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Title: Döderlein's Hand-book of Latin Synonymes
Author: Döderlein, Ludwig
Language: English
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  DÖDERLEIN’S HAND-BOOK

  of

  LATIN SYNONYMES.


  Translated By

  REV. H. H. ARNOLD B.A.


  with

  AN INTRODUCTION

  by

  S. H. TAYLOR, LL.D.


    [Publisher’s Device: Nolumus Vos Ignorare]


  ANDOVER:
  WARREN F. DRAPER,
  Main Street.
  1875.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by
  +WARREN F. DRAPER+,
  In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District
    of Massachusetts.


  Stereotyped and Printed by
  W. F. Draper, Andover.



  CONTENTS
  (added by transcriber)

Note that the letterforms I/i and J/j are distinguished in print,
but are alphabetized together. U/u and V/v are treated as distinct
letters.

  Introduction
  Author’s Preface
  Handbook of Synonymes
  Index of Greek Words
  Publisher’s Advertising



  INTRODUCTION
  TO
  THE AMERICAN EDITION.


Dr. Ludwig Döderlein, the author of this work, was born in 1791, and
became Professor in the University of Erlangen. He is an eminent
philologist, and the author of several valuable philological works. The
most important of these are: “The Formation of Latin Words;” “A Homeric
Glossary;” “Handbook of Latin Etymology;” “Latin Synonymes and
Etymologies,” in six volumes; on this he labored more than twelve years,
the first volume appearing in 1826, the last in 1828. From this latter
work, the volume here presented was prepared by the author, and first
published in 1840. After a familiarity of several years with most of the
best manuals on Latin Synonymes, we find this superior to any of them,
and better adapted to the wants of the student. It shows an intimate and
comprehensive acquaintance with the language, and a nice discrimination
between the significations of words having a greater or less similarity
of meaning. The distinctions are generally well founded, and clearly
stated. While at times the distinction may seem to be too refined and
subtle, careful observation and more extended study will usually correct
such an impression. The difference between related words may proceed
from a variety of sources. It may be that of genus and species; or it
may be historical, one being used at one time and the other at a
different one; or one is abstract, the other concrete; one is literal,
the other figurative; one is the more common expression, the other the
more elegant; one is a prose word, the other poetical; one belongs to
one kind of poetry, and the other to another. The difference also
consists in the point of view which the writer takes. _Quies_ is rest;
_requies_ also is rest; but the latter word shows that the writer has in
mind a previous state of _unrest_. There are other differences also
growing out of the essential nature of the words.

The advantages of the study of synonymes in a classical course, are too
great to be neglected. A knowledge of them gives to the student a
fulness and precision of his author’s meaning otherwise unattainable.
The point of a sentence often turns upon a delicate shade of thought
conveyed by a particular word, which another of similar signification
would not give; if this delicate shade is not appreciated, the writer’s
thought is either misapprehended, or but imperfectly understood.

Again, the habit of observing the proper use of words related to each
other in meaning, as whether one is generic, and the other specific, one
abstract, the other concrete, one literal, the other figurative, or
whatever be the ground and nature of the difference, is one of the
essential benefits of classical study. The whole process of such study,
when rightly conducted, is that of “arbitrating between conflicting
probabilities;” and the closest power of arbitration is often requisite
in determining the particular idea conveyed by related words. Or, if the
distinctions are drawn out, as they are in a treatise on synonymes, the
mind of the student is trained to close and discriminating observation,
in being required to note and fix these distinctions, and to give a
definite form to them in his own mind, and to express them in his own
language.

Besides the more direct advantages resulting from the study of
synonymes, an increased interest will thereby be given to classical
studies There is a natural fondness in the youthful mind for the process
of comparison, for tracing resemblances and differences. This element
should not be neglected when it can be turned to so good account. It
will help to relieve the tedium and barrenness of classical study, as
too often conducted, and to give some living features to languages which
are too generally looked upon as “dead.”

The meaning of a particular word is often given more distinctly by
stating its opposite. The relation, or shade of thought, which cannot be
conveyed fully by a direct definition, nor perhaps, indeed, by words at
all, is made clear and distinct by showing to what it is opposed. This
valuable means of elucidation, the author has used with great success in
this work.

While the author has “omitted all detail in the treatment of Greek
synonymes” in this compend, he has very wisely sought out the nearest
corresponding Greek expression, and placed it with the Latin word to be
explained. Thus the Greek word, to the more advanced scholar, will often
throw light upon the Latin, and the Latin in turn upon the Greek. In
this way the work is indirectly valuable in elucidating Greek synonymes.

The present edition of this work is reprinted from the second London
edition, which is essentially the same as the first, with a few
corrections and improvements.

  S. H. T.

ANDOVER, JANUARY, 1858.



THE AUTHOR’S PREFACE.


The wish has been expressed to me from different quarters, and
particularly by several respectable schoolmasters, to see the essential
results of my larger work on Latin Synonymes and Etymologies compressed
into a Hand-book. Although within the twelve years since I began to work
at the long-neglected study of Latin Synonymes, the market has been
almost glutted with works of the same sort, in the form of hand-books,
by Habicht, Ramshorn, Jentzen, and Schmalfeld, I have not, on that
acount, the least hesitation in complying with the wish expressed to me,
by publishing the present Abridgment; for, in asserting that my method
and the arrangement of my materials are totally distinct from what have
been adopted by those deserving authors, I trust that I am neither
extolling myself, nor underrating them. The Abridgment which I here
submit to the Public contains, I hope, all that is essential in my
larger work;--to effect which object I have omitted certain things of
less direct importance; namely,--

First,--All etymological deductions. Not wishing, however, entirely to
renounce my principle of associating the etymology with the synonyme,
I have inserted it between parentheses, whenever it was not either so
obvious as to make the insertion unnecessary, or so far-fetched as to
make the etymology doubtful. Many instances of this sort will and must,
especially to him who is not conversant with etymological researches,
appear singularly uncouth; but it would have led me too far to refer, in
every instance, to the principles established in the Treatise on the
Formation of Latin Words, which I have subjoined to my larger work as a
Supplement. I must, therefore, entreat those readers and critics into
whose hands my treatise has not fallen, to ignore (if I may use a law
term) the words included between parentheses, or to suspend their
verdict concerning them.

Secondly,--I have omitted all parallel passages, and such as have an
affinity with each other, without possessing any stringent force as
proofs. On the other hand, I have given at length those passages in the
classics in which the ancients, in the course of speech, and not by
means of grammatical reflections, have introduced synonymes in contrast
with each other, and thus taught their differences; and where such
passages were wanting, I have frequently brought into juxta-position
several passages from one and the same author, in which he seems to have
indicated some peculiar force in a particular expression.

Thirdly,--I have omitted all critical and exegetical discussions. The
more scientific form of my larger work not only afforded me the
opportunity, but imposed the obligation of entering upon such
discussions; but in the present Abridgment I have thought it best,
except in a very few cases, to omit them altogether.

Fourthly,--I have omitted all detail in the treatment of the Greek
synonymes. Nevertheless, I have thought it of essential importance to
search for the nearest corresponding expression, both in the Greek and
German languages, and place them by the side of the Latin synonyme; and
at the same time to ascertain, and make intuitive, as it were, the
precise meaning and extent of the Latin expression, by the introduction
of such words as are strictly in opposition to it.

Fifthly,--I have omitted the views of other writers on synonymes. In my
larger work I introduced, often only as literary curiosities,
distinctions derived from the Latin grammarians, Varro, Cicero,
Agrætius, Pseudo-fronto, and Pseudo-palæmon; and I also quoted, whether
agreeing with or differing from me, the modern writers on synonymes,
Popma, Hill, Dumesnil, Smitson, Habicht, Ramshorn, Jentzen, and others.
Instead of which I must here content myself with merely referring to
such quotations as are contained in my larger work; and have therefore
added, at the end of each article, the volume and page of that work in
which these quotations are to be found.

Sixthly,--I have omitted such synonymes as are of very rare occurrence,
and distinguished from each other by a very slight difference. In my
larger work I have treated as synonymes many expressions, ἅπαξ εἰρημένα,
that occur but once, and whose differences, on that very account, cannot
be deduced from the general usage of the language, but can merely be
guessed at from etymology and other sources. Such expressions are of no
importance with reference to the object of this Hand-book. The same may
be said of many synonymes which can be distinguished, as it were, only
by a microscope. Such synonymes are found throughout my larger work in
great numbers, and have drawn upon me the reproach of “hair-splitting.”
The fact I must acknowledge, but cannot admit it to be a reproach; for
surely it is the proper vocation of a scientific writer on synonymes,
not so much to distinguish words that merely resemble each other in
meaning, as those that are apparently equivalent. The greater their
apparent equivalence, the more difficult it is to grasp their essential
difference, and the more indispensable the aid of a guide to synonymes.
If, therefore, it be admitted, that words identical in meaning do not
exist, and that it is morally impossible, if I may use the expression,
that they should exist, the only questions are, whether, in such cases,
it is worth while to search out their differences, and whether it is
possible to find them out. Science will answer the first question,
without hesitation, in the affirmative; and with respect to the second,
there can at least be no presumption in making the attempt.
A distinction is soon obtained when several words are contrasted with
the word under consideration; and if these contrasted words are also
synonymous with each other, it must follow, that the affinity of the
several words in meaning is so close, as to permit their interchange, as
synonymes, under all circumstances. Their differences are altogether
unimportant with reference to speaking and writing, but highly important
as far as the intimate and more refined knowledge of the language itself
is concerned. It is on this account that hair-splitting is allowable.
Can there be a doubt that a distinction will be slight in proportion as
it has its origin in the individual feelings of those by whom a language
is used? Such distinctions in synonymes are, consequently, most felt in
one’s native language; it is only necessary that the feelings in which
they have their origin should not be vague and unformed. In the
introduction to the fourth part of my work I have evinced, I hope,
sufficient liberality and tolerance with regard to the obligation of
conforming to these hair-breadth distinctions, and selecting one’s
expressions accordingly. So much in justification of those reprobated
hair-splittings; those discoveries of atoms, or, as my deceased friend
Bremi expressed it, keen discernment of atoms, which in my larger work,
more devoted to science than to instruction, found their proper place;
but in the present Hand-book, intended for the use of schools,
especially in the art of writing Latin, my predilection for such nice
distinctions would be sadly out of place. Distinctions of that sort I
have, therefore, for the most part, omitted, but not with the intention
of silently retracting them.

   *   *   *

I here submit a few observations to the notice of schoolmasters. For the
purposes of instruction, synonymes may be divided into three classes;
the first embraces those which the scholar cannot too quickly learn to
distinguish, because their affinity is merely apparent, arising from
their being translated by the same word in the mother-tongue; for
instance, _liberi_ and _infantes_; _animal_ and _bestia_; _hærere_ and
_pendere_; _sumere_ and _adimere_; _hostis_ and _inimicus_. The
interchange of such synonymes may be counted a blunder of the same sort
as that which is called a solecism. To the second class belong those
synonymes which may be distinguished from each other with ease and
certainty, but which are, at the same time, so nearly related in
meaning, that the ancients themselves use them, without hesitation, as
interchangeable; for instance, _lascivus_ and _petulans_; _parere_ and
_obedire_; _ater_ and _niger_; _incipere_ and _inchoare_; _mederi_ and
_sanare_; _vacuus_ and _inanis_; _spernere_ and _contemnere_;
_tranquillus_ and _quietus_. As long as the scholar has to contend with
the elements of grammar, the teacher may leave him in the erroneous
opinion, that these expressions have exactly the same meaning; but, when
further advanced, he must be taught to distinguish them, partly in order
to accustom him to that propriety of expression which is necessary in
writing Latin; partly, without reference to composition, as a very
useful mental exercise. In the third class I rank those words whose
differences are not to be ascertained without trouble, and cannot be
deduced with full evidence from the old authors, and which, probably,
were but dimly discerned even by the ancients themselves; for instance,
_lira_ and _sulcus_; _remus_ and _tonsa_; _pæne_ and _prope_; _etiam_
and _quoque_; _recordari_ and _reminisci_; _lævus_ and _sinister_;
_velox_ and _pernix_; _vesanus_ and _vecors_; _fatigatus_ and _fessus_;
_collis_ and _clivus_. Such distinctions are of little or no consequence
in composition, except when it is necessary to use synonymous terms in
express opposition to each other; for instance, _mare_ and _amnis_, in
opp. to _lacus_ and _fluvius_; _metus_ and _spes_, in opp. to _timor_
and _fiducia_: when such occasions occur, the richness of a language in
synonymes is available. A more scrupulous exactness in this respect
would appear to me arrant pedantry, and necessarily obstruct the free
movement of the mind in writing. As a teacher, I should wish that the
synonymes of the first sort should be distinguished by boys in the
elementary classes; those of the second, I would introduce into the
higher classes, and teach the scholar, when about fourteen, to observe
their differences in the choice of expressions in composition; I would
also explain them in the interpretation of an author, but with
moderation, as a spur to thinking, not as a clog in reading. Those of
the third class I would never introduce, except in explaining such
passages as render their introduction unavoidable; for instance, when an
author combines _flumina et amnes_, I would explain their difference to
defend him from the suspicion of tautology.

I have consulted convenience of reference in interweaving the
alphabetical index with the context. By this means any one can find at
once the word of which he is in search, which a separate index would
render impossible.

These arrangements, combined with an almost studied precision of
expression, have enabled me to reduce the six volumes of my larger work
on Synonymes (which fills, including the Supplement, more than one
hundred and forty-three sheets) to this Abridgment, of about fifteen.
The etymological part of my researches I reserve for a separate volume,
of about the same size as the present, which will make its appearance as
an Etymological Hand-book of the Latin language.

May the present publication, and that which I announce, meet with the
same favorable and indulgent reception that has fallen to the share of
my larger work with all its defects.

_Erlangen, December, 1839._



HANDBOOK

OF

LATIN SYNONYMES.


A.

ABDERE, see _Celare_.

ABESSE; DEESSE; DEFICERE. 1. +Abesse+ denotes absence as a local
relation, ‘to be away’ from a place; but +deesse+ denotes an absence by
which a thing is rendered incomplete, and means ‘to fail,’ ‘to be
wanting,’ in opp. to _esse_ and _superesse_. Cic. Brut. 80. Calidio hoc
unum, si nihil utilitatis habebat, _abfuit_, si opus erat, _defuit_.
2. +Deesse+ denotes a _completed_ (_i.e._ already existing), +deficere+
a commencing state. Cic. Verr. i. 11. Vererer ne oratio _deesset_, ne
vox viresque _deficerent_. (v. 339.)

ABNUERE, see _Negare_.

ABOLERE (ἀπολέσαι) means ‘to annul,’ to ‘annihilate,’ and, as far as
possible, to remove from the universe and cast into oblivion; but
+delere+ (διολέσαι, or δηλεῖν) ‘to destroy,’ to bring a thing to nought,
and make it useless.

ABOMINARI; EXSECRARI; DETESTARI. +Abominari+ means to recoil from, as of
evil omen; and to avert a threatening evil by a ceremony, in opp. to
_omen accipere_; +exsecrari+ means to _curse_, when one would exclude a
guilty person from human society as devoted to the infernal gods, in
opp. to blessing; lastly, +detestari+ (θέσσασθαι) means to curse, when
one wishes to deprecate evil by an appeal to the gods against a dreaded
person or thing, in opp. to praying in behalf of.

ABSCONDERE, see _Celare_.

ABSOLVERE, see _Finire_.

ABSTINENTIA, see _Modus_.

ABUNDARE; REDUNDARE. +Abundare+ denotes plenteousness in a good sense,
as the symbol of full measure and affluence, like περιεῖναι, +redundare+
is used in a bad sense, as a symbol of over-abundance and luxury, like
περισσεύειν: of that which is _abundans_ there is an _ample supply_ at
hand; that which is _redundans_ is superfluous and might be dispensed
with.

ABUNDE, see _Satis_.

AC, see _Et_.

ACCENDERE; INCENDERE; INFLAMMARE; COMBURERE; CREMARE. +Accendere+,
+incendere+, and +inflammare+, mean ‘to set on fire:’ +accendere+, from
without, and at a single point, like ἀνάπτειν [hence to _light_ a torch,
etc.]; +incendere+, from within, like ἐνδαίειν [hence to _set fire_ to
_houses_, _villages_]; +inflammare+, ‘to set on fire,’ either from
without or from within, but with bright flames, like ἀναφλογίζειν;
+comburere+ and +cremare+ mean ‘to burn up, or consume by fire;’
+comburere+, with a glowing heat, as the causative of _ardere_, like
κατακαίειν; +cremare+, with bright flames, as the causative of
_flagrare_ like πιμπράναι. Hence, mortui _cremantur_ on a bright blazing
funeral pile; vivi _comburuntur_, Cic. Fam. x. 32. Verr. i. 33 and 38,
in order to make the torture of that mode of dying felt the more.
(iv. 250.)

ACCEPTUS, see _Gratus_.

ACCERSERE, see _Arcessere_.

ACCIDERE; EVENIRE; CONTIGERE; OBVENIRE; OBTINGERE. +Accidere+ and
+evenire+ denote both favorable and unfavorable occurrences; but the
_accidentia_, unexpected ones, overtaking us by surprise; the
_evenientia_ were expected, foreseen; +contingere+, +obvenire+,
+obtingere+, are generally confined to _fortunate_ occurrences. The
_accidentia_ are fortuitous, the _evenientia_ result from foregoing acts
or circumstances; the _contingentia_ are the favors of Fortune; the
_obtingentia_ and _obvenientia_ are the things that fall to one’s _lot_.
Cic. Fam. vi. 21. Timebam, ne _evenirent_, quæ _acciderunt_: the word
_evenirent_ has a _subjective_ reference to his foresight, the word
_acciderunt_ is entirely _objective_; the point of view taken by it
being that of those who _now_ manifest _surprise_. See also Tac. H.
iv. 19, and Sen. Ep. 119. Scies plura mala _contingere_ nobis quam
_accidere_. (v. 339.)

ACCIPERE, see _Sumere_.

ACCIRE, see _Arcessere_.

ACCUSARE, see _Arguere_.

ACER; VEHEMENS. +Acer+ (ὠκύς) denotes eagerness in a good sense, as fire
and energy, in opp. to _frigidus_, like ὀξύς: but +vehemens+ (ἐχόμενος)
in a bad sense, as heat and passion, in opp. to _lenis_; Cic. Or.
ii. 49, 53, like σφοδρός. (iv. 450.)

ACERBUS; AMARUS. +Acerbus+ (from κάρφω) means a biting bitterness, in
opp. to _mitis_, like ὀξύς; +amarus+, a nauseous bitterness, in opp. to
_dulcis_, like πικρός. Quintil. xi. 3. 169. Cic. Rep. iii. 8. Plin.
H. N. xxvii. 9. Sen. Ir. i. 4. (vi. 4.)

ACERVUS; CONGERIES; STRUES; CUMULUS. 1. +Acervus+ and +congeries+ mean
‘heaps’ of homogeneous things collected and piled up in layers;
+acervus+ [from ἀγείρω], like σωρός, with arrangement, and mostly in a
conical shape, but +congeries+, negligently, and altogether without
regard to shape; +strues+ denotes that something new is produced, and a
determinate form given, serving a particular purpose; like θημών. Curt.
viii. 7. 11. Passim _acervos strues_que accendebant; meaning by
_acervos_ ‘_heaps_’ or ‘_piles_,’ by _strues_ ‘_stacks_’ of wood.
2. +Cumulus+ (from ἀκμή) means strictly, not the heap itself, but the
top, by which the heap is completed as a whole, like the key-stone, by
which any thing first reaches its proper and complete height, almost
like κορυφή; and it has this meaning particularly in +cumulare+, which
is like κορυφοῦν. Compare Liv. xxii. 59. Superstantes _cumulis_ cæsorum
corporum, with Cannenses campos _acervi_ Romanorum corporum tegunt: and
xxiii. 5. Molibus ex humanorum corporum _strue_ faciendis. (ii. 118.)

ACHIVI; ACHÆI; ACHAIUS; ACHAICUS; TROIUS; TROICUS. 1. +Achivi+ are the
Homeric Greeks, or Ἀχαῖοι; +Achæi+ are either the inhabitants of Achaia,
or, in the poets, the Greeks at large, as contemporaries of the Romans.
Cic. Divin. i. 16. Cum +Achivi+ cœpissent inter se strepere. Compare
this with Cæcil. 20. Quod cum sibi _Achæi_ patronum adoptarant.
2. +Achaius+ is the adj. of Achivus. Hor. Od. i. 15. 37. Virg. Æn.
ii. 462; but +Achaicus+ is the adj. of Achæus. Cic. Att. i. 13.
3. +Troius+ is the more _select_ term, as adj. of the old heroic and
Homeric Troja; +Troicus+, the usual adj. of the country Troas, without
reference to the Trojan war. (v. 306.)

ACIES; ACUMEN; CACUMEN; MUCRO; CUSPIS. 1. +Acies+ is the sharpness of a
line adapted for cutting; +acumen+, of a tip or point adapted for
sticking. Figuratively, the _acies mentis_ is shown in the keen sifting
of what is confused, in clear perception; the _acumen mentis_ is the
fathoming of that which is deeply hidden, in subtle discovery.
2. +Acumen+ and +cacumen+ mean a natural head or top; +acumen+, of a
cone, beak, and so forth; +cacumen+, particularly that of a mountain:
+mucro+ and +cuspis+ mean an artificial head, for the purpose of
piercing and wounding; +mucro+, that of a sword, dagger, and so forth;
+cuspis+, that of a spear, arrow, etc., like αἰχμή. (vi. 5.)

ACIES, see _Pugna_.

ACTA, see _Ripa_.

ACTOR; COMŒDUS; LUDIO; HISTRIO. The generic term +actor+, and the
specific terms +comœdus+ and +tragœdus+, denote the player, as a
respectable artist; but +ludio+, +ludius+, the _comedian_, the player,
who makes acting his _trade_, with the accessory notion of commonness;
lastly, +histrio+, sometimes the actor, sometimes the _comedian_, but
mostly with the accessory notion of buffoonery and boasting. Cic. Sext.
54. Ipse ille maxime _ludius_, non solum spectator, sed _actor_ et
acroama. Rosc. Com. 10. Nemo ex pessimo _histrione_ bonum _comœdum_
fieri posse existimaret. Ep. ad Qu. Fr. i. a. E. Hortor ut tanquam poetæ
boni et _actores_ industrii solent, in extrema parte diligentissimus
sis. Suet. Aug. 74. (v. 334.)

ACUMEN, see _Acies_.

ADAMARE, see _Amare_.  [[redirects to _Diligere_]]

ADESSE; INTERESSE; PRÆSENTEM ESSE. 1. +Adesse+ means to be near a person
or thing; but +interesse+, to assist in a transaction, to _take a part_
in it. Cic. Verr. i. 40. Crimina ea, quæ notiora sunt his qui _adsunt_,
quam nobis . . . . De illo nihil dixit, in quo _interfuit_. 2. +Adesse+
denotes generally the presence in a circle to which we belong;
+præsentem esse+, absolute, audible and visible presence. When an
expected guest is within our walls, _adest_; he who is in the same room
with us, _præsens est_. (v. 337.)

ADHUC; HACTENUS; HUCUSQUE. +Adhuc+ refers to time, up to this moment;
+hactenus+ and +hucusque+ have a local reference, up to this place, or
this point.

ADIGERE, see _Cogere_.

ADIMERE, see _Demere_.

ADIPISCI, see _Invenire_.

ADJUVARE, see _Auxilium_.

ADMIRARI, see _Vereri_.

ADMODUM, see _Perquam_.

ADOLERE, see _Accendere_.

ADOLESCENS, see _Puer_.

ADORARE, see _Vereri_.

ADSCENDERE, see _Scandere_.

ADSOLERE, see _Solere_.

ADSPECTUS, ADSPICERE, see _Videre_.

ADULARI, see _Assentiri_.

ADUNCUS, see _Curvus_.

ADVENA, see _Externus_.

ADVENTOR, see _Hospes_.

ADVERSARIUS; HOSTIS; INIMICUS. 1. +Adversarius+ is the generic term for
every opposer, in the field, in politics, in a court of judicature, like
ἀντιστάτης. +Hostis+ (from ἔχθω) is ‘the enemy’ in the field, and war,
opp. to _pacatus_. Cic. Rep. ii. 3. Sen. Q. N. vi. 7. like πολέμιος;
+inimicus+, ‘an enemy’ in heart, opp. to _amicus_, like ἐχθρός. Cic.
Man. 10. Pompeius sæpius cum _hoste_ conflixit, quam quisquam cum
_inimico_ concertavit. Phil. xi. 1. Verr. i. 15. Curt. vii. 10. Liv.
xxii. 39. Nescio an infestior hic _adversarius_, quam ille _hostis_
maneat. 2. +Hostilis+ and +inimicus+ denote states of hatred become
habitual qualities; +infestus+ and +infensus+ only as temporary states;
+infestus+ (ἀνασπαστός?) applies to a quiescent state of aversion, like
disaffected, unkind, and thus it is applied to inanimate things that
threaten hostility; +infensus+ (from πένθος) denotes a passionate state
of mind, like enraged, and is therefore applicable to persons only. Tac.
Ann. xv. 28. Non _infensum_, nedum _hostili_ odio Corbulonis nomen
habebatur. Cic. Verr. iii. 24. Sall. Cat. 19. Sen. N. Q. iii. pr. Animus
luxuriæ non _adversus_ tantum, sed et _infestus_. Liv. ii. 20.
Tarquinium _infesto_ spiculo petit; Tarquinius _infenso_ cessit _hosti_.
(iv. 393.)

ADVOCATUS; CAUSIDICUS. +Advocatus+ means in the writers of the silver
age ‘a counsel’ in relation to his services and to his client, as his
friend and assistant; +causidicus+, in relation to his station and
profession, often with the contemptuous accessory notion of his being a
hireling. (vi. 8.)

ÆDES, see _Templum_.

ÆDIFICIUM; DOMUS; ÆDES; FAMILIA. 1. +Ædificium+ is the generic term for
buildings of all sorts, like οἰκοδόμημα; +domus+, and +ædes+, +ædium+,
mean ‘a dwelling-house;’ +domus+, as the residence and home of a family;
+ædes+ (αἴθω, αἴθουσα), as composed of several apartments, like δόμοι,
δώματα. Virg. G. ii. 461. Ingentem foribus _domus_ alta superbis mane
salutantum totis vomit _ædibus_ undam. (vi. 8.) 2. +Domus+ denotes
‘a family’ in the patriarchal sense, as a separate society, of which the
individuals are mutually connected; +familia+, in a political sense, as
part of a gens, civitas, or populus. (v. 301.)

ÆGER; ÆGROTUS; MORBIDUS; MORBUS; VALETUDO; INVALETUDO. 1. +Æger+ is the
generic term for every sort of illness and uneasiness, whether mental or
physical; +ægrotus+ and +morbidus+ indicate bodily illness: +ægrotus+ is
applied particularly to men; +morbidus+, to brutes: the _æger_ feels
himself ill; the _ægrotus_ and _morbidus_ actually are so. 2. +Morbus+
and +valetudo+ denote an actual illness; +morbus+, objectively, that
which attacks men; +valetudo+, subjectively, the state of the sick,
though this distinction was introduced by writers of the silver age;
+invaletudo+ means only an _indisposition_. (iv. 172.)

ÆGRE, see _Vix_.

ÆGRITUDO, see _Cura_.

ÆGROTUS, see _Æger_.

ÆMULATIO, see _Imitatio_.

ÆQUALIS, see _Æquus_.

ÆQUOR, see _Mare_.

ÆQUUS; PAR; ÆQUALIS; PARILIS; COMPAR; IMPAR; DISPAR. 1. +Æquum+ (from
εἴκελος) is that of which _its own_ component parts are alike, in opp.
to _varius_, Cic. Verr. v. 49; +par+ (from πείρω) is that which is like
to some other person or thing, and stands _in the same rank_ (on the
_same level_) with it or him, in opp. to _superior_ and _inferior_. Cic.
Brut. 59, 215. Orat. ii. 52, 209. 39, 166. In _æquo marte_ the battle
between two parties is considered as a whole; in _pari marte_ the
fortune of one party is set against that of the other, and declared to
be equal to it. 2. +Par+ denotes similarity with respect to greatness,
power, and value, or equality and proportion with regard to number, like
ἴσος; +æqualis+ refers to interior qualities, like ὅμοιος. The _par_ is
considered as in a state of activity, or, at least, as determined and
prepared to measure himself with his match in contest; the _æqualis_, in
a state of rest, and claiming merely comparison and equality as to rank.
The _paria_ are placed in opposition to each other, as _rivals_ in the
contest for pre-eminence; the _æqualia_ are considered in a _friendly_
relation to each other, in consequence of their common qualities and
sympathies. Hence +pariter+ means, in the same degree, ἴσα; +æqualiter+,
in the same manner, ὁμοίως, ὁμῶς. Vell. Pat. ii. 124. 3. +Par+ denotes
_quite_ like, +parilis+, _nearly_ like, as a middle step between _par_
and _similis_. 4. +Par+ expresses equal to _another_, and hence may
relate to only _one side_; +compar+, _mutually_ equal, like _finitimi_
and _confines_, ἐγγύς and σύνεγγυς. 5. +Impar+ denotes inequality as to
_quantity_, either arithmetical inequality with regard to number [=
odd], or a _relative inferiority_ as to strength; +dispar+ refers to
_quality_, without distinguishing on which side of the comparison the
advantage lies. (iv. 77.)

ÆQUUS; PLANUS; CAMPUS. 1. +Æquum+ (from εἴκελος) denotes that which is
flat, a horizontal flatness, in opposition to that which rises or sinks,
to _superior_, _inferior_, and _acclivis_. Cic. Fam. iii. 8. Orat.
iii. 6. Tac. Agr. 35. Hist. iv. 23; +planum+ (from πλάξ) denotes
‘evenness,’ in opp. to unevenness, to _montosus_, _saxosus_. Cic. Part.
10. Quintil. v. 10, 37. 21. Hence, figuratively, +æquum+ denotes
‘justice,’ as injustice may be considered as beginning when one part is
raised above another; in the same way +planum+ denotes clearness and
distinctness, where nothing rises to interrupt the view. 2. +Æquor+ and
+planities+ denote a flat surface with regard to its form; +campus+,
with regard to its position, as low-lands in opp. to high-lands.
(iv. 71.)

ÆQUUS ANIMUS, see _Satis habere_.

AER, see _Anima_.

ÆRARIUM; FISCUS. +Ærarium+ is ‘the public treasury;’ +fiscus+ (from
πίθος, πιθάκνη), ‘the imperial treasury.’ Tac. Ann. vi. 2. Bona Sejani
ablata _ærario_, ut in _fiscum_ cogerentur; tanquam referret! (vi. 10.)

ÆRUMNA, see _Labor_.

ÆSTIMARE, see _Censere_.

ÆSTUARE, see _Calere_.

ÆTERNUS, see _Continuus_.

AFFARI, see _Alloqui_.

AFFATIM, see _Satis_.

AFFINIS, see _Necessarius_.

AFFIRMARE, see _Dicere_.

AGER, see _Rus_ and _Villa_.

AGERE; FACERE; GERERE; OPUS; FACTUM; AGE; I NUNC; DEGERE. 1. +Agere+
(ἄγειν) has an effect that exists in time only, like to do; +facere+, an
effect that exists in space also, as to make. The _acta_ are past as
soon as the _agens_ ceases, and remain invisible in the memory; the
_facta_ cannot properly be said to exist till the _faciens_ ceases.
Quintil. ii. 18. The _agens_ is supposed to be in a state of activity of
some kind; the _faciens_ in a state of _productive_ activity. 2. +Agere+
means ‘to do’ something for one’s own interest; +gerere+ (ἀγείρειν), for
the interest of another, to execute a commission. Cic. Verr. i. 38. Quæ
etiamsi voluntate Dolabellæ _fiebant_, per istum tamen omnia
_gerebantur_. 3. +Opus+ is the result of facere, as the work, ἔργον;
+factum+ is the result of agere, as the transaction; +res gestæ+ are
deeds [_e.g._ in war], πράξεις; +acta+ are only political enactments.
Cic. Att. xiv. 17. Multa de _facto_ ac de _re gesta_; the former by the
exertions of Amatius, the latter by his own wise and spirited
animadversions through Dolabella. 4. +Age, agedum+, is an earnest
exhortation, as ‘On, on!’ +I nunc+ is an ironical exhortation, as ‘Go
to!’ 5. +Agere+ means to be active, and in the midst of business;
+degere+, to live somewhere in a state of rest, in voluntary or
involuntary inactivity. Tac. Ann. xv. 74. Deum honor principi non ante
habetur, quam _agere_ inter homines desierit, compared with iv. 54.
Certus procul urbe _degere_. (v. 327.)

AGERE FERRE, see _Vastare_.

AGGER; VALLUM. +Agger+ (from ἐσαγείρω) is a single line, like a dam;
+vallum+ or _mound_ (ἀλκή) is a line which helps to enclose a space.
+Agger+ may serve in a warfare as the outwork of a _redoubt_ [which is
protected by a _single line_ in front]; +vallum+ [_rampart_] always
belongs to a fortress, camp, or entrenched place.

AGMEN, see _Caterva_.

AGRESTIS, see _Rus_.

AIO, see _Dicere_.

ALA; PENNA; PLUMA; PINNA. 1. +Ala+ (from ἔχω, _vehere_) denotes ‘the
wing,’ as a joint, like πτέρυξ; +penna+ (πέτεσθαι), with reference to
its feathers, like πτερόν. Plaut. Pœn. iv. 2. 48. Meæ _alæ pennas_ non
habent. 2. +Penna+ denotes the larger and harder feathers; +pluma+, the
smaller and softer feathers, which serve as a clothing to the body of
the bird, like πτίλον. Sen. Ep. 42. Meministi, cum quendam affirmares
esse in tua potestate, dixisse me volaticum esse ac levem, et te non
pedem ejus tenere, sed _pennam_. Mentitus sum; _pluma_ tenebatur, quam
remisit et fugit. Cic. N. D. ii. 47. 121. 3. +Penna+ denotes the whole,
consisting of quill and feathers; +pinna+, the feather only, in
opposition to the quill. (v. 204.)

ALACER, see _Gaudere_.

ALA, see _Armus_.

ALAPA; COLAPHUS. +Alapa+ (Goth. _lofa_, ‘the flat hand,’) denotes a blow
with the flat hand on the face, as a gentle punishment, like a slap on
the cheek, or box on the ear; +colaphus+ (κόλαφος), a blow on the head
with the clenched fist, betokening anger and rage, like a cuff, a thump.
(vi. 14.)

ALBUS; CANDIDUS; ALBIDUS. 1. +Albus+ (ἀλφός) denotes ‘white,’ as far as
it is in general a negation of all color, as that which is colorless;
+candidus+ (from ξανθός), as being itself a positive color, and, as
such, the purest and brightest, near which all other colors have a shade
of darkness and duskiness, as a fine brilliant white. +Albus+, opposed
to _ater_, approaches, like λευκόν, to yellowish; +candidus+, opposed to
_niger_, approaches, like ἀργόν, to bluish. +Alba cutis+ is the skin of
the sick and dropsical; +candida+, that of the fair girl. Figuratively,
+albor+ is the symbol of good fortune and joy; +candor+, of purity of
mind and innocence. 2. +Albus+ denotes ‘white;’ +albidus+, only
‘whitish.’ (iii. 193.)

ALERE; NUTRIRE; NUTRICARE. +Alere+ (from ἄλθω) denotes nourishment, as
conducive to development and growth; +nutrire+ and +nutricare+, only as
it prolongs and secures existence. Or, +alimenta+ adjuvant, +nutrimenta+
sustentant. Cic. N. D. ii. 63. Neque _ali_ neque sustentari. +Nutrire+
involves a general notion; +nutricare+ is usually applied more
particularly to brutes. (ii. 99.)

ALGERE, ALGIDUS, see _Frigere_.

ALIENIGENA, see _Externus_.

ALIMENTA; PENUS; CIBUS; ESCA; EDULIA; CIBARE; PASCERE. 1. +Alimenta+ and
+penus+ are victuals in general, meat and drink; +alimenta+, mostly with
reference to the wants of an individual; +penus+, to the wants of a
whole family. +Cibus+ and +esca+ denote ‘food,’ in opposition to drink.
Cic. Fin. i. 11, and ii. 28. +Cibus+ (from γεύω, to chew), natural food,
as a means of nourishment; +esca+ (from ἔδω), ‘the food’ that is
artificially prepared as a dish. Hence +cibus+ denotes the food of
brutes also; but +esca+, only a bait, prepared as it were like a dish,
and set before them. Cic. N. D. ii. 47. Animalia _cibum_ partim dentibus
capessunt: compare this with ii. 23. Dii nec _escis_ nec potionibus
vescuntur. 2. +Cibaria+ are the most general and usual sorts of food;
+edulia+ are savory and select sorts of food. Suet. Tib. 46. Comites
nunquam salario, _cibariis_ tantum sustentavit; compare with Cal. 40.
Pro _eduliis_ certum statumque exigebatur. 3. +Cibare+ means to feed
with one’s hand, as nurses, etc.; +pascere+ (from πάσασθαι), only to
give out food, as a feeder or master. Suet. Tib. 72. Draconem manu sua
_cibaturus_; compare with Vesp. 18. Sineret se plebeculam _pascere_.
(v. 192.)

ALIQUANDO, see _Nonnunquam_.

ALITES, see _Volucres_.

ALLOQUI; APPELLARE; AFFARI. +Alloqui+ denotes accosting, as addressing
the first word, a salutation, and so forth, to a person with whom one is
not unacquainted; +appellare+ (from an old Gothic substantive, spellan),
when one wishes to draw a person into conversation, and direct to him
serious, or, at any rate, not insignificant words; +affari+ denotes
_addressing_ from the impulse of a _feeling_; through peculiar
friendliness or with solemnity. Cic. Cluent. 61. Quum nemo recipere
tecto, nemo audire, nemo _alloqui_, nemo respicere vellet: compare with
Phil. xiii. 2. Salutabunt benigne, comiter _appellabunt_ unumquemque
nostrum; and Brut. 3. Salutatio libri, quo me hic _affatus_ quasi
jacentem excitavit. (v. 107.)

ALSUS, see _Frigere_.

ALTERCATIO, see _Disceptatio_.

ALTUS; EDITUS; PROCERUS; ARDUUS; CELSUS; EXCELSUS; SUBLIMIS. 1. +Altus+
denotes, as a general expression, height or depth, as mathematical
dimensions, in opp. to length and breadth, and, consequently, height, in
opp. to _humilis_; Cic. Tusc. v. 13. 24. Orat 57. N. D. ii. 47, like
ὑψηλός; +editus+ denotes height, in opp. to _planus_, Tac. Ann. xv. 38:
lastly, +procerus+ denotes height or length in reference to growth. The
_altum_ has no measure and no limits; the _editum_ has the bulk of a
hill; the _procerum_ has the bulk of a tree, the full stature of the
human figure, and so forth. 2. +Altus+, +editus+, and +procerus+, denote
height merely in relation to space; +arduus+ means height, which is at
the same time steep and inaccessible; thence, figuratively, ‘difficult,
impossible;’ +celsus+, height, that thrusts itself out, and stretches
upwards; thence, figuratively, ‘proud;’ +excelsus+ and +præcelsus+, what
overtops something that is itself high, hence ‘pre-eminent;’ +sublimis+,
what is on high without touching the ground, soaring in the air, like
μετέωρος; thence, figuratively, ‘grand,’ of an elevated nature.
(ii. 99.)

AMANS, AMATOR, see _Amicus_.

AMARE, see _Diligere_.

AMARUS, see _Acerbus_.

AMBIGUUS, see _Dubius_.

AMBIRE; CIRCUMIRE. +Circumire+ denotes motion in any circular form, but
on the boundaries of a space, so as to go round it; +ambire+ denotes
going hither and thither in zigzag, or going about. Plin. Ep. ii. 9.
_Ambio_ domos, stationesque _circumeo_: and Cic. Att. xiv. 21. Antonium
_circumire_ veteranos, ut acta Cæsaris sancirent; that is, He made in
his canvassing the round, from first to last;--stronger than _ambire_,
which would only express his canvassing, and addressing the veterans in
general.

AMBO, see _Uterque_.

AMBULARE; SPATIARI; DEAMBULARE; INAMBULARE; OBAMBULARE. 1. +Ambulare+
(from _ambire_) denotes taking a walk as a leisurely motion, like going
up and down, in opp. both to _stare_ and _cubare_, and also to _currere_
and _salire_; Plaut. Bacch. iv. 8. 56. Plin. Ep. ix. 36. Cic. Fat. 5.
Fin. v. 17. Sen. Ep. 113. Gell. ii. 9. Sen. Ir. ii. 35. Plin. H. N.
x. 38: +spatiari+ denotes motion in open space, as to walk out, in opp.
to the confinement which a room imposes. 2. +Deambulare+ denotes going
up and down till one is tired; +inambulare+, within a bounded space;
+obambulare+, with reference to a fixed object, _along which_ one walks,
or to a person walking with us. (iii. 48.)

AMENS; DEMENS; INSANUS; VESANUS; EXCORS; VECORS; FUROR; DELIRIUM;
RABIES; CERRITUS; LYMPHATUS. 1. +Amentia+ shows itself negatively and
passively; +dementia+, positively and energetically. The _amens_ is
without reason, and either acts not at all, or acts without reason, like
the idiot, ἄφρων; the _demens_, while he fancies that he is doing right,
acts in direct opposition to reason, like the madman, παράφρων. Hence,
_amens_ metu, terrore; _demens_ scelere, discordia, etc. 2. +Insanus+
has a _privative_; +vesanus+, a _depravative_ meaning. The _insanus_ in
his passion oversteps the measure and bounds of right, and gives one the
impression of a guilty person; the _vesanus_, in his delusion, wanders
from the right path, follows a false object, and gives one the
impression of an unfortunate person. 3. +Excors+ means of weak
understanding in general, without the ability of reflecting and
examining, in opp. to _cordatus_; +vecors+ means, of a perverted
understanding, without the ability of reflecting calmly, from the mind
being taken up with one fixed idea. 4. +Furor+ (fervere) denotes mental
irritation, ecstasy, as raging, μανικός; +delirium+ (ληρεῖν), a physical
and childish remission of the mental faculties; +rabies+ (ῥαβάσσειν,
ἄραβος), a half-moral condition of a passionate insanity, as frantic,
λύσσα. The _furibundus_ forgets the bounds of sense, the _delirus_
babbles nonsense, the _rabidus_ will bite and injure when he can.
5. +Cerritus+ and +lymphatus+ betoken frenzy, as a demoniacal state, as
possessed, +cerritus+ or +ceritus+, by Ceres, +lymphatus+, by the
nymphs; they may also be considered as derived from κόρυζα, mucus
narium, and from λέμφος, mucus, as symbols of stupidity. (v. 89.)

AMICTUS, AMICULUM, see _Vestis_.

AMICUS; AMANS; AMATOR. +Amicus+ involves the notion of reciprocity, but
means only a sincere and calm affection, like φίλος; +amans+ and
+amator+ denote a more glowing affection, but do not imply reciprocity;
+amans+ denotes this affection as a temporary state; +amator+ as an
habitual feeling, like ἐραστής. Cic. Verr. v. 63. Alba tunc
antiquissimus non solum _amicus_, verum etiam _amator_. Tusc. iv. 12.
Inter ebriositatem et ebrietatem interest, aliudque est _amatorem_ esse,
aliud _amantem_. (iv. 102.)

AMICUS, see _Socius_.

AMITTERE; PERDERE; JACTURA. 1. +Amittere+ means to lose something, so
that it ceases to be in our possession, like ἀποβαλεῖν, opp. to
_retinere_, Cic. Rep. v. i. Sext. 47. Suet. Tib. 15. Ter. Phorm. iii. 2,
22; +perdere+ means, to lose something, so that it is destroyed, and
rendered useless, like διολέσαι, opp. to _servare_. Plaut. Rud. iv. 4,
120. Ter. Ad. ii. 2, 32. Sen. Contr. iii. 21.--Tac. Ann. ii. 25.
_Perdita_ classe, _amissis_ armis. 2. +Amissio+ is an involuntary,
+jactura+, a voluntary, loss, which a person undergoes, a sacrifice that
is made to avoid a greater loss, as in the case of the master of a ship,
who throws the freight overboard, to save his ship and his life. Plin.
Ep. i. 12. _Jacturam_ gravissimam feci, si _jactura_ dicenda est tanti
viri _amissio_. (iii. 289.)

AMITTERE, see _Mittere_.

AMNIS, see _Fluvius_.

AMOR, see _Diligere_.

AMPLECTI; COMPLECTI. +Amplecti+ denotes embracing, often with one arm
only, as a sign of calm affection and protection; +complecti+, clasping
and surrounding with both arms, as a sign of passionate love, or
familiar confidence. +Amplecti+ means, figuratively, to lay hold of
something, in opp. to slighting and disdaining; +complecti+, to take
fully in one’s grasp, in opp. to a half and superficial possession.
(v. 281.)

AMPLUS, see _Magnus_.

ANCILLA, see _Servus_.

ANCEPS, see _Dubius_.

ANGUIS, see _Repere_.

ANGOR, see _Cura_.

ANGUSTUS; ARCTUS; DENSUS; SPISSUS. 1. +Angustus+ and +arctus+ relate to
space itself, and to the proximity of its enclosing limits; +densus+ and
+spissus+, to things existing in space, and to their proximity to one
another. The _angustum_ (ἐγγυστός) is bounded only by lines, and forms
mostly an oblong, _narrow_, opp. to _latus_, Cic. Att. iv. 29, like
στενός; the _arctum_ (from _arcere_, εἴργω) is fenced in by lists,
walls, or mounds, and forms mostly a square or circle, and so forth,
_close_, in opp. to _laxus_, Cic. Orat. 25, like στενωπός. The clavus
angustus can therefore never be arctus. Mel. iii. 2, 8. Rhenus ad
dextram primo _angustus_, et sui similis, post ingens lacus Flevo
dicitur . . . fitque iterum _arctior_, iterumque fluvius emittitur, in
which passage the banks of the Rhine are considered only as lines, or as
walls, 3. +Densus+ (from ἀδινός? or θαμά?) denotes objects only as
pressed near _to_ one another, and without any observable gaps, in opp.
to _rarus_, like δασύς and θαμειός: +spissus+, as pressed close _into_
one another, and without any intervals between, in opp. to _solutus_,
loose, like πυκνός and συχνός. In +densus+ the principal notion is, the
rich abundance of objects, which have no need to keep far apart, if they
are to fill a wide space; in +spissus+, the want of empty space, from
all the spaces between objects being filled up, owing to their being
crowded together. (iv. 431.)

ANIMA; AER; AURA; SPIRITUS; SUBLIME. +Anima+ and +aër+ denote ‘air’ as
an element, like ἀήρ, and +anima+ (ἄνεμος), in opp. to _terra_, _mare_,
_ignis_; but +aër+, a learned term (ἀήρ, from ἀείρω?) in opp. to
_æther_; +aura+ and +spiritus+ denote ‘air’ when put in motion; +aura+
(αὔρα, from ἀέσαι, or from ἀεῖραι), the gently waving and _fanning_ air;
+spiritus+, the _streaming_ and breath-like air, like πνεῦμα; lastly,
+sublime+ (from sublevare?), the air that hovers over us, simply in a
local relation, in opp. to _humus_, like μετάρσιον, μετέωρον. (v. 92.)

ANIMA; ANIMUS; MENS. 1. +Anima+ denotes ‘the soul,’ physiologically, as
the principle of animal life, in men and brutes, that ceases with the
breath, like ψυχή: +animus+ (ἄνεμος), psychologically and ethically, as
the principle of moral personality, that ceases with the will, like
θυμός. The souls of the departed also are called, in a mythological
point of view, +animæ+, as shades; but, in a metaphysical point of view,
+animi+, as spirits. +Anima+ is a part of bodily existence; +animus+, in
direct opposition to the body. Sen. Ep. 4. Difficile est _animum_
perducere ad contemtionem _animæ_: and 58. Juven. xv. 148. Principio
indulsit communis conditor illis tantum _animas_, nobis _animum_ quoque.
2. +Animus+ denotes also the human soul, as including all its faculties,
and is distinguished from +mens+ (μένος, μανθάνω, the thinking faculty,
as a whole from one of its parts. Cic. Rep. ii. 40. Ea quæ latet in
_animis_ hominum, quæque pars _animi mens_ vocatur. Lucr. iii. 615.
iv. 758. Catull. 65, 3. Plaut. Cist. iii. 1, 6. As in practical life the
energy of the soul is displayed in the faculty of volition, so +animus+
itself stands for a part of the soul, namely, feeling and energy of will
in co-ordinate relation to +mens+, the intellect or understanding. Tac.
II. i. 84. Quem nobis _animum_, quas _mentes_ imprecentur. Ter. Andr.
i. 1. 137. Mala _mens_, malus _animus_. And, lastly, so far as thought
precedes the will, and the will itself, or determination, stands as
mediator between thought and action, in the same way as the body is the
servant of the will, so +mens+ is related to +animus+, as a whole to its
part. Cic. Tusc. iii. 5. _Mens_, cui regnum totius _animi_ a natura
tributum est. Liv. xxxvii. 45. (v. 94.)

ANIMADVERTERE; NOTARE. +Animadvertere+ means, to observe mentally, and
take notice of; but +notare+, to make distinguishable by a mark.
(vi. 20.)

ANIMAL; ANIMANS; BELLUA; BESTIA; PECUS; FERA. 1. +Animal+ and +animans+
are the animal as a living being, including man; +animal+, with
reference to his nature, according to which he belongs to the class of
living animals, in opp. to _inanimus_, like ζῶον; +animans+, with
reference to his state, as still living and breathing,[1] in opp. to
_exanimus_; +bellua+, +bestia+, and +pecus+, as irrational beings, in
opp. to man, and +bellua+ and +pecus+, with intellectual reference, as
devoid of reason, in peculiar opp. to _homo_, Cic. N. D. ii. 11;
+bestia+ and +fera+, with moral reference, as wild, and hostile to man.
2. +Bellua+ (from βλάξ) denotes, particularly, a great unwieldy animal,
as the elephant, whale, principally sea-monsters; +pecus+, a domestic
animal, particularly of the more stupid kinds, as a bullock, sheep, in
opp. to the wild; +bestia+, a destructive animal, particularly those
that are ravenous, as the tiger, wolf, etc., in opp. to birds, Justin,
ii. 14, like θηρίον; +fera+ (φῆρες), a wild animal of the wood, as the
stag, wolf, tiger, in opp. to domestic animals. Curt. ix. 10. Indi
maritimi _ferarum_ pellibus tecti piscibus sole duratis, et majorum
quoque _belluarum_, quos fluctus ejecit, carne vescuntur. And Tac. G.
17. (iv. 291.)

    [Footnote 1: Hence _animalium cadavera_, not _animantium_.]

ANNALES; HISTORIÆ. +Annales+ means a comprehensive historical work,
principally and especially a history of former ages, composed from
documents, like Livy and Tacitus; +historiæ+, particularly a work on the
history of the times in which the author himself has lived, as Sallust
and Tacitus.

ANTIQUUS; PRISCUS; VETUS; VETUSTUS; VETERNUS; PRISTINUS. 1. +Antiquum+
and +priscum+ denote the age that formerly existed, and is now no more,
in opp. to _novum_, like παλαιός; +vetus+ and +vetustum+ (from ἔτος),
what has existed for a long time, and has no longer any share in the
disadvantages or advantages of youth, in opp. to _recens_, like γέρων,
γεραιός, γερούσιος. Hence +antiquus homo+ is a man who existed in
ancient times; +vetus+, an old man. +Antiqui scriptores+ means the
classics, inasmuch as the age in which they flourished has long been
past; +veteres+, inasmuch as they have lived and influenced manhood for
2000 years. Cic. Verr. i. 21. Vereor ne hæc nimis _antiqua_ et jam
obsoleta videantur: compare with Orat. i. 37. Ut illi _vetus_ atque
usitata exceptio daretur. 2. +Vetus+ refers only to length of time, and
denotes age, sometimes as a subject of praise, sometimes as a reproach;
+vetustus+ refers to the superiority of age, inasmuch as that which is
of long standing is at the same time stronger, more worthy of honor,
more approved of, than that which is new, in opp. to _novicius_; lastly,
+veternus+ refers to the disadvantages of age, inasmuch as, after many
years’ use, a thing becomes worn out, or, through long existence, weak
and spiritless. Moreover, +veternus+, in the writers of the golden age,
is only admitted as a substantive, +veternum+, as lethargy; +vetus+
regularly supplies its place, and denotes more frequently the weakness
than the strength of age. Tac. Ann. xi. 14 and 15. _Veterrimis_
Græcorum, and _vetustissima_ Italiæ disciplina. 3. +Antiquus+ denotes
age only in relation to time, as a former age in opp. to the present;
+priscus+ (from πάρος), as a solemn word, with the qualifying accessory
notion of a former age worthy of honor, and a sacred primitive age, like
ἀρχαῖος, in opp. to the fashion of the day. 4. +Antiquus+ and +priscus+
denote a time long past; +pristinus+, generally, denotes only a time
that is past, like πρότερος. (iv. 83.)

ANTRUM, see _Specus_.

ANUS; VETULA. +Anus+ (as the fem. to _senex_) denotes an old lady, with
respect, and also as a term of reproach; an old woman, with reference to
her weakness, credulity, loquacity, and so forth: +vetula+, an old
woman, with reference to her ugliness and disagreeableness. (iv. 92.)

APERIRE; PATEFACERE; APERTE; PALAM; MANIFESTO; PROPALAM. 1. +Aperire+
(from πεπαρεῖν) means ‘to open’ a space that is covered at top, and
therefore in a horizontal direction, as, for instance, pits and springs,
and thereby to make them visible; +patefacere+, ‘to open’ a space whose
sides are closed; hence, to open in a perpendicular direction, as, for
instance, gates, roads, and fields, and thereby to make them accessible.
2. +Returare+ (from στέφω, German stopfen) means, to make accessible an
opening that has been stopped up; +recludere+, an opening that has been
shut up; +reserare+, an opening that has been barred up. 3. +Aperte+
means ‘openly,’ and without concealment, so that everybody can perceive
and know, in opp. to _occulte_, like φανερῶς; +palam+ (from planus),
‘openly,’ and without hiding anything, so that everybody can see and
hear, in opp. to _clam_, like ἀναφανδόν; +manifesto+, palpably, so that
one is spared all inquiry, all conjecture, all exertion of the senses
and of the mind, like δῆλον. 4. +Palam+ denotes that openness which does
not shun observation; +propalam+, that which courts observation. Cic.
Orat. i. 35. Neque proposito argento neque tabulis et signis _propalam_
collocatis; that is, to everybody’s admiration: compare with Pis. 36.
Mensis _palam_ propositis; that is, without fear and constraint.
(v. 291.)

APPARET; EMINET. +Apparet+ means what is visible to him who observes;
+eminet+, what forces itself upon observation, and attracts the eye.
Sen. Ir. i. 1. _Apparent_ alii affectus, hic (scil. iræ) _eminet_.
(vi. 23.)

APPARET, see _Constat_.

APPELLARE, see _Alloqui_ and _Nominare_.

APTUS, see _Idoneus_.

AQUA; UNDA; FLUCTUS; FLUENTUM. 1. +Aqua+ (from ὠκεανός) denotes water
materially as an element, in opp. to _terra_; +unda+ (from νέδη, wet),
as a flowing, continually moving element, in opp., as it were, to
_solum_; +lympha+ (λέμφος) is merely a poetical synonyme of _aqua_, with
the accessory notion of clearness and brightness, to which the similar
sound of the adjective _limpidus_, though not derived from it, gave
occasion. 2. +Unda+ stands in the middle, between _aqua_ and _fluctus_,
as _aura_ does between _aër_ and _ventus_. For +unda+ denotes, like
wave, that which apparently moves _itself_, whereas +fluctus+ and
+fluenta+, like billows, the water moved by something external, as
storms and so forth; +fluctus+, the billows more in connection with the
whole, the billowy sea, whereas +fluentum+ denotes a single billow. It
is only the stormy sea, the boisterous stream, that urges on its
billows, but every piece of water, that is not entirely stagnant, has
its waves. Hence there is a great distinction between these two images
in Cicero, Mil. 2, 5. Tempestates et procellas in illis duntaxat
_fluctibus_ concionum semper putavi Miloni esse subeundas; that is, in
the tumultuously agitated assemblies: and Planc. 6, 15. Si campus atque
illæ _undæ_ comitiorum, ut mare profundum et immensum, sic effervescunt
quodam quasi æstu; that is, the lightly moving assemblies. Sen. N. Q.
iii. 10. Quid si ullam _undam_ superesse mireris, quæ superveniat tot
_fluctibus_ fractis. And iv. 2. Nec mergit cadens _unda_, sed planis
_aquis_ tradit. (ii. 10.)

AQUOSUS, see _Udus_.

ARBITRARI, see _Censere_.

ARCANA; SECRETA; MYSTERIA. +Arcana+ denotes secrets, in a good sense,
such as are so of themselves, and from their own nature, and should be
spoken of with awe; thus +arcana+, as a popular term, denotes secrets of
all sorts; on the other hand, +mysteria+, as a learned term, denotes
religious secrets, like the Eleusinian mysteries; lastly, +secreta+
denotes secrets, in the most ordinary sense, such as are made so by men,
and which seek concealment from some particular fear. Tac. Ann. i. 6.
Sallustius Crispus particeps _secretorum_ . . . monuit Liviam, ne
_arcana_ domus vulgarentur. (iv. 429.)

ARCERE; PROHIBERE. +Arcere+ (ἀρκεῖν, from ἐρύκειν) means to keep off and
bar the entry, in opp. to _admittere_, Plin. H. N. xii. 1; on the other
hand, +prohibere+ means to keep at a distance, and prevent the approach,
in opp. to _adhibere_. The _arcens_ makes defensive opposition, like the
_resistens_, and protects the threatened; but the _prohibens_ acts on
the offensive, like the _propulsans_, and retaliates hostility on the
assailant. (iv. 430.)

ARCESSERE; ACCIRE; EVOCARE; ACCERSERE. 1. +Arcessere+ and +accersere+
denote, in the most general sense, merely, to send for; +accire+
supposes a co-ordinate relation in those that are sent for, as, to
invite; +evocare+, a subordinate relation, as, to summon. The
_arcessens_ asks, the _acciens_ entreats, the _evocans_ commands,
a person to make his appearance. Cic. Att. v. 1. Tu invita mulieres, ego
_accivero_ pueros: compare with Dejot. 5. Venit vel rogatus ut amicus,
vel _arcessitus_ ut socius, vel _evocatus_ ut qui senatui parere
didicisset. Or, Liv. x. 19. Collegæ auxilium, quod _acciendum_ ultro
fuerit, with xliv. 31. _Evocati_ literis imperatoris. And xxix. 11.
Æbutia _accita_ ad Sulpiciam venit; and 12. Ut Hispalam libertinam
_arcesseret_ ad sese. 2. +Arcessere+ (from cedere) means, originally, to
order to approach; on the other hand, +accersere+ (from σκαίρω), to come
quickly, or, to make haste; but both words have been confounded with
each other, from similarity of sound. (iii. 283.)

ARCTUS, see _Angustus_.

ARDERE; FLAGRARE. +Ardere+ (from ἐρεύθειν) means to be in a visible
glowing heat, like αἴθειν; on the other hand, +flagrare+, to be in
bright flames, like φλέγεσθαι. Hence, metaphorically, +ardere+ is
applied to a secret passion; +flagrare+, to a passion that bursts forth.
Cic. Or. iii. 2, 8. Non vidit Crassus _flagrantem_ bello Italiam, non
_ardentem_ invidia senatum. (iv. 21.)

ARDUUS; DIFFICILIS. +Arduus+ (from ὀρθός) means difficult to ascend, in
opp. to _pronus_; on the other hand, +difficilis+ means difficult to
execute, in opp. to _facilis_. +Arduus+ involves a stronger notion of
difficulty, and denotes the difficult when it borders on the impossible.
Plin. Ep. iv. 17. Est enim res _difficilis ardua_. Tac. Hist. ii. 76.
Æstimare debent, an quod inchoatur, reipublicæ utile, ipsis gloriosum,
aut promptum effectu, aut certe non _arduum_ sit. Cic. Verr. i. 51. Cum
sibi omnes ad illum allegationes _difficiles_, omnes aditos _arduos_, ac
pæne interclusos, viderent. (ii. 105.)

ARDUUS, see _Altus_.

ARENA, see _Sabulo_.

ARGUERE; INCUSARE; CULPARE; CRIMINARI; INSIMULARE; DEFERRE; ACCUSARE.
+Arguere+ (from ἀργός) is the most general expression for any imputation
of supposed or actual guilt, whether in a court of justice or not, as to
tax or charge with; +incusare+, and the less frequent term +culpare+,
denote only a complaint made out of a court of justice; +criminari+, an
accusation with hostile or evil intention, in a calumnious spirit;
+insimulare+, in an undeserved or slanderous manner, through suspicion;
+deferre+, to impeach before a judge; +accusare+, to impeach in a
criminal court. Cic. Lig. 4, 10. _Arguis_ fatentem. Non est satis.
_Accusas_ eum. (ii. 163.)

ARIDUS; TORRIDUS; SICCUS. +Aridus+ and +torridus+ denote an internal
want of moisture; but things that are _arida_ (from areo) have lost
their moisture from a heat acting within, like αὖος, in opp. to
_humidus_. Plin. Pan. 30, 4; on the other hand, _torrida_ (from τέρσω),
from a heat penetrating from without, in opp. to _uvidus_, like
σκληρός;--+siccus+ denotes dryness that is only external, confined to
the surface, in opp. to _madidus_, like ξηρός. Plin. H. N. xii. 12. Ne
sint fragilia et _arida_ potius quam _sicca_ folia. And xv. 29. Cato
docuit vinum fieri ex nigra myrta _siccata_ usque in _ariditatem_ in
umbra. Colum. vii. 4. (vi. 244.)

ARISTA, see _Culmus_.

ARMENTUM, see _Pecus_.

ARMUS; HUMERUS; ALA; AXILLA. +Armus+ (ramus?) is the highest part of the
upper arm in men; the fore-leg in beasts; the shoulder-blade, as part of
the whole body, distinguished from _scapula_, as part of the skeleton,
like ὦμος; +humerus+, the flat surface, which in the human body is over
the upper arm, the shoulder, like ἐπωμίς; +ala+ and +axilla+, the cavity
which is under the upper arm, the arm-pit, like μασχάλη. Ovid, Met.
xii. 396. Ex _humeris_ medios coma dependebat in _armos_. And x. 599.
xiv. 304. Plin. H. N. xi. 43. (iv. 27.)

ARROGANTIA, see _Superbia_.

ARTES, see _Literæ_.

ARTIFEX, see _Faber_.

ARTUS, see _Membrum_.

ARUNDO, see _Culmus_.

ARVUM, see _Villa_.

ASCIA; SECURIS. +Ascia+ is the carpenter’s axe, to split wood;
+securis+, the butcher’s cleaver, to cut meat.

ASPER, see _Horridus_.

ASPERNARI, see _Spernere_.

ASSENTIRI; ASSENTARI; BLANDIRI; ADULARI. 1. +Assentiri+ means to assent
from conviction, in opp. to _dissentire_; but +assentari+, to express
assent, whether from conviction or from hypocrisy, in opp. to
_adversari_. Vell. P. ii. 48. Cic. Rosc. Am. 16, 99. Plaut. Most. i. 3,
100. Amph. ii. 2, 70. 2. +Assentari+ denotes the flattery which shuns
contradicting a person, like θωπεύειν; +blandiri+ (μέλδειν), that which
says what is agreeable to another, like ἀρεσκεύειν; +adulari+ (from
δοῦλος), that which would please at the expense of self-degradation,
like κολακεύειν. The _assentans_, as a flatterer, would, by surrendering
his right to an independent opinion; the _blandiens_, by complaisance
and visible signs of affection; the _adulans_, by self-degradation, and
signs of an unworthy subserviency, gain the favor of another.
+Assentatio+, or the art of the assenter, has its origin in cowardice or
weakness; +blanditiæ+, or fair-speaking, in the endeavor to be amiable,
and, at worst, in self-interest; +adulatio+, or flattery, and servility,
κολακεία, in a degrading, slavish, spaniel-like spirit. Sen. Ir. iii. 8.
Magis adhuc proderunt submissi et humani et dulces, non tamen usque in
_adulationem_; nam iracundos nimia _assentatio_ offendit. Erit certe
amicus . . . . cui non magis tutum erat _blandiri_ quam maledicere. And
ii. 28. Sæpe _adulatio_, dum _blanditur_, offendit. (ii. 174.)

ASSEVERARE, see _Dicere_.

ASSES, see _Axes_.

ASSIDUITAS, see _Opera_.

ASSEQUI, see _Invenire_.

ASTRUM, see _Sidus_.

ASTUTUS; CALLIDUS; VAFER; VERSUTUS. +Astutus+ or in old Latin +astus+
(from ἀκή, acuere), and +callidus+, denote cunning, more in an
intellectual sense, as a mark of cleverness; +astutus+, indeed,
acuteness in the invention and execution of a secret project, synonymous
with _solers_; but +callidus+ (from κάλλος), sharp-sightedness in
judging of a complicated question of conduct, or worldly wisdom, as the
consequence of a knowledge of mankind, and of intercourse with the
world, synonymous with _rerum peritus_, as judicious, and, in its
degenerate signification, crafty, like κερδαλέος; on the other hand,
+vafer+ and +versutus+ denote cunning in a moral sense, as a mark of
dishonesty, and, indeed, +vafer+ (ὑφή), adroitness in introducing
tricks, particularly in judicial affairs, as the tricks of a lawyer,
like πανοῦργος; +versutus+ (ἀρτυτός), versatility in dissimulation, and
in the art of getting out of a scrape by some means or other; in opp. to
_simplex_, Cic. Fin. iv. 25, like στροφαῖος. Plin. Ep. vii. 6. Juvenis
ingeniosus, sed parum _callidus_. Cic. Brut. 48. _Callidus_, et in
capiendo adversario _versutus_. (iii. 220.)

ATER; NIGER; PULLUS. 1. +Ater+ (αἰθός) denotes black, as a negation of
color, in opp. to _albus_; whereas +niger+ (πνιγόεις) denotes black, as
being itself a color, and indeed the darkest, in opp. to _candidus_. The
_atrum_ makes only a dismal and dark impression; but the _nigrum_, a
positive, and imposing and beautiful impression, as Hor. Carm. i. 32,
11. Lycum _nigris_ oculis, _nigroque_ crine decorum. Tac. G. 43. _Nigra_
scuta, tincta corpora; _atras_ ad prœlia noctes legunt. (iii. 194.)
2. +Ater+ and +niger+ denote a deep dark black; whereas +pullus+ only
swarthy, with reference to the affinity of the dark color to dirt.
(iii. 207.)

ATQUE, see _Et_.

ATROX; TRUX; TRUCULENTUS; DIRUS; SÆVUS; TORVUS. 1. +Atrox+, +trux+, and
+truculentus+, (from τρηχύς, ταράξαι), denote that which has an exterior
exciting fear; that which makes an impression of terror on the fancy,
and eye, and ear; +atrox+, indeed, as a property of things, but +trux+
and +truculentus+ as properties of persons; whereas +dirus+ and +sævus+
mean that which is really an object of fear, and threatens danger;
+dirus+, indeed (from δέος), according to its own nature, as a property
of things, means dreadful, δεινός; but +sævus+ (from αἶ, heu!) according
to the character of the person, as a property of living beings, means
blood-thirsty, cruel, αἰνός. Plin. Pan. 53. _Atrocissima_ effigies
_sævissimi_ domini. Mela ii. 7. Ionium pelagus . . . _atrox_, _sævum_;
that is, looking dangerous, and often enough also bringing misfortune.
2. +Trux+ denotes dreadfulness of look, of the voice, and so forth, in
the tragic or heroic sense, as a mark of a wild disposition or of a
cruel purpose; but +truculentus+, in the ordinary and comic sense, as a
mark of ill-humor or trivial passion; the slave in Plautus is
_truculentus_; the wrathful Achilles is _trux_. Sometimes, however,
_truculentior_ and _truculentissimus_ serve as the comparative and
superlative of _trux_. 3. +Trux+ and +truculentus vultus+ is a terrific,
angry look, like τραχύς; +torvus+, merely a stern, sharp, and wild look,
as τορόν, or ταυρηδὸν βλέπειν. Plin. H. N. xi. 54. Contuitu quoque
multiformes; _truces_, _torvi_, flagrantes. Quintil. vi. 1. 43. (i. 40.)

ATTONITUS; STUPENS. +Attonitus+, thunderstruck, denotes a momentary,
+stupens+ (ταφεῖν) a petrified, a lasting condition. Curt. viii. 2, 3.
_Attoniti_, et _stupentibus_ similes. Flor. ii. 12. (vi. 31.)

AUDERE; CONARI; MOLIRI. +Audere+ denotes an enterprise with reference to
its danger, and the courage of him who undertakes it, whereas +conari+
(from incohare), with reference to the importance of the enterprise, and
the energy of him who undertakes it; lastly, +moliri+, with reference to
the difficulty of the enterprise, and the exertion required of him who
undertakes it. (iii. 295.)

AUDENTIA, AUDACIA, see _Fides_.

AUDIRE; AUSCULTARE. +Audire+ (from _ausis_, _auris_, οὖας) means to
hear, ἀκούειν, as a mere passive sensation, like _olfacere_; on the
other hand, +auscultare+ (from auricula), to hearken, ἀκροᾶσθαι, that
is, to wish to hear, and to hear attentively, whether secretly or
openly, by an act of the will, like _odorari_. Ter. And. iv. 5, 45.
Æsch. Pater, obsecro, _ausculta_. Mic. Æschine, _audivi_ omnia. Cato ap.
Gell. i. 15. Pacuv. ap. Cic. Div. i. 57. (iii. 293.)

AUFERRE, see _Demere_.

AUGURIA; AUSPICIA; PRODIGIA; OSTENTA; PORTENTA; MONSTRA; OMINA.
+Auguria+ and +auspicia+ are appearances in the ordinary course of
nature, which for the most part possess a meaning for those only who are
skilful in the interpretation of signs; +auguria+ (from augur, αὐγάζειν)
for the members of the college of augurs, who are skilled in such
things; +auspicia+, for the magistrates, who have the right to take
auspices: whereas +prodigia+, +ostenta+, +portenta+, +monstra+, are
appearances out of the ordinary course of nature, which strike the
common people, and only receive a more exact interpretation from the
soothsayer: lastly, +omina+ (ὄθματα, ὄσσαι) are signs which any person,
to whom they occur, can interpret for himself, without assistance. The
primary notion in +prodigium+ is, that the appearance is replete with
meaning, and pregnant with consequences; in +ostentum+, that it excites
wonder, and is great in its nature: in +portentum+, that it excites
terror, and threatens danger; in +monstrum+, that it is unnatural and
ugly. (v. 178.)

AURA, see _Anima_.

AUSCULTARE, see _Audire_.

AUSPICIA, see _Auguria_.

AUSTERUS; SEVERUS; DIFFICILIS; MOROSUS; TETRICUS. 1. +Austerus+
(αὐστηρός, from αὔω) denotes gravity as an intellectual, +severus+
(αὐηρός) as a moral quality. The _austerus_ in opp. to _jucundus_, Plin.
H. N. xxxiv. 8. xxxv. 11, is an enemy to jocularity and frivolity, and
seeks in science, learning, and social intercourse, always that which is
serious and real, at the risk of passing for dull; the _severus_, in
opp. to _luxuriosus_, Quintil. xi. 3, 74, is rigid, hates all
dissoluteness and laxity of principle, and exacts from himself and
others self-control and energy of character, at the risk of passing for
harsh. The stoic, as a philosopher, is _austerus_, as a man, _severus_.
2. +Austerus+ and +severus+ involve no blame; whereas +difficilis+,
+morosus+, and +tetricus+, denote an excess or degeneracy of rigor. The
_difficilis_ understands not the art of easy and agreeable converse,
from hypochondria and temperament; the _morosus_ (from mos) is
scrupulous, and wishes everything to be done according to rule, from
scrupulosity and want of tolerance; the _tetricus_ (redupl. of trux,
τραχύς) is stiff and constrained, from pedantry and want of temper.
(iii. 232.)

AUTUMARE, see _Censere_.

AUXILIUM; OPEM FERRE; OPITULARI; JUVARE; ADJUVARE. 1. +Auxilium+, +opem
ferre+, and +opitulari+, suppose a person in a strait, whom one would
rescue from necessity and danger, in opp. to _deserere_, _destituere_,
and so forth; the _auxilium ferens_ is to be considered as an ally, who
makes himself subservient to the personal safety, or to the interest of
him who is in a strait; the _opem ferens_, as a benefactor, who employs
his power and strength for the benefit of the weak; whereas +juvare+ and
+adjuvare+ (ἰᾶσθαι) suppose only a person striving to do something,
which he may be enabled to do better and quicker by help, in opp. to
_impedire_, Cic. Verr. i. 6. Ter. Heaut. v. 2, 39. Matres solent esse
filiis in peccato _adjutrices_, _auxilio_ in paterna injuria. When in
Liv. ii. 6, Tarquin entreats the Veientes, _ferrent opem_, _adjuvarent_,
he is first considered as exulans, then as regnum repetiturus. 2. +Opem+
and +auxilium ferre+ derive their emphasis from the noun, to bring help,
and nothing else; whereas +opitulari+, and the poetical word,
+auxiliari+, derive their emphasis from their verbal form, and mean to
bring help, and not to refuse. (v. 70.)

AVE; SALVE; VALE. +Ave+ (from εὖ) is a salutation used at meeting and at
parting, like χαῖρε; whereas +salve+ is used at meeting only, +vale+ at
parting, like ἔῤῥωσο. Suet. Galb. 4. Ut liberti mane _salvere_, vespere
_valere_ sibi singuli dicerent. (i. 28.)

AVES, see _Volucres_.

AVIDUS, see _Velle_.

AXES; PLANCÆ; TABULÆ. +Axes+ or +asses+, and +plancæ+, are unwrought
boards, as they come from the saw, and +asses+ as a usual term, +plancæ+
as a technical term; whereas +tabulæ+ are boards that have been made
smooth by the plane, to serve the purposes of luxury. (vi. 34.)

AXILLA, see _Armus_.


B.

BALBUS; BLÆSUS. +Balbus+ (from balare) denotes stammering as an habitual
quality, whereas +Blæsus+, as a temporary condition. (iii. 79.)

BACULUS, see _Fustis_.

BAJULARE, see _Ferre_.

BARDUS, see _Stupidus_.

BASIUM, see _Osculum_.

BAUBARI, see _Latrare_.

BEATUS, see _Felix_.

BELLUA, see _Animal_.

BENE MORATUS, see _Bonus_.

BENEVOLENTIA, see _Studium_.

BENIGNUS, see _Largus_.

BESTIA, see _Animal_.

BIBERE; POTARE. +Bibere+ (reduplic. of bua) means to drink like a human
being, πίνειν; whereas +potare+ (from ποτός) to drink like a beast, and,
metaphorically, to tipple, σπᾶν. Sen. Ep. 122. Inter nudos _bibunt_, imo
_potant_. Plaut. Curc. i. 1, 88. Agite, _bibite_, festivæ fores,
_potate_, fite mihi volentes propitiæ. (1. 149.)

BIFARIAM, see _Duplex_.

BILIS, see _Fel_.

BLÆSUS, see _Balbus_.

BLANDIRI, see _Assentiri_.

BLATIRE, BLATERARE, see _Garrire_.

BONI CONSULERE, see _Satis habere_.

BONUS; BENE MORATUS; PROBUS; FRUGI; HONESTUS; SANCTUS. 1. +Bonus+, +bene
moratus+, +probus+, and +frugi+, denote a low degree of morality, in
which a man keeps himself free from blame and punishment, hatred and
contempt:--+bonus+ (anciently duonus, δύναμαι), in the popular sense, in
which benevolence and goodness of heart constitute the principal part of
morality, in opp. to _malus_, like ἀγαθός; +bene moratus+, in a more
philosophical sense, as an acquired character, in which, before all
things, self-control, conscientiousness, and freedom from common
selfishness are cultivated, like εὔτροπος, +probus+ πραΰς), so far as a
man injures no one, nor does what is unjust, as a worthy, upright, just
man; +frugi+, so far as a man, by discretion, conscientiousness, and
diligence, qualifies himself to be useful in practical life, in opp. to
_nequam_, like χρηστός. Quintil. vi. 4, 11. Non est altercandi ars . . .
res animi jacentis et mollis supra modum frontis, fallitque plerumque
quod _probitas_ vocatur, quæ est imbecillitas. Dic. Dejot. 10. _Frugi_
hominem dici non multum laudis habet in rege. Quintil. i. 6, 29. 2.
Whereas +honestus+ and +sanctus+ denote a higher degree of morality,
which, from higher motives, rises above the standard of ordinary men,
and what is called social morality; +honestus+, as an honorable and
chivalrous spirit and demeanor, derived from a principle of honor and
distinction, in opp. to _turpis_; +sanctus+, as a saintly and holy
spirit, derived from a principle of piety. (v. 347.)

BRACHIUM, see _Ulna_.

BREVIS; CURTUS. +Brevis+ (βραχύς) means short by nature; whereas
+curtus+ (καρτός, from κείρω), means shortened.

BRUTUS, see _Stupidus_.


C.

CABALLUS, see _Equus_.

CACHINNARI, see _Ridere_.

CACUMEN, see _Acies_.

CADAVER; CORPUS. +Cadaver+ denotes the dead body as a mere material
substance, like _carcass_: but +corpus+ as the remains of personality,
like _corpse_, and is always used when the dead body is spoken of with
feeling. (vi. 45.)

CADERE, see _Labi_.

CÆDERE, see _Verberare_.

CÆRIMONIA, see _Consuetudo_.

CÆSAR, see _Primus_.

CÆSARIES, see _Crinis_.

CÆTERI; RELIQUI. +Cæteri+ (comparat. from ἐκεῖ) denotes others, as in
direct opposition to those first mentioned, like οἱ ἄλλοι; whereas
+reliqui+, the rest, as merely the remainder that complete the whole,
like οἱ λοιποί. Cic. Brut. 2, 6. Si viveret Hortensius, _cætera_
fortasse desideraret una cum _reliquis_ bonis civibus; hunc aut præter
_cæteros_, aut cum paucis sustineret dolorem. (i. 183.)

CALAMITAS, see _Infortunium_.

CALAMUS, see _Culmus_.

CALCULUS, see _Saxum_.

CALERE; FERVERE; ÆSTUARE; CALEFACERE; FOVERE. 1. +Calere+ and +fervere+
denote, objectively, warmth by itself, and, indeed, +calidus+ (κηλέῳ
πυρί), in opp. to _frigidus_, a moderate degree of warmth, but
+fervidus+, in opp. to _gelidus_, a degree of warmth on the point of
boiling, heat; whereas +æstuare+ (from αἴθω), subjectively, the feeling
of heat, in opp. to _algere_. (iii. 89.) 2. +Calefacere+ means to make
warm, in a purely physical sense, without any accessory notion; whereas
+fovere+ (from ἀφαύω), with reference to the genial sensation, or
salutary effect of the warmth. (vi. 48.)

CALIGO, see _Obscurum_.

CALIX, see _Poculum_.

CALLIDUS, see _Astutus_ and _Sapiens_.

CALLIS, see _Iter_.

CAMPUS, see _Æquum_ and _Villa_.

CANDELA; LUCERNA. +Candela+ is a candle, which can be carried about like
a torch, as λαμπάς, whereas +lucerna+ can only be considered as a
burning light on a table, like λύχνος. (vi. 50.)

CANDIDUS, see _Albus_.

CANERE; CANTARE; PSALLERE; CANTICUM; CANTILENA; CARMEN; POEMA; POETA;
VATES. 1. +Canere+ (from καναχεῖν) means, in the most general sense, to
make music, voce, tibiis, fidibus, like μέλπειν; +cantare+, with vocal
music, like ἀείδειν; +psallere+, with instrumental music, and indeed
with string-instruments, like ψάλλειν. 2. +Cantica+ and +cantilenæ+ are
only songs adapted for singing, in which, as in popular ballads, the
words and melodies are inseparable, and serve to excite mirth and
pleasure, in opp. to speech, and that which is spoken; and, indeed,
+canticum+ means a favorite piece, still in vogue; +cantilena+, a piece
which, being generally known, has lost the charm of novelty, and is
classed with old songs; whereas +carmina+ and +poemata+ are poems which
may be sung, but the words of which claim value as a work of art, and
serve religion or music as an art, in opp. to prose and real truth;
+carmina+, indeed, were originally religious hymns, ἐπῳδαί, and, in a
wider sense, poems of another sort, mostly, however, minor poems, and of
a lyrical sort, like ᾠδαί; but +poemata+ are the products of cultivated
art, and extensive poems, mostly of the epic or tragic sort, like
ποιήματα. The _carmen_ (κάρω, κράζω) is the fruit of natural, but the
_poema_ of calm and self-conscious inspiration. 3. +Poeta+ is a
technical expression, and denotes a poet only as an artist; +vates+
(ἠχέτης) is an old Latin and religious expression, and denotes a poet as
a sacred person. Tac. Dial. 9. (v. 99.)

CANNA, see _Culmus_.

CANTARE, see _Canere_.

CANTERIUS, see _Equus_.

CANTICUM, CANTILENA, see _Canere_.

CAPER; HIRCUS; HŒDUS. +Caper+ (κάπρος) is the general name for a
he-goat, and that which is used in natural history, τράγος; +hircus+
(from χήρ) is an old full-grown he-goat, χίμαρος? whereas +hædus+,
+hœdus+ (χοῖρος), a kid, ἔριφος. (v. 336.)

CAPERE, see _Sumere_.

CAPILLUS, see _Crinis_.

CARCER, see _Custodia_.

CARERE; EGERE; INDIGERE. 1. +Carere+ (from κείρειν) relates to a
desirable possession, in opp. to _habere_, Cic. Tusc. i. 36; whereas
+egere+ and +indigere+, to a necessary and indispensable possession, in
opp. to _abundare_, Lucil. Fr. Sat. viii. Senec. Vit. B. 7. Voluptate
virtus sæpe _caret_, nunquam _indiget_. Epist. 9. Sapiens _eget_ nulla
re; _egere_ enim necessitatis est. Cic. Ep. ad. Qu. Fr. i. 3, 2. Nunc
commisi, ut me vivo _careres_, vivo me aliis _indigeres_. 2. +Egere+
(from χάω, χαίνω ἀχήν) denotes, objectively, the state of need, in opp.
to _uti_, Cato ap. Gell. xiii. 23; +indigere+, subjectively, the galling
sense of need, and eager longing to satisfy it. (iii. 113.)

CARITAS, see _Diligere_.

CARMEN, see _Canere_.

CARO; PULPA; VISCERA; EXTA; INTESTINA; ILIA. 1. +Caro+ means flesh in
its general sense, as a material substance, in opp. to fat, nerves,
muscles, and so forth; +pulpa+, especially, eatable and savory flesh, in
opp. to bones; +viscera+, all flesh, and every fleshy substance between
the skin and the bones. 2. +Viscera+, in a narrower sense, means
generally, the inner parts of the body; whereas +exta+ means the inner
parts of the upper part of the body, as the heart, lungs, and so forth;
+intestina+, +interanea+, and +ilia+, the inner parts of the lower part
of the body, namely, the entrails; and indeed +intestina+, and, in the
age after Augustus, +interanea+, meant the guts as digestive organs;
+ilia+, all that is contained in the lower part of the body, and
particularly those parts that are serviceable. (v. 145.)

CASSIS; GALEA; CUDO. +Cassis+, +cassida+ (from κόττα), is a helmet of
metal; +galea+ (γαλέη), a helmet of skin, and properly of the skin of a
weasel; +cudo+ (κεύθων), a helmet of an indefinite shape. Tac. G. 6.
Paucis loricæ; vix uni alterive _cassis_ aut _galea_.

CASSIS, see _Rete_.

CASTIGATIO, see _Vindicta_.

CASTUS; PUDICUS; PUDENS; PUDIBUNDUS. 1. +Castus+ (from καθαρός) denotes
chastity as a natural quality of the soul, as pure and innocent; whereas
+pudicus+, as a moral sentiment, as bashful and modest. 2. +Pudicus+,
+pudicitia+, denote natural shame, aversion to be exposed to the gaze of
others, and its fruit, chaste sentiment, merely in its sexual relation,
like bashfulness; whereas +pudens+, +pudor+, denote shame in a general
sense, or an aversion to be exposed to the observation of others, and to
their contempt, as a sense of honor. Cic. Catil. ii. 11, 25. Ex hac
parte _pudor_ pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc _pudicitia_, illinc
stuprum. 3. +Pudicus+ and +pudens+ denote shame as an habitual feeling;
+pudibundus+ as a temporary state of the sense of shame, when excited.
(iii. 199.)

CASU; FORTE; FORTUITO; FORTASSE; FORSITAN; HAUD SCIO AN. +Casu+,
+forte+, and +fortuito+, denote a casualty, and indeed, +casu+, in opp.
to _consulto_, συμβεβηκότως; +forte+, without particular stress on the
casualty, τυχόν; +fortuito+, +fortuitu+, emphatically, by mere chance,
in opp. to _causa_, ἀπὸ τύχης; whereas +fortasse+, +forsitan+, and +haud
scio an+, denote possibility, and indeed +fortasse+, +fortassis+, with
an emphatic perception and affirmation of the possibility, as
approaching to probability, and are in construction with the indicative,
ἴσως; +forsitan+, +forsan+, with merely an occasional perception of the
possibility, and are in construction with a conjunctive, τάχ’ ἄν; +haud
scio an+, with a modest denial of one’s own certainty; consequently,
+haud scio an+ is an euphemistic limitation of the assertion. +Fortasse
verum est+, and +forsitan verum sit+, mean, perhaps it is true, perhaps
not; but +haud scio an verum sit+ means, I think it true, but I will not
affirm it as certain. (v. 294.)

CASUS; FORS; FORTUNA; FORS FORTUNA; FATUM. 1. +Casus+ denotes chance as
an inanimate natural agent, which is not the consequence of human
calculation, or of known causes, like συμφορά; whereas +fors+ denotes
the same chance as a sort of mythological being, which, without aim or
butt, to sport as it were with mortals, and baffle their calculations,
influences human affairs, like τύχη. 2. +Fors+, as a mythological being,
is this chance considered as blind fortune; whereas +Fortuna+ is
fortune, not considered as blind, and without aim, but as taking a part
in the course of human affairs from personal favor or disaffection;
lastly, +fors fortuna+ means a lucky chance, ἀγαθὴ τύχη. 3. All these
beings form an opposition against the +Dii+ and +Fatum+, which do not
bring about or prevent events from caprice or arbitrary will, but
according to higher laws; and the gods, indeed, according to the
intelligible laws of morality, according to merit and worth, right and
equity; +fatum+, according to the mysterious laws by which the universe
is eternally governed, like εἱμαρμένη, μοῖρα. Tac. Hist. iv. 26. Quod in
pace _fors_ seu natura, tunc _fatum_ et ira deorum vocabatur. (295.)

CATENÆ, see _Vincula_.

CATERVA; COHORS; AGMEN; GREX; GLOBUS; TURBA. +Caterva+, +cohors+, and
+agmen+, denote an assembled multitude in regular order, and +caterva+,
as a limited whole, according to a sort of military arrangement;
+cohors+, as respecting and observing the leadership of a commanding
officer; +agmen+, as a solemn procession; whereas +turba+, +grex+, and
+globus+, denote a multitude assembled in no regular order, +grex+,
without form or order; +turba+, with positive disorder and confusion;
+globus+, a thronging mass of people, which, from each person pressing
towards the centre, assumes a circular form. (v. 361.)

CATUS, see _Sapiens_.

CAUPONA, see _Deversorium_.

CAUSIDICUS, see _Advocatus_.

CAUTES, see _Saxum_.

CAVERNA, see _Specus_.

CAVILLATOR, see _Lepidus_.

CELARE; OCCULERE; OCCULTARE; CLAM; ABDERE; CONDERE; ABSCONDERE;
RECONDERE. 1. +Celare+ has an abstract or intellectual reference to its
object, like κεύθειν, in opp. to _fateri_, and so forth; synonymously
with +reticere+, Liv. xxiv. 5. Curt. vi. 9; whereas +occulere+,
+occultare+, have a concrete and material reference to their object,
like κρύπτειν, in opp. to _aperire_, synonymously with +obtegere+; Cic.
Acad. iv. 19. N. D. ii. 20. Fin. i. 9, 30. Att. v. 15: the _celanda_
remain secret, unless they happen to be discovered; but the _occultanda_
would be exposed to sight, unless particular circumspection and
precaution were used. 2. In the same manner +clam+ and +clanculum+
denote secretly, in opp. to _palam_, Cic. Rosc. Am. 8; whereas
+occulte+, in opp. to _aperte_, Cic. Rull. i. 1. 3. +Occulere+ denotes
any concealment; +occultare+, a careful or very anxious concealment, and
on this account finds no place in negative propositions, or as seldom,
for example, as _redolere_. 4. +Occultare+ means to prevent anything
being seen, by keeping it covered; whereas +abdere+, +condere+, and
+abscondere+, by removing the thing itself; +abdere+ (ἀποθεῖναι) by
laying it aside, and putting it away, like ἀποκρύπτειν; +condere+
(καταθεῖναι), by depositing it in a proper place of safety, like
κατακρύπτειν; +recondere+, by hiding it carefully and thoroughly;
+abscondere+, by putting it away, and preserving it. (iv. 45.)

CELEBER; INCLYTUS; CLARUS; ILLUSTRIS; NOBILIS. +Celeber+ (from κλέος)
and +inclytus+ (from κλυτός) denote celebrity, as general expressions,
chiefly as belonging to things, and seldom as belonging to persons,
except in poetry; +clarus+, +illustris+, and +nobilis+, with an especial
political reference; +clarus+ (γαληρός) means renowned for eminent
services to one’s country; +illustris+ (from ἀναλεύσσω) renowned for
rank and virtue; +nobilis+ (from novisse) belonging to a family whose
members have already been invested with the honors of the state.

CELEBRARE, see _Sæpe_.

CELER, see _Citus_.

CELER, see _Navigium_.

CELSUS, see _Altus_.

CENSERE; JUDICARE; ARBITRARI; ÆSTIMARE; OPINARI; PUTARE; RERI; AUTUMARE;
EXISTIMARE; CREDERE. 1. +Censere+, +judicare+, +arbitrari+, +æstimare+,
denote passing judgment with competent authority, derived from a call to
the office of judge; +censere+, as possessing the authority of a censor,
or of a senator giving his vote; +judicare+, as possessing that of a
judge passing sentence; +arbitrari+, as possessing that of an
arbitrator; +æstimare+ (αἰσθέσθαι), as that of a taxer, making a
valuation; whereas, +opinari+, +putare+, +reri+, and +autumare+, denote
passing judgment under the form of a private opinion, with a purely
subjective signification; +opinari+ (ὀπίς) as a mere sentiment and
conjecture, in opp. to a clear conviction and knowledge. Cic. Orat.
i. 23. Mur. 30. Tusc. iv. 7. Rosc. Am. 10; +putare+, as one who casts up
an account; +reri+ as a poetical, and +autumare+ as an antiquated term.
2. +Æstimare+ denotes passing judgment under the form of the political
function of an actual taxer, to estimate anything exactly, or according
to its real value, or price in money; but +existimare+, as a moral
function, to estimate anything according to its worth or truth; hence
Cicero contrasts _existimatio_, not _æstimatio_, as a private opinion,
with competent judgment, _judicio_; Cluent. 29. Verr. v. 68.
3. +Censere+ denotes judgment and belief, as grounded upon one’s own
reflection and conviction; +credere+, as grounded on the credit which is
given to the testimony of others. 4. +Opinor+, parenthetically, implies
modesty, like οἶμαι; whereas +credo+ implies irony, like ὡς ἔοικεν,
sometimes in propositions that are self-evident, whereby the irony
reaches the ears of those to whom the truth could not be plainly spoken
or repeated, or who might be inclined to doubt it; sometimes, in absurd
propositions which a man thinks fit to put in the mouth of another;
sometimes, in propositions so evident as scarcely to admit of
controversy. (v. 300.)

CERNERE, see _Videre_.

CERRITUS, see _Amens_.

CERTARE, see _Imitatio_.

CESSARE, see _Vacare_ and _Cunctari_.

CHORDA; FIDES. +Chorda+ (χορδή is a single string; +fides+ (σφιδή) in
the sing. and plur. means a complete collection of strings, or a
string-instrument.

CIBARE, CIBUS, see _Alimenta_.

CICATRIX, see _Vulnus_.

CICUR; MANSUETUS. +Cicur+ (redupl. of κορίζομαι) denotes tameness,
merely in a physical sense, and as a term in natural history, in opp. to
_ferus_; whereas +mansuetus+, in a moral sense also, as implying a mild
disposition, in opp. to _sævus_. (iv. 257.)

CINCINNUS, see _Crinis_.

CIRCULUS, see _Orbis_.

CIRCUMIRE, see _Ambire_.

CIRCUMVENIRE, see _Fallere_.

CIRRUS, see _Crinis_.

CITUS; CELER; VELOX; PERNIX; PROPERUS; FESTINUS. 1. +Citus+ and +celer+
denote swiftness, merely as quick motion, in opp. to _tardus_, Cic. Or.
iii. 57. Sall. Cat. 15. Cic. Fin. v. 11. N. D. ii. 20. Rosc. Com. 11.
Top. 44; +velox+ and +pernix+, nimbleness, as bodily strength and
activity, in opp. to _lentus_; +properus+ and +festinus+, haste, as the
will to reach a certain point in the shortest time, in opp. to _segnis_
Gell. x. 11. 2. +Citus+ denotes a swift and lively motion, approaching
to _vegetus_; +celer+, an eager and impetuous motion, approaching to
_rapidus_. 3. +Pernicitas+ is, in general, dexterity and activity in all
bodily movements, in hopping, climbing, and vaulting; but +velocitas+,
especially in running, flying, and swimming, and so forth. Plaut. Mil.
iii. 1, 36. Clare oculis video, _pernix_ sum manibus, pedibus mobilis.
Virg. Æn. iv. 180. Curt. vii. 7, 53. Equorum _velocitati_ par est
hominum _pernicitas_. 4. +Properus+, +properare+, denote the haste
which, from energy, sets out rapidly to reach a certain point, in opp.
to _cessare_; whereas +festinus+, +festinare+, denote the haste which
springs from impatience, and borders upon precipitation. (ii. 144.)

CIVILITAS, see _Humanitas_.

CIVITAS, see _Gens_.

CLAM, see _Celare_.

CLARITAS, see _Gloria_.

CLARUS, see _Celeber_.

CLAUSTRUM, see _Sera_.

CLEMENTIA, see _Mansuetudo_.

CLIVUS, see _Collis_.

CLANGERE; CLAMARE; VOCIFERARI. +Clangere+ is the cry of animals and the
clang of instruments, like κλάγγειν; +clamare+ and +vociferari+, the cry
of men; +clamare+, an utterance of the will, but +vociferari+, of
passion, in anger, pain, in intoxication. Rhet. ad. Her. iii. 12. Acuta
exclamatio habet quiddam illiberale et ad muliebrem potius
_vociferationem_, quam ad virilem dignitatem in dicendo accommodatum.
Senec. Ep. 15. Virg. Æn. ii. 310. Exoritur _clamor_que virum
_clangor_que tubarum. (v. 103.)

CLYPEUS, see _Scutum_.

CODICILLI, see _Literæ_.

CŒNUM, see _Lutum_.

CŒPISSE, see _Incipere_.

COERCERE; COMPESCERE. +Coercere+ denotes restriction, as an act of power
and superior strength; whereas +compescere+ (from pedica, πεδᾶν) as an
act of sovereign authority and wisdom. (iv. 427.)

CŒTUS, see _Concilium_.

COGERE; ADIGERE. +Cogere+ (from co-igere) means by force and power to
compel to something; +adigere+, by reflection and the suggestion of
motives to persuade to something. Tac. Ann. vi. 27. Se ea necessitate ad
preces _cogi_, per quas consularium aliqui capessere provincias
_adigerentur_. (vi. 70.)

COGITARE; MEDITARI; COMMENTARI. 1. +Cogitare+ (from the Goth. hugjan)
denotes the usual activity of the mind, which cannot exist without
thinking, or employing itself about something; +meditari+ (from
μέδεσθαι), the continued and intense activity of the mind, which aims at
a definite result. Ter. Heaut. iii. 3, 46. Quid nunc facere _cogitas_?
Compare this with Adelph. v. 6, 8. _Meditor_ esse affabilis. Cic. Cat.
i. 9, 22. In Tusc. iii. 6, +cogitatio+ means little more than
consciousness; whereas +meditatio+ means speculative reflection.
2. +Meditari+ has an intensive meaning, with earnestness, exertion, and
vivacity; +commentari+ (only in Cicero) means to reflect leisurely,
quietly, and profoundly. (v. 198.)

COGNATUS, see _Necessarius_.

COGNITIO; NOTITIA; SCIENTIA; IGNARUS; INSCIUS; NESCIUS. 1. +Cognitio+ is
an act of the mind by which knowledge is acquired, whereas +notitia+ and
+scientia+ denote a state of the mind; +notitia+, together with +nosse+,
denotes a state of the merely receptive faculties of the mind, which
brings an external appearance to consciousness, and retains it there;
whereas +scientia+, together with +scire+, involves spontaneous
activity, and a perception of truth; +notitia+ may be the result of
casual perception; +scientia+ implies a thorough knowledge of its
object, the result of mental activity. Cic. Sen. 4, 12. Quanta _notitia_
antiquitatis! quanta _scientia_ juris Romani! 2. The _ignarus_ is
without _notitia_, the _inscius_ without _scientia_. Tac. H. i. 11.
Ægyptum provinciam _insciam_ legum, _ignaram_ magistratuum; for
legislation is a science, and must be studied; government an art, and
may be learnt by practice. 3. +Inscius+ denotes a person who has not
learnt something, with blame; +nescius+, who has accidentally not heard
of, or experienced something, indifferently. Cic. Brut. 83. _Inscium_
omnium rerum et rudem. Compare this with Plin. Ep. viii. 23, Absens et
impendentis mali _nescius_. (v. 266.)

COGNOSCERE, see _Intelligere_.

COHORS, see _Caterva_.

COLAPHUS, see _Alapa_.

COLERE, see _Vereri_.

COLLIS; CLIVUS; TUMULUS; GRUMUS; +Collis+ and +clivus+ denote a greater
hill or little mountain; +collis+ (from _celsus_) like κολωνός, as an
eminence, in opp. to the plain beneath, and therefore somewhat steep;
+clivus+, like κλιτύς, as a sloping plain, in opp. to an horizontal
plain, and therefore only gradually ascending; whereas +tumulus+ and
+grumus+ mean only a hillock, or great mound; +tumulus+, like ὄχθος,
means either a natural or artificial elevation; +grumus+, only an
artificial elevation, like χῶμα. Colum. Arbor. a. f. _Collem_ autem et
_clivum_, modum jugeri continentem repastinabis operis sexaginta. Liv.
xxi. 32. Erigentibus in primos agmen _clivos_, apparuerunt imminentes
_tumulos_ insidentes montani. Hirt. B. Hisp. 24. Ex _grumo_ excelsum
_tumulum_ capiebat. (ii. 121.)

COLLOQUIUM, see _Sermo_.

COLONUS, see _Incolere_.

COLUBER, see _Anguis_.  [[redirects to _Repere_]]

COMA, see _Crinis_.

COMBURERE, see _Accendere_.

COMERE; DECORARE; ORNARE. 1. +Comere+ and +decorare+ denote ornament,
merely as an object of sense, as pleasing the eye; +ornare+, in a
practical sense, as at the same time combining utility. 2. +Comere+
(κοσμεῖν) denotes ornament as something little and effeminate, often
with blame, like _nitere_, in opp. to nature, noble simplicity, or
graceful negligence, like κομμοῦν, whereas +decorare+ and +ornare+,
always with praise, like _splendere_, as denoting affluence and riches;
+decorare+ (from δίκη) in opp. to that which is ordinary and unseemly,
like κοσμεῖν; +ornare+ (from ὀρίνω?) in opp. to that which is paltry and
incomplete, like ἀσκεῖν. 3. +Comere+ implies only a change in form,
which by arranging and polishing gives to the whole a smart appearance,
as in combing and braiding the hair; but +decorare+ and +ornare+ effect
a material change, inasmuch as by external addition new beauty is
conferred, as by a diadem, and so forth. Quintil. xii. 10, 47. _Comere_
caput in gradus et annulos; compare with Tibull. iii. 2, 6. Sertis
_decorare_ comas; and Virg. Ecl. vi. 69. Apio crines _ornatus_ amaro.
(iii. 261.)

COMMISSATIO, see _Epulæ_.

COMITARI; DEDUCERE; PROSEQUI. +Comitari+ means to accompany for one’s
own interest, ἀκολουθεῖν; +deducere+, from friendship, with
officiousness; +prosequi+, from esteem, with respect, προπέμπειν.
(vi. 73.)

COMITAS, see _Humanitas_.

COMITIA, see _Concilium_.

COMMENTARI, see _Cogitare_.

COMMITTERE, see _Fidere_.

COMMODARE; MUTUUM DARE. +Commodare+ means to lend without formality and
stipulation, on the supposition of receiving the thing lent again when
it is done with. +Mutuum dare+ is to grant a loan on the supposition of
receiving an equivalent when the time of the loan expires. +Commodatio+
is an act of kindness; +mutuum datio+ is a matter of business.
(iv. 137.)

COMMUNICARE, see _Impertire_.

COMŒDUS, see _Actor_.

COMPAR, see _Æquus_.

COMPEDES, see _Vincula_.

COMPENDIUM, see _Lucrum_.

COMPESCERE, see _Coercere_.

COMPLECTI, see _Amplecti_.

COMPLEMENTUM; SUPPLEMENTUM. +Complementum+ serves, like a keystone, to
make anything complete, to crown the whole, whereas +supplementum+
serves to fill up chasms, to supply omissions.

CONARI, see _Audere_.

CONCEDERE; PERMITTERE; CONNIVERE. +Concedere+ and +permittere+ mean, to
grant something which a man has full right to dispose of; +concedere+,
in consequence of a request or demand, in opp. to refusing, like
συγχωρῆσαι; +permittere+, from confidence in a person, and liberality,
in opp. to forbidding, like ἐφεῖναι; whereas +indulgere+ and +connivere+
mean to grant something, which may properly be forbidden; +indulgere+
(ἐνδελεχεῖν?), from evident forbearance; +connivere+ (κατανεύειν), from
seeming oversight.

CONCESSUM EST; LICET; FAS EST. +Concessum est+ means, what is generally
allowed, like ἔξεστι, and has a kindred signification with +licet+,
+licitum est+, which mean what is allowed by human laws, whether
positive, or sanctioned by custom and usage, like θέμις ἐστί; +fas est+
means what is allowed by divine laws, whether the precepts of religion,
or the clear dictates of the moral sense, like ὅσιόν ἐστι. (v. 167.)

CONCILIUM; CONCIO; COMITIA; CŒTUS; CONVENTUS. 1. +Concilium+, +concio+,
and +comitia+ are meetings summoned for fixed purposes; +concilium+
(ξυγκαλεῖν), an assembly of noblemen and persons of distinction, of a
committee, of the senate, the individual members of which are summoned
to deliberate, like συνέδριον; whereas +concio+ and +comitia+ mean a
meeting of the community, appointed by public proclamation, for passing
resolutions or hearing them proposed; +concio+ (ciere, κιών) means any
orderly meeting of the community, whether of the people or of the
soldiery, in any state or camp, like σύλλογος; +comitia+ (from coire) is
an historical term, confined to a Roman meeting of the people, as
ἐκκλησία to an Athenian, and ἁλία to a Spartan. 2. +Cœtus+ and
+conventus+ are voluntary assemblies; +cœtus+ (from coire) for any
purpose, for merely social purposes, for a conspiracy, and so forth,
like σύνοδος; whereas +conventus+, for a serious purpose, such as the
celebration of a festival, the hearing of a discourse, and so forth,
like ὁμήγυρις, πανήγυρις. (v. 108.)

CONCLAVE, CUBICULUM. +Conclave+ is the most general term for any closed
room, and especially a room of state; +cubiculum+ is a particular
expression for a dwelling-room. (vi. 75.)

CONCORDIA, see _Otium_.

CONCUBINA, see _Pellex_.

CONDERE, see _Celare_ and _Sepelire_.

CONDITIO; STATUS. +Conditio+ (ξύνθεσις, συνθεσία) is a state regulated
by the will; +status+ is a state arising from connection. Cic. Fam.
xii. 23. Omnem _conditionem_ imperii tui, _statum_que provinciæ
demonstravit mihi Tratorius. (vi. 76.)

CONFESTIM, see _Repente_.

CONFIDENTIA, see _Fides_.

CONFIDERE, see _Fidere_.

CONFINIS, see _Vicinus_.

CONFISUS; FRETUS. +Confisus+ means, subjectively, like _securus_,
depending on something, and making one’s self easy, πεποιθῶς; whereas
+fretus+ (φρακτός, ferox) means, objectively, like _tutus_, protected by
something, ἐῤῥωμένος. (i. 20.)

CONFITERI, see _Fateri_.

CONFLIGERE, see _Pugnare_.

CONFUTARE, see _Refutare_.

CONGERIES, see _Acervus_.

CONJUX, see _Femina_.

CONNIVERE, see _Concedere_.

CONSANGUINEUS, see _Necessarius_.

CONSCENDERE, see _Scandere_.

CONSECRARE, see _Sacrare_.

CONSEQUI, see _Invenire_.

CONJUGIUM; MATRIMONIUM; CONTUBERNIUM; NUPTIÆ. +Conjugium+ and
+matrimonium+ denote the lasting connection between man and wife, for
the purpose of living together and bringing up their offspring;
+conjugium+ is a very general term for a mere natural regulation, which
also takes place among animals; +contubernium+ means the marriage
connection between slaves; +matrimonium+, the legal marriage between
freemen and citizens, as a respectable and a political regulation;
whereas +nuptiæ+ means only the commencement of _matrimonium_, the
wedding, or marriage-festival.

CONSIDERARE; CONTEMPLARI. +Considerare+ (from κατιδεῖν) denotes
consideration as an act of the understanding, endeavoring to form a
judgment; +contemplari+ (from καταθαμβεῖν) an act of feeling, which is
absorbed in its object, and surrenders itself entirely to the pleasant
or unpleasant feeling which its object excites. (v. 130.)

CONSORS, see _Socius_.

CONSPECTUS, CONSPICERE, see _Videre_.

CONSTAT; APPARET; ELUCET; LIQUET. +Constat+ means a truth made out and
fixed, in opp. to a wavering and unsteady fancy or rumor; whereas
+apparet+, +elucet+, and +liquet+ denote what is clear and evident;
+apparet+, under the image of something stepping out of the back-ground
into sight; +elucet+, under the image of a light shining out of
darkness; +liquet+, under the image of frozen water melted. (vi. 78.)

CONSTITUERE, see _Destinare_.

CONSUETUDO; MOS; RITUS; CÆRIMONIA. +Consuetudo+ denotes the uniform
observance of anything as a custom, arising from itself, and having its
foundation in the inclination or convenience of an individual or people,
ἔθος; whereas +mos+ (modus) is the habitual observance of anything, as a
product of reason, and of the self-conscious will, and has its
foundation in moral views, or the clear dictates of right, virtue, and
decorum, ἦθος; lastly, +ritus+ denotes the hallowed observance of
anything, either implanted by nature as an instinct, or introduced by
the gods as a ceremony, or which, at any rate, cannot be traced to any
human origin. +Consuetudines+ are merely factitious, and have no moral
worth; +mores+ are morally sanctioned by silent consent, as +jura+ and
+leges+ by formal decree; +ritus+ (from ἀριθμός, ῥυθμός), are natural,
and are hallowed by their primæval origin, and are peculiar to the
animal. (v. 75.) 2. +Ritus+ is a hallowed observance, as directed and
taught by the gods or by nature; whereas +cærimonia+ (κηδεμονία) is that
which is employed in the worship of the gods.

CONSUEVISSE, see _Solere_.

CONSUMMARE, see _Finire_.

CONTAGIUM, see _Lues_.

CONTAMINARE; INQUINARE; POLLUERE. +Contaminare+ (from contingo,
contagio) means defilement in its pernicious effect, as the corruption
of what is sound and useful; +inquinare+ (from cunire, or from πίνος),
in its loathsome effect, as marring what is beautiful, like μορύσσειν;
+polluere+ (from pullus, πελλός), in its moral effect, as the
desecration of what is holy and pure, like μιαίνειν. Cic. Cæcil. 21, 70.
Judiciis corruptis et _contaminatis_; compare with Cœl. 6. Libidinibus
_inquinari_; and Rosc. Am. 26, 71. Noluerunt in mare deferri, ne ipsum
_pollueret_, quo cætera quæ violata sunt, expiari putantur. (ii. 56.)

CONTEMNERE, see _Spernere_.

CONTEMPLARI, see _Considerare_.

CONTENDERE, see _Dicere_.

CONTENTIO, see _Disceptatio_.

CONTENTUM ESSE, see _Satis habere_.

CONTINENTIA, see _Modus_.

CONTINGERE, see _Accidere_.

CONTINUO, see _Repente_.

CONTINUUS; PERPETUUS; SEMPITERNUS; ÆTERNUS. 1. +Continuum+ means that
which hangs together without break or chasm; +perpetuum+, that which
arrives at an end, without breaking off before. Suet Cæs. 76.
_Continuos_ consulatus, _perpetuam_ dictaturam. 2. +Perpetuus+,
+sempiternus+, and +æternus+, denote continued duration; but
+perpetuus+, relatively, with reference to a definite end, that of life
for example; +sempiternus+ and +æternus+, absolutely, with reference to
the end of time in general; +sempiternus+ means, like ἀΐδιος, the
everlasting, what lasts as long as time itself, and keeps pace with
time; +æternum+ (from ætas) like αἰώνιον, the eternal, that which
outlasts all time, and will be measured by ages, for Tempus est pars
quædam _æternitatis_. The sublime thought of that which is without
beginning and end, lies only in +æternus+, not in +sempiternus+, for the
latter word rather suggests the long duration between beginning and end,
without noting that eternity _has_ neither beginning nor end.
+Sempiternus+ involves the mathematical, +æternus+ the metaphysical
notion of eternity. Cic. Orat. ii. 40, 169. Barbarorum est in diem
vivere; nostra consilia _sempiternum_ tempus spectare debent; compare
with Fin. i. 6, 17. Motum atomorum nullo a principio, sed _æterno_
tempore intelligi convenire. (i. 1.)

CONTRARIUS, see _Varius_.

CONTROVERSIA, see _Disceptatio_.

CONTUBERNIUM, see _Conjugium_.

CONTUMACIA, see _Pervicacia_.

CONTUMELIA; INJURIA; OFFENSIO. 1. +Contumelia+ (from contemnere) denotes
a wrong done to the honor of another; +injuria+, a violation of
another’s right. A blow is an _injuria_, so far as it is the infliction
of bodily harm; and a _contumelia_, so far as it brings on the person
who receives it, the imputation of a cowardly or servile spirit. Senec.
Clem. i. 10. _Contumelias_, quæ acerbiores principibus solent esse quam
_injuriæ_. Pacuv. Non. Patior facile _injuriam_, si vacua est
_contumelia_. Phædr. Fab. v. 3, 5. Cic. Quint. 30, 96. Verr. iii. 44.
2. +Contumelia+ and +injuria+ are actions, whereas +offensio+ denotes a
state, namely, the mortified feeling of the offended person, resentment,
in opp. to _gratia_. Plin. H. N. xix. 1. Quintil. iv. 2. Plin. Pan. 18.
(iv. 194.)

CONVENTUS, see _Concilium_.

CONVERTERE, see _Vertere_.

CONVIVIUM, see _Epulæ_.

CONVICIUM, see _Maledictum_.

COPIA, see _Occasio_.

COPIÆ, see _Exercitus_.

COPIOSUS, see _Divitiæ_.

CORDATUS, see _Sapiens_.

CORPULENTUS, see _Pinguis_.

CORPUS, see _Cadaver_.

CORRIGERE; EMENDARE. +Corrigere+ means to amend, after the manner of a
rigid schoolmaster or disciplinarian, who would make the crooked
straight, and set the wrong right; whereas +emendare+, after the manner
of an experienced teacher, and sympathizing friend, who would make what
is defective complete. Plin. Pan. 6, 2. Corrupta est disciplina
castrorum, ut tu _corrector emendator_que contingeres; the former by
strictness, the latter by wisdom. Cic. Mur. 29. Verissime dixerim, nulla
in re te (Catonem) esse hujusmodi ut _corrigendus_ potius quam leviter
inflectendus viderere; comp. with Plin. Ep. i. 10. Non castigat
errantes, sed _emendat_. (v. 319.)

CORRUMPERE, see _Depravare_.

CORUSCARE, see _Lucere_.

COXA; LATUS; FEMUR. +Coxa+ and +coxendix+ (κοχώνη) mean the hip;
+latus+, the part between the hip and shoulder; +femur+ and +femen+, the
part under the hip, the thigh. (vi. 84.)

CRAPULA, see _Ebrietas_.

CRATER, see _Poculum_.

CREARE; GIGNERE; PARERE; GENERARE. 1. +Creare+ (from κύρω) means, by
one’s own will and creative power to call something out of nothing;
+gignere+ (γίγνεσθαι, γενέσθαι) by procreation or parturition; +gignere+
is allied to +generare+ only by procreation, and to +parere+ (πεπαρεῖν,
πείρειν, only by parturition. 2. +Gignere+ is a usual expression, which
represents procreation as a physical and purely animal act, and supposes
copulation, conception, and parturition; whereas +generare+ is a select
expression, which represents procreation as a sublime godlike act, and
supposes only creative power; hence, for the most part, homines et
belluæ _gignunt_, natura et dii _generant_. And, Corpora _gignuntur_,
poemata _generantur_. Cic. N. D. iii. 16. Herculem Jupiter _genuit_, is
a mythological notice; but Legg. i. 9. Deus hominem _generavit_, is a
metaphysical axiom. (v. 201.)

CREBRO, see _Sæpe_.

CREDERE, see _Censere_ and _Fidere_.

CREMARE, see _Accendere_.

CREPITUS, see _Fragor_.

CREPUSCULUM, see _Mane_.

CRIMINARI, see _Arguere_.

CRINIS; CAPILLUS; COMA; CÆSARIES; PILUS; CIRRUS; CINCINNUS. 1. +Crinis+
and +capillus+ denote the natural hair merely in a physical sense, like
θρίξ; +crinis+ (from κάρηνον), any growth of hair, in opposition to the
parts on which hair does not grow; +capillus+ (from caput), only the
hair of the head, in opp. to the beard, etc. Liv. vi. 16. Suet. Aug. 23.
Cels. vi. 2. Cic. Tusc. v. 20. Rull. ii. 5; whereas in +coma+ and
+cæsaries+ the accessory notion of beauty, as an object of sense, is
involved, inasmuch as hair is a natural ornament of the body, or itself
the object of ornament; +coma+ (κόμη) is especially applicable to the
hair of females; +cæsaries+, to that of males, like ἔθειρα. Hence
+crinitus+ means nothing more than covered with hair; +capillatus+ is
used in opp. to bald-headed, Petron. 26, and the Galli are styled
_comati_, as wearing long hair, like καρηκομόωντες. 2. +Crinis+,
+capillus+, +coma+, +cæsaries+, denote the hair in a collective sense,
the whole growth of hair; whereas +pilus+ means a single hair, and
especially the short and bristly hair of animals. Hence +pilosus+ is in
opp. to the beautiful smoothness of the skin, as Cic. Pis. I; whereas
+crinitus+ and +capillatus+ are in opp. to ugly nakedness and baldness.
(iii. 14.) 3. +Cirrus+ and +cincinnus+ denote curled hair; +cirrus+
(κόῤῥη) is a natural, +cincinnus+ (κίκιννος) an artificial curl.
(iii. 23.)

CRUCIATUS; TORMENTUM. +Cruciatus+, +crucimenta+ (κρόκα, κρέκω), denote
in general any pangs, natural and artificial; +tormenta+ (from
torquere), especially pangs caused by an instrument of torture, like the
rack. Cic. Phil. xi. 4. Nec vero graviora sunt carnificum _tormenta_
quam interdum _cruciamenta_ morborum. (vi. 87.)

CRUDELITAS, see _Sævitia_.

CRUENTUS, CRUOR, see _Sanguis_.

CUBARE; JACERE; SITUM ESSE. +Cubare+ (from κείω) denotes the lying down
of living beings; +situm esse+ (ἑτόν, εἶσαι) of lifeless things;
+jacere+, of both. +Cubare+ and +jacere+ are neuter; +situm esse+,
always passive. Further, +cubare+ gives the image of one who is tired,
who wishes to recruit his strength, in opp. to standing, as requiring
exertion, whereas +jacere+ gives the image of one who is weak, without
any accessory notion, in opp. to standing, as a sign of strength.
(i. 138.)

CUBICULUM, see _Conclave_.

CUBILE; LECTUS. +Cubile+ is a natural couch for men and animals, a place
of rest, like κοίτη, εὐνή; +lectus+, an artificial couch, merely for
men, a bed, like λέκτρον. (v. 279.)

CUBITUS, see _Ulna_.

CUDERE, see _Verberare_.

CUDO, see _Cassis_.

CULCITA; PULVINUS; PULVINAR. +Culcita+ (from calcare?) is a hard-stuffed
pillow; +pulvinus+ and +pulvinar+, a soft elastic pillow; +pulvinus+,
such as is used on ordinary civil occasions; +pulvinar+, such as is used
on solemn religious occasions. (vi. 89.)

CULMEN; FASTIGIUM. +Culmen+ means the top, the uppermost line of the
roof; +fastigium+, the summit, the highest point of this top, where the
spars of the roof by sloping and meeting form an angle; therefore
+fastigium+ is a part of +culmen+. Virg. Æn. ii. 458. Evado ad summi
_fastigia culminis_. Liv. xl. 2. Vitruv. iv. 2. Arnob. ii. 12. And
figuratively +culmen+ denotes the top only, with a local reference, as
the uppermost and highest point, something like κολοφών; but +fastigium+
with reference to rank, as the principal and most imposing point of
position, something like κορυφή; therefore +culmen tecti+ is only that
which closes the building, but +fastigium+ that which crowns it; and
+fastigium+ also denotes a throne, whence _culmina montium_ is a much
more usual term than _fastigia_. (ii. 111.)

CULMUS; CALAMUS; STIPULA; SPICA; ARISTA; ARUNDO; CANNA. 1. +Culmus+
means the stalk, with reference to its slender height, especially of
corn; +calamus+ (κάλαμος) with reference to its hollowness, especially
of reeds. 2. +Culmus+ means the stalk of corn, as bearing the ear, as
the body the head, as an integral part of the whole; +stipula+, as being
compared with the ear, a worthless and useless part of the whole, as
stubble. 3. +Spica+ is the full ear, the fruit of the corn-stalk,
without respect to its shape, +arista+, the prickly ear, the tip or
uppermost part of the stalk, without respect to its substance, sometimes
merely the prickles. Quintil. i. 3, 5. Imitatæ _spicas_ herbulæ inanibus
_aristis_ ante messem flavescunt. 4. +Calamus+, as a reed, is the
general term; +arundo+ (from ῥοδανός) is a longer and stronger reed;
+canna+ (from κανών?) a smaller and thinner reed. Colum. iv. 32. Ea est
_arundineti_ senectus, cum ita densatum est, ut gracilis et _cannæ_
similis _arundo_ prodeat. (v. 219.)

CULPA; NOXIA; NOXIUS; NOCENS; SONS. 1. +Culpa+ (κολάψαι) denotes guilt
as the state of one who has to answer for an injury, peccatum, delictum,
maleficium, scelus, flagitium, or nefas; hence a responsibility, and,
consequently, a rational being is supposed, in opp. to _casus_, Cic.
Att. xi. 9. Vell. P. ii. 118, or to _necessitas_, Suet. Cl. 15; whereas
+noxia+, as the state of one who has caused an injury, and can therefore
be applied to any that is capable of producing an effect, in opp. to
_innocentia_. Liv. iii. 42, 2. Illa modo in ducibus _culpa_, quod ut
odio essent civibus fecerant; alia omnis penes milites _noxia_ erat.
Cic. Marc. 13. Etsi aliqua _culpa_ tenemur erroris humani, a scelere
certe liberati sumus; and Ovid, Trist. iv. 1, 23. Et _culpam_ in facto,
non scelus esse meo, coll. 4, 37; hence +culpa+ is used as a general
expression for every kind of fault, and especially for a fault of the
lighter sort, as delictum. 2. +Culpa+ and +noxia+ suppose an injurious
action; but +vitium+ (from αὐάτη, ἄτη) merely an action or quality
deserving censure, and also an undeserved natural defect. 3. +Nocens+,
+innocens+, denote guilt, or absence of guilt, in a specified case, with
regard to a single action; but +noxius+, +innoxius+, together with the
poetical words +nocuus+, +innocuus+, relate to the nature and character
in general. Plaut. Capt. iii. 5, 7. Decet _innocentem_ servum atque
_innoxium_ confidentem esse; that is, a servant who knows himself
guiltless of some particular action, and who, in general, does nothing
wrong. 4. +Noxius+ denotes a guilty person only physically, as the
author and cause of an injury, like βλαβερός; but +sons+ (ὀνοτός)
morally and juridically, as one condemned, or worthy of condemnation,
like θῶος. (ii. 152.)

[**error for ontos?]

CULPARE, see _Arguere_.

CULTUS, see _Vestis_.

CUMULUS, see _Acervus_.

CUNÆ; CUNABULA. +Cunæ+ (κοῖται) is the cradle itself; +incunabula+, the
bed, etc., that are in the cradle. Plaut. Truc. v. 13. Fasciis opus est,
pulvinis, _cunis_, _incunabulis_. (vi. 69.)

CUNCTARI; HÆSITARE; CESSARE. +Cunctari+ (from ξυνέκειν, or κατέχειν),
means to delay from consideration, like μέλλειν; +hæsitare+, from want
of resolution; +cessare+ (καθίζειν?) from want of strength and energy,
like ὀκνεῖν. The _cunctans_ delays to begin an action; the _cessans_, to
go on with an action already begun. (iii. 300.)

CUNCTI, see _Quisque_.

CUPERE, see _Velle_.

CUPIDO; CUPIDITAS; LIBIDO; VOLUPTAS. 1. +Cupido+ is the desire after
something, considered actively, and as in action, in opp. to aversion;
whereas +cupiditas+ is the passion of desire, considered neutrally, as a
state of mind, in opp. to tranquillity of mind. +Cupido+ must
necessarily, +cupiditas+ may be, in construction with a genitive,
expressed or understood; in this case, +cupido+ relates especially to
possession and money, +cupiditas+, to goods of every kind. Vell. P.
ii. 33. Pecuniæ _cupidine_: and further on, Interminatam imperii
_cupiditatem_. 2. +Cupido+ and +cupiditas+ stand in opp. to temperate
wishes; +libido+ (from λίψ) the intemperate desire and capricious
longing after something, in opp. to rational will, _ratio_, Suet. Aug.
69, or _voluntas_, Cic. Fam. ix. 16. +Libidines+ are lusts, with
reference to the want of self-government; +voluptates+, pleasures, in
opp. to serious employments, or to pains. Tac. H. ii. 31. Minus Vitellii
ignavæ _voluptates_ quam Othonis flagrantissimæ _libidines_ timebantur.
(v. 60.)

CUR; QUARE. +Cur+ (from quare? or κῶς;) serves both for actual
questions, and for interrogative forms of speech; whereas +quare+ serves
for those questions only, to which we expect an answer. (vi. 93.)

CURA; SOLLICITUDO; ANGOR; DOLOR; ÆGRITUDO. +Cura+, +sollicitudo+, and
+angor+, mean the disturbance of the mind with reference to a future
evil and danger; +cura+ (from the antiquated word _coera_, from
κοίρανος) as thoughtfulness, uneasiness, apprehension, in opp. to
_incuria_, like φροντίς; +sollicitudo+, as sensitiveness, discomposure,
anxiety, in opp. to _securitas_, Tac. H. iv. 58, like μέριμνα; +angor+
(from ἄγχω) as a passion, anguish, fear, in opp. to _solutus animus_;
whereas +dolor+ and +ægritudo+ relate to a present evil; +dolor+ (from
θλᾶν?) as a hardship or pain, in opp. to _gaudium_, ἄλγος; +ægritudo+,
as a sickness of the soul, like ἀνία, in opp. to _alacritas_. Cic. Tusc.
v. 16. Cic. Fin. i. 22. Nec præterea res ulla est, quæ sua natura aut
_sollicitare_ possit aut _angere_. Accius apud Non. Ubi _cura_ est, ibi
_anxitudo_. Plin. Ep. ii. 11. Cæsar mihi tantum studium, tantam etiam
_curam_--nimium est enim dicere _sollicitudinem_--præstitit, ut, etc.
Quintil. viii. pr. 20. _Curam_ ego verborum, rerum volo esse
_sollicitudinem_. (iv. 419.)

CURTUS, see _Brevis_.

CURVUS; UNCUS; PANDUS; INCURVUS; RECURVUS; REDUNCUS; REPANDUS; ADUNCUS.
1. +Curvus+, or in prose mostly +curvatus+, denotes, as a general
expression, all crookedness, from a slight degree of crookedness to a
complete circle; +uncus+ supposes a great degree of crookedness,
approaching to a semi-circle, like the form of a hook; +pandus+, a
slight crookedness, deviating but a little from a straight line, like
that which slopes. 2. The +curva+ form a continued crooked line; the
+incurva+ suppose a straight line ending in a curve, like ἐπικαμπής, the
augur’s staff, for example, or the form of a man who stoops, etc.
3. +Recurvus+, +reduncus+, and +repandus+, denote that which is bent
outwards; +aduncus+, that which is bent inwards. Plin. H. N. xi. 37.
Cornua aliis _adunca_, aliis _redunca_. (v. 184.)

CUSPIS, see _Acies_.

CUSTODIA; CARCER; ERGASTULUM. +Custodia+ (from κεύθω) is the place where
prisoners are confined, or the prison; +carcer+ (κάρκαρον, redupl. of
καρίς, circus), that part of the prison that is meant for citizens;
+ergastulum+ (from ἐργάζομαι, or εἴργω), the house of correction for
slaves.

CUTIS, see _Tergus_.

CYATHUS, see _Poculum_.

CYMBA, see _Navigium_.


D.

DAMNUM; DETRIMENTUM; JACTURA. +Damnum+ (δαπάνη) is a loss incurred by
one’s self, in opp. to _lucrum_. Plaut. Cist. i. 1, 52. Capt. ii. 2, 77.
Ter. Heaut. iv. 4, 25. Cic. Fin. v. 30. Sen. Ben. iv. 1. Tranq. 15;
whereas +detrimentum+ (from detrivisse) means a loss endured, in opp. to
_emolumentum_. Cic. Fin. i. 16. iii. 29; lastly, +jactura+ is a
voluntary loss, by means of which one hopes to escape a greater loss or
evil, a sacrifice. Hence +damnum+ is used for a fine; and in the form,
Videant Coss., ne quid resp. _detrimenti_ capiat, the word _damnum_
could never be substituted for _detrimentum_. (v. 251.)

DAPES, see _Epulæ_.

DEAMARE, see _Diligere_.

DEAMBULARE, see _Ambulare_.

DEBERE, see _Necesse est_.

DECERNERE, see _Destinare_.

DECIPERE, see _Fallere_.

DECLARARE, see _Ostendere_.

DECORARE, see _Comere_.

DEDECUS, see _Ignominia_.

DEDICARE, see _Sacrare_.

DEDUCERE, see _Comitari_.

DEESSE, see _Abesse_.

DEFENDERE, see _Tueri_.

DEFERRE, see _Arguere_.

DEFICERE, see _Abesse_ and _Turbæ_.

DEFLERE, see _Lacrimare_.

DEFORMIS, see _Tæter_.  [[redirects to _Teter_]]

DEGERE, see _Agere_.

DE INTEGRO, see _Iterum_.

DELECTATIO, see _Oblectatio_.

DELERE, see _Abolere_.

DELIBUTUS; UNCTUS; OBLITUS. +Delibutus+ (from λείβειν, λιβάζειν),
besmeared with something greasy, is the general expression; +unctus+
(from ὑγρός? or νήχειν?) means anointed with a pleasant ointment; and
+oblitus+ (from oblino), besmeared with something impure. (vi. 98.)

DELICTUM; PECCATUM; MALEFACTUM; MALEFICIUM; FACINUS; FLAGITIUM; SCELUS;
NEFAS; IMPIETAS. 1. +Delictum+ and +peccatum+ denote the lighter sort of
offences; +delictum+, more the transgression of positive laws, from
levity; +peccatum+ (from παχύς), rather of the laws of nature and
reason, from indiscretion. 2. A synonyme and as it were a circumlocution
of the above words is +malefactum+; whereas +maleficium+ and +facinus+
involve a direct moral reference; +maleficium+ is any misdeed which, as
springing from evil intention, deserves punishment; but +facinus+, a
crime which, in addition to the evil intention, excites astonishment and
alarm from the extraordinary degree of daring requisite thereto. 3.
There are as many sorts of evil deeds, as there are of duties, against
oneself, against others, against the gods; +flagitium+ (from βλαγίς) is
an offence against oneself, against one’s own honor, by gluttony,
licentiousness, cowardice; in short, by actions which are not the
consequence of unbridled strength, but of moral weakness, as evincing
_ignavia_, and incurring shame; whereas +scelus+ (σκληρόν) is an offence
against others, against the right of individuals, or the peace of
society, by robbery, murder, and particularly by sedition, by the
display, in short, of malice; +nefas+ (ἄφατον) is an offence against the
gods, or against nature, by blasphemy, sacrilege, murder of kindred,
betrayal of one’s country; in short, by the display of _impietas_, an
impious outrage. Tac. G. 12. (ii. 139.)

DELIGERE; ELIGERE. +Deligere+ means to choose, in the sense of not
remaining undecided in one’s choice; +eligere+, to choose, in the sense
of not taking the first thing that comes. (v. 98.)

DELIRIUM, see _Amens_.

DELUBRUM, see _Templum_.

DEMENS, see _Amens_.

DEMERE; ADIMERE; EXIMERE; AUFERRE; ERIPERE; SURRIPERE; FURARI.
1. +Demere+, +adimere+, and +eximere+, denote a taking away without
force or fraud; +demere+ (from de-imere) means to take away a part from
a whole, which thereby becomes less, in opp. to _addere_, or _adjicere_.
Cic. Orat. ii. 25. Fam. i. 7. Acad. iv. 16. Cels. i. 3. Liv. ii. 60;
+adimere+, to take away a possession from its possessor, who thereby
becomes _poorer_, in opp. to _dare_ and _reddere_. Cic. Verr. i. 52.
Fam. viii. 10. Phil. xi. 8. Suet. Aug. 48. Tac. Ann. xiii. 56;
+eximere+, to remove an evil from a person oppressed by it, whereby he
feels himself lightened. 2. +Auferre+, +eripere+, +surripere+, and
+furari+, involve the notion of an illegal and unjust taking away;
+auferre+, as a general expression for taking away anything; +eripere+,
by force to snatch away; +surripere+ and +furari+, secretly and by
cunning; but +surripere+ may be used for taking away privily, even when
just and prudent self-defence may be pleaded as the motive; whereas
+furari+ (φωρᾶν, φέρω) is only applicable to the mean handicraft of the
thief. Sen. Prov. 5. Quid opus fuit _auferre_? accipere potuistis; sed
ne nunc quidem _auferetis_, quia nihil _eripitu_ nisi retinenti. Cic.
Verr. i. 4, 60. Si quis clam _surripiat_ aut _eripiat_ palam atque
_auferat_: and ii. 1, 3. Non _furem_ sed _ereptorem_. (iv. 123.)

DEMOLIRI, see _Destruere_.

DEMORI, see _Mors_.

DENEGARE, see _Negare_.

DENSUS, see _Angustus_.

DENUO, see _Iterum_.

DEPLORARE, see _Lacrimare_.

DEPRAVARE; CORRUMPERE. +Depravare+ denotes to make anything relatively
worse, provided it is still susceptible of amendment, as being merely
perverted from its proper use; whereas +corrumpere+ denotes to make
anything absolutely bad and useless, so that it is not susceptible of
amendment, as being completely spoilt. (v. 321.)

DERIDERE, see _Ridere_.

DESCISCERE, see _Turbæ_.

DESERERE, see _Relinquere_.

DESERTUM, see _Solitudo_.

DESIDERARE, see _Requirere_.

DESIDIA, see _Ignavia_.

DESINERE; DESISTERE. +Desinere+ denotes only a condition in reference to
persons, things, and actions, as, to cease; whereas +desistere+, an act
of the will, of which persons only are capable, as to desist.
(iii. 101.)

DESOLATUS, see _Relinquere_.

DESPERANS, see _Exspes_.

DESPICERE, see _Spernere_.

DESTINARE; OBSTINARE; DECERNERE; STATUERE; CONSTITUERE. 1. +Destinare+
and +obstinare+ denote forming a resolution as a psychological, whereas
+decernere+ and +statuere+ as a political, act. 2. +Destinare+ means to
form a decided resolution, by which a thing is set at rest; +obstinare+,
to form an unalterable resolution, whereby a man perseveres with
obstinacy and doggedness. 3. +Decernere+ denotes the final result of a
formal consultation, or, at least, of a deliberation approaching the
nature and seriousness of a collegial discussion; +statuere+, to settle
the termination of an uncertain state, and +constituere+ is the word
employed, if the subject or object of the transaction is a multitude.
Cic. Fr. Tull. Hoc judicium sic expectatur, ut non unæ rei _statui_, sed
omnibus _constitui_ putetur. (iv. 178.)

DESTINATIO, see _Pervicacia_.

DESTITUERE, see _Relinquere_.

DESTRUERE; DEMOLIRI. +Destruere+ means to pull down an artificially
constructed, +demoliri+, a solid, building. (vi. 2.)

DETERIOR; PEJOR. +Deterior+ (a double comparative from de) means, like
χείρων, that which has degenerated from a good state, that which has
become less worthy; whereas +pejor+ (from πεζός), like κακίων, that
which has fallen from bad to worse, that which is more evil than it was.
Hence Sallust. Or. Phil. 3. Æmilius omnium flagitiorum postremus, qui
_pejor_ an ignavior sit deliberari non potest:--in this passage
_deterior_ would form no antithesis to _ignavior_. The _deterrimi_ are
the objects of contempt, the _pessimi_ of abhorrence; Catullus employs
the expression _pessimas puellas_, ‘the worst of girls,’ in a jocular
sense, in a passage where this expression has a peculiar force; whereas
_deterrimus_ could, under no circumstances, be employed as a jocular
expression, any more than the words _wretched_, _depraved_. (i. 53.)

DETESTARI, see _Abominari_.

DETINERE, see _Manere_.

DETRECTATIO, see _Invidia_.

DETRIMENTUM, see _Damnum_.

DEUS, see _Numen_.

DEVERSORIUM; HOSPITIUM; CAUPONA; TABERNA; POPINA; GANEUM. +Deversorium+
is any house of reception on a journey, whether one’s own property, or
that of one’s friends, or of inn-keepers; +hospitium+, an inn for the
reception of strangers; +caupona+ (from καρποῦσθαι?) a tavern kept by a
publican. These establishments afford lodging as well as food; whereas
+tabernæ+, +popinæ+, +ganea+, only food, like restaurateurs; +tabernæ+
(from trabes?), for the common people, as eating-houses; +popinæ+ (from
popa, πέψαι), for gentlefolks and gourmands, like ordinaries; +ganea+
(from ἀγανός?), for voluptuaries. (vi. 101.)

DEVINCIRE, see _Ligare_.

DICARE, see _Sacrare_.

DICERE; AIO; INQUAM; ASSEVERARE; AFFIRMARE; CONTENDERE; FARI; FABULARI.
1. +Dicere+ denotes to say, as conveying information, in reference to
the hearer, in opp. to _tacere_, like the neutral word _loqui_. Cic.
Rull. ii. 1. Ver. ii. 1, 71, 86. Plin. Ep. iv. 20. vii. 6, like λέγειν;
but +aio+ expresses an affirmation, with reference to the speaker, in
opp. to _nego_. Cic. Off. iii. 23. Plaut. Rud. ii. 4, 14. Terent. Eun.
ii. 2, 21, like φάναι. 2. +Ait+ is in construction with an indirect form
of speech, and therefore generally governs an infinitive; whereas
+inquit+ is in construction with a direct form of speech, and therefore
admits an indicative, imperative, or conjunctive. 3. +Aio+ denotes the
simple affirmation of a proposition by merely expressing it, whereas
+asseverare+, +affirmare+, +contendere+, denote an emphatic affirmation;
+asseverare+ is to affirm in earnest, in opp. to a jocular, or even
light affirmation, _jocari_. Cic. Brut. 85; +affirmare+, to affirm as
certain, in opp. to doubts and rumors, _dubitare_, Divin. ii. 3, 8;
+contendere+, to affirm against contradiction, and to maintain one’s
opinion, in opp. to yielding it up, or renouncing it. 4. +Dicere+
(δεῖξαι) denotes to say, without any accessory notion, whereas +loqui+
(λακεῖν), as a transitive verb, with the contemptuous accessory notion
that that which is said is mere idle talk. Cic. Att. xiv. 4. Horribile
est quæ _loquantur_, quæ minitentur. 5. +Loqui+ denotes speaking in
general; +fabulari+, a good-humored, or, at least, pleasant mode of
speaking, to pass away the time, in which no heed is taken of the
substance and import of what is said, like λαλεῖν; lastly, +dicere+, as
a neuter verb, denotes a speech prepared according to the rules of art,
a studied speech, particularly from the rostrum, like λέγειν. Liv.
xlv. 39. Tu, centurio, miles, quid de imperatore Paulo senatus
decreverit potius quam quid Sergio Galba _fabuletur_ audi, et hoc
_dicere_ me potius quam illum audi; ille nihil præterquam _loqui_, et id
ipsum maledice et maligne _didicit_. Cic. Brut. 58. Scipio sane mihi
bene et _loqui_ videtur et _dicere_. Orat. iii. 10. Neque enim conamur
docere eum _dicere_ qui _loqui_ nesciat. Orat. 32. Muren. 34, 71. Suet.
Cl. 4. Qui tam ἀσαφῶς _loquatur_, qui possit quum declamat σαφῶς
_dicere_ quæ _dicenda_ sunt non video. 6. +Fari+ (φάναι) denotes
speaking, as the mechanical use of the organs of speech to articulate
sounds and words, nearly in opp. to _infantem esse_; whereas +loqui+
(λακεῖν), as the means of giving utterance to one’s thoughts, in opp. to
_tacere_. And as +fari+ may be sometimes limited to the utterance of
single words, it easily combines with the image of an unusual, imposing,
oracular brevity, as in the decrees of fate, _fati_; whereas +loqui+, as
a usual mode of speaking, is applicable to excess in speaking,
_loquacitas_. (iv. 1.)

DICTERIUM, see _Verbum_.

DICTO AUDIENTEM ESSE, see _Parere_.

DIES; TEMPUS; TEMPESTAS; DIE; INTERDIU. 1. +Dies+ (from ἔνδιος) denotes
time in its pure abstract nature, as mere extension and progression;
whereas +tempus+ and +tempestas+, with a qualifying and physical
reference, as the weather and different states of time; +tempus+ denotes
rather a mere point of time, an instant, an epoch; +tempestas+, an
entire space of time, a period. Hence +dies docebit+ refers to a long
space of time, after the lapse of which information will come, like
χρόνος; whereas +tempus docebit+ refers to a particular point of time
which shall bring information, like καιρός. (iv. 267.) 2. +Die+ means by
the day, in opp. to by the hour or the year; whereas +interdiu+ and
+diu+, by day, in opp. to _noctu_; but +interdiu+ stands in any
connection; +diu+ only in direct connection with _noctu_. (iv. 288.)

DIES FESTI, see _Solemnia_.

[[IN SINGULOS DIES, see _Quotidie_.]]

DIFFERRE; PROFERRE; PROCRASTINARE; PROROGARE. 1. +Differre+ denotes
delay in a negative sense, whereby a thing is not done at present, but
laid aside; whereas +proferre+ and +procrastinare+, delay in a positive
sense, as that which is to take place at a future time; +proferre+
refers to some other time in general; +procrastinare+, to the very next
opportunity. 2. +Differre+ denotes an action, the beginning of which is
put off; +prorogare+, a condition or state, the ending of which is put
off, as to protract. (vi. 102.)

DIFFICILIS, see _Arduus_ and _Austerus_.

DIGLADIARI, see _Pugnare_.

DIGNUM ESSE, see _Merere_.

DILIGENTIA, see _Opera_.

DILIGERE; AMARE; DEAMARE; ADAMARE; CARITAS; AMOR; PIETAS. 1. +Diligere+
(from ἀλέγειν) is love arising from esteem, and, as such, a result of
reflection on the worth of the beloved object, like φιλεῖν; whereas
+amare+ is love arising from inclination, which has its ground in
feeling, and is involuntary, or quite irresistible, like ἐρᾶν, ἔρασθαι;
+diligere+ denotes a purer love, which, free from sensuality and
selfishness, is also more calm; +amare+, a warmer love, which, whether
sensual or platonic, is allied to passion. Cic. Att. xiv. 17. Tantum
accessit ut mihi nunc denique _amare_ videar, ante _dilexisse_. Fam.
xiii. 47. Brut. i. 1. Plin. Ep. iii. 9. 2. +Amare+ means to love in
general; +deamare+, as an intensive, to love desperately, like _amore
deperire_; and +adamare+, as an inchoative, to fall in love.
3. +Caritas+, in an objective sense, means to be dear to some one;
+amor+, to hold some one dear: hence the phrases, _Caritas_ apud
aliquem; _amor_ erga aliquem. 4. +Caritas+, in a subjective sense,
denotes any tender affection, especially that of parents towards their
children, without any mixture of sensuality, and refers merely to
persons, like ἀγάπη or στοργή; whereas +amor+ denotes ardent passionate
love to persons or things, like ἔρως; lastly, +pietas+ (from ψήχω, ψίης,
the instinctive love to persons and things, which we are bound to love
by the holy ties of nature, the gods, those related to us by blood,
one’s native country, and benefactors. +Caritas+ rejoices in the beloved
object and its possession, and shows itself in friendship and voluntary
sacrifices; +amor+ wishes evermore to get the beloved object in its
power, and loves with a restless unsatisfied feeling; +pietas+ follows a
natural impulse and religious feeling. (iv. 97.)

DILUCULUM, see _Mane_.

DIMETARI, DIMETIRI, see _Metiri_.

DIMICARE, see _Pugnare_.

DIMITTERE, see _Mittere_.

DIRIMERE, see _Dividere_.

DIRIPERE, see _Vastare_.

DIRUS, see _Atrox_.

DISCEPTATIO; LITIGATIO; CONTROVERSIA; CONTENTIO; ALTERCATIO; JURGIUM;
RIXA. 1. +Disceptatio+, +litigatio+, and +controversia+, are
dissensions, the settling of which is attempted quietly, and in an
orderly way; +contentio+, +altercatio+, and +jurgium+, such as are
conducted with passion and vehemence, but which are still confined to
words; +rixæ+ (ὀρέκτης) such as, like frays and broils come to blows, or
at least threaten to come to blows, and are mid-way between _jurgium_
and _pugna_. Liv. xxxv. 17. Ex _disceptatione altercationem_ fecerunt.
Tac. Hist. i. 64. _Jurgia_ primum, mox _rixa_ inter Batavos et
legionarios. Dial. 26. Cassius Severus non pugnat, sed _rixatur_.
2. +Controversia+ takes place between two parties the moment they place
themselves in array on opposite sides; +disceptatio+, when they commence
disputing with each other, in order to arrive at the path of truth, or
to discover what is right, but without a hostile feeling; +litigatio+,
when a hostile feeling and a personal interest are at the bottom of the
dispute. 3. +Contentio+ would maintain the right against all opponents,
and effect its purpose, whatever it may be, by the strenuous exertion of
all its faculties; +altercatio+ would not be in debt to its opponent a
single word, but have the last word itself; +jurgium+ (from ὀργή) will,
without hearkening to another, give vent to its ill-humor by harsh
words. +Contentio+ presents the serious image of strenuous exertion;
+altercatio+, the comic image of excessive heat, as in women’s quarrels;
+jurgium+, the hateful image of rude anger. (v. 274.)

DISCERNERE; DISTINGUERE. +Discernere+ (διακρίνειν) means to distinguish
by discrimination and judgment; +distinguere+ (διαστίξαι, or
διατέγγειν), by signs and marks. (vi. 103.)

DISCIPLINÆ, see _Literæ_.

DISCRIMEN, see _Tentare_.

DISERTUS; FACUNDUS; ELOQUENS. +Disertus+ and +facundus+ denote a natural
gift or talent for speaking, whereas +eloquens+, an acquired and
cultivated art. +Disertus+ is he who speaks with clearness and
precision; +facundus+, he who speaks with elegance and beauty;
+eloquens+, he who combines clearness and precision with elegance and
beauty. The _disertus_ makes a good teacher, who may nevertheless be
confined to a one-sided formation of intellect; the _facundus_ is a good
companion, whose excellence may nevertheless be confined to a
superficial adroitness in speaking, without acuteness or depth, whereas
the _eloquens_, whether he speaks as a statesman or as an author, must,
by talent and discipline in all that relates to his art, possess a
complete mastery over language, and the resources of eloquence. Cic.
Orat. 5, 19. Antonius . . . . _disertos_ ait se vidisse multos,
_eloquentem_ omnino neminem. Quintil. viii. pr. 13. _Diserto_ satis
dicere quæ oporteat; ornate autem dicere proprium est _eloquentissimi_.
Suet. Cat. 53. _Eloquentiæ_ quam plurimum adtendit, quantumvis
_facundus_ et promptus. (iv. 14.)

DISPAR, see _Æquus_.

DISPERTIRE, see _Dividere_.

DISPUTARE, see _Disserere_.

DISSERERE; DISPUTARE. +Disserere+ (διερεῖν) means to express an opinion
in a didactic form, and at the same time to explain the grounds of that
opinion; but +disputare+ (διαπυθέσθαι) in a polemical form, and to take
into consideration the arguments against it, and with one’s opponent,
whether an imaginary person or actually present, to weigh argument
against argument, and ascertain on which side the balance of truth lies.
The _disserens_ takes only a subjective view of the question; but the
_disputans_ would come at a result of objective validity. +Disserere+,
moreover, denotes a freer, +disputare+ a more methodical discussion of
the subject. Cic. Rep. iii. 16 i. 24. Fin. i. 9, 31. Orat. ii. 3, 13.
(iv. 19.)

DISTINGUERE, see _Discernere_.

DISTRIBUERE, see _Dividere_.

DIU, DIUTIUS, DIUTINUS, see _Pridem_.

DIVELLERE, see _Frangere_.

DIVERSUS, see _Varius_.

DIVIDERE; PARTIRI; DIRIMERE; DISPERTIRE; DISTRIBUERE. 1. +Dividere+ and
+dirimere+ mean to divide something, merely in order to break the unity
of the whole, and separate it into parts, whereas +partiri+ means to
divide, in order to get the parts of the whole, and to be able to
dispose of them. Hence the phrases _divide et impera_, and _dividere
sententias_, but _partiri prædam_. 2. +Divisio+ denotes, theoretically,
the separation of a genus into its species, whereas +partitio+, the
separation of the whole into its parts. Quintil. v. 10, 63. Cic. Top. 5.
3. +Dividere+ refers to a whole, of which the parts are merely locally
and mechanically joined, and therefore severs only an exterior
connection; but +dirimere+ refers to a whole, of which the parts
organically cohere, and destroys an interior connection. Liv. xxii. 15.
Casilinum urbs . . . Volturno flumine _dirempta_ Falernum ac Campanum
agrum _dividit_: for the separation of a city into two halves by a
river, is an interior separation, whereas the separation of two
neighboring districts by a city, is an exterior separation.
4. +Dividere+ means also to separate into parts, without any accessory
notion, whereas +dispertire+, with reference to future possessors, and
+distribuere+, with reference to the right owners, or to proper and
suitable places. (iv. 156.)

DIVINARE; PRÆSAGIRE; PRÆSENTIRE; PRÆVIDERE; VATICINARI; PRÆDICERE.
1. +Divinare+ denotes foreseeing by divine inspiration and supernatural
aid, like μαντεύεσθαι; +præsagire+ (præ and ἡγεῖσθαι), in a natural way,
by means of a peculiar organization of mind bordering on the
supernatural; +præsentire+ and +prævidere+, by an unusual measure of
natural talent; +præsentire+, by immediate presentiment; +prævidere+, by
foresight, by an acute and happy combination. 2. +Divinare+, etc., are
merely acts of perception, whereas +vaticinatio+ and +prædictio+, the
open expression of what is foreseen; +vaticinatio+, that of the
_divinans_ and _præsagiens_, like προφητεία, prophecy; but +prædictio+,
that of the _præsentiens_ and _prævidens_, prediction. (vi. 105.)

DIVITIÆ; OPES; GAZÆ; LOCUPLES; OPULENTUS; COPIOSUS. 1. +Divitiæ+ and
+gazæ+ denote riches quite generally, as possessions and the means of
satisfying one’s wishes of any sort, whereas +opes+, as the means of
attaining higher ends, of aggrandizing one’s self, and of acquiring and
maintaining influence. +Divitiæ+ (from δεύειν) denotes the riches of a
private person, like πλοῦτος; +opes+ (opulentus, πολύς), the instrument
of the statesman, or of the ambitious in political life; +gazæ+, the
treasure of a king or prince, like θησαυροί. 2. +Dives+ means rich in
opp. to poor, Quintil. v. 10, 26, like πλούσιος; +locuples+ (loculos
πλήθων), well-off, in opp. to _egens_, _egenus_, Cic. Planc. 35. Ros.
Com. 8, like ἀφνειός; +opulentus+ and +copiosus+, opulent, in opp. to
_inops_, Cic. Parad. 6. Tac. H. iii. 6, like εὔπορος. (v. 81.)

DIVORTIUM, see _Repudium_.

DIVUS, see _Numen_.

DOCTOR; PRÆCEPTOR; MAGISTER. +Doctor+ means the teacher, as far as he
imparts theory, with reference to the student, in opp. to the mere
hearer; +præceptor+, as far as he leads to practice, in reference to the
pupil, in opp. to the mere scholar; +magister+, in a general sense, with
reference to his superiority and ascendency in knowledge, in opp. to the
laity. Cic. Orat. iii. 15. Vetus illa doctrina eadem videtur et recte
faciendi et bene dicendi magistra, neque disjuncti _doctores_, sed iidem
erant vivendi _præceptores_ atque dicendi. And. Mur. 31. (vi. 105).

DOCTRINA; ERUDITIO. +Doctrina+ denotes learning as a particular species
of intellectual cultivation, whereas +eruditio+ the learned result, as
the crown of intellectual cultivation. +Doctrina+ evinces a superiority
in particular branches of knowledge, and stands as a co-ordinate notion
with +exercitatio+, which is distinguished from it by involving a
superiority in the ready use of learning, and can therefore, even as a
mere theory, be of more evident service in practice than that which is
indirectly important; +eruditio+ stands in still closer relation to
practice, and involves the co-operation of the different branches of
knowledge and different studies to the ennobling of the human race; it
denotes genuine zeal for the welfare of mankind in an intellectual, as
_humanitas_ does in a moral, point of view. (v. 268.)

DOCTRINÆ, see _Literæ_.

DOLOR; TRISTITIA; MŒSTITIA; LUCTUS. 1. +Dolor+ (from θλᾶν, ἄθλιος?)
denotes an inward feeling of grief, opp. to _gaudium_, Cic. Phil.
xiii. 20. Suet. Cæs. 22, like ἄλγος; whereas +tristitia+, +mœror+,
+luctus+, denote an utterance or external manifestation of this inward
feeling. +Tristitia+ and +mœstitia+ are the natural and involuntary
manifestation of it in the gestures of the body and in the countenance;
+luctus+ (ἀλυκτός), its artificial manifestation, designedly, and
through the conventional signs of mourning, as cutting off the hair,
mourning clothes, etc., at an appointed time, like πένθος. +Mœror+ also
serves for a _heightened_ expression of _dolor_, and +luctus+ of _mœror_
and _tristitia_, as far as the manifestation _is added_ to distinguish
the feeling from it. Cic. Att. xii. 28. _Mærorem_ minui; _dolorem_ nec
potui, nec si possem vellem. Phil. xi. 1. Magno in _dolore_ sum, vel in
_mœrore_ potius, quem ex miserabili morte C. Trebonii accepimus. Plin.
Ep. v. 9. Illud non _triste_ solum, verum etiam _luctuosum_, quod Julius
avitus decessit. Tac. Agr. 43. Finis vitæ ejus nobis _luctuosus_, amicis
_tristis_; for relations only put on mourning. Tac. Ann. ii. 82.
Quanquam nec insignibus lugentium abstinebant, altius animis _mœrebant_.
Cic. Sext. 29, 39. _Luctum_ nos hausimus majorem _dolorem_ ille animi
non minorem. 2. +Tristitia+ (from ταρακτός?) denotes the expression of
grief in a bad sense, as gloom, fretfulness, and ill-humor, opp. to
_hilaratus_, Cic. Att. xii. 40. Fin. v. 30. Cæcil. ap. Gell. xv. 9.
Quintil. xi. 3, 67, 72, 79, 151; whereas +mœstitia+ (from μύρω) denotes
grief, as deserving of commiseration, as affliction, when a most just
grief gives a tone of sadness, in opp. to _lætus_, Sall. Cat. f. Tac.
Ann. i. 28. +Tristitia+ is more an affair of reflection; +mœstitia+, of
feeling. The _tristis_, like the _truculentus_, is known by his
forbidding look, his wrinkled forehead, the contraction of his eyebrows;
the _mœstus_, like the _afflictus_, by his lack-lustre eyes and dejected
look. Tac. Hist. i. 82. Rarus per vias populus _mœsta_ plebs; dejecti in
terram militum vultus, ac plus _tristitæ_ quam pœnitentiæ. Cic. Mur. 24,
49. _Tristem_ ipsum, _mœstos_ amicos: and Orat. 22, 74. (iii. 234.)

DOLOR, see _Cura_.

DOMUS, see _Ædificium_.

DONUM; MUNUS; LARGITIO; DONARIUM; DONATIVUM; LIBERALITAS. 1. +Donum+
(δωτίνη) means a present, as a gratuitous gift, by which the giver
wishes to confer pleasure, like δῶρον; whereas +munus+, as a reward for
services, whereby the giver shows his love or favor, like γέρας; lastly,
+largitio+, as a gift from self-interested motives, which under the show
of beneficence would win over and bribe, generally for political ends.
Suet. Cæs. 28. Aliis captivorum millia _dono_ afferens; that is, not
merely as a loan: compare with Ner. 46. Auspicanti Sporus annulum
_muneri_ obtulit; that is, as a handsome return. Tac. H. ii. 30. Id
comitatem bonitatemque faventes vocabant, quod sine modo (Vitellius)
_donaret_ sua _largiretur_ aliena. 2. +Donarium+ denotes particularly a
gift to a temple; +donativum+, a military gift, or earnest-money, which
the new emperor at his accession to the throne distributes among the
soldiers; +liberalitas+, a gift which the emperor bestowed, generally on
a poor nobleman, for his support. (iv. 142.)

DORSUM; TERGUM. +Dorsum+ (from δέρας) denotes the back, in an horizontal
direction, consequently the back of an animal, in opp. to the belly,
like νῶτον; +tergum+ (from τράχηλος), the back, in a perpendicular
direction, consequently the part between the shoulders in a man, in opp.
to the breast, like μετάφρενον. Hence +dorsum montis+ denotes the
uppermost surface; +tergum montis+, the hinder part of a mountain.
(v. 15.)

DUBIUS; AMBIGUUS; ANCEPS. +Dubius+ (δοιός) and +ambiguus+ (ἀμφὶς ἔχων)
denote doubt, with reference to success or failure, fortune or
misfortune; +anceps+, with reference to existence itself, to the being
or not being. Vell. Pat. ii. 79. Ea patrando bello mora fuit, quod
postea _dubia_ et interdum _ancipiti_ fortuna gestum est. Tac. Ann.
iv. 73. (v. 282.)

DUDUM, see _Pridem_.

DULCIS, see _Suavis_.

DUMI; SENTES; VEPRES. +Dumi+ denotes bushes growing thickly together,
which present the appearance of a wilderness; +sentes+, prickly and
wounding bushes, thorn-bushes; +vepres+ combines both meanings;
thorn-bushes which make the ground a wilderness. (vi. 108.)

DUPLEX; DUPLUM; GEMINUS; DUPLICITER; BIFARIAM. 1. +Duplex+ (δίπλαξ)
denotes double, as distinct magnitudes to be counted: +duplum+ (διπλοῦν)
as continuous magnitudes to be weighed or measured. +Duplex+ is used as
an adjective, +duplum+ as a substantive. Quintil. viii. 6, 42. In quo et
numerus est _duplex_ et _duplum_ virium. 2. In +duplex+ (as in διπλοῦς),
_doubleness_ is the _primary_, _similarity_ and _equality_ the
_secondary_ notion; in +geminus+ (as in δίδυμος), the notion of
_similarity_ and _equality_ is the _primary_, that of _doubleness_ the
_secondary_ one. In Cic. Part. 6. Verba _geminata_ et _duplicata_ vel
etiam sæpius iterata; the word _geminata_ refers to the repetition of
the same notion by synonymes; _duplicata_ to the repetition of the same
word. 3. +Dupliciter+ is always modal; in two different manners, with
double purpose; +bifariam+ is local, in two places, or two parts. Cic.
Fam. ix. 20. _Dupliciter_ delectatus sum literis tuis; compare with
Tusc. iii. 11. _Bifariam_ quatuor perturbationes æqualiter distributæ
sunt. (v. 281.)


E.

EBRIUS; VINOLENTUS; TREMULENTUS; CRAPULA; EBRIOSUS. 1. +Ebrietas+ places
the consequences of the immoderate use of wine in its most favorable
point of view, as the exaltation and elevation of the animal spirits,
and in its connection with inspiration, like μέθη; whereas +vinolentia+,
and the old word +temulentia+, in its disgusting point of view, as
brutal excess, and in its connection with the loss of recollection, like
οἴνωσις; lastly, +crapula+, the objective cause of this condition, like
κραιπάλη. 2. +Ebrius+, and the word of rare occurrence, +madusa+, denote
a person who is drunk, with reference to the condition; +ebriosus+, a
drunkard, with reference to the habit. (v. 330.)

ECCE, see _En_.

EDITUS, see _Altus_.

EDULIA, see _Alimenta_.

EGERE, see _Carere_.

EGESTAS, see _Paupertas_.

EJULARE, see _Lacrimare_.

ELABORARE, see _Labor_.

[[ELEMENTUM, see _Litera_.]]

ELIGERE, see _Deligere_.

E LONGINQUO, see _Procul_.

ELOQUENS, see _Disertus_.

ELOQUI; ENUNCIARE; PROLOQUI; PRONUNCIARE; RECITARE. 1. +Eloqui+ and
+enunciare+ denote an act of the intellect, in conformity to which one
utters a thought that was resting in the mind; but the _eloquens_
regards therein both substance and form, and would express his thought
in the most perfect language; whereas the _enuncians_ regards merely the
substance, and would only make his thought _publici juris_, or
communicate it; hence +elocutio+ belongs to rhetoric, +enuntiatio+ to
logic. 2. On the other hand, +proloqui+ denotes a moral act, in
conformity to which one resolves to give utterance to a secret thought,
in opp. to _reticere_, like _profiteri_; lastly, +pronuntiare+, a
physical act, by which one utters any thing, whether thought of, or
written mechanically by the organs of speech, and makes it heard, like
_recitare_. +Pronuntiare+, however, is a simple act of the organs of
speech, and aims merely at being fully heard; +recitare+ is an act of
refined art, and aims by just modulation, according to the laws of
declamation, to make a pleasing impression. +Pronuntiatio+ relates only
to single letters, syllables, and words, as the elements and body of
speech, whereas +recitatio+ relates both to the words and to their
import, as the spirit of speech. (iv. 4.)

ELUCET, see _Constat_.

EMENDARE, see _Corrigere_.

EMERE; MERCARI; REDIMERE. 1. +Emere+ means to buy, where furnishing
one’s self with the article is the main point, the price the next point,
like πρίασθαι; whereas +mercari+ (from ἀμέργειν) means to buy, as a more
formal transaction, generally as the mercantile conclusion of a bargain,
like ἐμπολᾶν. 2. +Emere+ refers to the proper objects of trade;
+redimere+ to things which, according to the laws of justice and
morality, do not constitute articles of trade, and which the buyer might
either claim as his due, or ought to receive freely and gratuitously,
such as peace, justice, love, and so forth. Cic. Sext. 30, 36. Quis
autem rex qui illo anno non aut _emendum_ sibi quod non habebat, aut
_redimendum_ quod habebat, arbitrabatur? (iv. 116.)

EMINENS; EXCELLENS; PRÆCLARUS; PRÆSTANS; INSIGNIS; SINGULARIS; UNICUS.
1. +Eminens+, +excellens+, +præclarus+, and +præstans+, involve a quiet
acknowledgment of superiority; whereas +egregius+, with an expression of
enthusiasm, like glorious; +eximius+, with an expression of admiration,
like excellent. 2. +Eximius+, &c. relate altogether to good qualities,
like superior, and can be connected with vices and faults only in irony;
whereas +insignis+, +singularis+, and +unicus+, are indifferent, and
serve as well to heighten blame as praise, like distinguished,
matchless. (vi. 111.)

EMINET, see _Apparet_.

EMINUS, see _Procul_.

EMISSARIUS, see _Explorator_.

EMOLUMENTUM, see _Lucrum_.

EMORI, see _Mors_.

EN; ECCE. +En+ (ἠνί) means, see here what was before hidden from thee!
like ἤν, ἠνί, ἠνίδε; whereas +ecce+ (ἔχε? or the reduplication of the
imperative of Eco, to see, oculus?) means, see there what thou hast not
before observed! like ἰδού. (vi. 112.)

ENSIS, see _Gladius_.

ENUNCIARE, see _Eloqui_.

EPISTOLA, see _Literæ_.

EPULÆ; CONVIVIUM; DAPES; EPULUM; COMISSATIO. +Epulæ+ is the general
expression, the meal, whether frugal or sumptuous, whether en famille or
with guests, at home or in public; +convivium+ is a social meal,
a convivial meal; +dapes+ (from δάψαι, δεῖπνον), a religious meal,
a meal of offerings; +epulum+, a solemn meal, mostly political, a meal
in honor of something, a festival; +comissatio+ (from κομάζειν),
a gormandizing meal, a feast. (v. 195.)

EQUUS; CABALLUS; MANNUS; CANTERIUS. +Equus+ (from the antiquated word,
ehu) denotes a horse, as a general expression, a term in natural
history; +caballus+ (from καφάζω), a horse for ordinary services;
+mannus+, a smaller kind of horse, like palfrey, for luxury;
+canterius+, a castrated horse, a gelding. Sen. Ep. 85. Cato censorius
_canterio_ vehebatur et hippoperis quidem impositis. Oh quantum decus
sæculi! Catonem uno _caballo_ esse contentum, et ne toto quidem! Ita non
omnibus obesis _mannis_ et asturconibus et tolutariis præferres unum
illum _equum_ ab ipso Catone defrictum. (iv. 287.)

ERGASTULUM, see _Custodia_.

ERIPERE, see _Demere_.

ERRARE; VAGARI; PALARI. +Errare+ (ἔῤῥειν) is to go astray, πλανᾶσθαι, an
involuntary wandering about, when one knows not the right way; +vagari+
and +palari+, on the other hand, mean a voluntary wandering; +vagari+,
like ἀλᾶσθαι, when one disdains a settled residence, or straight path,
and wanders about unsteadily; +palari+ (from pandere?) when one
separates from one’s company, and wanders about alone. +Erramus+
_ignari_, +vagamur+ _soluti_, +palamur+ _dispersi_. Tac. H. i. 68.
Undique populatio et cædes; ipsi in medio +vagi+; abjectis armis magna
pars, saucii aut _palantes_ in montem Vocetiam perfugiunt. (i. 89.)

ERUDIRE; FORMARE; INSTITUERE. +Erudire+ and +formare+ denote education
as an ideal good, and as a part of human improvement; +erudire+,
generally, and as far as it frees from ignorance; +formare+, specially,
and as far as it prepares one in a particular sphere, and for a
particular purpose, and gives the mind a bent thereto; whereas
+instituere+ denotes education as a real good, in order to qualify for a
particular employment. (vi. 113.)

ERUDITIO, see _Literæ_.
  [[printed as shown, but correct cross-reference is _Doctrina_]

ESCA, see _Alimenta_.

ESCENDERE, see _Scandere_.

ESURIES, see _Fames_.

ET; QUE; AC; ATQUE. +Et+ (ἔτι) is the most general copulative particle;
+que+ and +et--et+ connect opposites; +que+ (καί), simply because they
are opposites, as _terra marique_; but +et--et+, in order to point them
out emphatically as opposites [and closely connected notions of _the
same kind_], as _et terra et mari_; whereas +ac+ and +atque+ connect
synonymes, _atque_ before vowels and gutturals; +ac+ before the other
consonants; as, for example, vir fortis _ac_ strenuus. (vi. 114.)

EVENIRE, see _Accidere_.

EVERTERE, see _Perdere_.

EVESTIGIO, see _Repente_.

EVOCARE, see _Arcessere_.

EXCELLENS, see _Eminens_.

EXCELSUS, see _Altus_.

EXCIPERE, see _Sumere_.

EXCORS, see _Amens_.

EXCUBIÆ; STATIONES; VIGILIÆ. +Excubiæ+ are the sentinels before the
palace, as guards of honor and safeguards; +stationes+, guards stationed
at the gate as an outpost; +vigiliæ+, guards in the streets during the
night as a patrol.

EXCUSATIO, see _Purgatio_.

EXEMPLUM; EXEMPLAR. +Exemplum+ means an example out of many, chosen on
account of its relative aptness for a certain end; whereas +exemplar+
means an example before others, chosen on account of its absolute
aptness to represent the idea of a whole species, a model. Cic. Mur. 31.
Vell. P. ii. 100. Antonius singulare _exemplum_ clementiæ Cæsaris;
compare with Tac. Ann. xii. 37. Si incolumem servaveris, æternum
_exemplar_ clementiæ ero; not merely tuæ _clementiæ_, but of clemency in
general. (v. 359.)

EXERCITUS; COPIÆ. +Exercitus+ is an army that consists of several
legions; but +copiæ+ mean troops, which consist of several cohorts.

EXHIBERE, see _Præbere_.

EXIGERE, see _Petere_.

EXIGUUS, see _Parvus_.

EXILIS; MACER; GRACILIS; TENUIS. +Exilis+ and +macer+ denote leanness,
with reference to the interior substance and with absolute blame, as a
consequence of want of sap, and of shrivelling; +exilis+ (from egere,
exiguus,) generally as applicable to any material body, and as poverty
and weakness, in opp. to _uber_, Cic. Or. i. 12; +macer+ (μακρός,
meagre,) especially to animal bodies, as dryness, in opp. to _pinguis_,
Virg. Ecl. iii. 100; whereas +gracilis+ and +tenuis+, with reference to
the exterior form, indifferently or with praise; +tenuis+ (τανύς, thin),
as approaching to the notion of _delicate_, and as a _general_ term,
applicable to all bodies, in opp. to _crassus_, Cic. Fat. 4. Vitruv.
iv. 4; but +gracilis+ as approaching to the notion of _tall_,
_procerus_, and especially as applicable to animal bodies, like slender,
in opp. to _opimus_, Cic. Brut. 91; _obesus_, Cels. i. 3, 30. ii. 1.
Suet. Dom. 18. (v. 25.)

EXIMERE, see _Demere_.

EXISTIMARE, see _Censere_.

EXITIUM, EXITUS, see _Lues_.

EXPERIRI, see _Tentare_.

EXPETERE, see _Velle_.

EXPILARE, see _Vastare_.

EXPLORATOR; SPECULATOR; EMISSARIUS. +Exploratores+ are scouts, publicly
ordered to explore the state of the country or the enemy;
+speculatores+, spies, secretly sent out to observe the condition and
plans of the enemy; +emissarii+, secret agents, commissioned with
reference to eventual measures and negotiations. (vi. 117.)

EXPROBRARE, see _Objicere_.

EXSECRARI, see _Abominari_.

EXSEQUIÆ, see _Funus_.

EXSOMNIS, see _Vigil_.

EXSPECTARE, see _Manere_.

EXSPES; DESPERANS. +Exspes+ denotes hopelessness, as a state; but
+desperans+, despondency, as the painful feeling of hopelessness.

EXSTRUCTUS, see _Præditus_.

EXSUL, see _Perfuga_.

EXSULTARE, see _Gaudere_.

EXTA, see _Caro_.

EXTEMPLO, see _Repente_.

EXTERUS; EXTERNUS; PEREGRINUS; ALIENIGENA; EXTRARIUS; EXTRANEUS; ADVENA;
HOSPES. 1. +Exterus+ and +externus+ denote a foreigner, as one dwelling
in a foreign country; whereas +peregrinus+, +alienigena+, +advena+, and
+hospes+, as one who sojourns for a time in a country not his own.
2. +Externus+ denotes a merely local relation, and is applicable to
things as well as to persons; but +exterus+, an intrinsic relation, and
is an epithet for persons only. _Externæ nationes_ is a merely
geographical expression for nations that are situated without; _exteræ
nationes_, a political expression for foreign nations. 3. +Extraneus+
means, that which is without us, in opp. to relatives, family, native
country; whereas +extrarius+, in opp. to one’s self. Cic. ap. Colum.
xii. Comparata est opera mulieris ad domesticam diligentiam; viri autem
ad exercitationem forensem et _extraneam_: comp. with Juv. ii. 56.
Utilitas aut in corpore posita est aut in _extrariis_ rebus: or Quintil.
vii. 2, 9, with vii. 4, 9. 4. +Peregrinus+ is one who does not possess
the right of citizenship, in opp. to _civis_, Sen. Helv. 6;
+alienigena+, one born in another country, in opp. to _patrius_ and
_indigena_; +advena+, the emigrant, in opp. to _indigena_, Liv. xxi. 30;
+hospes+, the foreigner, in opp. to _popularis_. 5. +Peregrinus+ is the
political name of a foreigner, as far as he is without the rights of a
citizen and native inhabitant, with disrespect; +hospes+, the name given
to him from a feeling of kindness, as possessing the rights of
hospitality. Cic. Rull. ii. 34. Nos autem hinc Romæ, qui veneramus, jam
non _hospites_ sed _peregrini_ atque _advenæ_ nominabamur. (iv. 386.)

EXTORRIS, see _Perfuga_.

EXTRANEUS, EXTRARIUS, see _Exterus_.

EXTREMUS; ULTIMUS; POSTREMUS; NOVISSIMUS. +Extremus+ and +ultimus+
denote the last in a continuous magnitude, in a space; +extremus+, the
outermost part of a space, or of a surface, in opp. to _intimus_ and
_medius_, Cic. N. D. ii. 27, 54. Cluent. 65, like ἔσχατος; +ultimus+
(superl. from ollus), the outermost point of a line, in opp. to
_citimus_ and _proximus_. Cic. Somn. 3. Prov. cons. 18. Liv. v. 38, 41,
like λοῖσθος. Whereas +postremus+ and +novissimus+ denote the last in a
discrete quantity, or magnitude consisting of separate parts, in a row
of progressive numbers; +postremus+, the last in a row that is
completed, in which it occupies the last place, in opp. to those that
precede it, _primus_, _princeps_, _tertius_, like ὕστατος; whereas
+novissimus+ denotes the last in a row that is not complete, in which,
as the last comer, it occupies the last place, in opp. to that which has
none to follow it, but is last of all, like νέατος.

EXUVIÆ, see _Præda_.


F.

FABER; OPIFEX; ARTIFEX. +Fabri+ (from favere, fovere,) are such workmen
as labor with exertion of bodily strength, carpenters and smiths,
χειρώνακτες; +opifices+ such as need mechanical skill and industry,
βάναυσοι; +artifices+ such as employ mind and invention in their
mechanical functions, τεχνῖται. (v. 329.)

FABULARI, see _Loqui_, _Garrire_, and _Dicere_.
  [[“Loqui” redirects to “Dicere”]]

FACERE, see _Agere_.

FACETIÆ, see _Lepidus_.

FACIES; OS; VULTUS; OCULI. +Facies+ (from species) and +oculi+ (from
ὄκκος) denote the face and eyes only in a physical point of view, as the
natural physiognomy and the organs of sight; but +os+ and +vultus+ with
a moral reference, as making known the temporary, and even the habitual
state of the mind by the looks and eyes; +os+ (from ὄθομαι), by the
glance of the eye, and the corresponding expression of the mouth;
+vultus+ (from ἑλικτός), by the motion of the eye, and the simultaneous
expression of the parts nearest to it, the serene and the darkened brow.
Tac. Agr. 44. Nihil metus in _vultu_; gratia _oris_ supererat.
(iv. 318.)

FACILITAS, see _Humanitas_.

FACINUS, see _Delictum_.

FACULTAS, see _Occasio_.

FACTUM, see _Agere_.

FACUNDUS, see _Disertus_.

FACTIO, see _Partes_.

FALLACITER, see _Perperam_.

FALLERE; FRUSTRARI; DECIPERE; CIRCUMVENIRE; FRAUDARE; IMPONERE.
+Fallere+, +frustrari+, and +imponere+, mean to deceive, and effect an
exchange of truth for falsehood, σφάλλειν; the _fallens_ (σφάλλων)
deceives by erroneous views; the _frustrans_ (from ψύθος), by false
hopes; the _imponens_, by practising on the credulity of another.
+Decipere+ and +circumvenire+ mean to outwit, and obtain an unfair
advantage, ἀπατᾶν; the _decipiens_, by a suddenly executed; the
_circumveniens_, by an artfully laid plot. +Fraudare+ (ψεύδειν) means to
cheat, or injure and rob anybody by an abuse of his confidence.
(v. 357.)

FALSE, FALSO, see _Perperam_.

FAMA, see _Rumor_.

FAMES; ESURIES; INEDIA. +Fames+ is hunger from want of food, like λιμός,
in opp. to _satietas_; whereas +esuries+ is hunger from an empty and
craving stomach, in opp. to _sitis_; lastly, +inedia+ is not eating, in
a general sense, without reference to the cause, though for the most
part from a voluntary resolution, like ἀσιτία. Hence _fame_ and _esurie
perire_ mean to die of hunger, whereas _inedia perire_ means to starve
one’s self to death. (iii. 119.)

FAMILIA, see _Ædificium_.

FAMILIARIS, see _Socius_.

FAMULUS, see _Servus_.

FANUM, see _Templum_.

FARI, see _Dicere_.

FAS EST, see _Concessum est_.

FASTIDIUM, see _Spernere_.

FASTIGIUM, see _Culmen_.

FASTUS, see _Superbia_.

FATERI; PROFITERI; CONFITERI. +Fateri+ means to disclose, without any
accessory notion, in opp. to _celare_, Liv. xxiv. 5. Curt. vi. 9;
+profiteri+ means to avow, freely and openly, without fear and reserve,
whether questioned or not; +confiteri+, to confess in consequence of
questions, menaces, compulsion. The _professio_ has its origin in a
noble consciousness, when a man disdains concealment, and is not ashamed
of that which he has kept secret; the _confessio_, in an ignoble
consciousness, when a man gives up his secret out of weakness, and is
ashamed of that which he confesses. Cic. Cæc. 9, 24. Ita libenter
_confitetur_, ut non solum _fateri_, sed etiam _profiteri_ videatur.
Planc. 25, 62. Rabir. perd. 5. (iv. 30.)

FATIGATUS; FESSUS; LASSUS. +Fatigatus+ and +fessus+ express the
condition in which a man after exertion longs for rest, from subjective
weariness; whereas +lassus+ and +lassatus+, the condition in which a man
after active employment has need of rest, from objective weakness. Cels.
i. 2, 15. Exercitationis finis esse debet sudor aut certe _lassitudo_,
quæ citra _fatigationem_ sit. Sall. Jug. 57. Opere castrorum et
prœliorum _fessi lassique_ erant. (i. 105.)

FATUM, see _Casus_.

FATUUS, see _Stupidus_.

FAUSTUS, see _Felix_.

FAUX; GLUTUS; INGLUVIES; GUTTUR; GURGULIO; GULA. +Faux+, +glutus+, and
+ingluvies+, denote the space within the throat; +glutus+ (γλῶττα), in
men; +ingluvies+, in animals; +faux+ (φάρυγξ), the upper part, the
entrance into the throat; whereas +guttur+, +gurgulio+, and +gula+,
denote that part of the body which encloses the space within the throat;
+gurgulio+ (redupl. of gula), in animals; +gula+, in men; +guttur+, in
either. (v. 149.)

FAX; TÆDA; FUNALE. +Fax+ is the general expression for any sort of
torch; +tæda+ is a natural pine torch; +funale+, an artificial
wax-torch.

FEL; BILIS. +Fel+ (from φλέγω, φλέγμα) is the gall of animals, and,
figuratively, the symbol of bitterness to the taste; whereas +bilis+ is
the gall of human beings, and, figuratively, the symbol of exasperation
of mind. (v. 120.)

FELIX; PROSPER; FAUSTUS; FORTUNATUS; BEATUS. +Felix+, +fœlix+, (φῦλον
ἔχων) is the most general expression for happiness, and has a transitive
and intransitive meaning, making happy and being happy; +prosper+ and
+faustus+ have only a transitive sense, making happy, or announcing
happiness; +prosperum+ (πρόσφορος) as far as men’s hopes and wishes are
fulfilled; +faustum+ (from ἀφαύω, φαυστήριος) as an effect of divine
favor, conferring blessings; whereas +fortunatus+ and +beatus+ have only
an intransitive or passive meaning, being happy; +fortunatus+, as a
favorite of fortune, like εὐτυχής; +beatus+ (ψίης) as conscious of
happiness, and contented, resembling the θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζάωντες, like
μακάριος. (vi. 125.)

FEMINA; MULIER; UXOR; CONJUX; MARITA. 1. +Femina+ (φυομένη) denotes
woman with regard to her physical nature and sex, as bringing forth, in
opp. to _mas_; whereas +mulier+ (from mollis), woman, in a physical
point of view, as the weaker and more tender sex, in opp. to _vir_;
whence +femina+ only can be used for the female of an animal.
2. +Mulier+ denotes also the married woman, in opp. to _virgo_, Cic.
Verr. ii. 1; whereas +uxor+ and +conjux+, the wife, in opp. to the
husband; +uxor+, merely in relation to the man who has married her, in
opp. to _maritus_, Tac. G. 18; +conjux+ (from conjungere), in mutual
relation to the husband, as half of a pair, and in opp. to _liberi_,
Cic. Att. viii. 2. Catil. iii. 1. Liv. v. 39, 40. Tac. Ann. iv. 62. H.
iii. 18. 67. Suet. Cal. 17. Accordingly, +uxor+ belongs to the man;
+conjux+ is on a par with the man; +uxor+ refers to an every-day
marriage, like wife; +conjux+, to a marriage between people of rank,
like consort. Vell. Pat. ii. 100. Claudius, Gracchus, Scipio, quasi
cujuslibet _uxore_ violata pœnas perpendere, quum Cæsaris filiam et
Nerones violassent _conjugem_. 3. +Uxor+ is the ordinary, +marita+ a
poetical, expression for a wife. (iv. 327.)

FEMUR, see _Coxa_.

FERA, see _Animal_.

FERAX, see _Fœcundus_.

FERE, see _Pæne_.

FERIÆ, see _Solemnia_.

FERIARI, see _Vacare_.

FERIRE, see _Verberare_.

FERME, see _Pæne_.

FEROCIA; FEROCITAS; VIRTUS; FORTITUDO. +Ferocia+ and +ferocitas+ (from
φράξαι) denote natural and wild courage, of which even the barbarian and
wild beast are capable; +ferocia+, as a feeling, +ferocitas+, as it
shows itself in action; whereas +virtus+ and +fortitudo+ denote a moral
courage, of which men only of a higher mould are capable; +virtus+, that
which shows itself in energetic action, and acts on the offensive;
+fortitudo+ (from the old word forctitudo, from farcire,) that which
shows itself in energetic resistance, and acts on the defensive, like
_constantia_. Pacuv. Nisi insita _ferocitate_ atque _ferocia_. Tac. Ann.
xi. 19. Nos _virtutem_ auximus, barbari _ferociam_ infregere: and
ii. 25. (i. 44.)

FERRE; PORTARE; BAJULARE; GERERE. 1. +Ferre+ means, like φέρειν, to
carry any thing portable from one place to another; +portare+ and
+bajulare+, like βαστάζειν, to carry a load; +portare+ (from πορίζειν),
for one’s self, or for others; +bajulare+, as a porter. In Cæs. B. G.
i. 16. Ædui frumentum . . . . _conferri_, _comportari_, adesse dicere;
+conferre+ refers to the delivery and the contribution from several
subjects to the authorities of the place; +comportare+, the delivery of
these contributions by the authorities of the place to Cæsar.
2. +Ferre+, +portare+, and +bajulare+, express only an exterior
relation, that of the carrier to his load, whereas +gerere+ (ἀγείρειν)
+gestare+, like φόρειν, an interior relation, that of the possessor to
his property. As, then, +bellum ferre+ means only either _inferre
bellum_ or _tolerare_, so +bellum gerere+ has a synonymous meaning with
_habere_, and is applicable only to the whole people, or to their
sovereign, who resolved upon the war, and is in a state of war; but not
to the army fighting, nor to the commander who is commissioned to
conduct the war. _Bellum geret_ populus Romanus, administrat consul,
capessit miles. (i. 150.)

FERRE; TOLERARE; PERFERRE; PERPETI; SUSTINERE; SINERE; SUSTENTARE.
1. +Ferre+ (φέρειν) represents the bearing, only with reference to the
burden which is borne, altogether objectively, like φέρειν; whereas
+tolerare+, +perferre+, and +pati+, +perpeti+, with subjective reference
to the state of mind of the person bearing; the _tolerans_ and
_perferens_ bear their burden without sinking under it, with strength
and self-control, synonymously with _sustinens_, sustaining, like
τολμῶν; the _patiens_ and _perpetiens_ (παθεῖν) without striving to get
rid of it, with willingness or resignation, enduring it, synonymously
with _sinens_. +Ferre+ and +tolerare+ have only a noun for their object,
but +pati+ also an infinitive. 2. +Perferre+ is of higher import than
_tolerare_, as +perpeti+ is of higher import than _pati_, to endure
heroically and patiently. Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. iv. 29. Nec est malum,
quod non natura humana patiendo _ferat_: compare with Tac. Ann. i. 74.
Sen. Thyest. 307. Leve est miserias _ferre_; _perferre_ est grave. Plin.
H. N. xxvi. 21. Qui _perpeti_ medicinam non _toleraverant_. Tac. Ann.
iii. 3. Magnitudinem mali _perferre_ visu non _toleravit_. 3. +Tolerare+
(from τλῆναι) means to keep up under a burden, and not sink down; but
+sustinere+ means to keep up the burden, and not let it sink. 4. +Pati+
denotes an intellectual permission, no opposition being made, like to
let happen; whereas +sinere+ (ἀνεῖναι) denotes a material permission,
not to hold any thing fast nor otherwise hinder, to leave free. +Pati+
has, in construction, the action itself for its object, and governs an
infinitive; +sinere+, the person acting, and is in construction with
_ut_. (iv. 259.) 5. +Sustinere+ means to hold up, in a general sense,
whereas +sustentare+, to hold up with trouble and difficulty. Curt.
viii. 4, 15. Forte Macedo gregarius miles seque et arma _sustentans_
tandem in castra venit; compare with v. 1, 11. Tandem Laconum acies
languescere, lubrica arma sudore vix _sustinens_. Also, Liv. xxiii. 45.
Senec. Prov. 4. a. f. (iii. 293.)

FERTILIS, see _Fœcundus_.

FERULA, see _Fustis_.

FERVERE, see _Calere_.

FESSUS, see _Fatigatus_.

FESTA, see _Solemnia_.

FESTINUS, see _Citus_.

FESTIVUS, see _Lepidus_.

FIDELIS, see _Fidus_.

FIDELITAS, see _Fides_.

FIDERE; CONFIDERE; FIDEM HABERE; CREDERE; COMMITTERE; PERMITTERE.
1. +Fidere+ (πείθειν) means to trust; +confidere+, to trust firmly, both
with reference to strength and assistance; whereas +fidem habere+, to
give credit, and +credere+, to place belief, namely, with reference to
the good intentions of another. Liv. ii. 45. Consules magis non
_confidere_ quam non _credere_ suis militibus; the former with reference
to their valor, the latter with reference to their fidelity.
2. +Fidere+, etc., denote trust as a feeling; +committere+,
+permittere+, as an action; the _committens_ acts in good trust in the
power and will of another, whereby he imposes upon him a moral
responsibility; to intrust; the _permittens_ acts to get rid of the
business himself, whereby he imposes at most only a political or legal
responsibility, as to leave (or, give up) to. Cic. Font. 14. Ita ut
_commissus_ sit fidei, _permissus_ potestati. Verr. i. 32. v. 14.
(v. 259.)

FIDES; FIDELITAS; FIDUCIA; CONFIDENTIA; AUDACIA; AUDENTIA. 1. +Fides+
and +fidelitas+ mean the fidelity which a man himself observes towards
others; +fides+, in a more general sense, like πίστις, the keeping of
one’s word and assurance from conscientiousness, together with the
reliance of others upon us as springing from this quality, the credit we
possess; +fidelitas+ denotes, in a more special sense, like πιστότης,
the faithful adherence to persons to whom we have once devoted
ourselves; whereas +fiducia+ and +confidentia+ denote the trust we place
in others; +fiducia+, the laudable trust in things, in which we actually
can trust, which is allied to the courage of trusting in ourselves, in
opp. to _timor_; Cic. Div. ii. 31. Plin. Ep. v. 17, like θάρσος; but
+confidentia+ denotes a blamable blind trust, particularly in one’s own
strength, in opp. to foresight and discretion, and which converts spirit
into presumption, like θράσος. 5. +Fiducia+ and +confidentia+ have their
foundation in trusting to the prosperous issue of anything; +audacia+
and +audentia+, in the contempt of danger; +audacia+ sometimes means a
laudable boldness, as a word of higher import than _fiducia_; sometimes
a blamable boldness, as a civil term for _temeritas_, like τόλμα; but
+audentia+ is always a laudable spirit of enterprise. Juven. xiii. 108.
Quum magna malæ superest _audacia_ causæ, creditur a multis _fiducia_.
Sen. Ep. 87. Quæ bona sunt, _fiduciam_ faciunt, divitiæ _audaciam_.
(v. 256.)

FIDES, see _Religio_.

FIDES, see _Chorda_.

FIDUCIA, see _Fides_.

FIDUS; FIDELIS; INFIDUS; INFIDELIS; PERFIDUS; PERFIDIOSUS. 1. +Fidus+
denotes a natural quality, like trustworthy, with relative praise;
whereas +fidelis+ denotes a moral characteristic, as faithful, with
absolute praise. Liv. xxii. 22. Eo vinculo Hispaniam vir unus solerti
magis quam _fideli_ consilio exsolvit. Abellex erat Sagunti, nobilis
Hispanus, _fidus_ ante Pœnis. 2. +Infidus+ means unworthy of trust;
+infidelis+, unfaithful; +perfidus+, treacherous, in particular actions;
+perfidiosus+, full of treachery, with reference to the whole character.
(v. 255.)

FIGURA; FORMA; SPECIES. +Figura+ (from fingere, φέγγειν,) denotes shape
altogether indifferently, in its mathematical relation, as far as it
possesses a definite outline, like σχῆμα; whereas +forma+ (φόριμος,
φόρημα,) denotes it in an _æsthetical_ relation, as far as it is a
visible stamp and copy of an interior substance, to which it
corresponds, like μορφή; lastly, +species+, in its physical relation, as
far as it stands opposed to the inner invisible substance, which it
covers as a mere outside, like εἶδος. Hence +figurare+ means to shape,
that is, to give a definite outline to a formless mass; whereas
+formare+ means to form, that is, to give the right shape to an
unwrought mass; and lastly, +speciem addere+ means to bedeck any thing,
in the old sense of the word, that is, to give to a mass already formed
an exterior that shall attract the eye. According to this explanation
+figura+ refers exclusively to the outline or lineaments, whilst
+forma+, or at least +species+, involves color, size, and the like.
(iii. 25.)

FIMUS, see _Lutum_.

FINDERE; SCINDERE. +Findere+ means to separate a body according to its
natural joints, consequently to divide it, as it were, into its
component parts, to cleave; but +scindere+ (σκεδάσαι) to divide it by
force, without regard to its joints, and so separate it into fragments,
to chop or tear to pieces. Hence +findere lignum+ means to cleave a log
of wood, with the assistance of nature herself, lengthways; +scindere+,
to chop it by mere force breadthways. The _findens æquor nave_ considers
the sea as a conflux of its component waters; the _scindens_, merely as
a whole. (iv. 154.)

FINIRE; TERMINARE; CONSUMMARE; ABSOLVERE; PERFICERE. +Finire+ and
+terminare+ denote the mere ending of anything, without regard to how
far the object of the undertaking is advanced; +finire+ (φθίνειν?) to
end, in opp. to _incipere_, Cic. Orat. iii. 59; but +terminare+, to make
an end, in opp. to _continuare_; whereas +consummare+, +absolvere+, and
+perficere+ denote the completion of a work; +consummare+, as the most
general term in opp. to doing a thing by halves; +absolvere+ refers to a
duty fulfilled, and a difficult work which is now done, and leaves the
workman free, in opp. to _inchoare_; +perficere+ refers to an end
attained, and a self-chosen task, which is now done, and may be called
complete, in opp. to _conari_. Cic. Orat. 29, 30. Verr. i. 27.
+Absolutus+ also has an extensive signification, and refers to the
completeness of the work, like ἐντελής; +perfectus+, an intensive
signification, and refers to the excellence of the work, like τέλεῖος.
(iv. 366.)

FINIS; TERMINUS; LIMES. +Finis+ (from φθίνω) denotes a boundary, as a
mathematical line, like τέλος; +terminus+ and +limes+, a mark, as the
material sign of a boundary; +terminus+ (τειρόμενος, τέρμα,) a stone set
up, as the sign of a bounding point, like τέρμα; +limes+, a ridge, as
the sign of a bounding line, like ὅρος. Cic. Læl. 16. Constituendi sunt
qui sint in amicitia _fines_ et quasi _termini_ diligendi. Hor. Carm.
ii. 18, 24. Revellis agri _terminos_ et ultra _limites_ clientium salis
avarus. (iv. 359.)

FINITIMUS, see _Vicinus_.

FIRMUS, see _Validus_.

FISCUS, see _Ærarium_.

FLAGITARE, see _Petere_.

FLAGITIUM, see _Delictum_.

FLAGRARE, see _Ardere_.

FLAVUS, see _Luteus_.

FLERE, see _Lacrimare_.

FLUCTUS, see _Aqua_.

FLUENTUM, see _Aqua_.

FLUERE; MANARE; LIQUERE. +Fluere+ (φλύω) denotes flowing, with reference
to the motion of the fluid; +manare+ (from μανός, or _madere_,) with
reference to the imparting of the fluid; and +liquere+, with reference
to the nature of the fluid. The cause of the _fluendi_ is, that the
fluid has no dam, and according to the law of gravity flows on; whereas
the cause of the _manandi_ is the over-fulness of the spring; lastly,
+liquere+, to be fluid, is the negative state of _fluere_ and _manare_.
Hence +fluere+, with its synonyme +labi+, is more opposed to _hærere_
and _stare_; and moreover +labari+, with its synonyme +effundi+, more
opposed to _contineri_, _claudi_; lastly, +liquere+, with its synonyme
+dissolvi+, more opposed to _concrevisse_, _rigere_. Gell. xvii. 11.
Plato potum dixit _defluere_ ad pulmonem, eoque satis humectato,
demanare per eum, quia sit rimosior, et _confluere_ inde in vesicam.
(ii. 1.)

FLUVIUS; FLUMEN; AMNIS. +Fluvius+, +flumen+, (from φλύω) denote, like
ῥόος, ῥεῦμα, an ordinary stream, in opp. to a pond and lake; whereas
+amnis+ (ἀμένας, _manare_,) like ποταμός, a great and mighty river, in
opp. to the sea. Cic. Div. i. 50. and Divin. i. 35, 78. Ut _flumina_ in
contrarias partes fluxerint, atque in _amnes_ mare influxerit. Tac. Ann.
xv. 58. Senec. N. Q. iii. 19. Habet ergo non tantum venas aquarum terra,
ex quibus corrivatis _flumina_ effici possunt, sed et _amnes_
magnitudinis vastæ. Then: Hanc magnis _amnibus_ æternam esse materiam,
cujus non tangantur extrema sicut _fluminum_ et fontium. Tac. Hist.
v. 23. Quo Mosæ _fluminis_ os _amnem_ Rhenum oceano affundit. Curt.
ix. 4, 5. (ii. 7.)

FŒCUNDUS; FERTILIS; FERAX; UBER; FRUGIFER; FRUCTUOSUS. 1. +Fœcundus+
(from φύω, fœtus,) denotes the fruitfulness of a living and breeding
being, in opp. to _effatus_, like εὔτόκος; whereas +fertilis+ and
+ferax+ (from (φέρω) the fruitfulness of inanimate and productive
nature, and of the elements, opposed to _sterilis_, like εὔφορος. Tac.
Ann. xii. 63. Byzantium _fertili_ solo _fœcundoque_ mari, quia vis
piscium hos ad portus adfertur. Germ. 5. Terra satis _ferax,
frugiferarum_ arborum impatiens, pecorum _fœcunda_, sed plerumque
improcera. Mela. i. 9, 1. Terra mire _fertilis_ et animalium
_perfœcunda_ genetrix. And ii. 7. 2. +Fertilis+ denotes the actual
fruitfulness which has been produced by cultivation; +ferax+, the mere
capability which arises from the nature of the soil. Cicero uses
_fertilis_ in a proper, _ferax_, in a figurative sense. 3. +Fertilis+
and +ferax+ denote fruitfulness under the image of creative and
productive power, as of the father and mother; +uber+, under the image
of fostering and sustaining, as of the nurse, like εὐθηνής; +frugifer+,
under the image of a corn-field; +fructuosus+, under that of a tree rich
in fruit, like ἔγκαρπος. (iv. 831.)

FŒDUS; SOCIETAS. +Fœdus+ (πεποιθός) is an engagement for mutual
security, on the ground of a sacred contract; whereas +societas+, an
engagement to some undertaking in common on the ground of a mere
agreement. Liv. xxiv. 6. Hieronymus legatos Carthaginem mittit ad
_fœdus_ ex _societate_ faciendum. Sall. Jug. 14. Cic. Phil. ii. 35.
Neque ullam _societatem . . . . fœdere_ ullo confirmari posse credidi.
(vi. 132.)

FŒDUS, see _Tæter_.  [[redirects to _Teter_]]

FŒMINA, see _Femina_.

FŒNUS; USURA. +Fœnus+ (from φύω, fœtus,) denotes interest as the produce
of capital, like τόκος; +usura+ denotes what is paid by the debtor for
the use of capital, like δάνος. (vi. 133.)

FŒTUS; FŒDUS, see _Prægnans_.

FORES, see _Ostium_.

FORMA, see _Figura_.

FORMARE, see _Erudire_.

FORMIDO, see _Vereri_.

FORMOSUS; PULCHER; VENUSTUS. 1. +Formosus+ means beauty, as far as it
excites pleasure and delight by fineness of form; +pulchrum+, as far as
it excites admiration, is imposing, and satisfies the taste by its
perfectness; +venustum+, as far as by its charms it excites desire, and
captivates. +Formositas+ works on the natural sense of beauty;
+pulchritudo+, on the cultivated taste; +venustas+, on the more refined
sensuality. Suet. Ner. 51. Fuit vultu _pulchro_ magis quam _venusto_;
that is, it had perfect and regular beauty rather than pleasing
features, and possessed a cold, heartless sort of beauty, by which no
one felt attracted. Comp. Catull. lxxxvi. Hor. A. P. 99. Cic. Off.
i. 36. 2. +Venustas+, loveliness, is of higher import than _gratia_,
grace; the former transports, the latter only attracts. (iii. 29.)

FORS, see _Casus_.

FORTE, FORTUITO, FORTASSE, FORSITAN, see _Casu_.

FORTITUDO, see _Ferocia_.

FORTUNA, see _Casus_.

FORTUNATUS, see _Felix_.

FOVEA, see _Specus_.

FOVERE, see _Calere_.

FRAGOR; STREPITUS; CREPITUS; SONITUS. +Fragor+ (σφάραγος) is a hollow,
discordant sound, as crashing, like δοῦπος; +strepitus+ (θρέω, θορυβή?)
a loud noisy sound, as roaring, bawling, shrieking, like κτύπος;
+crepitus+ (from κρέμβαλον?) a single sound, or the frequent repeating
of the same sound, as clapping, like κροῦσις, κρότος; +sonitus+ (ἔνοσις,
Ἐνυώ) a sound consisting of the vibrations of elastic bodies, as
ringing, clinking, like ἠχή. Cic. Top. 12. Quæruntur pedum _crepitus,
strepitus_ hominum. (v. 117.)

FRAGRARE, see _Olere_.

FRANGERE; RUMPERE; DIVELLERE. 1. +Frangere+ (ῥῆξαι? or σφαράξαι) denotes
to break to pieces what is hard; +rumpere+ (from ῥέπω, ῥόπαλον,) to rend
to pieces what is flexible. Cato ap. Prisc. Si quis membrum _rupit_, aut
os _fregit_: for by breaking a limb, not the invisible bones, but the
visible flesh, is rent asunder. When, however, +rumpere+ is applied to
any thing hard, it involves the notion of exertion employed, and of
danger; the _frangens_ breaks to pieces what is entire; the _rumpens_
rends to pieces what is obstructive. 2. +Disrumpere+ and +diffringere+
mean to rend to pieces, and break to pieces, what was originally entire;
whereas +divellere+ (διέλκειν) to tear asunder what was at first joined
together. (v. 321.)

FRAUDARE, see _Fallere_.

FRENUM; HABENA; OREÆ. 1. +Frenum+ (from φράξαι?) is the bridle with
which the rider breaks the wild horse, like χαλινός; whereas +habena+
(from hebes, χαβός, κάμψαι,) the rein with which he turns the obedient
horse, like ἡνίον. Hor. Ep. i. 15, 13. Læva stomachosus _habena_ dicet
eques; sed equi _frenato_ est auris in ore; that is, he minds not the
reins, and must feel the bit. Cic. Orat. i. 53. Senatum servire populo,
cui populus ipse moderandi et regendi sui potestatem quasi quasdam
_habenas_ tradidisset: comp. with Tac. Dial. 38. Pompeius adstrinxit,
imposuitque quasi _frenos_ eloquentiæ. 2. +Oreæ+, +aureæ+, now only to
be found in +auriga+, were, perhaps, the generic term of _frenum_ and
_habena_, like harness. (v. 137.)

FREQUENTER, see _Sæpe_.

FRETUS, see _Confisus_.

FRICARE, see _Lævis_.

FRIGERE; ALGERE; ALGIDUS; ALSUS; GELIDUS; FRIGUS; GELU; GLACIES.
+Frigere+ (φρίξαι) means to be cold, in opp. to _calere_, Cic. Fam.
viii. 8. Auct. Her. iv. 15. Sen. Ir. ii. 18; whereas +algere+ (ἀλγεῖν)
means to feel cold, in opp. to _æstuare_. Cic. Tusc. ii. 14, 34. Sen.
Ir. iii. 12. Plin. H. N. xvii. 26. 2. +Algidus+ denotes cold, as an
unpleasant chill; +alsus+, as a refreshing coolness. 3. +Frigidus+
denotes a moderate degree of coldness, in opp. to _calidus_; whereas
+gelidus+ means on the point of freezing, in opp. to _fervidus_.
4. +Frigus+ denotes, objectively, cold in itself, which attacks a man,
and leaves him; whereas +frigedo+ denotes cold, subjectively, as the
state of a man attacked by cold, which begins and ends; it is an
antiquated word which has become obsolete by the general use of
_frigus_. 5. +Gelu+, +gelus+, +gelum+, (γλοία) denote, like κρύος, cold
that produces ice; +gelicidium+, like κρυμός, a single attack of frost,
a frosty night; and +glacies+, like κρύσταλλος, its effect, ice.
(iii. 89.)

FRUCTUOSUS, see _Fœcundus_.

FRUGI, see _Bonus_.

FRUGIFER, see _Fœcundus_.

FRUI, FRUNISCI, see _Uti_.

FRUSTRA; NEQUIDQUAM; INCASSUM; IRRITUS. 1. +Frustra+ (from ψύθος) means
in vain, with reference to the subject, whose expectation and
calculations have been disappointed; whereas +nequidquam+ (that is, in
nequidquam, in nihil), to no purpose, refers to the nullity in which the
thing has ended. 2. Hence +frustra+, used adjectively, refers to the
person; whereas +irritus+, the actual adjective, refers to the thing.
3. +Frustra+ and +nequidquam+ denote merely a failure, without imputing
a fault, like μάτην; whereas +incassum+ involves the accessory notion of
a want of consideration, by which the failure might have been calculated
upon, and foreseen, as in attempting any thing manifestly or
proverbially impossible, εἴς κενόν. (iii. 100.)

FRUSTRARI, see _Fallere_.

FRUTICETUM, see _Rami_.

FUGITIVUS, see _Perfuga_.

FULCIRI; NITI. +Fulciri+, +fultus+ (φυλάξαι) means to prop one’s self up
in order to be secure against falling, generally by leaning against a
pillar, etc.; whereas +niti+, +nixus+, in order to climb a height, or to
get forward, generally by standing on a basis. (ii. 127.)

FULGUR; FULGURATIO; FULMEN. +Fulgur+, +fulgetrum+, and +fulguratio+,
denote the shining of the lightning in the horizon, like ἀστραπή;
+fulgur+, as momentary and single flashes; +fulguratio+, as continued
and repeated; whereas +fulmen+ means the lightning that strikes the
earth, like κεραυνός. Liv. xl. 59. _Fulguribus_ præstringentibus aciem
oculorum, sed _fulmina_ etiam sic undique micabant, ut petit viderentur
corpora. Curt. viii. 4, 3. Ovid, Met. iii. 300. Cic. Divin. ii. 19.
Plin. H. N. ii. 43. Si in nube erumpat ardens, _fulmina_; si longiore
tractu nitatur _fulgetra_; his findi nubem, illis perrumpi. Sen. Q. N.
i. 1. (iii. 318.)

FUNALE, see _Fax_.

FUNDAMENTUM, FUNDUS, see _Solum_.

FUNDUS, see _Villa_.

FUNIS, see _Laqueus_.

FUNUS; EXSEQUIÆ; POMPA. +Funus+ (from φοινός, πεφνεῖν,) denotes the mere
carrying out of the corpse, like ἐκφορά; whereas +exsequiæ+ and +pompa+
(πομπή) denote the solemn procession; +exsequiæ+, of the living, as
relations and friends; +pompa+, of the inanimate, as the images of
ancestors, and other pageants. Cic. Quint. 15. _Funus_, quo amici
conveniunt ad _exsequias_ cohonestandas. And Plin. H. N. x. 43. Flor.
iii. 20. Nep. Att. 22. Elatus est in lecticula, sine ulla _funeris
pompa_, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia. And Cic.
Mil. 13. Tac. Ann. iii. 5. (iv. 408.)

FURARI, see _Demere_.

FUROR, see _Amens_.

FUSTIS; FERULA; SUDES; TRUDES; RUDIS; SCIPIO; BACULUS. 1. +Fustis+ and
+ferula+ denote sticks for striking; +sudes+, +trudes+, and +rudis+, for
thrusting; +scipio+ and +baculus+, for walking. 2. +Fustus+ (πτορθός?)
is a cudgel or club, large enough to strike a man dead; but +ferula+, a
little stick, or rod for the chastisement of school-boys; +sudes+ (ὄζος)
and +trudes+ (στορθή, the root of Trüssel, a weapon called the
Morning-star) [a sort of truncheon with a spiked head], are used in
battle; +rudis+ (ὀρσός) only as a foil in the fencing-school; +scipio+
(σκηπίων, σκῆψαι), serves especially for ornament and state, as a symbol
of superior power, or of the honor due to age; +baculus+, +bacillum+
(βάκτρον), serve more for use and convenience to lean upon, and at the
same time, when necessary, as a weapon. (iii. 265.)


G.

GALEA, see _Cassis_.

GANEUM, see _Deversorium_.

GANNIRE, see _Latrare_.

GARRIRE; FABULARI; BLATIRE; BLATERARE; LOQUAX; VERBOSUS. 1. +Garrire+
(γηρύω) denotes talking, with reference to excessive fondness for
speaking; +fabulari+, to the nullity; +blatire+, and the intensive
+blaterare+, to the foolishness of what is said. 2. The _garrulus_ is
tiresome from the quality, the _loquax_ from the quantity, of what he
says. For +garrulitas+ expresses childish or idle talkativeness, from
the mere pleasure of talking and hearing one’s self talk, without regard
to the value and substance of what is said, and has its origin in a
degeneracy of youthful vivacity, and even in the abuse of superior
talents, like λαλία; whereas +loquacitas+ (λακάζειν) expresses a quaint
talkativeness, from inability to stop short, which has its origin in the
diminished energy of old age, like ἀδολεσχία. The _garrulus_, in his
efforts to please and entertain by light conversation, is silly and
imbecile; the _loquax_, in his efforts to instruct, and make himself
clearly understood, is often tedious. 3. +Garrulus+ and +loquax+ denote
qualities of persons, speakers; +verbosus+, of things, speeches, and
writings. (iii. 81.)

GAUDERE; LÆTARI; HILARIS; ALACER; GESTIRE; EXSULTARE. 1. +Gaudere+ (from
γαῦρος) denotes joy as an inward state of mind, in opp. to _dolor_, like
ἥδεσθαι; whereas +lætari+ and +hilarem esse+, the utterance of joy. Tac.
Hist. ii. 29. Ut valens processit, _gaudium_, miseratio, favor; versi in
_lætitiam_ . . . . laudantes gratantesque. 2. The _lætus_ (from
λιλαίομοι) shows his joy in a calm cheerfulness, which attests perfect
satisfaction with the present, in opp. to _mœstus_, Tac. Ann. xv. 23;
the _hilaris_ (ἱλαρός) in awakened mirth, disposing to jest and
laughter, in opp. to _tristis_; the _alacer_ (ἀλκή) in energetic
vivacity, evincing spirit and activity, in opp. to _territus_. Cic. Cœl.
28. The _gaudens_, the _lætus_, the _hilaris_, derive joy from a piece
of good fortune; the _alacer_ at the same time from employment and
action. Cic. Divin. i. 33, 73. Equum _alacrem lætus_ adspexit. +Lætitia+
shows itself chiefly in an unwrinkled forehead, and a mouth curled for
smiling; +hilaritas+, in eyes quickly moving, shining, and radiant with
joy; +alacritas+, in eyes that roll, sparkle, and announce spirit. Sen.
Ep. 116. Quantam serenitatem _lætitia_ dat. Tac. Agr. 39. Fronte
_lætus_, pectore anxius. Cic. Pis. 5. Te _hilarioribus_ oculis quam
solitus es intuente. 3. +Gaudere+ and +lætari+ denote a moderate;
+exsultare+ and +gestire+, and perhaps the antiquated word +vitulari+, a
passionate, uncontrolled joy, as to exult and triumph; the _gestiens_
(γηθεῖν) discovers this by an involuntary elevation of the whole being,
sparkling eyes, inability to keep quiet, etc.; the _exsultans_, by a
voluntary, full resignation of himself to joy, which displays itself, if
not by skipping and jumping, at least by an indiscreet outbreak of joy,
bordering on extravagance. 4. +Jucundus+ denotes, like juvat me,
a momentary excitement of joy; +lætus+, a more lasting state of joy;
hence _lætus_ is used as the stronger expression, in Plin. Ep. v. 12.
Quam mihi a quocunque excoli _jucundum_, a te vero _lætissimum_ est.
(iii. 242.)

GAZÆ, see _Divitiæ_.

GELICIDIUM, GELIDUS, GELU, see _Frigere_.

GEMERE, see _Suspirare_.

GEMINUS, see _Duplex_.

GENA, see _Mala_.

GENERARE, see _Creare_.

GENS; NATIO; POPULUS; CIVITAS. 1. +Gens+ and +natio+ denote a people, in
a physical sense, in the description of nations, as a society
originating in common descent and relationship, without any apparent
reference to civilization; whereas +populus+ and +civitas+ denote a
people in a political sense, as a society formed by civilization and
compact. Sall. Cat. 10, 1. _Nationes_ feræ et _populi_ ingentes subacti.
Cic. Rep. i. 25. 2. +Gens+ (γενετή) includes all people of the same
descent, like φῦλον; +natio+ (from γνήσιος) a single colony of the same,
like ἔθνος. Vell. P. ii. 98. Omnibus ejus _gentis nationibus_ in arma
accensis. Tac. G. 2, 38. But as _gens_, in this physical sense, as the
complex term for several colonies, has a more comprehensive meaning than
_natio_, so has it, at the same time, in its political accessory
meaning, as a clan, γένος, or as the complex term for several families,
a narrower meaning than _populus_; hence sometimes _populus_ forms, as a
civilized _natio_, a part of the natural _gens_. Liv. iv. 49. Bolanis
suæ _gentis populo_, and Virg. A. x. 202; sometimes +gens+, as a
political society, forms a part of _populus_: Justin. vii. 1. Adunatis
_gentibus_ variorum _populorum_. 3. +Civitas+ (from κείω) denotes the
citizens of a town collectively, πόλις, merely with regard to their
interior connection, as including the inhabitants who are in the
enjoyment of the full rights of citizenship, and the lawful possessors
of the land; +populus+ (redupl. of πόλις) means the people, δῆμος, more
commonly in reference to their social relations, interior and exterior,
and with the included notion of belonging to the state. A people can
determine upon war as a _civitas_; but can carry it on only as a
_populus_. A _civitas_ is necessarily stationary; but a _populus_ may
consist of _Nomades_, or wanderers from one pasture to another.

GENS, GENUS, see _Stirps_.

GERERE, see _Ferre_ and _Agere_.

GESTIRE, see _Velle_ and _Gaudere_.

GIGNERE, see _Creare_.

GILVUS, see _Luteus_.

GLABER, see _Lævis_.

GLACIES, see _Frigere_.

GLADIUS; ENSIS; PUGIO; SICA. 1. +Gladius+ (from κλάδος) is the usual,
+ensis+ (from ansa?) the select and poetical name for a sword. Quintil.
x. 1, 11. (v. 188.) 2. +Pugio+ (from pungere) is a dagger, as a fair and
openly used soldier’s weapon, on a level with the sword; whereas +sica+
(from secare) is the unfair and secret weapon of the bandit, on a level
with poison. (vi. 291.)

GLOBUS; SPHÆRA. +Globus+ is the popular term for any body that is round
like a ball; whereas +sphæra+ is the scientific term, derived from the
Greek for a mathematical globe. (vi. 147.)

GLOBUS, see _Caterva_.

GLORIA; CLARITAS. +Gloria+ (from γέλως) denotes renown, under the image
of something said, like κλέος; _claritas_ (from γαληρός) under that of
some thing bright, and that is seen, like δόξα. (v. 235.)

GLORIATIO, see _Jactatio_.

GLUTUS, see _Faux_.

GNAVITAS, see _Opera_.

GRACILIS, see _Exilis_.

GRADATIM, see _Paulatim_.

GRADIRI, see _Ire_.

GRADUS; GRESSUS; PASSUS. 1. +Gressus+ denotes a step subjectively,
whereas +gradus+ objectively. +Gressus+ is a step that is being taken;
+gradus+ that is taken. 2. +Gressus+ is a product of going, but
+passus+, of standing also, if the feet are at the same distance from
each other as in walking. +Gressus+ denotes any separation of the feet,
whether longer or shorter, quicker or slower, whether deserving the name
of step or not; whereas +passus+ means a regular measured step, which at
the same time serves as a measure of length. Virg. Æn. i. 414. Tendere
_gressus_ ad mœnia: comp. with ii. 723. Iulus sequitur patrem non
_passibus_ æquis. (iv. 58.)

GRÆCI; GRAII; GRÆCULI; GRÆCANICUS. 1. +Græci+ denotes the Greeks merely
as a term in the description of different nations, and a historical
name, without any accessory moral reference; whereas +Graii+, with
praise, as the classical name for a nation of heroes in days of yore:
+Græculi+, with blame, as the degenerate people, false and unworthy of
trust, that existed in the times of the Roman writers. 2. +Græcum+ means
what is really Grecian, whether in or out of Greece; but +Græcanicus+,
what is made after the Grecian manner, what is merely à la Grecque.
(v. 304.)

GRANDÆVUS, see _Vetus_.

GRANDIS, see _Magnus_.

GRATIA, see _Studium_.

GRATIAS AGERE, HABERE, REFERRE; GRATES; GRATARI; GRATULARI. 1. +Gratiam+
or +gratias habere+ means to feel thankful, like χάριν εἰδέναι; whereas
+gratias agere+, to return thanks in words, like εὐχαριστεῖν; lastly,
+gratiam referre+, to show one’s self thankful by deeds, like χάριν
φέρειν, ἀντιχαρίζεσθαι. Cic. Marc. ii. 33. Maximas tibi omnes _gratias
agimus_; majores etiam _habemus_. Off. ii. 20. Inops etiamsi _referre
gratiam_ non potest, _habere_ tamen potest. And Fam. v. 11. x. 11.
Planc. 28. Balb. 1. Phil. iii. 2. 2. +Gratias agere+ is the usual;
+grates agere+, a select and solemn form of speech. Cic. Somn. _Grates_
tibi _ago_, summe Sol, vobisque reliqui cœlites. 3. In the same manner
+gratulari+ denotes an occasional expression of thanks without oblation,
and a congratulation without formality, whereas +gratari+, a solemn
thanksgiving, or congratulation. Liv. vii. 3. Jovis templum _gratantes_
ovantesque adire: comp. with Ter. Heaut. v. 1, 6. Desine deos
_gratulando_ obtundere. (ii. 213.)

GRATUS; JUCUNDUS; ACCEPTUS; GRATIOSUS. 1. +Gratum+ (from κεχαρῆσθαι)
means that which is acceptable only in reference to its value with us,
as precious, interesting, and worthy of thanks; but +jucundum+ (from
juvare) in reference to the joy which it brings us, as delightful. Cic.
Att. iii. 24. Ista veritas etiam si _jucunda_ non est, mihi tamen
_grata_ est. Fam. v. 18. Cujus officia _jucundiora_ scilicet sæpe mihi
fuerunt, nunquam _gratiora_. And v. 15. xiii. 18. 2. +Gratus+ refers to
the feeling, as wished for; +acceptus+, to its expression, as welcome.
3. The _gratus alicui_ meets with no antipathy, but is liked; the
_gratiosus apud aliquem_ is the object of distinguished favor, and
enthusiastic attachment, as the favorite or darling. (iii. 254.)

GRAVIDUS, see _Prægnans_.

GRAVITAS, see _Moles_ and _Severitas_.

GREMIUM; SINUS. +Gremium+ is the lap, or surface formed by the knees in
a sitting posture, and figuratively the symbol of the fostering care of
a mother; whereas +sinus+, the bosom, between the two breasts,
especially in the female sex, and figuratively the symbol of protection
and refuge. Cic. Pis. 37. Ætolia procul a barbaris disjuncta gentibus in
_sinu_ pacis posita medio fere Græciæ _gremio_ continetur. (vi. 150.)

GRESSUS, see _Gradus_.

GREX, see _Caterva_ and _Pecus_.

GRUMUS, see _Collis_.

GULA, see _Faux_.

GURGES, see _Vorago_.

GURGULIO, see _Faux_.

GUSTUS, GUSTARE, see _Sapor_.

GUTTA; STILLA; STIRIA. +Gutta+ is a natural, +stilla+ (στίλη, σταλάξαι),
an artificial measured drop. Further, the principal notion in +gutta+ is
that of smallness, hence +guttatim+ means drop by drop; whereas in
+stilla+ the principal notion is that of humidity, hence +stillatim+
means trickling or dripping. +Stilla+ means a liquid; +stiria+ (στερεά)
a frozen drop. (iii. 4.)

GUTTUR, see _Faux_.

GYRUS, see _Orbis_.


H.

HABENA, see _Frenum_.

HABERE, see _Tenere_.

HABITARE, see _Incolere_.

HABITUS, see _Vestis_.

HACTENUS, see _Adhuc_.

HÆDUS, see _Caper_.

HÆRERE; PENDERE. +Hærere+ (χειρόω?) means to stick, and not to be loose,
or able to get forwards; +pendere+ (πέτεσθαι), to be suspended, and
prevented from falling to the ground. Cic. Acad. ii. 39. Ut videamus
terra penitusne defixa sit et radicibus suis _hæreat_, an media
_pendeat_. (vi. 154.)

HÆSITARE, see _Cunctari_.

HARENA, see _Sabulo_.

HARIOLARI; VATICINARI. +Hariolari+ (from χρᾶν) means to foretell, with
the accessory notion of charlatanism, like χρησμολογεῖν; whereas
+vaticinari+ (from vates, ἠχέτης,) to foretell, with the accessory
notion of inspiration, like μαντεύεσθαι. In Cic. Divin. i. 2,
_Hariolorum_ et _vatum_ furibundæ prædictiones, it is only the
_harioli_, who from their position and in public estimation already pass
for charlatans; whereas the _vates_ are charlatans only, as Cicero
himself views them from his philosophical elevation. (iii. 76.)

HASTA, see _Missile_.

HAUD SCIO AN, see _Casu_.

HELLUO, see _Prodigus_.

HELVUS, see _Luteus_.

HEROS, see _Numen_.

HILARIS, see _Gaudere_.

HIRCUS, see _Caper_.

HIRSUTUS, HIRTUS, HISPIDUS, see _Horridus_.

HISTORIÆ, see _Annales_.

HISTRIO, see _Actor_.

HŒDUS, see _Caper_.

HOMICIDA; INTERFECTOR; PEREMTOR; INTEREMTOR; PERCUSSOR; SICARIUS.
+Homicida+ denotes the manslayer in a general sense, as far as
manslaughter is a crime, like ἀνδροφόνος; whereas +interfector+,
+peremtor+, and +interemtor+, only the slayer of a particular person,
whether the deed be a crime or not, like φονεύς; +percussor+ and
+sicarius+ denote the instruments of another’s will, and mere mechanical
executioners of another’s decree; but the _percussor_ executes a public
sentence of condemnation, as the headsman, while the _sicarius_ lends
and hires out his hand to a secret assassination, like the bandit. Cic.
Rosc. Am. 33, 93. Erat tum multitudo sicariorum . . . et homines impune
occidebantur. . . Si eos putas . . . quos qui leviore nomine appellant,
_percussores_ vocant, quæro in cujus fide sint et tutela. (iii. 191.)

HOMO; MAS; VIR; HOMUNCULUS; HOMUNCIO; HOMULLUS. 1. +Homo+ (Goth. guma,
from humus, χθών, ἐπιχθόνιος), means a human being, man or woman, in
opp. to _deus_ and _bellua_, like ἄνθρωπος; +mas+ and +vir+ mean only
the man; +mas+ in a physical sense, in opp. to _femina_, like ἄρσην;
+vir+ (Goth. wair, from ἰρῆνες), in a physical sense, in opp. to
_mulier_, like ἀνήρ. Sen. Polyb. 36. Non sentire mala sua non est
_hominis_, at non ferre non est _viri_. Ep. 103. Cic. Tusc. ii. 22. Fam.
v. 17. Justin, xi. 13. 2. +Homunculus+ denotes the weak and powerless
being called man, with reference to the whole race, in opp. to the
Deity, to nature in general, to the universe, etc.; +homuncio+ and
+homullus+ denote the weak and insignificant man, as an individual, in
opp. to other men; +homuncio+, with a feeling of pity; +homullus+, with
a feeling of scorn. (v. 133.)

HONESTAS, see _Virtus_.

HONESTUS, see _Bonus_.

HONORARE; HONESTARE. +Honorare+ means to honor any body, by paying him
singular respect, and yielding him honor; but +honestare+ means to
dignify, or confer a permanent mark of honor upon any body.

HORNUS; HORNOTINUS. +Hornus+ (χθεσινός) that which is of this year, as a
poetical, +hornotinus+, as a prosaic word.

HORRIDUS; HIRTUS; HIRSUTUS; HISPIDUS; ASPER. +Horridus+ (from χέρσος,
χορταῖος), is the most general expression for whatever is rough and
rugged, from want of formation; +hirtus+ and +hirsutus+ refer
particularly to what is covered with rough hair, in opp. to what is soft
and smooth; +hispidus+ and +asper+, to rough elevations, in opp. to what
is level; +hispidus+, to the roughness that offends the eye; +asper+, to
the roughness that causes pain. Vell. P. ii. 4. describes Marius as
_hirtus et horridus_; _hirtus_ referring to his neglected exterior,
_horridus_, to his rough nature. (vi. 161.)

HORROR, see _Vereri_.

HORTARI; MONERE. The +hortatio+ (ὄρθωσις, ἐρέθω), addresses itself
immediately to the will and resolution; whereas the +monitio+, almost
entirely to the consciousness and judgment. The +hortatio+ has always an
action for its object; the +monitio+, only a representation, and by the
medium of that representation, an action for its object. Sall. Jug. 60.
_Monere_ alii, alii _hortari_. Cat. 60. Nequidquam _hortere_ . . . Sed
ego vos quo pauca _monerem_, convocavi. Sen. Ep. 13. Nimium diu te
_cohortor_, cum tibi _admonitione_ magis quam _exhortatione_ opus sit.
Cic. Fam. x. 40. Si aut aliter sentirem, certe _admonitio_ tua me
reprimere, aut si dubitarem, _hortatio_ impellere posset. (i. 164.)

HOSPES; ADVENTOR. +Hospes+ is the guest who visits his friend;
+adventor+, the person who puts up at his host’s. Sen. Benef. i. 14.
Nemo se stabularii aut cauponis _hospitem_ judicat. (iv. 392.)

HOSPES, see _Externus_.

HOSPITIUM, see _Deversorium_.

HOSTIS, see _Adversarius_.

HUCUSQUE, see _Adhuc_.

HUMANITAS; COMITAS; FACILITAS; CIVILITAS. +Humanitas+ is a virtue of
universal extent, which, like the mental cultivation, proceeding from
intelligence, ennobles the whole man in mind and heart, and gives to his
nature mildness and philanthropy, as a principle; in opp. to _feritas_;
+comitas+ (from κόσμος) is a moral virtue, which, like affability,
without respect to higher rank in society, treats every man as a man;
+facilitas+, a social virtue, which, like complaisance, by forbearance
and meeting the views of others, facilitates mutual intercourse in life,
and makes it pleasant; +civilitas+, a political virtue, which, like the
republican feeling of a prince, makes the specific difference between a
ruler and his people unfelt, and treats his subjects as fellow-citizens.
Nep. Milt. 8. In Miltiade erat quum summa _humanitas_, tum mira
_comitas_, ut nemo tam humilis esset cui non ad eum aditus pateret.
(v. 6.)

HUMANITUS; HUMANE; HUMANITER. +Humanitus+ means in a human manner, in
objective reference to the exterior condition of man, namely, that of
weakness and mortality, like ἀνθρωπείως, ἀνθρωπίνως; whereas +humane+
and +humaniter+, in subjective reference to man’s capacity for and
propensity towards cultivation; _humane facere_ is the result of moral
cultivation, like φιλανθρώπως; _humaniter facere_ is the result of
social cultivation, like ἐπιεικῶς. (v. 8.)

HUMARE, see _Sepelire_.

HUMERUS, see _Armus_.

HUMIDUS, see _Udus_.

HUMUS, see _Tellus_.


I & J.

JACERE, see _Cubare_.

JACTATIO; GLORIATIO; OSTENTATIO; VENDITATIO. +Jactatio+ and +gloriatio+
have their foundation in vanity and self-complacency; +jactatio+ is
making much ado of one’s excellencies and merits, and shows itself in
words and actions, with the accessory notion of folly; +gloriatio+ is
talking big, proclaiming one’s excellencies and merits, with the
accessory notion of insolence; whereas +ostentatio+ and +venditatio+
have their foundation in a crafty calculation of the effect to be
produced, and a disregard to truth; +ostentatio+ would conceal real
emptiness under a false show; +venditatio+ would, by exaggerating one’s
excellencies, pass them off for greater than they are.

JACTURA, see _Amittere_ and _Damnum_.

JACULUM, see _Missile_.

JANUA, see _Ostium_.

ICERE, see _Verberare_.

IDONEUS; APTUS. +Idoneus+ denotes a passive, +aptus+ an active fitness
for any thing. F. A. Wolf. Or, the _idoneus_ is fitted by his
qualifications, and, through outward circumstances, for any particular
destination, like the ἐπιτήδειος; the aptus (from potis, potens), by his
worth and adequacy, like ἱκανός. The _idoneus_ is in himself inactive,
and suffers himself to be employed for a particular purpose, for which
he is qualified; the _aptus_ himself engages in the business, because he
is adequate to it. (iii. 276.)

IGNARUS, see _Cognitio_.

IGNAVIA; INERTIA; SEGNITIA; DESIDIA; SOCORDIA; PIGRITIA. 1. +Ignavia+
denotes the love of idleness, in an +ideal+ sense, inasmuch as the
impulse to action distinguishes the more noble from the ordinary man,
and gives him an +absolute+ value; in opp. to _industria_, Tac. Ann.
xii. 12. xvi. 18; whereas +inertia+ denotes the love of idleness in a
_real tangible_ sense, inasmuch as activity makes a man a useful member
of society, and gives him a relative value. +Ignavia+ is inherent in the
temperament, and has no inclination for action; +inertia+ lies in the
character and habits, and has no desire to work. A lazy slave is called
_inors_; a person of rank, that passes his time in doing nothing, is
_ignavus_. 2. +Segnitia+, +desidia+, +socordia+, and +pigritia+, are the
faults of a too easy temperament. +Segnitia+ (from sequi, ὄκνος,) wants
rousing, or compulsion, and must be conquered, before it resigns its
ease, in opp. to _promptus_. Tac. Agr. 21. +Desidia+ (from sedere) lays
its hands on its lap, and expects that things will happen of themselves;
+socordia+ is susceptible of no lively interest, and neglects its duties
from want of thought, like phlegm; +pigritia+ has an antipathy to all
motion, and always feels best in a state of absolute bodily rest, like
slothfulness. (iv. 212.)

IGNAVIA, see _Vereri_.

IGNOMINIA; INFAMIA; DEDECUS; PROBRUM; OPPROBRIUM. 1. +Ignominia+
deprives one of political honor, which is independent of the reports
circulated concerning a man, and is the consequence of an official
denunciation, the justice of which is supposed; that of the censor, for
example, like ἀτιμία; whereas +infamia+ deprives one of moral honor, of
one’s good name, has a reference to public scorn, and is the consequence
of shameless and dishonorable conduct, like δυσφημία. 2. +Ignominia+ and
+infamia+ are abstract, and denote subjective states; +dedecus+ and
+probrum+ are concrete, and denote, objectively, disgrace itself;
+dedecus+ is a deviation from the conduct that becomes a man of honor,
from whom noble actions are expected; +probrum+ is a stain on the
morality of a man, from whom, at least, irreproachable conduct is
expected. +Dedecus+ is incurred generally in our public relations, by
abjectness of spirit, etc.; +probrum+, in our private relations, by
licentiousness, etc. 3. +Probrum+ (from προφέρω is reproach, as far as
it can justly be made; +opprobrium+, reproach, as far as it actually is
made. In _probrum_ the disgrace itself is more considered; in
_opprobrium_, the open proclamation of it.

IGNOSCERE; VENIAM DARE. +Ignoscere+ (ἀναγιγνώσκειν) is a moral act; as,
to forgive from one’s heart; to forgive and forget, in opp. to retaining
anger, συγγιγνώσκειν; whereas +veniam dare+ (ἀνίαν or ἄνεσιν δοῦναι) is
a political act, to allow clemency to take place of justice, in opp. to
punishment, like μεθιέναι. The friend _ignoscit_ a person of his own
rank; one who is of higher rank and greater power _veniam dat_. Cic.
Man. 3. Illis imperatoribus laus est tribuenda quod egerunt; _venia
danda_ quod reliquerunt; comp. with Att. xvi. 16. _Ignosce_ mihi quod
eadem de re sæpius scribam. (v. 170.)

ILIA, see _Caro_.

ILLICO, see _Repente_.

ILLUSTRIS, see _Celeber_ and _Luculentus_.

IMAGO; SIMULACRUM; STATUA; SIGNUM. 1. +Imago+ and +simulacrum+ denote,
as the most general terms, any representation, whether a work of
statuary or of painting; +imago+ (μηχανή) is allied to the original, as
to a pattern, by a striking likeness of form, like εἰκών; +simulacrum+
is opposed to the original, as a real being, by a deceptive imitation of
its form, like εἴδωλον; whereas +statua+, +signum+, and +effigies+, are
merely plastic works; +tabula+ and +pictura+, merely pictures.
2. +Simulacrum+ and +statua+ denote the copying of the whole figure,
consequently, in the plastic art, standing figures; +effigies+ and
+imago+, principally the copying of the characteristic parts, namely,
the features; +effigies+, in statuary, as busts; +imago+, in painting,
as half-length portraits. Tac. Ann. i. 74. Alia in _statua_ amputato
capite Augusti _effigiem_ Tiberii inditam. Hist. ii. 3. _Simulacrum_ deæ
_effigie_ humana. Cic. Tusc. iii. 2, 3. Optimus quisque consectatur
nullam eminentem _effigiem_ (virtutis) sed adumbratam _imaginem_ gloriæ.
+Signum+ (from sequo, to proclaim,) means any plastic work, in opp. to
_tabulæ_ and _picturæ_. Sal. Cat. 11. Cic. Orat. i. 35. Man. 14. Suet.
Cæs. 47. Quintil. ix. 2. Cic. Verr. iv. 1; +simulacrum+ means the sacred
statue of a god, like ἄγαλμα; +statua+, the profane statue of a man,
like ἀνδριάς. Cic. Cat. iii. 8. _Simulacra_ deorum immortalium depulsa
sunt et _statuæ_ veterum hominum dejectæ. Tac. Ann. i. 73. Suet. Tib.
26. Cic. Verr. i. 22. Legati deorum _simulacra_ venerabantur, itemque
cætera _signa_ et ornamenta lacrimantes intuebantur. (v. 237.)

IMBER, see _Pluvia_.

IMITATIO; ÆMULATIO; CERTATIO; RIVALITAS; SIMULATIO. 1. +Imitari+ means
merely the effort to produce something like some other thing, without
any accessory moral notion; +æmulari+ (from αἴσιμος) means, at the same
time, to do something which shall gain equal or superior consideration,
honor, and approbation, when compared with the thing imitated.
+Imitatio+ has in view only the thing itself, and is generally moderate
and laudable; +æmulatio+ has in view chiefly the person, who is already
in possession of the quality worthy of imitation, and always seems more
or less a passion, which deserves praise or blame, according as it has
its foundation in the lover of honor, or in immoderate ambition. Plin.
Ep. vii. 30. Demosthenis orationem habui in manibus, non ut _æmularer_
(improbum enim ac pæne furiosum) at tamen _imitarer_ ac sequerer tantum.
Comp. i. 2, 2. viii. 5, 13. Quintil. i. 2, 26. Cic. Tusc. iv. 8, 17. 2.
The +æmulus+ is at first behind his opponent, and strives for a time
only to come up to him, and be like him; whereas the +certator+ and
+concertator+ are already on a par with their opponent, and strive to
outdo him, and conquer him. 3. +Æmulatio+ contends for superiority in
any art; +rivalitas+, only for preference in estimation. Cic. Tusc.
iv. 26, 56. Illa vitiosa _æmulatione_, quæ _rivalitati_ similis est,
quid habet utilitatis? 4. +Imitatio+ is an effort to become something
which a man at present is not, but fain would be, and really can become;
whereas +simulatio+, an effort to pass for something which a man
properly and naturally is not, nor ever can be. +Imitatio+ is the means
of attaining to an actual or presumptive ideal; whereas +simulatio+
remains for ever a mere counterfeit. (iii. 64.)

IMPAR, see _Æquus_.

IMPENSÆ, see _Sumptus_.

IMPERARE, see _Jubere_.

IMPERTIRE; TRIBUERE; PARTICIPARE; COMMUNICARE. +Impertire+ and
+tribuere+ denote giving a portion, without reference to any share,
which the giver is to retain for himself; +impertire+ means giving, as
an act of free will and of goodness; +tribuere+, as an act of justice,
or of judiciousness; whereas +participare+ and +communicare+, the giving
a share of something of which one also retains a share one’s self;
+participare+ has generally the receiver for its object, who is to share
a possession; but +communicare+, generally the thing shared, in the use
of which the receiver is to have a share. (iv. 158.)

IMPIETAS, see _Delictum_.

IMPIUS, see _Scelestus_.

IMPONERE, see _Fallere_.

IMUS; INFIMUS. +Imum+ (superl. from in) denotes the lowest part of a
whole; +infimum+ (superl. from inferus) either the lowest part of all
the parts, that is, the basis, or the lowest in a discrete magnitude,
that is, a magnitude consisting of distinct parts. The _imum_ is the
lowest extremity of a part; then the _infimum_, the lowest part, with
reference to the other parts. Cic. Rosc. Com. 7. Ab _imis_ unguibus
usque ad summum verticem: compare with Divin. i. 33. Ut ab _infima_ ara
subito anguis emergeret; and with N. D. ii. 20. Luna _infima_ est
quinque errantium. Further, +imus+ denotes the lowest in a purely local
relation; +infimus+, with the accessory notion of the lowest rank.
(iv. 377.)

INAMBULARE, see _Ambulare_.

INANIS; VACUUS. +Inanis+ (from ἰνάω) means the emptiness of that which
has been full, but is now without its contents, in opp. to _plenus_,
Cic. Orat. i. 9, 37. Parad. 6, 1. Brut. 8, 34; whereas +vacuus+ denotes
the emptiness of that which may be filled, but is at present vacant, in
opp. to _occupatus_, Tac. Hist. iv. 17; or to _obsessus_, Cic. N. T.
i. 24. Tac. Ann. vi. 34. Jason post avectam Medeam genitosque ex ea
liberos _inanem_ mox regiam Æetæ _vacuosque_ Colchos repetivit; that is,
the palace deserted and desolate, and the people without a governor.
Figuratively, +inane+ means a nullity; +vacuum+, a vacancy. (i. 100.)

INCASSUM, see _Frustra_.

INCASTUS, see _Inficetus_.

INCEDERE, see _Ire_.

INCENDERE, see _Accendere_.

INCESTUS, see _Inficetus_.

INCHOARE, see _Incipere_.

INCIENS, see _Prægnans_.

INCIPERE; ORDIRI; INCHOARE; CŒPISSE. 1. +Incipere+ denotes the
beginning, in opp. to the state of rest, which precedes and follows,
consequently it is in opp. to _cessare_ and _desinere_, _desistere_,
_finire_; whereas +ordiri+ (from ἔρδειν, radix,) in opp. to an
advancement; consequently in opp. to _continuare_, and its intransitive
_pergere_; lastly, +inchoare+ (from conari) in opp. to ending and
accomplishing, consequently in opp. to _perficere_, _consummare_,
_peragere_, _absolvere_, etc. Cic. Off. i. 37. Ut _incipiendi_ ratio
fuerit, ita sit _desinendi_ modus. Tusc. i. 49. Sen. Ep. 116. Plin.
H. N. xi. 51. Plin. Pan. 54, 6. 57, 2. Ep. ix. 4. Quintil. xi. 3, 34.
Tac. Agr. 32. Varro R. R. iii. 16. Apes cum evolaturæ sunt, aut etiam
_inciperunt_, consonant vehementer. Cic. Fin. iv. 6. Hoc _inchoati_
cujusdam officii est, non _perfecti_. Brut. 33. Liv. xl. 9. Plin. Ep.
iii. 8, 7. Plin. H. N. x. 63. Tac. Dial. 33. Suet. Claud. 3. Cic. Fr.
ap. Non. _Perge_, quæso, nec enim imperite exorsus es. 2. +Cœpi+ has
nearly the same words in opp. to it as _incipere_ has; Sen. Cons. Polyb.
20. Quicquid _cœpit_, et desinit. Cic. Rab. Post. 2. Ovid, Ep. ix. 23;
+cœpi+ refers more to the action which is begun; +incepi+, more to the
beginning which has been made. +Cœpi+ is a sort of auxiliary verb;
+incepi+ is emphatic; hence +cœpi+ has an infinitive, +incipere+ a
substantive, for its object. Cic. Verr. v. 10. Quum ver esse _cœperat_
(sed cum rosam viderat, tum ver _incipere_ arbitrabatur), dabat se
labori. (iii. 157.)

INCITARE; INSTIGARE; IRRITARE; INSTINCTUS. 1. +Incitare+ (from ciere)
denotes to urge an inactive person by merely bidding, speaking to, and
calling upon him, to an action, generally of a laudable kind,
synonymously with _hortari_; +instigare+ (from στίξαι) to spur on a
reluctant person by more vehement exhortations, promises, threatenings,
to an adventurous act, synonymously with _stimulare_; +irritare+
(ἀνερεθίζω) to incite a quiet person by rousing his passions, ambition,
revenge, to a violent action, synonymously with _exarcerbare_. Ter. And.
iv. 2, 9. Age, si hic non insanit satis sua sponte, _instiga_. Lucr.
iv. 1075. Et stimuli subsunt qui _instigant_ lædere id upsum.
2. +Instigatus+ means spurred on by an exterior and profane power, by
words, commands, etc.; +instinctus+ means impelled by an interior and
higher power, by inspiration, love, the voice of the gods. (iii. 314.)

INCLYTUS, see _Celeber_.

INCOLERE; HABITARE; INCOLA; INQUILINUS; COLONUS. 1. +Incolere+ is
transitive, as to inhabit; +habitare+, intransitive, as to dwell. At the
same time +incolere+ has reference to the country, to which a man, as a
citizen or inhabitant, belongs; whereas +habitare+ has reference to the
house, in which a man, as owner or tenant, has his stationary residence.
2. +Incola+ is the inhabitant, in opp. to the citizen, Cic. Off. i. 34,
like μέτοικος; +inquilinus+, the tenant, in opp. to the owner of the
house, _dominus_, Cic. Phil. ii. 41, like σύνοικος; +colonus+, the
farmer, in opp. to the landowner, Cic. Cæc. 32; something like θής.

INCOLUMIS, see _Salvus_.

INCUNABULA, see _Cunæ_.

INCURIOSUS, see _Tutus_.

INCURVUS, see _Curvus_.

INCUSARE, see _Arguere_.

INDAGARE, see _Quærere_.

INDIGERE, see _Carere_.

INDIGNARI, see _Succensere_.

INDOLES, see _Ingenium_.

INDULGERE, see _Concedere_.

INDUSTRIA, see _Opera_.

INEDIA, see _Fames_.

INERTIA, see _Ignavia_.

INFAMIA, see _Ignominia_.

INFANS, see _Puer_.

INFENSUS, INFESTUS, see _Adversarius_.

INFICETUS; INFACETUS; INCESTUS; INCASTUS. 1. +Inficetus+ involves
positive blame, a tasteless and heavy fellow; whereas +infacetus+ only
negative, a man not remarkable for wit. 2. In the same manner +incestus+
denotes an incestuous person; whereas +incastus+ only an unchaste
person. Sen. Contr. ii. 13. (ii. 83.)

INFIDELIS, INFIDUS, see _Fidus_.

INFIMUS, see _Imus_.

INFITIARI, INFITIAS IRE, see _Negare_.

INFLAMMARE, see _Accendere_.

INFORTUNIUM; CALAMITAS; INFELICITAS; MISERIA. +Infortunium+ and
+calamitas+ denote a single misfortune; +infortunium+, more as a
vexatious accident, like malheur, for example, the loss of a purse,
receiving blows, etc.; +calamitas+ (from κολούω) a tragic accident, as
the loss of a beloved person, of power, etc.; whereas +infelicitas+ and
+miseria+ denote an unfortunate state of considerable duration;
+infelicitas+, merely as the absence of success; +miseria+ (from
μυσαρός?) as an actual, pressing state of affliction.

INGENIUM; NATURA; INDOLES. +Ingenium+ and +natura+ denote the
disposition, as far as it constitutes the immovable ground of human
individuality, and is susceptible of no change; +ingenium+, more with
reference to the faculties of the mind, +natura+ to the feelings of the
heart; whereas +indoles+ denotes the disposition, as far as it
constitutes only the beginning of individuality, and is susceptible of
improvement. (vi. 172.)

INGLUVIES, see _Faux_.

INGREDI, see _Inire_ and _Ire_.

INGRUERE, see _Irruere_.

INIMICITIA, see _Odium_.

INIMICUS, see _Adversarius_.

INIRE; INTRARE; INTROIRE; INGREDI. 1. +Inire+ denotes almost always only
a figurative entering, as to engage in any thing, for example, _inire
pugnam_, _numerum_, etc.; whereas +intrare+, +introire+, +ingredi+, a
literal entering; +intrare+ is usually transitive, as to enter, and has
an emphasis on the verbal part of the word; whereas +introire+ is
intransitive, as to step in, and has an emphasis on the adverbial part
of the word. In the phrase _intrare curiam_ one thinks more of the mere
threshold, which is to be stepped over; in the phrase _introire_ one
thinks more of the four walls by which one is to be enclosed.
2. +Intrare+ and +introire+ suppose a space distinctly limited by walls,
boundaries, marks; whereas +ingredi+ supposes, generally, any limited
space, for example, _viam_, _pontem_, etc. (iv. 521.)

INITIUM; PRINCIPIUM; PRIMORDIUM. 1. +Initium+ denotes the beginning in
an abstract sense, as the mere point from which a thing begins, in opp.
to _exitus_. Cic. Rosc. Com. 13, 39. Tusc. i. 38. Brut. 34. Sen. Ep. 9.
N. Q. iii. 29; whereas +principium+ denotes the beginning as a concrete
notion, as that part of the whole which stands before the other parts in
things, and goes before them in actions, in opp. to _extremum_. Cic.
Cleunt. 4. Orat. 61, 204. Cæc. 15, 44. In _initium_ the beginning is
made only with reference to time; in _principium_ the foundation also is
laid with reference to space. The _initium_ is pushed out of the way by
that which follows; the _principium_ serves as a basis for that which
follows. The _initia philosophiæ_ are the rudiments over which the
scholar goes, and which are superseded by further studies; the
_principia_ are the fundamental principles, to which he must always
recur. +Initio+ usually means “at the beginning, but differently (or,
not at all) afterwards;” whereas +principio+ means from the very
beginning, and so onwards. 2. +Primordium+ is a more solemn and
comprehensive term than _principium_, and supposes a whole of great
extent, the beginning of which is so far removed that one can
distinguish a merely apparent beginning from the actual and primeval
source and origin. (iii. 163.)

INJURIA, see _Contumelia_.

INNOCENTIA, see _Virtus_.

INNUMERUS; INNUMERABILIS. +Innumerus+ is a poetical and choice
expression, like numberless, ἀνήριθμος; +innumerabilis+, a prosaic and
usual expression, like innumerable, ἀναρίθμητος. (vi. 173.)

INOPIA, see _Paupertas_.

INQUAM, see _Dicere_.

INQUILINUS, see _Incolere_.

INQUINARE, s. _Contaminare_.

INSANUS, see _Amens_.

INSCENDERE, see _Scandere_.

INSCIUS, see _Cognitio_.

INSIGNIS, see _Eminens_.

INSIMULARE, see _Arguere_.

INSOLENTIA, see _Superbia_.

INSOMNIS, see _Vigil_.

INSOMNIUM, see _Somnus_.

INSTIGARE, see _Incitare_.

INSTITUERE; INSTAURARE; RESTITUERE; RESTAURARE. +Instituere+ means to
establish a profane, +instaurare+, a sacred, or honorable, or generally
important institution, such as sacrifices, sacred games, wars and
battles. Hence is _instituere_ itself a usual, _instaurare_, a solemn,
select expression. In the same manner _restituere_ is distinguished from
_restaurare_. (iv. 300.)

INSTITUERE, see _Erudire_.

INSTRUCTUS, see _Præditus_.

INSUPER, see _Præterea_.

INTEGER, see _Salvus_.

INTEGRARE, see _Iterum_.

INTELLIGERE; SENTIRE; COGNOSCERE. +Intelligere+ denotes a rational
discernment, by means of reflection and combination; +sentire+, a
natural discernment, by means of the feelings, immediate images, or
perceptions, whether of the senses or of the mind; lastly, +cognoscere+
denotes an historical discernment, by means of the senses and of
tradition. Sen. Ir. iii. 13. Quidni gauderet, quod iram suam multi
_intelligerent_, nemo _sentiret_? Cic. N. D. iii. 24. Quare autem in his
vis deorum insit, tum _intelligam_ quum _cognovero_. (vi. 175.)

INTERCAPEDO; INTERRUPTIO; INTERPELLATIO; INTERLOCUTIO. +Intercapedo+ and
+interruptio+ are any interruption of another person’s business;
+intercapedo+, a quiet, often even a benevolent interruption;
+interruptio+, a violent and turbulent interruption; whereas
+interpellatio+ and +interlocutio+ are only the interruption of a speech
by speaking between; the _interpellator_ will nearly prevent the speaker
from going on; the _interlocutor_ will make himself also heard in the
midst of another’s speech. (vi. 176.)

INTERDICERE, see _Vetare_.

INTERDIU, see _Dies_.

INTERDUM, see _Nonnunquam_.

INTEREA; INTERIM. +Interea+ refers to a business of some duration, which
takes place in a space of time, as in the mean time; +interim+, to a
momentary business, as in the midst of this. They have the same relation
to each other, as a point of time to a space of time. Cic. Quint. 6. Hæc
dum Romæ geruntur . . . Quintius _interea_ de agro detruditur; that is,
gradually; comp. with Fam. x. 12. _Interim_ ad me venit Manutius noster.
Tac. Ann. xi. 32. Non rumor _interea_, sed undique nuntii incedunt . . .
Atque _interim_ Ostiensem viam intrat. (iv. 271.)

INTEREMTOR, see _Homicida_.

INTERESSE, see _Adesse_.

INTERFECTOR, see _Homicida_.

INTERFICERE; PERIMERE; INTERIMERE; NECARE; OCCIDERE; JUGULARE;
OBTRUNCARE; TRUCIDARE; PERCUTERE. +Interficere+ and +perimere+ are the
most general expressions for putting to death, in whatever manner, and
from whatever motive, _fame_, _veneno_, _suspendio_, _ferro_,
_suppliciis_, _dolo_, like κτείνειν; but +interficere+ as a usual,
+perimere+ as an old, forcible, poetical expression. +Interimere+
involves the accessory notion of privacy, as to remove out of the way;
ἀναιρεῖν; +necare+, that of injustice, or, at least, cruelty, to murder,
φονεύειν. Cic. Tusc. v. 20. Dionysius alterum jussit _interfici_, quia
viam demonstravisset _interimendi_ sui. Curt. ix. 7, 8. Boxum protinus
placuit _interfici_; Biconem etiam per cruciatus _necari_.
2. +Occidere+, +jugulare+, +trucidare+, +obtruncare+, +percutere+,
denote a sanguinary death-blow; +occidere+ means by cutting down,
especially the business of the soldier in honorable open battle;
+jugulare+, by cutting the throat or neck, or rather by a
skilfully-directed thrust into the collar-bone, especially the business
of the bandit, after the pattern of the gladiator, like σφᾶξαι;
+obtruncare+ means to butcher, massacre, and cut to pieces, after the
manner of the awkward murderer; +trucidare+, to slaughter as one would a
steer, after the manner of the blood-thirsty miscreant, who, without
meeting with resistance, plays the hero on the defenceless; +percutere+,
to execute, as a mere mechanical act, after the manner of the headsman,
or other executioner of a sentence of condemnation, or, at least, of a
death-warrant. Senec. Contr. iii. 21. Nec dominum _occidit_, nec domino
venenum dedit. Hor. Ep. i. 2. Ut _jugulent_ hominem, surgunt de nocte
latrones. Sallust. Fr. Cæteri vice pecorum _obtruncantur_; so that you
may see a mangled mass of limbs, as in the heap of slain in a battle.
Tac. Hist. . . . Juberet _interfici_; offerre se corpora iræ;
_trucidaret_. Cic. Cat. iv. 6. and Rosc. Am. 34. Cujus consilio
_occisus_ sit invenio; cujus manu _percussus_ sit non invenio.
(iii. 181.)

[[INTERIM, see _Interea_.]]

INTERITUS, see _Lues_ and _Mors_.

INTERLOCUTIO, see _Intercapedo_.

INTERMITTERE; OMITTERE. +Intermittere+ means merely to leave off for a
time,--in tempus mittere cum spe consilioque resumendi; whereas
+omittere+, to leave out altogether. Varro Fr. Studia tantum
_intermittantur_, ne _omittantur_. (i. 3.)

INTERMORI, see _Mors_.

INTERPELLATIO, see _Intercapedo_.

INTERROGARE, see _Rogare_.

INTERRUPTIO, see _Intercapedo_.

INTESTINA, see _Caro_.

INTRARE, INTROIRE, see _Inire_.

INTUERI, see _Videre_.

I NUNC, see _Agere_.

INVADERE, see _Irruere_.

INVALETUDO, see _Æger_.

INVENIRE; REPERIRE; DEPREHENDERE; NANCISCI; ADIPISCI; CONSEQUI; ASSEQUI.
+Invenire+ denotes, as a general term, to find; +reperire+ and
+deprehendere+ suppose a previous concealment of the thing found, and an
intention, and pains employed on the part of the finder; but the
_reperiens_ (from πεπαρεῖν) merely discovers what was concealed, and now
lies before his eyes, like ἀνευρεῖν; the _deprehendens_, what desired to
hide itself, or to escape, and now is in his power. Tac. Ann. i. 74.
Perniciem aliis ac postremo sibi _invenere_: comp. with xiv. 3. Cædes
quonam modo occultaretur nemo _reperit_. 2. +Invenire+, +reperire+,
+deprehendere+, imply a concealed object, which is discovered; whereas
+nancisci+, +adipisci+, +assequi+, and +consequi+, only a distant
object, which is reached; the _nanciscens_ (from ἐνεγκέσθαι) arrives at
his object with or without trouble, sometimes even against his wish, as
to light upon; the _adipiscens_ (from potiri) only by exertion, as to
achieve; the _consequens_ arrives at the object of his wish with or
without assistance; the _assequens_, at the object of his endeavors, by
means of exertion. Suet. Tib. 10. Titus ad primam statim mansionem
febrim _nactus_: comp. with Dom. 15. Nero in _adipiscenda_ morte manu
Epaphroditi adjutus est. Cic. Att. x. 12. _Nactus_ Curionem omnia me
_consecutum_ putavi. Rosc. Com. 4. Ut neque nihil neque tantum quantum
postulavimus _consequamur_. In Cic. Mil. 11. Nihil dico quid resp.
_consecuta_ sit, nihil quod vos, nihil quod omnes boni; namely, by the
death of Clodius, to which certainly nobody but Milo had contributed;
_assecuta sit_ could not be substituted; and, on the other hand, in Sen.
Brev. 17. Operose _assequuntur_ quæ volunt, anxii tenent quæ _assecuti_
sunt; the word _consequuntur_ would be too weak. Cic. Fam. i. 7, 10.
Omnia quæ ne per populum quidem sine seditione _assequi_ arbitrabantur,
per senatum _consecuti_ sunt. (iii. 142.)

INVERTERE, see _Vertere_.

INVESTIGARE, s. _Quærere_.

INVICEM, see _Vicissim_.

INVIDIA; LIVOR; INVIDENTIA; MALIGNITAS; OBTRECTATIO; DETRECTATIO.
+Invidia+ denotes looking askance, as a sign that a man grudges
something to another, from moral or immoral motives, not _necessarily_,
though especially, from self-love, like ὑποψία; whereas +livor+ (from
χλεύη, or χλοιά), denotes the self-tormenting envy, which poisons the
whole soul, and deprives the body itself of its fresh healthy color.
2. +Invidia+ is the usual term for envy, whether active, as that which a
man harbors, or passive, as a state in which a man stands; whereas
+invidentia+ is a new term of Cicero’s for the envy which a man harbors.
3. +Invidia+ and +livor+ denote envy as a temporary state, whereas
+malignitas+ as an habitual quality and disposition, in opp. to goodness
of heart. The _invidus_ and _lividus_ grudge particular persons
particular advantages, in particular cases; but the _malignus_ wishes
well to nobody but himself. 4. +Invidia+, +livor+, +malignitas+, denote
a feeling and state of mind, whereas +obtrectatio+ denotes an action, or
manner of acting, proceeding from this feeling, inasmuch as it seeks to
injure the envied person by dishonorable means, namely, detraction.
_Obtrectatio_ can scarcely be conceived as existing without _invidia_,
but _invidia_ may without _obtrectatio_, if the envious person is too
cowardly to enter into conflict with the envied. 5. +Obtrectatio+
supposes a rival, and has its origin in jealousy; whereas +detrectatio+
only an enemy in general, and proceeds principally from antipathy.
(iii. 65.)

INVIDIA, see _Odium_.

JOCUS, see _Ludus_.

IRASCI, see _Succensere_.

IRE; MEARE; GRADIRI; INGREDI; INCEDERE; VADERE. 1. +Ire+ and +meare+
denote to go, in the most general sense, as motion from one place to
another; +ire+ especially applies to persons, in consequence of an act
of the will, like ἰέναι; but +meare+ (from ἀμεύω) especially to beasts,
ships, rivers, stars, as mere mechanical motion, in which reason has no
share, like φοιτᾶν; whereas +gradiri+ and +ingredi+, +incedere+ and
+vadere+, with particular accessory notions in regard to the manner of
going; +gradiri+ and +ingredi+, in a quiet manner, and with a regular
measured step, in opp. to _serpere_, _currere_, _stare_; Cic. N. D.
ii. 47. Att. ii. 23, like βαδίζειν; +incedere+, in a proud manner, and
with a graceful measured step, as in a procession and march, in opp. to
_ambulare_; Sen. N. Q. vii. 31, like ἐμβαίνειν; and +vadere+ (ἐλθεῖν?)
with alacrity and a quick step, as in travelling, and in attacking the
enemy, in opp. to repere? like χωρεῖν; Thuc. v. 70. 2. +Ingressus+ means
going in general; +incessus+ a manner of going peculiar to the
individual, and by which he is known as well as by his physiognomy.
+Ingressus+ is purely physical; +incessus+ is moral and characteristic.
(iv. 53.)

IRRIDERE, see _Ridere_.

IRRITARE, see _Incitare_ and _Lacessere_.

IRRITUS, see _Frustra_.

IRRUERE; IRRUMPERE; INGRUERE; INVADERE. +Irruere+ (εἰσρεῦσαι) means to
rush on hastily and inconsiderately; +irrumpere+, to force one’s way
with violence; +ingruere+ (ingravare) to press on with threats and
importunity; +invadere+, to fall upon with boldness, and without regard
to consequences. (vi. 180.)

ITER; VIA; TRAMES; SEMITA; CALLIS. 1. +Iter+ and +meatus+ denote the
progress which a person makes, the going, the journey, in an abstract
sense; +iter+, that which a rational being makes; +meatus+, that which a
being void of reason and of will makes; +via+, the path on which a
person goes, in a concrete sense. Hor. Od. iii. 2, 22. Virtus negata
tentat _iter via_. Cic. Att. v. 14. _Iter_ conficiebamus æstuosa et
pulverulenta _via_. 2. +Iter+ in a concrete sense, denotes a way which
leads directly to a particular point, whether beaten and trodden, or
not, like κέλευθος; whereas +via+ (from the old word veha, way), a way,
which, if not beaten, is the ordinary and usual way, like ὁδός. Cæs.
B. G. vi. 27, means by _viarum atque itinerum duces_, the guides, who
partly point out the frequented roads and paths, partly give information
as to where they lead out. 3. +Via+ and +iter+ may be narrow or wide;
whereas, +trames+, +callis+, and +semita+, denote only a narrow way or
path; +trames+ (τρῆμα) a by-road in a plain and town, by which one may
arrive, partly in a shorter time, partly without being so much observed
as in the open road, to a given point; +semita+ (from secare, segmen),
a foot-path, which often runs by the side of the high-road, like οἶμος;
+callis+ (from κέλευθος) a path over a mountain or through a wood, which
is scarcely passable except for cattle, like ἀτραπός. Plaut. Cas.
iii. 5, 42. De _via_ in _semitam_ degredi; and Liv. xliv. 43. Cic. Phil.
xiii. 9, 19. Egressus est non _viis_, sed _tramitibus_ paludatus; and
Rull. ii. 35. Virg. Æn. ix. 383. Rara per occultos lucebat _semita
calles_; and Curt. vii. 11, 2. (iv. 64.)

ITER FACERE, see _Proficisci_.

ITERUM; RURSUS; DENUO; DE INTEGRO; REPETERE; INTEGRARE. 1. +Iterum+
(ἕτερον) means, like δεύτερον, a second time; +rursum+ or +rursus+,
(revorsus) like αὖθις and πάλιν, again, once more; +denuo+ (de novo)
like νέοθεν, anew; +de integro+, like αὖθις ἐξ ὑπαρχῆς, quite afresh.
Justin. xxi. 4, 6. Hoc consilio præventus _iterum_ servitia concitat,
statutaque _rursus_ cædium die, quum _denuo_ se proditum videret. 2. In
the same manner +pugnam iterare+, Liv. vi. 32, means to join battle a
second time; +pugnam repetere+, x. 36, to repeat the battle; +pugnam
renovare+, Cæs. B. G. iii. 20, to renew the battle; and +pugnam
integrare+, Liv. vii. 7, to begin the battle again quite from the
beginning. Aut. Herenn. ii. 3, 47. Enumeratio est per quam colligimus et
commonemus quibus de rebus verba fecerimus, breviter, ut _renovetur_,
non _redintegretur_ oratio. (i. 184.)

JUBERE; IMPERARE; PRÆCIPERE; MANDARE. +Jubere+ (from ἰότης) means to
bid, merely in consequence of one’s own wish and will, in opp. to
_vetare_, like κελεύειν; +imperare+, to command, by virtue of a military
supreme authority, like ἄρχειν; +præcipere+ to enjoin, by virtue of an
authority as a teacher, etc., something like ἐντέλλεσθαι; +mandare+
(from μήδομαι) to charge, in consequence of thorough confidence in a
person, like ἐφίεσθαι.

JUCUNDUS, see _Gratus_.

JUDICARE, see _Censere_.

JUGULARE, see _Interficere_.

JUGUM, see _Mons_.

JUMENTUM, see _Pecus_.

JURGIUM, see _Disceptatio_.

JUSJURANDUM; JURAMENTUM; SACRAMENTUM. +Jusjurandum+, and the later word
+juramentum+, denote a civil oath, by which a man confirms or promises
something; +sacramentum+ denotes a military oath, by which the soldier
solemnly pledges and binds himself not to forsake his standard. Liv.
xxii. 38. Milites tunc quod nunquam antea factum erat, _jurejurando_ a
tribunis militum adacti jussu consulum conventuros neque injussu
abituros; nam ad eam diem nihil præter _sacramentum_ fuerat. And
xxxv. 19. (vi. 183.)

JUVARE, see _Auxilium_.

JUVENIS, see _Puer_.

JUVENTA; JUVENTUS; JUVENTAS; JUVENALIS; JUVENILIS. 1. +Juventa+ (from
ζέω, ζόη), is the season of youth; +juventus+, a collection of young
men; +Juventas+, the goddess of youth. 2. +Juvenalis+ denotes youthful,
either indifferently, as that which belongs to young people, or with
praise, in opp. to the weakness of old age; whereas +juvenilis+ denotes
youthful, with the accessory moral notion of what is in conformity with
the character of young people, mostly with blame, in opp. to the
maturity of age. (v. 46.)


L.

LABARE; TITUBARE; VACILLARE; NUTARE. +Labare+ (the ancient Gothic word,
slipan, from λωφᾶν), denotes tottering, with reference to the whole
body, which rests on no firm basis; +titubare+ (from ταφεῖν, τυφλός),
with reference to the feet, which refuse their service, and stagger;
+vacillare+ (ἧκα) with reference to the upper part of the body, which
wants its upright, steady, secure position; lastly, +nutare+ (from
νεύειν) with reference to the head, which seems ready to fall off. The
_titubans_ threatens to sink to the ground; the _vacillans_, to fall
over. +Titubatio+ betrays bodily weakness; +vacillatio+, want of
external dignity, and a steady carriage. (iii. 62.)

LABES, see _Vitium_.

LABI; CADERE. +Labi+ (from λείβω) means to fall, with reference to the
point from which, and to the space through which, any one glides or
sinks down, like ὀλισθεῖν; whereas +cadere+ means to fall, with
reference to the point which a man reaches by his fall, as to come to
the ground, like πεσεῖν. Virg. Æn. vi. 310. _Lapsa cadunt_ folia. Cic.
Brut. 49. Quibus vitiis _labatur_ aut _cadat_ orator. (i. 128.)

LABOR; MOLESTIA; ÆRUMNA. 1. +Labor+ is the toil which requires strength
and causes weariness, like πόνος; +molestia+ (from μόλις, μαλερός) the
trouble which, by its greatness or unseasonableness, dispirits, like
χαλεπότης; +ærumna+ (αἰρομένη) the hardship that almost exceeds human
strength, and bows down even the hero, like ταλαιπωρία; an antiquated,
half-poetical expression, in Cic. Fin. ii. 35, and Quintil. viii. 3, 26.
Cic. Fin. v. 32. Ut ubi virtus sit resque magnæ et summe laudabiles
virtute res gestæ, ibi esse miseria et _ærumna_ non possit, tamen
_labor_ possit, possit _molestia_. (iv. 422.) 2. +Laborare+ denotes, as
an intransitive verb, to be in a state of trouble and toil; but
+elaborare+, as a transitive verb, to produce something by trouble and
toil. (i. 116.)

LABOR, see _Opera_.

LACERARE; LANIARE. +Lacerare+ (from λακίς) denotes to tear by mere
force, which may be done by the hands, claws, teeth; whereas +laniare+
denotes the effect of a _cutting_ instrument, under which _teeth_ and
_claws_ may be included. Appul. Met. iv. p. 84. Morsibus _laceratus_,
ferroque _laniatus_. Liv. xxii. 51. (v. 176.)

LACERTUS, see _Ulna_.

LACESSERE; IRRITARE; SOLLICITARE. 1. +Lacessere+ (λακίζειν) means to
excite the reason and will of another to resistance; +irritare+
(ἀνερεθίζω) to provoke his feelings or passions to anger. Cic. Mil. 31.
Ut vi _irritare_ ferroque _lacessere_ fortissimum virum auderet.
2. +Lacessere+ means to excite, when a man in a coarse manner disturbs
the peace of another; +sollicitare+, when a man disturbs the quiet of
another in a refined manner. (v. 176.)

LACRIMARE; PLORARE; FLERE; LAMENTARI; EJULARE; DEFLERE; DEPLORARE.
1. +Lacrimare+ (from δάκρυ) denotes the physical consequence of a
certain emotion of the mind, whether joyful or sorrowful, like δακρύειν,
to shed tears; whereas +plorare+ (from pluere) denotes a passionate
expression of grief, like θρηνεῖν, to wail and cry. Between the two
stands +flere+ (φλέω) in opp. to _ridere_, partaking of the passionless
feeling denoted by _lacrimare_, and of the feeling of grief denoted by
_plorare_, like κλαίειν, to weep. Sen. Ep. 63. Nec sicci sint oculi
amisso amico, nec fluant; _lacrimandum_ est, non _plorandum_.
2. +Lamentari+ and +ejulare+ denote a higher degree of _ploratus_; but
+lamentatio+ (from κλαῦμα?) is, like κωκύειν, a longer continued
wailing; +ejulare+ (from εἶα) a wailing interrupted by cries and sobs,
like ὀλολύζειν. 3. +Plorare+ and +flere+ are intransitive verbs, as to
weep; +deplorare+ and +deflere+ transitive, as to deplore.

LACUNA; LACUS; STAGNUM; PALUS; ULIGO; LAMA; LUSTRUM. +Lacuna+ denotes,
in poetical language, any standing water, from a sea to a pool; +lacus+
and +stagnum+ are collections of standing water kept sound and fresh by
their own springs, or by ebbing and flowing; +lacus+ (liquere) is large
enough to bring to mind the image of the open sea, in opp. to the main
sea, like λίμνη; +stagnum+, like a pond, not so large as to resemble a
lake, in opp. to a stream, like τέναγος; whereas +palus+ and +uligo+ are
collections of standing water corrupted and grown foul; +palus+ (πλυδᾶν)
is, like a marsh, a district covered with a surface of foul water, like
ἕλος; +uligo+ (from ὀλός) like a moor, a district soaked through with
foul water. The +palus+ appears as a mass of water made thick by mud and
bog-earth, in which a person may be drowned; +uligo+ only as ground
thoroughly soaked with water, in which a man may sink down. Lastly,
+lamæ+ and +lustra+ denote standing waters of small extent; +lama+, a
mere dirty and filthy puddle on a high road; +lustra+, an ill-smelling
and noisome quagmire in woods, etc. (v. 30.)

LÆDERE; VIOLARE; OFFENDERE. +Lædere+ denotes a physical injury, as to
hurt; +violare+, an injury to a person’s rights, as to offer violence;
+offendere+ (from πένθος) an injury to a person’s feelings, as to
affront. +Lædere+ refers to whatever object is capable of receiving
injury; +violare+, to one that has a just claim to protection;
+offendere+, to a rational and feeling being. Cic. Off. i. 28, 99.
Justitiæ partes sunt non _violare_ homines, verecundiæ non _offendere_.
Fin. iii. 11. Sen. Ir. iii. 18. Pleraque eorum propter quæ irascimur
_offendunt_ nos magis quam _lædunt_. Const. 4. Contumelia tantum
delicatis gravis est, qua non _læduntur_, sed _offenduntur_. Ovid, Am.
iii. 3, 31. Formosa superi metuunt _offendere_ læsi. (iii. 138.)

LÆTARI, see _Gaudere_.

LÆVIS; GLABER; FRICARE; TERERE. 1. +Lævis+, +levis+, (λεῖος) means
smooth, in opp. to rough and rugged, and gives a pleasant impression of
elegance; whereas +glaber+ (γλαφυρός) in opp. to rough, covered with
hair, and grown up, and gives an unpleasant impression of deficiency.
2. +Fricare+ means to rub, and thereby make smooth, like ψήχειν; whereas
+terere+ (τείρειν) means to rub, and thereby make less, like τρίβειν.

LÆVUS, see _Sinister_.

LAMA, see _Lacuna_.

LAMBERE; LINGERE. +Lambere+ means to lick, inasmuch as one uses the
tongue, like the hand, as an instrument to take hold of, or to touch
anything, whether eatable, and possessing a taste, or not; +lingere+
(λείχειν) when one uses the tongue as the organ of the sense of taste,
in order to ascertain the flavor of any thing. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 7.
Canem ex ære vulnus suum _lambentem_; compare with xxxi. 4. Pecoribus
saldatur _lingendus_. (v. 152.)

LAMENTARI, see _Lacrimare_.

LANCEA, see _Missile_.

LANIARE, see _Lacerare_.

LANIENA; MACELLUM. +Laniena+ is the butcher’s stall, where the _lanius_
sells slaughtered and ready-jointed meat; +macellum+, the market in
which the _macellarius_ sells all sorts of meat, including poultry and
fish.

LAPIS, see _Saxum_.

LAQUEUS; FUNIS; RESTIS. 1. +Laqueus+ (from ἑλίξαι) is the noose at the
end of a rope; whereas +funis+ and +restis+ mean the rope itself;
+funis+, a thicker rope, which is meant more for drawing and pulling,
and on that account must have a proper length, like σχοῖνος; +restis+, a
thinner rope, which serves more for fastening and hanging up, and
therefore may be short, like σπάρτη. The trace by which the _equus
funalis_ is attached; the rope on which the _funambulus_ balances
himself; the tow which draws the boat to the ship, are never rendered in
prose by _restis_: whereas the rope with which the self-murderer hangs
himself, or the slave is whipped, or the garment girded, is seldom
rendered by _funis_, unless the poet gives the preference to the last
word as a more elevated term. (v. 36.) 2. +Rudentes+ are the sail ropes;
+retinacula+, and +oræ+, the cables or anchor-ropes; +retinacula+, as a
more general and popular term; +oræ+, +oras+, +solvere+, as more
technical expressions in nautical language.

LARGITIO, see _Donum_.

LARGUS; BENIGNUS; LIBERALIS; MUNIFICUS. +Largus+ means any one who makes
a rich present, to whomever he makes it, and from whatever motive, in
opp. to _parcus_. Ter. Heaut. iii. 1, 31; whereas +benignus+,
+liberalis+, and +munificus+, denote virtuous qualities in the giver.
The _benignus_ follows a pure impulse of humanity, love towards his
fellow men; the _liberalis_, a noble pride, or feeling of self-respect;
the _munificus_, a princely feeling, or, at any rate, a feeling of
laudable ambition. _Benignitas_ gives richly, because it has no wish to
possess and enjoy alone, like goodness; _liberalitas_ gives as much as,
and not less than, a man of noble sentiment believes suitable to his own
rank and to another’s merits, without scrupulous mercantile calculation,
like a gentlemanly spirit; _munificentia_ gives rather too much than too
little, from the pleasure of making people happy, and causing an
agreeable surprise, like generosity. (iv. 146.)

LARVA; PERSONA. +Larva+ (from lar?) is a caricatured, frightful mask;
+persona+ (παρισῶν) an ingeniously formed, characteristic mask.

LASCIVUS, see _Petulans_.

LASSUS, see _Fatigatus_.

LATEBRA; LATIBULUM. +Latebra+ is a retired or obscure place, where a man
can conveniently remain concealed; +latibulum+, a lurking-hole, into
which a man must creep like a beast. (vi. 189.)

LATRARE; GANNIRE; BAUBARI. +Latrare+ means the hostile bark of a great
dog, and, figuratively, to wrangle, like ὑλακτεῖν; whereas +gannire+,
the harmless bark of a little dog, and, figuratively, to chatter, like
κνυζᾶσθαι; lastly, +baubari+, the whining and howling of a dog, like
βαΰεζειν. Lucret. v. 1064-1070.

LATRO, see _Præda_.

LATUS, see _Coxa_.

LECTUS, see _Cubile_.

LEGARE, see _Mittere_.

LEMBUS, see _Navigium_.

LEMURES, see _Spectrum_.

LENIS, see _Mitis_.

LENTUS, see _Tardus_.

LEPIDUS; FACETUS; FESTIVUS; SALSUS; DICAX; CAVILLATOR. +Lepos+,
+facetiæ+, and +festivitas+, denote the harmless wit, which, like humor,
is only opposed to seriousness, and is the attribute of a benevolent
mind; +lepos+ (from λέπω, λεπτός,) the lightest wit, in opp. to dull
gravity; +festivitas+ (from σπαθᾶν) the more cheerful sort of wit, in
opp. to gloomy seriousness; +facetiæ+, the jocund wit, in opp. to sober
seriousness; whereas +sales+, +dicacitas+, and +cavillatio+, denote the
more pungent wit, which is a sign of an acute intellect; +sales+ (ἅλες)
the piquant wit, in opp. to what is flat and trivial, which aims at a
point, whether others may be pleasantly or painfully affected by it;
+dicacitas+ (from δακεῖν) the satirical wit, which is exercised at the
cost of others, yet so that the jest is still the principal aim,--the
pain inflicted, only an accidental adjunct; +cavillatio+, the scoffing
wit, in which the mortification of others is the principal aim, the jest
only a means and unimportant form. Cic. Orat. 30. Demosthenes non tam
_dicax_ fuit, quam _facetus_. Est autem illud acrioris ingenii, hoc
majoris artis. (v. 21).

LETUM, see _Mors_.

LEVIS, see _Lævis_.

LIBARE, see _Sapor_.

LIBENTER, see _Sponte_.

LIBERALIS, see _Largus_.

LIBERALITAS, see _Donum_.

LIBERTUS; LIBERTINUS. +Libertus+ means the freed-man, with reference to
his master, in opp. to _servus_; Cic. Mil. 33. Sext. 35. Tac. G. 25.
Suet. Cæs. 75; +libertinus+, with reference to his rank, in opp. to
_civis_ and _ingenuus_. Liv. x. 21. xli. 8. Suet. Cl. 54. Senec. Contr.
iii. 21. Quærendus mihi gener erat aliquis _libertinus_; quid ergo?
alieno potius _liberto_? Cic. Verr. i. 47. Trebonius fecit heredem
_libertum_ suum . . . Equiti Romano _libertinus_ homo fit heres. Suet.
Cl. 25. Tac. H. iii. 58. (vi. 194.)

LIBIDO, see _Cupido_.

LIBRA; PONDO. +Libra pondo+ is the full expression, literally a balance
in weight, that is, a scale, filled so as to balance a pound; +libra+
(λεῖος) is a less definite expression, inasmuch as leaving out the
_pondo_, makes it doubtful whether the balance itself be not understood;
+pondo+ is an elliptical expression, in which the principal notion,
weight, is expressed, and the accessory notion left out; the scale that
is filled must balance the definite weight. In a similar manner _operæ
pretium est_, is distinguished from _operæ est_, and from _pretium est_.
(vi. 195.)

LIBRARE; VIBRARE. +Librare hastam+ (from λεῖος) means to raise the spear
in a horizontal direction, in order to hurl it with greater force, and
with a surer aim; +vibrare+ (ὑφή) to brandish it backwards and forwards,
or up and down, that is, either in a horizontal or perpendicular
direction, in order to testify an eager desire for the combat. (v. 196.)

LIBURNA, see _Navigium_.

LICET, see _Concessum est_.

LIGARE; VIERE; VINCIRE; NECTERE; OBLIGARE; OBSTRINGERE; DEVINCIRE.
1. +Ligare+ and +viere+ denote to bind, in order to prevent things
falling asunder, synonymously with _copulare_, like δέειν; whereas
+vincire+ and +nectere+ mean to fetter, in order to hinder free
movement, synonymously with _coercere_, like δεσμεύειν. 2. +Ligare+ is
the general, +viere+ (ὀχεῖν) the technical expression for binding fast,
etc. 3. +Obligare+ means to oblige by acts of kindness; +obstringere+,
to oblige by benefits; +devincire+, to rivet to one’s self by a lasting
intimate connection. The _obligatus_ feels himself bound by the
conventional duties of social life; the _obstrictus_, by the duties of
morality or religion; the _devinctus_, by the duties of piety.
(iv. 282.)

LIMA; SCOBINA. +Lima+ is a tool for filing smooth; +scobina+, for filing
off. (vi. 197.)

LIMES, see _Finis_.

LIMUS, see _Lutum_.

LINGERE, see _Lambere_.

LINGUA; SERMO. +Lingua+ denotes the speech of any, even the most
uncultivated people, gens or natio, in as far as they possess proper
words to express their notions; whereas +sermo+, only the speech of a
cultivated people, populus, in as far as it is adapted for the
expression of connected thoughts. +Lingua+ is, like the tongue, born
with us, and refers more to the mere gift of speech; +sermo+ requires
voluntary activity, and involves the rules of grammar and of style. Cic.
Fin. i. 3, 10. Sæpe disserui Latinam _linguam_ non modo non inopem, sed
locupletiorem etiam esse quam Græcam: comp. with Off. i. 31. _Sermone_
debemus uti eo, qui notus est nobis. (iv. 22.)

LINTER, see _Navigium_.

LIQUERE, see _Fluere_ and _Constat_.

LIRA, see _Porca_.

LITERA; ELEMENTUM. +Litera+ is a letter, as the most indivisible part of
writing, like γράμμα; +elementum+ (ἄλημα) as the most indivisible part
of language or of knowledge in general, like στοιχεῖον. (iii. 210.)

LITERÆ; EPISTOLA; CODICILLI. +Literæ+ is the most general expression for
a letter; +epistola+ is one directed to a distant friend, and sent by a
messenger; +codicilli+, an address to one within the same walls, as a
note. Sen. Ep. 55. Adeo tecum sum ut dubitem an incipiam non _epistolas_
sed _codicillos_ tibi scribere. Cic. Fam. vi. 18. Simul accepi a Seleuco
tuo _literas_; statim quæsivi e Balbo per _codicillos_ quid esset in
lege. (vi. 198.)

LITERÆ; ARTES; DOCTRINÆ; DISCIPLINÆ. +Literæ+ and +artes+ denote the
sciences as the general objects of scientific education; +literæ+, in a
narrower sense, only as literature, or the sciences so far as they are
laid down in books, and, together with other branches of knowledge,
enrich the mind, and are the means of sharpening the understanding and
forming the taste, +artes+ (ἀρεταί?) in the widest sense, so far as the
knowledge of them immediately attests intellectual cultivation, and
readiness in the practical application of the sciences; whereas
+doctrinæ+ and +disciplinæ+ denote particular parts of the general
objects of knowledge formed into systems; +doctrinæ+, more the
speculative and abstract parts of philosophical and learned education;
+disciplinæ+, more the practical parts, that are conducive to the
purposes of life. (v. 269.)

LITIGATIO, see _Disceptatio_.

LITUS, see _Ripa_.

LIVOR, see _Invidia_.

LOCUPLES, see _Divitiæ_.

LOCUS; TRACTUS; REGIO; PLAGA. +Locus+ (λόχος) denotes a space, as a
single point, like τόπος; +tractus+ (from trahere) as a line, with the
notion of extension to a distance, as a tract of country, something like
κλίμα; +regio+ (from ῥῆχος, ὄρχος,) as a circle, with the included
notion of the environs, like the surrounding country, χῶρος; +plaga+
(πλάξ) principally as a surface or plain.

LONGÆVUS, see _Vetus_.

LONGE, see _Procul_.

LOQUAX, see _Garrire_.

LOQUI, see _Fari_, _Dicere_.  [[“Fari” redirects to _Dicere_]]

LUCERE; FULGERE; SPLENDERE; NITERE; RENIDERE; CORUSCARE; MICARE;
RADIARE. 1. +Lucere+, +fulgere+, +splendere+, +nitere+, denote a steady
and continued brightness; +fulgere+ (φλογεῖν) through a glaring light,
or a dazzling fiery color, like φλέγω, +lucere+ (from λευκός) through a
beneficial light, and a soft fiery color, like φαίνω, φέγγω; +splendere+
(from φάλανθος) as the consequence of a clear and pure light, in opp. to
_sordere_; Cic. Sext. 28. Sen. Ep. 5. Martial, Ep. ii. 36. Tac. A.
i. 84. Suet. Aug. 35; like λάμπω; +nitere+ (from νίζω) as the
consequence of humidity, oiling or washing, to glisten, in opp. to
_squalere_. Cic. Fin. iv. 3. Orat. 32. Sen. Q. N. i. 17. Quintil. ii. 5,
23; like στίλβω. 2. Whereas +coruscare+, +micare+, +radiare+, mean an
unsteady, tremulous light; +coruscare+ (from κορύσσω) to shine like
forked lightning; +micare+, to sparkle, like metal placed in the sun;
+radiare+, to beam, like the shooting rays of the sun. Cic. Cat. ii. 3.
qui _nitent_ unguentis, qui _fulgent_ purpura. Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 33.
Tantus erat in armis _splendor_, ut solis _fulgor_ obscurior videretur.
Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 2. _Splendor_ murrhinis sine viribus: _nitor_que
verius quam _splendor_; for _splendor_ denotes brightness, with regard
to its intensity; _nitor_, with regard to its beauty. Auct. ad Herenn.
iv. 50. Gemmæ _nitore_ et auri _splendore_: hence, figuratively,
+splendor+ denotes pomp; +nitor+, only neatness. (ii. 76.)

LUCERNA, see _Candela_.

LUCRUM; EMOLUMENTUM; QUÆSTUS; COMPENDIUM. +Lucrum+ and +emolumentum+
denote gain, in any condition of life; +lucrum+ (from lucar, locare,)
gain deserved and earned by one’s self, in opp. to _damnum_; Cic. Fin.
v. 30, etc.; like κέρδος; +emolumentum+ (from molere) gain falling to
one’s share without any exertion of one’s own, in opp. to _detrimentum_;
Cic. Fin. i. 16, like ὠφέλημα; whereas +quæstus+ and +compendium+ denote
gain in the course of trade; +quæstus+, rather the steadily continued
gains of a regular occupation, _earnings_, in opp. to _sumptus_; Cic.
Parad. vi. 3. Hor. Sat. i. 2. 19, like χρηματισμός; +compendium+, more a
single gain of considerable amount, in opp. to _dispendium_. (v. 257.)

LUCTUS, see _Dolor_.

LUCULENTUS; ILLUSTRIS. +Luculentus+ means, what may be seen, and need
not shun the light, synonymously with _probabilis_; whereas +illustris+
(from λεύσσω) what makes itself seen, attracts the eye, and spreads its
rays, synonymously with _excellens_. Hence _luculentus_ never implies
emphatic praise. Cic. Off. iii. 14, 60. Hoc quidem satis _luculente_,
that is, it is probable enough. And Fin. ii. 5, 15. Cum Græce ut videor
_luculenter_ sciam, without presumption; just like, sic satis. (ii. 84.)

LUCUS, see _Silva_.

LUDIO, see _Actor_.

LUDUS; SCHOLA. +Ludus+ is a lower school for boys, who are compelled to
learn; +schola+, a higher school for youths and men, who wish to learn.
+Ludus+ supposes _discipulos_, _ludi-magistrum_, and school-discipline;
+schola+ supposes _auditores_, _doctorem_, and academical regulations.
(vi. 203.)

LUDUS; LUSUS; LUDICRUM; JOCUS. 1. +Ludus+ (from λοίδορος) denotes play
in an objective sense, inasmuch as it is at hand for a man’s
entertainment; whereas +lusus+, in a subjective sense, inasmuch as a man
carries it on and produces it himself; further, +ludus+ denotes play, as
a means of recreation, in opp. to exertion; +lusus+, as a childish,
useless pastime, in opp. to real business. Plin. Ep. ix. 33. 3. Pueri
quos otium _ludus_que sollicitat: comp. with ix. 25. _Lusus_ et ineptias
nostras legis. Or, Cic. Flacc. 5, 12. Græci quibus jusjurandum _jocus_
est, testimonium _ludus_; that is, to whom it is a mere trifle to bear
false witness; compare with Sen. Contr. i. 2. Piratas . . . quibus omne
fas nefasque _lusus_ est; that is, to whom the distinction between right
and wrong is a mere sporting with words. 2. The plur. +ludi+ assumes the
special meaning of public spectacles, and in this sense has a singular
peculiar to itself in the word _ludicrum_. 3. +Ludus+ and +lusus+ have
more a negative character, as mere pastimes and amusements, as a guard
against ennui; whereas +jocus+ more a positive character, as an
utterance of humor and wit. The _ludens_ wishes merely to be free from
exertion, to do nothing serious, and to amuse himself; the _jocans_ will
be as active at the command of mirth, as others at the command of
seriousness. (ii. 33.)

LUES; CONTAGIUM; PESTILENTIA; PESTIS; PERNICIES; EXITIUM; INTERITUS;
EXITUS. 1. +Lues+ (from λοιμός) denotes epidemic disease, as proceeding
from an impure morbid matter; +contagium+ (from contingere? or
κατατήκειν?) as contagious; +pestilentia+, as a disease reigning in the
land, and especially as a pestilence. Sall. Cat. 10. Post ubi _contagia_
quasi _pestilentia_ invasit. Plin. H. N. xxiii. 28. Laurus folia
_pestilentiæ contagia_ prohibent. Lucan. vi. 86. Fluidæ _contagia_
pestis. 2. +Pestis+ is used for pestilence itself only by the poets;
otherwise it denotes, like _exitium_ and _pernicies_ (from necare), that
which destroys in general, without reference to disease; but +pestis+
is, according to rule, used as a concrete, +exitium+ and +pernicies+ as
abstract terms. Sen. N. Q. iii. pr. Philippi aut Alexandri . . . . qui
_exitio_ gentium clari non minores fuere _pestes_ mortalium quam
inundatio. 3. +Pernicies+ has an active meaning, and denotes the
destruction of a living being by murder; whereas +exitium+ has a passive
meaning, and denotes the destruction even of lifeless objects by
annihilation; lastly, +interitus+ has, like _exitus_, a neutral meaning,
the destruction of living or lifeless objects by decay. Tac. Ann.
xiv. 65. Poppæa non nisi in _perniciem_ uxoris nupta; postremo crimen
omni _exitio_ gravius: and ii. 68. Cic. Cat. iv. 3. Cum de _pernicie_
populi Romani, _exitio_ hujus urbis cogitarit. Rull. ii. 4, 10. Extremi
_exitiorum exitus_. 4. +Exitium+ is a violent, +exitus+ a natural end.
Cic. Rull. ii. 4, 10. Qui civitatum afflictarum perditis jam rebus
extremi _exitiorum_ solent esse _exitus_, is, as it were, the last
breath of a state that is being destroyed; like Verr. v. 6, 12 _Exitus_
exitiales. (ii. 62. iii. 176.)

LUMEN; LUX. +Lumen+ (λευσσόμενον) is a luminous body, like φέγγος; +lux+
(λευκή) a streaming mass of light, like φάος. Cic. Fin. iii. 14, 45. Ut
obscuratur et offunditur _luce_ solis _lumen_ lucernæ. Curt. viii. 2,
21. Sed aditus specus accipit _lucem_; interiora nisi allato _lumine_
obscura sunt. Cic. Acad. iv. 8, 28. Si ista vera sunt, ratio omnis
tollitur quasi quædam _lux lumen_que vitæ; that is, reason alone is in
itself bright and light, and at the same time spreads brightness and
light over life. Also, in a figurative sense, +lumen+ denotes
distinction, +lux+ only clearness. Cicero (Man. 5.) calls Corinth,
Græciæ totius _lumen_, but Rome (Catil. iv. 6.) _Lucem_ orbis terrarum;
Corinth is compared to a glimmering point of light; Rome is
distinguished as that city in comparison with which all other cities lie
in darkness. (ii. 66.)

LURIDUS, see _Luteus_.

LUSTRUM, see _Lacuna_.

LUSUS, see _Ludus_.

LUTEUS; GILVUS; HELVUS; FLAVUS; LURIDUS. +Luteus+ (from λωτός) denotes a
decided yellow, as the yolk of an egg; +gilvus+, (ἀγλαός) and +helvus+,
a fainter reddish yellow, like that of honey; +flavus+ and +luridus+, a
lighter whitish yellow; +flavus+ (from φλεύω) a glossy beautiful yellow,
like that of light auburn hair; +luridus+ (from χλωρός) a wan unpleasant
yellowishness, like that of pale death.

LUTUM; LIMUS; CŒNUM; SORDES; SQUALOR; PÆDOR; SITUS; STERCUS; FIMUS;
OLETUM; MERDA. 1. +Lutum+, +limus+, +cœnum+, all denote impurity, as a
substance, and as of a wet sort; +lutum+ (from λύθρον) is the dirt of
the streets or roads, like πηλός; +limus+ (λειβόμενος) the mud of a
river, like ἰλύς; +cœnum+ (from cunire) the mire of a moor or morass,
like βόρβορος. Tac. Ann. i. 63. Cætera _limosa_, tenacia gravi _cœno_
aut rivis incerta erant; whereas +sordes+, +squalor+, +pœdor+, +situs+,
denote impurities as a form, and of a dry sort; +sodes+ (from ἄρδα) in
opp. to _splendor_, through indigence, or niggardliness and vulgarity,
for example, clothes dirty from long wear, like ῥύπος; +squalor+ (from
σκέλλω) in opp. to _nitor_, through want of civilized habits, and of
delicacy in the senses, for example uncombed hair, like αὐχμός; +pædor+
(from ψοῖθος) in opp. to _munditiæ_, through neglect of the person, for
example, through _pædiculos_, vermin, itch, etc., like πίνος; +situs+
(ἄσις) in opp. to _usus_, in consequence of long disuse, for example,
through mould, rust, etc., like ἄζη. Hence the different forms of the
adjectives lutosus, limosus, cœnosus, that is, full of lutum, etc.; and
of sordidus, squalidus, pædidus, that is, resembling sordes, etc., and
in circumlocution, _oblitus luto_, _limo_, _cœno_, but _obsitus_,
_sordibus_, _squalore_, _pædore_. 2. +Stercus+ (from τάργανον) denotes
in dung its disgusting sense, as filth, like κόπρος; whereas +fimus+
(opimus?) in its useful sense, as manure. 3. For offensive excrements
+cœnum+ is the most general; +oletum+ denotes human; +merda+ (μίνθος)
animal excrements.

LUX, see _Lumen_.

LUXUS; LUXURIA. +Luxus+ denotes luxury as an act or as a condition, and
sometimes even objectively, as an object of luxury; whereas +luxuria+,
always subjectively, as a propensity and disposition, as the
desiderative of _luxus_. Sen. Ir. i. 11. Animis delicias, _luxus_, opes
ignorantibus: and further on; Opinionem _luxuriæ_ segnitiæque. Sall.
Cat. 13. Romani famem aut sitim . . . . _luxu_ antecapere; that is, by
the arts of luxury: compare with Jug. 90. _Luxuria_ atque ignavia
pessimæ artes: that is, as proceeding from voluptuousness. (ii. 23.)

LYMPHATUS, see _Amens_.


M.

MACELLUM, see _Laniena_.

MACER, see _Exilis_.

MACERIA, see _Murus_.

MACULA, see _Vitium_.

MADIDUS, see _Udus_.

MAGISTER, see _Doctor_.

MAGNOPERE, see _Perquam_.

MAGNUS; GRANDIS; AMPLUS; INGENS; IMMANIS; VASTUS. 1. +Magnus+,
+grandis+, and +amplus+, denote a becoming greatness; +ingens+,
+immanis+, and +vastus+, an overwhelming greatness. Sen. Ir. i. 16. Nec
enim _magnitudo_ ista est, sed _immanitas_. Cic. Læl. 26. 2. +Magnus+
(from μέγα, mactus,) denotes greatness without any accessory notion, in
opp. to _parvus_, like μέγας; whereas +grandis+, with the accessory
notion of intrinsic strength and grandeur, in opp. to exilis, Sen. Ep.
100; subtilis, Quintil. xii. 10, 58; tumidus, in the same book, § 80;
minutus, Cels. ii. 18; exiguus, Quintil. xi. 3, 15; lastly, +amplus+
(adj. from ambi) with the accessory notion of comeliness, and of an
imposing impression. 3. +Ingens+ (ἄγονος) denotes excessive greatness
merely as extraordinary, like ἄπλετος; +immanis+ (ἀμήχανος) as exciting
fear, like πελώριος; +vastus+ (from vagus?) as wanting regularity of
form like ἀχανής. (iii. 228.)

MALA; MAXILLA; GENA. 1. +Mala+ (from μέμαχα, or from Mandere) denotes
the upper, +maxilla+, the under jaw. Cels. Med. viii. 1. 2. +Mala+
denotes the cheek as a usual expression, and in a merely physiological
sense; +gena+ (from γένυς) as a more ancient and select expression, and
with an _æsthetic_ reference. (vi. 208.)

MALEDICTUM; PROBRUM; CONVICIUM. +Maledictum+ is any utterance of what is
injurious to another, whether to bring him ill-luck by cursing, or
disgrace by verbal injuries, like κακηγορία; +probrum+ (from προφέρω) an
invective, like ὄνειδος, consisting of attacks and assertions wounding
the honor of another; +convicium+ (καταικία) the abusive word, like
λοιδορία, consisting of single words and appellations wounding the honor
of another. For example, _fur!_ is a _convicium_, _fur es_, a _probrum_;
each of them a _maledictum_. (iv. 198.)

MALEFACTUM, MALEFICIUM, see _Delictum_.

MALITIA; MALIGNITAS; MALEVOLENTIA; MALUS; NEQUAM; PRAVUS. 1. +Malitia+
denotes the baseness which shows itself in the love of lying and
deceiving, from want of conscience; +malignitas+, the ill-will which
grudges good to another, and wishes it only to itself, from pure
selfishness; +malevolentia+, the ill-will which wishes evil to another
rather than good, from personal aversion. +Malitia+ is a way of thinking
and acting deserving of punishment as endangering the security of
society; +malignitas+ is a despicable disposition, which implies the
want of philanthropy; lastly, +malevolentia+, a detestable quality, as
connected with deriving pleasure from the misfortunes of others.
2. +Malus homo+ is a morally bad man, but +nequam+ a good-for-nothing
man, whose faultiness shows itself in aversion to useful labor, and a
propensity to roguish tricks, in opp. to _frugi_. Plaut. Pseud, i. 5.
53. Cic. Font. 13. Or. ii. 61. Fin. ii. 8. Sen. Contr. iii. 21; +pravus+
(πέραῖος) a man whose character has taken a vicious direction, in a
physical, or intellectual, or moral point of view in opp. to _rectus_.
Plaut. Bacch. iii. 3, 8. Cic. Fin. ii. 8. Acad. i. 10. Quintil. viii. 3,
48. Nec parricidam _nequam_ dixeris hominem, nec meretrici forte deditum
_nefarium_; quod alterum parum, alterum nimium est. Afric. ap. Gell.
vii. 11. (i. 62.)

MALIGNITAS, see _Invidia_.

MAMMA; MAMILLA; UBER; PAPILLA. 1. +Mamma+ and +uber+ denote the breast
in the female body; +mamma+ (μάμμη) denotes the visible breast as a
fleshy part of the body, particularly of a female body; whereas +uber+
(οὐαρόν) the nourishing breast as filled with milk, which is only found
in the female body, like οὖθαρ. 2. +Papilla+ and +mamilla+ denote the
nipples of the breast, common to the male and female; +papilla+ (redupl.
of πάλλα) with reference to their spherical shape, without distinction
of the sexes, like μαζός; +mamilla+ (redupl. from ἀμέλγω) with reference
to their adaptation for suckling, and therefore belonging only to the
female sex, like τίτθη, and teats. (iv. 133.)

MANARE, see _Fluere_.

MANCIPARE, see _Vendere_.

MANCIPIUM, see _Servus_.

MANDARE, see _Jubere_.

MANE; CREPUSCULO; DILUCULO. +Mane+ (from μηνύειν) denotes in the
morning, in the early course of the bright day, in opp. to the night,
and the forenoon hours, like ὄρθρῳ; +crepusculo+ (from creperus, κρύψαι)
in the twilight, in opp. to the bright day; +diluculo+, in the twilight,
in opp. to the dark night, like λυκόφως.

MANERE; MORARI; TARDARE; DETINERE. 1. +Manere+ (from μένειν) denotes
remaining, in opp. to going away; whereas +morari+ (from βραδύς) denotes
tarrying, as an interruption of motion, in opp. to going forwards. Cic.
Sen. 23. _Commorandi_ natura deversorium nobis, non habitandi dedit.
Hence in Tac. H. ii. 48. Irent propere neu _remanendo_ iram victoris
asperarent,--the reading _remorando_ deserves the preference.
2. +Morari+ _aliquem_ means, to prevail upon any one to stay of his own
free will by proposing conditions, like διατρίβειν; +tardare+, to
prevent a person’s hastening on his way by opposing difficulties, like
βραδύνειν; +detinere+, to hinder him from going forwards by force, like
κατέχειν. +Tardare+ has generally an action for its object[2];
+detinere+, a person; +morari+, either. (iii. 298.)

    [Footnote 2: [But: _nos_ Etesiæ valde _tardarunt_.]]

MANERE; EXSPECTARE; PRÆSTOLARI; OPPERIRI. 1. +Manere+ (from μένειν)
denotes a mere physical act to remain in a place, till something has
happened; whereas +exspectare+, +præstolari+, and +opperiri+, denote a
mental act, to wait for, to wait in conscious expectation of some event,
or of some person. 2. +Exspectare+ denotes waiting for, almost as a mere
mental act, as a feeling, without practical reference or accessory
meaning; whereas +præstolari+ and +opperiri+, with the accessory notion
that the person waiting intends, after the arrival of the object waited
for, to do something. 3. The +præstolans+ (from παραστέλλεσθαι) waits
for a person in order to perform services for him; the +opperiens+, for
an occurrence, in order not to be taken by surprise. The +præstolans+
stands in subordinate relation to the person waited for; the
+opperiens+, in co-ordinate, whether as friend or foe. Lastly,
+præstolari+ is a prose expression; +opperiri+, a poetical, or at least,
a select expression. For the German distinction between _warten_ and
_harren_, the former denoting calm, passionless waiting for, the latter,
eager, impatient longing for, the Latins have no correspondent
synonymes. (iii. 57.)

MANES, see _Spectrum_.

MANICÆ, see _Vincula_.

MANIFESTO, see _Aperire_.

MANNUS, see _Equus_.

MANSUETUDO; CLEMENTIA. +Mansuetudo+ (from manui suetus) is the mildness
and magnanimity of a private individual, who does not take vengeance for
a mortification suffered, in opp. to _iracundia_; whereas +clementia+
(from ἀκαλός, κηλεῖν, and mens,) the mercifulness and humanity of the
ruler, or the judge, who does not inflict upon the malefactor the
punishment which he deserves, in opp. to _crudelitas_. Sen. Clem. 2.
Cic. Lig. 3. Att. viii. 9. Plin. Pan. 3. (v. 11.)

MANSUETUS, see _Cicur_.

MANUBIÆ, see _Præda_.

MARE; ÆQUOR; PONTUS; PELAGUS. 1. +Mare+ (from μύρω) denotes the sea, as
a mass of water, in opp. to _terra_ and _aër_, like ἅλς, θάλασσα;
+æquor+, +pelagus+, and +pontus+, with reference to its dimensions;
+æquor+ and +pelagus+, with reference to its horizontal dimension, the
surface of the sea, like πέλαγος, whence πελαγίζειν, to float on the
sea; +pontus+ (from πεσεῖν, πίτνειν,) with reference to its
perpendicular dimension, the depth of the sea, like πόντος, whence
ποντίζειν, to sink into the sea. Colum. viii. 17. Ut in solo piscinæ
posita libella septem pedibus sublimius esset _maris æquor_. Ovid, Met.
ii. 872. Mediique per _æquora ponti_ fert prædam. 2. +Æquor+ (from
æquus) denotes the surface of the sea in a merely physical sense;
whereas +pelagus+ (from πλάξ) with the accessory notion of its great
extent and immensity. (iv. 72.)

MARGO; ORA. +Margo+ (ἀμέργων) denotes the brink, the natural boundary of
a surface, considered almost as a mere mathematical line, and only
improperly as including an exterior portion of the surface; whereas
+ora+ (ὤα, οὖρος, ὅρος) denotes the brim, or border, the artificial
edging of a surface, generally for the sake of ornament, and therefore
necessarily including a certain portion of the surface. Hence we say,
_ora togæ_, but not _margo_; and, on the other hand, _margo fluminis_
and _ripæ_, if the mere line of shore is meant, without any portion of
the bank. (iii. 212.)

MARITA, see _Femina_.

MAS, see _Homo_.

MATRIMONIUM, see _Conjugium_.

MAXILLA, see _Mala_.

MEARE, see _Ire_.

MEDERI; MEDICARI; SANARE; MEDICAMEN; MEDICINA; REMEDIUM. 1. +Mederi+ and
the poetical word +medicari+ (μέδειν) denote healing, as the act of the
physician, who heals with humane sympathy, judgment, and art,
synonymously with _curare_, like ἰᾶσθαι; +sanare+, as the effect of the
physic, which in a mechanical way makes the sick well again,
synonymously with _restituere_, like ἀκεῖσθαι. 2. +Medicamentum+ means a
remedy, with reference to its material substance, as it is prepared by
the apothecary, like φάρμακον; +medicina+, with reference to its healing
virtues, as ordered by the physician; each with reference to an illness;
whereas +remedium+ denotes a remedy for any of the evils to which we are
subject, like ἄκος. Cic. N. D. ii. 53. _Medicamentorum_ salutarium
plenissimæ terræ: comp. with Divin. ii. 51. Quam a medico petere
_medicinam_. (v. 198.)

MEDITARI, see _Cogitare_.

MEDIUS; MODICUS; MEDIOCRIS. +Medius+ μέσος is purely local, in the
middle, in opp. to the extremes; +modicus+ denotes quantity, with
reference to number and magnitude, as moderate, in opp. to over-measure;
+mediocris+ denotes quality, with reference to worth, as middling, in
opp. to distinction; hence _modicæ facultates_ and _mediocre ingenium_
are identical. Cic. Rep. ii. 31. Haud _mediocris_ vir fuit, qui _modica_
libertate populo data facilius tenuit auctoritatem principum. (v. 202.)

MEDIUS DIES, see _Meridies_.

MEMBRUM; ARTUS. +Membrum+ (redupl. of μέρος) denotes a limb of the body
itself, like μέλος and κῶλον; whereas +artus+ (ῥέθος, ἄρθρον,) properly
only a joint of a limb, like ἄρθρον and ἅψος. Senec. Contr. ii. 13.
Differebatur distortis _articulis_; nondum in sua _membra artus_
redierant. Virg. Æn. v. 422. Magnos _artus membrorum_. Quintil. Decl.
ult. Ut per singulos _artus membra_ laxaret. Further, +membra+ denotes
the limbs collectively, including the head and trunk, as parts of the
body; whereas +artus+ only the extremities, which _per commissuras_ with
the body, properly so called, namely, the head and trunk, hang together.
Gell. N. A. i. 14. (iv. 150.)

MEMINISSE; REMINISCI; RECORDARI. +Meminisse+ denotes remembrance as a
state of mind, like μεμνῆσθαι, in as far as one has retained something
in memory, without ever having forgotten it, like _memorem esse_;
whereas +reminisci+ and +recordari+ denote remembrance as an act of the
mind, in as far as one again brings to one’s mind what had already been
driven out of one’s thoughts, like ἀναμιμνήσκεσθαι. But +reminisci+
denotes this act of the mind as momentary, like _in memoriam revocare_;
whereas +recordari+ denotes it as of some duration, like _revocata in
memoriam contemplari_. Cic. Lig. 12, 35. Equidem, cum tuis omnibus
negotiis interessem, _memoria teneo_, qualis T. Ligarius, quæstor
urbanus, fuerit erga te et dignitatem tuam; sed parum est, me hoc
_meminisse_; spero etiam te, qui oblivisci nihil soles, nisi injurias,
quoniam hoc est animi, quoniam etiam ingenii tui, te aliquid de hujus
illo quæstorio officio cogitantem, etiam de aliis quibusdam quæstoribus
_reminiscentem recordari_. This passage shows, that _memoria tenere_ is
only a circumlocution for _meminisse_: there is another passage where
_recordari_ is employed as the consequence of _reminisci_, but there is
no instance of the converse; for _reminisci_ and _recordari_ have the
same relation to each other as _intueri_ and _conspicere_. Cic. Sen. 21.
Pueri . . . . ita celeriter res innumerabiles arripiunt, ut eas non tum
primum accipere videantur, sed _reminisci_ et _recordari_: he might have
added, Quæ non satis _meminerint_, sed in aliquantum temporis obliti
sint. Tusc. i. 24, 58. Animus, quum se collegit atque recreavit, tum
agnoscit illa _reminiscendo_; ita nihil aliud est discere, quam
_recordari_. Senec. Ep. 100. Magis _reminiscor_ quam teneo. (i. 166.)

MENDA, MENDUM, see _Vitium_.

MENDICITAS, see _Paupertas_.

MENS, see _Anima_.

MERACUS, see _Purus_.

MERCARI, see _Emere_.

MERCENARII; OPERARII; OPERÆ. +Mercenarii+ mean laborers as far as they
work, not for their own interest, but for pay, in opp. to the
proprietor, who hires their services; whereas +operarii+ and +operæ+, as
far as they undertake to perform for others, a mere mechanical work, in
opp. to the principal or director, who gives out the plan. +Mercenarii+
refer to the motive; +operarii+, to the art employed being of an
inferior sort. (vi. 217.)

MERCES, see _Præmium_.

MERCIMONIUM, see _Merx_.

MERDA, see _Lutum_.

MERERE; DIGNUM ESSE; MERERI. 1. +Merere+ and +Mereri+ (μείρεσθαι)
suppose an activity, as to deserve; whereas +dignum esse+ (from _decet_,
δίκη,) only a quality, as to be worthy. 2. +Merere+ is usually a
transitive verb, as to deserve, and is in construction with an
accusative, or with a sentence, as its complement; whereas +mereri+, an
intransitive verb, as to be deserving, and is in construction with an
adverb. Cic. Rosc. Com. 15. Fructum, quem _meruerunt_, retribuam: comp.
with Catil. ii. 2, 4. Si illum, ut erat _meritus_, morte mulctassem.
Cæs. B. G. vi. 5, with B. Civ. iii. 53. Suet. Cal. 40, with Aug. 56.
3. +Merere+ as an intransitive, or without an object, denotes to serve
as a warrior, by the ellipsis of _stipendia_; whereas +mereri+ as a
transitive, or with an object, means to earn something for one’s self,
without any stress being laid upon the worthiness. (v. 213.)

MERETRIX, see _Pellex_.

MERIDIES; MEDIUS DIES. +Meridies+ denotes noon, as a point of time,
which separates the forenoon from the afternoon; +medius dies+, the
middle of the day, as a space of time which lies between the morning and
the evening.

MERUS, see _Purus_.

MERX; MERCIMONIUM. +Merx+ means wares, in as far as they are already
wrought up, as an article of trade; +mercimonium+, in as far as they can
become so, like the materials of wares. Tac. A. xi. 5. Nec quidquam
publicæ _mercis_ tam venale fuit: comp. with xv. 38. _Mercimonium_ quo
flamma alitur.

METIRI; METARI; DIMETIRI; DIMETARI. 1. +Metiri+ means to measure a space
in order to know its magnitude; whereas +metari+, to mark the boundaries
of the space that has been measured, that they may be known to others.
2. By +dimetiri+ and +dimetari+, the measuring and marking out of
sub-divisions is especially meant; wherefore _metari castra_ refers
merely to the whole circumference of the entrenchments; when, therefore,
Liv. viii. 38. uses the phrase _locum castris dimetari_, it is evident
of itself that he expressly means, to mark the boundaries of the
_principia_ and of the _prætorium_, etc., that are within the camp.
(ii. 169.)

METUERE, see _Vereri_.

MICARE, see _Lucere_.

MINIME, see _Neutiquam_.

MINISTER, see _Servus_.

MINUTUS, see _Parvus_.

[_Mirari_ is indifferent: _admirari_ usually involves praise, _demirari_
blame.]

MISERERI; MISERARI; MISERET ME. +Misereri+ means to feel pity in the
heart, to compassionate, like ἐλεεῖν; whereas +miserari+, to express
pity in words, to commiserate, like οἰκτείρειν. For the German word
_erbarmen_, to show pity by actions, the Latins have no separate word.
2. By +misereor tui+, pity is represented as an act of the free-will,
and thereby the noble nature of the compassionate is depicted; whereas
by +miseret me tui+, pity is represented as a suffering, which cannot be
resisted, whereby all moral merit is taken away, and the greatness of
another’s misfortune more strongly expressed. +Miserere+ is a causative,
like οἰκτίζειν. (ii. 171.)

MISERIA, see _Infortunium_.

MISSILE; HASTA; LANCEA; JACULUM; VERUTUM; TRAGULUM; PILUM. +Missile+ is
the most general name for a weapon used in fighting at a distance, from
the spear to the arrow; +hasta+ and +lancea+ serve both for thrusting
and hurling; +hasta+ (from σχαστήριον, σχάζω,) as a genuine Roman
weapon, δορύ; +lancea+, as a foreign weapon, supposed to have come
originally from the Suevi, λόγχη; +pilum+, +jaculum+, +verutum+, are
more for hurling; +jaculum+, as the most general expression, including
the hunting spear, βέλος; +verutum+ (from ὀρυχή) and +tragulum+ (τρώγλη)
military weapons for hurling, ἄκων; +pilum+ (from πῆλαι) in the
singular, as the peculiar weapon for hurling used by the Roman legion.
Liv. ix. 19. Romano _pilum_ haud paulo quam _hasta_ vehementius ictu
_missu_que telum.

MITIS; LENIS; PLACIDUS. +Mitis+ means mild, in opp. to _acerbus_, like
μείλιχος; +lenis+ (from lana? or from the Goth, latjan, lassus?) gentle,
in opp. to _vehemens_, like πρᾶος; +placidus+, composed, in opp. to
_turbidus_, like ἤπιος.

MITTERE; LEGARE; AMITTERE; DIMITTERE; OMITTERE. 1. +Mittere+ μεθεῖναι is
the general expression, to send; +legare+ (from λέγω) has a special
political meaning, to delegate. The _missus_ makes his appearance as a
servant or messenger; the _legatus_, as a representative. 2. +Amittere+
and +dimittere+ mean to let go any thing already in one’s possession;
+amittere+, against one’s will, as to lose; +dimittere+, after having
used it, as to dismiss; whereas +omittere+ means to let anything pass
by, without taking possession of it; to speak with precision, _Amittimus
inviti et casu, omittimus volentes et sponte_. Hence _amittere
occasionem_ means, to let slip an opportunity, so as not to be able to
take advantage of it, from negligence; whereas _omittere occasionem_
means, to renounce an opportunity, so as not to wish to take advantage
of it, from attaching little value to it. _Vitam amittere_ means, to
lose one’s life; _vitam omittere_, to sacrifice it. (iii. 285.)

MODERATUS, MODESTIA, see _Modus_.

MODICUS, see _Medius_.

MODO-MODO; NUNC-NUNC. +Modo-modo+ is properly applicable only to
transactions of the past and of the future; +nunc-nunc+ only to those of
the present. This distinction is neglected, yet +nunc-nunc+ gives a
livelier color to description, and belongs to poetry, or to the more
elevated style of prose; +modo-modo+, like ‘just now,’ is the proper
prose expression, which Cicero always uses. (iv. 276.)

MODO, see _Nuper_.

MODUS; MODESTIA; MODERATIO; TEMPERATIO; CONTINENTIA; ABSTINENTIA.
1. +Modus+, in a moral sense, denotes the μέτριον, or the included
notion of the μηδὲν ἄγαν in objective relation; +modestia+ and
+moderatio+, in subjective relation; +Modestia+ is the feeling of
preference for this _modus_; +moderatio+, the habit of acting in
conformity to this feeling. 2. +Moderatio+ is moderation, as springing
from the understanding, from calculation and reflection, akin to
_prudentia_; +temperatio+ and +temperantia+ are qualities pervading the
whole man, and ennobling his whole being, akin to _sapientia_.
+Moderatio+ supposes, like self-government, a conflict between the
passions and reason, in which reason comes off conqueror; in
+temperatio+, as in tranquillity of mind, the reason is already in
possession of superiority, whether through nature or moral worth.
3. +Temperatus+, +temperatio+, denote merely a laudable property, which
may belong even to things; whereas +temperans+, +temperantia+, a virtue
of which reasonable beings alone are capable. 4. +Moderatio+ denotes
moderation in _action_, in opp. to _cupiditas_; whereas +continentia+,
moderation in enjoyment, in opp. to _libido_, Cic. Cat. ii. 11, 25.
Verr. iv. 52. 5. +Continentia+ denotes command over sensual desires,
continence; +abstinentia+, over the desire for that which belongs to
another, firm integrity; the translation of _abstinentia_ by
‘disinterestedness,’ is not precise enough, for this virtue is required
by morality only, _abstinentia_, by _law_ also. Quintil. v. 10, 89. Cic.
Sext. 16. 6. +Modestia+ shuns overstepping the right measure, out of
regard to the morals which the _modus_ prescribes; whereas +verecundia+
and +reverentia+ out of regard to persons, whom the _verecundus_ is
afraid of displeasing, and whom the _reverens_ thinks worthy of respect;
lastly, +pudor+, out of self-respect, that one may not bring one’s self
into contempt. Varro, ap. Non. Non te tui saltem _pudet_, si nihil mei
_revereare_. Terent. Phorm. i. 5, 3. or ii. 1, 3. Non simultatem meam
_revereri_? Saltem _pudere_? (ii. 203.)

MŒNIA, see _Murus_.

MŒSTITIA, see _Dolor_.

MOLES; ONUS; PONDUS; GRAVITAS. +Moles+ and +onus+ denote the heaviness
of an object in its disadvantageous sense; +moles+ (from μῶλος or
μόχλος) absolutely, as unwieldiness, so far as through its greatness it
is inconvenient to move, like ὄγκος; +onus+, relatively to its pressure,
so far as it is irksome to the person carrying it, as a burden, φόρτος;
whereas +pondus+ (from pendere) in an advantageous sense, as force and
strength, like weight, ἄχθος; lastly, +gravitas+ (from γεραός) unites
both senses, and sometimes denotes the irksome heaviness, sometimes the
effective weightiness, like βάρος. (iv. 223.)

MOLESTIA, see _Labor_.

MOLIRI, see _Audere_.

MONERE, see _Hortari_.

MONETA, see _Pecunia_.

MONS; JUGUM. +Mons+ (from minari, eminere,) denotes the mountain with
reference to its dimension of height; whereas +jugum+, with reference to
its breadth and length, sometimes as the uppermost ridge, which,
according as it is flat or pointed, is with yet greater precision called
either _dorsum_ or _cacumen_, in opp. to _radices montis_; sometimes as
a range of mountains, particularly in an ascending direction, by which
several mountains become joined, so as to form a chain, or pile of
mountains, in opp. to the mountain itself. Liv. xxii. 18. Sub _jugo
montis_ prœlium fuit: comp. with xli. 18. Petilius adversus Balistæ et
Leti _jugum_, quod eos _montes_ perpetuo _dorso_ conjungit, castra
habuit. Or, Tac. G. 10, with 43, and Agr. 10. Or, Virg. Ecl. v. 76, with
Ovid, Met. iv. 657. (v. 225.)

MONSTRA, see _Auguria_.

MONSTRARE, see _Ostendere_.

MORARI, see _Tardare_.  [[redirects to _Manere_]]

MORBIDUS, MORBUS, see _Æger_.

MORIGERARI, see _Parere_.

MOROSUS, see _Austerus_.

MORS; LETUM; NEX; OBITUS; INTERITUS; PERIRE; OPPETERE; DEMORI;
INTERMORI; EMORI. 1. +Mors+ and +letum+ denote a natural death; +mors+
(μόρος) the usual expression in a merely physical sense, as the way to
corruption, like θάνατος; +letum+ (from λαχεῖν, λάχεσις,) the select and
solemn expression, as the lot of death, like οἶτος; whereas +nex+ (from
νεκρός) a violent death, as the passive of _cædes_. 2. +Mors+, +letum+,
+nex+, are proper, whereas +obitus+ and +interitus+ only softer,
expressions. +Obitus+, decease, denotes, like _exitus_, a natural death;
whereas +interitus+, together with +perire+, usually denotes, like
_exitium_, a violent death. Plin. Ep. iii. 7. Silius ultimus ex
Neronianis consularibus _obiit_, quo consule Nero _periit_. Plaut. Epid.
iii. 4, 56. Malo cruciatu _pereas_, atque _obeas_ cito. 3. +Perire+
represents death as destruction and corruption; +interire+ as a
vanishing, so that the former applies more to the body, the latter to
the soul. Plaut. Capt. iii. 5, 32. Qui per virtutem _periit_, at non
_interit_; that is, he who dies a noble death, though his body perishes,
still lives in name and posthumous renown. Further, +perire+ denotes a
sudden and violent death, particularly by self-murder; +interire+, a
gradual and painful, but, it may be, also a peaceful, death. Tac. Ann.
xv. 44. Et _pereuntibus_ Christianis addita ludibria, ut ferarum tergis
contecti laniatu canum _interirent_. Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. iv. 5. Si quis
nostrum _interiit_, aut occisus est. 4. +Obire mortem+ denotes to die,
as a physical event, by which one ends all suffering; whereas +oppetere
mortem+ denotes to die, as a moral act, in as far as a man, if he does
not seek death, at any rate awaits it with firmness and contempt of it.
5. +Demori+ denotes to die off, as one belonging to a society, and
thereby to occasion a vacancy; +intermori+, to be apparently dying, to
be sick of a lingering disease, like ἐκθανεῖν; +emori+, to die entirely,
in opp. to a mere semblance of life in misfortune, slavery, and
disgrace, like πανδίκως θανεῖν. Cic. Pis. 7. Ut _emori_ potius quam
servire præstaret. (iii. 182.)

MOS, see _Consuetudo_.

MOSTELLUM, see _Spectrum_.

MUCRO, see _Acies_.

MULCARE, see _Verberare_.

MULCERE; PALPARE. +Mulcere+ (μύλλειν, μαλακός) means to stroke any thing
in itself rough, as the hair, for instance, in order to make it smooth;
thence, figuratively, to pacify an enraged person, like καταψῆν; whereas
+palpare+ (ψηλαφᾶν, ἁπαλός,) to stroke any thing already smooth, in
order to excite a pleasant sensation; thence, figuratively, to caress
and coax, like ψηλαφᾶν. (v. 109.)

MULCTA, see _Vindicta_.

MULIER, see _Femina_.

MUNDUS, see _Purus_.

MUNIFICUS, see _Largus_.

MUNIMENTA, see _Murus_.

MUNUS, see _Donum_ and _Officium_.

MURUS; PARIES; MŒNIA; MACERIA; PARIETINÆ; MUNIMENTA. 1. +Murus+ (μοῖρα,
μείρω,) denotes any sort of wall, merely with reference to its form,
without reference to its use, like τεῖχος; +paries+ (πείρω) especially a
wall, as the side of a building, or as a partition to separate the
rooms, like τοῖχος; +mœnia+ (ἀμύνω) the walls of a city, as a defence
against the enemy, like περίβολος? +maceria+, the wall of an enclosure,
to mark the boundaries and to exclude thieves, the garden or vineyard
wall, like θριγκός. Virg. Æn. vi. 549. _Mœnia_ lata videt triplici
circumdata _muro_. And Flor. i. 4. Vitruv. viii. 4. Tac. Ann. xv. 43.
Nero instituit, ut urbis domus non communione _parietum_, sed propriis
quæque _muris_ ambirentur. 2. +Muri+, +mœnia+, etc., are walls in a good
condition; +parietinæ+, walls that are falling into ruins. 3. +Mœnia+
denote walls as a defence of a city against a first assault;
+munimenta+, the proper fortifications of fortresses and camps, which
are of themselves a bulwark against being taken by storm. (v. 350.)

MUTILARE; TRUNCARE. +Mutilare+ denotes smaller mutilations, such as the
breaking off of horns, the cutting off of a finger, the nose, etc.;
+truncare+ denotes greater mutilations, such as the chopping off of
arms, feet, hands. The _mutilata membra_ may be compared to twigs and
shoots broken off; the _truncata membra_, to principal branches chopped
off. (iv. 325.)

MUTUO, see _Vicissim_.

MUTUUM DARE, see _Commodare_.

MYSTERIA, see _Arcana_.


N.

NANCISCI, see _Invenire_.

NARES, see _Nasus_.

NASUS; NARES. +Nasus+ is the exterior of the nose, as a prominent part
of the face, like ῥίν; +nares+ (ναρός) the interior of the nose, as the
organ of smell, like μυκτῆρες. (vi. 231.).

NATIO, see _Gens_.

NAVIGIUM; NAVIS; CELOX; LEMBUS; LIBURNA; SCAPHA; CYMBA; LINTER.
+Navigium+ is the most general expression, like vessel; +navis+ (ναῦς)
an ordinary ship for distant voyages; +celox+, +lembus+, and +liburna+,
are boats which may be manned and armed for service in war; +scapha+,
+cymba+, and +linter+, are only skiffs and wherries, intended merely for
short distances and for crossing over; +scapha+ and +cymba+, of the
broader sort, in the form of small barges; +linter+, long and narrow,
like a canoe. (vi. 232.)

NECESSARIUS; PROPINQUUS; COGNATUS; CONSANGUINEUS; AFFINIS.
1. +Necessarius+ means any one to whom one is bound by a permanent
connection, whether of an official kind, as _collega_, _patronus_,
_cliens_, or of a private nature, as _familiaris_, _amicus_, like
προσήκοντες; +propinquus+, any one to whom one is bound by a family
connection, a relation, like ἀγχιστεῖς and ἔται, as a species of
_cognatus_ and _consanguineus_, related by blood; +affinis+, a relation
by marriage, or in law, like κηδεστής. 2. +Cognatio+ is the relationship
by blood existing among members of the same family, like σύναιμος;
+consanguinitas+, the relationship of nations by derivation from a
common origin, like συγγενής. Cæs. B. G. vii. 32. Hominem summæ potentiæ
et magnæ _cognationis_: comp. with i. 11. Ambarri necessarii et
_consanguinei_ Æquorum. Liv. vii. 9. Suet. Cl. 25. Justin, xviii. 5.
(v. 179.)

NECESSE EST; OPORTET; OPUS EST; DEBERE. 1. +Necesse est+ (ἀναγκάζω)
denotes an obligation of nature and necessity, like ἀνάγκη ἐστίν;
+oportet+, an obligation of morality and of honor, like χρή; +opus est+
(πόθος, optare?) an obligation of prudence, like δεῖ. Cic. Orat. ii. 25.
Jure omnia defenduntur quæ sunt ejus generis, ut aut _oportuerit_ aut
licuerit aut _necesse fuerit_. Att. iv. 6. Si loquor de republica quod
_oportet_, insanus; si, quod _opus est_, servus existimor. And xiii. 25.
Cat. ap. Sen. Ep. 94. Emo non quod _opus est_, sed quod _necesse est_;
quod non _opus est_, asse carum est. And Cic. Or. ii. 43. 2. +Oportet+
denotes objectively, the moral claim which is made upon any man;
+debere+ (δεύεσθαι, δεῖν? or, dehibere?) subjectively, the moral
obligation which any man is under, like ὀφείλειν. Tac. Hist. iv. 7.
Accusatores etiamsi puniri non _oporteat_, ostentari non _debere_.
(v. 323.)

NECTERE, see _Ligare_.

NEFANDUS, NEFARIUS, see _Scelestus_.

NEFASTUS, see _Delictum_.

NEGARE; INFITIARI; INFITIAS IRE; DENEGARE; PERNEGARE; RECUSARE; ABNUERE;
RENUERE; REPUDIARE. 1. +Negare+ means to deny, from objective motives,
when a man has, or professes to have, the truth in view, like ἀποφάναι,
οὐ φάναι; whereas +infiteri+, +infitiari+, and +infitias ire+, mean to
disown from subjective motives, when personal interest is in some way
implicated, like ἀρνεῖσθαι. 2. +Infiteri+ is an obsolete expression;
+infitiari+ (ἀνα-φατίζειν,) the usual and general expression; +infitias+
(ἀμφασίας) +ire+ is only connected with a negation, and answers to the
phrase, not to assent to. 3. +Negatio+ is a denial, merely conveying
information to the hearer; +pernegatio+, or +negitatio+, to convince
him, when he is incredulous; +denegatio+, to get rid of his importunity,
when his request is useless. Martial, Ep. iv. 82. _Negare_ jussi,
_pernegare_ non jussi. Cic. Phil. xi. 8, 19. In quo maximum nobis onus
imposuit, assensero; ambitionem induxero in curiam; _negaro_; videbor
suffragio meo tanquam comitiis honorem amicissimo _denegasse_.
4. +Negare+ supposes a question only, whether actual or possible, which
is denied; whereas +recusare+, a request which is refused; hence
+negare+ is a more general and mild expression than _recusare_; for the
_negans_ merely denies the possibility of granting what he is asked or
requested; whereas the _recusans_ also calls in question the justice of
the request, which he protests against as a threat, or as an
encroachment. Hence +negare+, +denegare+, are more used in private
transactions; +recusare+, in public affairs. 5. +Negare+ and +recusare+
take place by means of words and speeches; +abnuere+ and +renuere+,
mostly by signs and gestures; +abnuere+, by waving a person from one
with the hand, like ἀπονεύω; +renuere+, by drawing back the head, like
ἀνανεύω. 6. +Abnuere+ is a more friendly, +renuere+ a haughtier manner
of denying. 7. +Recusare+ refers to an object which is considered as a
burden, and claims resignation, in opp. to _suscipere_, Suet. Ner. 3;
whereas +repudiare+ (from repedare?) refers to an object which is
considered as a good, and promises profit or pleasure, in opp. to
_assumere_. Cic. Orat. 62. Cic. Fin. i. 10, 33. Sæpe eveniet ut et
voluptates _repudiandæ_ sint, et molestia non _recusanda_. (iv. 40.)

NEGLIGERE, see _Spernere_.

NEMUS, see _Silva_.

NEPOS, see _Prodigus_.

NEQUAQUAM, s. _Neutiquam_.

NEQUIDQUAM, see _Frustra_.

NEQUITIA, see _Malitia_.

NESCIUS, see _Cognitio_.

NEUTIQUAM; NEQUAQUAM; MINIME. +Neutiquam+ means, in no case, in opp. to
_utique_; +nequaquam+, by no means; +minime+, not in the least.

NEX, see _Mors_.

NIGER, see _Teter_ and _Ater_.

NIHIL AGERE, see _Vacare_.

NIHIL EST; NIHILI EST; NULLUS EST. +Nihil est+ denotes the entire want
of virtue and efficacy; as, he is good for nothing; whereas +nihili
est+, the entire want of value and usefulness, as he is of no use;
lastly, +nullus est+, the negation of existence in general, as it is all
over with him. (i. 56.)

NITERE, see _Lucere_.

NITI, see _Fulciri_.

NOBILIS, see _Celeber_.

NOCENS, see _Culpa_.

NOMINARE; NUNCUPARE; VOCARE; APPELLARE. +Nominare+ and +nuncupare+ mean,
to call anybody by his name; +nominare+, to call him by the name which
he already possesses; +nuncupare+, to give a name to an object that has
hitherto been without a name; whereas +appellare+ and +vocare+ mean to
designate a person by any name, title, or appellation belonging to him.
(v. 105.)

NONNUNQUAM; INTERDUM; ALIQUANDO. +Nonnunquam+, sometimes in opp. to
_nunquam_ and _semper_, approximates to the meaning of _sæpius_, like
ἔσθ’ ὅτε; +interdum+, at times, is in opp. to _crebro_, and approximates
to the meaning of _rarius_, like ἐνίοτε; lastly, +aliquando+, now and
then, is in opp. to _semel_, and approximates to the meaning of _prope
nunquam_, like ποτέ. The _interdum facta_ denotes actions repeated at
considerable intervals of time; the _nonnunquam facta_, actions repeated
at shorter intervals; the _aliquando facta_, actions repeated at very
distant intervals of time. Cic. Sext. 54. Comitiorum et concionum
significationes _interdum_ veræ sunt, _nonnunquam_ vitiatæ et corruptæ.
And Acad. i. 7. Off. ii. 18. Brut. 67. Mur. 30. (iv. 273.)

NOTARE, see _Animadvertere_.

NOTITIA, see _Cognitio_.

NOVISSIMUS, see _Extremus_.

NOVUS; RECENS; NOVICIUS. 1. +Novus+ means new, as that which did not
exist in former times, in opp. to _antiquus_, like νέος; whereas
+recens+ (from candere) new, as one that has not long been in existence,
in opp. to _vetus_. Cic. Verr. ii. 2. Mur. 7. 16. Tusc. iv. 17. Tac.
Ann. ii. 88. iv. 12. Colum. vi. 12; like καινός. 2. +Novus+ denotes new,
indifferently; +novicius+ (from νέαξ) with the accessory notion of being
a novice, who must accustom himself, or be instructed by others, before
he is qualified for something, in opp. to _vetustus_? (iv. 95.)

NOXIA, NOXIUS, see _Culpa_.

NULLUS SUM, see _Nihil sum_.

NUMEN; DEUS; DIVUS; SEMO; HEROS. +Numen+ (πνεῦμα) in a wider sense is
any divine being, like δαίμων; in a narrower sense it is used as a
species of _Deus_, or ancient _Divus_, θεός; and for _semideus_, a
half-god; or _semo_, a half-man; for which last, besides the foreign
word _heros_, _numen_ also is used. Plin. Pan. 2, 3. Nusquam ut _deo_,
nusquam ut _numini_ blandimur. (vi. 239.)

NUMMUS, see _Pecunia_.

NUNC-NUNC, see _Modo-modo_.

NUNCUPARE, see _Nominare_.

NUPER; MODO. +Nuper+ (νέον, πέρι) means several days, months, also,
years since, lately, like νεωστί; whereas +modo+, a few moments since,
just now, like ἄρτι. Cic. Verr. iv. 3, 6. _Nuper_ homines nobiles
ejusmodi; sed quid dico _nuper_? imo vero _modo_ ac plane paulo ante
vidimus. Tusc. i. 24. Quanta memoria fuit _nuper_ Charmadas! quanta qui
_modo_ fuit Scepsius Metrodorus!

NUPTIÆ, see _Conjugium_.

NUTARE, see _Labare_.

NUTRIRE, NUTRICARE, see _Alere_.


O.

OBAMBULARE, see _Ambulare_.

OBEDIRE, see _Parere_.

OBESUS, see _Pinguis_.

OBEX, see _Sera_.

OBJICERE; EXPROBRARE. +Objicere+ means to charge a person with
something, from which he must vindicate himself as against an
accusation; whereas +exprobrare+ means to upbraid a person with
something, which he must let remain as it is. The _objiciens_ will call
a person to account; the _exprobrans_ only put him to the blush.
(iv. 198.)

OBITUS, see _Mors_.

OBLECTATIO; DELECTATIO. +Oblectatio+ (from ἀλέγειν?) is a pleasant
occupation, conversation, amusement, which disperses ennui, and confers
a relative pleasure; whereas +delectatio+ is a real delight, which
procures positive enjoyment, and confers absolute pleasure. Cic. Orat.
i. 26. In iis artibus, in quibus non utilitas quæritur necessaria, sed
animi libera quædam _oblectatio_. And Ep. Q. Fr. ii. 14. Satis commode
me _oblectabam_: comp. with Fam. ix. 24. Magna te _delectatione_ et
voluptate privavisti. Or, Suet. Dom. 21. with Aug. 29. Plin. Ep. iv. 14.
with iv. 8. (v. 10.)

OBLIGARE, see _Ligare_.

OBLIQUUS, see _Transversus_.

OBLITUS, see _Delibutus_.

OBSCURUM; TENEBRÆ; CALIGO; TENEBRICOSUS; OPACUS; UMBROSUS. 1. +Obscurum+
(σκοτερόν) denotes darkness as an obstruction of light, like σκότος in
opp. to _illustre_. Auct. ad Her. iii. 19, 32. Plin. Pan. 69; whereas
+tenebræ+ (δνοφεραί) as the absence of light,) like ζόφος, κνέφας,) in
opp. to _lux_. Cic. Ep. ad Q. Fr. i. 2; lastly, +caligo+ (from celare)
as the positive opposite to light and brightness, like ἀχλύς. +Caligo+
denotes a greater degree of darkness than _tenebræ_; +tenebræ+ than
_obscuritas_; +obscuritas+ than _opacum_ and _umbrosum_. Cic. Acad.
iv. 23, 72. Sensus quidem non _obscuros_ facit sed _tenebricosos_. Plin.
Ep. vii. 21. Cubicula obductis velis _opaca_, nec tamen _obscura_ facio.
Tac. H. ii. 32. Senatum et populum nunquam _obscurari_ nomina, etsi
aliquando _obumbrentur_. Hence, figuratively, +obscurus+ denotes only an
insignificant person, of whom nobody takes notice; whereas
+tenebricosus+ something positively bad, which seeks darkness that it
may remain unobserved. 2. +Opacus+ denotes shady, with reference to a
pleasant and beneficial coolness, in opp. to _apertus_ and _apricus_,
like εὔσκιος; whereas +umbrosus+ (umbra, ἀμαυρός,) implies a depth of
shade approaching to darkness, like σκιόεις. (iii. 168.)

OBSECRARE, see _Rogare_.

OBSECUNDARE and OBSEQUI, see _Parere_.

OBSERVARE, see _Vereri_.

OBSTINARE, s. _Destinare_.

OBSTINATIO, s. _Pervicacia_.

OBSTRINGERE, s. _Ligare_.

OBTEMPERARE, see _Parere_.

OBTESTARI, see _Rogare_.

OBTINGERE, see _Accidere_.

OBTRECTATIO, s. _Invidia_.

OBTRUNCARE, s. _Interficere_.

OBTUTUS, see _Invidia_.

OBVENIRE, see _Accidere_.

OCCASIO; OPPORTUNITAS; POTESTAS; COPIA; FACULTAS. +Occasio+ and
+opportunitas+ are the opportunities which fortune and chance offer;
+occasio+, the opportunity to undertake something in a general sense,
like καιρός; +opportunitas+, the opportunity to undertake something with
facility and the probability of success, like εὐκαιρία; whereas
+potestas+ and +copia+ are opportunities offered by men, and through
their complaisance; +potestas+ denotes the possibility of doing
something with legal authority; +copia+ the possibility of doing
something with convenience; lastly, +facultas+, as the most general
expression, the possibility to do something in a general sense.

OCCIDERE, see _Interficere_.

OCCULERE, OCCULTARE and OCCULTE, see _Celare_.

OCULI, see _Facies_.

ODIUM; INVIDIA; INIMICITIA; SIMULTAS. 1. +Odium+ and +invidia+ denote
the feeling of aversion; +inimicitia+ and +simultas+, the exterior state
arising from this feeling. 2. +Invidia+ has a negative character, like
disaffection, like δύσνοια, and is a temporary feeling, in opp. to
_gratia_ or _favor_; whereas +odium+ (from ὀδύσασθαι) has a character
thoroughly positive, like hatred, μῖσος, and is a deep-rooted feeling,
in opp. to _amor_. Plin. Pan. 68, 7. Hence, +invidia+ is the beginning
of _odium_. +Invidia+ has merely persons; +odium+, persons and things
for its objects. Tac. Ann. ii. 56. Armenii . . . sæpius discordes sunt,
adversus Romanos _odio_, et in Parthum _invidia_. xiii. 15. Nero
intellecta _invidia odium_ intendit. Plin. Pan. 84, 2. Exardescit
_invidia_, cujus finis est _odium_. 3. +Inimicitia+ denotes any enmity
which has its foundation in antipathy or disagreement, like δυσμένεια,
ἔχθρα; whereas +simultas+ (ὁμαλότης) denotes a political enmity, which
has its foundation in rivalship, like φιλονεικία. Suet. Vesp. 6.
_Simultas_ quam ex æmulatione non obscuræ gerebant. (iii. 73.)

ODORARI, ODORUS, see _Olere_.

OFFENDERE, see _Lædere_.

OFFENSIO, see _Contumelia_.

OFFICIUM; MUNUS. +Officium+ means an employment, as imposing a moral
obligation, undertaken from conscientious feelings; +munus+, as imposing
a political obligation, undertaken merely as a charge or office. Cic.
Mur. 35. Hæc sunt _officia_ necessariorum, commoda tenuiorum, _munia_
candidatorum. (v. 352.)

OLERE; OLFACERE; FRAGRARE; ODORARI; OLIDUS; ODORUS; REDOLERE; PEROLERE.
1. +Odor+ and +olere+ (ὄδωδα) denote, objectively, the smell which a
thing has in itself, in opp. to _sapor_, etc., like ὀσμή; whereas
+olfactus+ and +olfacere+ denote, subjectively, the sensation caused by
this smell, or the sense of smell, in opp. to _gustus_, etc., like
ὄσφρησις. 2. +Olere+ means to smell, in opp. to being without smell, and
especially denotes a rank and bad smell; whereas +fragrare+ (from
βρέχειν) denotes a good smell. +Redolere+ and +perolere+ are used as
frequentatives; +redolere+ denotes a strong smell in an indifferent
sense; +perolere+, a penetrating smell, in a bad sense. 3. +Olfactus+ is
a smell, as far as it is an involuntary effect of the sense of smell;
+odoratus+, as far as it is an intentional exertion of that sense.
4. +Olfacere+, to smell, is of a passive nature, like _audire_, the
smell mounting up to the nose of itself; +odorari+, to smell at, to
sniff, ῥίνηλατεῖν, is of an active nature, like _auscultare_, the man
drawing up the smell into his nose of himself. _Olfaciens_ sentit
odorem, _odorans_ captat. 5. +Olidus+ denotes smelling, and particularly
with a bad smell; +odorus+, with a good smell. Hence, +bene olidus+
denotes merely the negative of a stench; +odorus+, a positive good
smell; and the antiquated word +olor+ denoted a stench, like _oletum_;
but +odor+ denotes only a smell. (iii. 131.)

OLETUM, see _Lutum_.

OLFACERE, OLIDUS, see _Olere_.

OMINA, see _Auguria_.

OMITTERE, see _Intermittere_, _Mittere_, and _Relinquere_.

OMNES, see _Quisque_.

OMNINO, see _Plane_.

ONUS, see _Moles_.

OPACUS, see _Obscurum_.

OPEM FERRE, see _Auxilium_.

OPERA; LABOR; INDUSTRIA; GNAVITAS; ASSIDUITAS; DILIGENTIA. 1. +Opera+
(from περᾶν, πράσσειν,) denotes activity without intense exertion, as
merely doing, or turning one’s hand to, something, in opp. to momentary
inactivity; and also in opp. to thinking, speaking, advising, like
ἐργασία; whereas +labor+ denotes strenuous exertion, which is followed
by fatigue, labor, in opp. to pleasure, like πόνος. Plaut. Aul. iii. 3.
7. _Opera_ huc est conducta vestra, non oratio: comp. with Bacch.
iii. 6, 11. Cic. Rep. i. 9. Otiosiorem _opera_ quam animo. Liv.
xxii. 22. Ut _opera_ quoque impensa consilium adjuvem meum. And Liv.
v. 4. _Labor_ voluptasque dissimillima natura, societate quadam naturali
inter se sunt conjuncta: comp. with Cic. Mur. 35. Plin. Ep. ix. 10.
Senec. Tranq. 2. 2. +Industria+, +gnavitas+, and +sedulitas+, denote
activity as an habitual quality, in opp. to the love of idleness;
+industria+, of an elevated sort, the impulse to activity that animates
the hero or the statesman, in opp. to _ignavia_, _gnavitas_ (γενναιότης)
of a useful sort, the diligence of ordinary men, and of the industrious
citizen; +sedulitas+ (sine dolore) an activity that shows itself in
small matters, often even of a comic sort, the indefatigable bustling of
the busy housewife, of the good-natured nurse, of any one who pays
officious court to another. Colum. xii. præf. 8. Ut cum forensibus
negotiis matronalis _sedulitas industriæ_ rationem parem faceret.
3. +Assiduitas+ and +diligentia+ denote industry; +assiduitas+ (from
sedere) like συνέχεια, more in an extensive sense with continued and
uninterrupted efforts; +diligentia+, (ἀλέγειν) more in an intensive
sense, with careful and close application, in order to attain the end of
one’s industry. 4. +Studium+ denotes inclination and love towards the
object of one’s industry, and an inward impulse. (i. 111.)

OPERÆ, see _Mercenarii_.

OPES, see _Divitiæ_.

OPIFEX, see _Faber_.

OPIMUS, see _Pinguis_.

OPINARI, see _Censere_.

OPINIO, see _Sententia_.

OPITULARI, see _Auxilium_.

OPORTET, see _Necesse est_.

OPPERIRI, see _Manere_.

OPPETERE, see _Mors_.

OPPORTUNITAS, s. _Occasio_.

OPPRIMERE, s. _Vincere_.

OPPROBRIUM, s. _Ignominia_.

OPTARE, see _Velle_.

OPTIMATES, see _Primores_.

OPULENTIA, see _Divitiæ_.

OPUS EST, see _Necesse est_.

OPUS, see _Agere_.

ORA, see _Margo_ and _Ripa_.

ORARE, see _Rogare_.

ORATIO, see _Sermo_.

ORBIS; CIRCULUS; GYRUS. +Orbis+ (from ῥαιβός) denotes a circular motion,
and the periphery described by it; whereas +circulus+ denotes a circular
level; lastly, +gyrus+ (from γυρός) a curved, and especially a
serpentine line. The phrase _in orbem consistere_ could not be changed
into _in circulum_, and a limited social circle, _circulus_, could not
be expressed by _orbis_. Tac. G. 6. Equi nec variare _gyros_ nostrum in
modum docentur; in rectum aut uno flexu dextros agunt, ita conjuncto
_orbe_ ut nemo posterior sit. (v. 182.)

ORDIRI, see _Incipere_.

ORDO, see _Series_.

OREÆ, see _Frenum_.

ORNARE, see _Comere_.

ORNATUS, see _Præditus_.

OS, see _Facies_.

OSCULUM; SUAVIUM; BASIUM. +Osculum+ is a friendly; +suavium+, a tender;
+basium+, an ardent kiss. (vi. 251.)

OSTENDERE; MONSTRARE; DECLARARE. +Ostendere+ means to show, as far as
one makes something observable, lets it be seen, and does not keep it
secret, like φῆναι, ἐμφανίσαι; +monstrare+ (intensive from μανθάνειν)
means to show, as far as one imparts information thereby; lastly,
+declarare+, to make evident, as far as one makes a thing clear, and
dispels doubt, like δηλῶσαι.

OSTENTA, see _Auguria_.

OSTENTATIO, see _Jactatio_.

OSTIUM; JANUA; FORES; VALVÆ. +Ostium+ and +janua+ denote the door, as
the opening through which one goes in and out; +ostium+, as the most
general expression for any door, like θύρα; +janua+, as a particular
expression only for a house-door; whereas +fores+ and +valvæ+ denote the
leaves of a door, which serve to close the opening; +fores+, of ordinary
doors, like θυρίδες; +valvæ+, of stately buildings and temples, as
double or folding doors. Tac. Ann. xiv. 8. Anicetus refracta _janua_
obvios servorum adripit, donec ad _fores_ cubiculi veniret. (v. 214.)

OTIARI, see _Vacare_.

OTIUM; PAX; CONCORDIA. +Otium+ (αὔσιος, αὔτως,) denotes quiet times in
general, as a species of _pax_ (πῆξαι), with reference to foreign
relations; +concordia+, with reference to internal relations. (v. 246.)


P.

PÆDOR, see _Lutum_.

PÆNE; PROPE; FERE; FERME. +Pæne+ and +prope+ serve to soften an
expression that is much too strong, and as a salvo to an hyperbole;
+pæne+, in opp. to _plane_, is translated ‘almost;’ +prope+, ‘nearly;’
whereas +fere+ and +ferme+ serve only as a salvo to the accuracy of an
expression, like ‘about.’

PÆSTUS, see _Strabo_.

PALAM, see _Aperire_.

PALARI, see _Errare_.

PALPARI, see _Mulcere_.

PALUS, see _Lacuna_.

PALUS, see _Stipes_.

PANDUS, see _Curvus_.

PAR, see _Æquus_.

PARATUS, see _Instructus_.  [[redirects to _Præditus_]]

PARERE, see _Creare_.

PARERE; OBEDIRE; DICTO AUDIENTEM ESSE; OBSEQUI; OBSECUNDARE; MORIGERARI;
OBTEMPERARE. +Parere+, +obedire+ and +dicto audientem esse+, denote
obedience as an obligation, and a state of duty and subjection;
+parere+, in a lower relation, as that of a servant to his master,
a subject to his sovereign, in opp. to _imperare_, Cic. Fam. ix. 25;
+obedire+, +obœdire+, in a freer relation, as that of an inferior to his
superior, of a citizen to the law and magistrate; +dicto audientem
esse+, in a relation of the greatest subordination, as that of a soldier
to his general, as to obey orders; whereas +obsequi+, +obsecundare+,
+obtemperare+, and +morigerari+, as an act of free will. The _obsequens_
and _obsecundans_ obey from love and complaisance, showing their
readiness to obey; the _morigerans_ and _obtemperans_, from persuasion,
esteem, or fear, evincing their conformity to another’s will. Hirt. B.
Afr. 51. Jubæ barbaro potius _obedientem_ fuisse quam nuntio Scipionis
_obtemperasse_. Cic. Cæc. 18. Man. 16. Tac. H. ii. 14. Parata non arma
modo sed _obsequium_ et _parendi_ amor; that is, readiness to obey, from
respect and love to the general, and from taking a pleasure in
obedience, from a feeling that without order and subordination their
cause could not be upheld. Cic. Orat. 71. Dum tibi roganti voluerim
_obsequi_; comp. with Fam. ix. 25. _Obtemperare_ cogito præceptis tuis.
(v. 271.)

PARIES, PARIETINÆ, see _Murus_.

PARILIS, see _Æquus_.

PARMA, see _Scutum_.

PARS; PORTIO. +Pars+ (from πείρω) denotes a part, with reference to a
whole; whereas +portio+, a part or share with reference to a possessor.
Plin. H. N. xi. 15. Æstiva mellatione decimam _partem_ apibus relinqui
placet, si plenæ fuerint alvi; si minus, pro rata _portione_. (iv. 148.)

PARTES; FACTIO. +Partes+ denote the party, which is formed of itself by
difference of principles and interests; whereas +factio+ (from σφηκόω)
the clique of partisans, formed by narrow differences of the members of
a party with each other, and who act together with a blind party-spirit,
in order necessarily and by force to give the upper hand to their own
cause. Sall. Jug. 31. Inter bonos amicitia, inter malos _factio_ est.

PARTICEPS, see _Socius_.

PARTICIPARE, see _Impertire_.

PARTIRI, see _Dividere_.

PARUMPER; PAULISPER. +Parumper+ means in a short time; +paulisper+,
during a short time. Hence acts of the mind are particularly in
construction with _parumper_; acts of the body, with _paulisper_; for
with the former is necessarily connected the glance at the future, which
_lies_ in _parumper_; in _paulisper_, duration of time only is
considered; for example, we use the expression _paulisper morari_, but
_parumper dubitare_. (i. 145.)

PARVUS; MINUTUS; EXIGUUS; PUSILLUS. +Parvus+ and +minutus+ denote
littleness, quite indifferently, and in a purely mathematical sense,
without any accessory notion; +parvus+ (παῦρος) a natural and intrinsic
littleness, in opp. to _magnus_, like μικρός; +minutus+ (μινύθω) an
artificial and fabricated littleness; whereas +exiguus+ and +pusillus+
with a contemptuous accessory notion; +exiguus+ from (egere) in a
pitiable sense, as paltry and insignificant, in opp. to _amplus_. Planc.
ap. Cic. Fam. x. 24; or in opp. to _grandis_, Quintil. xi. 3, 15; but
+pusillus+ (ψιλός?) in a ludicrous sense, as petty, nearly in opp. to
_ingens_, like τυτθός. (v. 28.)

PASCERE, see _Alimenta_.

PASSI; PROLIXI; SPARSI. +Passi capilli+ denotes loose hair, in opp. to
_cohibiti nodo_; whereas +prolixi capilli+ denotes hair suffered to hang
down, in opp. to _religati in verticem_; lastly, +sparsi capilli+
denotes dishevelled hair, in opp. to _pexi_. (vi. 258.)

PASSUS, see _Gradus_.

PATEFACERE, see _Aperire_.

PATERNUS; PATRIUS. +Paternus+ denotes, like πατρῷος, what belongs to a
father, and is derived from him, like paternal; whereas +patrius+, what
belongs to and is derived from one’s ancestors or native country, like
πάτριος.

PAULATIM; SENSIM; GRADATIM; PEDETENTIM. +Paulatim+ and +sensim+
represent gradual motion under the image of an imperceptible progress;
+paulatim+, by little and little, in opp. to _semel_, at once, Sen.
Q. N. ii. 8. Cœl. Aurel. Acut. ii. 37; +sensim+, (ἀνεσίμως)
imperceptibly in opp. to _repente_; Cic. Off. i. 33. Suet. Tib.
11;--whereas +gradatim+ and +pedetentim+, under the image of a
self-conscious progress; +gradatim+, step by step, like βάδην, in opp.
to _cursim_, _saltuatim_, etc.; whereas +pedetentim+ denotes at a foot’s
pace, in opp. to _curru_, _equo_, _volatu_, _velis_. (iii. 97.)

PAULISPER, see _Parumper_.

PAUPERTAS; INOPIA; EGESTAS; MENDICITAS. +Paupertas+ (redupl. of parum)
denotes poverty only as narrowness of means, in consequence of which one
must economize, in opp. to _dives_, Cic. Parad. 6. Quintil. v. 10, 26,
like πενία; whereas +inopia+ and +egestas+ denote galling poverty, in
consequence of which one suffers want, and has recourse to shifts;
+inopia+, like ἀπορία, objectively, as utterly without means, so that
one cannot help one’s self, in opp. to _copia_ or _opulentia_; Cic.
Parad. 6. Sen. Vit. B. 15. Tac. Hist. iii. 6; +egestas+, like ἔνδεια,
subjectively, as penury, when a man feels want, in opp. to _abundantia_;
lastly, +mendicitas+ (from μαδίζειν,) as absolute poverty, in
consequence of which one must beg, like πτωχεία. The _pauper_ possesses
little enough; the _inops_ and _egenus_, too little; the _mendicus_,
nothing at all. In the kingdom of Plutus, according to the order of
rank, the _pauperes_ would occupy the middle station, who must live the
life of citizens, and economize; the _inopes_ and _egeni_, if not in a
state of overwhelming necessity, would occupy the station of the poor,
who live from hand to mouth, and must occasionally starve; the
_mendici_, the station of the beggars, who, without property of any
sort, or the means of earning it, live on alms. Cic. Parad. 6. Istam
_paupertatem_ vel potius _egestatem_ et _mendicitatem_ tuam nunquam
obscure tulisti. Sen. Ep. 17. 50. Ovid, Rem. 748. Suet. Gr. 11. Vixit in
summa _pauperie_, et pæne _inopia_. Plin. Ep. iv. 18. _Inopia_ vel
potius, ut Lucretius ait, _egestas_ patrii sermonis. Cic. Inv. i. 47.
Propter _inopiam_ in _egestate_ esse. (iii. 111.)

PAVIRE, see _Verberare_.

PAX, see _Otium_.

PECCATUM, see _Delictum_.

PECULARI, see _Vastare_.

PECULIARIS, see _Privus_.

PECUNIA; NUMMUS; MONETA. +Pecunia+ (from παχύνω) is money, as a
collective expression; +nummus+ (νόμιμος) a piece of money, in reference
to its value and currency; +moneta+, a coin in reference to its coinage
and appearance. (vi. 240.)

PECUS; JUMENTUM; ARMENTUM; GREX. 1. +Pecus, pecoris+, is the most
general expression for domestic beasts; +jumenta+ and +armenta+ denote
the larger sort, bullocks, asses, horses; +pecus, pecudis+ (from the
Goth. faihu) the smaller sort, swine, goats, and especially sheep.
2. +Jumenta+ denotes beasts used in drawing carriages, bullocks, asses,
horses; +armenta+ (ἀρόματα) beasts used in ploughing, oxen and horses,
with the exclusion of cows, pack-asses, riding-horses, etc., which are
neither fit for drawing carriages, nor for the plough. 3. As a singular
and collective noun, +armentum+ denotes a herd or drove of the larger
cattle, like ἀγέλη; +grex+ (from ἀγείρω) a herd or flock of the smaller
animals, like ποίμνη, πῶϋ. Plin. Ep. ii. 16. Multi _greges_ ovium, multa
ibi equorum boumque _armenta_ (iv. 298.)

PECUS, see _Animal_.

PEDETENTIM, see _Paulatim_.

PEDICA, see _Vincula_.

PEJERARE, see _Perlucidus_.

PEJOR, see _Deterior_.

PELAGUS, see _Mare_.

PELLEGERE, PELLICERE, see _Perlucidus_.

PELLEX; CONCUBINA; MERETRIX; SCORTUM. 1. +Pellex+ and the foreign word
+pallaca+ (παλλακή, παραλέγεσθαι,) mean the bed-fellow of a married man
with reference to his wife, and in opp. to her, as her rival; whereas
+concubina+ means any bed-fellow, without further limitation than that
she does not live in a state of lawful wedlock. Suet. Cæs. 49.
_Pellicem_ reginæ Dolabella Cæsarem dixit: comp. with Ner. 44.
_Concubinas_, quas secum educeret. 2. +Pellex+ and +concubina+ are bound
to one man; +meretrix+, +scortum+, +lupa+, +prostibulum+, are common
prostitutes. 3. The +meretrices+ and +scorta+ are not _so low_ as
_lupæ_, _prostibula_. They exercise some choice and selection, and
support themselves by the work of their own hands, from which
_meretrices_ derive their name (from mereri); +meretrices+ are
considered with ref. to the _class_ they belong to; +scorta+ (κόρη,
κοράσιον), with ref. to their moral character, as enticing men to sin,
like ἑταῖραι, filles de joie. The +meretrices+ are common; the +scorta+,
lascivious and dissolute. (v. 241.)

PELLIS, see _Tergus_.

PELLUCIDUS, see _Perlucidus_.

PENDERE, see _Hærere_.

PENITUS, see _Plane_.

PENNA, see _Ala_.

PENUS, see _Alimenta_.

PERCONTARI, s. _Rogare_.

PERCUSSOR, see _Homicida_.

PERCUTERE, see _Interficere_.

PERDERE; PESSUNDARE; PERVERTERE; EVERTERE. +Perdere+ and +pessundare+
denote complete destruction; +perdere+, by breaking to pieces, or by any
other mode of destroying; +pessundare+ (πεζὸν θεῖναι) by sinking, or any
other mode of getting rid of; whereas +evertere+, +pervertere+, and
+subvertere+ merely denote throwing down; +evertere+, by digging up and
tearing up what is fastened in the ground, in opp. to _fundare_, Plin.
Pan. 34. Cic. Acad. iv. 10. Fin. ii. 25. Verr. iii. 18. Pis. 35;
+pervertere+, by pushing down what stands fast; +subvertere+, by
secretly digging under, and withdrawing the basis. Cic. Pis. 24.
Provincia tibi ista manupretium fuerit non _eversæ_ per te sed _perditæ_
civitatis. Ad. Att. v. 16.

PERDERE, see _Amittere_.

PEREGRINARI, s. _Proficisci_.

PEREGRINUS, s. _Externus_.

PEREMTOR, see _Homicida_.

PERFERRE, see _Ferre_.

PERFICERE, see _Finire_.

PERFIDIOSUS, PERFIDUS, see _Fidus_.

PERFUGA; TRANSFUGA; PROFUGUS; FUGITIVUS; EXTORRIS; EXUL; PERFUGIUM;
SUFFUGIUM; REFUGIUM. 1. +Perfuga+ and +transfuga+ denote the deserter
who flees from one party to another, like αὐτομόλος; but the +perfuga+
goes over as a delinquent, who betrays his party; the +transfuga+, as a
waverer, who changes and forsakes his party; whereas +profugus+ and
+fugitivus+ denote the fugitive, who forsakes his abode, but +profugus+
is the unfortunate man, who is obliged to forsake his home, and, like a
banished man, wanders in the wide world, like φυγάς; +fugitivus+, the
guilty person, who flees from his duty, his post, his prison, his
master, like δραπέτης. The +perfuga+ and +transfuga+ are generally
thought of as soldiers; the +profugus+, as a citizen; the +fugitivus+,
as a slave. Liv. xxx. 43. De _perfugis_ gravius quam de _fugitivis_
consultum. 2. +Perfugium+ is an open secure place of shelter in serious
dangers; +suffugium+, if not a secret, is at least an occasional and
temporary place of shelter from inconveniences; +refugium+ is a place of
shelter prepared, or at least thought of beforehand in case of a
retreat. 3. +Profugus+ denotes a merely physical state, something like
fugitive; +extorris+, a political state, like homeless, or without a
country; +exul+, a juridical state, like banished. The +extorris+
suffers a misfortune, as not being able to remain in his native land;
the +exul+, a punishment, as not being allowed. Appul. Met. v. p. 101.
_Extorres_ et . . . velut _exulantes_. (iv. 239.)

PERICLITARI, PERICULUM, see _Tentare_.

PERIMERE, see _Interficere_.

PERIRE, see _Mors_.

PERLUCIDUS; PELLUCIDUS; PERLEGERE; PELLEGERE; PERLICERE; PELLICERE;
PERJURARE; PEJERARE. 1. +Perlucidus+ means very bright, whereas
+pellucidus+, transparent. Cic. Civ. i. 57. 2. +Perlegere+ means to read
through, that is, from beginning to end; whereas +pellegere+, to read
over, that is, not to leave unread. Plaut. Pseud. i. 1. 3. +Perlicere+
means completely to inveigle, Liv. iv. 15. Tac. Ann. xiii. 48; whereas
+pellicere+, to lead astray. 4. +Perjurare+ means to swear falsely;
+pejerare+, to violate an oath. (ii. 82.)

PERMITTERE, see _Concedere_ and _Fidere_.

PERNEGARE, see _Negare_.

PERNICIES, see _Lues_.

PERNIX, see _Citus_.

PERPERAM; FALSO; FALSE; FALLACITER. 1. +Perperam+ (redupl. of παρά)
denotes that which is not true, objectively, with reference to the
object, as incorrect; whereas +falso+, subjectively, in reference to the
person, as mistaken. 2. +Falso agere+ has its foundation in error and
self-deceit; whereas +false+ and +fallaciter+ happens against better
knowledge and conscience; +false+, through fear and weakness of
character; +fallaciter+, like deceitfully, with the wicked intention of
deceiving and betraying. Comp. Tac. Ann. i. 1. Tiberii res . . . ob
metum _false_ compositæ sunt, according to Wolf’s reading; comp. with
Germ. 36. Inter impotentes et validos _falso_ quiescas. 3. The adjective
+falsus+ combines the notions of _falso_ and of the participle _falsus_,
and is distinguished only from _fallax_. Cic. Phil. xii. 2. Spes _falsa_
et _fallax_. Tac. Ann. xvi. 33. Specie bonarum _falsos_ et amicitiæ
_fallaces_. (i. 66.)

PERPETI, see _Ferre_.

PERPETUUS, see _Continuus_.

PERQUAM; VALDE; ADMODUM; MAGNOPERE. +Perquam+ means, in an extraordinary
degree, with an indication of astonishment on the part of the speaker;
whereas +valde+, very, +admodum+, tolerably, and +multum+, are a simple
and quiet enhancing of the attributive, or of the verb; +magnopere+,
only of the verb. (v. 262.)

PERSEVERANTIA, see _Pervicacia_.

PERSONA, see _Larva_.

PERTINACIA, see _Pervicacia_.

PERVERTERE, see _Vertere_ and _Perdere_.

PERVICACIA; PERSEVERANTIA; PERTINACIA; CONTUMACIA; DESTINATIO;
OBSTINATIO. 1. +Pervicacia+ and +perseverantia+ denote adherence to what
is once resolved upon as a virtue; +pervicacia+ (from vincere? vigere?)
has its foundation in natural energy of disposition; +perseverantia+, in
earnestness of character, formed by cultivation; whereas +pertinacia+
and +contumacia+ as a fault; +pertinacia+ has its foundation in a
stiff-necked adherence to what is once resolved upon, like obstinacy and
stubbornness, in opp. to condescension; +contumacia+ (from temere,
contemnere) in a haughty maintenance of one’s free-will, even against
proper and legitimate superiority,[3] like insolence and refractoriness,
in opp. to complaisance, _obsequium_. Tac. Ann. iv. 20. Hist. iv. 74.
Accius apud Non. Tu _pertinacem_ esse, Antiloche, hanc prædicas, ego
_pervicaciam_ esse aio et a me uti volo, etc. Cic. inv. ii. 54.
Unicuique virtuti finitimum vitium reperietur, ut _pertinacia_, quæ
finitima _perseverantiæ_ est: comp. with Balb. 27. Marc. 10.
2. +Pervicacia+, etc. denote persisting in a resolution once made;
+destinatio+ and +obstinatio+ are more immediately connected with the
making of the resolution; +destinatio+, the making of an unalterable
resolution, decidedness; +obstinatio+, adhering to it in spite of
insurmountable obstacles and reasonable remonstrances, obstinacy.
(iv. 176.)

    [Footnote 3: [But, adhibere _liberam_ contumaciam. Cic. Tus.
    1, 29.]]

PESSULUS, see _Sera_.

PESSUMDARE, see _Perdere_.

PESTILENTIA, PESTIS, see _Lues_.

PETERE; ROGARE; POSTULARE; EXIGERE; POSCERE; FLAGITARE. 1. +Petere+ and
+rogare+ are the most general expressions for asking any thing, whether
as a request or as a demand, and stand therefore in the middle between
+poscere+ and +orare+, yet somewhat nearer to a request; +petere+ (from
ποθεῖν) generally refers to the object which is wished for; whereas
+rogare+ to the person who is applied to; hence we say, _petere aliquid
ab aliquo_, but _rogare aliquem aliquid_. Cic. Verr. * * Iste _petit_ a
rege, et cum pluribus verbis _rogat_, uti ad se mittat. Planc. 10, 25.
Phil. ii. 30. Fam. ix. 8. and ii. 6. Ne id quod _petat_, exigere magis
quam _rogare_ videatur. Pseudoquintil. Decl. 286. Curt. iv. 1, 8.
2. +Postulare+ and +exigere+ denote simply a demand, without any
enhancing accessory notion, as a quiet utterance of the will;
+postulare+ (diminutive of πόθος) more as a wish and will; +exigere+,
more as a just claim; whereas +poscere+ and +flagitare+, as an energetic
demand; +poscere+ (from πόθος) with decision, with a feeling of right or
power; +flagitare+, with importunity, in consequence of a passionate and
impatient eagerness. Tac. Hist. ii. 39. Othone per literas _flagitante_
ut maturarent, militibus ut imperator pugnæ adesset _poscentibus_;
plerique copias trans Padum agentes acciri _postulabant_. Cic. Verr.
iii. 34. Incipiunt _postulare, poscere_, minari. Planc. 19. _Poscere_
atque etiam flagitare crimen. Legg. i. 5. _Postulatur_ a te jamdiu vel
_flagitatur_ potius historia. (v. 230.)

PETRA, see _Saxum_.

PETULANS; PROCAX; PROTERVUS; LASCIVUS. The +petulans+ (σπαταλῶν) sins
against _modestia_ through wantonness, raillery, and needless attack;
the +procax+, through importunity and boisterous forwardness; the
+protervus+ (from proterere? or ταράξαι?) from impetuosity and haughty
recklessness; the +lascivus+, through unrestrained frolicksomeness and
inclination for play. Hence +petulantia+ has its foundation in aversion
to rest and quietness, or in the love of mischief; +procacitas+, in
assurance or complete impudence; +protervitas+, in a feeling of
strength, or in insolence; +lascivia+, in high spirits, or the want of
seriousness. (iii. 40.)

PIETAS, see _Diligere_.

PIGET; TÆDET; PŒNITET. +Piget+ (from παχύς) means, what one can neither
do nor suffer, in general terms; +tædet+ (from tardus?) what one can no
longer do or suffer; +pœnitet+, what one would fain never have done or
suffered. (vi. 269.)

PIGRITIA, see _Ignavia_.

PILUM, see _Missile_.

PILUS, see _Crinis_.

PINGUIS; OPIMUS; OBESUS; CORPULENTUS. 1. +Pinguis+ (παχύς, πάγχυ,)
denotes fat, indifferently, or, on its dark side, as that component part
of the body that is most without sensation and strength; thence,
figuratively, sluggish: whereas +opimus+ (from πιμελής) on its bright
side, as a sign of plenty and good living; thence, figuratively,
opulent. 2. +Obesus+ denotes fatness, on its dark side, with reference
to the unwieldiness connected with it, in opp. to _gracilis_, Cels.
i. 3. ii. 1. Suet. Dom. 18; whereas +corpulentus+, on its bright side,
with reference to the portliness connected with it. (v. 222.)

PINNA, see _Ala_.

PIRATA, see _Præda_.

PLACIDUS, see _Mitis_.

PLAGA, see _Locus_, _Rete_, and _Vulnus_.

PLANCÆ, see _Axis_.

PLANE; OMNINO; PRORSUS; PENITUS; UTIQUE. +Plane+ means completely, in
opp. to _pæne_, Cic. Brut. 97, 33; or _vix_, Att. xi. 9; +omnino+,
altogether and generally, in opp. to partly, in some instances, with
some exceptions; in opp. also to _magna ex parte_, Cic. Tusc. i. 1. Fam.
ix. 15, or _separatim_, Plin. Ep. viii. 7, ὁλῶς; +prorsus+, exactly, in
opp. to in some measure, or almost; +penitus+, thoroughly, deeply, in
opp. to in a certain degree, or superficially, πάντως; +utique+ [related
to _utcunque_, as _quisque_ to _quicunque_: opp. _neutiquam_], at any
rate, in opp. to at all events, or _perhaps_ ὁπωσδήποτε. (v. 260.)

PLANUS, see _Æquus_.

PLERIQUE; PLURIMI. +Plerique+ means a great many, in an absolute sense;
+plurimi+, most, in a superlative sense. Tac. Ann. xiii. 27. _Plurimis_
equitum, _plerisque_ senatorum non aliunde originem trahi. (vi. 273.)

PLORARE, see _Lacrimare_.

PLUMA, see _Ala_.

PLURIMI, see _Plerique_.

PLUVIA; IMBER; NIMBUS. +Pluvia+ (from πλεῦσαι) denotes rain as a
beneficial natural phenomenon, which, as it falls on the land, the
thirsty ground absorbs, like ὑετός; +imber+ and +nimbus+ involve the
notion of an unfriendly phenomenon, which, falling in a particular
district, disperses the fine weather; +imber+ (ὄμβρος, from μύρω) so far
as the rain is attended by cold and stormy weather; +nimbus+ (from
_nivere_, νίφα, νίπτω) so far as it is attended with cloudy weather.
(ii. 88.)

POCULUM; CALIX; SCYPHUS; SIMPUVIUM; CYATHUS; CRATER. 1. +Poculum+ and
+calix+ denote, as old Latin words, any sort of drinking vessel, merely
with reference to its use; +poculum+, a usual cup for meals; +calix+, a
rarer chalice, or goblet, for feasts; whereas +scyphus+, +cantharus+,
+cymbium+, +culigna+, are foreign words, of Greek origin, denoting
particular sorts of cups, with reference to their form. 2. +Poculum+,
etc. all serve as drinking cups; whereas the old Roman word +simpuvium+,
and the modern +cyathus+, are ladles to fill the _pocula_ from the
_crater_, as with the punch-ladle we fill the punch-glasses from the
punch-bowl. (v. 318.)

POEMA, see _Canere_.

PŒNA, see _Vindicta_.

PŒNITET, see _Piget_.

POETA, see _Canere_.

POLLERE, see _Posse_.

POLLICERI; PROMITTERE; SPONDERE; RECIPERE. +Polliceri+ (from pro and
loqui, λακεῖν) means to promise, generally from a free impulse, and as
an act of obliging courtesy, like ἐπαγγέλλεσθαι; +promittere+, to
promise, generally, at the request of another, as an act of agreement,
and in reference to the fulfilment of the promise, like ὑπισχνεῖσθαι;
+spondere+ and +despondere+ (μετὰ σπονδῶν) to promise in a solemn
manner, as the consequence of a stipulation with judicially binding
strength, as to pledge one’s self, ἐγγυᾶν; +recipere+, to take upon
one’s self, and pass one’s word of honor, as an act of generosity,
inasmuch as one sets at ease the mind of a person in trouble, like
ἀναδέχεσθαι. The _pollicens_ makes agreeable offers, the _promittens_
opens secure prospects; the _spondens_ gives legal security; the
_recipiens_ removes anxiety from another. Cic. Att. xiii. 1. Quoniam de
æstate _polliceris_ vel potius _recipis_; for the _pollicens_ only
engages his good-will, the _recipiens_ undertakes to answer for
consequences. Sen. Ep. 19; Jam non _promittunt_ de te, sed _spondent_.
Cic. Fam. vii. 5. Neque minus ei prolixe de tua voluntate _promisi_,
quam eram solitus de mea _polliceri_; for with regard to Trebatius,
Cicero could only express his hope, with regard to himself he could
actually promise. (iv. 109.)

POLLUERE, s. _Contaminare_.

POMPA, see _Funus_.

PONDO, see _Libra_.

PONDUS, see _Moles_.

PONTUS, see _Mare_.

POPINA, s. _Deversorium_.

POPULARI, see _Vastare_.

POPULUS, see _Gens_.

PORCA; SULCUS; LIRA. +Porca+ (from σπαράξαι) is the ridge between two
furrows, the soil thrown up; +sulcus+ (ὁλκός) the furrow itself, the
trench made by the plough; +lira+ (λέχριος?) sometimes one, sometimes
the other. (vi. 277.)

PORCUS, see _Sus_.

PORTARE, see _Ferre_.

PORTENTA, see _Auguria_.

PORTIO, see _Pars_.

POSCERE, see _Petere_.

POSSE; QUIRE; VALERE; POLLERE. 1. +Posse+ and +quire+ were originally
transitive; +posse+ (from πότνιος) denotes being able, as a consequence
of power and strength, like δύνασθαι; +quire+ (κοεῖν) as the consequence
of complete qualification, like οἷόν τ’ εἶναι. Cic. Tusc. ii. 27.
Barbari ferro decertare acerrime _possunt_, viriliter ægrotare non
_queunt_; whereas +valere+ and +pollere+ are intransitive. Hence we say,
_possum_ or _queo vincere_, but _valeo_ or _polleo ad vincendum_.
2. +Valere+ (from ἑλεῖν) means to possess the right measure of strength,
and thereby to match another, in opp. to insufficient strength, like
σθένειν; whereas +pollere+ (πολλός) means to have very considerable
strength and means, and thereby to distinguish one’s self from others,
in opp. to an ordinary degree of strength, like ἰσχύειν. iv. (160.)

POSSIDERE, see _Tenere_.

POSTERITAS, see _Stirps_.

POSTREMUS, see _Extremus_.

POSTULARE, see _Petere_.

POTARE, see _Bibere_.

POTENTIA; POTENTATUS; POTESTAS; VIS; ROBUR.

+Potentia+, +potentatus+, and +potestas+ (πότνιος) denote an exterior
power, which acts by means of men, and upon men; whereas +vis+ and
+robur+ denote an interior power and strength, independent of the
co-operation and good-will of others. +Potentia+ denotes a merely
factitious power, which can be exerted at will, like δύναμις;
+potentatus+, the exterior rank of the ruler, which is acknowledged by
those who are subject to him, like δυναστεία; +potestas+, a just and
lawful power, with which a person is entrusted, like ἐξουσία. Tac. Ann.
xiii. 19. Nihil tam fluxum est quam fama _potentiæ_ non sua _vi_ nixæ.
+Vis+ (ἴς) is the strength which shows itself in moving and attacking,
as an ability to constrain others, like κράτος; +robur+ (from ἐῤῥῶσθαι)
the strength which shows itself in remaining quiet, as an ability to
resist attack, and remain firm, like ῥώμη. (v. 83.)

POTESTAS, see _Occasio_.

PRÆBERE; EXHIBERE; PRÆSTARE; REPRESENTARE. +Præbere+ and +exhibere+
denote a voluntary act of the giver, by which a want or wish of the
receiver is satisfied; the _præbens_ (præhibens) is considered in
relation to the receiver, to whom he gives up what he himself before
possessed; the _exhibens_, in relation to the world at large, and
generally gives to him who has the best claim, what he himself before
possessed; whereas +præstare+ and +repræsentare+ denote an involuntary
act of the giver, who only fulfils a duty, as to perform or discharge;
the _præstans_ releases himself from an obligation by discharging it, in
opp. to being longer in a state of liability; the _repræsentans_ fulfils
a promise, in opp. to longer putting off. (iv. 132.)

PRÆCEPTOR, see _Doctor_.

PRÆCIPERE, see _Jubere_.

PRÆCLARUS, see _Eminens_.

PRÆDA; MANUBIÆ; SPOLIA; EXUVIÆ; RAPINA. 1. +Prædia+ and +manubiæ+ denote
booty only as a possession and gain that has been made by conquest;
whereas +spolia+ and +exuviæ+, at the same time, as signs of victory and
of honor. 2. +Præda+ denotes any sort of booty; whereas +manubiæ+ only
the honorable booty of the soldier, taken in war; and +rapina+, the
dishonorable booty of the _prædo_, who violates the peace of the
country, robbery. (iv. 337.) 3. +Prædo+ is the robber in general, in as
far as he commits the robbery with his own hands, like λῃστής, as a
species of _latro_ (from ὀλετήρ) the highwayman, who lays wait for
travellers, like σίνις, and _pirata_ (πειρατής) the sea-robber; whereas
+raptor+ means the robber of some particular person or thing, like
ἁρπακτήρ.

PRÆDICERE, see _Divinare_.

PRÆDITUS; INSTRUCTUS; EXSTRUCTUS; ORNATUS. 1. +Præditus+ (præ-θετός)
refers to a distinction which sheds lustre; +instructus+ and
+exstructus+ to a qualification which attests usefulness; +ornatus+
refers to both, for _ornamentum_ is not, on the one side, that which is
merely of use, like _instrumentum_, nor, on the other, that which is
merely for show, like _decus_, but that which is of such eminent utility
as to be prized even as an ornament. +Instructus+ paints the
qualification, etc., as a perfection which protects and secures;
+ornatus+, as an accomplishment of an imposing nature. It is only in a
higher point of view, and with reference to ideal claims, that _ornatus_
is considered as a want; but, according to ordinary pretensions, it
passes for a distinction of life. Cic. Phil. x. 4. Græcia copiis non
_instructa_ solum, sed etiam _ornata_. Sen. Tranq. 9. Sicut plerisque
libri non studiorum _instrumenta_, sed cœnationum _ornamenta_ sunt.
2. +Instructus+ refers to persons and things, which act either
offensively or defensively; +exstructus+ to things which are for the
most part only destined to be acted upon; for example, we say,
_instructæ naves_ but _exstructæ mensæ_. The _exstructa_ are absolutely
ready; the _instructa_ are only relatively so, only fully prepared to be
employed according to their destination. (iii. 260.) 3. +Instructus+
refers to the possession of the means; +paratus+ to the readiness of the
possessor to employ them. (vi. 175.)

PRÆDIUM, see _Villa_.

PRÆGNANS; GRAVIDUS; FŒTUS; FORDUS; INCIENS. +Prægnans+ (from γενέσθαι,
gnasci) denotes pregnancy quite in a general sense; +gravidus+, that of
human beings; +fœtus+, +fordus+, +inciens+, that of animals, as with
young; +fœtus+ (from φύω) that of all animals; +fordus+ or +hordus+
(φοράς) that of cows; +inciens+ (ἔγκυος) that of small animals, and
particularly of swine. Varro, R. R. ii. 5. Quæ sterilis est vacca, taura
appellatur; Quæ _prægnans, horda_. _Gravida mulier_ is the physical and
medical expression, like ἔγκυος; _prægnans_, the more select and
decorous expression, something like ‘in a family way.’ (v. 226.)

PRÆMIUM; PRETIUM; MERCES. +Præmium+ is a prize of honor, that confers
distinction on the receiver, as a reward, in opp. to _pœna_; Tac. Ann.
i. 26. Cic. Rep. iii. 16. Rabir perd. 11. Liv. xxxvi. 40, like ἆθλον,
γέρας; whereas +pretium+ and +merces+ are only a price, for the
discharge of a debt, as a payment; +pretium+, as a price for an article
of merchandise, in opp. to _gratia_, Cic. Verr. ii. 36. Suet. Galb. 15.
Appul. Apol. p. 296, like ὦνος; +merces+ denotes wages for personal
services of some duration, or hire for something hired, like μισθός.
(iv. 139.)

PRÆS, see _Sponsor_.

PRÆSAGIRE, see _Divinare_.

PRÆSENTEM ESSE, see _Adesse_.

PRÆSENTIRE, see _Divinare_.

PRÆSTANS, s. _Eminens_.

PRÆSTOLARI, see _Manere_.

PRÆTEREA; INSUPER; ULTRO. +Præterea+ intimates something that completes
what is gone before, as πρὸς τούτοις; +insuper+, something in addition
to what is gone before, like πρόσετι; lastly, +ultro+, something that
exceeds what has gone before, so striking as to cast it into the
back-ground. (iii. 108.)

PRÆVIDERE, see _Divinare_.

PRAVITAS, see _Malitia_.

PRECARI, see _Rogare_.

PREHENDERE, s. _Sumere_.

PRETUM, see _Præmium_.

PRIDEM; DIU; DUDUM; DIUTURNUS; DIUTINUS. 1. +Pridem+ (πρὶν δή) denotes a
point of time, as long before; +diu+ and +dudum+, a space of time as
long since; +diu+ denotes many days, months, years ago; +dudum+ (δαρόν?)
several minutes or hours since. _Jam pridem mortuus est_ means, he died
long ago, as an aorist; _jam diu mortuus est_, he has already long been
in his grave as a perfect. Cic. Cat. i. 1. Ad mortem te duci _jam
pridem_ oportebat; in te conferri pestem illam quam tu in nos omnes
_jamdiu_ machinaris. Tac. Ann. xv. 64. Seneca Annæum _diu_ sibi amicitiæ
fide et arte medicinæ probatum orat, proviram _pridem_ venenum promeret.
2. +Diutunus+ denotes long duration indifferently, as something long in
a general sense, or with praise, as something lasting and possessing
durability, in opp. to that which quickly passes away, like χρόνιος;
whereas +diutinus+, with blame, something protracted and wearisome, like
αἰανός. Cic. Senect. 19. Nihil mihi _diuturnum_ videtur, in quo est
aliquid extremum: comp. with Fam. xi. 8: Libertatis desiderio et odio
_diutinæ_ servitutis.

PRIMORDIUM, see _Initium_.

PRIMORES; PRINCIPES; PROCERES; OPTIMATES. +Primores+ and +principes+
denote the most eminent persons in a state, as a class of the most
influential and respectable citizens, in opp. to insignificant persons;
+primores+, so far as they are so by their connections, birth, power,
and credit; +principes+, so far as they have raised themselves by their
intellect, commanding talent, and activity to take the lead in debates,
to be at the head of parties, to be the first men even among the
_primores_, and in the whole state; whereas +proceres+, as far as they
are so from their natural position, as the nobility, in opp. to the
commonalty; +optimates+, as a political class, as the aristocracy, in
opp. to the democracy. Accius apud Non. _Primores procerum_ provocaret
nomine. (v. 346.)

PRIMUS; PRINCEPS; IMPERATOR; CÆSAR. 1. +Primus+ is the first, so far as,
in space of time, he makes his appearance first, and others follow him;
+princeps+, so far as he acts first, and others follow his example.
(v. 344.) 2. +Princeps+ means the Roman emperor, as holder of the
highest civil power, which gradually devolved to him as _princeps
senatus_; whereas +imperator+, as holder of the highest military power,
inasmuch as, except him and the members of his family, no one had any
longer a claim to the title of _imperator_; lastly, +Cæsar+ means the
Roman emperor, as a member, and from the time of Galba, as a mere
successor, of the imperial family and dynasty.

PRINCIPIUM, see _Initium_.

PRISCUS, PRISTINUS, see _Antiquus_.

PRIVUS; PROPRIUS; PECULIARIS. +Privus+ means one’s own, in opp. to
_alienus_, that which belongs to another, like οἰκεῖος; +proprius+, that
which is exclusively one’s own, in opp. to _communis_, that which is
common, like ἴδιος; lastly, +peculiaris+, that which is especially one’s
own, in opp. to _universalis_, that to which all are entitled.
(iv. 344.)

PROBRUM, see _Ignominia_ and _Maledictum_.

PROBUS, see _Bonus_.

PROCAX, see _Petulans_.

PROCELLA, see _Ventus_.

PROCERES, see _Primores_.

PROCERUS, see _Altus_.

PROCLIVIS, see _Pronus_.

PROCRASTINARE, see _Differre_.

PROCUL; LONGE; EMINUS; E LONGINQUO. 1. +Procul+ means at a considerable
distance, but yet generally within sight, in opp. to _juxta_, Tac. H.
ii. 74, like ἄποθεν; whereas +longe+, at a great distance, generally out
of sight, in opp. to _prope_, Plin. Ep. vii. 27, like τῆλε. 2. +Eminus+
means at such a distance as to be in reach only of missile weapons, in
opp. to _cominus_, like πόῤῥωθεν; whereas +e longinquo+, from afar,
means from a great distance, in opp. to _e propinquo_, like τηλόθεν.

PRODIGIA, see _Auguria_.

PRODIGUS; PROFUSUS; HELLUO; NEPOS. +Prodigus+ and +profusus+ denote
prodigality, as a single feature in a man’s character; +prodigus+ (from
δέχω?) inasmuch as he regards not the value of money, and neither can
nor will carefully put it out to interest, from a genial disposition, as
the squanderer; +profusus+, inasmuch as he thinks nothing too dear, that
can minister to his pleasures, from levity of character, as the
spendthrift; whereas +helluo+ and +nepos+ denote prodigality as
pervading the whole character, which shows itself fully in the quality
of prodigality; +helluo+ (from χλιδή) the habitual gourmand and glutton;
+nepos+ (ἀναπότης) a young and harebrained prodigal, who runs through
his own property and that of his parents. (vi. 286.)

PRŒLIUM, see _Pugna_.

PROFERRE, see _Differre_.

PROFICISCI; ITER FACERE; PEREGRINARI. 1. +Proficisci+ (from facere,
facessere,) denotes only the starting-point of a journey, as to set out,
πορεύεσθαι; whereas +iter facere+ and +peregrinari+, the duration, as to
travel, ὁδοιπορεῖν. 2. +Iter facere+ applies to an inland journey, as
well as to travelling abroad; but +peregrinari+, ἐκδημεῖν, supposes that
one travels beyond the bounds of one’s own country; in which case the
_peregrinatio_ lasts, even when the point of destination is arrived at,
and the _iter_ ended. (ii. 133. iv. 69.)

PROFITERI, see _Fateri_.

PROFUGUS, see _Perfuga_.

PROFUSUS, see _Prodigus_.

PROGENIES, see _Stirps_.

PROHIBERE, see _Arcere_.

PROLES, see _Stirps_.

PROLIXI, see _Passi_.

PROLOQUI, see _Eloqui_.

PROMITTERE, s. _Polliceri_.

PRONUNTIARE, s. _Eloqui_.

PRONUS; PROCLIVIS; PROPENSUS. +Pronus+ (from πρών, πρηνής,) in its moral
meaning denotes inclination in general; +proclivis+, oftener the
inclination to something good; +propensus+, to something bad. (vi. 287.)

PROPALAM, see _Aperire_.

PROPE, see _Pæne_.

PROPENSUS, see _Pronus_.

PROPERUS, see _Citus_.

PROPINQUUS, s. _Necessarius_.

PROPRIUS, s. _Privus_.

PROROGARE, see _Differre_.

PRORSUS, see _Plane_.

PROSAPIA, see _Stirps_.

PROSEQUI, s. _Comitari_.

PROSPER, see _Felix_.

PROTERVUS, s. _Petulans_.

PROTINUS, see _Repente_.

PRUDENS, see _Sapiens_.

PSALLERE, see _Canere_.

PUDENS; PUDIBUNDUS; PUDICUS, see _Castus_.

PUELLA, see _Virgo_.

PUER; INFANS; ADOLESCENS; JUVENIS; VIR; VETUS; SENEX. +Puer+ (from
parere, πάϊς,) in a wider sense, is the man in his dependent years, so
long as he neither can be, nor is, the father of a family, as a young
person, in three periods, as +infans+, νήπιος, παιδίον, from his first
years till he is seven; as +puer+, in a narrower sense, παῖς, from his
seventh year till he is sixteen; as commencing +adolescens+ (from
ἄλθειν) a youngster, μειράκιον, νεανίας, from his sixteenth year.
+Juvenis+, in a wider sense, is as long as he remains in his years of
greatest strength, from about the time of his being of age to the first
appearances of advanced age, as the young man νέος, which also may be
divided into three periods;--as ceasing to be +adolescens+, from his
eighteenth year; as +juvenis+ (from ζέω) in a narrower sense, νεανίας,
from his four-and-twentieth year; as beginning to be +vir+, ἀνήρ, from
his thirtieth year. +Maturus+ is the man in his ripest years, when the
wild fire of youth has evaporated, and may be divided into three
periods;--as ceasing to be +vir+, ἀνήρ, from his fortieth year; as
+vetus+, γέρων, from his fiftieth year; as +senex+, (ἄναξ) πρεσβύτης,
from his sixtieth year. (v. 45.)

PUGIO, see _Gladius_.

PUGNA; ACIES; PRŒLIUM. +Pugna+ (πυκνή, πύξ,) denotes in a general sense,
any conflict, from a single combat to the bloodiest pitched battle, like
μάχη; +acies+, the conflict of two contending armies drawn up in battle
array with tactical skill, the pitched battle; +prœlium+ (from πρύλεες)
the occasional rencounter of separate divisions of the armies, as an
engagement, action, skirmish, like συμβολή. (v. 189.) [No: _prœlium_ is
frequently used of _general_ engagements: e.g. illustrissimum est
_prœlium_ apud Platæas. _Nep._]

PUGNARE; CONFLIGERE; DIMICARE; DIGLADIARI. 1. +Pugnare+ and +confligere+
mean, to decide a quarrel by force, generally in a mass, in a battle;
+dimicare+ and +digladiari+, to decide a quarrel by arms, and generally
in a single combat. 2. +Pugnare+ denotes a battle, more with reference
to its form, and on its brightest side, as requiring skill and courage;
+confligere+, as a mere engagement, in consequence of an occasional
collision, on its rough side as aiming at slaughter and carnage. Cic.
Balb. 9. Qui cum hoste nostro cominus sæpe in acie _pugnavit_: comp.
with Off. i. 23. Tenere in acie versari et manu cum hoste _confligere_,
immane quiddam et belluarum simile est. Or, Nep. Eum. 4. and 8.
3. +Dimicare+ denotes a fight with weapons agreed upon by the parties,
such as swords, spears, lances, clubs, and gives the harmless image of a
man who fights in his own defence; whereas +digladiari+ denotes a fight
with sword or poniard, and gives the hateful image of a practised
gladiator, whose calling and art consist in nothing but fighting and
assassinating. Cic. Tusc. iv. 19. Convenit _dimicare_ pro legibus, pro
libertate, pro patria: comp. with Leg. iii. 9. Iis sicis, quas ipse se
projecisse dicit in forum, quibus inter se _digladientur_ cives.
(v. 187.)

PULCHER, see _Formosus_.

PULLUS, see _Ater_.

PULPA, see _Caro_.

PULSARE, see _Verberare_.

PULVINAR, PULVINUS, see _Culcita_.

PUNGERE; STIMULARE. +Pungere+ means to thrust at with any pointed
instrument, in order to inflict a wound or occasion pain; whereas
+stimulare+, with a sharp-pointed or penetrating instrument, in order,
by inflicting pain, to rouse to watchfulness and activity. (vi. 292.)

PUNIRE, see _Vindicta_.

PURGATIO; EXCUSATIO; SATISFACTIO. +Purgatio+ consists, like
justification, in clearing one’s self of a suspicion or accusation by
proving it groundless; +excusatio+, like making an excuse, is
acknowledging something wrong, but with the assertion of, or reference
to, subjective innocence; +satisfactio+, like atonement, is the
satisfaction made to the suffering, or injured party, in case of
innocence, by _purgatio_ or _excusatio_,--in case of guilt, by _veniæ
petitio_ or by _pœna_ (vi. 293.)

PURUS; MUNDUS; MERUS; PUTUS; MERACUS. 1. +Purus+ (ψωρός) denotes purity,
as a synonyme of _integer_, and in opp. to _contaminatus_, like καθαρός,
Suet. Vesp. 9; whereas +mundus+, as a synonyme of _nitidus_, and in opp.
to _spurcus_ or _sordidus_, like κομψός; Senec. Ep. 70. Sall. Jug. 85.
Hor. Sat. ii. 1, 65; lastly, +merus+ (from μείρω) as a synonyme of
_simplex_, and in opp. to _mixtus_, like ἀκήρατος, ἀκέραιος. Colum.
iii. 21. 2. +Purus+ is the general and popular, +putus+, or usually
+purus putus+, +purus ac putus+, the technical expression for the purity
of gold and silver, that are solid and without alloy. 3. +Merus+ denotes
anything unmixed, indifferently, or with praise, as a mixture may be an
adulteration; whereas +meracus+ refers especially to unmixed wine, and,
figuratively, it is transferred to other objects, and means unmixed in a
bad sense, as that which is without its proper ingredients, like the old
German word, eitel, thin and poor in quality, in opp. to _temperatus_.
Cic. Rep. i. 43. (iii. 204.)

PUS, see _Sanies_.

PUSILLUS, see _Parvus_.

PUTARE, see _Censere_.

PUTUS, see _Purus_.


Q.

QUÆRERE; SCRUTARI; RIMARI; INVESTIGARE; INDAGARE. 1. +Quærere+ denotes
seeking, in a general sense, as the wish and want to get at something;
whereas +scrutari+, +rimari+, +investigare+, and +indagare+, involve the
accessory notion of taking pains. 2. +Scrutari+ and +rimari+ mean to
search for something hidden; +scrutari+ (from γρύτη) by rummaging, with
evident interest and eagerness; +rimari+, by digging for, with evident
exertion and skill on the part of the searcher; whereas +investigare+
and +indagare+ mean to search after something at a distance;
+investigare+, like the huntsman, who cautiously follows the visible
track of the wild animal; +indagare+ (from δέχεσθαι, δήειν) like the
hound who, guided by instinct, follows the scent. Curt. ix. 10. 11.
Famem sentire cœperunt, radices palmarum ubique _rimantes_: comp. with
ix. 9. 5. _Scrutati_ omnia tuguria tandem latentes reperere. Or, Tac.
Ann. vi. 3. _Rimans_ secreta omnium; that is, what were intentionally
kept secret; with xii. 52. Quasi finem principis per Chaldæos
_scrutaretur_; which was done without opposition. (v. 121.)

QUÆSTUS, see _Lucrum_.

QUARE, see _Cur_.

QUE, see _Et_.

QUESTUS; QUIRITATIO; QUERIMONIA; QUERELA. +Questus+ and +Quiritatio+ are
expressions of pain; +questus+, in single, +quiritatio+ in continued
tones of lamentation; whereas +querimonia+ and +querela+ are expressions
of indignation; +querimonia+ in the just feeling of the injured person,
who will not brook an act of injustice; +querela+ in, for the most part,
the blamable feeling of the discontented person, who will brook no
hardship. The _Querimonia_ is an act of the understanding, and aims at
redress or satisfaction; the _querela_ is an act of feeling, and aims,
for the most part, only at easing the heart. Cic. Cæcil. 3. In populi
Romani quotidiana _querimonia_: comp. with Fam. v. 14. Tu non intelliges
te _querelis_ quotidianis nihil proficere. (v. 310.)

QUIES; TRANQUILLITAS; REQUIES. 1. +Quies+ (from κεῖσθαι?) denotes
absolute rest, in opp. to activity in general, like ἡσυχία;
+tranquillitas+, quietness in acting, in opp. to hasty or passionate
activity, like ἑκηλία. Sen. Ep. 3. Et _quiescenti_ agendum et agenti
_quiescendum_ est; comp. with Cic. Top. 3. Ut aut perturbentur animi aut
_tranquillentur_. Hence is +quietus+ allied in sense with _otiosus_,
_segnis_, _languidus_; whereas +tranquillus+ with _lenis_, _placidus_,
_moderatus_. 2. +Quies+ is rest in itself; +requies+, rest after
activity and exertion. Curt. ix. 6. § 2. Ne _quies_ corpori invalido
adhuc necessaria pulsu remorum impediretur: comp. with § 3. Placuit hic
locus ad suam et militum _requiem_. (i. 80.)

QUIRE, see _Posse_.

QUIRITATIO, see _Questus_.

QUISQUE; QUIVIS; QUILIBET; UNUSQUISQUE; OMNES; UNIVERSI; CUNCTI; TOTUS.
1. +Quisque+, +quivis+, and +quilibet+, denote a totality, which is cut
up into several individualities; whereas +omnes+, +universi+, and
+cuncti+, denote a combined totality. 2. +Quisque+ means each
individual; +quivis+, any individual you choose, without exception, and
with emphasis; +quilibet+, any individual whatever, without selection,
and with indifference, like ὁστισοῦν, synonymously with _primus
quisque_, ὁ τυχών. Propert. ii. 6, 26. Templa pudicitiæ quid opus
statuisse puellis, si _cuivis_ nuptæ _cuilibet_ esse licet? apud
Lachmann. Cic. Fam. viii. 10. _Quidvis quamlibet_ tenue munusculum.
3. +Quisque+ is an enclitic, that is, throws back the accent on the
preceding word, and in prose never stands at the beginning of a
sentence, like ἕκαστος; whereas +unusquisque+ is accented and emphatic,
like εἷς ἕκαστος. 4. +Unusquisque+ denotes each individual, in opp. to
some individuals; whereas +singuli+, individuals, in opp. to the
undivided totality, like ἕκαστοι. 5. +Omnes+ (ἅπαντες) denotes all
without exception, merely as a totality, in opp. to _nemo_, _unus_,
_aliquot_. Cic. Sext. 12, 27. Off. iii. 6, like πάντες; whereas
+universi+, all taken collectively, in opp. to _singuli_ and
_unusquisque_. Cic. N. D. ii. 17. 65, 66. Off. iii. 6, like σύμπαντες;
lastly, +cuncti+ (ξυνεκτοί) all in their combined reality, in opp. to
_dispersi_, like ἅπαντες. Liv. vii. 35. Admonitione paventibus _cunctis_
quum omnium in se vertisset oculos Decius. Nep. Dat. 5. Qui illum unum
pluris quam se _omnes_ fieri videbant. Quo facto _cuncti_ ad eum
opprimendum consenserunt. 6. +Totus+, +solidus+, and +integer+ denote
that which is originally a whole, but which is liable to fall to pieces
by accident, like ὅλος; whereas +omnis+, +universus+, and +cunctus+,
denote original individualities, which form a whole by their
association, like πᾶς, σύμπας, ἅπας. (iv. 352.)

QUOTIDIE; IN SINGULOS DIES. +Quotidie+ applies to things that are daily
repeated; whereas +in singulos dies+, to things that, from day to day,
are making an advance. Cic. Att. v. 7. _Quotidie_ vel potius _in
singulos dies_ breviores literas ad te mitto. Fam. vi. 4. Catil. i. 2.


R.

RABIES, see _Amens_.

RADIARE, see _Lucere_.

RAMI; RAMALIA; VIRGA; TERMES; TURIO; SURCULUS; TALEA; SARMENTUM; STOLO;
VIRGULTUM; FRUTICETUM. 1. +Rami+ and +ramalia+ are the boughs of a tree;
+rami+ (from ῥάκος) the living, green boughs, θαλλοί; +ramalia+, the
withered dry boughs. Whereas +virga+, +termes+, +turio+, +surculus+,
+talea+, +sarmentum+, and +stolo+, are only twigs; +virga+, and the
words of rare occurrence, +termes olivæ+, and +turio lauri+, without any
accessory reference, like κλάδος, κλών, κλῆμα; +surculus+ and +talea+ as
members and offspring of the tree, which as scions and shoots should be
subservient to the parent-stock, like ὀρσός; +sarmentum+ and +stolo+, as
mere off-shoots of the tree, are set aside, and cast away; +sarmentum+
(from sarpere, ἅρπη,) as a completely useless twig; +stolo+, as at the
same time an injurious sucker. 2. +Virgultum+ is a place grown over with
bushes, and not bare; +fruticetum+ (from frutices) a place grown over
with shrubs, and not passable. (v. 283.)

RAPINA, RAPTOR, see _Præda_.

[[RATIONEM HABERE, see _Respectum habere_.]]

RECENS, see _Novus_.

RECIPERE, see _Polliceri_ and _Sumere_.

RECITARI, see _Eloqui_.

RECLUDERE, see _Aperire_.

RECONDERE, see _Celare_.

RECORDARI, s. _Meminisse_.

RECUPERARE, s. _Sumere_.

RECURVUS, see _Curvus_.

RECUSARE, see _Negare_ and _Spernere_.

REDIMERE, see _Emere_.

REDIRE, see _Reverti_.

REDOLERE, see _Olere_.

REDUNCUS, see _Curvus_.

REDUNDARE, s. _Abundare_.

REFELLERE, see _Refutare_.

REFUGIUM, see _Perfuga_.

REFUTARE; CONFUTARE; REFELLERE. 1. +Refutare+ and +confutare+ (from
sputare? or φοιτᾶν?) denote a refutation, in whatever manner;
+refellere+ (from fallere) on good grounds, and by convincing arguments.
2. The +refutans+ acts on the defensive in refuting the arguments that
are opposed to him; the +confutans+, on the offensive, in exposing their
nullity, and cutting them up. Cic. Font. 1. Plus laboris consumo in
poscendis testibus quam defensores in _refutandis_; comp. with N. D.
ii. 17. Cujus opinionis levitas _confutata_ a Cotta non desiderat
orationem meam. (iv. 43.)

REGALIS, see _Regius_.

REGIO, see _Locus_.

REGIUS; REGALIS. +Regius+ means, what belongs to a king, and descends
from kings; +regalis+, what is suitable to a king, and worthy of him.
(iv. 93 v. 48.)

RELIGIO; FIDES. +Religio+ (from ἀλέγειν) is conscientiousness, on the
ground of an inward obligation, through the conscience; +fides+ (from
πιθεῖν) on the ground of an outward obligation, through a promise.
(vi. 268.)

RELINQUERE; DESERERE; OMITTERE; DESTITUERE; DESOLATUS. 1. +Relinquere+,
to leave behind, has reference to an object, to which one stands in a
mere outward and local relation of proximity; whereas +deserere+ and
+omittere+, to an object to which one stands in an inward and moral
relation as an owner or friend; +desertio+, like leaving in the lurch,
has its ground in cowardice, or other forgetfulness of duty, in opp. to
_defensio_, _tutatio_; +omissio+, like giving up, has its ground in a
conviction of being able to dispense with, in opp. to _obtinere_. Tac.
Dial. 16. Partes quas intellexerimus te non tam _omisisse_ quam nobis
_reliquisse_. And 9. _Relinquenda_ conversatio amicorum et jucunditas
urbis, _deserenda_ cætera officia. Cic. Verr. i. 4. 11. _Desertum_
exercitum, _relictam_ provinciam. 2. +Deserere+ means to forsake, and
expose to a possible and remote danger; +destituere+ to an actual and
impending danger. Curt. iv. 2, 32. _Desertus_, _destitutus_, hostibus
deditus. Liv. vi. 2. Quod defensores suos in ipso discrimine periculi
_destituat_. 3. +Desertus+ and +destitutus+ denote, especially,
forgetfulness of duty; whereas +desolatus+, the unmercifulness of the
action. Suet. Cal. 12. Deserta, _desolataque reliquis_ subsidiis aula.
(iii. 290.)

RELIQUI, see _Cæteri_.

REMEDIUM, see _Mederi_.

REMINISCI, see _Meminisse_.

RENIDERE, see _Ridere_.

RENUERE, see _Negare_.

REPAGULUM, see _Sera_.

REPANDUS, see _Curvus_.

REPENTE; SUBITO; EXTEMPLO; E VESTIGIO; ILLICO; STATIM; PROTINUS;
CONFESTIM; CONTINUO. +Repente+ and +subito+ denote suddenly; +repens+
means sudden, in opp. to _exspectatus_, expected, Cic. Tusc. iii. 22; to
sensim, Cic. Off. i. 33. Suet. Tib. 11, like ἐξαπίνης; but +subitus+, in
opp. to foreseen, ante provisus, Cic. Tusc. iii. 22; meditatus, Plin.
Ep. i. 16; paratus, Cic. Or. i. 33, like παραχρῆμα. +Extemplo+ and +e
vestigio+, in opp. to delay; +extemplo+ (ex tempore) in a moment, with
reference to time; +e vestigio+, on the spot, sur-le-champ, with
reference to place. +Illico+ and +ilicet+, in opp. to slowness; +illico+
(in loco) is used in prose, like παραυτίκα; +ilicet+, by writers of
comedy and poets. +Statim+ and +protinus+, in opp. to, at a future time;
+statim+, immediately, in opp. to _deinde_, Tac. Ann. vi. 3; _postea_,
Suet. Cl. 39. A. 51. N. 34, like εὐθύς; +protinus+, forthwith, like
πρόκα. +Confestim+ and +continuo+, in opp. to ex intervallo, Cic. Inv.
ii. 12. (v. 157.)

REPERE; SERPERE; SERPENS; ANGUIS; COLUBER. 1. +Repere+ means, with small
feet and short steps, to move slowly along, to creep; whereas +serpere+,
without feet, by merely twisting the whole body, and without noise to
move forward, to creep on the belly. 2. +Serpens+ (ἕρπων) is the general
name for whatever creeps like a snake, like ἑρπετόν; +anguis+ (ἔγχος,
ἔγχελυς?) is a great formidable snake, ὄφις; +coluber+ (ἀσκάλαφος)
a small, spiteful snake, ἔχις, ἔχιδνα. (v. 341.)

REPERIRE, see _Invenire_.

REPETERE, see _Iterum_.

REPREHENDERE; VITUPERARE. +Reprehendere+ has in view the amendment of a
fault, and warning for the future, like showing the right path, and
μέμψις; +vituperare+ (from vitii πεπαρεῖν) has in view the
acknowledgment of a fault, better judgment, shame and repentance, like a
rebuke, and ψόγος. +Reprehensio+ is in opp. to _probatio_; for examples,
see Cic. Or. 48, 159. Mur. 20, 142. Senec. Vit. B. 1; whereas
+vituperatio+ is in opp. to _laudatio_; for examples, see Cic. Fat. 5.
Off. iii. 82. Quintil. iii. 7, 1. (ii. 259, iii. 323.)

REPUDIARE, see _Negare_.

REPUDIUM; DIVORTIUM. +Repudium+ is a one-sided putting away of a
betrothed bride, or of a married woman; +divortium+, a mutual agreement,
acquiescing in the dissolution of a marriage, or a formal divorce, by
which each party was released. The formula of the _repudium_ was:
Conditione tua non utor:--that of the _divortium_: Res tuas tibi habeto.
We say: _Repudium mittere_, _remittere_, _renunciare_, _dicere alicui_;
whereas _divortium facere cum aliqua_.

REQUIES, see _Quietus_.

REQUIRERE; DESIDERARE. +Requirere+ denotes requisition as an act of the
understanding, which has in view the usefulness of the object;
+desiderare+, as an act of feeling, which surrounds the object with love
and sympathy. The _requirens_ claims a right, and expects the fulfilment
of his claim from others; the _desiderans_ harbors a wish, and expects
its fulfilment from the course of things, from fortune. Cic. Fam.
vii. 26. Magis tuum officium _desiderari_, quam abs te _requiri_ putavi
meum. (v. 128.)

RERI, see _Censere_.

RESERARE, see _Aperire_.

RESPECTUM; RATIONEM HABERE. +Respectum habere+ means, to have regard in
thoughts and intentions; +rationem habere+, in acts and measures.
(vi. 304.)

RESTARE; SUPERESSE. +Restare+ means to remain, in opp. to _præteriisse_,
_interiisse_; whereas +superesse+, in opp. to _deesse_. (vi. 304.)

RESTAURARE, see _Instituere_.

RESTIS, see _Laqueus_.

RESTITUERE, see _Instituere_.

RETE; CASSIS; PLAGA. +Retia+ (from ῥῆχος, ἀράχνη,) is the most general
expression for fishing and hunting nets; +casses+ and +plagæ+ are
implements used in hunting only; +casses+ (from κοττάνη), nets for
catching the smaller wild animals; +plagæ+ (from πλέξαι), nets of a
stronger texture to get larger animals into one’s power by entangling
them. Hor. Ep. 2, 32. Aut trudit acres apros in obstantes _plagas_, aut
amite levi rara tendit _retia_. (vi. 304.)

RETICERE, see _Silere_.

RETURARE, see _Aperire_.

REVERERI, see _Vereri_.

REVERTI; REVENIRE; REDIRE. +Reverti+ and +revenire+ denote properly only
momentary actions; +reverti+, in opp. to _proficisci_, the turning back;
+revenire+, in opp. to _advenire_, the return; whereas +redire+ denotes
a more lasting action, which lies between turning back and the return,
in opp. to _porro ire_, the journey home. Cic. Att. xvi. 7. p. m. Quam
valde ille _reditu_ vel potius _reversione_ mea lætatus effudit.
(iv. 63.)

RIDERE; CACHINNARI; RENIDERE; SUBRIDERE; IRRIDERE; DERIDERE. 1. +Ridere+
and +cachinnari+ denote an audible laugh; +ridere+, a joyous and
temperate laugh, like γελᾶν; +cachinnari+ (from hinnire) an unrestrained
and resounding fit of laughter, like καγχάζειν; whereas +subridere+, and
+renidere+ only a visible smile; +subridere+, as the expression of a
waggish or satirical humor; +renidere+ (from nidor, ὄνειδος,) as the
expression of a friendly, and also of a dissembling humor, like μειδιᾶν.
Cic. Tusc. iv. 31. Si _ridere_ concessum sit, vituperatur tamen
_cachinnatio_. Verr. iii. 25. Herenn. iii. 14, 25. Ovid, Art. iii. 287.
2. +Deridere+ denotes laughing at, as an act of loftiness and contempt,
inasmuch as others are laughed down, like καταγελᾶν; +irridere+, as an
act of insolence and malignant pleasure, inasmuch as others are laughed
at before their faces, like ἐγγελᾶν. Cic. Orat. iii. 14. Istos omnes
_deridete_ atque contemnite; and Verr. v. 92: comp. with N. D. ii. 3.
Claudius etiam per jocum deos _irridens_; and Suet. Aug. 36. (iii. 251.)

RIMARI, see _Quærere_.

RIPA; LITUS; ORA; ACTA. 1. +Ripa+ (ῥιπή, ἐρείπω,) is the bank of a
river, like ὄχθη; whereas +litus+, +ora+, +acta+, the shores of the sea.
Mela. lii. 9. _Oras_ ad Eurum sequentibus nihil memorabile occurrit;
vasta omnia vastis præcisa montibus _ripæ_ potius sunt quam _litora_:
and iii. 3, 4. i. 2, 2. Vitruv. ii. 9, 14. Circa _ripam_ fluminis Padi
et _litora_ maris Adriatici. Colum. i. 5. Ovid, Met. i. 42. 2. +Litus+
denotes the shore only as the line which separates the land from the
sea, as the strand, like ἠϊών and ῥηγμίν; whereas +ora+ and +acta+, as
the space and tract of land that borders on the sea, as the coast, like
ἀκτή and αἰγιαλός; +ora+ (ὤα, οὖρος,) only in geographical reference to
the adjacent land, in opp. to the inland country; but +acta+ (ἀκτή) with
the accessory notion of being distinguishable by the senses, inasmuch as
the coast affords striking views and a pleasant residence. Liv. xxiv. 8.
Classem paravimus ut Africæ _oram_ popularemur, ut tuta nobis Italiæ
_litora_ essent. Plin. Ep. v. 6, 2. Gravis et pestilens _ora_ Tuscorum,
quæ per _litus_ extenditur. Hence _litoris ora_, that is, _ora per litus
extensa_, Virg. G. ii. 44. Tac. Ann. ii. 78. Appul. Met. iv. p. 92.
Avian. Fab. xx. 10.--And Prudent. adv. Symm. iv. 136. Invenit expositum
secreti in _litoris acta_. Cic. Fam. ix. 6. Ea tractes quorum et usus et
delectatio est omnibus illis _actis_ et voluptatibus anteponenda. _Acta_
is a foreign word of Greek extraction, which Tacitus (Hist. iii. 76.)
expresses by the circumlocution _amœna litorum_. (iii. 207.)

RITUS, see _Consuetudo_.

RIVALITAS, see _Imitatio_.

RIXA, see _Disceptatio_.

ROBUR, see _Potentia_.

ROBUSTUS, see _Validus_.

ROGARE; ORARE; OBSECRARE; OBTESTARI; PRECARI; SUPPLICARE. 1. +Rogare+
and +orare+ denote simply a request as the quiet utterance of a wish;
but the _rogans_ (ὀργᾶν, ὀρέγεσθαι) feels himself _al pari_, on a par
with the person whom he asks, and asks only a courtesy, like αἰτεῖν; the
_orans_ acknowledges the superiority of the other, and asks a benefit,
like δεῖσθαι; whereas +obsecrare+ and +obtestari+ denote a passionate
asking, as to conjure; but the _obsecrans_ asks urgently, like λιπαρεῖν;
the _obtestans_ (from θέσσασθαι) in a suppliant manner. Cic. Att.
xvi. 10. Igitur, mi Plance, _rogo_ te atque etiam _oro_. Pseudocic.
p. Red. 16. Pro mea vos salute non _rogavit_ solum, verum etiam
_obsecravit_. 2. +Precari+ denotes the calm act of prayer, in which one
raises one’s hand to heaven, like εύχεσθαι; but +supplicare+ denotes the
passionate act of supplication, in which one throws one’s self on one’s
knees, or on the ground, and wrings one’s hands, like ἱκετεύειν. By
hyperbole, however, +precor+ denotes any urgent request; +supplicare+,
any humble request, addressed to a human being. Cic. Parad. v. 3. Noctu
venire domum ad eum, _precari_, denique _supplicare_. (v. 232.)

ROGARE; INTERROGARE; PERCONTARI; SCISCITARI. +Rogare+, +interrogare+,
and +quærere+, denote a simple questioning; +rogare+ (ὀργᾶν, ὀρέγεσθαι),
as willing to know; +interrogare+, as wishing to know; whereas
+percontari+ and +sciscitari+ denote urgently asking; +percontari+ (from
γνῶναι) always from a desire of knowledge, with seriousness and
calmness; +sciscitari+ (redupl. of scitari) often from curiosity, with
inquisitiveness, eagerness, or also with cunning, like pumping or
ferreting out. (v. 125.)

ROGARE, see _Petere_.

RUDIS, see _Fustis_.

RUINA; STRAGES. +Ruina+ (from ῥεῦσαι is the falling down of things
raised one upon another, in consequence of the basis giving way; whereas
+strages+ is the throwing down of bodies standing upright, in
consequence of a push from without. Liv. iv. 33. _Strages ruinæ_
similis. (vi. 309.)

RUMOR; FAMA. +Rumor+ (from ῥεῦμα), like report, is the uncertain, dark,
often clandestine propagation of intelligence, in opp. to authentic
assurance; +fama+ (φήμη), like information, is the open and public
propagation of intelligence, in opp. to ocular demonstration. The
_rumor_ interests only by its novelty, is an object of curiosity, and
passes away with the generation in which it sprung up; the _fama_
interests through its importance, is an object of research, and as a
permanent property descends to posterity. (v. 233.)

RUMPERE, see _Frangere_.

RUPES, see _Saxum_.

RURSUS, see _Iterum_.

RUS, see _Villa_.

RUS; AGER; RUSTICUS; AGRESTIS; RUSTICANUS. 1. +Rus+ (ἄροτον) denotes the
country, in opp. to the town or city, the village with what belongs to
it; whereas +ager+ (ἀγρός) the country, in opp. to the district in
general, the open country or fields. Cels. Med. 1. Sanum oportet . . .
modo _ruri_ esse, modo in urbe, sæpiusque in _agro_. 2. +Rusticus+
denotes, like ἀγροῖκος, merely residing in the country; +agrestis+, like
ἄγριος, growing wild in the fields, like _ferus_, but as a milder
expression, for _ferus_ (φῆρες) denotes wildness as an inward nature;
+agrestis+, merely as a mark of the place of residence, or of
extraction. 3. In a spiritual sense, +rusticus+ denotes more an
intellectual, +agrestis+ more a moral roughness; +rusticus+, like
countrified, has a reference to bashfulness and uncouthness; in its best
sense, it is allied to innocence; in its worst, to awkwardness; whereas
+agrestis+, like boorish, has a reference to shamelessness and
vulgarity, is never used in a good sense, but borders on _feritas_, and
answers to the German word Flegelei, ‘churlishness.’ The _rusticus_, in
opp. to _urbanus_, violates only the conventional laws of decorum; the
_agrestis_, in opp. to _humanus_, the natural laws of decorum also. 4.
When Cicero wishes to give to _rusticus_ a still milder sense, and
secure it from ambiguity, he adopts the word _rusticanus_; so that,
according to him, +rusticus+ is one who actually lives in a
country-village, +rusticanus+, one who resembles those who live in
country-villages; hence among the _rusticani_ the _municipes_ may be
reckoned, as _rusticorum similes_.


S.

SABULO; HARENA; SABURA. +Sabulo+ (from ψαφαρός, ψῆφος,) and in Pliny
+sabulum+, denote sand, as a sort of light soil; +harena+, +arena+ (from
χεράς), as a dry stony soil, as small or pounded pebbles, in opp. to a
fruitful soil; +sabura+, +saburra+, with especial reference to its use,
as shipsand, ballast. (vi. 311.)

SACELLUM, see _Templum_.

SACER; SANCTUS. +Sacer+ (ἄγος) denotes that which is sacred, inasmuch as
it belongs to the gods, in opp. to +profanus+, like ἱερός; whereas
+sanctus+ (from ἁγνός) inasmuch as it is under the protection of the
gods, and, being guarded from profanation, is, in consequence, pure and
spotless, in opp. to _pollutus_, like ὅσιος. Hence +sanctus homo+ is a
pure, pious man; +sacer+, one accursed, devoted to the gods as an
expiatory sacrifice. In the same manner +sancire+ means to place under
the immediate protection of the gods, as laws and compacts, for example;
whereas +sacrare+ means to dedicate to the gods, as temples and altars,
for example. (iii. 198.)

SACRAMENTUM, see _Jusjurandum_.

SACRARE; CONSECRARE; DICARE; DEDICARE. +Sacrare+, +consecrare+, mean to
hallow, with reference to men, with regard to whom the profane use of a
thing is withdrawn and forbidden; +dicare+, +dedicare+ (from δέχεσθαι)
mean to dedicate with reference to the gods, to whom the thing is set
apart as their property. Hence +consecrare+ may be used in an absolute
sense, but +dedicare+ has always a reference to the new proprietors.

SÆPE; CREBRO; FREQUENTER; FREQUENTARE; CELEBRARE. 1. +Sæpe+ denotes
often, in opp. to _semel_, Suet. Ner. 33; _nonnunquam_, Cic. Or. 66;
_semper_, like πολλάκις; whereas +crebro+ and +frequenter+, in opp. to
_raro_, Rhet. ad Her. iv. 23. Cic. Or. 66; +crebro+, often, and in quick
succession, and rather too often than too seldom, like θαμά; but
+frequenter+ (partic. from farcire) often, and not too seldom; for in
general +creber+ denotes a multifarious assembly, inasmuch as it is
dense and crowded; whereas +frequens+, inasmuch as it is numerously
attended. Consequently, +frequens+ rather implies praise, like _largus_;
+creber+, blame, like _spissus_. And _frequentes senatores_ denote the
senate, when represented as complete; _crebri senatores_, as wanting
room on account of their number, and forced to sit close.
2. +Frequentare+ means to visit a place often, and not neglect it:
whereas +celebrare+, to visit it often, and thereby to enliven it, and
to fill it with festive sounds. (i. 17.)

SÆVITIA; CRUDELITAS. +Sævitia+ (from αἶ, αἰνός) denotes the
blood-thirsty cruelty of the tyrant, who acts like a ravenous beast,
that kills and tears its prey, in opp. to _mansuetudo_; whereas
+crudelitas+ (from κρύος, crudus) denotes the reckless cruelty of the
judge, who enforces the utmost rigor of the law, in opp. to _clementia_.
Sen. Clem. 2. Cic. Lig. 3. Att. viii. 9. Plin. Pan. 3.

SÆVUS, see _Atrox_.

SALSUS, see _Lepidus_.

SALTUS, see _Silva_.

SALUBER, see _Salus_.

SALUS; SANITAS; VALENS; SALUBER; SANUS; SALUTARIS. 1. +Salus+ denotes
existence in general, in opp. to _interitus_; whereas +sanitas+, the
health of the person existing, in opp. to _ægritudo_; first of the body,
then, in a higher degree, of the soul. 2. +Sanus+ and +valens+ denote
health as a temporary state, and are allied in sense with _integer_;
whereas +saluber+ and +validus+ denote habitual qualities, and are
allied in sense with _robustus_. Hence _salubris oratio_ means a speech
sound in matter, possessing original strength; _sana_, a temperate and
discreet speech. Cic. Brut. 13. 51. Tac. Dial. 25. Plin. Ep. ix. 26.
3. +Sanus+ and +saluber+ represent health, merely as finding one’s self
well; +valens+ and +validus+, as possessing strength to act.
4. +Saluber+ in a transitive sense means, what brings _sanitas_, in opp.
to _pestilens_, like ὑγιεινός; whereas +salutaris+, what brings _salus_,
in opp. to _pestiferus_, like σωτήριος. Cato, apud Plin. H. N. xviii. 6.
Nihil _salutare_ est nisi quod toto anno _salubre_. (i. 31.)

SALUS, see _Vita_.

SALUTARIS, see _Salus_.

SALVE, see _Ave_.

SALVUS; SOSPES; INCOLUMIS; INTEGER. +Salvus+ and +sospes+ denote, like
σῶς, being safe and sound, in opp. to being killed; +salvus+ is the
customary, +sospes+ a select expression; whereas +incolumis+ and
+integer+, like ἀσκηθής, denote being unhurt and untouched; +incolumis+
(from calvere, calamitas, κολούω), in opp. to being wounded, etc.;
+integer+ (from tangere) in opp. to being attacked. Tac. Hist. i. 84.
Mea cum vestra _salus incolumitate_ senatus firmatur; that is, our
safety is assured by the senate not having had a hair touched. And,
i. 66. Verba Fabii _salutem incolumitatemque_ Viennensium commendantis;
_salus_ refers to being killed, _incolumitas_ to being plundered: comp.
with Cic. Orat. iii. 45, 178. Dejot. 15. Sunt tuæ clementiæ monumenta
. . . eorum _incolumitates_ quibus _salutem_ dedisti. (iii. 306.)

SANARE, see _Mederi_.

SANCTUS, see _Sacer_ and _Bonus_.

SANGUIS; CRUOR; SANGUINEUS; SANGUINOLENTUS; CRUENTUS. 1. +Sanguis+
denotes the blood circulating in the body, living and supporting life,
like αἷμα; +cruor+ (κρύος) the blood gushing from the body, like βρότος.
Cic. N. D. ii. 55. _Sanguis_ per venas in omne corpus diffunditur: comp.
with Rosc. Am. 7, 19. Ut _cruorem_ inimici quam recentissimum
ostenderet. Tac. Ann. xii. 46. Mox ubi _sanguis_ artus extremos
suffuderit, levi ictu _cruorem_ eliciunt atque invicem lambunt.
+Sanguis+ is the condition of physical life; +cruor+, the symbol of
death by slaughter. 2. +Sanguineus+ means, consisting of blood,
+sanguinolentus+, smelling after blood, or blood-thirsty; +cruentus+,
red with blood. (iv. 258.)

SANIES; PUS. +Sanies+ (from σίσανον) denotes running, consequently,
offensive matter; +pus+ (from πύθω), corroding, consequently, pernicious
matter. Cels. v. 26, 20. (vi. 316.)

SANITAS, SANUS, see _Salus_.

SAPIENS; PRUDENS; CALLIDUS; SCITUS; SOLERS; CORDATUS; CATUS.
1. +Sapiens+ (from σήπω) is the person who chooses right objects, from
ennobling views, and pursues them with quietness of mind; +prudens+ and
+callidus+ denote the person who chooses right means, and regulates them
with circumspection; +prudentia+ is a natural judiciousness, pervading a
man’s whole nature: +calliditas+, an acquired knowledge of the world and
of men, gained by experience and practice. Cic. Fr. Scaur. 5. Hominis
_prudentis_ natura, _callidi_ usu, doctrina eruditi. 2. +Prudens+ is the
person who has accurate practical views, in opp. to _stultus_; +scitus+,
who has tact, mother-wit, and the faculty of combination; +solers+, who
possesses practical genius and inventive power; +cordatus+, who has his
head in the right place, in opp. to _excors_; +catus+, who discovers and
knows secret means and ways. (v. 114.)

SAPOR; GUSTUS; GUSTARE; LIBARE. 1. +Sapor+ denotes objectively the
flavor which a thing has, or gives out, in opp. to _odor_, etc.;
+gustus+ or +gustatus+ (γεῦσαι) denotes, subjectively, the sensation
occasioned by this flavor, or the sense of taste, in opp. to _olfactus_,
etc. Sen. Ep. 109. Debet esse optatus ad hujus modi _gustum_, ut ille
tali _sapore_ capiatur. 2. The +libans+ puts only a small portion of any
thing to, or into, his mouth; whereas the +gustans+ has the sense of the
effect of what he tastes, and is conscious of its flavor. Ovid, Amor.
i. 4, 34. Si tibi forte dabit, quæ _prægustaverit_ ipse, rejice
_libatos_ illius ore dapes. (iii. 125.)

SARMENTUM, see _Rami_.

SATELLES; STIPATOR. +Satelles+ (from στέλλω) denotes an attendant, as a
hired servant; +stipator+ (from στῖφος) as a guard. Cic. Rull. ii. 13.
Ex equestri loco ducentos in singulos annos _stipatores_ corporis
constituit, eosdem ministros et _satellites_ potestatis. (vi. 318.)

SATIS; AFFATIM; ABUNDE. 1. +Satis+ (from ἄση) denotes, like ἱκανῶς,
a sufficient measure, without any accessory reference; whereas +affatim+
and +abunde+ with the accessory notion of rather too much than too
little; +abunde+, like ἅλις, with an objective and absolute reference;
whereas +affatim+, like ἀφθόνως, in a subjective and relative sense.
A person may have worked _affatim_, according to his own opinion, and
yet not _satis_. Cic. Att. ii. 16. Puto enim me Dicæarcho _affatim
satis_ fecisse. And, xvi. 1. _Satis_ est et _affatim_ prorsus. Liv.
iv. 22. Frumentum non necessitati _satis_, sed copiæ quoque _abunde_ ex
ante confecto sufficiebat. 2. +Satiare+ denotes satisfying, as the
appeasing of a want generally, of hunger, of a longing, etc.; whereas
+saturare+, as the appeasing of an unnatural craving, of an over-eager
longing, or a voracious hunger, of hatred, of the thirst for blood.
(i. 109.)

SATIS HABERE; CONTENTUM ESSE; BONI CONSULERE; CONTENTUS; ÆQUUS ANIMUS.
1. +Satis habere+, that is, to consider as enough, expresses a judgment,
and is only a sign of an unimpassioned judgment of the right measure;
whereas +contentum esse+, to be satisfied, expresses a feeling and is a
sign of moderation and self-government; lastly, +boni consulere+, to
take in good part, an act of the will, by which a person resigns the
realizing of his wish, and acquiesces as becomes a man, in what is
inevitable. +Satis habere+ is in construction with an infinitive;
+contentum esse+, generally with an ablative, or with _quod_. Cic. Orat.
iii. 19; comp. with Fr. Clod. 6. 2. +Contentus animus+ denotes a
relative contentedness, which puts up with and does not murmur at the
want of complete success; +æquus animus+, an absolute contentedness,
which feels quite satisfied, and does not wish for a more prosperous
state. (v. 343.)

SATISFACTIO, see _Purgatio_.

SATURARE, see _Satis_.

SAUCIUS, see _Vulnus_.

SAXUM; RUPES; CAUTES; PETRA; SCOPULI; LAPIS; CALCULUS; SCRUPULUS.
1. +Saxum+, +rupes+, and +cautes+, are greater; +lapis+, +calx+, and
+scrupus+, smaller masses of stone. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 22. Silex viridis
ubi invenitur, _lapis_, non _saxum_ est. 2. +Saxa+ (from ψεκάς, ψήχω)
are greater masses of stone, in whatever form, like πέτραι; +rupes+ and
+petræ+ (πέτραι, from πεσεῖν) are steep and high, like rocks, and
therefore difficult to climb; +cautes+ and +scopuli+ are rough and
pointed, like crags, and therefore threaten danger; the +cautes+ are
smaller, and also not visible in the water, and therefore deceitful; the
+scopuli+ (from κόψαι) jutting upwards, threaten and announce danger,
like σκόπελοι. 3. +Lapis+ (ἄλιψ) is the most general expression, and
denotes the stone only as a material substance, without regard to its
form, like λίθος; +calculus+, is a smooth, generally round pebble;
+scrupulus+, a rough, generally angular pebble; but for this meaning of
_scrupulus_, the dimin. of _scrupus_, we have only the authority of
grammarians; in authors it has only the figurative meaning of scruple.
(v. 191.)

SCANDERE; ADSCENDERE; ESCENDERE; CONSCENDERE; INSCENDERE. +Scandere+
means to mount a steep height, which is connected with exertion, and
generally brings both hands and feet into requisition, as to climb;
whereas +adscendere+, +escendere+, +conscendere+, and +inscendere+, mean
to mount a height, in a general sense; +adscendere+, without any
accessory notion, merely in opp. to _descendere_; whereas +escendere+
means to mount a height which is fortified, like ramparts, walls, or
which confers distinction, as the _rostrum_; +conscendere+, to mount
something in company with others, a ship for instance; +inscendere+, to
mount an enclosed space, a carriage for instance. (iv. 60.)

SCAPHA, see _Navigium_.

SCELESTUS; SCELERATUS; NEFARIUS; NEFANDUS; IMPIUS. +Scelestus+ (from
scelus, σκληρός) has reference to the mind, like _ad scelera pronus_ and
_promptus_; whereas +sceleratus+, to actions, like _sceleribus pollutus
atque opertus_. Hence the epithet +sceleratus+ is applied to things, to
_porta_, _campus_, _vicus_; and, in general, things can be called
_scelesta_ only by personification. In the like manner +nefarius+ and
+impius+ as applied to the impiety of the person who acts, only with
this distinction, that the _impius_ is impious only in mind, the
_nefarius_ in his actions also; whereas +nefandus+ refers to the
horrible enormity of an action. (ii. 149.)

SCELUS, see _Delictum_.

SCHOLA, see _Ludus_.

SCIENTIA, see _Cognitio_.

SCINDERE, see _Findere_.

SCIPIO, see _Fustis_.

SCISCITARI, see _Rogare_.

SCITUS, see _Sapiens_.

SCOBINA, see _Lima_.

SCOPULI, see _Saxum_.

SCORTUM, see _Pellex_.

SCROBS, see _Specus_.

SCROPHA, see _Sus_.

SCRUPULUS, see _Saxum_.

SCRUTARI, see _Quærere_.

SCUTUM; CLYPEUS; PARMA. +Scutum+ (σκύτος) is a larger shield, covering
the whole body, σάκος; +clypeus+ and +parma+ smaller shields of a round
form, ἀσπίς; +clypeus+ (κλοπιός, καλύψαι) for foot-soldiers; +parma+
(πάλμη) for horse-soldiers also; lastly, +pelta+ (πέλτη) a small shield
in the form of a half-moon; +cetra+, a small leathern shield. Liv.
ix. 19. Macedonibus _clupeus_ . . . Romano _scutum_, majus corpori
tegumentum. Liv. xxxi. 36. Cetratos, quos _peltastas_ vocant, in
insidiis abdiderat.

SCYPHUS, see _Poculum_.

SECESSIO, see _Turbæ_.

SECRETA, see _Arcana_.

SECURIS, see _Ascia_.

SECURUS, see _Tutus_.

SEDES; SEDILE; SELLA. +Sedes+ is simply a place for sitting, like ἕδος;
whereas +sedile+ and +sella+ are artificially prepared seats; +sedile+,
in any form chosen, as a stool or bench, whether movable or immovable,
like ἕδρα; +sella+, of a particular form, as a chair or throne, like
θρόνος.

SEDITIO, see _Turbæ_.

SEGNITIA, see _Ignavia_.

[[SELLA, see _Sedes_.]]

SEMITA, see _Iter_.

SEMO, see _Numen_.

SEMPER; USQUE. +Semper+ (ἀμπερές) means ‘always’ and ‘ever,’ absolutely,
without reference to any definite limit; whereas +usque+ only relatively
‘always,’ within a definite limit, _in_ usque dum, etc.; but by the
poets it is used without any additional clause, as in Horace, for
example, Sat. i. 9. _Usque_ sequar te (i. 14.)

SEMPITERNUS, see _Continuus_.

SENECTA, SENECTUS, SENIUM, see _Vetus_.

SENEX, see _Puer_ and _Vetus_.

SENSIM, see _Paulatim_.

SENTENTIA; OPINIO; SUFFRAGIUM. 1. +Sententia+ is the view of a subject,
resting upon clear perception and acquired conviction, like γνώμη;
+opinio+, an opinion resting upon mere feeling, like δόξα.
2. +Sententia+ is the vote of a senator upon any motion, etc., like
γνώμη; whereas +suffragium+, the simple voting, pronouncing yes or no,
or a name, like ψῆφος.

SENTES, see _Dumi_.

SENTIRE, see _Intelligere_.

SEORSUM; SEPARATIM. +Seorsum+ means set apart, in order to prevent a
thing being common, with the accessory notion of secrecy; whereas
+separatim+ means separated, in order to prevent confusion, with the
accessory notion of arrangement.

SEPELIRE; CONDERE; HUMARE. +Sepelire+ and +condere+ denote complete
burial, the more or less solemn interment of the remains of a dead
person, with or without previous burning; +sepelire+ (Goth. filhan,
ἀσπάλαξ) as a proper and technical expression; +condere+ (καταθεῖναι) as
a general and softer expression; whereas +humare+ means depositing in
the earth, as the last part of burial, in opp. to _cremare_.

SERA; CLAUSTRUM; PESSULUS; REPAGULUM; OBEX. +Seræ+ and +claustra+ are
bolts; +sera+ (seruisse, εἴρειν) a movable bolt, that is put on the
door; +claustrum+, a bolt that is fastened to the door; whereas
+pessuli+, +repagula+, and +obices+, are merely bars, which supply the
place of bolts; +pessulus+ (πάσσαλος) a smaller bar for the _fores_,
Plaut. Aul. i. 2, 25. Ter. Heaut. ii. 3, 47; whereas +repagulum+ (from
πῆξαι), pangere, a greater bar for the _valvæ_, Cic. Verr. iv. 43. Plin.
H. N. xvi. 42, and +obex+ (from objicere) for the _portæ_, Tac. H.
iii. 30. Ann. xiii. 39. (v. 292.)

SERIES; ORDO. +Series+ (from serere, εἴρειν) means a row, as an outward,
mechanical, accidental association of things, which, according to their
nature, are of the like sort; whereas +ordo+ (from ἀριθμός, ῥυθμός) an
inward, ideal, necessary association of things, which, according to
their destination, belong to one another. +Series+ is a mathematical;
+ordo+, a moral notion. (vi. 330.)

SERIUS; SEVERUS. +Severus+ (αὐηρός) means, actively, one who cuts no
jokes; +serius+, in a neutral sense, what is no subject for joking; and
+severe+ means earnestly; +serio+, in earnest; whence +severus+ is an
epithet for persons, +serius+ for things; Hor. A. P. 105. Decent vultum
_severum seria_ dictu. Senec. Tranq. 15. Nihil magnum, nihil _severum_
nec _serium_ quidem ex tanto apparatu putat. +Severus+ is in opp. to
_hilaris_, Cic. Brut. 93, _remissus_, Orat. ii. 17, _luxuriosus_,
Quintil. xi. 3, 74; whereas +serius+ is in opp. to _jucundus_,
_jocosus_; and +serio+ to _joco_, _per jocum_. Yet +severus+ also
supplies the place of _serius_; particularly in _severior_,
_severissimus_, and _severitas_, because _serius_ does not possess these
forms. (i. 75.)

SERMO; COLLOQUIUM; ORATIO. 1. +Sermo+ (εἰρόμενος) denotes a conversation
accidentally arising, or at least carried on without any fixed and
serious purpose; whereas +colloquium+, generally a conversation agreed
upon for a particular purpose, like a conference. 2. +Sermo+ is a
natural mode of speaking; +oratio+, a speech premeditated and prepared
according to the rules of art. The _sermo_ arises when, in ordinary
life, an individual speaks longer than usual, and continues speaking,
and is accidentally not interrupted; the _oratio_ has a definite extent
with an observable beginning, middle, and end, and in it the speaker
calculates upon not being interrupted. In the _sermo_, the language of
ordinary life predominates, whether in prose or verse, as in the comic
poets, and in the _Sermones_ of Horace; whereas in the _oratio_ the
language is select, and in conformity to the rules of rhetoric. Cic.
Orat. 16. Mollis est _oratio_ philosophorum et umbratilis . . . Itaque
_sermo_ potius quam _oratio_ dicitur. Tac. Hist. i. 19. Apud senatum non
comptior Galbæ, non longior . . . _sermo_; Pisonis comis _oratio_.
(iv. 23.)

SERMO, see _Lingua_.

SERPENS, SERPERE, see _Repere_.

SERVUS; FAMULUS; MANCIPIUM; MINISTER; ANCILLA; SERVITUS; SERVITIUM.
1. +Servus+, +ancilla+, +famulus+, and +mancipium+, denote a servant who
is not free, a slave; +minister+, one who is free, or only in
subordination. Plin. Ep. x. 97. _Ancillæ_, quæ _ministræ_ dicebantur;
that is, in Christian assemblies. 2. +Servus+ (from εἴρερος) means a
slave, in a political and juridical sense, as in a state of subjugation,
in opp. to _dominus_, Cic. Verr. iv. 50, like δοῦλος and δμώς; +famulus+
(χαμαλός?) in a patriarchal sense, as belonging to and part of the
family, in opp. to _herus_, Cic. Off. ii. 7, like οἰκέτης; +mancipium+,
in an economical sense, as a possession and marketable commodity, like
ἀνδράποδον. 3. +Serva+ means a female slave, with especial reference to
her legal condition; +ancilla+, in ordinary life, as the feminine of
servus. +Servitus+ denotes slavery, quite indifferently, as a regular,
natural, legal state; whereas +servitium+, either with contempt or
compassion, as an irregular, compulsory, ignominious state. Most prose
writers, however, use _servitus_ merely as the abstract; _servitium_,
and especially _servitia_, as the concrete term for _servi_. (v. 136.)

SEVERITAS; GRAVITAS; STRENUITAS. +Severitas+ (αὐηρότης) means
earnestness, so far as it is seated in the mind; +gravitas+ (from
γεραιός) so far as it makes an impression on others; +strenuitas+ (from
στρηνής, δραίνω) so far as it shows itself in action. (ii. 129.)

SEVERUS, see _Austerus_ and _Serius_.

SICA, see _Gladius_.

SICARIUS, see _Homicida_.

SICCUS, see _Aridus_.

SIDUS, see _Stella_.

SIGNUM, see _Imago_.

SILERE; TACERE; RETICERE; OBTICERE. 1. +Silere+ (from ἑλλός) means to be
still, σιωπᾶν, in opp. to _strepere_, Suet. Aug. 94; whereas +tacere+
(from tegere?) means to be silent, σιγᾶν, in opp. to _loqui_, _dicere_.
And the compound word +reticere+, if a man has something to say, and
keeps it to himself, in opp. to _eloqui_, _proloqui_; but +obticere+, if
a man does not speak to one who asks or expects an explanation, in opp.
to _respondere_. Cic. Harusp. 28. Sed tamen facile _tacentibus_ cæteris
_reticuissem_. 2. +Tacens+ and +tacitus+ denote being silent merely as a
temporary state; +tacens+ means any one who does not speak; +tacitus+,
one who, when an opportunity for speaking offers, purposely refrains,
and observes a significant silence; whereas +taciturnus+ denotes silence
as an habitual quality, like close and reserved. (i. 85.)

SILVA; SALTUS; NEMUS; LUCUS. +Silva+ (ὕλη) denotes a wood, in a general
sense, merely with reference to the timber, like ὕλη; whereas +saltus+
(ἄλσος) as a wild place, or wood in the midst of mountains, like νάπη;
+nemus+ (νέμος) as a pleasant place, as a grove; +lucus+ (λόχμη) as a
sacred place, as a grove consecrated to the gods, like ἄλσος, ἆλτις.
(ii. 93.)

SIMPUVIUM, see _Poculum_.

[[SIMUL, see _Una_.]]

SIMULACRUM, see _Imago_.

SIMULATIO, see _Imitatio_.

SIMULTAS, see _Odium_.

SINERE, see _Ferre_.

SINGULARIS, s. _Eminens_.

SINISTER; LÆVUS. +Sinister+ (old Germ. winistra) denotes the left, as a
usual and prosaic expression, like ἀριστερός; +lævus+ (λαιός) as a
select and poetical expression, like σκαιός. In a figurative sense
+sinister+ is the symbol of unpropitiousness and of disaster; +lævus+,
of perverseness and of awkwardness. (vi. 336.)

SINUS, see _Gremium_.

SISTERE; INHIBERE; STATUERE. +Sistere+ and +inhibere+ mean, to make any
thing stand still; +sistere+ (ἱστάναι) with reference to a living and
running object; +inhibere+, to a lifeless object, that has merely been
put in motion; whereas +statuere+ means to make any thing stand fast.
(iv. 299.)

SITUM ESSE, see _Cubare_.

SITUS, see _Lutum_.

SOCIETAS, see _Fœdus_.

SOCIUS; SODALIS; AMICUS; FAMILIARIS; PARTICEPS; CONSORS. 1. +Socii+
(from sequi) are bound by common interests to act together, as partners,
companions, etc.; +sodales+ and +socienni+, like ἑταῖροι, are bound only
by being pleased with each to the common enjoyment of life, as comrades
and good friends; but +sodalis+ (from ἔθος, ἠθεῖος) is the more
elevated, +sociennus+, a more comic expression. +Socius+ is generally in
construction with an objective genitive, which names the purpose of the
_sociatio_; whereas +sodalis+ only with a subjective genitive, which
names the other _sodalis_; _socius periculi_, _culpæ_, but _sodalis
meus_. 2. +Sodalis+ is a good friend, with whom one stands in a
sociable, that is to say, a calm state of intercourse; +amicus+, a
friend, with whom one exchanges the sacred feeling of love and respect;
+familiaris+, a confidant, to whom one is bound, as one heart and soul,
in mirth and sorrow. 3. The +socius rei+ is considered in the state of a
fellow-laborer or fellow-sufferer; the +particeps+ and +consors+ as
sharers in an enjoyment or in a possession; the +particeps+, because he
voluntarily takes a part in a thing, in opp. to _expers_, like μέτοχος;
the +consors+, because, without co-operating, he is entitled to a share,
in opp. to _exsors_. Cic. Balb. 28. Fuit hic multorum illi laborum
_socius_ aliquando; est fortasse nunc nonnullorum _particeps_
commodorum. Liv. xxi. 41, and Suet. Aug. 25. The co-regent is _socius
imperii_, so far as he shares in the business of government; _consors_,
so far as the office is merely honorary. (iv. 208.)

SOCORDIA, see _Ignavia_.

SODALIS, see _Socius_.

SOLEMNIA; FERIÆ; DIES FESTI; FESTA. +Solemnia+ means festivals, so far
as they are solemn or regularly returning institutions; +feriæ+, so far
as they are days of rest and recreation; +festa+, or, in prose, +dies
festi+, so far as they are days of rejoicing. (vi. 339.)

SOLERE; CONSUEVISSE; ADSOLERE. 1. +Solere+ (from ἑλεῖν) is used of
events and of actions, like φιλεῖν, to be used; whereas +consuevisse+
only of an action, with reference to a person, like εἰωθέναι, to be
wont. In Liv. xxxviii. 17, Hæc quibus _insolita_ atque _insueta_ sunt
Græci timeant!--the word +insolitus+ refers to the frequency of their
appearance; +insuetus+, to the connection of their appearance with the
individuality of the subject acting or suffering. 2. +Solet+ is used
indifferently; +assolet+ involves praise, and may be resolved into
_recte_ or _rite solet_. (v. 73.)

SOLERS, see _Sapiens_.

SOLICITARE, see _Lacessere_.

SOLICITUDO, see _Cura_.

SOLITUDO; VASTA; DESERTA; TESCA. +Solitudo+ denotes the solitude of a
place, indifferently or with praise; whereas +vasta+, +deserta+, +tesca
loca+, with blame; +vasta loca+, as uncultivated wastes, in opp. to
_sulta_; whereas +deserta+, as uninhabited deserts, in opp. to
_habitata_; and +tesca+, or +tesqua+, (from tacere,) as lonely places,
where an awful stillness reigns, in opp. to _celebria_. (iii. 226.)

SOLUM; FUNDUS; VADUM; FUNDAMENTUM. +Solum+, +fundus+, +vadum+, denote
the natural ground and bottom of a thing; +solum+, that of the earth, on
which one can place a firm foot, in opp. to the movable elements air and
water; +fundus+ (from fodere, βυθός,) that of a vessel, in opp. to the
remaining space in the vessel; +vadum+ (ἕδος) that of a river, ocean, or
sea, in opp. to the water, which flows into it, or to standing water;
whereas +fundamentum+ denotes a foundation artificially laid, on which a
building, etc. rests, and which, in addition to the _solum_, it
particularly needs. Hence the proverbial phrase, _Omnis res jam in vado
est_; like a swimmer who has reached the bottom of the water: and
_Largitio fundum non habet_, like the vessel of the Danaides. Cic. Brut.
74. Solum et quasi fundamentum oratoris vides. (v. 35.)

SOLUM, see _Tellus_.

SOMNUS; SOPOR; SOMNIUM; INSOMNIUM. 1. +Somnus+ (ὕπνος) denotes sleep, as
a usual prosaic expression; +sopor+ (ὕπαρ) as a select poetical
expression. In prose +sopor+ has only a causative meaning, a means of
producing sleep, but not a deep sleep. 2. +Somnium+ denotes a dream, in
prose, like ὄναρ; +insomnium+, in poetry, like ἐνύπνιον. (v. 278.)

SONITUS, see _Fragor_.

SONS, see _Culpa_.

SOPOR, see _Somnus_.

SORDES, see _Lutum_.

SOSPES, see _Salvus_.

SPARSI, see _Passi_.

SPATIARI, see _Ambulare_.

SPECIES, see _Figura_.

SPECTARE, see _Videre_.

SPECTRUM; MOSTELLUM; MANES; LEMURES. +Spectrum+ denotes the apparition
of a departed spirit, as a supernatural appearance; +mostellum+ (dimin.
from monstrum) as a horrible apparition; +manes+ (from ἀμενηνὰ κάρηνα)
as the apparition of a good spirit; +lemures+, as that of a hobgoblin.
(vi. 344.)

SPECULATOR, see _Explorator_.

SPECUS; CAVERNA; ANTRUM; SPELUNCA; SPELÆUM; FOVEA; SCROBS. 1. +Specus+
and +caverna+ are cavities, whether under-ground, or on a level with the
ground,--consequently, a species of _antrum_; +spelunca+ and +spelæum+,
cavities with a perpendicular opening, leading up into a mountain;
+scrobs+, +fovea+, and +favissa+, pits with an horizontal opening,
leading down into the earth. 2. +Specus+ (σπέος) is a gap, with a
longish opening; +caverna+ (from κύαρ) a hole, with a round opening.
3. +Spelunca+ (σπήλυγξ) is a cavity, in a merely physical relation, with
reference to its darkness and dreadfulness; +antrum+ (ἄντρον) a grotto,
as a beautiful object, with reference to its romantic appearance and
cooling temperature; lastly, +spelæum+ (σπήλαιον) is used only by the
poets, as the abode and lurking-hole of wild beasts. 4. +Fovea+ (from
φύειν) is a pit meant to remain open, or only covered in order to keep
in or to catch a wild beast; +scrobs+, a pit meant to be filled up
again, and only dug, in order to bury something, the root of a tree, for
instance, or a corpse. (v. 140.)

SPERARE, see _Vereri_.

SPERNERE; CONTEMNERE; DESPICERE; ASPERNARI; RECUSARE; FASTIDIRE;
NEGLIGERE. 1. _Spernimus_ rejicienda, fugienda ut libidines.
_Contemnimus_ magna, metuenda ut pericula, mortem. _Despicimus_ infra
nos posita, ut vulgi opiniones; according to Lambinus. Or, +spernere+,
+spernari+, +aspernari+ (ἐκπέραίνειν) mean, not to care for a thing, in
opp. to _appetere_, _concupisse_, Cic. Fin. ii. 10, 51. Plaut. Mil.
iv. 2, 59, something like ἀποβάλλειν; whereas +contemnere+, poetically
+temnere+ (from temere), not to fear a thing, in opp. to _timere_,
_metuere_, Cic. Fam. vii. 32. Att. ii. 24. Sen. Prov. 6. Tac. H. ii. 92,
like καταφρονεῖν; lastly, +despicere+, +despectare+, not to value a
thing, in opp. to _suspicere_, _revereri_, _admirari_. Cic. Off. ii. 11,
38. Tac. Ann. ii. 43, like ὀλιγωρεῖν. 2. +Spernere+ denotes despising,
as an inward feeling, synonymously with _parvi putare_, _negligere_;
+spernari+, and the more usual word, +aspernari+, as an utterance of
that feeling, synonymously with _recusare_, _abnuere_, _rejicere_, like
waving from one. In +spernere+, the notion of holding cheap
predominates; in +aspernari+, that of aversion or rejection. +Spernere+
refers to an object which is at one’s command; +aspernari+, to something
offered to us, or obtruded upon us. 3. +Aspernari+ is confined to the
simple avowal of aversion; whereas +recusare+ includes the decided
declaration of unwillingness. Curt. vi. 6, 7. Principes _aspernantes_
quidem, sed recusare non ausos Persicis ornaverat vestibus. 4. The
+spernens+ follows a moral and rational aversion, and acts more or less
with a consciousness of his grounds for despising anything; whereas the
+fastidiens+ follows a physical and instinctive aversion, whether it be
an innate or temporary antipathy, which arises either from an actual
loathing, or from what appears like it; lastly, the +negligens+ follows
the suggestion neither of reason, nor yet of instinct and feeling, but
acts without thought or purpose. (ii. 178.)

SPHÆRA, see _Globus_.

SPICA, see _Culmus_.

SPIRITUS, see _Anima_.

SPISSUS, see _Angustus_.

SPLENDERE, see _Lucere_.

SPOLIA, see _Præda_.

SPOLIARE, see _Vastare_.

SPONDERE, see _Polliceri_.

SPONSOR; VAS; PRÆS. +Sponsor+ is a surety in a general sense, who
guarantees any thing whatever; whereas +vas+ and +præs+ are sureties in
a court of justice; +vas+ (from ἄεθλος) one who gives security for the
appearance of one or other party in court; +præs+, who gives security
for a claim of government. (iv. 113.)

SPONTE; ULTRO; SUA SPONTE; VOLUNTATE; LIBENTER. 1. +Sponte+ (πόθος)
means voluntarily; whereas +ultro+, in an over-ready manner; so that
+sponte+ refers to the mind of the agent, +ultro+ to the thing itself.
Liv. x. 19. Orare ne collegæ auxilium, quod acciendum _ultro_ fuerit,
_sua sponte_ oblatum sperneretur; and Tac. Hist. iv. 79. Suet. Cæs.
6. +Sponte accusare+ means to accuse of one’s own accord; whereas +ultro
accusare+ means to obtrude one’s self into the office of an accuser,
when one should be satisfied with not being one’s self accused;
according to which, +ultro accusavit+ may be resolved into the complete
phrase: Haud contentus non accusari ab altero, _ultro_ etiam progressus
est, ut ipse accusaret alterum, or, _ultro_ progressus accusavit
alterum. 2. +Sponte+, from choice, is in opp. to _casu_, or
_necessitate_, Colum. ii. 1, 13. Plin. Ep. v. 14. Tac. Ann. vi. 23;
whereas +sua sponte+, quite of one’s own accord, like αὐτομάτως, in opp.
to _rogatus_, _provocatus_, or _invitatus_. Cæs. B. G. i. 44. Cic. Fam.
i. 7. iv. 3. vii. 5. (iii. 103.) 3. +Sponte+ and +spontaneus+, like ἑκών
and ἑκούσιος, paint the voluntary action as an act of the understanding;
+voluntate+ and +voluntarius+, like ἐθελοντής, as an act of the will, in
opp. to _invite_; +libenter+ and +libens+, like ἄσμενος, as an act of
feeling, in opp. to _tædio_. (iv. 277.)

SQUALOR, see _Lutum_.

STAGNUM, see _Lacuna_.

STATIM, see _Repente_.

[[STATIONES, see _Excubiæ_.]]

STATUA, see _Imago_.

STATUERE, see _Destinare_ and _Sistere_.

STATUS, see _Conditio_.

STELLA; ASTRUM; SIDUS. +Stella+ (dimin. of ἀστήρ) means any one of the
innumerable individual stars, like ἀστήρ; +astrum+ (ἄστρον), any one of
the greater bright heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and principal stars,
with their peculiar names, like ἄστρον; +sidus+ (εἶδος), a complication
of stars, a constellation, and, by affinity of the notion with number
and magnitude, a great star, like τέρας, τείρεα. +Astrum+ and +stella+
denote the stars more in a mere physical relation, as bright heavenly
bodies; +sidus+, more in an astronomical and astrological relation, as
portentous and influencing human affairs. Sen. Helv. 9. Dum ortus
_siderum_, occasus intervallaque, et causas investigare velocius meandi
vel tardius spectare tot per noctem _stellas_ micantes liceat.
(iv. 409.)

STERCUS, see _Lutum_.

STILLA, see _Gutta_.

STIMULARE, see _Pungere_.

STIPATOR, see _Satelles_.

STIPES; VALLUS; PALUS; SUDES. +Stipes+ and +vallus+ mean a larger sort
of pale or stake, like a pole or the stem of a tree, which must be
driven into the earth with a rammer; +stipes+ serves for various uses,
in war and upon other occasions; +vallus+ (the dimin. of σύαρος?) is
chiefly used as a palisade; whereas +palus+ and +sudes+ mean a smaller
sort of stake, which may be driven into the earth in the ordinary way;
+palus+ (from pangere) serves for various uses, as a hedge-stake, etc.,
and especially for fastening any thing to it; +sudes+ (from ὄζος?) is
also used, on account of its spike, for a palisade, a lance, a javelin.
(iv. 324.)

STIPULA, see _Culmus_.

STIRIA, see _Gutta_.

STIRPS; GENUS; GENS; PROSAPIA; POSTERITAS; PROGENIES; PROLES; SUBOLES.
1. +Stirps+, +genus+, and +gens+, denote the race usually in an
ascending line, as abstract and collective terms, for _majores_; whereas
+prosapia+, +progenies+, +propago+, +proles+, +suboles+, in a descending
line, as abstract and collective terms for _posteri_. 2. +Prosapia+ is
an antiquated solemn expression, and only to be used of ancient noble
families, Cic. Univ. 11. Quintil. i. 6, 40; +posteritas+, the usual
prosaic, +progenies+, a select, elevated expression, Cic. Rep. ii. 22;
+proles+ and +suboles+, poetical expressions, Cic. Or. iii. 38; +proles+
denotes children, as fruits destined, as a younger race, to exist with
their parents; +suboles+, as an after-growth, destined to supply the
place of the generation that is dying off. 3. +Gens+ (γενετή) is a
political, +genus+ (γένος), a natural race. +Gens+ consists of families,
whom the founder of states has united into a community or complex
family; +genus+ consists of species and individuals, that by their
common properties belong to one and the same class of beings. (v. 307).

STIRPS; TRUNCUS. +Stirps+ (στέριφος) denotes the stock as the animating
and supporting principal part of a tree, in opp. to the branches and
leaves, as growing from it and dependent upon it; +truncus+, the naked,
dry part of the tree, in opp. to the branches and leaves, and even to
the top itself, as its ornament; in short, so far as it answers to the
trunk of the human body. (iv. 322.)

STOLIDUS, see _Stupidus_.

STOLO, see _Rami_.

STOMACHARI, see _Succensere_.

STRABO; PÆTUS. +Strabo+ (στραβός) means, one who squints from nature, or
sickness, or bad habit; whereas +pætus+, one who squints designedly and
waggishly. (vi. 350.)

STRAGES, see _Ruina_.

STRENUITAS, see _Severitas_.

STREPIDUS, see _Fragor_.

STRUES, see _Acervus_.

STUDIUM; BENEVOLENTIA; FAVOR; GRATIA. 1. +Studium+ is usually the
attachment and dependent feeling of the lower towards the higher, of the
soldier towards the general, of the subject towards the ruler, of the
scholar towards the teacher, of the individual towards his party;
whereas +favor+ is the love and favor of the higher towards the lower,
of the public towards the player, of the people towards the candidate,
of the judge towards one of the parties, etc.; lastly, +benevolentia+ is
love and good-will towards one of equal rank. In Cic. Rosc. Com. 10.
Quod _studium_ et quem _favorem_ secum in scenam attulit Panurgus? the
public is first considered as an auditor, then as a judge of the player.
Orat. i. 21. Ego qui incensus essem _studio_ utriusque vestrûm, Crassi
vero etiam amore. 2. +Studium+, +favor+, and +benevolentia+, denote a
temporary affection, occasioned by and contracted from external
circumstances,--consequently, of a quieter, or entirely latent sort;
whereas +amor+ is love deeply rooted in the soul, bordering on passion.
Cic. Fam. i. 9. Nihil est quod _studio_ et _benevolentia_ vel potius
_amore_ effici non possit. Att. v. 10. _Amores_ hominum in te, et in nos
quædam _benevolentia_. 3. +Favor+ is, subjectively, the favor which a
person entertains towards another, in opp. almost to _invidentia_;
whereas +gratia+ is, objectively, the favor in which a person stands
with another, in opp. to _invidia_. (iv. 106.)

[[STUPENS, see _Attonitus_.]]

STUPIDUS; BRUTUS; BARDUS; STULTUS; FATUUS; STOLIDUS. +Stupidus+,
+brutus+, and +bardus+, denote a merely negative quality, want of
intellect; +stupidus+ (from τύφω, ταφεῖν), that of a human being who
comprehends with difficulty, as dull-witted, like ἀναίσθητος; +brutus+
(μαυρωτός), that of beasts, and of men whose organization is like that
of beasts, who comprehend nothing, as without reason, like βλάξ;
+bardus+, who comprehends slowly, as without talent, like βραδύς;
whereas +stultus+, +fatuus+, and +stolidus+, denote a positive quality
of the mind, which has false notions and a perverse judgment; +stultus+
(from τέλλω, ἀτάλλω, ἀταλόφρων), a want of practical wisdom, as folly,
like μωρός, in opp. to _prudens_; +fatuus+, a want of æsthetical
judgment, as silliness; +stolidus+, a want of reasonable moderation, as
brutality. Liv. xxv. 19. Id non promissum magis _stolide_ quam _stulte_
creditum. (iv. 229.)

SUAVIS; DULCIS. +Suavis+ (ἠΰς) denotes, like ἡδύς, a pleasant odor, and,
figuratively that which gives a calm pleasure; +dulcis+, like γλυκύς,
a pleasant flavor, and, figuratively, that which gives a lively
pleasure; hence +dulcis+ is a stronger expression than _suavis_, in
Plin. Ep. v. 8, 10. Hæc vel maxima vi, amaritudine, instantia; illa
tractu et _suavitate_, atque etiam _dulcedine_ placet. Plin. H. N.
xv. 27. _Dulce_, et pingue, et _suave_. (iii. 256.)

SUAVIUM, see _Osculum_.

SUBITO, see _Repente_.

SUBLIMIS, see _Altus_.

SUBOLES, see _Stirps_.

SUCCENSERE; IRASCI; INDIGNARI; STOMACHARI. +Succensere+ and +ægre+,
+graviter+, +moleste+, +difficiliter ferre+, to take any thing ill,
denote a silent, +irasci+, +indignari+, and +stomachari+, a loud
displeasure; +ira+, anger, has the character of a passion, inasmuch as
it thirsts after vengeance; +indignatio+, indignation, that of an
awakened or excited moral feeling, inasmuch as it expresses with energy
its disapprobation or contempt; +stomachatio+, a fit of passion, that of
a choleric temperament, inasmuch as it suffers the bile to overflow, and
gives vent to its irritability by blustering and brawling. The +iratus+
makes his appearance as an enemy, and excites fear; the +indignabundus+,
as a judge, and inspires awe; the +stomachans+, as a hypochondriac, and
is a subject for comedy. (v. 119.)

SUDES, see _Fustis_ and _Stipes_.

SUFFRAGIUM, see _Sententia_.

SUFFUGIUM, see _Perfuga_.

SULCUS, see _Porca_.

SUMERE; CAPERE; PREHENDERE; ACCIPERE; EXCIPERE; RECIPERE; SUSCIPERE;
RECUPERARE. 1. +Sumere+ (sub-imere) means to take up any thing, in order
to use it, like αἱρεῖν; +capere+ (from κάπτειν) to lay hold on any
thing, in order to possess it, like λαβεῖν; lastly +prehendere+,
+præhendere+ (from χανδάνειν) to lay hold on any thing, in order, in a
mere physical sense, to have it in one’s hand. Cic. Phil. xii. 7. Saga
_sumpsimus_, arma _cepimus_. 2. +Accipere+ means to take any thing
offered, with willingness, δέχεσθαι; +excipere+, to intercept, or catch
any thing that is escaping, ὑποδέχεσθαι; +recipere+, to take any thing
that wants protection, with a generous feeling; +suscipere+, to
undertake, or take upon one’s self any thing burdensome, with
self-denial. The +accipiens+ usually takes in his hand; the +excipiens+,
in his arms; the +recipiens+, in his bosom; the +suscipiens+, on his arm
or back. 3. +Recipere+ means to receive again, without taking pains;
whereas +recuperare+, to regain by one’s own exertion. Liv. xiii. 53,
urbem _recipit_, by merely taking possession; comp. with xxvi. 39, urbe
_recuperata_, by conquest. (iv. 131.)

SUMMUS; SUPREMUS. +Summus+ (superl. of sub) denotes the uppermost,
indifferently, and with mere local reference, like ἄκρος, in opp. to
_imus_. Rhet. ad Her. iii. 18. Cic. Rosc. Com. 7. Vell. P. ii. 2. Tac.
H. iv. 47; whereas +supremus+ is a poetical and solemn expression, with
the accessory notion of elevation, like ὕπατος, almost in opp. to
_infimus_. (iv. 357.)

SUMPTUS; IMPENSÆ. +Sumptus+ means expense, so far as it diminishes
wealth and capital, allied to prodigality; +impensæ+, so far as it
serves to the attainment of an object, allied to sacrifice. (vi. 357.)

SUPERARE, see _Vincere_.

SUPERBIA; ARROGANTIA; FASTUS; INSOLENTIA. +Superbia+, from
self-sufficiency, thinks others beneath itself, and considers them only
as to the inferiority of their endowments; pride, in opp. to humility,
+arrogantia+ would make others, who owe it no homage, sensible of its
endowments or privileges, in opp. to modesty; +fastus+ (from σπαθᾶν?)
pushes men from itself, as unworthy to stand in connection with it, as a
presumptuous, in opp. to a sober, unassuming disposition; +insolentia+
(from salire, insilire,) misemploys its superiority, in a rude manner,
to the humiliation of the weaker, as insolence, in opp. to humanity and
magnanimity. The +superbus+ would outshine others, the +arrogans+ would
encroach upon them; the +fastosus+ despises them; the +insolens+ insults
them. (iv. 187.)

SUPERESSE, see _Restare_.

SUPPLEMENTUM, see _Complementum_.

SUPPLICARE, see _Rogare_.

SUPREMUS, see _Summus_.

SURCULUS, see _Rami_.

SURRIPERE, see _Demere_.

SUS; VERRES; SCROFA; PORCUS. +Sus+ (ὗς, σῦς,) is the most general name
for swine, and that which is used by natural historians, like ὗς;
+verres+, +scrofa+, +porcus+, are economical names; +verres+ (from
ἔρσης), a boar-pig; +scrofa+ (γρομφάς), a sow kept for breeding;
+porcus+ (πόρκος), a young pig, like χοῖρος. With +sus+ is associated
the accessory notion of filthiness; with +porcus+, that of fatness.
(v. 335.)

SUSCIPERE, see _Sumere_.

SUSPICERE, see _Vereri_.

SUSPIRARE; GEMERE. +Suspirare+, to sigh, is a deep drawing of the breath
and then forcible emission of it, as the immediate consequence of an
afflicted heart; whereas +gemere+ (γέμειν), to groan, is more of a
voluntary act, in order to give vent to the afflicted heart; hence
+suspirium+ is more an expression of uneasiness and distress, +gemitus+
of actual pain. Cic. Att. ii. 21. Cum diu occulte _suspirassent_; postea
jam _gemere_, ad extremum vero loqui omnes et clamare cœperunt.
(v. 244.)

SUSTINERE, SUSTENTARE, see _Ferre_.


T.

TABERNA, see _Deversorium_.

TABULÆ, see _Axes_.

TACERE, TACITURNUS, see _Silere_.

TÆDA, see _Fax_.

TÆDET, see _Piget_.

TÆTER, see _Teter_.

TALEA, see _Rami_.

TALIO, see _Vindicta_.

TARDARE, see _Manere_.

TARDUS; LENTUS. +Tardus+ denotes slowness, with reference to the great
length of time spent, in opp. to _citus_, Sall. Cat. 5; whereas
+lentus+, with reference to quietness of motion, in opp. to _acer_, etc.
Quintil. ix. 4. (iv. 218.)

TELLUS; TERRA; SOLUM; HUMUS. +Tellus+ denotes the earth as a whole, as
the centre of the universe, as a goddess, in opp. to other bodies in the
universe, or other divinities, like Γαῖα, Γῆ; whereas +terra+ (τέρσω,
torreo,) as matter and one of the elements in opp. to the other
elements, like γαῖα, γῆ); _solum_ (ὅλον) as a solid element, in opp.
especially to water, like πέδον; lastly, +humus+ (χθών, χαμαί), as the
lowest part of the visible world, in opp. to the sky, like χθών. Hence
the derivative +terrenus+ is in opp. to _igneus_; +solidus+ is in opp.
to _fluidus_; lastly, +humilis+, in opp. to _sublimis_. (i. 173.)

TEMETUM, see _Vinum_.

TEMPERATIO, see _Modus_.

TEMPESTAS, see _Ventus_.

TEMPLUM; FANUM; DELUBRUM; ÆDES; SACELLUM. 1. +Templum+, +fanum+, and
+delubrum+, denote properly the temple, together with the consecrated
environs, like ἱερόν; whereas +ædes+, the building only, like ναός;
lastly, +sacellum+, a consecrated place without the building, with
merely an altar. 2. In a narrower sense, +templum+ denotes a great
temple of one of the principal gods; whereas +fanum+ and +delubrum+, a
smaller temple of an inferior god, or of a hero, etc.

TEMPUS, see _Dies_.

TEMULENTUS, see _Ebrietas_.

TENEBRÆ, see _Obscurum_.

TENERE; HABERE; POSSIDERE. +Tenere+ (from τείνειν) means, to have
anything fast in one’s hand, and in physical possession; +habere+ (from
σχέω) to have in one’s power, and in effective possession; +possidere+
(from ποτί and sedere) to have, as one’s own property, and in legal
possession, Plin. Ep. i. 16. Tenet, habet, possidet. (vi. 366.)

TENTARE; EXPERIRI; PERICLITARI; PERICULUM; DISCRIMEN. 1. +Tentare+
means, to make an experiment, in order to form a judgment of something,
from a desire of knowledge, and with activity; +periclitari+, with
courage and contempt of the danger associated with the experiment;
+experiri+, merely to learn something by actual experiment.
2. +Periculum+ denotes danger, as occupying duration, of time;
+discrimen+, as a point of time, as the critical moment and the
culminating point of _periculum_. Liv. vi. 17. In ipso _discrimine
periculi_ destituat. (v. 263.)

TENUIS, see _Exilis_.

TERERE, see _Lævis_.

TERGUM, see _Dorsum_.

TERGUS; CUTIS; PELLIS; VELLUS. +Tergus+ and +cutis+ denote the outermost
covering of the flesh, as merely bare skin; +tergus+ (from στορχάζειν,
to enclose), the coarse skin of an animal, which covers the soft and
eatable flesh, like δέρμα; +cutis+ (κύτος), the finer skin of human
beings, which protects the sensitive flesh like χρώς; whereas +pellis+
and +vellus+ denote the flesh together with a covering; +pellis+ (from
palla) more bristly, consisting of _pili_, like δορά; +vellus+ (from
εἶλαρ? or villus?), more woolly, consisting of _villi_, like μαλλός. Men
have _cutis_; elephants, snakes, etc. _tergora_; lions, goats, dogs,
etc., _pelles_; sheep, _vellera_. Juven. x. 192. Deformem pro _cute
pellem_. (v. 17.)

TERMES, see _Rami_.

TERMINARE, TERMINUS, see _Finire_, _Finis_.

TETER; FŒDUS; TURPIS; DEFORMIS. +Teter+, +tæter+ (ἀταρτηρός) is the
ugliness which disturbs the feeling of security, and excites fear or
shuddering, like hideous, shocking, βλοσυρός; +fœdus+ (ψοῖθος), that
which offends natural feelings, and excites loathing and aversion, like
μιαρός; +turpis+ (from torpere) that which offends the moral feeling, or
sense of decency, and excites disapprobation or contempt, in opp. to
_honestus_, _gloriosus_, like αἰσχρός; +deformis+, that which offends
the finer sensations, and excites dislike, in opp. to _formosus_, like
δυσειδής. Cic. Off. i. 34. Luxuria cum omni ætate _turpis_, tum
senectuti _fœdissima_ est. Rep. ii. 26. Tyrannus quo neque _tetrius_
neque _fœdius_ . . . animal ullum cogitari potest. Vatin. 3. Quanquam
sis omni diritate _teterrimus_. Vell. Pat. ii. 69. In Vatinio
_deformitas_ corporis cum _turpitudine_ certabat ingenii. (v. 111.)

TESCA, see _Solitudo_.

TETRICUS, see _Austerus_.

TIGNUM, see _Trabes_.

TIMERE, TIMOR, see _Vereri_.

TITUBARE, see _Labare_.

TOLERARE, see _Ferre_.

TORMENTUM, s. _Cruciatus_.

TORQUERE, see _Vertere_.

TORRIDUS, see _Aridus_.

TORVUS, see _Atrox_.

TOTUS, see _Quisque_.

TOXICUM; VENENUM; VIRUS. +Toxicum+ (from taxus) denotes poison, as a
mere term in natural history, without accessory reference; +venenum+, as
an artificial poison, of a sweet and tempting flavor; +virus+ (εἶαρ,
ἰός), as a noxious and distasteful juice or drink. Liv. ii. 52. Tribuni
plebem agitare suo _veneno_, agraria lege; comp. with Cic. Læl. 23.
Evomat _virus_ acerbitatis suæ. (v. 355.)

TRABES; TIGNUM. +Trabes+, +trabs+ (τράφηξ) denotes a longer and narrower
beam, like a pole; +tignum+, a shorter and thicker beam, like a block.
A raft consists of _trabes_, not of _tigna_; whereas the wood-work of a
building, which, as a pillar, is destined to support something, is
composed of _tigna_, not of _trabes_, by which the cross-beams only are
denoted. Cæs. B. Civ. ii. 9. Supra eum locum duo _tigna_ transversa
injecerunt, quibus suspenderent eam contignationem supraque ea _tigna_
directo transversas _trabes_ injecerunt easque axibus religaverunt.
(v. 290.)

TRACTUS, see _Locus_.

TRAGULUM, see _Missile_.

TRAMES, see _Iter_.

TRANQUILLUS, see _Quietus_.

TRANS; ULS; ULTRA. +Trans+ and +uls+, like περᾶν, in opp. to _cis_,
denote, on the other side, with the character of unaccented
prepositions, as a mere geometrical designation of place, like _super_;
+trans+ (τρανές) is the usual, +uls+ the antiquated and obsolete
expression; whereas +ultra+ (comparative from ollus, ille), like πέρα,
in opp. to _citra_, with emphasis and distinction of the relative
distance of that which lies on the other side, like _supra_. The
separation denoted by +ultra+ is merely that of a boundary; the
separation denoted by +trans+, that of an obstruction. Tac. Germ. 29.
Protulit magnitudo populi Romani _ultra_ Rhenum _ultraque_ veteres
terminos imperil reverentiam . . . Non numeraverim inter Germaniæ
populos, quanquam _trans_ Rhenum Danubiumque considerint, eos, qui
decumates agros exercent. Eutrop. vii. 9. Liv. xxii. 43. Tac. Ann.
xvi. 17. (iii. 109.)

TRANSFUGA, see _Perfuga_.

TRANSVERSUS; OBLIQUUS. +Transversum+ means, that which crosses a
straight line at right angles, like across; +obliquum+, that which is
not perpendicular to a straight line, but forms with it unequal angles,
the one acute, the other obtuse, like awry or slanting. (vi. 375.)

TRIBUERE, see _Impertire_.

TRISTITIA, see _Dolor_.

TROICUS, TROIUS, see _Achivi_.

TRUCIDARE, s. _Interficere_.

TRUCULENTUS, s. _Atrox_.

TRUDIS, see _Fustis_.

TRUNCARE, see _Mutilare_.

TRUNCUS, see _Stirps_.

TRUX, see _Atrox_.

TUERI; DEFENDERE. +Tueri+ (from στοχάζεσθαι) supposes only possible
danger, as to protect, in opp. to _negligere_, Cic. Fin. iv. 14;
+defendere+, an actual attack, as to defend, in opp. to _deserere_.
Hence those that are under age have _tutores_; those that are accused,
_defensores_. The _tuens_ shows more of carefulness and love, as seeking
to prevent danger; the _defendens_, more of spirit and strength, as
resisting danger. (iv. 307.)

TUMERE, see _Turgere_.

TUMULUS, see _Collis_.

TURBA, see _Caterva_.

TURBÆ; TUMULTUS; SEDITIO; SECESSIO; DEFICERE; DESCISCERE. +Turbæ+ and
+tumultus+ denote the civil broils of public life; +turbæ+ (τύρβη)
interruptions of public order; +tumultus+ (from tumere) of the public
peace; whereas +seditio+ and +secessio+ are political commotions, in
consequence of decided, evident differences of opinion, and of
conflicting principles; +seditio+ (from se and ire) when concord is
first disturbed, and the parties as yet contend with words only;
+secessio+, when the prospect of reconciliation is already given up, and
the parties either stand opposite each other, ready to come to blows,
or, at least, have broken off all connection with each other. 2. The
+seditiosi+ and +secedentes+ are citizens and members of a free
community, and only suspend public concord; whereas the +deficientes+
and +desciscentes+ break a compact, because, either as subjected states
they rebel, or as allies fall off; +deficere+, as the most general
expression, represents the falling off, in a moral point of view, as a
treacherous, fickle, cowardly desertion; +desciscere+ (from scindere) in
a political point of view, as an alteration in the constitution and
political system. (v. 363.)

TURBO, see _Ventus_.

TURGERE; TUMERE. +Turgere+ (τραγᾷν) denotes being swoln, with reference
to actual corpulency and fulness, like σπαργᾶν, σφριγᾶν; whereas
+tumere+ (from στόμφος) with reference to concealed nothingness and
emptiness, like οἰδᾶν. Hence sails are called _turgida_, inasmuch as the
wind, which swells them out, is something, and actually fills them; and
_tumida_, inasmuch as it is merely air, consequently nothing, and only
seems to fill them. (iv. 191.)

TURIO, see _Rami_.

TURPIS, see _Teter_.

TUTUS; SECURUS; INCURIOSUS. 1. +Tutus+ denotes safety objectively, he
who actually is safe, like ἀσφαλής; +securus+ (sine cura) subjectively,
he who thinks himself safe; hence +tutus+ is used for provident, with
reference to foresight; +securus+ is used as a softer expression, for
improvident, with reference to the want of foresight. Sen. Ep. 97.
_Tuta_ scelera esse possunt, _secura_ non possunt: and 105. The
substantive _securitas_, however, must be used to supply the want of a
similar substantive from _tutus_. 2. +Securus+, +securitas+, denote
freedom from care and anxiety merely as a state of mind, like ἀμέριμνος,
in opp. to _sollicitus_, Tac. Hist. iv. 58; whereas +incuriosus+,
+incuria+, denote the want of carefulness and attention, with a
practical reference, like heedless, ὀλίγωρος, in opp. to _cura_. Sen.
Ep. 100. Fabianus non erat negligens in oratione, sed _securus_.
(iii. 120.)


U.

UBER, see _Fœcundus_ and _Mamma_.

UDUS; UVIDUS; HUMIDUS; AQUOSUS; MADIDUS. 1. +Uvidum+ and +udum+ (ὑάς,
vadum, from ὕω, uveo) denote, like ὑγρόν, the wetness which consists
entirely of water or other fluid particles, whether actually,
apparently, or only by hyperbole, _humore constans_; whereas +humidum+
and +humectum+ (from χυμός) is the wetness which is caused by water
soaking through, _humore mixtum_. Senec. N. Q. ii. 25. Dicis nubes
attritas edere ignem cum sint _humidæ_, imo _udæ_. Hence is +udus+ (in
opp. to _sudus_ and _solidus_) used by Tertullian as synonymous with
_aquanus_; whereas _humidus_ (in opp. to _aridus_) is synonymous with
_aquosus_, only that by _aquosus_ is meant a separation and
juxta-position of wet and dry; by _humidus_, a mixture and association
of wet and dry; hence _pratum aquosum_ means a meadow with ponds and
puddles; _pratum humidum_, a meadow soaked with water. 2. +Udus+ is only
a contracted form of _uvidus_; +humectus+ is distinguished from
_humidus_ only as a sort of participle. Pacuv. ap. Varr. Terra exhalabat
auroram _humidam, humectam_. 3. +Humidus+, +humens+, refer, like moist,
to the inward quality of a body; whereas +madidus+, +madens+, like
μυδαλέος and dripping, only to the exterior and surface of a body, in
opp. to _siccus_. Cic. Phil. xiv. 3. Imbuti sanguine gladii legionum
exercituumque nostrorum, vel _madefacti_ potius duobus consulum, tertio
Cæsaris prœlio; for +imbuere+, as the causative of _imbibere_, refers to
a _humectatio_, a moisture of the inner part; +madefieri+, to a
_redundatio_, the cause of which lies in this, that the inner part is so
over-full, that nothing further can be forced into it. (ii. 12.)

ULCUS, see _Vulnus_.

ULIGO, see _Lacuna_.

ULNA; LACERTUS; BRACHIUM; CUBITUS. +Ulna+ (ὠλένη) is the whole arm, from
the shoulder to the hand, which serves as a measure, an ell; +lacertus+
(ἀλκή) the upper arm; +brachium+ (βράγχιον, βραχίων), the under-arm;
+cubitus+, the bending between the two, the elbow. (vi. 383.)

ULS, ULTRA, see _Trans_.

ULTIMUS, see _Extremus_.

ULTIO, s. _Vindicta_.

ULTRO, s. _Præterea_ and _Sponte_.

UMBROSUS, see _Obscurus_.

UNA; SIMUL. +Una+ means together, at the same place, like ὁμοῦ; whereas
+simul+ (ὁμαλῶς) at once, at the same time or moment, like ἅμα.

UNCTUS, see _Delibutus_.

UNCUS, see _Curvus_.

UNDA, see _Aqua_.

UNICUS, see _Eminens_.

UNIVERSUS, UNUSQUISQUE, see _Quisque_.

USQUE, see _Semper_.

USURA, see _Fænus_.  [[main entry spelled “Fœnus”]]

USURPARE, see _Uti_.

UTERQUE; AMBO; UTERVIS; UTERLIBET. 1. +Uterque+ denotes ‘both,’ as two
unities, like ἑκάτερος; +ambo+, as the halves of a pair, like ἄμφω. Cic.
Fin. ii. 7. Hic, qui _utramque_ probat, _ambobus_ debuit uti. Orat. 6,
21. Terent. Ad. i. 2, 50. Curemus æquam _uterque_ partem; tu alterum,
ego alterum; nam _ambos_ curare propemodum reposcere illum est quem
dedisti. Plin. Pan. 90, 4. Vell. P. ii. 66. This difference is palpable
from Cic. Mur. 18, 37. Duæ res vehementer in prætura desideratæ sunt,
quæ _ambæ_ in consulatu Murenæ profuerunt . . . . Horum _utrumque_ ei
fortuna ad consulatus petitionem reservavit. And Orat. iii. 26. A quibus
_utrisque_ submittitur aliquid. 2. +Uterque+ and +ambo+ are copulative,
and may be resolved into _unus et alter_, and have their predicate
actually in common; whereas +utervis+ and +uterlibet+ are disjunctive,
and may be resolved into _unus vel alter_, and have their predicate in
common only by possibility. Ter. Andr. prol. 10. Qui _utramvis_ recte
norit, _ambos_ noverit. (iv. 349.)

UTI; USURPARE; FRUI; FRUNISCI. +Uti+ and +usurpare+ denote the mere act
of using, by which a person turns a thing to his advantage; but +uti+
(from οἴω) a permanent use; +usurpare+ (usui rapere) a single act of
using; whereas +frui+ and the antiquated word +frunisci+ (from φρονεῖν),
the pleasant feeling of this use, as to enjoy; +frui+ is the primitive,
+frunisci+ the inchoative of the verb. Sen. Vit. B. 10. Tu voluptate
_frueris_, ego _utor_. Flor. ii. 6. Hannibal cum victoria posset _uti_,
_frui_ maluit. Cic. Rosc. Am. 45, 131. Commoda, quibus _utimur_, lucem,
qua _fruimur_, spiritumque, quem ducimus, a Deo nobis dari. Cic. Cat.
iii. 2, 5. Quorum opera . . . assidue _utor_; comp. with Fin. ii. 35,
118. In ea, quam sæpe _usurpabas_, tranquillitate degere omnem vitam.
Cic. Orat. 51, 169. Post inventa conclusio est, qua credo _usuros_
veteres illos fuisse, si jam nota et _usurpata_ res esset. (iii. 134.)

UTIQUE, see _Plane_.

UVIDUS, see _Udus_.

UXOR, see _Fœmina_.  [[redirects to _Femina_]]


V.

VACARE; OTIARI; FERIARI; CESSARE; NIHIL AGERE. +Vacare+ (from ἧκα?)
means to have one’s time free, in opp. to _occupatio_, which compels one
to work; +otiari+ (from αὔσιος, αὔτως), to be at leisure, in opp. to
_negotia_, which oblige one to work; +feriari+, to enjoy a holiday, in
opp. to working all day; +cessare+ (from cedere? or from καθίζειν?), to
make a half-holiday, and enjoy a short cessation, in opp. to previous
activity; +nihil agere+, to do nothing, in opp. to activity in general.
(vi. 388.)

VACILLARE, see _Labare_.

VACUUS, see _Inanis_.

VADERE, see _Ire_.

VADUM, see _Solum_.

VAFER, see _Astutus_.

VAGARI, see _Errare_.

VALDE, see _Perquam_.

VALE, see _Ave_.

VALENS, see _Salus_.

VALERE, see _Posse_.

VALETUDO, see _Æger_.

VALIDUS; FIRMUS; ROBUSTUS. 1. +Validus+ (from ὅλος, οὖλος), means
strong, in an active sense, as able to perform something, in opp. to
_imbecillis_, Cic. Fam. vii. 1. Plin. H. N. xiv. 21, like σθεναρός;
whereas +firmus+ and +robustus+, in a passive sense, as able to endure;
+firmum+ (from φράξαι, φάργνυμι), strong from an immovable position,
and, consequently, stedfast, in opp. to _labans_, _vacillans_, and, for
want of a corresponding adjective, to _imbecillus_, Cic. Fam. ix. 16.
Sall. Jug. 10. Quintil. v. 10, 49, like βέβαιος; +robustum+ (from
ἐῤῥῶσθαι) through its compact nature, and its impenetrable and,
consequently, durable materials, nearly in opp. to _tenerum_, like
ῥωμαλέος and ἰσχυρός. 2. +Imbecillitas+ denotes generally a mental,
+infirmitas+, a bodily weakness, according to Cic. Fin. v. 45. In
_infirma_ ætate, _imbecillaque_ mente: both are sometimes used in a
mental sense, in which case +imbecillitas+ denotes a natural weakness of
the head or heart, a want of talent or of spirit; whereas +infirmitas+,
a moral weakness of character, fickleness and uncertainty, for example:
Cæs. B. G. vii. 77. Nolite stultitia ac temeritate vestra aut
_imbecillitate_ animi omnem Galliam prosternere; comp. with iv. 5. Cæsar
_infirmitatem_ Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis
mobiles et rebus plerumque novis student. Or, Cic. Divin. ii. 60, with
Fam. xv. 1. Or, Tac. Ann. iv. 8, with Hist. i. 9. (iv. 164.)

VALLUM, see _Agger_.

VALLUS, see _Stipes_.

VALVÆ, see _Ostium_.

VARIUS; DIVERSUS; CONTRARIUS; VERSICOLOR; VARIEGARE. 1. +Varium+ (from
αἰόλος) means, possessing differences in its own texture, varied;
whereas +diversum+, differing from something else, distinct. Catull. 47,
10. Quos longe simul a domo profectos _diverse variæ_ viæ reportant;
that is, whom various ways, in an entirely different direction, bring
home. Tac. Hist. i. 25. Otho postquam _vario_ sermone callidos et
audaces cognovit pretio et promissis onerat . . . Suspensos cæterorum
animos _diversis_ artibus (namely, spe et metu) stimulant. 2. The
+diversa+ will have nothing in common, and go different or even opposite
ways from each other; whereas the +contraria+ confront and stand
directly opposite to each other. Hence the following climax in Cic.
Divin. ii. 26, 55. _Diversas_ aut etiam _contrarias_. Vell. Pat. ii. 75.
_Diversa_ præsentibus et _contraria_ exspectatis sperare. Quintil.
v. 10, 26. 3. +Varium+ denotes variegated, as exhibiting different
colors at the same time, like ποικίλον; whereas +versicolor+, that which
changes its color, according to the light in which it is held, like
αἰόλον. Propert. iii. 13, 32. Aut _variam_ plumæ _versicoloris_ avem.
Pliny is describing two different properties, xxxvii. 10, when he
describes the stone Mithrax, as at the same time _multicolor_ and
_contra solem varie refulgens_. 4. +Variare+ means to give a varied
appearance in general; +variegare+, to give a varied appearance,
especially by different colors. (iii. 269.)

VAS, see _Sponsor_.

VASTA, see _Solitudo_.

VASTARE; POPULARI; DIRIPERE; AGERE FERRE; EXPILARE; SPOLIARE; PECULARI.
1. +Vastare+ (from ustus?) means to lay waste, from rage or from policy
to destroy the property of an enemy, like πέρθειν, πορθεῖν; whereas
+populari+, +diripere+, and +agere ferre+, to plunder for one’s own use;
+populari+, on a great scale, for example, to lay waste all the crops,
and drive off the herds; +diripere+, on a small scale, to break into the
houses, and break open the closets; +agere ferre+ includes both
meanings, like ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν. 2. +Spoliare+ and +populari+ mean to
plunder, in a state of open warfare; whereas +expilare+ and +peculari+,
+depeculari+, in a state of peace; +expilare+ (ψιλόω) by open force;
+peculari+ (dimin. of πέκω) by fraud, and by secretly purloining the
property of the state. Cic. Parad. vi. 1. Si socios _spolias_, ærarium
_expilas_. (iv. 339.)

VATES, see _Canere_.

VATICINARI, see _Divinare_ and _Hariolari_.

VECORS, see _Amens_.

VEGETUS, see _Vigens_.

VEHEMENS, see _Acer_.

VELLE; OPTARE; EXPETERE; CUPERE; AVERE; GESTIRE. 1. +Velle+, +optare+,
and +expetere+, are acts of calm reason and self-determination; whereas
+cupere+, +avere+, and +gestire+, acts of excited feeling and of
passion. Senec. Ep. 116. Cum tibi _cupere_ interdixero, _velle_
permittam. 2. +Velle+ (ἑλεῖν) means to wish, and co-operate towards the
realization of one’s wish, like θέλειν and βούλεσθαι; +optare+ (from
ποθεῖν) to wish, and leave the realization of one’s wish to others, or
to fate, like ποθεῖν; +expetere+, to wish, and apply to others for the
realization of one’s wish, like ὀρέγεσθαι. Sen. Ep. 95. Sæpe aliud
_volumus_, aliud _optamus_. Cic. Off. i. 20. Nihil nisi quod honestum
sit homines aut admirari aut _optare_ aut _expetere_ oportet.
3. +Cupere+ (κάπτειν) denotes a vehement, passionate desire; +gestire+
(γηθεῖν), a lively desire, showing itself by gestures; +avere+ (from
χαίνειν, χάος), an impatient, hasty desire. +Cupidus+ means, being
eagerly desirous of something, like ἐπιθυμῶν; +gestiens+, rejoicing in
anticipation of something, like χρῄζων; +avidus+, being greedy after
something. Cic. Sen. 8. Græcas literas sic _avide_ arripui, quasi
diuturnam sitim explere _cupiens_; comp. with Att. ii. 18. Intellexi
quam suspenso animo et sollicito scire _averes_, quid esset novi. And,
iv. 11. Perge reliqua; _gestio_ scire ista omnia. (v. 57.)

VELLUS, see _Tergus_.

VELOX, see _Citus_.

VENDERE; VENUNDARE; MANCIPARE. +Vendere+ and +venundare+ denote the
selling of any thing as a mercantile act; but in +vendere+ (ἀναδοῦναι)
the disposing of the thing is the principal notion, the price merely
secondary, in opp. to emere, like ἀποδόσθαι; in +venundare+, the
previous having for sale, or offering for sale, is the principal notion,
as in πιπράσκειν, πωλεῖν, ἀπεμπολᾶν; whereas +mancipare+ denotes a
juridical act, in consequence of which a thing is alienated, and, with
all that belongs to it, transferred to another, in a legal form, as his
property. (iv. 118.)

VENDITATIO, s. _Jactatio_.

VENENUM, see _Toxicum_.

VENERARI, see _Vereri_.

VENIAM DARE, s. _Ignoscere_.

VENTUS; PROCELLA; TEMPESTAS; VORTEX; TURBO. +Ventus+ (ἀείς, or ἄντη,
Hesiod) is the generic term for wind; +procella+ and +tempestas+ denote
a violent wind; +procella+ (κέλαδος), a mere squall or gust of wind;
+tempestas+, a complete storm, or stress of weather, generally
accompanied by thunder and lightning, rain or hail; whereas +vortex+ and
+turbo+ denote a whirlwind; +vortex+ (vertere), a weaker sort, that
merely raises the dust; +turbo+ (στρέφω, στροφάλιγξ), a strong whirlwind
that causes destruction. (v. 287.)

VENUDARE, see _Vendere_.

VENUSTUS, see _Formosus_.

VEPRES, see _Dumi_.

VERBERARE; ICERE; FERIRE; CÆDERE; PULSARE; MULCARE; PAVIRE; CUDERE.
1. +Verberare+, +ferire+, and +icere+, mean, in a general sense, to
strike, whether by throwing, hitting, or pushing; but the _verberans_
makes his blow rebound; the _iciens_ and _feriens_ penetrate and wound,
or break to pieces; the _iciens_ (resembling in form jaciens) chiefly by
throwing, for instance, _fulmine ictus_; the _feriens_, by pushing, for
instance, _murum ariete_; whereas +cædere+, +pulsare+, and +mulcare+,
denote especially striking, generally with a weapon; +cædere+, with a
weapon that cuts and wounds, a hatchet, sword, whip, rod, strap;
+pulsare+ and +mulcare+, with a hard weapon, stick or fist. +Pulsare+
has any object whatever, man, a door, the ground; +mulcare+, like to
cudgel, only an object that can feel pain, especially man.
2. +Verberare+, in a narrower sense, denotes a quiet chastisement by the
blows of a stick, which is generally appointed, as a formal punishment,
by the competent authorities; whereas +pulsare+ and +mulcare+, a
misusage by blows or thrusts, which is administered as mere vengeance by
unauthorized persons; +pulsare+ (from pellere) as a slighter misusage
with hand or stick, which principally hurts the honor and dignity of the
person misused; +mulcare+ (μαλάξαι, malaxare), a rougher misusage, with
fists or clubs, which aims principally at physical pain, like a sound
drubbing. 3. +Pavire+ (παίειν) means to beat, in order to make a soft
mass solid; +cudere+, in order to widen or extend a solid mass.
+Fulgere+, +battuere+, and +cajare+ are antiquated or vulgar expressions
for beating. (v. 67.)

VERBOSUS, see _Garrire_.

VERBUM; VOCABULUM; VOX; DICTUM; DICTERIUM. 1. +Verbum+ (ἄραβος) is a
word, as a part of speech; whereas +vocabulum+, as a part of language.
The _verba_ are verbs, the _vocabula_ words in general. 2. +Verba+
denote words in general, with reference to their meaning; +voces+, with
reference to their form and their sound. 3. As a grammatical term, +vox+
comprehends all the eight parts of speech; +vocabulum+, all legitimate
words, consequently with the exclusion of interjections or natural
sounds; +nomen+, only the nouns, adjectives, substantives, and pronouns;
and +verbum+, only the verbs. 4. +Verbum+, in a collective sense,
denotes a general notion, that which is said; whereas +vox+, +dictum+,
and +dicterium+, are particular expressions; +vox+ (ἠχή), an expression
of feeling or passion, like an exclamation; +dictum+, an expression of
wit or intellect, like a _bon mot_. Tac. Hist. iii. 39. Audita est
sævissima Vitellii _vox_, qua se pavisse oculos spectata inimici morte
jactavit; comp. with Ann. vi. 20. Scitum Passieni _dictum_ percrebuit,
neque meliorem unquam servum neque deteriorem dominum fuisse.
5. +Dictum+ is the general and popular expression for any pointed
saying; +dicterium+, a select term of later times for a particularly
smart _dictum_, which is not merely the product of natural wit, but also
of cultivation refined by literature and intercourse with polished
society. (iv. 29.)

VERERI; TIMERE; METUERE; SPES; FIDUCIA; TIMOR; TIMIDITAS; IGNAVIA;
FORMIDO; HORROR. 1. +Vereri+ (ὁρᾶν?) like αἰδεῖσθαι, has its foundation
in what is strikingly venerable; +metuere+ and +timere+, like δεῖσαι;
and φοβεῖσθαι, in the threatening danger of an object. The _timens_ and
_metuens_ fear the danger; the _verens_, the disgrace and shame. Cic.
Phil. xii. 12. Quid? veteranos non _veremur_? nam _timeri_ ne ipsi
quidem volunt. Sen. 11, 37. _Metuebant_ eum servi, _verebantur_ liberi,
carum omnes habebant. Liv. xxxix. 37. _Veremur_ quidem vos Romani et si
ita vultis etiam _timemus_. Afran. ap. Gell. xv. 13. Ubi malunt _metui_,
quam _vereri_ se ab suis. Senec. Ir. iii. 32. Quibusdam _timeamus_
irasci, quibusdam _vereamur_. 2. +Metus+ (ματᾶν) is fear, only as the
anticipation of an impending evil, and reflection upon it, the
apprehension that proceeds from foresight and prudence, like δέος,
synonymously with _cautio_; whereas +timor+ (from τρέμω), the fear that
proceeds from cowardice and weakness. Or, +metus+ is an intellectual
notion; fear, as from reflection, in opp. to _spes_; for instances, see
Cic. Verr. ii. 54. Off. ii. 6. Liv. xxx. 9. Suet. Aug. 25. Tac. H.
i. 18. Ann. ii. 12, 38. Sen. Ep. 5. Suet. Aug. 5. Cels. ii. 6. Curt.
viii. 6:--whereas +timor+ is a moral notion, fear as a feeling, in opp.
to _fiducia_, _animus_. Cic. Divin. ii. 31. Att. v. 20. Rull. i. 8.
Sallust. Jug. ii. 3. Tac. Hist. ii. 80. Plin. Ep. v. 17. 3. In the like
manner are +spes+, hope, and +fiducia+, confidence, distinguished. Sen.
Ep. 16. Jam de te _spem_ habeo, nondum _fiduciam_. Tac. Agr. 2. Nec
_spem_ modo ac votum securitas publica, sed ipsius voti _fiduciam_ ac
robur assumpserit. Suet. Cl. 10. Aliquanto minore _spe_ quam _fiducia_.
Liv. x. 25. Curt. ix. 4, 25. 4. +Timor+ denotes fear, as a temporary
state; +timiditas+, fearfulness, as an habitual quality, which is
connected with _ignavia_, as a more precise expression for the more
general feeling. Lactant. iii. 17. Epicurus . . . _ignavum_ prohibet
accedere ad rem publicam, pigrum exercere, _timidum_ militare. +Ignavia+
is inaptitude for any noble action, and particularly for deeds of valor;
+timiditas+ is, under certain circumstances, excusable; +ignavia+ is
absolutely blamable. 5. +Metus+ and +timor+ have their foundation in
reflection, whereby a person is made clearly aware of the object and
ground of his apprehension; whereas +horror+ and +formido+ is an
immediate feeling, which overpowers the understanding by the dreadful
image of the nearness of some horrid object, and can give no account of
the ground of its fear; +formido+ (fremere) expresses this state
immediately as a state of mind, like ὀῤῥωδία; whereas +horror+ (χέρσος)
as the bodily expression of this state, by the hair standing on end, the
eyes wildly staring, etc., like φρίκη. Tac. H. iv. 45. _Metus_ per omnes
ac præcipua Germanici militis _formido_. (ii. 190.)

VERERI; REVERERI; VENERARI; COLERE; OBSERVARE; ADORARE; ADMIRARI;
SUSPICERE. 1. +Vereri+ and +revereri+ mean, to feel reverence; whereas
+venerari+, to show reverence. Tac. Ann. xiv. 13; comp. _venerationem_
sui with matris _reverentia_. 2. +Vereri+ (ὁρᾶν?) denotes respect
bordering on fear and bashfulness; whereas +revereri+, fear and
bashfulness arising from respect. In _vereri_, fear, in _revereri_,
respect is the principal notion: hence +verecundia+ is the dread of
exposing one’s self before the person respected; whereas +reverentia+,
the calm consciousness that some one is worthy of this reverential
feeling. 3. +Venerari+ (ἄντεσθαι?) is used (at least in Cicero) only for
demonstrations of reverence towards the gods and sacred things;
+observare+, only for such demonstrations towards men; +colere+, towards
either. Cic. Rep. i. 12. Ut . . . Africanum ut deum _coleret_ Lælius,
domi vicissim Lælium _observaret_ in parentis loco Scipio. And, N. D.
i. 42. ii. 28. The +venerans+ seeks only to express due reverence, and
by self-humiliation to avert the anger of the gods; the +colens+ (from
κόλαξ) seeks by acts of courtesy, of service, and of respect, to win the
affection of some one, and the fruits of it, as from a cultivated field.
+Veneratio+ shows itself more in prayer; +cultus+, more in sacrifice:
+veneratio+ is more a single, transient act; +cultus+ more a permanent
expression of respect. Tac. H. i. 10. Vespasianus . . . Titum filium ad
_venerationem cultumque_ (ejus) miserat; that is, that he might do
homage to the new emperor, and then also remain in his circle of
courtiers. 4. +Observare+ (from ἐρύεσθαι) involves a mere negative
notion, and denotes having regard for, in opp. to slighting; yet is not,
on this account, _colere_ a stronger, _observare_ a weaker term.
+Colere+, indeed, involves more palpable activity, _operam_; whereas
+observare+, more tender regard, _pietatem_; hence sometimes the one,
sometimes the other, is the stronger expression. 5. +Adorare+ is the
most general expression for any sort of worship; whereas +veneratio+
consists more in gestures, +precatio+ in words. 6. _Reveremur validas
auctoritates; admiramur raras virtutes; suspicimus excellentia
dignitate._ At the same time it appears to me, that the _reverens_ is in
a state of silent awe; the _admirans_ with the expression of loud, or at
least visible enthusiasm; the _suspiciens_, under the image of one
looking up to another with an humble feeling of his own inferiority.
+Revereri+ refers especially to moral; +admirari+, to intellectual and
moral; +suspicere+, to any, even adventitious, pre-eminences. (ii. 185.)

VERRES, see _Sus_.

VERSICOLOR, see _Varius_.

VERSUTUS, see _Astutus_.

VERTERE; TORQUERE; CONVERTERE; INVERTERE; PERVERTERE. +Vertere+ means to
turn, that is, to move anything in order to give it another position or
situation, like τρέπειν; +torquere+ (from τρέκω), ἀτρεκής), to twist,
that is, in order to move a fixed point, like στρέφειν. 2. +Convertere+
means, either to turn in a body, with reference to those acting, as, for
instance, Ut pæne terga _convertant_; or, with reference to the action,
to turn completely; whereas +invertere+ means, to turn only half round,
so that the reverse side of the thing turned is exposed; lastly,
+pervertere+ means to turn upside down, so that the thing turned becomes
useless, or falls to the ground. (v. 289.)

VERUTUM, see _Missile_.

VESANUS, see _Amens_.

VESTIS; VESTITUS; VESTIMENTUM; AMICTUS; AMICULUM; CULTUS; HABITUS.
1. +Vestis+ (from vas, Goth. wastjan) is the most general expression,
and denotes sometimes the whole clothes; +vestitus+, sometimes only a
single article of dress, _vestimentum_. +Vestem mutare+ denotes, to go
into mourning; +vestimenta mutare+, to shift one’s clothes. 2. +Vestis+
and +vestimentum+ denote the clothes which cover the body, as necessary
or decent; +amictus+ and +amiculum+ (from ambi and jacere) the cloak or
mantle which covers the under-clothing, for the sake of warmth or of
ornament; +amictus+, the whole of the over-clothing; +amiculum+, a
single article, as a mantle. Tac. G. 17. Feminæ sæpius lineis
_amictibus_ velantur, partemque _vestitus_ superioris in manicas non
extendunt. Curt. v. 1, 38. Sil. It. vii. 447. 3. +Cultus+ and +habitus+
have a wider meaning than _vestis_; +cultus+ (occulere) whatever belongs
to dress, girdle, hat, ornaments, arms, etc.; +habitus+, whatever
belongs to the exterior in general, cleanliness, mode of dressing the
hair, carriage of the body, etc. Suet. Cæs. 44. Dicam ea, quæ ad formam
et _habitum_ et _cultum_ et mores pertinebant. Cal. 52. _Vestitu_
calceatuque cæteroque _habitu_. (v. 209.)

VETARE; INTERDICERE. +Vetare+ means to forbid by virtue of the law, in
opp. to _jubere_; whereas +interdicere+, to forbid, by virtue of
official authority, in opp. to _addicere_, _permittere_.

VETERNUS, see _Antiquus_.

VETULA, see _Anus_.

VETUS; SENEX; GRANDÆVUS; LONGÆVUS; SENECTA; SENECTUS; SENIUM. 1. +Vetus
homo+ (ἔτος) denotes an old man, from the fiftieth year of his life, in
opp. to _juvenis_, a young man, like γέρων; whereas +senex+ (ἄναξ? or
ἕνους ἔχων?), an old man from his sixtieth year, with the accessory
notion of his being worthy of respect, like πρεσβύτης; lastly,
+grandævus+ and +longævus+ denote a very aged man, who has already
exceeded the usual duration of life, and who is, consequently, somewhere
about eighty or upwards. 2. +Senecta+ denotes old age indifferently,
merely as a period of life; +senectus+, as a venerable and experienced
age, that commands respect and indulgence; +senium+, the infirm and
burdensome age, which is to be looked upon as a disease. (iv. 89.)

VETUS, VETUSTUS, see _Antiquus_ and _Puer_.

VIA, see _Iter_.

VIBRARE, see _Librare_.

VICINUS; FINITIMUS; CONFINIS. +Vicini+ (οἰκεῖοι) are neighbors, in
reference to house and yard; whereas +finitimi+ and +confines+, with
reference to the boundaries of the land; +finitimi+, in a one-sided
relationship, as the neighbors of others, who dwell near their
boundaries, in a mere geographical sense; +confines+, in a mutual
relationship, as opposite neighbors, who have boundaries in common, with
the moral accessory notion of friendship associated with neighborhood.
The _finitimi_ are _finibus diremti_; whereas the _confines_ are
_confinio conjuncti_. (v. 181.)

VICISSIM; INVICEM; MUTUO. +Vicissim+ (from εἰκάζω) denotes, like on the
other hand, and in hand, and in turn, a successive; +invicem+ and
+mutuo+, like reciprocally and in return, a mutual acting and suffering
between two persons or things; +invicem+, more with reference to
reciprocal actions; +mutuo+, to reciprocal or mutual states. (vi. 402.)

VICTUS, see _Vita_.

VIDERE; CERNERE; SPECTARE; INTUERI; CONSPICERE; ADSPICERE; ADSPECTUS;
CONSPECTUS; OBTUTUS. 1. +Videre+ and +cernere+ denote seeing, as
perceiving by the organ of sight; +videre+ (ἰδεῖν) as perception in
general, in opp. to an obstruction of the view, like ὁρᾶν; +cernere+
(κρίνειν) especially as a clear perception, in opp. to a transient or
dim view; whereas +spectare+, +intueri+, +tueri+, and +contueri+, denote
looking, as the dwelling of the eyes upon an object; +spectare+ means,
quietly to fix the eye upon an object that interests the understanding,
and dwell upon it as upon a theatrical representation, like θεᾶσθαι;
whereas +intueri+ (from στοχάζομαι), to fix the eye upon something that
strikes the fancy or soul, as to contemplate, θεωρεῖν. Cic. Fam. vii. 1.
Neque nos qui hæc _spectavimus_, quidquam novi _vidimus_. 2. +Intueri+
denotes merely to contemplate attentively; +contueri+, to gaze upon
fixedly, keenly, and with eyes widely opened. 3. +Conspicere+ means to
descry, that is, to get sight of an object of one’s self, and generally
of an unexpected object; whereas +adspicere+ means to look at, that is,
to cast one’s eye upon an object, whether consciously or not.
4. +Adspectus+ has an active meaning, as the looking at; +conspectus+, a
passive meaning, as the sight of, that is, the appearance, often also
the _field of view_, _sight_ [as in _to be_ or _come in sight_];
+obtutus+ has a neutral sense, as the look. Suet. Tib. 43. Ut _adspectu_
deficientes libidines excitaret; comp. with Cal. 9. Tumultuantes
_conspectu_ suo flexit; and with Cic. Orat. iii. 5. Qui vultum ejus cum
ei dicendum esset, _obtutumque_ oculorum in cogitando probe nosset.
(iv. 305.)

VIERE, see _Ligare_.

VIGENS; VEGETUS; VIVIDUS; VIVUS; ANIMANS; VITALIS; VIVAX. 1. +Vigens+
(ἀΐξαι) denotes a man, both in body and mind, fresh and in full
strength; +vegetus+, one, in a mental sense, on the alert and animated;
+vividus+ (from ἠΰς? or from vis?), one, in a moral sense, full of life
and energy. Liv. vi. 22. Exactæ jam ætatis Camillus erat . . . sed
_vegetum_ ingenium in _vivido_ pectore _vigebat_, virebatque integris
sensibus. 2. +Vivus+ (Goth. quiws) means living, in opp. to dead;
+animans+, possessing life, in opp. to inanimate. 3. +Vitalis+ means
long-lived; +vivax+, tenacious of life. (iv. 445.)

VIGIL; INSOMNIS; EXSOMNIS. +Vigil+ denotes the state of being awake as
positive, and involves consciousness and will, and the application of
vital energy, like ἄγρυπνος; whereas +insomnis+ and +exsomnis+, only
negatively, as sleepless, ἄϋπνος; but the +insomnis+ cannot sleep; the
+exsomnis+ will not sleep. Tac. Ann. i. 65. Cum oberrarent tentoriis
_insomnes_ magis quam _pervigiles_. Vell. P. ii. 88. Mæcenas ubi rem
_vigiliam_ exigeret, sane _exsomnis_. Hor. Od. iii. 7, 6. Frigidas
noctes non sine multis _insomnis_ lacrimis agit; comp. with 25, 7. Non
secus in jugis _exsomnis_ stupet Evias; or Virg. Æn. ix. 167, with
vi. 556. (iv. 444.)

[[VIGILIÆ, see _Excubiæ_.]]

VILLA; FUNDUS; PRÆDIUM; AGER; CAMPUS; RUS; ARVUM. 1. +Villa+ (dimin. of
ἕδος) denotes a country-house, usually with a real estate; +fundus+, a
real estate, usually with a country-house; +prædium+, sometimes a
country-house, sometimes a real estate, like landed property. At the
same time +villa+ is an architectural term; +fundus+, an economical
term; +prædium+, a juridical term. Cato, R. R. 3. Ita ædifices, ne
_villa fundum_ quærat, neve _fundus villam_. 2. +Villa+, +fundus+, and
+prædium+, suppose a proprietor, like _portio_; whereas +ager+, +arvum+,
+rus+, and +campus+, are thought of without reference to a proprietor,
like _pars_. 3. +Ager+ and +campus+ denote the field, whether cultivated
or not; +ager+ (ἀγρός), the open field, in opp. to ground that is built
upon, or planted with trees, consequently in opp. to _urbs_, _oppidum_,
_vicus_, _hortus_, _silva_, like ἀγρός; whereas +campus+ (κῆπος) denotes
the low-lands and plains, like πεδίον, consequently in opp. to the
high-lands, _mons_ and _collis_; Cic. Div. i. 42. N. D. ii. 60. Colum.
i. 2. Herenn. iv. 18. 25. Curt. viii. 1, 4. 4. +Rus+ and +arvum+ denote
the corn-field; +rus+ (ἄροτος) in opp. to the village or the town, like
ἄρουρα; +arvum+, in opp. to pasture-lands and plantations, consequently
in opp. to _pabulum_, _pascuum_, _pratum_, _olivetum_, Sall. Jug. 95.
Cic. N. D. i. 45. Plaut. Truc. i. 2, 47. Hor. Ep. i. 16, 2. like ἄροτος.
Cic. Fr. ap. Quintil. iv. 2. _Fundum_ habet in _agro_ Tiburino Tullius
paternum. Orat. iii. 33. De _fundo_ emendo, de _agro_ colendo. Tac. G.
26. _Arva_ per annos mutant, et superest _ager_. (iii. 5.)

VINCERE; SUPERARE; OPPRIMERE. 1. +Vincere+ (εἴκειν? or ἀγκὰς
ἀναγκάζειν?) means, to drive an adversary from his place, like νικᾶν;
+superare+ to win a place from an adversary, like ὑπερβάλλεσθαι. The
+vincens+ has more to do with living objects, with enemies; the
+superans+ with inanimate objects, with difficulties. Tac. Ann. i. 25.
_Invictos_ et nullis casibus _superabiles_ Romanos. 2. +Evincere+
denotes especially the exertion and duration of the conflict;
+devincere+, its consequence, and the completeness of the victory.
3. +Vincere+ means to conquer by fighting; +opprimere+, without
fighting, by merely appearing, in consequence of a surprisal, or of a
decided superiority of forces. Cic. Mil. 11. Vi _victa_ vis, vel potius
_oppressa_ virtute audacia est: and to the same purport, Muren. 15.
Mithridatem L. Murena repressum magna ex parte, non _oppressum_
reliquit. (iv. 278.)

VINCIRE, see _Ligare_.

VINCULA; CATENÆ; COMPEDES; PEDICÆ; MANICÆ. +Vincula+ (ἀγκάλη, from
nectere) are bands of any sort, as a generic term for _catenæ_, etc.,
like δεσμοί; +catenæ+ are chains, whether for fettering or for other
uses, like ἁλύσεις; +compedes+ (from πέδη), for fettering in general,
the hands or the feet; +pedicæ+, irons for fettering the feet; +manicæ+,
irons for fettering the hands. Tac. Ann. vi. 14. Celsus in _vinculis_
laxatam _catenam_, et circumdatam in diversum tendens suam ipse cervicem
perfregit. (iv. 284.)

VINDICTA; ULTIO; TALIO; PŒNA; MULCTA; CASTIGATIO; PUNIRI. 1. +Vindicta+
(ἀναδέκτης) is an act of justice, like avenging: +ultio+ (ἀλαλκεῖν,
ἀλέξειν), an act of anger, like revenge; +talio+ (τλῆναι), an act of
retaliation. 2. +Ultio+, +vindicatio+, and +talio+, take place in
consequence of the supreme authority of an individual; +punitio+,
+mulctatio+, and +castigatio+, in consequence of the demand of others;
+pœna+ (ποινή, πεῖνα, πένομαι), as a punishment which the violated and
offended law demands, by any mode of suffering; +mulcta+ (μαλάξαι) as an
amercement, which justice and equity demand, as a compensation for
injuries done, especially a fine; +castigatio+, as a chastisement, which
may serve to improve the individual, especially a rebuke. +Pœna+ is for
the general good; +mulcta+, for the good of the injured party;
+castigatio+, for that of the guilty party. (v. 249.) 3. +Pœnire+ means
to punish, according to the principles of justice; whereas +puniri+, in
Cicero, to take vengeance into one’s own hands.

VINOLENTUS, see _Ebrietas_.

VINUM; TEMETUM. +Vinum+ (οἶνος) is the general and usual; +temetum+
(from taminia), the antiquated and poetical name for wine.

VIOLARE, see _Lædere_.

VIR, see _Homo_ and _Puer_.

VIRGA, VIRGULTUM, see _Rami_.

VIRGO; PUELLA; VIRAGO. +Virgo+ is an unmarried woman, whether young or
old, in opp. to _mulier_, like παρθένος; whereas +puella+, a young
woman, whether married or not; for instance, Nero’s wife, Octavia,
twenty years old, in Tac. Ann. xiv. 64, like κόρη; +virago+, a
masculine, strong, heroic, young woman; for instance, the Amazones,
ἀντιάνειραι.

VIRTUS; INNOCENTIA; HONESTAS. +Virtus+ (ἀρτυτή) means virtue, as far as
it shows itself in becoming and meritorious actions; +innocentia+, as
far as it shows itself in blameless, especially disinterested conduct;
+honestas+ (χνοαστός) as far it shows itself in virtuous and noble
sentiments. (vi. 406.)

VIRTUS, see _Ferocia_.

VIS, see _Potentia_.

VISCERA, see _Caro_.

VITA; SALUS; VICTUS. 1. +Vita+ (οἶτος) denotes the duration of life, in
opp. to _mors_; whereas +salus+ (from ὅλος?), the safety of life, in
opp. to _interitus_, _exitium_. 2. +Vita+ denotes the public; +victus+
the private life of a man. Nep. Alc. 1. Splendidus non minus in _vita_
quam in _victu_. (iv. 448.)

VITALIS, see _Vigens_.

VITIUM; MENDA; MENDUM; LABES; MACULA. +Vitium+ (from αὐάτη, ἄτη),
denotes any fault; +menda+ (μάτη), a natural fault, especially of the
body, a blemish, like βλάβη; +mendum+, a fault committed, especially in
writing, a blunder or mistake, like ἁμάρτημα; +labes+ (λώβη),
a degrading fault, a stain of ignominy, like λύμη; +macula+ (dimin. from
μῶκος), a disfiguring fault, a blot, like κηλίς. (v. 319.)

VITUPERARE, see _Reprehendere_.

VIVAX, VIVIDUS, see _Vivens_.

VIRUS, see _Toxicum_.

VIVUS, see _Vigens_.

VIX; ÆGRE. +Vix+ (ἧκα) means scarcely, and refers, like σχολῇ, only to a
thing that was near not taking place, in opp. to _omnino non_, Cic. Att.
iii. 23; whereas +ægre+ means with much ado, like μόλις and λόγις, and
refers to the agent, who is in a state of anxiety as to whether he shall
succeed or fail, in opp. to _facile_, Cic. Sen. 20. (iii. 94.)

VOCABULUM, see _Verbum_.

VOCARE, see _Nominare_.

VOCIFERARI, see _Clangere_.

VOLUCRES; AVES; ALITES. +Volucres+ (from ἑλίξαι) means whatever flies,
including winged insects, like πτηνός; whereas +aves+ and +alites+ mean
only birds; +avis+ (ἀετός) as a general term in natural history for any
bird, like ὄρνις; +ales+ (from ala) as a select expression only for a
larger bird, like οἰωνός, especially the eagle, and +alites+ is used in
the language of the augurs as a technical term for those birds whose
_flight_ must be observed and interpreted, in opp. to _oscines_, or
those birds whose _song_ and _cry_ must be interpreted. Ovid, Art. Am.
iii. 410. Jovis in multis devolat _ales aves_. Hor. Od. iv. 2, 2. 4.
Virg. Æn. xii. 247. Cic. N. D. ii. 64. (v. 207.)

VOLUNTATE, see _Sponte_.

VOLUPTAS, see _Cupido_.

VORAGO; VORTEX; GURGES. +Vorago+ (ὄρηχος) and the poetical word, of
foreign origin, +barathrum+, denote an abyss in water, which may be
either in a pool, pond, or sea; whereas +vortex+ and +gurges+ suppose
water in motion; +vortex+ moves in a horizontal direction, so that its
water turns in a circle, and hinders whatever swims therein from
escaping; +gurges+ (from γοργός? or γύργαθος?), in a perpendicular
direction, so that it drags down whatever comes into its eddy, into the
depth below. Liv. xxviii. 30. Navis retro _vortice_ intorta; compare
with xxii. 6. Deficientibus animis hauriebantur _gurgitibus_. (v. 155.)

VOX, see _Verbum_.

VULNUS; PLAGA; ULCUS; CICATRIX; SAUCIUS. 1. +Vulnus+ and +plaga+ denote
a wound from without; +vulnus+ (from lanius?) by means of a weapon, or
other cutting instrument; +plaga+, by means of any instrument carried
with intention to injure; whereas +ulcus+ (ἄλοξ, ὦλξ) means any open or
sore place in the body, that has begun to fester, etc.; +cicatrix+, the
scar that is left when a wound is healed. Suet. Vit. 10. Verbera et
_plagas_, sæpe _vulnera_, nonnunquam necem repræsentantes adversantibus.
Plin. H. N. xvi. 12. Cels. viii. 4. 2. +Vulneratus+ means wounded in
general; +saucius+, so wounded as to be unfit for fighting, and is the
proper expression for those that are wounded in battle. Cic. Verr.
i. 27. Servi nonnulli _vulnerantur_; ipse Rubrius _sauciatur_.
(iv. 255.)

VULTUS, see _Facies_.



INDEX OF GREEK WORDS.


This Index embraces all the Greek words contained in the Latin Synonyms,
and will afford valuable aid in elucidating many Greek synonyms.

The figures refer to the pages of the book.

  ἀγαθὴ τύχη, 35
  ἀγαθός, 30
  ἄγαλμα, 103
  ἀγανός, 58
  ἀγάπη, 61
  ἄγειν, 9
  ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν, 221
  ἀγείρειν, 9, 80
  ἀγείρω, 3, 160
  ἀγέλη, 160
  ἀγκάλη, 232
  ἀγκὰς ἀναγκάζειν, 231
  ἀγλαός, 129
  ἁγνός, 188
  ἄγονος, 131
  ἄγος, 188
  ἄγριος, 187
  ἀγροῖκος, 187
  ἀγρός, 231 bis
  ἄγρυπνος, 230
  ἀγχιστεῖς, 145
  ἄγχω, 53
  ἀδινός, 16
  ἀδολεσχία, 91
  ἄεθλος, 204
  ἀείδειν, 32
  ἀεῖραι, 16
  ἀείρω, 16
  ἀείς, 222
  ἀέσαι, 16
  ἀετός, 234
  ἄζη, 130
  ἀήρ, 16 bis
  ἄθλιος, 66
  ἆθλον, 171
  αἶ, 26, 189
  αἰανός, 172
  αἰγιαλός, 185
  αἰδεῖσθαι, 224
  ἀΐδιος, 46
  αἴθειν, 22
  αἰθός, 25
  αἴθουσα, 6
  αἴθω, 6, 31
  αἷμα, 191
  αἰνός, 26, 189
  ἀΐξαι, 230
  αἰόλον, 220
  αἰόλος, 220
  αἱρεῖν, 209
  αἰρομένη, 117
  αἰσθέσθαι, 37
  αἴσιμος, 103
  αἰσχρός, 213
  αἰτειν, 186
  αἰχμη, 4
  αἰώνιον, 46
  ἀκαλός, 134
  ἀκεῖσθαι, 135
  ἀκέραιος, 177
  ἀκή, 24
  ἀκήρατος, 177
  ἀκμή, 4
  ἀκολουθεῖν, 42
  ἄκος, 135
  ἀκούειν, 26
  ἀκροᾶσθαι, 27
  ἄκρος, 209
  ἀκτή, 185 bis
  ἄκων, 139
  ἀλαλκεῖν, 232
  ἀλᾶσθαι, 71
  ἀλγεῖν, 88
  ἄλγος, 53, 66
  ἀλέγειν, 61, 150, 154, 181
  ἀλέξειν, 232
  ἅλες, 122
  ἄλημα, 124
  ἄλθειν, 175
  ἄλθω, 11
  ἁλία, 43
  ἅλις, 192
  ἄλιψ, 194
  ἀλκή, 9, 91, 217
  ἄλλοι, 31
  ἄλοξ, 235
  ἅλς, 134
  ἄλσος, 199 bis
  ἆλτις, 199
  ἀλυκτός, 66
  ἁλύσεις, 232
  ἀλφός, 10
  ἅμα, 217
  ἁμάρτημα, 233
  ἀμαυρός, 151
  ἀμέλγω, 133
  ἀμένας, 85
  ἀμενηνὰ κάρηνα, 202
  ἀμέργειν, 70
  ἀμέργων, 135
  ἀμέριμνος, 216
  ἀμεύω, 114
  ἀμήχανος, 131
  ἀμπερές, 195
  ἀμύνω, 144
  ἀμφασίας, 146
  ἀμφὶς ἔχων, 68
  ἄμφω, 218
  ἀναγιγνώσκειν, 102
  ἀναγκάζω, 146
  ἀνάγκη ἐστίν, 146
  ἀναδέκτης, 232
  ἀναδέχεσθαι, 167
  ἀναδοῦναι, 222
  ἀναιρεῖν, 111
  ἀναίσθητος, 207
  ἀναλεύσσω, 37
  ἀναμιμνήσκεσθαι, 136
  ἀνανεύω, 147
  ἄναξ, 175, 228
  ἀνάπτειν, 2
  ἀναπότης, 174
  ἀναρίθμητος, 109
  ἀνασπαστός, 6
  ἀναφανδόν, 20
  ἀνα-φατίζειν, 146
  ἀναφλογίζειν, 2
  ἀνδράποδον, 198
  ἀνδριάς, 103
  ἀνδροφόνος, 97
  ἀνεῖναι, 81
  ἄνεμος, 16 bis
  ἀνερεθίζω, 106, 118
  ἀνεσίμως, 158
  ἄνεσιν δοῦναι, 102
  ἀνευρεῖν, 112
  ἀνήρ, 97, 175 bis
  ἀνήριθμος, 109
  ἀνθροπινῶς, 99
  ἀνθρωπείως, 99
  ἄνθρωπος, 97
  ἀνία, 53
  ἀνίαν, 102
  ἄντεσθαι, 226
  ἄντη, 222
  ἀντιάνειραι, 233
  ἀντιστάτης, 6
  ἀντιχαρίζεσθαι, 94
  ἄντρον, 202
  ἁπαλός, 144
  ἅπαντες, 179 bis
  ἅπας, 180
  ἀπατᾶν, 76
  ἀπεμπολᾶν, 222
  ἄπλετος, 131
  ἀποβαλεῖν, 14
  ἀποβάλλειν, 203
  ἀποδόσθαι, 222
  ἀποθεῖναι, 36
  ἄποθεν, 173
  ἀποκρύπτειν, 36
  ἀπολέσαι, 1
  ἀπονεύω, 147
  ἀπορία, 158
  ἀπὸ τύχης, 34
  ἀποφάναι, 146
  ἄραβος, 14, 223
  ἄροτον, 187
  ἀράχνη, 184
  ἀργόν, 10
  ἀργός, 23, 187
  ἄρδα, 129
  ἀρεσκεύειν, 24
  ἀρεταί, 125
  ἄρθρον, 136 bis
  ἀριθμός, 45, 197
  ἀριστερός, 199
  ἀρκεῖν, 21
  ἀρνεῖσθαι, 146
  ἀρόματα, 159
  ἄροτος, 231 bis
  ἄρουρα, 231
  ἁρπακτήρ, 170
  ἅρπη, 180
  ἄρσην, 97
  ἄρτι, 149
  ἀρτυτή, 233
  ἀρτυτός, 25
  ἀρχαῖος, 19
  ἄρχειν, 116
  ἀσαφῶς, 59
  ἄση, 192
  ἄσις, 130
  ἀσιτία, 76
  ἀσκάλαφος, 183
  ἀσκεῖν, 41
  ἀσκηθής, 190
  ἄσμενος, 205
  ἀσπάλαξ, 196
  ἀσπίς, 195
  ἀστήρ, 205 bis
  ἀστραπή, 89
  ἄστρον, 205 bis
  ἀσφαλής, 216
  ἀτάλλω, 208
  ἀταλόφρων, 208
  ἀταρτηρός, 213
  ἄτη, 51, 233
  ἀτιμία, 101
  ἀτραπός, 115
  ἀτρεκής, 227
  αὐάτη, 51, 233
  αὐγάζειν, 27
  αὐηρός, 27, 197
  αὐηρότης, 198
  αὖθις ἐξ ὑπαρχῆς, 115
  αὐος, 23
  ἄϋπνος, 230
  αὔρα, 16
  αὔσιος, 155, 219
  αὐστηρός, 27
  αὐτομάτως, 204
  αὐτομόλος, 161
  αὔτως, 155, 219
  αὐχμός, 130
  αὔω, 27
  ἄφατον, 55
  ἀφαύω, 31, 78
  ἀφθόνως, 192
  ἀφνειός, 65
  ἄφρων, 13
  Ἀχαιοι, 4
  ἀχανής, 131
  ἀχήν, 33
  ἄχθος, 142
  ἀχλύς, 150
  ἅψος, 136


  βάδην, 158
  βαδίζειν, 114
  βάκτρον, 90
  βάναυσοι, 75
  βάρος, 142
  βαστάζειν, 79
  βαΰεζειν, 122
  βέβαιος, 219
  βέλος, 139
  βλαβερός, 52
  βλάβη, 233
  βλαγίς, 55
  βλάξ, 17, 207
  βλέπειν, 26
  βλοσυρός, 213
  βόρβορος, 129
  βούλεσθαι, 221
  βράγχιον, 217
  βραδύνειν, 133
  βραδύς, 133, 208
  βραχίων, 217
  βραχύς, 30
  βρέχειν, 152
  βρότος, 191
  βυθός, 201

  Γαῖα, 211 bis
  γαλέη, 34
  γαληρός, 37, 94
  γαῦρος, 91
  γελᾶν, 185
  γέλως, 93
  γέμειν, 210
  γενέσθαι, 48, 170
  γενετή, 92, 206
  γενναιότης, 154
  γένος, 92, 206
  γένυς, 131
  γεραιός, 18, 198
  γεραός, 142
  γέρας, 67, 171
  γερούσιος, 18
  γέρων, 18, 175, 228
  γεῦσαι, 192
  γεύω, 11
  Γῆ, 211 bis
  γηθεῖν, 92, 222
  γηρύω, 90
  γίγνεσθαι, 48
  γλαφυρός, 120
  γλοία, 88
  γλυκύς, 208
  γλῶττα, 77
  γνήσιος, 92
  γνώμη, 196 bis
  γνῶναι, 187
  γοργός, 234
  γράμμα, 124
  γρομφάς, 210
  γρύτη, 177
  γύργαθος, 234
  γυρός, 154


  δαίμων, 149
  δακεῖν, 122
  δάκρυ, 118
  δακρύειν, 118
  δάνος, 86
  δαπάνη, 54
  δαρόν, 171
  δασύς, 16
  δάψαι, 71
  δέειν, 123
  δεῖ, 146
  δεῖν, 146
  δεινός, 26
  δεῖξαι, 59
  δεῖπνον, 71
  δεῖσαι, 224
  δεῖσθαι, 186
  δέος, 26, 225
  δέρας, 67
  δέρμα, 212
  δεσμεύειν, 124
  δεσμοί, 232
  δεύειν, 65
  δεύεσθαι, 146
  δεύτερον, 115
  δέχεσθαι, 178, 189, 209
  δέχω, 173
  δήειν, 178
  δηλεῖν, 1
  δῆλον, 20
  δηλῶσαι, 155
  δῆμος, 93
  διακρίνειν, 62
  διαπυθέσθαι, 63
  διαστίξαι, 62
  διατέγγειν, 62
  διατρίβειν, 133
  δίδυμος, 68
  διέλκειν, 87
  διερεῖν, 63
  δίκη, 41, 137
  διολέσαι, 1, 15
  δίπλαξ, 68
  διπλοῦν, 68
  διπλοῦς, 68
  δμώς, 198
  δνοφεραί, 150
  δοιός, 68
  δόμοι, 6
  δόξα, 94, 196
  δορά, 212
  δορύ, 139
  δοῦλος, 24, 198
  δραίνω, 198
  δραπέτης, 161
  δύναμαι, 30
  δύναμις, 168
  δύνασθαι, 168
  δυναστεία, 168
  δυσειδής, 213
  δυσμένεια, 152
  δύσνοια, 151
  δυσφημία, 101
  δώματα, 6
  δῶρον, 67
  δωτίνη, 67


  ἐγγελᾶν, 185
  ἐγγυᾶν, 167
  ἐγγύς, 8
  ἐγγυστός, 15
  ἔγκαρπος, 86
  ἔγκυος, 170, 171
  ἔγχελυς, 183
  ἔγχος, 183
  ἕδος, 195, 201, 231
  ἕδρα, 195
  ἔδω, 11
  ἔθειρα, 49
  ἐθελοντής, 205
  ἔθνος, 92
  ἔθος, 45, 200
  εἶα, 119
  εἶαρ, 213
  εἶδος, 83, 205
  εἴδωλον, 102
  εἰκάζω, 229
  εἴκειν, 231
  εἴκελος, 5, 8
  εἰκών, 102
  εἶλαρ, 212
  εἱμαρμένη, 35
  εἴργω, 54
  εἴργων, 15
  εἴρειν, 196 bis
  εἴρερος, 198
  εἰρόμενος, 197
  εἶσαι, 49
  εἷς ἕκαστος, 179
  εἴς κενόν, 89
  εἰσρεῦσαι, 114
  εἰωθέναι, 201
  ἑκάτερος, 218
  ἕκαστοι, 179
  ἕκαστος, 179
  ἐκδημεῖν, 174
  ἐκεῖ, 31
  ἑκηλία, 178
  ἐκθανεῖν, 143
  ἐκκλησία, 43
  ἑκούσιος, 204
  ἐκπέραίνειν, 203
  ἐκφορά, 90
  ἑκών, 204
  ἐλέειν, 139
  ἑλεῖν, 168, 201, 221
  ἐλθεῖν, 114
  ἑλικτός, 76
  ἑλίξαι, 120
  ἑλίξαι, 234
  ἑλλός, 199
  ἕλος, 119
  ἐμβαίνειν, 114
  ἐμπολᾶν, 70
  ἐμφανίσαι, 155
  ἐνδαίειν, 2
  ἔνδεια, 159
  ἐνδελεχεῖν, 43
  ἔνδιος, 60
  ἐνεγκέσθαι, 112
  ἐνίοτε, 148
  ἔνοσις Ἐνυώ, 87
  ἕνους, 228
  ἐντελής, 84
  ἐντέλλεσθαι, 116
  ἐνύπνιον, 202
  ἐξαπίνης, 182
  ἔξεστι, 43
  ἐξουσία, 168
  ἐπαγγέλλεσθαι, 167
  ἐπιεικῶς, 99
  ἐπιθυμῶν, 222
  ἐπικαμπής, 54
  ἐπιτήδειος, 100
  ἐπιχθόνιος, 97
  ἐπῳδαί, 32
  ἐπωμίς, 23
  ἐρᾶν, 61
  ἔρασθαι, 61
  ἐραστής, 14
  ἐργάζομαι, 54
  ἐργασία, 153
  ἔργον, 9
  ἔρδειν, 105
  ἐρέθω, 98
  ἐρείπω, 185
  ἐρεύθειν, 22
  ἔριφος, 33
  ἑρπετόν, 183
  ἕρπων, 183
  ἔῤῥειν, 71
  ἐῤῥωμένος, 44
  ἐῤῥῶσθαι,  169, 219
  ἔῤῥωσο, 29
  ἔρσης, 210
  ἐρύεσθαι, 226
  ἐρύκειν, 21
  ἔρως, 61
  ἐσαγείρω, 9
  ἔσθ’ ὅτε, 148
  ἔσχατος, 75
  ἔται, 145
  ἑταῖραι, 160
  ἑταῖρος, 200
  ἕτερον, 115
  ἔτι, 72
  ἑτόν, 49
  ἔτος, 18, 228
  εὖ, 29
  εὐθηνής, 86
  εὐθύς, 182
  εὐκαιρία, 151
  εὐνή, 50
  εὔπορος, 65
  εὔσκιος, 151
  εὔτόκος, 85
  εὔτροπος, 30
  εὐτυχής, 78
  εὔφορος, 85
  εὐχαριστεῖν, 94
  εύχεσθαι, 186
  ἐφεῖναι, 43
  ἐφίεσθαι, 116
  ἔχε, 71
  ἔχθρα, 152
  ἐχθρός, 6
  ἔχθω, 6
  ἔχιδνα, 183
  ἔχις, 183
  ἐχόμενος, 3
  ἔχω, 10
  ἔχων, 228


  ζέω, 116, 175
  ζόη, 116
  ζόφος, 150
  ζῶον, 17


  ἡγεῖσθαι, 64
  ἥδεσθαι, 91
  ἡδύς, 208
  ἠθεῖος, 200
  ἦθος, 45
  ἠϊών, 185
  ἧκα, 117, 219, 234
  ἤν, 71
  ἠνί, 71 bis
  ἠνίδε, 71
  ἡνίον, 88
  ἤπιος, 140
  ἡσυχία, 178
  ἠΰς, 208, 230
  ἠχέτης, 32, 96
  ἠχή, 87, 224


  θάλασσα, 134
  θαλλοί, 180
  θαμά, 16, 189
  θαμειός, 16
  θάνατος, 142
  θάρσος, 82
  θεᾶσθαι, 229
  θελεῖν, 221
  θέμις ἐστί, 43
  θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζάωντες, 78
  θεός, 149
  θέσσασθαι, 2, 186
  θετός, 170
  θεωρεῖν, 229
  θημών, 3
  θηρίον, 18
  θής, 106
  θησαυροί, 65
  θλᾶν, 53, 66
  θορυβή, 87
  θράσος, 82
  θρέω, 87
  θρηνεῖν, 118
  θριγκός, 144
  θρίξ, 49
  θρόνος, 195
  θυμός, 16
  θύρα, 155
  θυρίδες, 155
  θῶος, 52
  θωπεύειν, 24


  ἰᾶσθαι, 28, 135
  ἰδεῖν, 229
  ἴδιος, 173
  ἰδού, 71
  ἰέναι, 114
  ἱερόν, 211
  ἱερός, 188
  ἱκανός, 100
  ἱκανῶς, 192
  ἱκετεύειν, 186
  ἱλαρός, 91
  ἰλύς, 129
  ἰνάω, 105
  ἰός, 213
  ἰότης, 116
  ἰρῆνες, 97
  ἴς, 169
  ἴσα, 8
  ἴσος, 5
  ἱστάναι, 199
  ἰσχύειν, 168
  ἰσχυρός, 219
  ἴσως, 34


  καγχάζειν, 185
  καθαρός, 177
  καθίζειν, 52, 219
  καί, 72
  καινός, 149
  καιρός, 60, 151
  κακηγορία, 131
  κακίων, 58
  κάλαμος, 50
  κάλλος, 25
  καλύψαι, 195
  κάμψαι, 88
  καναχεῖν, 32
  κανών, 51
  κάπρος, 33
  κάπτειν, 209, 222
  καρηκομόωντες, 49
  κάρηνον, 49
  καρίς, 54
  κάρκαρον, 54
  καρποῦσθαι, 58
  καρτός, 30
  κάρφω, 3
  κάρω, 32
  καταγελᾶν, 185
  καταθαμβεῖν, 44
  καταθεῖναι, 36, 196
  καταικία, 131
  κατακαίειν, 2
  κατακρύπτειν, 36
  κατανεύειν, 43
  κατατήκειν, 128
  καταφρονεῖν, 203
  καταψῆν, 143
  κατείδειν, 44
  κατέχειν, 52, 133
  καφάζω, 71
  κείρειν, 33
  κείρω, 30
  κεῖσθαι, 178
  κείω, 49, 93
  κέλαδος, 222
  κελεύειν, 116
  κέλευθος, 115 bis
  κεραυνός, 89
  κερδαλέος, 25
  κέρδος, 126
  κεύθειν, 36
  κεύθω, 54
  κεύθων, 34
  κεχαρῆσθαι, 95
  κηδεμονία, 45
  κηδεστής, 145
  κηλεῖν, 134
  κηλέῳ πυρί, 31
  κηλίς, 234
  κῆπος, 231
  κίκιννος, 49
  κιών, 43
  κλάγγειν, 39
  κλάδος, 93, 180
  κλαίειν, 118
  κλαῦμα, 119
  κλέος, 37, 94
  κλῆμα, 180
  κλίμα, 125
  κλιτύς, 41
  κλοπιός, 195
  κλυτός, 37
  κλών, 180
  κνέφας, 150
  κνυζᾶσθαι, 122
  κοεῖν, 168
  κοίρανος, 53
  κοῖται, 52
  κοίτη, 50
  κολακεία, 24
  κολακεύειν, 24
  κόλαξ, 226
  κόλαφος, 10
  κολάψαι, 51
  κολούω, 107, 190
  κολοφών, 50
  κολωνός, 41
  κομάζειν, 71
  κόμη, 49
  κομμοῦν, 41
  κομψός, 177
  κόπρος, 130
  κοράσιον, 160
  κόρη, 160, 233
  κορίζομαι, 38
  κόῤῥη, 49
  κόρυζα, 14
  κορύσσω, 126
  κορυφή, 4, 50
  κορυφοῦν, 4
  κοσμεῖν, 41 bis
  κόσμος, 99
  κόττα, 34
  κοττάνη, 184
  κοχώνη, 48
  κόψαι, 194
  κράζω, 32
  κραιπάλη, 69
  κράτος, 169
  κρέκω, 49
  κρέμβαλον, 87
  κρίνειν, 229
  κρόκα, 49
  κρότος, 87
  κροῦσις, 87
  κρυμός, 88
  κρύος, 88, 190, 191
  κρύπτειν, 36
  κρύσταλλος, 88
  κρύψαι, 133
  κτείνειν, 110
  κτύπος, 87
  κύαρ, 202
  κύρω, 48
  κύτος, 212
  κωκύειν, 119
  κῶλον, 136
  κῶς, 53


  λαβεῖν, 209
  λαιός, 199
  λακάζειν, 91
  λακεῖν, 59, 60, 167
  λακίζειν, 118
  λακίς, 118
  λαλεῖν, 59, 60
  λαλία, 91
  λαμπάς, 32
  λάμπω, 126
  λαχεῖν, 142
  λάχεσις, 142
  λέγειν, 59
  λέγω, 140
  λείβειν, 55
  λειβόμενος, 129
  λείβω, 117
  λεῖος, 120, 123 bis
  λείχειν, 120
  λέκτρον, 50
  λέμφος, 14, 20
  λεπτός, 122
  λέπω, 122
  λευκή, 129
  λευκόν, 10
  λευκός, 126
  λευσσόμενον, 128
  λεύσσω, 127
  λέχριος, 168
  ληρεῖν, 14
  λῃστής, 169
  λιβάζειν, 55
  λίθος, 194
  λιλαίομοι, 91
  λίμνη, 119
  λιμός, 76
  λιπαρεῖν, 186
  λίψ, 52
  λόγις, 234
  λόγχη, 139
  λοιδορία, 131
  λοίδορος, 127
  λοιμός, 128
  λοῖσθος, 75
  λόχμη, 199
  λόχος, 125
  λύθρον, 129
  λυκόφως, 133
  λύμη, 234
  λύσσα, 14
  λύχνος, 32
  λώβη, 234
  λωτός, 129
  λωφᾶν, 117


  μαδίζειν, 159
  μαζός, 132
  μακάριος, 78
  μακρός, 73
  μαλάξαι, 223, 232
  μαλακός, 143
  μαλερός, 117
  μαλλός, 212
  μάμμη, 132
  μανθάνειν, 155
  μανθάνω, 17
  μανικός, 14
  μανός, 84
  μαντεύεσθαι, 64, 96
  μασχάλη, 23
  ματᾶν, 224
  μάτη, 233
  μάτην, 89
  μαυρωτός, 207
  μάχη, 175
  μέγα, 131
  μέγας, 131
  μέδειν, 145
  μέδεσθαι, 40
  μεθεῖναι, 140
  μέθη, 69
  μεθιέναι, 102
  μειδιᾶν, 185
  μείλιχος, 139
  μειράκιον, 175
  μείρεσθαι, 137
  μείρω, 144, 177
  μέλδειν, 24
  μέλλειν, 52
  μέλος, 136
  μέλπειν, 32
  μέμαχα, 131
  μεμνῆσθαι, 136
  μέμψις, 183
  μένειν, 133 bis
  μένος, 17
  μέριμνα, 53
  μέρος, 136
  μέσος, 136
  μετὰ σπονδῶν, 167
  μετάρσιον, 16
  μετάφρενον, 68
  μετέωρον, 16
  μετέωρος, 12
  μέτοικος, 106
  μέτοχος, 200
  μέτριον, 140
  μηδὲν ἄγαν, 140
  μήδομαι, 116
  μηνύειν, 133
  μηχανή, 102
  μιαίνειν, 46
  μιαρός, 213
  μικρός, 157
  μίνθος, 130
  μινύθω, 157
  μισθός, 171
  μῖσος, 152
  μοῖρα, 35, 144
  μόλις, 117, 234
  μόρος, 142
  μορύσσειν, 46
  μορφή, 83
  μόχλος, 141
  μυδαλέος, 217
  μυκτῆρες, 145
  μύλλειν, 143
  μύρω, 67, 134, 166
  μυσαρός, 107
  μῶκος, 234
  μῶλος, 141
  μωρός, 208


  ναός, 211
  νάπη, 199
  ναρός, 145
  ναῦς, 145
  νεανίας, 175 bis
  νέαξ, 149
  νέατος, 75
  νέδη, 20
  νεκρός, 142
  νέμος, 199
  νέοθεν, 115
  νέον, 149
  νέος, 148, 175
  νεύειν, 117
  νεωστί, 149
  νήπιος, 175
  νήχειν, 55
  νίζω, 126
  νικᾶν, 231
  νίπτω, 166
  νίφα, 166
  νόμιμος, 159
  νῶτον, 68


  ξανθός, 10
  ξηρός, 23
  ξυγκαλεῖν, 43
  ξυνέκειν, 52
  ξυνεκτοί, 179
  ξύνθεσις, 44


  ὄγκος, 142
  ὁδοιπορεῖν, 174
  ὁδός, 115
  ὀδύσασθαι, 152
  ὄδωδα, 152
  ὄζος, 90, 205
  ὄθματα, 27
  ὄθομαι, 76
  οἱ ἄλλοι, 31
  οἰδᾶν, 215
  οἰκετοι, 229
  οἰκεῖος, 173
  οἰκέτης, 198
  οἰκοδόμημα, 4
  οἰκτείρειν, 139
  οἰκτίζειν, 139
  οἱ λοιποί, 31
  οἰμαι, 38
  οἶμος, 115
  οἶνος, 233
  οἴνωσις, 69
  οἷόν τ’ εἶναι, 168
  οἶτος, 142, 233
  οἴω, 218
  οἰωνός, 234
  ὄκκος, 76
  ὀκνεῖν, 52
  ὄκνος, 101
  ὀλετήρ, 169
  ὀλιγωρεῖν, 203
  ὀλίγωρος, 216
  ὀλισθεῖν, 117
  ὁλκός, 168
  ὀλολύζειν, 119
  ὅλον, 211
  ὀλός, 119
  ὅλος, 180, 219, 233
  ὁλῶς, 166
  ὁμαλότης, 152
  ὁμαλῶς, 217
  ὄμβρος, 166
  ὁμήγυρις, 43
  ὅμοιος, 5
  ὁμοίως, 8
  ὁμοῦ, 217
  ὁμῶς, 8
  ὄναρ, 202
  ὄνειδος, 185
  ὀντός, 52
  ὀξύς, 3 bis
  ὀπίς, 37
  ὁπωσδήποτε, 166
  ὁρᾶν, 224, 226, 229
  ὀργᾶν, 186, 187
  ὀργή, 62
  ὀρέγεσθαι, 186, 187, 221
  ὀρέκτης, 62
  ὄρηχος, 234
  ὀρθός, 22
  ὄρθρῳ, 133
  ὄρθωσις, 98
  ὀρίνω, 41
  ὄρνις, 234
  ὅρος, 84, 135
  ὀῤῥωδία, 225
  ὀρσός, 90, 180
  ὀρυχή, 139
  ὄρχος, 125
  ὅσιόν ἐστι, 43
  ὅσιος, 188
  ὀσμή, 152
  ὄσσαι, 27
  ὁστισοῦν, 179
  ὄσφρησις, 152
  ὁ τυχών, 179
  οὐαρόν, 132
  οὖας, 26
  οὖθαρ, 132
  οὖλος, 219
  οὖρος, 135, 185
  οὐ φάναι, 146
  ὀφείλειν, 146
  ὄφις, 183
  ὀχεῖν, 124
  ὄχθη, 185
  ὄχθος, 41


  παθεῖν, 80
  παιδίον, 175
  παίειν, 223
  πάϊς, 175
  παῖς, 175
  παλαιός, 18
  πάλιν, 115
  πάλλα, 132
  παλλακή, 160
  πάλμη, 195
  πανδίκως θανεῖν, 143
  πανήγυρις, 43
  πανοῦργος, 25
  πάντες, 179
  πάντως, 166
  πάγχυ, 165
  παρά, 162
  παραλέγεσθαι, 160
  παραστέλλεσθαι, 134
  παραυτίκα, 182
  παράφρων, 13
  παραχρῆμα, 182
  παρθένος, 233
  παρισῶν, 121
  πάρος, 19
  πᾶς, 180
  πάσασθαι, 11
  πάσσαλος, 196
  πάτριος, 158
  πατρῷος, 158
  παῦρος, 157
  παχύνω, 159
  παχύς, 55, 165
  πεδᾶν, 39
  πέδη, 232
  πεδίον, 231
  πέδον, 211
  πεζὸν θεῖναι, 161
  πεζός, 58
  πείθειν, 81
  πεῖνα, 232
  πειρατής, 169
  πείρειν, 48
  πείρω, 5, 144, 157
  πέκω, 221
  πελαγίζειν, 134
  πέλαγος, 134
  πελλός, 46
  πέλτη, 195
  πελώριος, 131
  πένθος, 4, 66, 119
  πενία, 158
  πένομαι, 232
  πεπαρεῖν, 19, 48, 112, 183
  πεποιθός, 86
  πεποιθῶς, 44
  πέρα, 214
  πέραῖος, 132
  πέραν, 214
  περᾶν, 153
  πέρθειν, 221
  πέρι, 149
  περίβολος, 144
  περιεῖναι, 2
  περισσεύειν, 2
  πεσεῖν, 117, 134, 193
  πέτεσθαι, 10, 96
  πέτραι, 193 bis
  πεφνεῖν, 90
  πέψαι, 58
  πῆλαι, 139
  πηλός, 129
  πῆξαι, 155, 196
  πιθάκνη, 8
  πιθεῖν, 181
  πίθος, 8
  πικρός, 3
  πιμελής, 165
  πιμπράναι, 2
  πίνειν, 29
  πίνος, 46, 130
  πιπράσκειν, 222
  πίστις, 82
  πιστότης, 82
  πίτνειν, 134
  πλανᾶσθαι, 71
  πλάξ, 8, 125, 135
  πλέξαι, 184
  πλεῦσαι, 166
  πλήθων, 65
  πλούσιος, 65
  πλοῦτος, 65
  πλυδᾶν, 119
  πνεῦμα, 16, 149
  πνιγόεις, 25
  ποθεῖν, 164, 221 bis
  πόθος, 146, 164 bis, 204
  ποιήματα, 32
  ποικίλον, 220
  ποίμνη, 160
  ποινή, 232
  πολέμιος, 6
  πόλις, 93 bis
  πολλάκις, 189
  πολλός, 168
  πολύς, 65
  πομπή, 90
  πόνος, 117, 153
  ποντίζειν, 134
  πόντος, 134
  πορεύεσθαι, 174
  πορθεῖν, 221 bis
  πορίζειν, 79
  πόρκος, 210
  πόῤῥωθεν, 173
  ποταμός, 85
  ποτέ, 148
  ποτί, 212
  πότνιος, 168
  ποτός, 29
  πράξεις, 9
  πρᾶος, 140
  πράσσειν, 153
  πραΰς, 30
  πρεσβύτης, 175, 228
  πρηνής, 174
  πρίασθαι, 70
  πρὶν δή, 171
  πρόκα, 183
  πρόσετι, 171
  προσήκοντες, 145
  πρὸς τούτοις, 171
  πρόσφορος, 78
  πρότερος, 19
  προπέμπειν, 42
  προφέρω, 102, 131
  προφητεία, 65
  πρύλεες, 175
  πρών, 174
  πτερόν, 10
  πτέρυξ, 10
  πτηνός, 234
  πτίλον, 10
  πτορθός, 90
  πτωχεία, 159
  πύθω, 191
  πυκνή, 175
  πυκνός, 16
  πύξ, 175
  πωλεῖν, 222
  πῶϋ, 160


  ῥαβάσσειν, 14
  ῥαιβός, 154
  ῥαχος, 180
  ῥέθος, 136
  ῥέπω, 87
  ῥεῦμα, 85, 187
  ῥεῦσαι, 187
  ῥηγμίν, 185
  ῥῆξαι, 87
  ῥῆχος, 125, 184
  ῥίν, 145
  ῥίνηλατεῖν, 153
  ῥιπή, 185
  ῥοδανός, 51
  ῥόος, 85
  ῥόπαλον, 87
  ῥυθμός, 45, 197
  ῥύπος, 130
  ῥωμαλέος, 219
  ῥώμη, 169


  σάκος, 195
  σαφῶς, 59
  σήπω, 191
  σθεναρός, 219
  σθένειν, 168
  σιγᾶν, 199
  σίσανον, 191
  σιωπᾶν, 199
  σκαιός, 199
  σκαίρω, 22
  σκεδάσαι, 83
  σκέλλω, 130
  σκηπίων, 90
  σκῆψαι, 90
  σκιόεις, 151
  σκληρόν, 55
  σκληρός, 23, 194
  σκόπελοι, 194
  σκοτερόν, 150
  σκότος, 150
  σκύτος, 195
  σπαθᾶν, 122, 210
  σπᾶν, 29
  σπαράξαι, 167
  σπαργᾶν, 215
  σπάρτη, 121
  σπαταλῶν, 165
  σπέος, 202
  σπήλαιον, 202
  σπήλυγξ, 202
  σταλάξαι, 96
  στέλλω, 192
  στενός, 15
  στενωπός, 15
  στερεά, 96
  στέριφος, 206
  στέφω, 19
  στίλβω, 126
  στίλη, 96
  στίξαι, 106
  στῖφος, 192
  στοιχεῖον, 124
  στόμφος, 215
  στοργή, 61
  στορθή, 90
  στορχάζειν, 212
  στοχάζεσθαι, 214
  στοχάζομαι, 229
  στραβός, 206
  στρέφειν, 227
  στρέφω, 19, 222
  στρηνής, 198
  στροφαῖος, 25
  στροφάλιγξ, 222
  σύαρος, 205
  συγγενής, 145
  συγγιγνώσκειν, 102
  συγχωρῆσαι, 42
  σύλλογος, 43
  συμβεβηκότως, 34
  συμβολή, 175
  σύμπαντες, 179
  σύμπας, 180
  συμφορά, 35
  σύναιμος, 145
  σύνεγγυς, 8
  συνέδριον, 43
  συνέχεια, 154
  συνθεσία, 44
  σύνοδος, 43
  σύνοικος, 106
  σῦς, 210
  συχνός, 16
  σφάλλειν, 76
  σφάλλων, 76
  σφᾶξαι, 111
  σφάραγος, 87
  σφαράξαι, 87
  σφηκόω, 157
  σφιδή, 38
  σφοδρός, 3
  σφριγᾶν, 215
  σχάζω, 139
  σχαστήριον, 139
  σχέω, 212
  σχῆμα, 83
  σχοῖνος, 121
  σχολῇ, 234
  σωρός, 3
  σῶς, 190
  σωτήριος, 190


  ταλαιπωρία, 117
  τανύς, 73
  ταρακτός, 67
  ταράξαι, 25, 165
  τάργανον, 130
  ταυρηδὸν βλέπειν, 26
  ταφεῖν, 26, 117, 207
  τάχ’ ἄν, 35
  τείνειν, 212
  τείρεα, 205
  τείρειν, 120
  τειρόμενος, 84
  τεῖχος, 144
  τέλεῖος, 84
  τέλλω, 208
  τέλος, 84
  τέναγος, 119
  τέρας, 205
  τέρμα, 84 bis
  τέρσω, 23, 211
  τεχνῖται, 75
  τῆλε, 173
  τηλόθεν, 173
  τίτθη, 133
  τλῆναι, 80, 232
  τοῖχος, 144
  τόκος, 86
  τόλμα, 82
  τολμῶν, 80
  τόπος, 125
  τορόν, 26
  τραγᾷν, 215
  τράγος, 33
  τρανές, 214
  τράφηξ, 213
  τράχηλος, 68
  τραχύς, 26, 28
  τρέκω, 227
  τρέμω, 225
  τρέπειν, 227
  τρῆμα, 115
  τρηχύς, 25
  τρίβειν, 120
  τρώγλη, 139
  τύρβη, 215
  τυτθός, 158
  τυφλός, 117
  τύφω, 207
  τύχη, 35
  τυχόν, 34


  ὑάς, 216
  ὑγιεινός, 190
  ὑγρόν, 216
  ὑγρός, 55
  ὑετός, 166
  ὑλάκτειν, 122
  ὕλη, 199 bis
  ὕπαρ, 202
  ὕπατος, 209
  ὑπερβάλλεσθαι, 231
  ὑπισχνεῖσθαι, 167
  ὕπνος, 202
  ὑποδέχεσθαι, 209
  ὑποψία, 113
  ὗς, 210 bis
  ὕστατος, 75
  ὑφή, 25, 123
  ὑψηλός, 12
  ὕω, 216


  φαίνω, 126
  φάλανθος, 126
  φάναι, 59, 60
  φανερῶς, 19
  φάος, 129
  φάργνυμι, 219
  φάρμακον, 135
  φάρυγξ, 77
  φαυστήριος, 78
  φέγγειν, 83
  φέγγος, 129
  φέγγω, 126
  φέρειν, 76, 80 bis
  φέρω, 56, 85
  φήμη, 187
  φῆναι, 155
  φῆρες, 18, 187
  φθίνειν, 83
  φθίνω, 84
  φιλανθρώπως, 99
  φιλεῖν, 61, 201
  φιλονεικία, 152
  φίλος, 14
  φλέγεσθαι, 22
  φλέγμα, 78
  φλέγω, 78, 126
  φλεύω, 129
  φλέω, 118
  φλογεῖν, 125
  φλύω, 84, 85
  φοβεῖσθαι, 224
  φοινός, 90
  φοιτᾶν, 114, 181
  φονεύειν, 111
  φονεύς, 97
  φοράς, 170
  φόρειν, 80
  φόρημα, 83
  φόριμος, 83
  φόρτος, 142
  φρακτός, 44
  φράξαι, 79, 87, 219
  φρίξαι, 88
  φρίκη, 226
  φρονεῖν, 218
  φροντίς, 53
  φυγάς, 161
  φύειν, 203
  φυλάξαι, 89
  φῦλον, 92
  φῦλον ἔχων, 78
  φυομένη, 78
  φύω, 85, 86, 170
  φωρᾶν, 56

  χαβός, 88
  χαίνειν, 222
  χαίνω, 33
  χαῖρε, 29
  χαλεπότης, 117
  χαλινός, 87
  χαμαί, 211
  χαμαλός, 198
  χανδάνειν, 209
  χάος, 222
  χρᾶν, 96
  χάριν εἰδέναι, 94
  χάριν φέρειν, 94
  χάω, 33
  χειρόω, 96
  χείρων, 58
  χειρώνακτες, 75
  χεράς, 188
  χέρσος, 98, 225
  χήρ, 33
  χθεσινός, 98
  χθών, 97, 211, bis
  χίμαρος, 33
  χλεύη, 113
  χλιδή, 174
  χλοιά, 113
  χλωρός, 129
  χνοαστός, 233
  χοῖρος, 33, 210
  χορδή, 38
  χορταῖος, 98
  χρᾶν, 96
  χρή, 146
  χρῄζων, 222
  χρηματισμός, 126
  χρεσμολογεῖν, 96
  χρηστός, 30
  χρόνιος, 172
  χρόνος, 60
  χρώς, 212
  χυμός, 216
  χῶμα, 41
  χωρεῖν, 114
  χῶρος, 125


  ψάλλειν, 32
  ψαφαρός, 188
  ψεκάς, 193
  ψεύδειν, 76
  ψηλαφᾶν, 144 bis
  ψῆφος, 188
  ψήχειν, 120
  ψήχω, 61, 193
  ψίης, 61, 78
  ψιλός, 157
  ψιλόω, 221
  ψόγος, 183
  ψοῖθος, 130, 213
  ψύθος, 76, 88
  ψυχή, 16
  ψωρός, 177


  ὤα, 135, 185
  ᾠδαι, 32
  ὠκεανός, 20
  ὠκύς, 3
  ὠλένη, 217
  ὦλξ, 235
  ὦμος, 23
  ὦνος, 171
  ὡς ἔοικεν, 38
  ὠφέλημα, 126


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *


  WARREN F. DRAPER,
  PUBLISHER AND BOOKSELLER,

  +ANDOVER, MASS.,+

  Publishes and offers for Sale the following Works, which will be
  sent, post-paid, on receipt of the sums affixed.


+GARDINER’S GREEK HARMONY.+ A Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek,
according to the Text of Tischendorf, with a Collation of the Textus
Receptus, and of the Texts of Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tregelles. By
Frederic Gardiner, D.D., Professor in the Berkeley Divinity School. 8vo.
$2.50.

“A very important matter in the preparation of the Harmony is, of
course, the choice of a text. The one chosen by Professor Gardiner is
that of Tischendorf’s eighth edition of the New Testament. This text was
chosen because ‘it embodied the latest results of criticism, having had
the advantage throughout of the Codex Sinaiticus and of a more close
collation of the Codex Vaticanus.’ Professor Gardiner would, indeed,
have published his Harmony more than a year ago, but waited till
opportunity could be given for consulting this last edition of
Tischendorf. It is an obvious merit in this Harmony, that the student
can see at a glance whether or not the text of Tischendorf agrees or
conflicts with that of Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tregelles in places
where there is a difference of opinion. It is another excellence of the
work that the Greek text is so accurate, evincing the most scrupulous
care and thorough scholarship on the part of the editor.” --_Bibliotheca
Sacra._

“The notes of the author are marked by scholarship and good sense. The
student will find it a convenient manual for the study of the Gospels,
because he sees upon one and the same page the readings of the principal
editions and manuscripts, together with the quotations made by the
evangelists from the Old Testament.” --_Princeton Review._

“Dr. Gardiner’s work has been well done, and he has given us a Harmony
of great value.” --_Quarterly Review Evang. Luth. Church._

“By this scholarly work Dr. Gardiner has rendered all diligent students
of the Gospel narrative an invaluable service. In a single volume, and
by the most satisfactory arrangement of the several and inspired
accounts of the life and doings of our Lord, the book furnishes the best
results of the ablest and most laborious investigation of all known
sources of knowledge regarding the original sacred text.” --_Reformed
Church Monthly._

“It is a superior work of its kind.” --_National Baptist._

“This book, the result of great research and utmost painstaking, is well
worthy the consideration of all Bible scholars.” --_Watchman and
Reflector._


+GARDINER’S ENGLISH HARMONY.+ A Harmony of the Four Gospels in English,
according to the Authorized Version; corrected by the best Critical
Editions of the Original. By Frederic Gardiner, D.D., Professor in the
Berkeley Divinity School. 8vo. Cloth, $2.00.

“The Harmony in English, the title of which is given above, is a
reproduction of the Harmony in Greek; no other changes being made than
such as were required to fit the work for the use of the English reader
who desires to learn some of the improvements which modern criticism has
made in the authorized English text.” --_Bibliotheca Sacra._

“We gladly commend this Harmony to every intelligent reader of the
Scriptures. The need of such a guide is felt by every thoughtful
Churchman at least once a year--in Holy Week--when he desires to read
the events of each day in the order in which they happened so many years
ago. We do not think that our laymen know how much they will be helped
to the understanding of the Gospels by a simple Harmony, perhaps read as
we suggested above, in connection with some standard Life of our
Lord.” --_The Churchman._


+LIFE OF CHRIST.+ The Life of our Lord in the Words of the Gospels. By
Frederic Gardiner, D.D., Professor in the Berkeley Divinity School.
16mo. pp. 256. $1.00

“It is well adapted to the convenience of pastors, to the needs of
teachers in the Bible-class and Sabbath-school, to the religious
instruction of families. It bids fair to introduce improvements into the
style of teaching the Bible to the young.” --_Bibliotheca Sacra._

“This little volume will not only answer as a Harmony of the Gospels for
the use of those who only care to have results, but it will be an
excellent book to read at family prayers, or to study with a
Bible-class.” --_Christian Union._


+ELLICOTT’S COMMENTARY, CRITICAL AND GRAMMATICAL+, on St. Paul’s Epistle
to the Galatians. With an Introductory Notice by C. E. STOWE, Professor
in Andover Theological Seminary. 8vo. pp. 183. $1.50.

The Commentaries of Prof. Ellicott supply an urgent want in their sphere
of criticism. Prof. Stowe says of them, in his Notice: “It is the
crowning excellence of these Commentaries that they are exactly what
they profess to be, _critical_ and _grammatical_, and therefore, in the
best sense of the term, _exegetical_. . . . . . His results are worthy
of all confidence. He is more careful than Tischendorf, slower and more
steadily deliberate than Alford, and more patiently laborious than any
other living New Testament critic, with the exception, perhaps, of
Tregelles.”

“They [Ellicott’s Commentaries] have set the first example, in this
country, [England] of a thorough and fearless examination of the
grammatical and philological requirements of every word of the sacred
text. I do not know of anything superior to them, in their own
particular line, in Germany; and they add, what, alas! is so seldom
found in that country, profound reverence for the matter and subjects on
which the author is laboring; nor is their value lessened by Mr.
Ellicott’s having confined himself for the most part to one department
of a commentator’s work--the grammatical and philological.” --_Dean
Alford._

“The _critical_ part is devoted to the settling of the text, and this is
admirably done, with a labor, skill, and conscientiousness
unsurpassed.” --_Bib. Sacra._

“We have never met with a learned commentary on any book of the New
Testament so nearly perfect in every respect as the ‘Commentary on the
Epistle to the Galatians,’ by Prof. Ellicott, of King’s College,
London,--learned, devout, and orthodox.” --_Independent._

“We would recommend all scholars of the original Scriptures who seek
directness, luminous brevity, the absence of everything irrelevant to
strict grammatical inquiry, with a concise and yet very complete view of
the opinions of others, to possess themselves of Ellicott’s
Commentaries.” --_American Presbyterian._


+COMMENTARY ON EPHESIANS.+ 8vo. pp. 190. $1.50.

+COMMENTARY ON THESSALONIANS.+ 8vo. pp. 171. $1.50.

+COMMENTARY ON THE PASTORAL EPISTLES.+ 8vo. $2.00.

+COMMENTARY ON PHILIPPIANS, COLOSSIANS, AND PHILEMON.+ $2.00.

  THE SET in five vols., on fine paper, extra cloth, bevelled, gilt
  tops. $10.00.
  THE SET in two vols., black cloth $8.00.


+HENDERSON ON THE MINOR PROPHETS.+
THE BOOK OF THE TWELVE MINOR PROPHETS.
Translated from the Original Hebrew. With a Commentary, Critical,
Philological, and Exegetical. By E. HENDERSON, D.D. With a Biographical
Sketch of the Author, by E. P. BARROWS, Hitchcock Professor in Andover
Theological Seminary. 8vo. pp. 490. $3.50.

“This Commentary on the Minor Prophets, like that on the Prophecy of
Isaiah, has been highly and deservedly esteemed by professional
scholars, and has been of great service to the working ministry. We are
happy to welcome it in an American edition, very neatly printed.”
--_Bib. Sacra._

“Clergymen and other students of the Bible will be glad to see this
handsome American edition of a work which has a standard reputation in
its department, and which fills a place that is filled, so far as we
know, by no other single volume in the English language. Dr. Henderson
was a good Hebrew and Biblical scholar, and in his Commentaries he is
intelligent, brief, and to the point.” --_Boston Recorder._

“The American publisher issues this valuable work with the consent and
approbation of the author, obtained from himself before his death. It is
published in substantial and elegant style, clear white paper and
beautiful type. The work is invaluable for its philological research and
critical acumen. The notes are learned, reliable, and practical, and the
volume deserves a place in every theological student’s library.”
--_American Presbyterian, etc._

“Of all his Commentaries none are more popular than his Book of the
Minor Prophets.” --_Christian Observer._

“This is probably the best Commentary extant on the Minor Prophets. The
work is worthy of a place in the library of every scholar and every
diligent and earnest reader of the Bible.” --_Christian Chronicle._


+COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS.+ By MOSES STUART, late
Professor of Sacred Literature in the Theological Seminary at Andover.
Third Edition. Edited and revised by PROF. R. D. C. ROBBINS. 12mo. pp.
544. $2.25.

“His Commentary on the Romans is the most elaborate of all his works. It
has elicited more discussion than any of his other exegetical volumes.
It is the result of long continued, patient thought. It expresses, in
clear style, his maturest conclusions. It has the animating influence of
an original treatise, written on a novel plan, and under a sense of
personal responsibility. Regarding it in all its relations, its
antecedents and consequents, we pronounce it the most important
Commentary which has appeared in this country on this Epistle.”
  --_Bib. Sacra._

“We heartily commend this work to all students of the Bible. The
production of one of the first Biblical scholars of our age, on the most
important of all the doctrinal books of the New Testament, it deserves
the careful study, not only of those who agree with Prof. Stuart in his
theological and exegetical principles, but of those who earnestly
dissent from some of his views in both respects.” --_Watchman and
Reflector._

“This contribution by Prof. Stuart has justly taken a high place among
the Commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans, and, with his other
works, will always be held in high estimation by the student of the
Sacred Scriptures.” --_New York Observer._


+COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS.+ By PROF. M. STUART. Third
Edition. Edited and revised by PROF. R. D. C. ROBBINS. 12mo. pp. 575.
$2.25.

“It is a rich treasure for the student of the original. As a
commentator, Prof. Stuart was especially arduous and faithful in
following up the thought and displaying the connection of a passage, and
his work as a scholar will bear comparison with any that have since
appeared on either side of the Atlantic.” --_American Presbyterian._

“This Commentary is classical, both as to its literary and its
theological merits. The edition before us is very skilfully edited, by
Professor Robbins, and gives in full Dr. Stuart’s text, with additions
bringing it down to the present day.” --_Episcopal Recorder._

“We have always regarded this excellent Commentary as the happiest
effort of the late Andover Professor. It seems to us well-nigh to
exhaust the subjects which the author comprehended in his
plan.” --_Boston Recorder._

“It is from the mind and heart of an eminent Biblical scholar, whose
labors in the cause of sacred learning will not soon be
forgotten.” --_Christian Observer._


+COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF PROVERBS.+ By PROF. M. STUART. 12mo. pp. 432.
$1.75.

“This is the last work from the pen of Prof. Stuart. Both this
Commentary and the one preceding it, on Ecclesiastes, exhibit a
mellowness of spirit which savors of the good man ripening for heaven;
and the style is more condensed, and, in that respect, more agreeable,
than in some of the works which were written in the unabated freshness
and exuberant vigor of his mind. In learning and critical acumen they
are equal to his former works. No English reader, we venture to say, can
elsewhere find so complete a philological exposition of these two
important books of the Old Testament.” --_Bib. Sacra._


+COMMENTARY ON ECCLESIASTES.+ By MOSES STUART, late Professor of Sacred
Literature in the Theological Seminary at Andover. Second Edition.
Edited and revised by R. D. C. ROBBINS, Professor in Middlebury College.
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       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *


_Errors and Inconsistencies_ (noted by transcriber)

The brackets around footnotes 2 and 3 are in the original. Some short
entries--generally cross-references--were printed two to a line; they
have been separated for this e-text.

In English, the spelling “Synonymes” is used consistently _except_ in
the paragraph introducing the Greek word list. In Latin, variation
between “æ” (ae) and “œ” (oe) is unchanged except in cases of
unambiguous error such as plural endings.

Missing punctuation at line-end--that is, adjacent to the right
margin--has been silently supplied. Other errors are listed below.
Unless otherwise noted, the number and spacing of ellipses ... is as in
the original.


_Preface_

  I have evinced, I hope, sufficient liberality  [evinced. I hope]
  _etiam_ and _quoque_;  [_etiam_ and _quoque_,]
  _fatigatus_ and _fessus_;  [_fatigatus_ and _fessus_,]


_Body Text_

  ACTOR ... Rosc. Com. ... Suet. Aug. 74. (v. 334.)
    [Rosc. Com: ... Suet. Aug. 74,]
  ADJUVARE, see _Auxilium_.
    [_entry printed at bottom of page, in line with signature,
    following “Adventor”_]
  ÆQUUS ... the _æqualia_ are considered in a _friendly_ relation to
  each other ... and σύνεγγυς.
    [œqualia ... σύνεγγύς]
  AGER, see _Rus_ and _Villa_.  [_word “and” printed in italics_]
  ANTIQUUS; PRISCUS; VETUS; VETUSTUS  [PRISCUS: VETUS;]
  ASTRUM, see _Sidus_.  [_printed before “Assequi”_]
  BENIGNUS, see _Largus_.
    [_word “Largus” printed in small capitals instead of italics_]
  CANERE ... like ᾠδαί  [_printed ᾠδαι without accent_]
  CATERVA; COHORS; AGMEN; GREX; GLOBUS; TURBA.  [GLOBUS, TURBA.]
  CIRCUMVENIRE, see _Fallere_.  [_final . missing_]
  CITUS; CELER; VELOX  [CITUS: CELER;]
  CLYPEUS, see _Scutum_.
  CODICILLI, see _Literæ_.
    [_entries printed before “Clangere”_]
  CONCESSUM EST; LICET; FAS EST  [LICET: FAS EST]
  CONSTAT ... whereas +apparet+, +elucet+, and +liquet+
    [whereas +apparet+ +elucet+]
  CONTAMINARE; INQUINARE; POLLUERE. +Contaminare+  [Contamnare]
  CONTUMELIA; INJURIA; OFFENSIO. 1. +Contumelia+  [I. +Contumelia+]
  CREARE..., πείρειν  [πεῖρειν]
  CRINIS ... καρηκομόωντες.
    [καρεκομόωντες]
  CURTUS, see _Brevis_.  [_printed as if part of preceding entry_]
  DELIBUTUS ... and +oblitus+ (from oblino)  [_open parenthesis mising_]
  DICERE ... Terent. Eun.  [Terent Eun.]
  DIES ... in opp. to _noctu_  [in opp to]
  DOCTOR; PRÆCEPTOR; MAGISTER.  [DOCTOR, PRÆCEPTOR]
  DOCTRINÆ, see _Literæ_.  [DOCTRINA]
  DOLOR ... Cic. Att. xii. 28. _Mærorem_ minui;
    [_anomalous spelling unchanged_]
  DOMUS, see _Ædificium_.  [Aedificium_]
  DORSUM ... the part between the shoulders
    [_text has “should-/ders” at line break_]
  DUMI ... thorn-bushes which make  [_first h in “which” invisible_]
  ELIGERE, see _Deligere_.  [Diligere]
  EPULÆ; CONVIVIUM; DAPES; EPULUM; COMISSATIO.  [COMMISSATIO]
  EVENIRE, see _Accidere_.  [_word “see” missing_]
  EXSECRARI, see _Abominari_.  [Abominare]
  EXTERUS; EXTERNUS; PEREGRINUS; ALIENIGENA; EXTRARIUS
    [ALIENIGENA. EXTRARIUS]
  FALLERE ... +Fraudare+ (ψεύδειν)
    [_word “Fraudare” printed in italics_]
  FARI see _Dicere_.
    [_entry printed FANUM, but alphabetized immediately before FATERI_]
  FRAGOR ... +sonitus+ (ἔνοσις, Ἐνυώ)  [(ἔνοσις Ἐνυώ)]
  GARRIRE ... in his efforts to instruct  [efferts]
  GLABER, see _Lævis_.  [Lævus]
  GURGES, see _Vorago_.  [Virago]
  HOMICIDA ... Erat tum multitudo sicariorum . . .
    [_printed . . with two dots_]
  IMAGO ... +effigies+, in statuary, as busts  [staturary]
  INCUNABULA, see _Cunæ_.  [Cunae]
  INFIMUS, see _Imus_.
    [_“Imus” printed in small capitals instead of italics_]
  INTELLIGERE ... Cic. N. D. iii. 24.  [_final . missing_]
  INVENIRE ... per senatum _consecuti_ sunt. (iii. 142.)
    [_missing . after “sunt”_]
  IRASCI, see _Succensere_.  [_final . missing_]
  IRE ... +incessus+ is moral and characteristic.  [incesus]
  IRRUERE ... consequences. (vi. 180.)  [vi., 180.]
  ITERUM ... +de integro+, like  [+de integro+. like]
  JUDICARE, see _Censere_.
    [_entry printed after “Jurgium”_]
  JUVENTA ... whereas +juvenilis+ denotes youthful  [donotes]
  LABARE ... +titubare+ (from ταφεῖν, τυφλός)  [ταφεῖν τυφλός]
  LAMENTARI, see _Lacrimare_.  [Lacrima]
  LANIENA; MACELLUM.
    [_“Macellum” printed in plain type instead of small capitals_]
  LEPIDUS ... +Lepos+, +facetiæ+, and +festivitas+  [+Lepos+ +facetiæ+]
  LIBERTUS ... Suet. Cæs. 75  [Suet Cæs. 75]
  LITUS, see _Ripa_.  [Rpia]
  LUMEN .... Si ista vera sunt  [Si. ista]
  LUTUM ... but _obsitus_, _sordibus_  [_obsitus sordibus_]
  MATRIMONIUM, see _Conjugium_.  [_final . missing_]
  MEDIUS ... as moderate, in opp. to over-measure ... Haud
  _mediocris_ vir fuit
    [in opp, to ... medioeris]
  MERERE ... (v. 213.)  [(v. 213.).]
  MUTILARE ... +truncare+ denotes greater mutilations  [donotes]
  NECESSE EST ... aut licuerit aut _necesse fuerit_.
    [_final . missing_]
  NEGLIGERE, see _Spernere_.  [see _Spernere_,]
  NEUTIQUAM; NEQUAQUAM; MINIME.  [NEQUAQUAM,; MINIME.]
  OBLITUS, see _Delibutus_.  [Delibatus]
  OBSCURUM ... like σκότος in opp. to _illustre_.  [σκότος. in opp.]
  OLERE ... +perolere+, a penetrating smell, in a bad sense.  [sence]
  OPERA ... 2. +Industria+  [Idustria]
  ORBIS ... could not be expressed by _orbis_.
    [_word “orbis” not italicized_]
  ORNATUS, see _Præditus_.  [Prœditus]
  PÆNE; PROPE; FERE; FERME.  [PÆNE: PROPE;]
  PARERE; OBEDIRE ...
    [_text has paragraph break after headwords_]
  PEREGRINUS, s. _Externus_.  [s. _Externus_,]
  PERLUCIDUS ... 4. +Perjurare+ means to swear falsely  [faslely]
  PETERE ... Cic. Verr. * * Iste _petit_ a rege, et cum pluribus
  verbis _rogat_
    [_printed as shown: modern citation is 2,4,65, sometimes read
    “eum” instead of “cum”_]
  PETULANS ... the +lascivus+, through unrestrained frolicksomeness
  and inclination for play. Hence +petulantia+
    [unrestrined ... peutlantia]
  POLLICERI; PROMITTERE; SPONDERE; RECIPERE. +Polliceri+ ...
  Jam non _promittunt_ de te
    [_text has paragraph break after headwords_]
    [Jam. non]
  PORCA ... sometimes the other. (vi. 277.)  [the other, (vi. 277.)]
  PORTIO, see _Pars_.  [_final . missing_]
  PRÆDA; MANUBIÆ; SPOLIA; EXUVIÆ; RAPINA.  [EXUVIAE]
  PRÆDITUS ... 3. +Instructus+  [Istructus]
  PRIDEM ... odio _diutinæ_ servitutis.  [diutinœ]
  PRISCUS, PRISTINUS, see _Antiquus_.  [PRISCUS; PRISTINUS; see]
  PROCUL ... in opp. to _prope_  [in opp, to]
  PROFERRE, see _Differre_.  [PRFERRE]
  PUER ... πάϊς,)
    [_printed with dieresis on alpha_]
  PULVINAR, PULVINUS, see _Culcita_.  [PULVINUS see]
  QUISQUE ... in opp. to _dispersi_  [in opp, to]
  REFUTARE ... non desiderat orationem meam.  [_final . missing_]
  REPENTE ... +protinus+, forthwith, like πρόκα.
    [_Greek printed without accent_]
  RESPECTUM HABERE; RATIONEM HABERE.
    [_first “habere” added by transcriber for consistency_]
  RIPA ... Ovid, Met. i. 42. 2.  [Ovid. Met. i. 42. 2.]
  ROGARE ... +percontari+ and +sciscitari+ denote urgently asking
    [suscitari]
  SACER ... Hence _sanctus_ +homo+ is a pure, pious man
    [_printed “_sanctus_ +homo+” with italics for gesperrt_]
  SANGUIS ... red with blood. (iv. 258.)  [(iv. 258.).]
  SCROPHA, see _Sus_.  [SCROPHA. see _Sus_.]
  SOLEMNIA ... days of rejoicing. (vi. 339.)  [rejoicing,]
  SUPPLICARE, see _Rogare_.  [_final . missing_]
  TRANS; ULS; ULTRA. +Trans+ and +uls+ [+Uls+]
  UBER, see _Fœcundus_ and _Mamma_.
  UDUS ... imo _udæ_.  [udœ]
  UNA; SIMUL. +Una+ means together, at the same place, like ὁμοῦ;
  whereas +simul+
    [_the words “Una” and “simul” are printed in italic instead of
    gesperrt_]
  UXOR, see _Fœmina_.
    [_entry “Fœmina” redirects to “Femina”_]
  VACARE ... +Vacare+ (from ἧκα?) ... +cessare+ (from cedere? or from
  καθίζειν?)
    [_close parenthesis misprinted after “cedere?” instead of after
    “ἧκα?”_]
  VALETUDO, see _Æger_.  [VALETUDO see]
  VELLE ... like χρῄζων; +avidus+
    [_semicolon after χρῄζων misprinted as question mark: apparent
    confusion with Greek question mark_]
  VENTUS ... +turbo+ (στρέφω, στροφάλιγξ), a strong whirlwind that
  causes destruction. (v. 287.)
    [_text has στροφ-/ἀλιγξ at page break_]
    [destruction, (v. 287.)]
  VERBUM ... +vocabulum+, as a part of language.  [_final . missing_]
  VESANUS, see _Amens_.  [Amans]
  VESTIS; VESTITUS; VESTIMENTUM  [VESTIS: VESTITUS;]
  VIGIL ... with vi. 556. (iv. 444.)  [_close parenthesis missing_]
  VILLA ... +villa+ is an architectural term  [villla]
  VINCERE ... +opprimere+, without fighting  [apprimere]
  VITIUM ... like κηλίς. (v. 319.)
    [_superfluous close parenthesis after “κηλίς.”_]
  VIVAX, VIVIDUS, see _Vigens_.  [Vivens]

_Index of Greek Words_

  ἄνεσιν δοῦναι, 102  [δοῦραι]
  ἀντιχαρίζεσθαι, 94  [ἀντιχαρέζεσθαι]
  ἀποφάναι, 146  [ἀποφάραι]
  ἀστήρ, 205 bis  [ἀστης]
  ἄστρον, 205 bis  [205, bis]
  Γαῖα, 211 bis  [_second occurrence “γαῖα”_]
  Γῆ, 211 bis  [_second occurrence “γῆ”_]
  δηλῶσαι, 155  [δηλῶσαι 155]
  εἴρειν, 196 bis  [196, bis]
  ἐνεγκέσθαι, 112  [ἐνεχκεσθαι]
  ἐνίοτε, 148  [ἐνοιτε]
  ἐῤῥῶσθαι, 169, 219  [ἐῤῥῶσθαι 169]
  ἑταῖρος, 200  [_body text has plural ἑταῖροι_]
  εὐκαιρία, 151  [εὐκαραια]
  καρηκομόωντες, 49  [_misprinted καρεκομόωντες as in body text_]
  κέρδος, 126
    [_printed and alphabetized as κεδρος_]
  κρύσταλλος, 88  [κπυσταλλος]
  μαλάξαι, 223, 232  [μαλαζαι]
  μωρός, 208  [_missing entry_]
  ὀρέγεσθαι, 186, 187, 221  [122]
  πείρειν, 48  [πεῖρειν]
  πεποιθῶς, 44  [πεποιθώ]
  πολέμιος, 6  [4]
  πτηνός, 324  [324]
  ταράξαι, 25, 165
    [_printed as two entries: ταράξαι 165, τράξαι 25_]
  φρίξαι, 88  [_missing entry_]
  χθών, 97, 211 bis  [211, bis]
  χρᾶν, 96  [χαρᾶν]
    [_printed and alphabetized as χαρᾶν_]


_Advertising_

Inconsistent format of nested quotation marks (single or double) is as
printed.

  GARDINER’S ENGLISH HARMONY ... perhaps read as we suggested above
    [perhaps reads]
  COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. By PROF. M. STUART.
    [PROF. M STUART.]
  +Angel over the Right Shoulder, The;+ or the Beginning of a New Year.
  By the Author of “Sunnyside.” 40 cents.
    [_missing close quote_]
  +A Collection of the Proverbs of all Nations.+ “This ... hardly be
  able to obtain. This ... “you may go farther and fare worse.””
    [_missing . after “obtain”; missing outer close quote_]
  +Discourses and Essays.+ ... of which they treat.”
    [_missing close quote_]
  +Lectures upon the Philosophy of History.+ ... students of theology
  and of history.”
    [_missing close quote_]
  +Guericke’s Church History+ ... that of the original.”  [orignal]
  +Guericke’s Church History--Mediæval Church.+ ... during the first
  ten centuries.”  [_missing close quote_]





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