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Title: Buchanan's Journal of Man, September 1887 - Volume 1, Number 8
Author: Buchanan, Joseph R. (Joseph Rodes), 1814-1899 [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Buchanan's Journal of Man, September 1887 - Volume 1, Number 8" ***

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                             BUCHANAN'S
                           JOURNAL OF MAN.

            VOL. I.        SEPTEMBER, 1887.        NO. 8.



CONTENTS OF JOURNAL OF MAN.


  Concord Symposium
  Rectification of Cerebral Science
  Human Longevity
  MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE--An important Discovery; Jennie
    Collins; Greek Philosophy; Symposiums; Literature of the Past;
    The Concord School; New Books; Solar Biology; Dr. Franz
    Hartmann; Progress of Chemistry; Astronomy; Geology Illustrated;
    A Mathematical Prodigy; Astrology in England; Primogeniture
    Abolished; Medical Intolerance and Cunning; Negro Turning White;
    The Cure of Hydrophobia; John Swinton's Paper; Women's Rights
    and Progress; Co-Education; Spirit writing; Progress of the
    Marvellous
  Chapter VII.--Practical Utility of Anthropology (Concluded)
  Chapter VIII.--The Origin and Foundation of the New Anthropology



THE CONCORD SYMPOSIUM AND THEIR GREATEST CONTRIBUTION TO PHILOSOPHY.


Let no one accuse the critic of irreverence, who doubts the wisdom of
universities, and of pedantic scholars who burrow like moles in the
mouldering remnants of antiquity, but see nothing of the glorious sky
overhead. While I have no reverence for barren or wasted intellect, I
have the profoundest respect for the fruitful intellect which produces
valuable results--for the vast energy of the lower class of
intellectual powers, which have developed our immense wealth of the
physical sciences and their useful applications. Indescribably grand
they are. The mathematicians, chemists, geologists, astronomers,
botanists, zoologists, anatomists, and the numerous masters of dynamic
sciences and arts, have lifted the world out of the ruder elements of
barbarism and suffering.

But, as for the class of speculative talkers, whose self-sufficiency
prompts them to assume the name of philosophers, to which they have no
right, what have they ever done either to promote human welfare, or to
assist human enlightenment and reveal the mysteries of life? Have they
not always been as blind as owls, bats, and moles, to daylight
progress? Are they not at this time utterly and _unconsciously_ blind
to the progress of spiritual sciences, to the revelations of
psychometry and anthropology--placing themselves, indeed, in that
hopeless class who are too ignorant to know their ignorance, too far
in the dark to know or suspect that there is any light?

A remnant of these worshippers of antiquity still holds its seances at
Concord, Mass., and publishes its amazingly dry _Journal of Speculative
Philosophy_. With the unconscious solemnity of earnestness, it still
digs into Aristotle's logic and speculations--the dryest material that
was ever used to benumb the brains of young collegians, and teach them
how _not to reason_, for Aristotle never had a glimmering conception
of what the process of reasoning is. Yet all Concordians are not
Aristotelians; some of them have more modern ideas, and a vigorous,
though misdirected, mentality.

Prof. W. T. Harris, the leader of the Concordians, to whose
lucubrations the newspapers give ample space, as those of the
representative man, made a second attempt to explore the Aristotelian
darkness, in which his first essay was totally lost.

If there is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous, it is not
even a step from the absurd to the ludicrous and amusing. The
professional wit or joker is never so richly amusing as the man who is
utterly unconscious that he is in the least funny, while heroically in
earnest. The professed comedian never furnishes so much amusement as
the would-be heroic tragedian, who, like the Count Joannes, furnishes
uproarious merriment for the whole evening.

I have seen nothing in our Boston newspapers quite so amusing as the
very friendly and sympathetic report of Prof. Harris' most elaborate
and laborious comments on the SYLLOGISMS, which reminds one of
Hopkinson's metaphysical and elaborate disquisition on the nature,
properties, relations, and essential entity of a salt-box. We do not
laugh at the professor as we did at Daniel Pratt, the "Great American
Traveller," whose travels are now ended; for, aside from his
metaphysical follies, Prof. Harris is a man of real merit and great
intellectual industry, whose services in education will entitle him to
be remembered; but when the metaphysical impulse seizes him,

  "Who would not laugh if such a fool there be,
  Who would not weep if Atticus were he."

The lecture of Prof. Harris was reported in the _Boston Herald_, in
the style of a gushing girl with her first lover, as a "NEW STEP IN
THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY," attended by a full audience as "a rare
treat" "_like buckwheat-cakes fresh from the griddle_," for "Prof.
Harris took a decidedly _new step in Philosophy_," giving "an insight
which _no philosopher, ancient or modern, has attained_." Again,
speaking of it privately, Prof. Harris said, "I got hold of the idea
three or four years ago, and I have been trying to work it out since.
I regard it as my _best contribution to philosophy_." "_Montes
parturiunt_," What do they bring forth? Is it a mouse of respectable
size? The _Boston Herald_, which is generally smart, though never
profound, says of the symposium, "It has set up Aristotle this year as
its golden calf to be worshipped." "But when you ask the question,
what does all this talk amount to, it is difficult to give an
affirmative answer." "It is simply threshing straw over, again and
again." But it is not aware that the Concord straw is merely the dried
weeds that Lord Bacon cut up and threw out of the field of respectable
literature over two hundred and sixty years ago. "What man (says the
_Herald_), with any serious purpose in life, has any time to waste
over what somebody thinks Aristotle ought to have thought or said."
And my readers may ask, why give the valuable space of the JOURNAL OF
MAN to examining such trash? Precisely because _it is trash_, and yet
occupies a place of honor, standing in the way of progress and
representing the tendencies of education for centuries, which still
survive, though they may be said to have gone to seed. Concord
represents University philosophy, as a dude represents fashion, and as
University philosophy is a haughty antagonist of all genuine
philosophy, it is important to illustrate its worthlessness.

The subject of Prof. Harris' lecture was "Aristotle's Theory of the
Syllogism, Compared with that of Hegel." As these two were the great
masters of obscurantism, the lecture should have been, of course, as
perfect a specimen as either of darkness and emptiness. Omitting the
definitions of syllogisms, which are familiar to all collegians, but
too intolerably tedious to be inflicted on my readers, we find a very
unexpected specimen of common sense following the talk about
syllogisms, which embodied Aristotle's ideas of Reason. Here it is:
"Logic is often called the art of reasoning, and many people study it
with a view to mastering an art of correct thinking, hoping thereby to
get an instrument useful in the acquirement of truth. It may be
doubted, however, whether the mind gets much aid in the pursuit of
truth by studying logic." There is no doubt at all about it,--not one
rational individual out of a hundred thousand collegians will confess
that he ever got any benefit in reasoning or in pursuing truth from
Aristotle's syllogistic formula. "All men are mortal--Socrates is a
man, and therefore Socrates is mortal."

Why, then, such a flourish of trumpets over some new trick in playing
with syllogism, when the whole thing is utterly worthless? And the
Professor upsets himself in his own lecture, thus: "If the middle tub
is contained in the big tub, and the little tub is contained in the
middle tub, then the little tub is contained in the big tub." Hegel
says: "Common sense in its reaction against such logical formality and
artificiality turned away in disgust, and was of the opinion that it
could do without such a science as logic." Most true, Philosopher
Hegel, you have absurdities of your own on a gigantic scale, but you
do well to reject the petty absurdities of Aristotle.

How does Prof. Harris rise up from Hegel's fatal blow? He rises like
Antæus from touching the earth, and triumphantly shows that syllogisms
are the most necessary of all things to humanity in its mundane
existence; that, in fact, we have all been syllogizing ever since we
left the maternal bosom to look at the cradle, the cat, and the dog.
In fact we never could have grown up to manhood, much less to be
Concordian philosophers, if we had not been syllogizing all the days
of our life, and, indeed, it is probable we shall continue syllogizing
to all eternity, in the next life, if we have any growth in knowledge
at all. Blessed be the memory of Aristotle, the great original and
unrivalled discoverer of the syllogism, by means of which all human
knowledge has been built up, and "blessed be the man (as Sancho Panza
said) who first invented sleep," by which we are relieved, to rest
after the mighty labors of the syllogism.

And lo! we have been syllogizing all these years, alike when we listen
to the nocturnal yowl of the tomcat, and to the morning song of the
lark; alike, when we smell the rose, seize the orange, or devour the
tempting oyster. In syllogism do we live and move, and have our being.
This is the grand discovery--the last great contribution to philosophy
from Concord's greatest philosopher. We suddenly discover that we have
been syllogizing like philosophers, as Mrs. Malaprop discovered that
her children had been speaking English. The illustration of this
overwhelming discovery is peculiarly happy, for he applies it to the
discovery of a red flannel rag in the back yard or garden, and, after
detecting the red flannel by syllogism, he advances to the grander
problem of showing how, by philosophic methods, we can actually
distinguish an old tin can from an elephant. To enjoy this fully, the
reader must take it himself from the reported lecture.

    "The act of recognition is an unconscious syllogistic process in
    the second figure of the syllogism. I perceive something scarlet
    in the garden. So far I recognize a host of attributes; it is a
    real object; the place, surroundings and color are recognized.
    The sensations were so familiar that the recognition was
    inconceivably rapid. Then comes a slower process. The scarlet is
    an attribute. What can the object be? I think it is a piece of
    red flannel. The inference comes almost to the surface of
    consciousness, but I have reasoned unconsciously: This object is
    red. A piece of flannel is red; therefore this may be a piece of
    red flannel. The middle term is predicate in both premises. The
    unknown object is red. A familiar object (flannel) is red.
    Hence, I recognize this as flannel. I identify the unknown
    object with what is familiar in my mind. But the logician will
    say that this reasoning is on the invalid mode of the second
    figure, from which you can never draw an affirmative conclusion.
    Precisely so, if you mean a necessary conclusion. But
    sense-perception uses affirmative modes of the second figure and
    derives probable knowledge therefrom. I make probable knowledge
    more certain by verifying the inference or correcting it. I go
    to the garden and pick up the object, and see the threads and
    fiber of the wool. Or perhaps I find it was a piece of red
    paper. But whatever it was, at the end I can say what I have
    seen, only in so far as I have recognized or identified it.
    Recognition proceeds by the second figure, and has chiefly the
    non-valid modes. But it may use the valid modes, though in a
    still less conscious manner. For instance, I recognized that the
    object was not an elephant by this valid form; every elephant is
    larger than a tin can; this object is not larger than a tin can;
    therefore, this object is necessarily not an elephant; or, by
    this other valid form, no elephant is as small as a tomato can;
    this object is just the size of a tomato can; hence this object
    is not an elephant. Had some one told me to look out and see an
    elephant, my perception would unconsciously have taken one of
    these forms. The scarlet is recognized as such only as it is
    identified with a previous impression of scarlet. Here is our
    third surprise in psychology. Unless there were a priori idea,
    sense-perception could never begin. More, unless there were a
    priori idea, it could not begin. For there must be two
    recognitions before there can be a first new idea from
    sense-perception. The fourth surprise is that directly with the
    first activity of perception in the second figure of the
    syllogism is joined a second activity which takes place in the
    form of the first figure of the syllogism. As soon as I
    perceived the red object to be a piece of flannel, I at once
    reinforced my sense-perception by unlocking all my previous
    store of knowledge stored up under the category of red flannel.
    I unconsciously syllogized thus: 'All red flannel has threads of
    warp and woof and a rough texture, caused by the coarse fibres
    of wool curling up stiffly; this is a piece of red flannel;
    hence this will be found to have these properties.' The act of
    recognition is a subsumption of the object under a class by use
    of the second figure of the syllogism.

    "Now begins the syllogistic activity under the form of the third
    figure. There are a variety of attributes which I recognize by
    the activity of the perceiving mind in the form of the first
    figure, as it recognizes the general classes by the primary
    activity in the form of the second figure. These attributes are
    collected around the object as a centre of interest, and it is
    now the middle term. These give a new element of experience,
    thus: 'Major--this is a tin can; minor--it lies neglected in the
    garden; conclusion--tin cans get abandoned to neglect.' And so
    on, as to the use of the contents and the value of the can,
    running out into a long series of inferences."

As we have now reached the seventh heaven of Concord philosophy, and
know how to distinguish an old tin can from an elephant, let us rest
in peace, to meditate and enjoy its serene delights. We have had the
supreme satisfaction of listening to the modern Plato, the leader at
Concord. The _Herald_ has informed us that on another day "the school
listened with great satisfaction to Prof. Harris, who is constantly
adding to the deep impression he has already made, and to the high
opinion in which he is held as the most acute and profound thinker of
the times, in his field."

Lest the reader should fail to see in the foregoing what the _great
contribution_ to philosophy is, let us look in the _Open Court_ of
Chicago, which has a most affectionate partiality for metaphysical
mystery. It says this "Best contribution to philosophy" "may be summed
up thus," "We can perceive nothing but what we can identify with what
was familiar already." If this were true, the babe could never
perceive anything, as it begins without any knowledge, and it would be
impossible for us to learn anything or acquire any new ideas. This is
rather an amusing _discovery_! but it is barely possible or
conceivable that there are some old fossils whose minds are in that
melancholy condition.

P. S. After a few hours of repose to recover from mental fatigue and
digest the new wisdom so suddenly let loose upon mankind, we discover
the new aspect of the world of (Concord) philosophy. The great
question of the future will be to syllogize or not to syllogize. Is it
possible to distinguish an elephant from a tin can by any other method
than the syllogism? When that question is decisively settled, if it
ever can be settled (for metaphysical questions generally last through
the centuries) Prof. Harris will have an opportunity to win still
brighter laurels, and make still greater contributions to philosophy,
by finding more syllogisms. Will he not prove that mathematics is the
sphere of syllogism also, for if two and two make four, does not the
conception of four assume the position of the major predicate, which
is the generalized idea of one to a quadruple extent, and also of twos
duplicated. Thus the major predicate, that four is two twos, involves
the minor that two is the half of four and consequently that twice two
is four. Q. E. D. The syllogism is irresistible.

If Prof. Harris should establish the mathematical syllogism and extend
its power through all the realms of mathematics, as so industrious a
thinker might easily do, he will have taken a step far in advance of
Plato, and justly deserve a higher rank, for Plato (see his Phædo) was
terribly puzzled over the question how one and one make two. After
much puzzling he decided finally that one and one became two "by
_participation in duality_." This was the first great step to
introduce philosophy into mathematics. Let Prof. Harris consummate
this great work either by syllogism or by "_participation_."

Perhaps he may introduce us to a still greater "surprise" by showing
that all metaphors and poetical figures of speech are constructed on
syllogistic principles. It can be done, but we must not lift the veil
of wisdom too hastily, or rush in where Concord philosophers "fear to
tread." They have an endless future feast in the syllogisms, if they
are faithful followers of Prof. Harris. But possibly there may be
others attracted to Concord who would give the school something less
dry than metaphysics, or, some other sort of metaphysics. One of their
most esteemed orators made a diversion from the syllogism by
presenting some other idea based on Aristotle, which ought to eclipse
the syllogism, for, according to the report, he said "It is the most
_momentous question that can engage the human attention_. It involves
the _reality of God_, of personal existence, and freedom among men,
and of immortality."

Immense it must be! Dominic Sampson would surely say "_Prodigious!_"
An attentive study of the obscure phraseology of this philosopher
enables one to discover that the great and tragical question concerns
the reality of reality, or what the reality is, and whether it is real
or not, and how we can find it out. The way to find out whether that
which we think is, is or is not, is to go back to Aristotle, who is
the only man that ever understood the is-ness of the is. As the
lecturer is reported to say, "The _first sign_ of a movement in the
right direction is the serious attention now being devoted in many
quarters to the writings of Aristotle, who, in this, as in many other
things, will long remain the master of those that know." Evidently
those that don't go to Aristotle don't know anything about life,
freedom, God and immortality. How unfortunate we are, and how
fortunate the professor is, must appear by his answer to the great
question, reported as follows: "Prof. Davidson discussed at length the
nature of phenomena, taking the underlying basis that time and space
are relations of the real to the phenomenal, and nothing but
relations; also that we not only have ideas of reality, but that
_these ideas are the realities themselves_. Then the question is, if
the _concept of reality be reality itself_, how is this related to
phenomena? There is a double relation, active and passive. * * *
Eternal realities are known to us only as terms of phenomena. They are
in ourselves, and from the exigencies of our intelligence."

Thus we understand nothing whatever exists but our own cogitations,
or, as the sailor jocosely expressed it--"'Tis all in my eye"--and
after these many years we are brought back to the famous expression of
the Boston Transcendentalist, "we should not say _it rains, it snows_,
we should say _I rain, I snow_." This, gentle, patient reader, is no
burlesque, that you have been reading, it is the wisdom of the Concord
Symposium of professors and authors meeting near the end of the 19th
century, and basking in the smiles of _cultured_ Boston! or at least
that portion which is devoted to the Bostonese idea of philosophy, and
thinks the feeblest glimmer of antiquity worth more than the science
of to-day. Such indeed are the sentiments of the President of Boston
University. And as for the wisdom of Concord, the _Open Court_, which
is good authority, says: "Dr. Harris and Prof. Davidson are, without
doubt, the _pillars of the school_; but there is some difference of
opinion as to which is its _indispensable support_." An intelligent
spectator would say that more metaphysical acumen and vigor has been
displayed by DR. EDWARD MONTGOMERY than by all the remainder of those
engaged in the blind hunt for philosophy at Concord.

On the last day of the Symposium, July 28, the report says "The burden
has fallen wholly upon Prof. Harris, and he has borne it so as to
excite the _wonder and admiration_ of his listeners. He _went to the
very bottom of things_ as far as human thought could go, and there, as
he put it, was on solid rock, with no possibility of scepticism. Both
his forenoon and evening lectures were _masterly in their way_."
Exactly so; they were unsurpassed as a reproduction of the style and
manner of the Aristotelian folly which held Europe fast in that
wretched period called the Dark Ages, which preceded the dawn of
intelligence with Galileo.

About one half of the reported lectures on Aristotle is, though
cloudy, intelligible. The remainder is a fair specimen of that
skimmy-dashy style of thought which glances over the surfaces of
things and never reaches their substance or reality, yet boasts of its
unlimited profundity because it does not know the meaning of profound.
Such thinking must necessarily end in falsity and folly, of which the
lecture gives many specimens, which it is worth while to quote, to
show what the devotees of antiquity call philosophy--thus:

    "If we cannot know the ultimate nature of being, then philosophy
    is impossible, for philosophy differs from other kind of knowing
    by seeking a first principle." "The objects of philosophy then
    include those of ontology. They are first the nature of the
    ultimate being of the universe, the first principle, the idea of
    God."

This is not philosophy, but might be called theology, and not
legitimate theology even, but supra-theological--for all sane theology
admits that man cannot know God. It is a desperate, insane suggestion
that we must know the unknowable, and that if we cannot do that we can
have no philosophy. Of course men who think this way know nothing of
philosophy, and are beyond the reach of reason.

Again, "in the nature of the truly independent and true being, it sees
necessary transcendence of space and time, and this is essential
immortality." This is a fair specimen of the skimmy-dashy style.
Immortality is not a "transcendence of space," if that means anything
at all, but a conscious existence without end. Perhaps by
"transcendence of space" he means filling all the space there is, and
going considerably beyond it where there is no space.

His idea of infinity is worthy of Aristotle or Hegel, to whom, in
fact, it belongs--he says, "self-conditioning is the form of the
whole, the form of that _which is its own other_." That something
should be "its own other" is just as clear as that it should be its
own mother or father. Do such expressions represent any ideas, or do
metaphysicians use words as a substitute for ideas--verily they do, in
Hegelian metaphysics, and the same thing is done in asylums for the
insane.

Again, "our knowledge of quantity is a knowledge of what is universal
and necessary, and _hence_ is not derived from experience." If this is
true of the professor, he knew all of mathematics before he opened his
eyes in the cradle. Common mortals know nothing of quantity or
anything else, until they have had a little experience. If we know
everything that is "universal and necessary" without experience, the
little babes must be very wise indeed.

Again, "causal energy is essentially a _self-separation_, for in order
that a cause A. may produce an effect in B. outside of it, cause A.
must detach or separate from itself the influence or energy which
modifies B." What does the earth _detach from itself_ when it causes a
heavy body to fall? In chemical catalysis what does the second body
"detach from itself" to produce change in the first, which is changed
by its mere presence. The assertion is but partially true, applying
only to the transfer of force when one body strikes another. Aristotle
has some thoroughly absurd suggestions on the same subject which
Professor H. did not reproduce.

How does he grapple with the idea of God, which is the essence of his
philosophy? Here it is: "The first principle as pure self-activity,
must necessarily have the permanent form of _knowing of knowing_, for
this root form of self-consciousness is entirely self-related. The
self sees the essential self, the self-activity is the object of
self." We are instructed! God _knows he knows_, and that is the very
essence of his divinity--that is enough. In this profound expression
we have the consummation of philosophy, for the purpose of his
philosophy is to know God, "_Nunc dimittis_," we need to know nothing
more,--_we know we know_, and so we are God's. "This line of thought
brought up at every step some phase of Plato and Aristotle," said the
professor, and we are thankful that he did not resurrect any more of
the puerilities of Athenian ignorance. "Knowing of knowing" is quite
enough, which he repeats to be emphatic. "All true being is in the
form of the infinite or self-related, and related to itself as the
_knowing of knowing_. All beings that are not this perfect form of
self-knowing, either potentially or actually, must be parts of a
system or world order which is produced in some way by true being or
self-knowing. All potential self-knowings contain within themselves
the _power to realize_ their self-knowledge, and are therefore free
beings." This is a broad hint that men are gods and lands us in that
realm of folly of which Mrs. Eddy is the presiding genius. She is much
indebted to the Concord philosophers for lending their respectability
to her labyrinth of self-contradictions.

One quotation more, to give the essence of this Concord philosophy.
"The Divine Being exists for himself as one object. This gives us the
Logos, or the only-begotten. The Logos _knows himself_ as personal
perfection, and also as _generated_, though in an infinite past time.
This is its recognition of its first principle and its unbegotten
'Father.' But whatever it knows in self-consciousness, it creates or
makes to exist," and more of the same sort.

We are overwhelmed with such a flood of wisdom! How the professor
attained so intimate, familiar, and perfect a knowledge of the
infinite power, to which the fathomless depths of starry infinity are
as nothing, is a great mystery. Was it by _Kabbala_ or by
_Thaumaturgy_, or did he follow the sublime instructions of his great
brother Plato, and thrust his head through the revolving dome of the
universe, where the infinite truth is seen in materialized forms.

The "Divine" Plato (of whom Emerson said, "Plato is philosophy, and
philosophy is Plato") described the immortal Gods as driving up in
chariots through the dome of the heavens to _get upon the roof_, and
look abroad at infinite truth, as they stand or drive upon the
revolving dome, followed by _ambitious souls who barely get their
heads through the roof_ with difficulty, and catch a hasty glimpse of
infinite truth, before they tumble back, or lame their wings, or
perhaps drop into the body of some brute. The revolving dome and the
ambitious souls peeping through the roof, would be a good subject for
the next symposium. They might tell us whether these ambitious souls
that peep through the roof are Concordian philosophers, or belong to
the schools of Aquinas and _Duns Scotus_.

The philosophy of the Greeks is worth no more to-day than their
chemistry or their physiology. The lingering superstition of believing
because they had famous warriors, orators, statesmen, historians,
poets, and sculptors, while entirely ignorant of science and
philosophy, that their philosophic puerilities are worthy of adoration
in the 19th century, a superstition which makes a fetish of the
writings of Plato and Aristotle, has been tolerated long enough, and
as no one has attempted to give a critical estimate of this effete
literature since Lord Bacon did something in that way, I shall not
much longer postpone this duty.

       *       *       *       *       *

RECTIFICATION OF CEREBRAL SCIENCE.--In the October number the
rectification of cerebral science as to psychic functions will be
shown by appropriate engravings, showing how far the discoveries and
doctrines of Gall and Spurzheim are sustained by positive science. In
the further development of the subject, hereafter, the true value and
proper position of the discoveries of Ferrier, and the continental
vivisectionists will be explained, though but meagre contributions to
psychology, they furnish very valuable additional information as to
the functions of the brain.



HUMAN LONGEVITY.


Is not longevity in some sense a measure of true civilization or
improvement of the race? It is certainly an evidence of conformity to
the Divine laws of life and health, which reward right action with
happiness, health, and long life. I cannot, therefore, think the study
of longevity unimportant. To every one of us it is a vital question,
for death is regarded as the greatest calamity, and is the severest
penalty of angry enemies, or of outraged laws.

It is our duty as well as privilege to perfect our constitution, and
see that it does not wear out too soon, that we are not prematurely
called away from our duties. And I bring it as serious charge against
modern systems of education, that they tend to degenerate mankind, to
impair the constitution and to shorten life. That we should not submit
to this, but should all aspire to live a century or longer, if we have
a fair opportunity, I seriously maintain, and that my readers may be
inspired with a like determination, I take pleasure in quoting
examples.

In Dr. Cohausen's HERMIPPUS REDIVIVUS republished in 1744, I find the
following statements: "It is very remarkable, that not only the sacred
writers, but all the ancient Chaldean, Egyptian, and Chinese authors
speak of the great ages of such as lived in early times, and this with
such confidence that Xenophon, Pliny, and other judicious persons
receive their testimony without scruple. But to come down to later
times, Attila, King of the Huns, who reigned in the fifth century,
lived to 124, and then died of excess, the first night of his second
nuptials with one of the most beautiful princesses of that age.
Piastus, King of Poland, who from the rank of a peasant was raised to
that of a prince, in the year 824, lived to be 120, and governed his
subjects with such ability to the very last, that his name is still in
the highest veneration amongst his countrymen. Marcus Valerius
Corvinus, a Roman Consul, was celebrated as a true patriot and a most
excellent person in private life, by the elder Cato, and yet Corvinus
was then upwards of a hundred. Hippocrates, the best of physicians
lived to an 104, but Asclepiades, a Persian physician, reached 150.
Galen lived in undisturbed health to 104; Sophocles, the tragic poet,
lived to 130; Democritus, the philosopher, lived to 104; and Euphranor
taught his scholars at upward of 100; and yet what are these to
Epiminedes of Crete, who, according to Theopompus, an unblemished
historian, lived to upwards of 157. I mention these, because, if there
be any truth or security in history, we may rely as firmly on the
facts recorded of them as on any facts whatever. Pliny gives an
account that in the city of Parma, there were two of 130 years of age,
three of 120, at a certain taxation, or rather visitation, and in many
cities of Italy, people much older, particularly at Ariminium, one
Marcus Apponius, who was 150. Vincent Coquelin, a clergyman, died at
Paris in 1664, at 112. Lawrence Hutland, lived in the Orkneys to 170.
James Sands, an Englishman, towards the latter end of the last
century, died at 140, and his wife at 120. In Sweden, it is a common
thing to meet with people above 100, and Rudbekius affirms from bills
of mortality signed by his brother, who was a bishop, that in the
small extent of twelve parishes, there died in the space of
thirty-seven years, 232 men, between 100 and 140 years of age, which
is the more credible, since in the diet assembled by the late Queen of
Sweden, in 1713, the oldest and best speaker among the deputies from
the order of Peasants was considerably above 100. These accounts,
however, are far short of what might be produced from Africa and North
America, that I confine myself to such accounts as are truly
authentic." All of these instances the doctor sustains by reference to
his authorities.

To the foregoing he adds the examples of teachers and persons who
associate with the young, to which he ascribes great value in
promoting longevity. Thus, "Gorgias, the master of Isocrates, and many
other eminent persons, lived to be 108. His scholar, Isocrates, in the
94th year of his age published a book, and survived the publication
four years, in all which time he betrayed not the least failure,
either in memory or in judgment; he died with the reputation of being
the most eloquent man in Greece. Xenophilus, an eminent Pythagorean
philosopher, taught a numerous train of students till he arrived at
the age of 105, and even then enjoyed a very perfect health, and left
this world before his abilities left him. Platerus tells us that his
grandfather, who exercised the office of a preceptor to some young
nobleman, married a woman of thirty when he was in the 100th year of
his age. His son by this marriage did not stay like his father, but
took him a wife when he was twenty; the old man was in full health and
spirits at the wedding, and lived six years afterward. Francis Secordo
Horigi, usually distinguished by the name of Huppazoli, was consul for
the State of Venice in the island of Scio, where he died in the
beginning of 1702, when he was very near 115. He married in Scio when
he was young, and being much addicted to the fair sex, he had in all
five wives, and fifteen or twenty concubines, all of them young,
beautiful women, by whom he had forty-nine sons and daughters, whom he
educated with the utmost tenderness, and was constantly with them, as
much as his business would permit. He was never sick. His sight,
hearing, memory, and activity were amazing. He walked every day about
eight miles; his hair, which was long and graceful, became white by
the time that he was four-score, but turned black at 100, as did his
eyebrows and beard at 112. At 110 he lost all his teeth, but the year
before he died he cut two large ones with great pain. His food was
generally a few spoonfuls of broth, after which he ate some little
thing roasted; his breakfast and supper, bread and fruit; his constant
drink, distilled water, without any addition of wine or other strong
liquor to the very last. He was a man of strict honor, of great
abilities, of a free, pleasant, and sprightly temper, as we are told
by many travellers, who were all struck with the good sense and good
humor of this polite old man."

"In the same country (as Thomas Parr) lived the famous Countess of
Desmond. From deeds, settlements, and other indisputable testimonies
it appeared clearly that she was upwards of 140, according to the
computation of the great Lord Bacon, who knew her personally, and
remarks this particularity about her, that she thrice changed her
teeth."

The stern scepticism of the medical profession and especially among
its leaders has borne so heavily against all cheerful views of life
and longevity, that at the risk of becoming monotonous I again refer
to this subject and present examples of longevity which cannot be
denied, in addition to the list previously given. Medical collegiate
scepticism can deny anything. Ultra sceptics deny centenarian life, as
they also denied the existence of hydrophobia, while those who
admitted its existence denied its curability.

Connecticut alone furnishes a good supply of centenarians. Three years
ago Mr. Frederick Nash, of Westport, Conn, published a pamphlet giving
the old people living in Connecticut, including twenty-three
centenarians, whom he described. The names of twelve of these were as
follows:

  Edmund R. Kidder, of Berlin, Aug. 17, 1784.
  Jeremiah Austin, Coventry, Feb. 10, 1783.
  Mrs. Lucy Luther, Hadlyme, Jan. 6, 1784.
  Walter Pease, Enfield, March 29, 1784.
  Egbert Cowles, Farmington, April 4, 1785.
  Mrs. Eunice Hollister, Glastonbury, Aug. 9, 1784.
  Mrs. Elsie Chittenden, Guilford, April 24, 1784.
  Miss Eunice Saxton, Colchester, Sept. 6, 1784.
  Marvin Smith, Montville, Nov. 18, 1784.
  Mrs. Phebe Briggs, Sherman, Nov. 16, 1784.
  Mrs. Elizabeth Buck, Wethersfield, Jan. 10, 1784.
  Mrs. Clarissa D. Raymond, Milton, April 22, 1782.

The others are either of foreign birth or former slaves, whose precise
ages cannot be established.

In addition to this list the newspapers gave us Mrs. Abigail Ford of
Washington, born in 1780, Mr. Darby Green of Reading, born in 1779,
Tryphena Jackson, colored, born in 1782, and Wm. Hamilton, Irish, also
in 1782; and an old sailor in New Haven town house claims to have been
born in 1778.

The very careful investigation of Connecticut by Mr. Nash shows that
"the duration of human life in this State is greater than it was a
generation ago. Then only one person in 500 lived to see 80 years. Now
one per cent of the population live to that age. The average age of
6,223 persons is 83 years. The number of ages ranging from 84 to 89
years is large, and those who are 90 and over number 651; nine are 99,
thirteen are 98, and eleven are 97. No age of less than 80 years has
been recorded.

"It may be pleasing to our grandmothers to know that in this list of
more than 6,000, more than 4,000 are women, and that only eight of the
twenty centenarians are men. The list adds strength to what has
already been held as true, that married people always live longer than
single, and it also shows that two spinsters have begun their second
century. They are accompanied on the list by two sturdy bachelors."

In a sketch of centenarians published in November, 1884, are given the
names of Nathaniel H. Cole of Greenwich, R. I., born in 1783, Royal C.
Jameson, Papakating, N. J., born in 1784, Wm. Jovel of New Jersey, and
Luther Catlin of Bridgewater, Pa., born in 1784. The last three took
an active part in the last presidential election.

In Maine were reported Mrs. Sally Powers, Augusta, believed to be born
in 1778, Mrs. Thankful Donnel of West Bath, 101, Mrs. Betsy Moody,
102, Mrs. Philip Pervear of Sedgwick, 105, Jotham Johnson of Durham,
100, Mrs. Small of Bowdoinham, 100. If alive to-day, they are three
years older.

In Vermont, from 1881 to 1884, sixteen centenarians died; and in the
last census of the United States there were 322.

In looking over my records I find so many other examples of
centenarian life that I shall not weary the reader by their
repetition, but examples running for over a century may be worth
mentioning. Madame Lacene, one of the most brilliant women of France,
died a few years ago at Lyons in her 104th year. Her will was under
contest on account of her extreme age, but the court was fully
satisfied of her intellectual competence. In the olden time she had
often entertained Mme. de Stael, Mme. Recamier, and Benj. Constant.

The oldest person in France, perhaps in the world, is said to be a
woman who lives in the village of Auberive, in Royans. She was born
March 16, 1761, and is therefore 125 years old. The authentic record
of her birth is to be found in the parish register of St. Just de
Claix, in the department of the Isere.--_Scientific American._

"Among the professors at German universities there were no fewer than
157 between the ages of seventy and ninety, of whom 122 still deliver
lectures, seven of these being between eighty-five and eighty-nine
years of age. The oldest, Von Ranke, was in active service in his 90th
year. Elennich, of Breslau, only thirty-nine days younger, still shows
energy in anything he puts his hands to."

Mrs. Henry Alphonse of Concord, Mo., over 105, retained her memory and
eyesight without glasses till after 104. Mr. Charles Crowley died at
Suncook, N. H. over 104. Frank Bogkin, a colored man of Montgomery,
Ala., was believed to be 115 at his death recently. When he was about
60 years old, he earned money and purchased his freedom. Tony Morgan,
a blind negro, was recently living at Mobile, 105 years old. Pompey
Graham of Montgomery, N. Y., lately died at 119, and retained his
faculties. Phebe Jenkins of Beaufort County, South Carolina, was
believed to be 120 years old when she died about a year ago. Mrs.
Louisa Elgin of Seymour, Indiana, whose mother lived to be 115, was
recently living at 105.

"Jennie White, a colored woman, died in St. Joseph, Mo., Monday last,
aged 122 years. She was born in the eastern part of Georgia, and when
twenty years of age was taken to Tennessee, where she remained for
ninety-six years. She had lived in St. Joseph about ten years. She was
a cook for Captain Waterfall, of George Washington's staff, during the
war of the Revolution. She remembered the death of Washington well,
and used to tell a number of interesting stories about early times.
She died in full possession of all her mental faculties, but was a
cripple and helpless."

MALES AND FEMALES.--In the first number of the JOURNAL it was stated
that although women were from two to six per cent more numerous in
population, more males were born by four to sixteen per cent. This was
a typographical error; it should have been from four to six per cent,
generally four. The greatest excess of males is in illegitimate
births. The reversal of proportions in the progress of life shows that
the male mortality is much greater than the female. Hence the more
tranquil habits and greater predominance of the moral nature in women
increases their longevity, while the greater indulgence of the
passions and appetites, the greater muscular and intellectual force
among men, are hostile to longevity. Hence the establishment of a true
religion, or the application of the "New Education," will greatly
increase longevity. It will also be increased by greater care of
health in manufacturing establishments, and by diminishing the hours
of labor; for exhausting physical labor not only shortens life but
predisposes to intemperance. The injurious effect of excessive toil is
shown in the shorter lives of the poor, and is enforced by Finlaison's
"Report on Friendly Societies to the British Parliament," which says
(p. 211) "The practicable difference in the distribution of sickness
seems to turn upon the amount of the _expenditure of physical force_.
This is no new thing, for in all ages the enervation and decrepitude
of the bodily frame has been observed to follow a prodigal waste of
the mental or corporeal energies. But it has been nowhere previously
established upon recorded experience that the quantum of sickness
annually falling to the lot of man is in a direct proportion to the
demands upon his muscular power. So it would seem, however."

Philanthropists should therefore unite in limiting the hours of daily
labor to ten or less. But more quiet pursuits have greater endurance;
women keeping house have no ten hour limit, and the editor of the
JOURNAL generally gives more than twelve hours a day to his daily
labor.

A NEGRO 135 YEARS OLD.--The St. Louis _Globe Democrat_ says: James
James, a negro, and citizen of the United States, who resides at Santa
Rosa, Mexico, is probably the oldest man on earth. He was born near
Dorchester, S. C., in 1752, and while an infant was removed to Medway
River, Ga., in the same year that Franklin brought down electricity
from the thunder clouds. In 1772 there was quite an immigration into
South Carolina, and his master, James James (from whom he takes his
name), moved near Charleston, S. C., in company with a number of his
neighbors. On June 4, 1776, when 24 years of age, a large British
fleet, under Sir Peter Parker, arrived off Charleston. The citizens
had erected a palmetto-wood fort on Sullivan's Island, with twenty-six
guns, manned by 500 troops under Col. Moultrie, and on June 28 the
British made an attack by land and water, and were compelled to
withdraw after a ten-hours' conflict. It was during this fight that
Sergeant Jasper distinguished himself by replacing the flag, which had
been shot away upon the bastion on a new staff. His master, James
James, manned one of the guns in this fight, and Jim, the subject of
this sketch, with four other slaves, were employed around the fort as
general laborers. Jim followed his master throughout the war, and was
with Gen. Moultrie at Port Royal, S. C., Feb. 3, 1779, when Moultrie
defeated the combined British forces of Prevost and Campbell. His
master was surrendered by Gen. Lincoln at Charleston, S. C., on Feb.
12, 1780, to the British forces, and this ends Jim's military career.

He remembers of the rejoicing in 1792 throughout the country in
consequence of Washington's election to the Presidency, he then being
40 years of age. In this year his first master died, aged about 60
years. Jim then became the property of "Marse Henry" (Henry James),
owning large estates and about thirty slaves near Charleston. On
account of having raised "Marse Henry," Jim was a special favorite
with his master, and was allowed to do as he chose. His second master,
Henry, died in 1815, about 55 years of age, and Jim, now at 63 years
of age, became the property of James James, Henry's second son. In
1833 the railroad from Charleston to Savannah was completed, then the
longest railroad in the world, and Jim, with his master, took a trip
over the road, and was shown special favors on account of his age, now
81. James James was ten years of age at his father's death, and when
he became of age he inherited large estates, slaves, etc., among whom
were "old Uncle Jim" and his family. James James in 1855 moved to
Texas with all his slaves. He desired that his slaves should be free
at his death, and in 1858 moved into Mexico, so that they could be
free before his death. James returned to the United States and died in
Texas, and in 1865, after there were no longer slaves in the United
States, Uncle Jim's children and grandchildren returned to the United
States. Five years ago, at the age of 130, Jim could do light chores,
but subsisted mostly by contributions from the citizens, but for the
past two years, not being able to walk, he remains for the most part
in his little jacal, his wants being supplied by generous neighbors.
The rheumatism in his legs prevents him from walking.

So many cases of great longevity have recently been announced, that
their detailed publication would be tedious. The New York _Sun_ says:
"A town in Cuba prides itself upon being the home of eleven women,
each of whom is over 100 years of age." According to the census of
Germany, December, 1875, there were 160 persons over 100 years of age,
of whom there was one woman of 115 years, and another of 117, one man
of 118, and another of 120. Our own country has a better record of
longevity than this.

Let us rest content with the fact that the world has many
centenarians, and that we too are free to live a hundred years, if our
ancestors have done their duty in transmitting a good constitution,
and we have done our duty in preserving it.



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.


AN IMPORTANT DISCOVERY.--In the New Education I have endeavored to
show that there are qualities of the atmosphere which science has not
yet recognized, which are of the highest importance to human health,
and that an atmosphere may have vitalizing or devitalizing qualities
with apparently the same chemical composition, because some vitalizing
element has been added or subtracted.

This vitalizing element, though analogous to electricity, is not
identical with it. We find it absent in a room that has been recently
plastered, and is not quite dry. Sleeping in such a room is positively
dangerous. We find the same negative depressing condition wherever
evaporation has been going on in the absence of sunlight, which
appears to supply the needful element.

As evaporation carries off this vitalizing element, precipitation or
condensation seems to supply it, especially precipitation from the
upper regions of the atmosphere to which it is carried by evaporation,
and to which it is supplied by sunshine. Hence we experience a
delightful freshness of the atmosphere after a summer shower, or on a
frosty morning, when the moisture is not only precipitated, but
condensed into frost. Frost gives off more of the exhilarating element
of watery vapor than dew, because it is a step farther in
condensation. Hence there is a healthful, bracing influence in cold
climates, where all the moisture is firmly frozen, and a very
unpleasant, depressing influence when a thaw begins. The vicinity of
melting snow, or a melting iceberg, is unpleasant and promotive of
catarrh and pulmonary diseases.

The pleasant influence of the fresh shower ceases when the fallen
moisture begins to evaporate, and the dewy freshness of the early morn
before sunrise ceases as the dew evaporates. The most painfully
depressing atmosphere is that which sometimes comes in cold weather
from Northern regions which have long been deprived of sunshine.

This element of health, which physiologists have neglected to
investigate, has recently been sought by Dr. B. W. Richardson of
England. The Popular Science News (of Boston) says:--

    "Dr. B. W. Richardson of England, in making some investigations
    upon the physiological effects of breathing pure oxygen by
    various animals, has discovered, that, by simply passing the gas
    a few times through the lungs, it becomes "devitalized," or
    incapable of supporting life, although its chemical composition
    remains the same, and all carbonic dioxide and other impurities
    are removed. He also found, that, by passing electric sparks
    through the gas, it became "revitalized," and regained its usual
    stimulating effect upon the animal economy. The devitalized
    oxygen would still support life in cold-blooded animals, and
    combustible bodies would burn in it as brilliantly as ever. Dr.
    Richardson considers that, while the gas is in contact with the
    tissues or blood of a warm-blooded animal, some quality
    essential to its life-supporting power is lost. The subject is
    an interesting and important one, and deserves a more thorough
    investigation."


JENNIE COLLINS has passed on to her reward above. It would be wrong to
neglect mentioning the remarkable career of this devoted woman, who
for thirty-five years has been the guardian angel of the poor and
struggling women of Boston. Rising from friendless poverty, she became
widely known as a champion of human rights, and woman's rights, and,
finally, as the founder and indefatigable sustainer of that benevolent
institution widely known as Boffin's bower. Her literary powers were
finely displayed in a little volume entitled "Nature's Aristocracy,"
and her mental vigor was shown in many public addresses. Jennie
Collins was a noble illustration of the best form of Spiritualism. She
was accompanied, inspired, and sustained by spirit influence, but did
not deem it expedient to let this fact be generally known. The world
is not yet enlightened.


GREEK PHILOSOPHY.--The essential pedantic stupidity of Aristotle's
logic, and its power to belittle and benumb the intelligence of its
reverential students has been shown in every college where this effete
study is kept up. We have no better illustration of late than its
effect on Prof. Harris, who is a very intelligent and useful citizen,
but who has been so befogged by such studies as to suppose that his
pedantic talk about syllogisms embodies an important contribution to
philosophy, and indeed it was announced as such by his reporter. The
superstitious reverence for Greek literature is impressed on all young
collegians, and few recover from it. Sir William Hamilton and R. W.
Emerson, who were much more intellectual and brilliant than Prof.
Harris, were as badly afflicted as he with this Greek superstition,
which has been implanted in school boys so young that it dominates
their whole lives with the energy of a prenatal condition. The only
very silly things ever written by the brilliant Emerson were those
passages in which he speaks of Plato; and the silliest thing in the
life of Hamilton is the way in which he exulted over some trivial
modification of Aristotle's syllogistic ideas, which was about as
trivial as that of Prof. Harris, and allowed himself to be publicly
flattered by one of his students in the most fulsome manner for the
wonderful profundity of his wisdom, that could even add something to
the divine wisdom of Aristotle.

To tell a Greek idolater that the divine Plato thought it a great
MYSTERY that one and one should make two, that he declared it to be
incomprehensible to him, and thought the only possible solution of the
mystery to be, that two is produced "by _participation in duality_,"
would surprise him; but he would be still more surprised to learn that
this is only a specimen brick of Plato's divine philosophy, as it
abounds in similar puerilities. I have long since reviewed this effete
philosophy of an ignorant age, and shown its true character, but my
work has never been offered to a bookseller. Yet it shall not be
suppressed. The destruction of stultifying superstitions is as
necessary in education and literature as in religion. The ponderous
blows of Lord Bacon upon this Greek superstition of the literary
classes did not prove fatal, for the same reason that animal organisms
of a low, cold-blooded, grade are hard to kill,--they must be cut up
in fragments before their death becomes complete; superstitions and
beliefs that have no element of intelligent reason, and are
perpetuated by social influence, authority, and domination over the
young become a blind force that resists all influence from reason.

If my readers are interested in the destruction of venerable and
powerful falsehoods that stand in the way of every form of progress, I
may be tempted to publish a cheap edition of my work on Greek
Philosophy and Logic. It is not in the least presumptuous to lay hands
upon this venerable illusion, and show that it has not even the
vitality of a ghost. It is but a simulacrum or mirage, and it is but
necessary to approach it fearlessly, and walk through it, to discover
its essential nonentity.


SYMPOSIUMS deserves a good report. One of the philosophers, whose
doctrines were poetically paraphrased in the report of the scientific
responses upon human immortality, writes that he enjoyed the poetical
paraphrase very much, and never laughed over anything so heartily. It
would be pleasant to hear the real sentiments of the remainder. It
would be equally interesting to hear how Prof. Harris and the other
Concordians enjoy the little sketch of their symposium.


LITERATURE OF THE PAST.--"In an article on the 'Archetypal Literature
for the Future,' by Dr. J. R. Buchanan, which appears in the JOURNAL
OF MAN for March, the writer foreshadows a time to which the American
mind is fast advancing when the literature of the past will take its
place amongst the mouldering mass which interests the antiquarian, but
has no positive influence in guiding the thoughts and actions of the
passing generation. There are some indications of a movement in that
direction in other countries, though the vast majority, including many
Spiritualists and Theosophists, still explore the records of past
ages, looking for the light which is shining all about them in the
present, unrealized."--_Harbinger of Light_, Australia.


THE CONCORD SCHOOL.--We are glad that the Concord School is over, and
we should think that the people that have been there would be glad to
get home and take part in the things which interest average folks. If
people like that sort of thing and can afford it, there is no reason
why they should not go there and stay. But to the average man the
whole thing looks about as near time wasted as anything which even
Boston furnishes to the "uncultured" world outside.--_Boston Record._


NEW BOOKS.--"THE HIDDEN WAY across the threshold, or the mystery which
hath been hidden for ages and from generations,--an explanation of the
concealed forces in every man to open the temple of the soul and to
have the guidance of the unseen hand.--By J. C. Street, A. B. N.,
Fellow of S. S. S., and of the Brotherhood Z. Z. R. R. Z. Z." Lee &
Shepard, publishers, Boston ($3.50). This is a very handsome volume of
nearly 600 pages, which I have not had time to examine. It appears to
be chiefly a compilation with quotation marks omitted, written in the
smooth and pleasing style common in spiritual literature, without any
attempt at scientific analysis or criticism. Sharp critics condemn it,
but it suits the popular taste and inculcates good moral lessons. I
shall examine it hereafter.


"SOLAR BIOLOGY--a scientific method of delineating character,
diagnosing disease, determining mental, physical, and business
qualifications, conjugal adaptability, etc., etc., from the date of
birth.--By HIRAM E. BUTLER, with illustrations." Boston, Esoteric
Publishing Company, 478 Shawmut Avenue ($5.00). This is a handsome
volume, which, from a hasty examination, appears to be a large
fragment of Astrology, containing its simplest portion, requiring no
abstruse calculations, and hence adapted to popular circulation. It is
meeting with some success, but those who feel much interest in
astrology prefer to take in the whole science, which has a much larger
number of votaries than is commonly supposed.


DR. FRANZ HARTMANN, of Germany, has published some interesting volumes
recently, on "Paracelsus," "White and Black Magic," and "Among the
Rosicrucians," which I have had no time to examine. A valuable essay
from Dr. Hartmann is on file for publication in the JOURNAL, in which
he compares the doctrines of the occult philosophy with those
presented in the JOURNAL OF MAN.


PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY.--FORTY NEW SUBSTANCES.--"During the decade
ending with 1886 over forty discoveries of new elementary substances
were announced, while the entire number previously known was less than
seventy. No less than nine were detected by Crookes last year. The
list is likely to be lengthened quite as materially in the current
twelvemonth, as A. Pringle already claims to have found six new
elements in some silurian rocks in Scotland. Five of these are said to
be metals, and the other is a substance resembling selenium, which the
discoverer calls hesperisium. One metal is like iron, but does not
give some of its reactions; another resembles lead, is quite fusible
and volatile, and forms yellow and green salts; another, named
erebodium, is black; the fourth is a light-gray powder, and the last
is dark in color."


ASTRONOMY.--"The absolute dimensions of a globular star cluster have
been studied by Mr. J. E. Gore of the Liverpool Astronomical Society.
These clusters consist of thousands of minute stars, possibly moving
about a common center of gravity. One of the most remarkable of these
objects is 13 Messier, which Proctor thinks is about equal to a first
magnitude star. Yet Herschel estimated that it is made up of fourteen
thousand stars. The average diameter of each of these components must
be forty-five thousand two hundred and ninety-eight miles, and each
star in this wonderful group may be separated from the next by a
distance of nine thousand million miles."

"According to the computations of M. Hermite, a French astronomer, the
total number of stars visible to the naked eye of an observer of
average visual power does not exceed 6000. The northern hemisphere
contains 2478, and the southern hemisphere contains 3307 stars. In
order to see this number of stars, the night must be moonless, the sky
cloudless, and the atmosphere pure. The power of the naked eye is here
stayed. By the aid of an opera glass 20,000 can be seen, and with a
small telescope 150,000, while the most powerful telescopes will
reveal more than 100,000,000 stars."

"M. Ligner, an Austrian meteorologist, claims to have ascertained
after careful investigation that the moon has an influence on a
magnetized needle, varying with its phases and its declination. The
phenomenon is said to be more prominently noticeable when the moon is
near the earth, and to be very marked when she is passing from the
full to her first or second quarter. The disturbances are found to be
in their maximum when the moon is in the plane of the equator, and
greater during the southern than it is during the northern
declination."


GEOLOGY ILLUSTRATED.--I have often thought that when coal mines are
exhausted and land is too valuable to be devoted to raising timber, it
may become necessary to draw on the subterranean heat of the earth.
This idea is already verified in Hungary.

Late advices say: "The earth's internal heat is now being used in a
practical way at Pesth, where the deepest artesian well in the world
is being sunk to supply hot water for public baths and other purposes.
A depth of 3120 feet has already been reached, and the well supplies
daily 176,000 gallons of water, heated to °150 Fahr."


A MATHEMATICAL PRODIGY.--Reub Fields, living a few miles south of
Higginsville, Mo., though he has no education whatever, and does not
know a single figure or a letter of the alphabet, is a mathematical
wonder. Though he never carries a watch, he can tell the time to a
minute. When asked on what day of the week the 23d of November, 1861
came, he answered, "Saturday." When asked, "From here to Louisiana,
Mo. it is 159 miles; how many revolutions does the driving wheel of an
engine fifteen feet in circumference make in a run from this place to
Louisiana?" he replied, "55938 revolutions." Reub was born in
Kentucky, and claims that this power was given to him from heaven when
he was eight years old, and that the Lord made but one Samson, one
Solomon, and one Reub Fields, for strength, wisdom, and mathematics.


ASTROLOGY IN ENGLAND.--Mrs. L. C. Moulton, correspondent of the
_Boston Herald_, writes: "In old times a court astrologer used to be
kept, as well as a court jester; but I confess I was not aware, until
last night, that the astrologer of to-day might be as important to
one's movements as one's doctor or one's lawyer. One of the cleverest
and busiest literary men in all London said to me last night that he
thought the neglect of astrological counsel a great mistake. 'I have
looked into the subject rather deeply,' he said, 'and the more I
search, the more convincing proof I find of the influence of the stars
upon our lives; and now I never begin a new book, or take a journey,
or, in short, do anything of any importance without consulting my
astrologer.' And then he went on to tell me the year in which the
cholera devastated Naples he had thought of going there. Happily, he
consulted his astrologer and was warned against it. In accordance with
the astrologer's advice, he gave up the journey; and just about the
time he would otherwise have gone, news came of the cholera
visitation. Last year he was warned against a certain journey--told
that if he took it he would be ill. For once he defied the stars, and,
in consequence, he was taken seriously ill with the very symptoms the
astrologer had predicted. But, alas, his astrologer is fat and
old--and what shipwreck may not my friend make of his life when the
stars have reclaimed their prophet, and the poor fellow has to
struggle on uncounselled!"


PRIMOGENITURE ABOLISHED.--"By a majority of eleven the House of Lords
has abolished primogeniture in cases of intestacy. Thus, unless it is
formally specified by will, property will henceforth be divided
equally among heirs, as in this country. No longer will the eldest
son, by the mere fact of the death of his father, come into possession
of the estate to the exclusion of his brothers and sisters. Of course,
entailed estates will not be affected, and property can be transmitted
by will at the testator's pleasure, but the notable point is that
primogeniture cannot henceforth be looked upon as an institution so
characteristic and time-honored that departure from it would be a
really questionable proceeding."


MEDICAL INTOLERANCE AND CUNNING.--The proscriptive medical law of Iowa
does not seem to be very effective, as it is believed to be
unconstitutional, and its friends have been challenged to make test
cases, but have not yet begun to enforce it. In Illinois they have a
law that is imperative enough against practitioners without diplomas;
but as this did not reach those who used no medicines, they have
succeeded in procuring a law to reach them also by a new definition of
"practicing medicine," which the new statute says shall include all
"who shall treat, operate on, or prescribe for any physical ailment of
another." This would seem sufficient to protect the M. D.'s against
all competition, but there is some doubt whether such legislation can
be enforced, as it is certainly a corrupt and selfish measure that was
never desired by the people. The _Religio Philosophical Journal_
speaks out manfully, and "advises all reputable healers of whatever
school, to possess their souls in peace, and go steadily forward in
their vocation, fearing neither Dr. Rauch nor the unconstitutional
provisions of the statutes, under which he and his confederates seek
to abridge and restrict the rights of the people. If any reputable
practitioner of the healing art, who treats without drugs, is molested
in his or her practice, let them invite prosecution, and communicate
with the _Religio Philosophical Journal_ for further advice and
assistance." I regret to say there is a strong probability that the
friends of medical freedom in Massachusetts will be again called upon
to resist attempts to procure medical legislation.


NEGRO TURNING WHITE.--A colored man named Antone Metoyer has been
employed at the railroad works in this city (Sacramento) for some
time, and his steadiness and industry have caused him to be esteemed
by those acquainted with him. Seven or eight months ago his skin was
black, but it commenced to turn white, and now his body, arms, legs
and neck are as white as those of any Caucasian. The original color is
now only upon his face, extending back of the ears, just beneath the
chin, and across the upper portion of the forehead, making him appear
to be wearing a close-fitting black or dark brown mask. On the chin
and nose the dark color is beginning to wear away, and he thinks in a
few weeks he will be perfectly white. His hair and whiskers are black
and curly. Medical men have taken much interest in his case, and
attribute the change in complexion to the effect upon his system of
working constantly with potash and other material used in washing
greasy waste. He has been advised that it may be dangerous for him to
continue under this influence, but he declares that he will stay until
the process he is undergoing is completed, if it kills him.--_Record
Union_.


THE CURE OF HYDROPHOBIA.--"The English committee appointed by the
local government board in April, 1886, to inquire into Pasteur's
inoculation method for rabies, report that it may be deemed certain
that M. Pasteur has discovered a method of protection from rabies
comparable with that which vaccination affords against infection from
smallpox." As many think there is no protection at all, the question
is not finally settled. It is only the stubborn ignorance of the
medical profession which gives to Pasteur's experiments their great
celebrity and importance. Other methods have been far more successful
than Pasteur's. Xanthium, Scutellaria (Skull-cap), the vapor bath, and
chloroform or nitrous oxide are more powerful and reliable than any
morbid inoculation.


JOHN SWINTON'S paper, at New York, has come to an end. Swinton was a
bold, eloquent, and fearless advocate of human rights as he understood
them. His failure is an honor to him, and his name will be remembered.
Perhaps if he had imitated the Boston dailies, by giving ten to
eighteen columns to the record of base ball games, he might have put
money in his purse, instead of losing it.

In marked contrast to John Swinton's failure, observe the success of
the _New York Tribune_, a newspaper founded by Horace Greeley, but
which, since his death, has given, in its unscrupulous course, a good
illustration of the Satanic press. The _Boston Herald_ says: "The _New
York Tribune_ is perhaps as good an illustration of the old-fashioned
partisan journal as there is in the country. There was an amusing
reminiscence of the methods that used to be practised when the
_Tribune_ was found claiming the Legislature of Kentucky as having
been carried by the Republicans in the late elections. The fact was
that the Democratic majority in that body was about five to one, and
there was really no excuse in a metropolitan journal for not knowing
such to be the case." The _Tribune_ once complimented highly the
JOURNAL OF MAN, but that was when Horace Greeley was alive.


WOMEN'S RIGHTS AND PROGRESS.--The last legislature of Pennsylvania
passed a very radical law, providing that marriage shall not impose
any disability as to the acquisition or management of any kind of
property, making any contracts, or engaging in any business. However,
she is not authorized to mortgage her real estate without her
husband's co-operation, nor become endorser for another alone. As to
making a will she has the same rights as a man.

Ohio has also advanced woman's rights by enabling both husband and
wife to dispose of property as if unmarried, and by giving each party
one-third life interest in the other's real estate.

In Kansas, women can vote in city and town affairs, and hold municipal
and town offices. In one town they have a female mayor. The supreme
court of Kansas has decided that when a woman marries she need not
take her husband's name unless she chooses.


CO-EDUCATION is successful, nearly every prominent college is
beginning to admit women, and they often carry off the prizes from the
men. Exclusive masculine colleges will soon rank among the barbarisms
of the past.

Female education is advancing in Russia. The universities had 779
female students in 1886, 437 of whom were daughters of noblemen and
official personages. On the other hand the Prussian Minister of
Education refuses to admit women as regular students at any university
or medical school.

Several Italian ladies have distinguished themselves in legal
knowledge, and the propriety of their admission to the bar is
extensively discussed. About nine-tenths of the newspapers favor their
admission.

The practical question, which is most important to the welfare of
women, is profitable employment. Miss Simcox says that there are about
three millions of women in England engaged in industrial employments,
while a large proportion of them, especially in London, have such poor
wages as to produce continual suffering. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION, alike
for boys and girls, is the true remedy, worth more than all the
nostrums of politicians and demagogues.


SPIRIT WRITING.--Our handsome young friend, Dr. D. J. Stansbury, a
graduate of the Eclectic Medical College of New York, is giving
astonishing demonstrations on the Pacific coast. When a pair of closed
slates is brought, he barely touches them, and the spirit writing
begins. Sometimes the slates are held on the head or shoulders of the
visitor. At one of his seances at Oakland, it is said that he held the
slates for thirty-five persons within two hours, and obtained for each
a slate full of writing in answers to questions placed between the
slates. At a public seance in Santa Cruz, following a lecture, folded
ballots were sent up by the audience and the answers were sometimes
written on closed slates and sometimes by the doctor's hands. Dr. S.
has also succeeded in repeating the famous performance of Charles
Foster--the names of spirits appearing on his arm in blood-red
letters.


PROGRESS OF THE MARVELLOUS.--The _Boston Herald_ of Aug. 7 has a long
account of the marvellous fires which occur in the house at Woodstock,
New Brunswick, of Mr. Reginald C. Hoyt. The people of the town are
greatly excited about it, and great crowds gather to witness it, but
no one can explain it. The fires break out with no possible cause in
the clothes, the carpet, the curtains, bed quilts, or other objects,
as much as forty times in a day. The family are greatly worried and
alarmed, and have been driven out of the house. The _Herald_ reporter
went to examine, but found it an entire mystery.

A similar outbreak of fires has been reported in Pennsylvania, at the
house of Thomas McKee, a farmer at Turtle Creek. For some weeks the
invisible powers have been throwing things about in a topsy turvey
way. Since that, flames break out suddenly in the presence of the
family, and round holes are burned in the bed-clothes, towels, hats,
dresses, and even packages of groceries in the pantry.



PRACTICAL UTILITY OF ANTHROPOLOGY.

(_Continued from page 32._)


There is no great reform, no elevation of humanity without
understanding MAN,--the laws of his culture, the possibilities within
his reach, the extent of the short-comings which exist to-day, the
very numerous agencies of brain-building and soul-culture, the wiser
methods of the school, the magnetic influences which are sometimes all
potent, the dietary, the exercises of body and voice, the power of
music and disciplined example, the lofty outreachings for a higher
life to which we are introduced by psychometry, the supernal and
divine influences which may be brought to bear, and many nameless
things which help to make the aggregate omnipotent over young life,
but which, alas, are unknown in colleges to-day, and will continue
unknown until Anthropology shall have taken its place as the guide of
humanity.

       *       *       *       *       *

P.S.--The doctrine so firmly maintained in this chapter that men are
incompetent to judge themselves, and need a scientific monitor of
unquestionable authority, has long been recognized. The Catholic
confessional is a recognition and application of the principles of
great value. But the confessional of the narrow-minded and miseducated
priest should be superseded by the confessional and the admonition of
Anthropology.

Sterne, in his Tristam Shandy, says, "Whenever a man's conscience does
accuse him (as it seldom errs on that side), he is guilty, and unless
he is melancholy and hypochondriac, there is always sufficient ground
for the accusation. But the converse of the proposition will not hold
true," that if it does not accuse, the man is innocent.

"Thus conscience, placed on high as a judge within us, and intended by
our Maker as a just and equitable one too, takes often such imperfect
cognizance of what passes, does its office so negligently, often so
corruptly, that it is not to be trusted alone, and, therefore, we find
there is a necessity, an absolute necessity, of joining another
principle with it."

That "other principle" demanded by Sterne has never been found, until,
in the revelation of the functions of soul and brain, we have found
the absolute standard of character, and in Cranioscopy and Psychometry
the perfect method of applying the principle to each individual.

An amusing illustration occurred lately in England, which was
published as follows:--

    "When the address to the queen at the opening of the English
    royal courts was under consideration by the judges, one very
    eminent judge of appeal objected to the phrase 'conscious as we
    are of our shortcomings.' 'I am not conscious of shortcomings,'
    he said, 'and if I were I should not be so foolish as to say
    so;' whereupon a learned lord justice blandly observed, 'Suppose
    we say, "conscious as we are of each other's shortcomings."'"



CHAPTER VIII--THE ORIGIN AND FOUNDATION OF THE NEW ANTHROPOLOGY

    Difficulties of imperfect knowledge in my first studies--First
    investigation of Phrenology--Errors detected and corrected--The
    PATHOGNOMIC SYSTEM organized--A brilliant discovery and its
    results--Discovery of the sense of feeling and development of
    Psychometry--Its vast importance and numerous applications--The
    first experiments on the brain and the publication of
    Anthropology--The discovery of Sarcognomy and its practical
    value--Reception of the new Sciences--Honorable action of the
    venerable Caldwell.


The very brief exposition of the structure and functions of the brain
already given, may serve as an introduction to the subject and prepare
the reader to appreciate the laborious investigations of many years,
by means of which so comprehensive a science was brought into
existence amid the hostile influences of established opinions and
established ignorance.

It is necessary now to present this statement to enable the reader to
realize more fully the positive character of the science.

My life has been devoted to the study of man, his destiny and his
happiness. Uncontrolled in education, I learned to endure no mental
restraint, and, thrown upon my own resources in boyhood, difficulties
but strengthened the passion for philosophical knowledge. Yet more
formidable difficulties were found in the limited condition of human
science, alike in libraries and colleges.

Anthropology, my favorite study, had no systematic development, and
the very word was unfamiliar, because there was really nothing to
which it could justly be applied. Its elementary sciences were in an
undeveloped state, and some of them not yet in existence. Mental
philosophy was very limited in its scope, and had little or nothing of
a practical and scientific nature. The soul was not recognised as a
subject for science. The body was studied apart from the soul, and the
brain, the home of the soul, was enveloped in mystery--so as to leave
even physiological science shrouded in darkness, as the central and
controlling organ of life was considered an inaccessible mystery. In
studying medicine, it seemed that I wandered through a wilderness
without a compass and with no cardinal points.

Phrenology promised much, and I examined it cautiously. It struck me
at first as an unsatisfactory system of mental philosophy, and I
stated my objections before its most celebrated and venerable
champion, in public, who assured me that I would be satisfied by
further investigation. As it seemed a very interesting department of
natural science, I began by comparing the heads of my acquaintances
with the phrenological map, and discovering so many striking
coincidences that I was gradually satisfied as to its substantial
truth, and I do not believe that any one has ever thus tested the
discoveries of Gall and Spurzheim, without perceiving their _general_
correctness, while many, with less critical observation, have accepted
them as absolutely true.

My interest increased with the extent of my observations, until, for
several years, I abandoned practical medicine for the exclusive study
of the science of the brain in the great volume of nature, with the
doctrines of Gall as the basis of the investigation. As it was my
purpose to seek the deficiencies as well as the merits of the new
science, I tested its accuracy by the careful examination of living
heads and skulls in comparison with ascertained character, and with
the anatomy of the brain, not forgetting the self-evident principles
of mental philosophy. Many thousand critical examinations were made
between the years 1834 and 1841, leading to many positive conclusions.
The first year's observations made me distinctly aware and certain of
several defects in the doctrines, as to the functions ascribed to
certain localities of the brain to which were ascribed, Mirthfulness,
Acquisitiveness, Adhesiveness, Constructiveness, Tune, Ideality,
Combativeness, Destructiveness, and Cautiousness. The functions of
these localities were evidently misunderstood, and the faculties
erroneously located.

The external senses were omitted from the catalogue of cerebral
organs, though evidently entitled to recognition, and the
physiological powers of the brain, the prime mover and most important
part of the constitution, were almost totally ignored.

Following the old route of exploration by cranioscopy, I sought to
supply these defects. I found the supposed Mirthfulness to be a
planning and reasoning organ, and the true Mirthfulness to be located
more interiorly. Acquisitiveness was evidently located farther back.
The so-called organ of Adhesiveness appeared to be incapable of
manifesting true friendship, and its absence was frequently
accompanied by strong capacities for friendship, of a disinterested
character. Constructiveness appeared to be located too low, and too
far back, running into the middle lobe, which is not the place for
intellect. Tune did not appear to correspond regularly to musical
talent. Many of the higher functions ascribed to Ideality were
conspicuous in heads which had that organ small, with a large
development just above it. Combativeness had evidently less influence
upon physical courage than was supposed, for it was sometimes well
developed in cowards, and rather small in brave men. Cautiousness was
evidently not the organ of fear, for the bravest men, of whom I met
many in the southwest, sometimes had it in predominant development,
and in the timid it was sometimes moderate, or small. Destructiveness
was frequently a characteristic of narrow heads (indeed this is the
case with the Thugs of India), and a broad development above the ears
was sometimes accompanied by a mild disposition. The height of the
head above the ears did not prove a correct criterion of moral
character, nor did the breadth indicate correctly the amount of the
selfish and violent passions.

I observed that the violent and selfish elements of character were
connected with occipital depth, and elongation; that the affections
were connected with the coronal region, that the sense of vision was
located in the brow, and the sense of feeling in the temples, near the
cheekbone, that the upper occipital region was the seat of energetic
powers, and the lower, of violent or criminal impulses, and that the
whole cerebrum was an apparatus of mingling convolutions, in which the
functions, gradually changing from point to point, presented
throughout a beautiful blending and connection.

Observing daily the comparative development of brain and body, with
their reciprocal influence, I traced the outlines of cerebral
physiology, and the laws of sympathetic connection or correspondence
between the body and the encephalon, by which, in a given
constitution, I would determine from the head the development of the
whole body, the peculiar distributions of the circulation, with the
consequent morbid tendencies, the relative perfection of the different
senses and different organs of the body, and the character of the
temperament.

Seeking continually for the fundamental laws of Anthropology,
criticising and rejecting all that appeared objectionable or
inconsistent, I acquired possession of numerous sound and
comprehensive principles concerning the fundamental laws of cerebral
science, which were at once touchstones for truth and efficient
instruments for further research.

These fundamental laws, though very obvious and easily perceived when
pointed out, had been overlooked by my predecessors, but are always
accepted readily by my auditors, when fully explained. As new facts
and principles led to the discovery of other facts and principles, a
system of philosophy (not speculative, but scientific) was thus
evolved, and a number of geometrical principles were established as
the basis of the science of the brain, so evidently true, though so
long overlooked, as to command the unanimous assent of all to whom
they have been presented; and, as the acceptance of these principles
involves the general acceptance of cerebral science, my labors as a
teacher have ever been singularly harmonious, and free from doubt,
antagonism, and contention.

The fundamental principle of the philosophy was geometric or
mathematical, as it examined the construction of the brain, and showed
an exact mathematical relation between each organ of the brain and its
effects on the body, in the spontaneous gestures, the circulation of
blood, the nervous forces, and local functions. Its leading
characteristic being the law of the expression of the vital forces and
feelings in outward acts. This doctrine was called the PATHOGNOMIC
SYSTEM.

I was preparing to publish in several volumes the reorganized science
as the Pathognomic System, when the consummation of my researches, by
a brilliant discovery, led me into a new world of knowledge--to the
full development of the science of Anthropology, according to which
the brain gives organic expression to functions which are essentially
located in the soul, and the body gives organic manifestation to
functions which are controlled in the brain, while the body reacts
upon the brain and the brain upon the soul. Thus, every element of
humanity has a triple representation--that in the soul, which is
purely psychic, yet by its influence becomes physiological in the
body; that in the body which is purely physiological, yet by its
influence becomes psychic in the soul, and that in the brain which
produces physiological effects in the body, and psychic effects in the
soul.

Thus, each of the three repositories of power is a
psycho-physiological representation of the man; more physical in the
body, more spiritual in the soul, but in the brain a more perfect
psycho-physiological representation of man as he is in the present
life. This full conception of the brain, which Gall did not attain,
involved the new science of CEREBRAL PHYSIOLOGY, in which the brain
may express the character of the body, as well as the soul, of which I
would only say at present that my first observations were directed to
ascertaining the cerebral seats of the external senses, vision,
hearing and feeling, and the influences of different portions of the
brain on different portions of the body.

The location of the sense of feeling, of which I became absolutely
certain in 1838, at the base of the middle lobe has since been
substantially confirmed by Ferrier's experiment on the monkey; but I
have not been concerned about the results of vivisection, knowing that
if I have made a true discovery, vivisection and pathology must
necessarily confirm it; and I am not aware that any of my discoveries
have been disturbed by the immense labors of vivisection.

The discovery of the organ of the sense of feeling led to an
investigation of its powers, and the phenomena exhibited when its
development was unusually large--hence came the initial fact of
psychometry. Early in 1841 I found a very large development of the
organ, in the head of the late Bishop Polk, then at Little Rock, the
capital of Arkansas, who subsequently became a confederate general.
After explaining to him his great sensibility to atmospheric,
electric, and all other physical conditions, he mentioned a still more
remarkable sensibility--that whenever he touched brass, he had
immediately the taste of brass in his mouth, whether he knew what he
was touching or not. I lost no time in verifying this observation by
many experiments upon other persons, and finding that there were many
in whom sensibility was developed to this extent, so that when I
placed pieces of metal in their hands, behind their backs, they could
tell what the metal was by its taste, or some other impression.
Further examinations showed that substances of any kind, held in the
hands of sensitives, yielded not only an impression upon the sense of
taste, by which they might be recognized, but an impression upon the
entire sensibility of the body. Medicines tried in this manner gave a
distinct impression--as distinct as if they had been swallowed--to a
majority of the members of a large medical class, in the leading
medical school at Cincinnati, and to those who had superior
psychometric capacities, the impression given in this manner enabled
them to describe the qualities and effects of the medicines as fully
and accurately as they are given in the works on materia medica.

This method of investigation I consider not only vastly more easy and
rapid than the method adopted by the followers of Hahnemann, but more
accurate and efficient than any other method known to the medical
profession, and destined, therefore, to produce a greater improvement
in our knowledge of the materia medica than we can derive from all
other methods combined, in the same length of time. I may hereafter
publish the practical demonstration of this, but the vast amount of
labor involved in my experimental researches has not yet permitted me
to take up this department, although it has yielded me some very
valuable discoveries.

It may require a century for mankind fully to realize the value of
Psychometry. It has been clearly, though I cannot say completely shown
in the "MANUAL OF PSYCHOMETRY," to which I would refer the reader. I
would simply state that the scientific discovery and exposition of
Psychometry is equivalent to the dawn of new intellectual
civilization, since it enables us to advance rapidly toward perfection
all sciences and forms of knowledge now known, and to introduce new
sciences heretofore unknown.

1. To the MEDICAL COLLEGE it will give a method of accurate diagnosis
which will supersede the blundering methods now existing--a method of
RAPIDLY enlarging and perfecting the materia medica--a method of
exploring all difficult questions in Biology and Pathology, and a
complete view of the constitution of man.

2. To the UNIVERSITY it offers a method of revising and correcting
history and biography--of enlarging our knowledge of Natural History,
Geology, and Astronomy, and exploring Ethnology.

3. To the CHURCH it offers a method of exploring the origins of all
religions, the future life of man, and the relations of terrestrial
and celestial life.

4. To the PHILANTHROPIST it offers the methods of investigating and
supervising education and social organization which may abolish all
existing evils.

The foregoing were the initial steps and results in the development of
Psychometry, simultaneously accompanied by those other discoveries in
1841, the scope and magnitude of which appear to me and to those who
have studied my demonstrations, to be far more important than anything
that has ever been discovered or done in Biological science, being
nothing less than a complete scientific demonstration of the functions
of the brain in all its psycho-physiological relations. To appreciate
their transcendent importance, it is necessary only to know that the
experiments have been carefully made, have often been repeated during
the past forty-five years, and that all they demonstrate may also be
demonstrated by other means, and fully established, if no such
experiments could be made.

The origin of this discovery was as follows. My advanced
investigations of the brain, between 1835 and 1841, had added so much
to the incomplete and inaccurate discoveries of Gall, and had brought
cerebral science into so much closer and more accurate relation with
cerebral anatomy and embryology, as illustrated by Tiedemann, that I
became profoundly aware of the position in which I found myself, as an
explorer, possessed of knowledge previously quite unknown, and yet, at
the same time, however true, not strictly demonstrable, since none
could fully realize its truth without following the same path and
studying with the same concentrated devotion the comparative
development of the brain in men and animals. Such zeal, success, and
assiduity I did not believe could be expected. There might not be one
man in a century to undertake such a task (for all the centuries of
civilization had produced but one such man--the illustrious Gall), and
when he appeared his voice would not be decisive. I would, therefore,
appear not as presenting positive knowledge, but as contributing
another theory, which the medical profession, regardless of my labors,
would treat as a mere hypothesis.[1]

    [1] I would mention that in the progress of my discoveries,
        especially in 1838-39, I came into frequent and intimate
        association with the late Prof. Wm. Byrd Powell, M. D., the
        most brilliant, and original of all American students of the
        brain, whose lectures always excited a profound interest in
        his hearers, and, in comparing notes with him, I found my
        own original observations well sustained by his. Though
        erratic in some of his theories, he was a bold student of
        nature, and the accidental destruction of his manuscript by
        fire, when too late in his life to repair the loss, was a
        destruction of much that would have been deeply
        interesting.

It was absolutely necessary that the functions of the brain should be
demonstrated as positively as those of the spinal nerves had been
demonstrated by Majendie and Bell. Two methods appeared possible. The
two agents were galvanism and the aura of the nervous system, commonly
called animal magnetism. My first experiments in 1841, satisfied me
that both were available, but that the _nervaura_ was far more
available, efficient, and satisfactory. Upon this I have relied ever
since, though I sometimes experiment with galvanism, to demonstrate
its efficiency, and Dr. De la Rua, of Cuba, informed me over twenty
years ago that he found very delicate galvanic currents available for
this purpose in his practice.

Animal magnetism or mesmerism had been involved in mystery and
empiricism. There had never been any scientific or anatomical
explanation of the phenomena, and this mystery I desired to dispel. My
first step was to ascertain that for experiments on the nervous system
we did not need the somnambulic or hypnotic condition, and that it was
especially to be avoided as a source of confusion and error. Whenever
the organ of sensibility, or sensitiveness, was sufficiently developed
and predominant, the conditions of neurological experiments for
scientific purposes were satisfactory, and to make such experiments,
the subjects, instead of being ignorant, passive, emotional, hysteric,
or inclined to trance, should be as intelligent as possible,
well-balanced and clear-headed,--competent to observe subjective
phenomena in a critical manner. Hence, my experiments, which have been
made upon all sorts of persons, were most decisive and satisfactory to
myself when made upon well-educated physicians, upon medical
professors, my learned colleagues, upon eminent lawyers or divines,
upon strong-minded farmers or hunters, entirely unacquainted with such
subjects, and incapable of psychological delusion, or upon persons of
very skeptical minds who would not admit anything until the phenomena
were made very plain and unquestionable.

While the nervaura of the human constitution (which is as distinctly
perceptible to the sensitive as its caloric and electricity) is
emitted from every portion of the surface of the head and body, the
quality and quantity of that which is emitted from the inner surface
of the hand, render it most available, and the application of the hand
of any one who has a respectable amount of vital and mental energy,
will produce a distinct local stimulation of functions wherever it may
be applied upon the head or body. In this manner it is easy to
demonstrate the amiable and pleasing influence of the superior regions
of the brain, the more energetic and vitalizing influence of its
posterior half, and the mild, subduing influence of the front.

In my first experiments, in the spring of 1841, I found so great
susceptibility that I could demonstrate promptly even the smallest
organs of the brain, and it was gratifying to find that the
illustrious Gall had ascertained, with so marvellous accuracy the
functions of the smallest organs in the front lobe, and the subject
could be engrossed in the thought of numbers and counting by touching
the organ of number or calculation. Eagerly did I proceed in testing
the accuracy of all the discoveries of Gall and the additions I had
made by craniological studies, as well as bringing out new functions
which I had not been able to anticipate or discover. Omitting the
history of those experiments, I would but briefly state that in 1842 I
published a complete map of the brain, in which the full development
of human faculties made a complete picture of the psycho-physiological
constitution of man, and thus presented for the first time a science
which might justly be called _Anthropology_.[2]

    [2] I do not publish or circulate this map apart from the
        explanatory volume (Outlines of Anthropology) for the reason
        that it is impossible by any nomenclature of organs to
        convey a correct idea of the functions, and hence, such a
        map would tend to a great many misconceptions.

It is obvious that prior to 1842 there was nothing entitled to the
name of ANTHROPOLOGY, as there was no complete geography before the
discovery of America and circumnavigation of the globe. When man is
fully portrayed by the statement of all the psychic and all the
physiological faculties and functions found in his brain, which
contains the totality, and manifests them in the soul and body, it is
obvious that we have a true Anthropology, which, to complete its
fulness, requires only the study of the soul as an entity distinct
from the brain, and of the body as an anatomical and physiological
apparatus. The latter had already been well accomplished by the
medical profession, and the former very imperfectly by spiritual
psychologists. But neither the physiology, nor the pneumatology had
been placed in organic connection with the central cerebral science.

In consummating such tasks, I felt justified, in 1842, in adopting the
word Anthropology, as the representative of the new science, though at
that time it was so unfamiliar as to be misunderstood. This science,
as presented in my Outlines of Anthropology in 1854, embraced another
very important and entirely novel discovery--the psycho-physiological
relations of the surface of the body, the manner in which every
portion of the body responds to the brain and the soul, the final
solution of the great and hitherto impenetrable mystery of the triune
relations of soul, brain, and body. This discovery, constituting the
science of Sarcognomy, became the basis of a new medical philosophy,
explaining the influence of the body on the soul, in health, and
disease, and the reciprocal influence of the soul on the body.

This manifestly modified our views of therapeutics and revolutionized
electro-therapeutics by pointing out the exact physiological and
psychic effects of every portion of the surface of the body, when
subject to local treatment, and hence, originating new methods of
electric practice, in which many results were produced not heretofore
deemed possible. All this was fully presented in my work on
THERAPEUTIC SARCOGNOMY, published in 1885, which was speedily sold.

In contemplating these immense results of a successful investigation
of the functions of the brain, I can see no logical escape from the
conclusion that such a revelation of the functions of the brain is by
far the most important event that belongs to the history of vital
science--an event so romantically different from the common, slow
progress of science when cultivated by men of ability, that I do not
wonder at the incredulity which naturally opposes its recognition, and
seems to render the most unanimous and conclusive testimony from
honorable scientists apparently ineffective. The support of the
medical college in which I was Dean of the Faculty, the hearty
endorsement by the Faculty of Indiana State University, and by
numerous committees of investigation, seem to count as nothing with
the conservative portion of the medical profession, who have ever
understood how to ignore so simple and positive a demonstration as
that of Harvey, or so practical a demonstration as that of Hahnemann,
or so irresistible a mass of facts as those of modern psychic science.

The question will naturally arise among the enlightened lovers of
truth, why so grand and so _demonstrable_ a science should for
forty-five years have made so little progress toward general
recognition. It is sufficient to say that new and revolutionary truth
is never welcomed, and, if the discoverer is not active as a
propagandist it has no diffusion. I did not feel that there was any
receptiveness across the ocean for what was resisted here.
Nevertheless I did prepare and send to Edinburgh, in 1841, a brief
report of my discoveries accompanied by an endorsement or introduction
from the venerable Prof. Caldwell, the founder of the successful
medical college at Louisville, whose lectures were attended by four
hundred pupils. I supposed the gentlemen of the Phrenological Society
at Edinburgh the most liberal parties in Great Britain, but they
declined publishing my memoir as _too marvellous_, and proposed merely
to file it away as a caveat of the discovery. That ended all thoughts
of Europe; and, indeed, it seemed to me premature to urge such a
discovery and so grand a philosophy upon the world in the present
state of its intellectual civilization. I ceased to agitate the
subject for many years, and allowed myself to be drawn into the
political agitations connected with our civil war, to mitigate some of
its social and political evils.

Of late, however, an urgent and imperative sense of duty has put my
pen in motion as the remnant of my life will be hardly sufficient to
record the results of my investigations.

In the "New Education" and the "Manual of Psychometry--the dawn of a
new civilization"--I have appealed to the public, and three editions
of the former with two of the latter show that the public is not
indifferent. The recognition of the marvellous claims of Psychometry
will prepare the way for the supreme science of Anthropology, to which
the coming century will do justice.

In justice to the learned Prof. Caldwell and myself, I should not omit
to mention that this distinguished, eloquent, and venerable gentleman,
who, in his early life, was a cotemporary of the famous Dr. Rush, of
Philadelphia, and throughout his life was a champion of the most
progressive doctrines in Biology, not only gave his friendly
co-operation on the first presentation of my discoveries, but ten
years later honored me with a visit at Cincinnati, to become more
fully acquainted with them, and subsequently, by appointment of the
National Medical Association, prepared a report upon subjects of a
kindred nature, in which he incorporated a statement of my
discoveries. His subsequent illness and death, in 1854, at an advanced
age, prevented the delivery of this memoir.

    In signal contrast to the honorable and candid course of Prof.
    CALDWELL, and to the candid examination, followed by eulogistic
    language of Prof. H. P. GATCHELL, ROBERT DALE OWEN, President
    ANDREW WYLIE, Rev. JOHN PIERPONT, Dr. SAMUEL FORRY, Prof. WM.
    DENTON, the eloquent Judge ROWAN, and a score of other eminently
    intellectual men, it is my duty to record the melancholy fact
    that the great majority of professional men, when tested, have
    manifested an entire apathy, if not a positive aversion, to the
    investigations and discoveries in which these momentous results
    have been reached. While no aversion, disrespect, or suspicion
    was shown toward myself, a stubborn aversion was shown to
    investigations that might have revolutionary results--proving
    that our false systems of education teach men not to think
    independently, but to adhere closely to precedent authority,
    fashion, popularity, and _habit_, which is the inertia of the
    mental world.

    The faculty of my alma mater (excepting Prof. Caldwell) refused
    to investigate the subject, even when invited by their Board of
    Trustees. The Boston Academy of Arts and Sciences, embracing the
    men at the head of the medical profession, pretended to take up
    the subject, but in a few hours dropped it, with polite
    compliments to myself, in 1842. The American Medical
    Association, in 1878, refused to entertain the subject because I
    could not coincide with them in my sentiments, and accept their
    code of bigotry. There was no formal action of the Association,
    but my friend, Prof. Gross, then recognized as the Nestor of the
    profession, and holding the highest position of authority,
    informed me semi-officially, very courteously, that none of my
    discoveries could ever be brought to the notice of the
    Association, because I did not accept their code. Thus (without
    mentioning other instances), I have stood before the public with
    a _demonstrable_ science, challenging investigation by critical
    opponents, who have so uniformly evaded or shrunk from the test
    that I have ceased to care for their opinions, while I still
    entertain as profound a respect as ever for the investigations
    of the candid and manly, among whom I never fail to find
    friendship and cordiality.

    Looking back forty-five years, I remember with extreme pleasure
    the friendly co-operation of ROWAN and CALDWELL. The American
    medical profession never had a more dignified, imposing, and
    high-toned representative than Prof. Caldwell. Nor was the legal
    profession anywhere ever adorned by a more commanding and
    gracious representative than the unsurpassed advocate, ROWAN,
    who was widely known as the "OLD MONARCH." The nobility of such
    men was shown in their noble bearing toward a dawning science,
    In which they saw the grandeur of the future.



BUSINESS DEPARTMENT.


COLLEGE OF THERAPEUTICS.

Next Session Begins November 1, 1887.

This institution is the germ of what will be an immense revolution in
education hereafter, when the knowledge now given to small classes
will hold a conspicuous place in every college, and will be presented
in every high school.

The mountain mass of inertia, which opposes, passively, all
fundamental changes, cannot now resist scientific demonstration as it
has in the past. The instruction in the College of Therapeutics, is
thoroughly demonstrative, leaving no room for doubt, and it gives a
species of knowledge which ought to be a part of every one's
education--a knowledge of the constitution of man, not obtainable
to-day in any medical or literary college, nor in our mammoth
libraries. It is not merely as a deep philosophy that this interests
us, but as a guide in the preservation of health, and in the
regulation of spiritual phenomena, which would, to a very great
extent, supersede our reliance on the medical profession by giving us
the control of the vital powers, by which we may protect ourselves,
and control the development of the young.

Each student was made to feel the effects of local treatment on the
body, and the power of rapidly changing disease to health, and was
personally taught to perform the manipulations for this purpose, and
to investigate disease or portray character by the psychometric
methods as well as to test the value of medicines.

The various uses and scientific application of electricity were shown,
and many things entirely unknown and unrecognized in works on
Electro-Therapeutics. The entire class was placed under a medical
influence simultaneously by the agency of electricity--an operation so
marvelous that it would be considered incredible in medical colleges.
By these and other experiments and numerous illustrations and lucid
explanations of the brain and nervous system, the instruction was made
deeply interesting, and students have attended more than one course to
perfect themselves in the science. The following declaration of
sentiments shows how the course was regarded by the class:

    "The summer class of 1887 in the College of Therapeutics,
    feeling it their duty to add their testimony to that of many
    others in reference to the grand scientific discoveries which
    they have seen thoroughly demonstrated by Prof. J. R. Buchanan,
    would say to the public that no one can attend such a course of
    instruction as we have recently been engaged in, without
    realizing that Therapeutic Sarcognomy greatly enlarges the
    practical resources of the healing art for the medical
    practitioner, magnetizer and electro-therapeutist, while
    Psychometry, whose positive truths we have tested and proven,
    like the sun's rays, illumines all the dark problems of medical
    practice and of psycho-physiological sciences.

    "Therapeutic Sarcognomy explains the very intricate and
    mysterious relations of the soul, the brain and body, which
    prior to Prof. Buchanan's discoveries were unknown to all
    scientific teachers, and are even now only known to his students
    and the readers of his works,

    "We feel that we have been very fortunate in finding so valuable
    a source of knowledge, whose future benefits to the human race,
    in many ways, cannot be briefly stated, and we would assure all
    who may attend this college, or read the published works of
    Prof. Buchanan, and his monthly, the _Journal of Man_, that they
    will, when acquainted with the subject, be ready to unite with
    us in appreciating and honoring the greatest addition ever made
    to biological and psychological sciences. Hoping that the time
    is not for distant when all students in medical colleges may
    obtain access to this most important knowledge, we give our
    testimony to the public."

                      H. C. ALDRICH, M. D., D. D. S., _Chairman._
                      DR. JNO. C. SCHLARBAUM, _Secretary_.


Enlargement of the Journal.

If the readers of the JOURNAL knew how much very interesting matter is
crowded out of each number of the JOURNAL, they would be very anxious
for its enlargement.


Advertising in the Journal.

The financial success of monthly magazines, depends much upon a
liberal advertising patronage. I would say just to all my readers,
that the JOURNAL has a larger circulation than many medical journals
which are filled with advertisements. It is an excellent medium for
those who have new and valuable things to present, for it circulates
among the most progressive and enlightened class of people. The terms
are the same which are common in magazines.

[Hand pointing right]An advertising agent might find profitable
employment by applying to the editor of the JOURNAL.


Works of Prof. J. R. Buchanan.

THE NEW EDUCATION.--$1.50.

"It is incomparably the best work on education that I have ever
seen."--Prof. Wm. Denton. "I regard it as by far the best work on
education ever published".--Rev. B. F. Barrett.

MANUAL OF PSYCHOMETRY.--The dawn of a new civilization,--$2.16.

"The like of this work is not to be found in the whole literature of
the past."--_New York Home Journal_. "He has boldly navigated unknown
seas till he has found a far greater and more important world than the
Genoese navigator discovered."--_Hartford Times_. "There are striking
reflections upon almost every page, and a richness of language and
freshness of spirit that is peculiarly marked." _Medical Brief_, St.
Louis. "A century in advance of his time."--_People's Health Journal_,
Chicago.

PSYCHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL CHART OF SARCOGNOMY.--21×31 inches, $1. Showing
the vital powers of soul, brain, and body in their location, as a
guide for treatment. "Upon the psychic functions of the brain, Prof.
Buchanan is the highest living authority."--_American Homoeopathist._

THERAPEUTIC SARCOGNOMY.--Now in preparation, to be published next
winter.

OUTLINES OF ANTHROPOLOGY.--Now in preparation.


PRACTICE OF PSYCHOMETRY.--Mrs. C. H. Buchanan continues the practice
of Psychometry, 6 James Street, Boston. Personal interview, $2.
Written descriptions, $3. Elaborate descriptions, $5. The objects of
Psychometry are the description of character, constitution, health, or
disease, and such advice as circumstances require.


UNLIKE ANY OTHER PAPER.

The _Spectator_, unlike other home papers, seeks (1) to acquaint every
family with simple and efficient treatment for the various common
diseases, to, in a word, educate the people so they can avoid disease
and cure sickness, thus saving enormous doctors' bills, and many
precious lives. (2) To elevate and cultivate the moral nature,
awakening the conscience, and developing the noblest attributes of
manhood. (3) To give instructive and entertaining food to literary
taste, thus developing the mind. (4) To give just such hints to
housekeepers that they need to tell how to prepare delicious dishes,
to beautify homes, and to make the fireside the most attractive spot
in the world.--_Am. Spectator_.


MAYO'S ANÆSTHETIC.

The suspension of pain, under dangerous surgical operations, is the
greatest triumph of Therapeutic Science in the present century. It
came first by mesmeric hypnotism, which was applicable only to a few,
and was restricted by the jealous hostility of the old medical
profession. Then came the nitrous oxide, introduced by Dr. Wells, of
Hartford, and promptly discountenanced by the enlightened (?) medical
profession of Boston, and set aside for the next candidate, ether,
discovered in the United States also, but far interior to the nitrous
oxide as a safe and pleasant agent. This was largely superseded by
chloroform, discovered much earlier by Liebig and others, but
introduced as an anæsthetic in 1847, by Prof. Simpson. This proved to
be the most powerful and dangerous of all. Thus the whole policy of
the medical profession was to discourage the safe, and encourage the
more dangerous agents. The magnetic sleep, the most perfect of all
anæsthetic agents, was expelled from the realm of college authority;
ether was substituted for nitrous oxide, and chloroform preferred to
ether, until frequent deaths gave warning.

Nitrous oxide, much the safest of the three, has not been the
favorite, but has held its ground, especially with dentists. But even
nitrous oxide is not perfect. It is not equal to the magnetic sleep,
when the latter is practicable, but fortunately it is applicable to
all. To perfect the nitrous oxide, making it universally safe and
pleasant, Dr. U. K. Mayo, of Boston, has combined it with certain
harmless vegetable nervines, which appear to control the fatal
tendency which belongs to all anæsthetics when carried too far. The
success of Dr. Mayo, in perfecting our best anæsthetic, is amply
attested by those who have used it. Dr. Thorndike, than whom, Boston
had no better surgeon, pronounced it "the safest the world has yet
seen." It has been administered to children and to patients in extreme
debility. Drs. Frizzell and Williams, say they have given it
"repeatedly in heart disease, severe lung diseases, Bright's disease,
etc., where the patients were so feeble as to require assistance in
walking, many of them under medical treatment, and the results have
been all that we could ask--no irritation, suffocation, nor
depression. We heartily commend it to all as the anæsthetic of the
age." Dr. Morrill, of Boston, administered Mayo's anæsthetic to his
wife with delightful results when "her lungs were so badly
disorganized, that the administration of ether or gas would be
entirely unsafe." The reputation of this anæsthetic is now well
established; in fact, it is not only safe and harmless, but has great
medical virtue for daily use in many diseases, and is coming into use
for such purposes. In a paper before the Georgia State Dental Society,
Dr. E. Parsons testified strongly to its superiority. "The nitrous
oxide, (says Dr. P.) causes the patient when fully under its influence
to have very like the appearance of a corpse," but under this new
anæsthetic "the patient appears like one in a natural sleep." The
language of the press, generally has been highly commendatory, and if
Dr. Mayo had occupied so conspicuous a rank as Prof. Simpson, of
Edinburgh, his new anæsthetic would have been adopted at once in every
college of America and Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *

                     Mayo's Vegetable Anæsthetic.

A perfectly safe and pleasant substitute for chloroform, ether,
nitrous oxide gas, and all other anæsthetics. Discovered by Dr. U. K.
Mayo, April, 1883, and since administered by him and others in over
300,000 cases successfully. The youngest child, the most sensitive
lady, and those having heart disease, and lung complaint, inhale this
vapor with impunity. It stimulates the circulation of the blood and
builds up the tissues. Indorsed by the highest authority in the
professions, recommended in midwifery and all cases of nervous
prostration. Physicians, surgeons, dentists and private families
supplied with this vapor, liquefied, in cylinders of various
capacities. It should be administered the same as Nitrous Oxide, but
it does not produce headache and nausea as that sometimes does. For
further information pamphlets, testimonials, etc., apply to

                                      DR. U. K. MAYO, Dentist,
                                        378 Tremont St., Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    Religio-Philosophical Journal.

                          ESTABLISHED 1865.

                         PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT

                     92 La Salle Street, Chicago,

                          BY JOHN C. BUNDY,

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION IN ADVANCE:

One copy, one year   $2.50

Single copies, 5 cents. Specimen copy free.

All letters and communications should be addressed, and all
remittances made payable to

                     JOHN C. BUNDY, Chicago, Ill.

A Paper for all who Sincerely and Intelligently Seek Truth without
regard to Sect or Party.

Press, Pulpit, and People Proclaim its Merits.

_Concurrent Commendations from Widely Opposite Sources._

Is the ablest Spiritualist paper in America.... Mr. Bundy has earned
the respect of all lovers of the truth, by his sincerity and
courage.--_Boston Evening Transcript._

I have a most thorough respect for the JOURNAL, and believe its editor
and proprietor is disposed to treat the whole subject of spiritualism
fairly.--_Rev. M. J. Savage (Unitarian) Boston._

I wish you the fullest success in your courageous course.--_R. Heber
Newton, D. D._

Your course has made spiritualism respected by the secular press as it
never has been before, and compelled an honorable
recognition.--_Hudson Tuttle, Author and Lecturer._

I read your paper every week with great interest.--_H. W. Thomas, D. D.,
Chicago._

I congratulate you on the management of the paper.... I indorse your
position as to the investigation of the phenomena.--_Samuel Watson, D. D.,
Memphis, Tenn._


       *       *       *       *       *

                                FACTS,

                         A MONTHLY MAGAZINE,

                              DEVOTED TO

                   Mental and Spiritual Phenomena,


                              INCLUDING

            Dreams, Mesmerism, Psychometry, Clairvoyance,
           Clairaudience, Inspiration, Trance, and Physical
                Mediumship; Prayer, Mind, and Magnetic
                Healing; and all classes of Psychical
                               Effects.

               Single Copies, 10 Cents; $1.00 per year.

                             PUBLISHED BY

                      Facts Publishing Company,

                     (Drawer 5323,) BOSTON, MASS.

                      _L. L. WHITLOCK, Editor._


             For Sale by COLBY & RICH, 9 Bosworth Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



    Transcriber's Note: The Table of Contents came from the first
    issue of the volume. The article on ANTHROPOLOGY is continued
    from the previous issue's page 32.





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