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Title: De Canibus Britannicis - Of Englishe Dogges
Author: Caius, John, 1510-1573
Language: Latin
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Note:

This text contains characters that require UTF-8 (unicode) file
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Forms such as “y^e” (for “the”) represent “y” with small “e” printed
directly above.

The e-text consists of two titles: Caius’s original _De Canibus
Britannicis_ and Fleming’s translation _Of English Dogges_, both from
the 1912 Cambridge edition of Caius’s _Complete Works_. The separate
texts are followed by a combined text, giving the Latin original and the
English translation in small alternating segments. Note that the single
large table of the Caius original was broken into five smaller “Dialls”
in the translation.

Numbers in parentheses were printed in the gutter; they represent pages
(translation) or leaves (Latin) of the original editions, as used in
their respective Indexes. Sidenotes (Latin only) are shown in brackets.

Additional notes are at the end of the e-text.]


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  IOANNIS CAII
  BRITANNI

  DE
  _Canibus Britannicis libellus._


_Ad Gesnerum._

Scripsimus ad te (charissime Gesnere) superioribus annis variam
historiam de variis quadrupedum, avium, atque piscium formis, variis
herbarum atque fruticum speciebus & figuris. Scripsimus & de canibus
quædam ad te seorsum, quæ in libro tuo de iconibus animalium ordine
secundo mansuetorum quadrupedum, ubi de Canibus Scoticis scribis, & in
fine epistolæ tuæ ad Gulielmum Turnerum de libris a te editis, inter
libros nondum excusos, te editurum polliceris. Sed quia de Canibus
nostris quædam in eo libello mihi videbantur desiderari, editionem
prohibui, & alium promisi. Quamobrem, ut promissis meis starem,
& expectationi tuæ satisfacerem, homini omnis cognitionis cupido,
universitatem generis, differentiam atque usum, mores & ingenium, veluti
(1b) methodo quadam conabor explicare. Dispertiar in tres species,
Generosam, Rusticam, & Degenerem; sic ut de illa primò, de hac postremò,
de rustica, medio loco tibi dicam. Omnes Britannicos vocabo; tum quòd
una Insula Britannia, ut Anglicos omnes, sic quoque Scoticos omnes
complectatur: tum quòd venatibus magis indulgemus, quia voluptati ex
feris & venatione, propter animalium copiam, atque hominum otium, magis
Britanni sumus dediti, quàm eorum animalium indigi & negotiosi Scoti.
[Ex generosis venaticis.] Ergo cum omnis ratio generosæ venationis, vel
in persequendis feris, vel in capiendis avibus finiatur, canum, quibus
hæc aguntur, duo genera sunt: alterum quod feras investiget, alterum
quod aves persequatur. Utraque Latinis uno & communi nomine dici possunt
venatica. Sed Anglis cum aliud esse videatur feras sectari, aliud aves
capere, ut primum venationem, secundum aucupium nominant, ita canum
nomina volunt esse diversa: ut qui feras lacessunt, venatici; qui aves,
aucupatorii dicerentur. Venaticos rursum divido in quinque genera. Aut
enim odoratu, aut visu fatigant feras, aut pernicitate vincunt, aut
odoratu & pernicitate superant, aut dolo capiunt.

[Sagax.] Qui odoratu fatigat, & prompta alacritate in venando utitur,
& incredibili ad investigandum sagacitate narium valet: a qua re nos
sagacem hunc appellamus, quem Græci ab investigando ἰχνευτὴν, à nare
ῥινηλάτην dicunt. Huic labra propensa sunt, & aures ad os usque pendulæ,
corporisque (2) media magnitudo. [Leverarius.] Hunc Leverarium
vocitabimus, ut universum genus in certas species atque nomina
reducamus: cum alioqui usus aut officii nomine, in unitatem speciei
adigi nullo modo queant. Nam alius leporis, alius vulpis, alius cervi,
alius platycerotis, alius taxi, alius lutræ, alius mustelæ, alius
cuniculi (quem tamen non venamur nisi casse & viverra) tantum odore
gaudet: & in suo quisque genere & desiderio egregius est. Sunt ex his
qui duos, ut vulpem atque leporem, variatis vicibus sequi student, sed
non ea felicitate, qua id quod natura sequi docuit: errant enim sæpius.
[Terrarius.] Sunt qui vulpem atque taxum solum, quos Terrarios vocamus;
quod subeant terræ cuniculos, more viverrarum in venatu cuniculorum,
& ita terrent mordentque vulpem atque taxum, ut vel in terra morsu
lacerent, vel è specu in fugam aut casses cuniculorum ostiis inductas
compellant. Sed hi in sagacium genere minimi sunt. [Sanguinarius.] Qui
insequuntur, majores: propenso & hi labro atque aure, nec vivas tantum
uti memorati omnes, sed & mortuas quoque conspersi sanguinis odore
persequuntur. Sive enim vivæ sauciantur feræ, atque è manibus venatorum
elabuntur, sive mortuæ ex vivario sublatæ sunt (sed profusione sanguinis
utræque) isti canes odore facilè persentiscunt, & subsequuntur. Eam ob
causam ex argumento sanguinarii appellantur. Cum tamen fieri solet ut
furum astutia nullo consperso sanguine abripiatur fera, etiam sicca
hominis vestigia (2b) per extentissima spatia nullo errore sequi nôrunt,
in quantalibet multitudine secernere, per abditissima & densissima loca
appetere, & si flumina tranent etiam persequi, cumque ad ulteriorem
ripam perventum est, circuitu quodam qua fugitum est investigare, si
primo statim odore in vestigium furis non inciderint. Sic enim arte
inveniunt, quod fortuna nequeunt, ut rectè videatur ab Æliano scriptum
lib. 6. cap. 59. de animalibus, τὸ ἐνθυμητικὸν καὶ διαλεκτικὸν, καὶ
μέντοι καὶ τὸ αἱρετὸν, hoc est, considerationem, ratiocinationem, atque
etiam participationem seu arbitrium canibus hisce venaticis inesse; nec
ante cessant persequi, quàm sunt fures comprehensi. Eos luce in tenebris
habent heri, nocte producunt, quo alacriores in persequendo sint assueti
tenebris, quibus prædones delectantur maximè. Iidem, cum fures
insequuntur, non ea donantur libertate qua cum feras, nisi in magna
celeritate fugientium furum, sed loro retenti herum ducunt qua velit
ille celeritate, sive pedes sit, sive eques. In confiniis Angliæ atque
Scotiæ propter frequentia pecorum & jumentorum spolia, multus usus hujus
generis canum est, & principio discit pecudem & armentum persequi,
postea furem relicto armento. In hoc genere nullus est aquaticus
naturaliter, nisi eos ita nominare placeat, qui Lutram insequuntur,
qui subinde ripas, subinde aquas frequentant. Non recusant tamen omnes,
aviditate prædæ tranantis flumina, etiam aquis se committere. Sed hoc
desiderii potius est, quàm naturæ. Quod autem ex (3) his aliquas Brachas
nostri, Rachas Scoti sua lingua nominant, in causa sexus est, non genus.
Sic enim canes fœminas in venatico genere vocare solent nostri. Ad
postremum, in natura sagacium est, ut alii pervestigando taceant ante
excitatam feram, alii statim ad primum odorem voce prodant animal, etsi
remotum adhuc, & in cubili; & quo juniores, eo petulantioris oris &
mendacioris sunt. Ætas enim & venandi assiduitas experientiam in his
facit & certitudinem, ut in aliis omnibus, maximè, cum norint
obtemperare domino vel inhibenti vel animanti. [Agasæus.] Quod visu
lacessit, nare nihil agit, sed oculo; oculo vulpem leporemque
persequitur, oculo seligit medio de grege feram, & eam non nisi bene
saginatam & opimam oculo insequitur, oculo perditam requirit, oculo, si
quando in gregem redeat, secernit, cæteris relictis omnibus, secretamque
cursu denuo fatigat ad mortem. Agasæum nostri abs re, quòd intento sit
in feram oculo, vocant. Usus ejus est, in septentrionalibus Angliæ
partibus magis quam meridionalibus; locis planis & campestribus, quàm
dumosis & sylvestribus; equitibus magis quàm peditibus, quo ad cursum
equos incitent (quibus delectantur magis quàm ipsa præda) assuescantque
sepes fossasque inoffensè & intrepidè transilire & aufugere, quò
insessores per necessitates & pericula salutem fuga sibi quærant, aut
hostem insequendo cum velint cædant. At si quando canis aberraverit,
dato signo quàm mox accurrit, & feram de integro subsequens, clara voce,
cursuque celeri ut ante lacessit. [Leporarius.] Quod pernicitate vincit,
(3b) leporarius dicitur, quòd præcipua ejus cura, præcipuusque usus est
in persequendo lepore. Quanquam & in capiendo platycerote, cervo,
dorcade, vulpe, & hoc genus aliis feris, & viribus & memorata velocitate
valent: sed plus minus pro suo quisque desiderio, & corporis firmitudine
aut exilitate. Est enim strigosum genus: in quo alii majores sunt, alii
minores: alii pilo sessili, alii hirto. Majores majoribus, minores
minoribus feris destinamus. Cujus naturam in venatione, magnam; in hoc,
miram deprehendi: quòd (referente Joanne Froisarto historico lib. hist.
suæ 4.) leporarius Richardi secundi Anglorum regis, qui ante neminem
præter regem agnoverat, venientem Henricum Lancastriæ ducem ad castellum
Flinti ut Richardum comprehenderet, relicto Richardo, Henricum solitis
in Richardum favoribus exceperit; quasi adversitates Richardi futuras
intellexerat & præsentiscerat. Id quod Richardus probe animadvertit,
atque ut præsagium futuri interitus verbis non dissimulavit. [Levinarius
seu lorarius.] Quod sagacitate simul & pernicitate potest, & genere, &
compositione corporis medium est inter sagacem illum & leporarium, &
à levitate appellatur levinarius, à loro (quo ducitur) lorarius. Hic
propter velocitatem & gravius feram urget, & citius capit. [Vertagus.]
Quod dolo agit, vertagum nostri dicunt, quòd se, dum prædatur, vertat,
& (4) circumacto corpore, impetu quodam in ipso specus ostio feram
opprimit & intercipit. Is hoc utitur astu. Cum in vivarium cuniculorum
venit, eos non lacessit cursu, non latratu terret, nec ullas
inimicitias ostentat, sed velut amicus aliud agens, taciturna
solertia prætergreditur, observatis diligenter eorum cuniculis. Eò cum
pervenerit, ita se humi componit, ut & adversum ventum semper habeat,
& cuniculum lateat. Sic enim ille revertentis aut exeuntis cuniculi
odorem facilè sentit, & suus cuniculo omnino tollitur, & prospectu fera
fallitur. Ad hunc modum compositus canis, & prostratus, aut exeuntem
cuniculum & imprudentem in ipso specus ingressu versutè opprimit, aut
revertentem excipit, atque ad latentem herum ore perducit. Minor hic est
sagaci illo, strigosior, & erectiore aure. Corporis figura leporarium
spurium diceres, si major esset. Et quamvis eo minor multò sit, uno
tamen die tot potest capere, quot justum equi onus esse possunt. Dolus
enim illi pro virtute est, & corporis agilitas. [Canis furax.] Huic
similis canis furax est, qui jubente hero noctu progreditur, & sine
latratu odore adverse persequens cuniculos, cursu prehendit quot herus
permiserit, & ad heri stationem reportat. Vocant incolæ canem nocturnum,
quòd venetur noctu. Sed hæc de iis qui feras insequuntur.

[Ex generosis aucupatoriis.] Qui aves, proximum locum habent. Eos
Aucupatorios dici ante proposuimus. Hi ex generosorum numero etiam sunt,
& duûm generum. Alii enim per sicca tantum venantur: (4b) Alii per aquas
tantum aves persequuntur. Qui per sicca tantum, aut libero vestigio &
latratu avem investigant & excitant, aut tacito indicio eandem
commonstrant. Primum genus Accipitri servit; secundum reti.
[Hispaniolus.] Peculiaria nomina primum genus non habet, nisi ab ave
ad quam venandam natura est propensius. Qua de causa falconarii hos
phasianarios, hos perdiciarios, vocare solent. Vulgus tamen nostrum
communi nomine Hispaniolos nominat, quasi ex Hispania productum istud
genus primo esset. Omnes maxima ex parte candidi sunt: & si quas maculas
habeant, rubræ sunt, raræ, & majores. Sunt & ruffi atque nigri, sed
perpauci. Est & hodie novum genus ex Gallia advectum (ut novitatis omnes
sumus studiosi) sed ex toto in albo obfuscatum maculosè, quem Gallicanum
vocitamus. [Index.] Secundum genus est, quod tacito pede atque ore avem
quærit, & nutum juvantis heri sequitur, vel promovendo se, vel
reducendo, vel in alterutram partem dextram aut sinistram declinando.
Cum avem dico, Perdicem & Coturnicem intelligo. Cum invenerit, cauto
silentio, suspenso vestigio, & occulto speculatu, humiliando se
prorepit, & cum propè est, procumbit, & pedis indicio locum stationis
avium prodit: unde canem indicem vocare placuit. Loco commonstrato,
auceps exporrectum rete avi inducit. Quo facto, canis ad consuetum heri
indicium seu vocabulum quam mox assurgit, & propinquiori præsentia aves
perturbat, atque ut inexplicabilius irretiantur, facit. [Lepus tympanum
pulsat.] Quod artificium in (5) cane, animali domestico, mirum videri
non debet, cum & lepus agreste animal, & saltare, & tympanum
anterioribus pedibus numero pulsare tympanistarum more, & canem dente
atque ungue petere, pedibusque crudeliter cædere, in Anglia visus est
omnium admiratione, anno salutis nostræ 1564. Nec est vanum istud, eoque
relatum lubentius, quòd operæ pretium putarem, nihil prætereundum esse,
in quo naturæ spectanda sit providentia. [Aquaticus seu inquisitor.] Qui
per aquas aucupatur propensione naturali accedente mediocri documento,
major his est, & promisso naturaliter hirtus pilo. Ego tamen ab armis ad
posteriores suffragines, caudamque extremam, ad te (Gesnere) detonsum
pinxi, ut usus noster postulat, quo pilis nudus expeditior sit, & minus
per natationes retardetur. Aquaticus à nostris appellatur, ab aquis quas
frequentat sumpta appellatione. Eo aut aves in aquis aucupamur (&
præcipue anates; unde etiam anatarius dicitur, quod id excellenter
facit) aut Scorpione occisas educimus, aut spicula sagittasve fallente
ictu recuperamus, aut amissa requirimus: quo nomine & canes inquisitores
eosdem appellamus. [Anatum fallaciæ.] Quanquam Anas & canem & aucupem
quoque egregiè subinde fallat, tum urinando, tum etiam dolo naturali.
Etenim si quis hominum, ubi incubant aut excludunt, propinquabit,
egressæ matres venientibus se sponte offerunt, & simulata debilitate vel
pedum vel alarum, (5b) quasi statim capi possint, egressus fingunt
tardiores. Hoc mendacio sollicitant obvios, & eludunt, quoad profecti
longius, à nidis avocentur; caventque diligenter revertendo, ne indicium
loci conversatio frequens faciat. [Anaticularum providentia.] Nec
anaticularum studium segnius ad cavendum. Cum enim visas se
persentiscunt, sub cespitem confugiunt aut carectum, quorum obtectu tam
callidè proteguntur, ut lateant etiam deprehensæ, nisi fraudem canis
odore detegat. [Canis piscator.] Canem piscatorem (de quo scribit Hector
Boethus) qui inter saxa pisces odore perquirit, nullum planè novi inter
nostros, neque ex relatione aliquando audivi, etsi in ea re perscrutanda
perdiscendaque diligentior fuerim inter piscatores & venatores: [Lutra.]
nisi Lutram piscem dicas, ut à multis creditur: [Pupinus.] quo modo &
Pupinus avis piscis esse dicitur & habetur. Sed qui perquirit piscem (si
quis perquirat) venationisne causa, an famis faciat, more cæterorum
canum, qui per inediam cadaverum morticinam carnem appetere solent, tum
demum ad te scribam, cum de ea re certior fiam. Interim id scio, Ælianum
& Aetium Lutram κύνα ποτάμιον solere appellare. Intelligo etiam Lutram
hoc habere cum cane commune, quòd per inopiam piscium excursiones in
terram faciat, atque agnos laniet, rursusque ad aquam satur redeat.
Sed inter nostros canes is non est. [Phoca.] Phoca etiam inter scopulos
atque saxa prædatur piscem, sed in numero canum nostratium habitus non
est, etsi canis marinus à nostris (6) appelletur. [Ex generosis
delicatis, Melitæus seu fotor.] Est & aliud genus canum generosorum apud
nos, sed extra horum ordinem, quos Melitæos Callimachus vocat, à Melita
insula in freto Siculo (quæ hodie usu derivante Malta vulgo dicitur, &
christiano milite nobilis existit) unde ortum id genus habuit maximè:
atque à Melita Siculi Pachyni, ut author Strabo est. Perexiguum id est
planè, & fœminarum lusibus ac deliciis tantum expetitum, quibus, quo
minus est, eo gratius est, ut sinu gestent in cubiculis, & manu in
pilentis, genus sanè ad omnia inutile, nisi quòd stomachi dolorem sedat,
applicatum sæpius, aut in sinu ægri gestatum frequentius, caloris
moderatione. Quin & transire quoque morbos ægritudine eorum
intelligitur, plerumque & morte: quasi malo in eos transeunte caloris
similitudine.

Generosorum canum genus jam explicui: Nunc rusticum adjicio. [Ex
rusticis.] In eo memorabilia duo tantum genera sunt: pecuarium seu
pastorale, & villaticum seu Molossum: alterum ad propellendas injurias
ferarum, alterum adversus insidias hominum utile. [Pastoralis.]
Pastorale nostrum mediocre est, quòd illi cum Lupo, naturali pecori
inimico, res non est, cum apud nos nullus est, beneficio optimi
principis Edgari, qui, quò genus universum deleretur, Cambris (apud quos
in magna copia erant) vectigalis nomine in annos imperavit trecentos
lupos. [Lupi nulli in Britannia.] Sunt qui scribunt Ludwallum Cambriæ
principem pendisse annuatim Edgaro regi 3000 luporum tributi nomine,
atque ita annis quatuor omnem Cambriam atque adeo omnem Angliam orbasse
lupis. [Edgarus.] Regnavit autem Edgarus circiter annum (6b) Domini 959.
A quo tempore non legimus nativum in Anglia visum lupum: advectum tamen
quæstus faciundi causa ex alienis regionibus, ut spectetur tantum,
tanquam animal rarum & incognitum, sæpius vidimus. Sed ad canem
pastoralem. Is ad certam heri jubentis vocem, aut ex pugno concluso &
inflato clariorem sibilum, errantes oves in eum locum redigit, in quem
pastor maximè desiderat; sic ut levi negotio, & immoto ferè pede, pastor
quo velit modo ovibus moderetur, vel ut se promoveant, vel gradum
sistant, pedem referant, vel in hanc illamve partem se inclinent. Etenim
non ut in Gallia & Germania, non ut in Syria & Tartaria, sic in Anglia
quoque oves pastorem sequuntur, sed contra, pastor oves. Quandoque etiam
nullo procurrente aut circumeunte cane, ad solum ex pugno sibilum sese
congregant palantes oves, metu canis credo, memores unà cum sibilo
prodire quoque & canem solere. Id quod in itinere diligenter sæpius
observavimus, ad pastoris sibilum refrænantes equos, quo videremus rei
experimentum. Eodem etiam cane ovem vel mactandum prehendit, vel
sanandum pastor capit, nulla prorsus læsione.

[Villaticus seu Catenarius.] Villaticum vastum genus est & robustum,
corpore quidem grave & parum velox, sed aspectu truculentum, voce
terrificum, & quovis Arcadico (qui tamen ex leonibus creditur provenire)
potentius atque acrius. Quòd villis fideliter custodiendis (7)
destinamus, cum metus est à furibus, villaticum appellamus. His quoque
utile id est contra vulpem atque taxum, qui rem pecuariam faciunt. Valet
etiam ad sues agrestes persequendos, domesticos è frugibus aut arvis
abigendos, taurosque capiendos atque retinendos, cum usus aut venatio
postulat, singuli singulos, aut summum duo singulos, quamvis
intractabiles. Est enim acerrimum genus & violentum, formidabile etiam
homini, quem non reformidat. Neque enim ad arma expavescit; quóque
acrius fiat, assuescunt nostri naturam arte & consuetudine juvare.
Etenim ursos, tauros, arctylos, aliaque fera animalia, præfectis
certaminum arctophylacibus, nullo millo, nullo corio defenses exagitare:
sæpe etiam cum homine sude, clava, enseve armato concertare decent,
atque ita ferociores acrioresque reddunt, & imperterritos faciunt. Vis
illis supra fidem, & pertinax mordacitas, usque adeo ut tres ursum,
quatuor vel leonem comprehendant. [Henricus septimus.] Quod videns
aliquando (ut fama est) HENRICUS septimus, Angliæ rex prudentissimus,
quotquot erant suspendi jussit, indignatus ut infimi & ignobilis generis
canes, generoso leoni, & animalium regi violentiam inferant: memorabili
exemplo subditorum, ne quid contra regem gens rebellis audeat. Haud
absimilis etiam historia de eo fertur, quod falconem quendam suum,
à falconariis vehementer laudatum, quòd in aquilam quid (7b) auderet,
quam mox occidi jussit, ob eandem rationem. Hoc genus canis, etiam
catenarium, à catena ligamento, qua ad januas interdiu detinetur,
ne solutum lædat, & tamen latratu terreat, appellatur. [Cicero.] Et
quanquam Cicero pro S. Ross. opinetur, si canes luce latrent, iis crura
suffringantur, nostri tamen homines propter securitatem vitæ atque rei
longe aliter sentiunt. [Fures.] Nam furum apud nos plena sunt omnia,
etiam luce, neque infamem mortem suspendia metuunt. In causa est non
curta res solum, sed vestis vitæque luxus atque fastus etiam, sed
petulantia, sed otium & superbia Salaconum μεγαλοῤῥούντων, qui nihil
aliud quàm ut equi insultare solo & gressus glomerare superbos, quàm
gyro breviori flecti, qui nihil aliud quàm cevere, quàm otiosè
mendicando accusata non merente corporis infirmitate spoliare.
[Valentinianus.] Sed his Valentinianus imperator benè prospexit, legibus
latis, ut qui nullo corporis morbo laborantes, corporis infirmitatem
desidiosi ignavique prætexentes, mendicarent, perpetui colono ei
inservirent, qui eorum ignaviam proderet atque accusaret, ne eorum
desidia onerosa populo, odiosave sit exemplo. [Alfredi vigilantia.]
Alfredus quoque regno administrando tanta vigilantia justitiaque usus
est, ut si quis per vias publicas incedens, marsupium auro plenum
vesperi perdidisset, manè, atque adeo post mensem unum, integrum &
intactum inveniret, uti Ingulphus Croylandensis in historia refert.
Nostra autem ætate, nihil ferè securum, ne in ædibus quidem, quamvis
accuratè conclusis. [Canis custos.] Custos quoque (Græcis οἰκουρὸς)
a (8) custodiendis non solum villis, sed & mercatorum ædibus, & quibus
ampla res est domi, canis iste nominatur. Eam ob rem canes publicæ
alebantur Romæ in Capitolio, ut significent si fures venerint. [Canis
laniarius.] Dicitur & Laniarium, quòd eorum usus multus sit laniis
agendis & capiendis bestiis. [Molossicus.] Sed & Molossicum quoque &
Molossum latinis dicitur, à Molossia Epiri regione, ubi hoc genus canes
boni & acres erant. [Mandatarius.] Est ex hoc genere quem Mandatarium ex
argumento appellamus: quòd domini mandato literas aliasve res de loco in
locum transferat, vel mellio inclusas, vel eidem alligatas. Quæ ne
intercipiantur, vel pugna, vel fuga si impar sit, diligenter cavet.
[Lunarius.] Est & Lunarium, quòd nihil aliud quàm excubias agit, quàm
insomnes noctes totas protrahit baubando ad lunam, ut Nonii verbo utar.
[Aquarius.] Ex quibus grandiores atque graviores, etiam rotæ amplioris
circumactu, aquam ex altis puteis ad usus rusticos hauriunt, quos
Aquarios appellamus ex officio: [Sarcinarius.] & sarctores ærarios vagos
manticis ferendis memorabili patientia levant; à qua re sarcinarios
nuncupamus. Præter has villaticorum qualitates atque usus, hanc unam
habent præcipuam, quòd amantes dominorum sunt, & odium gerant in
externos. [Defensor.] Quo fit ut per itinera dominis in præsidio sunt,
quos à furibus defendunt, vivos salvosque conservant: a qua re etiam
canes defensores jure dici possunt. [Canum amor & fides.] At si quando
vel multitudine, vel majori vi opprimatur dominus atque concidat, usu
compertum (8b) est, herum non deserere ne mortuum quidem, sed eum ad
multos dies per famis & cœli injuriæ patientiam peramanter observare,
& homicidam, si occasio dabitur, interficere, aut saltem prodere vel
latratu, vel ira, vel hostili insultu, quasi mortem heri ulturum.
[Kingestoune.] Hujus rei exemplo fuit nostra memoria canis cujusdam
viatoris, qui Londino recta Kingestonum, octo regum coronatione
percelebre oppidum, profecturus, cum bonam itineris partem confecisset,
latronum insidiis in Comparco, valli amplo & spatioso, nemoribus obsito,
& latrociniis infami loco, occubuit. Canis item ille Britannus genere,
quem Blondus sua memoria scribit, non longe Parisiis hero à rivali
interempto, & homicidam prodidisse, & ni canis ultionem homicida
deprecatus esset, jugulaturum fuisse. In incendiis quoque in conticinio
seu intempesta nocte incidentibus, eo usque latrant annosi canes, etiam
prohibiti, dum à domesticis excitatis percipiatur focus; & tum sua
sponte cessant à latratu, quod usu compertum est in Britannia. Nec minor
erat fides in eo cane qui domino profundam foveam per venatum incidenti
nunquam abfuit, dum sui unius indicio sublatus is per funem fuit: in
quem, cum oris cavernæ proximus esset, insiliebat canis, tanquam ulnis
amplexurus revertentem herum, impatiens longioris moræ. [Canum ingenia.]
Sunt qui focum non patiuntur dissipari, sed prunas in focum pede
removent, prius cogitabundi (9) aspicientes qua ratione id possit à se
fieri. Quod si pruna ardentior fuerit, cinere obruunt, ac dein nare in
locum promovent. Sunt quoque qui noctu villici officium præstant. Cum
enim lectum petit herus, & omnia centum ærei claudunt vectes, æternaque
ferri robora, nec custos absistit limine Janus (ut scribit Virgilius)
tum si prodire jubeat herus canem, is per fundos omnes oberrat, quovis
villico diligentior, & si alienum quid invenerit sive hominem, sive
bestiam, abigit, domesticis relictis animalibus atque servis. Sed quanta
in his fidelitas, tanta varietas in ingeniis. Nam sunt qui ore infræno
latrent tantum nullo morsu; verum hi minus tremendi, quòd timidiores
sunt. Canes enim timidi vehementius latrant, ut est in proverbio. Sunt
qui latrent atque mordeant. Ab his cavendum quidem, quia admonent futuræ
injuriæ, sed non lacessendum, quoniam ira concitantur ad dentem, ipsi
etiam natura acerbiores. Sunt qui sine voce prosiliunt, impetu involant,
jugulum petunt, & crudelius lacerant. Hos formidato, quia ammosiores
sunt, & incautos opprimunt. [Notæ ignaviæ aut audaciæ.] Istis notis
ignavum genus a strenuo, audax a timido discernunt nostri. Etenim ex
malo genere, ne catulum quidem habendum existimant, quòd nullum
necessariis usibus humanis commodiorem canem isto putent. Nam si quis
commemoratos eorum usus ad summas velit revocare, quis hominum clarius
aut tanta vociferatione bestiam vel furem prædicat, quam iste latratu?
quis domitor ferarum potentior? quis famulus (9b) amantior domini? quis
fidelior comes? quis custos incorruptior? quis excubitor vigilantior?
quis ultor aut vindex constantior? quis nuncius expeditior? quis
aquarius laboriosior? quis denique sarctor ærarius gestandis sarcinis
tolerantior? Atque hæc quidem de canibus Britannicis generosis atque
rusticis, qui genus suum servant, diximus. [Ex degeneribus.] De
degeneribus, & ex horum diverso genere mixtis, quòd nullam insignem veri
generis qualitatem formamque referant, non est quod velim plura
scribere, sed ut inutiles ablegare, nisi quòd vel advenas latratu
excipiant, etiam luce, & eorum adventus domesticos commonefaciant,
[Admonitor.] unde canes admonitores appellamus: vel quòd in officio
culinario, cum assandum est, inserviant, & rota minore gradiendo, verua
circumagant, pondereque suo æquabiliter versent, ut ne calo aut lixa
quidem artificiosius; [Versator.] quos hinc canes versatores, seu
veruversatores nostrum vulgus nominat: postremos omnium generum, quæ
primo memoravimus. [Tympanista.] Sunt etiam canes nostri degeneres & ad
tympanum saltare, & ad lyræ modos se movere docti, multaque alia erecti
pronique facere, quæ à vagis quæstuosisque heris exequi didicerunt.
[Lyciscus.] Lyciscum nullum istic in Anglia habemus nativum, ut ne lupum
quidem ut est ante comprehensum, nec aliud genus ullum præter Lacænam &
Urcanum: [Lacæna.] illam ex cane & vulpe (quam multam habet Anglia, &
domi inter canes vel animi vel morbi causa sæpè alit) [Urcanus.] hunc ex
urso & cane catenario; quos licet inimicos, pruriens tamen libido sæpè
ita hic conjungit, ut alibi solet. Nam cum tigride Hircanos, cum leone
Arcadicos, cum lupo Gallicos commiscuisse (10) legimus. In hominibus
quoque quibus ratio est, inimicos animos conciliat stulta illa res &
naturalis, ut Moria loquitur. Est hic urcanus, sæva bestia, &
intractabilis iræ (ut Gratii poetæ verbis utar) cæteros canes nostros
omnes feroci crudelitate superans, vel aspectus torvitate terribilis, in
pugna acris & vehemens, tantaque mordacitate, ut citius discerpas quàm
dissolvas; nec lupum nec taurum, ursum aut leonem reformidat: vel cum
cane illo Alexandri Indico certe conferendus. Sed de his hactenus ut de
Britannicis verba fecimus. [Externi canes.] Externos aliquos & eos
majusculos, Islandicos dico & Littuanicos, usus dudum recepit: quibus
toto corpore hirtis, ob promissum longumque pilum, nec vultus est, nec
figura corporis. [Externa prælata.] Multis tamen quòd peregrini sunt, &
grati sunt, & in Melitæorum locum assumpti sunt: usque adeo deditum est
humanum genus etiam sine ratione novitatibus. ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτρίων,
παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς, miramur aliena, nostra non diligimus. Neque hoc in
canibus solum, sed in artificibus quoque usu venit. Nostros enim licet
doctos & peritos fastidimus, belluam è longinqua barbarie alienoque solo
profectam (10b) tanquam asinum Cumani, aut hominem Thalem, nostri
suspiciunt. Id quod Hippocrates sub initio libri sui περὶ ἀγμῶν recte
sua ætate observavit, & nos libello nostro seu consilio de Ephemera
Britannica ad populum Britannicum copiosius explicuimus. Atque in hoc
genere quo quisque indoctior, audacior, incogitantior, hoc pluris fit
apud nostros, atque etiam apud torquatos istos principes atque proceres.
Cæterum de externis canibus nihil dico, quòd de Britannicis tantum voto
tuo satisfacere studeo, Conrade vir doctissime. [Canis Getulus.] Inter
ea tamen quæ aliàs ad te dedi, de cane Getulo seorsum scripsi, quòd rara
species ejus videbatur. De cætero genere, ipse plenissimè scribis. Verum
cum longius jam produximus hunc libellum quàm priorem ad te, brevius
tamen quam pro natura rei, quòd habuimus rationem studiorum tuorum,
memoriæ causa quæ de canibus Britannicis diximus, in diagramma
reducemus. Et quia vulgaribus nominibus delectaris, ut ex literis tuis
didici, ea quoque Latinis apponemus, & singulorum rationes exponemus,
quo nihil tibi sit incognitum aut desideratum.


Canes ergo Britannici, aut sunt

       { Nomina
       { Latina
         { Anglica

  Generosi.
      Venatici.
          Sagax.
            Hunde
              Terrarius.
                Terrare.
              Leverarius.
                Harier.
              Sanguinarius.
                Blud-hunde.
          Agasæus.
            Gasehunde.
          Leporarius.
            Grehunde.
          Levinarius seu Lorarius.
            Leviner, or Lyemmer.
          Vertagus.
            Tumbler.
      Aucupatorii.
          Hispaniolus.
            Spainel.
          Index.
            Setter.
          Aquaticus, seu Inquisitor.
            Water-spainel, or Fynder.
      Delicati.
          Melitæus, seu Fotor.
            Spainel-gentle, or Comforter.
  Rustici.
      Pastoralis.
        Shepherd’s Dog.
      Villaticus, seu Catenarius.
        Mastive, or Bandedog.
  Degeneres.
      Admonitor.
        Wappe.
      Versator.
        Turn-spit.
      Saltator.
        Dancer.


Ista vocabula nostratia cum nihil apud te, hominem (11) peregrinum,
loquantur sine interpretatione, ut Latinorum vocabulorum rationem prius
reddidimus, ita Anglicorum jam reddemus, quo tibi pateant universa, eo
etiam quo prius observato ordine.

[Sagax.] Hunde igitur (quem inter venaticos sagacem diximus) a verbo
nostro hunte, quod apud nostros venari significat, unica tantum immutata
litera derivata appellatione, nomen habet. Quod si a vocabulo vestrati
hunde, (quod canem in universum apud vos significat) propter vocum
similitudinem appellari credas (mi Gesnere) ut non magnopere repugnabo,
cum adhuc retinemus multa Germanica vocabula, a Saxonibus cum Angliam
occuparunt nobis relicta, ita illud admonebo, commune quidem nomen canis
apud nos dogge esse, venatici vero canis hunde.

[Agasæus.] Similiter à verbo nostrati, Gase, (quòd fixius rem aliquam &
attentius contueri est) Gasehunde appellatur nostris, quem ante Agasæum
nominari diximus. Neque enim odoratu, sed prospectu attento & diligenti
feram persequitur iste canis, ut jam ante memoravimus; etsi non sum
nescius etiam apud Latinos Agasæi vocabulum inter canum nomina reperiri.

[Leporarius.] A Gre quoque, Grehunde apud nostros invenit nomen, quod
præcipui gradus inter canes sit, & primæ generositatis. (11b) Gre enim
apud nostros gradum denotat. Hunc latinè Leporarium dicebamus.

[Levinarius.] A levitate Leviner, à loro Lyemmer, appellatur is quem
Levinarium & Lorarium latinè nominavimus. Nam Lyemme nostra lingua,
Lorum significat. Quod autem a levitate Leviner, hoc est a latina voce
Britannicam, diducimus: cur in libris nostris sparsim a Græcis
dictionibus & Latinis Italicis & Germanicis, Gallicis & Hispanicis
nostratia multa derivamus, unde ortum eadem multa habuerunt: [Lib. de
symphonia.] & quemadmodum ab origine sua etiam multa per corruptionem
jam declinarunt, libello nostro de symphonia seu consonantia vocum
Britannicarum fusius explicabimus.

[Vertagus.] Postremus inter venaticos Vertagus est, quem Tumbler
vocitamus; quòd tumble apud nos vertere est Latinis, & tumbiere Gallis,
unde ortum habet id nomen Tumbler, mutata vocali in liquidam nostro
more: contra quàm in lingua Gallica & Italica, in quibus liquida ante
vocalem, magna ex parte in aliam vocalem vertitur, ut impiere & piano,
pro implere & plano, quæ exempli gratia adduce, cum infinita sint.

[Aucupatorii.] Post Venaticos sequuntur Aucupatorii; inter quos primus
est Hispaniolus, quem ab Hispania voce nomen accepisse prius diximus.
Nostri omissa aspiratione & prima vocali, Spainel & Spaniel expediti
sermonis causa proferunt.

[Index.] Secundus Index, quem nostri a Setter nominare solent, a verbo
sette, quod locum designare nostris Britannis significat.

[Aquaticus.] (12) Post hunc subsequitur aquaticus, hoc est a
Waterspainel, a vocibus Water & Spaine (hoc est aqua & Hispania) deducto
nomine. Nam aqua, in qua se exercet canis iste, Water; & Hispania (unde
primum genus hoc tractum ex nomine creditur) Spaine apud nostros
vocitatur. Non quòd isti canes non sint etiam nativi in Britannia, sed
quòd generale & commune nomen canum, qui ex Hispania primò profecti
putantur, istæ canum species (ut & cæteri Aucupatorii) adhuc vulgo
referunt, etsi in Britannia oriantur, & peculiari aliqua vocis nota,
aut qualitatis indicio secernantur apud nos; ut est ista species vocis
Water, hoc est aquæ, appositione. [Inquisitor.] Alio etiam nomine a
Finder canis iste appellatur, quòd quærendo invenit res deperditas, quæ
res nostris, fynde, hoc est invenire, dicitur. Nos tamen ab inquirendo
latinum nomen huic fecimus, quòd præcipua pars inventionis in inquirendo
est.

A venaticis & aucupatoriis transitus est ad Delicatos, Rusticos, &
Degeneres. [Delicati.] Delicatum, Melitæum & Spainel gentle, hoc est
Hispaniolum generosum, nominavimus, à generositatis nomine data
appellatione, quòd inter nobiles viros atque fœminas versari, & iis in
deliciis atque ad lusus esse consuevit: ut erat illud Gorgonis κυνίδιον
apud Theocritum in Syracusiis, quod discedens servæ diligentiæ pari cura
cum infante commiserat, ut catellum quidem illa intro revocaret, puerum
verò vagientem placaret. Ad alia omnia (12b) inutilis canis iste est,
nisi ad ea quæ jam ante diximus, nisi ad fovendum stomachum debilitatum
frigore, nisi ad prodendum adulterium, quod fecisse hujus generis
catellum quendam Siculum refert Ælianus, libro septimo, capite vicesimo
quinto animalium.

[Rustici.] Rusticos, Shepeherdes dogges, Mastives, & Bandedogges
nominavimus: illorum quidem deducto nomine a pastore, qui Shepeherde
apud nos dicitur, quòd custodit oves, quæ nostris, Shepe, appellantur:
istorum a ligamento, quod Bande, & Sagina, quod maste, villicis nostris
hominibus dicitur. Est enim crassum genus canum, & bene saginatum
catenarium hoc. Etsi non sum nescius Augustinum Niphum, Mastinum
(mastivum nostri dicunt) pecuarium existimare: & Albertum Lyciscum ex
cane & lupo genitum esse scribere: quamvis idem pro Molosso magna ex
parte vertat.

[Versator.] Ad postremum, degeneres Wappe & Turnespete nominari
dicebamus: hunc a verbo nostrati turne, quòd est verto & spete, seu
spede ad imitationem Italorum, quod veru dicitur; illum a naturali canis
voce Wau, quam in latratu edit admonendo. Unde, originaliter Waupe
dicendum fuit. Sed euphoniæ bonæque consonantiæ gratia, vocali in
consonantem mutata, Wappe a nostris vocitatur. Etsi non me fugit Nonium,
a voce naturali Bau, formare suum baubari, non a Wau, quemadmodum &
Græci à suo βαύζειν.

[Saltator.] (13) Jam verò quod dansare nostris, saltare sit Latinis, si
didiceris, non est de canis saltatoris nostrati nomine amplius quod ipse
expetas.

Ita habes (mi Gesnere) non solum canum nostratium genera, sed & nomina
quoque Latina atque Anglica, officia atque usus, differentias atque
mores, naturas & ingenia, ut non sit quod desideres in hoc argumento
amplius. Et quanquam forsan omni ex parte non satisfecerim tibi in
edendo (cui in desideriis omnis festinatio in mora esse videatur) quòd
inhibuerim editionem rudioris illius libelli, quem ad te tanquam ad
privatum amicum, non ad editionem publicam ante annos quinque dederim;
tamen in hoc spero me satisfecisse tibi, quòd mora fecit aliquanto
meliorem, & δεύτεραι φροντίδες lectu commodiorem.


  _Joannis Caii Britanni de Canibus Britannicis libelli finis._

  _Iste liber scriptus fuit ante mortem Gesneri, etsi non ante
    publicatus, ut est ille de rariorum animalium atque
    stirpium historia._



  In lib. Ioannis Caij Britanni
  _de canibus Britannicis,_
  _index._


  A

  Admonitor.                                Fol. 9.a
  Agasæus.                                 3.a. 11.a
  Alfredi iustitia in fures.                     7.b
  Anatis providentia.                            5.a
  Anaticularum fallatiæ.                         5.b
  Aquaticus canis.                         5.a. 12.a
  Aquarius.                                      8.a
  Aucupatorij.                                  11.b

  B

  Blondus.                                       8.b
  Bracha.                                        2.b

  C

  Canis cathenarius.                             6.b
  Canis tympanista.                              9.b
  Canis custos.                                  7.b
  Canes externi.                                10.a
  Canis defensor.                                8.a
  Canis Lucernarius.                             8.a
  Canis mandatarius.                             8.a
  Canis piscator.                                5.b
  Canis pastoralis.                              6.a
  Canis Getulus.                                10.a
  Canis sarcinarius.                             8.a
  Canis timidus quo modo à strenuo
    discernendus.                                9.a
  Canis ultor.                                   8.b
  Canis index.                                   4.b
  Canis excubitor.                               8.a
  Canis furax.                                   4.a
  Comparcum.                                     8.b

  D

  Degeneres canes.                               9.a
  Delicatus canis.                         6.a. 12.a
  Defensor.                                      8.a

  E

  Edgarus rex lupos sustulit.                    6.b
  Excubitor canis.                               8.a
  Externi canes.                                10.a
  Externa prælata.                              10.a

  F

  Fotor.                                         6.a
  Furum plena omnia.                             7.b

  G

  Generosi venatici.                             1.b
  Generosi aucupatorij.                          4.a
  Generosi delicati.                             6.a
  Getulus canis.                                10.a

  H

  Henrici septimi exemplum castigatæ
    rebellionis.                                 7.a
  Hispaniolus.                                   4.b

  I

  Index canis.                             4.b. 11.b
  Ingulphus Croylandensis historicus.            7.b
  Inquisitor.                            5.a. & 12.a
  Islandicus canis.                             10.a

  K

  Kyngeston, seu Kingestoune, octo regum (Edwardi
    primi, Athelstani, Edmundi, Aldredi, Edwini,
    Edgari, Edeldredi, Edwardi cognomento ferrei
    lateris) coronatione percelebre oppidum.
                                                 8.b

  L

  Laniarius.                                     8.a
  Lacæna.                                        9.b
  Leverarius.                                    2.a
  Leporarius.                              3.b. 11.a
    Henrici secundi.                             3.b
  Levinarius.                              3.b. 11.b
  Lepus tympanista.                              5.a
  Liber de symphonia vocum Britannicarum.       11.b
  Littuanicus canis.                            10.a
  Lorarius.                                      3.b
  Lupos ex Anglia sustulit Edgarus rex.          6.a
  Lupi nulli in Britannia.                       6.a
  Lutra an piscis? an canis piscator?            5.b
  Lucernarius.                                   8.a
  Lunarius.                                      8.a
  Lyciscus.                                      9.a

  M

  Mandatarius.                                   8.a
  Melitæus.                                      6.a
  Mendici valentes.                              7.b
  Molossus.                        6.a. &. b. &. 8.a

  O

  οἰκουρός.                                      8.a
  Oves pastorem sequentes.                       6.b

  P

  Pastoralis canis.                              6.a
  Phoca.                                         5.b
  Pupinus piscis & avis.                         5.b
  Pervigil canis.                                8.a

  R

  Rustici canes.                           6.a. 11.b
  Rebellionis exemplum castigatum.               7.a

  S

  Sagax.                                   1.b. 11.a
  Saltator.                                9.a. 12.b
  Salacones.                                     7.b
  Sanguinarius.                                  2.a
  Sarcinarius.                                   8.a

  T

  Terrarius.                                     2.a
  Tympanista.                                    9.a

  V

  Valentiniani imperatoris in validos
    mendicos lex.                                7.b
  Venatici canes.                                1.b
  Vertagus.                                3.b. 11.b
  Versator.                                9.b. 12.b
  Villaticus.                                    6.b
  Vrcanus.                                       9.b


_Indicis finis._


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

  Of Englishe Dogges,
  _the diuersities, the names,_
  +the natures, and the properties.+

  A Short
  _Treatise written in latine_

  +by Iohannes Caius of late
  memorie, Doctor of Phisicke
  in the Uniuersitie
  of Cambridge,+

  +And newly drawne into Englishe
  by Abraham Fleming
  Student.+

  _Natura etiam in brutis vin
  ostendit suam._

  Scene and allowed.

  ¶ Imprinted at London

  +by Rychard Johnes, and are to be
  solde ouer against S. Sepulchres
  Church without Newgate.+
  1576.



¶ A Prosopopoicall speache _of the Booke._

  Some tell of starres th’influence straunge,
    Some tell of byrdes which flie in th’ayre,
  Some tell of beastes on land which raunge,
    Some tell of fishe in riuers fayre,
  Some tell of serpentes sundry sortes,
    Some tell of plantes the full effect,
  Of English dogges I sound reportes,
    Their names and natures I detect,
  My forhed is but baulde and bare:
    But yet my body’s beutifull,
  For pleasaunt flowres in me there are,
    And not so fyne as plentifull:
  And though my garden plot so greene,
    Of dogges receaue the trampling feete,
  Yet is it swept and kept full cleene,
    So that it yeelds a sauour sweete.

  _Ab. Fle._



DOCTISSIMO VIRO, ET

  Patrono suo singulari D. Perne, E-
  _liensis ecclesiæ Cathedralis dignissi-_
  mo Decano, Abrahamus Flemingus,
  ευδαιμονιαν.


Scripsit non multis abhinc annis (optime Patrone) et non impolitè
scripsit, vir omnibus optimarum literarum remis instructissimus, de
doctorum grege non malè meritus, tuæ dignitati familiaritatis nexu
coniunctissimus, clarissimum Cantabrigiensis academiæ lumen, gẽma,
et gloria, Johannes Caius, ad Conradum Gesnerum summum suum, hominem
peritissimum, indagatorem rerum reconditarum sagacissimum, pulcherrimaq.
historiarum naturalium panoplia exornatũ, epitomen de canibus
Britannicis non tam breuem quàm elegantem, et vtilem, epitomen inquam
variis variorum experimentorum argumentis concinnatam; in cuius
titulum cũ forte incidissem, et nouitate rei nonnihil delectarer,
interpretationem Anglicam aggressus sum. Postquam vero finem penso
imposuissem, repentina quædam de opusculi dedicatione cogitatio
oboriebatur tãdemque post multas multarum rerum iactationes,
beneficiorum tuorum (Ornatissime vir) vnica recordatio, instar
rutilantis stellæ, quæ radiorum splendore quaslibet caliginosas
teterrimæ obliuionis nebulas dissipat, et memoriæ serenitatem, plusquã
solarem, inducit, mihi illuxit; nec nõ officii ratio quæ funestissimis
insensæ fortunæ fulminibus conquassata, lacerata, et convulsa, penè
perierat, fractas vires multumq. debilitatas colligebat, pristinum
robur recuperauit, tandemque aliquando ex Lethea illa palude neruose
emergebat, atque eluctata est. Quã voraginẽ simulatque euaserat, sic
effloruit, adeoque increuit, vt vnamquamque animi mei cellulã in sui
ditionem atque imperii amplitudinem raperet. Nunc vero in contemplatione
meritorum tuorum versari non desino, quorum magnitudinem nescio an tam
tenui et leuidensi orationis filo possim circumscribere: Hoc, Ædepol,
me non mediocriter mouet, non leuiter torquet, non languide pungit. Est
præterea alia causa quæ mihi scrupulum injicit, et quodammodo exulcerat,
ingrati nempe animi suspicio a qua, tanquam ab aliqua Lernæa Hydra,
pedibus (vt aiunt) Achilleis semper fugi, et tamẽ valde pertimesco ne
officij mora et procrastinatio (vt ita dicam) obscænam securitatis labem
nomini meo inurat, eoque magis expauesco quod peruulgatum illud atque
decantatum poetæ carmen memoriæ occurrebat.

  Dedecus est semper sumere nilque dare.

Sed (Ornatissime vir) quemadmodũ metus illius mali me magnopere
affligebat atque fodicabat, ita spes alterius boni, nempe humanitatis
tuæ, qua cæteris multis interuallis præluxeris, erigit suffulcitque:
Ea etiam spes alma et opima iubet et hortatur aliquod quale quale sit,
officij specimen cum allacritate animi prodere. Hisce itaque
persuasionibus victus me morigerum præbui, absolutamque de canibus
Britannicis interpretationẽ Anglicam, tibi potissimum vtpote patrono
singulari, et vnico Mæcenati dedicandũ proposui: non quod tam ieiuno et
exili munere immensum meritorum tuorum mare metiri machiner, non quod
religiosas aures sacratasque, prophanæ paginæ explicatione obtundere
cupiam, nec quod nugatoriis friuolisque narrationibus te delectari
arbitrer, cum in diuinioribus excercitationibus totus sis: sed potius
(cedat fides dicto) quod insignis ille egregiusque liber alium artium,
et præcipuè medicæ facultatis princeps (qui hoc opusculum contexuit) ita
viguit dum vixerat adeoque inclaruit, vt haud scio (vt ingenué fatear
quod sentio) an post funera parem sibi superstitem reliquerit. Deinde
quod hunc libellum summo studio et industria elaboratum in transmarinas
regiones miserat, ad hominem omni literarum genere, et præsertim
occultarũ rerum cognitione, quæ intimis naturæ visceribus et medullis
insederat (O ingeniũ niueo lapillo dignũ) cuius difficultates
Laberyntheis anfractibus flexuosisque recessibus impeditas perscrutari
et iuuestigare (deus bone, quam ingẽs labor, quam infinitum opus,)
excultum, Conradum Gesnerum scriberet, qui tantam gratiam conciliauit vt
non solum amicissimo osculo exciperet, sed etiam stud lose lectitaret,
accuratè vteretur, inexhaustis denique viribus, tanquam perspicacissimus
draco vellus aureum, et oculis plusquam aquilinis custodiret, Postremo
quemadmodum hanc epitomen a viro verè docto ad virum summa nominis
celebritate decoratum scriptam fuisse accepimus, ita eandem ipsam (pro
titulo Britannico) Britãnico sermone, licet ineleganti, vsitata et
populari, ab esuriente Rhetore donatam, tuis (eruditissime vir) manibus
commendo vt tuo sub patrocino in has atque illas regionis nostræ partes
intrepide proficiscatur: obtestorque vt hunc libellum, humilem et
obscuram inscriptionem gerentem, argumentum nouum et antehæc non auditum
complectientem, ab omni tamen Sybaritica obscœnitate remotissimum, æqui
bonique consulas.


Tuæ dignitati deditissimus

  _Abrahamus_
  _Flemingus._



To the well disposed Reader.


As euery manifest effect proceedeth frõ som certain cause, so the
penning of this present abridgement (gentle and courteous reader) issued
from a speciall occasion. For Conradus Gesnerus, a man whiles he liued,
of incomparable knowledge, and manyfold experience, being neuer
satisfied with the sweete sappe of vnderstanding, requested _Iohannes
Caius_ a profound clarke and a rauennous deuourer of learning (to his
praise be it spoke though the language be somewhat homely) to write a
breuiary or short treatise of such dogges as were ingendred within the
borders of England: To the contentation of whose minde and the vtter
accomplishement of whose desire, _Caius_ spared no study, (for the
acquaintance which was betweene them, as it was confirmed by
continuaunce, and established vpon vnfainednes, so was it sealed with
vertue and honesty) withdrew himself from no labour, repined at no
paines, forsooke no trauaile, refused no indeuour, finally pretermitted
no opportunity or circumstaunce which seemed pertinent and requisite to
the performance of this litle libell. In the whole discourse wherof, the
booke, to consider the substaunce, being but a pamphlet or skantling,
the argument not so fyne and affected, and yet the doctrine very
profitable and necessarye, he vseth such a smoothe and comely style, and
tyeth his inuention to such methodicall and orderly proceedings, as the
elegantnes and neatnesse of his Latine phrase, (being pure, perfect,
and vn mingled) maketh the matter which of it selfe is very base and
clubbishe, to appeare (shall I say tollerable) nay rather commendable
and effectuall. The sundry sortes of Englishe dogges he discouereth so
euidently, their natures he rippeth vp so apparantly, their manners he
openeth so manifestly, their qualities he declareth so skilfully, their
proportions he painteth out so perfectly, their colours he describeth so
artificially, and knytteth all these in such shortnesse and breuity,
that the mouth of th’aduersary must needes confesse & giue sentence that
commendation ought to bee his rewarde, and praise his deserued pension.
An ignoraunt man woulde neuer have beene drawne into this opinion, to
thincke that there had bene in England such variety & choice of dogges,
in all respectes (not onely for name but also for qualitie) so diuerse
and vnlike: But what cannot learning attaine? what cannot the kay of
knowledge open? what cannot the lampe of vnderstanding lighten? what
secretes cannot discretion detect? finally what cannot experience
comprehend? what huge heapes of histories hath _Gesnerus_ hourded vp in
volumes of a large syze? Fishes in floudes, Cattell on lande, Byrdes in
the ayre, how hath he sifted them by their naturall differences?
how closely and in how narrow a compasse hath he couched mighty and
monstruous beasts, in bygnesse lyke mountaines, the bookes themselues
being lesser then Molehilles. The lyfe of this man was not so great a
restority of comfort, as his death was an vlcer or wound of sorrow:
the losse of whom _Caius_ lamented, not so much as he was his faithfull
friende, as for that he was a famous Philosopher, and yet the former
reason (being, in very deede, vehement and forceable) did stinge him
with more griefe, then he peraduenture was willing to disclose. And
though death be counted terrible for the time, and consequently vnhappy,
yet _Caius_ aduoucheth the death of _Gesner_ most blessed, luckie, and
fortunate, as in his Booke intituled _De libris proprijs_ appeareth. But
of these two Eagles sufficient is spoken as I suppose, and yet litle
enough in consideration of their dignitie and worthines. Neurthelesse
litle or mickle, something or nothing, substaunce or shadow take all in
good part, my meaning is by a fewe wordes to wynne credit to this worke,
not so much for mine owne Englishe Translation as for the singuler
commendation of them, challenged of dutie and desart. Wherefore gentle
Reader I commit them to thy memorie, and their bookes to thy courteous
censure. They were both learned men, and painefull practitioners in
their professions, so much the more therfore are their workes worthy
estimation, I would it were in me to aduaunce them as I wishe, the worst
(and yet both, no doubt, excellent) hath deserued a monument of
immortality. Well there is no more to be added but this, that as the
translatiõ of this booke was attempted, finished, and published of
goodwill (not onely to minister pleasure, as to affoord profit) so it is
my desire and request that my labour therin employed may be acceptable,
as I hope it shalbe to men of indifferent Judgement. As for such as
shall snarr and snatch at the Englishe abridgement, and teare the
Translatour, being absent, with the teeth of spightfull enuye, I
conclude in breuity there eloquence is but currishe, if I serue in their
meate with wrong sawce, ascribe it not to vnskilfulnesse in coquery, but
to ignoraunce in their diet, for as the Poet sayeth

  _Non satis est ars sola coquo, seruire palato:_
    _Nanque coquus dontini debet habere gulam:_

  It is not enough that a cooke vnderstand,
    Except his Lordes stomack he holde in his hand.

To winde vp all in a watcheworde I saye no more, But doe well, and
Farewell,

  His and his Friendes,

  Abraham
  Fleming.



  The first Section of this
  _discourse_.

  ¶ The Preamble or entraunce, into
  this treatise.


I wrote vnto you (well beloued friende _Gesner_) not many yeares past, a
manifolde historie, contayning the diuers formes and figures of Beastes,
Byrdes, and Fyshes, the sundry shapes of plantes, and the fashions of
Hearbes, &c.

I wrote moreouer, vnto you seuerally, a certayne abridgement of Dogges,
which in your discourse vpon the fourmes of Beastes in the seconde order
of mylde and tameable Beastes, where you make mencion of Scottishe
Dogges, and in the wynding vp of your Letter written and directed to
Doctour _Turner_, comprehending a Catalogue or rehersall of your bookes
not yet extant, you promised to set forth in print, and openly to
publishe in the face of the worlde among such your workes as are not yet
come abroade to lyght and sight. But, because certaine circumstaunces
were wanting in my breuiary of Englishe Dogges (as seemed vnto mee) I
stayed the publication of the same, making promise to sende another
abroade, which myght be commytted to the handes, the eyes, the eares,
the mindes, and the iudgements of the Readers. Wherefore that I myght
perfourme that preciselye, which I promised solempnly, accomplishe my
determination, and satisfy your expectacion: which art a man desirous
and (2) capeable of all kinde of knowledge, and very earnest to be
acquaincted with all experimentes: I wyll expresse and declare in due
order, the grand and generall kinde of Englishe Dogges, the difference
of them, the vse, the propertyes, and the diuerse natures of the same,
making a tripartite diuision in this sort and maner.

All Englishe Dogges be eyther of,

  { A gentle kinde, seruing the game.
  { A homely kind, apt for sundry necessary vses.
  { A currishe kinde, meete for many toyes.

Of these three sortes or kindes so meane I to entreate, that the first
in the first place, the last in the last roome, and the myddle sort in
the middle seate be handled. I cal thẽ vniuersally all by the name of
English dogges, as well because England only, as it hath in it English
dogs, so it is not without Scottishe, as also for that wee are more
inclined and delighted with the noble game of hunting, for we Englishmen
are adicted and giuen to that exercise, & painefull pastime of pleasure,
as well for the plenty of fleshe which our Parkes and Forrests doe
foster, as also for the oportunitie and conuenient leasure which we
obtaine, both which, the Scottes want. Wherfore seeing that the whole
estate of kindly hunting consisteth principally,

  In these two pointes,

  { In chasing the beast } that is in { hunting  }
  { In taking the byrde  }            { fowleing }

It is necessary and requisite to vnderstand, that there are two sortes
of Dogges by whose meanes, the feates within specifyed are wrought,
and these practyses of actiuitie cunningly and curiously compassed,

  Two kindes of Dogges

  { One which rouseth the beast
      and continueth the chase,         }
  { Another which springeth the byrde
      and bewrayeth flight by pursuite, }

Both which kyndes are tearmed of the Latines by one common name that is,
_Canes Venatici_, hunting dogges. But (3) because we Englishe men make a
difference betweene hunting and fowleling, for that they are called by
these seuerall wordes, _Venatio_ & _Aucupium_, so they tearme the Dogges
whom they vse in these sundry games by diuers names, as those which
serue for the beast, are called _Venatici_, the other which are vsed for
the fowle are called _Aucupatorij_.

  The first kind called _Venatici_ I deuide into fiue sortes.

  { The first in perfect smelling
  { The second in quicke spying
  { The thirde in swiftnesse and quicknesse
  { The fourth in smelling & nymblenesse
  { The fifte in subtiltie and deceitfulnesse,

  excelleth.


Of the Dogge called a Harier, in Latine _Leuerarius_.

That kinde of Dogge whom nature hath indued with the vertue of smelling,
whose property it is to vse a lustines, a readines, and a couragiousnes
in hunting, and draweth into his nostrells the ayre or sent of the beast
pursued and followed, we call by this word _Sagax_, the _Græcians_ by
thys word ἰχνευτήν of tracing or chasing by y^e foote, or ῥινηλάτην,
of the nostrells, which be the instrumentes of smelling. Wee may knowe
these kinde of Dogges by their long, large, and bagging lippes, by their
hanging eares, reachyng downe both sydes of their chappes, and by the
indifferent and measurable proportion of their making. This sort of
Dogges we call _Leuerarios_ Hariers, that I may comprise the whole nũber
of them in certaine specialties, and apply to them their proper and
peculier names, for so much as they cannot all be reduced (4) and
brought vnder one sorte, considering both the sundrye uses of them,
and the difference of their seruice wherto they be appointed.

  Some for

  { The Hare
  { The Foxe
  { The Wolfe
  { The Harte
  { The Bucke
  { The Badger
  { The Otter
  { The Polcat
  { The Lobster
  { The Weasell
  { The Conny, &c.

  Some for one thing and some for another.

As for the Conny, whom we haue lastly set downe, wee use not to hunt,
but rather to take it, somtime with the nette sometime with a ferret,
and thus euery seuerall sort is notable and excellent in his naturall
qualitie and appointed practise. Among these sundry sortes, there be
some which are apt to hunt two diuers beasts, as the Foxe otherwhiles,
and other whiles the Hare, but they hunt not with such towardnes and
good lucke after them, as they doe that whereunto nature hath formed and
framed them, not onely in externall composition & making, but also in
inward faculties and conditions, for they swarue oftentimes, and doo
otherwise then they should.


Of the Dogge called a Terrar, in Latine _Terrarius_.

Another sorte there is which hunteth the Foxe and the Badger or Greye
onely, whom we call Terrars, because they (after the manner and custome
of ferrets in searching for Connyes) creepe into the grounde, and by
that meanes make afrayde, nyppe, and byte the Foxe and the Badger in
such (5) sort, that eyther they teare them in peeces with theyr teeth
beyng in the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce
out of their lurking angles, darke dongeons, and close caues, or at the
least through cõceaued feare, driue them out of their hollow harbours,
in so much that they are compelled to prepare speedy flight, and being
desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are otherwise taken
and intrapped with snares and nettes layde ouer holes to the same
purpose. But these be the least in that kynde called _Sagax_.


Of the Dogge called a Bloudhounde in Latine _Sanguinarius_.

The greater sort which serue to hunt, hauing lippes of a large syze,
& eares of no small lenght, doo, not onely chase the beast whiles it
liueth, (as the other doo of whom mencion aboue is made) but beyng dead
also by any maner of casualtie, make recourse to the place where it
lyeth, hauing in this poynt an assured and infallible guyde, namely, the
sent and sauour of the bloud sprinckled heere and there vpon the ground.
For whether the beast beyng wounded, doth notwithstanding enioye life,
and escapeth the handes of the huntesman, or whether the said beast
beyng slayne is conuayed clenly out of the parcke (so that there be some
signification of bloud shed) these Dogges with no lesse facilitie and
easinesse, then auiditie and greedinesse can disclose and bewray the
same by smelling, applying to their pursute, agilitie and nimblenesse,
without tediousnesse, for which consideration, of a singuler specialtie
they deserued to bee called _Sanguinarij_ bloudhounds. And albeit
peraduenture it may chaunce, (As whether it chaunceth sealdome or
sometime I am ignorant) that a peece of fleshe be subtily stolne and
cunningly conuayed away with such prouisos and precaueats as thereby
all apparaunce (6) of bloud is eyther preuented, excluded, or concealed,
yet these kinde of dogges by a certaine direction of an inwarde assured
notyce and priuy marcke, pursue the deede dooers, through long lanes,
crooked reaches, and weary wayes, without wandring awry out of the
limites of the land whereon these desperate purloyners prepared their
speedy passage. Yea, the natures of these Dogges is such, and so
effectuall is their foresight, that they cã bewray, seperate, and pycke
them out from among an infinite multitude and an innumerable company,
creepe they neuer so farre into the thickest thronge, they will finde
him out notwithstandying he lye hidden in wylde woods, in close and
ouergrowen groues, and lurcke in hollow holes apte to harbour such
vngracious guestes. Moreouer, although they should passe ouer the water,
thinking thereby to auoyde the pursute of the houndes, yet will not
these Dogges giue ouer their attempt, but presuming to swym through the
streame, perseuer in their pursute, and when they be arriued and gotten
the further bancke, they hunt vp and downe, to and fro runne they, from
place to place shift they, vntill they haue attained to that plot of
grounde where they passed ouer. And this is their practise, if perdie
they cãnot at y^e first time smelling, finde out the way which the deede
dooers tooke to escape. So at length get they that by arte, cunning,
and diligent indeuour, which by fortune and lucke they cannot otherwyse
ouercome. In so much as it seemeth worthely and wisely written by
Ælianus in his sixte Booke, and xxxix. Chapter. Τὸ ἐνθυμητικον καὶ
διαλεκτικὸν. to bee as it were naturally instilled and powred into these
kinde of Dogges. For they wyll not pause or breath from their pursute
vntill such tyme as they bee apprehended and taken which committed the
facte. The owners of such houndes vse to keepe them in close and darke
channells in the day time, and let them lose at liberty in the night
season, to th’intent that they myght with more courage and boldnesse
practise to follow the fellon in the euening and solitarie houres of
darkenesse, when such yll disposed varlots are principally purposed (7)
to play theyr impudent pageants, & imprudent pranckes. These houndes
(vpon whom this present portion of our treatise runneth) when they are
to follow such fellowes as we haue before rehersed, vse not that liberty
to raunge at wil, which they have otherwise when they are in game,
(except upon necessary occasion, wheron dependeth an urgent and
effectuall perswasion) when such purloyners make speedy way in flight,
but beyng restrained and drawne backe from running at randon with the
leasse, the ende whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded,
and directed with such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote,
or whether he ryde on horsebacke) as he himselfe in hart would wishe for
the more easie apprehension of these venturous varlots. In the borders
of England & Scotland, (the often and accustomed stealing of cattell so
procuring) these kinde of Dogges are very much vsed and they are taught
and trayned up first of all to hunt cattell as well of the smaller as of
the greater grouth, and afterwardes (that qualitie relinquished and
lefte) they are learned to pursue such pestilent persons as plant theyr
pleasure in such practises of purloyning as we have already declared.
Of this kinde there is none that taketh the water naturally, except it
please you so to suppose of them whych follow the Otter, whych sometimes
haunte the lande, and sometime vseth the water. And yet neuerthelesse
all the kind of them boyling and broyling with greedy desire of the pray
which by swymming passeth through ryuer and flood, plung amyds the
water, and passe the streame with their pawes. But this propertie
proceedeth from an earnest desire wherwith they be inflamed, rather then
from any inclination issuyng from the ordinance and appoyntment of
nature. And albeit some of this sort in English be called _Brache_, in
Scottishe _Rache_, the cause hereof resteth in the shee sex and not in
the generall kinde. For we English men call bytches, belonging to the
(8) hunting kinde of Dogges, by the tearme aboue mencioned. To bee short
it is proper to the nature of houndes, some to keepe silence in hunting
untill such tyme as there is game offered. Othersome so soone as they
smell out the place where the beast lurcketh, to bewray it immediatly by
their importunate barcking, notwithstanding it be farre of many furlongs
cowchyng close in his cabbyn. And these Dogges the younger they be, the
more wantonly barcke they, and the more liberally, yet, oftimes without
necessitie, so that in them, by reason of theyr young yeares and want of
practise, small certaintie is to be reposed. For continuance of tyme,
and experience in game, ministreth to these houndes not onely cunning in
running, but also (as in the rest) an assured foresight what is to bee
done, principally, being acquainted with their masters watchwordes,
eyther in reuoking or imboldening them to serue the game.


Of the Dogge called the Gasehounde, in Latine _Agaseus_.

This kinde of Dogge which pursueth by the eye, preuayleth little, or
neuer a whit, by any benefite of the nose that is by smelling, but
excelleth in perspicuitie and sharpenesse of sight altogether, by the
vertue whereof, being singuler and notable, it hunteth the Foxe and the
Hare. Thys Dogge will choose and seperate any beast from among a great
flocke or hearde, and such a one will it take by election as is not
lancke, leane and hollow, but well spred, smoothe, full, fatte, and
round, it followes by the direction of the eyesight, which in deede is
cleere, constant, and not uncertaine, if a beast be wounded and gone
astray this Dogge seeketh after it by the stedfastnes of the eye, if it
chaunce peraduenture to returne & bee mingled with the residue of the
flocke, this Dogge spyeth it out by the vertue of his eye, leauing the
rest of the cattell vntouched, and after he hath set sure sight upõ it
he seperateth it from among the company and hauing so done neuer ceaseth
(9) untill he haue wearyed the Beast to death. Our countrey men call
this dogge _Agasæum_. A gasehounde because the beames of his sight are
so stedfastly setled and vnmoueably fastened. These Dogges are much and
vsually occupyed in the Northern partes of England more then in the
Southern parts, & in fealdy landes rather then in bushy and wooddy
places, horsemen vse them more then footemen to th’intent that they
might prouoke their horses to a swift galloppe (wherwith they are more
delighted then with the pray it selfe) and that they myght accustome
theyr horse to leape ouer hedges & ditches, without stoppe or stumble,
without harme or hassard, without doubt or daunger, and so escape with
safegard of lyfe. And to the ende that the ryders themselues when
necessitie so constrained, and the feare of further mischiefe inforced,
myght saue themselues vndamnifyed, and preuent each perilous tempest by
preparing speedy flight, or else by swift pursute made vpon theyr
enimyes, myght both ouertake them, encounter with them, and make a
slaughter of them accordingly. But if it fortune so at any time that
this Dogge take a wrong way, the master making some vsuall signe and
familiar token, he returneth forthwith, and taketh the right and ready
trace, beginning his chase a fresh, & with a cleare voyce, and a swift
foote followeth the game with as much courage and nimblenesse as he did
at the first.


Of the Dogge called the Grehounde, in Latine _Leporarius_.

There is another kinde of Dogge which for his incredible swiftnesse is
called _Leporarius_ a Grehounde, because the principall seruice of them
dependeth and consisteth in starting and hunting the hare, which Dogges
likewyse are indued with no lesse strength then lightnes in maintenance
of the (10) game, in seruing the chase, in taking the Bucke, the Harte,
the Dowe, the Foxe, and other beastes of semblable kinde ordained for
the game of hunting. But more or lesse, each one according to the
measure and proportion of theyr desire, and as might and habilitie of
theyr bodyes will permit and suffer. For it is a spare and bare kinde of
Dogge, (of fleshe but not of bone) some are of a greater sorte, and some
of a lesser, some are smooth skynned, & some are curled, the bigger
therefore are appoynted to hunt the bigger beasts, & the smaller serue
to hunt the smaller accordingly. The nature of these dogges I finde to
be wonderful by y^e testimoniall of histories. For, as Iohn Froisart the
Historyographer in his 4. _lib._ reporteth. A Grehound of King Richard,
the second y^t wore the Crowne, and bare the Scepter of the Realme of
England, neuer knowing any man, beside the kings person, whẽ _Henry
Duke_ of _Lancaster_ came to the castle of _Flinte_ to take King
_Richarde_. The Dogge forsaking his former Lord & master came to _Duke
Henry_, fawned upon him with such resemblaunces of goodwyll and
conceaued affection, as he fauoured King _Richarde_ before: he followed
the Duke, and vtterly left the King. So that by these manifest
circumstances a man myght iudge this Dogge to haue bene lightened wyth
the lampe of foreknowledge & vnderstãding, touchyng his olde masters
miseryes to come, and vnhappinesse nye at hand, which King _Richarde_
himselfe euidently perceaued, accounting this deede of his Dogge a
Prophecy of his ouerthrowe.


Of the Dogge called the Leuiner, or Lyemmer in Latine _Lorarius_.

Another sort of dogges be there, in smelling singuler, and in swiftnesse
incomparable. This is (as it were) a myddle kinde betwixt the Harier and
the Grehounde, as well for his kinde, as for the frame of his body. And
it is called in latine _Leuinarius_, _a Leuitate_, of lyghtnesse, and
therefore may well be called a lyghthounde, it is also called by this
worde _Lorarius_, _a Loro_, wherwith it is led. This Dogge for the (11)
excellency of his conditions, namely smelling and swift running, doth
followe the game with more eagernes, and taketh the pray with a iolly
quicknes.


Of the Dogge called a Tumbler, in Latine _Vertagus_.

This sorte of Dogges, which compasseth all by craftes, fraudes,
subtelties and deceiptes, we Englishe men call Tumblers, because in
hunting they turne and tumble, winding their bodyes about in circle
wise, and then fearcely and violently venturing upõ the beast, doth
soddenly gripe it, at the very entrance and mouth of their receptacles,
or closets before they can recouer meanes, to saue and succour
themselues. This dogge vseth another craft and subteltie, namely, when
he runneth into a warren, or setteth a course about a connyburrough,
he huntes not after them, he frayes them not by barcking, he makes no
countenance or shadow of hatred against them, but dissembling
friendship, and pretending fauour, passeth by with silence and
quietnesse, marking and noting their holes diligently, wherin (I warrant
you) he will not be ouershot nor deceaued. When he commeth to the place
where Connyes be, of a certaintie, he cowcheth downe close with his
belly to the groũd, Prouided alwayes by his skill and polisie, that y^e
winde bee neuer with him but against him in such an enterprise. And that
the Connyes spie him not where he lurcketh. By which meanes he obtaineth
the sent and sauour of the Connyes, carryed towardes him with the wind &
the ayre, either going to their holes, or cõming out, eyther passing
this way, or running that way, and so prouideth by his circumspection,
that the selly simple Conny is debarred quite from his hole (which is
the hauen of their hope and the harbour of their health) and
fraudulently circumuented and taken, before they can get the aduantage
(12) of their hole. Thus hauing caught his pray he carryeth it speedily
to his Master, wayting his Dogges returne in some conuenient lurcking
corner. These Dogges are somewhat lesser than the houndes, and they be
lancker & leaner, beside that they be somwhat prick eared. A man that
shall marke the forme and fashion of their bodyes, may well call them
mungrell Grehoundes if they were somwhat bigger. But notwithstanding
they counteruaile not the Grehound in greatnes, yet will he take in one
dayes space as many Connyes as shall arise to as bigge a burthen, and as
heauy a loade as a horse can carry, for deceipt and guile is the
instrument wherby he maketh this spoyle, which pernicious properties
supply the places of more commendable qualities.


Of the Dogge called the theeuishe Dogge in Latine _Canis furax_.

The like to that whom we have rehearsed, is the theeuishe Dogge, which
at the mandate and bydding of his master steereth and leereth abroade in
the night, hunting Connyes by the ayre, which is leuened with their
sauour and conueyed to the sense of smelling by the meanes of the winde
blowing towardes him. During all which space of his hunting he will not
barcke, least he shoulde bee preiudiciall to his owne aduantage. And
thus watcheth and snatcheth up in course as many Connyes as his Master
will suffer him, and beareth them to his Masters standing. The farmers
of the countrey and uplandishe dwellers, call this kinde of Dogge a
nyght curre, because he hunteth in the darke. But let thus much seeme
sufficient for Dogges which serue the game and disport of hunting.


  (13) ¶ A Diall pertaining to the
  _first Section._

  Dogges seruing y^e pastime of hunting beastes.
  are diuided into

  { Hariers
  { Terrars
  { Bloudhounds
  { Gasehounds
  { Grehounds
  { Leuiners or
  { Lyemmers
  { Tumblers
  { Stealers

  In Latine called _Venatici_.



  The seconde Section of (14)
  _this discourse_.

  Of gentle Dogges seruing the hauke, and first
  of the Spaniell, called in Latine
  _Hispaniolus_.


Svch Dogges as serue for fowling, I thinke conuenient and requisite to
place in this seconde Section of this treatise. These are also to bee
reckoned and accounted in the number of the dogges which come of a
gentle kind, and of those which serue for fowling.

  There be two sortes

  { The first findeth game on the land.
  { The other findeth game on the water.

Such as delight on the land, play their partes, eyther by swiftnesse of
foote, or by often questing, to search out and to spring the byrde for
further hope of aduauntage, or else by some secrete signe and priuy
token bewray the place where they fall.

  The first kinde of such serue { The Hauke,
  The seconde,                  { The net, or, traine,

The first kinde haue no peculier names assigned vnto them, saue onely
that they be denominated after the byrde which by naturall appointment
he is alotted to take, for the which consideration. (15)

  Some be called Dogges,

  { For the Falcon }
  { The Phesant    }
  { The Partridge  }

  and such like,

The common sort of people call them by one generall word, namely
Spaniells. As though these kinde of Dogges came originally and first of
all out of Spaine, The most part of their skynnes are white, and if they
be marcked with any spottes, they are commonly red, and somewhat great
therewithall, the heares not growing in such thicknesse but that the
mixture of them maye easely bee perceaued. Othersome of them be reddishe
and blackishe, but of that sorte there be but a very few. There is also
at this day among vs a newe kinde of dogge brought out of Fraunce (for
we Englishe men are maruailous greedy gaping gluttons after nouelties,
and couetous coruorauntes of things that be seldom, rare, straunge, and
hard to get.) And they bee speckled all ouer with white and black, which
mingled colours incline to a marble blewe, which bewtifyeth their
skinnes and affordeth a seemely show of comlynesse. These are called
French dogges as is aboue declared already.


The Dogge called the Setter, in Latine _Index_.

Another sort of Dogges be there, seruiceable for fowling, making no
noise either with foote or with tounge, whiles they followe the game.
These attend diligently vpon theyr Master and frame their conditions to
such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it shall please him to exhibite
and make, either going forward, drawing backeward, inclining to the
right hand, or yealding toward the left, (In making mencion of fowles,
my meaning is of the Partridge & the Quaile) when he hath founde the
byrde, he keepeth sure and fast silence, he stayeth his steppes and wil
proceede no further, and with a (16) close, couert, watching eye, layeth
his belly to the grounde and so creepeth forward like a worme. When he
approcheth neere to the place where the birde is, he layes him downe,
and with a marcke of his pawes betrayeth the place of the byrdes last
abode, whereby it is supposed that this kinde of dogge is called
_Index_, Setter, being in deede a name most consonant and agreable to
his quality. The place being knowne by the meanes of the dogge, the
fowler immediatly openeth and spreedeth his net, intending to take them,
which being done the dogge at the accustomed becke or vsuall signe of
his Master ryseth vp by and by, and draweth neerer to the fowle that by
his presence they might be the authors of their owne insnaring, and be
ready intangled in the prepared net, which conning and artificiall
indeuour in a dogge (being a creature domesticall or householde seruaunt
brought vp at home with offalls of the trencher & fragments of
victualls,) is not much to be maruailed at, seing that a Hare (being a
wilde and skippishe beast) was seene in England to the astonishment of
the beholders, in the yeare of our Lorde God, 1564, not onely dauncing
in measure, but playing with his former feete vppon a tabberet, and
obseruing iust number of strokes (as a practicioner in that arte)
besides that nipping & pinching a dogge with his teeth and clawes, &
cruelly thumping him with y^e force of his feete. This is no trumpery
tale, nor trifling toye (as I imagine) and therefore not vnworthy to bee
reported, for I recken it a requitall of my trauaile, not to drowne in
the seas of silence any speciall thing, wherin the prouidence and
effectuall working of nature is to be pondered.


Of the Dogge called the water Spaniell, or finder, in Latine _Aquaticus
seu Inquisitor_.

That kinde of Dogge whose seruice is required in fowling vpon the water,
partly through a naturall towardnesse, and partly by diligent teaching,
is indued with that property. (17) This sort is somewhat bigge, and of a
measurable greatnesse, hauing long, rough, and curled heare, not
obtayned by extraordinary trades, but giuen by natures appointment, yet
neuerthelesse (friend _Gesner_) I have described and set him out in this
maner, namely powlde and netted from the shoulders to the hindermost
legges, and to the end of his tayle, which I did for vse and customs
cause, that beyng as it were made somewhat bare and naked, by shearing
of such superfluitie of heare, they might atchiue the more lightnesse,
and swiftnesse, and be lesse hindered in swymming, so troublesome and
needelesse a burthen being shaken of. This kinde of dogge is properly
called, _Aquaticus_, a water spaniel because he frequenteth and hath
vsual recourse to the water where all his game & exercise lyeth, namely,
waterfowles, which are taken by the helpe & seruice of them, in their
kind. And principally duckes and drakes, wherupon he is lykewise named a
dogge for the ducke, because in that quallitie he is excellent. With
these dogges also we fetche out of the water such fowle as be stounge to
death by any venemous worme, we vse them also to bring vs our boultes &
arrowes out of the water, (missing our marcke) whereat we directed our
leuell, which otherwise we should hardly recouer, and oftentimes they
restore to vs our shaftes which we thought neuer to see, touche or
handle againe, after they were lost, for which circumstaunces they are
called _Inquisitores_, searchers, and finders. Although the ducke
otherwhiles notably deceaueth both the dogge and the master, by dyuing
vnder the water, and also by naturall subtilty, for if any man shall
approche to the place where they builde, breede, and syt, the hennes go
out of their neastes, offering themselues voluntarily to the hãds, as it
were, of such as draw nie their neasts. And a certaine weaknesse of
their winges pretended, and infirmitie of their feete dissembled, they
go so slowely and so leasurely, that to a mans thinking it were no
masteryes to take them. By which deceiptfull tricke they doe as it were
(18) entyse and allure men to follow them, till they be drawne a long
distaunce from theyr neastes, which being compassed by their prouident
conning, or conning prouidence, they cut of all inconueniences which
might growe of their returne, by using many carefull and curious
caueates, least theyr often haunting bewray y^e place where the young
ducklings be hatched. Great therfore is theyr desire, & earnest is theyr
study to take heede, not only to theyr broode but also to themselues.
For when they haue an ynckling that they are espied they hide themselues
vnder turfes or sedges, wherwith they couer and shrowde themselues so
closely and so craftely, that (notwithstanding the place where they
lurcke be found and perfectly perceaued) there they will harbour without
harme, except the water spaniell by quicke smelling discouer theyr
deceiptes.


Of the Dogge called the Fisher, in Latine _Canis Piscator_.

The Dogge called the fisher, wherof _Hector Boethus_ writeth, which
seeketh for fishe by smelling among rockes & stones, assuredly I knowe
none of that kinde in Englande, neither haue I receaued by reporte that
there is any suche, albeit I haue bene diligent & busie in demaunding
the question as well of fishermen, as also of huntesmen in that behalfe
being carefull and earnest to learne and vnderstand of them if any such
were, except you holde opinion that the beauer or Otter is a fishe (as
many haue beleeued) & according to their beliefe affirmed, and as the
birde _Pupine_, is thought to be a fishe and so accounted. But that
kinde of dogge which followeth the fishe to apprehend and take it (if
there bee any of that disposition and property) whether they do this for
the game of hunting, or for the heate of hunger, as other Dogges do
which rather then they wil be famished for want of foode, couet the
carckases of carrion and putrifyed fleshe. When I am fully resolued and
disburthened of this doubt I wil send you certificate in writing. In the
meane season I am not ignorant of that both Ælianus, and Ælius, call the
Beauer (19) κύνα ποτάμιον a water dogge, or a dogge fishe, I know
likewise thus much more, that the Beauer doth participate this propertie
with the dogge, namely, that when fishes be scarse they leaue the water
and raunge vp and downe the lande, making an insatiable slaughter of
young lambes vntil theyr paunches be replenished, and whẽ they haue fed
themselues full of fleshe, then returne they to the water, from whence
they came. But albeit so much be graunted that this Beauer is a dogge,
yet it is to be noted that we recken it not in the beadrowe of Englishe
dogges as we haue done the rest. The sea Calfe, in like maner, which our
country mẽ for breuitie sake call a Seele, other more largely name a
_Sea Vele_, maketh a spoyle of fishes betweene rockes and banckes, but
it is not accounted in the catalogue or nũber of our Englishe dogges,
notwithstanding we call it by the name of a Sea dogge or a sea Calfe.
And thus much for our dogges of the second sort called in Latine
_Aucupatorij_, seruing to take fowle either by land or water.


  ¶ A Diall pertaining to the
  _second Section_.

  Dogges seruing the disport of fowling.
  are diuided into

  { Land spaniels
  { Setters
  { Water spaniels or finders.

  called in latine _Canes Aucupatorij_

The fisher is not of their number, but seuerall.



  The thirde Section of this (20)
  _abridgement_.


Nowe followeth in due order and conuenient place our Englishe Dogges of
the thirde gentle kinde, what they are called to what vse they serue,
and what sort of people plant their pleasure in thẽ, which because they
neede no curious canuassing and nye syfting, wee meane to bee so much
the briefer.


  Of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges
  called the Spaniel gentle, or the comforter,
  in Latine _Melitæus
  or Fotor_.

There is, besides those which wee haue already deliuered, another sort
of gentle dogges in this our Englishe soyle but exempted from the order
of the residue, the Dogges of this kinde doth _Callimachus_ call
_Melitæos_, of the Iseland _Melita_, in the sea of _Sicily_, (what at
this day is named _Malta_, an Iseland in deede, famous and renoumed,
with couragious and puisaunt souldiours valliauntly fighting vnder the
banner of Christ their vnconquerable captaine) where this kind of dogges
had their principall beginning.

These dogges are litle, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to
satisfie the delicatenesse of daintie dames, and wanton womens wills,
instrumentes of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away
the treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from more commendable
exercises, and to content (21) their corrupted concupiscences with vaine
disport (A selly shift to shunne yrcksome ydlnesse.) These puppies the
smaller they be, the more pleasure they prouoke, as more meete play
fellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in their bosoms, to keepe
company withal in their chambers, to succour with sleepe in bed, and
nourishe with meate at bourde, to lay in their lappes, and licke their
lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good reason it should be so,
for coursnesse with fynenesse hath no fellowship, but featnesse with
neatenesse hath neighbourhood enough. That plausible prouerbe verified
vpon a Tyraunt, namely that he loued his sowe better then his sonne, may
well be applyed to these kinde of people who delight more in dogges that
are depriued of all possibility of reason, then they doe in children
that be capeable of wisedome and iudgement. But this abuse peraduenture
raigneth where there hath bene long lacke of issue, or else where
barrennes is the best blossome of bewty.


The vertue which remaineth in the Spainell gentle otherwise called the
comforter.

Notwithstanding many make much of those pretty puppies called Spaniels
gentle, yet if the question were demaunded what propertie in them they
spye, which shoulde make them so acceptable and precious in their sight,
I doubt their aunswere would be long a coyning. But seeing it was our
intent to trauaile in this treatise, so that y^e reader might reape some
benefite by his reading, we will communicate vnto you such coniectures
as are grounded upon reason. And though some suppose that such dogges
are fyt for no seruice, I dare say, by their leaues, they be in a wrong
boxe. Among all other qualities therfore of nature, which be knowne (for
some conditions are couered with continuall and thicke clouds, that the
eye of our capacities can not pearse through thẽ) we (22) find that
these litle dogs are good to asswage the sicknesse of the stomacke being
oftentimes thervnto applyed as a plaster preseruatiue, or borne in the
bosom of the diseased and weake person, which effect is performed by
theyr moderate heate. Moreouer the disease and sicknesse chaungeth his
place and entreth (though it be not precisely marcked) into the dogge,
which to be no vntruth, experience can testify, for these kinde of
dogges sometimes fall sicke, and sometime die, without any harme
outwardly inforced, which is an argument that the disease of the
gentleman, or gentle woman or owner whatsoeuer, entreth into the dogge
by the operation of heate intermingled and infected. And thus haue I
hetherto handled dogges of a gentle kinde whom I haue comprehended in a
triple diuisiõ. Now it remaineth that I annex in due order such dogges
as be of a more homely kinde.


  A Diall pertaining to the
  _thirde Section_.

  In the third section is cõtained one kind of dog which is called the

  Spaniell gentle or the cõforter,

  It is also called

  { A chamber cõpanion,
  { A pleasaunt playfellow,
  { A pretty worme,

  generally called _Canis delicatus_.



  (23) The fourth Section of this
  _discourse_.


  Dogges of a course kind seruing for many necessary
  vses called in Latine _Canes rustici_, and first of
  the shepherds dogge called in Latine
  _Canis Pastoralis_.

Dogges of the courser sort are

  { The shepherds dogge
  { The mastiue or Bandogge.

These two are the principall.

The first kinde, namely the shepherds hounde is very necessarye and
profitable for the auoyding of harmes and inconueniences which may come
to men by the meanes of beastes. The second sort serue to succour
against the snares and attemptes of mischiefous men. Our shepherdes
dogge is not huge, vaste, and bigge, but of an indifferent stature and
growth, because it hath not to deale with the bloudthyrsty wolf,
sythence there be none in England, which happy and fortunate benefite is
to be ascribed to the puisaunt Prince _Edgar_, who to thintent y^t the
whole countrey myght be euacuated and quite cleered from wolfes, charged
& commaunded the welshemẽ (who were pestered with these butcherly
beastes aboue measure) to paye him yearely tribute which was (note the
wisedome of the King) three hundred Wolfes. Some there be which write
that _Ludwall_ Prince of Wales paide yeerely to King _Edgar_ three
hundred wolfes in the name of an exaction (as we haue sayd before.) And
that by the meanes hereof, within the compasse and tearme of (24) foure
yeares, none of those noysome, and pestilent Beastes were left in the
coastes of England and Wales. This _Edgar_ wore the Crowne royall, and
bare the Scepter imperiall of this kingdome, about the yeere of our
Lorde, nyne hundred fifty, nyne. Synce which time we reede that no Wolfe
hath bene seene in England, bred within the bounds and borders of this
countrey, mary there have bene diuers brought ouer from beyonde the
seas, for greedynesse of gaine and to make money, for gasing and gaping,
staring, and standing to see them, being a straunge beast, rare, and
seldom seene in England. But to returne to our shepherds dogge. This
dogge either at the hearing of his masters voyce, or at the wagging and
whisteling in his fist, or at his shrill and horse hissing bringeth the
wandring weathers and straying sheepe, into the selfe same place where
his masters will and wishe is to haue thẽ, wherby the shepherd reapeth
this benefite, namely, that with litle labour and no toyle or mouing of
his feete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his owne
desire, either to haue them go forward, or to stand still, or to drawe
backward, or to turne this way, or to take that way. For it is not in
Englande, as it is in _Fraunce_, as it is in _Flaunders_, as it is in
_Syria_, as it in _Tartaria_, where the sheepe follow the shepherd, for
heere in our country the sheepherd followeth the sheepe. And somtimes
the straying sheepe, when no dogge runneth before them, nor goeth about
& beside them, gather themselues together in a flocke, when they heere
the sheepherd whistle in his fist, for feare of the Dogge (as I imagine)
remembring this (if vnreasonable creatures may be reported to haue
memory) that the Dogge commonly runneth out at his masters warrant which
is his whistle. This haue we oftentimes diligently marcked in taking our
journey from towne to towne, when wee haue hard a sheepherd whistle we
haue rayned in our horse and stoode styll a space, to see the proofe and
triall of this matter. Furthermore with this dogge doth the sheepherd
take sheepe for y^e slaughter, and to be (25) healed if they be sicke,
no hurt or harme in the world done to the simple creature.


Of the mastiue or Bandogge called in Latine _Villaticus_ or
_Cathenarius_.

This kinde of Dogge called a mastyue or Bandogge is vaste, huge,
stubborne, ougly, and eager, of a heuy and burthenous body, and therfore
but of litle swiftnesse, terrible, and frightfull to beholde, and more
fearce and fell then any _Arcadian_ curre (notwithstãding they are sayd
to ha{n}e their generation of the violent Lyon.) They are called
_Villatici_, because they are appoynted to watche and keepe farme places
and coũtry cotages sequestred from commõ recourse, and not abutting vpon
other houses by reason of distaunce, when there is any feare conceaued
of theefes, robbers, spoylers, and night wanderers. They are seruiceable
against the Foxe and the Badger, to drive wilde and tame swyne out of
Medowes, pastures, glebelandes and places planted with fruite, to bayte
and take the bull by the eare, when occasion so requireth. One dogge or
two at the vttermost, sufficient for that purpose be the bull neuer so
monsterous, neuer so fearce, neuer so furious, neuer so stearne, neuer
so vntameable. For it is a kinde of dogge capeable of courage, violent
and valiaunt, striking could feare into the harts of men, but standing
in feare of no man, in so much that no weapons will make him shrincke,
nor abridge his boldnes. Our Englishe men (to th’ intent that theyr
dogges might be the more fell and fearce) assist nature with arte, vse,
and custome, for they teach theyr dogges to baite the Beare, to baite
the Bull and other such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appointing an
ouerseer of the game) without any collar to defend theyr throtes, and
oftentimes they traine them vp in fighting and wrestling with a man
hauing for the safegarde of his lyfe, eyther a Pikestaffe, a (26)
clubbe, or a sworde and by vsing them to such exercises as these, theyr
dogges become more sturdy and strong. The force which is in them
surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde which they take with their teeth
exceedeth all credit, three of them against a Beare, fowre against a
Lyon are sufficient, both to try masteryes with them and vtterly to
ouermatch them. Which thing _Henry_ the seuenth of that name, King of
England (a Prince both politique & warlike) perceauing on a certaine
time (as the report runneth) commaunded all such dogges (how many soeuer
they were in number) should be hanged, beyng deepely displeased, and
conceauing great disdaine, that an yll fauoured rascall curre should
with such violent villany, assault the valiaunt Lyon king of all
beastes. An example for all subiectes worthy remembraunce, to admonishe
them that it is no aduantage to them to rebell against y^e regiment of
their ruler, but to keepe them within the limits of Loyaltie. I reede an
history aunswerable to this of the selfe same _Henry_, who hauing a
notable and an excellent fayre Falcon, it fortuned that the kings
Falconers, in the presence and hearing of his grace, highly commended
his Maiesties Falcon, saying that it feared not to intermeddle with an
Eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so mighty, which when the King
harde, he charged that the Falcon should be killed without delay,
for the selfe same reason (as it may seeme) which was rehersed in the
cõclusion of the former history concerning the same king. This dogge is
called, in like maner, _Cathenarius_, _a Cathena_, of the chaine
wherwith he is tyed at the gates, in y^e day time, least beyng lose he
should doe much mischiefe and yet might giue occasion of feare and
terror by his bigge barcking. And albeit _Cicero_ in his oration had
_Pro. S. Ross._ be of this opinion, that such Dogges as barcke in the
broade day light shoulde haue their legges broken, yet our countrymen,
on this side the seas for their carelessnes of lyfe setting all at
cinque and sice, are of a contrary iudgement. For theefes roge vp & down
in euery corner, no place is free from them, no not y^e princes pallace,
(27) nor the country mans cotage. In the day time they practise
pilfering, picking, open robbing, and priuy stealing, and what
legerdemaine lacke they? not fearing the shamefull and horrible death of
hanging. The cause of which inconuenience doth not onely issue from
nipping neede & wringing want, for all y^t steale, are not pinched with
pouerty, but som steale to maintaine their excessiue and prodigall
expences in apparell, their lewdnes of lyfe, their hautines of hart,
theyr wantonnes of maners, theyr wilfull ydlenes, their ambitious
brauery, and the pryde of the sawcy _Salacones’_ μεγαλορρούντων vaine
glorious and arrogant in behauiour, whose delight dependeth wholly to
mount nimbly on horsebacke, to make them leape lustely, spring and
praunce, galloppe and amble, to runne a race, to wynde in compasse, and
so forthe, liuing all together vpon the fatnesse of the spoyle. Othersom
therbe which steale, being thereto prouoked by penury & neede, like
masterlesse mẽ applying themselues to no honest trade, but raunging vp
and downe impudently begging, and complayning of bodily weakenesse where
is no want of abilitie. But valiaunt _Valentine_ th’emperour, by holsome
lawes prouided that suche as hauing no corporall sicknesse, solde
themselues to begging, pleded pouerty wyth pretended infirmitie, &
cloaked their ydle and slouthfull life with colourable shifts and cloudy
cossening, should be a perpetuall slaue and drudge to him, by whom their
impudent ydlenes was bewrayed, and layde against them in publique place,
least the insufferable slouthfullnes of such vagabondes should be
burthenous to the people, or being so hatefull and odious, should growe
into an example. _Alfredus_ likewise in the gouernment of his common
wealth, procured such increase of credite to Justice and vpright dealing
by his prudent actes and statutes, that if a mã trauailing by the hygh
way of the countrey vnder his dominion, chaunced to lose a budget full
of gold, or his capcase farsed with things of great value, late in the
euening, he should finde it where (28) he lost it, safe, sound, and
vntouched the next morning, yea (which is a wonder) at any time for a
whole monethes space if he sought for it, as _Ingulphus Croyladensis_ in
his History recordeth. But in this our vnhappy age, in these (I say) our
deuelishe dayes nothing can scape the clawes of the spoyler, though it
be kept neuer so sure within the house, albe it the doores bee lockt and
boulted round about. This dogge in like maner of _Græcians_ is called
οἰκουρος.


Of the latinists _Canis Custos_, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.

Borrowing his name of his seruire, for he doth not onely keepe farmers
houses, but also merchaunts maisons, wherin great wealth, riches,
substaunce, and costly stuffe is reposed. And therfore were certaine
dogges founde and maintained at the common costes and charges of the
Citizens of _Rome_ in the place called _Capitolium_, to giue warning of
theefes comming. This kind of dogge, is also called,


In latine _Canis Laniarius_ in Englishe the Butchers Dogge.

So called for the necessity of his vse, for his seruice affoordeth great
benefite to the Butcher as well in following as in taking his cattell
when neede constraineth, vrgeth, and requireth. This kinde of dogge is
likewise called,


In latine _Molossicus_ or _Molossus_.

After the name of a countrey in _Epirus_ called _Molossia_, which
harboureth many stoute, stronge, and sturdy Dogges of this sort, for the
dogges of that countrey are good in deede, or else their is no trust to
be had in the testimonie of writers. This dogge is also called,


In latine _Canis Mandatarius_ a Dogge messinger or Carrier.

Upon substanciall consideration, because at his masters voyce and
commaundement, he carrieth letters from place to place, wrapped vp
cunningly in his lether collar, fastened therto, or sowed close therin,
who, least he should be hindered in his passage vseth these helpes very
skilfully, namely resistaunce (29) in fighting if he be not ouermatched,
or else swiftnesse & readinesse in running away, if he be vnable to
buckle with the dogge that would faine haue a snatch at his skinne. This
kinde of dogge is likewise called,


In latine _Canis Lunarius_, in Englishe the Mooner.

Because he doth nothing else but watch and warde at an ynche, wasting
the wearisome night season without slombering or sleeping, bawing &
wawing at the Moone (that I may vse the word of _Nonius_) a qualitie in
mine opinion straunge to consider. This kinde of dogge is also called.


In latine _Aquarius_ in Englishe a water drawer.

And these be of the greater and the waighter sort drawing water out of
wells and deepe pittes, by a wheele which they turne rounde about by the
mouing of their burthenous bodies. This kinde of dogge is called in like
maner.


_Canis Sarcinarius_ in Latine, and may aptly be englished a Tynckers
Curre.

Because with marueilous pacience they beare bigge budgettes fraught with
Tinckers tooles, and mettall meete to mend kettels, porrige pottes,
skellets, and chafers, and other such like trumpery requisite for their
occupacion and loytering trade, easing him of a great burthen which
otherwise he himselfe should carry vpon his shoulders, which condition
hath challenged vnto them the foresaid name. Besides the qualities which
we haue already recounted, this kind of dogges hath this principall
property ingrafted in them, that they loue their masters liberally, and
hate straungers despightfully, wherevpon it followeth that they are to
their masters, in traueiling a singuler safgard, defending them
forceably from the inuasion of villons and theefes, preseruing their
lyfes from losse, and their health from hassard, theyr fleshe from
hacking and hewing with such like desperate daungers. For which
consideration they are meritoriously (30) tearmed,


In Latine _Canes defensores_ defending dogges in our mother tounge.

If it chaunce that the master bee oppressed, either by a multitude, or
by the greater violence & so be beaten downe that he lye groueling on
the grounde, (it is proued true by experience) that this Dogge forsaketh
not his master, no not when he is starcke deade: But induring the force
of famishment and the outragious tempestes of the weather, most
vigilantly watcheth and carefully keepeth the deade carkasse many dayes,
indeuouring, furthermore, to kil the murtherer of his master, if he may
get any aduantage. Or else by barcking, by howling, by furious iarring,
snarring, and such like meanes betrayeth the malefactour as desirous to
haue the death of his aforesayde Master rigorouslye reuenged. An example
hereof fortuned within the compasse of my memory. The Dogge of a
certaine wayefaring man trauailing from the Citie of London directly to
the Towne of Kingstone (most famous and renowned by reason of the
triumphant coronation of eight seuerall Kings) passing ouer a good
portion of his iourney was assaulted and set vpon by certaine
confederate theefes laying in waight for the spoyle in _Comeparcke_,
a perillous bottom, compassed about wyth woddes to well knowne for the
manyfolde murders & mischeefeous robberies theyr committed. Into whose
handes this passinger chaunced to fall, so that his ill lucke cost him
the price of his lyfe. And that Dogge whose syer was Englishe (which
_Blondus_ registreth to haue bene within the banckes of his remẽbrance)
manifestly perceauyng that his Master was murthered (this chaunced not
farre from _Paris_) by the handes of one which was a suiter to the same
womã, whom he was a wooer vnto, dyd both bewraye the bloudy butcher, and
attempted to teare out the villons throate if he had not sought meanes
to auoyde the reuenging rage of the Dogge. In fyers also which fortune
in the silence (31) and dead time of the night, or in stormy weather of
the sayde season, the older dogges barcke, ball, howle, and yell (yea
notwithstandyng they bee roughly rated) neyther will they stay their
tounges till the householde seruauntes, awake, ryse, searche, and see
the burning of the fyre, which beyng perceaued they vse voluntary
silence, and cease from yolping. This hath bene, and is founde true by
tryall, in sundry partes of England. There was no faynting faith in that
Dogge, which when his Master by a mischaunce in hunting stumbled and
fell toppling downe a deepe dytche beyng vnable to recouer of himselfe,
the Dogge signifying his masters mishappe, reskue came, and he was
hayled up by a rope, whom the Dogge seeyng almost drawne up to the edge
of the dytche, cheerefully saluted, leaping and skipping vpon his master
as though he woulde haue imbraced hym, beyng glad of his presence, whose
longer absence he was lothe to lacke. Some Dogges there be, which will
not suffer fyery coales to lye skattered about the hearthe, but with
their pawes wil rake up the burnyng coales, musying and studying fyrst
with themselues how it myght conueniently be done. And if so bee that
the coales cast to great a heate then will they buyry them in ashes and
so remoue them forwarde to a fyt place wyth theyr noses. Other Dogges
bee there which exequute the office of a Farmer in the nyghte tyme. For
when his master goeth to bedde to take his naturall sleepe, And when,

  A hundred barres of brasse and yron boltes,
  Make all things safe from startes and from reuoltes.
  VVhen Ianus keepes the gate with Argos eye,
  That daungers none approch, ne mischiefes nye.

As Virgill vaunteth in his verses, Then if his master byddeth him go
abroade, he lingereth not, but raungeth ouer all his lands lying there
about, more diligently, I wys, then any farmer himselfe. And if he finde
anything their that is straunge and pertaining to other persons besides
his master, (32) whether it be man, woman, or beast, he driueth them out
of the ground, not medling with any thing which doth belong to the
possession and vse of his master. But how much faythfulnes, so much
diuersitie there is in their natures,


For there be some,

  { Which barcke only with free and open throate but will not bite,
  { Which doe both barcke and byte,
  { Which bite bitterly before they barcke,

The first are not greatly to be feared, because they themselues are
fearefull, and fearefull dogges (as the prouerbe importeth) barcke most
vehemently.

The second are daungerous, it is wisedome to take heede of them because
they sounde, as it were, an _Alarum_ of an afterclappe, and these dogges
must not be ouer much moued or prouoked, for then they take on
outragiously as if they were madde, watching to set the print of their
teeth in the fleshe. And these kinde of dogges are fearce and eager by
nature.

The thirde are deadly, for they flye upon a man, without vtteraunce of
voyce, snatch at him, and catche him by the throate, and most cruelly
byte out colloppes of fleashe. Feare these kind of Curres, (if thou be
wise and circumspect about thine owne safetie) for they bee stoute and
stubberne dogges, and set vpon a man at a sodden vnwares. By these
signes and tokens, by these notes and argumentes our men discerne the
cowardly curre from the couragious dogge the bolde from the fearefull,
the butcherly from the gentle and tractable. Moreouer they coniecture
that a whelpe of an yll kinde is not worthe the keeping and that no
dogge can serue the sundry vses of men so aptly and so conueniently as
this sort of whom we haue so largely written already. For if any be
disposed to drawe the aboue named seruices into a table, what mã more
clearely, and with more vehemency of voyce giueth warning eyther of a
wastefull beast, or of a spoiling theefe then this? who by his barcking
(as good as a burning beacon) (33) foreshoweth hassards at hand? What
maner of beast stronger? what seruaũt to his master more louing? what
companion more trustie? what watchman more vigilant? what reuenger more
constant? what messinger more speedie? what water bearer more painefull?
Finally what packhorse more patient? And thus much concerning English
Dogges, first of the gentle kinde, secondly of the courser kinde. Nowe
it remaineth that we deliuer vnto you the Dogges of a mungrell or a
currishe kinde, and then will wee perfourme our taske.


  ¶ A Diall pertaining to the
  _fourth Section_.

  Dogs comprehended in y^e fourth section are these

  { The shepherds dogge
  { The Mastiue or Bandogge,

  which hath sundry names diriued frõ sundry circũstances as

  { The keeper or watch man
  { The butchers dogge
  { The messinger or carrier
  { The Mooner
  { The water drawer
  { The Tinckers curr
  { The fencer,

  called in Latine _Canes Rustici_.



  (34) The fifth Section of this
  _treatise_.

  Containing Curres of the mungrell and rascall sort and
  first of the Dogge called in Latine, _Admonitor_,
  and of vs in Englishe VVappe
  or VVarner.


Of such dogges as keepe not their kinde, of such as are mingled out of
sundry sortes not imitating the conditions of some one certaine spice,
because they resẽble no notable shape, nor exercise any worthy property
of the true perfect and gentle kind, it is not necessarye that I write
any more of them, but to banishe them as vnprofitable implements, out of
the boundes of my Booke, vnprofitable I say for any vse that is
commendable, except to intertaine straũgers with their barcking in the
day time, giuyng warnyng to them of the house, that such & such be newly
come, wherevpon we call them admonishing Dogges, because in that point
they performe theyr office.


Of the Dogge called Turnespete in Latine _Veruuersator_.

There is comprehended, vnder the curres of the coursest kinde, a
certaine dogge in kytchen seruice excellent. For whẽ any meate is to bee
roasted they go into a wheele which they turning rounde about with the
waight of their bodies, so (35) diligently looke to their businesse,
that no drudge nor skullion can doe the feate more cunningly. Whom the
popular sort herevpon call Turnespets, being the last of all those which
wee haue first mencioned.


Of the Dogge called the Daunser, in Latine _Saltator_ or _Tympanista_.

There be also dogges among vs of a mungrell kind which are taught and
exercised to daunce in measure at the musicall sounde of an instrument,
as, at the iust stroke of the drombe, at the sweete accent of the
Cyterne, & tuned strings of the harmonious Harpe showing many pretty
trickes by the gesture of their bodies. As to stand bolte upright, to
lye flat vpon the grounde, to turne rounde as a ringe holding their
tailes in their teeth, to begge for theyr meate, and sundry such
properties, which they learne of theyr vagabundicall masters, whose
instrumentes they are to gather gaine, withall in Citie, Country, Towne,
and Village. As some which carry olde apes on their shoulders in
coloured iackets to moue men to laughter for a litle lucre.


Of other Dogges, a short conclusion, wonderfully ingendred within the
coastes of this country.

Three sortes of them,

    { The first bred of a bytch and a wolfe, } In Latine _Lyciscus_.
    { The second of a bytche and a foxe,     } In Latine _Lacæna_.
    { The third of a beare and a bandogge,   } In Latine _Vrcanus_.

Of the first we haue none naturally bred within the borders of England.
The reason is for the want of wolfes, without whom no such kinde of
Dogge can bee ingendred. Againe (36) it is deliuered vnto thee in this
discourse, how and by what meanes, by whose benefite, and within what
circuite of tyme, this country was cleerely discharged of rauenyng
wolfes, and none at all left, no, not to the least number, or the
beginnyng of a number, which is an _Vnari_.

Of the second sort we are not vtterly voyde of some, because this our
Englishe soyle is not free from foxes (for in deede we are not without a
multitude of them in so much as diuerse keepe, foster, and feede them in
their houses among their houndes and dogges, eyther for some maladie of
mind, or for some sicknesse of body,) which peraduenture the savour of
that subtill beast would eyther mitigate or expell.

The thirde kinde which is bred of a Beare and a Bandogge we want not
heare in England, (A straunge & wonderfull effect, that cruell enimyes
should enter into y^e worke of copulation & bring forth so sauage a
curre.) Undoubtedly it is euen so as we haue reported, for the fyery
heate of theyr fleshe, or rather the pricking thorne, or most of all,
the tyckling lust of lechery, beareth such swinge and sway in them, that
there is no contrairietie for the time, but of constraint they must
ioyne to ingender. And why should not this bee consonant to truth? why
shoulde not these beastes breede in this lande, as well as in other
forreigne nations? For wee reede that Tigers and dogges in _Hircania_,
that Lyons and Dogges in _Arcadia_, and that wolfes and dogges in
_Francia_, couple and procreate. In men and women also lyghtened with
the lantarne of reason (but vtterly voide of vertue) that foolishe,
frantique, and fleshely action, (yet naturally sealed in vs) worketh so
effectuously, y^t many tymes it doth reconcile enimyes, set foes at
freendship, vnanimitie, & atonement, as _Moria_ mencioneth. The _Vrcane_
which is bred of a beare and a dogge,

  Is fearce, is fell, is stoute and stronge,
  And byteth sore to fleshe and bone,
  His furious force indureth longe
  In rage he will be rul’de of none.

That I may vse the wordes of the Poet _Gratius_, This (37) dogge
exceedeth all other in cruell conditions, his leering and fleering
lookes, his stearne and sauage vissage, maketh him in sight feareful and
terrible, he is violent in fighting, & wheresoeuer he setteth his
tenterhooke teeth, he taketh such sure & fast hold that a man may sooner
teare and rende him in sunder, then lose him and seperate his chappes.
He passeth not for the Wolfe, the Beare, the Lyon, nor the Bull, and may
wortherly (as I thinke) be companiõ with _Alexanders_ dogge which came
out of _India_. But of these, thus much, and thus farre may seeme
sufficient.


A starte to outlandishe Dogges in this conclusion, not impertinent to
the Authors purpose.

Vse and custome hath intertained other dogges of an outlandishe kinde,
but a fewe and the same beyng of a pretty bygnesse, I meane Iseland,
dogges curled & rough al ouer, which by reason of the lenght of their
heare make showe neither of face nor of body. And yet these curres,
forsoothe, because they are so straunge are greatly set by, esteemed,
taken vp, and made of many times in the roome of the Spaniell gentle or
comforter. The natures of men is so moued, nay rather marryed to
nouelties without all reason, wyt, iudgement or perseueraunce. Ἐρῶμεν
ἀλλοτριῶν, παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς.

  Outlandishe toyes we take with delight,
  Things of our owne nation we haue in despight.

Which fault remaineth not in vs concerning dogges only, but for
artificers also. And why? it is to manyfest that wee disdayne and
contempne our owne workmen, be they neuer so skilfull, be they neuer so
cunning, be they neuer so excellent. A beggerly beast brought out of
barbarous borders, frõ the vttermost countryes Northward, &c., we stare
at, we gase at, we muse, we maruaile at, like an asse of _Cumanum_, like
Thales with the brasen shancks, like the man in the Moone.

(38) The which default _Hippocrates_ marcked when he was alyue, as
euidently appeareth in the beginnyng of his booke περὶ ἀγμῶν, so
intituled and named:

And we in our worcke entituled _De Ephemera Britanica_, to the people of
England haue more plentifully expressed. In this kinde looke which is
most blockishe, and yet most waspishe, the same is most esteemed, and
not amonge Citizens onely and iolly gentlemen, but among lustie Lordes
also, and noble men, and daintie courtier ruffling in their ryotous
ragges. Further I am not to wade in the foorde of this discourse,
because it was my purpose to satisfie your expectation with a short
treatise (most learned _Conrade_) not wearysome for me to wryte, nor
tedious for you to peruse. Among other things which you haue receaued at
my handes heretofore, I remember that I wrote a seuerall description of
the Getulian Dogge, because there are but a fewe of them and therefore
very seldome scene. As touching Dogges of other kyndes you your selfe
haue taken earnest paine, in writing of them both lyuely, learnedly and
largely. But because wee haue drawne this libell more at length then the
former which I sent you (and yet briefer than the nature of the thing
myght well beare) regardyng your more earnest and necessary studdies. I
will conclude makyng a rehearsall notwithstanding (for memoryes sake) of
certaine specialties contayned in the whole body of this my breuiary.
And because you participate principall pleasure in the knowledge of the
common and vsuall names of Dogges (as I gather by the course of your
letters) I suppose it not amysse to deliuer vnto you a shorte table
contayning as well the Latine as the Englishe names, and to render a
reason of euery particular appellation, to th’intent that no scruple may
remaine in this point, but that euery thing may bee sifted to the bare
bottome.


  A Diall pertaining to the
  _fifte Section_.

  Dogges contained in this last Diall or Table are

  { The wapp or warner,
  { The Turnespet,
  { The dauncer,

  called in Latine _Canes Rustici_



  A Supplement or Addition, containing
  a demonstration of Dogges
  names how they had their
  Originall.


The names contayned in the generall table, for so much as they signifie
nothing to you being a straunger, and ignoraunt of the Englishe tounge,
except they be interpreted: As we haue giuen a reason before of y^e
latine words so meane we to doe no lesse of the Englishe that euery
thing maye be manyfest vnto your vnderstanding. Wherein I intende to
obserue the same order which I haue followed before.


The names of such Dogges as be contained in the first section.

_Sagax_, in Englishe Hunde, is deriued of our English word (40) hunte.
One letter chaunged in another, namely, T, into D, as Hunt, Hunde, whom
(if you coniecture to be so named of your country worde _Hunde_ which
signifieth the generall name Dogge, because of the similitude and
likenesse of the wordes I will not stand in contradiction (friende
_Gesner_) for so much as we retaine among vs at this day many Dutche
wordes which the _Saxons_ left at such time as they occupyed this
country of Britane. Thus much also vnderstand, that as in your language
_Hunde_ is the common word, so in our naturall tounge dogge is the
vniuersall, but _Hunde_ is perticuler and a speciall, for it signifieth
such a dogge onely as serueth to hunt, and therfore it is called a
hunde.


Of the Gasehounde.

The Gasehounde called in latine _Agasæus_, hath his name of the
sharpenesse and stedfastnesse of his eyesight. By which vertue he
compasseth that which otherwise he cannot by smelling attaine. As we
haue made former relation, for to gase is earnestly to viewe and
beholde, from whence floweth the deriuation of this dogges name.


Of the Grehounde.

The Grehounde called _Leporarius_, hath his name of this word, Gre,
which word soundeth, _Gradus_ in latine, in Englishe degree. Because
among all dogges these are the most principall, occupying the chiefest
place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the gentle kinde of
houndes.


Of the Leuyner or the Lyemmer.

This dogge is called a Leuyner, for his lyghtnesse, which in latine
soundeth _Leuitas_, Or a Lyemmer which worde is borrowed of Lyemme,
which the latinists name _Lorum_: and wherefore we call him a Leuyner of
this worde _Leuitas_? (as we doe many things besides) why we deriue and
drawe a thousand of our tearmes, out of the _Greeke_, the _Latine_, the
_Italian_, the _Dutch_, the _French_, and the _Spanishe_ tounge? (Out of
which fountaines in deede, they had their originall issue.) How many
words are buryed in the graue of forgetfulnes? growne out of vse?
wrested awrye? and peruersly corrupted by diuers (41) defaultes? we wil
declare at large in our booke intituled, _Symphonia vocum
Britannicarum_.


Of the Tumbler.

Among houndes the Tumbler called in latine _Vertagus_, is the last,
which commeth of this worde Tumbler flowyng first of al out of the
French fountaine. For as we say Tumble so they, _Tumbier_, reseruing one
sense and signification, which the latinists comprehende vnder this
worde _Vertere_, So that we see thus much, that Tumbler commeth of
_Tumbier_, the vowell, I, chaunged into the _Liquid_, L, after y^e maner
of our speache. Contrary to the French and the Italian tounge. In which
two languages, A _Liquid_ before a _Vowell_ for the most part is turned
into another _Vowell_, As, may be perceaued in the example of these two
wordes, _Implere_ & _plano_, for _Impiere_ & _piano_, L, before, E,
chaunged into, I, and L, before A, turned into I, also. This I thought
conuenient for a taste.


The names of such Dogges as be contained in the second Section.

After such as serue for hunting orderly doe follow such as serue for
hawking and fowling, Among which the principall and chiefest is the
Spaniell, called in Latine _Hispaniolus_, borrowing his name of
_Hispania_ Spaine, wherein wee Englishe men not pronouncing the
Aspiration H, Nor the _Vowell_ I, for quicknesse and redinesse of speach
say roundly A Spaniell.


Of the Setter.

The second sort of this second diuision and second section, is called a
Setter, in latine _Index_, Of the worde Set which signifieth in Englishe
that which the Latinistes meane by this word _Locum designare_, y^e
reason is rehersed before more largely, it shall not neede to make a new
repetition.


(42) Of the water Spaniell or Finder.

The water Spaniell consequently followeth, called in Latine Aquaticus,
in English a waterspaniell, which name is compounde of two simple
wordes, namely Water, which in Latine soũdeth _Aqua_, wherein he
swymmeth. And _Spaine_, _Hispania_, the country frõ whence they came,
Not that England wanted such kinde of Dogges, (for they are naturally
bred and ingendred in this country.) But because they beare the generall
and common name of these Dogges synce the time they were first brought
ouer out of Spaine. And wee make a certaine difference in this sort of
Dogges, eyther for some thing which in theyr voyce is to be marked, or
for some thing which in their qualities is to be considered, as for an
example in this kinde called the Spaniell by the apposition and putting
to of this word water, which two coupled together sounde waterspaniell.
He is also called a fynder, in Latine _Inquisitor_, because that by
serious and secure seeking, he findeth such things as be lost, which
word _Finde_ in English is that which the Latines meane by this Verbe
_Inuenire_. This dogge hath this name of his property because the
principall point of his seruice consisteth in the premisses.


The names of such Dogges as be contained in the thirde Section.

Now leauing the suruie we of hunting and hauking dogs, it remaineth that
we runne ouer the residue, whereof some be called, fine dogs, some
course, other some mungrels or rascalls. The first is the Spaniell
gentle called _Canis Melitæus_, because it is a kinde of dogge accepted
among gentles, Nobles, Lordes, Ladies, &c. who make much of them
vouchsafeing to admit them so farre into their company that they will
not onely lull them in theyr lappes, but kysse them with their lippes,
and make them theyr prettie playfellowes. Such a one was _Gorgons_ litle
puppie mencioned by _Theocritus_ in _Siracusis_, (43) who taking his
iourney, straightly charged & commaunded his mayde to see to his Dogge
as charely and warely as to his childe: To call him in alwayes that he
wandred not abroade, as well as to rock the babe a sleepe, crying in the
cradle. This puppitly and peasantly curre, (which some frumpingly tearme
fysteing hounds) serue in a maner to no good vse except, (As we haue
made former relation) to succour and strengthen quailing and quammning
stomackes to bewray bawdery, and filthy abhominable leudnesse (which a
litle dogge of this kinde did in _Sicilia_) As _Ælianus_ in his .7.
booke of beastes and .27. chapter recordeth.


The names of such dogges as be contained in the fourth Section.

Of dogges vnder the courser kinde, wee will deale first with the
shepherds dogge, whom we call the Bandogge, the Tydogge, or the Mastyue,
the first name is imputed to him for seruice _Quoniam pastori
famulatur_, because he is at the shepherds his masters commaundement.
The seconde a _Ligamento_ of the band or chaine wherewith he is tyed,
The thirde a _Sagina_, Of the fatnesse of his body.

For this kinde of dogge which is vsually tyed, is myghty, grosse, and
fat fed. I know this that _Augustinus Niphus_, calleth this _Mastinus_
(which we call Mastiuus.) And that _Albertus_ writeth how the _Lyciscus_
is ingendred by a beare and a wolfe. Notwithstanding the self same
Author taketh it for the most part _pro Molosso_. A dogge of such a
countrey.


The names of such dogges as be contained in the fifte Section.

Of mungrels and rascalls somwhat is to be spoken. And among these, of
y^e _VVappe_ or _Turnespet_, which name is made of two simple words,
that is, of _Turne_, which in latine soundeth _Vertere_, and of _spete_
which is _Veru_, or _spede_, for the Englishe word inclineth closer to
the Italian imitation: _Veruuersator_, Turnspet. He is called also
VVaupe, of the naturall noise of (44) his voyce _VV_au, which he maketh
in barcking. But for the better and the redyer sounde, the vowell, u, is
chaunged into the cõsonant, p, so y^t for waupe we say wappe. And yet I
wot well that _Nonius_ boroweth his _Baubari_ of the natural voyce
_Bau_, as the _Græcians_ doe their βάυζειν of wau.

Now when you vnderstand this that _Saltare_ in latine signifieth
_Dansare_ in Englishe. And that our dogge therevpon is called a daunser
and in the latine _Saltator_, you are so farre taught as you were
desirous to learne, And now suppose I, there remaineth nothing, but that
your request is fully accomplished.


The winding vp of this worke, called the Supplement, &c.

Thus (Friend _Gesner_) you haue, not only the kindes of our countrey
dogges, but their names also, as well in latine as in Englishe, their
offices, seruices, diuersities, natures, & properties, that you can
demaunde no more of me in this matter. And albeit I haue not satisfied
your minde peraduẽture (who suspectest al speede in the performaunce of
your requeste employed, to be meere delayes) because I stayde the
setting fourth of that vnperfect pamphlet which, fiue yeares ago, I sent
to you as a priuate friende for your owne reeding, and not to be
printed, and so made common, yet I hope (hauing like the beare lickt
ouer my younge) I haue waded in this worke to your contentation, which
delay hath made somewhat better and δευτέραι φροντίδες, after witte more
meete to be perused.


The ende of this treatise.

FINIS.



[Decoration]

  _An Alphabetical Index, declaring the_
  whole discourse of this abridgement. The number importeth the Page.


  _A._

  Abridgement of Dogges.                                       1
  Abstinence from lost goods.                                 27
  Aelianus his opinion of bloodhoundes.                        6
  Aelianus and Aelius, opinion of the beauer.                 19
  Alfredus maintained iustice.                                27
  An example of rebellion, and the reward of the same.        26
  An example of loue in a dogge.                              31
  Arcadian dogge.                                             36

  _B._

  Bandogges bayte the Beare and the Bull.                     25
  Blondus opinion of a dogge.                                 30
  Blooddy and butcherlye curres.                              32
  Beauer called a water dogge.                                19
  Beauer wherein hee is lyke a dogge.                         19
  Beasts preuented of succor.                                  5
  Bloodhoundes howe they are knowne.                           5
  Bloodhounds conditions in hũting.                       ibidem
  Bloodhounds whence they borrowe their names.              ibid.
  Bloodhoundes pursue without wearinesse.                      6
  Bloodhoundes discerne theeues from true men.                 6
  Bloodhoundes hunte by water and by land.                  ibid.
  Bloodhoundes when they cease from hunting.              ibidem
  Bloodhoundes why they are kept close in the daye,
      and let lose in the night.                           ibide.
  Bloodhounds haue not lybertye alwayes
      to raunge at wyll.                                       7
  Bloodhoundes are their maisters guides.                   ibid.
  Borders of England pestred with pylferers.              ibidem
  Bloodhounds why they are vsed in England
      and Scotland.                                          ibi.
  Bloodhoundes take not the water naturally.              ibidem
  Bloodhoundes called Brache in Scottishe.                ibidem
  Bloodhounds when they barck.                                 8
  Butchers dogge.                                             28
  Butchers dogge why so called.                            ibide.

  _C._

  Caius booke of dogges twyse written.                         1
  Conny is not hunted.                                         4
  Connye caught with the ferryt.                          ibidem
  Conny taken with the net.                                  ibi.
  Continuaunce of tyme breedeth cunning.                       8
  Castle of Flint.                                            10
  Cunnies preuented of succor.                                11
  Callimachus.                                                20
  Cõforter called Meliteus.                                 ibid.
  Comforters proportion described.                         ibide.
  Comforters condicions declared.                         ibidem
  Comforters to what ende they serue.                     ibidem
  Comforters the pretier, the pleasaunter.                    21
  Comforters, companions of ydle dames.                   ibidem
  Comforters why they are so much estemed
      among gentlefolkes.                                 ibidem
  Comforters, what vertue is in them.                      ibide.
  Conditions natural, som secrete, some manifest.          ibide.
  Comforters called by sundrye names.                      ibide.
  Cicero pro S. Ross.                                         26
  Countrey cotages annoyed with theeues.                  ibidem
  Capitolium kept dogges at the common charge.             ibide.
  Carrier why he is so called.                                28
  Carriers seruice and properties.                        ibidem
  Comeparcke, a perillous place.                              30
  Cõmendation of the mastiue.                                 32

  _D._

  Dogges for hunting two kindes generally.                     2
  Diuerse dogges diuerse vses.                                 4
  Deceipt is th’ instrument of the Tumbler.                   12
  Dogges for the faulcon, the phesaunt,
      and the partridge.                                      15
  Dogs are houshold seruants.                                 16
  Ducks deceaue both dogge and maister.                       17
  Ducks subtyle of nature.                                   ibi.
  Ducks dissẽble weaknesse.                                  ibi.
  Ducks prudent and prouident.                            ibidem
  Ducks regarde them selues and their broode.               ibid.
  Dogges of a course kind.                                   ibi.
  Dissembling theeues.                                        27
  Dissembling dogges.                                         30
  Defending dogges stick to their maisters
      to the death.                                        ibide.
  Defending dogges greedy of reuengement.                 ibidem
  Diuersitie of mastiues.                                     32
  Daungerous dogges.                                        ibid.
  Daunsers qualities.                                         35
  Daunsers begge for their meate.                         ibidem
  Daunsers vsed for lucre and gaine.                        ibid.
  Dogges wonderfullye ingendred.                          ibidem

  _E._

  England is not without Scottish dogges.                      2
  Election in a gase hound.                                    8
  England and VVales are cleare from wolues.                  24
  Edgar what tyme King of England.                        ibidem
  Epirus a countrey in Græcia.                                28

  _F._

  Foxe hunted by the gasehound.                                8
  Flight preuenteth peryl.                                     9
  Froisart historiographer.                                   10
  Flint Castle.                                            ibide.
  Fiench dogges howe their skins be speckled.                 15
  Fisher dogge none in Englande.                              18
  Fisher dogge, doubtfull if there be any such.           ibidem
  Faulcon and an Eagle fight.                                 26
  Faulcon kylled for fighting with an Eagle.                ibid.
  Fire betraied by a dogge.                                   30
  Fire raked vp by a dogge.                                   31
  Farmars keepe dogges.                                     ibid.
  Feareful dogges barke sorest.                               32
  Foxes kept for sundrye causes.                              36
  Foxes holsome in houses.                                  ibid.

  _G._

  Gesner desirous of knowledge.                                1
  Gesner earnest in experimentes.                            ibi.
  Gasehounde whence he hath his name.                          9
  Gasehoundes vsed in the North.                          ibidem
  Gasehound somtimes loseth his waye.                     ibidem
  Grehound light footed.                                    ibid.
  Grehounds special seruice.                                 ibi.
  Grehoundes strong and swifte.                           ibidem
  Grehounds game.                                             10
  Grehounds spare of body.                                   ibi.
  Grehounds nature wonderfull.                              ibid.
  Grehounde of King Richarde.                               ibid.
  Gentle dogge.                                               14
  Gratius Poet his opinion.                                   37
  Getulian dogge.                                             38

  _H._

  Hunting wherin it consisteth.                                2
  Hunting and fowleing doo differ.                             3
  Hunting dogges, fiue speciall kinds.                      ibid.
  Harryer excelleth in smelling.                          ibidem
  Harryer how he is known.                                   ibi.
  Hare hunted by the gasehound.                                8
  Henry Duke of Lancaster.                                    10
  Hole of the Conny, their hauen of health.                   11
  Hare daunsing in measure.                                   16
  Hare beating and thumping a dogge.                      ibidem
  Heare a hinderaunce to the water Spaniell
      in swymming.                                            17
  Heare an vnprofitable burthen.                             ibi.
  Hector Boethus.                                             18
  Henry the seuenth.                                          26
  Henries commaundement to hang all bandogges.              ibid.
  Henries Faulconer, and his Faulcon.                        ibi.
  Hippocrates.                                                38

  _I._

  Justice mayntained by Alfred.                               27
  Ingulphus Croyladensis historiographer.                     28
  Ianus watching.                                             31
  Indian dogges.                                              37
  Iseland curres, rough and rugged.                         ibid.
  Iselande curres mutch sette by.                         ibidem

  _K._

  King Richarde of England.                                   10
  King Edgars trybute out of VVales.                          23
  King Henrie the seuenth.                                    26
  King of all beasts, the Lyon.                              ibi.
  King of all Birds, the Eagle.                              ibi.
  Keepers seruice.                                            28
  Kingston, or Kingstoune verye famous in olde time.          30
  Kinges crowned at Kingstoune, to the number of eyght,
      theyr names are these. Edward the first, Athelstan,
      Edmunde, Aldred, Edwin, Edgar, Edeldred, Edwarde,
      syrnamed Yron rybbes.                                 ibid.

  _L._

  Leuiner quicke of smelling, and swyft of running.           10
  Leuiner, why so called.                                    ibi.
  Leuiner foloweth the game eagerly.                         ibi.
  Leuiner taketh his pray speedilie.                        ibid.
  Lyon King of all beasts.                                    26
  Lust of the flesh reconcileth enemies.                      36

  _M._

  Maisters becke a direction to the gasehound.                 9
  Melita or Malta.                                            20
  Mastiues proportiõ described.                               20
  Mastiue, why he is called Villaticus.                      ibi.
  Mastiues vse and seruice.                                  ibi.
  Mastiues are mankind.                                      ibi.
  Mastiues of great might.                                    16
  Molossia.                                                   28
  Mooner, why so termed.                                      29
  Mooner watchfull.                                          ibi.
  Mungrellesl.                                               [34]
  Maisterles men carrie Apes about.                           35
  Man in the moone.                                           37

  _N._

  Nature hath made some dogges for hunting.                    4
  Naturall properties of the water spaniel.                   16
  No VVolues in Englande nor VVales.                          24
  No place free from theeues.                                 27
  Nothing escapeth the spoiler.                               18
  Nonius bau wau.                                             19
  Names of the mastiue.                                       33
  Names of the spaniel gentle.                                22
  Names of Dogges whence they were deriued.   39, 40, 41, 42, &c.

  _O._

  One Dogge hunteth diuerse beastes.                           4
  Owners of bloudhoundes howe they vse them.                   6
  Order of the Tumbler in hunting.                            11
  Of the Cumaneasse.                                          37
  Of brasen shanckt Thales.                                  ibi.
  Otter.                                                       7

  _P._

  Properties of a bloudhound issuing from desire.              7
  Proportion and making of the water spaniel.                 17
  Pupine a byrd and a fyshe.                                  18
  Princes pallace pestered with theeues.                      16
  Paris in Fraunce.                                           30

  _R._

  Rome maintained dogges.                                     28
  Rare toyes meete for Englishemen.                           37

  _S._

  Smelling is not incident to the gasehound.                   8
  Spaniels of a gentle kinde.                                 14
  Spaniels two sortes.                                     ibide.
  Spaniel of the lande what properties.                   ibidem
  Spaniel for the hauke and the nette.                     ibide.
  Spaniels some haue speciall names.                       ibide.
  Spaniel a name vniuersall.                                  15
  Spaniels the colour of their skinnes.                   ibidem
  Setters make no noyse, or very litle, in their game.    ibidem
  Setters giue attendaunce.                                ibide.
  Setters behauiour.                                       ibide.
  Setter whence he hath his name.                             16
  Sea calfe not numbred amonge Englishe dogges.               19
  Sea calfe called a dogge fishe.                            ibi.
  Seele or sea veale.                                     ibidem
  Spaniell gentle or the comforter.                           20
  Shepherdes dogge.                                           23.
    The necessity of their seruice.                          ibi.
    The proportion of them.                               ibidem
  Shepherdes what benefite they reape by their dogges.        24
  Sheepherdes in what countryes they go
      before their sheepe.                                ibidem
  Sheepe howe they flocke at the sheepherds whistle.        ibid.
  Sheepherds Dogge choose and take.                         ibid.
  Salacones vaineglorious.                                    37

  _T._

  Terrars hunt the badger and the Foxe.                        4
  Terrars hunt as ferryts hunt.                              ibi.
  Terrars conditions.                                       ibid.
  Terrars holde fast with theyr teeth.                         5
  Tumblers crafty and fraudulent.                             11
  Tumblers why so named.                                    ibid.
    their trade in hũting.                                   ibi.
    their dissembling of friendship.                         ibi.
    they hunt against the wind.                               12
  Theeuish dogges.                                        ibidem
  Theeuish Dogge, a night curre.                          ibidem
  Theeues feare no law,                                       27.
    Some steale for neede.                                  ibid.
    Some to maintaine brauery.                               ibi.
  Tynckers curres beare burthens 29.
    their conditions.                                        ibi.
    they loue their masters.                                ibid.
  Two suiters to one woman.                                   30
  Turnespet painefull in the kytchen.                         34
  Thales with the brasen feete.                               37

  _V._

  Vertue of the comforter.                                    21
  Valentines law for vagabundes.                              27
  Virgils vearse.                                             31

  _W._

  VVatchwordes make Dogges perfect in game.                    8
  VVonder of a Hare or Leuerit.                               16
  VVater spaniell called the finder.                      ibidem
  VVater spaniels what properties.                        ibidem.
  VVater spaniels their proportion.                           17.
    howe they be described by _D. Caius_.                 ibidem
  VVhy so called.                                         ibidem
  VVhere their game lyeth and what it is.                 ibidem
  VVhy they are called fynders.                           ibidem
  VVanton women, wanton puppies.                              20
  VVolues bloudsucking beastes.                               23.
    none England nor wales.                               ibidem.
    three hundred payde yearely to Prince Edgar.            ibid.
  VVarner what seruice he doth.                               34
  VVappes vnprofitable dogges.                            ibidem

  _Y._

  Young dogges barcke much.                                    8
  Yolping and yelling in a bandogge.                          31
  Yll kinde whelpes not regarded.                             33


_The ende of the Index._



  ¶ Faultes escaped
  _thus to b’amended_.

  In the last page of the Epistle Dedicatory, _Quæ_ for _Qui_
  Page. 3. _Grecians_ for _Græcians_,
  Page. 28. _Canis Cultos_ for _Canis Custos_,
  Page. 38. _Britanica_ for _Britannica_.

Other faultes we referre to the correction of the Reader.

There bee also certaine _Accents_ wanting in the Greeke words which,
because we had them not, are pretermitted: so haue wee byn fayne to let
the Greeke words run their full length, for lacke of _Abbreuiations_.


_Studio & industriæ,_

  _Abrahami_
  _Flemingi._


CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.


           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


Errors and Inconsistencies (English Translation)


_Fleming’s Errata_

The form “X for Y” means is “X is a misprint for Y”, not “substitute
X for Y”.

  In the last page of the Epistle Dedicatory, _Quæ_ for _Qui_
    [qui tantam gratiam conciliauit]
  Page. 3. _Grecians_ for _Græcians_,
    [the _Græcians_ by thys word ιχνευτήν]
    [_the spelling “Grecians” also occurs on p. 25, where it has
    been changed for consistency:_
      This dogge in like maner of _Græcians_ is called οἰκουρος]
  Page. 28. _Canis Cultos_ for _Canis Custos_,
    [Of the latinists _Canis Custos_, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.]
  Page. 38. _Britanica_ for _Britannica_.
    [our worcke entituled _De Ephemera Britanica_]

References to Greek accents and abbreviations apply to the book
as originally published. As noted in the editor’s introduction (quoted
at the end of the e-text), Greek was regularized in this reprint. Minor
errors are listed below.


_Typographical Errors_

Headers in the form “Of the Dogge called...” were printed with or
without commas and have not been regularized. Variation between W
and VV is unchanged.

Title Page (printed in facsimile)

  _Natura etiam in brutis vin ostendit suam._  [_error for “vim”_]
    [_If this line is a quotation or paraphrase, it has not been
    identified._]
  Scene and allowed.  [_error for “Seene”_]

Main text (errors introduced or retained in the reprint)

  hortatur aliquod quale quale sit
    [_duplication probably intentional_]
  with the teeth of spightfull enuye,  [euuye]
  a difference betweene hunting and fowleling, [_text unchanged_]
  κύνα ποτάμιον a water dogge  [κὐναποτάμιον]
  which are vsed for the fowle are called _Aucupatorij_.  [, for .]
  they are sayd to ha{n}e their generation of the violent Lyon
    [_letter “n” printed in italics: error for “haue”?_]
  the sawcy _Salacones’_ μεγαλορρούντων
    [μεγαλὄρροῦντων _with extraneous and incorrect accents_]
  This dogge in like maner of _Græcians_ is called οἰκουρος.
    [_for “Græcians”, see notes on author’s errata, above_]
    [_missing . at paragraph-end_]
  An example hereof  [And example]
  Dogs comprehended in y^e fourth section are these  [secion]
  which is most blockishe,  [blocklishe]
  [“Diall”, 5th section] called in Latine _Canes Rustici_
    [_text given as printed: apparent error for “Degeneres”_]
  as Hunt, Hunde, whom (if you coniecture to be so named
    [_open parenthesis as shown_]
  Of the Leuyner or the Lyemmer.  [Leuyuer]
  _Ælianus_ in his .7. booke  [his. / 7. _at line break_]
  as the _Græcians_ doe their βάυζειν of wau.  [, for .]

Index

The random abbreviations of “ibidem” are unchanged.

  Hare daunsing in measure. 16  [_comma , for period ._]
  Mungrellesl. [34]  [_line printed as shown, including brackets_]
  Maisterles men carrie Apes about. 35  [Maiterles]
    [_the body text consistently spells “Master”; the Index uses
    “Maister”_]
  VVolues bloudsucking beastes. 23.  [_first . missing_]
  none England nor wales. ibidem.  [nor wales ibidem,]


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


[Transcriber’s Note:

This parallel section omits the Latin and English introductions of
Fleming’s translation, and both Indexes.]


IOANNIS CAII BRITANNI

De _Canibus Britannicis libellus._

_Ad Gesnerum._

    The first Section of this
    _discourse_.

    ¶ The Preamble or entraunce, into
    this treatise.

Scripsimus ad te (charissime Gesnere) superioribus annis variam
historiam de variis quadrupedum, avium, atque piscium formis, variis
herbarum atque fruticum speciebus & figuris.

    I wrote vnto you (well beloued friende _Gesner_) not many yeares
    past, a manifolde historie, contayning the diuers formes and figures
    of Beastes, Byrdes, and Fyshes, the sundry shapes of plantes, and
    the fashions of Hearbes, &c.

Scripsimus & de canibus quædam ad te seorsum, quæ in libro tuo de
iconibus animalium ordine secundo mansuetorum quadrupedum, ubi de
Canibus Scoticis scribis, & in fine epistolæ tuæ ad Gulielmum
Turnerum de libris a te editis, inter libros nondum excusos,
te editurum polliceris.

    I wrote moreouer, vnto you seuerally, a certayne abridgement of
    Dogges, which in your discourse vpon the fourmes of Beastes in the
    seconde order of mylde and tameable Beastes, where you make mencion
    of Scottishe Dogges, and in the wynding vp of your Letter written
    and directed to Doctour _Turner_, comprehending a Catalogue or
    rehersall of your bookes not yet extant, you promised to set forth
    in print, and openly to publishe in the face of the worlde among
    such your workes as are not yet come abroade to lyght and sight.

Sed quia de Canibus nostris quædam in eo libello mihi videbantur
desiderari, editionem prohibui, & alium promisi. Quamobrem, ut
promissis meis starem, & expectationi tuæ satisfacerem, homini omnis
cognitionis cupido, universitatem generis, differentiam atque usum,
mores & ingenium, veluti methodo quadam conabor explicare.

    But, because certaine circumstaunces were wanting in my breuiary of
    Englishe Dogges (as seemed vnto mee) I stayed the publication of the
    same, making promise to sende another abroade, which myght be
    commytted to the handes, the eyes, the eares, the mindes, and the
    iudgements of the Readers. Wherefore that I myght perfourme that
    preciselye, which I promised solempnly, accomplishe my
    determination, and satisfy your expectacion: which art a man
    desirous and capeable of all kinde of knowledge, and very earnest to
    be acquaincted with all experimentes: I wyll expresse and declare in
    due order, the grand and generall kinde of Englishe Dogges, the
    difference of them, the vse, the propertyes, and the diuerse natures
    of the same, making a tripartite diuision in this sort and maner.

Dispertiar in tres species, Generosam, Rusticam, & Degenerem; sic ut
de illa primò, de hac postremò, de rustica, medio loco tibi dicam.

    All Englishe Dogges be eyther of,

    { A gentle kinde, seruing the game.
    { A homely kind, apt for sundry necessary vses.
    { A currishe kinde, meete for many toyes.

    Of these three sortes or kindes so meane I to entreate, that the
    first in the first place, the last in the last roome, and the myddle
    sort in the middle seate be handled.

Omnes Britannicos vocabo; tum quòd una Insula Britannia, ut Anglicos
omnes, sic quoque Scoticos omnes complectatur: tum quòd venatibus
magis indulgemus, quia voluptati ex feris & venatione, propter
animalium copiam, atque hominum otium, magis Britanni sumus dediti,
quàm eorum animalium indigi & negotiosi Scoti.

    I cal thẽ vniuersally all by the name of English dogges, as well
    because England only, as it hath in it English dogs, so it is not
    without Scottishe, as also for that wee are more inclined and
    delighted with the noble game of hunting, for we Englishmen are
    adicted and giuen to that exercise, & painefull pastime of pleasure,
    as well for the plenty of fleshe which our Parkes and Forrests doe
    foster, as also for the oportunitie and conuenient leasure which we
    obtaine, both which, the Scottes want.

[Ex generosis venaticis.] Ergo cum omnis ratio generosæ venationis,
vel in persequendis feris, vel in capiendis avibus finiatur, canum,
quibus hæc aguntur, duo genera sunt: alterum quod feras investiget,
alterum quod aves persequatur.

    Wherfore seeing that the whole estate of kindly hunting consisteth
    principally,

    In these two pointes,

    { In chasing the beast } that is in { hunting  }
    { In taking the byrde  }            { fowleing }

    It is necessary and requisite to vnderstand, that there are two
    sortes of Dogges by whose meanes, the feates within specifyed are
    wrought, and these practyses of actiuitie cunningly and curiously
    compassed,

    Two kindes of Dogges

    { One which rouseth the beast and continueth the chase,
    { Another which springeth the byrde and bewrayeth flight
      by pursuite,

Utraque Latinis uno & communi nomine dici possunt venatica.

    Both which kyndes are tearmed of the Latines by one common name that
    is, _Canes Venatici_, hunting dogges.

Sed Anglis cum aliud esse videatur feras sectari, aliud aves capere,
ut primum venationem, secundum aucupium nominant, ita canum nomina
volunt esse diversa: ut qui feras lacessunt, venatici; qui aves,
aucupatorii dicerentur.

    But because we Englishe men make a difference betweene hunting and
    fowleling, for that they are called by these seuerall wordes,
    _Venatio_ & _Aucupium_, so they tearme the Dogges whom they vse in
    these sundry games by diuers names, as those which serue for the
    beast, are called _Venatici_, the other which are vsed for the fowle
    are called _Aucupatorij_,

Venaticos rursum divido in quinque genera. Aut enim odoratu, aut visu
fatigant feras, aut pernicitate vincunt, aut odoratu & pernicitate
superant, aut dolo capiunt.

    The first kind called _Venatici_ I deuide into fiue sortes.

    { The first in perfect smelling
    { The second in quicke spying
    { The thirde in swiftnesse and quicknesse
    { The fourth in smelling & nymblenesse
    { The fifte in subtiltie and deceitfulnesse,

    excelleth.


    Of the Dogge called a Harier, in Latine _Leuerarius_.

[Sagax.] Qui odoratu fatigat, & prompta alacritate in venando
utitur, & incredibili ad investigandum sagacitate narium valet:
a qua re nos sagacem hunc appellamus, quem Græci ab investigando
ἰχνευτὴν, à nare ῥινηλάτην dicunt. Huic labra propensa sunt, & aures
ad os usque pendulæ, corporisque media magnitudo.

    That kinde of Dogge whom nature hath indued with the vertue of
    smelling, whose property it is to vse a lustines, a readines, and a
    couragiousnes in hunting, and draweth into his nostrells the ayre or
    sent of the beast pursued and followed, we call by this word
    _Sagax_, the _Græcians_ by thys word ἰχνευτήν of tracing or chasing
    by y^e foote, or ῥινηλάτην, of the nostrells, which be the
    instrumentes of smelling. Wee may knowe these kinde of Dogges by
    their long, large, and bagging lippes, by their hanging eares,
    reachyng downe both sydes of their chappes, and by the indifferent
    and measurable proportion of their making.

[Leverarius.] Hunc Leverarium vocitabimus, ut universum genus in
certas species atque nomina reducamus: cum alioqui usus aut officii
nomine, in unitatem speciei adigi nullo modo queant.

    This sort of Dogges we call _Leuerarios_ Hariers, that I may
    comprise the whole nũber of them in certaine specialties, and apply
    to them their proper and peculier names, for so much as they cannot
    all be reduced and brought vnder one sorte, considering both the
    sundrye uses of them, and the difference of their seruice wherto
    they be appointed.

Nam alius leporis, alius vulpis, alius cervi, alius platycerotis,
alius taxi, alius lutræ, alius mustelæ, alius cuniculi (quem tamen
non venamur nisi casse & viverra) tantum odore gaudet: & in suo
quisque genere & desiderio egregius est.

    Some for

    { The Hare
    { The Foxe
    { The Wolfe
    { The Harte
    { The Bucke
    { The Badger
    { The Otter
    { The Polcat
    { The Lobster
    { The Weasell
    { The Conny, &c.

    Some for one thing and some for another.

    As for the Conny, whom we haue lastly set downe, wee use not to
    hunt, but rather to take it, somtime with the nette sometime with a
    ferret, and thus euery seuerall sort is notable and excellent in his
    naturall qualitie and appointed practise.

Sunt ex his qui duos, ut vulpem atque leporem, variatis vicibus
sequi student, sed non ea felicitate, qua id quod natura sequi
docuit: errant enim sæpius.

    Among these sundry sortes, there be some which are apt to hunt two
    diuers beasts, as the Foxe otherwhiles, and other whiles the Hare,
    but they hunt not with such towardnes and good lucke after them,
    as they doe that whereunto nature hath formed and framed them,
    not onely in externall composition & making, but also in inward
    faculties and conditions, for they swarue oftentimes, and doo
    otherwise then they should.


    Of the Dogge called a Terrar, in Latine _Terrarius_.

[Terrarius.] Sunt qui vulpem atque taxum solum, quos Terrarios
vocamus; quod subeant terræ cuniculos, more viverrarum in venatu
cuniculorum, & ita terrent mordentque vulpem atque taxum, ut vel in
terra morsu lacerent, vel è specu in fugam aut casses cuniculorum
ostiis inductas compellant. Sed hi in sagacium genere minimi sunt.

    Another sorte there is which hunteth the Foxe and the Badger or
    Greye onely, whom we call Terrars, because they (after the manner
    and custome of ferrets in searching for Connyes) creepe into the
    grounde, and by that meanes make afrayde, nyppe, and byte the Foxe
    and the Badger in such sort, that eyther they teare them in peeces
    with theyr teeth beyng in the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and
    pull them perforce out of their lurking angles, darke dongeons, and
    close caues, or at the least through cõceaued feare, driue them out
    of their hollow harbours, in so much that they are compelled to
    prepare speedy flight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not
    the safest) refuge, are otherwise taken and intrapped with snares
    and nettes layde ouer holes to the same purpose. But these be the
    least in that kynde called _Sagax_.


    Of the Dogge called a Bloudhounde in Latine _Sanguinarius_.

[Sanguinarius.] Qui insequuntur, majores: propenso & hi labro atque
aure, nec vivas tantum uti memorati omnes, sed & mortuas quoque
conspersi sanguinis odore persequuntur.

    The greater sort which serue to hunt, hauing lippes of a large syze,
    & eares of no small lenght, doo, not onely chase the beast whiles it
    liueth, (as the other doo of whom mencion aboue is made) but beyng
    dead also by any maner of casualtie, make recourse to the place
    where it lyeth, hauing in this poynt an assured and infallible
    guyde, namely, the sent and sauour of the bloud sprinckled heere and
    there vpon the ground.

Sive enim vivæ sauciantur feræ, atque è manibus venatorum elabuntur,
sive mortuæ ex vivario sublatæ sunt (sed profusione sanguinis
utræque) isti canes odore facilè persentiscunt, & subsequuntur.
Eam ob causam ex argumento sanguinarii appellantur.

    For whether the beast beyng wounded, doth notwithstanding enioye
    life, and escapeth the handes of the huntesman, or whether the said
    beast beyng slayne is conuayed clenly out of the parcke (so that
    there be some signification of bloud shed) these Dogges with no
    lesse facilitie and easinesse, then auiditie and greedinesse can
    disclose and bewray the same by smelling, applying to their
    pursute, agilitie and nimblenesse, without tediousnesse, for which
    consideration, of a singuler specialtie they deserued to bee called
    _Sanguinarij_ bloudhounds.

Cum tamen fieri solet ut furum astutia nullo consperso sanguine
abripiatur fera, etiam sicca hominis vestigia per extentissima
spatia nullo errore sequi nôrunt,

    And albeit peraduenture it may chaunce, (As whether it chaunceth
    sealdome or sometime I am ignorant) that a peece of fleshe be
    subtily stolne and cunningly conuayed away with such prouisos and
    precaueats as thereby all apparaunce of bloud is eyther preuented,
    excluded, or concealed, yet these kinde of dogges by a certaine
    direction of an inwarde assured notyce and priuy marcke, pursue the
    deede dooers, through long lanes, crooked reaches, and weary wayes,
    without wandring awry out of the limites of the land whereon these
    desperate purloyners prepared their speedy passage.

in quantalibet multitudine secernere, per abditissima & densissima
loca appetere, & si flumina tranent etiam persequi, cumque ad
ulteriorem ripam perventum est, circuitu quodam qua fugitum est
investigare, si primo statim odore in vestigium furis non inciderint.

    Yea, the natures of these Dogges is such, and so effectuall is their
    foresight, that they cã bewray, seperate, and pycke them out from
    among an infinite multitude and an innumerable company, creepe they
    neuer so farre into the thickest thronge, they will finde him out
    notwithstandying he lye hidden in wylde woods, in close and
    ouergrowen groues, and lurcke in hollow holes apte to harbour such
    vngracious guestes. Moreouer, although they should passe ouer the
    water, thinking thereby to auoyde the pursute of the houndes, yet
    will not these Dogges giue ouer their attempt, but presuming to swym
    through the streame, perseuer in their pursute, and when they be
    arriued and gotten the further bancke, they hunt vp and downe, to
    and fro runne they, from place to place shift they, vntill they haue
    attained to that plot of grounde where they passed ouer. And this is
    their practise, if perdie they cãnot at y^e first time smelling,
    finde out the way which the deede dooers tooke to escape.

Sic enim arte inveniunt, quod fortuna nequeunt, ut rectè videatur ab
Æliano scriptum lib. 6. cap. 59. de animalibus, τὸ ἐνθυμητικὸν καὶ
διαλεκτικὸν, καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὸ αἱρετὸν, hoc est, considerationem,
ratiocinationem, atque etiam participationem seu arbitrium canibus
hisce venaticis inesse; nec ante cessant persequi, quàm sunt fures
comprehensi.

    So at length get they that by arte, cunning, and diligent indeuour,
    which by fortune and lucke they cannot otherwyse ouercome. In so
    much as it seemeth worthely and wisely written by Ælianus in his
    sixte Booke, and xxxix. Chapter. Τὸ ἐνθυμητικον καὶ διαλεκτικὸν. to
    bee as it were naturally instilled and powred into these kinde of
    Dogges. For they wyll not pause or breath from their pursute vntill
    such tyme as they bee apprehended and taken which committed the
    facte.

Eos luce in tenebris habent heri, nocte producunt, quo alacriores in
persequendo sint assueti tenebris, quibus prædones delectantur
maximè.

    The owners of such houndes vse to keepe them in close and darke
    channells in the day time, and let them lose at liberty in the night
    season, to th’intent that they myght with more courage and boldnesse
    practise to follow the fellon in the euening and solitarie houres of
    darkenesse, when such yll disposed varlots are principally purposed
    to play theyr impudent pageants, & imprudent pranckes.

Iidem, cum fures insequuntur, non ea donantur libertate qua cum
feras, nisi in magna celeritate fugientium furum, sed loro retenti
herum ducunt qua velit ille celeritate, sive pedes sit, sive eques.

    These houndes (vpon whom this present portion of our treatise
    runneth) when they are to follow such fellowes as we haue before
    rehersed, vse not that liberty to raunge at wil, which they have
    otherwise when they are in game, (except upon necessary occasion,
    wheron dependeth an urgent and effectuall perswasion) when such
    purloyners make speedy way in flight, but beyng restrained and
    drawne backe from running at randon with the leasse, the ende
    whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded, and directed
    with such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote, or
    whether he ryde on horsebacke) as he himselfe in hart would wishe
    for the more easie apprehension of these venturous varlots.

In confiniis Angliæ atque Scotiæ propter frequentia pecorum &
jumentorum spolia, multus usus hujus generis canum est, & principio
discit pecudem & armentum persequi, postea furem relicto armento.

    In the borders of England & Scotland, (the often and accustomed
    stealing of cattell so procuring) these kinde of Dogges are very
    much vsed and they are taught and trayned up first of all to hunt
    cattell as well of the smaller as of the greater grouth, and
    afterwardes (that qualitie relinquished and lefte) they are learned
    to pursue such pestilent persons as plant theyr pleasure in such
    practises of purloyning as we have already declared.

In hoc genere nullus est aquaticus naturaliter, nisi eos ita
nominare placeat, qui Lutram insequuntur, qui subinde ripas, subinde
aquas frequentant. Non recusant tamen omnes, aviditate prædæ
tranantis flumina, etiam aquis se committere. Sed hoc desiderii
potius est, quàm naturæ.

    Of this kinde there is none that taketh the water naturally, except
    it please you so to suppose of them whych follow the Otter, whych
    sometimes haunte the lande, and sometime vseth the water. And yet
    neuerthelesse all the kind of them boyling and broyling with greedy
    desire of the pray which by swymming passeth through ryuer and
    flood, plung amyds the water, and passe the streame with their
    pawes. But this propertie proceedeth from an earnest desire wherwith
    they be inflamed, rather then from any inclination issuyng from the
    ordinance and appoyntment of nature.

Quod autem ex his aliquas Brachas nostri, Rachas Scoti sua lingua
nominant, in causa sexus est, non genus. Sic enim canes fœminas in
venatico genere vocare solent nostri.

    And albeit some of this sort in English be called _Brache_, in
    Scottishe _Rache_, the cause hereof resteth in the shee sex and not
    in the generall kinde. For we English men call bytches, belonging to
    the hunting kinde of Dogges, by the tearme aboue mencioned.

Ad postremum, in natura sagacium est, ut alii pervestigando taceant
ante excitatam feram, alii statim ad primum odorem voce prodant
animal, etsi remotum adhuc, & in cubili; & quo juniores, eo
petulantioris oris & mendacioris sunt. Ætas enim & venandi
assiduitas experientiam in his facit & certitudinem, ut in aliis
omnibus, maximè, cum norint obtemperare domino vel inhibenti vel
animanti.

    To bee short it is proper to the nature of houndes, some to keepe
    silence in hunting untill such tyme as there is game offered.
    Othersome so soone as they smell out the place where the beast
    lurcketh, to bewray it immediatly by their importunate barcking,
    notwithstanding it be farre of many furlongs cowchyng close in his
    cabbyn. And these Dogges the younger they be, the more wantonly
    barcke they, and the more liberally, yet, oftimes without
    necessitie, so that in them, by reason of theyr young yeares and
    want of practise, small certaintie is to be reposed. For continuance
    of tyme, and experience in game, ministreth to these houndes not
    onely cunning in running, but also (as in the rest) an assured
    foresight what is to bee done, principally, being acquainted with
    their masters watchwordes, eyther in reuoking or imboldening them to
    serue the game.


    Of the Dogge called the Gasehounde, in Latine _Agaseus_.

[Agasæus.] Quod visu lacessit, nare nihil agit, sed oculo; oculo
vulpem leporemque persequitur, oculo seligit medio de grege feram,
& eam non nisi bene saginatam & opimam oculo insequitur,

    This kinde of Dogge which pursueth by the eye, preuayleth little, or
    neuer a whit, by any benefite of the nose that is by smelling, but
    excelleth in perspicuitie and sharpenesse of sight altogether, by
    the vertue whereof, being singuler and notable, it hunteth the Foxe
    and the Hare. Thys Dogge will choose and seperate any beast from
    among a great flocke or hearde, and such a one will it take by
    election as is not lancke, leane and hollow, but well spred,
    smoothe, full, fatte, and round, it followes by the direction of the
    eyesight, which in deede is cleere, constant, and not uncertaine,

oculo perditam requirit, oculo, si quando in gregem redeat, secernit,
cæteris relictis omnibus, secretamque cursu denuo fatigat ad mortem.
Agasæum nostri abs re, quòd intento sit in feram oculo, vocant.

    if a beast be wounded and gone astray this Dogge seeketh after it by
    the stedfastnes of the eye, if it chaunce peraduenture to returne &
    bee mingled with the residue of the flocke, this Dogge spyeth it out
    by the vertue of his eye, leauing the rest of the cattell vntouched,
    and after he hath set sure sight upõ it he seperateth it from among
    the company and hauing so done neuer ceaseth untill he haue wearyed
    the Beast to death. Our countrey men call this dogge _Agasæum_. A
    gasehounde because the beames of his sight are so stedfastly setled
    and vnmoueably fastened.

Usus ejus est, in septentrionalibus Angliæ partibus magis quam
meridionalibus; locis planis & campestribus, quàm dumosis &
sylvestribus; equitibus magis quàm peditibus, quo ad cursum equos
incitent (quibus delectantur magis quàm ipsa præda) assuescantque
sepes fossasque inoffensè & intrepidè transilire & aufugere,

    These Dogges are much and vsually occupyed in the Northern partes of
    England more then in the Southern parts, & in fealdy landes rather
    then in bushy and wooddy places, horsemen vse them more then
    footemen to th’intent that they might prouoke their horses to a
    swift galloppe (wherwith they are more delighted then with the pray
    it selfe) and that they myght accustome theyr horse to leape ouer
    hedges & ditches, without stoppe or stumble, without harme or
    hassard, without doubt or daunger, and so escape with safegard of
    lyfe.

quò insessores per necessitates & pericula salutem fuga sibi quærant,
aut hostem insequendo cum velint cædant.

    And to the ende that the ryders themselues when necessitie so
    constrained, and the feare of further mischiefe inforced, myght
    saue themselues vndamnifyed, and preuent each perilous tempest by
    preparing speedy flight, or else by swift pursute made vpon theyr
    enimyes, myght both ouertake them, encounter with them, and make a
    slaughter of them accordingly.

At si quando canis aberraverit, dato signo quàm mox accurrit, &
feram de integro subsequens, clara voce, cursuque celeri ut ante
lacessit.

    But if it fortune so at any time that this Dogge take a wrong way,
    the master making some vsuall signe and familiar token, he returneth
    forthwith, and taketh the right and ready trace, beginning his chase
    a fresh, & with a cleare voyce, and a swift foote followeth the game
    with as much courage and nimblenesse as he did at the first.


    Of the Dogge called the Grehounde, in Latine _Leporarius_.

[Leporarius.] Quod pernicitate vincit, leporarius dicitur, quòd
præcipua ejus cura, præcipuusque usus est in persequendo lepore.
Quanquam & in capiendo platycerote, cervo, dorcade, vulpe, & hoc
genus aliis feris, & viribus & memorata velocitate valent: sed plus
minus pro suo quisque desiderio, & corporis firmitudine aut
exilitate.

    There is another kinde of Dogge which for his incredible swiftnesse
    is called _Leporarius_ a Grehounde, because the principall seruice
    of them dependeth and consisteth in starting and hunting the hare,
    which Dogges likewyse are indued with no lesse strength then
    lightnes in maintenance of the game, in seruing the chase, in taking
    the Bucke, the Harte, the Dowe, the Foxe, and other beastes of
    semblable kinde ordained for the game of hunting. But more or lesse,
    each one according to the measure and proportion of theyr desire,
    and as might and habilitie of theyr bodyes will permit and suffer.

Est enim strigosum genus: in quo alii majores sunt, alii minores:
alii pilo sessili, alii hirto. Majores majoribus, minores minoribus
feris destinamus.

    For it is a spare and bare kinde of Dogge, (of fleshe but not of
    bone) some are of a greater sorte, and some of a lesser, some are
    smooth skynned, & some are curled, the bigger therefore are
    appoynted to hunt the bigger beasts, & the smaller serue to hunt the
    smaller accordingly.

Cujus naturam in venatione, magnam; in hoc, miram deprehendi: quòd
(referente Joanne Froisarto historico lib. hist. suæ 4.) leporarius
Richardi secundi Anglorum regis, qui ante neminem præter regem
agnoverat, venientem Henricum Lancastriæ ducem ad castellum Flinti
ut Richardum comprehenderet, relicto Richardo, Henricum solitis in
Richardum favoribus exceperit;

    The nature of these dogges I finde to be wonderful by y^e
    testimoniall of histories. For, as Iohn Froisart the Historyographer
    in his 4. _lib._ reporteth. A Grehound of King Richard, the second
    y^t wore the Crowne, and bare the Scepter of the Realme of England,
    neuer knowing any man, beside the kings person, whẽ _Henry Duke_ of
    _Lancaster_ came to the castle of _Flinte_ to take King _Richarde_.
    The Dogge forsaking his former Lord & master came to _Duke Henry_,
    fawned upon him with such resemblaunces of goodwyll and conceaued
    affection, as he fauoured King _Richarde_ before: he followed the
    Duke, and vtterly left the King.

quasi adversitates Richardi futuras intellexerat & præsentiscerat.
Id quod Richardus probe animadvertit, atque ut præsagium futuri
interitus verbis non dissimulavit.

    So that by these manifest circumstances a man myght iudge this Dogge
    to haue bene lightened wyth the lampe of foreknowledge &
    vnderstãding, touchyng his olde masters miseryes to come, and
    vnhappinesse nye at hand, which King _Richarde_ himselfe euidently
    perceaued, accounting this deede of his Dogge a Prophecy of his
    ouerthrowe.


    Of the Dogge called the Leuiner, or Lyemmer in Latine _Lorarius_.

[Levinarius seu lorarius.] Quod sagacitate simul & pernicitate
potest, & genere, & compositione corporis medium est inter sagacem
illum & leporarium, & à levitate appellatur levinarius, à loro (quo
ducitur) lorarius. Hic propter velocitatem & gravius feram urget,
& citius capit.

    Another sort of dogges be there, in smelling singuler, and in
    swiftnesse incomparable. This is (as it were) a myddle kinde betwixt
    the Harier and the Grehounde, as well for his kinde, as for the
    frame of his body. And it is called in latine _Leuinarius_,
    _a Leuitate_, of lyghtnesse, and therefore may well be called a
    lyghthounde, it is also called by this worde _Lorarius_, _a Loro_,
    wherwith it is led. This Dogge for the excellency of his conditions,
    namely smelling and swift running, doth followe the game with more
    eagernes, and taketh the pray with a iolly quicknes.


    Of the Dogge called a Tumbler, in Latine _Vertagus_.

[Vertagus.] Quod dolo agit, vertagum nostri dicunt, quòd se, dum
prædatur, vertat, & circumacto corpore, impetu quodam in ipso specus
ostio feram opprimit & intercipit.

    This sorte of Dogges, which compasseth all by craftes, fraudes,
    subtelties and deceiptes, we Englishe men call Tumblers, because in
    hunting they turne and tumble, winding their bodyes about in circle
    wise, and then fearcely and violently venturing upõ the beast, doth
    soddenly gripe it, at the very entrance and mouth of their
    receptacles, or closets before they can recouer meanes, to saue and
    succour themselues.

Is hoc utitur astu. Cum in vivarium cuniculorum venit, eos non
lacessit cursu, non latratu terret, nec ullas inimicitias ostentat,
sed velut amicus aliud agens, taciturna solertia prætergreditur,
observatis diligenter eorum cuniculis.

    This dogge vseth another craft and subteltie, namely, when he
    runneth into a warren, or setteth a course about a connyburrough, he
    huntes not after them, he frayes them not by barcking, he makes no
    countenance or shadow of hatred against them, but dissembling
    friendship, and pretending fauour, passeth by with silence and
    quietnesse, marking and noting their holes diligently, wherin
    (I warrant you) he will not be ouershot nor deceaued.

Eò cum pervenerit, ita se humi componit, ut & adversum ventum semper
habeat, & cuniculum lateat. Sic enim ille revertentis aut exeuntis
cuniculi odorem facilè sentit, & suus cuniculo omnino tollitur,
& prospectu fera fallitur.

    When he commeth to the place where Connyes be, of a certaintie, he
    cowcheth downe close with his belly to the groũd, Prouided alwayes
    by his skill and polisie, that y^e winde bee neuer with him but
    against him in such an enterprise. And that the Connyes spie him not
    where he lurcketh.

Ad hunc modum compositus canis, & prostratus, aut exeuntem cuniculum
& imprudentem in ipso specus ingressu versutè opprimit, aut
revertentem excipit, atque ad latentem herum ore perducit.

    By which meanes he obtaineth the sent and sauour of the Connyes,
    carryed towardes him with the wind & the ayre, either going to their
    holes, or cõming out, eyther passing this way, or running that way,
    and so prouideth by his circumspection, that the selly simple Conny
    is debarred quite from his hole (which is the hauen of their hope
    and the harbour of their health) and fraudulently circumuented and
    taken, before they can get the aduantage of their hole. Thus hauing
    caught his pray he carryeth it speedily to his Master, wayting his
    Dogges returne in some conuenient lurcking corner.

Minor hic est sagaci illo, strigosior, & erectiore aure. Corporis
figura leporarium spurium diceres, si major esset. Et quamvis eo
minor multò sit, uno tamen die tot potest capere, quot justum equi
onus esse possunt. Dolus enim illi pro virtute est, & corporis
agilitas.

    These Dogges are somewhat lesser than the houndes, and they be
    lancker & leaner, beside that they be somwhat prick eared. A man
    that shall marke the forme and fashion of their bodyes, may well
    call them mungrell Grehoundes if they were somwhat bigger. But
    notwithstanding they counteruaile not the Grehound in greatnes, yet
    will he take in one dayes space as many Connyes as shall arise to as
    bigge a burthen, and as heauy a loade as a horse can carry, for
    deceipt and guile is the instrument wherby he maketh this spoyle,
    which pernicious properties supply the places of more commendable
    qualities.


    Of the Dogge called the theeuishe Dogge in Latine _Canis furax_.

[Canis furax.] Huic similis canis furax est, qui jubente hero noctu
progreditur, & sine latratu odore adverse persequens cuniculos,
cursu prehendit quot herus permiserit, & ad heri stationem reportat.
Vocant incolæ canem nocturnum, quòd venetur noctu. Sed hæc de iis
qui feras insequuntur.

    The like to that whom we have rehearsed, is the theeuishe Dogge,
    which at the mandate and bydding of his master steereth and leereth
    abroade in the night, hunting Connyes by the ayre, which is leuened
    with their sauour and conueyed to the sense of smelling by the
    meanes of the winde blowing towardes him. During all which space of
    his hunting he will not barcke, least he shoulde bee preiudiciall to
    his owne aduantage. And thus watcheth and snatcheth up in course as
    many Connyes as his Master will suffer him, and beareth them to his
    Masters standing. The farmers of the countrey and uplandishe
    dwellers, call this kinde of Dogge a nyght curre, because he hunteth
    in the darke. But let thus much seeme sufficient for Dogges which
    serue the game and disport of hunting.


    ¶ A Diall pertaining to the
    _first Section._

    Dogges seruing y^e pastime of hunting beastes.
    are diuided into

    { Hariers
    { Terrars
    { Bloudhounds
    { Gasehounds
    { Grehounds
    { Leuiners or
    { Lyemmers
    { Tumblers
    { Stealers

    In Latine called _Venatici_.



    The seconde Section of
    _this discourse_.

    Of gentle Dogges seruing the hauke, and first
    of the Spaniell, called in Latine
    _Hispaniolus_.


[Ex generosis aucupatoriis.] Qui aves, proximum locum habent. Eos
Aucupatorios dici ante proposuimus.

    Svch Dogges as serue for fowling, I thinke conuenient and requisite
    to place in this seconde Section of this treatise. These are also to
    bee reckoned and accounted in the number of the dogges which come of
    a gentle kind, and of those which serue for fowling.

Hi ex generosorum numero etiam sunt, & duûm generum. Alii enim per
sicca tantum venantur: Alii per aquas tantum aves persequuntur.

    There be two sortes

    { The first findeth game on the land.
    { The other findeth game on the water.

Qui per sicca tantum, aut libero vestigio & latratu avem investigant
& excitant, aut tacito indicio eandem commonstrant.

    Such as delight on the land, play their partes, eyther by swiftnesse
    of foote, or by often questing, to search out and to spring the
    byrde for further hope of aduauntage, or else by some secrete signe
    and priuy token bewray the place where they fall.

Primum genus Accipitri servit; secundum reti.

    The first kinde of such serue { The Hauke,
    The seconde,                  { The net, or, traine,

[Hispaniolus.] Peculiaria nomina primum genus non habet, nisi ab ave
ad quam venandam natura est propensius. Qua de causa falconarii hos
phasianarios, hos perdiciarios, vocare solent.

    The first kinde haue no peculier names assigned vnto them, saue
    onely that they be denominated after the byrde which by naturall
    appointment he is alotted to take, for the which consideration.

    Some be called Dogges,

    { For the Falcon
    { The Phesant
    { The Partridge

    and such like,

Vulgus tamen nostrum communi nomine Hispaniolos nominat, quasi ex
Hispania productum istud genus primo esset. Omnes maxima ex parte
candidi sunt: & si quas maculas habeant, rubræ sunt, raræ,
& majores. Sunt & ruffi atque nigri, sed perpauci.

    The common sort of people call them by one generall word, namely
    Spaniells. As though these kinde of Dogges came originally and first
    of all out of Spaine, The most part of their skynnes are white, and
    if they be marcked with any spottes, they are commonly red, and
    somewhat great therewithall, the heares not growing in such
    thicknesse but that the mixture of them maye easely bee perceaued.
    Othersome of them be reddishe and blackishe, but of that sorte there
    be but a very few.

Est & hodie novum genus ex Gallia advectum (ut novitatis omnes sumus
studiosi) sed ex toto in albo obfuscatum maculosè, quem Gallicanum
vocitamus.

    There is also at this day among vs a newe kinde of dogge brought out
    of Fraunce (for we Englishe men are maruailous greedy gaping
    gluttons after nouelties, and couetous coruorauntes of things that
    be seldom, rare, straunge, and hard to get.) And they bee speckled
    all ouer with white and black, which mingled colours incline to a
    marble blewe, which bewtifyeth their skinnes and affordeth a seemely
    show of comlynesse. These are called French dogges as is aboue
    declared already.


    The Dogge called the Setter, in Latine _Index_.

[Index.] Secundum genus est, quod tacito pede atque ore avem quærit,
& nutum juvantis heri sequitur, vel promovendo se, vel reducendo,
vel in alterutram partem dextram aut sinistram declinando. Cum avem
dico, Perdicem & Coturnicem intelligo.

    Another sort of Dogges be there, seruiceable for fowling, making no
    noise either with foote or with tounge, whiles they followe the
    game. These attend diligently vpon theyr Master and frame their
    conditions to such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it shall please
    him to exhibite and make, either going forward, drawing backeward,
    inclining to the right hand, or yealding toward the left, (In making
    mencion of fowles, my meaning is of the Partridge & the Quaile)

Cum invenerit, cauto silentio, suspenso vestigio, & occulto
speculatu, humiliando se prorepit, & cum propè est, procumbit,
& pedis indicio locum stationis avium prodit: unde canem indicem
vocare placuit. Loco commonstrato, auceps exporrectum rete avi
inducit.

    when he hath founde the byrde, he keepeth sure and fast silence, he
    stayeth his steppes and wil proceede no further, and with a close,
    couert, watching eye, layeth his belly to the grounde and so
    creepeth forward like a worme. When he approcheth neere to the place
    where the birde is, he layes him downe, and with a marcke of his
    pawes betrayeth the place of the byrdes last abode, whereby it is
    supposed that this kinde of dogge is called _Index_, Setter, being
    in deede a name most consonant and agreable to his quality.

Quo facto, canis ad consuetum heri indicium seu vocabulum quam mox
assurgit, & propinquiori præsentia aves perturbat, atque ut
inexplicabilius irretiantur, facit.

    The place being knowne by the meanes of the dogge, the fowler
    immediatly openeth and spreedeth his net, intending to take them,
    which being done the dogge at the accustomed becke or vsuall signe
    of his Master ryseth vp by and by, and draweth neerer to the fowle
    that by his presence they might be the authors of their owne
    insnaring, and be ready intangled in the prepared net,

[Lepus tympanum pulsat.] Quod artificium in cane, animali domestico,
mirum videri non debet, cum & lepus agreste animal, & saltare,
& tympanum anterioribus pedibus numero pulsare tympanistarum more,
& canem dente atque ungue petere, pedibusque crudeliter cædere,
in Anglia visus est omnium admiratione, anno salutis nostræ 1564.

    which conning and artificiall indeuour in a dogge (being a creature
    domesticall or householde seruaunt brought vp at home with offalls
    of the trencher & fragments of victualls,) is not much to be
    maruailed at, seing that a Hare (being a wilde and skippishe beast)
    was seene in England to the astonishment of the beholders, in the
    yeare of our Lorde God, 1564, not onely dauncing in measure, but
    playing with his former feete vppon a tabberet, and obseruing iust
    number of strokes (as a practicioner in that arte) besides that
    nipping & pinching a dogge with his teeth and clawes, & cruelly
    thumping him with y^e force of his feete.

Nec est vanum istud, eoque relatum lubentius, quòd operæ pretium
putarem, nihil prætereundum esse, in quo naturæ spectanda sit
providentia.

    This is no trumpery tale, nor trifling toye (as I imagine) and
    therefore not vnworthy to bee reported, for I recken it a requitall
    of my trauaile, not to drowne in the seas of silence any speciall
    thing, wherin the prouidence and effectuall working of nature is to
    be pondered.


    Of the Dogge called the water Spaniell, or finder, in Latine
    _Aquaticus seu Inquisitor_.

[Aquaticus seu inquisitor.] Qui per aquas aucupatur propensione
naturali accedente mediocri documento, major his est, & promisso
naturaliter hirtus pilo. Ego tamen ab armis ad posteriores
suffragines, caudamque extremam, ad te (Gesnere) detonsum pinxi, ut
usus noster postulat, quo pilis nudus expeditior sit, & minus per
natationes retardetur.

    That kinde of Dogge whose seruice is required in fowling vpon the
    water, partly through a naturall towardnesse, and partly by diligent
    teaching, is indued with that property. This sort is somewhat bigge,
    and of a measurable greatnesse, hauing long, rough, and curled
    heare, not obtayned by extraordinary trades, but giuen by natures
    appointment, yet neuerthelesse (friend _Gesner_) I have described
    and set him out in this maner, namely powlde and netted from the
    shoulders to the hindermost legges, and to the end of his tayle,
    which I did for vse and customs cause, that beyng as it were made
    somewhat bare and naked, by shearing of such superfluitie of heare,
    they might atchiue the more lightnesse, and swiftnesse, and be lesse
    hindered in swymming, so troublesome and needelesse a burthen being
    shaken of.

Aquaticus à nostris appellatur, ab aquis quas frequentat sumpta
appellatione. Eo aut aves in aquis aucupamur (& præcipue anates;
unde etiam anatarius dicitur, quod id excellenter facit) aut
Scorpione occisas educimus, aut spicula sagittasve fallente ictu
recuperamus, aut amissa requirimus: quo nomine & canes inquisitores
eosdem appellamus.

    This kinde of dogge is properly called, _Aquaticus_, a water spaniel
    because he frequenteth and hath vsual recourse to the water where
    all his game & exercise lyeth, namely, waterfowles, which are taken
    by the helpe & seruice of them, in their kind. And principally
    duckes and drakes, wherupon he is lykewise named a dogge for the
    ducke, because in that quallitie he is excellent. With these dogges
    also we fetche out of the water such fowle as be stounge to death by
    any venemous worme, we vse them also to bring vs our boultes &
    arrowes out of the water, (missing our marcke) whereat we directed
    our leuell, which otherwise we should hardly recouer, and oftentimes
    they restore to vs our shaftes which we thought neuer to see, touche
    or handle againe, after they were lost, for which circumstaunces
    they are called _Inquisitores_, searchers, and finders.

[Anatum fallaciæ.] Quanquam Anas & canem & aucupem quoque egregiè
subinde fallat, tum urinando, tum etiam dolo naturali. Etenim si
quis hominum, ubi incubant aut excludunt, propinquabit, egressæ
matres venientibus se sponte offerunt, & simulata debilitate vel
pedum vel alarum, quasi statim capi possint, egressus fingunt
tardiores.

    Although the ducke otherwhiles notably deceaueth both the dogge and
    the master, by dyuing vnder the water, and also by naturall
    subtilty, for if any man shall approche to the place where they
    builde, breede, and syt, the hennes go out of their neastes,
    offering themselues voluntarily to the hãds, as it were, of such as
    draw nie their neasts. And a certaine weaknesse of their winges
    pretended, and infirmitie of their feete dissembled, they go so
    slowely and so leasurely, that to a mans thinking it were no
    masteryes to take them.

Hoc mendacio sollicitant obvios, & eludunt, quoad profecti longius,
à nidis avocentur; caventque diligenter revertendo, ne indicium loci
conversatio frequens faciat.

    By which deceiptfull tricke they doe as it were entyse and allure
    men to follow them, till they be drawne a long distaunce from theyr
    neastes, which being compassed by their prouident conning, or
    conning prouidence, they cut of all inconueniences which might growe
    of their returne, by using many carefull and curious caueates, least
    theyr often haunting bewray y^e place where the young ducklings be
    hatched. Great therfore is theyr desire, & earnest is theyr study to
    take heede, not only to theyr broode but also to themselues.

[Anaticularum providentia.] Nec anaticularum studium segnius ad
cavendum. Cum enim visas se persentiscunt, sub cespitem confugiunt
aut carectum, quorum obtectu tam callidè proteguntur, ut lateant
etiam deprehensæ, nisi fraudem canis odore detegat.

    For when they haue an ynckling that they are espied they hide
    themselues vnder turfes or sedges, wherwith they couer and shrowde
    themselues so closely and so craftely, that (notwithstanding the
    place where they lurcke be found and perfectly perceaued) there they
    will harbour without harme, except the water spaniell by quicke
    smelling discouer theyr deceiptes.


    Of the Dogge called the Fisher, in Latine _Canis Piscator_.

[Canis piscator.] Canem piscatorem (de quo scribit Hector Boethus)
qui inter saxa pisces odore perquirit, nullum planè novi inter
nostros, neque ex relatione aliquando audivi, etsi in ea re
perscrutanda perdiscendaque diligentior fuerim inter piscatores &
venatores:

    The Dogge called the fisher, wherof _Hector Boethus_ writeth, which
    seeketh for fishe by smelling among rockes & stones, assuredly I
    knowe none of that kinde in Englande, neither haue I receaued by
    reporte that there is any suche, albeit I haue bene diligent & busie
    in demaunding the question as well of fishermen, as also of
    huntesmen in that behalfe being carefull and earnest to learne and
    vnderstand of them if any such were,

[Lutra.] nisi Lutram piscem dicas, ut à multis creditur:

    except you holde opinion that the beauer or Otter is a fishe (as
    many haue beleeued) & according to their beliefe affirmed,

[Pupinus.] quo modo & Pupinus avis piscis esse dicitur & habetur.
Sed qui perquirit piscem (si quis perquirat) venationisne causa,
an famis faciat, more cæterorum canum, qui per inediam cadaverum
morticinam carnem appetere solent, tum demum ad te scribam, cum de
ea re certior fiam.

    and as the birde _Pupine_, is thought to be a fishe and so
    accounted. But that kinde of dogge which followeth the fishe to
    apprehend and take it (if there bee any of that disposition and
    property) whether they do this for the game of hunting, or for the
    heate of hunger, as other Dogges do which rather then they wil be
    famished for want of foode, couet the carckases of carrion and
    putrifyed fleshe. When I am fully resolued and disburthened of this
    doubt I wil send you certificate in writing.

Interim id scio, Ælianum & Aetium Lutram κύνα ποτάμιον solere
appellare. Intelligo etiam Lutram hoc habere cum cane commune, quòd
per inopiam piscium excursiones in terram faciat, atque agnos
laniet, rursusque ad aquam satur redeat. Sed inter nostros canes is
non est.

    In the meane season I am not ignorant of that both Ælianus, and
    Ælius, call the Beauer κύνα ποτάμιον a water dogge, or a dogge
    fishe, I know likewise thus much more, that the Beauer doth
    participate this propertie with the dogge, namely, that when fishes
    be scarse they leaue the water and raunge vp and downe the lande,
    making an insatiable slaughter of young lambes vntil theyr paunches
    be replenished, and whẽ they haue fed themselues full of fleshe,
    then returne they to the water, from whence they came. But albeit so
    much be graunted that this Beauer is a dogge, yet it is to be noted
    that we recken it not in the beadrowe of Englishe dogges as we haue
    done the rest.

[Phoca.] Phoca etiam inter scopulos atque saxa prædatur piscem, sed
in numero canum nostratium habitus non est, etsi canis marinus à
nostris appelletur.

    The sea Calfe, in like maner, which our country mẽ for breuitie sake
    call a Seele, other more largely name a _Sea Vele_, maketh a spoyle
    of fishes betweene rockes and banckes, but it is not accounted in
    the catalogue or nũber of our Englishe dogges, notwithstanding we
    call it by the name of a Sea dogge or a sea Calfe. And thus much for
    our dogges of the second sort called in Latine _Aucupatorij_,
    seruing to take fowle either by land or water.


    ¶ A Diall pertaining to the
    _second Section_.

    Dogges seruing the disport of fowling.
    are diuided into

    { Land spaniels
    { Setters
    { Water spaniels or finders.

    called in latine _Canes Aucupatorij_

    The fisher is not of their number, but seuerall.



    The thirde Section of this
    _abridgement_.

    Nowe followeth in due order and conuenient place our Englishe Dogges
    of the thirde gentle kinde, what they are called to what vse they
    serue, and what sort of people plant their pleasure in thẽ, which
    because they neede no curious canuassing and nye syfting, wee meane
    to bee so much the briefer.


[Ex generosis delicatis, Melitæus seu fotor.] Est & aliud genus
canum generosorum apud nos, sed extra horum ordinem, quos Melitæos
Callimachus vocat, à Melita insula in freto Siculo (quæ hodie usu
derivante Malta vulgo dicitur, & christiano milite nobilis existit)
unde ortum id genus habuit maximè: atque à Melita Siculi Pachyni,
ut author Strabo est.

    Of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges
    called the Spaniel gentle, or the comforter,
    in Latine _Melitæus
    or Fotor_.

    There is, besides those which wee haue already deliuered, another
    sort of gentle dogges in this our Englishe soyle but exempted from
    the order of the residue, the Dogges of this kinde doth
    _Callimachus_ call _Melitæos_, of the Iseland _Melita_, in the sea
    of _Sicily_, (what at this day is named _Malta_, an Iseland in
    deede, famous and renoumed, with couragious and puisaunt souldiours
    valliauntly fighting vnder the banner of Christ their vnconquerable
    captaine) where this kind of dogges had their principall beginning.

Perexiguum id est planè, & fœminarum lusibus ac deliciis tantum
expetitum, quibus, quo minus est, eo gratius est, ut sinu gestent in
cubiculis, & manu in pilentis,

    These dogges are litle, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to
    satisfie the delicatenesse of daintie dames, and wanton womens
    wills, instrumentes of folly for them to play and dally withall, to
    tryfle away the treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from more
    commendable exercises, and to content their corrupted concupiscences
    with vaine disport (A selly shift to shunne yrcksome ydlnesse.)
    These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they prouoke,
    as more meete play fellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in their
    bosoms, to keepe company withal in their chambers, to succour with
    sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at bourde, to lay in their
    lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and
    good reason it should be so, for coursnesse with fynenesse hath no
    fellowship, but featnesse with neatenesse hath neighbourhood enough.
    That plausible prouerbe verified vpon a Tyraunt, namely that he
    loued his sowe better then his sonne, may well be applyed to these
    kinde of people who delight more in dogges that are depriued of all
    possibility of reason, then they doe in children that be capeable of
    wisedome and iudgement. But this abuse peraduenture raigneth where
    there hath bene long lacke of issue, or else where barrennes is the
    best blossome of bewty.


    The vertue which remaineth in the Spainell gentle otherwise called
    the comforter.

genus sanè ad omnia inutile, nisi quòd stomachi dolorem sedat,
applicatum sæpius, aut in sinu ægri gestatum frequentius, caloris
moderatione.

    Notwithstanding many make much of those pretty puppies called
    Spaniels gentle, yet if the question were demaunded what propertie
    in them they spye, which shoulde make them so acceptable and
    precious in their sight, I doubt their aunswere would be long a
    coyning. But seeing it was our intent to trauaile in this treatise,
    so that y^e reader might reape some benefite by his reading, we will
    communicate vnto you such coniectures as are grounded upon reason.
    And though some suppose that such dogges are fyt for no seruice, I
    dare say, by their leaues, they be in a wrong boxe. Among all other
    qualities therfore of nature, which be knowne (for some conditions
    are couered with continuall and thicke clouds, that the eye of our
    capacities can not pearse through thẽ) we find that these litle dogs
    are good to asswage the sicknesse of the stomacke being oftentimes
    thervnto applyed as a plaster preseruatiue, or borne in the bosom of
    the diseased and weake person, which effect is performed by theyr
    moderate heate.

Quin & transire quoque morbos ægritudine eorum intelligitur,
plerumque & morte: quasi malo in eos transeunte caloris
similitudine.

    Moreouer the disease and sicknesse chaungeth his place and entreth
    (though it be not precisely marcked) into the dogge, which to be no
    vntruth, experience can testify, for these kinde of dogges sometimes
    fall sicke, and sometime die, without any harme outwardly inforced,
    which is an argument that the disease of the gentleman, or gentle
    woman or owner whatsoeuer, entreth into the dogge by the operation
    of heate intermingled and infected.

Generosorum canum genus jam explicui: Nunc rusticum adjicio.

    And thus haue I hetherto handled dogges of a gentle kinde whom I
    haue comprehended in a triple diuisiõ. Now it remaineth that I annex
    in due order such dogges as be of a more homely kinde.


    A Diall pertaining to the
    _thirde Section_.

    In the third section is cõtained one kind of dog
    which is called the

    Spaniell gentle or the cõforter,

    It is also called

    { A chamber cõpanion,
    { A pleasaunt playfellow,
    { A pretty worme,

    generally called _Canis delicatus_.



    The fourth Section of this
    _discourse_.

    Dogges of a course kind seruing for many necessary
    vses called in Latine _Canes rustici_, and first of
    the shepherds dogge called in Latine
    _Canis Pastoralis_.


[Ex rusticis.] In eo memorabilia duo tantum genera sunt: pecuarium
seu pastorale, & villaticum seu Molossum:

    Dogges of the courser sort are

    { The shepherds dogge
    { The mastiue or Bandogge.

    These two are the principall.

alterum ad propellendas injurias ferarum, alterum adversus insidias
hominum utile.

    The first kinde, namely the shepherds hounde is very necessarye and
    profitable for the auoyding of harmes and inconueniences which may
    come to men by the meanes of beastes. The second sort serue to
    succour against the snares and attemptes of mischiefous men.

[Pastoralis.] Pastorale nostrum mediocre est, quòd illi cum Lupo,
naturali pecori inimico, res non est, cum apud nos nullus est,
beneficio optimi principis Edgari, qui, quò genus universum
deleretur, Cambris (apud quos in magna copia erant) vectigalis
nomine in annos imperavit trecentos lupos.

    Our shepherdes dogge is not huge, vaste, and bigge, but of an
    indifferent stature and growth, because it hath not to deale with
    the bloudthyrsty wolf, sythence there be none in England, which
    happy and fortunate benefite is to be ascribed to the puisaunt
    Prince _Edgar_, who to thintent y^t the whole countrey myght be
    euacuated and quite cleered from wolfes, charged & commaunded the
    welshemẽ (who were pestered with these butcherly beastes aboue
    measure) to paye him yearely tribute which was (note the wisedome of
    the King) three hundred Wolfes.

[Lupi nulli in Britannia.] Sunt qui scribunt Ludwallum Cambriæ
principem pendisse annuatim Edgaro regi 3000 luporum tributi nomine,
atque ita annis quatuor omnem Cambriam atque adeo omnem Angliam
orbasse lupis.

    Some there be which write that _Ludwall_ Prince of Wales paide
    yeerely to King _Edgar_ three hundred wolfes in the name of an
    exaction (as we haue sayd before.) And that by the meanes hereof,
    within the compasse and tearme of foure yeares, none of those
    noysome, and pestilent Beastes were left in the coastes of England
    and Wales.

[Edgarus.] Regnavit autem Edgarus circiter annum Domini 959. A quo
tempore non legimus nativum in Anglia visum lupum: advectum tamen
quæstus faciundi causa ex alienis regionibus, ut spectetur tantum,
tanquam animal rarum & incognitum, sæpius vidimus.

    This _Edgar_ wore the Crowne royall, and bare the Scepter imperiall
    of this kingdome, about the yeere of our Lorde, nyne hundred fifty,
    nyne. Synce which time we reede that no Wolfe hath bene seene in
    England, bred within the bounds and borders of this countrey, mary
    there have bene diuers brought ouer from beyonde the seas, for
    greedynesse of gaine and to make money, for gasing and gaping,
    staring, and standing to see them, being a straunge beast, rare,
    and seldom seene in England.

Sed ad canem pastoralem. Is ad certam heri jubentis vocem, aut ex
pugno concluso & inflato clariorem sibilum, errantes oves in eum
locum redigit, in quem pastor maximè desiderat; sic ut levi negotio,
& immoto ferè pede, pastor quo velit modo ovibus moderetur, vel ut
se promoveant, vel gradum sistant, pedem referant, vel in hanc
illamve partem se inclinent.

    But to returne to our shepherds dogge. This dogge either at the
    hearing of his masters voyce, or at the wagging and whisteling in
    his fist, or at his shrill and horse hissing bringeth the wandring
    weathers and straying sheepe, into the selfe same place where his
    masters will and wishe is to haue thẽ, wherby the shepherd reapeth
    this benefite, namely, that with litle labour and no toyle or mouing
    of his feete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his owne
    desire, either to haue them go forward, or to stand still, or to
    drawe backward, or to turne this way, or to take that way.

Etenim non ut in Gallia & Germania, non ut in Syria & Tartaria, sic
in Anglia quoque oves pastorem sequuntur, sed contra, pastor oves.
Quandoque etiam nullo procurrente aut circumeunte cane, ad solum ex
pugno sibilum sese congregant palantes oves, metu canis credo,
memores unà cum sibilo prodire quoque & canem solere.

    For it is not in Englande, as it is in _Fraunce_, as it is in
    _Flaunders_, as it is in _Syria_, as it in _Tartaria_, where the
    sheepe follow the shepherd, for heere in our country the sheepherd
    followeth the sheepe. And somtimes the straying sheepe, when no
    dogge runneth before them, nor goeth about & beside them, gather
    themselues together in a flocke, when they heere the sheepherd
    whistle in his fist, for feare of the Dogge (as I imagine)
    remembring this (if vnreasonable creatures may be reported to haue
    memory) that the Dogge commonly runneth out at his masters warrant
    which is his whistle.

Id quod in itinere diligenter sæpius observavimus, ad pastoris
sibilum refrænantes equos, quo videremus rei experimentum. Eodem
etiam cane ovem vel mactandum prehendit, vel sanandum pastor capit,
nulla prorsus læsione.

    This haue we oftentimes diligently marcked in taking our journey
    from towne to towne, when wee haue hard a sheepherd whistle we haue
    rayned in our horse and stoode styll a space, to see the proofe and
    triall of this matter. Furthermore with this dogge doth the
    sheepherd take sheepe for y^e slaughter, and to be healed if they be
    sicke, no hurt or harme in the world done to the simple creature.


    Of the mastiue or Bandogge called in Latine _Villaticus_ or
    _Cathenarius_.

[Villaticus seu Catenarius.] Villaticum vastum genus est & robustum,
corpore quidem grave & parum velox, sed aspectu truculentum, voce
terrificum, & quovis Arcadico (qui tamen ex leonibus creditur
provenire) potentius atque acrius.

    This kinde of Dogge called a mastyue or Bandogge is vaste, huge,
    stubborne, ougly, and eager, of a heuy and burthenous body, and
    therfore but of litle swiftnesse, terrible, and frightfull to
    beholde, and more fearce and fell then any _Arcadian_ curre
    (notwithstãding they are sayd to ha{n}e their generation of the
    violent Lyon.)

Quòd villis fideliter custodiendis destinamus, cum metus est à
furibus, villaticum appellamus. His quoque utile id est contra
vulpem atque taxum, qui rem pecuariam faciunt.

    They are called _Villatici_, because they are appoynted to watche
    and keepe farme places and coũtry cotages sequestred from commõ
    recourse, and not abutting vpon other houses by reason of distaunce,
    when there is any feare conceaued of theefes, robbers, spoylers,
    and night wanderers. They are seruiceable against the Foxe and the
    Badger,

Valet etiam ad sues agrestes persequendos, domesticos è frugibus aut
arvis abigendos, taurosque capiendos atque retinendos, cum usus aut
venatio postulat, singuli singulos, aut summum duo singulos, quamvis
intractabiles.

    to drive wilde and tame swyne out of Medowes, pastures, glebelandes
    and places planted with fruite, to bayte and take the bull by the
    eare, when occasion so requireth. One dogge or two at the vttermost,
    sufficient for that purpose be the bull neuer so monsterous, neuer
    so fearce, neuer so furious, neuer so stearne, neuer so vntameable.

Est enim acerrimum genus & violentum, formidabile etiam homini, quem
non reformidat. Neque enim ad arma expavescit; quóque acrius fiat,
assuescunt nostri naturam arte & consuetudine juvare.

    For it is a kinde of dogge capeable of courage, violent and
    valiaunt, striking could feare into the harts of men, but standing
    in feare of no man, in so much that no weapons will make him
    shrincke, nor abridge his boldnes. Our Englishe men (to th’ intent
    that theyr dogges might be the more fell and fearce) assist nature
    with arte, vse, and custome,

Etenim ursos, tauros, arctylos, aliaque fera animalia, præfectis
certaminum arctophylacibus, nullo millo, nullo corio defenses
exagitare: sæpe etiam cum homine sude, clava, enseve armato
concertare decent, atque ita ferociores acrioresque reddunt,
& imperterritos faciunt.

    for they teach theyr dogges to baite the Beare, to baite the Bull
    and other such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appointing an
    ouerseer of the game) without any collar to defend theyr throtes,
    and oftentimes they traine them vp in fighting and wrestling with
    a man hauing for the safegarde of his lyfe, eyther a Pikestaffe,
    a clubbe, or a sworde and by vsing them to such exercises as these,
    theyr dogges become more sturdy and strong.

Vis illis supra fidem, & pertinax mordacitas, usque adeo ut tres
ursum, quatuor vel leonem comprehendant.

    The force which is in them surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde
    which they take with their teeth exceedeth all credit, three of them
    against a Beare, fowre against a Lyon are sufficient, both to try
    masteryes with them and vtterly to ouermatch them.

[Henricus septimus.] Quod videns aliquando (ut fama est) HENRICUS
septimus, Angliæ rex prudentissimus, quotquot erant suspendi jussit,
indignatus ut infimi & ignobilis generis canes, generoso leoni, &
animalium regi violentiam inferant: memorabili exemplo subditorum,
ne quid contra regem gens rebellis audeat.

    Which thing _Henry_ the seuenth of that name, King of England (a
    Prince both politique & warlike) perceauing on a certaine time (as
    the report runneth) commaunded all such dogges (how many soeuer they
    were in number) should be hanged, beyng deepely displeased, and
    conceauing great disdaine, that an yll fauoured rascall curre should
    with such violent villany, assault the valiaunt Lyon king of all
    beastes. An example for all subiectes worthy remembraunce, to
    admonishe them that it is no aduantage to them to rebell against y^e
    regiment of their ruler, but to keepe them within the limits of
    Loyaltie.

Haud absimilis etiam historia de eo fertur, quod falconem quendam
suum, à falconariis vehementer laudatum, quòd in aquilam quid
auderet, quam mox occidi jussit, ob eandem rationem. Hoc genus
canis, etiam catenarium, à catena ligamento, qua ad januas interdiu
detinetur, ne solutum lædat, & tamen latratu terreat, appellatur.

    I reede an history aunswerable to this of the selfe same _Henry_,
    who hauing a notable and an excellent fayre Falcon, it fortuned that
    the kings Falconers, in the presence and hearing of his grace,
    highly commended his Maiesties Falcon, saying that it feared not to
    intermeddle with an Eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so
    mighty, which when the King harde, he charged that the Falcon should
    be killed without delay, for the selfe same reason (as it may seeme)
    which was rehersed in the cõclusion of the former history concerning
    the same king. This dogge is called, in like maner, _Cathenarius_,
    _a Cathena_, of the chaine wherwith he is tyed at the gates, in y^e
    day time, least beyng lose he should doe much mischiefe and yet
    might giue occasion of feare and terror by his bigge barcking.

[Cicero.] Et quanquam Cicero pro S. Ross. opinetur, si canes luce
latrent, iis crura suffringantur, nostri tamen homines propter
securitatem vitæ atque rei longe aliter sentiunt.

    And albeit _Cicero_ in his oration had _Pro. S. Ross._ be of this
    opinion, that such Dogges as barcke in the broade day light shoulde
    haue their legges broken, yet our countrymen, on this side the seas
    for their carelessnes of lyfe setting all at cinque and sice, are of
    a contrary iudgement.

[Fures.] Nam furum apud nos plena sunt omnia, etiam luce, neque
infamem mortem suspendia metuunt.

    For theefes roge vp & down in euery corner, no place is free from
    them, no not y^e princes pallace, nor the country mans cotage. In
    the day time they practise pilfering, picking, open robbing, and
    priuy stealing, and what legerdemaine lacke they? not fearing the
    shamefull and horrible death of hanging.

In causa est non curta res solum, sed vestis vitæque luxus atque
fastus etiam, sed petulantia, sed otium & superbia Salaconum
μεγαλοῤῥούντων, qui nihil aliud quàm ut equi insultare solo &
gressus glomerare superbos, quàm gyro breviori flecti, qui nihil
aliud quàm cevere, quàm otiosè mendicando accusata non merente
corporis infirmitate spoliare.

    The cause of which inconuenience doth not onely issue from nipping
    neede & wringing want, for all y^t steale, are not pinched with
    pouerty, but som steale to maintaine their excessiue and prodigall
    expences in apparell, their lewdnes of lyfe, their hautines of hart,
    theyr wantonnes of maners, theyr wilfull ydlenes, their ambitious
    brauery, and the pryde of the sawcy _Salacones’_ μεγαλορρούντων
    vaine glorious and arrogant in behauiour, whose delight dependeth
    wholly to mount nimbly on horsebacke, to make them leape lustely,
    spring and praunce, galloppe and amble, to runne a race, to wynde in
    compasse, and so forthe, liuing all together vpon the fatnesse of
    the spoyle. Othersom therbe which steale, being thereto prouoked by
    penury & neede, like masterlesse mẽ applying themselues to no honest
    trade, but raunging vp and downe impudently begging, and complayning
    of bodily weakenesse where is no want of abilitie.

[Valentinianus.] Sed his Valentinianus imperator benè prospexit,
legibus latis, ut qui nullo corporis morbo laborantes, corporis
infirmitatem desidiosi ignavique prætexentes, mendicarent, perpetui
colono ei inservirent, qui eorum ignaviam proderet atque accusaret,
ne eorum desidia onerosa populo, odiosave sit exemplo.

    But valiaunt _Valentine_ th’emperour, by holsome lawes prouided that
    suche as hauing no corporall sicknesse, solde themselues to begging,
    pleded pouerty wyth pretended infirmitie, & cloaked their ydle and
    slouthfull life with colourable shifts and cloudy cossening, should
    be a perpetuall slaue and drudge to him, by whom their impudent
    ydlenes was bewrayed, and layde against them in publique place,
    least the insufferable slouthfullnes of such vagabondes should be
    burthenous to the people, or being so hatefull and odious, should
    growe into an example.

[Alfredi vigilantia.] Alfredus quoque regno administrando tanta
vigilantia justitiaque usus est, ut si quis per vias publicas
incedens, marsupium auro plenum vesperi perdidisset, manè, atque
adeo post mensem unum, integrum & intactum inveniret, uti Ingulphus
Croylandensis in historia refert.

    _Alfredus_ likewise in the gouernment of his common wealth, procured
    such increase of credite to Justice and vpright dealing by his
    prudent actes and statutes, that if a mã trauailing by the hygh way
    of the countrey vnder his dominion, chaunced to lose a budget full
    of gold, or his capcase farsed with things of great value, late in
    the euening, he should finde it where he lost it, safe, sound, and
    vntouched the next morning, yea (which is a wonder) at any time for
    a whole monethes space if he sought for it, as _Ingulphus
    Croyladensis_ in his History recordeth.

Nostra autem ætate, nihil ferè securum, ne in ædibus quidem, quamvis
accuratè conclusis.

    But in this our vnhappy age, in these (I say) our deuelishe dayes
    nothing can scape the clawes of the spoyler, though it be kept neuer
    so sure within the house, albe it the doores bee lockt and boulted
    round about.


[Canis custos.] Custos quoque (Græcis οἰκουρὸς) a custodiendis non
solum villis, sed & mercatorum ædibus, & quibus ampla res est domi,
canis iste nominatur. Eam ob rem canes publicæ alebantur Romæ in
Capitolio, ut significent si fures venerint.

    This dogge in like maner of _Græcians_ is called οἰκουρος. Of the
    latinists _Canis Custos_, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.

    Borrowing his name of his seruire, for he doth not onely keepe
    farmers houses, but also merchaunts maisons, wherin great wealth,
    riches, substaunce, and costly stuffe is reposed. And therfore were
    certaine dogges founde and maintained at the common costes and
    charges of the Citizens of _Rome_ in the place called _Capitolium_,
    to giue warning of theefes comming.


[Canis laniarius.] Dicitur & Laniarium, quòd eorum usus multus sit
laniis agendis & capiendis bestiis.

    This kind of dogge, is also called, In latine _Canis Laniarius_ in
    Englishe the Butchers Dogge.

    So called for the necessity of his vse, for his seruice affoordeth
    great benefite to the Butcher as well in following as in taking his
    cattell when neede constraineth, vrgeth, and requireth.


[Molossicus.] Sed & Molossicum quoque & Molossum latinis dicitur,
à Molossia Epiri regione, ubi hoc genus canes boni & acres erant.

    This kinde of dogge is likewise called, In latine _Molossicus_ or
    _Molossus_.

    After the name of a countrey in _Epirus_ called _Molossia_, which
    harboureth many stoute, stronge, and sturdy Dogges of this sort, for
    the dogges of that countrey are good in deede, or else their is no
    trust to be had in the testimonie of writers.


[Mandatarius.] Est ex hoc genere quem Mandatarium ex argumento
appellamus: quòd domini mandato literas aliasve res de loco in locum
transferat, vel mellio inclusas, vel eidem alligatas. Quæ ne
intercipiantur, vel pugna, vel fuga si impar sit, diligenter cavet.

    This dogge is also called, In latine _Canis Mandatarius_ a Dogge
    messinger or Carrier.

    Upon substanciall consideration, because at his masters voyce and
    commaundement, he carrieth letters from place to place, wrapped vp
    cunningly in his lether collar, fastened therto, or sowed close
    therin, who, least he should be hindered in his passage vseth these
    helpes very skilfully, namely resistaunce in fighting if he be not
    ouermatched, or else swiftnesse & readinesse in running away, if he
    be vnable to buckle with the dogge that would faine haue a snatch at
    his skinne.


[Lunarius.] Est & Lunarium, quòd nihil aliud quàm excubias agit,
quàm insomnes noctes totas protrahit baubando ad lunam, ut Nonii
verbo utar.

    This kinde of dogge is likewise called, In latine _Canis Lunarius_,
    in Englishe the Mooner.

    Because he doth nothing else but watch and warde at an ynche,
    wasting the wearisome night season without slombering or sleeping,
    bawing & wawing at the Moone (that I may vse the word of _Nonius_)
    a qualitie in mine opinion straunge to consider.


[Aquarius.] Ex quibus grandiores atque graviores, etiam rotæ
amplioris circumactu, aquam ex altis puteis ad usus rusticos
hauriunt, quos Aquarios appellamus ex officio:

    This kinde of dogge is also called. In latine _Aquarius_ in Englishe
    a water drawer.

    And these be of the greater and the waighter sort drawing water out
    of wells and deepe pittes, by a wheele which they turne rounde about
    by the mouing of their burthenous bodies.


[Sarcinarius.] & sarctores ærarios vagos manticis ferendis
memorabili patientia levant; à qua re sarcinarios nuncupamus.

    This kinde of dogge is called in like maner. _Canis Sarcinarius_ in
    Latine, and may aptly be englished a Tynckers Curre.

    Because with marueilous pacience they beare bigge budgettes fraught
    with Tinckers tooles, and mettall meete to mend kettels, porrige
    pottes, skellets, and chafers, and other such like trumpery
    requisite for their occupacion and loytering trade, easing him of a
    great burthen which otherwise he himselfe should carry vpon his
    shoulders, which condition hath challenged vnto them the foresaid
    name.


Præter has villaticorum qualitates atque usus, hanc unam habent
præcipuam, quòd amantes dominorum sunt, & odium gerant in externos.
[Defensor.] Quo fit ut per itinera dominis in præsidio sunt, quos à
furibus defendunt, vivos salvosque conservant: a qua re etiam canes
defensores jure dici possunt.

    Besides the qualities which we haue already recounted, this kind of
    dogges hath this principall property ingrafted in them, that they
    loue their masters liberally, and hate straungers despightfully,
    wherevpon it followeth that they are to their masters, in traueiling
    a singuler safgard, defending them forceably from the inuasion of
    villons and theefes, preseruing their lyfes from losse, and their
    health from hassard, theyr fleshe from hacking and hewing with such
    like desperate daungers. For which consideration they are
    meritoriously tearmed,

    In Latine _Canes defensores_ defending dogges in our mother tounge.

[Canum amor & fides.] At si quando vel multitudine, vel majori vi
opprimatur dominus atque concidat, usu compertum est, herum non
deserere ne mortuum quidem, sed eum ad multos dies per famis & cœli
injuriæ patientiam peramanter observare, & homicidam, si occasio
dabitur, interficere, aut saltem prodere vel latratu, vel ira,
vel hostili insultu, quasi mortem heri ulturum.

    If it chaunce that the master bee oppressed, either by a multitude,
    or by the greater violence & so be beaten downe that he lye
    groueling on the grounde, (it is proued true by experience) that
    this Dogge forsaketh not his master, no not when he is starcke
    deade: But induring the force of famishment and the outragious
    tempestes of the weather, most vigilantly watcheth and carefully
    keepeth the deade carkasse many dayes, indeuouring, furthermore, to
    kil the murtherer of his master, if he may get any aduantage. Or
    else by barcking, by howling, by furious iarring, snarring, and such
    like meanes betrayeth the malefactour as desirous to haue the death
    of his aforesayde Master rigorouslye reuenged.

[Kingestoune.] Hujus rei exemplo fuit nostra memoria canis cujusdam
viatoris, qui Londino recta Kingestonum, octo regum coronatione
percelebre oppidum, profecturus, cum bonam itineris partem
confecisset, latronum insidiis in Comparco, valli amplo & spatioso,
nemoribus obsito, & latrociniis infami loco, occubuit.

    An example hereof fortuned within the compasse of my memory. The
    Dogge of a certaine wayefaring man trauailing from the Citie of
    London directly to the Towne of Kingstone (most famous and renowned
    by reason of the triumphant coronation of eight seuerall Kings)
    passing ouer a good portion of his iourney was assaulted and set
    vpon by certaine confederate theefes laying in waight for the spoyle
    in _Comeparcke_, a perillous bottom, compassed about wyth woddes to
    well knowne for the manyfolde murders & mischeefeous robberies theyr
    committed. Into whose handes this passinger chaunced to fall, so
    that his ill lucke cost him the price of his lyfe.

Canis item ille Britannus genere, quem Blondus sua memoria scribit,
non longe Parisiis hero à rivali interempto, & homicidam prodidisse,
& ni canis ultionem homicida deprecatus esset, jugulaturum fuisse.

    And that Dogge whose syer was Englishe (which _Blondus_ registreth
    to haue bene within the banckes of his remẽbrance) manifestly
    perceauyng that his Master was murthered (this chaunced not farre
    from _Paris_) by the handes of one which was a suiter to the same
    womã, whom he was a wooer vnto, dyd both bewraye the bloudy butcher,
    and attempted to teare out the villons throate if he had not sought
    meanes to auoyde the reuenging rage of the Dogge.

In incendiis quoque in conticinio seu intempesta nocte incidentibus,
eo usque latrant annosi canes, etiam prohibiti, dum à domesticis
excitatis percipiatur focus; & tum sua sponte cessant à latratu,
quod usu compertum est in Britannia.

    In fyers also which fortune in the silence and dead time of the
    night, or in stormy weather of the sayde season, the older dogges
    barcke, ball, howle, and yell (yea notwithstandyng they bee roughly
    rated) neyther will they stay their tounges till the householde
    seruauntes, awake, ryse, searche, and see the burning of the fyre,
    which beyng perceaued they vse voluntary silence, and cease from
    yolping. This hath bene, and is founde true by tryall, in sundry
    partes of England.

Nec minor erat fides in eo cane qui domino profundam foveam per
venatum incidenti nunquam abfuit, dum sui unius indicio sublatus is
per funem fuit: in quem, cum oris cavernæ proximus esset, insiliebat
canis, tanquam ulnis amplexurus revertentem herum, impatiens
longioris moræ.

    There was no faynting faith in that Dogge, which when his Master by
    a mischaunce in hunting stumbled and fell toppling downe a deepe
    dytche beyng vnable to recouer of himselfe, the Dogge signifying his
    masters mishappe, reskue came, and he was hayled up by a rope, whom
    the Dogge seeyng almost drawne up to the edge of the dytche,
    cheerefully saluted, leaping and skipping vpon his master as though
    he woulde haue imbraced hym, beyng glad of his presence, whose
    longer absence he was lothe to lacke.

[Canum ingenia.] Sunt qui focum non patiuntur dissipari, sed prunas
in focum pede removent, prius cogitabundi aspicientes qua ratione id
possit à se fieri. Quod si pruna ardentior fuerit, cinere obruunt,
ac dein nare in locum promovent. Sunt quoque qui noctu villici
officium præstant.

    Some Dogges there be, which will not suffer fyery coales to lye
    skattered about the hearthe, but with their pawes wil rake up the
    burnyng coales, musying and studying fyrst with themselues how it
    myght conueniently be done. And if so bee that the coales cast to
    great a heate then will they buyry them in ashes and so remoue them
    forwarde to a fyt place wyth theyr noses. Other Dogges bee there
    which exequute the office of a Farmer in the nyghte tyme.

Cum enim lectum petit herus, & omnia centum ærei claudunt vectes,
æternaque ferri robora, nec custos absistit limine Janus (ut scribit
Virgilius) tum si prodire jubeat herus canem, is per fundos omnes
oberrat, quovis villico diligentior, & si alienum quid invenerit
sive hominem, sive bestiam, abigit, domesticis relictis animalibus
atque servis.

    For when his master goeth to bedde to take his naturall sleepe,
    And when,

      A hundred barres of brasse and yron boltes,
      Make all things safe from startes and from reuoltes.
      VVhen Ianus keepes the gate with Argos eye,
      That daungers none approch, ne mischiefes nye.

    As Virgill vaunteth in his verses, Then if his master byddeth him go
    abroade, he lingereth not, but raungeth ouer all his lands lying
    there about, more diligently, I wys, then any farmer himselfe. And
    if he finde anything their that is straunge and pertaining to other
    persons besides his master, whether it be man, woman, or beast, he
    driueth them out of the ground, not medling with any thing which
    doth belong to the possession and vse of his master.

Sed quanta in his fidelitas, tanta varietas in ingeniis.

    But how much faythfulnes, so much diuersitie there is in their
    natures,


Nam sunt qui ore infræno latrent tantum nullo morsu; verum hi minus
tremendi, quòd timidiores sunt. Canes enim timidi vehementius
latrant, ut est in proverbio. Sunt qui latrent atque mordeant.

    For there be some,

    { Which barcke only with free and open throate but will not bite,
    { Which doe both barcke and byte,
    { Which bite bitterly before they barcke,

    The first are not greatly to be feared, because they themselues are
    fearefull, and fearefull dogges (as the prouerbe importeth) barcke
    most vehemently.

Ab his cavendum quidem, quia admonent futuræ injuriæ, sed non
lacessendum, quoniam ira concitantur ad dentem, ipsi etiam natura
acerbiores.

    The second are daungerous, it is wisedome to take heede of them
    because they sounde, as it were, an _Alarum_ of an afterclappe, and
    these dogges must not be ouer much moued or prouoked, for then they
    take on outragiously as if they were madde, watching to set the
    print of their teeth in the fleshe. And these kinde of dogges are
    fearce and eager by nature.

Sunt qui sine voce prosiliunt, impetu involant, jugulum petunt,
& crudelius lacerant. Hos formidato, quia ammosiores sunt, & incautos
opprimunt.

    The thirde are deadly, for they flye upon a man, without vtteraunce
    of voyce, snatch at him, and catche him by the throate, and most
    cruelly byte out colloppes of fleashe. Feare these kind of Curres,
    (if thou be wise and circumspect about thine owne safetie) for they
    bee stoute and stubberne dogges, and set vpon a man at a sodden
    vnwares.

[Notæ ignaviæ aut audaciæ.] Istis notis ignavum genus a strenuo,
audax a timido discernunt nostri. Etenim ex malo genere, ne catulum
quidem habendum existimant, quòd nullum necessariis usibus humanis
commodiorem canem isto putent.

    By these signes and tokens, by these notes and argumentes our men
    discerne the cowardly curre from the couragious dogge the bolde from
    the fearefull, the butcherly from the gentle and tractable. Moreouer
    they coniecture that a whelpe of an yll kinde is not worthe the
    keeping and that no dogge can serue the sundry vses of men so aptly
    and so conueniently as this sort of whom we haue so largely written
    already.

Nam si quis commemoratos eorum usus ad summas velit revocare, quis
hominum clarius aut tanta vociferatione bestiam vel furem prædicat,
quam iste latratu? quis domitor ferarum potentior? quis famulus
amantior domini? quis fidelior comes? quis custos incorruptior? quis
excubitor vigilantior? quis ultor aut vindex constantior? quis
nuncius expeditior? quis aquarius laboriosior? quis denique sarctor
ærarius gestandis sarcinis tolerantior?

    For if any be disposed to drawe the aboue named seruices into a
    table, what mã more clearely, and with more vehemency of voyce
    giueth warning eyther of a wastefull beast, or of a spoiling theefe
    then this? who by his barcking (as good as a burning beacon)
    foreshoweth hassards at hand? What maner of beast stronger? what
    seruaũt to his master more louing? what companion more trustie? what
    watchman more vigilant? what reuenger more constant? what messinger
    more speedie? what water bearer more painefull? Finally what
    packhorse more patient?

Atque hæc quidem de canibus Britannicis generosis atque rusticis,
qui genus suum servant, diximus.

    And thus much concerning English Dogges, first of the gentle kinde,
    secondly of the courser kinde. Nowe it remaineth that we deliuer
    vnto you the Dogges of a mungrell or a currishe kinde, and then will
    wee perfourme our taske.


    ¶ A Diall pertaining to the
    _fourth Section_.

    Dogs comprehended in y^e fourth section are these

    { The shepherds dogge
    { The Mastiue or Bandogge,

    which hath sundry names diriued frõ sundry circũstances as

    { The keeper or watch man
    { The butchers dogge
    { The messinger or carrier
    { The Mooner
    { The water drawer
    { The Tinckers curr
    { The fencer,

    called in Latine _Canes Rustici_.



    The fifth Section of this
    _treatise_.

    Containing Curres of the mungrell and rascall sort and
    first of the Dogge called in Latine, _Admonitor_,
    and of vs in Englishe VVappe
    or VVarner.


[Ex degeneribus.] De degeneribus, & ex horum diverso genere mixtis,
quòd nullam insignem veri generis qualitatem formamque referant, non
est quod velim plura scribere, sed ut inutiles ablegare, nisi quòd
vel advenas latratu excipiant, etiam luce, & eorum adventus
domesticos commonefaciant,

    Of such dogges as keepe not their kinde, of such as are mingled out
    of sundry sortes not imitating the conditions of some one certaine
    spice, because they resẽble no notable shape, nor exercise any
    worthy property of the true perfect and gentle kind, it is not
    necessarye that I write any more of them, but to banishe them as
    vnprofitable implements, out of the boundes of my Booke,
    vnprofitable I say for any vse that is commendable, except to
    intertaine straũgers with their barcking in the day time, giuyng
    warnyng to them of the house, that such & such be newly come,

[Admonitor.] unde canes admonitores appellamus:

    wherevpon we call them admonishing Dogges, because in that point
    they performe theyr office.


    Of the Dogge called Turnespete in Latine _Veruuersator_.

vel quòd in officio culinario, cum assandum est, inserviant, & rota
minore gradiendo, verua circumagant, pondereque suo æquabiliter
versent, ut ne calo aut lixa quidem artificiosius;

    There is comprehended, vnder the curres of the coursest kinde, a
    certaine dogge in kytchen seruice excellent. For whẽ any meate is to
    bee roasted they go into a wheele which they turning rounde about
    with the waight of their bodies, so diligently looke to their
    businesse, that no drudge nor skullion can doe the feate more
    cunningly.

[Versator.] quos hinc canes versatores, seu veruversatores nostrum
vulgus nominat: postremos omnium generum, quæ primo memoravimus.

    Whom the popular sort herevpon call Turnespets, being the last of
    all those which wee haue first mencioned.


    Of the Dogge called the Daunser, in Latine _Saltator_ or
    _Tympanista_.

[Tympanista.] Sunt etiam canes nostri degeneres & ad tympanum
saltare, & ad lyræ modos se movere docti, multaque alia erecti
pronique facere, quæ à vagis quæstuosisque heris exequi didicerunt.

    There be also dogges among vs of a mungrell kind which are taught
    and exercised to daunce in measure at the musicall sounde of an
    instrument, as, at the iust stroke of the drombe, at the sweete
    accent of the Cyterne, & tuned strings of the harmonious Harpe
    showing many pretty trickes by the gesture of their bodies. As to
    stand bolte upright, to lye flat vpon the grounde, to turne rounde
    as a ringe holding their tailes in their teeth, to begge for theyr
    meate, and sundry such properties, which they learne of theyr
    vagabundicall masters, whose instrumentes they are to gather gaine,
    withall in Citie, Country, Towne, and Village. As some which carry
    olde apes on their shoulders in coloured iackets to moue men to
    laughter for a litle lucre.


    Of other Dogges, a short conclusion, wonderfully ingendred within
    the coastes of this country.

    Three sortes of them,

    { The first bred of a bytch and a wolfe, } In Latine _Lyciscus_.
    { The second of a bytche and a foxe,     } In Latine _Lacæna_.
    { The third of a beare and a bandogge,   } In Latine _Vrcanus_.

[Lyciscus.] Lyciscum nullum istic in Anglia habemus nativum, ut ne
lupum quidem ut est ante comprehensum, nec aliud genus ullum præter
Lacænam & Urcanum:

    Of the first we haue none naturally bred within the borders of
    England. The reason is for the want of wolfes, without whom no such
    kinde of Dogge can bee ingendred. Againe it is deliuered vnto thee
    in this discourse, how and by what meanes, by whose benefite, and
    within what circuite of tyme, this country was cleerely discharged
    of rauenyng wolfes, and none at all left, no, not to the least
    number, or the beginnyng of a number, which is an _Vnari_.

[Lacæna.] illam ex cane & vulpe (quam multam habet Anglia, & domi
inter canes vel animi vel morbi causa sæpè alit)

    Of the second sort we are not vtterly voyde of some, because this
    our Englishe soyle is not free from foxes (for in deede we are not
    without a multitude of them in so much as diuerse keepe, foster, and
    feede them in their houses among their houndes and dogges, eyther
    for some maladie of mind, or for some sicknesse of body,) which
    peraduenture the savour of that subtill beast would eyther mitigate
    or expell.

[Urcanus.] hunc ex urso & cane catenario; quos licet inimicos,
pruriens tamen libido sæpè ita hic conjungit, ut alibi solet.

    The thirde kinde which is bred of a Beare and a Bandogge we want not
    heare in England, (A straunge & wonderfull effect, that cruell
    enimyes should enter into y^e worke of copulation & bring forth so
    sauage a curre.) Undoubtedly it is euen so as we haue reported, for
    the fyery heate of theyr fleshe, or rather the pricking thorne, or
    most of all, the tyckling lust of lechery, beareth such swinge and
    sway in them, that there is no contrairietie for the time, but of
    constraint they must ioyne to ingender. And why should not this bee
    consonant to truth? why shoulde not these beastes breede in this
    lande, as well as in other forreigne nations?

Nam cum tigride Hircanos, cum leone Arcadicos, cum lupo Gallicos
commiscuisse legimus. In hominibus quoque quibus ratio est, inimicos
animos conciliat stulta illa res & naturalis, ut Moria loquitur.

    For wee reede that Tigers and dogges in _Hircania_, that Lyons and
    Dogges in _Arcadia_, and that wolfes and dogges in _Francia_, couple
    and procreate. In men and women also lyghtened with the lantarne of
    reason (but vtterly voide of vertue) that foolishe, frantique,
    and fleshely action, (yet naturally sealed in vs) worketh so
    effectuously, y^t many tymes it doth reconcile enimyes, set foes at
    freendship, vnanimitie, & atonement, as _Moria_ mencioneth.

Est hic urcanus, sæva bestia, & intractabilis iræ (ut Gratii poetæ
verbis utar) cæteros canes nostros omnes feroci crudelitate
superans, vel aspectus torvitate terribilis, in pugna acris &
vehemens, tantaque mordacitate, ut citius discerpas quàm dissolvas;
nec lupum nec taurum, ursum aut leonem reformidat: vel cum cane illo
Alexandri Indico certe conferendus. Sed de his hactenus ut de
Britannicis verba fecimus.

    The _Vrcane_ which is bred of a beare and a dogge,

      Is fearce, is fell, is stoute and stronge,
      And byteth sore to fleshe and bone,
      His furious force indureth longe
      In rage he will be rul’de of none.

    That I may vse the wordes of the Poet _Gratius_, This dogge
    exceedeth all other in cruell conditions, his leering and fleering
    lookes, his stearne and sauage vissage, maketh him in sight feareful
    and terrible, he is violent in fighting, & wheresoeuer he setteth
    his tenterhooke teeth, he taketh such sure & fast hold that a man
    may sooner teare and rende him in sunder, then lose him and seperate
    his chappes. He passeth not for the Wolfe, the Beare, the Lyon,
    nor the Bull, and may wortherly (as I thinke) be companiõ with
    _Alexanders_ dogge which came out of _India_. But of these, thus
    much, and thus farre may seeme sufficient.


    A starte to outlandishe Dogges in this conclusion, not impertinent
    to the Authors purpose.

[Externi canes.] Externos aliquos & eos majusculos, Islandicos dico
& Littuanicos, usus dudum recepit: quibus toto corpore hirtis, ob
promissum longumque pilum, nec vultus est, nec figura corporis.

    Vse and custome hath intertained other dogges of an outlandishe
    kinde, but a fewe and the same beyng of a pretty bygnesse, I meane
    Iseland, dogges curled & rough al ouer, which by reason of the
    lenght of their heare make showe neither of face nor of body.

[Externa prælata.] Multis tamen quòd peregrini sunt, & grati sunt,
& in Melitæorum locum assumpti sunt: usque adeo deditum est humanum
genus etiam sine ratione novitatibus. ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτρίων, παρορῶμεν
συγγενεῖς, miramur aliena, nostra non diligimus.

    And yet these curres, forsoothe, because they are so straunge are
    greatly set by, esteemed, taken vp, and made of many times in the
    roome of the Spaniell gentle or comforter. The natures of men is so
    moued, nay rather marryed to nouelties without all reason, wyt,
    iudgement or perseueraunce. Ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτριῶν, παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς.

      Outlandishe toyes we take with delight,
      Things of our owne nation we haue in despight.

Neque hoc in canibus solum, sed in artificibus quoque usu venit.
Nostros enim licet doctos & peritos fastidimus, belluam è longinqua
barbarie alienoque solo profectam tanquam asinum Cumani, aut hominem
Thalem, nostri suspiciunt.

    Which fault remaineth not in vs concerning dogges only, but for
    artificers also. And why? it is to manyfest that wee disdayne and
    contempne our owne workmen, be they neuer so skilfull, be they neuer
    so cunning, be they neuer so excellent. A beggerly beast brought out
    of barbarous borders, frõ the vttermost countryes Northward, &c.,
    we stare at, we gase at, we muse, we maruaile at, like an asse of
    _Cumanum_, like Thales with the brasen shancks, like the man in the
    Moone.

Id quod Hippocrates sub initio libri sui περὶ ἀγμῶν recte sua ætate
observavit, & nos libello nostro seu consilio de Ephemera Britannica
ad populum Britannicum copiosius explicuimus.

    The which default _Hippocrates_ marcked when he was alyue,
    as euidently appeareth in the beginnyng of his booke περὶ ἀγμῶν,
    so intituled and named:

    And we in our worcke entituled _De Ephemera Britanica_, to the
    people of England haue more plentifully expressed.

Atque in hoc genere quo quisque indoctior, audacior, incogitantior,
hoc pluris fit apud nostros, atque etiam apud torquatos istos
principes atque proceres. Cæterum de externis canibus nihil dico,
quòd de Britannicis tantum voto tuo satisfacere studeo, Conrade vir
doctissime.

    In this kinde looke which is most blockishe, and yet most waspishe,
    the same is most esteemed, and not amonge Citizens onely and iolly
    gentlemen, but among lustie Lordes also, and noble men, and daintie
    courtier ruffling in their ryotous ragges. Further I am not to wade
    in the foorde of this discourse, because it was my purpose to
    satisfie your expectation with a short treatise (most learned
    _Conrade_) not wearysome for me to wryte, nor tedious for you to
    peruse.

[Canis Getulus.] Inter ea tamen quæ aliàs ad te dedi, de cane Getulo
seorsum scripsi, quòd rara species ejus videbatur. De cætero genere,
ipse plenissimè scribis. Verum cum longius jam produximus hunc
libellum quàm priorem ad te, brevius tamen quam pro natura rei, quòd
habuimus rationem studiorum tuorum, memoriæ causa quæ de canibus
Britannicis diximus, in diagramma reducemus.

    Among other things which you haue receaued at my handes heretofore,
    I remember that I wrote a seuerall description of the Getulian
    Dogge, because there are but a fewe of them and therefore very
    seldome scene. As touching Dogges of other kyndes you your selfe
    haue taken earnest paine, in writing of them both lyuely, learnedly
    and largely. But because wee haue drawne this libell more at length
    then the former which I sent you (and yet briefer than the nature of
    the thing myght well beare) regardyng your more earnest and
    necessary studdies. I will conclude makyng a rehearsall
    notwithstanding (for memoryes sake) of certaine specialties
    contayned in the whole body of this my breuiary.

Et quia vulgaribus nominibus delectaris, ut ex literis tuis didici,
ea quoque Latinis apponemus, & singulorum rationes exponemus, quo
nihil tibi sit incognitum aut desideratum.

    And because you participate principall pleasure in the knowledge of
    the common and vsuall names of Dogges (as I gather by the course of
    your letters) I suppose it not amysse to deliuer vnto you a shorte
    table contayning as well the Latine as the Englishe names, and to
    render a reason of euery particular appellation, to th’intent that
    no scruple may remaine in this point, but that euery thing may bee
    sifted to the bare bottome.

Canes ergo Britannici, aut sunt

       { Nomina
       { Latina
         { Anglica

  Generosi.
      Venatici.
          Sagax.
            Hunde
              Terrarius.
                Terrare.
              Leverarius.
                Harier.
              Sanguinarius.
                Blud-hunde.
          Agasæus.
            Gasehunde.
          Leporarius.
            Grehunde.
          Levinarius seu Lorarius.
            Leviner, or Lyemmer.
          Vertagus.
            Tumbler.
      Aucupatorii.
          Hispaniolus.
            Spainel.
          Index.
            Setter.
          Aquaticus, seu Inquisitor.
            Water-spainel, or Fynder.
      Delicati.
          Melitæus, seu Fotor.
            Spainel-gentle, or Comforter.
  Rustici.
      Pastoralis.
        Shepherd’s Dog.
      Villaticus, seu Catenarius.
        Mastive, or Bandedog.
  Degeneres.
      Admonitor.
        Wappe.
      Versator.
        Turn-spit.
      Saltator.
        Dancer.


    A Diall pertaining to the
    _fifte Section_.

    Dogges contained in this last Diall or Table are

    { The wapp or warner,
    { The Turnespet,
    { The dauncer,

    called in Latine _Canes Rustici_



    A Supplement or Addition, containing
    a demonstration of Dogges
    names how they had their
    Originall.

Ista vocabula nostratia cum nihil apud te, hominem peregrinum,
loquantur sine interpretatione, ut Latinorum vocabulorum rationem
prius reddidimus, ita Anglicorum jam reddemus, quo tibi pateant
universa, eo etiam quo prius observato ordine.

    The names contayned in the generall table, for so much as they
    signifie nothing to you being a straunger, and ignoraunt of the
    Englishe tounge, except they be interpreted: As we haue giuen a
    reason before of y^e latine words so meane we to doe no lesse of the
    Englishe that euery thing maye be manyfest vnto your vnderstanding.
    Wherein I intende to obserue the same order which I haue followed
    before.


    The names of such Dogges as be contained in the first section.

[Sagax.] Hunde igitur (quem inter venaticos sagacem diximus) a verbo
nostro hunte, quod apud nostros venari significat, unica tantum
immutata litera derivata appellatione, nomen habet. Quod si a
vocabulo vestrati hunde, (quod canem in universum apud vos
significat) propter vocum similitudinem appellari credas (mi
Gesnere) ut non magnopere repugnabo, cum adhuc retinemus multa
Germanica vocabula, a Saxonibus cum Angliam occuparunt nobis
relicta, ita illud admonebo, commune quidem nomen canis apud nos
dogge esse, venatici vero canis hunde.

    _Sagax_, in Englishe Hunde, is deriued of our English word hunte.
    One letter chaunged in another, namely, T, into D, as Hunt, Hunde,
    whom (if you coniecture to be so named of your country worde _Hunde_
    which signifieth the generall name Dogge, because of the similitude
    and likenesse of the wordes I will not stand in contradiction
    (friende _Gesner_) for so much as we retaine among vs at this day
    many Dutche wordes which the _Saxons_ left at such time as they
    occupyed this country of Britane. Thus much also vnderstand, that as
    in your language _Hunde_ is the common word, so in our naturall
    tounge dogge is the vniuersall, but _Hunde_ is perticuler and a
    speciall, for it signifieth such a dogge onely as serueth to hunt,
    and therfore it is called a hunde.


    Of the Gasehounde.

[Agasæus.] Similiter à verbo nostrati, Gase, (quòd fixius rem
aliquam & attentius contueri est) Gasehunde appellatur nostris, quem
ante Agasæum nominari diximus. Neque enim odoratu, sed prospectu
attento & diligenti feram persequitur iste canis, ut jam ante
memoravimus; etsi non sum nescius etiam apud Latinos Agasæi
vocabulum inter canum nomina reperiri.

    The Gasehounde called in latine _Agasæus_, hath his name of the
    sharpenesse and stedfastnesse of his eyesight. By which vertue he
    compasseth that which otherwise he cannot by smelling attaine. As we
    haue made former relation, for to gase is earnestly to viewe and
    beholde, from whence floweth the deriuation of this dogges name.


    Of the Grehounde.

[Leporarius.] A Gre quoque, Grehunde apud nostros invenit nomen,
quod præcipui gradus inter canes sit, & primæ generositatis. Gre
enim apud nostros gradum denotat. Hunc latinè Leporarium dicebamus.

    The Grehounde called _Leporarius_, hath his name of this word, Gre,
    which word soundeth, _Gradus_ in latine, in Englishe degree. Because
    among all dogges these are the most principall, occupying the
    chiefest place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the
    gentle kinde of houndes.


    Of the Leuyner or the Lyemmer.

[Levinarius.] A levitate Leviner, à loro Lyemmer, appellatur is quem
Levinarium & Lorarium latinè nominavimus. Nam Lyemme nostra lingua,
Lorum significat. Quod autem a levitate Leviner, hoc est a latina
voce Britannicam, diducimus: cur in libris nostris sparsim a Græcis
dictionibus & Latinis Italicis & Germanicis, Gallicis & Hispanicis
nostratia multa derivamus, unde ortum eadem multa habuerunt:

    This dogge is called a Leuyner, for his lyghtnesse, which in latine
    soundeth _Leuitas_, Or a Lyemmer which worde is borrowed of Lyemme,
    which the latinists name _Lorum_: and wherefore we call him a
    Leuyner of this worde _Leuitas_? (as we doe many things besides) why
    we deriue and drawe a thousand of our tearmes, out of the _Greeke_,
    the _Latine_, the _Italian_, the _Dutch_, the _French_, and the
    _Spanishe_ tounge? (Out of which fountaines in deede, they had their
    originall issue.)

[Lib. de symphonia.] & quemadmodum ab origine sua etiam multa per
corruptionem jam declinarunt, libello nostro de symphonia seu
consonantia vocum Britannicarum fusius explicabimus.

    How many words are buryed in the graue of forgetfulnes? growne out
    of vse? wrested awrye? and peruersly corrupted by diuers defaultes?
    we wil declare at large in our booke intituled, _Symphonia vocum
    Britannicarum_.


    Of the Tumbler.

[Vertagus.] Postremus inter venaticos Vertagus est, quem Tumbler
vocitamus; quòd tumble apud nos vertere est Latinis, & tumbiere
Gallis, unde ortum habet id nomen Tumbler, mutata vocali in liquidam
nostro more: contra quàm in lingua Gallica & Italica, in quibus
liquida ante vocalem, magna ex parte in aliam vocalem vertitur,
ut impiere & piano, pro implere & plano, quæ exempli gratia adduce,
cum infinita sint.

    Among houndes the Tumbler called in latine _Vertagus_, is the last,
    which commeth of this worde Tumbler flowyng first of al out of the
    French fountaine. For as we say Tumble so they, _Tumbier_, reseruing
    one sense and signification, which the latinists comprehende vnder
    this worde _Vertere_, So that we see thus much, that Tumbler commeth
    of _Tumbier_, the vowell, I, chaunged into the _Liquid_, L, after
    y^e maner of our speache. Contrary to the French and the Italian
    tounge. In which two languages, A _Liquid_ before a _Vowell_ for the
    most part is turned into another _Vowell_, As, may be perceaued in
    the example of these two wordes, _Implere_ & _plano_, for _Impiere_
    & _piano_, L, before, E, chaunged into, I, and L, before A, turned
    into I, also. This I thought conuenient for a taste.


    The names of such Dogges as be contained in the second Section.

[Aucupatorii.] Post Venaticos sequuntur Aucupatorii; inter quos
primus est Hispaniolus, quem ab Hispania voce nomen accepisse prius
diximus. Nostri omissa aspiratione & prima vocali, Spainel & Spaniel
expediti sermonis causa proferunt.

    After such as serue for hunting orderly doe follow such as serue for
    hawking and fowling, Among which the principall and chiefest is the
    Spaniell, called in Latine _Hispaniolus_, borrowing his name of
    _Hispania_ Spaine, wherein wee Englishe men not pronouncing the
    Aspiration H, Nor the _Vowell_ I, for quicknesse and redinesse of
    speach say roundly A Spaniell.


    Of the Setter.

[Index.] Secundus Index, quem nostri a Setter nominare solent,
a verbo sette, quod locum designare nostris Britannis significat.

    The second sort of this second diuision and second section,
    is called a Setter, in latine _Index_, Of the worde Set which
    signifieth in Englishe that which the Latinistes meane by this word
    _Locum designare_, y^e reason is rehersed before more largely, it
    shall not neede to make a new repetition.


    Of the water Spaniell or Finder.

[Aquaticus.] Post hunc subsequitur aquaticus, hoc est a
Waterspainel, a vocibus Water & Spaine (hoc est aqua & Hispania)
deducto nomine. Nam aqua, in qua se exercet canis iste, Water; &
Hispania (unde primum genus hoc tractum ex nomine creditur) Spaine
apud nostros vocitatur.

    The water Spaniell consequently followeth, called in Latine
    Aquaticus, in English a waterspaniell, which name is compounde of
    two simple wordes, namely Water, which in Latine soũdeth _Aqua_,
    wherein he swymmeth. And _Spaine_, _Hispania_, the country frõ
    whence they came,

Non quòd isti canes non sint etiam nativi in Britannia, sed quòd
generale & commune nomen canum, qui ex Hispania primò profecti
putantur, istæ canum species (ut & cæteri Aucupatorii) adhuc vulgo
referunt, etsi in Britannia oriantur, & peculiari aliqua vocis nota,
aut qualitatis indicio secernantur apud nos; ut est ista species
vocis Water, hoc est aquæ, appositione.

    Not that England wanted such kinde of Dogges, (for they are
    naturally bred and ingendred in this country.) But because they
    beare the generall and common name of these Dogges synce the time
    they were first brought ouer out of Spaine. And wee make a certaine
    difference in this sort of Dogges, eyther for some thing which in
    theyr voyce is to be marked, or for some thing which in their
    qualities is to be considered, as for an example in this kinde
    called the Spaniell by the apposition and putting to of this word
    water, which two coupled together sounde waterspaniell.

[Inquisitor.] Alio etiam nomine a Finder canis iste appellatur, quòd
quærendo invenit res deperditas, quæ res nostris, fynde, hoc est
invenire, dicitur. Nos tamen ab inquirendo latinum nomen huic
fecimus, quòd præcipua pars inventionis in inquirendo est.

    He is also called a fynder, in Latine _Inquisitor_, because that by
    serious and secure seeking, he findeth such things as be lost, which
    word _Finde_ in English is that which the Latines meane by this
    Verbe _Inuenire_. This dogge hath this name of his property because
    the principall point of his seruice consisteth in the premisses.


    The names of such Dogges as be contained in the thirde Section.

A venaticis & aucupatoriis transitus est ad Delicatos, Rusticos,
& Degeneres.

    Now leauing the suruie we of hunting and hauking dogs, it remaineth
    that we runne ouer the residue, whereof some be called, fine dogs,
    some course, other some mungrels or rascalls.

[Delicati.] Delicatum, Melitæum & Spainel gentle, hoc est
Hispaniolum generosum, nominavimus, à generositatis nomine data
appellatione, quòd inter nobiles viros atque fœminas versari, & iis
in deliciis atque ad lusus esse consuevit: ut erat illud Gorgonis
κυνίδιον apud Theocritum in Syracusiis, quod discedens servæ
diligentiæ pari cura cum infante commiserat, ut catellum quidem illa
intro revocaret, puerum verò vagientem placaret.

    The first is the Spaniell gentle called _Canis Melitæus_, because it
    is a kinde of dogge accepted among gentles, Nobles, Lordes, Ladies,
    &c. who make much of them vouchsafeing to admit them so farre into
    their company that they will not onely lull them in theyr lappes,
    but kysse them with their lippes, and make them theyr prettie
    playfellowes. Such a one was _Gorgons_ litle puppie mencioned by
    _Theocritus_ in _Siracusis_, who taking his iourney, straightly
    charged & commaunded his mayde to see to his Dogge as charely and
    warely as to his childe: To call him in alwayes that he wandred not
    abroade, as well as to rock the babe a sleepe, crying in the cradle.

Ad alia omnia inutilis canis iste est, nisi ad ea quæ jam ante
diximus, nisi ad fovendum stomachum debilitatum frigore, nisi ad
prodendum adulterium, quod fecisse hujus generis catellum quendam
Siculum refert Ælianus, libro septimo, capite vicesimo quinto
animalium.

    This puppitly and peasantly curre, (which some frumpingly tearme
    fysteing hounds) serue in a maner to no good vse except, (As we haue
    made former relation) to succour and strengthen quailing and
    quammning stomackes to bewray bawdery, and filthy abhominable
    leudnesse (which a litle dogge of this kinde did in _Sicilia_) As
    _Ælianus_ in his .7. booke of beastes and .27. chapter recordeth.


    The names of such dogges as be contained in the fourth Section.

[Rustici.] Rusticos, Shepeherdes dogges, Mastives, & Bandedogges
nominavimus: illorum quidem deducto nomine a pastore, qui Shepeherde
apud nos dicitur, quòd custodit oves, quæ nostris, Shepe,
appellantur: istorum a ligamento, quod Bande, & Sagina, quod maste,
villicis nostris hominibus dicitur.

    Of dogges vnder the courser kinde, wee will deale first with the
    shepherds dogge, whom we call the Bandogge, the Tydogge, or the
    Mastyue, the first name is imputed to him for seruice _Quoniam
    pastori famulatur_, because he is at the shepherds his masters
    commaundement. The seconde a _Ligamento_ of the band or chaine
    wherewith he is tyed, The thirde a _Sagina_, Of the fatnesse of his
    body.

Est enim crassum genus canum, & bene saginatum catenarium hoc. Etsi
non sum nescius Augustinum Niphum, Mastinum (mastivum nostri dicunt)
pecuarium existimare: & Albertum Lyciscum ex cane & lupo genitum
esse scribere: quamvis idem pro Molosso magna ex parte vertat.

    For this kinde of dogge which is vsually tyed, is myghty, grosse,
    and fat fed. I know this that _Augustinus Niphus_, calleth this
    _Mastinus_ (which we call Mastiuus.) And that _Albertus_ writeth how
    the _Lyciscus_ is ingendred by a beare and a wolfe. Notwithstanding
    the self same Author taketh it for the most part _pro Molosso_.
    A dogge of such a countrey.


    The names of such dogges as be contained in the fifte Section.

[Versator.] Ad postremum, degeneres Wappe & Turnespete nominari
dicebamus: hunc a verbo nostrati turne, quòd est verto & spete, seu
spede ad imitationem Italorum, quod veru dicitur; illum a naturali
canis voce Wau, quam in latratu edit admonendo.

    Of mungrels and rascalls somwhat is to be spoken. And among these,
    of y^e _VVappe_ or _Turnespet_, which name is made of two simple
    words, that is, of _Turne_, which in latine soundeth _Vertere_,
    and of _spete_ which is _Veru_, or _spede_, for the Englishe word
    inclineth closer to the Italian imitation: _Veruuersator_, Turnspet.

Unde, originaliter Waupe dicendum fuit. Sed euphoniæ bonæque
consonantiæ gratia, vocali in consonantem mutata, Wappe a nostris
vocitatur. Etsi non me fugit Nonium, a voce naturali Bau, formare
suum baubari, non a Wau, quemadmodum & Græci à suo βαύζειν.

    He is called also VVaupe, of the naturall noise of his voyce _VV_au,
    which he maketh in barcking. But for the better and the redyer
    sounde, the vowell, u, is chaunged into the cõsonant, p, so y^t for
    waupe we say wappe. And yet I wot well that _Nonius_ boroweth his
    _Baubari_ of the natural voyce _Bau_, as the _Græcians_ doe their
    βάυζειν of wau.

[Saltator.] Jam verò quod dansare nostris, saltare sit Latinis, si
didiceris, non est de canis saltatoris nostrati nomine amplius quod
ipse expetas.

    Now when you vnderstand this that _Saltare_ in latine signifieth
    _Dansare_ in Englishe. And that our dogge therevpon is called a
    daunser and in the latine _Saltator_, you are so farre taught as you
    were desirous to learne, And now suppose I, there remaineth nothing,
    but that your request is fully accomplished.


    The winding vp of this worke, called the Supplement, &c.

Ita habes (mi Gesnere) non solum canum nostratium genera, sed &
nomina quoque Latina atque Anglica, officia atque usus, differentias
atque mores, naturas & ingenia, ut non sit quod desideres in hoc
argumento amplius.

    Thus (Friend _Gesner_) you haue, not only the kindes of our countrey
    dogges, but their names also, as well in latine as in Englishe,
    their offices, seruices, diuersities, natures, & properties, that
    you can demaunde no more of me in this matter.

Et quanquam forsan omni ex parte non satisfecerim tibi in edendo
(cui in desideriis omnis festinatio in mora esse videatur) quòd
inhibuerim editionem rudioris illius libelli, quem ad te tanquam ad
privatum amicum, non ad editionem publicam ante annos quinque
dederim; tamen in hoc spero me satisfecisse tibi, quòd mora fecit
aliquanto meliorem, & δεύτεραι φροντίδες lectu commodiorem.

    And albeit I haue not satisfied your minde peraduẽture (who
    suspectest al speede in the performaunce of your requeste employed,
    to be meere delayes) because I stayde the setting fourth of that
    vnperfect pamphlet which, fiue yeares ago, I sent to you as a
    priuate friende for your owne reeding, and not to be printed, and so
    made common, yet I hope (hauing like the beare lickt ouer my younge)
    I haue waded in this worke to your contentation, which delay hath
    made somewhat better and δευτέραι φροντίδες, after witte more meete
    to be perused.


  _Joannis Caii Britanni de Canibus Britannicis libelli finis._

  _Iste liber scriptus fuit ante mortem Gesneri, etsi non ante
    publicatus, ut est ille de rariorum animalium atque
    stirpium historia._

    The ende of this treatise.

    FINIS.


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


[Transcriber’s Notes:


_Errors_

The editor’s general introduction says:

  In this volume no attempt has been made to produce a facsimile
  reprint. Even if such a design had been entertained, the great
  variety of form in which the original editions were issued would
  have made it impossible to carry out the re-issue with any
  uniformity. Obvious misprints have been corrected, but where a
  difference in spelling in the same work or on the same page--_e.g._
  _baccalarius_, _baccalaureus_--is clearly due to the varying
  practice of the writer and not to the printer, the words have been
  left as they stood in the original. On the other hand the accents
  in the very numerous Greek quotations have been corrected.


_Dog Hybrids and Lobster-Hunting Dogs_

In _All the Year Round_ for September 5, 1885, Charles Dickens (son of
the author) or an unnamed contributor wrote:

  Dr. Caius ... had his scholar’s errors, else he would not talk of
  lobster-hound, and of the urcanus (dogbear), “bred of a bear and
  a bandog.”

The wolf-dog (_lyciscus_) and bear-dog (_urcanus_) each requires no
comment. The fox-dog (_lacæna_) is genetically impossible.

Under _Leverarius_ (Harier), the Latin original names eight animals
hunted by dogs:

  Nam alius leporis, alius vulpis, alius cervi, alius platycerotis,
  alius taxi, alius lutræ, alius mustelæ, alius cuniculi ...

The English translation expands these to eleven:

  Some for / The Hare [lepus] / The Foxe [vulpes] / The Wolfe /
  The Harte / The Bucke / The Badger [taxus] / The Otter [lutra] /
  The Polcat / The Lobster / The Weasell / The Conny [cuniculus], &c.

The addition of Wolfe--an animal said not to exist in England--is not
explained. The Harte (_cervus_) is the elk or red deer; the Bucke
(_platyceros_) is the roe deer. The Lobster is not a crustacean but
a regional term for “polecat”, listed in the OED with citations of
appropriate date. The three-way distinction between Polcat, Lobster and
Weasell (subsumed under the single Latin word _mustela_) is not
explained.


_Cicero_

  And albeit _Cicero_ in his oration had _Pro. S. Ross._ be of this
  opinion...

  _Pro S. Roscio Amerino_, 20 [56 end]:

    Quod si luce quoque canes latrent, cum deos salutatum aliqui
    venerint, opinor, eis crura suffringantur, quod acres sint etiam
    tum, cum suspicio nulla sit.


_“Abridgement”_

The translator uses this term at least six times to describe his work.
The body text is about twice as long as the Latin original; note in
particular the section on _Delicati_ (the _Melitæus_ or Maltese).


_Names and Etymologies_

Note that “Dutch” means “German” (Deutsch). “Boethus” is not Boethius
but the Scottish John Boece, variously called Boethus and Boethius.

The word “Spaniel” does appear to mean “Spanish”, though its derivation
is not exactly as described. “Hound” is related to the Germanic “Hund”,
not to the English “Hunt”.





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