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Title: Buchanan's Journal of Man, December 1887 - Volume 1, Number 11
Author: Buchanan, Joseph R. (Joseph Rodes), 1814-1899 [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Buchanan's Journal of Man, December 1887 - Volume 1, Number 11" ***

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                             BUCHANAN'S
                           JOURNAL OF MAN.

            VOL. I.        DECEMBER, 1887.        NO. 11.



CONTENTS OF JOURNAL OF MAN.


  The World's Neglected or Forgotten Leaders and Pioneers
  Social Conditions--Expenses at Harvard; European Wages; India as a
    Wheat Producer; Increase of Insanity; Temperance; Flamboyant
    Animalism
  Transcendental Hash
  Just Criticism
  Progress of discovery and Improvement--Autotelegraphy; Edison's
    Phonograph; Type-setting Eclipsed; Printing in Colors; Steam
    Wagon; Fruit Preserving; Napoleon's Manuscript; Peace; Capital
    Punishment; Antarctic Explorations; The Desert shall Blossom as
    the Rose
  Life and Death--Marvellous Examples
  Outlines of Anthropology (continued) Chapter X.--The Law of
    Location in Organology



THE WORLD'S NEGLECTED OR FORGOTTEN LEADERS AND PIONEERS.


Leif Ericson, the long-forgotten Scandinavian discoverer of North
America, nearly five hundred years before Columbus, has at last
received American justice, and a statue in his honor has been erected,
which was unveiled in Boston, on Commonwealth Avenue, before a
distinguished assemblage, on the 29th of October.

The history of the Scandinavian discovery and settlement was related
on this occasion by Prof. E. Horsford, from whose address the
following passages are extracted:

    "What is the great fact that is sustained by such an array of
    authority? It is this: that somewhere to the southwest of
    Greenland, at least a fortnight's sail, there were, for 300
    years after the beginning of the 11th century, Norse colonies on
    the coast of America, with which colonies the home country
    maintained commercial intercourse. The country to which the
    merchant vessels sailed was Vinland.

    "The fact next in importance that this history establishes is,
    that the first of the Northmen to set foot on the shores of
    Vinland was Leif Ericson. The story is a simple one, and most
    happily told by Prof. Mitchell, who for forty years was
    connected with the coast survey of the United States in the
    latitudes which include the region between Hatteras and Cape
    Ann. Leif, says Prof. Mitchell, never passed to the south of the
    peninsula of Cape Cod. He was succeeded by Thorwald, Leif's
    brother. He came in Leif's ship in 1002 to Leif's headquarters
    in Massachusetts Bay and passed the winter. In the spring, he
    manned his ship and sailed eastward from Leif's house, and,
    unluckily running against a neck of land, broke the stem of the
    ship. He grounded the ship in high water at a place where the
    tide receded with the ebb to a great distance, and permitted the
    men to careen her in the intervals of the tide, to repair her.
    When she was ready to sail again, the old stem or nose of the
    ship was set up in the sand. Thorwald remained a couple of years
    in the neighboring bay, examining sandy shores and islands, but
    not going around the point on or near which he had set up his
    ship's nose. In a battle with the Indians he was wounded and
    died, and was buried in Vinland, and his crew returned to
    Greenland. A few years later, Thorfinn and his wife, Gudrid, set
    out with a fleet of three ships and 160 persons, of whom seven
    were women, to go to Vinland, and in two days' sail beyond
    Markland they came to the ship's nose set upon the shore, and,
    keeping that upon the starboard, they sailed along a sandy
    shore, which they called Wunderstrandir, and also
    Furderstrandir. One of the captains, evidently satisfied that
    they were not in the region visited by Leif and Thorwald, turned
    his vessel to the north to find Vinland. Thorfinn and Gudrid
    went further south and trafficked, and gathered great wealth of
    furs and woods, and then returned to Greenland and Norway."

Prof. Horsford refers next to various geographic names on the New
England coast which are of Scandinavian origin.

    "What do all these names mean? They are certainly not Algonquin
    or Iroquois names. They are not names bestowed by the Plymouth
    or Massachusetts Bay colonies. Of most of them is there any
    conceivable source other than the memories lingering among a
    people whose ancestors were familiar with them? Are they, for
    the most part, relics of names imposed by Northmen once residing
    here?

    "I have told you something of the evidence that Leif Ericson was
    the first European to tread the great land southwest of
    Greenland. His ancestry was of the early Pilgrims, or Puritans,
    who, to escape oppression, emigrated, 50,000 of them in sixty
    years, from Norway to Iceland, as the early Pilgrims came to
    Plymouth. They established and maintained a republican form of
    government, which exists to this day, with nominal sovereignty
    in the King of Denmark, and the flag, like our own, bears an
    eagle in its fold. Toward the close of the 10th century a
    colony, of whom Leif's father and family were members, went out
    from Iceland to Greenland. In about 999, Leif, a lad at the time
    of his father's immigration, went to Norway, and King Olaf,
    impressed with his grand elements of character, gave him a
    commission to carry the Christianity to which, he had become a
    convert to Greenland. He set out at once, and, with his soul on
    fire with the grandeur of his message, within a year
    accomplished the conversion and baptism of the whole colony,
    including his father.

    "To Leif a monument has been erected. In thus fulfilling the
    duty we owe to the first European navigator who trod our shores,
    we do no injustice to the mighty achievement of the Genoese
    discoverer under the flags of Ferdinand and Isabella, who,
    inspired by the idea of the rotundity of the earth, and with the
    certainty of reaching Asia by sailing westward sufficiently
    long, set out on a new and entirely distinct enterprise, having
    a daring and a conception and an intellectual train of research
    and deduction as its foundation quite his own. How welcome to
    Boston will be the proposition to set up in 1892, a fit statue
    to Columbus.

    "We unveil to-day the statue in which Anne Whitney has expressed
    so vividly her conception of this leader, who, almost nine
    centuries ago, first trod our shores."

The statue, however, is purely fanciful, and gives no idea either of
the personal appearance or costume of the great sailor, who has waited
for this justice to his memory much longer than Bruno and many other
heroes of human progress.

Columbus may have been original in his ideas, but it was the Northmen
who led in exploration. It was they who changed the old flat-bottomed
ships of the Roman Empire to the deep keels which made the exploration
of the Atlantic ocean possible.

This act of justice has been prompted by the appreciative sentiments
of the late Ole Bull, and the efforts of Miss Marie Brown, who has
lectured on the subject. Miss Brown says that Columbus learned of the
discovery of America at Rome, and also at Iceland, which he visited in
1477. Indeed, Columbus was not seeking the America of the Norsemen,
but was sailing to find the Indies.

But now that historic justice is done, we realize that as Bryant
expressed it of Truth, "the eternal years of God are hers," and she
needs a good many centuries to recover her stolen sceptre. The triumph
of truth follows battles in which there are many defeats that seem
almost fatal. What is the loss of five centuries in geographic truth
to the loss of a thousand years in astronomic science? It was for more
than a thousand years that the heliocentric theory of the universe,
developed by the genius of PYTHAGORAS, was ignored, denied, and
forgotten, until the honest scholar, COPERNICUS, revived it by a
mathematical demonstration, which he did not live long enough to see
trampled on; for the great astronomer that next appeared, Tycho Brahe,
denied it, and the Catholic Church attempted to suppress it in the
person of Galileo, who is said to have been forced by imprisonment and
torture to succumb to authority (the torture may not be positively
known, but is believed with good reason). Even Luther joined in the
theological warfare against science, saying, "I am now advised that a
new astrologer is risen, who presumeth to prove that the earth moveth
and goeth about, not the firmament, the sun and moon--not the
stars--like as when one sitteth on a coach, or in a ship that is
moved, thinketh he sitteth still and resteth, but the earth and trees
do move and run themselves. Thus it goeth; we give ourselves up to our
own foolish fancies and conceits. This fool (Copernicus) will turn the
whole art of astronomy upside down; but the Scripture showeth and
teacheth another lesson, when Joshua commandeth the sun to stand
still, and not the earth."

The attitude of Luther in this matter was the attitude of the Church
generally, in opposition to science, for it assumed its position in an
age of dense ignorance, and claimed too much infallibility to admit of
enlightenment. Nevertheless, the Church feels the spirit of the age
and slowly moves. At the present time it is being _slowly_ permeated
by the modern spirit of agnostic scepticism, which is another form of
ignorance.

Mankind generally occupy the intrenched camp of ignorance within which
they know all its walls embrace; outside of which they look upon all
that exists with feelings of suspicion and hostility, and alas, this
is as true of the educated as of the uneducated classes. It was the
French Academy that laughed at Harvey's discovery and at Fulton's plan
of propelling steamboats, and even at Arago's suggestion of the
electric telegraph, as the Royal Society laughed at Franklin's
proposed lightning rods. It was Bonaparte who treated both Fulton and
Dr. Gall with contempt. It was the medical Faculty that arrayed itself
against the introduction of Peruvian bark, which they have since made
their hobby; and it was the same Edinburgh Review which poured its
ridicule upon Gall, that advised the public to put Thomas Gray in a
straight-jacket for advocating the introduction of railroads. Equally
great was the stupidity of the French. The first railroad was
constructed in France fifty years ago. Emil Periere had to make the
line at his own expense, and it took three years to obtain the consent
of the authorities. Their leading statesman, Thiers, contended that
railroads could be nothing more than toys. We remember that a
committee of the New York Legislature was equally stupid, and
endeavored to prove in their report that railways were entirely
impracticable. English opposition was still more stupidly absurd. Both
Lords and Commons in Parliament were entirely opposed. "The engineers
and surveyors as they went about their work were molested by mobs.
George Stephenson was ridiculed and denounced as a maniac, and all
those who supported him as lunatics and fools." "George Stephenson
although bantered and wearied on all sides stood steadfastly by his
project, in spite of the declarations that the smoke from the engine
would kill the birds and destroy the cattle along the route, that the
fields would be ruined, and people be driven mad by noise and
excitement."

Nothing is better established in history than the hostility of
colleges and the professional classes to all great innovations. "Truly
(says Dr. Stille in his Materia Medica) nearly every medicine has
become a popular remedy before being adopted or even tried by
physicians," and the famous author Dr. Pereira declares that "nux
vomica is one of the few remedies the discovery of which is not the
effect of mere chance."

The spirit of bigotry, in former times, jealously watched every
innovation. Telescopes and microscopes were denounced as atheistic,
winnowing machines were denounced in Scotland as impious, and even
forks when first introduced were denounced by preachers as "an insult
on Providence not to eat our meat with our fingers."

It is not strange that the last fifty years have sufficed to cover
with a cloud of collegiate ignorance and bigotry the discoveries of
the illustrious Gall, for whom I am doing a similar service, to that
of Copernicus for Pythagoras.

This is nothing unusual in the progress of Science. There was no
brighter genius in physical science at the beginning of this century
than Dr. Thomas Young, who died in 1829, whose discoveries fell into
obscurity until they were revived by more recent investigation. He had
that intuitive genius which is most rare among scientists.

He was a great thinker and discoverer, who knew how to utilize in
philosophy discovered facts, and was not busy like many modern
scientists in the monotonous repetition of experiments which had
already been performed.

    "At no period of his life was he fond of repeating experiments
    or even of originating new ones. He considered that however
    necessary to the advancement of science, they demanded a great
    sacrifice of time, and that when a fact was once established,
    time was better employed in considering the purposes to which it
    might be applied, or the principles which it might tend to
    elucidate."

He says, in his Bakerian lecture, "Nor is it absolutely necessary in
this instance to produce a single new experiment; for of experiments
there is already an ample store."

In a letter to his sister-in-law, Mrs. Earle, he says, "Acute
suggestion was then, and indeed always, more in the line of my
ambition than experimental illustration," and on another occasion,
referring to the Wollaston fund for experimental inquiries, he said,
"For my part, it is my pride and pleasure, as far as I am able, to
supersede the necessity of experiments, and more especially of
expensive ones." The famous Prof. Helmholtz said of Young:

    "The theory of colors with all their marvellous and complicated
    relations, was a riddle which Goethe in vain attempted to solve,
    nor were we physicists and physiologists more successful. I
    include myself in the number, for I long toiled at the task
    without getting any nearer my object, until I at last discovered
    that a wonderfully simple solution had been discovered at the
    beginning of this century, and had been in print ever since for
    any one to read who chose. This solution was found and published
    by the same Thomas Young, who first showed the right method of
    arriving at the interpretation of Egyptian hieroglyphics."

    "He was one of the most acute men who ever lived, but had the
    misfortune to be _too far in advance of his contemporaries_.
    They looked on him with astonishment, but could not follow his
    bold speculations, and thus a mass of his most important
    thoughts remained buried and forgotten in the 'Transactions of
    the Royal Society,' until a later generation by slow degrees
    arrived at the re-discovery of his discoveries, and came to
    appreciate the force of his argument and the accuracy of his
    conclusions."

This half century of passive resistance to science, in the case of Dr.
Young and Dr. Gall, is nothing unusual. It was 286 years from the day
when Bruno, the eloquent philosopher, was burned at the stake by the
Catholic Church, before a statue was prepared to honor his memory in
Italy.

What was the reception of the illustrious surgeon, physiologist, and
physician, John Hunter? While he lived, "most of his contemporaries
looked upon him as little better than an enthusiast and an innovator,"
according to his biographer; and when, in 1859, it was decided to
inter his remains in Westminster Abbey, it was hard to find his body,
which was at last discovered in a vault along with 2000 others piled
upon it.

Harvey's discoveries were generally ignored during his life, and
Meibomius of Lubeck rejected his discovery in a book published after
Harvey's death.

When Newton's investigations of light and colors were first published,
"A host of enemies appeared (says Playfair), each eager to obtain the
unfortunate pre-eminence of being the first to attack conclusions
which the unanimous voice of posterity was to confirm." Some, like
Mariotte, professed to repeat his experiments, and succeeded in making
a failure, which was published; like certain professors who at
different times have undertaken to make unsuccessful experiments in
mesmerism and spiritualism, and have always succeeded in making the
failure they desired.

Voltaire remarks, and Playfair confirms it as a fact, "that though the
author of the _Principia_ survived the publication of that great work
nearly forty years, he had not at the time of his death, twenty
followers out of England."

If educated bigotry could thus resist the mathematical demonstrations
of Newton, and the physical demonstrations of Harvey, has human nature
sufficiently advanced to induce us to expect much better results from
the colleges of to-day--from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and the rest?
If such a change has occurred, I have not discovered it.

Neglect and opposition has ever been the lot of the original explorer
of nature. Kepler, the greatest astronomical genius of his time,
continually struggled with poverty, and earned a scanty subsistence by
casting astrological nativities.

Eustachius, who in the 16th century discovered the Eustachian tube and
the valves of the heart, was about 200 years in advance of his time,
but was unable, from poverty, to publish his anatomical tables, which
were published by Lancisi 140 years later, in 1714.

Not only in science do we find this stolid indifference or active
hostility to new ideas, but in matters of the simplest character and
most obvious utility. For example, this country is now enjoying the
benefits of fish culture, but why did we not enjoy it a hundred years
ago? The process was discovered by the Count De Goldstein in the last
century, and was published by the Academy of Sciences, and also fully
illustrated by a German named Jacobi, who applied it to breeding trout
and salmon. This seems to have been forgotten until in 1842 two
obscure and illiterate fishermen rediscovered and practised this
process. The French government was attracted by the success of these
fisherman, Gehin and Remy, and thus the lost art was revived.

Even so simple an invention as the percussion cap, invented in 1807,
was not introduced in the British army until after the lapse of thirty
years.

The founder of the kindergarten system, Friedrich FROEBEL, is one of
the benefactors of humanity. How narrowly did he escape from total
failure and oblivion.

The "Reminiscences of Frederich Froebel," translated from the German
of the late Mrs. Mary Mann, gives an interesting account of his life
and labors, upon which the following notice is based:

    "Froebel died in 1852, and it is possible that his system of
    education would have died with him--to be resurrected and
    reapplied by somebody else centuries later--only for a friend
    and interpreter who remained to give his teachings to the world.
    This friend, disciple, and interpreter was Madame Von Marenholz.
    His system of education had this peculiarity which made it
    different from any other plan of teaching ever given to the
    world--it was first grasped in its full significance by women.
    They, sooner than men, saw its truth to nature, and its grand,
    far-reaching meaning, and became at once its enthusiastic
    disciples. But the German women are in a bondage almost unknown
    to their sisters of the other civilized races, therefore
    Froebel's reform progressed only slowly. Had his principles been
    given to the world in the midst of American or English women,
    they would most likely have been popularly known and adopted
    long ago.

    "Froebel did not see any very magnificent practical results flow
    from the "new education" in his time. While he lived the
    ungrateful tribe of humanity abused, misrepresented, and laughed
    him to scorn, as it has done everybody who ever conferred any
    great and lasting benefit on it. A touching illustration of this
    is given in the anecdote narrating Frau Von Marenholz's first
    meeting with the founder of kindergartens. The anecdote begins
    the book, and it is the key-note of the sorrowful undertone
    throughout.

    "In 1849 Frau Von Marenholz went to the baths of Liebenstein.
    She happened to ask her landlady what was going on in the place,
    and in answer the landlady said that a few weeks before a man
    had settled down near the springs who danced and played with the
    village children, and was called by people "the old fool." A few
    days afterwards Madame Von M. was walking out, and met "the old
    fool." He was an old man, with long gray hair, who was marching
    a troop of village children two and two up a hill. He was
    teaching them a play, and was singing with them a song belonging
    to it. There was something about the gray-haired old man, as he
    played with the children, which brought tears into the eyes of
    both Madame Von M. and her companion. She watched him awhile,
    and said to her companion:

    "'This man is called 'old fool' by these people. Perhaps he is
    one of those men who are ridiculed or stoned by contemporaries,
    and to whom future generations build monuments.'"

    "I knew," says Madame Von M., "that I had to do with a true
    man--with an original and unfalsified nature. When one of his
    pupils called him Mr. Froebel, I remembered having once heard of
    a man of that name who wished to educate children by play, and
    that it had seemed to me a very perverted view, for I had only
    thought of empty play, without any serious purpose."

    "Froebel met with violent opposition and ridicule all his life,
    and just when at last he thought he had successfully planted his
    ideas, there came a sudden death-blow to his hopes, which was
    also a death-blow to the good and great man. The Prussian
    Government was and is as tyrannical as William the Conqueror,
    who made the English people put their lights out at dark, and
    suddenly, in August, 1851, the Prussian Government immortalized
    itself by passing a decree forbidding the establishment of any
    kindergartens within the Prussian dominions. In unguarded
    moments, Froebel had used the expression "education for
    freedom," in referring to his beloved plans, and that was enough
    for Prussia, in the ferment of fear in which she has been ever
    since 1848. Kindergartens in Germany have not yet recovered from
    this blow, and Froebel himself sunk under it and died. But a
    little time before he died, he said: "If 300 years after my
    death, my method of education shall be completely established
    according to its idea, I shall rejoice in heaven."

    "Froebel's life was full of strange vicissitudes and
    disappointments. The few friends who understood him, and the
    children whom he taught, and who, perhaps, understood him better
    than anybody else, reverenced him, and loved him as father,
    prophet, and teacher.

    "On his seventieth birthday, two months before his death, his
    beloved pupils gave him a festival, which is beautiful to read
    about. It must have gladdened the pure-hearted old man
    immeasurably. Froebel was wakened at sun-rise by the festal song
    of the children, and as he stepped out of his chamber to the
    lecture-room, he saw that it had been splendidly adorned with
    flowers, festoons, and wreaths of all kinds. The day was
    celebrated with songs and rejoicing, and gifts were received
    from pupils and friends in various parts of the world, and in
    the evening, after a song, a pupil placed a green wreath upon
    the master's head.

    "Two months after this he died peacefully. One of his strongest
    peculiarities was his passionate love for flowers, and during
    his illness he repeatedly commended the care of his flowers to
    his friends. He had the window opened frequently, so he could
    gaze once more on the out-door scenes he loved so well. Almost
    his last words were: 'Nature, pure, vigorous Nature!'"

JOHN FITCH, the inventor of steamboats, was even less fortunate than
Froebel. No patron took him by the hand, and although his invention
was successfully demonstrated at Philadelphia in 1787, by a small
steamboat, the trial being witnessed by the members of the convention
that formed the Federal constitution, he could not obtain sufficient
co-operation to introduce the invention, and finally left his boat to
rot on the shores of the Hudson and returned to his home at Bardstown,
Ky., where he died in 1798. The unsuccessful struggles of Fitch make a
melancholy history. In his last appeal he used this language: "But why
those earnest solicitations to disturb my nightly repose, and fill me
with the most excruciating anxieties; and why not act the part for
myself, and retire under the shady elms on the fair banks of the Ohio,
and eat my coarse but sweet bread of industry and content, and when I
have done, to have my body laid in the soft, warm, and loamy soil of
the banks, with my name inscribed on a neighboring poplar, that future
generations when traversing the mighty waters of the West, _in the
manner that I have pointed out_, may find my grassy turf."

IN the lives of Pythagoras, Copernicus, Galileo, Ericson, Bruno,
Harvey, Kepler, Newton, Hunter, Gall, Young, Froebel, Gray, Fitch,
Stephenson, and _many_ others, we learn that he who assails the
Gibraltar of conservative and authoritative ignorance must expect to
conduct a very long siege, to maintain a resolute battle, and perhaps
to die in his camp, leaving to his posterity to receive the
predestined surrender of the citadels of Falsehood and Darkness, for
the eternal law of the universe declares that all darkness shall
disappear, and Light and Peace shall cover the earth, as they already
fill the souls of the lovers of wisdom.



SOCIAL CONDITIONS.


UNDERGRADUATE EXPENSES AT HARVARD.--A physician has written me to know
what the annual expense is for an undergraduate at Harvard College.
The inquiry is made that he (the querist) may know somewhere near what
it will cost to send his son to that institution. Thinking that others
of the _Journal's_ readers might like to know what a literary (or
liberal) education costs at a first-class college, I have looked up
the present cost, and by comparing it with my own, thirty-five years
ago, I find that expense has increased from year to year, until now it
requires about $550 to $600 annually to cover tuition, room-rent,
board, and common running expenses. A boy might squeeze through for
$400 a year, but he would have to pinch and be niggardly, if not mean.
The $550 or $600 would not cover vacation expenses and society dues,
therefore the larger sum ought to be reckoned as the cost annually for
a Harvard undergraduate at the present time. And upon inquiry, I find
that about the same amount of money is required by an undergraduate of
Yale. Board in New Haven is the same in price as in Cambridge. For the
four years' course, then, there should be provision for $2,500. Rich
students spend a $1000 or more each year, but they do not embrace ten
per cent. of the classes. The average student when I was in Harvard
expended $350 to $400 a year--a cost which did not cover vacation
expenses and society matters. I will venture the remark that as high
an order of scholarship can be obtained at "Western" colleges as in
Harvard or Yale; and that the expense of student life would not be
two-thirds as much. Why, then, take the extravagant course? The _name_
and _fame_ of an institution count for something. A recently founded
college may not live long; it has to be tested by time before
_prestige_ can be attained. Universities have to be endowed before
they can command the best talent of the world in teachers. The fees
obtained from students will not pay the expenses of a first-class
literary institution.

Lastly, an education of a high order does not insure success in life,
but, other things being equal, the man of learning has the best chance
to win in the race we are running.--_Eclectic Medical Journal_.


EUROPEAN WAGES.--Senator Frye said in a public address in Boston: "I
say from all my observations made there, and they were made as
carefully as I could make them, and in all honesty of purpose, there
is only one country in Europe that comes within half of our wages, and
that is England, and the rest are not one-third, and some not within
one-quarter, of our wages."


INDIA AS A WHEAT PRODUCER.--"Consul-General Bonham says she is a
dangerous competitor of the United States. The report of Consul-General
Bonham at Calcutta, British India, treats at length of the wheat
interests of that country. The area devoted to wheat in 1886 was about
27,500,000 acres, and the total yield 289,000,000 bushels. As compared
with the wheat of the Pacific coast, the Indian wheat is inferior, but
when exported to Europe it is mixed and ground with wheat of a
superior quality, by which process a fair marketable grade of flour is
obtained. The method of cultivating the soil is in the main the same
as it was centuries ago, and there seems to be great difficulty in
inducing the farmer to invest in modern agricultural implements, and
yet, with all the simple and primitive methods, the Indian farmers
can, in the opinion of the Consul-General, successfully compete with
those of the United States in the production of wheat. This is due to
the fact that the Indian farmer's outfit represents a capital of not
more than $40 or $50, and his hired help works, feeds, and clothes
himself on about $2.50 a month. The export of wheat from British India
has increased from 300,000 cwt. in 1868, to 21,000,000 cwt. in 1886,
and the increase of 1886 over 1885 amounts to about 5,000,000 cwt.

    "The Consul-General says that some of his predecessors have
    claimed that the United States has nothing to fear from India as
    a competitor in the production of wheat. In this view he does
    not concur, and believes that to-day India is second only to the
    United States in wheat-growing. Furthermore, wheat-growing in
    India is yet in its infancy, and its further development depends
    principally upon the means of transportation to the sea-board.
    He fears that with the cheap native labor of India and the
    constantly growing facilities for transportation, the United
    States will find her a formidable competitor as a producer of
    wheat."


INCREASE OF INSANITY.--I have repeatedly referred to the increase of
insanity and crime under our heartless system of education. It is
illustrated by every collection of statistics. The increase between
1872 and 1885 was, in Maine, with five per cent. increase in
population, in ten years, 23 per cent. increase in insanity. In New
Hampshire, 13 per cent. in population, 55 in insanity. In these two
States insanity increases four times as fast as population. In
Massachusetts, population 33 per cent., insanity 91 per cent. In Rhode
Island, population 40 per cent., insanity 94 per cent. In Connecticut,
population 23 per cent., insanity 194 per cent. The total number of
insane in New England has increased from 4,033, in 1872, to 7,232, in
1885,--an increase of 3,199 in 13 years. Such are the estimates
prepared from official reports by E. P. Augur, of Middletown, Conn. Is
it possible by the repetition of such statements as these to rouse the
torpid conscience of the leaders of public opinion to the necessity of
a NEW EDUCATION?


TEMPERANCE.--According to the National Bureau of Statistics, the
annual consumption of liquors per capita in the United States, from
1840 to 1886, shows a reduction in the consumption of distilled
spirits to less than one-half of the average between 1840 and 1870.
The most marked decrease was between 1870 and 1872. The consumption of
wine has averaged, from 1840 to 1870, about one-eighth as much--since
1870, from 30 to 40 per cent. as much, but the consumption of malt
liquors, which in 1840 and 1850 was little over half that of spirits,
has rapidly risen until, in 1886, it was nine times as great, the
number of gallons per capita being of spirits, 1.24; wines, 0.38; malt
liquors, 11.18. The total consumption of liquors of all sorts has
risen from 4.17 gallons per capita in 1840, to 12.62 in 1886. The
consumption of malt liquors per capita has increased fifty per cent.
in the last seven years.

The tax collected on whiskey for 1886-87 was $3,262,945 less than for
the previous year, and the tax on beer was $2,245,456 more than for
the previous year.

    "Chevalier Max Proskowetz de Proskow Marstorn states that in
    Austria inebriety is increasing everywhere on a dangerous scale.
    The consumption of alcohol (taken as at 10 per cent.) was 6.7
    litres a head in a population of 39,000,000; but in some
    districts 15-1/2 litres was the average (4-1/2 litres go to a
    gallon). In all Austro-Hungary there was an increase of nearly
    4,000,000 florins in the cost of alcohol in 1884-85 over
    1883-84. In 1885 there were 195,665 different places (stations,
    gin-shops, and subordinate retails) where liquors were sold. In
    districts where the most spirits are used there were fewer fit
    recruits."


FLAMBOYANT ANIMALISM.--In Boston, which sometimes calls itself our
American Athens, the highest truths of psychic science are daily
neglected by the more influential classes, while races, games, and
pugilism occupy the largest space in the daily papers, and a leading
daily boasts of its more perfect descriptive and statistical record of
all base-ballism as a strong claim to public support.

The pugilist Sullivan is the hero of Boston; he received a splendid
ovation in the Boston Theatre, with the mayor and other dignitaries to
honor him, and a belt covered with gold and diamonds, worth $8,000,
was presented, besides a large cash benefit. His departure for England
was honored like that of a prince by accompanying boats, booming
cannon, and tooting whistles, and he is said to swing a $2000 cane
presented by his admirers. How far have we risen in eighteen centuries
above the barbarism of Rome? There is no heathen country to-day that
worships pugilism. Perhaps when the saloon is abolished, we may take
another step forward in civilization. London has rivalled Boston,
giving Sullivan a popular reception by crowds which blocked up the
principal streets.



TRANSCENDENTAL HASH


The _Winsted (Conn.) Press_ published an article on Buddhism in
America which is interesting as a specimen of the rosy-tinted fog of
some intellectual atmospheres, and the singular jumble of crude
thought in this country. As an intellectual hash it may interest the
curious. The following is the article:


BUDDHISM IN AMERICA.

While sectarian Christianity is, at great expense, with much ado,
making a few hundred converts in Asia among the ignorant, Buddhism is
spreading rapidly in the United States, and is reaching our most
intelligent people, without any propaganda of missionaries or force.
There are already thousands of Buddhists in this country, and their
number is augmenting more rapidly perhaps than that of any other
faith, but of these probably comparatively few know that they are
following the Buddhistic lines of thought and have adopted the
principles of Buddhistic faith. Theosophy, mental science (sometimes
called "Christian science"), esoteric Christianity and Buddhistic
metaphysics are, we believe, substantially one and the same thing, and
we may also include their intimate relative, known here as Modern
Spiritualism, the difference between them being no greater than that
which invariably arises from different interpretations of the same
idea by different individuals under differing environment. To compare
these differences with the differences of the Protestant sects would
be exalting the sects, for sectarian Christianity is hardly worthy of
association with the exalted teachings of Buddha, the theosophists,
and the finer conceptions of our modern metaphysicians and
Spiritualists, yet we make the comparison for the sake of
illustration.

Counting the philosophical modern Spiritualists we may say that the
number of people in this country who, without knowing it, perhaps, are
reasoning themselves into acceptance of Buddhistic teachings, may be
placed in the hundreds of thousands. A modified, spiritualized, and
improved form of Buddhism is, we suppose, likely to unite the
liberalized minds of this country (normal Christians and Infidels
alike) into a common and highly intellectual and spiritual faith,
opposed to which will be the less advanced people under the leadership
of the Roman Catholic church, representing the temporal power of
Christian priestcraft and the mythological superstitions which have
attached themselves to the precepts and teachings of the Christ man of
1800 years ago.

Certainly no intelligent observer can look out upon the tremendous
upheaval of religious thought which is now taking place in this
country, without seeing that a new era has dawned in the spiritual
life of the American people and foreseeing a readjustment of religious
lines on a more elevated, less dogmatic and less antagonistic plane.
We have been passing through the very same experiences that preceded a
downfall of the polytheistic mythology, followed by the new era of
Christian mythology in one part of the world and Buddhistic mythology
in another. Jesus and Buddha both came to deliver exalted teachings
which would lift the world out of bondage to an older faith and its
more cruel superstitions and the corruptions of priestcraft and gross
ceremonials; both were reformers of substantially the same abuses;
both suffered for humanity, both lived humble and inspired lives, both
were interpreters of the same truths to different peoples, both were
good men, and both have come down to us with their greatness
exaggerated by their followers beyond anything they claimed for
themselves, while the personal existence of each is shrouded in the
same mystery and covered with the same doubt. That these two men did
exist as men we may well believe, but that as personages they were
incarnated on earth is a matter of small importance compared with the
consequences which have followed their supposed embodiment.

The decline of faith in the old theology and the silent acceptance of
new ideas by the church people of America, the rapid spread of
infidelity and aggressive agnosticism, and the hold which Modern
Spiritualism under various disguises now has upon the people, premise
tremendous changes, and indicate a new era of spiritual thought--an
era of better and sweeter life for mankind we trust.

Men and women who think alike will act together when prejudices born
of old names, partisan rivalries and personal animosities are
outgrown. A new philosophy with a new name, made up of the old truths
with new refinements and elaborations, will unite the liberal-minded
in a fraternity of thought based on a better understanding of
spiritual truths, and clearer comprehension of the importance to
humanity, of liberty, justice and love.

This new religion, if we mistake not the signs of the times, will or
does partake largely of theosophic and Buddhistic metaphysics and is
not, therefore, to be despised by our best thinkers. Buddhism
corrupted by Brahmic theocracy--as Christianity by Mosaic rites, by
papistic theology and sectarian piety--has come to us as a morbid
asceticism or worse, delighting in self-inflicted individual tortures
and revelling in unthinkable contradictions. This conception of it is
probably false and due more to deficiencies of language and
unreceptive habit of metaphysical thought than to perversity of ideas.
A system of highest ethics, and a religion without a personal God,
Buddhism deifies the soul of man and exalts the individual through
countless experiences of physical embodiment into a position of
apparently infinite wisdom--a condition beyond phenomenal existence
and of course indescribable. It neither annihilates life in nirvana
nor admits immortal existence as we understand existence--i.e., in a
perpetually objective form of some sort. It is better in some
respects, though older, than Christism. Buddhas and Christs alike, we
are taught, are only men sent from celestial congress to direct their
fellow men into higher paths leading to incomprehensible perfections,
and they are not more "gods" than other men, save in their greater
experience.

Theosophy is to Buddhism what Modern Spiritualism is to
Christianity--an acceptance of fundamental truths and rejection of
priestly ceremonials; an adoption of the spirit and denial of the
letter; an application of principles and ideas to real life and
claiming not only to have new light but to be ever progressive. It is
highly and intensely spiritual, and develops in some most marvellous
powers over natural forces. Its spirituality, however, does not leave
the earth untouched and mortal needs unrecognized. It is an advance
movement in the East, bringing substance and actuality to much that in
Buddhism is but vaporous ideality and bewildering prefiguration. It
claims that intervening land or water is no barrier to close personal
association of its brotherhood, and that they are confined to no land
or clime. Here in America it has followers who walk by its light, we
are told, without knowing it, and many students trying to encompass
the mysteries of the occult science, which claims only to be like
other science, the fruit of study and discovery, giving mastery over
subtle forces of nature which physical scientists fail to recognize.
Its ethics are the highest conceivable, and the individual existence
of the soul apart from the body a matter of commonest demonstration
among the adepts.

Mental science so closely resembles theosophy, as we understand it,
that we hardly know the difference, save that of immaturity. It is
theosophy in its infancy, adapted to the status of American thought in
the psychological direction. Confined though it is at present chiefly
to the curing of the sick it is by no means admitted that this is the
limit or more than the beginning of its adaptation to human needs. It
is spending in this country with amazing rapidity, and though yet a
child is certain to bring about a great change in the ideas of many
regarding mind, its power over and priority to matter. So far as its
students devote their attention to other than such comprehension of
its postulates as is necessary to become healers, they are Buddhistic
in thought and expression, and some even accept a modified theory of
metempsychosis known as reincarnation. Still they reject the
philosophy of Spiritualism respecting spirit life, and appear to be
all at sea as regards the immediate future of the individual. In their
utterances on this they are more Buddhist than Christian, as in other
respects. They doubt or deny individual existence of the soul. The
Spiritualist believes that his soul will have for all time a body of
some sort, spiritual or physical, and his spirit-world and life are
filled with very human occupations, thoughts and desires, carried on
amid familiar scenery in a very substantial and earth-like manner. He
believes in progress eternal, and the possibility of final mergement
of his individual self into the All-Self is so remote as to give him
no concern. But the mental scientist, as near as we can express his
notion, rejects the idea of spiritual embodiment, regards his
personality as purely mortal and his soul one with indivisible God,
now and forever. Personality is not an attribute of his soul; spirit
or astral body he does not understand as ever existing to preserve
individuality after physical dissolution--in this differing as much
from the theosophist as from the Spiritualist.

When these modernized Buddhists, Spiritualists and Christians, and
liberal thinkers, generally, unite--as they easily may, for they have
now no irreconcilable disagreement--they will form a powerful body of
thinking and progressive religionists. And their religion will be a
better Buddhism than Buddha taught, a broader Christianity than Christ
revealed, a deeper Spiritual philosophy than Swedenborg or Davis
heralded. Of course we welcome the opening day and its new light and
promise, for the old theologies are wearisome emptiness and humbug,
and the new isms cold and repellant or insufficient in their
testimony. We do not expect that a new church will arise and a new
sectarianism follow. But a new conception of life, its origin, purpose
and destiny may come to lift the people of America out of the old
religious rut. And in consequence the old depressing question, "Is
life worth living?" answered once by Buddha's No, may be answered anew
by Humanity's Yes.

       *       *       *       *       *

The observations of this writer refer more to certain progressive and
restless classes in this Northeastern region than to the United States
generally. The churches are not diminishing in the number of their
members, but steadily gaining in numbers and also in liberality. The
new religion and philosophy of the future will be luminous, scientific
and philanthropic--not a conglomeration of vague speculations. True,
reverential religion is not a dreamy or speculative impulse, but an
earnest love of mankind and of duty, which does not waste itself in
unprofitable speculations, but eagerly pursues the positive knowledge
of this life and the next, which gives practical wisdom and diffuses
happiness. All systems of religion talk about love and recommend it,
but their followers seldom realize it in their lives. The religion of
the future will _realize_ it. Apropos to this subject, Col. Van Horn,
of the _Kansas City Journal_, says:

    "And as another result of missionary work, there are now in the
    United States, in England and on the continent, missionaries of
    Buddhism sent by the schools of the East, to convert us to the
    philosophy of Gautama. This may sound startling to the general
    reader, but it is not only a fact, but they have made converts
    and are making them with a rapidity that is remarkable, making
    more from us than we are from them. And they are from the very
    best and brightest intellects among us--not the illiterate, but
    the most cultured of the educated classes. It will not do to
    suppress this fact in the discussion--for this is an age when
    facts must be looked in the face."



JUST CRITICISM.


The intellectual editor of the _Kansas City Journal_ has made some
very philosophic remarks on the materialistic philosophy of
fashionable Scientists, which with some abridgment are here presented:

    "As an illustration of its methods of dealing with so subtle a
    thing as human intelligence, we have a recent singular example
    in Paris, by the eminent physician Charcot, and others, which
    illustrates how great men in special departments walk blindfold
    over things that afford no mystery to common minds. We allude to
    certain experiments in hypnotism--the professional name for
    mesmerism. The medical profession for more than half a century
    sneered at the discoveries of Mesmer, until now compelled to
    recognize them, they have not the manliness to acknowledge the
    fact, but invent a new and inaccurate nomenclature to conceal
    their change of front. To make a long story short these
    gentlemen have put a subject under the influence one day,
    enjoined him to commit a theft or a murder at a given hour the
    next day, and despite every effort of will on the part of the
    subject, the crimes have been attempted, and the victim only
    saved from himself by the interposition of the operator, who was
    present to remove the influence--or through the understanding of
    the party against whom the offence was to be committed, in the
    form of the robbery actually carried out.

    "But what does science do with this fact? Nothing but announce
    it, and then proceed to dig among molecules and their related
    agitations for the solution of the mystery."

[This is what certain scientists do, but their follies are not
chargeable to _Science_, nor to the whole body of Scientists. The
ablest thinkers to-day, the deepest inquirers, look to the powers of
the soul, and the new anthropology traces these powers to their
localities in the brain.--ED. OF JOURNAL.]

    "How old is this fact? As old as the race. At one time it was
    called necromancy, at another witchcraft, at another the
    inspiration of God, at a subsequent time animal magnetism, at
    another called after one of its more modern
    discoverers,--mesmerism--now hypnotism--which is only another
    name for magnetic sleep--if anybody knows what that is--or for
    somnambulism. Common sense tells common people that it is only
    an abnormal manifestation of the power that gives one person
    control over another, or enables one person to influence
    another. The simple every-day habit of exacting a promise from
    your neighbor to do a certain thing, or for you to make a like
    promise, and execute it. Sickness is a partial compliance with
    the conditions of mortality--death being the complete process.
    So the hypnotic experiences are the completed illustrations of
    the common power which we call personal influence. That is all.
    But that is not mysterious enough for learned people--it is not
    scientific enough--as everybody can understand it.

    "Then, too, it suggests another thing that is fatal to it in the
    estimation of the teacher--it suggests that what we call the
    human mind or soul is a potential thing, that acts through the
    every-day machinery of our bodies, and may be more or less
    within the grasp of the common mind. There is a higher plane of
    knowledge than that of mere physical science, and if the
    theologian mistook its teaching, it is no reason why the pursuit
    of that knowledge on this higher plane should be ignored. Hence
    it is that this discovery by Charcot and others, to which we
    allude, has as yet been barren of fruit, because the methods of
    science to which the discoverers are wedded forbid the admission
    of the psychic problem that underlies the remarkable phenomena.

    "And just here, it may as well be said first as last,--that the
    profession to which these eminent men belong, nor any one school
    of applied science, will ever read the lesson of these
    experiments, nor will any of the so-called regular schools of
    learning. The riddle will be read by some thinker outside, and
    when the bread-and-butter purveyors of theology, science and the
    schools have become indoctrinated, and prefer to pay their money
    for the new instead of the old--then these self-constituted
    teachers of humanity will all know that the cow was to eat the
    grindstone--and teach the fact. We simply state a fact, known to
    history, that the progress of the world is due to the inventor
    and discoverer, and not to the schools. Every single thing, from
    the advent of modern astronomy to the electric light, has been
    from the ranks of the people by discovery or invention, and had
    to fight its way against the teaching class, from time
    immemorial. The circulation of the blood, which every
    pig-sticker knew since knives were invented, had to be forced
    upon medical science by a quack. And now, although the phenomena
    we refer to have been before the teaching class since history
    records anything, and although Mesmer taught it experimentally
    eighty years ago, science has now only got so far as to admit
    the existence of the phenomena.

    "Why have not the professions given these things more attention,
    and why have they in these modern days for three quarters of a
    century practically denied their existence? That question is a
    legitimate one. And at the risk of being charged with
    unfriendliness, it must be said that it was either from an
    inability to think or from a narrow creedism that will not
    accept a truth from outside discovery. The effect of this, and
    what constitutes a crime in the teaching class, is, that it has
    for all these long years shut out this now accepted knowledge
    from the masses of humanity who look to this teaching class as
    authority,--and to use a business form of speech,--pay them for
    finding and teaching the truth. And so the learning of the world
    and the common mass of mind has, after nearly a century, to
    begin where the ostracised Mesmer left off--a long, dark, weary
    denial of the truth by the simple refusal to investigate. This
    is a serious arraignment, but it is admitted to-day by the
    scientific world to be but the simple truth.

    "And what do we find now? Why, these same men who, for more than
    eighty years, have been denying this truth, now whistle down the
    wind as fanatics, dreamers and cranks, those who all the time
    have recognized the truth, and been seeking the law underlying
    its remarkable phenomena."

[This strictly just arraignment applies to the entire body of the
old-fashioned and so-called regular medical and clerical professions,
all of whom have been educated into ignorance on these subjects by the
colleges, which are the chief criminals in this warfare against
science and progress. It was impossible to teach the true science of
man in any college but the one of which I was one of the founders and
the presiding officer; to obtain the necessary freedom in teaching the
highest forms of science, I have been compelled to establish the
College of Therapeutics in Boston.--ED. OF JOURNAL.]

And this class holds simply that the human being is a living soul,
that, for the time being, acts through the organism we call the human
body, and that these living beings have an affinity of conditions by
which they act and react one upon another, the manifestation of which
we call society or social life. That is all there is to this seeming
mystery when reduced to simple terms. It is a question that chemistry
cannot deal with because analysis is not the method. Molecules, to use
a homely phrase, are a good thing, but molecules don't think, and this
thing we are considering does think. Molecules are amenable to
chemical affinities, and their condition one instant is not and cannot
be their condition the next instant. So, if to-day at twelve o'clock
the molecules are in combination, chemically, to suggest a theft, they
may undergo, and we see do undergo, billions of changes before the
hour of meridian arrives to-morrow--and not at all likely at that
exact moment to be in the stealing combination again. Or, if so, it is
not likely to be for stealing exactly the same article it was combined
on the day previous. Yet this infinite series of impossibilities must
be possible to have the experiments we refer to come true--on the
theory of molecular action. This is one of those absurdities that men
call the marvellous discoveries of science. _No crank in Christendom
ever conceived anything so utterly absurd._

Common sense comes to our help here, and tells us that this power is
from an intelligence that controls molecules, and that this molecular
activity is but the motor force which this intelligence uses to
execute its purpose; that this purpose is, or may be, continuous,
because this intelligence is continuous. And as it is thus paramount,
and controlling as to this motor force, which to us is the phenomena
of what we call life, it must be thus paramount, be persistent--or in
other words, immortal. And it must be immortal because it has been the
agent of conception and growth--or antecedent. And if it had the
antecedent potency, its potentiality cannot cease when it becomes
consequent--or when the machinery which is propelled by this motor
force is worn out, or broken, and its use destroyed.



PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY AND IMPROVEMENT.


WONDERFUL INVENTIONS.--Prof. Elisha Gray's new discovery is called
_autotelegraphy_, and it is claimed that it will be possible with its
use to write upon a sheet of paper and have an autographic facsimile
of the writing reproduced by telegraph 300 miles away, and probably a
much greater distance.--_Phil. Press._

A Washington special in the New York _News_ says: The company owning
the _type-setting machine_ has arranged to put up fifty of these
machines for the transaction of business. They will be put up at once
in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Cincinnati, Chicago
and other leading cities. The company claims that the machine is now
perfect, and that each machine will perform as much work in setting
type as ten average compositors.


EDISON'S PHONOGRAPH.--New York, October 21. Edison gives additional
particulars concerning his perfected phonograph. He finished his first
phonograph about ten years ago. "That," he says, "was more or less a
toy. The germ of something wonderful was perfectly distinct, but I
tried the impossible with it, and when the electric light business
assumed commercial importance, I threw everything overboard for that.
Nevertheless, the phonograph has been more or less constantly in mind
ever since. When resting from prolonged work upon light, my brain was
found to revert almost automatically to the old idea. Since the light
has been finished, I have taken up the phonograph, and after eight
months of steady work have made it a commercial invention. My
phonograph I expect to see in every business office. The first 500
will, I hope, be ready for distribution about the end of January.
Their operation is simplicity itself, and cannot fail. The merchant or
clerk who wishes to send a letter has only to set the machine in
motion, and to talk in his natural voice, and at the usual rate of
speed, into a receiver. When he has finished the sheet, or
'Phonogram,' as I call it, it is ready for putting into a little box
made on purpose for mails. We are making sheets in three sizes--one
for letters of from 800 to 1,000 words, another size for 2,000 words,
and another size for 4,000 words.

"I expect that an agreement may be made with the post-office
authorities enabling phonogram boxes to be sent at the same rate as a
letter. The receiver of the phonogram will put it into his apparatus
and the message will be given out more clearly and distinctly than the
best telephone message ever sent. The tones of the voice in the two
phonographs which I have finished are so perfectly rendered that one
can distinguish between twenty different persons, each one of whom has
said a few words. One tremendous advantage is that the letter may be
repeated a thousand times. The phonogram does not wear out by use.
Moreover, it may be filed away for a hundred years and be ready for
the instant it is needed. If a man dictates his will to a phonograph,
there will be no disputing the authenticity of the document with those
who knew the tones of his voice in life. The cost of making the
phonograph will be scarcely more than the cost of ordinary letter
paper. The machine will read out a letter or message at the same speed
with which it was dictated."

Edison also has experimented with a device to enable printers to set
type directly from the dictation of the phonograph. He claims great
precision in repeating orchestral performances, so that the
characteristic tones of all the instruments may be distinguished.


_Type-setting Eclipsed_.--A new machine has been invented at
Minneapolis which supersedes type-setting. By this machine, which is
no larger than a small type-writer and operates on the same plan, a
plate or matrix is produced, which is easily stereotyped, thus
attaining the same result which is ordinarily reached by preparing a
form of type for the foundry which has to be stereotyped and then
distributed. The speed of the new machine will be from five to ten
times as great as that of type-setting, and if successful it will
enable an author to send his work to the stereotyper more easily than
he can write it with the pen. When all ambitious would-be authors are
let loose upon the world in this manner, what a flood of superfluous
literature we shall have and what will become of the superfluous
printers?


"_Printing in Colors_ has taken a potent move forward. By the new
process a thousand shades can be printed at once. Instead of using
engraved rollers or stones, as in the case of colored advertisements,
the designs or pictures are 'built up' in a case of solid colors
specially prepared, somewhat after the style of mosaic work. A portion
is then cut or sliced off, about an inch in thickness, and this is
wrapped round a cylinder, and the composition has only to be kept
moist, and any number of impressions can be printed. This will cause
an extraordinary revolution in art work, also in manufactures."


Mr. Edwin F. Field, of Lewiston, Me., has invented a substantial
_steam wagon_ for common roads. There is no reason why such wagons
should not come into use. When first proposed in England they were put
down by jealousy and opposition, but I have always contended that the
steam engine should have superseded the horse fifty years ago.


FRUIT PRESERVING.--About Christmas time in 1885 people in San
Francisco were astonished to see fresh peaches, pears, and grapes,
with all their natural bloom, and looking plump and juicy, on
exhibition in the windows of confectionery stores on Kearny and Sutter
streets. These fruits attracted great attention, and remained on
exhibition several weeks, showing the preservative agent employed,
whatever it might be, was singularly powerful in resisting the natural
decay. When tasted or smelled of, the fruit showed no peculiarity that
could lead to a discovery of the secret of the mysterious process.

It appears now that the invention is at last to be made a practical
success on a large scale. The Allegretti Green Fruit Treatment and
Storage System Company, with the main storehouse at West Berkeley,
announce that they are now ready to store and treat all kinds of green
articles, by the week or month, and for shipment East. I. Allegretti,
the inventor of this system, stated that he had been experimenting
with various processes for preserving green fruit for twenty-six
years, and had succeeded in discovering this system, whose success has
been demonstrated to the fruit-growers of this State.

The building in use at present is a frame structure, capable of
storing some fifty tons of fruit. The inner lining of the walls is
galvanized iron. There is no machinery used, and the only thing
visible is a large tank, supposed to contain the chemical preparation.
The arrangements are so made as to give an even temperature of 35
degrees.--_Oakland Enquirer._


NAPOLEON'S MANUSCRIPT.--"A manuscript by Napoleon I. has been sold in
Paris for five thousand five hundred francs. It was written by
Napoleon at Ajaccio in 1790, and the language and orthography are said
to be those of an uneducated person. In this manuscript he speaks with
enthusiasm of Robespierre."


PEACE.--Long and impatiently have I waited for the dawning of true
civilization and practical religion. It is coming now in the form of
an international movement in favor of peace by arbitration. The
British deputation which has visited this country to urge the
necessity of a treaty for arbitration, was entertained, Nov. 10th,
just before their return, by the Commercial Club at the Vendome Hotel,
in Boston, and many appropriate remarks were made by the distinguished
gentlemen present, including Gov. Ames, and Mayor O'Brien. The
deputation consisted of W. R. Cremer, M.P., the most persistent
advocate of arbitration, Sir George Campbell, M.P., Andrew Provard,
M.P., Halley Stewart, M.P., Benj. Pickard and John Wilson, who
represent the workingmen of Great Britain. William Whitman of the
Club, who presided at the entertainment, remarked, "It is an inspiring
fact, as well as indisputable evidence of social growth, that this
appeal for arbitration as a permanent policy has come, not so much
from kings, from rulers, or from statesmen, as from workingmen.... It
would create an epoch in human history second only in influence to the
birth of Christ, and be such a practical exemplification of religion
as would awake the conscience and touch the heart of all peoples."


CAPITAL PUNISHMENT is a relic of barbarism which society has not yet
outgrown. It tends to cultivate vindictive sentiments, and, at the
same time, to generate a morbid sympathy for criminals. The execution
of the Chicago Anarchists, as they are called, has had these effects.
They were not properly Anarchists in any philosophic sense, but rather
revolutionists, bent on destroying government and the republican rule
of the majority by dynamite and assassination. Their death gives
satisfaction to the vast majority of the people, but their incendiary
language has done incalculable mischief, and greatly interfered with
all rational and practicable measures of reform, as carried on by the
Knights of Labor, co-operative banks and building societies,
co-operative associations and schools of industrial education for both
sexes. Just as we have a prospect of getting rid of international war,
this revolutionary communism proposes to introduce a social war that
has no definite purpose, but the indulgence of the angry passions
which have been generated abroad by tyranny and poverty.


ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION.--The Australian colony of Victoria has
appropriated $50,000 for two ships to make a voyage of scientific
exploration in the Antarctic circle.


"THE DESERT SHALL BLOSSOM AS THE ROSE."--"The 'Great American Desert'
was long ago found out to be a myth; and now some of the remotest
corners which were once supposed to be included in it are proving to
offer the largest promises of value for agricultural and grazing
purposes. In New Mexico, for example, it has long been thought that
certain immense areas must always be comparatively useless because of
their natural aridity. But engineers have just completed plans for
tapping the Rio Grande with a canal and thus bringing under irrigation
a tract some ten miles wide and a hundred and fifty long, containing
nearly a million acres. The addition of so vast an area to the arable
land of the Territory means, of course, a large increase in the
productive resources of that section. Other canals may possibly do as
much. The work of sinking artesian wells is also going on there
extensively, while the project of constructing great storage
reservoirs, in which the rainfall of the wet season may be collected
and from thence gradually distributed through the dry season, is
already in serious contemplation by private enterprise. Modern
scientific irrigation has already accomplished wonders for the
agriculture of Utah; it seems likely to do even more for New Mexico."



LIFE AND DEATH.


122 YEARS.--The great-grandfather of the dramatist Steele Mackaye,
named John Morrison, was an old Covenanter and preached in the same
parish a hundred years. He lived to be 122. His name, written in the
old Bible after he was a centenarian, looks like a copperplate.


154 YEARS.--The Cincinnati _Evening Telegram_ recently published a
special from San Antonio, Tex., which says: News has just reached
here, from a most reliable source, of the recent death in the State of
Vera Cruz, Mex., of Jesus Valdonado, a farmer and ranchman of
considerable possessions. This man's age at the time of death was
indisputably 154 years. At Valdonado's funeral the pall-bearers were
his three sons, aged respectively 140, 120, and 109 years. They were
white-haired, but strong and hearty, and in full possession of all
their faculties.


AMERICUS, Ga., Sept. 25.--Edmond Montgomery died on Nick Jordan's
place, near the county line of Schley, aged 102 years. He was an
African chief of the Askari tribe, and was taken to Virginia from
Africa in 1807, when he was a young man. He had a large family in
Virginia, and when he died he left his third wife and 25 children in
Georgia. His grandchildren and great-grandchildren are unknown and
unnumbered. He had remarkably good eyesight and health, and never took
a dose of medicine in his life.


THIRTY-THREE CHILDREN.--A West Virginian named Brown recently visited
Washington to furnish evidence in a pension claim. Inquiry showed that
his mother had borne thirty-three children in all. Twenty of this
number were boys, sixteen of whom had served in the Union army. Two
were killed. The others survived. The death of the two boys entitles
the mother to a pension. General Black says the files of the office
fail to show another record where the sixteen sons of one father and
mother served as soldiers in the late war.


EFFECT OF POVERTY.--"M. Delerme, a distinguished Parisian physician,
found that in France the death rate of persons between the ages of
forty and forty-five, when in easy circumstances, was only 8.3 per one
thousand per annum, while the poorer classes of similar age died at
the rate of 18.7. That was two and one-half times as many of the poor
as the rich died in France at these ages out of a given number
living."


JENNY LIND GOLDSCHMIDT, the famous Swedish singer, died at London Nov.
1st at the age of 69. She was born of poor parents and made her first
appearance on the stage at nine years of age.


"MRS. RACHEL STILLWAGON, of Flushing, claims to be the oldest woman on
Long Island. She has just celebrated her 102d birthday, surrounded by
descendants to even the fifth generation. Three-quarters of a century
ago the fame of Mrs. Stillwagon's beauty extended as far south as
Baltimore."



CHAP. X.--THE LAW OF LOCATION IN ORGANOLOGY.


    The primal laws applied to the brain--The four directions--The
    elements of good and evil--The horizontal line of
    division--Frontal and occipital organs and vertical dividing
    line--Preponderance of the front in certain heads--Gall,
    Spurzheim, and Powell--Contrast of frontal and
    occipital--Latitude, longitude, and antagonism--Location of
    Health and Disease, of Benevolence, Conscientiousness,
    Acquisitiveness and Baseness, Energy and Relaxation or
    Indolence, Patience and Irritability--Duality of the brain and
    its important consequences--Errors of old system--Self-respect
    and Humility--Modesty and Ostentation--Combativeness and
    Harmony--Love and Hate--Adhesiveness and Intellect, median and
    lateral--Religion and Profligacy--Laws of arrangement and
    Pathognomy--Physiological influences of basilar and coronal
    regions--Insanity--beneficial influence of coronal region.

To feeble minds, that excel only in memory, an arbitrary statement of
facts to be recollected may be satisfactory, but to those who are
capable of fully understanding such a science as Anthropology,
arbitrary details, void of principle and reason, are repulsive. A
chart of the human brain, without explanation of its philosophic basis
and relations, embarrasses even the memory, for the memory of a
philosophic mind retains principles rather than details.

After many years of experimental investigation, I have long since
fully demonstrated that the human constitution is developed in
accordance with the universal plan of animal life, and the human brain
is organized functionally in accordance with those higher laws of
life, which control all the relations of the spiritual and material
worlds,--all interaction between mind and matter. These primal laws
are easily comprehended, and their application to the brain removes
all the perplexing complexity of organology.

Their application to the brain may be stated as follows: The upper
legions of the brain, pointing upwards, relate to that which is
above,--to the spiritual realm, to love, religion, duty, hope,
firmness, and all that lifts us to a higher life. The lower regions
point downwards, and expend their energy upon the body, rousing the
heart and all the muscles and viscera, developing the excitements,
passions, and appetites.

The maximum upward tendency is at the middle of the superior region,
and the maximum downward tendency at the middle of the basilar region,
while organs half-way between them are neutral between these opposite
tendencies. Hence every faculty or impulse has a location in the
brain, higher or lower, as it has a more spiritual or material
tendency, and as its influence on the character inclines to virtue or
vice. The better the faculty, the higher its location,--the more
capable of evil results, the lower it is placed. The higher position
given to the nobler faculties accords with their right to rule the
inferior nature, the predominance of which is evidently abnormal, and
the effects of which, in this abnormal predominance, are expressed by
terms full of evil, although their functions in due subordination are
useful and absolutely necessary.

In applying this principle, we realize that such a faculty as
Conscientiousness must be near the very summit, and that propensities
to theft and murder must belong to the base. That such propensities
exist in many, we know, and it is an absurd optimism which would
ignore such facts because they are abnormal. The world is full of
human abnormality, because it is not yet above the juvenile age of its
growth, which is the age of feebleness and folly, disease and crime.
The imperfect organism of childhood is incapable of resisting either
temptation or disease. The twenty-five millions destroyed by the black
death, in the fourteenth century, and the countless millions destroyed
by war in all centuries, including the present, show how little we
have advanced beyond the spirit of savage life. The ferocity of
nations is as much the product of their cerebral organization, as the
ferocity of the tiger, and springs from the same region of the
brain,--lying on the ridge of the temporal bone,--a region that
delights in fierce destruction, and is large in all the carnivora. It
would be contrary to the spirit of science to ignore the fact that man
has an element of ferocity similar to that of the tiger, because in
the fully developed man that fierce element is overruled by the higher
powers and confined to the destruction of that which does not suffer.
The unwillingness to recognize anything evil comes not from the spirit
of science, but from the _a priori_ assumptions of sentimental
theology, which presumes that it thoroughly comprehends the Deity (who
is beyond all human comprehension), and, out of its imaginative
ignorance, fabricates _a priori_ philosophies and doctrines that
everything in man is good, or that everything in man is evil.
Anthropology has not thus been evolved from _a priori_ speculation,
but presents its systematic doctrines as generalizations of the facts
and experiments which have been carefully acquired and studied through
the last half-century. The facts and experiments are too numerous to
be recorded and published now, and had no channel for publication when
they occurred.

Everything in the lower half of the brain has a tendency to evil, in
proportion to its over-ruling power, and everything in the upper half
operates in proportion to its elevation with that controlling
influence against evil, which uplifts him toward angelic or divine
superiority.

The brain may be divided by a horizontal line from the center of the
forehead into its coronal and basilar halves, and by a vertical line
from the cavity of the ear, into its frontal and occipital halves.

The vertical line separates the more passive and the more active
faculties. The posterior half of the brain is the source of the
backward forces by which the body is advanced, as the anterior half is
the source of the forward movements by which our progress is checked.
The posterior half would make blind, unceasing, irrepressible
action--the anterior half would produce a state of relaxed and feeble
tranquillity and sensibility--the condition of a helpless victim. The
concurrence of the two is indispensable to human life, and the
necessity of their more or less symmetrical balance is so great that
nature balances the head upon the condyles of the occipital bone, at
the summit of the neck, which are so located as to correspond very
nearly with the opening of the ear.

The contour of the head is very nearly that of a semicircle, with its
center an inch or more above the cavity of the ear. Thus wisely has
nature arranged in well-balanced individuals the symmetrical
proportion between the active and passive elements of life. In the
head of the writer there is a preponderance of the passive over the
active elements, which gives him the attraction to a studious, rather
than active or ambitious life.[1] In nations or races of ambitious
character, the head is long, or _Dolico-cephalic_, and the occipital
measurement is larger than the frontal, but in those of peaceful,
unambitious character, like the ancient Peruvian and the Choctaws of
the United States, the occipital measurement is less than the frontal.

    [1] The head of Dr. Gall shows the same frontal preponderance,
        which led him to the pursuits of intellect instead of
        ambition, but also shows an immense force of character
        derived from its extreme breadth and basilar depth. The head
        of Spurzheim, whose skull I have often examined, shows even
        a greater preponderance of the front, and a predominance of
        the coronal over the basilar region, producing his marked
        amiability, with sufficient basilar breadth to give him
        physical force.

        Each had a large brain. In Dr. Wm. Byrd Powell, who had a
        long head, and who was a man of restless ambition and fiery
        energy, the occipital predominated over the frontal
        development decidedly, producing, although the frontal
        development was not large, much activity and force, or
        brilliancy of mind, but not the calm temperament most
        favorable to philosophy. His opinions were more bold and
        striking than accurate. Dr. P. made a valuable collection of
        crania, and was almost the only American scientist who gave
        much attention to the _cultivation_ of phrenology.

From these remarks the reader will understand that force belongs to
the occiput and gentleness to the front. The occipital region is
associated with the spinal column and the limbs, in which regions the
vital forces reside. Hence the occipital action of the brain generates
vital force and diffuses it in the body, while the frontal region, in
its aggregate tendency, expends the vital force--the greatest tendency
to expenditure being in the most extreme frontal region. Both the
front lobe and the anterior extremity of the middle lobe tend to the
expenditure of vital force and destruction of health, and it is
absolutely necessary to life that the action of the front lobe should
be suspended one-third of our time by sleep, without which it would
exhaust vitality.

We shall therefore find that organs are located farther backward in
proportion to the energy and impelling power of the faculty, and farther
forward in proportion to their delicacy and intellectuality--the
extreme front being the region of maximum intelligence.

With these two rules, giving the latitude by the ethical quality and
the longitude by the active energy, I have been accustomed to require
my pupils to determine the location of the various elements of human
nature, bearing in mind that organs of analogous functions are located
near together, and organs of opposite or antagonistic functions occupy
opposite locations in the brain; and thus in proportion as one is
above the horizontal line the other is below it, and in proportion as
one is forward the other is backward,--in proportion as one is
interior or near the median line, the other is exterior or toward the
lateral surface.

With this introductory explanation, I begin by asking, Where should we
locate the faculty which has the maximum degree of healthy influence,
and is therefore called Health? They will readily decide that it
belongs to the posterior half of the head, but not the most posterior,
as it is not of restless or impulsive character. Then as to its
latitude they readily decide that it must be considerably above the
middle zone and in the upper posterior region where, after comparing
locations, they generally agree that its position corresponds to the
spot marked by the letters He.

[Illustration]

We then inquire where the faculties should be located which give us
the least capacity to resist disease, the least buoyant health, and
the greatest liability to succumb to injuries. This being opposite to
the last faculty must be located diametrically opposite, in a position
anterior and inferior, which would bring it to the anterior end of the
middle lobe. As this organ gives so great a sensitive liability to
disease, it is not improper to call it the organ of Disease, if we
recollect that that is its abnormal action, as murder is the abnormal
action of Destructiveness. Its normal action gives a very acute
interior sensibility by means of which we understand our physical
condition and are warned of every departure from health.

The pupils generally locate this organ very nearly as is shown by the
letters Di.

We have now gained an additional rule for guiding the location, viz.,
that in proportion as a faculty is of healthy tendency it is located
nearer to Health, and in proportion as it is of morbid tendency it
must be located nearer to Disease.

Let us now take two such faculties as Benevolence or good will and
Integrity or Conscientiousness. They will readily decide that
Benevolence must be in the superior anterior region, as it is a virtue
of the weak or yielding class, and that Conscientiousness, which makes
us just and honest, must be among the highest organs, much farther
back than Benevolence but not so far back as Health. There is no
difficulty in agreeing upon the locations, shown by the letters Be.
and Con.

If now we seek for the opposite faculties, which lead to selfish and
dishonorable action, the antagonist of Benevolence will be unanimously
located below and behind the centre, where it is represented by the
letters Ac., as Avarice or Acquisitiveness is the leading
manifestation of the selfish faculty.

As the faculty of Conscientiousness gives us the control of our
impulses and selfish or sensual inclinations to qualify for the
performance of duty, its antagonist gives the vigor to the sensual,
violent and selfish passions, and prompts to the utter disregard of
duty. The one being vertically above the centre of the brain, the
other must be vertically below it; one being on the upper the other
must be on the basilar surface. This brings it below the margin of the
middle lobe, which is above the cavity of the ear. Hence through the
cavity of the ear we reach underneath the basis of the middle lobe,
where it rests on the petrous ridge of the temporal bone, and the
external marking would correspond to the cavity of the ear or meatus
auditorius. For this organ and faculty, the name which would express
its unrestrained action is Baseness, as it would lead to the
commission of many crimes and the violation of all honesty and
justice. For its moderate and restrained activity, the term
Selfishness would be sufficient as it induces us to heed our selfish
appetites, interests, and passions, in opposition to the voice of
duty. Its more normal activity is to invigorate our animal life
generally and prevent us from going too far in the line of duty,
patience, forbearance and benevolence. Let it be marked Ba. Its
position will be recognized on the vertical line between the frontal
and occipital, as it is not an element of energy and success, nor of
debility, but simply an element of debasing animalism, which is not
destitute of force.

There are in the human constitution the opposite elements of untiring
energy or industry, and of indolent relaxation. To the former we must
give an exalted position, as it is the sustaining power of all the
virtues; and it must evidently be farther back than conscientiousness
as it is of a more vigorous character. It is favorable to health and
therefore near that organ, and being free from selfishness it is not
far behind Conscientiousness. The letters En. show its location.
Energy being thus behind Conscientiousness, its antagonist Relaxation,
the source of indolence, must be anterior to Baseness, where we locate
the letters Re.

The opposite elements of Serenity or Patience, and Irritability are
easily located; the former is obviously entitled to a high position.
From its quiet nature it cannot be assigned to the occiput, and from
its steady, unyielding and supporting strength, it cannot be assigned
to the frontal region. It must, therefore, be in the middle superior
region, where the letters Pa. locate it. Irritability must be on the
median line of the basilar range (and antagonizes Patience on the
middle line above), but not as low as Baseness, for one may be
honorable though irritable and high-tempered, but such temper is not
compatible with very strict conscientiousness.

In locating organs we are to remember that the brain is not a single
but a double apparatus--a right and a left brain, each complete in all
the organs; consequently, we are in this instance locating our organs
in the left hemisphere alone, in which the median line where it meets
the other hemisphere is on its right side, and the exterior surface is
on its left. An organ located at the median line, or inner surface, as
Patience, must have its antagonist at the external or lateral surface,
as Irritability.

The right hemisphere has the organs of the left side along the median
line, and the organs of its right side on the exterior surface. The
left hemisphere has the reverse arrangement. Consequently, the right
side of each hemisphere and the left side of the other are identical
in function. How then does the right side of one compare with the
right side of the other, and the left side with the left? Dr. Gall and
his followers have overlooked these questions, and fallen into very
great errors in consequence. Gall, for this reason, was mistaken in
the natural language of the organs, as will be hereafter shown, having
spoken of it as if we had a single brain, and also mistaken in many of
the organs concerning which a knowledge of the relations of the two
hemispheres to each other would have corrected the errors. There is a
striking analogy, or coincidence of function between the two right
sides and between the two left sides never suspected prior to my
investigations and experiments.

Let us next look for the sentiment of Pride, or Self-respect, which
has been called Self-esteem. It is a sentiment of conscious ability.
Its character is dignity, rather than selfishness. We readily perceive
that it must be in the upper region, but considerably behind the
vertical line, where we place the letters S.R.

The question may now arise whether it should be nearer to the right or
the left side of the hemisphere, its inner or outer surface. The law
governing this matter is that organs of external manifestation are at
the median line, but those of more interior and spiritual character
are generally at the lateral or exterior surface. Self-respect, or
Pride, is an organ of strong exterior manifestation, and is,
therefore, at the median line between the hemispheres. Its antagonist
must, therefore, be sought at the external or lateral surface, as far
below the horizontal division, as Self-respect is above it, and as far
forward as Self-respect is backward. Hence we find Humility where the
letters Hu. are located.

The idea of a specific antagonist to Self-esteem was never entertained
in the phrenological school, but it is obviously indispensable, for
Humility, which gives an humble or servile character, and disqualifies
for any high position, is as positive an element as the opposite, and
is very common in the dependent and humble classes of society. This
organ diminishes our psychic energy in proportion to its distance in
front of the ear and qualifies for submission instead of command.

If we look for the seat of Modesty, we should look in front of the
ear, but not so far forward as for Intellect. We would look near the
horizontal line, not to the upper surface, and would see the propriety
of locating it in the temples at the letters Mo. For its antagonism in
Ostentation we should look to the occiput. That species of modesty
which produces a bashful and yielding character will be found just
below the horizontal line, while that form of modest sentiment which
produces the highest refinement rises into connection with love at the
upper surface. The organ thus runs obliquely upward, corresponding to
the position of the convolutions. The antagonist, Ostentation, extends
above and below the letters Ost. on the occiput.

If we seek the organs that impel to contention and combat, we would
naturally look to the lower posterior region, but not the lowest. We
find Combativeness behind the ear, marked Com. Its antagonist, which
shuns strife and seeks harmony, must evidently be in the superior
anterior region, and near the intellectual organs which it resembles
in function by facilitating a mutual understanding, and giving a
spirit of concession. The location is marked Har. for Harmony. It
embraces a group of organs of harmonious tendency, such as Friendship,
Politeness, Imitation, Humor, Pliability and Admiration, as the
Combative group is hostile, stubborn, morose and censorious.

For the sentiment of Love we look to the upper surface of the brain as
the seat of the nobler sentiments. Being a stronger sentiment than
Harmony, it should be located farther back where we place the letters
Love. Its antagonism must be on the basilar surface, and a little
behind the vertical line, as Love is before it. This antagonistic
faculty would domineer and crush. Its extremest action would result in
Hatred. Its location is marked by the letters Ha. and Do.

Upon the principles already stated, the intellect occupies the extreme
front of the brain--the anterior surface of the front lobe. Its
general character will be represented by its middle--the region of
Consciousness and of Memory (Memory). The faculties that relate to
physical objects, the intellect common to animals, would necessarily
occupy the lower stratum along the brow (Perception), while the higher
species of intellect would occupy a higher position at the summit of
the forehead. Sagacity, Reason, and other similar forms of intellect,
marked Understanding, are above--physical conceptions below--Memory,
which retains both, lying between them.

The perceptive power, with the widest exterior range, is at the median
line, where we find clairvoyance; and the interior meditative power,
such as Invention, Composition, Calculation, and Planning, belongs to
the lateral or exterior surface of the forehead, according to the
principles just stated. Adhesiveness (Adh.) is the centre of the
antagonism to the intellect.

Religion, which relates to the infinite exterior, to the universe and
its loftiest power, must evidently be upon the median line and in the
higher portion of the brain, farther back than Benevolence, as it is a
stronger sentiment, but not so far back as Patience and Firmness.

Its antagonism must be at the lower external surface, behind
Irritability, (as Religion is before Patience,) but before
Acquisitiveness. The tendency of such a faculty must be toward a
lawless defiance of everything sacred, a passionate, impulsive
self-will and selfishness, resulting in lawless profligacy. Profligacy
would, therefore, be the name for its predominance (Pr.), while
executive independence and energy for selfish purposes would be its
more normal manifestation.

Thus we might go over the entire brain, showing that all the locations
of functions which have been learned from comparison of crania with
character, and which have been absolutely demonstrated by experiments
upon intelligent persons, are arranged in accordance with general laws
which are easily understood. The perfection of divine wisdom is made
fully apparent when we see the vast complexity of the psychic
phenomena of man.

    "A MIGHTY MAZE BUT NOT WITHOUT A PLAN,"

subjected to laws of arrangement and harmony that make it so clearly
intelligible. Far more do we realize this when we master the science
of PATHOGNOMY, and discover that all the attributes or faculties of
the human soul, and all its complex relations with the body, are
demonstrably subject to mathematical laws.

I do not propose in this sketch to go through all the details of the
localities as I might with the anatomical models before a class, but
would refer, in conclusion, to the location of the physiological
functions of the brain.

Its basilar surfaces, pointing downwards, have their normal influence
upon the body. Behind the ear they act upon the spinal cord and
muscular system. Hence basilar depth produces vital force and muscular
power. But as the basilar functions, which use the body, are opposite
to the coronal functions which sustain our higher nature, it follows
that excessive use of the body, either for exertion or for sensual
pleasure, is destructive to our higher faculties, operating in many
respects like the indulgence of the lower passions. Hence mankind are
imbruted by excessive toil as well as by excessive sensuality and
violence.

While the basilar region behind the ear operates upon the posterior
part of the trunk, that portion in front of the ear operates more
anteriorly, affecting the viscera, in which there is no muscular
vigor, and the tendency of which is toward indolence. Thus the
vertical line separates the indolent from the energetic basilar
functions, and all the enfeebling, sensitive, morbid faculties that
impair our energies are in the anterior basilar region.

The normal action of these organs, however, is necessary to life, and
sustains the visceral system in the reception of food and expulsion of
waste. But as it is the region of sensibility to all influences, it
renders us liable to all derangements of body and mind, unless we are
strongly fortified by our occipital strength. The tendency to bodily
disorder has been explained by reference to the organs of Disease and
Health. Insanity, or derangement of the mind and nervous system,
belongs to a basilar and anterior location, which we reach through the
junction of the neck and jaw (marked Ins.). It is more interior, but
not lower than Disease, in the brain. Its antagonism is above on the
temporal arch, between the lateral and upper surfaces of the brain,
marked San. for Sanity. It gives a mental firmness which resists
disturbing influences.

The coronal region or upper surface of the brain has the opposite
influence to that of the basilar organs in all respects, withdrawing
the nervous energy from the body, tranquillizing its excitements, and
attracting all vital energy to the brain, especially in its upper
region. By sustaining the brain, which is the chief seat of life, and
by restraining the passions, the coronal region is more beneficial to
health and longevity than any other portion. In the posterior part it
not only has this happy effect, but by sustaining the occipital half
of the brain, gives a normal and healthy energy to all the powers of
life. Such is the influence of the group of organs in which Health is
the centre.

[Illustration]

It is obvious, therefore, that the study of the brain reveals laws
which give us the strongest inducement to an honorable life as the
only road to success and happiness.

To show the facility with which organs may be located upon general
principles, I present herewith the locations actually made by a small
class of pupils when I first proposed to have them determine locations
according to the general laws of organology. None of these locations
would be called erroneous, the most incorrect of all being
Adhesiveness, located a little too high. They are Be. Benevolence, Ac.
Acquisitiveness, Phi. Philanthropy, Des. Destructiveness, Lo. Love,
Ha. Hate, Hu. Humor, Mod. Modesty, Os. Ostentation, Con.
Conscientiousness, Ba. Baseness, Pa. Patience, Irr. Irritability, For.
Fortitude, Al. Alimentiveness, Her. Heroism, Sen. Sensibility, Hea.
Health, Dis. Disease, Ad. Adhesiveness, Co. Combativeness, Ar.
Arrogance, Rev. Reverence, Ca. Cautiousness, Ra. Rashness.

The suggestion cannot be too often repeated that the nomenclature of
cerebral organology can never adequately express the functions of the
organs. The brain has in all its organs physiological and psychic
powers, which no one word can ever express fully. Sometimes a good
psychic term, such as Firmness, suggests to the intelligent mind a
corresponding influence on the physiological constitution, but in the
present state of mental science the conception of such a
correspondence is very vague.

Moreover, even the psychic functions are not adequately represented by
the words already coined in the English language for other purposes,
and I do not think it expedient at present to coin new terms which
would embarrass the student. The word Sanity, for example, answers its
purpose by signifying a mental condition so firm and substantial as to
defy the depressing and disturbing influences that derange the mind.
It produces not the mere negative state, or absence of insanity, but a
positive firmness, and self-control, which is the interior expression
of firmness. The cheerful, stable, manly, and well-regulated character
which it produces, disciplines alike the intellect and the emotions,
and shows itself in children by an early maturity of character and
deportment, and freedom from childish folly and passion.

If a new word should be introduced to express this function, the Greek
word SOPHROSYNE would be a very good one, as it signifies a
self-controlled and reasonable nature. The verb ANDRISO, signifying to
render hardy, manly, strong, to display vigor, and make a manly effort
of self-control, would be equally appropriate in the adjective form,
ANDRIKOS, and still more in the noun ANDRIA, which signifies manhood
or manly sentiments and conduct. It would not, however, be preferable
to the English word, MANLINESS, which is as appropriate a term as
Sanity or ANDRIA.



TO YOU PERSONALLY.


The JOURNAL OF MAN acknowledges with pleasure your co-operation during
the past year, its trial trip. It presumes from your co-operation,
that you are one of the very few truly progressive and large-minded
mortals who really wish to lift mankind into a better condition, and
who have that practical sagacity (which is rare among the educated) by
which you recognize great truths in their first presentation before
they have the support of the leaders of society. If among our readers
there are _any_ of a different class, they are not expected to
continue. The sincere friends of the JOURNAL have shown by many
expressions in their friendly letters, that they are permanent
friends, and as the present size of the JOURNAL is entirely inadequate
to its purposes, they desire its enlargement to twice its present size
and price. They perceive that it is the organ of the most important
and comprehensive movement of intellectual progress ever undertaken by
man, and they desire to see its mission fulfilled and the benefit
realized by the world, in a redeeming and uplifting education, a
reliable system of therapeutics, a scientific and beneficent religion,
a satisfactory spiritual science, and the uplifting of all sciences by
Psychometry. But it is important to know in advance that all the
JOURNAL'S present readers desire to go on in an enlarged and improved
issue. You are, therefore, requested to signify by postal card your
intentions and wishes as to the enlarged JOURNAL. Will your support be
continued or withdrawn for the next volume, and can you do anything to
extend its circulation? An immediate reply will oblige the editor.



RESPONSES OF OUR READERS.


The generous appreciation of the JOURNAL OF MAN by the liberal press
was shown in the May number, as well as the enthusiastic appreciation
of its readers. The proposition for its enlargement has called forth a
kind and warm response from its readers, from which the few quotations
following will show how well the JOURNAL has realized their hopes and
desires. "I will try to get one or two more subscribers to what I
regard as the best journal I have ever known, going as it does to the
root of the most vital and most important interests of man, and
dealing with great principles so vigorously and fairly."--G. H. C. (a
Southern author). "The intensely interesting subjects treated in the
JOURNAL OF MAN demand more space."--H. F. J. "The JOURNAL OF MAN is
certainly the most valuable truth-giver I ever saw."--J. T. J. "It is
the only journal of the kind, and the most needed of any kind."--O. K.
K. "I will sustain the Journal of Man as long as I have a dollar."--P.
C. M. "I do not see how I could get along without it."--G. B. N.
"Enlarge the JOURNAL five-fold."--G. B. R. "I shall want it as long as
I remain in this life."--Mrs. M. J. R. "Among progressive minds and
deep thinkers, it is considered solid gold."--W. E. S. "Count on me as
a life subscriber."--N. J. S. "I hope you will keep your pen moving,
as the world has need of your thoughts."--S. C. W. "I wish you could
make it a four-dollar publication."--A. W. "I think it the most
advanced publication extant."--H. W. W. "The rectification of cerebral
science is to me a demonstration."--L. W. H. "It accords with my views
of man, and leads by going beyond me."--J. W. I. "The most scientific
publication that I have ever read, and far in advance of all
others."--S. J. W. "The JOURNAL OF MAN is just what I want."--C. L. A.
"To say I like the JOURNAL, and am much interested in it, is a meagre
way of expressing myself."--H. F. B. "I hope you will be able to
extend it broadcast over the land."--Dr. W. W. B. "It has filled a
long-felt want in my mind."--E. C. B., M. D. "I wish that every editor
in the world was actuated by the same spirit that seems to actuate
you. As long as I can see to read, I shall endeavor to make it my
companion."--W. B. "More than pleased."--A. E. C. "I know of nothing
printed that equals it."--J. E. P. C. "I regard the JOURNAL as
important to mankind the world over."--E. E. C. "I am in receipt of
several medical journals and several newspapers; I think your JOURNAL
OF MAN contains more common sense than all the others."--S. F. D.,
M.D. "I bid you God speed in your dissemination of truth."--Rev. D. D.
"The more it is enlarged the better I am pleased."--A. F., M.D. "I
perceive fully its important mission."--M. F. "I admire your thought
and expression."--L. G. "I will take the JOURNAL under all
circumstances, and at any price."--L. I. G. "I admired the manner in
which you bombarded military unchristianity."--A. J. H.


PUBLICATION OF THE JOURNAL.

It is not yet decided that the JOURNAL shall be enlarged. The
flattering responses already received are not sufficient in number to
justify enlargement. Unless the remainder of the readers of the
JOURNAL shall express themselves in favor of enlargement it will not
be attempted. The editor is willing to toil without reward, but not to
take up a pecuniary burden in addition.

       *       *       *       *       *

PSYCHOMETRIC PRACTICE.

Mrs. C. H. Buchanan continues to apply her skill in the description of
character and disease, with general impressions as to past and future.
Her numerous correspondents express much gratification and surprise at
the correctness of her delineations. The fee for a personal interview
is $2; for a written description $3; for a more comprehensive review
and statement of life periods, with directions for the cultivation of
Psychometry, $5.

       *       *       *       *       *

MAYO'S ANÆSTHETIC.

The suspension of pain, under dangerous surgical operations, is the
greatest triumph of Therapeutic Science in the present century. It
came first by mesmeric hypnotism, which was applicable only to a few,
and was restricted by the jealous hostility of the old medical
profession. Then came the nitrous oxide, introduced by Dr. Wells, of
Hartford, and promptly discountenanced by the enlightened (?) medical
profession of Boston, and set aside for the next candidate, ether,
discovered in the United States also, but far inferior to the nitrous
oxide as a safe and pleasant agent. This was largely superseded by
chloroform, discovered much earlier by Liebig and others, but
introduced as an anæsthetic in 1847, by Prof. Simpson. This proved to
be the most powerful and dangerous of all. Thus the whole policy of
the medical profession was to discourage the safe, and encourage the
more dangerous agents. The magnetic sleep, the most perfect of all
anæsthetic agents, was expelled from the realm of college authority;
ether was substituted for nitrous oxide, and chloroform preferred to
ether, until frequent deaths gave warning.

Nitrous oxide, much the safest of the three, has not been the
favorite, but has held its ground, especially with dentists. But even
nitrous oxide is not perfect. It is not equal to the magnetic sleep,
when the latter is practicable, but fortunately it is applicable to
all. To perfect the nitrous oxide, making it universally safe and
pleasant, Dr. U. K. Mayo, of Boston, has combined it with certain
harmless vegetable nervines, which appear to control the fatal
tendency which belongs to all anæsthetics when carried too far. The
success of Dr. Mayo, in perfecting our best anæsthetic, is amply
attested by those who have used it. Dr. Thorndike, than whom Boston
had no better surgeon, pronounced it "the safest the world has yet
seen." It has been administered to children and to patients in extreme
debility. Drs. Frizzell and Williams say they have given it
"repeatedly in heart disease, severe lung diseases, Bright's disease,
etc., where the patients were so feeble as to require assistance in
walking, many of them under medical treatment, and the results have
been all that we could ask--no irritation, suffocation, nor
depression. We heartily commend it to all as the anæsthetic of the
age." Dr. Morrill, of Boston, administered Mayo's anæsthetic to his
wife with delightful results when "her lungs were so badly
disorganized, that the administration of ether or gas would be
entirely unsafe." The reputation of this anæsthetic is now well
established; in fact, it is not only safe and harmless, but has great
medical virtue for daily use in many diseases, and is coming into use
for such purposes. In a paper before the Georgia State Dental Society,
Dr. E. Parsons testified strongly to its superiority. "The nitrous
oxide (says Dr. P.) causes the patient when fully under its influence
to have very like the appearance of a corpse," but under this new
anæsthetic "the patient appears like one in a natural sleep." The
language of the press generally has been highly commendatory, and if
Dr. Mayo had occupied so conspicuous a rank as Prof. Simpson, of
Edinburgh, his new anæsthetic would have been adopted at once in every
college of America and Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *

                           THE OPEN COURT.

                             PUBLISHED BY

                  The Open Court Publishing Company,

                           Rooms 41 and 42,
                       169-175 LA SALLE STREET,
                               CHICAGO.

    B. F. UNDERWOOD,                            SARA A. UNDERWOOD,
   _Editor and Manager_.                       _Associate Editor_.

The _Open Court_ is a high-class, radical free-thought Journal,
devoted to the work of exposing religious superstition, and
establishing religion upon the basis of science.

It is opposed to all forms of sectarianism, and discusses all subjects
of interest in the light of the fullest knowledge and the most matured
thought of the age.

It has for contributors the leading thinkers and writers of the old
and new world. Among those who contribute to its columns are the
following writers:--

  Prof. Max Muller, of Oxford.           Wm. J. Potter.
  Richard A. Proctor.                    Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
  Albert Revielle.                       Frederick May Holland.
  Edmund Montgomery, M.D.                Anna Garlin Spencer.
  Prof. E. D. Cope.                      B. W. Ball.
  Col. T. W. Higginson.                  Felix L. Oswald, M.D.
  Prof. Leslie F. Ward.                  Theodore Stanton.
  Prof. Henry C. Adams.                  Mrs. Celia P. Wooley.
  Jas. Parton.                           E. C. Hegeler.
  Geo. Jacob Holyoake.                   Dr. Paul Carus.
  John Burroughs.                        Lewis G. James.
  S. V. Clevenger, M.D.                  Mrs. Hypatia B. Bonner.
  John W. Chadwick.                      Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Jr.
  M. J. Savage.                          M. C. O'Byrne.
  Moncure D. Conway.                     Samuel Kneeland, M.D.
  Daniel Greenleaf Thompson.             Prof. Van Buren Denslow.
  Prof. Thomas Davidson.                 Mrs. Edna D. Cheney.
  Gen. J. G. R. Forlong.                 Wm. Clark, A.M.
  Prof. W. D. Gunning.                   Clara Lanza.
  Gen. M. M. Trumbull.                   C. D. B. Mills.
  W. M. Salter.                          Alfred H. Peters.

Those who wish a first-class journal, devoted to the discussion of
scientific, religious, social and economic questions, should send at
once for a sample copy of this great journal.

            _Terms, $3 per year. Single copies, 15 cents_.

Make all remittances payable to the order of B. F. UNDERWOOD,
Treasurer; and address all letters to _Open Court_, P. O. Drawer F.,
Chicago, Ills.

       *       *       *       *       *

                        "FORTY PATIENTS A DAY"

is the name of a pamphlet Helen Wilmans has written on her _practical_
experience in healing. No one seems to have had better opportunity of
demonstrating the truth of mental science than Mrs. Wilmans has had in
her Southern home, where the report of her skill was carried from
mouth to mouth, until patients swarmed to her from far and near. Send
15 cents for the pamphlet. Address: Mrs. HELEN WILMANS, Douglasville,
Georgia.

       *       *       *       *       *

SEND description of yourself, with 15c, for complete written
prediction of your future life, etc.--N. M. GEER, Port Homer,
Jefferson Co., Ohio.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents came from the first
    issue of the volume.





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