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Title: The Cooking Manual of Practical Directions for Economical Every-Day Cookery
Author: Corson, Juliet, 1842-1897
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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THE

COOKING MANUAL

OF

PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS FOR ECONOMICAL
EVERY-DAY COOKERY.


BY
JULIET CORSON.
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE NEW YORK COOKING SCHOOL.


"_How well can we live, if we are moderately poor?_"



NEW YORK:
DODD, MEAD & COMPANY,
751 BROADWAY.
1877.



COPYRIGHT

BY JULIET CORSON

1877.



PREFACE.


This book is intended for the use of those housekeepers and cooks who
wish to know how to make the most wholesome and palatable dishes at the
least possible cost. In cookery this fact should be remembered above all
others; A GOOD COOK NEVER WASTES. It is her pride to make the most of
everything in the shape of food entrusted to her care; and her pleasure
to serve it in the most appetizing form. In no other way can she prove
her excellence; for poor cooks are always wasteful and extravagant.

Housekeepers can safely make this book a guide for those of their cooks
who are willing to learn new and good methods of cooking familiar foods.
Lest it should be said that undue preference is given to foreign ways of
cooking, the author begs her readers to remember how much of the success
of any dish depends upon its taste; if it is well-flavored, and
palatably seasoned, the eaters of it do not closely criticise its
component parts. It is just there that benefit is derived from European
culinary skill; the judicious use of a few inexpensive sweet herbs, and
savory sauces, will raise a side dish, made from the cheapest cut of
meat, in gustatory excellence far above a badly cooked porterhouse
steak, or a large but poorly flavored roast. Because the art of
utilizing every part of food is eminently French, the NEW YORK COOKING
SCHOOL plan has been to adapt foreign thrift to home kitchen use. To
provide enough at each meal; to cook and serve it so as to invite
appetite; to make a handsome and agreeable dish out of the materials
which the average cook would give away at the door, or throw among the
garbage; all are accomplishments that our American wives and daughters
will be glad to learn from their European sisters.

The day has passed for regarding cooking as a menial and vulgar labor;
and those who give some thought to their daily food usually gain in
vigor and cheerfulness. It is a truism that food is concentrated force.
The manipulation of a motive power capable of invigorating both body and
mind, is an occupation worthy to employ intelligence and skill. In
countries where the people depend upon meagre supplies this art is
brought to perfection. The _pot-au-feu_ of France and Switzerland, the
_olla podrida_ of Spain, the _borsch_ of Poland, the _tschi_ of Russia,
the _macaroni_ of Italy, the _crowdie_ of Scotland, all are practical
examples of this fact. In no country in the world is there such an
abundance of food as in America; all the needful ingredients for making
these national dishes, or their equivalents, can be found in the markets
of our cities, and most of them are the products of this country. This
being true, there is no reason why American cookery should be so
comparatively limited--why the question of "what shall we have for
dinner to-day?" should be the despair of the inexperienced housekeeper.
If in no other land is there such profusion of food, certainly in none
is so much wasted from sheer ignorance, and spoiled by bad cooking. In
Europe provinces would live upon what towns waste here. The very herbs
of the field in the hands of a skilful cook can be transformed into
palatable and nutritious viands. The plainest and cheapest materials can
be prepared for the table in an appetizing and satisfactory form. Let
our readers test this fact by cooking according to the receipt any dish
named in the chapter upon "CHEAP DISHES WITHOUT MEAT," and the author
will stake her culinary reputation that the food so prepared will be
both palatable and nourishing.

Many persons regard the practice of serving several dishes at a meal as
troublesome and expensive. The first objection may hold good; but the
best results in any direction are never gained without trouble. The
second is wholly untenable; soup, fish, vegetables, and bread, are all
less costly than heavy joints of meat; if hunger can be partly satisfied
on them, and it is true that a thick slice of bread and a bowl of soup
will content the hungriest stomach, less meat will be required, and
consequently less expense incurred. This is an excellent reason why the
housewife should not spend the bulk of her market money on a large roast
of beef, or a leg of mutton, but should rather divide the amount among
the different dishes of soup, fish, a _ragout_, or stew of some cheap
cut of meat, and a few vegetables; and now and then indulge in a plain
pudding, or a little fruit for dessert. With judicious marketing and
proper cooking, the food of our well-to-do classes might be made far
better than two-thirds of that now served on the tables of the wealthy;
and the poor might learn that their scrag-end of mutton would furnish
them with at least three dishes. To forward in some measure this result,
the present collection of COOKING SCHOOL receipts is offered to the
public, with the assurance that every one given has been tested by the
author, and is complete in every detail, as economical as care and use
can make it, and plain enough for ordinary households. The quantities
mentioned in the various receipts are calculated to serve for a family
of eight persons, when two or more dishes constitute a dinner, with the
addition of soup; of course when only one dish is to form the meal, with
bread and vegetables, a larger quantity must be allowed.

Communications from all parts of the country state that the principles
of kitchen economy as taught in the NEW YORK COOKING SCHOOL and widely
disseminated by the press, have been put into practice in many families,
to the great improvement of health and temper; for an illy fed man can
neither be strong nor cheerful; the hours spent at table should be full
of harmony and content, or the meal will fail to meet the requirements
of the body. The question of the hour is "How well can we live, if we
are moderately poor?" The author of THE COOKING SCHOOL MANUAL is doing
her best to answer it satisfactorily. She has worked earnestly in a
comparatively new field of labor, and she prays that strong hands may
unite in the effort to show how excellent a thing it is to make the best
and most of the bountiful supply our country's teeming bosom bears at
every harvest tide.



CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

GENERAL RULES FOR MARKETING.

                                                                    PAGE

    Meats--Poultry--Game--Fish--Vegetables--Fruit--Sweet Herbs        15


CHAPTER II.

SOUP.

    General Stock--Flavoring, thickening, and coloring
    Soups--Consommé--Vermicelli and Macaroni Soup--Rice and
    Tomato Soup--Scotch Broth without Meat--Scotch Broth with
    Meat--Spinach Soup--Sorrel Soup--Pea Soup--Lentil Soup            22


CHAPTER III.

Fish.

    Baked Blackfish--Broiled Shad with _Maître d'hotel_ Butter--
    Fried Smelts--Fillet of Sole _au gratin_--Fish Chowder, St.
    James style--Club House Fish Cakes--Sardine Sandwiches--
    Warmed up Boiled Fish, with Dutch Sauce                           31


CHAPTER IV.

RELISHES.

    Anchovies--Sardines--Pickled Herrings--Scalloped Oysters--
    Welsh Rarebit--Golden Buck--Mock Crab--English Bread and
    Butter--Epicurean Butter                                          37


CHAPTER V.

SIDE DISHES OR ENTRÉES.

    Beef Steak, with Parisian Potatoes--Plain Rump Steak--
    Portuguese Beef--Bubble and Squeak--Stewed Kidneys--Haricot
    or Stew of Mutton--Epigramme of Lamb with Piquante Sauce--
    Spanish Sauce--Kromeskys with Spanish Sauce--Sheep's Tongues
    with Spinach--Broiled Sheep's Kidneys--Liver Rolls--Fried
    Brains with Tomato Sauce--Calf's Liver larded--Blanquette of
    Veal--Stuffed Breast of Veal--Pork Cutlets with Robert
    Sauce--Pork Chops with Curry--Broiled Pigs' Feet--English
    Pork Pie--Fried Chicken, Spanish Style--Chicken
    Fricassee--Grilled Fowl--Minced Chicken with
    Macaroni--Broiled Pigeons--Salmi of Duck--Civet of
    Hare--Jugged Hare--Stuffed Eggs--How to make Omelettes--
    Plain Omelette--Omelette with fine Herbs--Omelette with Ham--
    Omelette with Oysters--Omelette with Mushrooms--Spanish
    Omelette--Oriental Omelette--Omelette with Preserves--How to
    cook Macaroni--Macaroni with Béchamel Sauce--Macaroni
    Milanaise Style--Macaroni with Tomato Sauce--Timbale of
    Macaroni, with Vanilla Cream Sauce                                41


CHAPTER VI.

LARGE ROASTS.

    Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding--Roast Loin of Veal
    stuffed--Roast Lamb with Mint Sauce--Roast Pork with Apple
    Sauce--Roast Turkey with Cranberry Sauce--Roast Chicken with
    Duchesse Potatoes--Roast Duck with Watercresses--Roast Goose
    with Onion Sauce--Roast Wild Duck--Roast Partridge with Bread
    Sauce                                                             68


CHAPTER VII.

BOILED MEATS.

    Leg of Mutton with Caper Sauce--Boiled Ham with Madeira
    Sauce--_À la mode_ Beef--Boiled Fowl with Oyster Sauce            78


CHAPTER VIII.

SALADS AND SALAD SAUCES.

    Spring Salad--Watercress Salad--Mint Salad--Cauliflower
    Salad--Dandelion Salad--Asparagus Salad--Shad-roe
    Salad--Green Pea Salad--Orange Salad--Spinach Salad--Tomato
    Salad--Nasturtium Salad--Cream Dressing--English Salad
    Sauce--Remolade--Sweet Sauce--Piquante Salad Sauce--Green
    Remolade--Oil Sauce--Ravigote Sauce--Egg Dressing--Anchovy
    Salad Sauce--Swiss Dressing--Spring Dressing--Mayonnaise--Hot
    Salad Sauce--Romaine Salad Dressing                               83


CHAPTER IX.

VEGETABLES.

    Asparagus with Melted Butter--Green Peas--String Beans--Baked
    Beets--Brussels Sprouts--Stuffed Cabbage--Red Cabbage--Baked
    Cauliflower--Baked Turnips--Glazed Onions--Mushroom
    Pudding--Boiled Potatoes--Lyonnaise Potatoes--Stuffed
    Potatoes--Potato Snow--Bermuda Potatoes--Broiled
    Potatoes--Saratoga Potatoes--Broiled Tomatoes--Stuffed
    Tomatoes--Fried Beans--Ham and Beans--Kolcannon--Carrot
    Stew--Baked Mushrooms--Stuffed Lettuce--Stewed Parsnips           91


CHAPTER X.

CHEAP DISHES WITHOUT MEAT.

    Potato Soup--Crowdie--Peas-pudding--Red Herrings with Boiled
    Potatoes--Oatmeal Porridge--Cheese Pudding--Polenta--Fish
    Pudding--Lentils--Stewed Lentils--Fried Lentils--Norfolk
    Dumplings--Salt Cod with Parsnips--Pickled Mackerel--Potato
    Pudding                                                          101


CHAPTER XI.

CHEAP DISHES WITH MEAT.

    Three Dishes from a Neck of Mutton--Barley Broth with
    Vegetables--Mutton Stew--Fried Pudding--Neck of Pork
    Stuffed--Pigs' Feet Fried--Pigs' Tongue and Brains--Roast
    Tripe--Ragout of Haslet--Cock-a-leeky--Italian Cheese--Gammon
    Dumpling--Toad-in-the-hole--Bacon Roly-Poly--Baked
    Ox-heart--Tripe and Onions--Peas and
    Bacon--Pot-au-Feu--Ragout of Mutton                              107


CHAPTER XII.

THE CHILDREN'S CHAPTER.

    Oatmeal Porridge--A good Breakfast--Stewed Fruit--Ripe
    Currants--Blackberry Jam--Baked Fruit--Broiled
    Chops--Beefsteak--Broiled Chicken--Boiled Eggs--Baked
    Potatoes--Boiled Potatoes--Apple Cake--Fruit Farina--Plain
    Cookies--Plain Gingerbread--Strawberry Shortcake--Apple
    Custard                                                          116


CHAPTER XIII.

COOKERY FOR INVALIDS.

    Gruels--Arrowroot Gruel--Arrowroot Jelly--Arrowroot Wine
    Jelly--Calf's-foot Jelly--Sago Gruel--Sago Milk--Tapioca
    Jelly--Rice Caudle--Refreshing Drinks--Filtered Water--Jelly
    Water--Flaxseed Lemonade--Barley Water--Nourishing
    Drinks--Iceland Moss--Chocolate--Egg Broth--Egg Tea--Very
    Strong Beef Tea--Quick Beef Tea--Farina Gruel--Nutritious
    Foods--Bread Jelly--Crackers and Marmalade--Chicken
    Jelly--Chicken Broth--Beefsteak Juice--Salmon Steak--Broiled
    Oysters                                                          125


CHAPTER XIV.

BREAD.

    Aerated Homemade Bread--Homebrewed Yeast--Homemade
    Bread--Milk Bread--Rice Bread--Potato Bread--Pulled
    Bread--Baking Powder--Loaf Bread--Breakfast Rolls--Tea
    Biscuit--Finger Biscuit--Cream Breakfast Rolls--Breakfast
    Twist--How to freshen stale Bread--Toast                         134



THE COOKING MANUAL.



CHAPTER I.

MARKETING.


In order to market intelligently and economically, we must bear in mind
the three great divisions of foods generally accepted in their
consideration, and endeavor to adapt them to the requirements of our
households; if we remember that carbonaceous, or heat-giving foods, such
as the inner part of the cereals, fat meat, milk, honey, liver, grapes,
peas, beans, potatoes, beets, carrots, and parsnips, are the best diet
for hard steady workers, and for invalids suffering from wasting
diseases; that nitrogenous, or flesh-forming foods, such as lean meat,
unbolted flour, oatmeal, eggs, cheese, cabbage, cauliflower, onions,
spinach, asparagus, and artichokes, are most suitable for those who work
rapidly but with intervals of rest; and that brain-workers should
subsist chiefly on light and digestible articles, such as fish, oysters,
fruits, game, and vegetables containing mineral salts in excess; we can
arrange the daily marketing so as to give a pleasant variety and at the
same time satisfy all appetites.

Buy only small quantities of perishable things such as green
vegetables, fruit, fish, eggs, cream, and fresh butter; buy dry
groceries and preserved stores in quantities large enough to entitle you
to wholesale prices; and pay cash in order to avail yourself of the
lowest market price. Make your purchases as early in the day as possible
in order to secure a choice of fresh articles; and trade with
respectable dealers who give full weight and honest measure.

=Meats.=--While meats are in season all the year, they are better at
stated times; for instance, pork is prime in late autumn and winter;
veal should be avoided in summer for sanitary reasons; and even our
staples, beef and mutton, vary in quality. The flesh of healthy animals
is hard and fresh colored, the fat next the skin is firm and thick, and
the suet or kidney-fat clear white and abundant; if this fat is soft,
scant and stringy, the animal has been poorly fed or overworked. Beef
should be of a bright red color, well marbled with yellowish fat, and
surrounded with a thick outside layer of fat; poor beef is dark red, and
full of gristle, and the fat is scant and oily. Mutton is bright red,
with plenty of hard white fat; poor mutton is dull red in color, with
dark, muddy-looking fat. Veal and pork should be bright flesh color with
abundance of hard, white, semi-transparent fat; when the fat is reddish
and dark, the meat is of an inferior quality; veal and pork should be
eaten very fresh. When meat of any kind comes into the house it should
be hung up at once in some cool, dark place, and left until wanted.

=Poultry.=--Fresh poultry may be known by its full bright eyes, pliable
feet, and soft moist skin; the best is plump, fat, and nearly white, and
the grain of the flesh is fine. The feet and neck of a young fowl are
large in proportion to its size, and the tip of the breast-bone is soft,
and easily bent between the fingers; the body of a capon is large, fat,
and round, the head comparatively small, and the comb pale and withered;
a young cock, has short, loose, soft spurs, and a long, full, bright red
comb; old fowls have long, thin necks and feet, and the flesh on the
legs and back has a purplish shade; chickens, capons, and fowls, are
always in season.

Turkeys when good are white and plump, have full breasts and smooth
legs, generally black, with soft, loose spurs; hen turkeys are smaller,
fatter, and plumper, but of inferior flavor; full grown turkeys are the
best for boning and boiling, as they do not tear in dressing; old
turkeys have long hairs, and the flesh is purplish where it shows under
the skin on the legs and back. About March they deteriorate in quality.
Turkey-poults are tender, but lack flavor.

Young ducks and geese are plump, with light, semi-transparent fat, soft
breast-bone, tender flesh, leg joints which will break by the weight of
the bird, fresh colored and brittle beaks, and windpipes that break when
pressed between the thumb and fore-finger. They are best in fall and
winter.

Young pigeons have light red flesh upon the breast, and full, fresh
colored legs; when the legs are thin, and the breast is very dark, the
birds are old. Squabs are tender and delicious.

The giblets of poultry consist of the head, neck, wings, feet, gizzard,
heart, and liver; and make good soup, fricassees, pies, and various
_entrées_, or side dishes.

=Game.=--Fine game birds are always heavy for their size; the flesh of the
breast is firm and plump, the skin clear; and if a few feathers be
plucked from the inside of the leg and around the vent, the flesh of
freshly killed birds will be fat and fresh colored; if it is dark, and
discolored, the game has been hung a long time. The wings of good ducks,
geese, pheasants, and woodcock are tender to the touch; the tips of the
long wing feathers of partridges are pointed in young birds, and round
in old ones. Quail, snipe, and small birds should have full tender
breasts.

Young rabbits and hares have short necks, thick knees, and forepaws
which can be easily broken; old ones are very poor.

Buffalo meat is somewhat similar in appearance to beef, save that the
flesh is darker, and the fat redder; it is tender and juicy when it has
been kept long enough, say about two months in winter; the tongue, when
cured, is excellent.

Venison should be tender, and very fat, or it will be dry and tasteless.

Bear meat, when fat and tender, is savory and nourishing.

=Fish.=--Sea fish, and those which live in both salt and fresh water, such
as salmon, shad, and smelts, are the finest flavored; the muddy taste of
some fresh water species can be overcome by soaking them in cold water
and salt for two hours or more before cooking; all kinds are best just
before spawning, the flesh becoming poor and watery after that period.
Fresh fish have firm flesh, rigid fins, bright, clear eyes, and ruddy
gills.

Oysters, clams, scallops, and mussels, should be eaten very fresh, as
they soon lose their flavor after being removed from the shell.

Lobsters and crabs should be chosen by their brightness of color, lively
movement, and great weight in proportion to their size.

=Vegetables.=--All juicy vegetables should be very fresh and crisp; and if
a little wilted, can be restored by being sprinkled with water and laid
in a cool, dark place; all roots and tubers should be pared and laid in
cold water an hour or more before using. Green vegetables are best just
before they flower; and roots and tubers are prime from their ripening
until spring germination begins.

=Fruit.=--All fruit should be purchased ripe and sound; it is poor economy
to buy imperfect or decayed kinds, as they are neither satisfactory nor
healthy eating; while the mature, full-flavored sorts are invaluable as
food.

=Sweet Herbs.=--Sweet and savory herbs are absolutely indispensable to
good cooking; they give variety and savory flavors to any dish into
which they enter, and are nearly all of some decided sanitary use; the
different kinds called for in the various receipts further on in this
work can be bought at almost any grocery store, or in the market; but
we advise our readers to obtain seeds from some good florist and make
little kitchen gardens of their own, even if the space planted be only a
box of mould in the kitchen window. Sage, thyme, summer savory, sweet
marjoram, tarragon, sweet basil, rosemary, mint, burnet, chervil, dill,
and parsley, will grow abundantly with very little care; and when dried,
and added judiciously to food, greatly improve its flavor. Parsley,
tarragon and fennel, should be dried in May, June, and July, just before
flowering; mint in June and July; thyme, marjoram, and savory in July
and August; basil and sage in August and September; all herbs should be
gathered in the sunshine, and dried by artificial heat; their flavor is
best preserved by keeping them in air-tight tin cans.

Bay leaves can be procured at any drug store, or German grocery, at a
very moderate expense; they have the flavor of laurel.

An excellent and convenient spice-salt can be made by drying, powdering,
and mixing by repeated siftings the following ingredients: one quarter
of an ounce each of powdered thyme, bay leaf, and pepper; one eighth of
an ounce each of rosemary, marjoram, and cayenne pepper, or powdered
capsicums; one half of an ounce each of powdered clove and nutmeg; to
every four ounces of this powder add one ounce of salt, and keep the
mixture in an air-tight vessel. One ounce of it added to three pounds of
stuffing, or forcemeat of any kind, makes a delicious seasoning.

=A bouquet of Sweet herbs.=--The bouquet, or fagot, of sweet herbs, so
often called for in foreign cooking, is made as follows: wash three or
four sprigs of parsley, lay in their midst one sprig of thyme, and two
bay leaves; fold the parsley over the thyme and bay leaves, tie it in a
cork-shaped roll, about three inches long and one inch thick. The
bouquet is used for seasoning soups, sauces, stews, and savory dishes in
general, and is removed when the dish is served.



CHAPTER II.

SOUPS.


=Soup= is the most satisfactory and nourishing of all dishes when it is
properly made. Its value depends upon what is put into it, but even in
its most economical form it constitutes a hearty meal when eaten with
bread and vegetables. It can be made from the merest scraps and
trimmings of meat; from the heads, tails, and feet of animals; from the
bones and skin of fish; and from cereals and vegetables alone. Pot
liquor in which meat has been boiled should always be saved and used for
soup the next day, when by the removal of all fat, by careful skimming,
and the addition of a few vegetables or some dumplings, rice, or
macaroni, it will make a palatable broth. Experiments made by French
chemists prove that the delicacy and richness of soup may be increased
by first soaking the meat in tepid water enough to cover it, and adding
this to the second water in which the meat is put over the fire, just as
it reaches the boiling point.

1. =General Stock.=--PART I.--Where there is a family of any size it is
well to keep a clean pot or sauce-pan on the back of the stove to
receive all the clean scraps of meat, bones, and remains of poultry and
game, which are found in every kitchen; but vegetables should not be put
into it, as they are apt to sour. The proper proportions for soup are
one pound of meat and bone to one and a half quarts of cold water; the
meat and bones to be well chopped and broken up, and put over the fire
in cold water, being brought slowly to a boil, and carefully skimmed as
often as any scum rises; and being maintained at a steady boiling point
from two to six hours, as time permits; one hour before the stock is
done, add to it one carrot and one turnip pared, one onion stuck with
three cloves, and a bouquet of sweet herbs.

PART II.--When the soup is to be boiled six hours, two quarts of cold
water must be allowed to every pound of meat; this will be reduced to
one quart in boiling. Two gills of soup are usually allowed for each
person at table when it is served as the first part of the dinner, and
meats are to follow it. Care should be taken that the stock-pot boils
slowly and constantly, from one side, as rapid and irregular boiling
clouds and darkens the stock as much as imperfect skimming. Stock should
never be allowed to cool in the stock-pot, but should be strained into
an earthen jar, and left standing to cool uncovered, and all the fat
removed, and saved to clarify for drippings; the stock is then ready to
heat and use for soup, or gravy. When stock has been darkened and
clouded by careless skimming and fast boiling, it can be clarified by
adding to it one egg and the shell, mixed first with a gill of cold
water, then with a gill of boiling soup, and stirring it briskly into
the soup until it boils; then remove it to the back of the fire where it
will not boil, and let it stand until the white and shell of the egg
have collected the small particles clouding the soup; then strain it
once or twice, until it looks clear.

2. =Flavoring, thickening, and coloring soups.=--The flavor of soup stock
may be varied by using in it a little ham, anchovy, sausage, sugar, or a
calf's foot. Herbs in the sprig, and whole spices should be used in
seasoning, as they can easily be strained out. All delicate flavors, and
wine, should be added to soup just before serving it, unless the
contrary is expressly directed in the receipt, because boiling would
almost entirely evaporate them: one gill of wine is usually allowed to
every three pints of soup.

Soups which precede a full dinner should be less rich than those which
form the bulk of the meal. Corn starch, arrow root, and potato flour are
better than wheat flour for thickening soup. The meal of peas and beans
can be held in suspension by mixing together dry a tablespoonful of
butter and flour, and stirring it into the soup; a quarter of a pint of
peas, beans, or lentils, is sufficient to make a quart of thick soup.
Two ounces of macaroni, vermicelli, pearl barley, sago, tapioca, rice,
or oatmeal, are usually allowed for each quart of stock.

If you wish to darken soup use a teaspoonful of caramel; but avoid burnt
flour, carrot, and onion, as all these give a bad flavor. Caramel can be
made from the following receipt; melt half a pound of loaf sugar in a
thick copper vessel, stirring it frequently with a wooden spoon, and
boiling it slowly until it assumes a rich brown color, but do not let it
burn; when brown enough add one quart of cold water, stir well, and boil
gently at the side of the fire for twenty minutes; then cool, strain,
and bottle tight. In using the caramel add it just as you are about to
serve the soup, or sauce colored with it.

3. =Clear Soup, or Consommé.= (_Two quarts for eight persons._)--This is
made by straining two quarts of stock, which has been cooled and freed
from fat, through a piece of flannel or a napkin until it is bright and
clear; if this does not entirely clear it, use an egg, as directed for
clarifying soup; then season it to taste with salt, using at first a
teaspoonful, and a very little fine white pepper, say a quarter of a
saltspoonful; and color it to a bright straw color with caramel, of
which a scant teaspoonful will be about the proper quantity. _Consommé_
is sent to the table clear, but sometimes a deep dish containing poached
eggs, one for each person, with enough _consommé_ to cover them,
accompanies it.

4. =Poached Eggs for Consommé.=--Break the eggs, which should be very
fresh, into a deep sauce-pan half full of boiling water, seasoned with a
teaspoonful of salt, and half a gill of vinegar; cover the sauce-pan,
and set it on the back part of the fire until the whites of the eggs are
firm; then lift them separately on a skimmer, carefully trim off the
rough edges, making each egg a regular oval shape, and slip them off the
skimmer into a bowl of hot, but not boiling water, where they must
stand for ten minutes before serving.

5. =Vermicelli and Macaroni Soup.=--These soups are both made as for
_consommé_; and to every quart of stock is added two ounces of one of
these pastes blanched as follows. Put the paste into plenty of boiling
water, with one tablespoonful of salt to each quart of water, and boil
until tender enough to pierce with the finger nail; then drain it, and
put it in cold water until required for use, when it should be placed in
the two quarts of hot soup long enough to heat thoroughly before
serving.

6. =Rice and Tomato Soup.=--Strain, and pass through a sieve with a wooden
spoon, one pint of tomatoes, either fresh or canned, stir them into two
quarts of good, clear stock, free from fat; season it with a teaspoonful
of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; taste, and if the
seasoning seems deficient add a little more, but do not put in too much
for general liking, for more can easily be added, but none can be taken
out. Add four ounces of rice, well washed in plenty of cold water, and
boil the soup slowly for three quarters of an hour before serving.

7. =Scotch Broth without Meat.=--Steep four ounces of pearl barley over
night in cold water, and wash it well in fresh water; cut in dice half
an inch square, six ounces of yellow turnip, six ounces of carrot, four
ounces of onion, two ounces of celery, (or use in its place quarter of a
saltspoonful of celery seed;) put all these into two and a half quarts
of boiling water, season with a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a
saltspoonful of pepper, and as much cayenne as you can take up on the
point of a very small pen-knife blade; boil slowly for two hours; then
stir in quarter of a pound of oatmeal, mixed to a smooth batter with
cold water, see if seasoning be correct, add two or three grates of
nutmeg, and boil half an hour. Meantime, cut two slices of bread in half
inch dice, fry light brown in hot fat, and lay the bits in the soup
tureen; when the soup is ready pour it over them, and serve. This soup
is very rich and nutritious, and should be served with light dinners.

8. =Scotch Broth with Meat.=--Put four ounces of barley to soak in warm
water. From two pounds of the shoulder of mutton, cut the lean meat in
dice half an inch square; cut up the rest in small pieces and make a
stock as directed in receipt _No. 1._, _Part I._, using two and a half
quarts of water, and boiling and skimming for two hours; at the end of
an hour and a half put the dice of meat into a sauce-pan with two ounces
of butter, and fry them brown; stir in one ounce of flour; cut in dice
six ounces each of yellow turnip and carrot, chop four ounces of onion,
and put these with the meat; add the barley, and the stock strained,
season with a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of
pepper, and simmer one hour. Then serve with a tablespoonful of chopped
parsley sprinkled in the soup.

9. =Spinach Soup.=--Blanch two quarts of spinach, by putting it into a
large pot full of boiling water, with two tablespoonfuls of salt, cover
until it boils up once; then remove the cover, and with a wooden spoon
press the spinach under water as fast as it rises to the surface; boil
it steadily until it is tender enough to pierce easily with the finger
nail; then drain it; run plenty of cold water from the faucet over it,
while it is still in the colander; drain it again, chop it fine, and
pass it through a kitchen sieve with the aid of a wooden spoon; boil two
quarts of milk, add the spinach to it, thicken it by stirring in one
tablespoonful of corn starch dissolved in cold milk; season it with one
teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and the
same of nutmeg; and serve it as soon as it boils up.

10. =Sorrel Soup.=--Put one pint of sorrel into a sauce-pan with a
dessertspoonful of salt, and one gill of cold water; cover it, and cook
until it is tender enough to pierce with the finger nail, then drain,
wash it well with cold water, chop it and pass it through the kitchen
sieve with a wooden spoon; meantime brown half an ounce of chopped onion
in a sauce-pan with one ounce of butter; add one ounce of flour, and
stir till brown; then add two quarts of hot water, or hot water and
stock, and the sorrel, and season with one teaspoonful of salt, quarter
of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of nutmeg; mix the yolks of
two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of cold water, add to them half a pint
of boiling soup, and gradually stir the mixture into the soup, boiling
it a minute after it is thoroughly blended; meantime cut two slices of
bread into half inch dice, fry them brown in smoking hot fat, drain
them free from grease on a napkin, put them into a soup tureen, pour the
soup on them, and serve at once.

11. =Pea Soup.=--Use half a pint of dried peas for thick soup, or one pint
for a _purée_, to two quarts of stock or cold water. Bring slowly to a
boil; add a bone or bit of ham, one turnip and one carrot peeled, one
onion stuck with three cloves, and simmer three hours stirring
occasionally to prevent burning; then pass the soup through a sieve with
the aid of a potato masher; and if it shows any sign of settling stir
into it one tablespoonful each of butter and flour mixed together dry;
this will hold the meal in solution; meantime fry some dice of stale
bread, about two slices, cut half an inch square, in hot fat, drain them
on a napkin, and put them in the bottom of the soup tureen in which the
pea soup is served.

12. =Lentil Soup.=--The seed of the lentil tare commonly cultivated in
France and Germany as an article of food, ranks nearly as high as meat,
as a valuable food, being capable of sustaining life and vigor for a
long time; this vegetable is gradually becoming known in this country,
from the use of it by our French and German citizens; and from its
nutritive value it deserves to rank as high as our favorite New England
beans. For two quarts of lentil soup half a pint of yellow lentils
should be well washed, and put to boil in three pints of cold water,
with a small carrot, an onion, two sprigs of parsley, and two bay
leaves, and boiled gently until the lentils are soft enough to break
easily between the fingers; every half hour one gill of cold water
should be added, and the lentils again raised to the boiling point,
until they are done; they should then be drained in a colander, and
passed through a sieve with a wooden spoon, using enough of the liquor
to make them pass easy, and mixed with the rest of the soup; it is then
ready to simmer for half an hour, and serve hot; with dice of fried
bread half an inch square, like those used for pea soup. These dice of
fried bread are called _Condé_ crusts.



CHAPTER III.

FISH.


When fish is rather deficient in flavor, a little vinegar rubbed over
the skin; and a few sweet herbs boiled with it will greatly improve it.
For boiling, large fish should be placed on the fire in cold water, and
small ones in hot water; both are done when the fins pull out easily.
Fish soup is the most economical of all fish dishes; baked fish the
second best; broiled fish retains nearly all its nourishment; and boiled
fish is the poorest of all. The following technical terms are used to
denote different methods of cooking fish: to dress fish _à la
Hollandaise_ is to boil it in sea water; _à l'eau de sel_, in salt and
water; _au court bouillon_, with cold water, white wine or vinegar,
sweet herbs, soup vegetables, lemon, and whole spices; _à la bonne eau_,
with sweet herbs and cold water; _au bleu_, in equal quantities of red
wine and cold water, highly flavored with spices and aromatic herbs.

13. =Boiled Cod with Oyster Sauce.=--Lay two pounds of cod in enough cold
water to cover it, with a tablespoonful of salt, for an hour or more
before cooking; then put it to boil in three quarts of cold water, with
two tablespoonfuls of salt; as soon as the fish is done, set the kettle
containing it off the fire, and let the fish stand in it until you are
ready to use it; meantime put a pint of oysters on the fire to boil in
their own liquor; as soon as they boil drain them, and put the liquor
again on the fire to boil; mix together in a sauce-pan over the fire one
ounce of butter and one ounce of flour, as soon as it bubbles, gradually
pour in the boiling oyster liquor, and stir with an egg whip until the
sauce is quite smooth; season with half a teaspoonful of salt, an eighth
of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of nutmeg; and add the
oysters. Take up the fish, serve it on a napkin, and send it to the
table with a bowl containing the oyster sauce.

14. =Baked Blackfish.=--Have a fish weighing from two to two and a half
pounds cleaned by the fishmonger; rub it well with a handful of salt, to
remove the slime peculiar to this fish, wash it well, and wipe it with a
clean, dry cloth; stuff it with the following forcemeat. Put four ounces
of stale bread to soak in sufficient luke-warm water to cover it;
meantime fry one ounce of chopped onion in one ounce of butter until it
is light brown; then wring the bread dry in a clean towel, put it into
the onion with two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, one ounce of salt
pork chopped fine, one teaspoonful of chopped capers or pickles, one
teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and one
gill of broth or hot water; stir until it is scalding hot, when it will
cleave from the bottom and sides of the sauce-pan; then stuff the fish
with it, and lay it in a dripping pan on one ounce of carrot and one
ounce of onion sliced, one bay leaf and two sprigs of parsley; cover the
fish with slices of salt pork, season it with a saltspoonful of salt,
and one fourth that quantity of pepper, and bake it in a moderate oven
for half an hour, basting it occasionally with a little butter, or
stock. When it is done, put it on a dish to keep hot while you prepare a
sauce by straining the drippings in the pan, and adding to them one
tablespoonful each of walnut catsup, Worcestershire sauce, chopped
capers, and chopped parsley. Pour a little of this sauce in the bottom
of the dish under the fish, and serve the rest with it in a bowl.

15. =Broiled Shad with Maître d'hotel butter.=--Choose a medium sized
shad, weighing about three pounds, have it cleaned and split down the
back; turn it occasionally for an hour or more, in a marinade made of
one tablespoonful of salad oil, or melted butter, one of vinegar, a
saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; lay it on
a gridiron, rubbed with a little butter to prevent sticking, broil it
slowly, doing the inside first, and, after laying it on a hot dish,
spread over it some _maître d'hotel_ butter.

16. =Maître d'hotel Butter.=--Mix together cold, one ounce of butter, a
tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, and
quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; and spread it over the broiled
shad. This butter is excellent for any kind of broiled fish, or for
steaks.

17. =Fried Smelts, French Style.=--Carefully wipe two pounds of cleaned
smelts with a dry cloth; dip them in milk, then roll them in finely
powdered cracker crumbs, next in an egg beaten with a saltspoonful of
salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and then again in cracker
crumbs; fry them in enough smoking hot fat to cover them, until they are
golden brown; take them from the fat with a skimmer, lay them on a
napkin, or a piece of paper to absorb all fat; and serve them laid in
rows with a few quarters of lemon on the side of the dish.

18. =Fillet of Sole au gratin.=--Choose two flounders weighing about three
pounds. Lay them on the table with the dark side uppermost; with a
sharp, thin-bladed knife cut down to the back bone, following the dark
line in the middle of the fish; then turn the edge of the knife outward,
and cut towards the fins, keeping the blade flat against the bone, and
removing one quarter of the flesh of the fish in a single piece; proceed
in the same way until you have eight fillets; carefully cut the skin
from them; season them with salt and pepper, lay them on a buttered dish
suitable to send to table, sprinkle them thickly with sifted cracker
crumbs, and a little grated Parmesan, or any rich, dry cheese; put a few
bits of butter over them, using not more than an ounce in all, and brown
them in a quick oven. Serve them as soon as they are nicely browned.
This is a very savory and delicate dish, requiring some practice to do
nicely, but comparatively inexpensive, and well worth all trouble taken
in making it.

19. =St. James Fish Chowder.=--Put half a pound of sliced salt pork in
the bottom of a deep sauce-pan and fry it brown; take it out, and put in
layers of potatoes, onions and fish sliced, seasoning each layer
plentifully with salt and pepper; using about three pounds of fish, and
a quart each of potatoes and onions; cover with cold water, bring
gradually to a boil, and cook slowly for thirty minutes; then add two
pounds of sea-biscuits soaked for five minutes in warm water, and boil
five minutes longer and serve. This receipt calls for the addition of
half a pint of port wine, and a bottle of champagne to be added to the
chowder just before serving; but it is quite good enough without, and
far less expensive.

20. =Club House Fish Cakes.=--Wash and boil one quart of potatoes, putting
them on the fire in cold water enough to cover them, and a tablespoonful
of salt. Put one and a half pounds of salt codfish on the fire in plenty
of cold water, and bring it slowly to a boil; as soon as it boils throw
off that water, and put it again on the fire in fresh cold water; if the
fish is very salt change the water a third time. Free the fish from skin
and bone; peel the potatoes, mash them through a colander with a potato
masher, season them with quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper and an
ounce of butter; add the yolks of two eggs, and the fish; mix well, and
make into cakes, using a little flour to prevent sticking to the hands.
Fry them golden brown in enough smoking hot fat to nearly cover them;
observe that in frying any article of food it will not soak fat if the
latter be hot enough to carbonize the outside at once, and smoking hot
fat will do that.

21. =Sardine Sandwiches.=--Butter sixteen thin slices of bread on both
sides, put between each two a very thin layer of sardines, sprinkled
with a little lemon juice, and brown them in a quick oven.

22. =Warmed up boiled fish, with Dutch Sauce.=--Put the cold fish on the
fire in plenty of cold water and salt, and let it come slowly to a boil;
meantime make a sauce for it as follows.

23. =Dutch Sauce.=--Put one ounce of butter, and one ounce of flour in a
sauce-pan over the fire, and stir constantly until it bubbles; then add
gradually one gill of boiling water, remove the sauce from the fire,
stir in the yolks of three eggs, one at a time, add one saltspoonful of
dry mustard; add one tablespoonful of vinegar and three of oil,
gradually, drop by drop, stirring constantly till smooth. When the fish
is warmed take it up carefully without breaking and serve with the Dutch
sauce in a boat.



CHAPTER IV.

RELISHES.


The dishes known as relishes are usually eaten at dinner just after the
soup or fish; they are in reality the restorers of appetite; they are
usually cold, and are sent to the table on small oval dishes, or
ornamental boats.

24. =Anchovies.= (_One for each person._)--The best anchovies are small
and plump, with white scales, and dark red pickle; they are prepared for
the table by soaking two hours in cold water, taking out the back-bone,
removing the scales and some of the small bones, and serving them with
oil or vinegar in a suitable dish, or pickle shell.

25. =Sardines.= (_One for each person._)--Sardines are served by wiping
them, and serving them on a small dish with quarters of lemons beside
them.

26. =Pickled Herrings.= (_One for each person._)--These are served in a
boat with a few capers, and a little chopped parsley sprinkled over
them.

27. =Scalloped Oysters.= (_One shell for each person._)--Blanch one quart
of oysters by bringing just to a boil in their own liquor, then strain
them, saving the liquor, and keeping it hot; wash them in cold water and
drain them; mix one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour together in
a sauce-pan over the fire; as soon as it is smooth gradually stir in one
pint of the oyster liquor, which must be boiling; season the sauce with
half a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful each of white
pepper and nutmeg; put the oysters into it to heat, while you thoroughly
wash eight or ten deep oystershells with a brush; fill them with the
oysters, dust them thickly with bread crumbs; put a small bit of butter
on each one, and brown them in a quick oven; they should be sent to the
table laid on a napkin neatly folded on a platter.

28. =Welsh Rarebit.=--Grate one pound of rich cheese, mix it over the fire
with one gill of ale, working it smooth with a spoon; season it with a
saltspoonful of dry mustard; meantime make two large slices of toast,
lay them on a hot dish, and as soon as the cheese is thoroughly melted,
pour it over the toast and send it to the table at once.

29. =Golden Buck.=--Prepare the cheese and toast as in receipt No. 28; cut
the toast in eight pieces; while the cheese is melting poach eight eggs,
by dropping them gently into plenty of boiling water containing a
teaspoonful of salt, and half a gill of vinegar; as soon as the whites
are firm, take them carefully out on a skimmer, trim off the edges, and
slip them again into warm water, while you divide the cheese on the
pieces of toast; then lay an egg on each piece, and serve at once. The
success of the dish depends upon having the eggs, cheese, and toast
ready at the same moment, putting them together very quickly, and
serving them before they cool.

30. =Mock Crab.=--Break up half a pound of soft, rich cheese with a fork,
mix with it a teaspoonful of dry mustard, a saltspoonful of salt, half a
saltspoonful of pepper, and a dessertspoonful of vinegar; serve it cold,
with a plate of thin bread and butter, or crisp crackers.

31. =English bread and butter.=--Cut an even slice off a large loaf of
fresh homemade bread; butter the cut end of the loaf thinly, then hold
it against the side with the left hand and arm, and with a sharp, thin
knife, cut an even slice not more than an eighth of an inch thick; a
little practice, and a steady grasp of bread and knife, will enable any
one to produce regular whole slices; fold each one double, with the
butter inside; and cut as many as you require; serve them on a clean
napkin, and send them to the table with any other of the above relishes.

32. =Cheese Straws.=--Sift six ounces of flour on the pastry board, make a
hole or well in the centre; into this well put two tablespoonfuls of
cream, three ounces of grated Parmesan, or any rich dry cheese, four
ounces of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a teaspoonful
of white pepper, and the same quantity of grated nutmeg, together with
as much cayenne as you can take up on the point of a very small
pen-knife blade; mix all these ingredients with the tips of the ringers,
to a firm paste, knead it well, roll it out an eighth of an inch thick;
and with a sharp knife, or pastry jagger, cut it in straws about eight
inches long, and quarter of an inch wide; lay the strips carefully on a
buttered tin, and bake them light straw color in a moderate oven. These
cheese straws make a delicious accompaniment to salad.

33. =Epicurean Butter.=--Bone and skin four anchovies or sardines, and
chop them fine; chop a tablespoonful of chives, and the same quantity of
tarragon leaves, four small green pickles, the yolks of two hard boiled
eggs; mix with these ingredients, a level teaspoonful of French mustard,
a saltspoonful of salt, and two ounces of sweet butter; pass them all
through a fine sieve with the aid of a wooden spoon; put it on the ice
to cool, and then mould it in balls the size of a walnut, by rolling
small lumps between two little wooden paddles; serve it with crackers
and cheese.

These receipts are given because many persons call for them; the author
begs leave to accompany them with the assurance that a prolonged diet of
any of them will produce a well grounded dyspepsia in a very moderate
length of time.



CHAPTER V.

SIDE DISHES, OR ENTRÉES.


The multitude of dishes known as _entrées_, represent to a great extent
the economical use of food for which the French are so celebrated; they
are based upon the principles of suitable combination. Usage has classed
certain sorts of food together as fit adjuncts; for instance, _bon
vivants_ instruct us that white sauces and light wines are the best
accompaniments for fish, poultry, and the white meats; and that brown
sauces, and rich, heavy wines, naturally follow with the dark meats and
game. These general principles readily apply to the preparation of the
numberless made dishes which are the glory of European cookery, and
which transform the remains of an ordinary meat breakfast into a
delicious luncheon, or an inviting side-dish for dinner. The fact that
the secret of all good cookery is economy, must be our apology for
treating this division of our subject at some length; and we beg our
readers to test our receipts before accusing us of attempting to
introduce obnoxious and difficult culinary methods into American
kitchens.

34. =How Meat should be Broiled.=--In broiling all meats, you must
remember that the surface should not be cut or broken any more than is
absolutely necessary; that the meat should be exposed to a clear, quick
fire, close enough to sear the surface without burning, in order to
confine all its juices; if it is approached slowly to a poor fire, or
seasoned before it is cooked, it will be comparatively dry and
tasteless, as both of these processes are useful only to extract and
waste those precious juices which contain nearly all the nourishing
properties of the meat.

35. =Parisian Potatoes.=--Pare and cut one quart of raw potatoes in balls
the size of a walnut, reserving the trimmings to use for mashed
potatoes; put the balls over the fire in plenty of cold water and salt,
and boil them until just tender enough to pierce easily with a fork;
which will be in about fifteen minutes; drain them, lay them on a towel
a moment to dry them, and then brown them in enough smoking hot lard to
immerse them entirely; when they are brown take them up in a colander,
and sprinkle them with a saltspoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of
chopped parsley.

36. =To broil a Beefsteak.=--Rub the bars of the gridiron smooth, and then
grease them slightly; lay on a sirloin steak weighing about three
pounds; put the gridiron over a hot fire; if the fire is not clear throw
a handful of salt into it to clear it; broil the steak, turning it
frequently so that it cannot burn, until it is done to the required
degree; do not cut into it to ascertain this, but test it by pressing
the tips of the fingers upon it; if it spring up again after the
pressure is removed it is done rare; if it remains heavy and solid it is
well done; while it is broiling prepare a _maître d'hotel_ butter
according to receipt No. 16; spread it over the steak after you have
laid it on a hot dish, and arrange the _Parisian potatoes_ at the sides
of the dish; send it to the table at once. After the proper cooking of a
steak comes the immediate eating thereof, if it is to be found perfect.

37. =Plain Rump Steak.=--Broil three pounds of tender rump steak according
to directions in receipt No. 36, put it on a hot dish, season it with a
level teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper,
spread over it one ounce of butter, and lay two tablespoonfuls of grated
horseradish on the side of the platter, and serve it hot, without delay.

38. =Portuguese Beef.=--Cut in thin shavings two pounds of cold beef, and
put it into a sauce-pan with half a pint of any brown gravy, and heat it
gradually; in another pan put one small onion chopped fine, the rind of
one orange chopped, the juice, quarter of a saltspoonful of grated
nutmeg, as much cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a very small
pen-knife blade, and one gill of port wine; boil these ingredients
rapidly until the liquid is reduced one half, and then mix them with the
beef; fry in hot fat some slices of bread, cut in the shape of hearts,
about two inches long and one inch wide, pile the beef in a mound on a
hot dish, lay the _croutons_ of fried bread around it, and serve it
hot.

39. =Bubble and Squeak.=--Cut about two pounds of cold meat in neat
slices, put them into a pan with an ounce of butter, and brown them; at
the same time chop one head of tender cabbage, without the stalks, put
it into a sauce-pan with two ounces of butter, a saltspoonful of salt,
and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and stir it occasionally over
the fire until it is quite tender; when both are done, lay the slices of
beef in the centre of a hot dish, and arrange the cabbage around it;
serve it hot.

40. =Stewed Kidneys.=--Cut one large beef kidney in thin slices about an
inch long; fry two ounces of onion in one ounce of butter, until pale
yellow; add the kidney, fry or rather _sauter_ it, for about five
minutes, shaking the pan frequently to prevent burning; then stir in one
ounce and a half of flour, season with one saltspoonful of salt, a
quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of powdered sweet
herbs made as directed on page 20, and one gill of boiling water; cook
ten minutes longer; meantime make eight heart-shaped _croutons_ of
bread, as directed in receipt No. 38; add one gill of Madeira wine to
the kidneys, pour them on a hot dish, sprinkle them with a teaspoonful
of chopped parsley, arrange the _croutons_ around the border of the
dish, and serve hot at once. The success of this dish depends on serving
it while the kidneys are tender; too much cooking hardens them; and they
must not be allowed to stand after they are done, or they deteriorate.

41. =Haricot or Stew of Mutton.=--Trim a neck of mutton, weighing about
two pounds, of all superfluous fat, cut it into cutlets, put them in a
deep sauce-pan with one ounce of butter, and fry them brown; pour off
all fat, add two ounces of flour, stir till brown, moisten with one
quart and a half of stock, or water, and stir occasionally until the
haricot boils; meantime cut one quart of carrots and turnips, half and
half, in small balls, and add them, with one dozen button onions, a
bouquet of sweet herbs, half a saltspoonful of pepper, and a teaspoonful
of salt; simmer for one hour; take up the cutlets with a fork, skim out
the vegetables, and remove the bouquet; lay the cutlets in a wreath on a
hot dish, place the vegetables in the centre, and strain the gravy over
all. Green peas, new turnips, or new potatoes, may replace the first
named vegetables. The dish should always be sent to the table hot.

42. =Epigramme of Lamb, with Piquante Sauce.=--Boil a breast of young
mutton, weighing from two to three pounds until tender, either in the
stock-pot, or in hot water seasoned with salt, two cloves stuck in a
small onion, and a bouquet of sweet herbs made as directed in the first
chapter; when it is tender enough to permit the bones to be drawn out
easily, take it up, lay it on a pan, put another, containing weights, on
it, and press it until it is cold; then cut it in eight triangular
pieces, about the size of a small cutlet; season them with salt and
pepper; roll them first in sifted cracker dust, then in an egg beaten
with a tablespoonful of cold water, and again in cracker dust; fry them
light brown in enough smoking hot fat to cover them.

43. =Piquante Sauce.=--While the lamb is frying, chop one tablespoonful of
capers, two of shallot, or small, finely flavored onion, and the same
quantity of green gherkins; place them over the fire in a sauce-pan with
one gill of vinegar, two bay leaves, quarter of a saltspoonful of
pepper, and the same of powdered thyme, and boil quickly until the
vinegar is reduced to one third of its original quantity; then add half
a pint of rich brown gravy of any kind, or of Spanish sauce, which may
always be kept on hand; boil the sauce gently for five minutes, take out
the bay leaves, and pour a little of the sauce on the bottom of a hot
platter; when the pieces of breast are brown, take them up with a
skimmer, and lay them on soft paper, or on a clean napkin for a moment,
to free them from grease, and arrange them in a wreath on the platter
containing the sauce; serve them at once, with the rest of the sauce in
a gravy boat.

44. =Spanish Sauce.=--Fry one ounce of ham or bacon, cut in half-inch
dice, with one ounce of fat; add to it, as soon as brown, two ounces of
carrot sliced, two ounces of onion sliced; stir in two ounces of dry
flour, and brown well; then add one quart of stock; or if none is on
hand, one quart of water, and half a pound of lean meat chopped fine;
season with a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper,
and a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in the first chapter;
simmer gently for an hour, skimming as often as any scum rises; then
strain the sauce, add one gill of wine to it, and use it to dress any
dark meat, game, or baked fish. This sauce will keep a week or longer,
in a cool place.

45. =Kromeskys, with Spanish Sauce.=--Cut one pound of cold roast lamb, or
mutton, in half inch dice; chop one ounce of onion, and fry it pale
yellow in one ounce of butter; add one ounce of flour, and stir until
smooth; add half a pint of Spanish sauce, or water, if no sauce is at
hand, two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, one level teaspoonful of
salt, one level saltspoonful of white pepper, half a saltspoonful of
powdered herbs, as much cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a
very small pen-knife blade, and the chopped meat; two ounces of
mushrooms, slightly warmed with quarter of an ounce of butter, and a
teaspoonful of lemon juice, improve the flavor of the _kromeskys_
exceedingly; stir until scalding hot, add the yolk of one raw egg, cook
for two minutes, stirring frequently; and turn out to cool on a flat
dish, slightly oiled, or buttered, to prevent sticking, spreading the
minced meat about an inch thick; set away to cool while the batter is
being made.

46. =Plain Frying Batter.=--Mix quarter of a pound of flour with the yolks
of two raw eggs, a level saltspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of
pepper, quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, one tablespoonful of
salad oil, (which is used to make the batter crisp,) and one cup of
water, more or less, as the flour will take it up; the batter should be
stiff enough to hold the drops from the spoon in shape when they are
let fall upon it; now beat the whites of the two eggs to a stiff froth,
beginning slowly, and increasing the speed until you are beating as fast
as you can; the froth will surely come; then stir it lightly into the
batter; heat the dish containing the meat a moment, to loosen it, and
turn it out on the table, just dusted with powdered crackers; cut it in
strips an inch wide and two inches long, roll them lightly under the
palm of the hand, in the shape of corks, dip them in the batter, and fry
them golden brown in smoking hot fat. Serve them on a neatly folded
napkin. They make a delicious dish, really worth all the care taken in
preparing them.

47. =Sheep's Tongues with Spinach.=--Boil eight sheep's tongues in the
stock pot, or in hot water with a bouquet of sweet herbs, and a gill of
vinegar, for about an hour, or until they are quite tender; then remove
them from the stock, lay them on their sides on a flat dish, place over
them another dish with weights on it, and allow them to cool: trim them
neatly, put them into a sauce-pan with enough Spanish sauce, or brown
gravy to cover them, and heat them gradually.

48. =To boil Spinach.=--Wash and trim one quart of green spinach, put it
into a sauce-pan holding at least three quarts of boiling water, and
three tablespoonfuls of salt, and boil it rapidly, with the cover off,
until it is tender enough to pierce easily with the finger nail, which
will be in from three to seven minutes, according to the age of the
spinach; then drain it in a colander, wash it in cold water, thoroughly
drain it again, and chop it very fine, or pass it through a sieve with a
wooden spoon; put it into a sauce-pan with enough Spanish sauce or brown
gravy to moisten it, season it with a saltspoonful of salt, and half
that quantity of white pepper, and heat it until it steams; arrange the
tongues in a wreath on a hot platter, put the spinach in the centre, and
pour the gravy in which the tongues were heated, over them. Serve hot at
once.

49. =Broiled Sheep's Kidneys.=--Split eight kidneys lengthwise, skin them,
lay them for half an hour in a dish containing a tablespoonful of salad
oil, the same of some spiced vinegar, or table sauce, and a saltspoonful
of salt and pepper mixed equally; turn them frequently; then roll them
in cracker dust, lay them on a greased gridiron, and broil them, the
inside first; when done brown, place them on a hot dish, with a small
piece of _maître d'hotel_ butter in each, made according to receipt No.
16, and send them hot to the table.

50. =Liver Rolls.=--Cut two sheep's livers in slices half an inch thick;
season them with salt and pepper; spread over each a layer of sausage
meat as thick as the liver, season that, roll each slice up, and tie it
in place with a string; on the bottom of a baking pan put one ounce of
carrot, and one ounce of onion sliced, two bay leaves, one sprig of
thyme, three of parsley, and an ounce of salt pork sliced; lay the liver
on these, put over each roll a tablespoonful of brown gravy, or Spanish
sauce, and bake them in a moderate oven about forty minutes, or until
they are thoroughly cooked; lay them on a hot platter, add a gill of
stock or water to the pan they were baked in, stir the vegetables about
in it, and strain it over the liver. Serve at once.

51. =Fried Brains with Tomato Sauce.=--Lay four pieces of calf's brains in
cold water and salt for one hour, to draw out the blood; meantime begin
a tomato sauce as directed below; carefully remove the outer skin
without breaking the brains; put them over the fire in enough cold water
to cover them, with half a gill of vinegar, two bay leaves, a sprig of
parsley, and an onion stuck with three cloves; bring them to a boil, and
simmer slowly for ten minutes; take them up carefully, and lay them in
cold water and salt to cool. When cool, cut each one in two pieces, roll
them first in cracker dust, then in one raw egg beaten with a
tablespoonful of cold water, then again in cracker dust, and fry them in
plenty of smoking hot fat; as soon as they are golden brown take them up
on a skimmer, and lay them on a soft paper or napkin to absorb all fat,
and then arrange on a platter containing half a pint of tomato sauce.

52. =Tomato Sauce.=--Put into a thick sauce-pan half a can, or one pint of
tomatoes, one ounce of carrot, and the same quantity of onion sliced,
one ounce of salt pork cut in small bits, a bouquet of sweet herbs, made
as directed in Chapter first, four cloves, one clove of garlic, if it is
liked, one teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and
a gill of stock, gravy, or water; simmer slowly one hour, and pass
through a sieve with a wooden spoon. This is an excellent sauce for any
breaded side dish.

53. =Calf's Liver larded.=--The operation of larding is done by passing
strips of larding pork, which is firm, white, fat pork, cut two inches
long, and quarter of an inch square, in rows along the surface of a
liver, placing the strips of pork in the split end of a larding needle,
and with it taking a stitch about a quarter of an inch deep and one inch
long in the surface of the liver, and leaving the ends of the pork
projecting equally; the rows must be inserted regularly, the ends of the
second coming between the ends of the first, and so on, until the
surface is covered; the liver is then laid in a dripping pan on one
ounce of carrot, one ounce of onions, and one ounce of salt pork sliced,
half a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, three
sprigs of parsley, one of thyme, three bay leaves, and six cloves; a
gill of Spanish sauce or brown gravy is poured over it, and it is cooked
in a moderate oven about an hour, until it is thoroughly done. The liver
should be laid on a hot platter, while half a pint of Spanish sauce or
gravy is stirred among the vegetables it was cooked with, and then
strained over it. If served hot it is a most delicious and economical
dish, being nearly as satisfactory to appetite as a heavy joint of roast
meat.

54. =Blanquette of Veal.=--Cut three pounds of the breast of veal in
pieces two inches square, put them in enough cold water to cover them,
with one saltspoonful of white pepper, one teaspoonful of salt, a
bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first, and an onion
stuck with three cloves; bring slowly to a boil, skim carefully until no
more scum rises, and cook gently for thirty or forty minutes until the
veal is tender; then drain it, returning the broth to the fire, and
washing the meat in cold water; meantime make a white sauce by stirring
together over the fire one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour, until
they are smooth, then adding a pint and a half of the broth gradually,
season with a little more salt and pepper if they are required, and with
quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg; when the sauce has boiled up
well, stir into it with an egg-whip the yolks of two raw eggs, put in
the meat, and cook for five minutes, stirring occasionally; a few
mushrooms are a great improvement to the blanquette; or it may be served
with two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley sprinkled over it after it is
put on a hot platter.

55. =Stuffed breast of Veal.=--Have the butcher make what is called a
pocket in a three pound breast of veal, by cutting the flesh of the
upper side free from the breast bones, taking care to leave three outer
sides of the meat whole, so as to hold the stuffing; prepare a bed of
vegetables, herbs, and pork, as directed for liver, in receipt No. 53;
stuff the breast, sew it up, lay it on the vegetables, put four ounces
of salt pork cut in thin slices on the top, season it with a teaspoonful
of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and bake it in a
moderate oven about one hour, till thoroughly done; serve it with a
brown gravy made the same as the liver gravy in receipt No. 53.

56. =Stuffing for Veal.=--Steep four ounces of bread in tepid water; chop
one ounce of onion, and fry it yellow in one ounce of butter; wring the
bread dry in a towel and add it to the butter and onion; season with one
saltspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and
powdered thyme, or mixed spices, and stir till scalding hot, then remove
from the fire, stir in the yolk of one raw egg, and stuff the breast of
veal with it. This is a very good stuffing for poultry, or lamb.

57. =Broiled Pork Cutlets.=--Make a Robert sauce, according to directions
given below. Broil two pounds of cutlets from the neck of pork, being
careful not to burn them, and dish them in a wreath on a hot platter
with Robert sauce poured on the dish.

58. =Robert Sauce.=--Chop two ounces of onion, fry pale yellow with one
ounce of butter, add two tablespoonfuls of spiced vinegar, and reduce
one half by quick boiling; add half a pint of Spanish sauce, or brown
gravy, and boil slowly for fifteen minutes; then season with a
saltspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and two
teaspoonfuls of French mustard, and serve.

59. =Pork Chops with Curry.=--First boil a quarter of a pound of rice
according to receipt No. 60. Fry two pounds of pork chops cut from the
loin, brown in a very little butter, pour off all the grease, add to
them half a pint of Spanish sauce, and a tablespoonful of curry powder
mixed smooth with two tablespoonfuls of cold water; cover the sauce-pan,
and simmer the chops for fifteen minutes; then dish them in a wreath on
a hot platter, pour the sauce on the bottom of the dish, and fill the
centre with rice.

60. =Boiled Rice.=--Wash a quarter of a pound of rice in plenty of cold
water, put it into a quart of boiling water with a tablespoonful of
salt, and boil it fast for twenty minutes; shake it out into a colander,
drain it, and shake it from the colander into the centre of the dish of
chops; do not stir it with a spoon.

61. =Broiled Pigs' Feet.=--Boil four well cleaned pickled pigs' feet in
stock or boiling water with sweet herbs, until they are tender enough to
permit the bones to come out readily; split them in halves, take out all
the large bones; trim and shape them neatly, and cool them; when cold
season them with pepper and salt, dip them first in melted butter and
then in cracker dust, and broil them over a clear, moderate fire,
turning them frequently; serve with a little melted butter, lemon juice,
and chopped parsley over them.

62. =English Pork Pie.=--Make a plain pie crust by mixing together with
the hand, half a pound of flour and quarter of a pound of butter, with
enough cold water to make a stiff paste; roll out about six times on a
well floured pastry board, folding the paste evenly each time; line the
side of an earthen pie dish nearly to the bottom; in the bottom put a
thin layer of bacon, about four ounces sliced; pare and slice half a
quart of potatoes; chop two ounces of onion; cut two pounds of fresh
lean pork in two-inch pieces; lay all these in the dish in layers,
season with half a saltspoonful of pepper and the same quantity of
powdered sage; fill the dish with any good cold gravy, cover with crust,
wetting the edges to make them fit tight; ornament the surface according
to your fancy, with leaves and fancy shapes cut out of the pastry; brush
over with a raw egg beaten with a tablespoonful of water; bake in a
moderate oven fifteen minutes; cover the top with paper, and bake one
hour longer; serve hot, or cold, as desired.

63. =Fried Chicken, Spanish Style.=--Cut up a four pound chicken as for a
_fricassee_, sprinkle the pieces with salt, and Spanish red pepper; put
four ounces of lard in a frying pan on the fire, and when smoking hot,
put in the legs, back, thighs, and wings; when they are half done, add
the pieces of breast, two ounces of chopped onion, one clove of garlic
chopped, a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first,
and fry seven minutes; add half a pound of raw ham cut in half inch
dice, and fry till the chicken is tender; take it out and keep it hot,
while you fry four large tomatoes cut in dice, and seasoned with salt
and pepper to taste; then add the chicken, make it quite hot, and serve
all together on a platter, like a _fricassee_.

64. =Chicken Fricassee.=--Cut a four pound tender chicken in joints, put
it over the fire in enough cold water to cover it, with one
dessertspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, a bouquet of
sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first, two ounces of carrot,
pared and left whole, and one dozen button onions peeled; skim
frequently as often as any scum rises, simmer slowly until the chicken
is tender, about an hour, and then take it up to keep hot while the
sauce is made; strain out the vegetables, and set the broth to boil; mix
one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour together over the fire until
they become a smooth paste; then gradually add a pint and a half of the
broth, stirring the sauce with an egg-whip until it is quite smooth,
season it to taste with salt and pepper, and dish it on a hot platter;
half a can of mushrooms greatly improve the flavor of the _fricassee_.

65. =Grilled Fowl.=--Cut the legs and second joints from two cold roast
fowls; score them closely, season them with pepper and salt, and lay
them by, ready to broil. Mince the rest of the meat fine. Make a white
sauce by mixing together over the fire two ounces of butter and two of
flour until they form a smooth paste; gradually add enough boiling milk
to make a good thick sauce, season with half a teaspoonful of salt,
quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and the same quantity of
grated nutmeg; add the minced fowl, and heat; now broil the legs and
thighs, and after dishing the mince on a hot platter, lay them on it,
and serve hot.

66. =Minced Chicken with Macaroni.=--Put four ounces of macaroni to blanch
as directed in receipt No. 67. Cut two pounds of cold roast fowl in
small slices, or scallops; and heat them in a white sauce, as directed
in receipt No. 65: dish them in a border of macaroni, and serve hot.

67. =Macaroni with Cheese.=--Blanch four ounces of macaroni by putting it
to boil in two quarts of boiling water and a tablespoonful of salt; boil
it until it is tender enough to pierce with the finger nail, drain it in
a colander, wash it well in cold water, and let it remain in water while
you prepare a white sauce of one ounce of butter, one of flour, and
boiling milk, as directed in receipt No. 65:--put the macaroni into it
with two ounces of grated cheese, Parmesan is the best; heat it
thoroughly; dish it in a border around the minced fowl, which should be
piled in the middle of the dish.

68. =Broiled Pigeons.=--Carefully pluck and draw eight pigeons, split them
down the middle of the back, flatten them by pounding them with the
blade of a heavy knife, broil them on a greased gridiron, the inside
first; lay each one on a slice of buttered toast, and dress them with a
little _maître d'hotel_ butter, made according to receipt No. 16.

69. =Salmi of Duck.=--Cut two cold roast wild ducks in joints; put them
into a sauce-pan with enough Spanish sauce to cover them, and add two
dozen olives with the stones removed; season to taste with salt and
pepper, being guided in this by the seasoning of the Spanish sauce; heat
thoroughly; meantime cut a dozen heart shaped _croutons_, or slices of
bread about two inches long and one wide, and fry them brown in plenty
of hot fat; when the _salmi_ is hot, pour it on a hot dish, and arrange
the _croutons_ around the border; serve hot.

70. =Civet of Hare.=--Skin a pair of leverets, or young hares, carefully
wipe them outside with a damp cloth; remove the entrails, and wash the
interior with a cup of vinegar, which must be saved; cut them into
joints as you would divide a chicken for _fricassee_; cut the back and
loins in pieces about two inches square; peel two dozen button onions,
and fry them light brown in two ounces of butter, with half a pound of
lean ham cut in half inch dice; add the hare, and brown well; stir in
two ounces of dry flour, add three gills of broth, and one gill of the
vinegar used to wash the hare, or two gills of claret, season with one
teaspoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of ground cloves, and half a
saltspoonful of pepper; simmer gently about one hour, until the hare is
tender, and serve on a hot platter like chicken _fricassee_.

71. =Jugged Hare.=--Prepare two hares as for a _civet_, in receipt No. 70;
in the cup of vinegar and half a pint of Spanish sauce, (or in their
place one pint of claret,) put the yellow rind of one lemon, a bouquet
of sweet herbs, prepared as in Chapter first, eight cloves, two blades
of mace, two inches of stick cinnamon, eight allspice, one ounce of
onion whole, one ounce of carrot whole; boil all these together half an
hour when you are preparing the hare, as in receipt No. 70; lay the
browned pieces of hare in an earthen jar; season them a little with a
teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; strain the
gravy made as above into the jar; put on the cover; fasten it in place
with a paste made of flour and water, and oiled on the top to prevent
cracking. Bake the hare in a moderate oven three hours. When you are
nearly ready to dish it, cut a slice of bread two inches thick, the
entire side of a large loaf, trim it to a perfect oval, fry it light
brown in hot fat, put it on a platter, arrange the hare on it, and pour
the gravy over; serve hot.

72. =Stuffed Eggs.=--Boil eight eggs for ten minutes, until quite hard,
lay them in cold water until they are quite cold; make a white sauce, as
directed in receipt No. 65; soak two ounces of stale bread in tepid
water for five minutes, and wring it dry in a towel; put one ounce of
grated cheese, Parmesan is the best, in a sauce-pan with one
saltspoonful of salt, half that quantity of white pepper, as much
cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade,
a teaspoonful of lemon juice, two ounces of butter, and a gill of the
white sauce; cut the eggs carefully in halves lengthwise after removing
the shells, rub the yolks through a sieve with a silver spoon, and add
them with the bread to the sauce, as prepared above; stir these
ingredients over the fire until they cleave from the sides of the
sauce-pan, when they will be scalding hot; on a hot platter put a layer
of the white sauce as a foundation for the eggs; fill the whites with
the forcemeat, rounding it up to look like the entire yolk of an egg,
set them on a dish in a pyramid, and heat them in a moderate oven; send
whatever white sauce you have left to the table in a boat, with the dish
of eggs.

When, after preparing the eggs for the oven, they are sprinkled with
grated cheese, and cracker dust, and then browned, they are called
gratinated eggs, or stuffed eggs, _au gratin_, and are served without
any sauce.

73. =How to make Omelettes.=--There is no great difficulty in making
omelettes, and as they may be expeditiously prepared and served they are
a convenient resource when an extra dish is required at short notice;
care should be taken to beat the eggs only until they are light, to put
the omelette into a well heated and buttered pan, and _never to turn it
in the pan_, as this flattens and toughens it; if the pan be large, and
only three or four eggs be used in making the omelette, the pan should
be tipped and held by the handle so that the eggs will cook in a small
space upon one side of it; instead of spreading all over it, and
becoming too dry in the process of cooking.

There are three secrets in the making of a good omelette, namely, the
separate beating of the eggs, the knack of stirring it upon the fire,
and the method of transferring it from the fire to the table. If you
will carefully follow the directions here given, you can produce a dish
dainty enough to satisfy the most fastidious eater.

74. =Plain Omelette.=--If you have to serve eight persons, make three
omelettes as follows:

Put one half an ounce (about a tablespoonful) of butter into a clean,
smooth frying-pan, and set it upon the back of the stove to melt; stir
the yolks of three eggs with a saltspoonful of salt for one minute; beat
the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth with an egg-whip, beginning
slowly, and gradually increasing the speed until the froth will not
leave the dish if it be turned bottom up; this will take from three to
five minutes, according to the freshness of the eggs; now pour the
yolks into the froth, and mix them gently with a silver spoon, turning
the bowl of the spoon over and over, but do not stir in a circle, or
rapidly; put the frying-pan containing the melted butter over the fire,
pour in the omelette, and stir it with a large two-pronged fork (a
carving fork will do), carefully raising the edges with the fork as fast
as they cook, and turning them toward the centre, until the omelette
lies in the middle of the pan in a light mass, cooked soft or hard to
suit the taste; when done to the desired degree, turn it out upon a hot
dish _without touching it with either fork or spoon_, and send it to the
table immediately. Another excellent method is to beat three eggs,
without separating the whites and yolks, with one tablespoonful of milk,
and a little salt and pepper, and put them into a frying-pan containing
two ounces of butter browned; let the omelette stand for a moment, and
then turn the edges up gently with a fork, and shake the pan to prevent
it burning or sticking at the bottom; five minutes will fry it a
delicate brown, and it should then be doubled and sent to the table at
once on a hot dish. Three eggs will make an omelette large enough for
two persons, if any other dish is to be served with it. There are
several varieties of omelettes, each named after the ingredient
prominent in the composition. We subjoin some excellent receipts, which
may be based upon the first-mentioned method of preparation and cooking.

75. =Omelette with Herbs.=--Stir into the yolks of three eggs a
saltspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one
tablespoonful of chopped mushrooms, and one tablespoonful of shallot or
white onion; beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, add them to
the yolks, and cook as in the first receipt.

76. =Omelette with Ham, Tongue, or Cheese.=--Use chopped or grated ham, or
tongue, or cheese, in the proportion of one tablespoonful to one egg;
proceed to mix and cook in the same way as for omelette with herbs.

77. =Omelette with Oysters.=--Blanch one dozen small Blue Point oysters,
by bringing them just to a boil in their own liquor, seasoned with a
dust of cayenne, a saltspoonful of salt, and a grate of nutmeg; mix an
omelette as above, omitting the herbs, place it over the fire, and when
it begins to cook at the edges, place the oysters, without any liquor,
in its centre, and fold and serve it in the same manner as the omelette
with herbs.

78. =Omelette with Mushrooms.=--Choose a dozen small, even sized
mushrooms; if they are canned, simply warm them in the essence in which
they are preserved, and if they are fresh, peel them by dipping them,
held by the stem, into boiling water for one moment, and heat them over
the fire with half an ounce of butter and half a saltspoonful of salt
put over them; prepare the omelette as above, and as soon as the edges
begin to cook, place the mushrooms in the centre, and fold and serve
like the omelette with herbs.

79. =Spanish Omelette.=--Peel two large ripe tomatoes, cut them in thin
slices, put them into a frying pan with an ounce of butter, a
saltspoonful of salt, and a dust of pepper, and toss them to prevent
burning, until they are just cooked through; make an omelette as above,
and as soon as its edges are cooked put in the tomatoes, and fold and
serve the same as the omelette with herbs.

80. =Oriental Omelette.=--Heat a thick earthen plate over a charcoal or
wood fire, until it will melt butter enough to cover the bottom of it,
dust on the butter a little pepper, and sprinkle on a little salt; break
into it as many eggs as will lay upon it without crowding, and brown
them underneath; then set them where the heat of the fire will strike
their tops, and let them color a pale yellow; salt them a little, and
serve them very hot upon the same dish upon which they were cooked.

81. =Omelette with Preserves.=--Prepare an omelette as directed in receipt
No. 77, substituting any kind of jelly or preserves for the oysters.

82. =How to Cook Macaroni.=--This is one of the most wholesome and
economical of foods, and can be varied so as to give a succession of
palatable dishes at a very small cost. The imported macaroni can be
bought at Italian stores for about fifteen cents a pound; and that
quantity when boiled yields nearly three times its bulk, if it has been
manufactured for any length of time. In cooking it is generally combined
with meat gravy, tomato sauce, and cheese; Gruyere and Parmesan cheese,
which are the kinds most used by foreign cooks, can be readily obtained
at any large grocery, the price of the former being about thirty-five
cents per pound, and the latter varying from forty to eighty cents,
according to the commercial spirit of the vendor; the trade price quoted
on grocers' trade lists being thirty-eight cents per pound, for prime
quality. This cheese is of a greenish color, a little salt in taste and
flavored with delicate herbs; the nearest domestic variety is
sage-cheese, which may be used when Parmesan can not be obtained. If in
heating Parmesan cheese it appears oily, it is from the lack of
moisture, and this can be supplied by adding a few tablespoonfuls of
broth, and stirring it over the fire for a minute. When more macaroni
has been boiled than is used, it can be kept perfectly good by laying it
in fresh water, which must be changed every day. There are several forms
of Italian paste, but the composition is almost identical, all being
made from the interior part of the finest wheat grown on the
Mediterranean shores: the largest tubes, about the size of a lead
pencil, are called _macaroni_; the second variety, as large as a common
pipe-stem, is termed _mazzini_; and the smallest is _spaghetti_, or
threads; _vermicelli_ comes to market in the form of small coils or
hanks of fine yellowish threads; and _Italian paste_ appears in small
letters, and various fanciful shapes. Macaroni is generally known as a
rather luxurious dish among the wealthy; but it should become one of the
chief foods of the people, for it contains more gluten, or the
nutritious portion of wheat, than bread.

83. =Macaroni with Béchamel Sauce.=--Heat three quarts of water,
containing three tablespoonfuls of salt, to the boiling point; boil half
a pound of _macaroni_ in it until it is tender enough to pierce easily
with the finger nail; then drain it in a colander, and wash it well in
cold water; while it is boiling make a _Béchamel_, or white sauce, as in
receipt No. 84: put just enough of it with the _macaroni_ to moisten it,
heat it thoroughly; shake it up well with two forks to make the cheese
fibrous, put it on a hot dish, sprinkle with half an ounce of grated
Parmesan cheese, and serve it hot.

84. =Béchamel Sauce, with Parmesan Cheese.=--Stir together over the fire
two ounces of butter, and two ounces of flour, until they are perfectly
blended, boiling one pint of milk meantime; when the butter and flour
are smooth, pour the boiling milk into them, stir in two ounces of
grated Parmesan gradually and melt it thoroughly, stirring constantly
until the sauce is smooth; if cream is used instead of milk, and the
Parmesan cheese omitted, the same is called _Cream Béchamel_.

85. =Macaroni Milanaise style.=--Have ready some tomato sauce, made
according to receipt No. 52, or use some fresh tomatoes passed through a
sieve with a wooden spoon, and highly seasoned; and two ounces of grated
Parmesan cheese; put half a pound of imported Italian _macaroni_ in
three quarts of boiling water, with two tablespoonfuls of salt, one
saltspoonful of pepper in coarse pieces, called _mignonette_ pepper, and
a teaspoonful of butter; boil rapidly for about twenty minutes, or until
you can easily pierce it with the finger nail, then drain it in a
colander, run plenty of cold water from the faucet through it, and lay
it in a pan of cold water until you are ready to use it. Put into a
sauce-pan one gill of tomato sauce, one ounce of butter, and one gill of
Spanish sauce, or any rich meat gravy free from fat, and stir until they
are smoothly blended: put a half inch layer of _macaroni_ on the bottom
of a dish, moisten it with four tablespoonfuls of the sauce, sprinkle
over it half an ounce of the grated cheese; make three other layers like
this, using all the _macaroni_, cheese, and sauce, and brown the
_macaroni_ in a hot oven for about five minutes; serve it hot.

86. =Macaroni with Tomato Sauce.=--Boil half a pound of _spaghetti_ or
_macaroni_ as directed in receipt No. 83, and lay it in cold water. Make
a tomato sauce as follows, and dress the _macaroni_ with it, using only
enough to moisten it, and sprinkling the top with half an ounce of
grated cheese; serve it hot.

87. =Tomato Sauce.=--Boil together, for one hour, half a can of tomatoes,
or six large, fresh ones, one gill of broth of any kind, one sprig of
thyme, one sprig of parsley, three whole cloves, three peppercorns, and
half an ounce of onion sliced; rub them through a sieve with a wooden
spoon, and set the sauce to keep hot; mix together over the fire one
ounce of butter, and half an ounce of flour, and when smooth,
incorporate with the tomato sauce.

88. =Timbale of Macaroni.= (_A sweet dish._)--Boil half a pound of
_macaroni_ of the largest size, in boiling water and salt for fifteen
minutes; drain it in a colander, wash it well, lay by one quarter of it,
and put the rest into a sauce-pan with one ounce of butter, one pint of
milk or cream, four ounces of sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla
flavoring, and a saltspoonful of salt; simmer it gently while you line a
well buttered three pint plain mould with the best pieces you have
reserved, coiling them regularly in the bottom and up the sides of the
mould; put what you do not use among that in the sauce-pan, and as soon
as it is tender fill the mould with it, and set it in a hot oven for
fifteen minutes; then turn it out on a dish, dust it with powdered
sugar, and serve it hot, with a pudding sauce.

89. =Vanilla Cream Sauce.=--Put three ounces of powdered sugar into a
sauce-pan with one ounce of corn starch, and one gill of cold water; mix
them smooth off the fire; then put the sauce-pan on the fire and pour in
half a pint of boiling milk, stirring smooth with an egg-whip for about
ten minutes, when the sauce will be thoroughly cooked; flavor it with
one teaspoonful of vanilla, and serve with pudding at once.



CHAPTER VI.

LARGE ROASTS.


Since roast or rather baked meats so often play the chief part in
American dinners, a few directions will be useful in connection with
their cooking. The object in cooking meat is to prepare it for easy
mastication and complete digestion; and it should be accomplished with
the least possible waste of the valuable juices of the meat. The
roasting of meat before the fire is not often possible in ordinary
kitchens, but with a well managed oven the same result can be attained.
If meat is placed before a slow fire, or in a cool oven, the little heat
that reaches it serves only to draw out its juices, and with them its
nutritious elements. The albumen of its cut surfaces coagulates at the
temperature of a bright, clear fire, or a hot oven, and thus seals up
the juices so that only a part of them escape, and those are collected
in the form of a rich brown, highly flavored crust, upon the surface of
well roasted meat. A good temperature for baking meat is from 320° to
400° Fahr. If the meat is put into a very hot oven for a few moments to
harden the outside, the heat can subsequently be moderated, and the
cooking finished more slowly, so that the meat will be sufficiently well
done, but not burned. Meats should be roasted about twenty minutes to a
pound, to be moderately well done; the fire should be clear, and steady,
in order that an equal heat may reach the joint and keep its interior
steam at the proper degree of heat; after the right length of time has
elapsed, care being taken meantime that the meat does not burn, it may
be tested by pressing it with the fingers; if it is rare it will spring
back when the pressure is removed; if it is moderately well done the
resistance to pressure will be very slight; and if it is thoroughly
cooked it will remain heavy under the fingers; never test it by cutting
into it with a knife, or puncturing it with a fork, for in this way you
waste the rich juices. If you wish to froth roast meat, dredge a little
flour over its surface, and brown it a few moments before serving it. If
it is to be glazed, brush it with clear stock concentrated to a paste by
rapid boiling, or dust a little powdered sugar over it, and in both
cases return it to the oven to set the glaze.

90. =Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding.=--Have three ribs of prime beef
prepared by the butcher for roasting, all the bones being taken out if
it is desirable to carve a clean slice off the top; secure it in place
with stout twine; do not use skewers, as the unnecessary holes they make
permit the meat-juices to escape; lay it in the dripping pan on a bed of
the following vegetables, cut in small pieces; one small onion, half a
carrot, half a turnip, three sprigs of parsley, one sprig of thyme, and
three bay leaves; _do not put any water in the dripping pan_; its
temperature can not rise to a degree equal in heat to that of the fat
outside of the beef, and can not assist in its cooking, but serves only
to lower the temperature of the meat, where it touches it, and
consequently to soften the surface and extract the juices; _do not
season it until the surface is partly carbonized by the heat_, as salt
applied to the cut fibre draws out their juices. If you use a roasting
oven before the fire, the meat should be similarly prepared by tying in
place, and it should be put on the spit carefully; sufficient drippings
for basting will flow from it, and it should be seasoned when half done;
when entirely done, which will be in fifteen minutes to each pound of
meat, the joint should be kept hot until served, but should be served as
soon as possible to be good. When gravy is made, half a pint of hot
water should be added to the dripping pan, after the vegetables have
been removed, and the gravy should be boiled briskly for a few minutes,
until it is thick enough, and seasoned to suit the palate of the family;
some persons thicken it with a teaspoonful of flour, which should be
mixed with two tablespoonfuls of cold water before it is stirred into
the gravy.

91. =Yorkshire Pudding.=--Put seven ounces of flour into a bowl with one
teaspoonful of salt; mix it smoothly with enough milk, say half a pint,
to make a smooth, stiff batter; then gradually add enough more milk to
amount in all to one pint and a half, and three eggs well beaten; mix it
thoroughly with an egg-whip, pour it into a well buttered baking pan,
bake it in the oven one hour and a half, if it is to be served with
baked beef; or if it is to accompany beef roasted before the fire, one
hour in the oven, and then half an hour under the meat on the spit, to
catch the gravy which flows from the joint. To serve it cut it into
pieces two or three inches square before taking it from the pan, and
send it to the table on a hot dish covered with a napkin, with the roast
beef.

92. =Roast Loin of Veal.=--Take out the chine, or back-bone, from a loin
of veal weighing about six pounds, being careful to leave the piece of
meat as whole as possible; chop up the bones and put them in a dripping
pan with two ounces of carrot, one ounce of turnip, and quarter of an
ounce of parsley; stuff the veal with a forcemeat made as in receipt
No. 93, roll it up neatly, tie it firmly with stout cord, lay it on the
vegetables in the pan, and roast it one hour and a half. When done take
it from the pan, and keep it hot while you prepare the gravy by putting
half a pint of hot water in the pan, boiling it up once, and straining
it; or if desirable thicken it with a teaspoonful of flour smoothly
dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of cold water and stirred with the
gravy.

93. =Stuffing for Veal.=--Cut two ounces of salt pork in quarter inch
dice, and fry it brown in half an ounce of butter, with one ounce of
chopped onion; while these ingredients are frying, soak eight ounces of
stale bread in tepid water, and then wring it dry in a napkin; add it to
the onion when it is brown, with one tablespoonful of chopped parsley,
half a saltspoonful of powdered thyme, and the same quantity of dried
and powdered celery, and white pepper, and one teaspoonful of salt; mix
all these over the fire until they are scalding hot, and cleave from
the pan; then stir in one raw egg, and use it with the veal.

94. =Roast Lamb with Mint Sauce.=--Choose a plump, fat fore-quarter of
lamb, which is quite as finely flavored and less expensive than the
hind-quarter; secure it in shape with stout cord, lay it in a dripping
pan with one sprig of parsley, three sprigs of mint, and one ounce of
carrot sliced; put it into a quick oven, and roast it fifteen minutes to
each pound; when half done season it with salt and pepper, and baste it
occasionally with the drippings flowing from it. When done serve it with
a gravy-boat full of mint sauce.

95. =Mint Sauce cold.=--Melt four ounces of brown sugar in a sauce boat
with half a pint of vinegar, add three tablespoonfuls of chopped mint,
and serve cold with roast lamb.

96. =Hot Mint Sauce.=--Put one pint of vinegar into a sauce-pan with four
ounces of white sugar, and reduce by rapid boiling to half a pint,
stirring to prevent burning; add a gill of cold water, and boil for five
minutes; then add three tablespoonfuls of chopped mint, and serve with
lamb.

97. =Roast Pork with Apple Sauce.=--Neatly trim a loin of fresh pork
weighing about six pounds; put it into a dripping pan on three bay
leaves, quarter of an ounce of parsley, one ounce of onion, and the same
quantity of carrot sliced, and roast it about twenty minutes to each
pound; when half done, season it with salt and pepper; when brown, serve
it with a border of Parisian potatoes, prepared according to receipt
No. 2, and send it to the table with a bowl of apple sauce.

98. =Apple Sauce.=--Pare and slice one quart of good tart apples; put them
into a sauce-pan with half a pint of cold water; stir them often enough
to prevent burning, and simmer them until tender, about twenty minutes
will be long enough; then rub them through a sieve with a wooden spoon,
add a saltspoonful of powdered cloves, and four ounces of sugar, or less
according to the taste; serve in a bowl, with the roast pork.

99. =Roast Turkey with Cranberry Sauce.=--Choose a fat tender turkey
weighing about six or seven pounds; pluck it, carefully remove the
pin-feathers, singe the bird over the flame of an alcohol lamp, or a few
drops of alcohol poured on a plate and lighted; wipe it with a damp
towel and see that it is properly drawn by slitting the skin at the back
of the neck, and taking out the crop without tearing the skin of the
breast; loosen the heart, liver, and lungs, by introducing the
fore-finger at the neck, and then draw them, with the entrails, from the
vent. Unless you have broken the gall, or the entrails, in drawing the
bird _do not wash it_, for this greatly impairs the flavor, and partly
destroys the nourishing qualities of the flesh. Twist the tips of the
wings back under the shoulders, stuff the bird with forcemeat made
according to receipt No. 100; bend the legs as far up toward the breast
as possible, secure the thigh bones in that position by a trussing cord
or skewer; then bring the legs down, and fasten them close to the vent.
Pound the breast bone down, first laying a towel over it. Lay a thin
slice of salt pork over the breast to baste it until sufficient
drippings run from the bird; baste it frequently, browning it on all
sides by turning it about in the pan; use a clean towel to turn it with,
_but do not run a fork into it or you will waste its juices_: when it is
half done season it with two teaspoonfuls of salt and one saltspoonful
of powdered herbs, made according to directions in Chapter first; when
it has cooked about twenty minutes to each pound, dish it, and keep it
hot while you make a gravy by adding half a pint of water to the
drippings in the pan, first taking off a little of the superfluous fat,
and thickening it if desired with a teaspoonful of flour mixed with two
tablespoonfuls of cold water; serve the turkey hot with a gravy-boat
full of gravy and a dish of cranberry sauce made according to receipt
No. 101. The same directions for drawing, trussing, and roasting will
apply to other poultry and game.

100. =Forcemeat for Roast Poultry.=--Steep eight ounces of stale bread in
tepid water for five minutes, and wring it dry in a clean towel;
meantime chop fine four ounces each of fresh veal and pork, or use
instead, eight ounces of good sausage meat; grate eight ounces of good
rather dry cheese; fry one ounce of onion in one ounce of butter to a
light yellow color; add the bread, meat, and cheese, season with a
saltspoonful of powdered herbs, made according to directions in Chapter
first, a teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper, and two whole
eggs; mix well and use.

101. =Cranberry Sauce.=--Carefully pick and wash one quart of
cranberries; put them over the fire in a sauce-pan with half a pint of
cold water; bring them to a boil, and boil them gently for fifteen
minutes, stirring them occasionally to prevent burning; then add four
ounces of white sugar, and boil them slowly until they are soft enough
to pass through a sieve with a wooden spoon; the sauce is then ready to
serve.

102. =Roast Chicken with Duchesse Potatoes.=--Prepare and roast a pair of
chickens as directed in receipt No. 99; or for the stuffing named in
that receipt substitute No. 93; meantime boil one quart of potatoes, for
mashing, and make twelve heart-shaped _croutons_ or pieces of bread
fried in hot fat: lay the Duchesse potatoes around the chickens when it
is dished, and the _croutons_ in an outer circle, with the points
outward.

103. =Duchesse Potatoes.=--Mash one quart of hot boiled potatoes through a
fine colander with the potato masher; mix with them one ounce of butter,
one level teaspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of white pepper,
quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, and the yolks of two raw
eggs; pour the potato out on a plate, and then form it with a knife into
small cakes, two inches long and one inch wide; lay them on a buttered
tin, brush them over the top with an egg beaten up with a teaspoonful of
cold water, and color them golden brown in a moderate oven.

104. =Roast Duck with Watercresses.=--Prepare and roast a pair of ducks as
directed in receipt No. 99, and serve them with a border of a few
watercresses, and a salad bowl containing the rest of a quart, prepared
as in receipt No. 105.

105. =Romaine Sauce for Watercresses.=--Grate half an ounce of onion, and
use two tablespoonfuls of vinegar to wash it off the grater; to these
add a saltspoonful of sugar, a tablespoonful of lemon juice, three
tablespoonfuls of olive oil, six capers chopped fine, as much cayenne as
can be taken up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade, a level
saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; mix well,
and use for dressing watercresses, or any other green salad. A few cold
boiled potatoes sliced and mixed with this dressing, and a head of
lettuce, makes a very nice potato salad.

106. =Roast Goose with Onion Sauce.=--Prepare a goose as directed in
receipt No. 99; stuff it with onion stuffing made according to receipt
No. 107; serve it with a gravy boat full of onion sauce made according
to receipt No. 108.

107. =Sage and Onion Stuffing.=--Pare six ounces of onion, and bring them
to a boil in three different waters; soak eight ounces of stale bread in
tepid water, and wring it dry in a towel; scald ten sage leaves; when
the onions are tender, which will be in about half an hour, chop them
with the sage leaves, add them to the bread, with one ounce of butter,
the yolks of two raw eggs, one level teaspoonful of salt, and half a
saltspoonful of pepper; mix and use.

108. =Onion Sauce.=--Prepare six ounces of onions as in receipt No. 107;
chop them fine, pass them through a sieve with a wooden spoon, and put
them into half a pint of boiling milk, with one ounce of butter, one
saltspoonful of salt, and one quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper.

109. =Roast Wild Duck.=--Prepare a pair of ducks as directed in receipt
No. 99; do not stuff them, but tie over the breasts slices of pork or
bacon; roast fifteen minutes to the pound; serve with gravy in a boat
and quarters of lemon on the same dish.

110. =Roast Partridge.=--Prepare a pair of partridges as in receipt No.
99, but do not stuff them; tie over the breasts slices of pork or bacon,
and roast about twenty-five minutes; serve with bread sauce.

111. =Bread Sauce.=--Peel and slice an onion weighing full an ounce,
simmer it half an hour in one pint of milk, strain it, and to the milk
add two ounces of stale bread, broken in small pieces, one ounce of
butter, one saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of
nutmeg and pepper mixed; strain, passing through a sieve with a spoon,
and serve hot.



CHAPTER VII.

BOILED DISHES.


Boiling is the most economical way of cooking, if properly done; there
are several important points to be considered in this connection. We
have already said that the best method of cooking meat is that which
preserves all its nourishing juices; if in addition to this we can
prepare it in such a way as to present a large available surface to the
action of the digestive juices, we would seem to have reached culinary
perfection. Judicious boiling accomplishes this: and we cannot do better
than to follow Liebig's plan to first plunge the meat into boiling
water, and boil it five minutes to coagulate the albumen to a sufficient
depth to form a crust upon the surface, and thus confine the juices, and
then add enough cold water to reduce the temperature to 158° Fahr., if
the meat is to be rare, or to 165° Fahr., if it is to be well done; and
to maintain this gentle heat until the meat is tender. There is
comparatively little waste in boiling, from the fact that fat melts less
quickly than in broiling or roasting, and the covering of the pot
retards evaporation, while the water absorbed by the meat adds to its
bulk to a certain extent without detracting from its quality. A strainer
or plate should be placed in the bottom of the pot to prevent burning;
the pot should be skimmed clear as soon as it boils, and the subsequent
simmering should be gentle and steady; there should always be sufficient
water to cover the meat in order to keep it plump. Less body of heat is
required to boil in copper or iron pots, than in those made of tin,
especially if the latter have polished surfaces which throw off the
heat. The pot-liquor from boiled meat should always be strained into an
earthen jar and left to cool; the fat can then be taken off for kitchen
use, and the liquor utilized as the basis for some kind of soup.

112. =Leg of Mutton with Caper Sauce.=--Put a leg of mutton, weighing
about six pounds, on the fire in enough boiling hot water to cover it;
boil it for five minutes, skimming it as often as any scum rises, then
pour in enough cold water to reduce the heat to about 160° Fahr., season
with a tablespoonful of salt, and simmer the meat at that heat until it
is tender, allowing about twenty minutes cooking to each pound of meat;
if turnips are to be served with it as a garnish, choose them of equal
size, pare them smoothly, and boil them with the mutton; if the
vegetables are cooked first take them up without breaking, and set them
back off the fire, in a little of the mutton stock, to keep hot. Just
before dishing the meat, make a caper sauce, as directed in receipt No.
113; serve the mutton on a hot dish, with the turnips laid around it,
and send the sauce in a gravy-boat to the table with it.

113. =Caper Sauce.=--Put one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour in a
sauce-pan over the fire, and stir until smoothly melted; gradually pour
in half a pint of boiling water, season with one teaspoonful of salt,
and quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and stir until the sauce
coats the spoon when you lift it out; take it from the fire, and stir in
two ounces of butter, and two tablespoonfuls of small capers, and serve
at once. _Do not permit the sauce to boil after you have added the
butter, as it may turn rancid._

114. =Boiled Ham with Madeira Sauce.=--Choose a ham by running a thin
bladed knife close to the bone, and if the odor which follows the cut is
sweet the ham is good; soak it in cold water for twenty-four hours,
changing the water once; scrape it well, and trim off any ragged parts;
put it in enough cold water to cover it, with an onion weighing about
one ounce, stuck with six cloves, and a bouquet made according to
directions in Chapter first, and boil it four hours. Take it from the
fire and let it cool in the pot-liquor. Then take it up carefully,
remove the skin, dust it with sifted bread or cracker crumbs, and brown
it in the oven. Serve it either hot or cold; if hot send it to the table
with a gravy boat full of Madeira sauce.

115. =Madeira Sauce.=--Put over the fire in a thick sauce-pan one pint of
Spanish sauce made according to receipt No. 44, or the same quantity of
any rich brown gravy, season with salt and pepper to taste; the
seasoning must depend on the flavor of the gravy; when scalding hot add
half a pint of Madeira wine, and stir till the sauce is thick enough to
coat the spoon; then strain through a fine sieve, and serve hot.

116. =Beef á la Mode Jardiniere.=--Daube a seven pound piece of round of
beef, by inserting, with the grain, pieces of larding pork, cut as long
as the meat is thick, and about half an inch square, setting the strips
of pork about two inches apart; this can be done either with a large
larding needle, called a _sonde_, or by first making a hole with the
carving-knife steel, and then thrusting the pork in with the fingers;
lay the beef in a deep bowl containing the _marinade_, or pickle, given
in receipt No. 117, and let it stand from two to ten days in a cool
place, turning it over every day. Then put it into a deep pot just large
enough to hold it, together with the _marinade_, and turn it
occasionally over the fire until it is nicely browned; cover it with hot
stock or water, and simmer it gently four hours. When it has been
cooking three hours cut about four ounces each of carrots and turnips in
the shape of olives; pare two dozen button onions; and cut one pint of
string beans in pieces one inch long; put all these vegetables on the
fire in cold water, in separate vessels, each containing a teaspoonful
of salt, and half a saltspoonful of sugar, and let them boil till
tender; then lay them in cold water to keep them white, until ready to
use them. When the meat is tender, take it up, and keep it warm; strain
the sauce in which it has cooked, and stir it over the fire until it is
thick enough to coat the spoon; drain the vegetables, and let them scald
up in the sauce, and pour all over the beef.

117. =Marinade.=--Cut in slices, four ounces each of carrot and onion, two
ounces of turnip, and one ounce of leeks; chop a quarter of an ounce
each of parsley and celery, if in season; slice one lemon; add to these
one level tablespoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of pepper, six cloves,
four allspice, one inch of stick cinnamon, two blades of mace, one gill
of oil and one of vinegar, half a pint of red wine, and one pint of
water. Mix all these ingredients thoroughly, and use the _marinade_ for
beef, game, or poultry, always keeping it in a cool place.

118. =Boiled Fowl with Oyster Sauce.=--Prepare a pair of fowls in
accordance with receipt No. 99, but do not stuff them; put them into
boiling water enough to cover them, with a level tablespoonful of salt
to each quart of water; skim until clear, and boil slowly until tender,
about fifteen minutes to a pound; when nearly done, make an oyster
sauce, as directed in receipt No. 119, and serve it on the same dish
with the fowls, sprinkling them with a teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

119. =Oyster Sauce.=--Blanch one quart of oysters by bringing them to a
boil in their own liquor; drain them, saving the liquor; wash them in
cold water, and set them away from the fire until you are ready to use
them; stir one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour together over the
fire until they form a smooth paste, strain into them enough of the
oyster liquor and that the chicken was boiled in to make a sauce as
thick as melted butter; season with a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a
saltspoonful of white pepper, and the same of grated nutmeg; put in the
oysters, and serve.



CHAPTER VIII.

SALADS AND SALAD SAUCES.


"The very herbs of the field yield nourishment, and bread and water make
a feast for a temperate man," says Plato; and indeed the healthfulness
of fresh vegetables is well enough known in our day; we include under
this term not only the edible roots, but the young shoots of succulent
plants, rich in nitrates and mineral salts, which play an important part
in the preparation of salads. Americans are beginning to realize the
wealth of green food abounding in their gardens and fields, which they
have too long abandoned to their beasts of burden. We are wise in
letting the ox eat grass for us, but with the grass he too often
consumes tender herbs which might find a place on our own tables, to the
advantage of appetite and digestion. Dandelion, corn-salad, chicory,
mint, sorrel, fennel, marshmallows, tarragon, chives, mustard, and
cresses, and their numerous kind, grow wild, or can be cultivated with
but little trouble; and should find their way to favor in every family,
for with the oil and vinegar employed in dressing them, they promote
digestion, and purify the system; while the condiments used with them
are of decided medicinal value.

There is some degree of truth in the idea that a salad-maker is born,
not made, and yet with due care and delicate manipulation, almost any
deft-handed and neat-minded individual may become an expert salad
dresser. Most careful preparation of the green vegetables is
imperatively necessary to the production of a good salad; they must be
freshened in cool water, cleaned of all foreign matter, well drained
upon a clean napkin; and, above all, torn with the fingers, and not cut
with a knife. Then the various ingredients should be very delicately and
deliberately compounded, and withal by a quick and cunning hand, and the
result will be perfection. Below we give the receipts for a class of
salads best adapted for general use.

In the preparation of all salads only good oil should be used, as none
other will produce invariably satisfactory results. The very best salads
are often the result of the inspiration of the moment, when the
necessity arises for substituting some ingredient near at hand for one
not to be obtained, as in the case of the shad-roe salad mentioned
below. The formula called for Russian caviare, but Russian caviare was
not to be had, and a cold shad-roe was; the consequence was its
substitution and the alteration of one or two other ingredients, and the
result, we do not hesitate to say, was the production of one of the most
delicious salads ever invented. Let careful housekeepers not given to
these "foreign dishes" remember that they are not only appetizing but
economical.

120. =Spring Salad.=--Break one pint of fresh mustard tops, and one of
cresses, tear one good-sized lettuce, and chop two green onions; place
all lightly in a dish, and ornament it with celery and slices of boiled
beet. Use it with a cream dressing.

121. =Watercress Salad.=--Serve one quart of watercresses with one chopped
green onion, one teaspoonful of ground horseradish, one tablespoonful of
lemon juice, and two of oil, simply poured over.

122. =Mint Salad.=--Wash and clean the tender tops of one quart of
spearmint, lay them in a bowl with one tablespoonful of chopped chives,
and dress them with brown sugar and vinegar, or _sweet sauce_. This is
an excellent accompaniment for roast lamb.

123. =Cauliflower Salad.=--Place in a salad bowl one underdone
cauliflower, broken in branches, six small silver onions, six radishes,
ornament with the hearts of two white lettuces, and one dessertspoonful
each of chopped olives and capers; dress it with cream sauce, or plain
oil and vinegar.

124. =Dandelion Salad.=--This salad is a favorite European dish; one pint
of the plants are carefully washed and placed in a salad bowl with an
equal quantity of watercresses, three green onions or leeks sliced, a
teaspoonful of salt, and plenty of oil or cream dressing. This is one of
the most healthful and refreshing of all early salads.

125. =Asparagus Salad.=--Cut the green tops of two bunches of cold
asparagus one inch long, mix them with the leaves of one lettuce, a few
sprigs of mint, and a teaspoonful of powdered sugar, ornament with tufts
of leaves, and serve with a Mayonnaise.

126. =Shad-roe Salad.=--Boil two roes, separate the grains by washing them
in vinegar, place them in a salad bowl, with one head of tender lettuce
and one pint of ripe tomatoes cut thin; dress them with two
tablespoonfuls each of oil, lemon juice, and strained tomato pulp,
seasoned with cayenne pepper.

127. =Green Pea Salad.=--Place one pint of cold boiled peas in a bowl with
one tablespoonful of powdered sugar; pour over them two tablespoonfuls
of oil and one of vinegar, and garnish with two cucumbers delicately
sliced. This salad is excellent with a Mayonnaise.

128. =Orange Salad.=--Divest four under-ripe oranges of all rind and pith,
slice them into a dish, season with a little cayenne pepper, add the
rind of one minced, the juice of one lemon and a tablespoonful of oil if
desired; decorate with tarragon tops.

129. =Spinach Salad.=--Place one pint of lettuce leaves, and one pint of
tender spinach tops in a bowl with a few fresh mint leaves, dress them
with oil and vinegar plain, and decorate them with sliced hard boiled
eggs. A ravigote sauce is excellent with this salad.

130. =Tomato Salad.=--Slice one quart of ripe tomatoes, sprinkle with
cayenne pepper, garnish with chervil or fennel, and dress with oil or
lemon juice three tablespoonfuls of each.

131. =Nasturtium Salad.=--Tear two white lettuces into the salad bowl,
sprinkle over them one tablespoonful of pickled nasturtiums, or capers,
dress with simple oil and vinegar, and garnish with fresh nasturtium
blossoms.

In mixing salad dressings, first, carefully stir together all the
ingredients except the oil and vinegar, and add these gradually and
alternately a few drops at a time.

132. =Cream Dressing.=--Where oil is disliked in salads the following
dressing will be found excellent. Rub the yolks of two hard boiled eggs
very fine with a spoon, incorporate with them a dessertspoonful of mixed
mustard, then stir in a tablespoonful of melted butter, half a teacupful
of thick cream, a saltspoonful of salt, and cayenne pepper enough to
take up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade, and a few drops of
anchovy or Worcestershire sauce; add very carefully sufficient vinegar
to reduce the mixture to a smooth creamy consistency; and pour it upon
lettuce carefully prepared for the table.

133. =English Salad Sauce.=--Break the yolk of one hard boiled egg with a
silver fork, add to it a saltspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of dry
mustard, a mashed mealy potato, two dessertspoonfuls each of cream and
oil, and one tablespoonful of vinegar; mix until smooth and firm.

134. =Remolade.=--Beat a fresh raw egg, add to it a teaspoonful of mixed
mustard, and three tablespoonfuls of oil; when smooth add just enough
vinegar to change the color slightly.

135. =Sweet Sauce.=--Mix well two tablespoonfuls of oil, the raw yolk of
one egg, a saltspoonful of salt, a half that quantity of pepper, one
tablespoonful of vinegar, and a dessertspoonful of moist sugar.

136. =Piquante Salad Sauce.=--Mix together the yolks of two hard boiled
and two raw eggs; add one tablespoonful each of cream and oil; and,
when smooth, enough Chili or tarragon vinegar to season sharply, about
two tablespoonfuls.

137. =Green Remolade.=--One dessertspoonful each of chopped tarragon,
chives, and sorrel, pounded in a mortar; add a saltspoonful of salt,
half that quantity of mignonette pepper, one tablespoonful of mixed
mustard, a gill of oil, and the raw yolks of three eggs; when pounded
quite smooth, dilute it with a little vinegar, and strain it through a
sieve.

138. =Oil Sauce.=--Pound in a mortar one shallot or two button onions, the
yolks of two hard boiled eggs, a saltspoonful of herbs, a tablespoonful
of vinegar, and enough oil to thicken it, about one gill.

139. =Ravigote Sauce.=--Clean and chop a few salad herbs, put one
teaspoonful of each into a small pan with a tablespoonful of meat jelly
or thick stock, and a little pepper and salt; stir till the jelly is
hot, and then add one tablespoonful of vinegar, and two of good oil;
when thoroughly mixed set the sauce-pan into a cool place, or pour out
the mixture on a dish until it is wanted for use.

140. =Egg Dressing.=--Chop the yolks and whites of two hard boiled eggs
separately, but not fine; strew them upon any salad after having dressed
it with two tablespoonfuls of cream, and one of white vinegar.

141. =Anchovy Salad Sauce.=--Mix until smooth two raw eggs, one
teaspoonful of the essence of anchovy, one tablespoonful of vinegar, and
two of oil.

142. =Swiss Dressing.=--Pound two ounces of old cheese in a mortar, add
one tablespoonful of vinegar, a little salt and pepper, and dilute to
the consistency of cream with oil.

143. =Spring Dressing.=--Beat the yolks of two raw eggs, add a teaspoonful
of salt, and a saltspoonful of dry mustard, chop one leek or two new
onions, and mix them in, then add three tablespoonfuls of oil and one of
vinegar and mix thoroughly; tear up two heads of lettuce, putting thin
slices of boiled beets upon it, and pour the dressing over all.

144. =Mayonnaise.=--Place in the bottom of a salad bowl the yolk of one
raw egg, a level teaspoonful of salt, the same quantity of dry mustard,
a saltspoonful of white pepper, as much cayenne as can be taken up on
the point of a very small pen-knife blade, and the juice of half a
lemon; mix these ingredients with a wooden salad spoon until they assume
a creamy white appearance; then add, drop by drop, three gills of salad
oil, stirring the _mayonnaise_ constantly; if it thickens too rapidly,
thin it with a little of the juice from the second half of the lemon,
until all is used; and towards the finish add gradually four
tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar. Keep it cool until wanted for use.

145. =Hot Salad Sauce.=--This sauce when cold is an excellent and
economical substitute for the more expensive _mayonnaise_.

PART 1.--Put one ounce each of butter and flour into a sauce-pan over
the fire, and stir until it is melted, add gradually half a pint of
boiling water, season with a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a
saltspoonful of white pepper, stir till smooth, and set a little away
from the fire, while you make the following sauce.

PART 2.--Put the yolk of one raw egg in a salad bowl, add a quarter of a
saltspoonful of salt, half that quantity of grated nutmeg, as much
cayenne as you can take up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade;
mix these ingredients with a wooden salad spoon thoroughly, and then
add, a few drops at a time and alternately, three tablespoonfuls of oil,
and one of vinegar. Pour the preparation marked _part 1_, into this,
gradually stirring until the sauces are thoroughly mixed; cool and use.
This sauce will keep for weeks in a cool place.

146. =Romaine Salad Dressing.=--Grate half an ounce of onion, mix it with
a teaspoonful of lemon juice, a saltspoonful each of salt and powdered
sugar, a level saltspoonful each of white pepper, and dry mustard, then
gradually add three tablespoonfuls of oil, and one of vinegar. Use for
lettuce or tomato salad.



CHAPTER IX.

VEGETABLES.


Soft water is the best for boiling all vegetables. Fresh vegetables boil
in one-third less time than stale ones. Green vegetables should be put
into plenty of boiling water and salt, and boiled rapidly, without
covering, only until tender enough to pierce with the finger nail; a bit
of common washing soda, or of carbonate of ammonia, as large as a dried
pea, put into the boiling water with any of the vegetables except beans,
counteracts any excess of mineral elements in them, and helps to
preserve their color. A lump of loaf sugar boiled with turnips
neutralizes their excessive bitterness. Cabbage, potatoes, carrots,
turnips, parsnips, onions, and beets, are injured by being boiled with
fresh meat, and they also hurt the color of the meat, and impair its
tenderness and flavor. When vegetables are cooked for use with salt
meat, the meat should first be cooked and taken from the pot liquor, and
the vegetables boiled in the latter. The following table will be a guide
in boiling vegetables, but it must be remembered that the youngest and
freshest boil in the least time; and that in winter all the roots except
potatoes require nearly double the time to cook, that they would take
in summer, when they are new; spinach, ten to fifteen minutes; brussels
sprouts, peas, cauliflowers, and asparagus, fifteen to twenty minutes;
potatoes, cabbage, corn, and string-beans, twenty to thirty minutes;
turnips, onions, and squash, twenty to forty minutes; beets, carrots,
and parsnips, about one hour.

147. =Asparagus with Melted Butter.=--Trim the white tough ends from two
bunches of asparagus, tie it in packages of about a dozen stalks each;
put them into three quarts of boiling water, with three tablespoonfuls
of salt, and boil them gently until done, about twenty minutes; meantime
make some drawn butter according to receipt for caper sauce, omitting
the capers; fit two slices of toast to the bottom of the dish you intend
to use, dip it for one instant in the water in which the asparagus has
been boiled, lay it on the dish, and arrange the asparagus in a ring on
it with the heads in the centre; send the butter to the table in a gravy
boat, with the dish of asparagus.

148. =Green Peas.=--Boil two quarts of freshly shelled peas in two quarts
of boiling water with half an ounce of butter, one bunch of green mint,
and one teaspoonful each of sugar and salt, until they begin to sink to
the bottom of the sauce-pan: drain them in a colander, season them with
a saltspoonful of salt, and a quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and
send them to the table hot.

149. =String Beans.=--These beans are generally marketed while they are
unripe, and cooked in the shell; in that condition two quarts of them
should be stringed, split in halves, cut in pieces two inches long, and
thrown into boiling water with a tablespoonful of salt, _but no soda or
ammonia should be added, as its action discolors them_; a few sprigs of
parsley and an ounce of pork can be boiled with them to their
improvement; when they are tender, which will be in about half an hour,
they should be drained, and served with melted butter, made as for caper
sauce, but without the capers.

150. =Baked Beets.=--Clean eight smooth beets with a soft cloth or brush;
bake them in a moderate oven about one hour; rub off the skin, baste
them with butter and lemon juice, return them to the oven for five
minutes, and serve them hot.

151. =Brussels Sprouts.=--Trim two quarts of Brussels sprouts, wash them
thoroughly, put them in three quarts of boiling water with two
tablespoonfuls of salt, and boil them gently until tender, about fifteen
minutes, shaking the sauce-pan occasionally; then drain them in a
colander, being careful not to break them; put them again into the
sauce-pan with one ounce of butter, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, a
saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper;
toss them gently over the fire, while you make some rounds of buttered
toast for the bottom of a platter; when this is ready shake the Brussels
sprouts upon it, and serve hot. Some persons like the addition of two
ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; and others serve them with the
_Béchamel_ sauce named in receipt No. 84.

152. =Stuffed Cabbage.=--Cut the leaves of a large white cabbage as whole
as possible, cut out the stalks, wash the leaves well, and boil them
_only until tender_, in three quarts of boiling water and salt, with a
piece of soda as large as a dried pea; have ready some sausage meat
highly seasoned, and as soon as the cabbage is tender carefully drain it
in a colander, run cold water from the faucet over it, and, without
tearing the leaves, lay them open on the table, two or three upon each
other, making eight or ten piles. Divide the sausage meat, and lay a
portion in the centre of each, fold the cabbage over it in a compact
roll and tie it in place with cord; lay the rolls on a baking sheet,
season with salt and pepper, put over each a tablespoonful of any rich
brown gravy and brown a little in a quick oven; serve at once, on small
rounds of toast.

153. =Red Cabbage.=--Cut a firm head of red cabbage in shreds, lay it in
a sauce-pan with the following ingredients; one gill of vinegar, one
teaspoonful each of ground cloves and salt, half a saltspoonful of
pepper, two ounces of butter, and two ounces of sugar; stew it gently
until tender, about one hour, shaking the pan to prevent burning, and
serve it hot.

154. =Baked Cauliflower.=--Thoroughly wash a large cauliflower, boil it
in plenty of boiling water and salt, until tender, about twenty minutes;
drain it whole; pour over it one gill of _Béchamel_ sauce, made as in
receipt No. 84, dust it thickly with cracker dust, or bread crumbs, and
Parmesan cheese, mixed in equal proportions, and brown it ten minutes
in a quick oven.

155. =Baked Turnips.=--Pare six large yellow turnips, slice them, and boil
them till tender in plenty of salted water; drain them, put them on a
flat dish in layers, pour over them half a pint of _Béchamel_ sauce,
dust them thickly with crumbs and grated Parmesan cheese; brown them in
a quick oven, and serve hot.

156. =Glazed Onions.=--Pare three dozen button onions, put them on a tin
dish, pour over them a very little Spanish sauce or brown gravy, just
enough to moisten them, season them with a teaspoonful of salt, and
quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; brown them in a quick oven, shaking
them occasionally to color them equally; serve hot.

157. =Mushroom Pudding.=--Cleanse a quart of fresh mushrooms, cut them in
small pieces, mix them with half a pound of minced ham or bacon, season
them with a teaspoonful of salt, and half a saltspoonful of pepper;
spread them on a roly-poly crust made by mixing one pound of flour, half
a pound of shortening, and a teaspoonful of salt, with about one pint of
water: roll up the crust, tie it tightly in a floured cloth, and boil it
about two hours in boiling stock, or salted water; serve hot with bread,
or vegetables.

158. =Boiled Potatoes.=--Potatoes should be prepared for boiling by first
carefully washing them, removing the deep eyes or defective parts, and
then paring off one ring all around the potato; place them in cold water
with a little salt; when cooked, which will be in from twenty to thirty
minutes, pour off all the water, cover them with a clean, coarse towel,
_leaving off the lid of the pot_, and set them on a hot brick on the
back of the fire to steam. Potatoes treated in this way can be kept
fresh, hot and mealy for hours. Medium-sized and smooth potatoes are the
most economical to use, and the kind should be selected in reference to
the season.

159. =Lyonnaise Potatoes.=--Chop two ounces of onion, and fry it pale
yellow in two ounces of butter; meantime peel boiled potatoes, either
hot or cold, cut them in slices, put them into the pan containing the
onion and butter, season them with a teaspoonful of salt, and half a
saltspoonful of pepper, fry them pale brown, shaking the pan to prevent
burning, and tossing it to brown them evenly; sprinkle with two
tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, and serve at once.

160. =Stuffed Potatoes.=--Wash twelve large potatoes with a brush; bake
them _only until they begin to soften_; not more than half an hour; cut
off one end, scoop out the inside with a teaspoon into a sauce-pan
containing two ounces of butter, one saltspoonful of white pepper, one
teaspoonful of salt, and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; stir all
these ingredients over the fire until they are scalding hot; then fill
the potato skins with the mixture, put on the ends, press the potatoes
gently in shape, heat them in the oven, and serve them on a hot dish
covered with a napkin, the potatoes being laid on the napkin. _Observe
never to cover a baked potato unless you want it to be heavy and
moist._

161. =Potato Snow.=--Peel a quart of white potatoes, and boil them as
directed in receipt No. 158; drain them thoroughly, put them in a sieve
over the dish in which they are to be served, and rub them through it
with a potato masher, or a wooden spoon; do not stir them after they are
put into the dish, and serve them hot.

162. =Bermuda or New Potatoes.=--Wash a quart of new potatoes thoroughly,
put them into plenty of boiling water and salt, and boil them until
tender enough to pierce easily with a fork; drain off the water, cover
them with a towel, let them steam five minutes, and serve them in their
jackets.

163. =Broiled Potatoes.=--Boil a quart of even sized potatoes until
tender, but do not let them grow mealy; drain off the water, peel the
potatoes, cut them in half inch slices, dip them in melted butter, and
broil them over a moderate fire; serve hot, with a little butter melted.

164. =Saratoga Potatoes.=--Peel a quart of potatoes, cut them in very thin
slices, and lay them in cold water and salt for an hour or more; then
dry them on a towel, throw them into a deep kettle of smoking hot fat,
and fry them light brown; take them out of the fat with a skimmer into a
colander, scatter over them a teaspoonful of salt, shake them well
about, and turn them on a platter to serve.

165. =Broiled Tomatoes.=--Wipe half a dozen large red tomatoes, cut them
in half inch slices, dip them in melted butter, season them with salt
and pepper, dip them in cracker crumbs, and broil them on an oiled
gridiron over a moderate fire, being very careful not to break the
slices in turning them. Serve them with chops for breakfast.

166. =Stuffed Tomatoes.=--Cut off the tops from eight or ten large smooth
round tomatoes; scoop out the inside, and put it into a sauce-pan with
quarter of a pound of scraps of ham, bacon or tongue minced fine, a
saltspoonful of salt, two ounces of butter, half an ounce of chopped
parsley, and four ounces of grated cheese and bread crumbs mixed; stir
these ingredients over the fire until they are scalding hot, fill the
tomato skins with this forcemeat, fit them neatly together, dust them
with sifted bread crumbs, put over each a very little sweet oil to
prevent burning, brown them in a quick oven, and serve them on a hot
dish with their own gravy turned over them.

167. =Saratoga Onions.=--Slice half a dozen delicately flavored onions in
small strips; drop them into plenty of smoking hot fat, fry them pale
brown, and drain them for a moment in a colander. Serve hot for
breakfast or lunch.

168. =Fried Beans.=--Fry two ounces of chopped onions in one ounce of
butter until golden brown; put into them about a quart of cold boiled
white beans, season them with a teaspoonful of salt, and half a
saltspoonful of pepper, moisten them with half a pint of any brown
gravy, and serve them hot.

169. =Ham and Beans.=--Put into a sauce-pan two ounces of butter, half a
saltspoonful each of salt and pepper, one quart of cold beans, and
quarter of a pound of ham chopped fine; moisten these ingredients with
a little gravy of any kind, heat them thoroughly, and serve at once.

170. =Kolcannon.=--Mince an ounce of onion, fry it pale yellow in one
ounce of butter, add to it equal parts of cold boiled potatoes and
cabbage, season with a teaspoonful of salt, and half a saltspoonful of
pepper, and fry for fifteen minutes; serve hot for breakfast or lunch.

171. =Carrot Stew.=--Clean, boil, and quarter three large carrots; cut the
pieces in two; simmer them gently in milk enough to cover them, season
with a teaspoonful of salt, and a saltspoonful of pepper; when they are
quite tender take them off the fire long enough to stir in the raw yolk
of an egg, return them to the fire two minutes to cook the egg, and
serve them hot at once.

172. =Baked Mushrooms.=--Clean a quart of medium sized mushrooms, trim off
the roots, dip them first in some _maître d'hotel_ butter made of equal
parts of chopped parsley, lemon juice, and sweet butter, then roll them
in cracker or bread crumbs, lay them on a dish, and just brown them in a
quick oven.

173. =Stuffed Lettuce.=--Choose four round firm heads of lettuce, first
bring them to a boil in hot water and salt, drain them carefully, cut
out the stalk end, fill the inside of the head with minced veal or
chicken highly seasoned, lay them on a baking pan, put a tablespoonful
of some brown gravy over each, and then bake in a moderate oven about
fifteen minutes.

174. =Stewed Parsnips.=--Wash eight parsnips, carefully cut each in four
pieces, boil them in plenty of water, until tender, from twenty minutes
to an hour, according to the season; then drain off the water, make a
layer of quarter of a pound of salt pork on the bottom of the pot, put
the parsnips in again, and fry them until brown; serve the pork with
them on a platter.



CHAPTER X.

CHEAP DISHES WITHOUT MEAT.


"Bread is the staff of life;" in all ages and countries farinaceous
foods have formed the bulk of man's sustenance; under this general term
we include macaroni, which contains more gluten than bread and
consequently is more nourishing, the different wheat flours, oat and
barley meal, pearl barley, peas, beans, and lentils; the latter are the
nearest article to meat in point of nourishment, containing heat-food in
quantity nearly equal to wheat, and twice as much flesh food. Lentils
have been used for food in older countries from time immemorial, and it
is quite time that we should become acquainted with their merits; a
lentil soup is given in the second chapter, and in this we append some
excellent directions for cooking this invaluable food. One quart of
lentils when cooked will make four pounds of hearty food. There are two
varieties in market; the small flat brown seed, called lentils _à la
reine_; and a larger kind, about the size of peas, and of a greenish
color; both sorts are equally well flavored and nutritious. There is no
reason why, with judicious seasoning, the "dinner of herbs" should lack
the gustatory enjoyment which is popularly supposed to belong to the
repast furnished by the "stalled ox;" especially if we are economical
enough to save towards making it any pot-liquor, or cold meat gravy or
drippings, which are left from a feast-day.

175. =Potato Soup.=--Slice six onions, fry them brown with two ounces of
drippings, then add two ounces of flour and brown it; add four quarts of
boiling water, and stir till the soup boils; season with a level
tablespoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper; add one quart of
potatoes peeled and cut fine, and boil all until they are tender; then
stir in four ounces of oatmeal mixed smooth with a pint of cold water,
and boil fifteen minutes; this soup should be stirred often enough to
prevent burning; when it is nearly done mix together off the fire one
ounce each of butter and flour, and stir them into the soup; when it
boils up pass through a sieve with a wooden spoon, and serve hot with
plenty of bread.

176. =Scotch Crowdie.=--Boil one pound of oatmeal one hour in four quarts
of any kind of pot-liquor, stirring often enough to prevent burning;
season with one tablespoonful of salt, a level saltspoonful of pepper,
one ounce of butter, and serve with plenty of bread.

177. =Peas-pudding.=--Soak three pints of dried peas in cold water over
night; tie them loosely in a clean cloth, and boil them about two hours
in pot-liquor or water, putting them into it cold and bringing them
gradually to a boil; drain them, pass them through a sieve with a wooden
spoon, season them with a level tablespoonful of salt, half a
saltspoonful of pepper, one ounce of butter, and one egg, if it is on
hand; mix, tie in a clean cloth, and boil half an hour longer; then turn
it from the cloth, on a dish, and serve hot.

178. =Red Herrings with Potatoes.=--Soak a dozen herrings in cold water
for one hour; dry and skin them, split them down the back, and lay them
in a pan with two ounces of drippings, two ounces of onion chopped fine,
a saltspoonful of pepper, and three tablespoonfuls of vinegar; and set
them in a moderate oven to brown for ten or fifteen minutes: meantime,
boil one quart of potatoes, with a ring of the paring taken off, in
plenty of boiling water and salt, pouring off the water as soon as they
are tender, and letting them stand on the back of the fire, covered with
a dry towel, for five minutes; serve them with the herrings, taking care
to dish both quite hot.

179. =Oatmeal Porridge.=--Boil two ounces of chopped onion in two quarts
of skim milk; mix half a pound of oatmeal smooth with about a pint of
milk, pour it into the boiling milk, season it with a tablespoonful of
salt, boil it about twenty minutes, stirring to prevent burning, and
serve hot.

180. =Cheese Pudding.=--Into two quarts of boiling water, containing two
tablespoonfuls of salt, stir one pound of yellow Indian meal, and three
quarters of a pound of grated cheese; boil it for twenty minutes,
stirring it occasionally to prevent burning; then put it in a buttered
baking pan, sprinkle over the top quarter of a pound of grated cheese,
and brown in a quick oven. Serve hot. If any remains, slice it cold and
fry it brown.

181. =Polenta.=--Boil one pound of yellow Indian meal for half an hour, in
two quarts of pot-liquor, stirring it occasionally to prevent burning;
then bake it for half an hour in a buttered baking dish, and serve it
either hot; or, when cold, slice it and fry it in smoking hot fat. This
favorite Italian dish is closely allied to the hasty-pudding of New
England, whose praises have been sung by poe-tasters.

182. =Fish Pudding.=--Make a plain paste by mixing quarter of a pound of
lard or sweet drippings with half a pound of flour, a teaspoonful of
salt, and just water enough to make a stiff paste; roll it out; line the
edges of a deep pudding dish with it half way down; fill the dish with
layers of fresh codfish cut in small pieces, using two or three pounds,
season each layer with salt, pepper, chopped parsley, and chopped
onions, using one tablespoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of pepper, two
bay leaves, a saltspoonful of thyme, four ounces of onion, and half an
ounce of parsley; fill up the dish with any cold gravy, milk, or water,
cover with paste, and bake fifteen minutes in a quick oven; finish by
baking half an hour in a moderate oven; serve hot.

183. =Lentils boiled plain.=--Wash two pounds of lentils well in cold
water, put them over the fire, in four quarts of cold water with one
ounce of drippings, one tablespoonful of salt, and a saltspoonful of
pepper, and boil slowly until tender, that is about three hours; drain
off the little water which remains, add to the lentils one ounce of
butter, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of sugar, and
a little more salt and pepper if required, and serve them hot. Always
save the water in which they are boiled; with the addition of a little
thickening and seasoning, it makes a very nourishing soup.

184. =Stewed Lentils.=--Put plain boiled lentils into a sauce-pan, cover
them with any kind of pot-liquor, add one ounce of chopped onion, two
ounces of butter, quarter of an ounce of chopped parsley, and stew
gently for twenty minutes; serve hot.

185. =Fried Lentils.=--Fry one ounce of chopped onion brown in two ounces
of drippings, add plain boiled lentils, see if they are properly
seasoned, and brown them well; serve hot.

186. =Norfolk Dumplings.=--Mix well together two pounds of flour, one
dessertspoonful of salt, and two pints of milk; divide the dough in
twelve equal parts, and drop them into a pot of boiling pot-liquor, or
boiling water; boil them steadily half an hour. They should be eaten
hot, with gravy, sweet drippings, or a little molasses.

187. =Salt Cod with Parsnips.=--Soak three pounds of salt fish over night,
with the skin uppermost, and boil it about one hour, putting it into
plenty of cold water. Meantime pare half a dozen parsnips, and cut them
in quarters, boil them half an hour, or longer, until tender, drain
them, and dish them around the fish. While the fish and parsnips are
cooking make the following sauce: mix two ounces of flour and one ounce
of butter or sweet drippings, over the fire until a smooth paste is
formed; then pour in half a pint of boiling water gradually, stirring
until the sauce is smooth, add three tablespoonfuls of vinegar, season
with one saltspoonful of salt, and half that quantity of pepper; let the
sauce boil up thoroughly for about three minutes, and serve it with the
fish and parsnips. A hard boiled egg chopped and added to the sauce
improves it.

188. =Pickled Mackerel.=--When fresh mackerel or herrings can be bought
cheap, clean enough to fill a two quart deep jar, pack them in it in
layers with a seasoning of a tablespoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of
powdered herbs a saltspoonful each of pepper and allspice, and cover
with vinegar and cold water, in equal parts. Bake about one hour in a
moderate oven. Serve with plain boiled potatoes.

189. =Potato Pudding.=--Wash and peel two quarts of potatoes; peel and
slice about six ounces of onions; skin and bone two bloaters or large
herrings; put all these ingredients in a baking dish in layers seasoning
them with a dessertspoonful of salt and a saltspoonful of pepper; pour
over them any cold gravy you have on hand, or add two or three ounces of
drippings; if you have neither of these, water will answer; bake the
pudding an hour and a half; serve hot, with bread.



CHAPTER XI.

CHEAP DISHES WITH MEAT.


Those parts of meat which are usually called inferior, and sold at low
rates, such as the head, tongue, brains, pluck, tripe, feet, and tail,
can be cooked so as to become both nourishing and delicate. They are
more generally eaten in Europe than in this country, and they are really
worthy of careful preparation; for instance, take the haslet _ragout_,
the receipt for which is given further on in this chapter. The author
owes this receipt to the fortunate circumstance of one day procuring a
calf's liver direct from the slaughter-house, with the heart and lights
attached; the liver was to be larded and cooked as directed in receipt
No. 53, at a cooking lesson; the _chef_ said, after laying aside the
liver, "I will make for myself a dish of what the ladies would not
choose," and at the direction of the author he cooked it before the
class; the ladies tasted and approved. The nutritive value and flavor of
the dishes specified in this chapter are less than those of prime cuts
of meat, but properly combined with vegetables and cereals, they
completely take the place of those more expensive foods; they should be
thoroughly cooked, and well masticated; and can usually be digested
with greater ease than the more solid flesh.

190. =Three dishes from a Neck of Mutton.=--PART I.--BARLEY BROTH WITH
VEGETABLES.--Trim a neck of mutton into neat cutlets, and reserve them
for _part 2_; put the bones and trimmings into three quarts of cold
water, boil slowly, and skim thoroughly: add six ounces of barley which
has been soaked in cold water over night, a bouquet of sweet herbs, two
teaspoonfuls of salt, and one saltspoonful of pepper, and simmer for two
hours; strain out one quart of the broth for _part 3_, then add six
ounces of carrots, four ounces of onions, and four ounces of yellow
turnips cut in dice about half an inch square, six ounces of oatmeal
mixed to a smooth batter with cold water, and simmer until the
vegetables are tender, which will be about half an hour: taste to try
the seasoning and serve hot.--PART II.--MUTTON STEW.--Cut half a quart
each of yellow turnips and potatoes into balls as large as marbles,
saving the trimmings to put into soup, and for mashed potatoes; peel six
ounces of small onions; put all these in separate vessels to boil until
tender enough to pierce with a fork; meantime put the cutlets in a hot
pan containing an ounce of drippings, and fry them brown quickly; stir
among them one ounce of dry flour; brown it, add one quart of boiling
water; season with one teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter of a
saltspoonful of pepper; drain the vegetables, put them with the meat and
gravy, and serve hot.--PART III.--FRIED PUDDING.--To the quart of broth
strained off as directed in _Part I_, and brought to the boiling point,
gradually add sufficient Indian meal to thicken it, about half a pound
will generally be enough; season with a teaspoonful of salt, and boil it
for twenty minutes, stirring it occasionally to prevent burning; pour it
out into a deep earthen dish, and let it stand long enough to grow
solid; then cut it in slices, and fry it brown in drippings; it can be
eaten with molasses for dessert. With proper management all these dishes
can be ready at one time, and will form a good and wholesome dinner.

191. =Neck of Pork stuffed.=--Clean a neck of fresh pork, fill it with
sage and onion stuffing, made according to receipt No. ----; put it in a
dripping pan, with some small potatoes, peeled and washed well in cold
water, roast it brown, seasoning with a teaspoonful of salt, and half a
saltspoonful of pepper, when it is half done; when it is thoroughly
cooked serve it with the potatoes laid around it, and a gravy made from
the drippings in the pan cleared of fat, and thickened with a
teaspoonful of flour.

192. =Pigs' Feet Fried.=--Thoroughly burn all the hairs off with a poker
heated to a white heat; then scald the feet, wipe them dry, and put them
over the fire to boil in cold water, with two ounces each of carrot and
onion, the latter stuck with six cloves, two tablespoonfuls of salt,
quarter of an ounce of parsley made into a bouquet with three bay leaves
and a sprig of thyme; boil them slowly four hours, or more, until you
can easily remove the bones. Split the feet in two pieces, and take out
all the large bones; have ready some sifted crumbs of cracker, or dry
bread, a little milk, or an egg beaten with a teaspoonful of water; dry
the pieces on a clean towel, roll them first in the crumbs, then dip
them in the milk or egg, and roll them again in the crumbs; fry them in
smoking hot lard, which you must afterwards strain and save to use
again, and lay them neatly on a hot dish; they will make an appetizing
and nourishing meal.

193. =Pigs' Tongue and Brains.=--Soak them in cold water with two
tablespoonfuls of salt for two hours; then put them into cold water over
the fire, with two ounces each of carrot and onion, the latter stuck
with three cloves, a bouquet of sweet herbs, and a tablespoonful of
vinegar, and boil slowly fifteen minutes; take out the brains leaving
the tongue still boiling, and put them in cold water to cool; then
carefully remove the thin membrane or skin covering the brains, without
breaking them; season them with a saltspoonful of salt and quarter of a
saltspoonful of pepper, roll them in cracker crumbs, and fry them brown
in smoking hot fat. By this time the tongue will be tender; take it up,
lay it on a dish between the brains, put a few sprigs of parsley,
celery, mint or watercresses, around them and serve them hot. This
inexpensive dish is very delicate and nutritious.

194. =Roasted Tripe.=--Cut some tripe in pieces three inches long by six
wide; cover each one with highly seasoned sausage-meat, roll up, and tie
with a string; lay the rolls in a dripping pan, dredge them well with
flour, and set them in the oven to bake, basting them with the liquor
which flows from them; when they are nicely browned, dish them up with a
slice of lemon on each one. Some melted butter may be put over them if
desired.

195. =Ragout of Haslet.=--Wash the lights, cut them in two inch pieces,
put them into a sauce-pan with one ounce each of butter, salt pork
sliced, onion chopped, one dessertspoonful of salt, and half a
saltspoonful of black pepper; two bay leaves, two sprigs of parsley and
one of thyme, tied in a bouquet, one ounce of flour, one gill of
vinegar, half a pint of cold gravy or cold water, and six potatoes
peeled and cut in dice; stew all these ingredients gently together for
two hours, and serve as you would a stew, with a tablespoonful of
chopped parsley sprinkled over the top.

196. =Cock-a-leeky.=--Pluck, singe, and draw a cheap fowl, as directed in
receipt No. ----; break the breast bone down with a rolling-pin, tie the
fowl in a plump shape, put it into a sauce-pan with four quarts of cold
water, one pound of rice, first washed in cold water, a tablespoonful of
salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, and a bunch of leeks weighing about
a pound, cut in two-inch pieces. Boil all gently for three hours,
stirring occasionally to prevent the rice burning; serve the fowl on one
dish with a tablespoonful of parsley chopped and sprinkled over it, and
the rice and broth in a soup tureen or deep dish.

197. =Italian Cheese.=--Chop a pig's pluck, and two pounds of scraps or
trimmings of fresh pork, season this forcemeat to taste with the spice
salt of mixed spices and sweet herbs named in Chapter first; put it into
an earthen jar with a lid, seal the lid with a paste made of flour and
water, and oiled upon the surface to prevent cracking; put the jar in a
moderate oven, and bake the cheese three hours, slowly. This dish is
eaten cold with bread, in place of butter, and makes a hearty meal.

198. =Gammon Dumpling.=--Make a plain paste of two pounds of flour, one
dessertspoonful of salt, half a pound of finely chopped suet or scraps,
and sufficient cold water to mix it to a stiff dough; roll this out
about half an inch thick, spread over it about two pounds of any cheap
cut of bacon or ham, finely chopped, roll up the dumpling as you would a
roly-poly pudding, tie it tightly in a clean cloth, and boil it in
boiling water, or boiling pot-liquor, for about three hours. Serve it
hot, with plain boiled potatoes.

199. =Toad-in-the-Hole.=--Cut two pounds of the cheapest parts of any good
meat into small pieces, roll them in flour, pepper, and salt, and fry
them brown in two ounces of drippings; meantime prepare a batter as
follows; mix one pound of flour, one heaping teaspoonful of salt, half a
nutmeg grated, and two eggs, stirred in without beating; gradually add
three pints of skim-milk, making a smooth batter; add the meat and its
gravy to this batter, put it in a greased baking dish, and bake it
slowly about two hours. Serve it with plain boiled potatoes.

200. =Bacon Roly-Poly.=--Boil a pound and a half of bacon for half an
hour; then slice it thin; peel and slice six apples and the same number
of onions; make a stiff dough of two pounds of flour, a teaspoonful of
salt, and cold water; roll it out half an inch thick; lay the bacon,
apples, and onion all over it, roll it up, tie it tightly in a clean
cloth, and boil it about two hours, in plenty of boiling water. Serve it
with boiled potatoes, or boiled cabbage.

201. =Baked Ox-heart.=--Clean the heart thoroughly; stuff it with the
following forcemeat; one ounce of onion chopped fine, a tablespoonful of
chopped parsley, a saltspoonful of powdered sage or thyme, a teaspoonful
of salt, half a small loaf of bread, and enough warm water to moisten
the bread; mix, stuff the heart with it, and bake it an hour in a good
hot oven, basting it occasionally with the liquor that flows from it,
and when half done seasoning it well with salt and pepper. Serve hot
with plain boiled potatoes, or with potatoes peeled, and baked in the
pan with the heart.

202. =Tripe and Onions.=--Cut two pounds of tripe in pieces two inches
square; peel and slice six large onions and ten potatoes; slice a
quarter of a pound of salt pork or bacon; put the bacon in the bottom of
a pot, with the tripe and vegetables in layers on it, seasoning with a
tablespoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of
powdered herbs; mix a pound of flour gradually with a quart and a half
of cold water, pour it over the tripe and vegetables, and boil it gently
for two hours. Serve hot with bread.

203. =Peas and Bacon.=--Cut a quarter of a pound of fat bacon in small
bits, and fry it brown with two ounces of onions sliced; then add four
ounces of split peas, one tablespoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of
pepper, one teaspoonful of sugar, and four quarts of cold water; boil it
until the peas are reduced to a pulp, which will be about three hours;
then stir in sufficient oatmeal to thicken it, and boil slowly twenty
minutes, stirring it occasionally; serve hot; or when cold, slice and
fry it brown.

204. =Pot-au-feu.=--Put into four quarts of cold water one pound of cheap
lean meat, and one pound of liver whole, some bones, cut into bits, two
tablespoonfuls of salt, one teaspoonful of pepper, four leeks cut in
pieces, and the following vegetables whole; four carrots, four turnips,
and four onions, each stuck with two cloves; boil all gently for three
hours, skimming occasionally, and adding two tablespoonfuls of cold
water about every half hour; take up the meat and the liver on a
platter, arrange the vegetables neatly around them, and serve the broth
in a tureen, with plenty of bread.

205. =Ragout of Mutton.=--Cut four pounds of the scrag end of mutton in
small pieces; peel a quart of turnips and cut them in round pieces as
large as a walnut, and fry them brown in four ounces of fat; take them
up, mix into the fat four ounces of flour, and brown it; add the mutton
and sufficient cold water to cover the meat, and stir until it boils;
season with a tablespoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, a
teaspoonful of sugar, and an ounce of onion if the flavor is liked;
simmer gently until the meat is tender, about two hours; then add the
turnips, heat them, and serve hot.



CHAPTER XII.

THE CHILDREN'S CHAPTER.


Any elaborate discussion of the relations of food to the needs of the
body would not come within the scope of a work of this character; but
there are a few facts concerning the diet of children to which we would
call the attention of those mothers who wish their little brood to
brighten home with radiant eyes, rosy cheeks, plump, graceful forms, and
hearts bubbling over with the vivacity which springs from perfect
health. Let them discard sago, arrowroot, and tapioca, all largely
composed of starch, as comparatively useless in nourishing the growing
body, which calls for the most complete nutrients; these often do very
well in illness, where no great degree of nourishment is necessary, and
where simply a given quantity of bland, innutritious food is required to
help the system do without stronger aliment, calculated to irritate
overworked and sensitive organs.

Indigestible articles, such as fat meat, rich pastry, hot bread, unripe
fruit and vegetables, tea, coffee, spices, and stimulants, should be
avoided in the diet of children. Good wheaten bread, farina, ripe fruit,
fresh vegetables, meat-juices, milk, and sugar, should make up the list
of staples; when meats are used they should be nutritious and
digestible, such as good mutton, young beef, and tender poultry; bread
and milk and fruit, for breakfast; meat, vegetables, bread and some
light dessert, for dinner; bread and milk, or their equivalents, for
supper; in other words, plain food and plenty of it, will keep mind and
body in a sound condition, and supply all the requirements of growth.

Meats should be carefully cooked, so as to preserve all their natural
juices; but no rich sauces, or made gravies, should accompany them to
the table; a few ripe vegetables cooked until perfectly tender, roasted
or baked potatoes, seed-bearing fruits, generally stewed, and plenty of
light bread at least a day old, should be eaten with the meat. In
stewing fruit only enough water should be used to prevent burning, and
plenty of sugar should be employed to sweeten it; all fruit is less apt
to be injurious if eaten early in the day. Eggs should be plain boiled,
and rather soft. Milk should be boiled when there is any undue action of
the bowels; otherwise it should be used uncooked with plenty of bread.

Hearty, vigorous children, who play much in the open air, can digest
more meat than those who are confined indoors; and the cravings of a
healthy appetite should always be appeased, care being taken that the
stomach has the proper intervals of rest. Regularity of meals is really
most important at all ages; the digestive organs must have time to
assimilate their food supply. In childhood and youth, the period of
growth, the needs of the system are more pressing than at any other
time of life; if at this time children are fed on rich and stimulating
food, they will be prone to fevers; if they are underfed they suffer
both mentally and physically from slow starvation; equal and regular
nutrition is imperative to the well being of the little ones, if we
would have them grow up capable of performing in the fullest degree the
highest functions of life. Therefore give the children plenty of plain,
wholesome food; their active systems will appropriate it. If they
continue serene in temper, equable in disposition, and generally
healthy,--if the eyes are bright, the skin clear, the sleep serene,--the
diet is proper and sufficient.

In the following receipts for preparing children's food the quantities
are calculated for four.

206. =Oatmeal Porridge.=--Oatmeal is an extremely strengthening food; when
it is well cooked it produces a large volume of nutritive matter in
proportion to its bulk; and combined with milk it is the strongest and
best of the cereals. Its flavor is sweet and pleasant; it appears in
market in two forms, a rather rough meal, and the unbroken grain, after
the husk has been removed; in either shape it should be thoroughly
boiled, and combined with milk. A good thick porridge can be made by
stirring four ounces of oatmeal into a quart of boiling milk, and then
pouring this into a quart of water boiling on the fire, and allowing it
to boil half or three-quarters of an hour; care must be taken not to
burn it; just before it is done it should be seasoned with a teaspoonful
of salt; and sweetened to taste at the table.

207. =A good Breakfast= can be made of fresh milk sweetened with a little
sugar and eaten with bread a day old, lightly buttered.

208. =Stewed Fruit.=--Put a quart of apples pared and sliced over the fire
in a thick sauce-pan, with half a pint of water, to prevent burning, and
when tender break them well up and sweeten them with four ounces or more
of sugar, according to the flavor of the apples. Serve them with bread
and butter in the morning, or at noon.

209. =Ripe Currants.=--A pound of ripe currants mashed, and mixed with
half a pound, or more, of sugar, makes an excellent accompaniment for
bread, being served spread upon the slices.

210. =Blackberry Jam.=--This is an invaluable addition to the breakfast,
or noon dinner, in place of butter. It is an excellent agent for
regulating the action of the bowels. It is made by boiling with every
pound of thoroughly ripe blackberries half a pound of good brown sugar;
the boiling to be continued one hour, and the berries well broken up.

211. =Baked Fruit.=--In addition to baking apples in the ordinary way,
plums, peaches, pears, and berries, are good when put into a stone jar
with layers of stale bread and sugar, and about a gill of water, and
baking the fruit slowly in a moderate oven for an hour and a half.

212. =Broiled Chops.=--Trim nearly all the fat from a pound of loin mutton
chops, broil them over a clear, bright fire for about fifteen minutes,
taking care not to burn them; when they are done put them on a hot
platter, season them with half a teaspoonful of salt, and if they are
very dry put a little butter over them, using not more than a quarter of
an ounce. Serve them with mashed potatoes.

213. =Beefsteak.=--A tender sirloin steak is the best cut for general use.
It should be chosen in accordance with the directions given in the
chapter on marketing, and broiled over a brisk, clear fire for about
twenty minutes; the seasoning of salt should be added after it is taken
from the fire, and placed on a hot dish; and but very little butter, if
any, should be used. Serve it with baked potatoes, finely broken with a
fork.

214. =Broiled Chicken.=--A tender, but not very fat chicken, makes an
excellent dinner for children. It should be plucked, singed, split down
the back, carefully drawn, and wiped with a damp cloth, but not washed;
the joints and breast-bone should be broken with the rolling pin, the
chicken being covered with a folded towel to protect the flesh; it
should then be broiled, inside first, over a clear, brisk fire, or
better still, laid in a pan on a couple of slices of bread, and quickly
roasted in a hot oven; by the latter process all the juices of the bird
are saved; some gravy will flow from a good chicken, and from this the
superfluous fat should be removed; if the chicken is very fat the bread
under it should not be given to the children.

215. =Boiled Eggs.=--Eggs are usually spoiled in cooking; if they are
plunged into boiling water, and maintained at the boiling point, the
effect is to harden the albumen while the yolk remains almost raw, and
make them totally unfit for digestion. A good way to cook them is to
place them over the fire in cold water, bring them slowly to a boil, and
then at once set the vessel containing them back from the fire, and let
the eggs stand in the water about one minute if they are to be soft, and
two minutes, or longer, if they are to be hard. Poor eggs cooked in this
way are superior in flavor and digestibility to new-laid eggs boiled
rapidly. One minute is quite long enough to boil them if they are wanted
in their best condition.

216. =Baked Potatoes.=--Potatoes for baking should be of equal and medium
size, with smooth skins; they should be well washed with a brush or
cloth, and put into a quick oven; they will bake in from twenty to
thirty-five minutes, according to variety and ripeness; as soon as you
find they yield readily when pressed between the fingers, they are done;
and should be served at once, _uncovered_. If they stand they grow
heavy, and if you put them in a covered dish you will make them watery.

217. =Boiled Potatoes.=--Potatoes for children's use should be very
carefully boiled; and if not used as soon as they are done, should be
kept hot and dry, by pouring off the water, covering them with a dry
cloth, and setting them on the back of the stove. After washing them
thoroughly, pare them entirely, or take off one ring around each; if
they are new, put them over the fire in hot water; if they are old, put
them on in cold water; in either case, add a tablespoonful of salt, and
boil them from fifteen to thirty minutes, as they require, until you can
pierce them easily with a fork; then drain off all the water, cover them
with a clean dry towel, and set them on the back of the fire until you
are ready to use them.

218. =Apple Cake.=--Grate a small loaf of stale bread; pare and slice
about a quart of apples; lightly butter a pudding mould, dust it well
with flour, and then with sugar, and fill it with layers of bread
crumbs, apples, and sugar, using a very little cinnamon to flavor it;
let the top layer be of crumbs, and put a few bits of butter on it; bake
the cake for one hour in a moderate oven; and serve it for dessert.

219. =Fruit Farina.=--Sprinkle three tablespoonfuls of farina into one
quart of boiling milk, using a sauce-pan set into a kettle of boiling
water, in order to prevent burning; flavor and sweeten to taste, and
boil for half an hour, stirring occasionally; then add one pint of any
ripe berries, or sliced apples, and boil until the fruit is cooked,
about twenty minutes: the pudding may be boiled in a mould or a cloth
after the fruit is added. It should be served with powdered sugar.

220. =Plain Cookies.=--Beat one egg with one cup of sugar to a cream, work
two ounces of butter soft, and beat it with the egg and sugar, grate in
quarter of a nutmeg, add one gill of milk, and prepared flour enough to
make a sufficiently stiff paste to roll out about a pound. Roll an
eighth of an inch thick, cut out with a biscuit cutter, or an inverted
cup, and lay on a floured baking pan, and bake about twenty minutes in
a moderate oven.

221. =Plain Gingerbread.=--Partly melt one ounce of butter, stir it into
half a pint of molasses, with a tablespoonful of ground ginger, and half
a pint of boiling water, stir in smoothly half a pound of prepared
flour, and pour the batter into a buttered baking pan; bake it about
half an hour in a quick oven, trying it with a broom straw, at the end
of twenty minutes; as soon as the straw passes through it without
sticking, the cake is done.

222. =Strawberry Shortcake.=--Rub two ounces of butter into a pound of
prepared flour, mix it stiff enough to mould with about half a pint of
milk; put the dough upon a round tin plate, gently flattening with the
roller; bake it about twenty minutes in a quick oven, trying it with a
broom straw to be sure it is done, before taking it from the oven; let
it cool a little, tear it open by first separating the edges all around
with a fork, and then pulling it in two pieces; upon the bottom put a
thick layer of strawberries, or any perfectly ripe fruit, plentifully
sprinkled with sugar; then lay on the fruit the upper half of the
shortcake, with the crust down; add another layer of fruit, with plenty
of sugar, and serve it with sweet milk or cream. This is rather rich,
but a small piece may be given to the children as a treat, at the noon
dinner.

223. =Apple Custard.=--Pare and core six apples; set them in a pan with a
very little water, and stew them until tender; then put them in a
pudding dish without breaking, fill the centres with sugar, and pour
over them a custard made of a quart of milk, five eggs, four ounces of
sugar, and a very little nutmeg; set the pudding-dish in a baking-pan
half full of water, and bake it about half an hour. Serve it either hot
or cold, at the noon dinner.



CHAPTER XIII.

COOKERY FOR INVALIDS.


224. =Diet for Invalids.=--There are three alimentary conditions in
illness; the first prevails where the system suffers from the reaction
consequent upon over-taxation, when rest is the first demand; then only
palliative foods meet the calls of nature, those which give repletion to
the sense of hunger, and tide the system over a certain period of
relaxation and recuperation; gelatinous soups, and gruels of arrowroot,
sago, and tapioca, will do very well at this stage. The second
condition, when the body, failing under the pressure of disease, needs
an excess of nutrition, is serious enough to demand the interposition of
the physician--the doctor is the proper person to decide what shall be
eaten; we will offer only a few suggestions concerning refreshing
drinks. At the third point, when the patient is beyond the reach of
danger, when foods are ordered which shall yield the greatest possible
amount of nutrition, the culinary skill of the nurse may be displayed.
It is here that we would give the paragraphs concerning highly nutritive
foods. The reader will please to note that the quantities in this
chapter are calculated for the use of one person.

225. =Gruels.=--We have already said that in certain physical conditions
the lack of nutrition is what the body requires,--a period of
comparative inaction, combined with repletion;--in such a condition the
following aliments will suffice.

226. =Arrowroot Gruel.=--Mix one ounce of arrowroot with sufficient cold
water to make a smooth paste; into this pour a gill or more of boiling
water, stirring the mixture until it is quite clear; sweeten it with a
little sugar, and use it at once.

227. =Arrowroot Jelly.=--Dissolve two teaspoonfuls of Bermuda arrowroot in
just enough cold water to mix it to a smooth liquid paste, stir it into
a quarter of a pint of water boiling upon the fire, with two
tablespoonfuls of white sugar; continue stirring until the mixture
becomes clear, then remove from the fire and stir in one teaspoonful of
lemon-juice, put into a mould wet with cold water until it is cold. If
the patient's condition will permit, cream and sugar may be eaten with
it.

228. =Arrowroot Wine Jelly.=--Following the above process, make a jelly of
one cup of boiling water, two teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, two
teaspoonfuls of white sugar, one tablespoonful of brandy or three
tablespoonfuls of wine. This jelly is more stimulating than the gruel,
and may meet some especial cases; but, unless used with brandy, for
impaired digestive powers, we do not believe it to be of permanent
value.

229. =Calf's Foot Jelly.=--Thoroughly clean a calf's foot; put it into an
earthen jar, with half the rind of a fresh lemon, two gills of sweet
milk, and one pint of cold water; close the jar tightly, put it into a
moderate oven, and slowly bake it for three hours; then strain and cool
it, and remove all fat, before using; it is bland and harmless.

230. =Sago Gruel.=--Soak one ounce of sago, after washing it well in a
pint of tepid water for two hours; then simmer it in the same water for
fifteen minutes, stirring it occasionally; then sweeten and flavor it to
taste, and use at once.

231. =Sago Milk.=--Prepare the sago as in previous receipt, but boil it in
milk instead of water; and when it has cooked for two hours it is ready
for use.

232. =Tapioca Jelly.=--Wash one ounce of tapioca, soak it over night in
cold water, and then simmer it with a bit of lemon peel until it is
thoroughly dissolved; sweeten it to taste, and let it cool before using.

233. =Rice Candle.=--Mix an ounce of ground rice smoothly with a little
cold water, and stir it into a pint of boiling water; boil it for
fifteen minutes, and then sweeten it to taste and flavor it with nutmeg.
Use it warm or cold.

234. =Isinglass Milk.=--Soak quarter of an ounce of clear shreds of
isinglass in a pint of cold milk for two hours; then reduce it by
boiling to half a pint, and sweeten to taste. Cool it before using.

235. =Refreshing Drinks.=--In feverish conditions cooling drinks, that is
beverages which are in themselves refrigerant, such as lemonade, and
those which are made from aromatic herbs, are grateful and helpful to
the patient, but pure, distilled or filtered water, is the best for
invalids. Hot drinks lower the temperature of the body by evaporation;
excessively cold drinks check perspiration, and endanger congestion of
some vital part; but water of a moderate temperature is innocuous. Even
in dangerous fevers the burning thirst of the sufferer can safely be
assuaged by the frequent administration of small bits of ice. In cases
of incomplete nutrition, cocoa, chocolate, and other preparations of the
fruit of the cocoa-palm, are invaluable adjuncts; the active principle
of all these is identical, and the chief nutritive element is oil. A
very small quantity of cocoa will sustain life a long time.

236. =Filtered Water.=--Put a quart of clear water over the fire, and just
bring it to a boil; remove it, and strain it three or four times through
flannel; then cool it in a covered jar or pitcher, and give it to the
patient in small quantities as the condition requires.

237. =Jelly Water.=--Mix one large teaspoonful of wild-cherry or
blackberry jelly in a glass of cool water; drink moderately, and at
intervals.

238. =Flaxseed Lemonade.=--Pour one quart of boiling water over four
tablespoonfuls of whole flaxseed, and steep three hours covered. Then
sweeten to taste, and add the juice of two lemons, using a little more
water if the liquid seems too thick to be palatable. This beverage is
very soothing to the irritated membranes in cases of severe cold.

239. =Barley Water.=--Wash two ounces of pearl barley in cold water until
it does not cloud the water; boil it for five minutes in half a pint of
water; drain that off, put the barley into two quarts of clean water,
and boil it down to one quart. Cool, strain, and use. Pearl barley
largely contains starch and mucilage, and makes an excellent soothing
and refreshing draught in fevers and gastric inflammations.


NOURISHING DRINKS.--These are useful when liquid nourishment is better
suited to the invalid's condition than solid food.

240. =Iceland Moss Chocolate.=--Dissolve one ounce of Iceland moss in one
pint of boiling milk; boil one ounce of chocolate for five minutes in
one pint of boiling water; thoroughly mix the two; and give it to the
invalid night and morning. This is a highly nutritive drink for
convalescents.

241. =Egg Broth.=--Beat an egg until it is frothy, stir into it a pint of
boiling hot meat broth, free from fat, season it with a saltspoonful of
salt, and eat it hot, with thin slices of dry toast; it may be given to
assist the patient in gaining strength.

242. =Egg Tea.=--Beat the yolk of an egg in a cup of tea, and let the sick
person drink it warm; the yolk is more readily digested than the white,
and has a better flavor; and the tea is a powerful respiratory excitant,
while it promotes perspiration, and aids the assimilation of more
nourishing foods.

243. =Very strong Beef Tea.=--(_This tea contains every nutritious element
of the beef._)--Cut two pounds of lean beef into small dice, put it into
a covered jar _without water_, and place it in a moderate oven for four
hours, then strain off the gravy, and dilute it to the desired strength
with boiling water.

244. =Beef Tea.=--(_A quick preparation for immediate use._)--Chop one
pound of lean beef fine, put it into a bowl, and cover it with cold
water; let it stand for fifteen or twenty minutes, and then pour both
beef and liquid into a sauce-pan, and place them over the fire to boil
from fifteen to thirty minutes as time will permit; then strain off the
liquid, season it slightly, and serve it at once.

245. =Farina Gruel.=--Stir one ounce of farina into one pint of boiling
water, and boil it down one half, using a farina kettle, or stirring
occasionally to prevent burning, then add half a pint of milk, boil up
once, and sweeten to taste. Use warm. Farina is a preparation of the
inner portion of the finest wheat, freed from bran, and floury dust; it
contains an excess of nitrogenous, or flesh-forming material, readily
absorbs milk or water in the process of cooking, is quickly affected by
the action of the gastric juices; and is far superior as a food to sago,
arrowroot, tapioca, and corn starch.

246. =Nutritious Foods.=--We have called attention to the fact that the
nurse's most important office is exercised when the invalid begins to
regain health; the task of rebuilding exhausted vitality demands a
thoughtful care that only a tender hearted woman can bestow; and lacking
which the skill of the most enlightened physician is often set at
naught. Happy the woman who can here assist the restoration of the vital
powers; she holds in her own hands a force which wealth cannot buy. To
such ministering angels we dedicate this portion of our little work, in
the hope that countless sick beds will be comforted thereby.

247. =Bread Jelly.=--Remove the crust from a roll, slice the crumb, and
toast it; put the slices in one quart of water, and set it over the fire
to simmer until it jellies; then strain it through a cloth, sweeten it,
and flavor it with lemon juice; put it into a mould and cool it upon the
ice before using.

248. =Crackers and Marmalade.=--Toast three soda crackers, dip them for
one minute in boiling water, spread them with a little sweet butter, and
put between them layers of orange marmalade, or any other preserve or
jelly; put plenty upon the top cracker, and set them in the oven for two
or three minutes before serving. This makes a delicate and inviting
lunch for convalescents.

249. =Chicken Jelly.=--Skin a chicken, removing all fat, and break up the
meat and bones by pounding; cover them with cold water, heat them slowly
in a steam-tight kettle, and simmer them to a pulp; then strain through
a sieve or cloth, season to taste, and return to the fire without the
cover, to simmer until the liquid is reduced one half, skimming off all
fat. Cool to form a jelly. If you have no steam-tight kettle, put a
cloth between the lid and any kettle, and the purpose will be served.

250. =Chicken Broth.=--Dress a chicken or fowl, cut it in joints, put them
in a chopping bowl, and chop them into small pieces, using flesh, bones,
and skin. To every pound of the chicken thus prepared put one pint of
cold water and one level teaspoonful of salt; if pepper is desired it
should be either enough cayenne to lie on the point of a small pen-knife
blade, or a half saltspoonful of ground _white_ pepper. Put all these
ingredients over the fire in a porcelain lined sauce-pan, bring them
slowly to a boil, remove the pan to the side of the fire, where it will
simmer slowly, the heat striking it on one side; simmer it in this way
for two hours, and then strain it through a napkin, set it to cool; if
any fat rises to the surface in cooling remove it entirely. Eat it
either cold, say half a teacupful when a little nourishment is required;
or warm a pint, and eat it with graham crackers at meal time.

251. =Beefsteak Juice.=--Quickly broil a juicy steak, and after laying it
on a hot platter, cut and press it to extract all the juice; season this
with a very little salt, and pour it over a slice of delicately browned
toast; serve it at once.

252. =Salmon Steak.=--Choose a slice of salmon nearly an inch thick,
remove the scales, wipe with a dry cloth, roll it first in cracker dust,
then dip it very lightly in melted butter, and season with a dust of
white pepper and a pinch of salt; then roll it again in cracker dust,
and put it over a clear fire on a greased gridiron, to broil slowly,
taking care that it does not burn before the flakes separate; serve it
with some fresh watercresses and plain boiled potatoes. (Any
_red-blooded_ fish may be used in the same way.)

253. =Broiled Oysters.=--Dry some large oysters on a napkin; roll them in
cracker dust, dip them in melted butter as for salmon steaks, again in
cracker dust, dust over them a very little salt and white pepper, or
cayenne, and broil them on a buttered wire gridiron, over a clear fire.
They will be done as soon as they are light brown. They make a very
delicate and digestible meal.



CHAPTER XIV.

BREAD.


The preparation of wheat and other grains, in the form of bread, is one
of the most important of all culinary operations, and to many persons
one of the most difficult. It is impossible to set exact rules as to the
quantity of flour or liquid to be used, for the quality of the flour
varies as much as that of the grain from which it is made; and some
varieties, excessive in gluten, will absorb nearly one-third more liquid
than others, and produce correspondingly more bread. For this reason in
buying flour we must choose that which contains the most gluten; this
kind will remain in a firm, compact mass when pressed in the hand, and
will retain all the lines and marks of the skin; or if mixed with water
it will take up a great deal in proportion to its bulk, and will form a
tough, elastic dough. Gluten in flour corresponds with the nitrates or
flesh-formers in flesh, and abounds in hard winter wheat. The flour
containing much of it is never extremely white.

The object of making bread, that is of mixing water with the flour and
subsequently exposing the dough to intense heat, is to expand and
rupture the cells of the grain so as to expose the greatest possible
surface to the action of the digestive fluids; this is accomplished in
several ways; by the formation of air cells through the medium of
acetous fermentation, as in yeast bread; by the mechanical introduction
of carbonic acid gas, as in ærated bread; by the mixture with the flour
of a gas-generating compound, which needs only the contact of moisture
to put it in active operation; and by the beating into the dough of
atmospheric air. No organic change in the elements of the flour is
necessary, like that produced by the partial decomposition of some of
its properties, in bread raised with yeast; so long as proper surface is
obtained for the action of the gastric juices, the purpose of raising is
accomplished. Bread raised without fermentation can be made from the
following receipt, and there is no question of its healthfulness.

254. =Aerated Homemade Bread.=--Mix flour and water together to the
consistency of a thick batter; then beat it until fine bubbles of air
thoroughly permeate it; for small biscuit, pour it into patty pans, and
bake in a good brisk oven; for bread in loaves more flour is thoroughly
kneaded in with the hands, until the dough is full of air-bubbles, and
then baked at once, without being allowed to stand.

When bread is to be raised by the acetous fermentation of yeast, the
sponge should be maintained at a temperature of 89° Fahr. until it is
sufficiently light, and the baking should be accomplished at a heat of
over 320°. When yeast is too bitter from the excess of hops, mix plenty
of water with it, and let it stand for some hours; then throw the water
off, and use the settlings. When yeast has soured it may be restored by
adding to it a little carbonate of soda or ammonia. When dough has
soured, the acidity can be corrected by the use of a little carbonate of
soda or ammonia. If the sponge of "raised bread" be allowed to overwork
itself it will sour from excessive fermentation, and if the temperature
be permitted to fall, and the dough to cool, it will be heavy. Thorough
kneading renders yeast-bread white and fine, but is unnecessary in bread
made with baking-powder. Great care should be taken in the preparation
of yeast for leavened bread, as the chemical decomposition inseparable
from its use is largely increased by any impurity or undue fermentation.
Experience and judgment are necessary to the uniform production of good
bread; and those are gained only by repeated trials. We subjoin one of
the best receipts which we have been able to procure, for making yeast.

255. =Homebrewed Yeast.=--Boil two ounces of the best hops in four quarts
of water for half an hour, strain off the liquor and let it cool till
luke-warm, and then add half a pound of brown sugar and two heaping
tablespoonfuls of salt; use a little of this liquor to beat up one pound
of the best flour, and gradually mix in all of it with the flour; let it
stand four days to ferment in a warm place near the fire, stirring it
frequently. On the third day boil and mash three pounds of potatoes, and
stir them into it. On the fourth day strain and bottle it; it will keep
good for months.

256. =Homemade Bread.=--Put seven pounds of flour into a deep pan, and
make a hollow in the centre; into this put one quart of luke-warm water,
one tablespoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, and half a gill of
yeast; have ready three pints more of warm water, and use as much of it
as is necessary to make a rather soft dough, mixing and kneading it well
with both hands. When it is smooth and shining strew a little flour upon
it, lay a large towel over it folded, and set it in a warm place by the
fire for four or five hours to rise; then knead it again for fifteen
minutes, cover it with the towel, and set it to rise once more; then
divide it into two or four loaves, and bake it in a quick oven. This
quantity of material will make eight pounds of bread, and will require
one hour's baking to two pounds of dough. In cold weather, the dough
should be mixed in a warm room, and not allowed to cool while rising; if
it does not rise well, set the pan containing it over a large vessel of
boiling water; it is best to mix the bread at night, and let it rise
till morning, in a warm and even temperature.

257. =Milk Bread.=--Take one quart of milk, heat one-third of it, and
scald with it half a pint of flour; if the milk is skimmed, use a small
piece of butter; when the batter is cool, add the rest of the milk, one
cup of hop yeast, half a tablespoonful of salt, and flour enough to make
it quite stiff; knead the dough until it is fine and smooth, and raise
it over night. This quantity makes three small loaves.

258. =Rice Bread.=--Simmer one pound of rice in three quarts of water
until the rice is soft, and the water evaporated or absorbed; let it
cool until it is only luke-warm; mix into it nearly four pounds of
flour, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and four tablespoonfuls of yeast; knead
it until it is smooth and shining, let it rise once before the fire,
make it up into loaves with the little flour reserved from the four
pounds, and bake it thoroughly.

259. =Potato Bread.=--Take good, mealy boiled potatoes, in the proportion
of one-third of the quantity of flour you propose to use, pass them
through a coarse sieve into the flour, using a wooden spoon and adding
enough cold water to enable you to pass them through readily; use the
proper quantity of yeast, salt, and water, and make up the bread in the
usual way. A saving of at least twenty per cent is thus gained.

260. =Pulled Bread.=--Take from the oven an ordinary loaf of bread when it
is about _half baked_, and with the fingers, _while it is yet hot_, pull
it apart in egg-sized pieces of irregular shape: throw them upon tins,
and bake them in a slow oven to a rich brown color. This bread is
excellent to eat with cheese or wine.

Where bread is made with baking powder the following rules should be
closely observed: If any shortening be used, it should be rubbed into
the flour before it is wet; _cold_ water or sweet milk should always be
used to wet it, and the dough should be kneaded immediately, and only
long enough to thoroughly mix it and form it into the desired shape; it
should then be placed in a well-heated oven and baked quickly--otherwise
the carbonic acid gas will escape before the expanded cells are fixed in
the bread, and thus the lightness of the loaf will be impaired.

As a very large margin of profit is indulged in by the manufacturers of
baking powders, we subjoin a good formula for making the article at home
at a considerable saving.

261. =Baking Powder.=--Mix thoroughly by powdering and sifting together
several times the following ingredients; four ounces of tartaric acid,
and six ounces each of bi-carbonate of soda, and starch. Keep the
mixture in an air-tight can.

The following receipts will be found useful and easy:

262. =Loaf Bread.=--Sift together two or three times one pound of flour,
three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one saltspoonful of salt, and one
teaspoonful of fine sugar; mix with enough cold sweet milk to make the
dough of the consistency of biscuit; or, if you have no milk, use cold
water. Work the dough only long enough to incorporate the flour well
with the milk or water; put it into a baking-pan buttered and slightly
warmed, and set it immediately into a hot oven; after about five minutes
cover it with paper so that the crust may not form so quickly as to
prevent rising; bake about three-quarters of an hour. This bread is
sweet and wholesome, and may be eaten by some persons whose digestion is
imperfect, with greater safety than yeast-fermented bread.

263. =Breakfast Rolls.=--Mix well by sifting, one pound of flour, three
teaspoonfuls of baking powder, half a teaspoonful of salt, and one
heaping teaspoonful of pulverized or fine sugar; into a small portion of
the above rub two ounces of lard, fine and smooth; mix with the rest of
the flour, and quickly wet it up with enough cold milk to enable you to
roll it out about half an inch thick; cut out the dough with a tin shape
or with a sharp knife, in the form of diamonds, lightly wet the top with
water, and double them half over. Put them upon a tin, buttered and
warmed, and bake them in a hot oven.

264. =Tea Biscuit.=--Mix as above, using the same proportions, and cutting
out with a round biscuit-cutter; when they are baked, wash them over
with cold milk, and return them to the oven for a moment to dry.

265. =Finger Biscuit.=--Mix as above, cut out with a sharp knife in strips
three inches long, one inch wide, and one-quarter of an inch thick; lay
them upon a buttered tin so that they will not touch, brush them over
with an egg beaten up with one tablespoonful of milk, and bake them in a
hot oven.

266. =Cream Breakfast Rolls.=--Mix as above, substituting cream for the
milk in moistening the dough; cut them out with an oval cutter, two
inches long and one and a half inches wide; brush the tops with cream,
and pull them slightly lengthwise; then fold them together, leaving a
slight projection of the under side; put them on a buttered tin, brush
the tops with cream, and bake them in a hot oven.

267. =Breakfast Twist.=--Mix as for breakfast rolls, cut in strips three
inches long and half an inch thick; roll each one out thin at the ends,
but leave the centre of the original thickness; place three strips side
by side, braid them together, and pinch the ends to hold them; when the
twists are all made out, lay them upon a buttered tin, brush them over
with milk, and bake them in a hot oven. A little fine sugar dusted over
the tops glazes them and improves their flavor.

Hot rolls and biscuits should be served well covered with a napkin.

268. =How to freshen stale Bread.=--A loaf of stale bread placed in a
close tin vessel, and steamed for half an hour will be completely
freshened.

269. =Toast.=--But few persons know how to prepare toast properly. It
should be made with the aim of evaporating from the bread all the
superfluous water, and transforming its tough and moist substance into
digestible food: for this reason the slices should be exposed gradually
to heat of a gentle fire, first upon one side and then upon the other,
for one minute, and after that they may be toasted golden-brown; at this
stage it has become pure wheat farina, and is not liable to produce
acetous fermentation in the stomach; besides, it will now absorb the
butter thoroughly, and both substances will be in condition to be freely
subjected to the action of gastric juice, and consequently will be
digested with ease. Dry toast should be sent to the table the instant it
is made. Buttered toast should be set into the oven for about five
minutes to render it crisp.



INDEX.


_À la mode_ beef, 81

Anchovies, 37

Apple Cake, 122
  "   Custard, 123

Arrowroot Jelly, 126

Asparagus with melted butter, 92


Bacon Roly-poly, 113

Baking Powder, 139

Barley Broth with Vegetables, 107

Barley Water, 128

Batter for Frying, 47

Bay leaves, 20

Beans, fried, 98

Beef, to choose, 16

Beefsteak for children, 120
    "     juice, 132
    "     to broil, 43

Beef, Roast, with Yorkshire Pudding, 69
  "   Portuguese, 43

Beets, baked, 93

Biscuit, 140

Blackberry Jam, 119

Blackfish, baked, 32

Birds, to choose, 18

Boiled Dishes, 78

Bouquet of Sweet Herbs, 20

Brains, fried, with Tomato Sauce, 50

Bread, 134
  "    Aerated, Homemade, 135
  "    and Butter, English, 39
  "    Homemade, 136
  "    how to freshen stale, 141
  "    Loaf, 139
  "    Milk, 136
  "    Potato, 138
  "    Pulled, 138
  "    Rice, 136

Breakfast Rolls and Twist, 139, 140

Brussels Sprouts, 93

Bubble and Squeak, 44

Butter, Epicurean, 40
  "     _Maître d'Hotel_, 33


Cabbage, Stuffed, 94

Calf's Foot Jelly, 126
  "    Liver, larded, 51

Caramel, 24

Carrot Stew, 99

Cauliflower, baked, 94

Cheese Pudding, 103
   "   Straws, 39

Chicken, broiled for children, 120
   "     Broth, 131
   "     Fricassee, 55
   "     fried Spanish style, 55
   "     Jelly, 131
   "     minced with Macaroni, 56
   "     Roast, 75

Children's Chapter, The, 116

Chops, broiled, 119

Chowder, St. James, 34

Clams, to choose, 19

Cock-a-leeky, 111

Cod, boiled with Oyster Sauce, 31

_Condé_ Crusts, 30

Consommé, 25

Cookies, 122

Crabs, to choose, 19

Crackers and Marmalade, 131

Croutons, 43

Currants, ripe, 119


Diet for Brain Workers, 15
  "  for children, 116
  "  for Invalids, 125
  "  for Rapid Workers, 15
  "  for Steady Workers, 15

Drinks, nourishing, 129
  "     refreshing, 127

Duck, Roast, with Watercresses, 75
  "   Salmi of, 57
  "   to choose, 17


Eggs, _au gratin_, 59
  "   boiled for children, 120
  "   Broth, 129
  "   poached, 25
  "   stuffed, 59
  "   Tea, 129

Entrées, 51


Farina, 130
  "     Gruel, 130
  "     with Fruit, 122

Fillet of Sole, 34

Fish, _à la bonne eau_, 31
  "   _à l'eau de sel_, 31
  "   _à la Hollandaise_, 31
  "   _au court bouillon_, 31
  "   _au bleu_, 31
  "   Cakes, Club House, 35
  "   Chowder, 34
  "   Pudding, 104
  "   to choose, 19
  "   Warmed up, 36

Flaxseed Lemonade, 128

Flour, to choose, 134

Foods, Carbonaceous, 15
  "    Farinaceous, 101
  "    Flesh-forming, 15
  "    for Children, 118
  "    Heat, 51
  "    Nitrogenous, 15
  "    Nutritious, 130

Forcemeat for Poultry, 74

Fowls, boiled with Oyster Sauce, 82
  "    Grilled, 56
  "    to choose, 17

Fruit for Children, 117
  "   to choose, 19


Gammon Dumpling, 112

Geese, to choose, 17

Gingerbread, 123

Glaze, 69

Golden Buck, 38

Goose, Roast, with Onion Sauce, 76

Gravy for Roast Meat, 70

Green Peas, 92

Gruels, 125


Ham and Beans, 98

Ham, boiled with Madeira Sauce 80

Hare, civet of, 57
  "   Jugged, 58
  "   to choose, 18

Haslet Ragout, 111

Herbs, sweet, 19

Herrings, pickled, 37


Iceland Moss Chocolate, 129

Isinglass Milk, 127

Italian Cheese, 111


Jelly Water, 128

Jelly, Bread, 131


Kidneys, broiled, 49
  "      stewed, 44

Kolcannon, 99

Kromeskys with Spanish Sauce, 47


Lamb, epigramme of, 45

Larding, 51

Lentils, 101
   "     boiled, 104
   "     fried, 105
   "     stewed, 105

Lettuce stuffed, 99

Liver Rolls, 49

Lobsters, to choose, 19


Macaroni, 63
   "      Milanaise style, 65
   "      with Béchamel Sauce, 64
   "      with Cheese, 56
   "      with Tomato Sauce, 66
   "      Timbale of, 66

Mackerel, pickled, 106

_Marinade_ for beef, 81

Marketing, 15

_Mayonnaise_, 89

Mock Crab,  39

Mushrooms, baked, 99
    "      Pudding, 95

Mussels, to choose, 19

Mutton haricot, 45
  "    Leg of, 79
  "    Ragout, 114
  "    Stew, 45
  "    three dishes from neck of. 108
  "    to choose, 16


Norfolk Dumplings, 105


Oatmeal Porridge, 103

Onions, glazed, 95
  "     Saratoga, 98

Omelettes, how to make, 60
    "      Oriental style, 63
    "      Plain, 60
    "      Spanish style, 62
    "      with Cheese, 61
    "      with Ham, 62
    "      with Herbs, 61
    "      with Mushrooms, 62
    "      with Oysters, 62
    "      with Preserves, 63
    "      with Tongue, 61

Oysters, broiled, 132
   "     scalloped, 37
   "     to choose, 19

Ox-heart, baked, 13


Parmesan Cheese, 64

Parsnips, stewed, 100

Partridge, roast, 77
    "      to choose, 18

Peas and Bacon, 114

Peas-Pudding, 102

Pheasants, to choose, 18

Pigeons, broiled, 57
   "     to choose, 17

Pigs' Feet, broiled, 54
     "      fried, 109

Pig's Tongue and Brains, 110

Polenta, 104

Pork Chops with Curry, 53
  "  Cutlets, broiled, 53
  "  neck of, 109
  "  Pie, English, 54
  "  Roast, with Apple Sauce, 72
  "  to choose, 16

Poultry, to choose, 16

Potatoes, baked, 121
   "      Bermuda, 97
   "      boiled, 95
   "      boiled for children, 121
   "      boiled in jackets, 97
   "      Duchesse, 75
   "      Lyonnaise, 96
   "      Parisian, 42
   "      Pudding, 106
   "      new, 97
   "      Saratoga, 97
   "      snow, 97
   "      stuffed, 96

Pot-au-feu, 114


Quail, to choose, 18


Red Cabbage, 94

Red Herrings with Potatoes, 103

Relishes, 37

Rice, boiled, 54
  "   Caudle, 127

Roasts, 68
  "     to froth, 69
  "     to glaze, 69
  "     to test, 69

Rump Steak, 43


Sago Gruel, 127
  "  Milk, 127

Salad, Asparagus, 85
  "    Cauliflower, 85
  "    Dandelion, 85
  "    Green Pea, 86
  "    Mint, 85
  "    Nasturtium, 86
  "    Oil, 84
  "    Orange, 86
  "    Shad-roe, 85
  "    Spinach, 86
  "    Spring, 84
  "    Tomato, 86
  "    Watercress, 85

Salad Sauce, Anchovy, 88
     "       Cream, 87
     "       Egg, 88
     "       English, 87
     "       Green Remolade, 88
     "       Hot, 88
     "       Mayonnaise, 88
     "       Oil, 88
     "       Piquante, 87
     "       Ravigote, 88
     "       Remolade, 87
     "       Romaine, 89

Salmon Steak, 132

Salt Cod with Parsnips, 105

Sardines, 37
   "      Sandwiches, 36

Sauce, Apple, 73
  "    _Béchamel_, 65
  "    Bread, 77
  "    Caper, 74
  "    Cranberry, 79
  "    Dutch, 36
  "    Madeira, 80
  "    Mint, cold, 72
  "    Mint, hot, 72
  "    Onion, 76
  "    Oyster, 82
  "    Piquante, 46
  "    Robert, 53
  "    Romaine, 76
  "    Spanish, 46
  "    Tomato, 59, 66
  "    Vanilla Cream, 67
  "    White, with Eggs, 52
  "    White, without Eggs, 56

Scallops, to choose, 19

Scotch Broth with Meat, 27
      "      without Meat, 26

Scotch Crowdie, 102

Shad, broiled, 33

Sheeps' Kidneys, broiled, 49
   "    Tongues with Spinach, 48

Side Dishes, 41

Smelts, fried, 33

Sole, fillet of, 34

Soup, clear, 25
  "   to clarify, 23
  "   to flavor, thicken, and color 24
  "   Lentil, 29
  "   Macaroni, 26
  "   Pea, 29
  "   Potato, 102
  "   Rice and Tomato, 26
  "   Sorrel, 28
  "   Spinach, 27
  "   Vermicelli, 26

Spaghetti, 64

Spinach, boiled, 49

Stuffing for meat, 53
    "    Veal, 71
    "    Sage and Onion, 76

Strawberry Shortcake, 123

String Beans, 92


Tapioca Jelly, 127

Toad-in-the-hole, 112

Toast, 141

Tomatoes, broiled, 99
   "      stuffed, 98

Tripe and Onions, 113

Tripe, roasted, 110

Turkey, Roast, with Cranberry Sauce, 73
   "    to choose, 73

Turnips, baked, 95


Veal, Blanquette of, 51
  "   Roast Loin of, 71
  "   Stuffed, 52
  "   to choose, 16

Vegetables, 91
    "       to choose, 19
    "       to boil, 91

Venison, to choose, 18


Water, filtered, 128

Welsh Rarebit, 38

Wild Duck, Roast, 77
    "      to choose, 18

Wild Goose, to choose, 18

Woodcock, to choose, 18


Yeast Homebrewed, 137
  "   how to restore bitter, 136
  "   how to restore sour, 136

Yorkshire Pudding, 70



+--------------------------------------------------------+
|Standardized punctuation                                |
|Standardized hyphenations                               |
|Page 76: Changed pototoes to potatoes                   |
|Page 144: Changed scollops to scallops                  |
|Index: Changed Pease Pudding to Peas-Pudding            |
|Index: Numbers refer to page numbers, not recipe numbers|
+--------------------------------------------------------+





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we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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