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Title: The Collector's Handbook to Keramics of the Renaissance and Modern Periods
Author: Chaffers, William
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Collector's Handbook to Keramics of the Renaissance and Modern Periods" ***

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_The Complete Work from which this Handbook is extracted_

The Keramic Gallery

BY WILLIAM CHAFFERS

Containing several hundred illustrations, some in colour, of rare,
curious, and choice examples of Pottery and Porcelain from the earliest
times to the beginning of the nineteenth century

NEW EDITION, REVISED AND EDITED BY H. M. CUNDALL, I.S.O., F.S.A.

Royal 8vo, cloth extra, top edge gilt, to range with the same author's
"Marks and Monograms on Pottery"

This important book, which was long out of print and scarce, is not
reprinted because of its rarity, but because it is an _indispensable_
companion to the same author's "Marks and Monograms on Pottery and
Porcelain."

As originally published in two volumes at 4 guineas, with the examples
reference, the examples being separated from the text. In this edition
the illustrations are all printed in the letterpress, and are seen in
conjunction with the history and description of the different potteries.

The book is not a bare reprint, but has been thoroughly edited, in many
cases new or additional specimen pieces given, and the references made
to the latest edition of the "Marks and Monograms," so that the book is
of the utmost use for the present day.

This work was undertaken by Mr. H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A., and no
pains have been spared to make it worthy to be in the hands of every
collector as well as every library.



HANDBOOK TO KERAMICS



[Illustration: CHELSEA STATUETTE, "MELPOMENE"]



  THE COLLECTOR'S HANDBOOK TO
  Keramics
  _Of the Renaissance and Modern Periods_

  SELECTED FROM HIS LARGER WORK, ENTITLED
  "The Keramic Gallery"


  WITH 350 ILLUSTRATIONS


  BY
  WILLIAM CHAFFERS

  AUTHOR OF "MARKS AND MONOGRAMS ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN"
  "HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE," ETC. ETC.


  LONDON
  GIBBINGS AND COMPANY, LIMITED
  NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
  1909



  Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
  At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh



PREFACE


As "THE KERAMIC GALLERY" by the late William Chaffers forms a pictorial
supplement to his book "MARKS AND MONOGRAMS ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN,"
so likewise this work, "HANDBOOK TO KERAMICS," which is an abridged
edition of "THE KERAMIC GALLERY," is intended to form a companion volume
of illustrations to "THE COLLECTOR'S HANDBOOK OF MARKS AND MONOGRAMS ON
POTTERY AND PORCELAIN."

Whilst it has been found necessary on account of their size to omit some
of the larger illustrations, which appear in the second edition of "THE
KERAMIC GALLERY," care has been taken to give representations, as far as
possible, of each individual kind of pottery and porcelain, which have
been produced in the various foreign and English manufactories from the
Renaissance period down to the middle of the nineteenth century.

Brief accounts, extracted from the larger volume, of the various
manufactories are also given, with a view to help in establishing the
period to which any specimen may belong.

It is hoped that this little work may prove to be of assistance to the
Collector in identifying those specimens of Keramics bearing no marks,
which may, from time to time, be brought under his notice.

H. M. C.



CONTENTS


                                            PAGE
  MAIOLICA--
    ITALY                                      1
    SPAIN                                     41

  CONTINENTAL FAYENCE--
    FRANCE                                    50
    GERMANY                                   84
    HOLLAND AND LUXEMBURG                    100
    RUSSIA AND SWEDEN                        107

  CONTINENTAL PORCELAIN--                    110
    ITALY                                    112
    SPAIN                                    127
    GERMANY                                  130
    AUSTRIA                                  160
    SWITZERLAND                              168
    HOLLAND                                  170
    BELGIUM AND LUXEMBURG                    175
    RUSSIA                                   179
    SWEDEN                                   184
    DENMARK                                  185
    FRANCE                                   187

  GREAT BRITAIN--
    POTTERY                                  216
    PORCELAIN                                255

  ORIENTAL POTTERY AND PORCELAIN--
    CHINA                                    285
    JAPAN                                    295
    PERSIA, SYRIA, AND TURKEY                304

  INDEX                                      313



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


  CHELSEA STATUETTE, "MELPOMENE"                            _Frontispiece_


  MAIOLICA

  ITALY

  FIG.                                                                PAGE

    1. URBINO--Plateau. Marriage of Alexander and Roxana                 2
    2.   "     Plateau, with Leda and the Swan in the centre             3
    3.   "     Plateau. By Alfonso Patanazzi, 1606                       4
    4.   "     Vase. Apollo and Daphne. _Circa_ 1580                     5
    5.   "     Cruet. _Circa_ 1570                                       6
    6.   "     Plate. "The Stream of Life;" signed M{o}. Giorgio         7
    7.   "     Vase, with Shield of Arms, by M{o}. Giorgio. _16th
               century_                                                  7
    8. PESARO--Drug Vase, inscribed "Sir di Cedro." _17th century_       9
    9.   "     Bowl, Cover, and Dish, _18th century_                    10
   10. CASTEL DURANTE--Vase. _Circa_ 1560                               11
   11.       "         Plate. _Circa_ 1530                              11
   12. FAENZA--Plaque; inscribed "Andrea di Bono, 1491"                 12
   13.    "    Plate, with motto "En Piu." _15th century_               13
   14.    "    Plaque. Joseph Sold by His Brethren. _16th century_      14
   15.    "    Plate, with Arms and Arabesques, _16th century_          15
   16. DIRUTA--Plate. _Circa_ 1520                                      16
   17.    "    Plate; inscribed "Sura Fiore." _Circa_ 1520              16
   18. FORLÌ--Plate. Christ among the Doctors. _16th century_           17
   19. VITERBO--Plateau. Diana and Actæon. _Dated_ 1544                 18
   20. CAFAGGIOLO--Plateau. St. George. _Circa_ 1520                    19
   21. SIENA--Plate. By M{o}. Benedetto. _Circa_ 1520                   21
   22.   "    Plate. Woman and Two Peacocks. _18th century_             22
   23.   "    Plate. Vintage; signed "Ferdinando M{a}. Campani, 1747"   22
   24.   "    Plate. Galatea. _Early 18th century_                      23
   25. VENICE--Plate. Architectural Subject. _Circa_ 1700               24
   26. NOVE--Tureen and Cover. _18th century_                           25
   27. FLORENCE--Cup and Saucer                                         26
   28. PADUA--Plate. Myrrha Fleeing from her Father                     27
   29. CASTELLI--Bowl and Cover. _18th century_                         28
   30.    "      Ewer and Basin. _18th century_                         29
   31. MONTE LUPO--Plate. Three Cavaliers                               31
   32. MILAN--Écuelle and Dish. _18th century_                          32
   33.   "    Ewer and Dish. _18th century_                             32
   34.   "    Cup and Plate. _18th century_                             32
   35. TURIN--Dish with pierced Border. _Dated_ 1577                    33
   36. FERRARA--Plateau. Triumph of Bacchus. _First half of 18th
                century_                                                34
   37. GENOA--Bottle. _18th century_                                    35
   38. SAVONA--Basket. _18th century_                                   36
   39. LORETO--Two Bowls                                                37
   40. SGRAFFIATO or INCISED WARE--Bowl. _About_ 1460                   38
   41.      "             "        Plate. _About_ 1540                  38
   42.      "             "        Basket. _19th century_               39

  SPAIN

   43. HISPANO-MORESQUE--Vase. _15th century_                           40
   44.        "          Azulejo. _14th century_                        41
   45.        "          Plateau. _15th or 16th century_                43
   46.        "          Plateau. _15th or 16th century_                44
   47. VALENCIA--Dish                                                   45
   48. MANISES--Vase                                                    46
   49. TRIANA--Bottle in Form of a Lady                                 47
   50.   "     Dish. _Dated_ 1774                                       47
   51. ALCORA--Plaque with Rococo Frame                                 48
   52. TALAVERA--Bowl                                                   49


  CONTINENTAL FAYENCE

  FRANCE

   53. SAINT PORCHAIRE--Candlestick                                     51
   54.        "         Biberon                                         52
   55. APT--Vase                                                        53
   56. BLOIS--Candlestick                                               54
   57. AVIGNON--Ewer. _About_ 1600                                      55
   58. PALISSY WARE--Dish, with Reptiles, Fish, &c. _16th century_      56
   59. NEVERS--Pilgrim's Bottle. _Second half of 17th century_          57
   60.   "     Ewer. _Second half of 17th century_                      58
   61.   "     Pilgrim's Bottle                                         59
   62. ROUEN--Ewer                                                      60
   63.   "    Ewer                                                      61
   64.   "    Plate                                                     61
   65.   "    Compotier                                                 62
   66.   "    Compotier                                                 62
   67. STRASSBURG--Fountain                                             63
   68.    "        Clock and Bracket                                    64
   69. MOUSTIERS--Plateau                                               65
   70.    "       Compotier                                             66
   71.    "       Plate                                                 67
   72.    "       Barber's Basin                                        67
   73. VARAGES--Plate                                                   68
   74. MARSEILLES--Tureen                                               69
   75. SINCENY--Bowl and Cover                                          71
   76. LUNÉVILLE--Pair of Rustic Figures                                73
   77.    "       Dish                                                  73
   78. APREY--Plate                                                     74
   79. MANERBE--Finial                                                  75
   80. ST. CLÉMENT--Écuelle                                             76
   81. NIDERVILLER--Vase                                                77
   82. ST. ARMAND-LES-EAUX--Inkstand                                    79
   83. SCEAUX PENTHIÈVRE--Plate                                         80
   84. CREIL--Plate                                                     81
   85. LILLE--Dish                                                      82

  GERMANY

   86. NUREMBERG--Jug. _15th century_                                   85
   87.    "       Dish                                                  86
   88. BAYREUTH--Coffee-pot                                             88
   89. LIMBURG--Cruche                                                  90
   90. RAEREN--Cruche                                                   90
   91. SEIGBURG--Canette                                                91
   92. GRENZHAUSEN--Jug                                                 92
   93.     "        Fountain                                            93
   94. KREUSSEN--Tankard                                                94
   95. HARBURG--Cruche                                                  95
   96. DRESDEN--Böttcher Coffee-pot                                     97
   97. TEINITZ--Plate                                                   98
   98. KIEL--Bishop Mitre Bowl                                          99

  HOLLAND

   99. DELFT--Cruche                                                   101
  100.   "    Teapot                                                   102
  101.   "    Vase                                                     103
  102.   "    Plate                                                    104
  103. AMSTERDAM--Dish                                                 105

  SWEDEN

  104. RÖRSTRAND--Butterboat                                           108
  105. MARIEBERG--Vase and Cover                                       108
  106.    "       Plate                                                109


  CONTINENTAL PORCELAIN

  ITALY

  107. FLORENCE--Cruet                                                 112
  108.    "      Bowl                                                  113
  109. DOCCIA--Teapot                                                  113
  110.    "    Basin                                                   114
  111. NAPLES--CAPO DI MONTE--Vase                                     115
  112.   "           "        Saucer                                   115
  113.   "           "        Cup and Saucer                           116
  114.   "           "        Coffee-pot                               116
  115. TREVISO--Écuelle                                                117
  116.   "      Cup and Saucer                                         118
  117. TURIN, VINOVO--Écuelle                                          118
  118. VENICE--Vase and Cover                                          120
  119.   "     Vase                                                    121
  120. NOVE--Jardinière                                                123
  121.   "   Vase                                                      124
  122.   "   Vase                                                      125
  123.   "   Milk-pot                                                  125

  SPAIN

  124. MADRID--BUEN RETIRO--Group                                      127
  125.   "         "        Vase                                       128
  126.   "         "        Vase                                       128
  127. ALCORA--Plaque                                                  129

  GERMANY

  128. DRESDEN--Vase                                                   131
  129.    "     Sucrier, Cup, and Saucer                               132
  130.    "     Cup and Saucer                                         132
  131.    "     Vase and Cover                                         133
  132.    "     Bust of a Girl                                         134
  133.    "     Teapot and Saucer                                      134
  134. BERLIN--Group                                                   135
  135.   "     Group                                                   136
  136.   "     Milk-pot, Cup, and Saucer                               137
  137. HÖCHST--Lamp-stand                                              138
  138.   "     Tray and Sucrier                                        139
  139. FRANKENTHAL--Plate                                              140
  140.     "        Déjeuner Service                                   141
  141. NYMPHENBURG--Tankard                                            142
  142.     "        Cup and Saucer                                     143
  143. ANSPACH--Cup and Saucer                                         143
  144. BAYREUTH--Cup                                                   144
  145. KELSTERBACH--Harlequin                                          145
  146. THURINGIA--Cup and Saucer                                       146
  147. CLOSTER VEILSDORF--Teapot                                       146
  148.        "           Tray                                         147
  149. RUDOLSTADT--Milk-pot, Cup, and Saucer                           147
  150. FULDA--A Peasant                                                148
  151.   "    A Peasant                                                148
  152.   "    Cup and Saucer                                           149
  153.   "    Coffee-pot                                               149
  154. FÜRSTENBERG--Bust of Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick              150
  155.     "        Medallions                                         150
  156. LUDWIGSBURG--Chocolate-pot                                      151
  157.     "        Coffee-pot                                         152
  158. REGENSBURG--Cup and Saucer                                      153
  159. GROSSBREITENBACH--Milk-pot                                      153
  160. LIMBACH--Sucrier, Cover, and Stand                              154
  161. GERA--Sugar Basin                                               155
  162.   "   Cup, Cover, and Saucer                                    156
  163. GOTHA--Figure of Bacchus                                        157
  164. RAUENSTEIN--Cup and Saucer                                      158
  165. WALLENDORF--Vase                                                159

  AUSTRIA

  166. VIENNA--Cabaret                                                 161
  167.   "     Milk-pot                                                162
  168.   "     Plate                                                   163
  169.   "     Cup and Saucer                                          164
  170. SCHLAGGENWALD--Cup and Saucer                                   166
  171. HEREND--Cabaret, portion of a                                   167

  SWITZERLAND

  172. NYON--Cup and Saucer                                            168
  173.   "        "                                                    169
  174. ZURICH--Group                                                   169

  HOLLAND

  175. WEESP--Ewer                                                     170
  176.   "    Coffee-pot                                               170
  177. OUDE LOOSDRECHT--Vase                                           171
  178.   "      "       Panel                                          172
  179. AMSTERDAM--Pair of Bottles                                      172
  180. OUDE AMSTEL--Teapot and Sucrier                                 173
  181.   "     "    Sucrier                                            173
  182. THE HAGUE--Plate                                                174

  BELGIUM AND LUXEMBURG

  183. TOURNAI--Cup and Saucer                                         175
  184.    "     Plate                                                  176
  185. TOURNAI--Salt-cellar                                            176
  186. BRUSSELS--Milk Jug                                              177
  187.    "      Teapot                                                177
  188. LUXEMBURG--Two figures of "The Seasons"                         178

  RUSSIA

  189. ST. PETERSBURG--Cup and Saucer                                  179
  190.  "      "       Verrière                                        179
  191. MOSCOW--Statuette                                               180
  192.   "     Cup and Saucer                                          181
  193. KORZEC--Cup and Saucer                                          182
  194. BARANOWKA--Milk Jug                                             183

  SWEDEN

  195. MARIEBERG--Custard Cup and Cover                                184

  DENMARK

  196. COPENHAGEN--Cabaret                                             185
  197.     "       Cabaret                                             186

  FRANCE

  198. ST. CLOUD--Jug                                                  187
  199.     "      Statuette                                            188
  200. CHANTILLY--Dish                                                 189
  201.     "      Pair of Figures                                      190
  202. MENNECY-VILLEROY--Sugar Basin and Stand                         191
  203.        "          Group                                         192
  204. SCEAUX PENTHIÈVRE--Cup and Saucer                               193
  205.    "       "       Milk-pot                                     193
  206. ARRAS--Sceau                                                    193
  207. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER--Plaque                                        194
  208.    "        "     Sucrier                                       194
  209. ÉTIOLLES--Cup and Saucer                                        195
  210. LILLE--Cup and Saucer                                           195
  211. BOURG-LA-REINE--Custard Pot                                     196
  212. CLIGNANCOURT--Milk-pot and Cover                                197
  213.      "        Cup and Dish                                      197
  214.      "        Milk Jug                                          197
  215. ORLEANS--Bowl, Cover, and Stand                                 199
  216. NIDERVILLER--Milk-pot and Cover                                 200
  217. BOISSETTE--Teapot                                               201
  218. CAEN--Cup and Saucer                                            201
  219. VALENCIENNES--Cup and Saucer                                    202
  220. STRASSBURG--Cup and Saucer                                      203
  221. PARIS: RUE THIROUX--Sucrier                                     204
  222.   "    RUE DE BONDY--Ewer and Basin                             204
  223.   "    RUE FONTAINE AU ROI--Part of a Tea Service               205
  224.   "    FAUBOURG ST. HONORÉ--Teapot                              206
  225.   "    PONT-AUX-CHOUX--Teapot                                   206
  226.   "    RUE DE CRUSSOL--Cup                                      207
  227.   "    BELLEVILLE--Watch-stand                                  207
  228.   "    VINCENNES--Cup and Saucer                                208
  229.   "       "  (Royal Factory)--Vase                              210
  230.   "       "        "          Cup and Saucer                    211
  231. SÈVRES--Vase                                                    212
  232.   "     Écuelle                                                 213
  233.   "     Group                                                   214


  GREAT BRITAIN

  POTTERY

  234. STAFFORDSHIRE--Tyg                                              218
  235.      "         Mug                                              218
  236.      "         Plateau                                          219
  237. ETRURIA--Wedgwood Vase                                          220
  238.    "        "       "                                           222
  239.    "        "     The Portland Vase                             223
  240.    "        "     Teapot, Caddy, and Plate                      224
  241.    "        "     Six Jasper Cameos                             225
  242.    "        "     Vase                                          225
  243.    "        "     Ewer                                          225
  244. BURSLEM--Obelisk, by Ralph Wood, and Tea Set, by Aaron Wood     226
  245.    "     Statuette of Chaucer, by Ralph Wood                    227
  246.    "     Vase, by Moses Steel                                   228
  247. SHELTON--Bowl, by S. Hollins                                    229
  248.    "     Basin, by T. & J. Hollins                              229
  249. NEW HALL CHINA WORKS--Cup and Saucer                            230
  250. BRADWELL--Teapot, by Elers                                      231
  251. HANLEY--Barrel, by Miles                                        231
  252.    "    Vase, by Elijah Mayer                                   232
  253.    "    Jardinière                                              233
  254.    "    Vase                                                    233
  255. TUNSTALL--Jug, by W. Adams                                      234
  256. LANE END--Sugar Basin                                           235
  257.    "      Teapot                                                235
  258. LONGPORT--Cup, Cover, and Saucer                                235
  259.    "      Dish                                                  235
  260. LANE DELPH--Cup, Cover, and Saucer                              236
  261. LIVERPOOL--Mug                                                  237
  262.    "       Punch Bowl                                           238
  263.    "       Tiles, by J. Sadler                                  239
  264.    "       Teapot                                               239
  265. JACKFIELD--Teapot                                               241
  266. FULHAM--"Lydia Dwight"                                          242
  267. LAMBETH--Dish                                                   243
  268. DON POTTERY--Tea-caddy                                          245
  269. LEEDS--Chestnut Bowl and Cover                                  246
  270. CASTLEFORD--Teapot                                              246
  271. SWINTON--Teapot                                                 247
  272. NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE--Dish                                         248
  273.         "          Mug                                          248
  274. ST. ANTHONY'S--Jug                                              249
  275. NOTTINGHAM--Mug                                                 249
  276.     "       Jug in the form of a Bear                           250
  277. GREAT YARMOUTH--Plate                                           250
  278. LOWESBY--Garden Pot                                             251
  279.    "     Vase                                                   251
  280. BRISTOL--Tiles                                                  252
  281. CADBOROUGH--Vessel in the form of a Pig                         253
  282. SWANSEA--Dish                                                   254

  PORCELAIN

  283. WORCESTER--A Cup and Saucer                                     256
  284.     "      Portion of a Tea Service (Japan pattern)             258
  285.     "         "             "       (with coloured transfer)    258
  286. ROCKINGHAM--Plate                                               259
  287.     "       Vase                                                259
  288. DERBY--Group. Chelsea-Derby                                     260
  289.   "    Pair of Vases  "                                         261
  290.   "    Plate, by Billingsley                                    261
  291.   "    Cup, Cover, and Saucer. Crown-Derby                      262
  292.   "    Scent Vase                   "                           262
  293.   "    Cup, Cover, and Saucer       "                           263
  294. BURTON-ON-TRENT--Comport                                        264
  295. WIRKSWORTH--Cup and Cover                                       264
  296. PINXTON--Jardinière                                             265
  297.    "     Sugar Bowl and Cover                                   265
  298. PLYMOUTH--Coffee-pot                                            266
  299.    "      Beaker and Cover                                      266
  300.    "      Centrepiece                                           267
  301.    "      A Shepherdess                                         268
  302.    "      A Shepherd                                            268
  303. BRISTOL--Bowl and Cover                                         269
  304.    "     Dish                                                   269
  305. CAUGHLEY--Mug                                                   270
  306.    "      Plate                                                 270
  307. COALPORT--Dish                                                  271
  308. STOKE-ON-TRENT--Spode Cup, Cover, and Saucer                    272
  309.   "        "      "   Vase                                      273
  310.   "        "    Minton Bowl                                     274
  311. LONGTON HALL--Vase                                              275
  312. BOW--Teapot                                                     274
  313.  "   Bowl                                                       276
  314.  "   Plate                                                      276
  315.  "   Statuette, "Flora"                                         277
  316.  "   Bust of King George II.                                    278
  317.  "   Group, "A Tea Party"                                       279
  318. CHELSEA--Statuette, Marshal Conway                              280
  319.    "         "      "Shepherd"                                  280
  320. CHELSEA--Vase                                                   281
  321. SWANSEA--Plate                                                  282
  322.    "     Plate                                                  282
  323. NANTGARW--Plate                                                 283
  324.    "      Cup and Saucer                                        283
  325.    "      Vase                                                  284


  ORIENTAL

  326. CHINA--Stoneware Vase                                           286
  327.   "        "       "                                            287
  328.   "    Porcelain Vase                                           288
  329.   "        "     Ewer                                           289
  330.   "    Bottle                                                   290
  331.   "    Jar                                                      291
  332.   "    Plate. Eggshell porcelain                                292
  333.   "      "        "        "                                    293
  334. JAPAN--Vase. Hizen ware                                         296
  335.   "  Figure of Fukurokuji                                       297
  336.   "  Saké Cup and Stand                                         298
  337.   "  Jar. Ôto ware                                              299
  338.   "  Vase. Kishin ware                                          300
  339.   "  Candlestick. Tozan porcelain                               300
  340.   "  Flask. Satsuma ware                                        301
  341.   "  Incense Burner. Imari porcelain                            302
  342. PERSIA--Wall Tile. _13th century_                               305
  343.   "  Water-bottle. With metallic lustre                         306
  344.   "  Dish for Rice                                              307
  345.   "  Rose water Sprinkler                                       308
  346.   "      "          "                                           309
  347. DAMASCUS--Plate                                                 310
  348.    "      Dish                                                  311
  349. RHODIAN--Plate                                                  312



HANDBOOK TO KERAMICS



MAIOLICA


ITALY

The painted pottery of Italy, ever since its introduction into that
country in the 15th century, has been called by the Italians themselves
_Maiolica_. In England it was in the 18th century called _Raphael ware_,
on account of an impression which existed that Raphael himself
condescended to paint on some of the ware. The idea probably originated
from the fact that many designs were reproduced on maiolica by the
keramic artists from engravings of Raphael and other great masters. The
best period of this pottery was, however, subsequent to his death, which
took place in 1520.

The term _maiolica_ appears to be derived or rather corrupted from
Maiorca, one of the Balearic Islands, noted for its pottery from a very
early period. It was in the 16th century called _Maiorica_, and
subsequently _Maiolica_.

URBINO

Urbino was one of the most celebrated of all the Italian _fabriques_,
and must have had by far the most trade, although no doubt many of the
specimens now attributed to this city were the works of other
manufactories; there are, however, a considerable number of signed and
dated pieces, and the style and touch of the principal artists engaged
there may easily be detected. The best known of all the keramic artists
of Urbino was Francesco Xanto Avelli da Rovigo, whose works are now so
highly appreciated; he usually painted after the designs and engravings
of Raphael and other great masters, but seldom adhered strictly to the
grouping of the originals; he also painted subjects from Virgil, Ovid,
and other poets. The marks which he placed upon his works consisted of
one or more initial letters of his name, F.X.A.R., but usually the X.
only, or sometimes Xanto, with the date. (See Fig. 1.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--PLATEAU. MARRIAGE OF ALEXANDER AND ROXANA.
_After Raphael. Signed and dated_ "XANTO, 1533."]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--PLATEAU, WITH LEDA AND THE SWAN IN CENTRE. _16th
Century._]

Another celebrated artist of Urbino, who flourished in the middle of the
16th century, was Orazio Fontana, whose family name was Pellipario;
Fontana being a name taken in consequence of several of the family being
manufacturers of vases as well as artists.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--PLATEAU. BY ALFONSO PATANAZZI, 1606.]

The family of Patanazzi worked in the early part of the 17th century.
Alfonso Patanazzi signed his pieces of the years 1606 and 1607 in
full, as well as Alf. P. and A. P. (See Fig. 3.)

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--VASE. APOLLO AND DAPHNE. _Circa_ 1580.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--CRUET. _About_ 1570.]

GUBBIO

Gubbio, in the Duchy of Urbino, is known principally by the works of
Maestro Giorgio Andreoli, who seems to have monopolised the secret of
the ruby and yellow metallic lustre, with which he enriched not only his
own productions but put the finishing touches in lustre on the plates of
Xanto and other artists from Urbino, as well as from Castel Durante.
There is no doubt that the painting of the piece and the application of
the metallic lustre colours were two distinct operations, and that it
was painted and the colours fixed in the muffle kiln some months before
it was touched with the lustre pigments, and again subjected to another
baking. Giorgio was a statuary as well as a painter of maiolica, several
of his sculptures in marble being yet extant.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--PLATE. "STREAM OF LIFE." _16th Century. Signed
by_ M{O} GIORGIO. Diam. 7-3/4 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--VASE. BY M{O} GIORGIO. H. 10-1/2 in. _16th
Century._]

Another painter in lustre, of the school of M{o} Giorgio, has signed his
pieces with the letter N., which is supposed by some to be a monogram of
Vincenzio, the son of M{o} Giorgio; and a painter named Perestino, of
Gubbio, produced some very beautiful pieces, dated 1533 and 1536.

PESARO

Guido Ubaldo II. della Rovere, who became Duke of Urbino in 1538, was a
patron of the _fabrique_ of Pesaro. The maiolica with yellow lustre,
blue outlines and imbricated borders, which are assigned to Pesaro,
belong to the first part of the 16th century; many of these have
portraits and scrolls inscribed with the name of the person to whom they
were dedicated. When Passeri visited the town in 1718, there was only
one potter, making ordinary vessels. Some years after, in 1757, he sent
potters from Urbania and recommenced the manufacture.

According to M. A. Jacquemart, two artists of Lodi--Filippo Antonio
Callegari and Antonio Casali--were also established here about the
middle of the 18th century. The bowl and cover and dish, Fig. 9, painted
and gilt with flowers, are signed by them with their initials. There was
another _fabrique_, established by Giuseppe Bertolucci of Urbania in
1757; Pietro Lei, a painter of Sassuolo, was engaged there.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--DRUG VASE. _17th Century._]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--BOWL, COVER, AND DISH. _18th Century._]

CASTEL DURANTE

Castel Durante, a small town near Urbino, had a very extensive
manufactory of maiolica; most of its early productions of the beginning
of the 15th century are often confounded with those of Urbino, but there
is evidence enough to show the beautiful character of the decorations
employed there. Piccolpassi, director of a _bottega_ for maiolica, at
Castel Durante, _circa_ 1550, wrote a treatise on the art of making and
decorating it, whilst under the patronage of Guidobaldo II. The
manuscript is in the Art Library of the Victoria and Albert Museum. This
interesting work is illustrated with pen-and-ink sketches of all the
details of manufacture and patterns of the ware, and the prices at which
they were to be obtained; allusions are also made in it to other towns
celebrated for the same industry; and the principal forms of the vessels
are described by name.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--VASE. _About_ 1560.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--PLATE. _About_ 1530.]

In the year 1635 the name of the _fabrique_ was changed to URBANIA in
compliment to Pope Urban VIII.; and in 1722 it was the only one which
remained in the Duchy of Urbino, where articles of utility alone were
made.

A great trade was carried on in pharmacy vases or Vasi da Spezieria,
covered with grotesque heads, cornucopiæ, &c., designed and shaded with
light blue, touched with yellow, orange, brown and green, the patterns
being mostly in a bold style.

FAENZA

If not the most ancient, Faenza was one of the most celebrated of the
manufactories of maiolica in Italy. It was this town that gave to the
French the name by which they have to the present day distinguished
their enamelled pottery, as Spain had previously supplied the name to
Italy. Thus in Italy it was called _maiolica_ from Maiorca, and in
France, _faïence_ from Faenza. The earliest dated piece now extant is
probably a plate in the Musée de Cluny, dated 1475, made by Nicolaus de
Ragnolis. Another specimen, in the Sèvres Museum, is inscribed "Nicolaus
Orsini, 1477"; and in the same collection is a plate, signed "Don
Giorgio, 1485," probably by Maestro Giorgio.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--PLAQUE. "ANDREA DI BONO, 1491."]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--PLATE. WITH AN EMBLEM OF TWO HEARTS PIERCED
WITH ARROWS AND THE MOTTO "EN PIU." _15th Century._]

The products of this _fabrique_ retained for a long time a special
character by which they are easily identified; at first the outlines of
the figures were very simple and formal; the yellow lustre does not
appear to have been adopted.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--PLAQUE. JOSEPH SOLD BY HIS BRETHREN. _16th
Century._]

In the 16th century a favourite decoration was grotesques and arabesques
in blue _camaïeu_ on yellow ground, or alternately on the two colours
(see Fig. 15). The reverses of the Faenza plates are frequently light
blue, with concentric circles or a spiral line in a darker colour; when
white, with imbrications or zones alternately blue and yellow. Another
peculiarity by which the Faenza ware is known, is the presence of red.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--PLATE. ARMS AND ARABESQUES. _16th Century._]

DIRUTA

Many of the lustred pieces of maiolica, with light yellow lustre edged
with blue, which were attributed formerly to Pesaro, have been now
classed among the wares made at Diruta, from the circumstance of a plate
in the Pourtalès Collection--subject, one of Ovid's Metamorphoses,
being similarly decorated with the yellow lustre, and signed by El Frate
of Diruta, 1541. Some specimens have "_In Deruta_" inscribed at length;
others have simply the letter D with a bar through it; and early pieces
have the signature of the painter, El Frate, but without the yellow
lustre.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--PLATE. BLUE AND WHITE. _16th Century._]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--PLATE. INSCRIBED "SURA FIORE." _About_ 1520.]

FORLÌ

According to Passeri there were _fabriques_ of maiolica at Forlì in the
14th century. Its contiguity to Faenza exercised a great influence on
the decoration of the ware, and the patterns on the obverses and
reverses are similar. Fig. 18 has on the back "In la botega di M{o}.
Jeronimo da Forli."

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--PLATE. CHRIST AMONGST THE DOCTORS. Diam. 14 in.
_16th Century._]

RIMINI is only known by a few specimens, which are actually signed, and
by the mention made of its _fabriques_ by Piccolpassi. The pieces are
dated 1535, and as late as 1635.

VITERBO, RAVENNA, AND TREVISO

There were manufactories at these three places in the 16th century, but
few specimens of their productions now exist. (See Chaffers' _Marks and
Monograms_, p. 112.) The first named is illustrated (Fig. 19) by a
plateau; a man at the bottom holds a scroll inscribed "VITERBO DIOMED,
1544."

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--PLATEAU. DIANA AND ACTÆON. _Dated_ 1544.]

CAFAGGIOLO

This _fabrique_, established towards the end of the 15th century,
became very important, lasting probably throughout the 16th century. The
name is spelt in different ways, such as Chaffagiuolo, but Cafaggiolo is
the general form.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--PLATEAU. ST. GEORGE. _Circa_ 1520.]

Among the ornaments on this ware are frequently tablets with SPQR and
SPQF (Florentinus), and on several the motto "Semper," adopted by Pietro
de' Medici in 1470, and continued by Lorenzo il Magnifico. The device of
a triangle and the word "Glovis," meaning when read backwards "si volge"
(it turns), was used by Giuliano de' Medici in 1516, alluding to his
change of fortune.

Another characteristic of this _fabrique_ is the dark blue background of
many of the pieces, and the method in which it was coarsely applied by
the brush.

Fig. 20 represents the St. George of Donatello, from the bronze statue
in the church of Or San Michele, at Florence.

SIENA

The earliest specimens known of this important manufactory are some wall
or floor tiles of the commencement of the 16th century. They are of
maiolica, ornamented with polychrome designs of chimeræ, dragons,
amorini, masks, birds, &c., beautifully painted in brilliant colours,
especially orange and yellow on a black ground. They vary in shape,
being triangular, pentagonal, or square, to suit the geometrical designs
of the wall or floor they covered; the average diameter is 5 inches.
The plate in blue _camaïeu_ on white ground, in the accompanying
illustration (Fig. 21) is signed on the reverse "fata in Siena da M{o}.
Benedetto."

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--PLATE. BY M{O}. BENEDETTO. _About_ 1520.]

After a long interval, the name of the town again appears on maiolica of
a very characteristic description, accompanied by the names of the
artists: Bartolomeo Terenze (or Terchi) Romano in 1727, and Ferdinando
Maria Campani, 1733 to 1747, the subjects being taken from Raphael,
Annibale Caracci, and other masters (see Figs. 22-24).

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--PLATEAU. WOMAN AND PEACOCKS. _18th Century._]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--PLATE. VINTAGE. _Signed_ FERDINANDO M{A}
CAMPANI, SIENA, 1747.]

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--PLATE. GALATEA. _After_ ANNIBALE CARACCI.
_Early 18th Century._]

PISA

This city was, about the middle of the 16th century, the centre of a
considerable trade in the exportation of Italian fayence into Spain, and
especially to Valencia, in exchange for the golden metallic lustre ware
of that country. Antonio Beuter, a traveller, about 1550, praises the
fayence of Pisa as well as those of Pesaro and Castelli. A specimen
bearing the name "PISA," a large vase of fine form, covered with
arabesques on white ground, was in the collection of the late Baron
Alphonse de Rothschild.

VENICE

Little is known respecting the Venetian maiolica of the 16th and 17th
centuries, but numerous pieces exist bearing marks with Venice recorded
on them. These are specimens of the 17th century with a mark of a
fishhook, and from the long intervals between its use, it evidently
belongs to a _fabrique_ and not a painter. As an example of Venetian
maiolica, _circa_ 1700, see Fig. 25, a plate painted with an
architectural subject.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--PLATE. _Circa_ 1700.]

In 1753, the Senate of Venice conceded to the brothers Bertolini the
establishment at Murano of a kiln for making fayence. But it did not
succeed so well as the promoters anticipated, and it was probably
discontinued about 1760, as the concession was annulled by a decree of
April 1763.

NOVE

In 1728, Giovanni Battista Antonibon established in the village of Nove,
near Bassano, a manufactory of earthenware, and in 1732 he opened a shop
in Venice for the sale of his wares. In 1741 the factory was still in a
prosperous state, and carried on by his son, Pasqual Antonibon. In 1766
Pasqual took his son, Giovanni Battista Antonibon, into partnership, and
in 1781 Sig. Parolini joined the concern, continuing the fabrication
with great success until 1802, when they leased the premises to Giovanni
Baroni, and the business was carried on under the name of _Fabbrica
Baroni Nove_. It was prosperous for a short time, and some beautiful
examples were produced.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--TUREEN AND COVER. _18th Century._]

_Maiolica fina_ or fayence only is still continued to be made, the
manufacture of porcelain, for which at one time the works were so famed,
not having been revived.

FLORENCE

Of the early maiolica made here little is known, but fayence of the 18th
century is occasionally met with, marked with the letter F or Fl.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

PADUA

In a street which still retains the name of _Boccaleri_ (makers of
vases) were discovered traces of ancient potters' kilns, and some
triangular wall tiles, of blue and white maiolica alternately, of the
end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century. Among these was a
plaque, 20 in. in diameter, of the Virgin and Child between two saints,
surrounded by angels. The subject is taken from a cartoon by Nicolo
Pizzolo, a painter of Padua and a pupil of Squarcione; on the summit of
the throne is written NICOLETI, the name he usually adopted. The plaque
is now preserved in the Museum of that city.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--PLATE. MYRRHA FLEEING FROM HER FATHER.]

Fig. 28, a plate, painted on grey ground, is inscribed on the reverse
with the name of the place and the date 1548.

CASTELLI

The manufactory of Castelli, a small town in the Abruzzi, north of the
city of Naples, was still flourishing towards the end of the 17th
century. Francesco Saverio Grue, a man of letters and science, became
about this time director of this Neapolitan maiolica _fabrique_. The
ware was boldly ornamented with subjects, correctly designed and well
painted; sometimes the landscapes were delicately heightened with gold.
His sons and brothers continued to add lustre to his name for nearly a
century. Francesco Antonio Grue's works, which have dates, range from
1677 to 1722, the subjects being principally scriptural and
mythological. Luigi Grue, about 1720-1740, painted landscapes and
figures. Ioanes Grue or Grua painted scriptural subjects from about 1730
to 1750. Saverio Grue was the re-inventor of gilding on fayence; some of
his pieces are dated 1749 and 1753. His earliest paintings are without
gold, consisting of classical subjects and mottoes on plaques. C. A.
Grue was a painter about the same time.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--BOWL AND COVER. _18th Century._]

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--EWER AND BASIN. _18th Century._]

Fig. 29, a bowl and cover, painted with nude figures after Annibale
Caracci; and filled in with fruit, foliage, and cartouches, is signed
"Liborius Grue P."

NAPLES

Maiolica was made in the city of Naples in the 17th century, but little
is known respecting it. Examples of the fayence of the 18th century are
frequently met with, signed FDV--F. del Vecchio; Giustiniani; the letter
N crowned, and sometimes the letters H.F.

MONTE LUPO

The plates and dishes of coarse heavy earthenware, rudely painted with
large caricature figures of soldiers and men in curious Italian costumes
of the 17th and 18th centuries, in menacing and warlike attitudes,
striding across the plates, holding swords, spears, and other weapons,
are usually attributed to Monte Lupo, near Florence. The manufactory is
still in existence.

Fig. 31, is signed on the back "Raffaello Girolamo fecit Monte Lupo
1639."

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--PLATE. THREE CAVALIERS.]

MILAN

No specimens can be identified of an earlier date than the 18th century.
The fayence is usually painted with grotesque figures, but sometimes
with flowers and scrolls in relief, also with Watteau or Chinese
subjects. (See Fig. 33.)

Some pieces, apparently of a later date, are from the manufactory of
Pasquale Rubati, and usually signed with his initials.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--ÉCUELLE AND DISH. _18th Century._]

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--EWER AND DISH. _18th Century._]

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--CUP AND PLATE. _18th Century._]

TURIN

That there was a manufactory of maiolica at Turin in the 16th century is
proved by a dish with pierced border, painted on the inside with a boy
carrying two birds on a long pole; it is marked underneath--Fatta in
Torino adi 12 di Setēbre 1577 (see Fig. 35). The manufactory was in
existence in the first half of the 18th century and was under Royal
patronage, as a large dish which was in the collection of the Marquis
D'Azeglio is inscribed on the back of the rim: "Fabrica Reale di Torino
GR 1737." In the centre of the reverse is a monogram composed of F. R.
T. (Fabbrica Reale Torino).

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--DISH. _Dated_ 1577.]

FERRARA

Alfonso I., Duke of Ferrara, himself occasionally worked in a room
attached to his palace, and is said to have discovered a fine white
colour, which was adopted by the _fabriques_ of Urbino. He died in 1534.
His successor, Duke Alfonso II., summoned Camillo Fontana (son of the
celebrated Orazio Fontana of Urbino) in 1567 to give new life to the
manufactory. All the well-known pieces bearing the _impresa_ of the
Duke, a flame of fire and the motto "ARDET ETERNUM," were produced at
this _fabrique_, about 1579. At a much later period, probably late in
the 17th century, there was still a manufactory here.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--PLATEAU. THE TRIUMPH OF BACCHUS. _First Half of
the 18th Century._]

BASSANO, NEAR VENICE

A _fabrique_ (according to V. Lazori) was founded here about 1540, by
Simone Marinoni, but it is not known how long it lasted. Later pieces of
the 17th century bear a certain resemblance to the Castelli ware. In
1728, a manufactory of maiolica was set on foot by the sisters Manardi,
which was continued in 1735 by Giovanni Antonio Caffo; and some time
after, but previous to 1753, another was carried on by Giovanni Maria
Salmazzo.

GENOA

Piccolpassi speaks of Genoa as a great mart for maiolica about the year
1540. He tells us the patterns painted--arabesques, leaves, landscapes,
&c.--and the prices charged, but no specimens of this early date have
hitherto been identified. The fayence of the 18th century, however, is
of frequent occurrence; its decoration is much the same as that of
Savona, viz. rude and hasty sketches in blue _camaïeu_, sometimes with
small caricature figures in the style of Callot. In consequence of
Genoa's maritime position, the mark selected for this ware was a beacon,
by some erroneously called a lighthouse, from which some object is
suspended on a pole.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--BOTTLE. _18th Century._]

Fig. 37, a bottle, painted in blue with birds and scroll ornaments, has
this mark.

SAVONA

The manufactory of Savona was founded in the 17th century at the village
of Albissola, situated on the coast, near Savona. The ware is generally
ornamented in blue on white ground, the designs are roughly executed,
and the mark, consisting of a shield of arms of the town, is often seen
on the reverse. There are some other marks attributed to Savona: a
double triangle with the letter S, called the "knot of Solomon"
(Salomone), the sun with G.S., the falcon mark, the tower mark, and the
anchor mark, so called from these emblems being depicted on the ware.
Fig. 38, a basket, perforated and with two handles, is rudely painted
with scrolls in yellow, blue, and green; in the centre is a cartouche
with the letters S.A.G.S.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--BASKET. _18th Century._]

LORETO

Although Santa Casa at Loreto is not strictly speaking a _fabrique_ of
maiolica, yet maiolica is actually made within the precincts of the
sanctuary. Bowls are made of clay, mixed with the dust shaken from the
dress of the Virgin and walls of the sanctuary, and in this form are
preserved by the faithful as tokens of their visit to the shrine.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--TWO BOWLS.]

SGRAFFIATO OR INCISED WARE

The earthenware vessels with stanniferous enamel, called in Italy
_sgraffiato_ ware, have been attributed to CITTÀ DI CASTELLO. They are
engraved in outline and decorated _en engobe_--that is, the object
before being glazed is covered with a second coating of coloured slip
or _engobe_, on which is graved the ornament or design after it has been
merely dried by the air, leaving a sort of _champ levé_, and afterwards
baked in the kiln. These fayence vases are generally enamelled in
yellow, green, and brown. Fig. 40, a bowl, is decorated with foliage, on
the stem are three lions seated, in full relief; round the bowl runs a
wreath of yellow flowers; and within is a man wrestling with a dragon,
surrounded by a wreath. There was a manufactory of this _sgraffiato_
ware at LA FRATTA, near Perugia, which was continued down to a late
period. Fig. 42, a basket-shaped pot, has ornaments in relief. Similar
ware was also made at PAVIA in the 17th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--BOWL OF INCISED WARE. _About_ 1460.]

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--PLATE. Diam., 11-1/2 in. _About_ 1540.]

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--RED GLAZED EARTHENWARE BASKET. _19th Century._]

[Illustration: HISPANO-MORESQUE

FIG. 43.--VASE. Height 20-3/4 in. _15th Century._]


SPAIN

The exact date of the introduction of enamelled pottery with
lustre-pigment into Spain is unknown, but the existence of manufactures
of "golden" pottery at Calatayud, in Aragon, is testified to by the
Mohammedan geographer Edrisi in the 12th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--AZULEJO.]

The Hispano-Moresque period, which is best known to us from the numerous
specimens preserved to our time, commences with the 14th century, when
the Alhambra of Granada was erected by the Moors.

The earlier pieces of the 14th and 15th centuries may be distinguished
by a golden yellow metallic lustre, and blue enamel on a white ground.
The designs are Moorish, consisting of diaper patterns, foliage,
fantastic and other animals, shields of arms of Spanish princes, &c.,
and sometimes Arabic inscriptions, transformed into ornamental designs.

Fig. 43, a vase, is decorated with leaves and conventional flowers, in
reddish yellow lustre and blue.

The _azulejos_ or enamelled tiles of the Alhambra, bearing passages from
the Koran, shields and other devices, are well known; they date from the
beginning of the 14th century (see Fig. 44).

MALAGA. The principal as well as the earliest centre for the manufacture
of fayence was in this city, and the finest known specimen of Moorish
fayence is the celebrated vase of the Alhambra, which is supposed to be
as early as the palace itself, viz. the 14th century, and was probably
made here. The colours of the decoration are a pure blue enamel,
surrounded or heightened with a yellow lustre on white ground.

Figs. 45 and 46 are other specimens of the Spanish lustre ware, with
shields of arms, of the 15th or 16th century.

MAJORCA was the next in importance as regards its ancient manufacture,
but it must also have had a very extensive trade in fayence, for it was
exported to almost every part of the globe. Giovanni de' Bernardi da
Uzzano, writing in 1442 about the productions of the Balearic Isles,
says "_the fayence of Majorca has a very extensive sale in Italy_."

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--PLATEAU.]

As the keramic art in Spain declined, the Arabic inscriptions, which
were perfect on the early vases like that of the Alhambra, were copied,
but the painter, not knowing their signification, employed them as
ornaments, until at last they became altogether confused and illegible.
The arabesques were no longer in such elegant taste, and large coats of
arms entirely filled the centres of vases and plates.

VALENCIA was also celebrated for its fayence, which may be traced back
to Roman times, for Saguntum, now Murviedro, is mentioned by Pliny and
others as noted for its jasper red pottery. It is impossible to discover
the origin of the _lustred_ pottery of Valencia, but it probably dates
from the beginning of the 15th century, when it became the most
important in Spain. The pieces attributed to this place have Christian
devices; many of them bear the inscription, "In principio erat Verbum
et Verbum erat apud Deum," from the first chapter of St. John, and the
eagle displayed (not in an escutcheon as in the arms of Aragon), for St.
John was particularly venerated at Valencia. Of its earlier productions
of the Moorish period nothing is known.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--PLATEAU.]

[Illustration: FIG. 47.--DISH.]

Valencia has from time immemorial been celebrated for its _azulejos_ or
enamelled tiles. There are many houses of the 15th and 16th centuries
still existing in the ancient cities of Spain, the walls of whose rooms
are covered with tiles ornamented with borders, scrolls, and geometrical
designs. The celebrity of this manufacture is maintained to the present
day. Fayence of all descriptions was extensively made at Valencia
throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Fig. 47, a dish, is blue and
white with a lion in the centre.

MANISES, near Valencia, was also celebrated from the 16th to the 18th
century. The decorations appear to be of Oriental design, executed for
the most part in a rich copper-coloured lustre. Some dishes with
copper-colour lustre have upon them a mark of an open hand, which may be
the emblem of the place, and are dated 1610 and 1611. Fig. 48, a vase,
is painted in lustre, with foliage, birds and animals, and with a rudely
executed shield of arms, seemingly of Sicily or Portugal.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.--VASE.]

TRIANA, near Seville. There were several _fabriques_ here, one for the
manufacture of spires or ornaments of earthenware, with which the gables
of the buildings were crowned; others for the _azulejos_ or tiles so
much used in Spain, and for fayence vessels of all descriptions. Fig. 49
is a bottle in the form of a lady in the costume of the period of Louis
XIV., _en grande tenue_; inside the _fontange_ or top-knot of the
headdress, which forms the spout, is written "Victor. I. Viva. Mi. Arno.
Don. Damian. Sant. ✠."

[Illustration: FIG. 49.--BOTTLE. Height 14 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--DISH. _Dated_ 1774.]

ALCORA. There was a very important _fabrique_ of fayence at this place,
carried on by the Count D'Aranda, in the 18th century.

The usual mark upon this fayence is the letter A in gold or colour.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--PLAQUE.]

TALAVERA, near Toledo, was one of the most important manufactories in
Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries, and the word _talavera_ was used
to indicate all fayence in the same manner as _fayence_ in France and
_delft_ in England.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.--BOWL. _18th Century._]

Fig. 52, a bowl, is glazed, decorated within and without with a bull
fight, storks, and trees, in green, orange and manganese.



CONTINENTAL FAYENCE


FRANCE

Maiolica and Fayence are essentially the same, being composed of the
same material and covered with a tin glaze or opaque white enamel, which
serves to hide the dingy colour of the clay, and forms a fine ground for
the reception of colours.

SAINT PORCHAIRE. All the earliest writers on the subject appear to have
thought that it was made in Touraine, and it was called HENRI DEUX ware.

The ware next became known as FAÏENCE D'OIRON, but in 1888 it was
affirmed that the factory of this pottery was at Saint Porchaire.

The distinguishing characteristics of this curious ware are, in the
first place, the body, which is of a creamy white pipeclay, very compact
and of fine texture, so that it does not, like the ordinary fayence,
require an opaque white enamel, but merely a transparent glaze; and
secondly, that instead of being painted with enamel colours over the
surface, it is inlaid with coloured plates, in the same manner as the
_champ levé_ enamels or niello work in metal.

Fig. 53, a candlestick of cream-coloured ware, is inlaid with arabesques
and other patterns, in dark brown and reddish brown, with reliefs of
three boys, tragic masks, shields of arms of France, and the cipher of
Henri II.; above are three terminal figures of satyrs; date about 1540.

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--CANDLESTICK.]

Fig. 54, a _biberon_, is inlaid with interlaced bands and scrolls,
rosettes, guilloches, masks, &c., in a reddish colour; a curved band on
the neck has a row of ciphers, these being the letters A. M., elegantly
arranged as a decorative monogram, probably that of the Constable Anne
de Montmorency.

[Illustration: FIG. 54.--BIBERON. Height 9-1/4 in.]

BEAUVAIS was celebrated for the manufacture of decorative pottery in the
14th century, and descriptions of cups of the _terre de Beauvais_
frequently occur in early inventories. Several specimens of it are still
in existence; they are of red, green, or blue glaze, with gothic
inscriptions and arms of various provinces of France in relief.

APT. The fabrication of fayence is said to have commenced here about the
middle of the 18th century, principally in imitation of jasper and
brocatelle marble. The manufactory of M. Bonnet was established about
1780, and marbled ware and vases of a yellow colour were produced.

[Illustration: FIG. 55.--VASE.]

Fig. 55 is a yellow vase with masks and vine leaves.

BLOIS. A manufactory of fayence was in existence here throughout the
17th and 18th centuries. It was similar to that of Nevers and Rouen.
Some specimens are signed Lebarquet.

[Illustration: FIG. 56.--CANDLESTICK.]

AVIGNON. A manufactory of pottery flourished here from about 1650 to
1780, but there were also potteries early in the 16th century. The
pottery is of a chocolate brown, with a fine metalloid glaze like bronze
or tortoiseshell. The ewers and bottles are of elegant forms, resembling
those of Italy, sometimes perforated and ornamented with masks and
flowers in relief, or painted yellow.

[Illustration: FIG. 57.--EWER. _About 1600._]

BERNARD PALISSY, born 1510, succeeded, after many years of diligent
research, in discovering the enamel which decorates his ware. His
earthenware, as well as his style of decoration and his beautiful
modelling, were quite original. The natural objects represented upon his
ware are true in form and colour, being mostly modelled from nature; the
shells are copied from tertiary fossils found in the Paris basin; the
fish are those of the Seine, and the reptiles and plants such as he
found in the environs of Paris.

[Illustration: FIG. 58.--DISH. _16th Century._]

NEVERS. The earliest evidence of the making of fayence at Nevers is the
foundation of a _fabrique_ by Dominique Conrade, in the latter half of
the 16th century, which was carried on by his son and grandson. In 1652,
Pierre Custode established another _fabrique_, which was equally
successful, and seven generations of his family were employed in it.
Other manufactories were started in the 18th century.

The fayences of the first epoch, 1600 to 1660, have frequently been
confounded with Italian maiolica, but a little attention will show the
points of difference. In the Nevers ware the figures are always yellow
on blue ground; the Italian figures are usually blue on yellow. At
Nevers red or metallic lustre was never employed, and the outlines are
always traced in manganese violet, never in purple or black. During the
second epoch, the ground was a peculiar lapis-lazuli blue, like the
Persian colour called _bleu de Perse_; it entirely covered the piece,
was spotted or painted with white, or sometimes in yellow and orange,
and decorated with flowers and birds. The Chinese patterns are in light
blue _en camaïeu_, sometimes intermixed with a sort of brown lilac.

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--PILGRIM'S BOTTLE. _Bleu de Perse. 2nd half of
17th Century._ Height 11-1/2 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--EWER. _Painted with Japanese figures, 2nd half
of 17th Century._ Height 15-3/8 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 61.--PILGRIM'S BOTTLE. APOLLO AND DAPHNE; _rev._ A
BACCHANALIAN SCENE. _In blue and yellow._ Height 12-1/4 in.]

ROUEN. There was a manufactory of pottery at Rouen early in the 16th
century, and towards the end of the next century there were many
establishments. At the commencement of the 18th century, the Chinese
style pervaded all the Rouen fayence, but it was transformed or
travestied and possessed a special physiognomy; the subjects were
landscapes and buildings with figures, fantastic birds, dragons, &c., in
blue, green, yellow, and red, bordered with the square Chinese
ornaments. At a later date the decoration consists principally of
flowers issuing from cornucopiæ and rococo ornaments; this sort of style
is called in France "_à la corne_." The paste of the Rouen fayence is
heavier and thicker than that of Delft, but the designs and ornaments
are full of taste, decorated in blue _camaïeu_ and in polychrome, some
in the style of Nevers, with white on _bleu de Perse_, but of paler
colour. The pieces were frequently of large size, and included
fountains, consoles, vases, &c.

[Illustration: FIG. 62.--EWER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 63.--EWER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 64.--PLATE.]

Fig. 62 is painted with polychrome decoration of landscapes, &c.; period
of Louis XIV.; height 26-3/8 in.

Fig. 63 is painted in blue with arabesques and flowers; period of Louis
XIV.; height 9-3/4 in.

Fig. 64 is painted in the centre with a rose ornament, with medallions
and scrolls round the rim, in blue and orange; period of Louis XIV.;
diam. 10 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--COMPOTIER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 66.--COMPOTIER.]

Fig. 65 is painted in polychrome; period of Louis XV.; diam. 9-5/8 in.

Fig. 66 is painted with Chinese figures, &c., in polychrome; period of
Louis XV.; diam. 10 in.

STRASSBURG[1] and HAGENAU were noted for the manufacture of fayence,
established by Charles François Hannong about 1709. It was called in
France "poterie du Rhin," and is of a peculiar character, and easily
known, being generally decorated with flowers and scrolls in red, rose
colour, and green. Charles F. Hannong was succeeded by his sons Paul
and Balthasar. The former took charge of the Strassburg works, and the
latter the factory which had been started at Hagenau. The Strassburg
fayence works were closed in 1780.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.--FOUNTAIN.]

[Illustration: FIG. 68.--CLOCK AND BRACKET.]

Fig. 67, polychrome decoration, bears the initials of Paul Hannong;
about 1750; height 22-1/4 in.

Fig. 68, in three pieces, coloured in maroon, yellow, blue and green,
bears the mark of Paul Hannong; about 1750; height 3 ft. 9 in.

MOUSTIERS. The products of the Moustiers _fabriques_ may be divided into
three periods:--

1st Epoch. Towards the end of the 17th century. The subjects are hunting
scenes, &c., painted in blue; champêtre scenes and figures in costumes
of the period of Louis XIV.; and mythological and biblical subjects with
arabesque borders. The outlines are sometimes lightly indicated in
violet of manganese.

[Illustration: FIG. 69.--PLATEAU.]

2nd Epoch. From the commencement of the 18th century to about 1745. The
specimens of this period are in blue _camaïeu_ with highly finished and
graceful interlaced patterns, among which are cupids, satyrs, nymphs,
terminal figures, flowers, masks, &c.; canopies with draperies resting
upon consoles, vases, fountains, &c.

3rd Epoch. From 1745 to 1789. The fayence is mostly painted in
polychrome; the colours are blue, brown, yellow, green, and violet. The
decorations are flowers, fruit, and foliage, and sometimes mythological
subjects. Other patterns of this period consist of grotesque figures,
and caricatures. The outlines of the designs were transferred to the
surface of the ware by means of paper patterns, pricked with a fine
needle and powdered over with charcoal.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.--COMPOTIER.]

Fig. 69, painted in green _camaïeu_ with a rustic subject in the style
of Boucher, with polychrome floral border; 1720 to 1760; diam. 11-1/8
in.

Fig. 70. Compotier, painted with a central hunting subject, after
Tempesta, surrounded by a floral border, and outer border of garlands,
in polychrome; 1680 to 1720; diam. 10-3/8 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.--PLATE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 72.--BARBER'S BASIN.]

Fig. 71. Plate, octagonal, with curved outline, painted with central
medallion of Juno standing in a landscape, surrounded by a garland, and
round the border the busts of divinities within medallions, and
garlands, in polychrome; 1680 to 1720; diam. 10 in.

Fig. 72. Barber's basin, painted in polychrome with the subject of Diana
and Actæon; 1680 to 1720; length 15 in.

VARAGES also possessed manufactories in the 18th century for fayence in
the style of Moustiers, from which it is only a few miles in distance.
Some of this ware bears the mark of a cross, and was called "Faïence à
la Croix." Fig. 73 is painted with rustic figures in landscape, after
Wouverman; crimson and green flower border, and marked with a cross.
18th century. Diam. 11-1/2 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 73.--PLATE.]

MARSEILLES. The manufacture of fayence at Marseilles, and elsewhere in
the South of France, was in activity early in the 17th century. A little
after 1750, twelve _fabriques_ of pottery were in existence. In 1790
there were eleven manufactories existing, but most of them ceased about
1793, on account of the Treaty of Commerce with England. The Revolution
of 1793 gave an additional blow to the keramic industry of Marseilles.
In 1805 there were only three factories at work, employing twenty hands.
In 1809 only one remained.

[Illustration: FIG. 74.--TUREEN.]

The fayence is much the same in character as that of Moustiers, and
sometimes resembles that of Strassburg. The decorations are frequently
in red or green, sometimes with Chinese designs. There is one
peculiarity about the Marseillaise fayence which at once fixes its
identity, and this is, three green leaves or marks painted on the backs
of plates and dishes to hide the imperfections in the enamel caused by
the _pernettes_ or points of support on which they rested in the kiln.
There is also a great resemblance between the early ware made here and
at Genoa, in consequence of the emigration of many workmen. We learn
from a complaint made on the subject by the potters of Marseilles to the
Intendant of Provence in 1762, from which it seems they took a great
number of apprentices at very low wages, and the wages were paid in
fayence, which mode of payment they said deteriorated the quality, and
caused the workmen to emigrate to Genoa. Also they complained that great
quantities of Genoese fayence were imported into Languedoc and Provence,
and spread over France, which was absolutely ruinous to the trade of the
two provinces, and especially to Marseilles.

Fig. 74. Soup tureen, cover, and stand, with polychrome flower
decoration and gilding, was made by Savy, about 1750; length of tureen,
15-1/2 in.

SINCENY in Picardy. A manufactory was established here in 1733, by Jean
Baptiste de Fayard, Gouverneur de Chaunay et Seigneur de Sinceny. Dr.
Warmont (_Recherches Historiques sur les faïences de Sinceny, &c._,
Paris, 1864) divides the products of this manufactory into three
periods:--

    1. Rouennaise, 1734 to 1775.
    2. Faïence au feu de réverbère, 1775 to 1789.
    3. Décadence de l'Art, 1789 to 1864.

The earliest pieces were painted in blue; the next in blue touched with
red or green and yellow, decorated with _lambrequins_ (mantlings), _à la
corne_ (cornucopiæ), birds, and butterflies. Chinese figures were
doubtless stencilled by pricked papers and charcoal powder.

[Illustration: FIG. 75.--BOWL AND COVER.]

About 1775 a great improvement was perceptible in the fayence of
Sinceny; the paste became finer in quality, the colours brighter and
more varied, in more exact imitation of the porcelain of Japan. This was
accomplished by what is called _le feu de réverbère_, in
contradistinction to the old process _au grand feu_; the latter included
only one baking, while in the other the ware was placed a second time in
the kiln, and the pigments were not exposed to so great a heat, which
allowed the employment of brighter colours. Table services decorated in
polychrome, with branches of roses, sometimes in green _camaïeu_;
delicate wicker baskets, watch stands, &c., were produced; they were
painted with Chinese figures, rococo scrolls, and other ornaments. From
1790 the fayence _au feu de réverbère_ was largely discontinued on
account of its expensive character and the introduction of English ware
at a lower price; but still, both descriptions were occasionally made.

Fig. 75 is a bowl and cover, painted in colours inside with a coronet,
supported by two cupids on clouds with a flaming heart beneath, 18th
century.

LUNÉVILLE. Founded in 1731 by Jacques Chambrette, it was called _La
Manufacture Stanislas_; Jacques was succeeded by his son Gabriel and his
son-in-law Charles Loyal. They made fayence of blue decoration like
Nevers, and sometimes with rose and green colours like the old
Strassburg ware. Large figures of lions, dogs, and other animals, of
natural size, are sometimes met with.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.--A PAIR OF RUSTIC FIGURES. _With polychrome
decoration. About 1775._ Height 8-3/4 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 77.--DISH. _In polychrome. About 1760._ Length
13-1/4 in.]

APREY, near Langres. Established, about 1750, by Lallemand, Baron
d'Aprey. About 1780 it was conducted by M. Vilhault, who made a superior
kind of fayence. The early style is that of Strassburg with rose colour,
green and yellow predominating.

[Illustration: FIG. 78.--PLATE. _In polychrome._ Diam. 9-3/8 in.]

At MANERBE, near Lisieux in Normandy, and at MALICORNE, INFREVILLE,
CHÂTEAU-LA-LUNE and ARMENTIÈRES, those elegant glazed earthenware
pinnacles or finials which adorn the gables of old mansions in various
parts of Normandy were constructed. They are 5 or 6 feet in height,
being a series of small ornaments placed one above another on an iron
rod; they partake of the character of the _figulines rustiques_ of
Palissy, and have frequently been sold as such.

[Illustration: FIG. 79.--FINIAL. _About 1600._]

ST. CLÉMENT. Established about 1750. Little is known of this _fabrique_.
There are some specimens of the 18th century in the Sèvres Museum; also
some others of later date, 1819 and 1823.

[Illustration: FIG. 80.--ÉCUELLE. _With gilt scrolls on white ground._]

TOULOUSE. Established in the 18th century. The ware is very similar in
style to early Rouen pottery. A large hunting bottle, with loops for
suspension, painted with blue flowers, and bearing round the neck the
inscription "Laurens Basso a Toulousa Le 14 Maÿ 1756," was formerly in
the possession of the late Mr. C. W. Reynolds.

NIDERVILLER.[2] Established in 1760, by Jean Louis, Baron Beyerlé. The
ware is in the German style, potters from Germany having been employed
in its production, and is remarkable for the richness and delicacy of
its decoration, which most frequently consists of flowers in bouquets
and garlands. His fayence figures and groups are well modelled. About
1780, four years before Beyerlé's death, the factory was purchased by
General Count Custine, and carried on by him under M. Lanfray,
principally for the manufacture of porcelain, which will be subsequently
referred to.

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--VASE.]

Fig. 81. Vase with cover, one of a pair; urn shape, painted to resemble
deal, with medallions containing landscapes in rose _camaïeu_, and
borders of bay leaves. It bears the mark of Count Custine; date about
1774; height 17-3/8 inches.

DOUAI. Two brothers of the name of Leech, from England, were engaged, in
1782, by M. George Bris, of Douai, to superintend the manufacture of
English pottery on a large scale, in a factory (now a Normal School) in
the Rue des Carmes. It was one of the first of the kind established in
France. The chief workmen, who came originally from England, instructed
pupils, who carried the new process to Chantilly, Forges, and other
places in France.

VINCENNES. In 1768 M. Maurin des Abiez undertook a manufacture of
fayence in the manner of Strassburg, it being well known that there did
not exist in France any fayence comparable to it in beauty and solidity;
he had purchased the secret, and brought to Paris a staff of workmen who
had been engaged at Strassburg. He acquired possession of the Château de
Vincennes for twenty years. Pierre Antoine Hannong was engaged as
director, and the works were carried on for four years, until 1771, when
the factory got into difficulties and was closed.

SARREGUEMINES.[3] Established about 1770 by Paul Utzschneider. The
beautiful fayence produced here is in imitation of porphyry, jasper,
granite, and other variegated hard marbles, and was sometimes cut and
polished by the lathe; it was also made with white raised figures on
blue in the style of Wedgwood, and a third kind was red ware like the
Japanese. The name is impressed on the ware.

ST. AMAND-LES-EAUX, near Valenciennes. Founded about 1750 by M. Fauquet,
and continued by his son. The latter occupied himself especially with
the gilding of his ware, which gave his neighbours the opportunity of
saying he melted all his louis-d'ors in making his experiments and
ruined himself. In the revolution of 1789 he emigrated, and all his
goods were confiscated. In 1807 he attempted to revive the _fabrique_,
and advertised that the St. Amand works were in full activity, making
white fayence in the style of Rouen.

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--INKSTAND.]

Fig. 82, an inkstand, with ink and pounce pots and drawer, painted on a
grey ground with blue and white flowers under the glaze; about 1760-80.

SCEAUX PENTHIÈVRE. In 1753, Jacques de Chapelle established a
manufactory of a particular sort of fayence, of which he alone possessed
the secret. The ware is in the style of Strassburg, its prevailing
colours being pink and green; it is painted with flowers, but more
carefully finished, and with landscapes and other forms of decoration.

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--PLATE.]

BOURG-LA-REINE. Established in 1773 by Messrs. Jacques and Jullien, who
removed hither from Mennecy. The early ware is very similar to that of
Sceaux. Besides the white fayence for domestic use, more artistic pieces
were produced, painted on the enamel after it had received a slight
baking; this ware is principally in imitation of the Italian.

CREIL. A manufactory of fine fayence, worked in the 18th century by M.
S{t} Criq, made opaque porcelain and stoneware in the English style, and
transferred prints on to the ware.

[Illustration: FIG. 84.--PLATE. _With a yellow border and
transfer-printed landscape._]

MONTEREAU. In 1775, Messrs. Clark, Shaw, & Co., obtained letters patent
to carry on a manufactory of English fayence, called Queen's ware, from
clay found in the vicinity. This ware had a very extensive sale, and
dealt a severe blow to the manufacture of French fayence. It soon spread
over France, and was extensively made at Toulouse, Creil, Sarreguemines,
and other places.

LILLE. A manufactory of fayence, was founded in 1696, by Jacques
Feburier, of Tournai, and Jean Bossu, of Ghent, who made a ware _à la
façon de Hollande_.

[Illustration: FIG. 85.--DISH.]

Another important manufactory of fayence was established in 1711, by
Barthélemy Dorez and Pierre Palissier; it continued in active work for
nearly a century. A third fayence manufactory was founded in 1740 by J.
Masquelier, and was continued in the same family until 1827. A fourth
was established in 1744, by M. Chanou, who made a brown earthenware
called _terre du St. Esprit_, in the English fashion. There were also
two other factories here in the 18th century.


GERMANY

The pottery of Germany consists of two distinct classes: the fayence
with opaque white stanniferous glaze, and that which to a great extent
is called in England stoneware, in Germany _Steingut_, and in France
_grès_ or sandstone. These epithets exactly describe the quality of the
latter ware. It is very serviceable for domestic utensils, such as
drinking bottles and vessels of everyday use, and is covered with a thin
transparent glaze, effected by throwing common salt into the kiln when
the ware is nearly baked--the salt vaporised by the heat surrounds the
vessels, and acting upon the silica of their surfaces produces a thin
gloss of silicate of soda over the ware, rendering it perfectly
impervious.

NUREMBERG (_Nürnberg_). The celebrated Veit Hirschvogel, of
Schlettstadt, was born in 1441, and died in 1525; he was a great potter,
contemporary with Luca della Robbia, of Florence. The early pieces of
pottery are somewhat like maiolica, but the colours are brighter, green
predominating in many specimens; figures in relief in niches are
frequently seen on vases. Several chimney-pieces of this ware of the
15th century are still in existence, one is in the castle of Salzburg,
and many pieces treasured up in museums are supposed to have been made
by Hirschvogel himself. The Nuremberg pottery of the 16th and 17th
centuries is not uncommon. Hirschvogel was succeeded by his sons and a
host of continuators. Fayence of the 18th century is also met with,
painted with scriptural subjects, sometimes in blue _camaïeu_, sometimes
in other colours.

[Illustration: FIG. 86.--JUG. _15th Century._]

Fig. 86. Jug, of enamelled earthenware, in various colours, with
figures in low relief; attributed to Veit Hirschvogel; height 13 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--DISH.]

Fig. 87. Dish, painted in the centre with Christ rising from the tomb;
signed with the painter's name Glüer, 1723.

LEIPZIG. In the convent of St. Paul, which was built in 1207, there was
a frieze of bricks, covered with tin enamel glaze, representing in
relief the heads of Saints and Apostles, 20 in. by 15 in., 2-1/2 in.
thick. On the demolition of the convent a selection of these was
deposited in the Dresden Museum; they are of Byzantine character, in
green enamel shaded with black; the hair, beard, and eyes of the
figures are coloured.

STREHLA. A manufactory for earthenware was in existence here for many
centuries. A pulpit of enamelled earthenware still exists, supported by
a life-size figure of Moses, ornamented with eight plaques of religious
subjects and figures of the four Evangelists, bearing the name of the
potter and the date 1565.

OBERDORF. A factory was carried on by a potter named Hans Seltzman; a
very fine stove made by him, with an inscription and dated 1514, is in
the Palace at Füssen, in Bavaria. Many other places throughout Germany
were equally famous in the 16th and 17th centuries, for the manufacture
of stoves, as AUGSBURG, MEMMINGEN, &c.

BAYREUTH. The manufacture of a brown stoneware with Renaissance
medallions, arabesques, &c., in relief flourished here in the 16th
century. At a later period, fine fayence was produced, painted in blue
_camaïeu_. The designs are delicately traced with a brush on a fine
paste; the forms are canettes, jardinières, &c. At the end of the 18th
century a _fabrique_ of fayence was carried on by a Herr Schmidt, who
assiduously copied the English ware; there are specimens in the Sèvres
Museum bearing the counterfeit mark of "Wedgwood."

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--COFFEE-POT.]

Fig. 88. Coffee-pot and cover, chocolate coloured ground, decorated with
gilt scrolls; F, the cypher of Frederick the Great, under a crown in
front; about the middle of the 18th century; height 9 in.

COLOGNE (_Köln_). The stoneware made here in the 16th century is better
known throughout Europe than any other description of pottery; its
durability for domestic uses and the elegant character of its
ornamentation in relief, caused it to be sought for everywhere. The
_grès de Cologne_ has been confounded with the _grès de Flandres_, which
latter name is given erroneously and indiscriminately to all stoneware
of German manufacture, notwithstanding the German inscriptions the
pieces bear and the arms of German cities and families. The best and
most highly finished decorative _grès_ or stoneware cruches were
undoubtedly made in Germany, if not at Cologne. The clay for making the
Cologne ware came from Langerwehe between Düren and Aix-la-Chapelle. The
manufactory was not actually in Cologne, but in the vicinity, possibly
at FRECHEN, and at LAUENSTEIN, where a factory was established in the
18th century.

There were also factories at SIEGBURG and LIMBURG.

All the ware was made in moulds, and it must be borne in mind that the
vessels were not always made at the date indicated upon them, for the
moulds were used successively through a series of years, and it is no
uncommon occurrence to find two different dates upon the same piece.
Some of the finest specimens known bear the name of Baldem Mennicken, a
potter dwelling at RAEREN in the ancient Duchy of Limburg, which town
until the treaty of 1814 was part of Holland, and it is probable that
the stoneware produced here indicates the origin of _grès de Flandres_.

[Illustration: FIG. 89.--LIMBURG CRUCHE. _Grey and blue._ Height 8-3/4
in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 90.--RAEREN CRUCHE. _Grey and blue._ Height 7-1/4
in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 91.--SIEGBURG CANETTE. _Cream colour. Dated 1574._
Height 17-1/4 in.]

GRENZHAUSEN, in Nassau. There was a factory here about 1780, where
_grès_ or stoneware was made; it is of a fine quality and easily
mistaken for the more ancient _grès_. The forms are usually plates,
dishes, and jugs, in which the decoration consists of a fine blue enamel
on grey ground, with incuse ornaments executed by hand.

[Illustration: FIG. 92.--JUG.]

Fig. 92, a jug of reticulated pattern, is engine-turned, and enriched
with brilliant enamel colours, 18th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 93.--FOUNTAIN.]

Fig. 93, a large fountain, is purple blue and white, 16th century;
height 30 in.

KREUSSEN, a town of Bavaria, has long been noted for its pottery. The
_grès_ of the 17th century, called _Kreussener Steingut_, is of a dark
brown colour, in the forms of cylindrical mugs, tankards, &c., with
figures in relief round them, painted in bright coloured enamel.

[Illustration: FIG. 94.--TANKARD.]

Fig. 94, a tankard, has a chocolate-coloured ground, with coloured
enamel ornaments and figures of the Emperor and the Electors of Germany
on horseback, dated 1696.

BUNZLAU, in Silesia. _Grès_ was made here in the 16th and 17th
centuries. The products of the 18th century are distinguished by
ornaments in relief, flowers, coats of arms, &c., sometimes gilt. At the
present time an extensive trade is still carried on in the manufacture
of chocolate and coffee pots, usually covered with a brown glaze, and
lined with white. There is preserved a monster coffee-pot, 15 feet high,
made at this place in the 18th century.

HARBURG, on the Elbe, opposite Hamburg, is noted as the residence of
Johann Schaper, who was born towards the end of the 16th century. His
exquisite paintings of landscapes and figures are usually in Indian ink
or sepia _en grisaille_, the colours being fixed by heat.

[Illustration: FIG. 95.--CRUCHE.]

Fig. 95, a cruche of fine fayence, painted with a landscape in grey
_camaïeu_, is signed "_Joh. Schaper_"; it has a white ground with
flowers and fruit in natural colours; date about 1640; height 8-1/2 in.

SCHERZHEIM, in Würtemberg. The Wintergursts, father and son, were
celebrated potters here, and made fayence from the beginning of the 17th
century; it is from their manufactory that the table services, of which
each piece represents an animal or a vegetable, were made.

LAUENSTEIN, near Coblenz. A manufactory was established in 1760; the
_grès_ or stoneware made here was of grey and blue, ornamented with
incuse patterns; it was made in large quantities, and carried by the
Rhine boats to the markets in Holland, where it met with a ready sale.

HÖCHST, near Mainz. Enamelled fayence was made here in the beginning of
the 18th century, at a factory founded by Gelz of Frankfort. The
manufactory ceased in 1794, but a potter named Dahl established one in
the vicinity. He made statuettes and other ornaments.

DRESDEN. A manufactory was established at Meissen, on the Elbe, about 12
miles from Dresden, by Augustus II., King of Poland and Elector of
Saxony, for the manufacture of hard paste, or true porcelain. The
experiments of Tschirnhaus and Böttcher commenced about 1706; to the
latter is attributed the invention of hard paste. His first attempt
produced a red ware, like jasper, which was cut and polished by the
lapidary and gilt by the goldsmith. It was made from a kind of brown
clay found at Meissen. This red ware, made by Böttcher, was a fine
stoneware, having opacity, grain, and toughness.

[Illustration: FIG. 96.--BÖTTCHER COFFEE-POT.]

Another kind of pottery was made at the beginning of the 18th century,
in imitation of the Japanese; it was called the red pottery of Dresden.

TEINITZ (Bohemia). A manufactory was carried on in this small town in
the 18th century by a potter named Welby.

[Illustration: FIG 97.--PLATE.]

Fig. 97. A plate painted in bistre _camaïeu_ with the Discovery of
Calisto by Diana. It has an elegant border in grey, with richly gilt
designs, resembling the gilding of Vienna. Date about 1800.

FRANKENTHAL. Paul Hannong, driven from Strassburg in 1753, in
consequence of the Vincennes monopoly, founded a manufactory here in the
following year for hard paste porcelain; he also made great quantities
of fayence, usually decorated with flowers, as at Strassburg. It was
called "Poterie du Rhin."

ARNSTADT (Gotha). A factory was established here about the middle of the
18th century. A fayence jug, painted in blue _camaïeu_, with St. George
and the Dragon, coloured flowers on the sides, and a purple and green
check border, is in the British Museum.

KIEL was noted for its fayence about 1770; the factory was under the
direction of J. Buchwald, who had been master potter at Marieberg, 1761
to 1765; a few years after, probably in 1767 or 1768, he became director
of the Kiel manufactory. The paintings of landscapes and flowers in
colours are well finished.

[Illustration: FIG. 98.--BISHOP'S MITRE BOWL.]


HOLLAND AND LUXEMBURG

HOLLAND

Delft, a town between the Hague and Rotterdam, was celebrated for its
earthenware at a very early period. The exact date of its commencement
is not known, but there is a record of a certain Herman Pietersz, a
fayence maker, being married in 1584, consequently pottery was being
made in the town towards the end of the 16th century. At this period the
decorated Dutch pottery showed Italian influence in its design, and it
is recorded that a painter on pottery named Vroom studied his art in
Italy.

After the middle of the 17th century the industry increased rapidly, and
reached its greatest prosperity about 1680, when there were about thirty
different factories, and the ware was decorated by highly skilled
artists. No one was allowed to establish a factory unless he had
obtained a licence from the Guild of S{t}. Luc.

To this period belong famous potters, such as P. J. Van Kessel of "The
Metal Pot"; Abram de Kooge of "The Old Moor's Head," who decorated
landscapes in blue _camaïeu_; and Albrecht de Keizer, with his two
sons-in-law, Jacob and Adrian Pynaker, of "The Three Porcelain
Bottles," who were the first to imitate oriental porcelain. Other
potters of note at this time were the Eenhorns, father and two sons, the
Kleftyns, and the five Kams.

[Illustration: FIG. 99.--CRUCHE.]

By the middle of the 18th century, owing to the competition of English
pottery, the Delft industry was already on the wane. In 1780 the
factories were reduced to one half their former number, and by 1808 only
seven existed. All these gradually succumbed, and now only one factory,
"The Old Porcelain Bottle," remains.

[Illustration: FIG. 100.--TEAPOT.]

The forms of the Delft ware are very varied; among other curious efforts
the potters produced musical instruments. There are four fayence violins
extant, all painted in blue _camaïeu_, with figures in Dutch costume of
the 17th century, dancing and singing, musicians and kermess scenes, in
the manner of Gerard Lairesse, with cupids and Renaissance ornaments as
borders.

The decorated pieces of Ter Himpelen, although rarely signed, are much
prized; he painted fairs and marine subjects on square plaques, about
the year 1650. So also are those of Piet Viseer, a celebrated colourist,
who flourished about 1750; and of Van Domelaar, who painted Chinese
landscapes, &c., about 1580.

[Illustration: FIG. 101.--VASE.]

Fig. 99, a cruche, is painted in blue _camaïeu_, with a musical party,
in the costume of about 1670.

[Illustration: FIG. 102.--PLATE.]

Fig. 100, a teapot, is painted in polychrome with Chinese landscapes and
flowers on a black ground. It has the mark of Louwys Fictoor. Late 17th
or early 18th century.

Fig. 101, a vase, is painted in blue with flowers, in imitation of a
Chinese type. The mark of Ghisbrecht Lambrechtse Kruyk. Later half of
17th century.

Fig. 102, a plate painted with figures in blue, is one of a set of
twelve representing the tobacco industry.

UTRECHT. There was a manufactory of tiles here, founded in 1760; they
were decorated in blue or violet, _en camaïeu_, in imitation of Delft;
the manufactory was closed in 1855.

AMSTERDAM. A German Jew of Breslau, named Hartog, known as Hartog Van
Laun, and another, named Brandeis, established a manufactory of fayence
near the gate of Weesp, at Amsterdam. The ware is heavy, not very
artistic, and usually in blue _camaïeu_. Fig. 103, a fruit dish, is
painted in blue, with a man and woman seated.

[Illustration: FIG. 103.--DISH.]

OVERTOOM. A manufactory of fine fayence was established in 1754, in the
parish of Amstelveen, near Amsterdam; it lasted ten years. The Barons
Van Haeren and Van Palland were the proprietors, and Ariel Blankers was
the director. The fayence, though heavy, was of a fine white enamel and
of good forms; besides table and tea services, groups of birds, modelled
from nature, statuettes, &c., were made.

LUXEMBURG

An important _fabrique_ was established at Luxemburg by the brothers
Boch, in 1767, who had removed from Audun le Riche in France. They made
various descriptions of earthenware, as well as fine fayence, and
largely imitated the English Queen's ware.


RUSSIA AND SWEDEN

RUSSIA

ST. PETERSBURG. About the year 1700, Peter the Great, during his stay at
Saardam, induced some potters of Delft to emigrate to St. Petersburg,
where he established a manufactory. We have no information on the
subject, except a notice of it in the "_Connaissances Politiques_," of
Beausobre, published at Riga in 1773: "There is also among the porcelain
manufactories at St. Petersburg a _fabrique_ of fayence, on the other
side of the Neva, where they make every description of vessels of
correct design and in good taste. A private gentleman of Revel has also
established at his own cost, near this city, a _fabrique_ of fayence,
and has obtained painters and potters from Germany."

SWEDEN

RÖRSTRAND, a suburb of Stockholm, where a factory for earthenware was
established in 1726. The works were at first under the direction of Jean
Wolf. He was succeeded by C. C. Hünger. In 1772 they were managed by
Nordenstople, and later by Geyer.

[Illustration: FIG. 104.--BUTTERBOAT.]

[Illustration: MARIEBERG

FIG. 105.--VASE AND COVER.]

Fig. 104, a butterboat, leaf-shaped, is painted with flowers; dated
1771.

STOCKHOLM is the same manufactory as Rörstrand, but the mark was altered
when the latter town was united to the capital.

MARIEBERG, near Stockholm. The second Swedish pottery was established in
1750, on the expiration of the monopoly of Rörstrand, by M. Ehrenreich,
under the patronage of Count Scheffer, Councillor of State. The fayence
was something like Delft ware, and it was also ornamented with transfer
printing.

[Illustration: FIG. 106.--PLATE.]

Fig. 105, a vase and cover, is coloured in relief; date about 1770.

Fig. 106, a plate with pierced border, has a shield of arms and flowers;
dated 1768.



CONTINENTAL PORCELAIN


Porcelain has this distinguishing characteristic, that when held up to a
strong light it appears translucent, unlike fayence, which is perfectly
opaque. Its fracture is hard and white internally, like a broken piece
of alabaster.

Porcelain of soft paste has the appearance of an unctuous white enamel
like cream; it is also to the touch of a soft, warm, and soapy nature,
something like the surface of fine fayence. The _pâte tendre_ is also
soft in another sense, being unable to bear so great a degree of heat in
the furnace as hard porcelain. The soft paste may, therefore, be easily
cut or scratched with a steel point or a file, which would have no
effect upon the hard paste; it is consequently liable to become much
scratched by frequent use. The hard paste or true porcelain is of the
whiteness of milk; it feels to the touch of a hard and cold nature, and
is somewhat heavier than the soft; underneath the plates and other
pieces the rim or edge is left unpolished, or without glaze.

The painting upon porcelain is executed after the ware has been baked.
Whilst in a biscuit state, the piece to be painted is dipped into a
diluted glaze; it readily absorbs the water, leaving on the surface a
thin coating of components which quickly dries into a solid shell,
uniformly thick over all its parts, and sufficiently firm to bear
handling without being rubbed off during removal into the seggar or case
which protects it in the kiln.

The amateur must be upon his guard in collecting porcelain, and not
place too much reliance on the marks which he may find upon the ware.
When the mark is not indented on the paste, or baked with the porcelain
when at its greatest heat (_au grand feu_), it gives no guarantee of its
genuineness. The mark was nearly always affixed before glazing. It is
necessary in forming a correct judgment of the authenticity of a piece
of valuable china, such as Sèvres, that many things be taken into
consideration: First, above all it is most important to be satisfied
whether the porcelain be of hard or soft paste, and whether such
description of paste was made at the particular epoch represented by the
mark; then, if the decoration be in keeping with the style adopted at
the time indicated, the colours, the finish, and various other _indicia_
must also be taken into consideration.


ITALY

FLORENCE. The first successful attempt in Europe to imitate porcelain
was made at Florence as early as 1580, under the auspices of Francesco
I. de' Medici, but it was not so hard as that of China; that is to say,
it was not composed of _kaolin_ and _petuntse_, but was a soft paste and
_translucent_, which is one of the principal tests of porcelain. For
some reason, the manufacture of this porcelain was abandoned after the
death of the inventor.

[Illustration: FIG. 107.--CRUET.]

Fig. 107, a cruet for oil and vinegar, has scroll ornament in blue; on
either spout A and O (Aceto and Olio). About 1600.

Fig. 108, a bowl, is painted inside and out with blue flowers. About
1600.

[Illustration: FIG. 108.--BOWL.]

DOCCIA. The manufactory was founded in 1735 by the Marquis Carlo Ginori,
contemporaneously with the manufactory at Sèvres. About 1760 it rose to
great importance, and large groups were executed from the models of the
most celebrated sculptors. In 1821 the moulds of the Capo di Monte
porcelain were transferred to Doccia.

[Illustration: FIG. 109.--TEAPOT.]

About 1860 the fabrication of the imitative Capo di Monte ware of the
18th century, in coloured _mezzo-rilievo_, was brought to great
perfection, as well as the successful imitation of the maiolica of Xanto
and Maestro Giorgio of the 16th century, by the invention and
introduction of metallic lustres in the colouring.

[Illustration: FIG. 110.--BASIN.]

Fig. 109, a teapot, is painted with flowers and purple border.

Fig. 110, a basin, has a band of flowers in relief. Diameter 5-1/2 in.

NAPLES--CAPO DI MONTE. This manufactory was founded by Charles III. in
1736. It is considered of native origin, as the art, which was kept so
profound a secret in Dresden, could, at that early period, have scarcely
had time to be introduced here, and the character of its productions
are also essentially different. The king himself took great interest in
it, and is said to have worked occasionally in the manufactory. The
beautiful Capo di Monte services and groups in coloured relief are of
the second period, _circa_ 1760.

[Illustration: FIG. 111.--VASE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 112.--SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 113.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 114.--COFFEE-POT.]

Fig. 111, a vase, has green ornaments, on gold ground, and medallions of
figures.

Fig. 112, a saucer, bears a portrait of Ferdinand IV. and legend.

Fig. 113, a cup and saucer, is painted with landscape and figures.

Fig. 114, a coffee-pot, has classical subjects.

TREVISO. There was a manufactory of soft porcelain probably established
towards the end of the 18th century, carried on by the brothers Giuseppe
and Andrea Fontebasso.

[Illustration: FIG. 115.--ÉCUELLE.]

Fig. 115, an écuelle, with blue ground, has gold fret borders and oval
medallions of Italian buildings, landscapes, and figures.

[Illustration: FIG. 116.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

Fig. 116, the cup is painted with a garden scene, with a man and woman
holding flowers, the former also holding a bird, the latter a cage.

TURIN--VINOVO. Vittorio Amedeo Gioanetti established a manufactory of
porcelain at Vinovo or Vineuf in 1770. Attempts in this direction had
been previously made, but they were unsuccessful, and it was not until
Gioanetti applied himself to the manufacture that it succeeded. The ware
was noted for its fine grain and the whiteness of its glaze, as well as
for the colours employed in its decoration.

[Illustration: FIG. 117.--ÉCUELLE.]

Fig. 117, an écuelle, is ornamented in gold, with initials and the Royal
Arms.

VENICE. Porcelain of soft paste was made here probably about 1720.

The "Casa eccellentissima Vezzi" was founded by Francesco Vezzi, a
goldsmith of Venice. He invested the sum of 30,000 ducats in a porcelain
company, amongst whose shareholders were Luca Mantovani and others. The
site of the Vezzi manufactory of porcelain was at S. Nicolo in Venice.
How long after Vezzi's death it was carried on does not appear, but
judging from the statements made to the Senate in 1765, it did not long
survive him, and the secret of his process for making porcelain had
evidently not been disclosed.

Materials for making porcelain were to be obtained in the Venetian
dominions, but not such as to produce the _hard_ or Oriental porcelain;
they were therefore procured from Saxony, as were probably also some of
the workmen, which will account for the fact that the "Casa
eccellentissima Vezzi" produced both _hard_ and _soft_ paste.

The pieces made at the Vezzi manufactory are painted with masquerades,
grotesque Chinese figures and decorations in relief, flowers, birds,
arabesques, and geometrical patterns and colours, statuettes, &c.,
especially in the Venetian red which pervades all the decorations, the
handles, borders, and mouldings being sometimes covered with silver or
platinum, producing the effect of oxidised metal mountings. Another
striking peculiarity in the decoration of porcelain of this period is a
border of black or coloured diaper work formed by crossed lines, having
in the interstices small gilt points or crosses bordered by scrolls.
These specimens are mostly of hard paste in the form of bowls, plates,
tureens, &c.

[Illustration: FIG. 118.--VASE AND COVER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 119.--VASE. _Cozzi period._ Height 17 in.]

A beautiful example of this porcelain is represented in Fig. 118, a vase
and cover of hard paste painted in lake _camaïeu_, heightened by gold,
with a continuous landscape; the peculiar border, noticed above, with
marks and interlaced bands, is shown on the cover; the edges, knob, and
flutings are raised and plated with silver or platinum.

After the Vezzi manufactory had ceased to exist we have no documents to
prove that any efforts were made to introduce the manufacture of
porcelain into Venice until December 1757, when a petition was presented
to the Venetian College by Frederick Hewelcke & Co., who stated that the
sale introduced and directed by them in Dresden of Saxon porcelain had
been carried on in a very flourishing manner, but that in consequence of
the then existing war (the Seven Years' War, which commenced in 1756),
they had been obliged to abandon Saxony and to seek refuge in a foreign
country.

On the 18th of March 1758, a decree granted to the Hewelckes the
privileges they had requested. It seems that the undertaking proved
eventually to be unfortunate, and at the termination of that war, which
had brought them to Venice, they returned to their native country.

In 1765, the Senate granted to Giminiano Cozzi, in the Contrada di San
Giobbe, Venice, protection and pecuniary assistance in carrying out a
manufacture of porcelain. Cozzi's first efforts were directed towards
the imitation of the Oriental ware; and a very large trade was carried
on by him for nearly fifty years. He produced statuettes in biscuit, in
glazed white porcelain, and coloured groups, vases, &c. The gilding on
Cozzi's porcelain is especially fine, the pure gold of the sequin having
been used in its decoration.

The manufactory ceased to exist in 1812.

NOVE. The manufacture of porcelain at Nove may be traced back as far as
the 12th January 1752, when Pasqual Antonibon brought from Dresden a
certain Sigismund Fischer to construct a furnace for making porcelain in
the Saxon style.

From this time forward he continued his experiments, and must have made
great progress in the art, for in February 1761 he had three furnaces,
of which one was for Saxon (_ad uso di Sassonia_), the other two for
French porcelain (_ad uso di Francia_).

In 1762, Antonibon submitted specimens of his porcelain to the Board of
Trade, and petitioned that the patent rights which had been conceded to
Hewelcke should be extended to him. At that time, the report states,
Antonibon had at Nove a manufactory, rich in buildings, machinery, and
tools. The capital embarked in it was estimated at 80,000 ducats, and so
great was the sale of his products that he gave employment to 150 men
and their families, in addition to 100 people employed in his retail
business, carried on at his three shops in Venice. This extensive
manufactory was, however, principally for maiolica.

[Illustration: FIG. 120.--JARDINIÈRE. _By_ ANTONIBON.]

On the 7th April 1763, a decree was made in his favour; and he appears
to have set earnestly to work in his manufacture of porcelain. His
competitor, Hewelcke, shortly after deserted Venice; but he had a more
formidable rival in Giminiano Cozzi, who obtained a decree for making
porcelain in 1765, in which Pasqual Antonibon's manufacture is noticed,
the Senate declaring it to be the duty of the magistrate to make such
arrangements as would lead to an amicable understanding between the
rival manufacturers and their workmen.

[Illustration: FIG. 121.--VASE.]

Pasqual Antonibon and his son Giovanni Battista continued the
fabrication of porcelain until the 6th February 1781, when they entered
into partnership with Signor Parolini. The same manufacture, _con sommo
onore dell'arte_, was continued by them until the 6th February 1802,
when it was leased to Giovanni Baroni, who produced some very charming
pieces both in form and decoration; but in a few years, from being badly
conducted, it began to fall off, and by degrees it went to decay and was
abandoned. The "Fabbrica Baroni," however, lingered on for more than
twenty years.

[Illustration: FIG. 122.--VASE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 123.--MILK-POT.]

An example of the Baroni _fabrique_, in porcelain, with female figure
handles, and painted with classical subjects, is given. (See Fig. 121.)

On 21st May 1825, the old firm of "Pasqual Antonibon and Sons" resumed
the works, the actual proprietors being Gio. Batt. Antonibon and his son
Francesco; they continued the manufacture of porcelain until 1835, but
all their efforts to sustain it were ineffectual; they could not compete
with the porcelain manufactories of France and Germany, so they were
compelled to abandon the factory.


SPAIN

MADRID--BUEN RETIRO. This manufactory (_Soft Paste_), called "_La
China_," was founded by Charles III. in 1759, in the gardens attached to
his palace, EL BUEN RETIRO, at Madrid. It was organised by workmen whom
he brought with him from Naples. The early ware produced here
consequently resembles that of Capo di Monte.

[Illustration: FIG. 124.--GROUP.]

The royal manufactory was taken possession of by the French, and the
place converted into a fortification, which surrendered in 1812 to the
Duke of Wellington. It was subsequently blown up by Lord Hill when the
misconduct or perfidy of Ballasteros compelled him to evacuate Madrid.

[Illustration: FIG. 125.--VASE. Height 22 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 126.--VASE. _With scenes from_ "Don Quixote." Height
17 in.]

Ferdinand VII., on his restoration, recreated _La China_, at La Mancha,
once a villa of the Alva family on the Manzanares; but this factory
also has ceased to exist, at least as regards artistic merit.

ALCORA. The Comte de Laborde, in his _View of Spain_, in 1808, says, "On
ne fait de Porcelaine (en Espagne) qu'à Alcora et à Madrid: celle
d'Alcora est très commune, on en fait très peu." In confirmation of this
assertion M. Chas. Davillier, on a visit to Spain, saw an engraving of a
furnace for baking porcelain with this inscription: "Modele de four pour
la porselene naturele, fait par Haly pour M. le Comte d'Aranda Alcora,
29 Juin 1756." The works are also noticed by Don Antonio Ponz, _Viaje de
España_, in 1793.

[Illustration: FIG. 127.--PLAQUE.]


GERMANY

DRESDEN. The celebrated porcelain manufactory at Dresden, or rather at
Meissen (in its vicinity), was established by Augustus II., Elector of
Saxony, for the manufacture of true porcelain, that is, hard paste. The
experiments of Tschirnhaus and Böttcher commenced about 1706, and to the
latter is attributed the invention of hard paste. His first attempt was
a red ware, like jasper, which was cut and polished by the lapidary, and
ornamented by gilding; it was a fine stoneware, having the opacity,
grain, and toughness of pottery. Later, Böttcher succeeded in
discovering the mode of making true porcelain by the accidental
detection of the kaolin necessary for the purpose. In consequence of
this important discovery, Augustus II. established the great manufactory
at Meissen, of which Böttcher was appointed Director in 1710, and about
1715 he succeeded in making a fine white porcelain. The first
decorations upon this ware were very imperfect, consisting of a blue
colour under the glaze, in imitation of Nankin blue porcelain. It was
under Horoldt's direction, in 1720, that paintings of a superior
character, accompanied by gilding, and medallions of Chinese figures
were introduced, and magnificent services completed. In 1731, Kändler,
a sculptor, superintended the modelling of animals, groups, vases, &c.,
while other artists painted birds, insects, and copies of paintings
principally of the Flemish school. The best productions emanated from
the Dresden manufactory from 1731 to 1756.

[Illustration: FIG. 128.--VASE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 129.--SUCRIER, CUP AND SAUCER. _Etched by_ BUSCH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 130.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Of the Marcolini period, with
gros bleu ground._]

Kändler modelled men and animals of the natural size, as well as
peacocks, herons, pelicans, and other birds. Among the pieces produced
about this time by, or under the direction of, Kändler, at Meissen was
Count Bruhl's tailor mounted upon a goat, with all the implements of his
trade about him. This vain man had a great desire that his likeness
should be executed in porcelain at the royal manufactory, and his
request was complied with, but probably not in such a way as to gratify
his vanity, for not only the tailor but his wife were thus immortalised,
_aere perennius_, in porcelain. In 1754 Dietrich became Director, and he
was succeeded in 1796 by Marcolini, whose beautiful productions are well
known. Porcelain of his period is always distinguished by a star
underneath crossed swords. In spite of the precautions taken at Meissen
to prevent the secret becoming known--the penalty being death, or
perpetual imprisonment in the Castle of Königstein--some workmen escaped
to reveal it elsewhere.

[Illustration: FIG. 131.--VASE AND COVER. _Painted with views of public
buildings in Dresden._]

The white Meissen porcelain was sometimes ornamented by private persons,
especially by a Baron Busch, Canon of Hildesheim, who was the only
person possessed of the secret of engraving with a diamond on china.

[Illustration: FIG. 132.--BUST OF A GIRL. _White porcelain._]

[Illustration: FIG. 133.--TEAPOT AND SAUCER. _Pink ground, painted with
landscapes and figures._]

BERLIN. This manufactory for _Hard Paste_ was established by Wilhelm
Caspar Wegeli in 1751, in the Neue Friedrichsstrasse. It was carried on
for about ten years, but it never remunerated the originator, and he
abandoned it in 1761, when Gottskowski, a celebrated banker, became the
purchaser, and removed the works to Leipziger Strasse; assisted by his
capital, they were brought to great perfection.

[Illustration: FIG. 134.--GROUP. _In plain white. Wegeli period._ Height
9 in.]

Johann Ernst Gottskowski obtained the secret of porcelain from Ernst
Heinrich Richard, who had been employed by Wegeli. Gottskowski did not
personally manage the manufactory, but placed it under the management of
the Commissioner Grunenger, which led to his employment from the year
1763 to 1786 as the head of the royal porcelain manufactory at Berlin.

In 1763, Gottskowski gave up to the king the whole of his factory of
porcelain, receiving 225,000 dollars, and entering into a contract for
the sale of his secrets.

[Illustration: FIG. 135.--GROUP. _Wegeli period._ Height 6-3/4 in.]

With a view to encouraging the manufacture in his kingdom, the king made
presents of superb services of Berlin china to several German princes in
the year 1766. When Frederick the Great occupied Dresden, in the seven
years' war, he expatriated many of the best modellers and painters to
form his royal manufactory; among these were Meyer, Klipsel, and Böhme.
The king also transported great quantities of the clay and a portion of
the collection. Independently of this, and the better to insure
employment for the five hundred persons engaged in the processes, he
restricted the Jews resident in any part of his dominions from entering
into the marriage state, until each man had obtained a certificate from
himself, which was only granted on the production of a voucher from the
Director of the manufactory that porcelain to a given amount had been
purchased, and that there was reasonable cause for granting the
indulgence. Of course the Jews more readily disposed of their purchases
than the general dealers, and the device was attended with favourable
results. To insure the success of the establishment and extend its
operations, Frederick embraced every opportunity that was presented; and
it was so well supported that in 1776 seven hundred men were constantly
employed, and it is said that three thousand pieces of porcelain were
made daily.

[Illustration: FIG. 136.--MILK-POT, CUP AND SAUCER.]

In 1769 an order was published permitting a lottery company to purchase
annually to the amount of 90,000 dollars.

About 1872, the Berlin Royal Porcelain Manufactory was working seven
kilns, and employing three hundred workmen; the annual produce amounted
on an average to half a million finished articles, value 150,000
Prussian dollars. The superintendence was entrusted to Herr Kolbe (who
succeeded Herr Frick in the direction), under whom were Dr. Eisner as
chemist, Herr Mantel as master modeller, and Herr Looschen as head
painter.

HÖCHST, a town situated on the Main, and now in Nassau, belonged to the
Electors of Mainz. A manufactory was founded in 1746 by J. C. Göltz and
J. F. Clarus, two merchants of Frankfort, assisted by A. von Löwenfinck,
but they were unsuccessful, and called in Ringler, of Vienna, who had
escaped from the manufactory. During the Electorate of Johann Friedrich
Karl, Archbishop of Mainz, their porcelain ranked among the first in
Europe. About 1760 the celebrated modeller Melchior was engaged, and
some very elegant statuettes and designs for vases, &c., were produced.
Melchior left the manufactory about 1785, and his successor, Ries, was
not so skilful, and all his figures having disproportionate heads, the
so-called "thick-head" period commenced. Christian Gottlieb Kuntze was
another celebrated worker in this _fabrique_. On the invasion of the
French under General Custine in 1794, all the materials were sold by
auction.

[Illustration: FIG. 137.--LAMP-STAND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 138.--TRAY AND SUCRIER.]

FRANKENTHAL, in Bavaria. Established in 1754, by Paul Hannong, who,
having discovered the secret of hard porcelain, offered it to the royal
manufactory at Sèvres, but the authorities not agreeing as to the price,
the offer was declined, and they commenced persecuting him--for in that
year a decree forbade the making of translucent ware in France except at
Sèvres--and Hannong was compelled to go to Frankenthal, leaving his
fayence manufactory at Strassburg in charge of his sons. In 1761 the
factory was purchased by the Elector Carl Theodore, and it attained
great celebrity, which it maintained until he became Elector of Bavaria,
in 1777. It then declined, and all the stock and utensils were sold in
1800 and removed to Greinstadt. The following chronogram denotes the
year 1775:--

  VARIANTIBVS · FLOSCVLIS · DIVERSI · COLORES ·
  FABRICÆ · SVB · REVIVISCENTIS · SOLIS · HVIVS ·
  RADIIS · EXVLTANTIS ·
  IN·FRANKENTHAL· ✷

It occurs on a porcelain plate, Fig. 139, having in the centre the
initials of Carl Theodore, interlaced and crowned, within a gold star of
flaming rays; radiating from this are thirty divisions, and on the
border thirty more, all numbered and painted with small bouquets, _en
camaïeu_, of all the various shades of colour employed in the
manufactory.

[Illustration: FIG. 139.--PLATE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 140.--A DÉJEUNER SERVICE.]

NEUDECK, on the Au, and NYMPHENBURG. This factory was established in
1747, by a potter named Niedermayer. Graf von Hainshausen became its
patron in 1754, and in 1756 he sent for Ringler, who organised the
establishment, and it was then placed under the protection of the
Elector Maximilian Joseph. On the death of his successor, Carl Theodore,
in 1799, the Frankenthal manufactory was abandoned, and transferred to
Nymphenburg, which is still a royal establishment, and well supported.
The pieces are manufactured in white at Nymphenburg, but chiefly
decorated at Munich and elsewhere; that is the reason why on the same
piece the Nymphenburg mark is frequently found impressed, with the mark
of some other factory painted in colour.

[Illustration: FIG. 141.--TANKARD.]

Fig. 141, moulded in relief and painted with flowers; marks, the coat of
Bavaria, 1765 in gold, two leaves and I. A. H. in green; height 7-1/4
in.

Fig. 142, painted in colours; marks, the coat of arms of Bavaria, and A
incised; diameter 3-1/4 in. and 5-1/4 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 142.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 143.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

ANSPACH, a town which belonged to the Margraves of Anspach and is now
in Bavaria. There was a factory here about 1760.

Fig. 143 is painted with figures in colour; signed "Schelk, pinx."; mark
A in blue; diameter 3 ins. and 5-1/4 in.

BAYREUTH was under the same rulers as Anspach, and is now also in
Bavaria. There was a manufactory here in the 18th century, but little
appears to be known respecting it.

[Illustration: FIG. 144.--CUP.]

Fig. 144 is painted in colours, and gilt inside; mark, "Metzsch 1748
Bayr"; diameter 2-3/4 in.

KELSTERBACH, in Hesse. A manufactory for pottery was founded here about
1758, where later porcelain was also made. The works only lasted about
sixteen years.

[Illustration: FIG. 145.--HARLEQUIN.]

Fig. 145 is painted in colours; mark, H. D. under a crown, in blue;
height 6-3/4 in.

THURINGIA. In the middle of the 18th century a number of small porcelain
factories sprang up in this district. It is said that they owe their
origin to a chemist named Macheleid, who discovered by accident a
deposit of kaolin, and obtained permission from the Prince of
Schwarzburg to establish a factory at SITZENRODA, which in 1762 was
removed to Volkstedt.

[Illustration: FIG. 146.--CUP AND SAUCER. Diam. 2-3/4 in. and 5-3/4 in.]

CLOSTER, or KLOSTER, VEILSDORF, or VOLKSTEDT. The porcelain manufactory
of Sitzenroda was transferred to Volkstedt, in Thuringia, in 1762, where
it was farmed by a merchant named Nonne, of Erfurt, who greatly enlarged
and improved the works. About the year 1770 it was carried on by
Greiner. In 1795 more than 120 workmen were employed.

[Illustration: FIG. 147.--TEAPOT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 148.--TRAY.]

Fig. 148 is moulded in rococo style, and painted with flowers; mark,
shield of Saxe-Meiningen between C. V.; length 12-1/2 in.

RUDOLSTADT. The factory at Volkstedt was afterwards removed to
Rudolstadt, near Jena. Gotthelf Greiner had the direction of several of
the other Thuringian manufactories; he died in 1797.

[Illustration: FIG. 149.--MILK-POT AND CUP AND SAUCER.]

FULDA, in Hesse. A factory was established here about 1763 by Arnandus,
Prince-Bishop of Fulda, for the manufacture of porcelain. The best
artists were employed, and many grand vases, figures, and services of a
fine white paste and handsomely decorated were produced.

[Illustration: FIG. 150.--A PEASANT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 151.--A PEASANT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 152.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 153.--COFFEE-POT.]

FÜRSTENBERG. In Brunswick, established in 1750, by the help of Bengraf,
who came from Höchst; he died the same year, and Baron von Lang, a
distinguished chemist, undertook the direction of the works, under the
patronage of Carl, Duke of Brunswick. The manufactory was carried on by
the Government up to the middle of last century.

Fig. 154, a bust of Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick, grand-daughter of
King George II., is in white biscuit; mark, F in blue, a running
horse, and W; height 20-1/2 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 154.--BUST.]

[Illustration: FIG. 155--MEDALLIONS. _In white biscuit._]

Fig. 155. Portraits of O. D. Beckmann and A. L. Schlötzer; marked with a
running horse and F; length 2-7/8 in.

LUDWIGSBURG, in Würtemberg. Established by J. J. Ringler in 1758, under
the patronage of Carl Eugene, the reigning duke. It was celebrated for
the excellence of its productions and the fine paintings on its vases
and services, as well as for its excellent groups. This factory ceased
in 1824.

[Illustration: FIG. 156.--CHOCOLATE-POT.]

Fig. 156 is painted with figures of Hope and Music in panels; mark,
double C under a crown, in blue; height 5-1/4 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 157.--COFFEE-POT.]

Fig. 157 is painted in lake _camaïeu_, with a landscape and buildings
after Claude, and has a gilt, arabesque and scroll border.

REGENSBURG, or RATISBON. This factory was established about 1760.

[Illustration: FIG. 158.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

GROSSBREITENBACH. A factory was established here about 1770 by Greiner.
The demand for his porcelain was so great, that not being able to
enlarge his works at Limbach, he started this as well as Veilsdorf and
Volkstedt.

[Illustration: FIG. 159.--MILK-POT.]

Fig. 159 is grey blue ware in imitation of Wedgwood, with classical
group in white relief, bearing a wreath with the cypher F. G. C. under a
crown; marks, "Breitenbach et Limbach," and "Gruber"; height 4 in.

[Illustration: LIMBACH

FIG. 160.--SUCRIER, COVER, AND STAND.]

LIMBACH, Saxe-Meiningen. This manufactory was also under the direction
of Gotthelf Greiner. It was established about 1762.

Fig. 160 is painted with flowers; mark, two letters L crossed; diameters
4-7/8 and 8-1/4 in.

GERA. A manufactory was founded here about 1780.

[Illustration: FIG. 161.--SUGAR BASIN.]

Fig. 161 is painted with festoons of pink flowers; mark, G in blue;
height 6-1/4 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 162.--CUP, COVER, AND SAUCER.]

Fig. 162 is grained in imitation of oak, with medallions painted with
views, "Schloss aus dem Kohlenhofe" on cup, and "Lauchstaedt vor dem
Brunnen" on saucer; signed, "Rühlig Fec"; mark, G in blue; diameters 3
and 5-1/4 in.

BADEN-BADEN. A porcelain manufactory was established in 1753 by the
widow Sperl and workmen from Höchst, with the patronage of the reigning
Margrave, under Pfälzer. It ceased in 1778.

[Illustration: GOTHA

FIG. 163.--FIGURE OF BACCHUS. _In white biscuit._ Height 11 in.]

GOTHA. Founded in 1780 by Rothenberg, and afterwards (1802) conducted by
Henneberg.

RAUENSTEIN, in Saxe-Meiningen. A factory for hard paste was established
here in 1760.

[Illustration: FIG. 164.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

Fig. 164 is painted with flowers; mark, R--n; diameters 3 and 5 in.

WALLENDORF, in Saxe-Coburg. There was also a factory for hard paste
established by Greiner and Haman here in 1762.

Fig. 165 is painted in dark blue, and with leaves in relief; mark, W, in
blue; height 10 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 165.--VASE.]


AUSTRIA

VIENNA

This manufactory for _hard paste_ was founded about 1717. There are
several traditions as to its origin: one is that a musician named La
France, and a billiard-marker, named Dupuis, brought with them to
Vienna, in October 1717, a certain Cristofle Conrad Hünger, who had been
employed at Meissen as an enamel painter and gilder, and that in the
following year they were joined by a man named Stölzel of Meissen, who
was possessed of the secret, and became director. Another that it was a
private enterprise set on foot by Claude du Pasquier, who obtained from
the Emperor Charles VII. a privilege for twenty-five years. Major Byng
Hall (_Adventures of a Bric-à-Brac Hunter_), however, says that it was
established in 1718 by Claude Innocenz de Blaquier, who engaged one
Stenzel or Stölzel to co-operate with him. With this object in view De
Blaquier proceeded secretly to Meissen, where he contrived to scrape
acquaintance with the arcanist in a coffee-house. He engaged with
Stenzel in a game of billiards, taking care to lose, and thus he secured
his object. Stenzel after some slight hesitation, accepted an offer of a
thousand dollars to be paid yearly.

[Illustration: FIG. 166.--CABARET.]

De Blaquier had to contend with many difficulties owing to his not being
possessed of the secret, and at the end of the second year Stenzel not
having been paid regularly according to his contract, returned to
Meissen, after having maliciously destroyed many of the models. The
works had consequently to be suspended. But De Blaquier, being a man of
energy and determination, endeavoured by numerous experiments to
discover the porcelain mixture, and his efforts were finally crowned
with success.

[Illustration: FIG. 167.--MILK-POT.]

After twenty-five years' labour De Blaquier decided in 1744 to offer the
works to the Government.

The young Empress Maria Theresa resolved to support the factory, which
promised to give occupation and profit to her subjects, honour and gain
to the State. She therefore commanded that it should be taken by State
contract from its owner, and that De Blaquier should receive the
direction with a salary of 1500 florins a year.

[Illustration: FIG. 168.--PLATE.]

From 1747 to 1790 was the best period for figures and groups, while from
1780 to 1820 painting on china became celebrated, the subjects being
taken from paintings by Watteau, Lancret, Boucher, Angelica Kauffmann,
and others.

In 1785 the most important improvements were made under the Baron de
Lorgenthal or Sorgenthal; artists of the highest talents were employed,
a first-rate chemist named Leithner was engaged to prepare the colours
and gilding, the _chefs d'œuvre_ of the early masters were copied,
while the gilding was brought to a perfection which has never been
surpassed.

[Illustration: FIG. 169.--CUP AND "TREMBLEUSE" SAUCER. _18th Century._]

After the death of the Baron in 1805, Neidermayer became Director. The
manufacture continued in its flourishing condition until about 1815.
From the year 1784 to the date of its extinction, it was the custom to
mark every piece with the number of the year, which circumstance may be
of great service to the connoisseur who seeks early specimens of Vienna
porcelain. It is stamped without colour underneath the piece--or rather
indented, the first numeral being omitted; thus the number 792 stands
for 1792; 802 for 1802; and so on.

From 1827, under the direction of Scholtz, who followed Niedermayer, the
manufactory began to decline, and what with economy, indifferent
workmen, and bad artists copying from French models its doom was sealed.
It gradually dwindled down to a second-rate factory, and in consequence
of the great annual expense it was discontinued in 1864. The books on
art belonging to the factory, and all the drawings of its most
successful period, together with many of the models, the library, and
the keramic collection, were given to the Imperial Museum in Vienna, to
be retained as a lasting memorial of its celebrity.

Fig. 166 is painted in _camaïeu_ on purple ground, and gilt; mark,
shield crowned; length of tray 12 in.

Fig. 167 is painted in colours and gilt, with busts of ladies, entitled
"L'Hérisson" and "Fantaisie Moderne"; mark, the shield in blue; height 6
in.

Fig. 168 is painted in colours, with two nymphs in a landscape playing
with the infant Bacchus; mark, the Austrian shield of arms, in blue; the
painting attributed to Fürstler.

SCHLAGGENWALD, in Bohemia. This manufactory was established in the year
1810. George Lippert was the owner in 1842, and much improved the
industry. Some pieces are marked "Lippert & Haas."

[Illustration: FIG. 170.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

Fig. 170 is painted in colours, with medallions containing figures of
Justice; mark, S; diam. 2-1/2 and 5 in.

HEREND, in Hungary. There was a manufactory of porcelain here towards
the end of the 18th century, but particulars concerning its origin are
not known.

Fig. 171 is painted in oriental style, with flowers, &c.; late 18th
century.

[Illustration: FIG. 171.--PORTION OF A CABARET OR BREAKFAST SERVICE.]


SWITZERLAND

NYON, on the lake of Geneva. A manufactory was in full work here towards
the end of the 18th century. It is said to have been established by a
French flower painter named Maubrée, and several Genevese artists
painted on the porcelain, occasionally marking it with a "G" or "Geneva"
in full; but there never was a manufactory of china at Geneva itself.

[Illustration: FIG. 172.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

ZÜRICH. Established here in 1763 by a few Zürich gentlemen, with the aid
of a workman, named Spengler, from Höchst. Another German, Sonnenschein,
a sculptor, was employed to model figures and groups. The factory was
not a financial success. In 1793 the works were sold to a potter named
Nehracher, and on his death in 1800 the works ceased.

[Illustration: NYON

FIG. 173.--CUP AND SAUCER. _With mark, fish in blue._]

Fig. 174 represents a soldier trampling on a Turk and unveiling a lady,
martial and love trophies on the ground.

[Illustration: FIG. 174.--A GROUP.]


HOLLAND

WEESP. The first manufactory for porcelain in Holland was at Weesp, near
Amsterdam. It was established in 1764 by the Count Cronsfeldt-Diepenbroick,
who had by some means obtained the secret of the composition of hard
paste. After existing seven years, the factory was closed in 1771.
Notwithstanding the unsuccessful result from a commercial point of view,
it was reopened by a Protestant minister, the Rev. De Moll, of Oude
Loosdrecht, associated with some capitalists of Amsterdam, but the next
year it was removed to Loosdrecht. The decorations are very much of the
Saxon character.

[Illustration: FIG. 175.--EWER. _With mark, W._]

[Illustration: FIG. 176.--COFFEE-POT. _Mark, a cross and dots._]

OUDE LOOSDRECHT, situated between Utrecht and Amsterdam, was the next
town where porcelain was successfully made. It sprang from the ashes of
Weesp, and in 1772 became a company, with the Rev. De Moll at its head;
after his death, in 1782, the concern passed into the hands of his
partners, J. Rendorp, A. Dedel, C. Van der Hoop, Gysbz, and J. Hope, and
was by them removed, in 1784, to Oude Amstel. The ware is of fine
quality, decorated in the Saxon style; specimens are frequently met
with, having gilt borders and a light blue flower between green leaves.

[Illustration: FIG. 177.--VASE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 178.--PANEL. _Mark, M : o L. in blue._ Width 12-3/4
in.]

AMSTERDAM. Fig. 179. Painted in lake _camaïeu_ with birds and trees; the
mark, lion, in blue.

[Illustration: FIG. 179.--A PAIR OF BOTTLES.]

OUDE AMSTEL. On the death of the Rev. De Moll in the year 1782, the
manufactory of Loosdrecht was removed to Oude Amstel (Old Amstel), near
Amsterdam, and carried on with redoubled zeal by the same company,
directed by a German named Däuber, about 1784. It flourished under his
direction for a few years, and produced a fine description of porcelain,
but it gradually declined, in consequence of the large importations from
England which inundated the country. In 1789 it came into the hands of
J. Rendorp, C. Van der Hoop, and Gysbz, still remaining under Däuber's
direction, but it was entirely demolished at the close of the 18th
century.

[Illustration: FIG. 180.--TEAPOT AND SUCRIER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 181.--SUCRIER.]

THE HAGUE. About the year 1775, a porcelain manufactory for both hard
and soft paste was opened at The Hague, under the direction of a German
named Leichner or Lynker. The works ceased in 1785 or 1786.

[Illustration: FIG. 182.--PLATE. _Of soft paste._]

Fig. 182 bears the mark of a stork in blue; diam. 9-1/2 in.


BELGIUM AND LUXEMBURG

BELGIUM

TOURNAI. Established in 1750 by Peterinck. For some time previous to
1815 the works were carried on by M. Maximilien de Bettignies, who, in
consequence of the annexation of Tournai to Belgium, ceded it in that
year to his brother Henri, and established another factory at St.
Amand-les-Eaux. Soft paste, which has been discontinued for many years
in every other _fabrique_ in France, is still made at both places, and
they consequently produce the closest imitations of old Sèvres _pâte
tendre_.

[Illustration: FIG. 183.--CUP AND SAUCER. _With the early mark in
gold._]

Fig. 184 is painted in blue; mark, crossed swords and three crosses;
diam. 9-1/2 in.

[Illustration: FIG. 184.--PLATE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 185.--SALT-CELLAR.]

Fig. 185 is painted with birds; mark, crossed swords and four crosses,
in gold; height 4-3/8 in.

BRUSSELS. There was a manufactory of hard paste porcelain here towards
the end of the 18th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 186.--MILK JUG. _Signed L. Cretté._]

[Illustration: FIG. 187.--TEAPOT.]

LUXEMBURG

A factory for hard paste porcelain was established at Sept Fontaines
about 1806, by the brothers Boch. Both pottery and porcelain were made
here, including plates, vases, figures, &c.

[Illustration: LUXEMBURG

FIG. 188.--TWO FIGURES OF "THE SEASONS." _With mark, B. L._]


RUSSIA

At St. Petersburg, an Imperial china manufactory was established in
1744, by the Empress Elizabeth Petrowna, with workmen from Meissen.
Catherine II. patronised the works, and in 1765 enlarged them
considerably, under the direction of the minister, J. A. Olsoufieff,
since which this _fabrique_ has held a distinguished place among
European manufactories. The paste is hard and of a blueish cast, finely
glazed, and it betrays its Dresden origin.

[Illustration: FIG. 189.--CUP AND SAUCER. _With the mark of the Emperor
Paul._]

[Illustration: FIG. 190.--VERRIÈRE.]

MOSCOW, 1720. The potter Eggebrecht, who had undertaken a manufactory of
delft at Dresden, by direction of Böttcher, had, after that was
discontinued, left to go to Moscow, and, being acquainted with some of
the processes for making porcelain, commenced manufacturing it at
Moscow.

[Illustration: FIG. 191.--STATUETTE. _Mark, G in blue._ Height 8 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 192.--CUP AND SAUCER. _With view of Moscow. Mark, A.
Popoffe's initials._]

A porcelain manufactory was established at TWER, by an Englishman named
Gardner, in 1787, and another by A. Popoff.

KORZEC, in Volhynia. About 1803, Mérault, a chemist of the Sèvres
manufactory, went to direct the _fabrique_ at Korzec, taking with him a
laboratory assistant named Pétion. After carrying it on for a few years,
Mérault abandoned the direction, and returned to France.

[Illustration: FIG. 193.--_Pâte dure CUP AND SAUCER. Painted with a
portrait of a lady, en grisaille, with gilt borders. Mark, Eye
within a triangle._]

BARANOWKA, in Volhynia. A small factory existed here at which the
porcelain clay found in the neighbourhood was used.

[Illustration: FIG. 194.--MILK JUG. _Mark, the name of the town._]


SWEDEN

MARIEBERG. This manufactory produced porcelain (_soft paste_), as well
as fayence. In quality as well as in decoration the porcelain is like
that of Mennecy-Villeroy in France. The industry was established by
Ehrenreich, under the patronage of Count Scheffer, Councillor of State,
in 1750, and altogether ceased about 1780.

[Illustration: FIG. 195.--CUSTARD CUP AND COVER. _Mark, M.B. combined._
Height 3-1/4 in.]


DENMARK

COPENHAGEN. This manufactory was commenced by an apothecary of the name
of Müller, in 1772, and Baron von Lang, from the Fürstenberg
manufactory, is said to have been instrumental in forming it. The
capital was raised in shares, but the factory not being successful, the
Government interfered, and it became a royal establishment in 1775, and
has remained so ever since.

[Illustration: FIG. 196.--CABARET. _With portraits of Raphael, and other
celebrated painters._]

[Illustration: FIG. 197.--CABARET.]


FRANCE

ST. CLOUD. A factory was established here about 1695 for the production
of porcelain, at which time M. Morin was proprietor, and M. Chicanneau
director of the works.

[Illustration: FIG. 198.--JUG.]

According to letters patent of 1702, granted to the heirs of Chicanneau,
his widow, Barbe Courdray, and her children, were interested in the
works; their father had made many experiments and attempts to discover
the secret of true porcelain, and from the year 1696 had produced some
nearly equal to the porcelain of China. His children, to whom he
imparted the secret, successfully continued the fabrication, and were
permitted to manufacture porcelain at St. Cloud, or in any other part or
parts of the kingdom, except Rouen and its faubourgs. In 1712 a renewal
of the patent took place for ten years, and in the meantime the widow
Barbe Courdray married a M. Trou.

[Illustration: FIG. 199.--STATUETTE. _Astronomy seated, holding the
sun._]

In 1722 letters patent were granted for twenty years more to Jean and
Jean Baptiste Chicanneau, Marie Moreau, the widow of Pierre Chicanneau
(third son) and Henri and Gabriel Trou, children of Barbe Courdray by
her second marriage. About this time serious disagreements occurred
between the two families, and they separated, Gabriel and Henri Trou
remaining at St. Cloud, patronised by the Duke of Orleans; while Marie
Moreau opened another establishment in the Rue de la Ville l'Évêque,
Faubourg St. Honoré, directed by Dominique François Chicanneau. In 1742
another _arrêt_ granted privileges for twenty years to both these
establishments, and Marie Moreau dying in 1743 left Dominique her
business.

The manufactory at St. Cloud was destroyed by fire (the act of an
incendiary) in 1773, and the manufacture ceased, the proprietors not
being able to raise sufficient funds to rebuild it.

CHANTILLY. This manufactory was founded in 1725 by Ciquaire Cirou, under
the patronage of the Prince de Condé, as appears by letters patent dated
1735, who was succeeded by Antheaume and others. The porcelain was
highly esteemed, and there was hardly any object which they did not
produce, from the lofty vase to the simplest knife handle. The Chantilly
pattern was a great favourite for ordinary services; it was called
"Barbeau," and consisted of a small blue flower running over the white
paste.

[Illustration: FIG. 200.--DISH. _Mark, hunting horn and P, in gold._
Diameter 12 in.]

[Illustration: FIG. 201.--PAIR OF FIGURES.]

ROUEN. Louis Poterat, Sieur de St. Ètienne, of St. Sever, at Rouen,
obtained letters patent in 1673, stating that he had discovered
processes for fabricating porcelain similar to that of China, and wares
resembling those of Delft; but the former was of a very rude character
and never arrived at any perfection.

After the establishment at St. Cloud had commenced selling porcelain,
the proprietors of the Rouen manufactory appear to have revived their
porcelain in the hopes of competing with them, but with no good result.

MENNECY-VILLEROY. This important manufactory was established in 1735 by
François Barbin, under the patronage of the Duc de Villeroy. The early
specimens are similar to the _porcelaine tendre_ of St. Cloud, of a
milky translucent appearance.

[Illustration: FIG. 202.--SUGAR BASIN AND STAND.]

Barbin was succeeded about 1748 by Messieurs Jacques and Jullien, and
the manufactory continued in a flourishing state until 1773, when on the
expiration of the lease it was removed to Bourg-la-Reine.

[Illustration: FIG. 203.--GROUP OF CHILDREN.]

SCEAUX PENTHIÈVRE, near Paris. Established in 1750 by Jacques Chapelle;
it was situated opposite the Petit Châtelet, and was under the patronage
of the Duc de Penthièvre. It was carried on by Glot in 1773. The
Prince-Protector died in 1794, but the production of _pâte tendre_
ceased before that time.

[Illustration: FIG. 204.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 205.--MILK-POT. _Mark, S. X._]

ARRAS. Established in 1782 by the Demoiselles Deleneur, under the
patronage of M. de Calonne, Intendant de Flandre et de l'Artois; it only
lasted a few years.

[Illustration: FIG. 206.--SEAU. _Mark, A. R._]

BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. Established by M. Haffringue, in the 19th century,
with the kaolin of Limoges.

[Illustration: FIG. 207.--PLAQUE. _White biscuit._]

[Illustration: FIG. 208.--SUCRIER. _White biscuit._]

ÉTIOLLES (Seine-et-Oise), near Corbeil. Established in 1768, by Monnier,
for soft paste porcelain. The works lasted only a short time.

[Illustration: FIG. 209.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Mark, E. Pellevé_, 1770.
Diameter 2-1/2 and 5 in.]

LILLE. Established in 1711 by Barthélemy Dorez and Pierre Pelissier, his
nephew, natives of Lille. The porcelain (_pâte tendre_) of this time
was like that of St. Cloud, but in the Delft style, the favourite
ornamentation being Chinese designs. At a later period (in 1784) a
manufactory of hard porcelain was established by Leperre Durot, under
the patronage of the Dauphin; it was styled "Manufacture Royale de
Monseigneur le Dauphin." The porcelain of Leperre Durot is richly
adorned with gold and with carefully painted bouquets of flowers.

[Illustration: FIG. 210.--CUP AND SAUCER. _With mark, crowned Dolphin._]

M. Roger succeeded Leperre Durot, and in 1792 he sold his interest in
the works to Messieurs Regnault and Graindorge; they were, however, soon
ruined, and the establishment was closed.

BOURG-LA-REINE. Started in 1773 by Messieurs Jacques and Jullien, who
removed thither on the expiration of their lease at Mennecy. It was in
active existence, making china purely of an industrial character, in
1788.

[Illustration: FIG. 211.--CUSTARD CUP. _Mark, B. R._ Height 3-1/4 in.]

CLIGNANCOURT. Established in 1775 by Pierre Deruelle, under the
patronage of Monsieur le Comte de Provence, brother of the king
(afterwards Louis XVIII.).

[Illustration: FIG. 212.--MILK-POT AND COVER.

FIG. 213.--CUP AND DISH.

FIG. 214.--MILK JUG.]

LUNÉVILLE. A factory called "Manufacture Stanislas" was established in
1731. It lasted only a short time, but a later manufactory, founded
about 1769, was celebrated for its productions.

Paul Louis Cyfflé, sculptor, obtained, in 1768, letters patent for
fifteen years, by virtue of which he established another manufactory for
superior vessels of the material called _terre de Lorraine_, and in the
following year a new privilege was granted for making groups and
statuettes with his improved paste, under the name of _pâte de marbre_.

ORLEANS. Established by M. Gerréault in 1753, under the protection of
the Duc de Penthièvre; the porcelain first made here was of the soft
paste, but hard paste was subsequently produced. Gerréault was succeeded
by Bourdon _fils_ about 1788, Piédor, Dubois, and lastly, Le Brun, from
1808 to 1811.

NIDERVILLER. Established about 1760 by Baron de Beyerlé. After
successfully carrying on this branch for several years, he attempted
hard porcelain in 1768, and procured potters and artists from Saxony.
Three or four years before his death, which happened in 1784, the estate
was bought by General de Custine. This new proprietor continued the
_fabrique_, under the direction of M. Lanfray, who paid especial
attention to the production of fine porcelain; the fabrication of
statuettes was greatly increased.

[Illustration: ORLEANS

FIG. 215.--BOWL, COVER, AND STAND. _Mark, heraldic label in blue._]

[Illustration: FIG. 216.--MILK-POT AND COVER. _Mark, double C under
coronet, in blue._ Height 6-1/2 in.]

After the decapitation of the unfortunate de Custine, his estates, being
forfeited to the Republic, were sold on the 25 Germinal, An X (1802), to
M. Lanfray, and carried on by him until his death in 1827, when the
manufactory was sold to L. G. Dryander, of Saarbrücken. For many years
he continued to make porcelain, as well as fayence groups and
statuettes, but the distance of his _fabrique_ from the kaolin of St.
Yrieix prevented him from competing successfully with those of Limoges,
and this branch was abandoned.

BOISSETTE, near Melun. A factory was established in 1777 by Jacques
Vermonet père et fils, but it lasted only a short time.

[Illustration: FIG. 217.--TEAPOT.]

CAEN, Normandy. Established and supported by some of the principal
inhabitants, at the time of the French Revolution (about 1793), when
several workmen from Sèvres came to join it. It was carried on for a few
years, but no market being found for the ware, the factory was
discontinued at the commencement of the last century. It is hard paste,
and equal to that of Sèvres, and of the same forms.

[Illustration: FIG. 218.--CUP AND SAUCER. _With "Caen" stencilled in
red._]

VALENCIENNES (Nord). By an Order of Council, dated 24th May 1785, M.
Fauquet was permitted to carry on a manufacture of porcelain at
Valenciennes. He was originally established at St. Amand in the
manufacture of fayence as early as 1775, and probably carried on both
works simultaneously.

[Illustration: FIG. 219.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Mark, F. L. V., in cipher, in
blue._ Diam. 3-3/4 and 6-1/4 in.]

ST. AMAND-LES-EAUX. Founded by M. Maximilien de Bettignies in 1815, for
the manufacture of _pâte tendre_ porcelain like the old Sèvres. He was
formerly proprietor of the Tournai manufactory, which he ceded to his
brother Henri when that city became re-annexed to Belgium.

STRASSBURG. About the year 1752, Paul Hannong obtained the secret of
true porcelain from Ringler, and started a factory here, but in
consequence of the monopoly of Sèvres he was compelled to relinquish it,
and in 1753 removed to Frankenthal, where he greatly flourished under
the protection of the Elector Palatine Carl Theodore.

[Illustration: Fig. 220.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Mark, J. H._ Diam. 2-5/8 and
5-5/8 in.]

MARSEILLES. An important manufactory of porcelain was established here
by Jacques Gaspard Robert about 1766. Porcelain was made also by Honoré
Savy and Veuve Perrin, but was only of secondary importance. The works
were closed about the period of the French Revolution in 1793.

PARIS. Rue Thiroux. Established in 1778 by André Marie Lebeuf, and the
ware was called "Porcelaine de la Reine."

[Illustration: FIG. 221.--SUCRIER. _Mark, crowned A._]

PARIS. Rue de Bondy. Opened in 1780 by Dihl and Guerhard, under the
patronage of the Duc d'Angoulême, and the ware was called "Porcelaine
d'Angoulême."

[Illustration: FIG. 222.--EWER AND BASIN.]

PARIS. Rue Fontaine au Roi. This factory, called "De la Courtille," was
established in 1773 by Jean Baptiste Locré, who was afterwards joined by
Russinger in 1784. The latter during the Revolution became sole
director.

[Illustration: FIG. 223.--PART OF A TEA SERVICE.]

PARIS. Faubourg St. Honoré. A factory was established here by Veuve
Chicanneau, _née_ Marie Moreau. The teapot, Fig. 224, was probably made
at these works.

[Illustration: FIG. 224.--TEAPOT. _Mark, V{e} M. & C._]

PARIS. Pont-aux-Choux. In 1784, Louis Honoré de la Marre de Villars
opened an establishment for the manufacture of porcelain in the Rue des
Boulets, Faubourg St. Antoine. It was afterwards disposed of to Jean
Baptiste Outrequin de Montarcy and Edmé Toulouse, who in 1786 obtained a
brêvet from the Duke of Orleans, Louis Philippe Joseph, and authority to
sign the productions with the letters L. P., and to take the title of
_Manufacture de M. le Duc d'Orléans_. They were afterwards established
in Rue Amelot, _au Pont-aux-Choux_, by which name the porcelain is
generally known.

[Illustration: FIG. 225.--TEAPOT.]

The former name ceased in 1793, with the condemnation of the Duke of
Orleans, and the objects subsequently produced were inscribed merely
"_Fabrique du Pont-aux-Choux_."

PARIS. Rue de Crussol. Established in 1789 by Charles Potter, an
Englishman, and the ware was called the "Prince of Wales's China."

[Illustration: FIG. 226.--CUP.]

PARIS. Belleville. Originally established in 1790 by Jacob Petit; but
later removed to Fontainebleau. The products of the first period were
much esteemed, being well painted and well modelled, bearing Petit's
mark; but the proprietor unwisely altered his original plan and imitated
Dresden, counterfeiting also the mark of the crossed swords. Jacob Petit
also made biscuit figures, birds' nests, flowers, &c.

[Illustration: FIG. 227.--WATCH-STAND. _Plain white of rococo form.
Mark, J. P. in blue._ Height 5 in.]

PARIS. Rue du Faubourg St. Denis. Fabrique de Charles Philippe Comte
d'Artois, afterwards Charles X. This manufacture was the most ancient of
all those established in Paris. Hannong of Strassburg, who brought into
France the secret of hard porcelain, formed the first establishment in
1769. Having obtained the protection of Charles Philippe, Comte
d'Artois, it was called by his name. The factory belonged actually to
Bourdon des Planches, who continued the manufacture of hard porcelain,
&c., but the works were closed in 1810.

VINCENNES. There was a porcelain manufactory here in 1786, quite apart
from the royal factory. It was directed by M. Le Maire, probably the
same who founded that in Rue Popincourt, which was ceded to M. Nast in
1783. There were four establishments at Vincennes; the first by the
brothers Dubois, subsequently transferred to Sèvres; the second by
Maurin des Aubiez, in 1767; the third by Pierre Antoine Hannong; and the
fourth that described above.

[Illustration: FIG. 228.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Mark, H. L. L., in gold._
Diam. 2-1/2 and 5 in.]

VINCENNES AND SÈVRES

The history of the celebrated manufactory at Sèvres must be traced back
to that of St. Cloud, which was founded as early as 1695. Here Louis
XIV. accorded his patronage and favour by granting exclusive privileges.
In 1735 the secret of the manufacture was carried, by some of the
workmen, to Chantilly, and for a time continued there by the brothers
Dubois. They left in a few years, taking with them their secret, and
settled at Vincennes, where a laboratory was granted them, but after
three years they were dismissed.

In 1745, a sculptor, named Charles Adam, formed a company, and the
scheme was approved of by the king, privileges being accorded them for
thirty years, and a place granted for their works in the Château de
Vincennes. In 1753 the privileges of Charles Adam were purchased by Eloy
Brichard, and Louis XV. took a third share; hence the factory became a
royal establishment. Madame de Pompadour considerably encouraged the
ceramic art, and it arrived at the height of perfection. The buildings
were found too small to meet the increasing demands for the beautiful
productions, and in 1756 the works were removed to a large edifice at
SÈVRES built expressly for the company.

A favourite decoration of Vincennes porcelain was flowers and birds, on
a beautiful _bleu de roi_ ground, and cupids painted in _camaïeu_ of a
single colour.

[Illustration: FIG. 229.--VASE. _Bleu de roi ground, with panels with
birds in gold. Mark, double L enclosing a dot, in gold._ Height 9-1/4
in.]

In 1760 the king became sole proprietor, and M. Boileau was appointed
director.

In 1769, after Macquer had brought the making of hard paste to
perfection, the manufacture was successfully established at Sèvres, and
both descriptions of china continued to be made until 1804, when,
Brongniart being director, soft paste was altogether discontinued, and
declared to be "useless in art, of expensive manipulation, dangerous to
the workmen, subject to great risk in the furnace, &c."

[Illustration: FIG. 230.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Bleu de roi ground, with
white medallions enclosing birds in gold. Mark, double L, in blue._
Diam. 2-5/8 and 5-3/8 in.]

The principal colours used in decorating the ground of the Sèvres vases
were:--

1. The _bleu céleste_, or turquoise, invented in 1752 by Hellot.

2. The rich cobalt blue, called _bleu de roi_, of which there were two
varieties, the darker being designated _gros bleu_.

3. The _violet pensée_, a beautiful violet from a mixture of manganese,
one of the rarest decorations of the _pâte tendre_.

[Illustration: FIG. 231.--VASE.]

4. The _rose Pompadour_ (called in England _rose Du-Barry_), a charming
pink or rose colour invented in 1757 by Xhrouet of Sèvres.

5. The clear yellow or _jonquille_, a sort of canary colour.

6. The _vert pré_, or bright grass green.

[Illustration: FIG. 232.--ÉCUELLE. _Dated 1771._]

7. The _vert pomme_, or apple green.

8. The _rouge de fer_, a brilliant red.

9. The _œil de perdrix_ was at a later period a favourite ornament
for the grounds of vases.

[Illustration: FIG. 233.--BISCUIT GROUP. CUPID AND PSYCHE.]

The forms are exceedingly varied, but names are assigned to each, either
from the designers of the models or their special shapes or
ornamentation; these may be found at length in _Marks and Monograms on
Pottery and Porcelain_, 10th edition.

The beautiful _pâte tendre_ ware of Sèvres was always much esteemed, and
never could have been produced at a reasonable price even at the time it
was made, the expense of decoration as well as the risk in firing being
so great. It was manufactured for royal presents or occasionally sold by
express permission at exorbitant prices, which bore a more approximate
value to the present exorbitant prices than is generally supposed.



GREAT BRITAIN


POTTERY

The earthenware vessels made in England previous to the 16th century
were of a very coarse description, rudely fashioned and usually devoid
of ornament, sometimes cast in a mould in grotesque forms, and
occasionally covered with a yellow or green glaze. Numerous specimens of
early English cups are found in excavations in London and other parts of
England, and may be identified by comparison with the vessels in Norman
and mediæval manuscripts.

Although inexpensive, they were badly burned, and not very durable; and
the German stoneware with a salt glaze was eagerly sought after
throughout the 16th century, and imported in large quantities. These
stone pots were usually impressed with the arms of German towns; a rose
or other device in front, and a ferocious bearded visage under the
spout. They were derisively called bellarmines, after the celebrated
Cardinal Bellarmin, who in the 16th century made himself so conspicuous
by his zealous opposition to the Reformed religion.

These bellarmines were in general use throughout England in the 16th and
beginning of the 17th century at inns and public-houses for serving ale
to the customers. The importation of these stone pots was always
monopolised by the potters of Cologne, near which city they were made.
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth we find one William Simpson presenting a
memorial that he may be allowed to bring "the drinking stone pottes made
at Culloin" into this country, and requesting permission to make similar
stone pots in England; but he was not successful in his suit.

In 1626, however, two other potters, named Rous and Cullyn, merchants of
the city of London, obtained the exclusive privilege of making stone
pots and jugs in this country, and a patent was granted them for
fourteen years; the preamble states that "heretofore, and at this
present, our kingdom of England has been served with stone pottes, stone
jugges, and stone bottells, out of foreign parts, from beyond the seas."

STAFFORDSHIRE

When Dr. Plot wrote his natural history of this county in 1686 there
were very few manufactories of pottery; he only speaks of one at
Amblecott and another at Wednesbury; but he says: "The greatest pottery
they have in this country is carried on at Burslem, near
Newcastle-under-Lyme." The earthenware made here towards the end of the
17th century was of a very coarse character, and the decoration
extremely rude, consisting merely of patterns trailed over the surface
in coloured clay, technically termed _slip_, diluted to the consistence
of syrup, so that it could run out through a quill. The usual colours
of these slips were orange, white, and red, the orange forming the
ground and the white and red the paint. After the dishes had been thus
ornamented they were glazed with lead ore beaten into dust, finely
sifted, and strewed over the surface, which gave it the gloss but not
the colour. The vessels remained twenty-four hours in the kiln, and
were then drawn for sale, principally to poor cratemen, who hawked them
at their backs all over the country.

[Illustration: FIG. 234.--TYG. _With four handles. Dated_ 1621.]

[Illustration: FIG. 235.--MUG. _With two handles. Dated_ 1682.]

[Illustration: FIG. 236.--PLATEAU. _With Charles II. and his Queen, in
relief. By_ RALPH TOFT. 1677.]

The forms of these vessels were tygs or mugs, with two or more handles
for passing round a table, candlesticks, dishes, &c. The earliest names
found upon them are Thomas and Ralph Toft, William Talor, Joseph Glass;
all names still known in Staffordshire.

BURSLEM. The family of WEDGWOOD was of long standing at Burslem, and
many members of it were employed in making pottery long before the birth
of the great potter, Josiah Wedgwood. His father, grandfather, and
great-grandfather, as well as many of his other relations, were all
engaged in the trade. Josiah Wedgwood was born in 1730, at Burslem; he
was the youngest of thirteen children; his father, Thomas Wedgwood, died
when Josiah was only nine years old. His eldest brother, Thomas,
succeeded his father as a potter, and Josiah was bound apprentice to him
in 1744, after the expiration of which he left his brother's house to
make knife handles, imitation agate, and tortoiseshell small wares, at
Stoke. Here, in 1752, he entered into partnership with John Harrison,
which only lasted two years.

[Illustration: FIG. 237.--VASE. _Pale blue jasper, with subjects in
relief._]

Next Josiah Wedgwood went into partnership with Thomas Whieldon of
Fenton Low, one of the most eminent potters of his day, and they
remained together five years; while here Wedgwood also produced that
fine green glaze which covered his dessert services, in imitation of
leaves.

At the expiration of the partnership in 1759 Wedgwood returned to
Burslem, and commenced business on his own account at the "Churchyard"
works. He soon became so successful that he was compelled to enlarge his
establishment, and to take over the "Ivy House" works. He engaged the
services of his cousin, Thomas Wedgwood, who had gained his experience
at the Worcester works, and in 1765 he took him into partnership, and
three years later Thomas Bentley joined the firm. The first ware which
gained him reputation was his fine cream-coloured ware, which remained a
staple article from 1762 down to the time of his decease, and after
royalty had approved of it the name was changed to Queen's ware.

Wedgwood also produced, about this date, a sort of red ware, formed of
the same ochreous clay as was used by the Elers nearly a century before;
it required no glaze except what it derived from friction on the wheel
and lathe, and was covered with engine-turned ornament; and in 1766 he
began to make a black ware, which he called basaltes or black Egyptian.
The business increased so much that he was obliged to open a new
manufactory at ETRURIA in 1769.

In 1773 he made "a fine white terra-cotta of great beauty and delicacy,
suitable for cameos, portraits, and bas-reliefs"; this was the
forerunner of the jasper ware, which became by constant attention and
successive improvements the most beautiful of all his wares. In 1776
the solid jasper ware was invented, which, however, attained its
greatest perfection ten years later. In the manufacture of this elegant
ware Wedgwood largely employed sulphate of barytes, and for many years
derived great profits, none of the workmen having any idea of the nature
of the material upon which they were operating, until a letter
containing a bill of parcels referring to a quantity of the article fell
into the hands of a dishonest servant, who told the secret, and
deprived the inventor of that particular source of emolument: for when
the same article was made by those who employed inferior workmen, to
whom they only paid one-fourth of the salary given by Wedgwood, the
price of jasper ware became so reduced that he was unable to employ
those exquisite modellers whom he had formerly engaged to superintend
that branch of the manufacture.

[Illustration: FIG. 238.--VASE. _Of basaltes ware._]

[Illustration: FIG. 239.--THE PORTLAND VASE. _Of black and white
jasper._]

In 1785 a "jasper dip" was introduced, in which the white clay vessels
were dipped, and received a coating of jasper, instead of being jasper
throughout. This was considered a great improvement, and caused an
increase of 20 per cent. in the price.

[Illustration: FIG. 240.--TEAPOT, CADDY, AND PLATE. _With printed
transfer._]

Flaxman was engaged by Wedgwood and Bentley as early as 1775, and he
furnished them with drawings and models. After Bentley's death in 1780
Flaxman's fame as a sculptor obtained him more important work, but
still, as time permitted, he worked for Wedgwood up to the time of his
departure for Rome in 1787.

Josiah Wedgwood died on the 3rd of January 1795, in his 65th year.

[Illustration: FIG. 241.--SIX JASPER CAMEOS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 242.--VASE. _Granite ground, with gilt festoons and
handles._]

[Illustration: FIG. 243.--EWER. _Of agate ware._]

[Illustration: FIG. 244.--AN OBELISK, _by_ RALPH WOOD, _and_ A TEA SET,
_by_ AARON WOOD.]

In 1773 RALPH SHAWE of Burslem took out a patent for chocolate-coloured
ware, striped with white and lined with white, glazed with salt. He
afterwards transferred his factory to France.

RALPH WOOD was established at Burslem about 1730, and was succeeded
about 1750 by his son AARON WOOD, who served his apprenticeship to
Thos. Wedgwood; he was a very clever cutter of moulds for stoneware
plates and dishes, with raised pattern borders, &c., which have been
erroneously termed Elizabethan. Cream ware is said to have been invented
by him. He was succeeded, about 1770, by his son ENOCH WOOD, who was
also a sculptor, and made many busts of eminent men. His successors were
Wood and Caldwell, who continued the manufacture of busts and groups.

[Illustration: FIG. 245.--STATUETTE. _Chaucer, by_ RALPH WOOD.]

MOSES STEEL was a manufacturer at Burslem in 1715. The name of a
descendant is found on a vase, with blue ground and white figures in
relief, in the style of Wedgwood, in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

[Illustration: FIG. 246.--VASE.]

SHELTON. ASTBURY of Shelton, early in the 18th century, made red crouch,
and white stoneware. It is said he derived his knowledge of mixing the
clays by pretending to be an idiot and obtaining employment at the
Elers' manufactory at Bradwell; after gaining their secret, he set up
in business against them.

The first use of calcined flints as an ingredient in the composition of
pottery is attributed to the younger Astbury; it led to the manufacture
of fine fayence, and paved the way for the great improvements afterwards
achieved by Wedgwood.

SAMUEL HOLLINS of Shelton established about 1760 a manufactory of fine
red ware teapots; he procured the clay from Bradwell. He was succeeded
about 1777 by T. and J. HOLLINS.

[Illustration: FIG. 247.--GREEN BOWL. _With ornaments in relief. Signed
"S. Hollins."_]

[Illustration: FIG. 248.--BASIN. _With white ground and blue figures in
relief. Stamped T. and J. Hollins._]

The NEW HALL CHINA WORKS at Shelton owed their origin to the purchase of
Champion's (Cookworthy's) patent by a company of potters in 1777, and
were the first porcelain manufactory in Staffordshire. The ware made
here was not of a fine character; inferior artists were employed in its
production, and it was never held in any great esteem. The manufacture
consequently soon fell to decay, after many changes. The mark is the
name of the works in a double ring.

[Illustration: FIG. 249.--CUP AND SAUCER. _Painted with flowers._]

BRADWELL. A potter to whom Staffordshire was indebted for great
improvements in the ware was JOHN PHILIP ELERS, who about 1690 came over
from Holland and settled at Bradwell. He was descended from a noble
family of Saxony.

Elers was a clever chemist, and discovered the art of mixing the clays
of Staffordshire to greater perfection than had ever before been
attained. He manufactured to a considerable extent an improved kind of
red pottery, in imitation of that of Japan, while by the addition of
manganese to the clays, he made a fine black ware, which a century
afterwards was adopted and improved by Wedgwood.

[Illustration: FIG. 250.--TEAPOT. _Of red ware, with flowers in
relief._]

HANLEY. Shaw mentions a Mr. MILES of Miles's Bank, Hanley, who produced
the brown stoneware about 1700. There is in the Victoria and Albert
Museum a fayence barrel of brown glaze with gilt hoops, dating
apparently from the first half of the 18th century, and it is impressed
with the name of Miles (see Fig. 251).

[Illustration: FIG. 251.--BARREL.]

ELIJAH MAYER of Hanley was a contemporary of Wedgwood. He was noted for
his cream-coloured ware and brown-line ware, but he produced many other
varieties. A vase of unglazed drab terra-cotta, with festoons, &c., in
relief, coloured (see Fig. 252).

[Illustration: FIG. 252.--VASE.]

He also produced basaltes ware tea services, with animals, &c., in
relief.

PALMER of Hanley was a great pirate of Wedgwood's inventions, and Mrs.
Palmer, who seems to have been the active manager of her husband's
business, engaged persons surreptitiously to obtain Wedgwood and
Bentley's new patterns as soon as they arrived at the London warehouse,
for the purpose of copying them. Palmer had a London partner of the name
of NEALE. They imitated Wedgwood's black Egyptian vases and other
inventions, and eventually his Etruscan painted vases. In 1776 Palmer
failed, and the business was carried on by Neale & Co., who by some
means discovered the secret of the jasper body. They became formidable
rivals of Wedgwood.

[Illustration: FIG. 253.--JARDINIÈRE. _Of blue and white jasper._]

[Illustration: FIG. 254.--VASE.]

J. VOYEZ of Hanley was a clever artist; he was employed by Wedgwood and
afterwards by Neale and Palmer.

FENTON. THOMAS WHIELDON of Fenton established a pottery in 1740; besides
the common household articles, he made fancy marbled ware. Aaron Wood
and Josiah Spode were his apprentices, and Josiah Wedgwood was in
partnership with him until 1759.

TUNSTALL. ENOCH BOOTH of Tunstall, and JOHN WARBURTON of COBRIDGE in the
same county, were extensive potters, and first made cream-coloured
pottery by the use of fluid glaze introduced by Booth.

WILLIAM ADAMS of Tunstall was a favourite pupil of Wedgwood, and while
with him executed some of his finest specimens of jasper ware. He
afterwards went into business on his own account, and carried on an
extensive trade.

[Illustration: FIG. 255.--JUG. _Of blue jasper._]

LANE END. JOHN TURNER of Lane End made a fine description of ware, and
his productions were the most successful imitation of Wedgwood's jasper,
with ornaments in relief, and only second to the latter's in excellence;
he also made a fine white stoneware.

[Illustration: FIG. 256.--SUGAR BASIN. _Of yellow clay, with figures in
relief._]

[Illustration: FIG. 257.--TEAPOT. _With medallion, figures in relief._]

LONGPORT. The Messrs. DAVENPORT of Longport made great improvements in
the manufacture of earthenware; they were celebrated especially for
their stone china. The manufactory was established in 1793, and has been
successfully carried on up to the present day in the same family.

[Illustration: FIG. 258.--CUP, COVER, AND SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 259.--DISH.]

LANE DELPH (now Middle Fenton). MILES MASON of Lane Delph early in the
last century produced some fine ware. The ironstone china was brought to
great perfection by Charles James Mason, and the forms were of a high
quality, very much resembling porcelain.

[Illustration: FIG. 260.--CUP, COVER, AND SAUCER.]

STOKE-ON-TRENT. THOMAS MINTON established a manufactory at
Stoke-upon-Trent in 1791; he was apprenticed to Turner of Caughley as an
engraver. His productions were of the useful kind, viz., services for
the table, in imitation of common nankin. He died in 1836, and was
succeeded by his second son, the celebrated Herbert Minton, who brought
the potter's art to great perfection. He largely increased the business,
and manufactured articles in earthenware, hard and soft porcelain, and
parian. Reproductions of Italian maiolica, Delia Robbia, Palissy, and
Henri II. ware were also extensively made by him. He died in 1858, and
was succeeded by Michael Daintry Hollins and Colin Minton Campbell, his
nephew and heir. The founder's grandsons afterwards succeeded to the
business; the firm of Messrs. Minton & Co. still exists, but there are
no members of the family now connected with it.

LIVERPOOL. Early in the 18th century, and probably much before that,
Liverpool was noted for the manufacture of pottery. Little is known of
its early history, and it was not until Mr. Jos. Mayer rescued from
oblivion many interesting particulars that anything like a succinct
account was published. In his interesting notice of the Art of Pottery
in Liverpool, we learn that the most celebrated of the early potters was
Alderman Thomas Shaw, who had works for making pottery in the beginning
of the 18th century; several large plaques and monumental slabs of his
make are in existence, dated from 1716 to 1756. About this time, there
seems to have been a large demand for punch bowls; as these formed the
principal ornaments on the sideboards of the middle classes, and
especially on board the ships, which were constantly going and coming in
the port, considerable pains were taken in decorating them, and many
are still in existence painted with ships, convivial mottoes, and
inscriptions.

[Illustration: FIG. 261.--MUG.]

Another important establishment was founded by Mr. John Sadler, the son
of a painter, who had learnt the art of engraving.

He was the inventor, about 1752, of the method of transferring prints
from engraved copper plates upon pottery, and in conjunction with Guy
Green, proposed to take out a patent in 1756, the draft of which is
still preserved, but they preferred keeping the invention secret to the
doubtful security of patent rights.

[Illustration: FIG. 262.--PUNCH BOWL.]

Wedgwood availed himself of this new mode of decoration, and sent his
Queen's ware weekly to Messrs. Sadler and Green to be printed.

[Illustration: FIG. 263.--TILES. _By_ J. SADLER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 264.--TEAPOT. _With portrait of Wesley._]

RICHARD CHAFFERS was the principal manufacturer of Liverpool; he served
his apprenticeship with Alderman Shaw, and in 1752 established a bank
for the manufacture of blue and white earthenware and fine porcelain,
which gained him great reputation; they were largely exported to our
American Colonies (now the United States).

His porcelain works were established about the same time as those of
Worcester and Derby, and his productions had a great sale in England.

The Liverpool establishments of PENNINGTON, PHILIP CHRISTIAN and RICHARD
ABBEY were on an extensive scale, but towards the end of the eighteenth
century only one of any importance survived, and that belonged to
Messrs. WORTHINGTON, HUMBLE and HOLLAND, who in 1796 established a large
manufactory on the south bank of the Mersey. As Wedgwood had christened
his settlement Etruria they called theirs Herculaneum. A larger capital
being required, in 1806 an increase of proprietors took place. The first
wares made here were Queen's and blue printed ware. About 1800 the
production of porcelain was commenced, the mark used being
"Herculaneum," or "Herculaneum Pottery." About 1836, when the factory
came into possession of Messrs. Case, Mort & Co., the mark used was a
bird called the liver, which forms the crest of the Borough of
Liverpool.

JACKFIELD, near Thursfield, in Shropshire. There was an old pottery here
about 1760. The ware was of a red clay, with a brilliant black glaze,
sometimes with scrolls and flowers in relief. Tea services are
frequently seen. The jugs were known in the locality as "black
decanters." About 1780 the works were taken by Mr. John Rose, and
subsequently removed to COALPORT, on the opposite side of the Severn,
where the well-known Salopian porcelain was made.

[Illustration: FIG. 265.--TEAPOT.]

Fig. 265. A black glazed teapot inscribed "Richard and Ruth Goodin,
1769."

FULHAM. The first successful imitation of the _grès de Cologne_ was made
by JOHN DWIGHT, an Oxfordshire gentleman, and in course of time it
almost entirely superseded the importation from abroad. This great
potter took out his first patent in 1671, and probably established a
manufactory at Fulham in that year, which was successfully carried on
through two patents of fourteen years each. The Fulham stoneware is of
exceedingly hard and close texture, very compact and sonorous, covered
with a salt glaze, of grey colour, ornamented with a brilliant blue
enamel in bands, leaves, and flowers, having medallions of kings and
queens of England in front, with Latin names and titles, or their
initials only.

Dwight produced a great variety of objects, and brought the potter's
art to a great perfection. The figures, busts, and groups are
exquisitely modelled, and will bear comparison with any contemporary
manufactures of Europe. A careful inspection will convince any
unprejudiced mind of the erroneous impression which exists, that until
the time of Wedgwood the potter's art in England was at a very low ebb,
and that none but the rudest description of pottery was made, without
any attempt to display artistic excellence. For here, a century before
Josiah Wedgwood's time, we have examples of English pottery which would
do credit to the atelier of that distinguished potter himself. John
Dwight died in the year 1737, and with him also departed the glory of
his manufactory at Fulham.

[Illustration: FIG. 266.--"LYDIA DWIGHT. _Dyed March 3, 1673._"]

LAMBETH. The next important pottery in England in the 17th century was
that of Lambeth. In the _History of Lambeth_ it is related that about
1650 some Dutch potters established themselves here, and by degrees the
industry became important, for the village contained no less than twenty
manufactories, in which were made the glazed pottery and tiles used in
London and various parts of England. The ware was very much of the
character of Delft, with a fine white creamy glaze, painted with
landscapes and figures in blue.

[Illustration: FIG. 267.--DISH.]

The white bottles or jugs, upon which are written the names of wines
accompanied by dates, were made here.

The trade flourished here for more than a century, until about 1780 or
1790, at which time the Staffordshire potters, by the great improvements
they had made in the quality of their ware, and having coal and clay
ready to their hand, were enabled to produce it at a cheaper rate, and
eventually beat the Lambeth potters out of the field.

The Lambeth potters, about the end of the 17th century, appear also to
have copied the forms of the Palissy ware, especially in large oval
dishes with initials and dates. Fig. 267 is an example of one of these
dishes.

YEARSLEY, in Yorkshire. A pottery of coarse character was made here in
the 17th century. A factory was established by an ancestor of Josiah
Wedgwood about the year 1700; and on the estate of Sir George Wombwell
fragments of pottery, of a coarse brown ware, with lead glaze, have been
frequently found on the site of the old manufactory.

There was also a manufactory established at the Manor-house, YORK, about
1665, of which little is known except the mention of its existence by
Ralph Thoresby and Horace Walpole; although it is by the former
erroneously called porcelain, the ware was actually a fine stoneware,
with a salt glaze.

DON POTTERY. There was a pottery on the river Don, near Doncaster,
established by Mr. John Green of New-hill, who came from the Leeds
pottery about 1790. In 1807 some other members of his family joined the
firm, and it was for a short time "Greens, Clark, & Co."

[Illustration: FIG. 268.--TEA CADDY. _Of yellow clay, ornamented with
chocolate brown appliqué medallions of female figures in relief._]

The Don Pottery was very similar to that of Leeds, frequently producing
pierced work-baskets, vases, dinner, dessert and tea services, &c.

LEEDS. This ware was made by Messrs. Hartley, Greens, & Co. in 1770. It
is of a sort of cream colour, and has much perforated or basket-work,
sharply cut out of the borders in various patterns. Important
centre-pieces with figures were also made here.

[Illustration: FIG. 269.--CHESTNUT BOWL AND COVER.]

CASTLEFORD, about twelve miles from Leeds. Here David Dunderdale
established works in 1790 for the finer kinds of pottery, especially
Queen's ware and the black Egyptian.

[Illustration: FIG. 270.--TEAPOT. _With ornaments in relief, of white
ware edged with blue._]

SWINTON, near Rotherham. Initiated by Edward Butler in 1757, on the
estate of the Marquis of Rockingham. In 1765 it was carried on by
William Malpas, and in 1778 by Messrs. Bingley, Brameld, & Co., who
enlarged the works, and made earthenware of a very superior quality.
Rockingham teapots, of a mottled chocolate colour, glazed inside with
white, were in great repute. But the aims of the Messrs. Brameld were of
a higher character, and some works of artistic merit were produced. When
the Rockingham works were closed in 1842 many of the moulds were
purchased by Mr. John Reed, and transferred to the Mexborough pottery.

[Illustration: FIG. 271.--TEAPOT.]

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. There were some extensive manufactories here at the
end of the 18th century for making Queen's ware, some of which is
perforated like that of Leeds, and has wicker pattern borders. Some of
the earthenware mugs have a pink metallic lustre, and are ornamented
with transfer engravings. On the inside was usually a toad in relief.

[Illustration: FIG. 272.--DISH. _Of Queen's ware, marked "fell."_]

[Illustration: FIG. 273.--MUG. _With printed monument of Lord Nelson;
inside is a toad; marked "Fell & Co., Newcastle Pottery."_]

ST. ANTHONY'S, about 2-1/2 miles from Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Established
by Sewell & Donkin in 1780. Queen's ware and pink metallic lustre, also
printed subjects, were produced; pierced wicker baskets, like that of
Leeds, were also made.

[Illustration: FIG. 274.--JUG. _With cupids in relief, coloured with
pink metallic lustred clouds._]

NOTTINGHAM. Stoneware was made here in the first half of the 18th
century; it usually has a dark brown glaze, with a slightly metallic
lustre, is very hard and durable, and is frequently ornamented with
outlines of stalks and flowers, especially the pink.

[Illustration: FIG. 275.--MUG. _Inscribed, "Made at Nottingham, the 17th
August 1771."_]

[Illustration: FIG. 276.--JUG. _In the form of a Bear._]

GREAT YARMOUTH. A potter named Absolon about 1790 decorated pottery of
the cream colour. The favourite subjects are single flowers and plants,
with their names on the back of the piece.

[Illustration: FIG. 277.--PLATE.]

LOWESBY, in Leicestershire. A pottery was established by Sir Francis
Fowkes, about the year 1835. Red terra-cotta with black enamelled
ornaments, in imitation of Wedgwood, was made.

[Illustration: FIG. 278.--GARDEN POT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 279.--VASE.]

BRISTOL. At REDCLIFFE BACKS a manufactory of Delft ware was carried on
in the 18th century by Richard Frank.

At TEMPLE BACKS, Bristol, Joseph Ring, son-in-law of Cookworthy (after
the porcelain works had been relinquished in 1777), opened a manufactory
called the "Bristol Pottery." It was continued for many years, and
about 1820 it was occupied by Messrs. Pountney & Allies. The articles
produced were similar to those of the superior potteries in
Staffordshire.

[Illustration: BRISTOL (Redcliffe Backs)

FIG. 280.--TILES. _St. Mary Redcliffe Church._]

CADBOROUGH, near Rye in Sussex. A pottery was established here early in
the 19th century for the manufacture of common sorts of pottery, but
some vases of glazed ware of elegant forms were also produced. The
works are now carried on at Bellevue Pottery, Rye.

[Illustration: FIG. 281.--VESSEL. _In form of a pig._]

SWANSEA. Established about 1750; it was greatly enlarged by George
Haynes in 1780, who styled it the "Cambrian Pottery." In 1802 the works
were purchased by Lewis Weston Dillwyn, and about 1810 an improved ware
was made which was termed _opaque porcelain_; with the assistance of
Young, a draughtsman employed in delineating natural history, the ware
became remarkable for its beautiful and truthful paintings.

The early Swansea ware was elegant in form, and frequently covered with
a deep blue glaze.

[Illustration: FIG. 282.--DISH. _Mark, Swansea and letter C._]


GREAT BRITAIN

PORCELAIN

The manufacture of porcelain in England began much earlier than has been
generally supposed, and the invention was patented in England by John
Dwight of Fulham in 1671, while that at St. Cloud was not patented until
1702, thirty years afterwards.

WORCESTER. Although this manufactory originated more than a century and
a half ago, and has always been carried on by private enterprise, it is
still in a flourishing state. It was established in 1751, chiefly
through the exertions of Dr. Wall, a physician and a good practical
chemist, who in conjunction with others formed the "Worcester Porcelain
Company." The early productions were principally of the useful
description, and were sold at a cheaper rate than the wares of Bow and
Chelsea. About the year 1757, the important method of multiplying
designs upon the biscuit ware by means of transferring impressions of
engraved copper plates to the surface, was adopted at Worcester almost
at the same time as at Liverpool, the invention being in fact claimed by
both; but specimens are found bearing the names of Sadler and Green of
Liverpool, and Richard Holdship and Robert Hancock of Worcester, dated
in the same year. Bat printing succeeded the printing from engraved or
etched plates. This new style was accomplished thus: instead of the
design being first printed upon paper and then transferred, the plate
was stippled with a fine point by London artists after designs of
landscapes, shells, fruit, and flowers by Cipriani, Bartolozzi, Cosway,
and Angelica Kauffmann, who were so fashionable about the end of the
18th century. The copper plate being carefully cleaned, a thin coating
of linseed oil was laid upon it, and removed by the palm of the hand
from the surface, leaving the oil in the engraved spots; instead of
paper, bats of glue were used, cut into squares of the size of the
engraving; one of these bats was pressed on to the plate, so as to
receive the oil out of the engraved holes, and laid on to the china,
transferring the oil to the surface; it was then dusted with the colour
required, the superfluous colour being removed carefully with cotton
wool, and the china was then placed in the kiln.

[Illustration: FIG. 283.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

In 1783 the Worcester porcelain works were purchased by Mr. Thomas
Flight, from whom they afterwards passed to Messrs. Flight and Barr; the
principal painters at this time were: J. Pennington, who painted
figures; S. Astles, flowers; G. Davis, exotic birds in the Chelsea
style; Webster, landscapes and flowers; J. Barker, shells; Brewer of
Derby, landscapes; while Thomas Baxter, an accomplished artist, painted
figure subjects.

The Worcester works remained with Messrs. Flight & Barr until 1840, when
the two principal manufactories of Worcester--that of Flight & Barr, and
that of the Messrs. Chamberlain, were amalgamated; the plant and stock
were removed to the premises of the latter, and the new firm was styled
Chamberlain & Co. The last-named works were established by Robert
Chamberlain in 1786; he was the first apprentice at the Old Worcester
Porcelain Company, and he and his brother Humphrey took premises in High
Street. At first they only decorated porcelain, which they bought of
Turner of Caughley; but they afterwards manufactured largely on their
own account, and their business increased to a great extent, being
patronised by the royal family.

[Illustration: FIG. 284.--PORTION OF A TEA SERVICE. _Japanese pattern,
blue, red, and gold._]

[Illustration: FIG. 285.--PORTION OF A TEA SERVICE. _Transfer coloured,
and partly gilt._]

These two works which were united in 1840, remained so until 1852, when
Messrs. Kerr & Binns became the ostensible proprietors. In 1862 another
Joint Stock Company was formed, Mr. R. W. Binns having the direction of
the artistic department and Mr. Edward Phillips being general
superintendent.

SWINTON, near Rotherham. The manufacture of porcelain at the
ROCKINGHAM WORKS was introduced, under the patronage of the Earl
Fitzwilliam, about the year 1823 by Thomas Brameld, who spared no
expense in endeavouring to bring it to perfection. The china was of a
superior description, and the painting and decoration were of a high
character. In 1832 royal patronage was obtained and a magnificent
service was ordered by King William IV.; instead, however, of placing
the firm in a flourishing condition, it was actually the cause of its
ruin, for the expense incurred by the engagement of first-class artists,
and the super-abundance of gold employed in decorating the service,
resulted in so great a loss that the manufacture was totally
discontinued a few years after.

[Illustration: FIG. 286.--PLATE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 287.--VASE. _Centre-piece of the service made for
King William IV._ Height 14 in.]

DERBY. The earliest manufactory was called "The Derby Pot Works," and
was carried on at Cock Pit Hill by Messrs. John and Christopher Heath
for pottery and porcelain. It is said to have been on an extensive
scale, but little is known of its operations. The proprietors, who were
bankers in Full Street, became bankrupt in 1780, when the stock was sold
and the works discontinued.

[Illustration: FIG. 288.--GROUP. _Chelsea Derby._]

[Illustration: FIG. 289.--PAIR OF VASES. _Chelsea Derby._]

[Illustration: FIG. 290.--PLATE. _With flowers by Billingsley._]

The "Derby Porcelain Manufactory" was founded in 1751 by William
Duesbury; the first productions were chimney ornaments, lambs, sheep,
and services for the table, but it was probably not until he purchased
the Chelsea works in 1769 that any great reputation was acquired, and
few if any of the early specimens can be identified. Some beautiful
examples of porcelain painted in the Chinese style were produced about
this time, but as the rage for oriental ware seemed so prevalent, the
proprietor, to insure the sale of his china, copied the Chinese marks as
well as the style of decoration. Crown Derby was produced from 1780, and
was continued by Bloor, the successor of Duesbury, as late as 1830.
After the purchase of the Chelsea and Bow works, the Derby porcelain
manufactory rose to great importance, the proprietors having of course
retained the best workmen who had been engaged there. In fact, with all
the models and moulds, the mixers, throwers, and painters of those two
great establishments, the manufactory may be considered as the Chelsea
and Bow works continued in another locality. Upon the death of William
Duesbury, in 1785, his son William continued the business, and a third
William Duesbury succeeded in the beginning of the last century. About
1815, Robert Bloor took over the works, which were altogether closed in
1848. An offshoot, however, is still carried on.

[Illustration: FIG. 291.--CUP, COVER, AND SAUCER. _Crown Derby._]

[Illustration: FIG. 292.--SCENT VASE. _Crown Derby._]

[Illustration: FIG. 293.--CUP, COVER, AND SAUCER. _Crown Derby._]

BURTON-ON-TRENT. A manufactory of earthenware was established here early
in the last century, and from about 1839 porcelain was made for seven
years.

[Illustration: FIG. 294.--COMPORT.]

WIRKSWORTH. A manufactory of china as well as pottery, established by a
Mr. Gill, existed here about 1770, and continued for about twenty years.

[Illustration: FIG. 295.--CUP.]

PINXTON in Derbyshire. Established about 1795, by Billingsley in
partnership with John Coke; the former was a practical potter, having
been engaged at the Derby works as a flower painter, in which capacity
he excelled; he brought with him a staff of workmen and their families,
and the factory went on successfully for about five or six years, when
Billingsley left; it was continued by Coke, and afterwards by Cutts the
foreman, but was altogether discontinued about 1812. The ware made here
by Billingsley was of a peculiar transparent character; and a favourite
pattern was the French sprig or "Chantilly," being an imitation of the
Angoulême china.

[Illustration: FIG. 296.--JARDINIÈRE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 297.--SUGAR BOWL AND COVER.]

LOWESTOFT. According to Gillingham's _History of Lowestoft_, written in
1790, an attempt was made to manufacture porcelain there in 1756 by Mr.
Hewlin Luson of Gunton Hall, he having found some fine clay on his
estate suitable for the purpose, and in the following year Messrs.
Gillingwater, Walker, Browne, Aldred, and Richman, established the
Lowestoft porcelain works, which existed until 1802. The porcelain was
of soft paste, and in 1902 fragments of it and moulds were found on the
site of the factory. The theory that hard paste was made at Lowestoft or
that Chinese porcelain was painted there has now been abandoned.

PLYMOUTH. About the year 1755 William Cookworthy commenced his
experiments to ascertain the nature of true porcelain of hard paste,
and searched with great perseverance throughout England for the
materials which were the constituent parts of Chinese porcelain. At
length a friend of his discovered on the estate of Lord Camelford, in
the parish of St. Stephen's, Cornwall, "a certain white saponaceous
clay, and close by it a species of granite or moorstone, white with
greenish spots, which he immediately perceived to be the two long
sought-for ingredients, the one giving whiteness and body to the paste,
the other vitrification and transparency."

[Illustration: FIG. 298.--COFFEE-POT.]

[Illustration: FIG. 299.--BEAKER AND COVER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 300.--CENTREPIECE.]

The patent was obtained in 1768, and the materials were described as
growan stone and growan clay. The works were carried on for nearly six
years, and consequently a considerable quantity of ware was made.
Cookworthy engaged the services of a French artist, M. Soqui, whose
ornamental delineations on the articles produced here were very
beautiful. Some elegant salt-cellars and table ornaments in the form of
open conch shells resting on a bed of coral, &c., all well modelled in
hard paste, were favourites for the table.

[Illustration: FIG. 301.--A SHEPHERDESS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 302.--A SHEPHERD.]

Cookworthy and Lord Camelford continued to work this manufactory until
1774, when the patent right was sold and transferred to Richard
Champion.

BRISTOL. A manufactory of _soft paste_ porcelain was founded at Bristol
about 1750. Later Richard Champion, having in 1774 purchased
Cookworthy's patent, opened a manufactory for _hard paste_. The ware was
brought to great perfection, but the large outlay prevented its being
remunerative, and in three or four years he sold his interest in the
patent to a company of Staffordshire potters.

[Illustration: FIG. 303.--BOWL AND COVER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 304.--DISH.]

CAUGHLEY, near Broseley, Salop. Established in 1751 by a Mr. Brown, and
afterwards carried on by a Mr. Gallimore. It was not until 1772 that it
rose to any importance, when Thomas Turner commenced operations. He came
from the Worcester porcelain manufactory; he was an engraver, and
probably learnt his art from Robert Hancock.

[Illustration: FIG. 305.--MUG. _Painted in blue._]

[Illustration: FIG. 306.--PLATE. _Blue willow pattern._]

The excellence of Turner's porcelain gained him great patronage. In 1780
he produced the celebrated "willow pattern," and completed the first
blue printed table service made in England. Thomas Minton of Stoke
assisted in the completion of it, being articled as an engraver at
Caughley.

In 1799 Turner retired and John Rose became proprietor; the latter
removed the works to Coalport about 1814 or 1815.

COALPORT, in Shropshire. The porcelain works here were established about
1780 by John Rose, who had removed his manufactory from Jackfield. He
carried on this and the Caughley works simultaneously. In 1820, both
the Swansea and the Nantgarw manufactories having been purchased, they
were incorporated with Coalport, and Billingsley of Nantgarw was engaged
as mixer of the clays; he remained at Coalport until his death in 1828.
The "worm sprig" and the "Tournay sprig" were much made at Coalport.

[Illustration: FIG. 307.--DISH. _Marked "Coalport improved Feltspar_
(sic) _Porcelain_."]

COLEBROOK DALE is another name for the Coalport works.

STOKE-ON-TRENT. The first Josiah Spode had a factory here in 1784 for
the production of earthenware. He died in 1797 and was succeeded by his
son Josiah, who commenced the manufacture of porcelain about 1800. He
was a most successful man of business and was appointed potter to the
Prince of Wales. Josiah Spode took William Copeland into partnership,
and the works are still carried on by Messrs. Copeland & Sons.

[Illustration: FIG. 308.--CUP, COVER, AND SAUCER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 309.--VASE.]

HERBERT MINTON when he succeeded to the business at Stoke-on-Trent (see
page 236), greatly developed the manufacture of hard and soft
porcelain, and copies were made of Sèvres porcelain vases.

[Illustration: FIG. 310.--BOWL. _Blue and gold, painted with flowers._]

LONGTON HALL. A porcelain factory was established here about 1752 by
William Littler. The ware appears to have been rather vitreous in
character, and somewhat resembles Chelsea and Bow porcelain. The works
closed about 1759, and the moulds, &c., are believed to have been
purchased by Duesbury of Derby.

[Illustration: LONGTON HALL

FIG. 311.--VASE.]

BOW. The manufactory of porcelain at Stratford-le-Bow was established
about the middle of the 18th century. Thomas Frye, an eminent painter,
appears to have been instrumental in bringing the china to that
perfection for which the manufactory was celebrated. He took out two
patents for the improvement of porcelain; the first in 1744 was in
conjunction with Edward Heylyn, the second in 1749. In 1750 the works
were disposed of to Messrs. Weatherby & Crowther.

[Illustration: FIG. 312.--TEAPOT. _Printed with King of Prussia._]

[Illustration: FIG. 313.--BOWL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 314.--PLATE. _Printed with Æneas and Anchises._]

[Illustration: FIG. 315.--STATUETTE, "FLORA."]

[Illustration: FIG. 316.--BUST OF GEORGE II.]

The interesting bowl (now in the British Museum), made at the Bow works
in the year 1760, and painted by Thomas Craft, is accompanied by a short
history of the works, which informs us that the names of the
proprietors were known all over the world, that they employed 300
persons, about 90 painters, and 200 turners, throwers, &c., all under
one roof. (See Fig. 313.) In 1775 or 1776 the works were sold to
Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby.

[Illustration: FIG. 317.--GROUP: "A TEA PARTY."]

For a more detailed account of the Bow porcelain manufactory, the reader
is referred to _Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain_, by W.
Chaffers.

CHELSEA. This celebrated porcelain manufactory was established about
1740, shortly after that of Bow, and the early productions of the two
are frequently mistaken one for the other; but, fortunately, the Chelsea
wares, especially the finest pieces, were subsequently marked with an
anchor in gold or red. The period of its greatest excellence was from
1750 to 1765.

The early pieces were copied principally from the Oriental, being
decorated with Chinese patterns, and these were marked with an embossed
anchor.

[Illustration: FIG. 318.--MARSHAL CONWAY.]

[Illustration: FIG. 319.--SHEPHERD.]

The beautiful vases in the French style, in imitation of Sèvres, with
_gros bleu_, crimson, turquoise, and apple-green grounds were made from
1760 to 1765.

In 1769, by order of M. Sprimont, the proprietor, the Chelsea porcelain
manufactory was sold by auction.

[Illustration: FIG. 320.--VASE. "DEATH OF CLEOPATRA."]

The works were purchased by W. Duesbury of Derby, and carried on by him
at Chelsea until 1784. The later pieces made here under his direction
are easily distinguished; these vessels are of simple elegant forms,
with the frequent recurrence of gold stripes, and the same forms and
style were adopted simultaneously at Derby, but they are inferior to
the vases made when M. Sprimont had the works under his direction.

WALES

SWANSEA. The manufacture of porcelain was revived at Swansea in 1814 by
L. L. Dillwyn. At that time Billingsley had commenced making his
porcelain at Nantgarw; it naturally attracted Dillwyn's attention, and
conceiving that the kilns used by Billingsley & Walker might be
considerably improved, he made arrangements with them to carry on their
process at Swansea. Hence the origin of the Swansea porcelain, which
obtained great repute, and was continued for six or seven years. Baxter,
a clever painter of figure subjects, left Worcester and entered
Dillwyn's service in 1816 and continued there for three years, returning
to Worcester in 1819. In the year 1820 the manufactory was discontinued,
and all the moulds and appliances were purchased by John Rose, who
removed them to Coalport about the same time as those of Nantgarw.

[Illustration: FIG. 321.--PLATE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 322.--PLATE.]

NANTGARW. Established in 1813 by Billingsley, the celebrated flower
painter of Derby, with Walker, after they left Worcester. They produced
some very fine porcelain, of the same peculiar character as that of
Pinxton, with a sort of vitreous appearance and a granulated fracture
like that of lump sugar. Being very soft the paste would not in all
cases stand the heat of the kiln; some of the early pieces are
consequently found cracked on the glaze, or slightly warped and bent.

[Illustration: FIG. 323.--PLATE.]

[Illustration: FIG. 324.--CUP AND SAUCER.]

The Nantgarw porcelain was of remarkably fine body and texture, but its
production was expensive. About the year 1820 the manufacture was
discontinued; Billingsley and Walker having disposed of their interest
in the concern to J. Rose, the moulds and everything connected with the
works were removed to Coalport.

[Illustration: FIG. 325.--VASE.]



ORIENTAL POTTERY AND PORCELAIN


CHINA

The porcelain of China is composed of two earths, the one a decomposed
felspathic rock called _kaolin_, and the other a rock of the same
geological origin, mixed with quartz, called _petuntse_. They both
harmonise so completely that they have an equally resisting power when
placed in the kiln. The _kaolin_ used in making porcelain is much softer
than _petuntse_ when dug out of the quarry, yet it is this which, by its
mixture with the other, gives strength and firmness to the work.

Chinese porcelain was classified by the late Dr. S. W. Bushell, C.M.G.,
under the following periods:--

1. Primitive period, including the _Sung_ dynasty (960-1279) and the
_Yuan_ dynasty (1280-1367).

2. Ming period, comprising the whole of the _Ming_ dynasty (1368-1643).

3. K'ang Hsi period, extending from the fall of the Ming dynasty to the
close of the reign of _K'ang Hsi_ (1662-1722).

4. Yung Chêng and Chiên Lung period (1723-1795), the two reigns being
conjoined.

5. Modern period, from the beginning of the reign of _Chia Ch'ing_ to
the present day.

[Illustration: FIG. 326.--STONEWARE VASE. _With Céladon green glaze.
Ming dynasty._]

The most ancient mode of decoration was the blue _camaïeu_, and it is
still much esteemed in China; it was executed on the ware, simply dried
before the glaze was applied, and then placed in the kiln. Being all
completed in one baking, _au grand feu_, the painting thus executed
became imperishable.

[Illustration: FIG. 327.--STONEWARE VASE. _With Céladon crackle glaze._]

It is on this blue ware that the greater number of the Chinese
characters are found denoting the period in which the porcelain was
made. The cobalt on the earlier pieces was not so fine as on those of
the _Siouen-te_ and _Ching-hoa_ periods, which are now much sought
after. It is extremely difficult to tell even the approximate date of
the coloured pieces, especially as there was a conventional method of
decorating them which had been practised from time immemorial; the
painters worked according to given models or patterns, and monsters,
deities, or flowers and landscapes, of the same uncouth and rude
designs, were placed in successive ages upon the ware.

[Illustration: FIG. 328.--PORCELAIN VASE. _Painted in enamel colours._]

The Père d'Entrecolles tells us the manner of painting vases in China,
and how the different parts of a landscape on one vase were intrusted
to various hands according to their ability to paint special objects
mechanically. He says: "One is employed solely to form the coloured
circle which is seen round the border of the ware, a second traces the
flowers in outline, which a third fills in with colour; another excels
only in painting the water and the mountains, while the next is only
competent to portray birds or animals."

[Illustration: FIG. 329.--PORCELAIN EWER. _Painted in enamel colours,
and mounted with Florentine copper gilt. 17th century._]

A sort of very hard stoneware, covered with a thick glaze, may be the
most ancient description seen at the present day. The surface is covered
with a semi-opaque glaze which is called _céladon_ by the French, and
which varies in colour from a russet grey to a sea green. The glaze of
this ware is frequently seen crackled all over in irregular lines, which
is termed in England _crackle_. This crackle china is the most esteemed
of Oriental porcelain, although it arises from a _defective_ cause.

[Illustration: FIG. 330.--BOTTLE. _Powder blue porcelain. Ming
dynasty._]

[Illustration: FIG. 331.--JAR. _Painted with plum blossoms. Ming
dynasty._]

The same effect may be easily produced upon all terra-cottas of which
the paste is more sensible to the changes of temperature than the
exterior coating or glaze. In fayence this accident is of frequent
occurrence; the red porous clay, being more expansive, draws away the
enamel, which, being less elastic, is separated into fragments, and the
greater the resistance the more they are multiplied. Now one of the
qualities of porcelain is precisely to avoid this double action. Its
paste is composed of a felspathic rock, decomposed and infusible, called
_kaolin_; the cover or glaze comes also from a felspathic rock, slightly
crystallised; these melt and assimilate together harmoniously in
vitrification, and a complete affinity is evident between the two
elements of porcelain. Nevertheless the Chinese, in modifying the glaze,
are able to render it more or less expansive and to break the harmony
between its own shrinkage and that of the paste or body which it covers.

[Illustration: FIG. 332.--PLATE. _Egg shell porcelain._]

Hence the crackle, at the option of the potter, is made of large,
middling, or small size.

Various kinds of crackle are thus produced, sometimes upon one and the
same piece, as by exposing the porcelain or portions of it when at its
greatest heat to a sudden cold or contact of water, large fissures may
be obtained. These cracks are sometimes filled in with black, red,
chocolate, or purple colours.

Others may be classed among the curiosities of porcelain--for example,
cups or bowls which have an outer reticulated coating, pierced or cut
out into arabesques, completely insulated from the inner vessel, except
at the rim at top and bottom where it is joined; these have been used
for tea or hot liquids, and may be held in the hand with impunity,
notwithstanding the heat enclosed within it.

[Illustration: FIG. 333.--PLATE. _Egg shell porcelain._]

Another variety consists in cutting or punching out pieces of the paste
or body of the ware in patterns before it is baked; the pieces so cut
out are small ovals like grains of rice placed in more or less numerous
stars, rosettes, &c. The vase thus ornamented is dipped into the glaze
which fills up all these small holes, and then placed in the kiln. The
pattern, being much more transparent than the body of the ware, is
distinctly seen, but especially so when held to the light.

Another beautiful effect is produced by means of the glaze itself, which
is of a light or dark shade according to its intensity or thickness; for
example: a fish, animal, or other object is stamped incuse on the upper
surface of a plate, it is then filled in with a coloured glaze and
vitrified, and is consequently shaded according to the thickness of the
glaze on each portion of the design, the surface being perfectly smooth.

Vases are sometimes seen separated in the middle into two pieces (which
must have been cut while the clay was soft), the upper half being
completely divided from the lower half--in arabesques and dove-tail
patterns, in such a manner, that although separate, they cannot be
altogether removed from each other; the wonder is, that in the baking,
the edges in juxtaposition should not have become again cemented
together.

The Chinese themselves are great forgers, and endeavour to impose not
only upon the Europeans, but upon their own countrymen, many of whom are
great amateurs, and are willing to pay extravagant prices for ancient
examples of porcelain, especially if made by a celebrated potter.


JAPAN

The information concerning the origin of making porcelain in Japan is
very scanty. Dr. Hoffmann of Leyden published a history of the principal
porcelain manufactories in 1799, which is appended to M. Stanislas
Julien's account of those of China: it was a translation from a Japanese
work. He says it was to a colony of Koræans established in the province
of Omi, in the island of Nippon, in the year 27 B.C., that the
introduction of this art was attributed. About the same epoch there
lived in the province of Idsumi, situated like that of Omi in the island
of Nippon, a man named _Nomino Sukuné_, who made, in pottery and
porcelain, vases and notably figures of the size of life, to substitute
for slaves, which it had been previously the custom to bury with their
masters. _Nomino_ received as a recompense authorisation to take the
name of _Fazi_, in the Koræan language _Patzi_, artist-workman.

Under _Sei-wa_ (859-876 A.D.) the number of fabriques increased
considerably.

Under _Syun-tok_ (1211-1221), a Japanese potter named _Katosiro-uye-mon_
commenced the making of small vases in which to preserve tea, but for
want of a better process he placed them in the kiln on their orifices,
which consequently appeared as if they had been used, and the vases were
little cared for. Desirous of improving himself in the art, _Katosiro_,
accompanied by a Bonze or Buddhist monk, visited China in 1211, with
orders from his Government to make himself acquainted with all the
secret processes of the manufacture, which was at that time brought to
so great perfection there.

[Illustration: FIG. 334.--PORCELAIN VASE. _Hizen ware. About 1690._]

[Illustration: FIG. 335.--FUKUROKUJI. _The god of longevity._]

On his return, he made such important improvements in the composition
and decoration of porcelain that henceforth it became superior in many
instances to the Chinese, especially in the manufacture of the best
specimens, upon which much time and labour were bestowed. The porcelain
of Japan is very much like that of China, but the colours are more
brilliant on the fine pieces; it has a better finish, and the designs
are more of the European character, the flowers, birds, &c., being
more natural, and the ky-lins, dragons, and other monsters less hideous;
the paste is of better quality and a purer white, especially in ware of
the 17th and 18th centuries.

[Illustration: FIG. 336.--SAKÉ CUP AND STAND. _Porcelain gold ornament
on red ground._]

[Illustration: FIG. 337.--STONEWARE JAR. _Ôto ware._]

[Illustration: FIG. 338.--PORCELAIN VASE. _Kishin ware._]

[Illustration: FIG. 339.--CANDLESTICK. _Tozan porcelain. Painted in
blue._]

Perhaps the most beautiful of all the porcelain made in Japan is the
_egg shell_, so called because it is extremely thin and translucent, yet
so compact that it can be formed into large vases, as well as plates and
bowls or cups.

The small cups without saucers, which are usually placed upon
_présentoirs_ of lac, are seldom painted on the exterior; but within is
frequently found a fillet of gold, and slight sketches in blue or gold
indicating the outline of a mountain, the sun, clouds, and a line of
birds taking flight, or sometimes animals, all in outline. On other
pieces are birds, flowers, and animals delicately painted in colours.

[Illustration: FIG. 340.--FLASK. _Satsuma ware._]

The art has been continued to the present day; those beautiful and
extremely delicate cups and saucers, thin as paper, are frequently seen
covered on the outside with a casing of bamboo threads woven together;
the larger basins and covers are also made of equally thin porcelain.

All these are produced now, as they were in ancient times, at Imari, in
the province of Hizen. It is not in the village itself that these
manufactories are established, but as many as twenty-four or
twenty-five are situated near the mountain of _Idsumi-yama_, whence the
kaolin is obtained of which the vessels are made.

Crackle china was made in Japan as well as in China from a very early
period, and was frequently painted with flowers, landscapes, and birds.

[Illustration: FIG. 341.--INCENSE-BURNER. _Imari porcelain. 18th
century._]

According to the late Sir Augustus W. Franks, K.C.B., "the ceramic wares
of Japan exhibit great differences in their composition, texture, and
appearance, but may be roughly classed under three principal heads: (1)
common pottery and stoneware, generally ornamented simply by scoring
and glazing the surface; (2) a cream-coloured _faïence_, with a glaze,
often crackled and delicately painted in colours; (3) hard porcelain.

"To the first of these classes belong the wares of Bizen, old Seto,
Shigaraki, and other small fabrics, including the Raku wares. The
principal factories of the second class are Awata, Satsuma, and the
recent imitations of the latter at Ôta and elsewhere. Among the
porcelain, the coarsest is that made at Kutani, but the most celebrated
fabrics are in the province of Hizen, at Seto in Owari, and Kiyomidzu
near Kiôto."


PERSIA, SYRIA, AND TURKEY

PERSIA

Siliceous-glazed wares were produced in Persia at a very early period,
and the late Mr. C. Drury E. Fortnum, in his _Historical Treatise on
Majolica_, states that the decoration by means of metallic lustre was
practised in that country in the course of the thirteenth century, if
not long before. Glass-glazed bricks, tiles, and other wares, were made
in Babylon at a remote period, as well as in Assyria and Egypt; and it
is probable that the art of their manufacture spread into the
surrounding countries.

The Persian ware is principally decorated with blue and black. The
lustres are a rich orange gold, a dark copper colour, and a brass
lustre. The patterns upon the tiles and vases are similar, and consist
of elegant arabesques, foliage, and ornamented flowers, more or less in
imitation of nature. Among these we notice the tulip, the Indian pink,
the rose, and other flowers. The tulip in Persia is the emblem of
Affection, which is thus symbolised at the present day. The bowls and
vases are sometimes ornamented with fabulous birds, gazelles, antelopes,
hares, &c., mixed with scrolls and foliage. The forms include
hemispherical and cylindrical cups, vases, and bowls on conical feet;
common forms are a bottle with a very long neck, probably used to hold
wine, and ewers and basins, the former like a bottle with handle and
long spout, used especially for ablutions, the latter with a pierced
cover. The tiles being mostly made to cover walls, form continuous
arabesques when placed side by side. Chardin says of them, "In truth,
nothing can be seen more lively or more brilliant than this sort of
work, nor of equally fine design."

[Illustration: FIG. 342.--WALL TILE. _Glazed earthenware. 13th
century._]

The Persian fayence was probably the same as the Gombroon ware, which
was shipped by the English East India Company from a port of that name
in the Persian Gulf, where they formed their first establishment about
the year 1600, and whence the great bulk of Chinese porcelain was
exported.

[Illustration: FIG. 343.--WATER-BOTTLE. _With metallic lustre. 15th or
16th century._]

It has long been a _vexata quæstio_ whether porcelain was ever made in
Persia; some say the idea is altogether chimerical, but M. Jacquemart
endeavours to prove that both hard and soft porcelain were made at Iran,
and has devoted three or four long chapters to the support of his theory
(_Les Merveilles de la Céramique_).

[Illustration: FIG. 344.--DISH FOR RICE.]

The nearest approach to porcelain in Persian ware is a sort of siliceous
frit or fine stoneware, which possesses a very slight degree of
translucency but is not true porcelain composed of kaolin and petuntse
like Chinese porcelain. Small creamy white basins, with the sides
pierced with slashes and filled with translucent glazes, are
semi-translucent and have the appearance of porcelain.

[Illustration: FIG. 345.--ROSE-WATER SPRINKLER.]

[Illustration: FIG. 346.--ROSE-WATER SPRINKLER.]

SYRIA AND TURKEY

Dr. Fortnum was of opinion that what is generally known as DAMASCUS ware
was probably made not only in that city but at Constantinople, Broussa,
and all the principal sites of manufacturing industry throughout Syria
and Asia Minor. It is distinguished by the great brilliancy of its
enamel colours, the principal of which are a deep lapis-lazuli blue,
turquoise, a vivid emerald green, a brilliant red purple, orange or
buff, olive green and black. The pieces consist principally of circular
dishes, jugs with long cylindrical necks and globular bodies, flasks,
&c., and the best specimens were probably produced during the first half
of the 16th century.

[Illustration: FIG. 347.--DAMASCUS PLATE. _Painted in colours._]

Remains of potteries are stated to have been found at Lindus on the
Island of Rhodes, and at one period all the ware of Asia Minor was
attributed to those works and was called Rhodian. The pottery actually
manufactured there appears, however, to have been of a somewhat coarser
character than that made at Damascus and elsewhere. Richly painted
tiles with diapering and conventional floral patterns under a vitreous
glaze were used largely for the decoration of palaces, mosques, and
tombs throughout Asia Minor and Syria; these tiles are also to be found
at Constantinople.

[Illustration: FIG. 348.--DAMASCUS DISH.]

[Illustration: FIG. 349.--RHODIAN PLATE.]



INDEX


  _Adams, William_, 234

  Alcora, 47, 129

  Amstel, Oude, 173

  Amsterdam, 105, 172

  Anspach, 143

  Aprey, 74

  Apt, 53

  Armentières, 74

  Arnstadt, 98

  Arras, 193

  Asia Minor, 310

  _Astbury_, 228

  Avignon, 54


  Baden-Baden, 156

  Baranowka, 182

  Bassano, 35

  Bayreuth, 87, 144

  Beauvais, 53

  Berlin, 135

  Blois, 54

  Boissette, 200

  _Booth, Enoch_, 234

  Boulogne-sur-Mer, 194

  Bourg-la-Reine, 80, 196

  Bow, 274

  Bradwell, 230

  Bristol, 251, 269

  Broussa, 310

  Brussels, 177

  Buen Retiro, 127

  Bunzlau, 95

  Burslem, 220

  Burton-on-Trent, 264


  Cadborough, 252

  Caen, 201

  Cafaggiolo, 19

  Capo di Monte, 114

  Castel Durante, 10

  Castelli, 27

  Castleford, 246

  Caughley, 270

  _Chaffers, Richard_, 240

  Chantilly, 189

  Château-la-Lune, 74

  Chelsea, 279

  China, 285

  Città di Castello, 37

  Clignancourt, 197

  Closter Veilsdorf, 146

  Coalport, 241, 271

  Cobridge, 234

  Colebrook Dale, 272

  Cologne (Köln), 88

  Constantinople, 312

  Copenhagen, 185

  Creil, 80


  Damascus, 310

  _Davenport, Messrs._, 235

  Delft, 100

  Derby, 260

  Diruta, 15

  Doccia, 113

  Don Pottery, 245

  Douai, 78

  Dresden, 96, 130

  _Dwight, John_, 241


  _Elers, John Philip_, 230

  Étiolles, 195

  Etruria, 221


  Faenza, 12

  Faïence d'Oiron, 50

  Fenton, 234

  Ferrara, 34

  Florence, 26, 112

  Fontainebleau, 207

  Forlì, 17

  Frankenthal, 98, 139

  Frechen, 89

  Fulda, 148

  Fulham, 241

  Fürstenberg, 149


  Genoa, 35

  Gera, 155

  Gotha, 158

  Great Yarmouth, 250

  Grenzhausen, 92

  Grossbreitenbach, 153

  Gubbio, 6


  Hagenau, 63

  Hague, The, 174

  Hanley, 231

  Harburg, 95

  Henri Deux ware, 50

  Herend, 166

  Hispano-Moresque ware, 41

  Höchst, 96, 138

  _Hollins, Samuel_, 229


  Infreville, 74


  Jackfield, 240

  Japan, 295


  Kelsterbach, 144

  Kiel, 99

  Kloster Veilsdorf, 146

  Korzec, 182

  Kreussen, 94


  La Fratta, 39

  Lambeth, 243

  Lane Delph, 236

  Lane End, 235

  Lauenstein, 89, 96

  Leeds, 245

  Leipzig, 86

  Lille, 81, 195

  Limbach, 155

  Limburg, 89

  Liverpool, 237

  Longton Hall, 274

  Longport, 235

  Loosdrecht, Oude, 171

  Loreto, 37

  Lowesby, 251

  Lowestoft, 265

  Ludwigsburg, 151

  Lunéville, 72, 198

  Luxemburg, 106, 177


  Madrid, 127

  Majorca, 42

  Malaga, 42

  Malicorne, 74

  Manerbe, 74

  Manises, 46

  Marieberg, 109, 184

  Marseilles, 69, 202

  _Mason, Miles_, 236

  _Mayer, Elijah_, 232

  Meissen, 130

  Mennecy-Villeroy, 191

  Milan, 31

  _Minton, Herbert_, 236, 273

  _Minton, Thomas_, 236

  Monte Lupo, 30

  Montereau, 81

  Moscow, 180

  Moustiers, 65

  Murano, 25


  Nantgarw, 283

  Naples, 30, 114

  _Neale_, 233

  Neudeck, 141

  Nevers, 56

  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 248

  New Hall China Works, 230

  Niderviller, 76, 198

  Nottingham, 249

  Nove, 25, 122

  Nuremberg (Nürnberg), 84

  Nymphenburg, 141

  Nyon, 168


  Oberdorf, 87

  Oiron, Faïence d', 50

  Orleans, 198

  Overtoom, 106

  Oude Amstel, 173

  Oude Loosdrecht, 171


  Padua, 26

  _Palissy, Bernard_, 55

  _Palmer_, 233

  Paris, 203

    "    Belleville, 207

    "    Faubourg St. Honoré, 205

    "    Pont-aux-Choux, 206

    "    Rue de Bondy, 204

    "    Rue de Crussol, 207

    "    Rue Fontaine au Roi, 205

    "    Rue du Faubourg St. Denis, 208

    "    Rue Thiroux, 203

  Pavia, 39

  Persia, 304

  Pesaro, 8

  Pinxton, 264

  Pisa, 23

  Plymouth, 266


  Raeren, 89

  Ratisbon, 153

  Rauenstein, 158

  Ravenna, 18

  Regensburg, 153

  Rhodes, Island of, 310

  Rimini, 18

  Rockingham, 247, 260

  Rörstrand, 107

  Rouen, 59, 190

  Rudolstadt, 147


  St. Anthony's, 248

  St. Armand-les-Eaux, 79, 202

  St. Clément, 76

  St. Cloud, 187

  St. Petersburg, 107, 179

  St. Porchaire, 50

  Salopian, 270

  Sarreguemines (Saargemünd), 78

  Savona, 36

  Sceaux Penthièvre, 79, 192

  Scherzheim, 96

  Schlaggenwald, 166

  Sèvres, 209

  Sgraffiato, 37

  _Shawe, Ralph_, 227

  Shelton, 228

  Siegburg, 89

  Siena, 20

  Sinceny, 70

  _Spode, Josiah_, 272

  Staffordshire, 217

  _Steel, Moses_, 228

  Stockholm, 109

  Stoke-on-Trent, 236, 272

  Strassburg, 63, 202

  Strehla, 87

  Swansea, 253, 282

  Swinton, 247, 258

  Syria, 310


  Talavera, 48

  Teinitz, 98

  Thuringia, 145

  _Toft, Ralph_, 219

  _Toft, Thomas_, 219

  Toulouse, 76

  Tournai, 175

  Treviso, 18, 117

  Triana, 46

  Tunstall, 234

  Turkey, 310

  Turin, 33, 118

  _Turner, John_, 235


  Urbino, 1

  Utrecht, 105


  Valencia, 44

  Valenciennes, 201

  Varages, 68

  Venice, 24, 119

  Vienna, 160

  Vincennes, 78, 208, 209

  Vineuf, 118

  Vinovo, 118

  Viterbo, 18

  Volkstedt, 146

  _Voyez, J._, 233


  Wallendorf, 158

  _Warburton, J._, 234

  Wedgwood, 220

  Weesp, 170

  _Whieldon, Thomas_, 234

  Wirksworth, 264

  _Wood, Aaron_, 227

  _Wood, Enoch_, 228

  _Wood, Ralph_, 227

  Worcester, 255


  Yarmouth, Great, 250

  Yearsley, 244

  York, 245


  Zürich, 168



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.

Edinburgh & London



Footnotes:

[1] As Strassburg and Hagenau belonged to France at this period, they
are included in the French section.

[2] Now Niederweiler, in Germany.

[3] Now Saargemünd, belonging to Germany.



Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

Superscripted letters are shown in {superscript}.

Punctuation has been corrected without note.

The misprint "propuctions" has been corrected to "productions" (page 132).





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