that every educated person will
    acquire it next after the mother tongue; and he hopes that it
    will thus become the accepted medium for all international
    communications. With this end in view, he has formed it on the
    general model of the Aryan family of languages; that is, its
    signs represent letters and words, and not ideas; and the root
    words of which it is constructed, instead of being arbitrary
    sounds and signs, as in Bishop Wilkin's philosophical language,
    or sounds that have a real or fancied natural meaning, as in
    Stephen Pearl Andrews' "Alwato," are taken principally from
    living languages, the English being more largely drawn upon than
    any other.

    "The alphabet employed is the Roman with some of the German
    dotted letters added, and the continental sounds are given to
    the letters. All words are phonetically spelled, so that there
    are none of the difficulties of orthography and pronunciation to
    be encountered which are so formidable in most natural
    languages."

In making his Volapük vocabulary, Father Schleyer has sought first for
the simplest words now in use. If such words are to be found in the
English language, he has adopted them; if not, then he has drawn upon
the Latin, German, French, and Spanish languages in the order named.
For example, the word man in English, is a sufficiently simple root,
and, therefore, _man_, with the same spelling and the continental
pronunciation, is made to signify a man, or the man in Volapük--for
the articles _a_ and _the_ are discarded. But house in English is
inconveniently long and ends with a silent letter, and therefore the
word _dom_, from the Latin word _domus_, is taken. In some instances
neither of the languages named contains a root sufficiently simple,
and then the inventor constructs a new one. But, so rich is the
English language in simple Anglo-Saxon roots, that more than one-half
of the words in Volapük are derived from them, and the number of new
words whose roots are not to be found in any living language is
comparatively very small.

To the suggestion that, if the English language was to be drawn upon
so largely it would have been better to have adopted that, and induce
all educated persons to learn it, the advocates of Volapük reply,
first, that its irregularities of construction, orthography, and
pronunciation make it too difficult to acquire; and secondly,
international prejudice would prevent it from being universally
adopted. The use of so many English roots, however, makes Volapük much
easier to learn by one whose mother tongue is English, and thus bring
it within reach of the largest number of people speaking a common
language, while it eliminates irregularities and does not arouse
national prejudices.

The names of the cardinal numbers follow the vowels in their regular
order, a denoting the first, e the second, etc. Thus: _Bal_, 1; _tel_,
2; _kil_, 3; _fol_, 4; _lul_, 5; _mäl_, 6; _vel_, 7; _jöl_, 8; _zül_,
9; _bals_, 10; _tels_, 20; _kils_, 30; _tum_, 100; _mil_, 1,000, etc.
The year 1887, written out in Volapük, is _Balmil jöltum jölsevel_.
The Arabic numerals are used as in English.

S added to any word forms the plural, which is never formed in any
other way. The first three vowels (a, e, i) added to any noun, form
respectively its genitive, dative, and accusative; s added to these
forms makes the plurals of the same cases. Man is therefore declined
as follows:

    _Singular._                     _Plural._

    NOM    _man_, the man;       _mans_, the men;
    GEN    _mana_, of the man;   _manas_, of the men;
    DAT    _mane_, to the man;   _manes_, to the men;
    ACC    _mani_, the man;      _manis_, the men.

Every noun in the language is declined in the same way, so that all
declensions may be learned in one minute.

The verbs in Volapük are all regular, and there is only one
conjunction. The tenses are denoted by the vowels a, ä, e, i, o, u,
placed before the verbs. When these vowels are preceded by p, it shows
that the verb is in the passive voice. The personal pronouns are:
_ob_, I; _ol_, thou; _om_, he; _of_, she; _os_, it; _ok_, one's self.
S added makes the plurals. _Löf_, meaning love, _löfób_, means I love;
_löfól_, thou lovest, etc.; _älöfób_, I loved; _ilöfóm_, he had loved;
_ulöfós_, it will have loved, etc.; _palöfóms_, they are loved;
_pulöfófs_, they will have been loved, etc. As it is only necessary to
remember the few particulars named, all conjugation may be acquired in
five minutes.

Enough has been given--and there is very little more of it--to show
the extreme simplicity of the Volapük grammar. It can be learned in an
hour, and, as the variations of the nouns and verbs are indicated by
the vowels taken in their regular order, they are not easily
forgotten. The principal labor necessary to acquire the language
consists, therefore, in memorizing the vocabulary. Since more than
one-half the roots are English, a person speaking that language can
naturally acquire the new one in less than one-half the time required
for any foreign language, and the better knowledge he has of Latin,
French and Spanish, the faster will be his progress.

After Father Schleyer published his first book, in 1881, he was soon
able to interest a few persons in Germany in Volapük. It next got a
foothold in Switzerland, and then in Paris. English linguists are just
beginning to give attention to it, the only publication in English
until very recently having been a bad adaptation of an abridged
grammar. But on the Continent it has gained in popularity very rapidly
during the last two or three years, so that there are now at least ten
thousand persons who are familiar with and use it. More than three
hundred and fifty have received diplomas as adepts. There are eight
monthly periodicals printed wholly in Volapük, or partly in Volapük
and partly in other languages.

In the United States not more than twenty persons have studied
Volapük, and only about half a dozen can read and write it. Mr.
Charles E. Sprague, of New York, who holds the diploma of
Volapükatidel, reads and writes it with ease, and to him I am under
obligations for assistance in preparing this article. There are no
Volapükese clubs or periodicals published in the language or in its
interest either in this country or in England. A large number of books
in Volapük, or about it, have appeared in Germany, including grammars
in eighteen languages, a German-Volapük dictionary containing twelve
thousand words, a biography of the inventor, Father Schleyer,
pamphlets, etc.



PROGRESS OF THE MARVELLOUS.


Mrs. L. C. Moulton, London correspondent of the _Boston Herald_, sends
the following, published July 17:

    "Like every body else, in London they are interested in
    hypnotism, spiritualism, etc.--interested, I mean, as inquirers,
    not as believers, and I saw a table move round briskly under the
    pretty fingers of Mrs. Hunt and a young lady cousin of hers.

    "The latest feminine sensation is Miss Ramsey, the Girton girl
    of twenty, who beat all the men at Cambridge this year in Greek;
    and what makes her success still more triumphant, is that the
    pretty little creature had only learned her Greek alphabet four
    years ago, while the men had all been pegging away at the
    language for ten years.

    "Prof. Stainton-Moses of University College, London, is
    certainly a trained scientist, and a man accustomed to weigh
    evidence, and tells me that with him spiritualism is not a
    matter of mere belief, but of actual, personal knowledge. A
    great deal of spiritual writing has been done through his own
    hand; not professionally, but for his own satisfaction. Holding
    Zoroaster or Aristotle in his left hand, and reading
    attentively, he has written out most extraordinary things with
    his right. For instance, one day--in answer, he thinks to a wish
    on his part for an especially strong test--his hand wrote of the
    death of a woman of whom he had never heard, giving her name and
    the time and manner of her passing away, etc. 'But,' he said, as
    he read it over, 'I don't see that this is a test. I could find
    it in a newspaper; I may have read it, and unconsciously
    remembered it.' Instantly it was written, 'No, that cannot be;
    she died but an hour ago, and when you see it in the paper you
    will have had your test.' The next day he searched the papers in
    vain, but on the second morning, there, in the death column, he
    found the announcement of the death, corresponding with what had
    been written through him, in every particular of name, date, and
    disease. Also he has seen spirits in friendly
    converse--entertained them at his own fireside.

    "I went, by invitation of Prof. Stainton-Moses, to a festal
    reunion of the 'Spiritual Alliance,' of which he is president,
    and I am bound to say that I met there men and women who seemed
    to me as sincere and earnest, and intelligent as one finds
    anywhere. Oh, and I saw Eglinton--the medium who is now what
    Home was--though he told me last night he meant soon to get out
    of the professional part of spiritualism. He is a singularly
    agreeable man, handsome, and with a look in his dark eyes as if
    they might easily see visions. I am told that he has lately
    married a very rich wife, and this may account for his intention
    to withdraw from spiritualism as a profession."

Mr. Eglinton has published in the _London Medium_ a very interesting
narrative of his seances with the Emperor and Empress of Russia, the
royal family and nobility. In the first royal seance, the Grand
Duchess Vladimir proved to be a medium, and was lifted in the air,
screaming the while. 'As she continued to ascend,' says Mr. Eglinton,
'I was compelled to leave her hand, and on returning to her seat, she
declared that she had been floated over the table without anything
having been in contact with her.'

The Grand Duke Vladimir brought a new bank-note in an envelope to have
its number told, which he did not know. The number was correctly
written by the spirits, between slates, 716,990.

At the seance with the emperor there were present a party of ten, the
empress, Grand Duke and Duchess of Oldenburg, Grand Duke and Duchess
Sergius, Grand Duke Vladimir, Prince Alexander, and Gen. Richter. All
hands being joined, a spirit voice conversed with the empress in
Russian. A female form materialized near the Princess Oldenburg. A
music-box weighing about forty pounds, was carried around and placed
on the emperor's hand. Other phenomena occurred, but the chief
incident was the levitation. Mr. Eglinton was lifted in the air, the
empress and Prince Oldenburg holding his hands and standing on their
chairs, until his feet rested on the shoulders of the emperor and the
Grand Duke Oldenburg.

Mr. Eglinton was overwhelmed with invitations from the nobility and
professors. M. de Giers the great Foreign Minister and his two sons
(mediums) were spiritualists of many years standing.

The JOURNAL could not contain half the marvellous things that are
happening.

The Louisville _Courier-Journal_ reports that in Bracken County, Ky.,
(on the Ohio river, between Louisville and Cincinnati):

    "Excitement is at fever heat in the Milford neighborhood, in the
    southern portion of this county, over the mysterious appearance
    of the most wonderful faces and figures upon the window glass of
    the houses in that section. The first appearance of these
    singular and most extraordinary pictures on the glass was at the
    residence of William Showalter, where the window panes all at
    once showed the colors of the rainbow, on which two days later
    the heads of people and animals were clearly visible. On the
    glass of another house a head and face resembling President
    Lincoln's were to be seen. On another the form of a young girl
    bending over an infant, the body of a lion, the figures
    twenty-two, and a landscape were all visible, as distinctly
    outlined as any artist could have drawn them. Some of the most
    striking pictures are on the windows of the Milford Baptist
    Church, which are protected with shutters that are kept tightly
    closed. The people of Bracken county have not in years been more
    worked up over anything than they now are over these pictures."



GLANCES ROUND THE WORLD.


The contempt with which Comte and many other philosophizers have
treated the press which tells of the progress of mankind is an example
for all good men to avoid. If we recognize the brotherhood of
humanity, we cannot be indifferent to the passing lives, the joys and
misfortunes of our brothers. Let pedants and philosophasters bury
themselves in the writings of the dead, the good man prefers to know
something of the living, and he finds it in the daily, weekly, and
monthly press.

At our first outward glance, we are struck with the elevation of our
standpoint. This great republic has attained an elevation in
intelligence, wealth, and power, which enables it to look down on the
lands that are overshadowed by the darkness of the past, and to
anticipate the time when American pre-eminence shall be universally
acknowledged. The condition already attained was eloquently stated by
Chauncey M. Depew, in a recent address at New York, which gave a
startling view of


AMERICAN PROGRESS.

    "Last summer I stood upon the White Hill at Prague, in Bohemia,
    where the thirty years war began and ended. There is no more
    suggestive spot in Europe. It recalled a picture of the horrors
    and desolation of war unequalled in history. The contest began
    when the continent was dominated by the German empire, and ended
    with the magnificent creation of Charles V. broken into
    numberless petty principalities. Like the contest of the 17th
    century, ours was both a civil and religious war. But the
    country came out of the conflict not like the old German empire,
    but a mighty nation.

    "Vapid sentimentalists and timid souls deprecate these annual
    reunions, fearing they may arouse old strifes and sectional
    animosities. But a war in which 500,000 men were killed, and
    2,000,000 were wounded, in which states were devastated and
    money spent equal to twice England's gigantic debt, has a
    meaning, a lesson and results which are to the people a liberal
    education. We cheerfully admit that the Confederate, equally
    with the Federal soldier, believed he was fighting for the
    right, and maintained his faith with a valor which fully
    sustained the reputation of Americans for courage and constancy.
    The best and bravest thinkers of the South gladly proclaim that
    the superb development which has been the outgrowth of their
    defeat is worth all its losses, its sacrifices, and
    humiliations.

    "In 1860 the developed and assessable property of the United
    States was valued at $16,000,000,000. One-half of this enormous
    sum was destroyed by the civil war, and yet so prodigious has
    been the growth of wealth that the estimate now surpasses the
    imperial figure of $60,000,000,000, and the growth at the rate
    of nearly $7,000,000 a day. Our wealth approximates one-half of
    that of all Europe.

    "These unparalleled results can be protected and continued only
    by the spirit of patriotism. This is a republic, and neither
    Mammon nor anarchy shall be king. The ranks of anarchy and riot
    number no Americans."

We realize more fully the future magnitude of our country, when we
look at the wealth of its soil and mines, already developed, and the
magnitude of its still untouched resources. According to the estimates
of Dr. A. B. Hart, of Harvard University, as laid before the American
Statistical Association at their last meeting in the Boston Institute
of Technology, the total territory of the United States contains
3,501,409 square miles. Of this entire amount Dr. Hart believes there
remains unsold in the hands of the government, public lands amounting
to 1,616,101 square miles, or 1,034,330,842 acres, which is almost
one-half of our entire territory. Such a realm as we have could
comfortably sustain between two and three thousand millions of
inhabitants, while the entire population of the globe is at present
less than fifteen hundred millions.

Our present population is over 60,000,000, and if it goes on
duplicating every thirty years, it will be in 1917, 120,000,000; in
1947, 240,000,000; in 1977, 480,000,000; in 2,007, 960,000,000; in
2,037, 1,920,000,000; 2,067, 3,840,000,000. Thus in 180 years we shall
have reached the limit where population, being over 1,000 to the
square mile, must emigrate or be arrested by the difficulty of
obtaining food, and the absolute necessity of reducing to a small
number our stock of horses, cattle, and hogs, that human beings may
have food,--vegetarian diet thus becoming a necessity, and bringing
with it a great diminution of intemperance, and the crimes produced by
the animal passions; for it is well established that vegetarianism
restrains intemperance.


BRIGHT PROSPECTS.

Among the bright indications for the future are the increase of
industrial education, the beginning of cooperation between capitalists
and employes, the increasing intelligence and combined strength of the
laboring class, which give assurance of good wages, and the
subdivision of the land into smaller farms, which substitutes an
independent yeomanry for the landlord and tenant relation. Thus, in
the thirteen States, formerly slave-holding, the average size of farms
in 1860 was 346 acres, but in 1880 it was 146.

We have vast mineral resources as yet untouched, of coal, iron, and
other metals far exceeding all that has yet been reached in the old as
well as new regions. The marbles of Inyo, California, are more than
twice as strong as the best marbles of Italy.

"Astonishing as the statement may appear," says the _Denver News_, "it
is nevertheless a fact that there are here, within the borders of
Colorado, the wealth in coal of two or even three States like
Pennsylvania. For the vast trans-Missouri country, eastward, even to
the valley of the Mississippi, Colorado is the great present and
future storehouse of the fuel which the demands and necessities of its
varied commercial and industrial life will require. Many generations
hence, when Colorado shall have become an old State, when the frontier
days shall have been forgotten, when gold and silver mining shall have
ceased to be profitable, even then will the coal fields of Colorado be
yielding their hidden treasures of fuel to supply the demand."

We have no territory which sanitary science may not render a healthful
home, and we have millions of acres of elevated territory, where the
highest conditions of human health and happiness may be attained in
connection with the highest spiritual development. But these regions
are not on the Eastern coast, chilled by the icy currents from the
North. "Westward the star of empire wends its way," and the Pacific
Coast is destined to witness the development of the highest
civilization on the globe. Of the health and beauty of California all
its residents can speak, but physicians can give decisive facts. Dr.
King, of Banning, Cal., says, "Out here we scarcely know what storms
are. All winter long my front yard has been green and beautiful--roses
blooming in January, and callas in March. During three and a half
years there have been but two cases of acute disease of the chest
within six miles of my office. I do not know of any death having
occurred in this village or vicinity from an acute disease, since I
came here nearly four years ago." What are the lauded climates of
Italy and Greece compared to such a record as this?


DARK CLOUDS.

But what are the clouds that dim the brightness of our coming glory,
and already overshadow us? The greatest of all is the curse of
intemperance. Secretary Windom said, in his address at the Cooper
Union meeting in New York, (May 25):

    "I do not think I overstate the case when I say that the 200,000
    saloons in this country have been instrumental in destroying
    more human life in the last five years than the 2,000,000 of
    armed men during the four years of the Rebellion. There is an
    irrepressible conflict upon us. This nation cannot endure half
    drunk and half sober any more than it could endure half slave
    and half free."

Gov. St. John, late candidate for the presidency, said, in his New,
York address:

    "There are about 215,000 retail liquor houses in this nation.
    Allowing 20 feet to each, it gives us an unbroken liquor front
    of about 781 miles. Just think of it! Seven hundred and
    eighty-one miles of profanity and vulgarity. Seven hundred and
    eighty-one miles of Sabbath-breaking. Seven hundred and
    eighty-one miles of drunkard-making. Seven hundred and
    eighty-one miles of filth, debauchery, anarchy, dynamite and
    bombs. [Applause]. Seven hundred and eighty-one miles of
    political corruption; seven hundred and eighty-one miles of
    hot-beds for the propagation of counterfeiters, wife-beaters,
    gamblers, thieves, and murderers.

    "In the High License City of Chicago, in the great Republican
    State of Illinois, there are, within five blocks of Halstead
    Street Mission, 325 saloons, 129 bawdy houses, 100 other houses
    of doubtful repute, theatres, museums and bad hotels, and only
    two places for the worship of Almighty God. (Cries of 'Shame!')"

St. John should have added that intemperance was the most powerful
agency for the propagation of intellectual and moral idiocy in
offspring.

The increase of insanity in spite of our defective systems of
education is universally recognized. The New York _Sun_ says:

    "The very rapid increase of insanity in the United States during
    the last two or three decades continues to be the subject of
    much discussion among alienists, and all those who are concerned
    in public charities. That a prime cause of this alarming state
    of things is the shipment to our shores of the enfeebled and
    defective of other countries, is now beginning to be understood,
    and both our own State Board of Charities and the National
    Conference of Charities and Correction have called on Congress
    to protect our society against the introduction of these
    depraved specimens of humanity, who speedily become a charge on
    the public, or transmit their weakness to their posterity.

    "The statistics of insanity show that, in general, the
    proportion of the insane is greatest in the older States, where
    the foreign population is most numerous, and it is least where
    the communities are new, as, for instance, in the pioneer
    counties of Wisconsin. The South, which has drawn comparatively
    little from immigration, suffers from insanity to a much less
    extent than New England and New York; and it is an established
    fact that the Negro race is much less liable to insanity than
    the white. The average of insanity in New England is 1 to every
    359 of the population; in New York, New Jersey, and
    Pennsylvania, 1 to every 424; while in the extreme Southern
    States the average is only 1 to 935.

    "The West, like the South, is more free from insanity than the
    Northern seaboard States, the average being 1 to every 610 in
    the interior States, and 1 to 750 for the Northwestern States.
    In the far Western States and Territories it is only 1 out of
    1,263, they being settled by a picked population, whose energy
    and soundness make them pioneers. It is note-worthy, however,
    that insanity is as frequent in the Pacific States as in New
    England, the explanation being that vice and indulgence prevail
    to an exceptional extent among the population drawn to the
    Pacific by the mania for gold. The average in Massachusetts, for
    instance, is 1 to 348; in California 1 to 345. It is also
    remarkable that the ratio of insanity decreases as we go west
    and south of New England, as these averages will show: New
    England, 1 to 359; Middle States, 1 to 424; interior States, 1
    to 610; Northwestern States, 1 to 750; Southern States 1 to 629.

    "The State where the proportion is highest is Vermont, 1 to 327;
    and New Hampshire comes next, with 1 to 329. We are at a loss to
    understand why insanity is so frequent in the District of
    Columbia, the average given being 1 to 189; but perhaps the
    large average in Vermont and New Hampshire may, in part, be due
    to the circumstance that those States receive the refuse of
    Canadian poor-houses, they having a much better organized system
    of charitable relief than the Dominion can boast of; and it is
    undeniable that some of the very worst of our immigration comes
    from over the Canadian border. That immigration, too, is now
    great, and there are factory towns in New England where the
    population is largely made up of French Canadians."

There is a disturbing element in the influx of a foreign population
reared under very unfavorable social conditions. In 1882 the
immigration was 800,000. On a single day, in May last, nearly ten
thousand arrived in Castle Garden. The steamships are overburdened,
and the Cunard and White Star lines employ extra ships to accommodate
the emigrants. Oppression in Ireland, and oppression all over Europe,
drives the people into emigration; but a large portion of the
emigration consists of a substantial population; yet we have enough of
the turbulent and debased element to make a serious danger in our
large cities, and a formidable competition with native American labor.
The more laborers, and the fewer employers, the worse it is for labor.
But perhaps American wealth and enterprise will find something
satisfactory for all to do.


DEFECTIVE EDUCATION.

But there is nothing more unsatisfactory to the philanthropist than
our meagre and inadequate system of education,--a system which aims to
cram the memory with acquired knowledge, which does not develop
original thought, and which does not elevate the moral nature. Such a
system will never elevate society, will never repress any vice or
crime, will never make the educated generation any happier for being
educated. In short, it utterly fails in that which should be its chief
end and aim, and simply leads society on as heretofore in the path of
increasing intelligence, increasing misery, increasing crime,
increasing insanity. What a commentary on our education and
civilization is the common estimate that Europe, now, with the most
complete educational system ever known, has 50,000 suicides a year. In
this, Paris, Vienna, and Berlin take the lead.


(_To be continued._)



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.


PHOTOGRAPHY PERFECTED.--In 1838 I conceived it possible, by chemical
means, to fix in permanency, on a suitable ground, the images of
objects formed by the camera. While speculating on this, the discovery
of Daguerre was announced, but I was disappointed, as he had not
photographed colors as well as forms. I felt sure that it was
possible, and a half century has realized it. Mr. J. J. E. Myall, a
London photographer of great scientific skill, has succeeded in
photographing the colors as well as forms of objects and fixing a
permanent picture. More recent advices throw some doubt on this.


THE CANNON KING.--Alfred Krupp, the greatest cannon-maker of the world,
died at his works, Essen, Prussia, on the 14th of July, seventy-five
years old. His works covered nearly a square mile, while his fortune
was about $40,000,000. He employed 10,000 men at Essen, and over 7,000
at other places. He owned nearly 600 iron and coal mines, 6 smelting
works, 14 blast furnaces, 5 steamers, and 140 steam-engines. He was a
plain, industrious man, shunned all ostentation, refused titles, and
took good care of his workmen. Yet was his business an honorable one?
If the man who supplies alcoholic beverages to drunkards is condemned
by the general sentiment of the temperate community, what should we
think of one who supplies slung-shot, poison, and daggers to
assassins? But how little harm is there in such implements compared to
the slaughtering work of the terrible cannon of Krupp, which are to be
used only for wholesale homicide. Such questions must be considered by
moralists. The _Boston Herald_ in a sudden and unexpected flash of
ethical sentiment, says, "Herr Krupp sold his guns to different
governments for the purpose of enabling them to fight each other.
There is no code in modern ethics that would condemn an action of this
kind, and yet it seems to us that the time may come when a man who
made his fortune by supplying men with arms for the purpose of killing
each other will be looked upon as one engaged in a highly immoral
enterprise." Is it not a terrible indictment of the _so-called_
Christian church to say, "There is no code in modern ethics that would
condemn" war and its accessories?


LAND MONOPOLY.--The United States government has squandered its rich
domain with signal folly, but Mexico has been far more reckless. It
has recently given away 60,000,000 of acres in Durango, Chihuahua, and
other regions to an American company represented by Henry B. Clifford.
It is not stated that any very valuable consideration has been given
for this grant.


THE GRAND CANALS.--Lesseps' Panama Canal has no bright prospect. The
enterprise has been badly managed, has cost a great sacrifice of life,
and over $200,000,000. It is employing from 12,000 to 14,000 men, but
its finances are nearly exhausted, and an American engineer says it
would take ten years for the present company to finish it, if they
could raise the money. The Nicaragua Canal, if started now by
Americans, would be finished first, and that would kill it entirely.
Meantime Captain Ead's Ship Railway at Tehuantepec is likely to make
canals unnecessary, for since his death his associate, Col. James
Andrews, has undertaken to finish it, and $1,500,000 more has been
raised at Pittsburg. This will carry the ships over the Isthmus by the
railroad method. The German government has just begun a grand canal at
Kiel, to connect the North Sea with the Baltic, large enough to allow
ships to pass, drawing twenty-seven feet. Greece is slowly at work on
a canal at the Isthmus of Corinth, and Massachusetts on a canal to cut
off Cape Cod. Russia has determined to build a grand railroad to the
Pacific Ocean across Asia, through Siberia, beginning next spring and
finishing in five years. When finished, Russians could travel from St.
Petersburg to the Pacific in fifteen days.


THE SURVIVAL OF BARBARISM.--Amid the fussy pomposity of the Queen's
jubilee, the voice of the thinkers has not been entirely silent. The
utter failure of her reign to present a single noble thought or
impulse, a single evidence of sympathy with the immense mass of
suffering, has been sharply commented on, not only in prose, but in
the vigorous verse of Robert Buchanan.

The scientific periodical _Nature_ suggests very appropriately that,
although the progress of the last half century has been due mainly to
the labors of scientific men, the leaders in science have been unknown
to the head of the government, and their labors prosecuted without aid
or sympathy from the throne. "The brain of the nation has been
divorced from the head."

But why not? Has it not always been so; did not the barons who once
ruled boast of their illiteracy? Science and philanthropy produce
wealth and elevate the people. The rulers consume that wealth and keep
the people down. Of course two classes so opposite are not in
sympathy. In the late jubilee, the titled, the wealthy, and the
hangers-on of government were given the prominent positions, and the
scientists ignored; as Nature said: "England is not represented, but
only England's paid officials and nobodies."

But it is too soon for scientists to demand an honorable position.
They should be content to escape the prison and the ostracism which
was once the reward for nobly doing their duty.


CONCORD PHILOSOPHY.--The summer school of (so-called) philosophy still
meets at Concord in July--the last survival of the speculative
ignorance of the dark ages, and the worship of Greek literature. The
copious ridicule of the press has no effect upon this serious
gathering. Its verbose platitudes and pretentious inanities continue
to be repeated, furnishing almost as good an antithesis to science and
philosophy as Mrs. Eddy and her disciples. There is no lack of fluency
and ingenuity in the use of language, and occasionally there are
glimmering and flashes of common sense, but to wander through the
first report of the present session, in pursuit of a correct
philosophic idea, is as unprofitable as to wander all day through
wintry snows to find a little game already dying of starvation. The
first lecture on Aristotle is the most unmitigated rubbish that the
year has produced. I regret that I have not space to criticise the
proceedings into which, however, Dr. Montgomery of Texas has injected
some bright thoughts, and the displays of learning relieve the general
monotony, while considerable intellectual energy is displayed in the
discussions; but to see a conclave of learned professors devoting
their time to the examination and discussion of Aristotle's writings
is about as edifying as to see a geographical society devoting its
time to discussing the geography of Ptolemy.


THE ANDOVER WAR to enforce the damnation of the uninstructed heathen
has been very unlucky. It has not disturbed the teachings of the
professors, but it has shown the public very plainly that it was
simply a _malicious_ attack on the president, Professor Smyth, the
other professors, who teach exactly the same doctrines, being entirely
undisturbed, although they presented themselves for trial. The time is
coming when intelligent men will be ashamed to confess a belief in the
devil, and the old-fashioned hell-fire,--indeed the time has already
arrived among the most intelligent.


THE CATHOLIC REBELLION.--About five years ago it was predicted,
through Mrs. Buchanan, that Catholicism in New York would undergo a
change, as many spirits were actively at work to liberalize the minds
of Catholics, especially at the time of Easter, and to wean them from
their attitude of abject submission. There were no indications of such
a tendency at that time, and the movement of the Catholic masses in
sympathy with Dr. McGlynn, who tells the Pope that he shall not meddle
with the politics of Americans or dictate their political action has
come like a sudden storm from a clear sky. Liberalized Catholics may
move in advance of Protestants for they have preserved a more vivid
spiritualism and religious faith.


STUPIDITY OF COLLEGES.--Clairvoyance and spiritual phenomena have been
in progress all over the world from periods beyond historic record,
but colleges have not yet learned of their existence. They are now
becoming familiar to millions, from the emperor to the beggar, and
still the colleges plod on in sanctified ignorance where the priest
rules, or in insolent dogmatism where the medical professor rules. Is
there anything in the way of demonstration that can overcome this
pachydermic stupidity?--doubtful! Clairvoyants have described
diseases, described distant places, described things in public, while
their eyes were bandaged--but the colleges learn nothing. Now there is
another test of the collegiate amaurosis, or cataract, or whatever it
may be, which has lasted 700 years, and has thus attained its
incurable character. A blind man is clairvoyant and psychometric. He
travels about almost as well as those who have eyes. His name is Henry
Hendrickson. The _Chicago Herald_ gives an interesting description. He
can find his way, can skate well, can read finger-language, and can
describe objects with a cloth thrown over his head. But this is only
another demonstration of second sight which has been demonstrated a
thousand times. Why should colleges recognize such facts? have they
not old Greek books for oracles which were written before the dawn of
science! What are Gall and Spurzheim, Darwin and Wallace, Crookes and
De Morgan, to professors who can fluently read Aristotle in Greek, and
can tell how Plato proved that a table is not a table but only a
mental phantasy!


CREMATION is making great progress in Europe. It is an old idea, not
only among the ancients but in modern times. In the last century it
was advocated in a very artistic way by Dr. Becker, a physician of
Germany, and Guirand, an architect in France. These gentlemen proposed
that the ashes of cremation should be fused into a glass and moulded
into all sorts of ornamental designs, fit for trinkets, monuments,
etc. This has a very fantastic appearance. What would we think of
General Washington's remains preserved in the Capitol as a crystal
globe of green glass? or how should we like to have our own remains
preserved in that brilliant manner? A beautiful woman might thus be
converted into some brilliant "thing of beauty--a joy forever."


COL. HENRY S. OLCOTT,--President and founder of the Theosophical
Society, is travelling in India, lecturing before the branches
scattered in every part of the country. He has been for months on this
tour, and spent last winter in Ceylon, where he was royally welcomed
and entertained by the Buddhists. Some years ago Col. Olcott joined
the Buddhist sect, and has done it good service in publishing a
Buddhist catechism, which has been widely circulated in the West. He
was, at last accounts, at Allahabad, where the thermometer stood, day
after day, at 105°, and at nearly that night after night. Despite the
heat his lecture rooms are crowded with interested listeners, and his
popularity was never so great as at present. He will return to Adyar,
the headquarters of the society in southern India, in October. The
report that he had returned to Europe this summer is incorrect, and
arose from the fact that Mme. Blavatsky was on the Continent very ill,
and her companions were several Theosophists who had been in India and
had returned to Europe. She is at present in London.--_N. Y. Sun._


JESSE SHEPARD,--the musical genius has built himself a beautiful
residence at San Diego, California. He has evoked unbounded admiration
and astonishment by giving one of his inspired performances in the
service of Father Ubach's Catholic church, at the morning mass.


PROHIBITION--has been very successful in Atlanta, Georgia in the past
18 months. It is well enforced. The wealth of the city has increased;
property has advanced in value; the laboring classes are more
prosperous; the schools are better attended; gambling has been
checked; crime has been checked, and the criminal courts transact
their business in one-seventh of the former time; there are about half
as many arrests, and the streets on which it was unsafe for a lady to
go alone, have become orderly. Local option has established temperance
in Georgia. Out of 137 counties 115 are controlled by prohibition. In
Iowa under prohibition, the Fort Madison Penitentiary is for the first
time short of the supply of convicts sufficient to fulfil the usual
contracts. England now has a national prohibition party, and Mr. Axel
GUSTAFSON is its leader.


LONGEVITY.--A news item from Columbia, S. C., reports a case of great
longevity as "attested by family records": that of Amy Avant, a
colored woman on the plantation of Major James Reeves, in Marion
County, who died May 24th, of measles, at the advanced age of 122
years. She was remarkably well preserved and retained all her
faculties up to the time of her fatal illness, previous to which she
claimed that she had never taken a dose of medicine. During the last
cotton-picking season she took her place regularly in the cotton
fields and always performed a good day's work.

ST. THOMAS, July 6.--Peter Barlow, who took part in the American
Revolution under Washington, died recently in Demerara, aged 130
years.

ROCKLAND.--John J. Whipple of this place was 100 years old to-day, and
as he is in excellent health, the old gentleman bids fair to live
another decade at least. Mr. Whipple says he believes in the "good old
way" of eating and drinking according to inclination, and though he
has never indulged in intoxicants to excess he has never abstained
entirely from either the use of tobacco or strong drink. Grandfather
Whipple is one of the authorities in the place where he lives, and his
memory is remarkable. His eye has a merry twinkle, and he can enjoy a
joke and tell a good story with any of the boys.--_Globe Democrat._

KNOXVILLE, Tenn., July 23.--Henry Cleggy of Meigs County, Tennessee,
is undoubtedly one of the oldest men in the State, having recently
celebrated his 105th birthday. Mr. Meigs takes pleasure in walking
about his farm, and has no idea of taking a trip from this world to
the next for at least a decade. The old gentleman's memory is
excellent and he remembers many incidents of long ago.--_Globe Dem._


INCREASE OF INSANITY.--Louisiana, like New York, Massachusetts, and
all highly civilized countries, is realizing the increase of insanity.
The State Asylum has recently been greatly enlarged but now there are
hundreds that it cannot receive.


EXTRAORDINARY FASTING, Jackson, Tenn., June 15.--W. M. Murchinson,
whose long fast has been mentioned before, died yesterday at Medon in
this county; having lived ninety days without drink or food. His
record is probably without parallel in the history of the medical
world. He was a gallant soldier in the Fourteenth Tennessee Cavalry
and followed the fortunes of that daring leader, Forrest, through the
Civil war, and lost an eye. He was about 45 years of age at the time
of his death. He had been in declining health for some months. His
throat became paralyzed one night three months ago while he was
asleep, and he could never swallow any nourishment after that time. He
was an honest, brave man and an esteemed citizen. He never married.
Several citizens from Jackson and surrounding country visited him
during his fast, and all were astonished that he could live so long
without food and drink.


SPIRITUAL PAPERS.--The Spiritual Offering, Light for Thinkers and
Light in the West, have died and been succeeded by "The Better Way,"
at Cincinnati.



CRANIOSCOPY.

(_Continued from page 32._)


I would not say that Napoleon's brain was to any great degree
abnormal, but I am satisfied that criminal's brains are generally
abnormal, for there are many criminals whose heads do not, by their
exterior form, indicate their depravity, but wherever I have examined
the interior of the skull I have found the basilar organs active,
growing and imprinted upon the interior table of the skull, while the
superior region reveals the decline of the moral nature by the
increased thickness of the bone which is growing inward and has not
the digital impressions of the convolutions which are marked wherever
the brain is in an active growing condition. The criminal's skull must
be studied by post mortem examination, and the most effective method
is by placing a taper through the foramen magnum at the bottom of the
skull which will reveal the more active organs by the translucency and
thinness of the bones, while the inactive organs are indicated by
their opacity and thickness, as in the following convict skull.

[Illustration: A REBELLIOUS CONVICT.]

The sketch here presented exhibits the degrees of translucency and
opacity in a skull which I obtained at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, about
fifty years ago. It was the skull of a convict killed in the
penitentiary while leading a rebellion in a desperate effort to
escape.

The man was of a respectable family, son of the sheriff of Warren
County, Ky. He fell into bad company and bad habits at New Orleans,
drinking and gaming, until for an act of highway robbery he was sent
to the penitentiary. The reader will observe the general activity of
the intellect and the adjacent social sentiments indicated by the
translucency, and the general torpor, indicated by the opacity in the
regions of Religion, Hope, Reverence, Love, Conscientiousness,
Industry, Cheerfulness, Love of Approbation, Sense of Honor, and
Self-respect. Secretiveness shows opacity, while Combativeness shows
intense activity which extends into Adhesiveness and cautiousness.

The translucency at Firmness, Irritability, and Combativeness, which
were active to the last moments of his life, is quite characteristic.
Upon the whole, the test by the inner light inserted at the foramen
magnum in the base of the skull indicates a very low, lawless,
desperate and unprincipled character, with enough of adhesiveness to
give him comrades in crime, and enough of intelligence to give him
some success.

The most extraordinary instance of this was in the skull of a negro
woman which I examined in Alabama, which had only a slight
translucency at Firmness, while the rest of the upper surface of the
skull was so abnormally thick that in lifting it one was reminded of
the weight of a block of wood. She had, in a fit of temper, murdered
her own child in the field, chopping it down with an axe.



CHAPTER VII.--PRACTICAL UTILITY OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN ITS PSYCHIC
DEPARTMENT.

    All science should be useful--Anthropology has the supreme
    utility--Importance of self-knowledge and its rarity--Almost
    impossible without the aid of Anthropology--Its absence in the
    college--Immense waste of labor in abortive
    self-culture--Anthropology an exact guide--The selfish do not
    want it--Mistakes in education--Unbalanced characters
    described--Possibility of reform--Conjugal reform most
    important--The powerful agencies of Anthropology.


Before commencing the study of the organs of the brain and faculties
of the soul, it is well to look to its results, its practical
utilities; for the pursuit of science merely to gratify an
intellectual curiosity is not the noblest employment of our time,
although it has been a favorite indulgence of the literary class, and
was regarded by the ancient philosopher, Empedocles, as the noblest
occupation of man. From this opinion I decidedly dissent, regarding
the lawless and excessive indulgence of the intellectual faculties as
a species of erratic dissipation, injurious to the manhood of the
individual, and pernicious to society by the misleading influence of a
bad example.

Not only does this extreme intellectual indulgence, in a life the
primary purpose of which is not meditation, but action, impair the
individual as to his normal usefulness, and thus diffuse by example a
deteriorating influence upon the young, and misleading influence upon
all, but it actually leads to false views of life, and an unsound
philosophy such as transcendental idealism, pessimism, indolence, and
the pursuit of visionary falsehoods which a well-balanced mind would
intuitively reject. These follies are cultivated by a pedantic system
of education, and by the accumulated literature which such education
in the past has developed, feeble and faulty in style, superficial in
conception, and sadly misleading as to the principles and purposes of
life.

Though tempted to such indulgence by the ceaseless activity of my own
mind, I can say that I have never pursued any course of investigation,
or study, without a positive certainty of its beneficence and value.
No other course would be compatible with the demands of duty; but it
is obvious on the face of a large portion of our literature that the
ethical sentiments were dormant when it was written. Pre-eminent above
all other studies in practical value is the science of ANTHROPOLOGY,
so long neglected and unknown; a science which places biology on a new
basis, rectifies therapeutics, reforms education, develops ethics or
religion, and illuminates all spheres of knowledge by psychometry.

The psychic department of Anthropology in which we are now entering
the study of the faculties of the soul, the organs of the brain, and
the effects of their varying development upon the characters of men
and animals, is rich in very practical instruction for the guidance of
life, and the attainment not only of spiritual and physical health and
success in this life, but of that nobler and greater success, which is
chiefly realized in the coming centuries, in which a grander realm is
opened for our expanded powers in the higher life.

One of the most essential things for success in life is a correct
self-knowledge. A strong, well-balanced organization with a clear
intuitive intellect, generally gives this knowledge, and leads to a
correct course in life. But how few are really well developed and well
balanced, with intuitive clearness of perception, and again how many
are there who, in the unrestrained indulgence of all their passions
and propensities, care not whether their lives are right or wrong,
according to a correct standard. This class desire no admonition, no
explanation of their peculiarities, and the causes of their failures
or misfortunes.

Selfish and narrow-minded men charge all their failures and
misfortunes either to inevitable destiny, or to the faults and
misconduct of others. But the truth which science enforces is that we
should charge all our failures to ourselves. Other men have succeeded
splendidly in life, winning wealth, power, renown and friendship. If
we have not, it must be because we have not exercised the same
faculties which made them successful, and we should study most
diligently to learn wherein, or how, we have failed.

Nearly all are disqualified for this task of self-inspection either by
a selfish bias which is unwilling to recognize a fault, or by the
fault itself which biases the judgment. The faculty, or passion, which
misleads one becomes a part of his judging faculty, and cannot condemn
itself. The miser cannot realize the baseness of his avarice, nor the
mercenary soldier the enormity of war. Nor can a defective faculty
assist in realizing the defect. The color-blind cannot appreciate
painting, the thief cannot appreciate integrity, the brutal
wife-beater cannot appreciate love, and a Napoleon cannot appreciate
disinterested friendship.

Nor do they who fail to comprehend their own faults learn much from
the admonition of friends, for _they_ are too desirous of maintaining
a friendly relation to give entirely candid advice, and the criticisms
of those who are not friends excite suspicion and anger. Fortunate is
the man who can profit by the criticisms of his enemies.

How many are there who go through life with glaring defects of
character, injurious to their welfare, who are never warned, either by
kind friends or by conscience, and never realize the necessity of any
higher wisdom than their own, or the necessity of self-culture.

Hence the imperative necessity of psychic science, not that barren
abstraction called psychology in colleges, but a science which, like a
faithful mirror, reveals to us that which we cannot see. As the
gymnastic teacher reveals by a system of measurement (anthropometry)
the defective muscles that need development, so should the
psychologist discover in the conformation of the brain the special
culture needed by defective faculties.

There is nothing of this kind in the universities at present. Glaring
faults are seen everywhere, working out their disastrous results, with
no preventive method. We have orthopedic and orthopraxic institutions,
and gymnastic halls to correct the defects of the body, but no attempt
to recognize or correct the far more important defects and deformities
of the soul. The orthopneumatic institution for the soul has not yet
been conceived. The school or college should be such an institution,
and in THE NEW EDUCATION I have endeavored to show how it may perform
this duty. The pulpit should be a similar institution; but, alas, the
pulpit itself, has no adequate system of ethics--its theology has
starved its ethics, and it lifts its followers, in the main, no higher
than the level of exterior respectability. The task remains for some
able critic to show how many of the important duties of life, though
plainly implied by the fundamental law of Christianity, are ignored by
the pulpit.

Anthropology alone reveals the ethical fulness and symmetry of
character, which all should seek; and when science shall be advanced
far beyond the barriers that circumscribe it at present, men and women
will seek the profound and intuitive anthropologist for consultation,
as they now seek the physician for the attainment of health.

It has been for the attainment of a possible superiority that millions
have submitted to the discipline of collegiate education, while others
with nobler aims have sought in meditation, in prayer, and in
imitation of the illustrious, for the ennoblement of their own lives.
No book has sold more largely than the Imitation of Christ. But was it
not often a blind struggle in the dark, an attempt to reach a goal
never clearly seen. Wandering in a labyrinth of fanaticism, agonizing
in the effort to distort nature, the biographical record of religious
aspiration serves to show how nearly multitudes may approach the
boundary line of insanity in their protracted periods of causeless
mental agony and in their fierce hostility to heresy and to science.
Alike in Brahmin, Buddhist, Mohammedan, and Christian nations have we
seen the vast expenditure of spiritual energy in the blind struggle of
aspiring souls.

To all this, Anthropology will put an end, for it will give to each a
definite conception of the full normal development of humanity, and of
the organization or brain development by what it is sustained. To
those who fall far short of that development, it gives the means of a
definite measurement of the defect, and shows by cranioscopy and
psychometry what is to be done in self-culture, as clearly as we learn
in the gymnasium what muscles need greater development.

The desire for such improvement is often absent when it is most
needed. A vast multitude of inferior people are perfectly content with
themselves in a selfish life, wholly absorbed in providing for their
own wants, or, if possessed of wealth, using it only in selfishness
and ostentation,--content in believing themselves as good as their
neighbors, doing nothing to benefit society, unless under the coercion
of public opinion, leading such lives that the world is certainly no
better, and perhaps a little worse, for their advent.

A very different class, who are more apt to profit by anthropology is
composed of those in whom there is a decided predominance of good. In
some cases they are deficient in selfish and combative energy, do not
know how to assert their rights, are credulous and confiding. Children
of that character if reared by timid and over-fond parents, are
deprived of the rough contact with society that is necessary to their
development. There are many whom the lack of self-confidence, the lack
of ambition, and lack of business energy condemn to an obscure life,
when their intellectual capacities would fit them for an influential
position. A kind but mistaken system of training confirms the defect,
and dooms them to an inefficient life, or a stern system of repression
deprives them of all self-confidence and energy. Millions of good
women are victimized in this manner. This amiable class are amenable
to instruction, but are often by their easy credulity, induced to
yield to unworthy teachers, or to the guidance of unsound but
pretentious or delusive literature. They lack in the energy of
criticism which might protect them from error.

Throughout the whole course of education, from infancy to manhood,
Anthropology may be an ever-present monitor, warning against excesses,
against failures, against errors of opinion, while urging the
cultivation of our feebler faculties as the gymnastic teacher urges
the cultivation of the feebler muscles.

Unaware of their errors, many would resent all such criticism, but the
science which cannot help them, because they will have none of it,
will enable us to understand them correctly and know how to deal with
them.

There is an intense curiosity in the young to know their capacities,
their adaptation to various pursuits, their merits and defects of
character, to know what to cultivate, what to repress, and what
estimate to put upon themselves. In the age of adolescence such
knowledge is very valuable, and is generally willingly received.
Moreover, it is very interesting to parents and guardians to know what
estimate to form of their charge. The thorough Psychologist (I prefer
this word to Phrenologist, which has a more limited meaning) is
therefore one of the most useful scientists, and may render invaluable
service in the period from ten to twenty years of age, when a guiding
wisdom is needed.

That wisdom, though seldom sought later in life, is nevertheless a
wisdom which all men need, and especially for this reason, that, with
few exceptions,

  NO MAN IS COMPETENT TO BE HIS OWN CRITIC.

Unless he is a profound Anthropologist he has no standard of humanity,
no absolute standard with which to compare himself, and if he should
attempt to form such a standard, his personal defects would vitiate
the result.

I never go into society without witnessing examples of those who need
earnest psychic admonition. For example, among public speakers, I
would mention certain defects: A., with a broad forehead and richly
endowed intellect, has not sufficient development of the highest
regions of the brain to give him moral dignity or to enable him to
discriminate well between the noble upright and the cunning selfish.
His superior intellect is shown not by impressive eloquence, but by
energetic loquacity, and hence fails to receive full recognition. B.
has the dignity and power in which A. is deficient, but lacking in the
organs of love, sympathy and liberality, he becomes harsh, censorious
and bitterly controversial, making many enemies and leading a wretched
home-life. C. has a grand oratorical energy and dignity, but lacking
in the organs of reverence and humility, he overrates himself and
becomes famous for his vanity. D. has the intellect, wit, humor, and
social qualities to shine in company, but from lack of the organ of
self-respect, he fails to maintain the dignity of a gentleman and
command proper respect in society. E. had the power and genius to rank
among the most eloquent and distinguished men of the nation, but the
too broad base of his brain overcame all his nobler qualities, and,
after becoming an object of general contempt, he ended his life a
worthless sot. F. had an intellectual genius of the highest order, and
ought to have left a name among the great scientists of the age, but
the regions of moral energy, cheerfulness, and adhesiveness were
lacking in his brain, and hence he never attained any great success or
retained any satisfactory position. His life ran down into pessimism,
failure, and premature decay. G. had another splendid intellect and
made his mark on the times, but lacking in the region of dignity and
self-control, he failed to reach his just position in political life
and fell into premature mental decay from over-excitement. H., with
much less of intellectual capacity, but a better balanced organization
rose to the highest rank in the esteem of his countrymen. I., with an
intellect adapted to the exploration of the mysteries of science, of
which he gave good evidence, but lacking in all the elements of
strength of character lead a life of uniform failure, obscurity and
poverty, and yet I felt assured that a different education in youth
which would have developed his manhood and ambition and would have
carried him to eminence. J. is a man of superior intellect,
benevolence and strength of character, but the organ of love is
singularly defective in his head and his domestic life is therefore
void of happiness.

Neither the men nor the women in whom I have observed the deficiency
of the faculty of love, ever seemed to be aware of the fact or to
suspect that their intense antipathies were the product of a faulty
organization, and their discords chargeable to themselves.

K. and L. are two gentlemen richly endowed in intellect and in the
other virtues, but not in conscientiousness, in which they are
strangely deficient. This is the only defective region in their heads
and it is fully borne out in their lives, which are void of integrity
and truth, though they have escaped the condemnation of the law.

M. was a lady of intense ambition in whom the regions of love and
religion were deficient. Aspiring to be a leader in philanthropic
reform she had a limited following in an erratic course, but ended her
labors by obtaining a snug position for herself and repudiating all
she had done. N. was another would-be leader in philanthropic reforms,
who was at one time quite conspicuous, but while he had the ideal
speculative intellect to appreciate theories, he was lacking in love
and religion. His philanthropy did not pay, and he abandoned it
entirely for a life of selfish self-indulgence.

I might enumerate many more, with whose organic development I was
familiar, whose lives displayed conspicuously their organic defects of
brain, but who never seemed to understand their own deficiencies or
make any effort to correct them. Could they have been corrected in
adult life? Much might have been done if they had understood and been
admonished by Anthropology. I know of one in whom an organic defect
was pointed out, in his first manhood, who, by persistent effort, so
far overcame it as to modify the form of his head, and increase its
fulness in the moral regions. But, as the world goes, men are not
admonished, and they cherish their defects, refusing to believe that
they are faults.

It is in childhood and youth that the work of reformation is to be
accomplished, when parents and teachers shall have learned the
methods.

But reformation must begin farther back, with parents. It must begin
in the most faithful care and systematic loving culture during the
nine months of unborn life, which may do more than all subsequent
education.

And it must begin still farther back, in the refusal to propagate
evil, in the selection of mothers who are worthy and competent to bear
good children, and the selection of fathers whose characters are worth
reproducing, leaving an unchosen remnant to whom marriage should be
denied.



BUSINESS DEPARTMENT.


COLLEGE OF THERAPEUTICS.

Next Session Begins November 1, 1887.

This institution is the germ of what will be an immense revolution in
education hereafter, when the knowledge now given to small classes
will hold a conspicuous place in every college, and will be presented
in every high school.

The mountain mass of inertia, which opposes, passively, all
fundamental changes, cannot now resist scientific demonstration as it
has in the past. The instruction in the College of Therapeutics, is
thoroughly demonstrative, leaving no room for doubt, and it gives a
species of knowledge which ought to be a part of every one's
education--a knowledge of the constitution of man, not obtainable
to-day in any medical or literary college, nor in our mammoth
libraries. It is not merely as a deep philosophy that this interests
us, but as a guide in the preservation of health, and in the
regulation of spiritual phenomena, which would, to a very great
extent, supersede our reliance on the medical profession by giving us
the control of the vital powers, by which we may protect ourselves,
and control the development of the young.

Each student was made to feel the effects of local treatment on the
body, and the power of rapidly changing disease to health, and was
personally taught to perform the manipulations for this purpose, and
to investigate disease or portray character by the psychometric
methods as well as to test the value of medicines.

The various uses and scientific application of electricity were shown,
and many things entirely unknown and unrecognized in works on
Electro-Therapeutics. The entire class was placed under a medical
influence simultaneously by the agency of electricity--an operation so
marvelous that it would be considered incredible in medical colleges.
By these and other experiments and numerous illustrations and lucid
explanations of the brain and nervous system, the instruction was made
deeply interesting, and students have attended more than one course to
perfect themselves in the science. The following declaration of
sentiments shows how the course was regarded by the class:

    "The summer class of 1887 in the College of Therapeutics,
    feeling it their duty to add their testimony to that of many
    others in reference to the grand scientific discoveries which
    they have seen thoroughly demonstrated by Prof. J. R. Buchanan,
    would say to the public that no one can attend such a course of
    instruction as we have recently been engaged in, without
    realizing that Therapeutic Sarcognomy greatly enlarges the
    practical resources of the healing art for the medical
    practitioner, magnetizer and electro-therapeutist, while
    Psychometry, whose positive truths we have tested and proven,
    like the sun's rays, illumines all the dark problems of medical
    practice and of psycho-physiological sciences.

    "Therapeutic Sarcognomy explains the very intricate and
    mysterious relations of the soul, the brain and body, which
    prior to Prof. Buchanan's discoveries were unknown to all
    scientific teachers, and are even now only known to his students
    and the readers of his works,

    "We feel that we have been very fortunate in finding so valuable
    a source of knowledge, whose future benefits to the human race,
    in many ways, cannot be briefly stated, and we would assure all
    who may attend this college, or read the published works of
    Prof. Buchanan, and his monthly, the _Journal of Man_, that they
    will, when acquainted with the subject, be ready to unite with
    us in appreciating and honoring the greatest addition ever made
    to biological and psychological sciences. Hoping that the time
    is not for distant when all students in medical colleges may
    obtain access to this most important knowledge, we give our
    testimony to the public."

                      H. C. ALDRICH, M. D., D. D. S., _Chairman._
                      DR. JNO. C. SCHLARBAUM, _Secretary_.


Enlargement of the Journal.

The requests of readers for the enlargement of the Journal are already
coming in. It is a great disappointment to the editor to be compelled
each month to exclude so much of interesting matter, important to
human welfare, which would be gratifying to its readers. The second
volume therefore will be enlarged to 64 pages at $2 per annum.

The establishment of a new Journal is a hazardous and expensive
undertaking. Every reader of this volume receives what has cost more
than he pays for it, and in addition receives the product of months of
editorial, and many years of scientific, labor. May I not therefore
ask his aid in relieving me of this burden by increasing the
circulation of the Journal among his friends?

The establishment of the Journal was a duty. There was no other way
effectively to reach the people with its new sphere of knowledge.
Buckle has well said in his "History of Civilization," that "No great
political improvement, no great reform, either legislative or
executive, has ever been originated in any country by its ruling
class. The first suggestors of such steps have invariably been bold
and able thinkers, who discern the abuse, denounce it, and point out
the remedy."

This is equally true in science, philanthropy, and religion. When the
advance of knowledge and enlightenment of conscience render reform or
revolution necessary, the ruling powers of college, church,
government, capital, and the press, present a solid combined
resistance which the teachers of novel truth cannot overcome without
an appeal to the people. The grandly revolutionary science of
Anthropology, which offers in one department (Psychometry) "the dawn
of a new civilization," and in other departments an entire revolution
in social, ethical, educational, and medical philosophy, has
experienced the same fate as all other great scientific and
philanthropic innovations, in being compelled to sustain itself
against the mountain mass of established error by the power of truth
alone. The investigator whose life is devoted to the evolution of the
truth cannot become its propagandist. A whole century would be
necessary to the full development of these sciences to which I can
give but a portion of one life. Upon those to whom these truths are
given, who can intuitively perceive their value, rests the task of
sustaining and diffusing the truth.

Mrs. Croly of New York remarked in her address to the Women's Press
Association of Boston. "The general public resents the advocacy of a
cause and resists any attempt to commit it to special ideas. A paper
that starts to represent a cause must be maintained by individual
effort, and often at great sacrifice."

The circulation of the Journal is necessarily limited to the sphere of
liberal minds and advanced thinkers, but among these it has had a more
warm and enthusiastic reception than was ever before given to any
periodical. There must be in the United States twenty or thirty
thousand of the class who would warmly appreciate the Journal, but
they are scattered so widely it will be years before half of them can
be reached without the active co-operation of my readers, which I most
earnestly request.

Prospectuses and specimen numbers will be furnished to those who will
use them, and those who have liberal friends not in their own vicinity
may confer a favor by sending their names that a prospectus or
specimen may be sent them. A liberal commission will be allowed to
those who canvass for subscribers.


MAYO'S ANÆSTHETIC.

The suspension of pain, under dangerous surgical operations, is the
greatest triumph of Therapeutic Science in the present century. It
came first by mesmeric hypnotism, which was applicable only to a few,
and was restricted by the jealous hostility of the old medical
profession. Then came the nitrous oxide, introduced by Dr. Wells, of
Hartford, and promptly discountenanced by the enlightened (?) medical
profession of Boston, and set aside for the next candidate, ether,
discovered in the United States also, but far interior to the nitrous
oxide as a safe and pleasant agent. This was largely superseded by
chloroform, discovered much earlier by Liebig and others, but
introduced as an anæsthetic in 1847, by Prof. Simpson. This proved to
be the most powerful and dangerous of all. Thus the whole policy of
the medical profession was to discourage the safe, and encourage the
more dangerous agents. The magnetic sleep, the most perfect of all
anæsthetic agents, was expelled from the realm of college authority;
ether was substituted for nitrous oxide, and chloroform preferred to
ether, until frequent deaths gave warning.

Nitrous oxide, much the safest of the three, has not been the
favorite, but has held its ground, especially with dentists. But even
nitrous oxide is not perfect. It is not equal to the magnetic sleep,
when the latter is practicable, but fortunately it is applicable to
all. To perfect the nitrous oxide, making it universally safe and
pleasant, Dr. U. K. Mayo, of Boston, has combined it with certain
harmless vegetable nervines, which appear to control the fatal
tendency which belongs to all anæsthetics when carried too far. The
success of Dr. Mayo, in perfecting our best anæsthetic, is amply
attested by those who have used it. Dr. Thorndike, than whom, Boston
had no better surgeon, pronounced it "the safest the world has yet
seen." It has been administered to children and to patients in extreme
debility. Drs. Frizzell and Williams, say they have given it
"repeatedly in heart disease, severe lung diseases, Bright's disease,
etc., where the patients were so feeble as to require assistance in
walking, many of them under medical treatment, and the results have
been all that we could ask--no irritation, suffocation, nor
depression. We heartily commend it to all as the anæsthetic of the
age." Dr. Morrill, of Boston, administered Mayo's anæsthetic to his
wife with delightful results when "her lungs were so badly
disorganized, that the administration of ether or gas would be
entirely unsafe." The reputation of this anæsthetic is now well
established; in fact, it is not only safe and harmless, but has great
medical virtue for daily use in many diseases, and is coming into use
for such purposes. In a paper before the Georgia State Dental Society,
Dr. E. Parsons testified strongly to its superiority. "The nitrous
oxide, (says Dr. P.) causes the patient when fully under its influence
to have very like the appearance of a corpse," but under this new
anæsthetic "the patient appears like one in a natural sleep." The
language of the press, generally has been highly commendatory, and if
Dr. Mayo had occupied so conspicuous a rank as Prof. Simpson, of
Edinburgh, his new anæsthetic would have been adopted at once in every
college of America and Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *

                     Mayo's Vegetable Anæsthetic.

A perfectly safe and pleasant substitute for chloroform, ether,
nitrous oxide gas, and all other anæsthetics. Discovered by Dr. U. K.
Mayo, April, 1883, and since administered by him and others in over
300,000 cases successfully. The youngest child, the most sensitive
lady, and those having heart disease, and lung complaint, inhale this
vapor with impunity. It stimulates the circulation of the blood and
builds up the tissues. Indorsed by the highest authority in the
professions, recommended in midwifery and all cases of nervous
prostration. Physicians, surgeons, dentists and private families
supplied with this vapor, liquefied, in cylinders of various
capacities. It should be administered the same as Nitrous Oxide, but
it does not produce headache and nausea as that sometimes does. For
further information pamphlets, testimonials, etc., apply to

                                      DR. U. K. MAYO, Dentist,
                                        378 Tremont St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    Religio-Philosophical Journal.

                          ESTABLISHED 1865.

                         PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT

                     92 La Salle Street, Chicago,

                          BY JOHN C. BUNDY,

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE:

One copy, one year   $2.50

Single copies, 5 cents. Specimen copy free.

All letters and communications should be addressed, and all
remittances made payable to

                     JOHN C. BUNDY, Chicago, Ill.

A Paper for all who Sincerely and Intelligently Seek Truth without
regard to Sect or Party.

Press, Pulpit, and People Proclaim its Merits.

_Concurrent Commendations from Widely Opposite Sources._

Is the ablest Spiritualist paper in America.... Mr. Bundy has earned
the respect of all lovers of the truth, by his sincerity and
courage.--_Boston Evening Transcript._

I have a most thorough respect for the JOURNAL, and believe its editor
and proprietor is disposed to treat the whole subject of spiritualism
fairly.--_Rev. M. J. Savage (Unitarian) Boston._

I wish you the fullest success in your courageous course.--_R. Heber
Newton, D. D._

Your course has made spiritualism respected by the secular press as it
never has been before, and compelled an honorable
recognition.--_Hudson Tuttle, Author and Lecturer._

I read your paper every week with great interest.--_H. W. Thomas, D. D.,
Chicago._

I congratulate you on the management of the paper.... I indorse your
position as to the investigation of the phenomena.--_Samuel Watson, D. D.,
Memphis, Tenn._


       *       *       *       *       *

                                FACTS,

                         A MONTHLY MAGAZINE,

                              DEVOTED TO

                   Mental and Spiritual Phenomena,


                              INCLUDING

            Dreams, Mesmerism, Psychometry, Clairvoyance,
           Clairaudience, Inspiration, Trance, and Physical
                Mediumship; Prayer, Mind, and Magnetic
                Healing; and all classes of Psychical
                               Effects.

               Single Copies, 10 Cents; $1.00 per year.

                             PUBLISHED BY

                      Facts Publishing Company,

                     (Drawer 5323,) BOSTON, MASS.

                      _L. L. WHITLOCK, Editor._


             For Sale by COLBY & RICH, 9 Bosworth Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents came from the first
    issue of the volume. The article CRANIOSCOPY is continued
    from the previous issue's page 32.





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