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Title: History of New Brunswick
Author: Fisher, Peter, 1782-1848
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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_By_ Peter Fisher

(With a few additional Explanatory Notes)


(Grandson of the Author)


Publisher's Notice.

_The tale of the Loyalists; their loyalty to high ideals of national
duty--to fulfil which they underwent untold losses, privations and
sufferings when they abandoned their homes and their all, and sought
new homes and commenced a new life in a northern wilderness--is a story
that appeals wherever patriotism is an honor and self-sacrifice a
virtue. In this Province of New-Brunswick, settled mainly by families
torn and rent by the American revolution and whose descendants are
reaping the reward of their sacrifice, it is of peculiar interest._

_In 1825, when Peter Fisher published the first Historical work, the
Province of New-Brunswick had received the loyalist immigration
forty-three years before, at which date it was constituted a separate
Province. The progress of the country during a period when its
political institutions and industrial life were in a formative
condition is of deep interest. The account given of it in Mr. Fisher's
work is of sufficient value in the opinion of the New Brunswick
Historical Society to warrant its being reprinted. In addition to the
original work, there has been embodied with it, notes and observations
the records of the Society. A copy of the history not being available,
this is printed from a photostat copy furnished by the Dominion











An Inhabitant of the Province.

    "_Whatever concerns my country, interests me;
    I follow nature, with truth my guide._"



To the Reader.

Having at different times collected what information I could obtain
relating to the Province of New-Brunswick, I intended whenever I had a
sufficient fund of correct materials, to publish them in such a shape
as to diffuse a general knowledge of the Country, its productions,
sources of wealth, &c. For this reason I had kept the different
Counties, as well as the several subjects of which I intended to treat,
separate, in order to receive such additions as I could from time to
time make. But as I am happy to find that it is one of the objects of
the New-Brunswick Agricultural and Emigrant Society, to publish a
Geographical and Statistical Account of the Province, as soon as
materials can be collected, I have given up my first design--being
convinced that such a Society can collect correct information and the
materials for such a desirable object with far greater facility and
accuracy than an individual. In the mean time, I have given these
Sketches to the public, hoping they may serve to give a faint knowledge
of the Country, till a more perfect Work is prepared. It is no small
matter to give any thing like a full description of a new Country like
New-Brunswick, where the Compiler has but few helps--where there are
but few written documents to resort to, and where neither Animals,
Minerals, or Plants, have been properly arranged; and where there are
but few correct materials to guide him in pointing out the changes of
the seasons and other natural phenomena, with many other things which
are requisite in a complete description of a new Country. The labour of
even arranging the different Parishes was considerable, which the
statement of the population of the Province, (had I possessed that
document in time,) would have at once supplied.

It was my intention to add a concise history of the principal
transactions that have taken place in the Country from its first
occupation to the present time, from such sources both written and
oral, as came within my researches; but have for the reasons before
stated relinquished that design.

The description of some of the Counties is not so full as I could wish,
but it may be observed this is but an outline of what I at first
designed; and that the information I had collected of some of the
Counties, was very scanty; but that I intended to extend it to
considerable length, as correct materials could be procured. Having
therefore abandoned my first design, I had to contract the description
of some of the Counties of which I had a fuller knowledge, to make the
Work more uniform; and not to appear partial to some parts of the
Province, or to have forgotten others.

Fractional accuracy cannot be expected in such a brief outline; neither
indeed is it of much consequence. I have, however, endeavoured to come
as near the reality as possible, and given as full a detail as the size
of the Work would allow.

                                             THE AUTHOR.



_Old Settlers on the River Saint John. New-Brunswick erected into a
Government, and settled by the Loyalists in 1783-4. Difficulties of the
first Settlers. List of successive Governors and Presidents._

The Province of New-Brunswick formerly formed a part of Nova-Scotia,
which was the first European settlement on the Continent of North
America.--The first grant of land in it was given by King JAMES the
FIRST to Sir WILLIAM ALEXANDER, in 1621--from whom it had the name of
Nova-Scotia or New Scotland. It was at that time regarded by the
English as a part of CABOT'S discovery of Terra-Nova. The first
settlers, however, were emigrants from France, who as early as the year
1604 came to the Country with DE MONT, a French adventurer, and gave it
the name of Acadia.

This country frequently changed masters; passing from the French to the
English, and back again, till it was finally ceded in full sovereignty
to the British at the peace of Utrecht in 1713.

In 1760, a number of persons from the County of Essex, in
Massachusetts, obtained a grant of a Township, twelve miles square, on
the River Saint John, from the British Government; and after several
delays in exploring and surveying, they commenced a settlement at

During the American War of 1775, they were joined by a number of other
families from New England: the district adjoining Maugerville was
settled, and the whole called by the general name of Sunbury, where the
Courts of Justice were held till 1783: when the peace with America left
the Loyalists who had followed the British standard, to seek an asylum
in some part of the British dominions.

Prior to this period a number of families from Yorkshire in England,
and others from Massachusetts, had settled in and about Cumberland,
where many of their descendants still remain.--These people, actuated
by different attachments, lived during the war in a state of hostility
with each other;--one part adhering to the British, and the other to
the Americans.

In the month of April, 1783, about three thousand persons, men, women,
and children, sailed from New-York for the River Saint John; many of
them being passengers, but the major part persons who had joined the
British army, and were now sent to this Country to be disbanded and
settled. In the month of October following, about twelve hundred more
arrived from the same place. Those as well as the former had to seek a
shelter from the approaching winter, by building log and bark huts; a
few indeed were admitted into the houses of the settlers who had
resided here before and during the American war. Provisions and
clothing were furnished by Government for the first year, with a few
implements to commence a settlement. Lord DORCHESTER appointed the Rev.
agents to apply for lands and locate them. Major STUDHOLM was soon
after added to the number by Governor PARR.--This Officer at that time
commanded the Garrison of Fort Howe, at the entrance of Saint John
River. These agents appointed the Rev. Mr. ARNOLD for their secretary.
The duties that devolved on these gentlemen were of the most arduous
nature; they had however the satisfaction of receiving the thanks of
the Governor and Council of Nova-Scotia, for their upright conduct in
transacting that business.

In the year 1785, the present limits of New-Brunswick were divided from
Nova-Scotia, and a separate Charter of a Constitution was granted to
the Province, under Governor CARLETON, with a Council composed of the
after, when BEVERLEY ROBINSON, the son of the former, with GEORGE
LEONARD, and JOHN SAUNDERS, were appointed to succeed them. The above
Members of the Council transacted the business of the Province for a
long while. Governor CARLETON was authorized from the Crown to locate
lands to the Loyalists and disbanded Troops in proportion to their
ability and rank.

From this period the Province slowly improved in Agriculture, Ship
Building, and the exportation of Masts, Spars, &c. to Great-Britain,
and Fish, Staves, Shingles, Hoop Poles, and sawed Lumber to the
West-Indies. Receiving in return coarse Woollens and other articles
from England; and Rum, Sugar, Molasses, and other produce from the
West-Indies.--a Town was built at the mouth of the River Saint John,
and another at St. Ann's Point, called Fredericton, where part of two
Regiments were stationed till the French revolution.--Barracks and
other public works were erected in different places, and the upper part
of the Country settled by establishing two military posts in the
interior, one at the Presqu-Isle, eighty miles above Fredericton, and
another at the Grand Falls, fifty-two miles farther up. But the
difficulties to which the first settlers were exposed continued for a
long time almost insurmountable. Having been reared in a pleasant
Country, abounding in all the comforts of life, they found themselves
suddenly transplanted to a wilderness with a rigorous climate, devoid
of almost every thing that could make life tolerable.--On their arrival
they found a few hovels where Saint John is now built, the adjacent
country exhibiting a most desolate aspect; which was peculiarly
discouraging to people who had just left their homes in the beautiful
and cultivated parts of the United States. Up the River Saint John the
country appeared better, and a few cultivated spots were found occupied
by old settlers. At St. Ann's, where Fredericton was afterwards built,
a few scattered huts of French were found; the country all around being
a continued wilderness--uninhabited and untrodden, except by the savage
and wild animals; and scarcely had these firm friends of their country
began to construct their cabins, when they were surprised by the rigors
of an untried climate: their habitations being enveloped in snow before
they were tenantable. The climate at that period (from what cause has
not yet been satisfactorily ascertained) being far more severe than at
present. They were frequently put to the greatest straits for food and
clothing to preserve existence; a few roots were all that tender
mothers could at times procure to allay the importunate calls of their
children for food.--Sir GUY CARLETON had ordered them provisions for
the first year at the expense of Government; but as the country was not
much cultivated at that time, food could scarcely be procured on any
terms. Frequently had those settlers to go from fifty to one hundred
miles with hand sleds or toboggans through wild woods or on the ice to
procure a precarious supply for their famishing families. The
privations and sufferings of some of those people almost exceed belief.
The want of food and clothing in a wild, cold country, was not easily
dispensed with or soon remedied. Frequently in the piercing cold of
winter a part of the family had to remain up during the night to keep
fire in their huts to prevent the other part from freezing. Some very
destitute families made use of boards to supply the want of bedding:
the father or some of the elder children remaining up by turns, and
warming two suitable pieces of boards, which they applied alternately
to the smaller children to keep them warm; with many similar

Some readers looking only at the present state of the country may smile
at this account as wildly exaggerated, and may suppose that the skins
of the moose and other wild animals would have been a far better
substitute for bedding. But I have received the account of the above
facts, with many other expedients which were at that time adopted by
the settlers, from persons of undoubted veracity, and who had been eye
witnesses of what they related. It is, however, needless to enlarge
upon the hardships they endured, as most of the sufferers are now no
more. Some indeed were discouraged and left the country; but most of
those who remained had the pleasure of seeing the country improved and
their families comfortably settled. Many of those Loyalists were in the
prime of life when they came to this country; and most of them had
young families. To establish these they wore out their lives in toil
and poverty, and by their unremitting exertions subdued the wilderness,
and covered the face of the country with habitations, villages, and

I have not noticed these circumstances as if they were peculiar to the
settlers of New-Brunswick; but to hold up to the descendants of those
sufferers the hardships endured by their parents; and to place in a
striking point of view, the many comforts they possess by the
suffering, perseverance, and industry of their fathers. All new
settlements formed at a great distance from the parent state, are
exposed to difficulties, till the country becomes improved. Many of the
Colonies in North America, when first settled, were more than once on
the point of total extinction. The remnant of the inhabitants of some
of them were even embarked to abandon the country altogether, when they
were stopped by succour from home. The remembrance of the difficulties
of the first settlers should make their descendants contented with
their present advantages, and instead of wishing to change, to use
their own exertions to improve the country, and duly to appreciate the
many blessings and privileges they enjoy.

Under the judicious and paternal care of Governor CARLETON, assisted by
several of the leading characters, many of the difficulties of settling
an infant and distant Country were lessened. The condition of the
settlers was gradually ameliorated; agriculture was particularly
attended to: The Governor himself set a pattern in which he was
followed by several of the leading men in the different offices. A
variety of grains and roots were cultivated with success, and
considerable progress made in clearing the wilderness. Barren seasons
were sometimes experienced, when the scarcity of food was partially
remedied by the exertions of the Governor, assisted by several other
public spirited gentlemen, who are now no more.

After having governed the Province for nearly twenty years--after
having seen the country from a desolate wilderness rising to a state of
importance among the surrounding Colonies--after having seen the
settlers placed in a state of comparative comfort and independence--and
after having in every respect endeared himself to them as their common
father and benefactor--Governor CARLETON, in 1803, removed to England,
when the Government of the Province was administered by the following
persons, under the style of Presidents, till his death, viz.--G. G.
LUDLOW, from his departure till February, 1808; EDWARD WINSLOW,
Esquire, from that period till the 24th May following; when he was
succeeded by Major-General HUNTER, who held the Government, with the
exception of two short intervals, (during which the Government devolved
first on Lieutenant-Colonel JOHNSTONE, and afterwards on Major-General
BALFOUR,) till 1812, when he was succeeded by Major-General SMYTH; he
having gone to England in 1813, the Government was administered by
Major-General SAUMAREZ; but was resumed by General SMYTH, in 1814, who
having again left the Province, the Government devolved on
Lieutenant-Colonel HAILES. On the death of Governor CARLETON,
Major-General GEORGE STRACEY SMYTH, was appointed to the Government by
His Majesty's Commission, dated the 28th February, 1817. Governor SMYTH
died the 27th March, 1823, when the Government was assumed by WARD
CHIPMAN, Esquire, who administered the same till his death in the month
of February following, when it devolved on JOHN MURRAY BLISS, Esquire.
In the mean time, Major-General Sir HOWARD DOUGLAS, Baronet, had been
appointed to the Government by His Majesty. He arrived in the Province
in August, 1824, and immediately repaired to Fredericton, and assumed
the Government on the 28th of the same month, and is at present (1825)
Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Province of
New-Brunswick, and its Dependencies.

The lively interest which Sir HOWARD takes in whatever concerns the
prosperity of the Province, may be best inferred from his own words in
his address to the Legislative Body, and his speech at the formation of
the Agricultural Society, which are inserted in full in the Appendix to
this short work.



_Situation. Extent. Boundaries. Face of the Country. Soil, Animals.
Mineral and Vegetable Productions. Inhabitants, Religion, and

New-Brunswick is situated between the forty-fifth and forty-ninth
degrees of North latitude, and between the sixty-fourth and
sixty-eighth degrees of West longitude. It is nearly 200 miles in
length, and 180 in breadth, containing about twenty-two thousand square
miles of land and water. It is bounded on the North by the river St.
Lawrence and Canada, on the West by the State of Maine, on the South
and Southeast by the Bay of Fundy and Nova-Scotia, and on the East by
the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Bay Verte. It is divided into eight
Counties, viz. St. John, Westmorland, King's, Queen's, Charlotte, York,
Sunbury, and Northumberland, which are again divided into Parishes,
according to their extent, and will be described when I come to treat
of the Counties separately.

This Province is watered with several fine rivers which lay open the
inmost recesses of the country, and are of the utmost advantage to the
inhabitants in transporting the products of the forests to the
seaports, as their chief trade consists in lumber and other bulky
articles. It likewise abounds in lakes, streams, springs, and rivulets,
so that there are few places unprovided with good mill seats or water
conveyance. It is diversified with beautiful acclivities, hills and
mountains, some of which will be noticed in the course of this work.

The appearance of the country along the Bay of Fundy is forbidding,
rugged and broken, and the soil indifferent. Advancing from the
sea-board into the interior the face of the country becomes more level,
being interspersed with gentle risings and vales, with large strips of
fertile intervals along the rivers, which being annually overflowed
produce excellent crops. In many places along the margin of the rivers,
the banks are high and abrupt, and to a stranger the land appears poor
and hard to cultivate; but after rising the banks, and advancing a
short distance from the water, the land becomes level, and the soil
rich; being covered with a thick black mould, produced by the
putrefaction of the leaves of the numerous trees with which the country
is covered. In other parts the land rises with a beautiful slope from
the water, offering many fine situations for buildings and seats. The
land in some parts being a second intervale, and in others a good
upland with a strong soil.

Most of the rivers have numbers of fine Islands interspersed in their
courses, which being chiefly formed by the washing of the currents,
consist of rich alluvial soil, producing grain, roots and grass in the
greatest luxuriance. These islands may be considered as the gardens of
the country, which they enrich and beautify. The rapidity of the
rivers, swoln by the melting of the snow in the spring, tears away the
soil in some parts, and deposits it in others; by which means their
courses are gradually altered; new Islands are formed, and alluvial
soil accumulated in some parts of the rivers, while it is washed away
in others; and this is more or less the case according to the looseness
of the soil, and the bends of the river: so that a man may have a
growing estate, or he may see his land diminishing from year to year
without the power to remedy it.

As most of the settlements are as yet confined to the margin of rivers
and streams, the country a little back is a continued forest, covered
with a stately growth of trees, consisting of pines, firs, spruce,
hemlock, maple, birch, beech, ash, elm, poplar, hornbeam, &c. In some
parts of the country white and red oak are found, but in no great
quantity; although men who have ranged the woods in search of pine, say
there are large groves in the interior. The islands are generally
covered with butternut, basswood, elm, maple, alder, &c. and in some
places the same trees are found on them, as on the high land in their

As the climate of a new country, abounding with lakes, rivers and
streams, and covered with close woods, which exclude the sun, must be
daily altering as the country becomes cleared and improved: I shall
hereafter notice some of the changes that have taken place in the
climate of this Province since it was settled by the Loyalists in 1783.

The domestic animals in this Province are much the same as those in the
United States; many of the horses and oxen used in the lumber business,
being annually furnished by the Americans. The breed of horses has been
improved by stallions imported at different periods from England and
other places. In Cumberland the inhabitants have paid considerable
attention to the improvement of the breed of horned cattle; in
consequence of which, and the extensive marshes in that country, their
dairies are superior to any in the Province. The sheep and swine are of
a good size and various breeds. As Agriculture has been much neglected
in this Province on account of the great trade that is carried on in
lumber, not much attention has been paid to improving the domestic
animals, till of late, a Society has been formed, and cattle
exhibitions instituted, which no doubt will soon make an alteration in
that part of the rural economy of the Province.

The wild animals are not so numerous as formerly, and some species are
nearly extinct. The Moose or Elk, which were found in great abundance
when the loyalists first came to the province, were wantonly destroyed,
being hunted for the skin, while their carcases were left in the woods,
a few only being used for food, although their flesh is equal to the
Ox, and would have supplied the destitute settlers with animal food for
a long while, had there been any effectual means at that time to
restrain the waste of the mercenary hunter. So great was the
destruction of those valuable animals, that in a few years they totally
disappeared. A few have lately been seen, and a law has been enacted
for their preservation; but they can scarcely be reckoned among the
present animals of the Province. The other wild animals are Bears,
Foxes, Wolves, Caraboo, Sable, Loup-cervier, Peaconks, Racoon, Mink,
Ground and Red Squirrels, Weasels, Muskrats, Wild Cats, Hares, &c. with
that valuable animal the Beaver.

The domestic Fowls are Turkies, Geese, Ducks, Hens, and other Poultry;
and among the wild are, Partridges, Geese, Ducks, Pigeons, Owls, Crows,
and Swans; with a variety of small Birds, which have nothing peculiar
to render a particular description of them necessary. There are but few
reptiles in the Province, and those are harmless.

Most of the rivers are well stored with Salmon, Shad, Bass, Suckers,
and Herrings, with abundance of small Fish, such as Trout, Perch, Chub,
Smelt, Eels, &c. Cusks are taken in the winter, and Sturgeon are taken
in some parts, but not often.

The Bays and Harbors are well supplied with Cod, Pollock, Haddock, &c.
Mackerel are taken in different places at the entrance of the Bay of
Fundy, and along the coasts.

But little can be said about the mineral or fossil productions of a
country which is yet in its infancy, and where the industry of the
inhabitants can be more profitably employed on the surface of the earth
than in ransacking its bowels. Minerals cannot be procured and
manufactured without money. To work mines effectually, many things are
requisite that cannot be expected in a new country. Such as capitalists
who can risk money on experiments, and wait a long time for returns:
for all property employed in the first working of mines is uncertain.
The next thing is abundance of cheap labour--then a demand for the
articles produced; next to produce it of such a quality, and at such a
price as to make it find a market: with many other considerations
sufficient to deter men who feeling themselves straitened in pecuniary
resources, see the necessity of employing what little they possess in
the way that will give a sure and quick return; and to such persons,
the surface of the country covered with pines, holds out a more
inviting prospect than the concealed riches of the earth. From the
appearance of the country, there is reason to believe it is rich in
minerals, and that the mountains contain ores of different metals in
abundance; but as no attempts of consequence have been made to procure
specimens or assay them, it cannot be expected that any particular
account of them could be given in this short work. It is probable the
time is not far distant when men of intelligence will turn their
attention to investigate scientifically the different natural
productions of the Province. Coals are found in abundance at the Grand
Lake, and specimens have been discovered in several other places, so as
to leave no doubt of the Province being well stored with that useful
article. Limestone of a good quality is found in different parts of the
Province; particularly at the narrows, near the mouth of the river St.
John, where there is not only sufficient for the use of the country;
but to supply Europe and America for ages, should they need it. Gypsum
is also found up the Bay, near Cumberland, and Manganese at Quaco.

This Province abounds in different kinds of excellent Stone for
building, and other purposes. Grindstones are manufactured in abundance
for home use and exportation. Veins of Marble, of different species,
have been discovered, some of which have been partially explored, and
small quantities manufactured.

The vegetable productions are, Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, Maize, Beans,
Peas, Buckwheat and Flax, with a variety of Roots, Grasses, and
Hortulan Plants.

The fruits are Apples, Plums, Cherries, Currants, Gooseberries,
Cranberries, Blue and Black Berries, Raspberries, Strawberries, and
small Grapes, with a number of small wild fruits. Butter Nuts, a large
oily nut, Beech Nuts, and Hazel Nuts are found in different parts of
the country in abundance, and in many places serve for fattening hogs;
particularly the Beech Nut, which after the severe frosts in the fall
nearly cover the ground.

There are no disorders peculiar to the climate. The air throughout most
part of the year is very pure and the inhabitants in general enjoy a
good share of health. Whether the observations that have been made of
the Americans sooner decaying than Europeans will apply to the
inhabitants of New-Brunswick cannot yet be ascertained; as the Province
has not been long enough settled; but there is good reason to believe
that with temperance and care the human frame will exist as long in
vigor in the latter as in Europe.--Another remark as a proof of the
former has been made which is that the human mind sooner arrives to
maturity in America than in Europe; but this if true may be more owing
to accidental than physical causes.

Their earlier marriages likewise proves nothing as they arise from the
peculiar circumstances of the different countries.

The inhabitants of New-Brunswick may be classed as follows according to
priority of settlement.

1st. The Aborigines or Indians.

2d. Acadians, being the descendants of the French who were allowed to
remain in Nova-Scotia after it was ceded to the British. They were
called the French neutrals--their descendants are at present settled in
different parts of the Province and are considerably numerous and will
be noticed with the Indians hereafter.

The old Inhabitants, were those families who were settled in the
Province before the conclusion of the American revolution, as already
noticed. They were so called by the disbanded troops and refugees who
came to the country in 1783, and the appellation is still applied to
their descendants. Some of those were settled at Maugerville where they
had made considerable improvements before the loyalists came to the
country. A few of the old stock are still living, having attained to a
great age. Their descendants are however numerous, and by
intermarriages with the new comers, spread over every part of the

The next and most numerous class of inhabitants are the descendants of
the Loyalists who came to the Province at the conclusion of the
American revolution, and whose sufferings I have already slightly
noticed.--These are the descendants of those genuine patriots who
sacrificed their property and comfort in the United States for their
attachment to that Government under which they drew their first breath;
and came to this Province (at that period a wilderness) to transmit
those blessings to their posterity. For although many of them belonged
to the army and were sent here to be disbanded, they had formerly been
comfortably settled in the States; and when it came to the trying point
whether they should forsake their homes or abandon their King, the
former was preferred without hesitation, although many of them had
young families and the choice was made at the risk of life, and also
with the change of habit from the peaceful yeoman to the bustle of a
camp.--As however the choice was made with promptness so it was
persevered in with constancy.

The other inhabitants are emigrants from different parts of Europe. In
some parts they have obtained allotments of land and are settled a
number of families together, in other places again they are intermixed
with the other settlers and by intermarriages, &c. are assimilating as
one people: proving themselves in many instances, good subjects, and
valuable members of society.

The last class that I shall notice are the people of Colour, or
Negroes.--These are found in considerable numbers in different parts of
the Province. In some parts a number of families are settled together
as farmers; but they do not make good settlers, being of a volatile
disposition, much addicted to dissipation; they are impatient of
labour, and in general fitter for performing menial offices about
houses as domestics, than the more important, but laborious duties of
farmers.--In their persons, the inhabitants of New-Brunswick are well
made, tall and athletic. There are but few of those born in the
country, but what have attained to a larger growth than their parents.

The genius of these people differ greatly from Europeans--the human
mind in new countries left to itself exerts its full energy; hence in
America where man has in most cases to look to himself for the supply
of his wants, his mind expands, and possesses resources within itself
unknown to the inhabitants of old settled countries, or populous
cities. In New-Brunswick, a man with his axe and a few other simple
tools, provides himself with a house and most of his implements of
husbandry,--and while a European would consider himself as an outcast,
he feels perfectly at home in the depth of the forest. In new countries
likewise the mind acquires those ideas of self-importance and
independence so peculier to Americans. For the man who spends the
greater part of his time alone in the forest, as free as the beasts
that range it without controul, his wants but simple and those supplied
from day to day by his own exertions, acquires totally different habits
of acting and thinking, from the great mass of the people in crowded
cities, who finding themselves pressed on all sides, and depending on
others from day to day for precarious support, are confirmed in habits
of dependence.

Hence the inhabitants of this Province are men who possess much native
freedom in their manners. This, from their veneration to their King
makes them faithful subjects and good citizens, not blindly passive,
but from affection adhering to that Government under which they drew
their first breath and under which they have been reared.

In noticing the state of religion in this Province, it may not be amiss
to observe that the old inhabitants who came originally from
New-England, where the genius of their church government was
republican, were generally Calvinistic in their modes and doctrine;
while the loyalists and others who came to the country in 1783, were
generally Churchmen, Quakers, or Methodists. The Emigrants who have
come since that period include all the above denominations.

The Church of England is in a flourishing state in this Province; there
are nineteen Clergymen belonging to the establishment who are under the
jurisdiction of the Bishop of Nova-Scotia. Many of them have handsome
churches with numerous congregations. Two of them are employed as
Itinerants for the vacant districts of the Province, and several of the
others serve two or more Parishes--An Ecclesiastical Commissary has the
superintendence of the whole.

The Catholics have a few Chapels and appear to be on the increase.
Their congregations are chiefly composed of Emigrant Irish, French, and
Indians.--There are six Clergymen in the Province, some of whom are
settled and others are employed as Missionaries among the scattered
French and Indians.

There are but two Ministers of the Kirk of Scotland in the Province;
they have handsome churches in Saint John and St. Andrews. There are
however a number of Seceders from the Presbyterian form of Church
Government, but all holding the doctrines of Calvin; several of them
have commodious places of worship, and respectable congregations.

There are no places of worship belonging to the Quakers in this
Province. There are however, a few of these primitive worshippers
scattered through the country, who joining sincerity and honesty with
plainness, are excellent members of society.

The Methodists are a numerous and respectable body of people. There are
four Wesleyan Missionaries in this Province, with a number of Methodist
Preachers, who although not immediately in connection with the
Missionaries, adhere strictly to the old Methodist discipline and
doctrine; and usually attend the Conferences, which are held once a
year, either in Nova-Scotia or New-Brunswick; where the Missionaries
for the two Provinces and the adjacent Islands assemble to arrange the
different stations of their Preachers and regulate the affairs temporal
and spiritual of that body. At these conferences young Preachers are
admitted on trial, and probationers who have laboured four years in the
Ministry to the satisfaction of the Conference, are taken into full

The Baptists are the descendants of those followers of Mr. WHITFIELD,
who formerly were very numerous under the denomination of New-Lights.
About 25 or 30 years ago, a change in their forms and discipline took
place among the leaders in Nova-Scotia, who adopted the mode of
Baptizing only Adults, and the other tenets of the old Baptists whose
name they also assumed. There are however a few of the New-Lights still
scattered through the country, who carrying the levelling spirit into
their religion, do not like order of any kind. They style themselves
Baptists, Christians, &c. The Baptists on the contrary have a formula
of faith comprised in seventeen articles, and are very strict in church
government. They are a numerous class of people, and have several fine
Chapels; they have however but few settled Ministers, not having as yet
made sufficient provision to supply their members with a stated
Ministry. They regulate their affairs by an annual association.

In general a desire for the christian Ministry is increasing in the
Province.--Places of worship are erecting in most of the settlements,
and such other provision for the support of the Gospel provided as the
abilities of the settlers will admit.

The Government of New-Brunswick, like most of the British Colonies, is
Royal and a miniature of the parent state. The other forms originally
established in the Colonies and Plantations were charter and
proprietory governments, which of late years have mostly given place to
royal or monarchial governments, after the British model.

The Governor has a Council consisting of twelve Members, to assist him
in the discharge of the executive duties of his station. These with the
representatives from the different Counties constitute the Provincial

The principal Courts established in the Province are the following.--

The Court of Chancery, which is a Prerogative Court, as well as a Court
of Equity. The Lieutenant-Governor, or Commander-in-Chief is
Chancellor, and the Justices of the Supreme Court Assignees.

The Court of Governor and Council, for hearing and determining Causes
relating to Marriage and Divorce.

The Supreme Court of Judicature for the Province is held in
Fredericton. It consists of the Chief Justice and three Assistant
Judges. The Terms are the third Tuesday of February and May, and the
second Tuesday of July and October. The Jurisdiction of this Court is
very extensive, partaking of the power of the Courts of King's Bench,
Exchequer, Common Pleas, and other Courts in England. All civil causes
of importance and capital cases are determined in this Court. The
present Chief Justice SAUNDERS, who presides in this Court, the reader
will observe, was a Member of the first Council in the Province. He has
ever since been actively employed in the first stations in the country,
which he has filled with the greatest ability and integrity. He is the
only survivor capable of filling a public station among all those who
bore a share in the public concerns of the Province on its first
erection into a separate Government under Governor CARLETON. The salary
of the Chief Justice is £700 or £750 sterling. The other Justices have
each £500 sterling per annum. The Justices, besides attending the
Supreme Court at the Seat of Government, hold Circuit Courts in the
different Counties.

The Inferior Court of Common Pleas consists of two, three, or more
Justices, who preside occasionally. They are assisted by the
Magistrates of the County. Here civil causes that do not involve
property to a great amount are determined, as are also crimes and
misdemeanors not affecting life. The Grand Inquest of the County
attends this Court, when Bills of Indictment are found, which if
involving matters above its Jurisdiction, are handed over to the
Supreme Court for trial. Most of the Police of the Counties and
Parishes is regulated by this Court, which is held half-yearly or
quarterly in the several Counties, as the public business may require.
Here the parish officers are appointed, parish and county taxes
apportioned; the accounts from the different parishes audited;
retailers and innkeepers licensed and regulated, &c. In short, this
Court exercises in many respects the same powers in the several
Counties, in regard to their internal police, as those that are
exercised by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of incorporated

Besides these Courts there is a summary mode of recovering debts under
five pounds before a single Magistrate.

The Legislature of New-Brunswick, like most of the British Colonies, is
a miniature of the British Parliament, consisting of the
Lieutenant-Governor, the Council, and House of Representatives. The
Governor represents the King. The Council form the upper House, in
humble imitation of the House of Lords in England; and the
Representatives from the different Counties forming the lower House, or
House of Assembly. The number of Representatives for the several
Counties is as follows: For the Counties of St. John, Westmorland,
Charlotte, and York, four each; the Counties of King's, Queen's,
Sunbury and Northumberland, two each; and two for the City of St. John,
making in all twenty-six. This representation, the reader will observe,
is very unequal. The County of Saint John, which includes the City,
having two more members than the extensive County of York, which
includes the Seat of Government; and the County of Sunbury, which is
not as large as some parishes in the other counties, has as many
members as the County of Northumberland, which comprises over one-third
of the Province. It must indeed be admitted that Saint John and Sunbury
are far better settled than Northumberland; but when we look at the
great extent of the latter, the numerous settlements and great trade in
that part of the Province, we must allow that the inhabitants of that
part of the country have not an equal share of what may be considered
the bulwark of liberty--namely, a fair representation. Six members at
least, would not be out of proportion for that large County.

The Assembly sits in the winter at Fredericton: the sessions continue
from six to seven weeks. Its chief business is in managing the
provincial revenue, providing for schools, roads, &c. and making such
laws as the state and trade of the Province may from time to time
require. When laws are enacted that interfere with Acts of Parliament,
they are transmitted to the King, with a suspending clause, and are not
in force until they receive the royal approbation.


_Climate. Produce._

As New-Brunswick lies in nearly the same parallel of latitude as Paris,
Vienna, and other places in Europe, it would be natural to suppose the
climate would be similar to those places; but it must be observed that
cold is found to predominate on the continent of America. Hence in
places under the same parallels, the differences between the old and
new continents, with regard to cold, is very great, and this difference
increases as you advance from the equator. This has been supposed by
Dr. Robertson and others to arise from the western situation of
America, and its approaching the pole nearer than Europe or Asia, and
from the immense continent stretching from the St. Lawrence towards the
pole and to the westward; and also from the enormous chain of mountains
which extend to an unknown distance through that frozen region, covered
with eternal snow and frost; over which the wind in its passage
acquires that piercing keenness which is felt as far as the Gulf of
Mexico, but more severely in the Canadas, New-Brunswick, and

The prevailing winds, from October to April, are from the north and
north-west, during most of which period the air, though frequently
intensely keen, is clear and healthy. December is a temperate, pleasant
winter month. In January the heavy falls of snow commence, and the
drifting storms prevail chiefly in February and March; but these are
not so frequent as formerly, and the major part of the winter is clear,
hard weather.

In April the spring commences, and the winds are chiefly from the east
north-east, which occasion dull, heavy weather. The rivers, lakes, and
streams break up this month. As May advances, the weather becomes
settled, and the mornings are uncommonly fine. The sun, which rises a
little after four o'clock, diffuses his beams in full splendor through
an unclouded sky. This is the usual month for sowing and planting on
the high land. The intervale and low lands are generally later in
drying, and are generally cultivated in June. The prevailing winds in
the summer are from the south and south-west, veering at times to the
eastward, but never continuing long to the north-west. In the first
part of June the cold is considerable at night, frequently attended
with frosts, particularly at the changes of the moon, which sometimes
injure the early flowering fruits; and it is not till after the summer
solstice that the night air loses its chilliness. This is no doubt
occasioned by the snow, which lies undissolved in the deep recesses of
the forest, as well as by the waters of the numerous rivers, lakes, &c.
all which are swoln at this season; and by the cold acquired by the
earth during the winter, which requires the full effect of the sun's
influence, till late in June, before it is sufficiently heated. As soon
as the earth is so thoroughly warmed that the nights lose their chill,
vegetation becomes surprisingly rapid. In a few days, plants that
appeared yellow and stunted, assume a deep green, and show a vigorous
growth; and in less than a week, should a shower intervene, the face of
the country exhibits the most luxurious vegetation, sufficient to
astonish those who have only been familiar with temperate climates.

September is a pleasant month: the air is serene and pure. The rivers
and streams are usually lower this month than at any other period
during the year, and the dry weather frequently continues till late in
October. Snow falls sometimes early in November, and lays till late in
April; but this does not always hold. The rivers and lakes freeze up
about the middle of this month, some sooner and others later, according
to their situation. It is not uncommon to have frost in all the months
in the year except July: for, as was observed before, it seldom escapes
at the changes of the moon in June, and it frequently happens at the
full in August, particularly on small streams. If, however, it passes
that period, it generally keeps off till late in September. A stranger
would naturally conclude from this account, that the season was too
short and frosty for crops to come to maturity; but this is not the
case. Roots come to perfection and grain gets ripe in most years; wheat
being oftener hurt by the rust than the frost. The springs are indeed
backward; but vegetation is exceeding rapid, and the autumns are
uncommonly fine. The changes of the weather are frequently very sudden.
Often in the space of two hours, (in the seasons of fall and spring,)
changing from the mild temperature of September to the rigor of winter.
This is chiefly occasioned by the wind: for while it blows from any of
the points from the S.W. to the N.E. the air is mild; but when it veers
from the N.E. to the N.W. it becomes cold and clear; and as it
frequently shifts very suddenly, the transition from heat to cold is
equally short. Even in the sultry month of July, whenever the wind
changes for a few hours to the N.W. the air becomes cool, elastic, and
invigorating. This, as was before noticed, is occasioned by its passing
over the immense continent to the northwestward, and Hudson's Bay to
the northward. On the contrary, when the winds are from the southward
and S.E. they are mild and relaxing, retaining a portion of the heat
acquired in the torrid zone. The changes, however, are not always so
violent. The weather often both in winter and summer, continues for
weeks with little alteration in the temperature, and changes
imperceptibly. The coldest weather generally felt in the country, is on
or near the full moon in January; for it is not till after the cold has
had some time to exert its full influence and chill the earth, that the
full rigor of winter is experienced. The same is the case with the
greatest heat in summer, being in July, after the sun has for some time
exerted his full influence on the earth.--From observations made by
several persons, it is well understood that a gradual change has been
taking place in the climate on the American continent within a century
past. The change in this Province since 1783, has been very great--the
summers having abated much of their former heat, and the winters grown
proportionately milder. Neither are there such excessive droughts in
summer, as formerly; the seasons being cooler, with more rain; neither
does the snow accumulate to such a depth on the earth. This may arise
not so much from a less quantity falling, as from the frequent thaws
which now take place in the winter season.

For several years prior to 1816, the seasons had been growing gradually
cooler--less warmth being felt on a mean in each succeeding year till
1816, when the cold appeared to have arrived at its acme; for in that
year it appeared to predominate: from whatever cause has not yet been
ascertained. Some ascribed it to spots on the sun's disc; others
supposed that large masses of ice had been detached from the shores of
Greenland, and floated so near America as to occasion the uncommon
chill of the air,--with other conjectures of a like nature, totally
unsatisfactory. For spots have frequently been observed on the sun, and
it would require an immense quantity of ice to produce any permanent
effect.--Whatever might have been the cause, it is certain the genial
warmth of the sun appeared nearly lost: for when shining in meridian
splendour in the months of June and July, a cold rigorous air was felt.
There was a fall of snow, which was general over the Province and
extended to the United States, on the 7th June, to the depth of three
or four inches in the northern parts of the country. This was followed
by severe frosts in every month in that year. The crops were very
light: fields of wheat were totally destroyed. Even the never failing
potatoe was chilled and did not yield half a crop.

After this year the seasons began slowly to improve; but the shock
given to agriculture, by the failure of several crops, brought great
distress on the poor, and gave a check to the prosperity of the
Province. So great was the distress of the country, that the
Legislature applied £6,000 to be laid out in seed and provisions, and
advanced to such as were in want on a credit. For a few years back the
seasons have been favorable to agriculture; but the extremes of heat
and cold in winter and summer are not so great, and the rains are more
generally diffused through the year than formerly.

I have been thus particular in noticing the changes of the seasons, as
I think it would be a great advantage to the Province if a correct
register of the weather was kept, and the changes of the seasons
particularly attended to, as it would furnish data to guide the farmer
in his crops, by sowing more of the hardy grains, such as oats, barley,
peas, &c. as the seasons, (judging by a comparison with former years)
was likely to be warm or frosty; and not running so much on Indian
corn, which always requires hot seasons. Had this been attended to in
the cold seasons, less distress would have been felt in the country, as
oats, barley, &c. generally did well, when the other crops failed.

As I observed before, several causes have been assigned for the
difference between the climate of Europe and America, by persons who
have investigated that subject. But the causes of the alteration that
has taken place in the seasons in North America, remain yet a
desideratum with the learned. Whether the alteration is occasioned by
the precession of the equinoxes, or by the position of our globe with
the other planets, (for changes no doubt are taking place in the great
system of the universe, which, though slow, must produce powerful
effects,) or from whatever cause it may be, the effects are visible,
and cannot reasonably be wholly ascribed to the improvement of the
country, or any alteration that has taken place in it.

New-Brunswick appears to be but little liable to the great convulsions
of nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, &c. There has
been but one shock of an earthquake experienced by the present
inhabitants since they have settled the country. This shock happened on
the 22d May, 1817, at 25 minutes past three o'clock in the morning. The
duration of the shock was about 45 seconds. It was attended with the
usual rumbling noise, without thunder, the weather being very serene
and pleasant. The appearances, however, usually indicating earthquakes,
such as fiery meteors, the uncommon brilliancy of the aurora borealis,
&c. had been frequent the winter preceding.

I shall now proceed to notice the principal grains, roots, and grasses
cultivated in the Province, and give as correct an account of their
produce, &c. as the imperfect state of the agriculture of the country
will allow.

Wheat is sown from five pecks to two bushels to an acre, and yields
from twelve to twenty-four bushels per acre. Twenty bushels is a good
crop, on new land, although it sometimes produces more, when the soil
is very rich and the season favourable. On old land the return is from
ten to fifteen bushels per acre, the mean is about twelve. Rye is grown
on inferior lands. It takes about the same quantity of seed to the
acre, and gives much the same returns.

Oats are much cultivated in this country, and generally turn out a good
crop. The quantity of seed is from two to three bushels, and the
produce from twenty to thirty bushels per acre. Barley is not much
cultivated, although it would do well as a substitute in frosty

Buckwheat is a grain that gives a large return for the quantity sown.
It is raised on lands that are too poor to produce good crops of the
other grains, and sown later in the season, so that the greatest summer
heat may be past before the grain is formed in the ear; for should
there be a few very hot days when the grain is in the milk, the crop
would be destroyed. The same would be the case, if a slight frost
should strike it in that stage. If, however, it escapes these
casualties, to which it is liable, it turns out a good crop, yielding
from forty to sixty bushels to an acre. There is a species of wild
Buckwheat, which is a surer crop, but of an inferior quality.

Millet has lately been introduced into the Province. It is said to do
well on most lands, but has not been much attended to.

Indian Corn or Maize, flourishes in high perfection on the intervales,
which are generally composed of alluvial soil. It is usually planted in
hills nearly four feet asunder. Five grains is the usual quantity for a
hill. It is a plant that requires a light rich soil, old manure, and
hot seasons; should these requisites concur, a good crop may be
expected. It is usually hoed thrice, and produces from twenty-five to
forty bushels per acre.

Pease are a hardy grain, and produce from ten to fifteen bushels to an

Beans are usually set in drills; they thrive well on light sandy lands,
but are not much cultivated in the country.

Among the ground crops or roots, the most valuable is the Potatoe--a
root that can never be sufficiently prized, as affording one of the
most productive and surest substitutes for bread of any known, and
without which it would have been extremely difficult to have colonized
these Provinces. This may be reckoned the surest crop, and is
peculiarly well adapted to new countries, as it thrives best on new
burnt land. The usual and simplest method of cultivating this root is
by planting cuttings of it in hills, about three feet asunder. This
method is peculiarly convenient on land newly cut down, as the seed is
set with the hoe between the stumps and roots with which the ground is
covered, and where the plough or harrow could be of no service. They
are generally hoed once in the season, and turn out in the fall a large
crop of clean, smooth potatoes, of a superior flavour to those grown on
old lands. The produce is from 150 to 200 bushels from an acre;
although they sometimes greatly exceed that quantity.--They are an
excellent crop for improving new lands; for as the culture is all
performed with the hoe or hack, the small roots of the stumps are
destroyed in planting and digging; for wherever there is room to drop
an eye, it never fails to vegetate, working under roots and around
stones, so that in the autumn the farmer has frequently to cut away or
dig under roots for his crop, which often exceeds his expectation. In
some parts of the Province, where the lands have been long in
cultivation, drilling is practised, and the labour chiefly performed
with the plough and harrow; and of late the Irish method of setting
them in beds has been introduced. There are many varieties of this root
cultivated in the Province; but no attention has been paid to renewing
the seed from the ball, which no doubt would improve the quality as
well as the produce.

Several kinds of Turnips are cultivated in this Province; the best of
which is the ruta-baga, or Swedish turnip. This is an excellent root
and cultivated with great success, particularly on new lands. They
differ from the common field turnip, being of a firm texture they keep
the year round; while the common turnip turns soft and unfit for use
after the winter sets in. They, however, answer a good purpose for
early use and for cattle, being sown late in July, after the other
crops are out of the way. The Swedish turnip is sown early in June. All
the sowing in this country is broad-cast, the method of drilling being
scarcely known.

The other roots are, beets, carrots, parsnips, onions, radishes, &c.
which are chiefly cultivated in gardens. There are a variety of
cabbages, sallads, cauliflowers, squashes, &c. which are also
cultivated in the gardens with great success.

The principal grasses produced in the country, are white and red
clover, timothy, lucerne, browntop, &c. Good uplands produce one and a
half tons per acre, and the intervale from two to three tons. There are
several species of wild grass, such as blue-joint, &c. found in
meadows, in the woods, and along streams, which make very good food for
young stock.

As no regular catalogue of the various species of indigenous plants has
yet been made in this country, it would be useless to attempt anything
like a correct, minute enumeration of them in this concise sketch. I
shall, therefore, prosecute this part of the subject no farther, as I
think the time is not far distant when this branch of the rural economy
of the Province will be particularly attended to; and that the
Societies which have lately been formed for that purpose, will not only
develope and improve the native productions of the country, but
introduce different species of exotics, as they find them answer the
soil and climate.



_River St. Croix. St. John. Miramichi. Mars-Hill. City of St. John.
Fredericton. St. Andrews._

Having in the preceding chapters given a brief sketch of the settlement
and face of the country, and noticed its climate, productions, &c. I
shall now proceed to give a short description of the principal rivers,
mountains, and towns, beginning with the


This river was made the boundary between the territories of His
Britannic Majesty and the United States, by the treaty of 1783 which
describes the bounds as follows, viz. "That angle, which is formed by a
line drawn due north from the source of the St. Croix river to the
Highlands, along the said Highlands which divide these rivers that
empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which fall into
the Atlantic Ocean to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut river;
thence down along the middle of that river to the 45th degree of north
latitude, from thence by a line due west on said latitude until it
strikes the river Iroquois, or Cataraquy," &c.

The boundaries thus described, have caused considerable difficulty
between the two Governments, in discovering which is the height of land
mentioned in the treaty; and in regard to the St. Croix, it is supposed
that the British Commissioners were totally unacquainted with the river
in question, and not aware that the lines proposed, if run according to
the American construction of the treaty, would separate the British
Provinces of New-Brunswick and Canada. It is also probable that it was
not precisely known at that time what river was meant by the St. Croix,
but that another river, more to the westward, might have been intended.
This uncertainty about the rivers at that time might have arisen from
the general name of St. Croix, which was given by Europeans to all the
rivers falling into the Bay of Fundy, occasioned by the French on their
first landing in the country, having erected crosses at different
points, and named the places from that circumstance, the country of the
Holy Cross. However it may have happened, difficulties ensued in
ascertaining the precise Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy belonging
to each power, and the Highlands meant by the treaty of 1783. This
induced the Commissioners of the two Powers at the treaty of Ghent to
provide against any misunderstanding on these points for the future, by
the fourth and fifth articles of that treaty. The fifth article,
bearing particularly on this point, states that "Whereas neither that
point of the Highlands, lying due north from the source of the river
St. Croix, designated in the former treaty of peace between the two
powers, as the north-west angle of Nova-Scotia, nor the
northwesternmost head of Connecticut river, have yet been ascertained:
and whereas that part of the boundary line between the dominions of the
two powers, which extends from the source of the river St. Croix,
directly north to the above-mentioned north-west angle of Nova-Scotia,
thence along the said Highlands which divide those rivers that empty
themselves into the St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the
Atlantic ocean to the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river,
thence down along the middle of that river to the 45th degree of north
latitude, thence by a line due west on said latitude, until it strikes
the river Iroquois or Cataraquy, has not yet been surveyed, it is
agreed that for these several purposes two Commissioners shall be
appointed, sworn, and authorized, to act exactly in the manner directed
with respect to those mentioned in the next preceding article, unless
otherwise specified in the present article. The said Commissioners
shall meet at St. Andrews, in the Province of New-Brunswick, and shall
have power to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think
fit. The said Commissioners shall have power to ascertain and determine
the points above-mentioned, in conformity with the provisions of the
said treaty of peace of 1783, and shall cause the boundaries aforesaid,
from the source of the river St. Croix to the river Iroquois or
Cataraquy to be surveyed and marked according to the said provisions:
the Commissioners shall make a map of the said boundary, and annex to
it a declaration under their hands and seals, certifying it to be the
true map of the said boundary, and particularizing the latitude and
longitude of the north-west angle of Nova-Scotia, of the
north-westernmost head of Connecticut river, and of such other points
of the said boundary as they may deem proper. And both parties agree to
consider such map and declaration as finally and conclusively fixing
the said boundary. And in the event of the said Commissioners differing
or both or either of them refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting to
act, such reports, declarations, or statements shall be made by them,
or either of them, and such reference to a friendly sovereign or state
shall be made in all respects, as in the latter part of the fourth
article is contained."--The fourth article here alluded to provides
that "such sovereign or state shall decide ex-parte upon the said
report alone, and His Britannic Majesty and the Government of the
United States engage to consider the decision of such friendly
sovereign or state to be final and conclusive on all matters to them
referred."--Notwithstanding these precautions on the part of the Agents
of the two Governments, the points alluded to are not yet ascertained
or settled.

But to resume the description of the river. The St. Croix has two main
branches, one inclines to the eastward, and communicates with a chain
of lakes, some of which are of considerable extent, and lie near a
branch of the Penobscot river. The other turns to the westward. From
this branch there is a route by a succession of lakes and short
portages to the waters that fall into the river St. John. The lands on
the banks of this river are of good quality, and have been well
timbered; most of the pine has been cut off, but there is still
abundance of other timber, consisting of the harder woods, spruce,
firs, &c. There are mills erected on different parts of this river,
which furnish a great quantity of sawed lumber annually.

There are several falls in the river, which obstruct the navigation.
There are, however, several fine settlements along its banks, and the
adjoining country is first improving.


This noble river encircles a large portion of New-Brunswick, and may be
considered as the principal drain of those numerous rivers and streams
with which the Province is intersected. Winding in an irregular
semi-circle, it traverses an extent of about five hundred miles, and
falls into the Bay of Fundy nearly in the same parallel of latitude in
which it takes its rise.

It may not be improper to observe, that most of the rivers and streams
in this country were originally named by the Indians, who generally, by
the names they give, wish to signify something peculiar to the thing
named; consequently the Indian name of this river, which they call
"Looshtook," signifies long river.--It rises from lakes near the head
of Connecticut river, between the 45th and 46th degrees of north
latitude, and stretches to the northward, beyond the 47th degree of
north latitude, where it receives the waters of the Madawaska river,
which rises near the St. Lawrence. It then inclines to the southward,
and continues its course uninterrupted, receiving several large
streams, till it arrives at the Grand Falls, in lat. 46° 54'. Here its
channel is broken by a chain of rocks, which run across the river at
this place, over which its waters are precipitated with resistless
impetuosity. The river, just above the cataract, makes a short bend of
nearly a right angle, forming a small bay a few rods above the
precipice, in which there is an eddy, which makes it a safe landing
place, although very near the main precipice, where canoes pass with
the greatest safety. Immediately below this bay, the river suddenly
contracts. A point of rocks project from the western shore and narrow
the channel to the width of a few rods. The waters thus pent up sweep
over the rugged bottom with great rapidity; just before they reach the
main precipice they rush down a descent of some feet, and rebound in
foam from a bed of rocks on the edge of the fall. They are then
precipitated down perpendicular cliffs of about forty-five feet in
height, into an abyss studded with rocks, which nearly choke the
passage, leaving only a small opening in the centre, through which the
water, after whirling for some time in the bason, rushes with
tremendous impetuosity, sweeping through a broken rocky channel and a
succession of falls for more than half a mile, being closely pent up
with rocks, which in some places overhang the river so as to hide most
part of it from the view of the observer. Trees and timber, which are
carried down the falls, are sometimes whirled round in the bason below
the precipice till they are ground to pieces; sometimes their ends are
tapered to a point, and at other times broken or crushed in different
places. Below the falls there is another small bay with a good depth of
still water, very convenient for collecting timber, &c. after it has
escaped through the falls. Here the canoes and boats from Fredericton
and different parts of the river land, and if bound for Madawaska they
are taken out of the water and carried or drawn, as well as their
loads, across the isthmus to the small bay above the falls before
mentioned, where they are again put in the water, and proceed without
any farther interruption to the upper settlements and the Canada line.
The distance of the portage, including the windings of the road up the
hill is about 100 rods from water to water. Flat bottomed boats, from
fifteen to twenty tons burthen, can come from St. John to this place,
which is a distance of about two hundred and twenty-three miles. No
larger craft than canoes have as yet been used above the falls. This
has not arisen from any defect in the river, which above the falls is
smooth and of sufficient depth for large vessels; but from the habits
of the French settlers, who are partial to canoes, which they set
through the rapids with poles at a great rate, and with which they
shoot the cataracts and rapids with great address.

About a mile below the landing place a succession of rapids commence.
The first from their appearance are called the white rapids. The banks
are here every high, and the water being pent up by a narrow channel,
rushes through the beds of rocks which nearly cross the river, and
whirling about in their passage are forced over and around the crags in
sheets of foam. A few miles below the falls the river is increased by
the junction of the Salmon, Restook, and Tobique rivers, which will be
noticed hereafter. It then continues its course without interruption,
receiving every few miles some considerable streams, till it reaches
the Maductic Falls. Its course is nearly south, and its width about a
quarter of a mile, occasionally widening and contracting from the Grand
Falls to Woodstock, where it widens to near a mile and forms several
fine Islands. It afterwards diminishes, and strips of intervale narrow
its bed.

At the Maductic Falls its channel is again nearly choked up with rocks.
The navigation, however, is not totally interrupted, for rafts, boats,
and small craft in their descent are run through the falls by persons
well acquainted with the channel; and in their ascent they are towed
through with men or horses, and but few accidents happen, considering
the numbers that navigate the river.

As the bed of the river is frequently encumbered with rocks and
sand-bars, the navigation is very difficult at the dry time of the
year. The current is likewise swift in many places, and rapids are
frequent, till within six miles of Fredericton, where they end.

About nine miles above Fredericton the river suddenly widens and
receives the Madam-Keswick. Here is a group of fertile islands, some of
which are over a mile in length, and nearly as broad. At Fredericton
the river is about three quarters of a mile wide, and flows with a
beautiful unbroken current to the falls near the City of Saint John.--A
number of fine Islands are scattered in different parts of its bed.
These Islands are composed of rich alluvial soil, and produce large
crops of grass and grain. Being formed by the washings of the river,
they are like garden spots scattered through the country. About nine
miles from St. John the river widens into a bay nearly six miles long
and three wide. The river Kennebeckasis falls into this bay. At the
foot of the bay it suddenly contracts, and winds through a crooked
passage called the narrows, and again opens and forms a small bay
directly above the falls. Here the current is again broken by a bed of
rocks, and suddenly contracted by the near approach of the banks which
appear to have been formerly united and forced asunder by some
convulsion of nature. From the appearance of the rocks on each side it
is probable that the water having been pent up in the small bay just
noticed, have in their efforts to escape undermined the land and rocks
at this place, and forced a subterraneous passage, which by wearing,
aided by some violent concussion, has caused the rocks to fall in, when
the earth being washed away by the rapidity of the current, has left
the present passage open, and that the split-rock and the bed of the
channel is part of the former overhanging rocks.

For that the bed of the channel consists of cragged rocks of various
shapes and sizes, is evident from the whirlpools and eddies at that
place. These falls make a tremendous roaring at certain periods. After
passing the falls, it forms the harbour of St. John, and falls into the
Bay of Fundy in lat. 45° 20' N.

The spring tides at St. John rise from twenty-four to twenty-eight
feet. The body of the river is seventeen and a half feet above low
water mark. When the tide has flowed twelve feet, the falls are smooth
and passable from fifteen to twenty minutes. They are level three and a
half hours on the flood, and two and a half on the ebb, and passable
four times in twenty-four hours. Above the falls the tides rise four
feet. At Maugerville, seventy miles up the river, they rise from one to
two feet; at Fredericton from six to ten inches, and are perceivable
nine miles above that place, varying according to the phases of the
moon. In the spring, the river, swoln with rains and the melting of the
snow and ice, rises higher than the tides, which prevents vessels from
ascending the falls for some weeks.


This is one of the finest rivers for lumber in the Province. Its banks
as well as the banks of the numerous streams that fall into it, are
covered with pines of the finest growth, which appear to be almost
inexhaustable, for although lumbering has been prosecuted on this river
to a great extent for a number of years past, there is still abundance
found by going a little back from the water. It is indeed the main
source of the trade of the large County of Northumberland. One hundred
and forty-one thousand three hundred and eighty-four tons of timber
were shipped at the port of Miramichi in 1824. Rafts are taken down
this river with the greatest safety to the shipping, which load at
different places from the mouth of the river up to Fraser's Island. It
has two main branches called the north-west and south-west, which run a
great way into the country, and with their numerous streams lay open
the inmost recesses of this extensive County. Several fine islands lay
in the course of this river, covered with elm, ash, butternut, &c.
which invariably denote the most luxurious soil. Its waters are well
stored with excellent salmon and other fish, which are caught here in
great abundance. There are several settlements along this river, none
of which merit a particular description, the improvement of the country
being neglected for lumbering. The branches of this river approach in
several places very near to streams falling into the river St. John,
which communicate by short portages. As I have never been able to
procure correct information about the sources of this river or its
length, I have not the means of satisfying the reader on these points,
but must dismiss the subject with these few particulars, being all I
could obtain.

As was observed in the commencement of this work, this country is so
intersected with rivers, streams, and lakes, that with small portages
persons can go to most parts of the Province in a canoe. There is a
route from the Madawaska river to the Bay of Chaleur, and another from
the river St. John by the Grand River, which is fifteen miles above the
Great Falls, to the Ristagouche. The river Chicktahawk, which falls
into the St. John near the Presque-Isle, runs near a branch of the
Miramichi; a short portage connects the route. The route from the St.
Croix to the St. John is first by a chain of lakes with short portages,
and next by Eel river, which falls into the St. John about fifty miles
above Fredericton. There is another route from the St. John to the
Miramichi, by the way of the Jemseg, through the Grand Lake and up
Salmon river, from whence there is a short portage to the river Etienne
which falls into the Miramichi; with several other such communications
where the streams of the different large rivers nearly approach each

The Mountains and Hills with which the Province is diversified, have
nothing peculiar to merit a particular description, except Mars Hill,
which has excited considerable interest, being supposed by the British
Commissioners under the treaty of Ghent to be the height of land
intended by the treaty of 1783, and that consequently the boundary line
between the territories of the United States and the British Provinces
should take a new direction at that place. This is resisted by the
American Commissioners, who wish to prolong the line beyond that point.
This is an object of great importance to the two powers, for should the
line be continued in the old direction, which at this point approaches
very near the river St. John, it would cross that river a little above
the Grand Falls, and would not only separate New-Brunswick and Canada,
but likewise give the Americans the upper part of the County of York
which joins Canada, with a large Settlement of French at
Madawaska--Mars Hill lies about six miles from the river St. John, on
the western side, about one hundred miles above Fredericton. It can be
seen from the high lands on the opposite side of the river, and appears
at that distance majestically towering above the adjacent country. On
approaching the mountain the woods are open and the ascent commences
with an easy swell about half a mile from the main hill, after which
the ascent is more abrupt, and in some parts nearly perpendicular.
Having reached the crest, the spectator has a clear expanse of horizon,
being completely above the surrounding country. From hence he views a
boundless forest beneath his feet. The hills appear like waves covered
with their green foliage of different shades, from the various sorts of
trees with which their brows are covered. In different places the more
elevated hills appear rising above the others like towers. Facing the
river St. John, he beholds Moose Mountain at about nine miles distant
on the opposite side of the river, which is nearly as high as Mars
Hill, and perpendicular on the north side. To his left are a range of
lofty hills on the Restook; to his right he has a distant view of
Houlton-plantation, and in his rear, as far as his eye can reach, are
the lofty Catardhan Mountains on the Penobscot river; the intermediate
space exhibiting an undulating forest of boundless variety of hills and
vallies, lakes, &c. The whole forming a grand and interesting
spectacle. The Mountain is about three miles in length, very narrow,
and divided by a hollow near the centre. A small spot has been cut down
on each end of the hill, and a temporary observatory erected by the
Commissioners under the treaty of Ghent.

The Americans have laid out a settlement in this part of the country,
which takes in Mars Hill. The base of the mountain is washed by the
Presque-Isle river, and other streams which fall into the river St.

The principal Towns in New-Brunswick are SAINT JOHN, FREDERICTON, and
SAINT ANDREWS; which on account of their importance and situation will
be treated of separately. Leaving the other places to be noticed as
they occur in the description of the several Counties, I shall proceed
to give a short description of the situation, trade, public buildings,
and institutions of the places just mentioned; commencing with the


The City of St. John is situated in the county of that name, on a rocky
peninsula at the estuary of the river St. John, in lat. 45° 20´ north,
long. 66° 3´ west. The city comprehends both sides of the river. The
district on the eastern side of the harbour, formerly called the
township of Parr, and Carleton on the western side. It is divided into
six wards, two of which are in Carleton and four in St. John, properly
so called. It contains, according to the late census, 8,488 inhabitants
of all descriptions.

Like most English towns, the streets in St. John intersect each other
at right angles. They are in some parts well built up, the houses being
of different heights and joining each other for some distance, forming
several fine ranges of buildings. The first houses in this place were
constructed of wood, many of them were low and ill shaped. These when
removed by fires or other causes, are generally replaced with handsome
brick buildings, which is making a great improvement in the appearance
of the city. The streets, likewise, which were formerly nearly
impassable from rocks, hills and chasms, are rapidly improving; hollows
have been filled up, and rocks cut away; so that although the hills in
some parts are still steep, yet carriages drive through most part of
the city with the greatest safety.

A projecting point near the entrance of the harbour, has caused the
different parts of the city to be distinguished by the name of the
upper and lower coves; the latter of which has been much neglected till
lately, Government having built a handsome range of Barracks on the
point fronting the Bay of Fundy, and removed the troops, &c. from Fort
Howe to that station, it is beginning to improve.

Most all the trade of the city is carried on in the upper part of the
town, where there are a number of warehouses, stores, wharves, and
other conveniences for lading and unlading ships. The tides rise to
such a height that large ships can lay at the wharves and discharge
with the greatest safety.

The harbour is convenient and safe, and capable of containing a great
number of vessels of the largest description. Partridge Island lies at
the entrance, on which there is a light house, and signal station,
where signals are carefully attended to and made on the first approach
of vessels. These signals are repeated at Fort Howe. Within the island
there is a bar which extends from the western side, and passes the
lower point of the peninsula, on which the city stands. It has a beacon
on the outer end, and a buoy to direct vessels coming or going. The bar
is dry at ebb tides, but within the harbour there is sufficient water
for the largest ships. The tide ebbs and flows from sixteen to
twenty-four feet perpendicular in this harbour. A pier has been
constructed at the entrance of the harbour for the protection of the

St. John carries on a brisk trade with Europe, the West Indies and the
United States, in lumber of different descriptions, fish, gypsum,
grindstones, &c.; but the staple article is squared timber, one hundred
and fourteen thousand one hundred and sixteen tons of which were
shipped from this port in 1824. Ship-building has also been lately
revived here and prosecuted to a considerable extent. Sixty vessels
were registered at this port in 1824, whose tonnage amounted to sixteen
thousand four hundred and eighty-nine tons, besides three ships and
five brigs not in the above estimate. Part of these were built in St.
John, and the remainder up the rivers and along the coasts for
merchants in the city.

The city of St. John contains two Churches on the eastern side of the
river, one of which is neatly finished and has an elegant organ; A
handsome Kirk belonging to the members of the Church of Scotland; a
Catholic Chapel; two Methodist Chapels, one belonging to the Wesleyan
Methodists, and the other to a number of that persuasion who seceded
with Mr. Priestley, and a neat Baptist Meeting-House.--The other public
buildings are a Poor House, a Gaol, a Marine Hospital, with two
handsome ranges of Barracks lately erected at the Lower Cove, with
Government Stores, Houses, &c.

A square near York-Point, reserved for a Market, &c. has an old
building in the centre, the upper part of which has served for many
years as a Court-House, and the under part as a flesh market; a fish
and vegetable market having been lately built contiguous to it, at the
edge of high water mark, and a handsome flesh market in the Lower Cove,
which are generally well supplied. King's-square is situated on the
height of land in King-street, and is reserved for public uses. It is a
very pleasant situation commanding a fine view of the city and harbour.
It is in contemplation to erect a Court House on the East side of this
square on a liberal scale.--Queen's-square is situated in Duke's Ward,
and is also reserved for public uses.

The Public Seminaries in St. John, are a Grammar School, the Central
Madras School, and a number of Sunday Schools.

There are two Public Libraries in the City, a Vaccine Establishment,
three Printing Offices, with the following religious, humane, and
useful Societies:--

1. A Branch of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

2. The New-Brunswick Auxiliary Bible Society.

3. Saint John Sunday School Union Society.

4. Saint John Religious Tract Society.

5. Saint George's              }

6. Saint Patrick's Societies.  } Societies.

7. Saint Andrew's              }

Instituted for the purpose of aiding their respective countrymen in

8. New-Brunswick Society for the improvement of the breed of Horses and
other Cattle.

9. Female Benevolent Society, for the relief of indigent females, and a
Branch of the Wesleyan Missionary Society.

A Provincial Bank is established here with a capital of £30,000, and
increased by an Act of the Legislature in 1825 to £50,000. This Bank
has been found of considerable advantage in facilitating the trade of
the City by discounting Bills, &c. but it may more properly be called
the St. John, than the Province Bank, as it only transacts business
within the City.

A Marine Insurance Company, and a Water Company have lately been
incorporated; the latter is not yet in active operation.

Here is a Chamber of Commerce for the regulation of the trade of the
City, and a Savings' Bank for depositing the small savings of the
Laboring Classes. Carleton on the opposite side of the river is
comprehended in the limits of the City. It is situated on the point,
fronting Navy Island, and comprises the ruins of old Fort Frederick. It
contains a neat Church, and Meeting House, with several fine buildings.
It has a good fishery and is fast improving. Saint John being an
incorporated City, is governed by a Mayor, Recorder, six Aldermen, with
an equal number of Assistants, under the style of "The Mayor, Aldermen,
and Commonalty of the City of St. John." The other officers are a
Sheriff and Coroner (who likewise act for the County of St. John) a
Common Clerk, a Chamberlain, a High Constable, six inferior ones, and
two Marshals.

The Mayor, Recorder, Common Clerk, Sheriff, and Coroner, are appointed
by the Governor, and hold their offices during his pleasure from year
to year.

The Aldermen, Assistants, and inferior Constables are chosen annually
by the Freemen of the City.

The Chamberlain is appointed by the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and
Assistants, in Common Council.

The Mayor appoints the High Constable, Marshals, Cryers, Porters,
Bell-ringers, &c.

The Mayor or Recorder, with three Aldermen and three Assistants,
constitute a Common Council, with power to make Laws, Ordinances, &c.
which are to remain in force for one year only, unless confirmed by the
Governor and Council. They also constitute a Court of Record or
Inferior Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of St. John. The
terms of this Court are quarterly, and it takes cognizance of all
causes from five pounds value to fifty pounds, in which titles of land
shall not come in question: and by an Act of the Provincial
Legislature, its Jurisdiction is enlarged to all transitory actions of
any value.

It may be observed that the Mayor by virtue of his office possesses
extensive powers; such as making Free Citizens, regulating the Markets,
&c.; and that the Aldermen are Justices of the Peace for the County as
well as for the City of St. John.

The Corporation can hold real property to the amount of £2,000 per
annum, within or without the City. They have at present an annual
revenue of about £2,000 at their sole disposal for the improvement of
the City.

It must, however, be observed that no great attention has yet been paid
to ornamenting the City. This arises in some measure from the peculiar
cast of its inhabitants. The men of independent property, and those
holding high offices in the different departments being too few to do
much, although some of them have fine seats, and many of the Merchants
engaged in the shipping business, being transient persons, who from
time to time come to the Province, and whose main object is to make as
much as they can, in as short a time as possible, with the intention of
soon returning to enjoy their gains in their native country. These
persons do not feel that interest in the improvement of the place, that
those do whose interests are identified with the country. Having,
therefore, no local attachment to the soil, it is no wonder that they
should extend their views no farther than present convenience. Such
persons, then, who are to be found in all the ports of the Province add
nothing to the wealth of the country, but rather act as drains to it. A
few seats have, however, lately been begun on the Marsh near the City,
which will soon make an alteration in the appearance of the Suburbs.

Some small improvement is much wanted at the Quays for the convenience
of the Public and protection of Goods from the mud. This could be
easily effected by laying sleepers and covering them with strong plank
and running a railing along the margin. This would obviate the
inconvenience so much felt at present by persons transacting business
on the wharves, who have to walk or rather wade, day after day, through
the mud. It would also facilitate the transfer of Goods, by keeping
them in better order, and prevent many accidents which are yearly
occurring by sailors and others falling off.


Is situated in the County of York, on the west side of the river Saint
John on an extensive flat opposite the Nashwaack, formerly called Saint
Anns point. The river forms an elbow in front of the town, and the
hills encircle the plain, and approach the river about two miles above
the town leaving a spot of low land nearly four miles in length and in
places over a mile in breadth.

The town is laid out in squares of eighteen lots containing one quarter
of an acre each. The streets cross at right angles. Those that run
parallel with the river are more than a mile in length, and are in
places considerably well built up; the houses are all of wood and of
different heights.

The inhabitants are the descendents of the Loyalists who came to the
Province at the close of the American revolution, with a mixture of
Europeans and Americans.

Fredericton being the seat of Government, contains besides a residence
for the Lieutenant-Governor, a Provincial Hall, where the Supreme
Courts and General Assemblies are held. This building contains a
spacious room for the Supreme Courts, with several Jury rooms, a
Council Chamber, and an Assembly Room, with other apartments and
conveniences for the Legislative Body. Adjoining this building are the
Offices of the Surveyor General and Secretary of the Province.--The
other public buildings are a handsome square of Barracks with a Parade
in front, where part of a Regiment of foot are usually quartered.-Barracks
and Store-houses for a company of Royal Artillery with other buildings
for the use of the troops.

A County Court-House, which also serves for a Market; a small
commodious Church in a sightly situation, two neat Chapels, one
belonging to the Baptists, and the other to the Methodists; a Catholic
Chapel in progress; a Gaol, and a building occupied as a College till
another one on an enlarged scale can be erected; a Poor House in the
vicinity of the town, on a liberal scale; and a Meeting House belonging
to a number of persons composed of congregationalists and other
seceders from the Kirk of Scotland.

Government House is situated a little above the upper part of the town
on a convenient pleasant site, but having been a long time without a
settled family it was when Sir HOWARD DOUGLAS came to the Province
considerably out of order. It wants a wing to be added to make it
uniform with other improvements: for although when the house was built
for Governor CARLETON it was on a liberal scale, considering the state
of the Province at that time, it has been suffered to remain without
enlargement, while the country has rapidly advanced.--It is, therefore,
at present neither sufficiently spacious or splendid for the Governor's
residence.--The same observations may apply to the Province Hall, which
although always too low to make a good appearance or allow a good
Council Chamber, was a good building considering the state of the
country and want of revenue at the time it was erected; but is now too
small and plain, considering the great increase of the population and
trade of the Province.

Public buildings speak much, though silently, for the public spirit,
taste, and importance of a country. They should, therefore, always be
on such an enlightened scale as not to be a prejudice to it. One
general observation may be made on all the public edifices in
Fredericton, which is that being uniformly low they make a flat
appearance, which is peculiarly striking to a stranger coming from
countries where buildings are more elevated.

Probably there are few finer situations for a town than the site on
which Fredericton is built. A beautiful river glides majestically in
front of a spacious plain; bounded by hills of gentle acclivity,
possessing elegant sites for seats and buildings on commanding
situations. On the opposite side of the river the Nashwaack rolls its
tribute to the Saint John and adds much to the beauty of the situation.
Abundance of excellent water is every where found with a soil
peculiarly well adapted for forming gardens, walks, &c. with a pure,
healthy atmosphere. From the hills which skirt the town the river can
be seen to a great distance winding through the country, till it is
lost among the distant Islands.

Fredericton being at the head of the sloop navigation is the main depot
for goods from the seaboard. It is about eighty-five miles from the sea
and surrounded by a large extent of country which is fast settling. The
river Saint John is about three quarters of a mile wide in front of the
town, and extends upwards of four hundred miles above it.--The
surrounding country possesses an excellent soil, and abounds in
valuable timber, and as the whole of the trade to and from the upper
country must pass Fredericton, a great part of it must of course centre
there, and consequently, as the country becomes fully settled,
Fredericton must improve and from its situation remain the great
central emporium of the Province.

Fredericton contains a Printing Office and a Public Library, with the
following public Institutions.

1. A Branch of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

2. The Bible Association of Fredericton and its vicinity.

3. A Branch of the Methodist Missionary Society.

4. The Fredericton Emigrant Society. This Society was formed at
Fredericton in 1819, for the relief of destitute strangers, being the
first Institution of that kind formed in the Province. It expended
large sums in that and the following year, and besides relieving the
temporary necessities of great numbers of destitute Emigrants, enabled
many of them to settle on new land, who are now in comfortable
independent circumstances. It is not at present in active operation,
but has funds to a considerable amount.

5. The New-Brunswick Agricultural and Emigrant Society. This is a
Provincial Institution having branches in the different Counties. The
General Society being established at Fredericton.

6. A Branch of the Society for improving the breed of Horses and
Cattle, and a Savings' Bank.

Fredericton was formed by Governor CARLETON in 1785, shortly after the
division of the Province from Nova-Scotia, and being considered the
most eligible and central situation, was made the permanent Seat of
Government. The policy of this measure has been questioned by many who
overlook the general good of the country for partial advantages. Much
jealousy has always existed among the Citizens of St. John in
particular, in regard to this selection. Prejudices in favor of our own
land, religion, institutions, &c. must always be expected, and to a
certain degree it would show a want of attachment not to feel their
influence; but then it must be remembered that when we allow our own
interest to blind our reason, we are prone to view what concerns us
with a partial eye. It is so with a person who being settled at the
seaboard goes but seldom out of sight of the harbor, but from what is
passing before his eyes, concludes his town is the only place of
consequence in the country; and as nature has made it the great mart
for the imports and exports of the interior, it must of course be
likewise the only place fit for the Seat of Government, and every thing
else of consequence in the Province. But when a person whose mind is
above these mercenary considerations, and enlarged to see the general
good of the country, casts his eye on the map of the Province, he will
find that if the situation was as good a few miles farther up, it would
still be more central. For Fredericton is only eighty-five miles from
the sea; at the lower extremity of the County of York, which extends
upwards to the Canada line about two hundred miles. The large County of
Northumberland joins York on the North and Northeastward, and comprises
all the land from Westmorland, along the Gulf and river of St.
Lawrence, till it likewise joins Canada. These two Counties form more
than two thirds of the whole Province; and will no doubt each require
to be divided into two or more Counties, when they become more fully
settled. Consequently the seat of Government is at present in the most
eligible place for the general convenience of the inhabitants of the
Province at large, than any other situation that possibly could be
selected. Diverging as from a common centre, the distance of the routes
from Fredericton to the most important parts of the Province are nearly
equal, viz. to St. John is about eighty-five miles, passing four
counties in the distance; to St. Andrews, the frontier town, about
ninety miles; to Northumberland about the same distance; to Fort
Cumberland in Westmorland, about one hundred and forty miles; and to
Madawaska, the upper settlement on the great road to Canada, about the
same distance.

In time of war, its situation for a military depot is excellent, as
from the direction of the routes just mentioned, the different
accessible parts of the Province could be easier succoured from here
than any other station. And if reinforcements should have to pass
through the Province to Canada during the winter season. Fredericton
and the Great Falls would always, from their situation, be the natural
depots for troops, stores, &c. Neither if magazines were formed at this
place could there be more danger of their being surprised and taken,
than at any of the sea-ports; for it is nearly one hundred miles from
an enemy's frontier, and there must be a great want of vigilance if any
body of men, sufficient to make an impression, should be allowed to
approach without opposing effectual resistance, or at the worst, taking
such measures as should disappoint them.

The importance of good accommodations for troops marching to Canada, at
Fredericton, and the upper parts of the river St. John, was well
ascertained during the last war, and should not soon be lost sight of.

In short, as nature has given St. John and the other sea-ports
advantages that cannot be taken from them, so Fredericton, from its
central situation, possesses advantages peculiar to itself. Instead,
therefore, of indulging in such partial jealousies, every encouragement
should be given to such towns, as they contribute to the improvement of
the interior of a country from whence most of the resources that
support the sea-ports are drawn.

Fredericton is slowly increasing in buildings and improvements. It has
a considerable share in the lumber trade, for which it is well
situated. Ship-building has also lately been commenced, and will
probably be prosecuted to considerable extent as there are no want of
good situations for launching, and abundance of timber.

If the main streets in Fredericton had been laid out to follow the
windings of the river they would have formed an agreeable curve; the
squares could then have been kept uniform in width, and the main
streets could have continued without a jog, the whole length of the
town, which would be a great improvement to the looks of the place.


The frontier town of New-Brunswick, lies nearly opposite Robinstown, in
the State of Maine. It is a small pleasant sea-port in the County of
Charlotte: being situated near the river Saint Croix, on a narrow strip
of low land fronting the Bay of Passamaquoddy, with a range of hills in
the rear. It has two principal streets, running parallel with the
water, which are intersected by cross streets at right angles. The
principal streets are well built up, and the town contains 2,268
inhabitants, according to the census taken in 1824.--It is conveniently
situated for the fishing trade, as the waters abound with cod, haddock,
pollock, and numbers of other fish, and there are numbers of small
Islands nearly within view of the harbor, very suitable for prosecuting
the fishery to advantage. It carries on a considerable trade in
exporting squared and sawed lumber, and in ship-building--thirteen
vessels were registered in the Port of Saint Andrews in 1824, amounting
to three thousand six hundred and thirty-three tons, all of which had
been built in the County, besides about five hundred and ninety tons,
not included in the above amount.--It contains a neat Church belonging
to the establishment, and a commodious Kirk, built at the sole expense
of Mr. CHRISTOPHER SCOTT, and presented by him to the members of the
Kirk of Scotland. It has also a Grammar School, a Court-House and Gaol;
a Printing Office, with a number of fine private buildings.

Here is likewise a Chamber of Commerce, a Savings' Bank, a Bible
Society, an Agricultural and Emigrant Society for the County, with
other public Institutions for promoting the temporal and spiritual
welfare of the inhabitants.

Saint Andrews being situated on the frontiers of the Province, within
view of the American territories, is a place of great importance in the
event of a rupture with the United States. Considerable works were
erected here during the last war, which are now much gone to decay. A
few troops are, however, usually stationed here. At the Commencement of
the last troubles with America, an agreement was wisely entered into
between the Magistrates of this place, and the American authorities in
its immediate vicinity, to abstain from mutual hostilities, which was
strictly observed during the war, to the mutual advantage of both
parties; who were thereby delivered from the horrors of a predatory,
murderous warfare, equally distressing to both nations.

Saint Andrews being the shire town of the important County of
Charlotte, is silently rising into importance; and will no doubt from
its many natural advantages, always maintain its rank among the
principal towns of this Province.


_Topographical Description of the several Counties in the Province of
New-Brunswick. Their Boundaries and Extent. Parishes. Rivers.
Settlements, Produce, &c. Great Roads, &c._

Having, in the preceding pages, given a brief general description of
New-Brunswick, I shall now proceed to give a short sketch of each
County, comprising a view of the face of the country, principal
streams, settlements, produce, &c. And as five of them lie along the
river St. John, I shall begin at the head of that river, and follow it
to its exit into the Bay of Fundy. The three remaining counties will be
noticed afterwards. Following this method, (which by keeping the
counties and parishes distinct, will give the reader a clearer
knowledge of the country than a more elaborate account, where names and
situations are mentioned without method, and described promiscuously) I
shall confine myself to brevity, at the same time endeavouring to avoid
obscurity; and have to lament that the want of correct information
prevents me from making this part of the work as complete as I could



This County commences at the Canada line, which bounds it on the
north-west. The County of Northumberland bounds it on the north-east,
on the south-east it adjoins Sunbury, and on the south-west Charlotte,
and contains 10,972 inhabitants.

Beginning at the northern and uppermost part of the county, and
proceeding down the main river St. John, the first settlement is
Madawaska, situated between the Grand Falls and the Madawaska river,
which falls into the St. John at the upper part of the settlement. The
inhabitants are the descendants of the old Acadians, who were settled
on different parts of the river St. John, and who on the arrival of the
English moved up to this place, where, being joined by others from
Canada, they formed this settlement distinct from the English, and have
ever since been quiet subjects, and well affected to the British
Government. Madawaska is about midway between Fredericton and Quebec,
and is in a flourishing state. It has a Romish Chapel, where the rites
and ceremonies of that religion are duly performed by a Missionary from
Canada, who likewise, with the assistance of one or two leading persons
regulates the internal police of the settlement by settling disputes,
keeping the peace, &c. and so successful have they been that although
there are neither lawyers or magistrates in the place, the Courts of
Justice have had but little trouble from that quarter. The land along
the margin of the river is in general good, level, and unbroken; but
owing to its northern situation it is unfavourable to Indian corn; but
wheat, oats, grass, &c. flourish there in great perfection. The
inhabitants are all farmers, and generally raise more than they can
consume, having a surplus of grain to sell to traders in the settlement
or to take to Fredericton. Their manners and habits being simple, they
expend but little on luxuries. Their women manufacture a coarse cloth
and kerseys sufficient for their own consumption. The men are about the
middle size, generally spare built and active; the women, on the
contrary, are very stout and short. They are very lively and
hospitable, but very slovenly in their houses and cookery. In short,
they appear a different race from the English. A stranger going above
the Falls, finds himself suddenly among a new race of people, different
in their language, religion, habitations, and manners.

Below this settlement the country is a wilderness for some distance,
comprising the lands adjoining and below the Grand Falls.

The isthmus formed by the bend of the river at the Grand Falls, was
formerly cleared by the troops stationed at that post. This spot was
selected at the first settlement of the Province for a military
station. It served not only as a security for the settlers at that
period, when the country was a total wilderness and almost impassable,
being without roads or habitations, but also connected and secured the
communication with Canada. Barracks, &c. were constructed and troops
stationed at this place for a number of years. The works are at present
in ruins; although it is no doubt one of the first interior positions
in the Province. This place forms one of the great features of
New-Brunswick. Here the navigation of the great river St. John is
totally obstructed, and the upper part of the country disjoined from
the seaboard. This points out the great importance of its situation, as
the great connecting point and centre for the intercourse and trade of
the upper country, whenever it becomes fully settled. Its situation
will no doubt soon attract a settlement, and in process of time a town
will arise, which will be the depot for goods from the seaboard, where
they will be exchanged for the produce of the upper part of the
country. A canal or tunnel cut through the isthmus, will probably
follow. This would be of the utmost advantage to the Province, by
connecting the navigation and developing the resources of the upper
country, which are said to be almost inexhaustible. The distance to cut
would be nearly one hundred rods. The isthmus being ninety rods across,
from bank to bank, the descent of the water would be nearly half an
inch to a foot.

Descending the St. John seven miles below the falls, it receives the
Salmon river, a considerable stream from the east, and eleven miles
farther the Restook falls into it from the westward. This is a fine
river, running in a very crooked direction through a fine country
abounding in excellent land and well stored with timber of the first
quality. It makes to the southwest and has been explored upwards of one
hundred miles, where it continues of a good width. It is supposed to be
of great length and is claimed by the United States, although some of
the British settlers have lately commenced establishing themselves on
the river and are making very free with the pine. Three miles below the
Restook, the Tobique, named for its red pines, brings its tribute to
the St. John. This is another considerable river, being upwards of two
hundred miles in length. Its banks to a good distance back have been
covered with pines of the finest growth, which have been mostly cut
off. The soil in the pine districts is not favorable for farming
pursuits, but would require much labor to bring it to a state fit for
cultivation. There are, however, some good Islands in the course of the
river, and strips of rich land intermixed with the pine districts, and
the lands adjoining the Tobique lying along the banks of the Saint John
are of the finest quality; and where cultivated produce the most
abundant crops. A district comprising ten miles extending along the
river Saint John and embracing both sides of the Tobique is reserved
for the Indians. This tract is certainly not inferior to any land in
the Province, and it is a pity it should remain in its present
unimproved state. The Indians have only a small clearing at the mouth
of the Tobique, where they have a hut which is reserved as a Chapel,
and where one or two Indians generally sit down as they term it, to
watch a small crop, and keep possession.

After the peace with America in 1814, a number of disbanded, men of the
8th, 98th, and 104th regiments, and of the West-India Rangers and
New-Brunswick Fencibles, were settled on this part of the river Saint
John, chiefly between the military post of Presqu-Isle and the Indian
reserve. Many of these settlers have made good improvements, and have
already secured a comfortable independency. The wilderness has been
converted into cultivated fields, covered with habitations; and the
district formed into a Parish, and named after his Royal Highness the
late Duke of Kent.--It extends on both sides of the river from the
Grand Falls to the Parish of Wakefield. The land is of a superior
quality, covered with a variety of timber of the tallest growth, and
unincumbered with much undergrowth; the trees standing in most places
so far apart, that a man on horse-back would be but seldom incommoded
by them. This is of great advantage to the settler, as it relieves him
from the great labor of clearing away the under brush, which is so
troublesome in some parts of the country. Nor is this fine tract of
land confined to the margin of the river, but extends back, and is
found in many places to improve as you advance into the interior. The
United States line approaches the river St. John within a few miles
along this Parish, and they have a township laid out, embracing Mars
Hill before described. It is to be regretted that many of the settlers
in this Parish having formerly been accustomed to the free use of
spirituous liquors, find the temptation revived by the great
introduction of them by the lumber speculators, who in many instances
are drawing the settlers from their domestic habits, to which they
began to be accustomed, to a dissipated mode of living, to the loss of
their morals and property.

Descending the Saint John, which every few miles receives the tribute
of some considerable creek or river, we arrive at the Presqu-Isle. This
was formerly a military post; Barracks, &c. having been erected at this
place shortly after the American revolution sufficient to accommodate
three companies of foot, which are now in ruins. A few soldiers were
stationed here till 1822, since which period the place has been totally
abandoned as a military station. The bank at this place is high and the
spot where the Barracks stood very pleasant, commanding a fine view of
the adjacent country, having a beautiful Island directly in front. To a
contemplative mind this spot must be interesting when he reflects that
the soldiers who forced their way from Fredericton through the
wilderness to construct these works, have fallen by the sword and
disease; that the men who projected them, as well as those who
superintended their construction, are mouldering in their graves--that
the conductors of the boats which transported the supplies are now no
more--and that the boats are now in view from the site of the Barracks
lying in the bushes and falling gradually to pieces.--If he is an old
settler, this must have past within his memory, and may teach him the
instability of all human affairs. Eight miles below the Presqu-Isle a
stream called the Pekagomique falls into the Saint John on the eastern
side. The land on this stream is very good, and a settlement is begun a
few miles from its mouth, it has good mills and is well stored with
timber. There are several other streams in the Parish of Wakefield,
which extends on both sides of the river, till it joins Woodstock on
the western and Northampton on the eastern side about sixty-three miles
above Fredericton. It is a flourishing Parish, the land being of a good
quality, the farms along the river are improving, and back settlements

Woodstock is generally well settled. The houses are neat, and make a
fine appearance as the traveller passes along the river. There are some
fine islands in this part of the river, which enrich the settlers by
their produce.--There is an Episcopal Church in this Parish, which has
been filled ever since its erection by the Rev. Mr. DIBBLEE, who
likewise officiates occasionally in the adjoining Parishes. The river
Madaxnikik passes through this Parish to its exit into the Saint John,
and adds to its importance, as several settlements are making along its
banks. This stream has a series of cataracts, and passes by the
American settlement of Houlton which lies directly in the rear of
Woodstock, and commences about fifteen miles from the Saint John. From
this settlement there is a road to the Penobscot river. Eel river falls
into the Saint John near the lower part of Woodstock. This river heads
near the sources of the Saint Croix; a short portage leads from the
waters of one river to the other. Opposite Woodstock on the eastern
side of the river lies the Parish of Northampton, which extends down to
Queensbury. This Parish is well settled, as is the adjoining Parish of
Queensbury. Several streams intersect these Parishes, the most
considerable of which are the Nachiwikik and Mactuqaack.

The farms along this part of the country, are in many places well
improved: but the soil is not equal to the upper part of the river.
There are, however, a succession of fine Islands, which compensate for
the inferiority of the upland.

There is an Episcopal Church at the lower part of Queensbury, which is
filled occasionally by the Rev. Mr. SOMERVILLE, President of the
College of New-Brunswick, and itinerant Missionary for this part of the

Prince William adjoins Woodstock on the Western side of the river. The
upper part of this Parish is but little improved, a large district
belonging to the Chief Justice being mostly a wilderness. The soil,
likewise, is inferior to the land above. The lower part of the Parish
is, however highly improved, some parts being interval land of the
first quality. There are several fine lakes back of this parish, one of
which named Lake George, has a fine settlement on its banks. This lake
discharges its waters into the St. John, by a stream called the
Poquihouk, which is an Indian name, signifying a dreadful place, and a
dreadful place it certainly is. The water just before its exit into the
St. John, appears to have been originally pent up by the high bank
along the river. Through this it has forced a passage, and tumbles down
the rocks and precipices with dreadful impetuosity. The passage through
which it passes is very narrow and nearly seventy feet perpendicular,
composed of large stones, which appear as if they had been laid by
Masons; the whole forming a sublime and terrific appearance. There is a
Chapel belonging to the Baptists in this Parish.

Several of the officers and men of the King's American Dragoons were
formerly settled here, very few of whom are at present alive. Some of
their descendants are occupying their lands and doing well.

The Parish of Kingsclear, which adjoins Prince William, has nothing
peculiar, the soil being much the same as the latter. The face of the
country is hilly, interspersed with several streams well adapted for
mill seats. Many individuals of the reduced Battalion of the New Jersey
Volunteers settled in this Parish, some of whom are still living and
doing well. A Baptist Chapel has lately been erected here, in which
worship is occasionally performed. Opposite this Parish on the eastern
side of the river is the Parish of Douglas, so called in honor of the
present Lieutenant-Governor of the Province. It adjoins Queensbury, and
extends down nearly to the Nashwaack. The Madam Keswick, a considerable
stream, intersects this Parish. This is an extensive settlement, and
was formed by the York Volunteers and some of the Royal Guides and
Pioneers. The settlements on the Keswick Ridge and Mactuquask lie
between this stream and the main river, and are in a flourishing state.
It has a back settlement on the Nashwacksis and another one still
farther in the wilderness, called Cardigan, formed by a number of Welsh
families from Cardigan in Wales, who came to this Province in 1819, and
were located here by Government. Being very destitute, they were
enabled to commence settling by a subscription of the inhabitants of
Fredericton, aided by the Emigrant Society. This Parish has a Church
near the mouth of the Madam Keswick, and two Chapels belonging to the
Methodists and Baptists.

The Parish of St. Mary's, which formerly included the Parish just
mentioned, extends to the County line, and joins Maugerville on the
eastern side of the river. The river Nashwaack runs through this
Parish, and falls into the St. John opposite Fredericton. This stream
was settled by part of the 42d Regiment and some of the disbanded corps
that had been raised in America during the war. It is settled for more
than thirty miles along its banks, having a mixture of good intervale
and high land along its course. About five miles from its confluence
with the St. John, it receives the waters of the Peniack, a
considerable stream with a settlement along its banks, and about twelve
miles further up, the river Tay falls into it. There are two Chapels in
this settlement, one belonging to the Methodists and the other to the
Baptists. They have no stated Ministers, but are visited occasionally.
The road from Fredericton to Miramichi in the County of Northumberland
leads through this settlement.

The Parish of Fredericton adjoins Kingsclear, and extends to the Parish
of Lincoln in the County of Sunbury. It includes the town of
Fredericton, before described, with a back settlement called New
Maryland, and another on the Rushagoannes. The road from Fredericton to
St. Andrews passes through these settlements, and is fast improving.

The lands in the immediate vicinity of the town are not much improved.
Having been reserved for the College, they remain without tenants; the
settlers in this country not liking to lease farms, which are hard to
clear up, when they can obtain lots for themselves by paying the grant
fees. A great part of the land in the site of the town, likewise
belongs to the College or Church, or is reserved for Government uses,
which has been and still remains a great check to the growth and
improvement of the Town.

The County of York is upwards of two hundred miles in length. A great
portion of the lands in this county are well adapted to grain,
particularly wheat. It is well stored with excellent timber and abounds
with navigable rivers and streams. It is settling and improving very
fast, and furnishes the major part of the lumber shipped at the port of
St. John. Fredericton is the principal Town, and situated within four
miles of the lower extremity of the County.--The inconvenience of the
Courts, &c. being established at the extremity of such extensive
Counties are many, and amount almost to a denial of justice to the
distant settlers, who have to travel from one to two hundred miles to
the County Courts. The consequence is that wrongs are frequently
unredressed, and crimes, if not of a capital nature, are often
unnoticed; which if not remedied will in time have a pernicious effect
on the moral character of the inhabitants.



Joins York on the North West, Northumberland on the North East, Queen's
on the South East, and Charlotte on the South West. It stretches along
both sides of the river Saint John, and contains four Parishes, with a
population of three thousand two hundred and twenty-seven inhabitants.
This is the smallest County in the Province, not being over twenty
miles in length. It is, however, the oldest settled part of the river
St. John. The first establishment of any consequence on the river was
made at this place in 1761, by a number of families from Massachusetts,
who having obtained a grant of a Township on the river St. John from
the British Government, after exploring different parts of the country,
settled at Maugerville. Here they were joined at different periods
during the troubles in America, by several more families from
New-England. These settlers made improvements on both sides of the
river, and called the whole district Sunbury. The first commission of
the peace for this place was dated 11th August, 1766, and for holding
Courts of Common Pleas 1770.

The Courts of Justice mere held here till 1783, when the American war
being ended and the Loyalists having settled in different parts of the
country, the Supreme Court was removed to Saint John, and afterwards
established at Fredericton, which was made the permanent seat of
Government, and has remained so ever since.

The Parishes of Maugerville and Sheffield, on the eastern side of the
river, are situated on a strip of rich intervale, which being annually
overflowed, yield abundant crops and are rich in pastures.

The farms are well improved and stocked with abundance of cattle. The
houses are in many parts neat and improving in appearance, and the
settlers in general substantial landholders and good husbandman.

This is a delightful part of the Country for wheel carriages, the road
being a continued level along the margin of the river, which is
occasionally hid from the view of the traveller, by lofty trees and
shrubs along the banks, which break off the piercing winds in winter
and afford a pleasant shade in summer. The road, is however, unsafe in
many places where the freshets have scooped away the banks and indented
the road with small gullies, which being neglected by the inhabitants,
endanger the overturning of carriages. In the rear of these Parishes
are a chain of lakes which communicate with each other and discharge
their waters into the Grand Lake, and from thence by the Jemseg into
the Saint John.--Most of these lakes are environed with excellent land,
and have settlements along their banks.

There is a Church belonging to the Establishment in Maugerville with a
resident Pastor.--There are two Meeting-Houses in Sheffield, one
belonging to the seceders, and the other to the Methodists. They have
both settled Ministers and good congregations.

The Parishes of Lincoln and Burton are opposite the Parishes just
described, on the western side of the river--they are situated on high
land interspersed with intervale. They are well settled and the farms
generally well cultivated. The river Oromocto intersects these
parishes. This is an extensive stream well settled in many places,
having several branches which wind through the country to a great
distance. Some of these streams are settled, and mills are built at
different places.--The main road from Fredericton to Saint Andrews
crosses this river a little above the falls, where a blockhouse was
constructed during the war for military purposes. There is an extensive
tract of wild meadow along the course of this river, which yields a
great quantity of coarse grass, and affords an extensive range for
cattle, after the water has drained off in the summer. The land on the
Oromocto and its tributary streams is generally of a good quality, but
in common with most all the streams in this Province very subject to
frost. The mouth of the Oromocto being very deep, is a very eligible
place for ship-building, which is prosecuted here to considerable
extent, timber, &c. being floated down the river in great abundance.
There was formerly a good herring fishery at the falls in this river,
but a mill having been built near that place it has dwindled to
nothing.--There is a Church at the mouth of the Oromocto on the Burton
side, in which divine service is occasionally performed by the Rector
of Maugerville.--There is likewise a Court-house in Burton nearly in
ruins where the County Courts are held. A stream called Swan Creek runs
through Burton, but has nothing peculiar to merit a particular
description.--Three valuable Islands lie in this part of the river
Saint John called the Oromocto, Middle, and Major's Island. Ox-Island
runs parallel with Major's Island. It is small and forms shoals near it
which impede the navigation. There are also shoals at the Oromocto,
which are nearly impassable for large vessels in the dry part of the



This County joins Sunbury on the N.W. Charlotte on the S.W.
Northumberland on the N.E. and King's on the S.E. It lies on both sides
of the river Saint John, and contains four Parishes, with a population
of 4,741 inhabitants.

This is a good county for stock, having a number of fine Islands within
its limits. The inhabitants are principally agriculturalists who have
well improved farms and good stocks of cattle. The land is of an
excellent quality and in general well cultivated. The soil along the
bank of the river in the Parish of Waterborough is equalled by none in
the Province for fertility. As the country descends to the Jemseg, the
rich sediment deposited by the annual overflowing of the river,
produces the most luxuriant vegetation, and although the farmer can
seldom commence his labours till June, yet so productive is the soil,
that in a few weeks the county exhibits the most exuberant vegetation.
Indian corn flourishes in this Parish in the highest perfection: the
soil being a light rich loam and the country level so as to receive the
full effect of the sun. Small grain, grass, and roots are also produced
here in the greatest abundance. Indeed a more fertile district can
scarcely be conceived than the land from Maugerville to the Jemseg. The
observations that were made about the road through Maugerville and
Sheffield mill likewise apply here, very little attention having of
late been paid to them, and it is probable that the statute labor is
but seldom fully performed in any of those Parishes. There is a
convenient Chapel belonging to the Baptists in Waterborough, which has
a stated minister and numerous congregation.--After crossing the
Jemseg, the country rises, and the Parish of Wickham exhibits some well
improved farms in pleasant and sightly situations. The Grand Lake, the
largest body of inland water in the Province, lies back of
Waterborough. It is nearly thirty miles long, and from three to nine
wide. A large stream called Salmon River, falls into it near the head.
This stream is well timbered with pine. A short portage leads from this
stream to the waters communicating with the river Miramichi. This lake
discharges its waters into the Saint John, by a narrow gut called
Jemseg, which is about thirty rods wide and very deep. The country on
the Western side of this lake is in many places low and marshy, having
the French and Maquapit lakes in its neighborhood which are settled in
places. The country in the vicinity of the Grand Lake abounds with
coal, which is found of a good quality, particularly at a creek called
New-Castle, where large quantities have been dug. A stratum is
generally found near the surface of the earth: the first layer of coal
being about eighteen inches in depth, and they are found to improve in
quality in proportion to the depth of the veins. The layers are nearly
horizontal, and are probably a continuation of the strata found at Cape
Breton, which has been ascertained to proceed in a Southwestern
direction from that island, to Nova-Scotia and New-Brunswick. The Grand
Lake is well settled, and has a resident Minister belonging to the
Established Church. It has likewise a Methodist Chapel; but no stated
minister of that denomination.

Another large lake called Washademoak, lies a little below the Jemseg,
and is separated from the Grand Lake by a range of highland. This lake
is from twenty-four to thirty miles long, and from two to three miles
wide. A stream falls into this lake, called the Washademoak river,
which rises near the bend of the Peticodiac. It has a settlement along
its banks, called New-Canaan. There is a mixture of intervals and
upland along this settlement, well covered with timber of various
kinds. The Washademoak lake is well settled, and empties into the St.
John, opposite Long Island.

The Parishes on the western side of the river are Gagetown and
Hampstead. Gagetown is regularly laid out, and is the county town. It
has a handsome Church, with a settled Pastor; a Court-House and Gaol,
with several fine private buildings. As was observed before, several
fine Islands lie in this county, one of them, named Long Island, is six
miles in length and well improved. It has a neat Church, in which
divine service is occasionally performed. It has likewise a tavern,
with as good accommodations and as well kept as any in the country. The
streams in this county on the western side of the river, have nothing
peculiar to merit a particular description. Gagetown Creek runs past
the Township of that name, and facilitates the navigation of that part
of the country, and the Ocnabog is the tunnel through which the waters
of a small lake of that name are discharged into the Saint John. I must
not forget to notice that in front of Gagetown there is a bend in the
river, which some ill natured person has saddled with the forbidding
name of "No Man's Friend" although there is nothing unfriendly about
the place, and it should rather be called "Pleasant Reach" as the
adjoining country is very pleasant.

A new Parish has lately been erected in this County, called Brunswick,
which lies back of Waterborough and Wickham, and comprehends the
settlement of New-Canaan and the district adjoining.



Lies likewise on both sides of the river Saint John, and is bounded on
the North by a line running South West and North East, from the South
point of Spoon Island in the river Saint John. On the East by
Northumberland and Westmorland. On the West by Charlotte, and on the
South by the County of Saint John. It contains seven thousand nine
hundred and thirty inhabitants.

It comprehends the Long Reach, the Kennebeckasis and Belisle, and is
divided into the following Parishes--Westfield, Greenwich, Kingston,
Springfield, Norton, Sussex, and Hampton. Kingston has a Township
regularly laid out, which bears the name of the Parish. It has a neat
Church, with a resident Minister, and a number of neat buildings, which
make a fine appearance. The Court-House, however, is a considerable
distance from the Town. The settlers in most parts of this Parish have
the appearance of comfort and affluence, although the land is inferior
in fertility to most of the other Parishes. The Parish of Sussex has a
Church with a resident Minister, and an Academy for the instruction of
the Indians, but little good has accrued to these wanderers from that
Institution. A beautiful strip of land lies in this Parish called the
Vale of Sussex, which is highly cultivated and covered with excellent
houses and barns.--Agriculture is in general well attended to, and its
effects are evident in independent farmers, good stocks of cattle and
an air of comfort and cheerfulness, the sure returns of industry and
husbandry. The roads and bridges are in good order and well attended
to. The great road of communication passes through this Vale to

The river Kennebeckasis intersects this county, and falls into the
Saint John, near the Boar's Head. This is a considerable stream, and
has several Islands scattered through its course. It is navigable
upwards of twenty miles for vessels of any burthen, and sixty miles
farther for small vessels and boats. It is well adapted for
Ship-building, having abundance of excellent timber in its
neighborhood, and several vessels are annually built here for the
merchants of Saint John.

The Nerepis another considerable stream, falls into the Saint John at
the foot of the Long Reach. This river runs a considerable distance
into the country and has a settlement along its banks.

There are two quarries of excellent Plaster of Paris on the river
Kennebeckasis. There is likewise a salt spring in this part of the
country, from which small quantities of salt have been made by the
Indians and Inhabitants settled near the place, which has proved of an
excellent quality for the table, and there can be no doubt of its
possessing valuable medicinal qualities; but no attention has yet been
paid to analyse it. Great quantities of sugar are extracted from the
sugar maple in this county, upwards of ten thousand pounds have been
made in a year, of that valuable article in one Parish.

Several of the Parishes in this county have Churches, some of which
have stated Pastors, and others are supplied occasionally.



This County is bounded northerly by a line running East North East, and
West South West, from the southernmost point of the Kennebeckasis
Island. Westwardly by a North line from Point Lepreau. Eastwardly by
Hopewell Township, and on the Southward by the Bay of Fundy. It has
four Parishes. The City of Saint John, Portland, Lancaster, and Saint
Martins. It contains a population of twelve thousand nine hundred and
seven inhabitants. This county has several fine harbors; the principal
of which is the harbor of Saint John, at the mouth of the Saint John
river and which was noticed in the description of the city. This harbor
has a valuable fishery for Salmon, Herring, and Shad. Formerly from two
to three thousand barrels of Shad, twenty thousand barrels of herrings,
and a vast quantity of Salmon were taken here annually; but the fishery
has fallen off very much of late years. A Cod fishery might also be
prosecuted to advantage not far from Partridge Island, but this is
totally neglected. The other harbors are Quaco, Musquash, and Dippoo
harbor, down the Bay, which have nothing particular. They have water
sufficient for vessels of four hundred tons burthen.

The lands, in the county and along the sea-board are not so good for
farming as those in the interior. They are generally very rocky and
uneven. In many places they are mere barrens being covered with a
stunted growth of shrubs. There are however good spots intermixed, and
many places that formerly appeared doomed to sterility have been
brought under a good state of cultivation. Great improvements have
lately been made in farming in this county. Many new settlements have
been formed and are rapidly improving. Several merchants and persons of
property in the city of Saint John have lately improved farms in its
vicinity; particularly on the Marsh and at Loch Lomond. It will
certainly be a great advantage to the Province, if men who possess
capital, employ a part of it in improving the country. By this means
many poor districts of sterile land may be reclaimed, and improved by
the wealth of the city; to the great advantage of individuals, and
benefit of the settlement where such improvements are made: as the
citizen will lay out from year to year, no more than he can spare from
his other pursuits, and this when the land is once brought to a good
state of cultivation will richly repay him: while the indigent settler
will have labour brought home to his own door to enable him to subsist
while he improves a small spot for himself, which without such a
resource he could not attempt.

A great strip of Marsh lies contiguous to the city, some of which is
dyked and yields excellent grass. The whole district is rapidly
improving to the great advantage of the city. Several wealthy citizens
have lately made great improvements here, and some fine seats are
nearly completed.

The Parish of Portland contains old Fort Howe. This Fort is situated on
a rugged hill at the mouth of the river Saint John, and completely
commands the harbour. Portland is well built up, but the road near the
Fort is very narrow, and in a wretched state, considering that it is
the only thoroughfare from the city, to the Indian House, so called;
which is situated in front of the bay, just above the falls, and where
vessels and boats come too, going and coming to wait for the tide, and
where passengers from all parts of the river land, and frequently walk
over the tongue of land to Saint John, which is a little more than a
mile. Passengers likewise going up the river in the Steam-Boat or
Sloops, usually ride or walk from Saint John to the Indian House, and
baggage and goods of all descriptions, are transported above the falls
by this route, which keeps the road continually thronged, and points
out the necessity of having a good and safe communication in such a
public place. There is no public place of worship in Portland of any
denomination: the inhabitants resort to the different places of worship
in the city.

The settlements of Quaco, Manawagonish, Musquash, &c. are in a
flourishing state. Considerable progress has been made in Agriculture,
and there is reason to believe the country round the Bay shore is rich
in minerals. Manganese has been found at Quaco, and the adjoining
district, which has been sent to the United States, and is said to be
of a good quality.


Having in the preceding sections briefly described the five Counties
lying along the river St. John; I shall now proceed with the three
remaining, commencing with


This County is bounded by the Bay of Fundy on the south, by the St.
Croix river, and the Bay of Passamaquoddy on the west and south west,
on the east by a north line from Point Lepreau, and on the north by a
west line commencing in the said north line thirty-three miles from
Point Lepreau, and contains nine thousand two hundred and sixty-seven

It is divided from the United States by the river St. Croix, commonly
called the Schoodick, which is the line in this quarter that divides
the territories of His Britannic Majesty from the District (State) of
Maine. It comprehends several large Islands in the Bay of
Passamaquoddy, and is divided into the following Parishes:--St.
Andrews, St. Stephens, St. Davids, St. Patricks, St. Georges,
Pennfield, Campobello, West Isles, and Grand Manan.

The Parish of St. Andrews, besides the town of that name already
described, possesses many advantages for trade, being situated very
conveniently for navigation. It has several Saw-Mills, and a great
quantity of boards, planks, &c. are shipped from that port.

St. Stephens likewise furnishes vast quantities of sawed lumber. The
mills in this parish on the river Schoodick are very numerous. More
than four million feet of boards and planks are cut in this Parish
annually. Ship-building is likewise carried on to considerable extent.
Large quantities of shingles and small lumber of different descriptions
are also furnished here for exportation. There is a Methodist Chapel
with a stated Minister in this parish. The country is considerably
improved, having several good farms. It has likewise a good herring
fishery at the falls of the Schoodick.

St. Davids has likewise some good saw-mills. It also furnishes masts,
and squared timber for shipping. The land in this Parish is of an
excellent quality, and produces wheat, oats, Indian corn, potatoes, &c.
in great abundance.

The Parishes of St. Patricks, St. George, and Pennfield, have each a
number of saw-mills, and furnish large quantities of sawed lumber of
the best quality--the country being well stocked with excellent pine.
Considerable quantities of scale fish are also caught and cured here.
Great improvements are likewise making in Agriculture in these
Parishes, particularly in Pennfield, which produces wheat in great
perfection. The settlers in this Parish are good farmers, and are
making great improvements.

The Parishes of Campobello and Deer Island comprehend the Islands so
called. Campobello includes the Islands on the south east side of
Passamaquoddy river. It contains several thousand acres of land fit for
cultivation. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the fishery along
the shores. Great quantities of cod and other fish are taken about the
Island, and sold uncured to the Americans. Formerly most of the gypsum
exported from this Province was landed on this Island where it was
shipped on board American vessels for Philadelphia and New-York.

Grand-Manan is likewise a considerable place for fishing,
Ship-building, &c. and is of considerable importance in a nautical
point of view, as it lies near the entrance of the Bay of Fundy. It is
fourteen miles long and seven miles broad. The Northernmost point is in
latitude 44° 54' longitude 66° 45' west.

The rivers Maggagaudavick and Digdaguash, lie in this county, and are
of the utmost advantage in transporting the lumber from the interior.
On each of these streams mills are erected. The Maggagaudavick runs a
great distance into the country, and communicates with a chain of
lakes, down which lumber is floated from a great distance. There are
several falls in the Maggagaudavick--those near the mouth are nearly
forty feet.

Several Islands lying in Passamaquoddy Bay are within the limits of
this county. Some of them are of considerable importance, on account of
the fishery, and as affording harbors for shipping.



Is bounded eastwardly by the line of Nova-Scotia, and the Gulph of St.
Lawrence; northerly, by a west line running into the country from the
northernmost point of Shediac Island; westwardly, by a line beginning
at a point in the north boundary of St. John County; north, from Quaco
head, and running north till it meets said west line; southerly, by St.
John County and Chignecto. It contains nine thousand three hundred and
three inhabitants.

This County is situated at the head of the Bay of Fundy, and joins
Nova-Scotia. The line between the Provinces is the narrowest part of
the isthmus between the Bay of Fundy and Bay Verte. A small stream over
which there is a bridge--forming the separating line. It contains the
following Parishes:--Westmorland, Sackville, Hillsborough, Hopewell,
Moncton, Dorchester, Salisbury, and Botsford.

A considerable part of this county was formerly settled by the Acadians
or French neutrals, whose descendants are still numerous in this and
the adjoining County of Northumberland, being spread along the
seaboard, to the Bay of Chaleur. They have settlements at Memramcook,
Peticodiac, Bay Verte, Cocagne, Bucktouche, Richibucto, &c.--where
there are several large Chapels, which are usually supplied with Romish
Missionaries, who are supported by tythes from the French Catholics.
But the most thriving class of settlers are the English, chiefly from
Yorkshire, or their descendants. They are in general good farmers and
attend chiefly to husbandry. Indian corn is but little cultivated in
this county, the climate being too cool and temperate for that plant to
thrive well; but wheat, oats, potatoes, &c. flourish here in great
perfection. This is the finest part of the Province for stock; from the
extensive tracts of salt marsh which lie in this county, many thousand
acres of which are dyked and produce abundant crops. Butter and cheese
are made and exported from this county in large quantities. The cattle
are superior to any in the country from the great attention that has
been paid by the inhabitants to crossing and improving the breed.
During the American war nine hundred head of cattle, and eight hundred
firkins of butter, were sent from this county to Halifax, and other
places in one year, and although the demand has fallen off since the
peace, there are still large droves taken from Cumberland to Halifax,
and St. John--and likewise large quantities of butter and cheese.

The tides at the head of the Bay rise to a great height. They come in
with successive swells of the water called the Boar, which at spring
tides roll in with amazing velocity in waves about three feet
perpendicular. The noise of the Boar is heard a great distance, and
animals immediately take to the highland, and manifest visible signs of
terror if near it. The spring tides at Cape Chignecto, Cape Enrage, and
Cumberland bason, are from forty-five to fifty-five feet. Common tides
at Cape Chignecto, thirty-six feet; at Cape Enrage, forty feet; at Fort
Cumberland, forty-five; and at Bay Verte, from eight to ten feet

The shores from Cape Chignecto and Martin's Head to the Joggins, or
land of Grindstones, are high, bold and rocky. On other parts of the
coast they are not so elevated, but abound in most places with valuable
stones of different kinds, fit for building and other purposes. Great
quantities of Grindstones are made in this county, and furnish a
valuable article for exportation. Nearly twenty thousand were formerly
exported from this place annually, to the United States, and other
places, but this branch of trade has fallen off considerably of late

Fort Cumberland formerly called Beausejour, is situated on the
Missaguash river in this county. It was the first post fortified by the
French in this Province, and was for a long while a great annoyance to
the English settlers, till it was taken by Colonel MONCKTON, in 1755,
who placed a British Garrison in it. The works are at present much
decayed, a few soldiers are however still stationed in it.

The several parishes in this county are in a flourishing state. Some of
them have neat places of worship with stated Ministers, and others are
visited occasionally. Westmorland in general, is well settled, with a
substantial yeomanry, and although it does not make such a figure in a
bustling trade as some of the other counties, it is silently enriching
itself with the slow but sure returns of Agriculture, and fast rising
into importance.

The rivers in this county are the Peticodiac, Memramcook, and
Missaguash with several other streams which run a considerable distance
into the country. Some of them are well settled along their banks. The
main road from Saint John to Cumberland follows the Peticodiac nearly
throughout its whole course.

There are no sea-ports in this county of consequence. Dorchester has
but little trade, and Chediac, is near the lines in Northumberland,
although the river runs into this county and facilitates the export of
its produce.



Joins Westmorland on the southward, and is bounded eastwardly by the
Gulph of Saint Lawrence, and Bay of Chaleur. On the northwestward by
the Bay of Chaleur to the river Ristigouche, and westwardly by a
continuation of the western boundary line of Westmorland. The
population of this county amounts to fifteen thousand eight hundred and

This extensive county lies along the Gulph of Saint Lawrence having a
great extent of sea-coast. It includes several large bays and rivers,
and comprises more than one third of the Province. It contains the
following Parishes:--Newcastle, Chatham, Ludlow, Northesk, Alnwick,
Carleton, Beresford, Glenelg, Saumarez, Wellington, and Nelson. It is a
great lumbering county, and furnishes more squared timber annually than
the whole Province besides: The pine is of the best quality, and found
in immense quantities along the numerous streams and rivers with which
this part of the country abounds. The lumber shipped from this county
generally commands a better price in the British market than from any
other part of the Province. The principal port for shipping is
Miramichi, which is crowded with vessels during the summer and autumn.
The river has two main branches called the northwest and southwest.
Vessels load in different parts of the river, and rafts are brought to
the shipping with the greatest ease. Shipping go up the river as far as
Fraser's Island for cargoes and farther on the northwest, where there
are several trading establishments. Newcastle is a considerable place
for loading, and although it may be considered the county town, has
nothing particular. About two miles below this place there is a trading
establishment belonging to Mr. ABRAHAMS, and two miles farther down is
the establishment of RANKIN, & CO. Indeed wherever there is a
convenient cove, vessels lay and load. Chatham four miles below
Newcastle on the opposite side of the river, is also a considerable
shipping place. It has a Church with several fine stores and buildings.
There are but few places along the entrance of this river but what are
convenient for shipping. Upwards of three hundred sail load annually at
Miramichi. The timber is paid for part in specie, and part in British
and West-India goods and provisions.

A stranger would naturally suppose, that such a trade must produce
great riches to the country; and that great and rapid improvements
would be made. That large towns would be built--that the fair produce
of such a trade would be seen in commodious and elegant houses,
extensive stores and mercantile conveniences, in public buildings for
ornament and utility, good roads and improved seats in the vicinity of
the sea-ports, with Churches, Kirks, Chapels, &c.: All these with many
other expectations would be but a matter of course. But here he would
not only be disappointed, but astonished at the rugged and uncouth
appearance of most part of this extensive county. There is not even a
place that can claim the name of a town. The wealth that has come into
it, has passed as through a thoroughfare to the United States, to pay
for labour or cattle. The persons principally engaged in shipping the
timber have been strangers who have taken no interest in the welfare of
the country; but have merely occupied a spot to make what they could in
the shortest possible time. Some of these have done well, and others
have had to quit the trade: but whether they won or lost the capital of
the country has been wasted, and no improvement of any consequence made
to compensate for it, or to secure a source of trade to the
inhabitants, when the lumber shall fail. Instead of seeing towns built,
farms improved, and the country cleared and stocked with the reasonable
returns of so great a trade; the forests are stripped and nothing left
in prospect, but the gloomy apprehension when the timber is gone, of
sinking into insignificance and poverty. Formerly the woods swarmed
with American adventurers who cut as they pleased. These men seeing the
advantages that were given them, and wishing to make the most of their
time, cut few but prime trees, and manufactured only the best part of
what they felled, leaving the tops to rot; by this mode more than a
third of the timber was lost. This with their practice of leaving what
was not of the best quality after the trees were felled, has destroyed
hundreds of thousands of tons of good timber: And when this was stopped
by permitting none but British subjects and freeholders to obtain
licenses, the business was not much mended as any person wishing to
enter into the trade could, by purchasing a small sterile spot for a
small trifle (provided he was a British subject) get in the way of
monopolizing the woods. These are some of the causes that have and
still do operate against the prosperity of the country. Men who take no
interest in the welfare of the province, continue to sap and prey on
its resources.

The other sea-ports in this county are Saint Peters, Richibucto, and
Ristigouche, at which places there is a considerable trade carried on
in squared timber, &c. but they have nothing of consequence to merit a
particular description. Besides the Miramichi already described, this
county is watered by several considerable rivers, the principal of
which is the Ristigouche, which falls into the Bay of Chaleur, and
communicates by a short portage with Grand River which falls into the
Saint John fifteen miles above the great falls. The smaller rivers are
numerous, some of them have settlements along their banks and others
are but little known. The inhabitants are a mixture of Europeans and
Americans. A number of the descendants of the French neutrals are
settled in this county, particularly on the river Cocagne where there
are several villages with Catholic Chapels; they are also settled at
Buctouche, Richibucto and along the sea-board as far as the Bay of
Chaleur. They are generally agriculturalists and quiet orderly

Having thus gone briefly through the different counties, I shall
conclude this chapter with a statement of the distances of the
principal points on the Great Road of communication from St. John to

From St. John to Fredericton,               92 miles on the western
From Fredericton to the Presque-Isle,       84   side of the river.
From Presque-Isle to Grand Falls,           52
Thence to the Madawaska Falls,              45
To the river Des Caps near Kamouraska,      84
Thence to Quebec,                          107

making in the whole a distance of four hundred and sixty-four miles
from the sea-board to Quebec, according to the present routes; nearly
two thirds of which is along the great river St. John.

The great road of communication between this Province and Canada, has
been much neglected, particularly about the Grand Falls where the road
has been but lately cut and is but little improved, although this has
been the route for the couriers upwards of forty years; but as the
attention of Government is now turned to that object it is probable
there will soon be an alteration for the better.

In opening new roads there is not sufficient pains taken to explore the
best ground in commencing. Frequently after the roads are considerably
improved, and much money expended, better routes are discovered and
most parts of the old road are abandoned. To remedy this where the road
runs along the course of a river it would be advisible to explore the
country some distance back, for as the banks of the rivers are in many
places very high the streams that run into them indent the country and
form hollows and hills near their exit that are nearly impassable; when
by going a little back the land falls and their banks have a gradual
slope over which a good road may be made with ease. This although not a
general rule, will hold good in most parts of the country.


_State of Learning. Trade. Revenue. Remarks on the Lumber Business.
Population. Militia._

The state of learning in this Province is very flourishing at present
compared to what it was a few years ago. When the country was first
settled the opportunities of obtaining a liberal education were small
and confined to a few. From this cause many persons who occasionally
fill important stations in the several counties, are found very
deficient in learning, but this from the many provisions lately made
will cease in a few years, and men will always be found to fill all
public offices, with learning sufficient to enable them to discharge
their several duties with credit to themselves and advantage to the

Besides the College of New-Brunswick incorporated by charter, there are
Grammar Schools established in several counties which are liberally
supported. By the bounty of the Legislature, twenty pounds per annum is
allowed to be drawn out of the Province Treasury for every Parish where
a School-House is provided, and the sum of thirty pounds raised by the
inhabitants, to enable them to employ good and sufficient teachers, and
this bounty extends to three schools in each Parish. By this liberal
public provision schooling is brought to the doors of most of the
inhabitants, who will exert themselves to partake of the public

The College of New-Brunswick is established at Fredericton and endowed
with a block of land containing nearly six thousand acres adjoining the
town plot.

The Governor and Trustees of this College having surrendered their
charter to the King, and petitioned to have the Establishment put on a
more enlarged footing; their petition was graciously received and a new
charter granted, bearing date the eighteenth of November, one thousand
eight hundred and twenty-three. A grant of a sum of money was at the
same time made to the College out of the royal revenues in this
Province, to enable the Corporation to erect a suitable building for
the President, Professors and Students; and to procure a Library, and
Philosophical apparatus for the same. The Legislature of the Province
has likewise granted a liberal sum for the same purpose; in consequence
of which a building on a liberal scale is to be immediately erected on
a conspicuous part of the rising ground adjoining the town.

The most general seminary for the education of the bulk of the
population is the Madras School. The Lieutenant-Governor and a number
of the first characters in the Province, have the management of this
seminary, which is incorporated by the name of "The Governor and
Trustees of the Madras School in New-Brunswick." As most of the Parish
Schools in the Province are on the Madras system of education, and
under the direction of the corporation, I shall close this short sketch
of the state of learning in this Province with a statement of that
institution copied from the last report.

State of the Madras School in New-Brunswick, in July, 1824, viz.

Saint John,   in daily attendance 197 -- total entered 1222
Carleton,              "           96          "        143
Fredericton,           "           50          "         79
Douglas,               "           22          "         45
Queensborough,         "                       "         45
St. Andrews,           "           94          "        156
Grand Manan,        }  "           42          "         89
Grand Harbour,      }
North Head,            "           40          "         76
Westcock,              "           45          "        118
Sackville,                                     "         40
Shediac,               "           30          "         53
Peticodiac,            "           45          "         50
Kingston,                                               113
Springfield,           "           24          "         81
Gage Town,             "           25          "        117
Sussex Vale,           "           38          "        114
Newcastle,             "           39          "        166
Northesk,              "           42          "         66
Chatham,               "           40          "         51
Hampton,               "           26          "         75
Norton,                                        "         60
Maugerville,           "           28          "         52
 "   middle district,                          "         39
Fort Cumberland,       "           49          "        105
Point Debute,          "           52          "         62
Jolicure,              "           32          "         50
St. Georges,           "           38          "         72
Woodstock, middle   }  "           36          "        135
   district,        }
Upper District,        "           35          "         76
Dow's District,                                "         36
Wakefield, middle   }  "           21          "         90
   district,        }
Lower district,        "           21          "         86
Northampton,                                   "         35
Military Settlement }
            No. 1,  }  "           38          "        140
            No. 2,     "           36          "        131
            No. 3,     "           24          "        159
            No. 4,     "           24          "        116
Scotch Settlement,     "           20          "         36
    In July, 1824                                     4,379
Add the number in the College at Fredericton,
as reported last year                                   357
Total                                                 4,736
In July, 1823                                         3,396
Increase during the year                              1,340

The trade of New-Brunswick may be comprised under the following heads:


Boards, shingles, fish, and small articles. The principal return for
which is rum, sugar, molasses, &c.


Squared timber, masts, spars, oars, lathwood, deals, furs, &c.
Ship-building forms also a considerable branch of trade at present.
Some of which are built by contract for merchants in Great-Britain, and
others are built and loaded by merchants in the Province, and either
employed by them in the exportation of lumber, or sold in Britain. The
returns for this trade are British merchandise, and specie.

There was formerly a considerable trade carried on with the United
States in gypsum, grindstones, smoked salmon, &c. and for a short
period in the productions of the West-Indies from the free port of St.
John, (as well as from Halifax in Nova-Scotia.) But the trade in
West-India produce is now totally at an end, and the other branches
much fallen off, so that most of the flour, corn, and bread stuffs
imported from thence is paid for in specie, which is a great drain for
the cash of the Province: for there are nearly sixty thousand barrels
of wheat and rye flour, and from sixty-five to seventy thousand bushels
of indian corn, imported annually, besides corn meal, bread, &c.

The amount of imports in 1824 was five hundred and fourteen thousand
five hundred and fifty-seven pounds sterling, and the exports in the
same year five hundred and twenty-six thousand nine hundred and
twenty-three, exclusive of exports from the port of St. Andrews, which
amounted to about one hundred thousand pounds, besides several vessels
built at St. Peters, and other places not in the above statement. The
gross amount of the revenue collected at the different ports in the
Province, in 1824 was forty-four thousand six hundred and seventy
pounds two shillings and sixpence, New-Brunswick currency. This when
the population of the Country is considered, speaks much for the trade
and resources of the Province.

As squared timber is the great staple of this trade, I shall set down
the number of tons exported yearly at three different periods, from
which the reader may form a pretty correct idea of the quantity usually
shipped in a year.

In 1819 the quantity was 247,394 Tons.
In 1822     "        "   266,450  "
In 1824     "        "   321,211  "

The above is the total amount from all the Ports in New-Brunswick.

The following statement will shew the total amount of exports and
imports of every description in the year 1824.



_An account of the total number of Ships and Vessels that have entered
inwards at this Port and the Out-Bays within the district thereof, in
the year 1824, with their Tonnage, number of Men, and the quantity of
Goods imported in the same Vessels, together with the value of said
Goods in Sterling Money.--Exclusive of Coasters._


432 Vessels--94,248 Tons--4,192 Men.

Wheat and Rye Flour, bbls.        32,512
Bread, ditto                       1,088
Corn, bushels                     37,917
Meal, barrels                      3,448
Rice, cwts.                        1,097
Beef and Pork, barrels             4,719
Sheep, number                         26
Horses, ditto                          3
Peas and Beans, bushels            1,145
Wine, gallons                     14,772
Brandy and Gin, gallons           29,682
Rum, gallons                     310,879
Molasses, gallons                110,579
Coffee, cwts.                        248
Pimento, lbs.                      9,742
Sugar, cwt.                        2,988
Salt, tons                         4,673
Naval Stores, barrels              2,254
Tobacco, cwts.                     1,334
Tea, chests                        1,415
Cordage, coils                     9,406
Coal, chaldrons                    3,703
Oak and Locust Wood, M. feet          62
Onions, Seeds, Apples, &c. bbls.   3,016
Staves, M.                            45
Shingles, M.                          27
Iron and Copper, tons              2,154
Hides, number                      7,724
Mahogany, Logwood, &c. tons          192
Bricks, M.                            21
Stone Ware, pieces                22,113
Cotton Wool, bales                   134
Slates, M.                            95
Oats, bushels                      9,863
Barley, bushels                    1,452
Wheat, bushels                     5,418
Tallow, hogsheads                     67
Wood Hoops, number                 2,400
Packages of British Merchandise,
  including cotton, silk
  and woollen Goods, Sail
  Cloth, Ironmongery, &c.         24,686


327 Vessels--94,601 Tons--4,274 Men.

Wheat Flour, barrels              17,285
Bread, barrels                     1,063
Corn, bushels                     17,262
Meal, barrels                     11,598
Rice, cwt.                           160
Beef and Pork, barrels             6,016
Peas and Beans, barrels            1,204
Naval Stores, barrels                212
Tobacco, cwts.                       727
Tea, chests                          280
Cordage, coils                     1,144
Coal, chaldrons                    1,063
Onions, Seeds, Apples, Nuts, &c.
  barrels                            710
Wine, gallons                      6,493
Brandy and Gin, gallons           23,533
Rum, gallons                      86,977
Molasses, gallons                 23,533
Coffee, cwts.                        126
Pimento, lbs.                        224
Sugar, cwts.                       2,462
Salt, tons                           410
Iron and Copper, tons                125
Hides, number                         94
Mahogany, Logwood, &c. tons           42
Bricks, M.                            82
Stone Ware, pieces                60,300
Slates, M.                            34
Barley, bushels                      200
British Merchandise, packages      3,600


33 Vessels--6,143 Tons--302 Men.

Wheat Flour, barrels                 184
Bread, ditto                          34
Rice, cwt.                            16
Beef and Pork, barrels               130
Wine, gallons                         61
Brandy and Gin, gallons            1,078
Rum, gallons                       2,596
Molasses, gallons                  1,675
Sugar, cwts.                          48
Salt, tons                           250
Naval Stores, barrels                 10
Tobacco, cwts.                        13
Tea, chests                            4
Cordage, coils                        67
Coal, chaldrons                       24
Iron and Copper, tons                 35
British Merchandise, packages        142


86 Vessels--17,490 Tons--830 Men.

Wheat Flour, barrels                 889
Bread, ditto                         283
Meal, ditto                          631
Beef and Pork, barrels               493
Peas and Beans, bushels              135
Wine, gallons                        968
Brandy and Gin, gallons            3,581
Rum, gallons                      10,821
Molasses, gallons                  5,967
Coffee, cwts.                         15
Sugar, cwts.                         202
Salt, tons                           680
Naval Stores, barrels                 39
Tobacco, cwts.                        29
Tea, chests                           36
Cordage, coils                        56
Coal, chaldrons                      125
Iron and Copper, tons                 25
British Merchandise, packages      1,322


19 Vessels--4,018 Tons--208 Men.

Wheat Flour, barrels                   7
Bread, barrels                        60
Beef and Pork, barrels                29
Brandy and Gin, gallons              120
Rum, gallons                          20
Molasses, gallons                    105
Sugar, cwts.                           9
Salt, tons                           180
Naval Stores, barrels                 17
Tobacco, cwt.                         11
Cordage, coils                        23
Coal, chaldrons                        7
Iron and Copper, tons                 28
British Merchandise, packages        176


13 Vessels--2,226 Tons--118 Men.

Bread, barrels                         5
Beef and Pork, barrels                 7
Peas and Beans, bushels               14
Rum, gallons                         972
Molasses, gallons                  1,010
Sugar, cwts                            3
Oats, bushels                         40
Salt, tons                            50
Naval Stores, barrels                  5
Cordage, coils                        33
Coal, chaldrons                        6
Iron and Copper, tons                  6
Stone Ware, pieces                 3,000
British Merchandise, packages         50


4 Vessels--841 Tons--37 Men.

Total value of Goods            £514,557, sterling



417 Vessels--102,300 Tons--4,198 Men.

Timber, tons                     114,116
Pine Board and Plank, M. feet     11,534
Staves, M.                         1,923
Shingles, M.                         491
Masts and Spars                    1,918
Oars and Oar Rafters               2,103
Handspikes, number                   595
Hogshead Shooks                    4,461
Lathwood, cords                    1,435
Dry Fish, quintals                15,102
Pickled Fish, barrels              9,868
Smoaked Herrings, boxes            6,961
Fish Oil, barrels                    168
Gypsum, tons                       5,183
Grindstones, number                6,013
Salt Meat, barrels                    90
Potatoes, bushels                    710
Flour, barrels                       332
Bread, barrels                       140
Rice, cwts.                           23
Rum, gallons                      45,870
Molasses, do.                        525
Pimento, lbs.                      5,442
Sugar, cwts.                         166
Naval Stores, barrels                271
Tobacco, cwts.                       371
Coal, tons                           749
Mahogany & Camwood, &c. tons          17
Apples, Onions, &c. barrels          330
Smoaked Salmon, number             3,662
Ox Horns, hogsheads                   20
Old Copper, tons                      25
Salt, tons                           245
Hogsheads of Furs                     15
Corn Meal, barrels                    50


331 Vessels--94,800 Tons--4,341 Men.

Timber, tons                     141,384
Pine Boards and Plank, M. feet     1,256
Staves, M.                           304
Shingles, M.                           8
Masts and Spars                    1,400
Oars and Oar Rafters                 702
Handspikes, number                   888
Lathwood, cords                    3,080
Dry Fish, quintals                   263
Pickled Fish, barrels                580
Smoked Herrings, boxes                70
Flour, barrels                       737
Bread, do.                             7
Rum, gallons                       8,627
Naval Stores, barrels                 45
Tobacco, cwts.                       106


32 Vessels--6,095 Tons--289 Men.

Timber, tons                       8,308
Pine Boards and Plank, M. feet        52
Staves, M.                             8
Masts and Spars                      191
Handspikes, number                   159
Lathwood, cords                      274
Dry Fish, quintals                   800
Pickled Fish, barrels                155


81 Vessels--17,285 Tons--820 Men.

Timber, tons                      24,269
Pine Boards and Plank, M. feet       134
Staves, M.                            36
Masts and Spars                      545
Oars and Oar Rafters                 242
Handspikes, number                 1,380
Lathwood, cords                      625


19 Vessels--4,018 Tons--208 Men.

Timber, tons                       5,851
Pine Boards and Planks, M. feet       12
Masts and Spars                      327
Oars and Oar Rafters                 184
Handspikes, number                    96
Lathwood, cords                      184-1/2
Rum, gallons                         100
Tobacco, cwts.                        50


14 Vessels--2,301 Tons--121 Men.

Timber, tons                       3,062
Pine Boards and Plank, M. feet         7
Masts and Spars                       47
Handspikes, number                    32
Lathwood, cords                       30
Dry Fish, quintals                 2,000
Pickled Fish, barrels                403
Fish Oil, barrels                     20


4 Vessels--841 Tons--37 Men.

Timber, tons                       1,246
Pine Boards and Plank, M. feet         2
Masts and Spars                        5
Oars and Oar Rafters                 110
Handspikes, number                   374
Lathwood, cords                       29-1/2

   Value of Exports £362,043, sterling.

N.B. To the value of exports may be added the following Ships and
Vessels built and registered at this Port within the year 1824, by
persons resident in this Province, either for proprietors in the United
Kingdom, or sent there for sale, as remittances for British
Merchandise, or for owners here, carrying on the Timber Trade.

60 Ships and Vessels, measuring 16,488 tons, at £10    £164,880
    Total                                              £526,923


_An account of the total number of Vessels, their Tonnage, number
of Men, with the quantity and quality of their Cargoes, entered
at the Port of St. Andrews in the year 1824, ending the 5th
January, 1825._

156 Vessels--29,687 Tons--1,406 Men.

Rum, gallons                     104,259
Wines from Madeira, pipes             36
Ditto, Hogsheads                      46
Ditto, Quarter Casks                  38
Ditto, Half Quarter Casks             10
Molasses, gallons                 26,768
Gin and Brandy, gallons            1,391
Wine from Great-Britain, galls.    1,476
Brown Sugar, cwt.                    640
Shrub, casks                           6
Coffee, barrels and bags              68
Tobacco, hogsheads                     4
Bricks, M.                            60
Naval Stores, barrels                327
Canvas, bolts                        159
Cordage, coils                       831
Made Sails, sets                       3
Soap and Candles, boxes              323
Beer and Porter, barrels             118
Nails and Wrought Iron, kegs         198
Ship Chandlery, packages              13
Beef and Pork, barrels                57
Coals, chaldrons                     314
Paint, kegs                          439
Tea, chests                           47
Chain Cables                          10
Glass, boxes, &c.                    120
Pieces of Earthenware & Cast Iron    873
Oak Staves, M.                       120-1/2
Wheat and Rye Flour, bbls.         5,732
Biscuit, barrels                     727
Rice, casks and bags                  43
Corn, Meal and Grain, bushels     12,100
Peas & Beans & Rye Grain, bus.       370
Boards and Plank, M. feet             6-1/2
Wood and Timber, feet             22,750
Fruit, barrels                     1,090
Sheep, number of                     200
Merchandize, packages                585
Salt, tons                         1,998
Iron, tons                            68
Earthenware, crates                  105
Cotton Wool, bales                    22
Mahogany, logs                        11
Green Hides                          305
Linseed Oil, casks                     4
Pimento, bags and casks                8
Logwood, tons                          1
Tobacco Pipes, boxes                  25
Copper Bolts, cwt.                    47
Horses, number of                     28
Piano Fortes                           1
Carriages                              1
Horned Cattle                        678
Furs, bales and boxes                  3



175 Vessels--33,493 Tons--1,543 Men.

192 Plaster Paris Vessels--13,040 Tons--657 Men.

Birch and Pine Timber, tons       25,975
Boards and Plank, M. feet          8,386
Cod Fish, quintals                10,540
Shingles, M.                       2,412
Lathwood, cords                      753
Spars, number                      1,559
Small Poles, number                1,542
Sawed Laths, bundles                 172
Oars, Oar Rafters & Handspikes     1,093
Oak, Ash and Spruce Staves, M.       284
Ship Knees                            50
Naval Stores, barrels                234
Cotton Wool, bales                    22
Pickled Fish, barrels              3,132
Smoked Herrings, boxes             1,067
Beef and Pork, barrels and kits       69
Oil, barrels                          69
Rum, puncheons                       285
Sugar, barrels                        10
Coffee, barrels and bags               7
N.B. Vinegar, barrels                 40
Fruit, Onions and Potatoes, bbls.    126
N.B. Gin, barrels                     37
Salt, tons                            45
Iron, tons                            12
Birch, M.                             35
Calf Skins and Sides Leather, No.     48
Soap and Candles, boxes            1,212
Butter, firkins                        2
Tobacco, hogsheads                     6
Smoked Tobacco, hogsheads             21
Merchandize, packages                 22
Wines, pipes                          26
Ditto hogsheads                       33
Ditto quarter casks                   27
Ditto half quarter casks               1
Wheat and Rye Flour, bbls.         2,839
Bread and Biscuit, barrels            88
Rice, casks and barrels               22
Indian Corn and Meal, bushels      2,482
Peas and Beans, bushels               22
Plaster of Paris, tons            15,576

The Articles of Exports the Production of this Province and the
Fisheries, are considered when shipped, worth the following values,

Pine and Birch Timber,   20s.   sterling  Per Ton.
Lumber and Plank,        40s.             per M.
Shingles,                12s. 6d.         per M.
Lathwood,                20s.             per Cord.
Spars,                    5s.             Each.
Small Poles,              2s. 6d.         Each.
Oars and Oar Rafters,     5s.             per pair.
Staves,                  60s.             per M.
Dry Fish,                12s. 6d.         per quintal.
Pickled Fish,            20s.             per barrel.
Smoked Herrings,          3s.             per box.
Oil,                     80s.             per barrel.
Plaster Paris,           10s.             per ton.

The whole value of the above Exports may be about £100,000.

From the foregoing statement it plainly appears that chief of the
export trade of this Province consists of timber, which is its natural
stock or capital; and as there are many articles taken in exchange from
the mother country, which are indispensably necessary to the
inhabitants of this Province; it points out the necessity of paying
strict attention to its preservation. In this Country there is no
article, or articles, that can in any degree furnish exports equal to
the pine, which is manufactured in the simplest manner, and got to
market with but little trouble. So simple is the process that most
settlers who have the use of the axe can manufacture it; the woods
furnishing a sort of simple manufactory for the inhabitants, from
which, after attending to their farms, in the summer, they can draw
returns during the winter for those supplies which are necessary for
the comfort of their families. This being the case, the preservation of
our forests becomes of prime importance to the prosperity of the

The evils that must arise to the Province, by allowing the timber to be
monopolized and hastily cut off are many. The timber standing in the
Country, particularly on the Crown Lands, may be considered as so much
capital or stock, to secure a permanent trade, and promote the solid
improvement of the Country. Most of the lands in this Province where
pine is found are intermixed with other timber, and although the
precise spots on which the pine grows, are unfit for agriculture,
without much labor; yet there are most always spots adjoining, where a
settler may cultivate with success: so that in a lot of two or three
hundred acres, there is generally enough for tillage, and a man
settling on such land could always choose his spot for farming, and
keep his timber to cut at his leisure. His pine so reserved would as
long as it lasted serve him as a resource, from whence, after attending
to his farming in the summer, he could draw returns during the winter,
for such supplies as would be necessary for his family, and for
improving his farm.

To make this more evident, we will suppose a man settling on a
wilderness lot--like most settlers he has but little save his own
labour--perhaps he has a small family--he commences with cutting down a
small spot, and erecting a hut--say in the summer or fall, he then
moves on his family, and looks round for sustenance till he can raise
his first crop--in doing this his funds are exhausted, and he wants by
his own labour to replenish them during the winter, and provide a few
implements of husbandry, and nails, &c. for building a barn--now
supposing his lot to be back from the river, and at a distance from old
settlements where labour is wanted--what does he do?--why he resorts to
his pine--to the simple manufactory before noticed, and makes a few
tons, say twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty, according to his
ability--carefully cutting the under brush and timber, so as to put his
land where he is working in a fair train for clearing--this timber he
probably gets hauled to the water on shares, if he is very poor and has
no team; the returns for which the next spring, furnishes him with
supplies, and enables him to continue on his land and prosecute his
farming. If he cannot do without the return of his timber till spring,
he applies to a merchant, who if the man is of good fame, advances him
such articles as may be particularly necessary for his family. This
enables him to find labour on his own lot, and stay with his family:
whereas if he has no such resource, he must leave his home, and go to a
distance from his family, seeking labour; and probably they may be so
circumstanced as not to be left safely alone, and he has to take them
with him, which breaks up his family and prevents him from settling.

If a number of families commence a settlement together, where the
timber has not been destroyed, but where a fair proportion is still
growing on the land, they exchange labour with each other, and by their
joint exertions, manufacture and transport their own lumber to market.
In this way they are enabled from year to year to prosecute their
settlement and pay for their grants; the timber answering as a first
crop fully grown, and a resource to make returns for necessaries.--By
this method, as the pine disappears, houses and barns will rise in its
place, and the country, instead of a barren waste, will exhibit
flourishing settlements, peopled with a race who will know the value of
their improvements; and feel their interest identified with the
country: and whose attachment to the Government will increase with
their growing possessions. Their children, raised on the soil, from the
strong principles of early association, will feel that interest in the
welfare of the country, that no transient advantage can produce; and
grow up an ornament and strength to the Province. On the contrary, if
the lumber is cut off by mere speculators, the land will be left in an
impoverished state, much valuable timber will be wantonly destroyed,
and the places from whence the timber is taken will be left an
uncultivated waste; settlers will neither have the inclination or
ability to occupy them. While the major part of the men employed in
getting the lumber for the merchants, instead of making a comfortable
provision for their families, will wear out the prime of their days
without making any permanent establishment; and keep their families
shifting about the country like vagrants. Their children, for the want
of employment, and the direction of their fathers, brought up in
idleness--their education and morals neglected, and bad habits
acquired, will be the reverse of those before noticed: and many of them
will become a vagrant race, unconcerned or uninterested in the welfare
of the country, and in many instances a nuisance to it. While their
parents, after they get unfit for the business, will be turned off in

In short, it will be the most direct way to prevent the settlement of
the back lands, and to produce (what is the bane of all countries) a
race of inhabitants who have no interest in the soil or welfare of the

Statement of the expenses on one thousand tons of pine timber,
manufactured on the Wabskahagan, a branch of the river Tobique:--

The Secretary's, Governor's, and Surveyor General's fees of
  office, including the charge for writing petition     1 10  0
Duty on 1000 tons, at 1s                       50  0  0
Less by amount included in fees, &c.            1  5  0
                                               --------48 15  0
Incidental expenses to the applicant                    0 15  0
Surveyor's fees for measuring the timber berth          7  0  0
Expenses for axemen and chainmen                        5 10  0
Travelling expenses thence and back, five hundred miles 8  0  0
                                                      --------- 71 10 0
Ten men at £5 per month, and an overseer at £10, say for
  six months                                          360  0  0
Six yoke of oxen, at £30 per yoke                     180  0  0
One pair draught horses                                50  0  0
One boat, sail, and gear                               36  0  0
Two canoes with paddles                                 6  0  0
Sleds, chains, harness, &c.                            27 10  0
Eleven men's provisions for six months, at 85s. per head,
  per month                                           274 10  0
Hay for oxen, &c. 30 tons, at £10                     300  0  0
Grain for ditto                                        25  0  0
                                                      ---------1259 0 0
Total expense on one thousand tons of timber, at the         ----------
   brow ready for rafting                                   £1330 10  0
Expense of rafting, anchors, cables, ropes, &c.                50  0  0
                                                            £1380 10  0
  Deduct for articles that may be useful another season, viz.--
Oxen, Horses, Boat, tackle, &c.                       214  0  0
Canoes, sleds, harness, anchors, &c. &c.               50  0  0
                                                    --------- 264  0  0
                Total amount of expenses                    £1116 10  0

From the foregoing statement (admitting it to be near the truth) it
appears that the expenses on one thousand tons of timber got on the
river Tobique, amounts to £1116:10:0--to which is to be added the
expense and risk of taking it down to Saint John, a distance of about
two hundred and fifty miles--the loss by casualties on a rapid river,
where men and teams frequently break through the ice, and are swept
away by the velocity of the current. When all the above expenses are
deducted from the returns of the timber, it will leave but a little for
those who carry on the business, and very often involves them in
inextricable difficulties.

The preceding statement points out the necessity of adopting a more
prudent system in conducting the timber business. Not to push the trade
to such an extent--to retrench the expenses, by raising the heavy parts
of the supplies near the timber districts; and to follow up the timber
trade with the improvement of the country and cultivation of the soil.

Another great drawback to the prosperity of the Province is the great
consumption of ardent liquors--partly occasioned by the present modes
of conducting the timber business. The amount of spirituous liquors
imported and consumed in the Province in 1824, at the least calculation
was £120,000, exclusive of the County of Charlotte; and add to this
amount the cost of the transport of the liquor to the interior and the
enormous charges on the article in the distant parts of the Province,
the cost to the consumer may be fairly reckoned at treble the amount,
making in the whole the gross sum of £360,000 for ardent liquors alone,
consumed by the inhabitants of the Province, being near twenty gallons
on an average for every male over sixteen years of age.

The number of inhabitants in this Province, according to the census of
last year, is seventy-four thousand one hundred and
seventy-six--besides the large settlement of Madawaska and the parish
of West Isles; and as it is probable the numbers in the different
parishes are taken in some instances under the real amount, the whole
population may be fairly rated in round numbers at eighty thousand. The
subjoined statement will show the population of the different counties
and parishes in 1824:

Population of the Province of New-Brunswick,

                    |       Whites.         |    People of Colour.  |
                    |   Males.    Females.  |  Males.   |  Females. |
o   |               |  A  |  U  |  A  |  U  |  A  |  U  |  A  |  U  |  i
u   |               |  b  |  n  |  b  |  n  |  b  |  n  |  b  |  n  |  n P
n   |               |  o  |  d  |  o  |  d  |  o  |  d  |  o  |  d  |T   a
t   |               |  v  |  e  |  v  |  e  |  v  |  e  |  v  |  e  |o e r
i   |               |  e  |  r  |  e  |  r  |  e  |  r  |  e  |  r  |t a i
e   |               |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |a c s
s   |               | 16  | 16  | 16  | 16  | 16  | 16  | 16  | 16  |l h h
    |Fredericton    | 526 | 352 | 470 | 392 |  29 |  21 |  34 |  25 | 1849
    |Saint Mary     | 259 | 242 | 216 | 223 |   7 |   8 |  11 |   6 |  972
    |Douglas        | 365 | 340 | 289 | 306 |  19 |  18 |  15 |  15 | 1367
Y   |Kingsclear     | 226 | 173 | 190 | 155 |  15 |  28 |  22 |  23 |  832
o   |Queensbury     | 205 | 172 | 149 | 153 |  10 |   6 |   6 |  15 |  716
r   |Prince William | 159 | 142 | 117 | 116 |   3 |   3 |   2 |   3 |  545
k   |Northampton    | 182 | 130 | 133 | 123 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  568
     Woodstock      | 267 | 181 | 186 | 179 |   1 |   2 | ... | ... |  816
    |Wakefield      | 217 | 276 | 267 | 218 |   1 |   1 | ... | ... | 1010
    |Kent           | 645 | 596 | 457 | 597 |   2 | ... | ... | ... | 2297
    |City of
S J |  St. John     |2371 |1731 |2361 |1632 |  94 |  72 | 139 |  88 | 8488
a o |Portland,
i h |  1st district | 628 | 392 | 447 | 340 |   1 |   1 |   3 |   1 | 1813
n n |Portland,
t   |  2d district  | 386 | 242 | 228 | 207 |  42 |  40 |  43 |  42 | 1230
    |Lancaster      | 216 | 150 | 157 | 151 |  38 |  31 |  28 |  22 |  793
    |Saint Martin   | 154 | 147 | 133 | 148 |   1 | ... | ... | ... |  583
    |Kingston       | 503 | 386 | 382 | 365 |   7 |   5 |   4 |   3 | 1655
K   |Sussex         | 487 | 460 | 414 | 433 |  11 |  12 |   7 |   9 | 1833
i   |Hampton        | 462 | 385 | 375 | 314 |   4 |   7 |   5 |   7 | 1559
n   |Norton         | 152 | 115 | 100 | 109 |   5 |   4 |   8 |   9 |  502
g   |Westfield      | 182 | 181 | 152 | 178 |   7 |   7 |   4 |   2 |  713
s   |Springfield    | 241 | 212 | 210 | 234 |   9 |   7 |   8 |   3 |  924
    |Greenwich      | 184 | 185 | 178 | 185 |   1 |   2 |   1 |   8 |  744
Q   |Gagetown       | 180 | 124 | 140 | 133 |   7 |   5 |   9 |  10 |  606
u   |Waterborough   | 486 | 643 | 403 | 444 |   1 |  10 |   7 |  19 | 2023
e   |Wickham        | 306 | 297 | 236 | 259 |   2 | ... | ... |   1 | 1100
e   |Hampstead      | 193 | 188 | 164 | 165 |   5 |   6 |   4 |   1 |  723
n   |Brunswick      |  50 |  64 |  36 |  39 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  189
s   |Brunswick District Butternut
    |  Ridge        |  24 |  29 |  19 |  28 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  100
    |St. Andrews    | 653 | 464 | 574 | 532 |  12 |   8 |  13 |   7 | 2263
    |St. Stephen    | 518 | 393 | 397 | 358 |   3 |   1 | ... |   3 | 1673
C   |St. David      | 278 | 233 | 230 | 264 | ... | ... | ... | ... | 1005
h   |St. George,
a   |  1st district | 245 | 173 | 166 | 159 |   1 | ... |   1 | ... |  745
r   |St. George,
l   |  2d district  | 191 | 174 |  66 | 170 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  701
o   |St. Patrick    | 217 | 203 | 164 | 178 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  762
t   |St. James      | 121 | 116 | 109 | 107 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  453
t   |Pennfield      | 223 | 120 |  93 | 120 |   2 | ... | ... | ... |  558
e   |Campo Bello    | 167 | 123 | 123 |  95 | ... |   1 | ... | ... |  509
    |Grand Manan    | 157 | 170 | 138 | 132 | ... |   1 | ... | ... |  598
    |West Isles     | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
u   |Maugerville    | 152 | 112 | 115 |  92 |   4 |   3 |   3 |   3 |  484
n   |Sheffield      | 227 | 139 | 187 | 156 |   5 |   9 |   5 |   7 |  735
b   |Burton         | 432 | 298 | 322 | 269 |   4 |   6 |   4 |   3 | 1338
u   |Lincoln        | 200 | 167 | 142 | 158 |   1 | ... |   2 | ... |  670
s   |Dorchester     | 706 | 748 | 611 | 672 |   8 | ... | ... | ... | 2737
t   |Sackville      | 444 | 464 | 395 | 415 |   6 |   7 |   4 |   7 | 1744
m   |Westmorland    | 215 | 208 | 192 | 229 |   2 |  13 |  11 |   9 |  883
o   |Hillsborough   | 281 | 291 | 226 | 344 | ... |   5 | ... |   3 | 1152
r   |Monckton       |  85 |  94 |  82 |  79 | ... | ... |   2 | ... |  342
e   |Botsford       | 200 | 216 | 162 | 195 | ... | ... | ... |   1 |  774
l   |Salisbury      | 171 | 170 | 147 | 177 | ... | ... | ... |   1 |  666
a   |Hopewell       | 292 | 256 | 225 | 232 | ... | ... | ... | ... | 1005
    |Newcastle      | 641 | 326 | 377 | 313 | ... | ... | ... | ... | 1657
    |Chatham        | 451 | 296 | 319 | 382 |   1 | ... |   2 |   1 | 1452
    |  1st district | 407 | 191 | 147 | 173 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  918
N   |Ludlow,
o   |  2d district  | 286 |  38 |  29 |  37 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  390
r   |Northesk,
t   |  1st district | 921 | 107 | 119 |  96 | ... | ... | ... | ... | 1243
h   |Northesk,
u   |  2d district  |  47 |  60 |  41 |  52 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  200
m   |Alnwick,
b   |  1st district |  93 |  54 |  44 |  54 | ... | ... | ... | ... |  245
e   |Alnwick,
r   |  2d district  | 137 |  83 |  72 |  80 |   1 | ... | ... | ... |  373
l   |Carleton       | 757 | 429 | 376 | 402 | ... | ... | ... |   1 | 1965
a   |Beresford      | 327 | 294 | 225 | 228 |   6 |   3 |   1 |   2 | 1086
n   |Glenelg        | 323 | 174 | 175 | 163 |   1 | ... | ... | ... |  836
d   |Saumarez,
    |  1st district  | 299 | 209 | 201 | 234 |   2 |   2 |   1 |   1 | 949
    |  2d district   | 524 | 446 | 408 | 450 | ... | ... | ... | ... | 1828
    |Wellington      | 420 | 393 | 335 | 406 | ... | ... |   1 | ... | 1555
    |Nelson          | 574 | 185 | 201 | 166 |   3 | ... |   2 |   1 | 1132


    County of York                   10,972
    County of Saint John             12,907
    County of Kings                   7,930
    County of Queens                  4,741
    County of Charlotte               9,267
    County of Sunbury                 3,227
    County of Westmorland             9,303
    County of Northumberland         15,829
       Total in the Province         74,176

The enrolled Militia amount to about twelve thousand. They are divided
into twenty-three battalions; the battalions are composed of six,
eight, or more companies, according to local circumstances. The
companies consist of one captain, two subalterns, three sergeants,
and sixty rank and file, except flank companies, which are allowed
four sergeants. Where districts are in remote situations, and not
sufficiently populous to form two companies, but exceed the number of
sixty effective men, eighty are allowed to be enrolled in one company.
They assemble by companies two days in a year for drill; and by
battalions or divisions for muster and inspection, once or oftener, if
the Commander-in-Chief thinks it necessary. An Inspecting Field Officer
is appointed to inspect the battalions at their general muster. He
visits the different corps successively, and reports to the
Commander-in-Chief. He is paid a certain sum per annum, which is
granted yearly by the Legislature. The Militia Law is continually
undergoing alterations, and has not yet attained to that perfection,
that such an important branch of our provincial constitution requires.
The last year two Inspecting Officers were appointed to inspect the two
great divisions of the Province.

There are abundant materials to form a good effective Militia in this
Province. The youth are in general docile and orderly, and have a great
aptitude to attain the requisite discipline; there are also a number of
disbanded soldiers and other persons acquainted with discipline,
scattered through the country; so that there are few districts, but
where there are persons qualified to act as drills. The want of arms is
indeed a great check to the military spirit, as nothing is more taking
to boys when first put to drill, than to have arms; and although many
requisites of discipline, such as marching, wheeling, &c. can be
acquired full as well without them; yet nothing makes a young lad so
alert as to have a musket put into his hands.

To get persons to excel in any thing, it is requisite first of all if
possible to create an attachment and liking to it; and to get the youth
fully engaged in acquiring martial discipline, it is a primary object
to make it pleasing to them. If therefore the different corps were at
their musters to be supplied with arms and a few rounds of cartridges,
and taught to skirmish, it would act as the greatest stimulous to the
youth, and would soon make an alteration for the better at the
trainings; by making them a recreation and time of amusement: while it
would make the Militia familiar with the use of arms--which is at
present altogether lost sight of.

The writer is well aware that many arms formerly issued to the Militia
have been destroyed, and that this might again happen; but surely some
method might be adopted to prevent such abuses, and still to furnish
the different corps with arms while at drill, by forming depots for
lodging the arms, and appropriating some of the fines to keep them in
order. In scattered districts, one, two or more companies arms might be
kept together; and in towns Arsenals might be erected where two or
three thousand stand might be deposited. Such buildings would not only
be highly useful, but ornamental to the different places: and as there
are but few serviceable arms in the Province at present, some steps
should be taken to procure a sufficient number, and not to let the
country remain in its present naked condition. It certainly appears
like an anomaly in our preparations for defence, to expend time and
money in improving our Militia, and not provide the means of arming and
making them efficient if they should be wanted. If (as the preamble to
the Militia Law states) "a well regulated Militia is essential to the
security of this Province," it is equally necessary that the Province
should possess the means of arming that Militia. If arms could not be
procured from the Crown, it would be advisable to appropriate a part of
the Provincial revenue for the purchase of a sufficient number to
supply the Militia in case of emergency; which could be either sold to
the Militiamen, or placed in the Arsenals, and issued occasionally to
the different corps as the Government should think proper.

Should the Province ever be invaded, its defence will not wholly
consist in defending fortified posts or in engagements with large
bodies in open field, but by taking advantage of the natural fastnesses
of the country, such as woods, deep hollows, hills, rivers, brooks, &c.
with which the Province abounds.

This points out the necessity of having the Militia trained to
sharpshooting and such exercises as will be beneficial in the hour of
danger; and not merely taught a few parade movements, or how to receive
a reviewing officer.

The Indians in New-Brunswick are fast declining, and although several
attempts have been made to induce them to form permanent settlements
and become planters, they still continue their migratory mode of life.
The attempts that have been made to civilize them by educating their
children have been equally unsuccessful. The Romish religion appears to
be the most congenial to them, as well as to the French. This arises in
a great measure from its outward pomp and external forms imposing on
the uncultivated mind. They yield an implicit obedience to the Romish
Missionaries, who instruct them in religion, regulate their marriages,
and censure or approve their conduct, and so successful have been their
endeavours, that but few depredations are committed by the Indians on
property, although they are frequently reduced to the most extreme
want.--The Baron LA HOUTAN, who has enumerated forty-nine Nations of
Indians in Canada, and Acadia, names the following Tribes as the
original inhabitants of Nova-Scotia:--The Abenakie, Micmac, Canabus,
Mahingans, Openangans, Soccokis, and Etechemins, from whom our present
Indians are descended. As the customs, manners, and dress, of the
Indians have been often described, I shall not therefore swell this
article by repeating old stories. Besides the conical cap, the blanket,
leggins, and moccasins, worn by all the tribes; the women among the
New-Brunswick Indians frequently wear a round hat, a shawl, and short
clothes, resembling the short gown and petticoat worn by the French and
Dutch women. The Indian language is bold and figurative, abounding in
hyperbolical expressions, and is said to be susceptible of much
elegance. To give the reader some notion of the manner in which these
people conduct their conferences with each other, and with Europeans, I
shall subjoin an extract of a conference, or talk, held at Quebec, with
the Governor General of Canada, during the last American War.

                                            QUEBEC, 17TH MARCH, 1814.

Thursday having been appointed for holding the Council, the Chiefs and
Warriors assembled, and after shaking hands with His Excellency, as
before, NEWASH accompanied by his Interpreter, again presented himself
in the middle of the room, and pronounced the following Speech, or


    "Father--Listen.--You will hear from me truth. It is the same as
    what the Chiefs and Warriors now here have to say.

    "Father--Listen.--Open your ears to your children, to your red
    children that are in the west. They are all of one mind: although
    they are so far off and scattered on different lands, they hear
    what I am now saying.

    "Father--Listen.--You have told us by the talk of your Warriors,
    twice Father, that we were to fight on the flanks and in the rear
    of your Warriors, but we have always gone in front Father; and that
    it is in this way we have lost so many of our young Warriors, our
    women and children.

    "Father--Listen.--The Americans have said they would kill you first
    Father, and then destroy your red children; but when you sent us
    the hatchet we took hold of it Father and made use of it Father, as
    you know.

    "Father--Listen.--Your red children want back their old boundary
    lines, that they may have the lands which belong to them, and this
    Father when the war began, you promised to get for them.

    "Father--Listen.--Your red children have suffered a great deal,
    they are sad, indeed they are pitiful, they want your assistance
    Father. They want arms for their Warriors, and clothes for their
    women and children. You do not know the number of your red children
    Father. There are many who never yet received any arms or clothing.
    It is necessary at present, Father, to send more than you formerly

    "Father--Listen.--At the beginning of the war you promised us when
    the Americans would put their hand forward you would draw yours
    back. Now Father we request when the Americans put their hand out,
    (as we hear they mean to do) knock it away Father, and the second
    time when they put out their hand, draw your sword.--If not Father,
    the Americans will laugh at us, and say our Great Father, who is
    beyond the Great Lake is a coward Father.

    "Father--Listen.--The Americans are taking our lands from us every
    day, they have no hearts, Father, they have no pity for us. They
    want to drive us beyond the setting sun. But Father, we hope,
    although we are few, and are here as it were upon a little Island,
    our Great and Mighty Father, who lives beyond the Great Lake, will
    not forsake us in our distress, but will continue to remember his
    faithful red children.

    "This is all I have to say. This is from our Chiefs and Warriors,
    this is all they have to say."

NEWASH then advanced to His Excellency, and presented him with the
Black Wampum and Bloody Belt.

His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief then made the Chiefs and Warriors
the following answer to the talks or speeches that had been addressed
to him in their behalf.

    "My Children.--I thank the Great Spirit for his protection of you on
    your long journey, and I rejoice to meet you at Quebec, the Great
    Council Fire on this side the Great Lake.

    "My Children.--You have freely and forcibly spoken your sentiments,
    and I am happy to have heard from your own mouths, your thoughts,
    as I know on these occasions you always speak the truth. I am
    therefore delighted to hear my red children declare their
    attachment to the King our Great Father, beyond the Great Lake, and
    to myself and my Warriors.

    "My Children.--I have opened my ears and listened with attention to
    what you have said. My heart was sore when I heard of the death of
    a great warrior. It still bleeds when I think of his loss, and the
    misfortunes my children have met with during the war, in the death
    of many a wise chief and brave warrior, and some of your women and
    children who are gone to see the Great Spirit, before whom we must
    all one day appear.

    "My Children.--I thank the Great Spirit that I see you in my own
    dwelling, and converse with you face to face. Listen to my
    words--they are the words of truth. You have always heard this from
    my chiefs, and I now repeat them. We have taken each other by the
    hand and fought together. Our interests are the same--we must still
    continue to fight together: for the King, our great father,
    considers you as his children, and will not forget you or your
    interests at a peace. But to preserve what we hold, and recover
    from the enemy what belongs to us, we must make great exertions;
    and I rely on your courage, with the assistance of my chiefs and
    warriors, to drive the big knives from our land the ensuing summer.

    "My Children.--Our great father will give us new warriors from the
    other side of the great water, who will join with you in attacking
    the enemy, and will soon open the great road to your country, by
    which you used to receive your supplies, and which the enemy having
    stopped, has caused the distress and scarcity of goods you complain
    of: for I have never been in want of goods for you, but could not
    send them.

    "My Children.--Our success in the war must depend on our bravery and
    your young men listening to the advice of their chiefs--this you
    must always bear in mind. I recommend to you to open your ears when
    my chiefs speak to you, for they only wish for your good. Tell your
    brother warriors whom I may not see, that these are my words; and
    that though they are to destroy their enemies in battle, they must
    spare and shew mercy to women and children, and all prisoners.

    "My Children.--I have but one thing more to recommend to you, which
    you will not forget--you know that the only success that the enemy
    gained over us, last season, was owing to the want of provisions.
    There was much waste at Amherstberg--the consequence was that you
    and my warriors were forced to retreat. In future you must be
    careful of provisions, and use only what may be necessary; they are
    the same as powder and ball, we cannot destroy our enemies without

    "My Children.--You will not forget what I have said to you. This is
    my parole to the nations. (Here the black wampum is presented to
    NEWASH.) Let them know what I have said. Tell them they shall not
    be forgotten by their great father nor by me.--Take courage my
    children--be strong--and may the Great Spirit preserve you in the
    day of battle." (Here the bloody belt is presented.)

After the interpreter had presented the belt to NEWASH, he with several
of the chiefs chaunted parts of the war song:

    "Under the Cloud Island
    With this belt I go;
    By this my heart is strong,
    I shall have courage to die by the foe.

    "Now I take hold of this belt,
    Light as birds fly in the air;
    Strong is my heart, and round I go,
    Seeking to die by the foe."

While this song was chaunting, several short speeches were made by the
Indians. One of them said--"There is our father--here is the
belt--there you are--the Great Spirit presides--now we are one, and
none can flinch--if we stand by our father, he will stand by us. Our
path is in the west--the war shall brighten there--the sky begins to
clear--the light falls on our lands, and soon again shall our women and
children be on them. You Saulks--you Chippeways, and all you of
different nations, we are all one. We will fight them with our father,
and never cease to fight while we have life, or until we have got back
our lands."

The names of twelve Indian chiefs, inhabiting the coast of Acadia at
the time the French peasants submitted to the British Government, will
be found in the appendix to this work.

Lands in New-Brunswick are held in fee simple or free socage. The
grants are immediately from the Crown. The subjoined table will shew
the fees on single Grants, or where a number of Grantees are included
in one patent, at present taken at the several offices.


|   |G      |       |     |         |         |      |     |        |
|   |o      |       |     |         |         |      |     |        |
|   |v      |   S   |     |         |         |      |     |        |
| N |e      |   e   |     |         |         |      |C    |        |
| u |r      |   c   |     |         |      p  |      |o    |        |
| m |n      |   ‘   |     |    A    |R     u  |   S  |m    |        |
| b |o      |   y   |     |    t    |e     r  |   u  |m    |        |
| e |r  t   |       |     |    t    |c     c  |   r  |i    |        |
| r |   h   |   a   |     |    o    |e     h  |   v  |s  C |        |
|   |i  e  o|   n   |     |    r    |i  i  a  |   e  |s  r |        |
| o |n     f|   d   |     |    n    |v  n  s  |   y  |i  o |        |
| f |c  w   |       |  A  |    e    |e  c  e  |   o  |o  w | Total. |
|   |l  a  s|   R   |  u  |    y    |r  l     |   r  |n  n |        |
| a |u  r  u|   e   |  d  |    -    |-  u  m  |   -  |e    |        |
| c |d  r  r|   g   |  i  |    G    |G  d  o  |   G  |r  L |        |
| r |i  e  v|   t   |  t  |    e    |e  i  n  |   e  |   a |        |
| e |n  n  e|   r   |  o  |    n    |n  n  e  |   n  |o  n |        |
| s |g  t  y|   .   |  r  |    .    |.  g  y  |   .  |f  d |        |
|   | £ s d | £ s d | s d | £  s  d | £  s  d | £  s | s d | £  s d |
|100| 4 1 8 | 3 7 6 |13 4 | 1 10 10 | 0 13  4 | 2  0 | 5 0 |12 11 8 |
|200| 4 1 8 | 3 7 6 |13 4 | 1 10 10 | 0 13  4 | 2  0 | 5 0 |12 11 8 |
|300| 4 1 8 | 3 7 6 |13 4 | 1 10 10 | 1  4  6 | 2  0 | 7 6 |13  5 4 |
|400| 4 1 8 | 3 7 6 |13 4 | 1 10 10 | 1 15  8 | 2  5 |10 0 |14  4 0 |
|500| 4 1 8 | 3 7 6 |13 4 | 1 10 10 | 2  6 10 | 2 10 |10 0 |15  0 2 |

On Grants where more than one person is concerned, His Excellency has
seven shillings per hundred acres; and the public offices have half the
above-mentioned fees for each additional name, with the exception of
the Attorney-General, who has nineteen shillings and two-pence for each
additional name. The purchase money (which is a sum of five shillings
sterling for every fifty acres above two hundred, payable to His
Majesty, and called the King's purchase money,) is included in the
above scale of fees to the Receiver-General. According to the Royal
Instructions, a single man is entitled to one hundred acres of land,
with an additional quantity provided he can produce sufficient
testimonials of his ability to cultivate more. A married man is
entitled to two hundred acres, with an additional quantity on proof of
his ability to cultivate more: but no more than five hundred acres is
allowed to be granted to any person by the Colonial Government.

The method of laying out lots in this Province, of a narrow front and
extending a great distance back, is very inconvenient to the settler.
Being confined to a narrow front when he commences, clearing,
supposing, (which is often the case,) the land adjoining to be
unoccupied, he merely makes a lane through the wilderness, not half of
which will produce a crop, on account of its being shaded by the
adjoining woods: which not only exclude the sun, but impoverish the
land by drawing the nourishment from the plants to the adjoining trees.
To obviate this, and many other inconveniences, it would be far better
to lay out settlements, where the face of the country would admit of
it, in square blocks, or parallelograms; to contain two ranges of lots,
with roads at proper distances. The fronts of the lots to be extended,
and their length contracted. The lots to abut on the road; and extend
back one-half the depth of the block:--The rear of the lots in one
range, abutting on the rear of lots in the next range. Or else, the
settlements might be divided into squares and sections, after the
method adopted by the United States in laying out new settlements, of
which the following is a short outline:

Their townships are laid out in blocks of six miles square, the whole
area containing 23,040 acres. Those squares are divided into thirty-six
smaller squares or sections of a mile square, containing each 640
acres. The sections are numbered from right to left, and left to right,
as in the following plan:--

       six miles long.           s
+----+----+----+----+----+----+  i
|  6 |  5 |  4 |  3 |  2 |  1 |  x
|  7 |  8 |  9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |  m
+----+----+----+----+----+----+  i
| 18 | 17 | 16 | 15 | 14 | 13 |  l
+----+----+----+----+----+----+  e
| 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 |  s
| 30 | 29 | 28 | 27 | 26 | 25 |  l
+----+----+----+----+----+----+  o
| 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 |  n
+----+----+----+----+----+----+  g

The sections are again subdivided into quarters and half quarters. A
quarter section is half a mile square, and contains one hundred and
sixty acres. The sixteenth section of each township is reserved to
maintain schools, and the sections two, five, twenty, twenty-three,
thirty, and thirty-three, are sold in half-quarters.

By this method the limits of counties and parishes are accurately
defined; the settlements are every where interspersed with roads, and
each man's field, instead of a narrow strip of irregular figure and
uncertain boundary, is a square laying compact and near a road, whose
contents are always easily ascertained. The rectangular method of
laying out settlements, cannot always be followed, on account of
rivers, &c. which will cause gores and inequalities; but whenever it
can be adopted it offers many advantages.

The estates of persons dying intestate are distributed analogous to the
custom of gavelkind in Kent. The heir at law of such intestate shall be
entitled to and receive a double portion or two shares of the real
estate left by such intestate, (saving the widow's right of dower.) The
remander to be equally distributed among all the children or their
legal representatives, including in the distribution the children of
the half blood; and in case there be no children, to the next of
kindred in equal degree, and their representatives. Provided that
children advanced by settlement, or portions, not equal to the other
shares, shall have so much of the surplusage, as shall make the estate
of all to be equal, except the heir at law, who shall have two shares,
or a double portion.


_Having for reasons stated in the commencement of this Work, given up
my first design of adding a brief connected history of the Province, I
have inserted a few extracts relating to this Country, in an Appendix;
as they may be satisfactory to the reader, and useful in conveying some
knowledge of the early history of the Country. My reasons for abridging
this Description I have also stated, and have omitted many particulars
necessary in a full description of a Country, such as tables of
Animals, Plants, Minerals, Weather, &c. as I could not obtain the
necessary materials, as but little attention has been paid to these
subjects by persons qualified for the task._

_I have endeavoured to be as correct in what I have stated as possible,
but no doubt many inaccuracies will be discovered, as the information I
have collected from different sources is liable to error. But it must
be remembered that in a first Work like this many difficulties will
occur, and having no tract to guide me, I have frequently wanted the
necessary information. The Work, however imperfect, must be useful, as
giving the first general outline of the Province, and interesting to
every person who possesses a feeling of interest for his own fireside.
In short, persons who strike out a first tract in any thing, may be
compared to pioneers who trace a road for others to use and improve._


_Speech of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor at the meeting of the
General Assembly, at Fredericton, February 1, 1825._

    _Mr. President, and Gentlemen of His Majesty's Council,
                 Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the House of Assembly,_

    I have much satisfaction in meeting the Legislature of
    New-Brunswick--I am well persuaded that you will continue to
    promote and support the Interests and Institutions of the Province
    in a manner that will not fail to receive from me that ready and
    cordial concurrence which it will be my greatest pleasure to bestow
    upon all measures that may be calculated to advance the public

    It affords me great pleasure to have it in my power to congratulate
    you on the very prosperous state of the Provincial Finances. The
    Revenue of the last exceeds greatly that of any former year, and
    yields a large surplus beyond the charges incurred, within the
    corresponding period.

    _Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the House of Assembly,_

    I shall direct the Treasurer's Accounts to be laid before you, I
    rely upon your making the usual provisions for the Ordinary
    Services of the Province; and I am happy to acquaint you that the
    state of the Treasury is such as to enable you to provide for other
    objects of public interest and utility, to which your bounty has
    already been extended, and also to promote other important services
    which I shall hereafter bring before you.

    _Mr. President, and Gentlemen of His Majesty's Council,
      Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the House of Assembly,_

    Watching assiduously over the Public Interests, I shall have to
    submit to you, by Message, various measures which it will be
    necessary to bring under your consideration in the course of the
    Session, but whilst I reserve matters of detail for that mode of
    communication, important considerations and general views, which
    require to be fully and forcibly put to the Country, and which
    could not be properly treated in partial or very concise form,
    render it expedient, on this particular occasion, to lay before you
    such a statement of public affairs, as may embrace, generally, all
    interests, and leave nothing in doubt as to our real situation, in
    the more important branches of our well being.

    I have great pleasure in stating to you that I find the affairs of
    the Province to be generally in a very prosperous condition. It
    will be useful however, to observe closely, how far this prosperity
    depends upon adventitious circumstances and in what degree it rests
    upon our own inherent means and resources: for it is necessary to
    contemplate the condition in which the Country might be placed, by
    alterations in such of her transactions as may be deemed
    precarious, to feel, with due effect, the necessity, which I
    earnestly represent, of attending zealously to those internal
    resources which are not of that uncertain description. The trade of
    the Province is, at present, very active; but much of that activity
    depends obviously, upon external circumstances, on the permanency
    of which, it were imprudent to continue to stake so exclusively,
    the well being of the Country. It will be prudent, therefore, to
    endeavour to open channels by which we may make our Commerce more
    general, consequently less precarious, and particularly to
    establish and improve commercial intercourse with our sister
    Colonies. Taking from _them_, what we require, we may make returns
    by some important operations of our industry, and particularly by
    the proceeds of an advantageous trade which this transaction would
    greatly extend; contributing thus to each others wants, in a way
    mutually beneficial: and, in an union of interests, promoting and
    consolidating strong and lasting ties.

    Other channels for commercial operations of very advantageous
    natures invite us to cultivate with increased activity, that rich
    source of wealth (one of our natural advantages) which our
    Fisheries present! These, if rendered more productive, will afford
    us great additional facilities in trade with the new States of
    South America: and there are favourable openings in the liberal
    policy of the present times, which should encourage us to
    cultivate, by every means, commercial intercourse with those
    States. By your wisdom and bounty the Fisheries have been improved
    on remote parts of the coasts of British America; but I recommend
    you to consider whether the Home or Coast Fisheries might not be
    brought more under the fostering and stimulating influence of your
    bounty by some extension of its provisions. The main branch of our
    manufacturing industry (Ship-Building) has increased prodigiously,
    and is now carried on to an extent beyond that of any former
    period: but it is submitted to your consideration whether it is not
    accompanied by some disadvantageous circumstances which detract
    vastly from the great value it might be made to produce, and to
    leave in the Province; and for which I have no doubt, you will
    adopt prudent remedies that will render this branch of industry
    more staple, as well as more beneficial.

    Vast sums are sent from this Province, in specie, for the purchase
    of foreign agricultural produce. This enormous burthen operating in
    fact, as a tax raised by foreign industry on our food, contributes
    to raise high above the rate in surrounding Countries, the wages of
    labour here, and to lay the Province under corresponding difficulty
    and disability in every branch of its industry. It comes home to
    us, grievously, in various forms, in every operation of our
    domestic and political economy; and I appeal to your wisdom, to
    your patriotism, to the real interests, and to the public spirit of
    the Country for zealous co-operations in the measures and exertions
    necessary to relieve the Province from this most serious

    Agricultural, Emigrant, and other Societies should be encouraged to
    extend and exert their influence in every way that can tend to
    promote, improve, circulate and distinguish the modes and means
    most favourable to augment the production of subsistence. By such
    means, too, we may reasonably expect soon to possess a population
    sufficient for the operative parts of all other branches of
    industry; and when these several operations shall all be executed
    by British Subjects and British Colonists, the Province will feel
    and exhibit in her condition the good effects of having closed
    those drains that have long carried off much capital which
    otherwise would have been laid out in the Merchants' stores, in the
    cultivation of the soil, and in other productive enterprizes of
    vast advantage.

    Large sums have been expended on the Great Roads of this Province;
    but their condition shows the inefficiency of the present system,
    in appropriation and execution. This arises, chiefly, from having
    tried too much, and in such attempts dispersing limited means, to
    superficial and endless labor; on works far too numerous and
    costly, to be all substantially improved at the same time. Such
    appropriation, therefore, should be made of the sums which may be
    allotted to the Great Roads as may ensure effectual exertion upon
    them in succession, and in the order of their importance; and at
    the same time preclude those partial and general alterations in the
    lines of Roads, from which vast sums of public money have been
    uselessly expended. The Public Service has been exposed to very
    serious inconvenience by irregularities incident to the present
    line of communication between the Seat of Government and the City
    of Saint John. To remedy this, whatever it may be necessary to do
    in other times and seasons, I earnestly recommend the expediency of
    completing such a communication with Saint John, for a winter
    travelling and Post Road, as may not be subject to those serious
    interruptions and dangers to which the present line must always be
    exposed, during the greater portion of the year.

    Fully impressed with the importance of attending to the efficiency
    of the Militia, I have derived much satisfaction from what I have
    witnessed of their appearance and public spirit. The Militia Law
    will have to pass under your revision, generally, and I recommend
    the amendment of those clauses which press so severely upon the
    Militiamen in regard to the distance of travel to their drill, and
    also with respect to age, at unnecessary cost of time, and
    inconvenience to the people.

    I earnestly recommend to your continued patronage the several
    Institutions for the Education of our Youth; and I may have
    occasion hereafter to recommend measures for giving security and
    encouragement to those Provident Institutions, which I am happy to
    acquaint you have been established in this Province, under very
    promising circumstances, highly advantageous to the Country.

    I have great satisfaction in acquainting you that our Most Gracious
    Sovereign has condescended to patronize the College of
    New-Brunswick with his gracious Favor, and to bestow a Grant from
    His Royal Revenues in this Province, to place that Institution upon
    a very improved establishment; and I rely upon such gradual
    provision being made hereafter, in addition to your last vote, as
    may enable the Governor and Trustees, to proceed in the erection of
    a suitable building. His Majesty's Secretary of State has further
    dispensed the grace and favour of the Crown in a manner that cannot
    fail to be duly and fully appreciated, and to sustain those
    principles of attachment, and loyalty which distinguish the origin
    and course of this Colony.

    In addition to the provision made for the Madras Schools,
    generally, and to that of the African School at St. John, I
    recommend some provision for a similar establishment at the Seat of
    Government, to bring more generally within the influence of these
    excellent Institutions, a portion of the human race to whom we owe
    kindness, charity, and benevolence, and for whom we should provide
    religious, moral and industrious education.

    In the very prosperous condition which the affairs of this Province
    may now permanently take, I perceive, that the period is arrived
    for entertaining enlarged views and scope of system, necessary to
    supersede some very disadvantageous circumstances which should be
    gradually corrected, and to raise the Province to that
    consideration, value and importance, which it will soon assume, if
    the management of its affairs proceed upon sound views and
    estimates of her true situation, and be conducted according to
    fixed and solid general principles. But great misery and
    embarrassment may be inflicted on young and advancing Countries, if
    disturbed by doubts, or exposed to quick transitions arising from
    different schemes of temporizing policy, and I desire to point out
    the errors and dangers of all contingent measures and pursuits made
    only to comply with chance circumstances, temporary interests and
    adventitious excitements.

    To that solid course, then, which may best embrace all of those
    interests of which the public good is made up, and upon which the
    permanency of your prosperity depends, I shall endeavour to look,
    and on it encourage the exertions of the whole Population to push
    their special interests with spirit and enterprize, under the sober
    guidance of general measures calculated to produce a steadiness,
    healthfulness and solidity of progress, which, under Divine
    Blessing, and the powerful and enlightened protection of our Parent
    State, will gradually conduct this happy Province to a very high
    degree of value and prosperity.

At a general meeting of the Members of the Legislature, and other
respectable Gentlemen from all parts of the Province, assembled in one
of the Committee Rooms of the House of Assembly on Thursday the 17th of
February, 1825, by request of the LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR, to take into
consideration some propositions to be submitted by his Excellency,
relating to the improvement of Agriculture, &c. in this Province, when
His Excellency was pleased to open the proceedings of the meeting with
the following SPEECH:--

    The purpose for which I have caused this meeting to be convened,
    is of the first importance to the Country: And I am delighted to
    find myself surrounded on this occasion, as I hope to be on every
    occasion, by those distinguished Persons, from whose station, stake
    and consideration in the Country, I may expect the most powerful
    aid in promoting the great objects I have in view, if we are all
    fully impressed with the expediency and necessity we are under,
    each in our several stations, of doing all that may depend upon us,
    to accomplish the purposes which I am now to bring more
    particularly under your consideration.

    The purpose for which we are met is, to enquire whether some
    encouragement and excitement may not be applied to Agricultural
    pursuits, to operate, discreetly and gradually, in a manner to
    relieve the country from the great difficulty and disability under
    which it is laid by the vast sums which we pay for our food, and
    from the very disadvantageous effects which this produces on the
    cost of labour, and consequently in all branches of our industry.

    Under ordinary circumstances, the high price occasioned by
    deficiency in the supply of any article in general demand,
    operating as a premium upon increased production, has a direct and
    natural tendency to remedy its own evils. This, in fact, is an
    effect which _is_ working here, though slowly, to cure the malady
    of which we complain; and if other branches of industry were not in
    an excited, forced, and somewhat unnatural condition, it would be
    unnecessary, superfluous, or perhaps disadvantageous, to interfere
    with the sources and currents of supply, which ultimately
    accommodate themselves in the most advantageous and fittest way, to
    meet demand. But these are peculiarities in the circumstances of
    this Country, which must appear very obvious to all persons who
    have correct notions of the extent of her business and dealings,
    compared with the limited Population and Capital we possess, which
    occasioning powerful competitions in other branches, would appear
    to demand some additional encouragement and adventitious aid, to
    draw Labour and Capital in greater quantities, to the cultivation
    of the Soil.

    To consider, properly, the best modes and means by which we may
    augment the production of subsistence, it will be proper to resolve
    the question into the consideration of the elements of production,
    viz. Labour, Capital and Land, and to enquire in what way we can
    give to those constituent parts of production, the facilities and
    encouragement they require, to compete with other branches which
    are obviously under the influence of adventitious excitement.

    With respect to Land, we possess it in abundance, and in quality
    ready to yield what we may in a judicious manner require of it; and
    it will be one of my main objects to endeavour to lay open to
    Agricultural pursuits, extensive tracts which have long been locked
    up in reserved superabundance. This measure has in one case been,
    heretofore, sought and petitioned for; but it was not accorded to,
    at that time, in consequence of doubts entertained by His Majesty's
    Government, as to the value of the standing produce of that Land,
    for other purposes. But it is an advantage arising from a late
    appointment to a high situation in the Province, that powers are
    given, subject to certain conditions and regulations which I may
    sanction, to throw open portions of those reserves to meet the
    improving circumstances of the Country, and this will be speedily
    observed in a way that will open considerable tracts of valuable
    Land to the operations of Agriculture.

    Proceeding, next, to the consideration of Capital, it has appeared
    to me to be very desirable, that some new measures should be taken
    with a view to attract the enterprizes of Capitalists, not only to
    the cultivation of fresh tracts, but likewise to that of the waste
    Lands of the Province generally; and I entertain the intention of
    bringing this proposition under the consideration of the High
    Authorities, elsewhere, upon whom this will depend. But the
    creation and accumulation of small Capitals, sufficient to enable
    the working man to enter with advantage on the cultivation of a
    grant of Land, of the usual extent, is a matter in degree and
    practicability, much within the influence of our own measures, and
    it becomes therefore subject of very fit consideration for this
    meeting, composed of so many distinguished persons, who, returning
    soon to their respective Countries, may give information respecting
    those Institutions which are constituted, and likely I trust to be
    protected, to provide for the safe custody and accumulation of the
    small savings of the industrious classes of Society.

    The greater part of such accumulations may be considered as funds
    rescued from unproductive consumption, to be laid out productively
    in various important branches of industry; and whilst, therefore,
    in this view, the provident Institutions deserve encouragement from
    all classes, they more particularly suggest to the gentlemen acting
    in the different Emigrant and Agricultural Societies, and to the
    employers of Agricultural Labours generally, the co-operation which
    may be expected from _Savings' Banks_ in encouraging, by enabling,
    all industrious persons, soon to enter with advantage on the
    cultivation of the Soil, as proprietors of Land.

    The poor Emigrant, for instance, who comes to the country destitute
    of pecuniary means, and who should always be met and welcomed with
    a great deal of charitable attention and protection, should be
    told, that to enter on the laborious enterprize of clearing a Lot,
    in the wilderness, without Capital, would be to entangle himself in
    very considerable difficulty. The best course which such a person
    can pursue, would be to avail himself of the assistance, which it
    should be a main object of all Emigrant Societies to provide, to
    procure advantageous employment in which to acquire experience of
    the climate, habit of Labour, and best modes of culture; and whilst
    acquiring these, to accumulate his Savings in the Savings' Banks,
    in the manner that any person, who is not burthened with a large
    family, may soon do, in farm service in summer, and in other
    pursuits in winter.

    This object will perhaps be best pursued by the Emigrant Societies
    in the different parts, taking active measures to become acquainted
    with the circumstances and description of Emigrants so soon as they
    arrive, and entering in a Book, their names, age, trade or
    occupation, objects, and the means they may possess of pursuing
    these. From those entries of the circumstances and condition of the
    Individuals, Emigrant Societies would be competent to give them
    counsel and protection. If the Emigrant's desire should be to
    Agricultural pursuits, which will commonly be the case, but that he
    has no Capital to commence with, he should be advised to put
    himself to Farm service, and his attention should be drawn to the
    facilities which Savings' Banks provide for receiving, securing and
    augmenting his savings. If this measure meet concurrence in its
    objects and practicability, it will be received as an appeal to the
    Agriculturists of the Country to keep correspondence with the
    nearest Emigrant Societies, for the purpose of procuring Labourers
    of their recommendation.

    But although it may not be expedient for a person without Capital,
    to enter at once on the cultivation of his tract, yet it appears to
    me that some inducement should be applied to excite his industry by
    a prospect of an advantageous location, so soon as he finds himself
    capable of undertaking it; and in this view I see no difficulty in
    the arrangement, and on the other hand, great public advantage, in
    securing for persons thus working for their capital, locations upon
    the Lots they may prefer, subject to a condition that, within one
    year, the Emigrant Society in whose Books they may be registered,
    report favorably of their proceedings, in a manner to give fair
    expectation that at the end of a further short period, they would
    be able to enter upon their location, and pay a proportion of their
    fees, in aid of which the Society should provide some donation or

    But when the Emigrant has pecuniary means, or is resolved to enter
    at once on his Land, the Emigrant Societies will be enabled to let
    him chuse his situation, in the plans of unoccupied Lots reserved
    for Emigrants, which plans will for this purpose be transmitted to
    the Emigrant Societies, and to whose recommendation a quick return
    of location tickets will be made; and I am happy to say that this
    measure will be observed and promoted with much ability and zeal by
    the distinguished persons on whom it will severally depend.

    When we reflect that one of the greatest difficulties under which
    we labour in accomplishing the great purpose of independence with
    respect to our food, arises from the want a working population
    sufficient for the all operative parts of our industry, and
    consequently the very high rate of wages and food, which lays the
    Agriculturist under disadvantages of the most serious description,
    in a climate where the productive powers of the earth are so long
    dormant, we must all concur in the necessity of aiding Societies by
    whose means so many able hands can be procured, and for want of
    properly supporting which, so many have passed to a foreign land.

    An increased competition or supply of labour then will be much
    influenced by arrangements such as I have indicated; whilst in its
    modes, intelligence and material means, it may be greatly promoted
    by _Agricultural Societies_. These, under the designation of
    Agricultural and Emigrant Societies, I should wish to see formed in
    every County in the Province, and Sub-Societies organized under
    them to carry their benefits to all parts of the Country. I trust,
    indeed, that ere you depart, the foundation, or rather the
    re-organization of such a system will be completed, and I call upon
    the Gentlemen of distinction from the different Counties who are
    now present to concur in this measure, and when they return to
    their respective Counties, to engage to organize such Societies to
    be composed of persons who would be most likely to co-operate in
    this great purpose. I feel confident, that whenever Societies shall
    be so organized in any County, they will meet the provision which I
    trust will be made by the liberality of the Country for their
    support and efficiency: and I perceive with much satisfaction that
    the public spirit of the Country is in many parts exhibiting itself
    in the form, and for the purpose which we contemplate for general

    For the purpose of improving, circulating and distinguishing the
    modes and means most favorable to increased production, and of
    drawing to a focus that information which it may be desirable to
    possess here in the Seat of Government for myself and for you it
    will be proper that some provision should be devised for the
    laborious part of that purpose which will depend upon a Secretary
    who should be appointed to manage the correspondence of the Central
    Committee to report proceedings to the general meeting.

    The general meeting should be composed of all Members of the
    Legislature; of all Presidents and Vice-Presidents of County
    Societies, and of all members subscribers in the regulated amount.
    The Central Committee should be named in the general meeting to
    carry on the correspondence during the recess, and to arrange the
    general Accounts; but the appropriation of Public Funds should be
    made direct to the County Societies and subject only to the audit
    of the Central Committee. These Reports will thus exhibit a general
    statement of the sums expended and whether commensurate progress
    has been made in the improvement of Agricultural implements,
    machinery, modes of culture, augmentation of production, and breed
    of Cattle, all of which should be under the influence of these

    With views such as these, so soon as I discovered, in studying your
    affairs, the disabilities and difficulties which the Province might
    have to contend with from deficiency in the supply of food, and
    aware that it would require pecuniary means, on my part, to put
    into activity the plans which I then formed, and now lay before
    you, I submitted to His Majesty's Secretary of State the importance
    of sanctioning a small grant from the funds at the disposal of the
    Crown, to meet the liberality and public spirit with which I am
    persuaded, elsewhere and every where, the great object now under
    our consideration will be supported. I have great satisfaction in
    showing how readily this has been dispensed: I will read the terms
    of it, and hasten to say that the use I shall make of it, will be,
    to place a sum, which I hope will be annual, at the disposal of
    those County Societies that are or may be organized to meet the
    views which I here lay before you.

    In communicating this grant from His Majesty's Revenue to the
    Agricultural Societies, it is however my duty to state, that the
    continuation of this grant for future years, will depend upon the
    report which I may have in my power to make of the advantages which
    it may have produced; and these will mainly depend upon the
    liberality and zeal with which this Provision is seconded in the
    Country generally.

The Society having been formed and organized, the President communicated
to the Meeting that he had received a Message from His Excellency the
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR, that it was his intention to attend the Meeting in
person, to communicate his sentiments on their proceedings, and his
acceptance of the office of Patron.

Whereupon His Excellency entered and having taken the Chair, addressed
the Society as follow:--

    _Mr. President, Vice-Presidents, and Gentlemen
          of the Agricultural and Emigrant Society,_

    I evince the satisfaction and cordiality with which I receive your
    Address by placing myself in this Chair, as your Patron, on the
    very instant the distinguished Seat is offered to me; and the first
    sentence I shall deliver from it is, to assure you that my most
    zealous exertions shall be used to promote the great objects we
    have in view, in every way that may depend upon me.

    I am gratified for the present, sanguine and confident for the
    future, when I look around me and perceive the distinguished
    persons of whom this Society is composed, and the interest which it
    has excited; and it is particularly pleasing to me to find myself
    supported by the distinguished person whom you have placed in the
    President's Chair. I congratulate you, Gentlemen, upon such an
    election, and myself on having such coadjutures.

    The Agricultural and Emigrant Societies being now about to go into
    immediate, and, as I hope successful operation, it may not be
    useless to express to you, and through you to convey to the Public,
    some appeals to those exertions which will be required to realize
    the benefits which we here contemplate, and for attaining which,
    the course is now so clear.

    This fine, and as I have hitherto found it, happy Province, is
    advancing rapidly, with growth almost exuberant, to a station, the
    real intrinsic character and condition of which, in other times,
    will depend mainly upon the manner in which we who are now
    directing its affairs, in certainly a critical period of its
    advancement, when it is daily developing its resources, and forming
    its system, may discharge our several duties, by doing all that may
    depend upon us to train, sustain and correct the principles, habits
    and pursuits, and to regulate the exertions, by which,
    unquestionably, it may be conducted to a state of great prosperity.

    To consider these duties with reference to all the obligations we
    owe to the Country, in the several branches which contribute to its
    most political and statistical progress, would lead us away far
    beyond the sphere of our present purpose; I shall, therefore, only
    consider the duties we have to fulfil in regard to the Institutions
    now completely organized. The several purposes contemplated by
    those Institutions call upon us to promote habits of frugality,
    domestic economy, and useful industry, as training a rural
    population to settle and labour on the soil, and to assist them so
    to exert themselves in the modes and means of culture as to improve
    our Agricultural condition; to make us more independent at least
    for our food; and subsequently to set free other branches of
    industry, which are now under great disability. The foundation of
    systems which may produce such benefits has now been laid. I have
    had much satisfaction in recommending and promoting them. My views
    have been cordially and ably seconded every where; the measures
    they called for have now been adopted; and they have been liberally
    endowed by the Legislature with pecuniary means to animate and
    quicken the system. The Savings' Bank Bill; the organization and
    endowment of the Body I now address, open, to the industrious
    classes of Society, and to the interests of the Country generally,
    a distinct view of the progress that may be made from foundations
    laid, first, in habits of frugality and domestic economy, onwards,
    through moral and provident conduct, to security and accommodation,
    productive application, improvement in Agriculture, increase of
    population, competition in labour, encouragement and development of
    industry, and augmented production. The Acts and the system of this
    Session have laid the foundation of much improvement to the
    country, on solid grounds; and seeds which _should_ blossom
    hereafter, are planted in the fertile soil; but whether the
    superstructure is to be raised, or them seeds are to spring,
    depends not on those who have laboured on the foundation, or who
    have provided the means that may quicken the process. Whether the
    Savings' Bank Bill, or this most admirable Institution are to be
    effectual in doing good, depends upon the degree of Public Spirit
    with which our exertions here, may be supported and extended in the
    Country generally. All Public Institutions live only by Public
    Spirit, in any Country; but this is particularly the case in young
    Countries where man owes to fellow man a greater contribution of
    his concern and of his aid. Look at the progress of an individual
    case. When a Settler goes, singly, to encounter the difficulties
    and the labour of a solitary Location in an unsettled District, and
    with the sweat of his own brow to shelter his family, and to clear
    space to receive the seeds which are to yield his immediate
    subsistence, we all know what fortitude, power and time are
    required to accomplish such beginnings. But should he undertake his
    enterprize on a site near to where former Settlers have experienced
    such difficulties, the recent sense brings to his aid the little
    community, to labour for him; and by the exertions of that _Public_
    he is speedily established in a way, that he might never have
    accomplished by his own solitary powers. _This is Public Spirit._
    So may it be with the Edifices we are now raising! They are, in
    some respects, partially, and in others wholly, _new Settlers_, in
    this Country; and they are well deserving of public exertion to
    complete the useful fabric. We are here entirely dependent upon
    public spirit.--What can these systems do without it? They would
    languish from this day, and might expire even in their cradle. This
    I do trust will never happen. I know not how long I may be the
    witness of their progress; but sure I am that the intensity of
    interest which I feel in this Province, and which I have imbibed
    paternally, for the success of these Institutions which I have been
    instrumental in bringing forward, will always be felt with such
    solicitude as shall give me pleasure in their success; but which
    from that very interest, will suggest reproach, if (which cannot
    be) they should fail from want of public exertion. But remember
    that time, labour in arrangement and management, must be
    contributed gratuitously, for the Chief offices of these
    Institutions. I am confident that those sacrifices will be
    cheerfully tendered by the public spirit of the Country in a way
    that shall produce advantage to it, and reflect everlasting credit,
    honor and substantial enjoyment upon the patriotic persons who may
    offer their aid.--It cannot fail to do so; for the man who feels
    the real impulses of public spirit is usually the happiest, because
    he is the best of Beings. Public spirit contains in it every
    laudable passion, and every fine affection.--It comprehends our
    duties towards our parents, to our kindred, to our friends, to our
    neighbours, to our fellow man in every degree, and to every thing
    dear to mankind in the public Institutions formed of them. Public
    spirit is the highest of virtues, and affords the highest degree of
    satisfaction. Steadfast in good purpose; fidelity in trust;
    impartial to all; a passion to promote universal good, with
    personal labour, pains, and the sacrifice of every selfish feeling;
    to endeavour to maintain Society in peace, tranquillity, plenty and
    security. It is, in short, as I feel it, one man's care for the
    many: and, as you I am persuaded feel it, the concern of every man
    for the good of all. This sentiment binds us together in the
    pursuit of public advantage to a co-operation from which I am
    convinced none will shrink in any difficulty which these
    Institutions may have to encounter; and onward let us go with a
    determination that when we meet again in this place, we may
    receive, and record, reports which shall prove that our schemes
    have prospered.

    I have now the pleasure to announce that from the Funds which His
    Majesty's Secretary of State has put at my disposal from the King's
    Casual Revenue, I shall appropriate £25 to each of the County
    Societies for the present year subject to the regulations and
    conditions already established; and I will not fail to intercede
    for a continuance of this Royal Bounty, if I can report success in
    our labours.


_Extracts relating to the early transactions in Nova-Scotia and
New-Brunswick, copied verbatim from papers compiled by a gentlemen who
intended to publish an account of New-Brunswick; but was from
unexpected circumstances obliged to relinquish the design._


    Notice is hereby given, that it hath been determined that a
    squadron of His Majesty's ships and divers regiments of foot should
    winter in Nova-Scotia, which will require large supplies of fresh
    provisions to be sent thither from time to time, not only for the
    support of the sick in the hospitals, but for the refreshment of
    those that are well,--and that His Excellency Governor Lawrence
    hath given assurance, that the coasters and others trading in
    refreshments of that sort, shall not only be protected by the
    Admiral from pressing, but shall receive, both from His Excellency
    and the Admiral, all manner of countenance and regard.

                                                      A. OLIVER, Sec.

    Province of the Massachusetts Bay.      Boston, October 31, 1758.

    The following proclamation being published in Nova-Scotia and
    transmitted to this government, was read in Council, and ordered to
    be published in this Province.

                                                 THOS. CLARK, D. Sec.

    By His Excellency Charles Lawrence, Captain-General and
    Commander-in-Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of
    Nova-Scotia, or Acadia, in America, Vice-Admiral of the same, &c.,
    &c., &c.


    Whereas by the late success of His Majesty's arms in the reduction
    of Cape Breton and its dependencies, and also by the demolition and
    entire destruction of Gaspe, Miramichi, and of Saint Lawrence, and
    on Saint John's river in the Bay of Fundy, the enemy, who have
    formerly disturbed and harassed the Province of Nova-Scotia, and
    much obstructed its progress, have been compelled to retire and
    take refuge in Canada; a favorable opportunity now presents itself
    for the peopling and cultivating, as well the lands vacated by the
    French, as every other part of that valuable Province:

    I have therefore thought fit, with the advice of His Majesty's
    Council, to issue this proclamation, declaring that I shall be
    ready to receive any proposals that may hereafter be made to me,
    for effectually settling the said vacated, or any other lands
    within the Province aforesaid: a description whereof, and of the
    advantages arising from their peculiar nature and situation, I have
    ordered to be published with this proclamation.

        Given in the Council Chamber at Halifax, this 12th day of
        October, 1758, and in the thirty-second year of His Majesty's

    By His Excellency's command,       }
      with the advice of His Majesty's }            CHARLES LAWRENCE.
      Council                          }


A description of the lands ordered to be published pursuant to the
foregoing proclamation, which consist of more than one hundred thousand
acres of land, interval and plow lands, producing wheat, rye, barley,
oats, hemp, flax, &c. These have been cultivated for more than a
hundred years past, and never fail of crops, nor need manuring.

Also, more than one hundred thousand acres of upland, cleared and
stocked with English grass, planted with orchards, gardens, &c. These
lands, with good husbandry, produce often two loads of hay per acre.
The wild and unimproved lands adjoining abound with black birch, ash,
oak, pine, fir, &c.

All these lands are so intermixed that every single farmer may have a
proportionable quantity of plow land, grass land, and wood land, and
are all situated about the Bay of Fundy, upon rivers navigable for
ships of burden.

Proposals will be received by Mr. Hancock of Boston, and by Messrs.
Delancie & Watts of New-York, to be transmitted to the Governor, or
President of the Council at Halifax.


    His Majesty's confirmation of the plan for settling the Province of

    At the Court of St. James's, the 16th day of February, 1760,

    (Seal)         (Present)

        The King's Most Excellent Majesty,
    Lord Keeper,         Earl Gower,
    Lord President,      Viscount Barrington,
    Lord Steward,        Lord Deleware,
    Earl of Hyndford,    Mr. Vice Chamberlain.

    Whereas there was this day read to the Board, a representation from
    the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, dated the 30th of
    December last, containing an account of the proceedings of the
    Governor in Council of Nova-Scotia, with regard to the settling of
    the lands evacuated by the removal of the French inhabitants from
    that Province, as well as other tracts of land in the wild and
    uncleared part of that country, and also with regard to the terms
    and conditions upon which the said Governor and Council have agreed
    to make grants of the said lands: and the said Lords Commissioners
    being of opinion, that the plan so laid down by the said Governor
    and Council, will be a means of the speedy settling the vacant
    lands in that Province, and therefore proper to receive His
    Majesty's approbation: His Majesty has this day took the said
    representation into consideration, and is hereby pleased, with the
    advice of his Privy Council, to declare his royal approbation of
    the said plan of the said Governor and Council, for the speedy
    settling the vacant lands in that Province: and also of the terms
    and conditions agreed upon for that purpose, and doth therefore
    order that the Governor or Commander-in-Chief of his Province of
    Nova-Scotia for the time being, do carry the same into execution.

    (Signed)                                               W. SHARPE.

    _Extract of a Letter from His Excellency Governor Lawrence, to the
    Agent for the Province of Nova-Scotia, at Boston, dated 24th June,

    "I am ready to receive farther proposals, in consequence of His
    Majesty's approbation of our measures, from any person or persons
    who will offer themselves to become settlers in this Province; and
    that all due encouragement shall be given them to the utmost limits
    of the authority with which His Majesty has been pleased to invest
    the Governor and Council of this Province.--Nota Bene. Proposals
    left with Mr. Hancock, will be transmitted to the Governor at

    "Captain Bragdon informs us, that Captain Fisher in a sloop from
    Annapolis Royal, bound to Fort Cumberland, was cast away in the Bay
    of Fundy, on board of which was Lieutenant Tonge, an Engineer, with
    a considerable sum of money, which was lost, together with the
    lives of two or three persons on board. Friday last arrived here
    the Province ship King George, Captain Hallowell, from Louisburg
    and a cruize. From Louisburg, we learn that the armed vessels
    lately sent out thence, had been at Pictou, and burnt five or six
    vessels which the enemy took from us last year, and brought off
    some plunder; and that the Indians from Saint John, who brought the
    account of the five French men of war being in the Bay of Chaleur,
    also informed that they had landed four hundred men, in order to
    attack Fort Cumberland.

    "Arrived here, Colonel Arthithnot, who commanded at Fort Frederick,
    in Saint John's River, the year past; also several other officers
    and a number of soldiers belonging to this Province, who have
    garrisoned His Majesty's forts up the Bay of Fundy, and now
    discharged, arrived here, being relieved by a number of soldiers
    lately enlisted in this Province, for that service. We hear that
    the Indians behave well, and still continue to come into the forts
    at Nova-Scotia, and carry on trade very peaceably."

_Extract of a Letter from Colonel Fry, to His Excellency the Governor,
dated Fort Cumberland, Chignecto, March 7, 1760._

    SIR.--I informed your Excellency in my last of 10th December, of
    the submission of the French peasants residing at Miramichi,
    Richibucto, Bucktouche, Peticodiac, and Memramcook, made by their
    deputies sent here for that purpose. On the 30th of January last,
    Mr. Manack, a French Priest, who has had the charge of the people
    at Miramichi, Richibucto, and Bucktouche, and a number of the
    principal men of those places, arrived here, when they received
    their submission in a formal manner, by subscribing to articles,
    (drawn suitable to the case,) whereby among other things, they have
    obliged themselves and people they represent, to come to Bay Verte
    with all their effects and shipping as early in the spring as
    possible, in order to be disposed of as Governor Lawrence shall
    direct. With the French Priest, came two Indian Chiefs, Paul
    Lawrence and Augustin Michael; Lawrence tells me he was a prisoner
    in Boston, and lived with Mr. Henshaw, a blacksmith; he is Chief of
    a tribe at Richibucto. I have received their submissions, for
    themselves and for their tribes, to His Britannic Majesty, and sent
    them to Halifax for the terms by Governor Lawrence. I have likewise
    received the submission of two other Chiefs, who I dealt with as
    before mentioned, and was in hopes I had no more treaties to make
    with savages; but he told me I was mistaken for there would be a
    great many more upon the same business, as soon as their spring
    hunting was over: and upon my enquiring how many, he gave a list of
    fourteen Chiefs, including those already mentioned, (copy of which
    I have inclosed) most of which he said would come. I was surprised
    to hear of such a number of Indian Chiefs in this part of America,
    and Mr. Manack further told me that they were all of one nation,
    and known by the name of Mickmacks; that they were very numerous,
    amounting to near three thousand souls; that he had learned their
    language since he had been among them, and found so much excellence
    in it, that he was well persuaded if the beauties of it were known
    in Europe, there would be seminaries erected for the propagation of
    it. How that might be, is better known to him than to those who
    know nothing of the language; but I think I may venture to say,
    that if there be so many of these Indians, as he says there are, I
    know this Province, as it abounds very plentifully with furs, may
    reap a vast advantage by them, provided Canada returns not into the
    hands of the French.

    About the time that Mr. Manack arrived here, there came in eight
    men, one of whom was a New-England man, one Irishman, and the rest
    Italians and Spaniards; who informed me they deserted from a French
    frigate that lay froze in at the head of Gaspe harbour. The two
    former belonged to a vessel commanded by Captain Malcom, of Boston,
    who was taken by the above frigate, as she was returning from
    Quebec, where she had been on a trading voyage.

    Names of the Indian Chiefs inhabiting the coast of Acadia:

    Louis Frances, Chief of Miramichi,
    Denis Winemowet, do. Tabogimkik,
    Etienne Abchabo, do. Pohomoosh,
    Claud Atanaze, do. Gediack,
    Paul Lawrence, do. La Have,
    Joseph Algimoure, do. Chignectou,
    John Newit, do. Pictou,
    Baptist La Morue, do. Isle of St. John's,
    Reni, do. Nalkitgoniash,
    Jeannot Piguidawelwet, do. Keshpugowitk,
    Batelemy Aungualett, do. Minas,
    Augustin Michael, do. Richibucto.


_Of the proceedings of the first settlers at the River St. John, under
the authority of the Government of Nova-Scotia._

In the year 1761, a number of persons from the county of Essex,
province of Massachusetts, presented a petition through their agent to
the Government of Nova-Scotia, for a grant of a Township of twelve
miles square at the river Saint John, they received a favorable answer
and obtained full authority to survey a tract of that dimension
wherever it might be found fit for improvement. In consequence many of
the applicants, proceeded in the course of the winter and spring
following to prepare for exploring the Country, and to survey such
Township: they provided a vessel for that purpose, and on the 16th May,
1762, embarked at Newburyport and arrived in three days at the harbour
Saint John (the 19th:) The party amounted to near twenty men, exclusive
of two families, who took passage in the same vessel, one of whom
shipped a small frame for a dwelling, and boards to cover it, with a
small stock of cattle; the frame and stock was landed the day of their
arrival; on the third day the house was finished and inhabited.

The exploring and surveying party then proceeded to view the lands
round the harbour and bay of Saint John in a whale boat, they brought
with them: for they could not travel on the land, on account of the
multitude of fallen trees that had been torn up by the roots in a
violent gale of wind, nearly four years previous. (The same gale
extended as far up the river as the Oromocto, and most of the Country
below that place, was equally incumbered with the fallen trees.)--After
making all the discoveries that could be made near the harbour, it was
the unanimous opinion that all the lands near that part of the Country,
were unfit for making any settlements at that time, and in about ten
days from their first arrival, they set out to view the country as far
as Saint Anns, ninety miles up the river, where they expected to find
an extensive body of clear land that had been formerly improved by the
French inhabitants. On their way to that place they landed wherever
they saw any appearance of improvement: all such small spots, as far up
as Milk Creek, were supposed not to exceed one hundred acres, most of
which had been very roughly cleared.--On the arrival of the exploring
party at Saint Anns, they lost no time in making a shelter for
themselves, nearly opposite the river Nashwouk, (as it was then
pronounced by the Indians,) but since, with some variation, as there is
in the original names of divers other rivers, lakes, and names by which
the tribes were distinguished,--and they commenced their survey at the
small gravelly point against Government-House, with an intention to
survey a Township, to terminate twelve miles below that place, and
after surveying the courses of the river about four miles downward, a
large company of Indians came down about nine miles from their Priest's
residence, with his Interpreter: all having painted faces of divers
colours and figures, and dressed in their war habits. The chiefs, with
grave countenances, informed the adventurers that they were trespassers
on their rights: that the Country belonged to them, and unless they
retired immediately, they, (the Indians), would compel them. This gave
no small alarm to a few men in the heart of an Indian Country, most of
whom had never beheld a wild Indian, but had all their lives heard of
their savage cruelties and murders. The reply made to the Chiefs was to
this effect; that the adventurers had received authority from the
Governor of Halifax to survey and settle any land they should chuse, at
the river Saint John--that they had never been informed of the Indians
claiming the village of Saint Anns; but as they then declared the land
there, to be their property, though it had been inhabited by the French
who were considered entitled to it, till its capture by the English,
they would retire further down the river.--In answer to this the Chiefs
suggested that the whole country belonged to the Indians, they had some
time ago, had a conference with Governor LAWRENCE, and had consented
that the English should settle the country up as far as the Grimross:
from this acknowledgment of the Chiefs, the adventurers were a little
relieved from the shock they received at first, and said, they were
unwilling to dispute, and would in a few days, remove their camps
towards Grimross. This answer did not appear fully to satisfy the
Indians, yet they made no reply. The surveying party removed their
camp, according to their promise almost as far down as the lower end of
the Oromocto Island on the east side of the river, whence they finished
the survey, twelve miles below the first mentioned bounds: and returned
to Fort Frederick, 20, 8, 15, where there was a vessel bound direct to
Halifax, and took passage in her, with an account of all their
discoveries, and surveys, and with a plan of their Township, they had
laid out into lots: but they were so unfortunate as to arrive at that
place just at that time accounts were received, that the French had
sent out a large fleet and a body of land forces, and had taken Saint
Johns, Newfoundland, and were almost hourly expected to attack Halifax,
where at that time was only one man of war, the Northumberland, and
very few troops. The militia called out; public offices shut, and
nothing to be seen but bustle and preparation for the defence of the
town, that being the situation of Government, the agents and surveyors,
for the adventurers were obliged to return without giving any account
of their proceedings, or obtaining any confirmation of their former
order for surveying a township, or any instructions to govern their
conduct in carrying on the intended settlements. This disappointment
was, in the autumn of the same year, followed by one still greater.
Commissioners were sent to Fort Frederick, to inform the former
applicants for grants of lands, that the space they had surveyed would
not be granted to them. On receiving this distressing information they
sent a petition to the King, stating the expence they had been at, in
full confidence, that all the promises and encouragements, they had
received from Government, would be confirmed. This petition was sent
under cover addressed to the then agent for the Province, most
earnestly soliciting his influence in obtaining a speedy answer for
their petition. He took a lively interest in their cause, and in a
short time, obtained an order to the Governor to grant all such shares
in the tract they had laid out, as should from time to time be settled;
and the same gentleman advanced a considerable sum for the proprietors,
to defray the expence of obtaining such order, and the proprietors, as
a mark of their gratitude, and esteem of their patron, gave their town
his name, with a small addition to it, and grants were made to all the
resident proprietors, in or about the year 1765. The Indians had
remained peaceable from 1762 to 1765: in this year they assembled
together, and gave threats of immediately commencing a new war against
the English; and the inhabitants of all the frontiers of the Province
were greatly alarmed, and the commander of Fort Frederick doubled his
sentries on the occasion. The pretexts of the Indians were well known
to be mostly false and frivolous, and the commandant and inhabitants
residing near the garrison, took great pains to persuade the Chiefs to
lay their complaints before the Governor, at Halifax, before they
engaged in a war that would eventually prove ruinous to themselves,
which might be prevented by their stating to Government all the grounds
of the injuries they complained of: after little consideration they
agreed to the proposal, and soon after set out for Halifax, accompanied
by one of the inhabitants. Their business on their first arrival, was,
without loss of time, made known to the Governor, who appointed a time
and place to give the Chiefs a hearing of their complaints. They on
examination, could not in any degree, support their heaviest charges,
and in the end, they admitted they had been misinformed. So that the
result of their complaints, amounted to nothing more than that the
inhabitants had frequently killed some Beavers, Moose, and other
animals, but not far from their houses, which the Chiefs alleged was
their exclusive property; and that it was of the condition of a former
treaty that the English settlers should not be allowed to kill any wild
game in any part of the wilderness, beyond the limits of their farms
and improvements. The Governor informed them in his answer, that all
treaties before that time, should be strictly observed, and that if the
inhabitants had in any instance, done anything contrary to such
treaties, they should be severely reprimanded and restrained from
continuing such practices. The Chiefs replied, that it might be out of
their power to pacify their young men, unless the damage before done to
them should be paid. This brought on an inquiry of the Chiefs, what the
alleged damage amounted to. In their answer they highly overrated as
the inhabitants made it clearly appear, from their statement of the
number of animals that had been killed. The Chiefs finding themselves
detected in having alarmed the country without reason and of having
thereby put them in distressing fear and to great expence, appeared
ashamed of their conduct, and could only repeat that the Indians of
their tribe would insist on being paid the damages for the loss of
their wild animals. After a full hearing a final answer was given them;
as follows.--That although the grievances that they had stated were by
no means sufficient to justify their hostile proceedings; yet to do
them ample justice, he would order to be sent them a certain amount in
clothing and provisions (amount not remembered) provided they would
consider it full satisfaction for the injuries done by the settlers,
and send orders to restrain them from hunting wild animals in the
woods. The Chiefs accepted that offer, and the Indians remained
peaceable, till the commencement of the revolt of the thirteen
Colonies, when they were called upon to aid in defence of the Province,
or at least to remain neuter. They promised to do either one or the
other; for which purpose Government gave them large presents in
necessary supplies for their families. They were at the same time,
equally solicited by the Americans; and as large or larger presents
made by them; and they continued to live mostly at the expence of the
two parties during that war. In 1779 the Indians again assembled, and
threatened to make war against the English; and went down in as great a
body as they could collect, to near Fort Howe, where they were met by a
messenger from the Commandant, and a Deputy Agent for Indian affairs,
who appeased the Indians, with a promise of presents (commonly so
called), which they accepted and the purchase of a continuance of
peace; and they returned to their head-quarters at Opage. This was the
last threat of an Indian war.

    NOTES.--Notwithstanding all the obstacles and discouragements
    before noticed, the number of families at the river Saint John,
    including a few settlers on the Islands in Passamaquoddy Bay,
    amounted to between one hundred and one hundred and fifty families
    prior to the year 1783.

    MEMO.--The French Priest who had been forty years employed by
    France, as a Missionary to the Indians, was ordered to leave the
    province in 1763, being suspected of influencing and instructing
    the Indians to make extravagant demands on Government as
    commissions of their remaining peaceable, at the same time all the
    French families, then in scattered settlements on the north side of
    the bay were ordered to leave the Province. They all obeyed the
    mandate: but in a few years, many returned, one after another, and
    became quiet subjects.


_On the state of that part of ancient Nova-Scotia lying north of the
Bay of Fundy, now in the Province of New-Brunswick, prior to the year

The French Government in defiance of former treaties continued to erect
forts around the harbour of Saint John, and to send troops for the
defence of this part of the country (considering it theirs) and to
employ the natives to harass and murder the settlers in the district of
Maine, thus for many years preventing the settlement of that part of
the British dominions as far west as that district or province
extended; and the French more recently built a Fort and named it
Beau-Sejour, at the head of the bay: from which place they supplied
with arms, &c. the tribes of Indians who inhabited the coasts on the
Gulph of Saint Lawrence and the rivers that fall into the same. The
Indians were also employed to check and prevent the settlements of the
Country called Minas, Cobequis and other parts of the Province on the
Peninsula of Acadia or Halifax. To prevent the continuance of such
depredations, the British Government sent an expedition in 1754, to
take possession of this fort, which was not obtained till after an
obstinate resistance from the French, who for some years after it was
reduced, continued to fortify their settlements on the banks of the
river St. John, at Passamaquoddy, and to employ the natives in the
service, to prevent the English from extending their settlements
eastward of the river Kennebeck and the inhabitants were continually
harassed, and often murdered by savages frequently sent by the French
for that purpose at Kennebeck and many miles westward for a long course
of time. In the year 1758, an expedition was sent from Halifax or
Boston to reduce the only remaining French forts of any considerable
strength, north of the Bay of Fundy; situated on the west side of the
river, below the falls, within the present limits of the city Saint
John. But the French commander, having received notice of this
expedition some time before its arrival, removed all the light stores
further up the river, sunk all his heavy guns as reported by Frenchmen
who were present and demolished the fort. He first made his retreat
only about four leagues above the falls, where he had previously
erected works, surrounded by a thick wood, in order to be covered by
Indian soldiers, who will never fight on open ground, nor suffer
themselves to be driven within the walls of a garrison by a beseiging
force. The French soon after retired to Saint Anns, and not long
afterwards to Canada. The demolished fort was rebuilt on the ground of
the old one, and garrisoned the winter following, by a body of
provincial troops, and a company of Rangers, sent from Louisburgh.

The same company of Rangers as a scouting party, in March 1759, marched
up the river on the ice as far as Saint Anns. The few inhabitants below
that village had either fled before this party appeared, to St. Anns,
or into the woods, and no prisoner was taken to give information
concerning the situation or strength of the enemy, yet they continued a
forced march as far up as Saint Anns, where they found the village
deserted. They set fire to every building in it, and returned with
great precipitation to the Fort Frederick, expecting to be pursued by
the enemy. This company was early this spring ordered to join the
expedition against Quebeck, the Fort was garrisoned with a company or
more of provincials till the next or second year: when they were
relieved by a company of one of the highland Regiments. The Fort
afterwards continued to be garrisoned by a company of some British
Regiments, under different Commandants until 1770, when the British
troops were embarked from every post in the Province, on account of
some disorders that had recently been committed in Boston: the Barracks
and Stores were by order of Government placed under the care of one of
the inhabitants residing near the several Forts, specially authorized
by Government for that service. In 1774, a corporal and six privates
were sent to reside in the Barracks of Fort Frederick.

In May 1775, a brig was sent from Boston, to procure fresh provisions
for the British army then in that town, from the settlement of the
river Saint John. The same vessel was laden with stock, poultry, and
sundry other articles most brought from Maugerville in small vessels
and gondolas: all which had been put on board within about fifteen days
after the brig had arrived. While she was waiting for a fair wind and
clear weather, an armed sloop of four guns and full of men, from
Machias, came into the harbour, took possession of the brig, and two
days after, carried her off to Machias; but the first night after her
arrival, the enemy made the small party in the Fort prisoners,
plundered them of every thing in it, and set fire to all the Barracks:
but at that time they did not molest any of the inhabitants, on the
opposite side of the river. Early next spring an armed brig from
Machias entered the harbour after having taken a vessel from the
West-Indies, belonging to Portland, which they immediately sent to
Boston. The two armed vessels continued more than a week in the harbour
and sent an officer with a boat full of men to Maugerville: They did no
material injury to the settlers. In 1776 and 1777 large parties of
armed men came into the river Saint John, in whale boats from Machias
and passed through the falls in their boats, and took possession of
several empty buildings on the west shore of the river against the
present settlements called the Indian House, and occupied them for
Barracks, whence they came over every day to Portland shore, and
marched along the tongue of land, between the harbour and the water
above the falls; in order to capture any vessels that might enter the
river and to prevent the landing of marines, or seamen from any British
ship. In 1777, the Vulture sloop of war, was stationed in the Bay,
between Annapolis and Saint John for the protection of these places,
and to prevent the enemy from venturing further up the Bay to plunder
the Towns of Horton, Cornwallis and other settlements at the water side
in different places, but it was soon found that these towns could not
be secured from depredations, as the enemy would pass by all large
ships of war in the night and in fogs.

Early in the summer of 1777 the Vulture came into the harbour of Saint
John while the Machias party were at their Head-Quarters, above the





Peter Fisher's claim to be the first of our historians rests upon two
little books, both printed by a well known publishing firm in Market
Square, in the City of St. John, in the early years of the last
century. The first of these books appeared in 1825. It comprises 110
pages, written in excellent literary style and, considering Mr.
Fisher's limited sources of information, is remarkably accurate. In the
preface he observes: "This work, however imperfect, must be useful, as
giving the _first_ general outline of the Province, and interesting to
every person who possesses a feeling for his own fireside."

The other book, "Notitia of New-Brunswick," comprises 136 pages, and
was printed in 1838. In the advertisement at the beginning, the author
states that "circumstances have compelled him to relinquish in part his
original plan, and to contract the scope of the publication, since the
times do not warrant any great outlay on works of this description."

The two books are really pamphlets in yellow paper covers, and are now
so rare as to be much sought for by collectors of "Canadiana." Both
books are written under the _nom de plume_ of "An Inhabitant," and the
motto that follows is the same in each, namely:--

"Whatever concerns my country, interests me; I follow nature, with
truth my guide."

Before proceeding to consider the personality of our first historian
and to speak further of his writings, it will be of interest to speak
of his antecedents. His father, Lewis Fisher, served in the war of the
American Revolution, on the side of the crown, in the New Jersey
Volunteers, a brigade commanded by Brigadier General Cortlandt Skinner,
the last Royal Attorney-General of New Jersey. The corps was sometimes
known as "Skinner's Greens." It was numerically the largest
organization of British Americans in Howe's army. Officers and men were
mostly natives of New Jersey, New-York and Pennsylvania. One of the
original six battalions was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Abraham Van
Buskirk and it contained a large Dutch element. Among the officers were
Major Van Cortlandt, Captains William Van Allen, Peter Ruttan, Samuel
Ryerson, Jacob Van Buskirk and Waldron Blaan; Lieutenants Martin
Ryerson, John Van Norden, John Heslop, John Simonson and Joost (or
Justus) Earle; Ensigns Colin McVean, Xenophon Jouett, Malcolm Wilmot,
William Sorrell and Frederick Handroff.

Among the men in the ranks--many of whom came to New Brunswick and
settled near Fredericton--we find such names as VanHorne, Vanderbeck,
Ackerman, Fisher, Burkstaff, Swim, Ridner, VanWoert, Woolley, etc. By
the settlement of so many men of this corps in New-Brunswick, the same
thrifty "Knickerbocker" element that figured in the development of
New-York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania was planted in this province.

Lewis Fisher joined the New Jersey Volunteers on December 7, 1776. He
was taken prisoner a few weeks later, together with his brother Peter
and fifteen others. After an absence of a year and nine months he
effected his escape and returned to his duty on October 2, 1778. He was
thenceforth stationed chiefly at Staten Island, where his three oldest
children--Eliza, Henry and Peter--were born. When the war closed the
New Jersey Volunteers were quartered at Newtown, three miles east of
Brooklyn, on Long Island, N.Y.

In the earlier muster rolls we find Fisher's name entered as Lodewick
Fischer, but later he adopted the English form Lewis Fisher. His wife,
Mary, was probably of English parentage. She was the mother of a very
large family and a woman of resolute spirit, which she transmitted to
her descendants.

The New Jersey Volunteers never numbered more than 1,500, of all ranks.
They, however, rendered essential service in New Jersey and in the
defence of Staten Island. One of the battalions under Lieut.-Col. Isaac
Allen, was conspicuous for its gallantry in the campaigns in Georgia
and South Carolina. At the close of the war the original six battalions
had been consolidated into three, under command of Lieut.-Col. Stephen
deLancey, Lieut.-Col. Isaac Allen and Lieut.-Col. Abraham VanBuskirk.

The war may be said to have ended with the surrender of the army under
Lord Cornwallis, at Yorktown, on October 19, 1781, and little attempt
at recruiting was made subsequently; consequently the regiments
continued to dwindle until, at the evacuation of New-York, two years
later, they were not more than one-third of their original strength.
The New Jersey Volunteers, a year after their arrival in New-Brunswick,
were mustered by Thomas Knox, under the supervision of Col. Edward
Winslow. The return is dated at Fort Howe, September 25, 1784, and the
number of those then on their lands, and for whom the Royal bounty of
provisions was furnished, was as follows:--

                           Men    Women     Children   Servants  Total
                                        Over 10  Under 10
1st New Jersey Vols.       158      57      57      39       9     320
2nd     "      "           132      45      44      38      14     273
3rd     "      "           173      64      47      42       6     332
                           ---     ---     ---     ---     ---     ---
Total                      463     166     148     119      29     925

The commander of the 3rd Battalion, Lieut.-Col. VanBuskirk, did not
come with his men to the River St. John but settled in Shelburne, where
he was the first mayor of the town. The troops for St. John sailed in
charge of Lieut.-Col. Richard Hewlett as senior officer, with
Lieut.-Col. Gabriel DeVeber second in command. They left New-York on
September 15, 1783, and arrived safely in St. John harbour on the 26th,
with the exception of the transports "Martha" and "Esther." The former
was wrecked near Yarmouth and more than half of her passengers were
lost. The "Esther," in which VanBuskirk's battalion had embarked, got
off her course in the fog and narrowly escaped destruction, arriving a
day or two behind her sister ships.

As Peter Fisher was born on Staten Island, on June 9, 1782, he was a
very young Loyalist indeed at the time of his arrival in Blue-nose
Land, being, in point of fact, less than sixteen months old.

Sir Guy Carleton's orders were that the several corps should proceed at
once to the places allotted for their settlement, directions having
been given to Captain John Colville, assistant agent of all small craft
at the St. John River, to afford every assistance in his power to the
corps in getting to their destinations. Three days after their arrival
the troops disembarked and encamped above the Falls, near the Indian
House. Hewlett wrote Sir Guy Carleton that he feared the want of small
craft would greatly delay their progress. He writes again on the 13th
October, 1783, that the troops had been disbanded and were getting up
the river as fast as the scarcity of small craft for conveying them
would admit.

I shall pause here to relate an incident, which will indicate the
source from which Peter Fisher derived the information he gives us
concerning the arrival of the Loyalists at St. Ann's and their
subsequent hardships.

About twenty-five years ago William, the youngest son of Peter Fisher,
read to me in his apartments in the old Park Hotel, in St. John, a
manuscript which contained the recollections of one of his sisters of
her various conversations with her old grandmother, Mary Fisher,
concerning the coming to New-Brunswick and the subsequent experience of
her family at St. Ann's. Mr. Fisher did not entrust the manuscript to
my hands but allowed me to make full notes, and afterwards at my
request re-read the whole, in order that I might make sure of my facts.
The story which now follows is, of course, not quoted from the lips of
the first narrator, but is based upon the notes made by her
granddaughter in which are embodied the recollections of the
conversations she had with her grandmother.


    We sailed from New-York in the ship "Esther" with the fleet for
    Nova-Scotia. Some of our ships were bound for Halifax, some for
    Shelburne and Rome for St. John's river. Our ship going the wrong
    track was nearly lost. When we got to St. John we found the place
    all in confusion; some were living in log houses, some building
    huts, and many of the soldiers living in their tents at the Lower
    Cove. Soon after we landed we joined a party bound up the river in
    a schooner to St. Ann's. It was eight days before we got to
    Oromocto. There the Captain put us ashore being unwilling on
    account of the lateness of the season, or for some other reason, to
    go further. He charged us each four dollars for the passage. We
    spent the night on shore and the next day the women and children
    proceeded in Indian canoes to St. Ann's with some of the party; the
    rest came on foot.

    We reached our destination on the 8th day of October, tired out
    with our long journey, and pitched our tents at the place now
    called Salamanca, near the shore. The next day we explored for a
    place to encamp, for the winter was near and we had no time to lose.

    The season was wet and cold, and we were much discouraged at the
    gloomy prospect before us. Those who had arrived a little earlier
    had made better preparations for the winter; some had built small
    log huts. This we could not do because of the lateness of our
    arrival. Snow fell on the 2nd day of November to the depth of six
    inches. We pitched our tents in the shelter of the woods and tried
    to cover them with spruce boughs. We used stones for fireplaces.
    Our tent had no floor but the ground. The winter was very cold,
    with deep snow, which we tried to keep from drifting in by putting
    a large rug at the door. The snow, which lay six feet around us,
    helped greatly in keeping out the cold. How we lived through that
    awful winter I hardly know. There were mothers, that had been
    reared in a pleasant country enjoying all the comforts of life,
    with helpless children in their arms. They clasped their infants to
    their bosoms and tried by the warmth of their own bodies to protect
    them from the bitter cold. Sometimes a part of the family had to
    remain up during the night to keep the fires burning, so as to keep
    the rest from freezing. Some destitute people made use of boards,
    which the older ones kept heating before the fire and applied by
    turns to the smaller children to keep them warm.

    Many women and children, and some of the men, died from cold and
    exposure. Graves were dug with axes and shovels near the spot where
    our party had landed, and there in stormy winter weather our loved
    ones were buried. We had no minister, so we had to bury them
    without any religious service, besides our own prayers. The first
    burial ground continued to be used for some years until it was
    nearly filled. We called it "The Loyalist Provincials Burial

The site of this old grave-yard, is on the Ketchum place at Salamanca,
just below Fredericton, near the shore. Some rude headstones may
perhaps yet be found there. The late Adolphus G. Beckwith told me that
he remembered when a boy to have seen a number of pine "head-boards,"
much decayed, but still standing in this old cemetery. The painted
epitaphs, or inscriptions, were in some cases fairly well preserved. He
remembered, he said, that many of the names seemed to be German (or
Dutch), a statement which I hardly credited at the time, but which is
entirely in harmony with the old grandmother's story. Continuing her
narrative, she says:

    Among those who came with us to St. Ann's, or who were there when
    we arrived were Messrs. Swim, Burkstaff, McComesky, three named
    Ridner, Wooley, Bass, Paine, Ryerse, Acker, Lownsberry, Ingraham,
    Buchanan, Ackerman, Donley, Vanderbeck, Smith, Essington and some
    few others.

Here again the grandmother's story is confirmed by the Muster Rolls of
the New Jersey Volunteers, lately placed by our Historical Society in
the Dominion Archives at Ottawa for safe-keeping. Nearly all the names
she mentions are to be found there. In Captain Waldron Blaan's Company,
we find John Swim, Vincent Swim, Moses McComesky, David Burkstaff,
Frederick Burkstaff. In Col. VanBuskirk's Company we find Abraham
Vanderbeck, Conrad Ridner, Abraham Ackerman, Morris Ackerman and
Marmaduke Ackerman. In Captain Edward Earle's Company, Lodewick Fisher,
Peter Ridnor and Peter Smith. In Captain Samuel Ryerson's Company,
Samuel Buchanan. In Captain Jacob Buskirk's Company, James Ackerman.

Benjamin Ingraham, mentioned above, was a sergeant in the King's
American Regiment; he served in the Carolinas, where he nearly died of
yellow fever, and was severely wounded in the battle of Camden. He
arrived at St. Ann's in a row-boat in October, 1783, and built a small
log house in the woods into which he moved on the 6th of November, at
which time there was six inches of snow on the ground.

The story now continues:

    When the Loyalists arrived there were only three houses standing on
    the old St. Ann's plain. Two of them were old frame houses, the
    other a log house (which stood near the old Fisher place). There
    were said to have been two bodies of people murdered here. It could
    not have been long before the arrival of the Loyalists that this

    Many of the Loyalists who came in the spring had gone further up
    the river, but they were little better off for provisions than we
    were at St. Ann's. Supplies expected before the close of navigation
    did not come, and at one time starvation stared us in the face. It
    was a dreary contrast to our former conditions. Some of our men had
    to go down the river with hand-sleds or toboggans to get food for
    their famishing families. A full supply of provisions was looked
    for in the Spring, but the people were betrayed by those they
    depended upon to supply them. All the settlers were reduced to
    great straits and had to live after the Indian fashion. A party of
    Loyalists who came before us late in the spring, had gone up the
    river further, but they were no better off than those at St. Ann's.
    The men caught fish and hunted moose when they could. In the spring
    we made maple sugar. We ate fiddle heads, grapes and even the
    leaves of trees to allay the pangs of hunger. On one occasion some
    poisonous weeds were eaten along with the fiddle heads; one or two
    died, and Dr. Earle had all he could do to save my life.

    As soon as the snow was off the ground we began to build log
    houses, but were obliged to desist for want of food. Your
    grandfather went up the river to Captain McKay's for provisions,
    and found no one at home but an old colored slave woman, who said
    her master and his man had gone out to see if they could obtain
    some potatoes or meal, having in the house only half a box of
    biscuits. Some of the people at St. Ann's, who had planted a few
    potatoes, were obliged to dig them up and eat them.

Again a few comments will show the reliability of the old lady's
narrative. The three houses she mentions on the site of Fredericton
were those of Benjamin Atherton, built about 1767 at the upper end of
the town, near the site of the old Government House; Philip Weade's,
which stood on the river bank in front of the Cathedral, and Olivier
Thibodeau's, an Acadian, whose log house was at the lower end of town.
The tradition regarding the massacre of some of the first settlers at
St. Ann's refers doubtless to the destruction of the French settlement
there by McCurdy's New England Rangers in February, 1759, as is
described at page 242 in Dr. Raymond's "St. John River History." The
party of Loyalists, who had gone further up the river in the late
Spring of 1783, were the King's American Dragoons, who settled in
Prince William. Resuming once more the narrative, the grandmother says:

    In our distress we were gladdened by the discovery of some large
    patches of pure white beans, marked with a black cross. They had
    probably been originally planted by the French, but were, now
    growing wild. In our joy at the discovery we called them at first
    the "Royal Provincials' bread," but afterwards "The staff of life
    and hope of the starving." I planted some of these beans with my
    own hands, and the seed was preserved in our family for many years.
    There was great rejoicing when the first schooner arrived with
    corn-meal and rye. In those days the best passages up and down the
    river took from three to five days. Sometimes the schooners were a
    week or ten days on the way. It was not during the first year alone
    that we suffered from want of food, other years were nearly as bad.

    The first summer after our arrival all hands united in building
    their log houses. Dr. Earle's was the first that was finished. Our
    people had but few tools and those of the rudest sort. They had
    neither bricks or lime, and chimneys and fireplaces were built of
    stone laid in yellow clay. They covered the roofs of the houses
    with bark bound over with small poles. The windows had only four
    small panes of glass.

    The first store was kept by a man named Cairns, who lived in an old
    house on the bank of the river near the gate of the first Church
    built in Fredericton [in front of the present Cathedral]. He used
    to sell fish at one penny each and butternuts at two for a penny.
    He also sold tea at $2.00 per lb. which was to us a great boon. We
    greatly missed our tea. Sometimes we used an article called
    Labrador, and sometimes steeped spruce or hemlock bark for
    drinking, but I despised it.

    There were no domestic animals in our settlement at first except
    one black and white cat, which was a great pet. Some wicked
    fellows, who came from the States, killed, roasted and ate the cat,
    to our great indignation. A man named Conley owned the first cow.
    Poor Conley afterwards hanged himself, the reason for which was
    never known.

    For years there were no teams, and our people had to work hard to
    get their provisions. Potatoes were planted among the black stumps
    and turned out well. Pigeons used to come in great numbers and were
    shot or caught by the score in nets. We found in their crops some
    small round beans, which we planted; they grew very well and made
    excellent green beans, which we ate during the summer. In the
    winter time our people had sometimes to haul their provisions by
    hand fifty or a hundred miles over the ice or through the woods. In
    summer they came in slow sailing vessels. On one occasion Dr. Earle
    and others went up the river to Canada on snowshoes with hand
    sleds, returning with bags of flour and biscuits. It was a hard and
    dangerous journey, and they were gone a long time.

    For several years we lived in dread of the Indians, who were
    sometimes very bold. I have heard that the Indians from Canada once
    tried to murder the people on the St. John River. Coming down the
    river they captured an Indian woman of the St. John tribe, and the
    chief said they would spare her if she would be their guide. They
    had eleven canoes in all, and they were tied together and the canoe
    of the guide attached to the hindermost. As they drew near the
    Grand Falls, most of the party were asleep; and the rest were
    deceived by the woman, who told them that the roaring they heard
    was caused by a fall at the mouth of the stream which here joined
    the main river. At the critical moment the Indian woman cut the
    cord which fastened her canoe to the others and escaped to the
    shore, while the Canada Indians went over the fall and were lost.[1]

          [1] It is of interest to know that this legend was told by
          the Indians to the English settlers shortly after their
          arrival. The name of the Indian heroine is given as
          Malobianah, or Malabeam.

    In the early days of the settlement at St. Ann's, some fellows that
    had come from the States used to disturb the other settlers. They
    procured liquor at Vanhorne's tavern and drank heavily. They lived
    in a log cabin which soon became a resort for bad characters. They
    formed a plot to go up the river and plunder the
    settlers--provisions being their chief object. They agreed that if
    any of their party were killed in the expedition they should
    prevent discovery of their identity by putting him into a hole cut
    in the ice. While they were endeavoring to effect an entrance into
    a settler's house, a shot, fired out of a window, wounded a young
    man in the leg. The others then desisted from their attempt, but
    cut a hole in the ice and thrust the poor fellow in, who had been
    shot, although he begged to be allowed to die in the woods, and
    promised, if found alive not to betray them, but they would not
    trust him.

Here the story of the old grandmother comes abruptly to an end. Enough,
however, is preserved in these extracts to indicate the source of a
good deal of the very valuable information concerning the early
experience of the Loyalists in the New Brunswick wilderness, which
appears in Mr. Fisher's "Sketches of New-Brunswick." Doubtless what he
has related on this topic in his little book is based upon what he
learned from the lips of his mother. To her care and devotion, in all
human probability, he owed his preservation during the first eventful
winter spent under canvas on the old St. Ann's plain.

Peter Fisher acquired a pretty good education, for those days. A _fac
simile_ of his signature is here given, which shows that his penmanship
was excellent, and compared more than favorably with that of his son
and name-sake, Lewis Peter Fisher, who was for some thirty odd years
mayor of Woodstock, and the leading barrister of that place, and whose
signature is also here given for comparison.

[Illustration: Signature of Peter Fisher
               Signature of Lewis Peter Fisher]

The advantages of education were not great in the elder Peter Fisher's
day, but he had a pretty competent instructor in an English school
master, Bealing Stephens Williams, who was born in Cornwall in 1754,
and came to Nova-Scotia, a clerk in the navy in 1779. He settled in
Cumberland, N.S., where he taught school and was married, removing to
Fredericton in 1790, where he again taught school for nearly forty
years. He was an accomplished penman and an expert in arithmetic and
the elementary mathematics. There can be no doubt, I think, that Fisher
was indebted to this gentleman for an education that was very fair
indeed, in the then circumstances of the country. Fisher unquestionably
possessed a good deal of natural ability, and was something of a
philosopher, as will appear when we come to consider his writings. He
carried on quite an extensive business in lumbering at one time. He was
noted as a tireless pedestrian and there were few, even among his
juniors, who could keep pace with him in a walk of fifty miles, which
he thought nothing of. He married on August 15, 1807, Susanna Stephens
Williams, the Rev. George Pidgeon, rector of Fredericton, officiating
at the wedding. Their family was a large one, seven sons and four
daughters.[2] The late Judge Charles Fisher, who was born September 16,
1808, was the oldest. Another son, Henry Fisher, was Chief
Superintendent of Education of New-Brunswick. Lewis Peter Fisher, a
younger son, was for years Woodstock's most prominent citizen and a
very eminent lawyer. Another son, William Fisher, was for some years
Indian Commissioner. One of the daughters was the wife of Hon. Charles
Connell, Postmaster General, at one time in the local government, and a
member of the first Dominion Parliament for the County of Carleton. At
least three of the sons of Peter Fisher were actively interested in
education. Of these Charles Fisher received the degree of B.A. at
King's College, now the University of New Brunswick, in 1830. His was
the first class to graduate after the incorporation of the college by
Royal Charter, under the name of King's College with the style and
privileges of a University. He read law with Judge Street, then
Advocate General, was admitted attorney in 1831 and barrister in 1833.
He spent a year at one of the Inns of Court in England. His Alma Mater
conferred on him the degree of D.C.L. in 1866. Judge Fisher during his
public life was a warm friend of the College at Fredericton. At the
session of the provincial legislature, in 1859, he moved the bill under
which the old King's College was transformed into the University of
New-Brunswick. He was later a member of the Senate of the University.

      [2] I am pretty certain that Susanna Stephens Williams was a
      daughter of Bealing Stephens Williams, the school master.--W. O.

Henry Fisher has already been mentioned as one of the early Chief
Superintendents of Education. His portrait may be seen in the office of
Dr. W. S. Carter, Chief Superintendent of Education, in Fredericton.

Lewis Peter Fisher, of Woodstock, was for years an active Trustee of
the Carleton County Grammar School, and a strenuous advocate of Free
School Education. He had no children. By his will he left his large
fortune to establish a number of institutions of an educational and
philanthropic character in the town of Woodstock, the affairs of which
he had long ably administered as mayor. These institutions include:

The Fisher Memorial Hospital, established at a cost of      $50,000 00
Fisher Memorial Public School                                60,000 00
  "    Vocational School                                     48,000 00
  "    Free Public Library                                   50,000 00
      Total                                                $208,000 00

This is the largest individual benefaction to any community in
New-Brunswick, if not in the Maritime Provinces. The memorial buildings
are all situated within the limits of the town of Woodstock, and, with
the exception of the hospital, are handsome substantial brick
buildings. In addition to the gift of the buildings and their
equipment, the estate contributes from time to time to their
maintenance, under the capable administration of the trustees, A. B.
Connell, K. C., and Col. F. H. J. Dibblee. It will thus be seen that
although the late Mayor of Woodstock left no child to perpetuate his
name, his memory will be kept green for future generations as a
philanthropist and a man of high ideals.

Space will not admit of any extended reference to the descendants of
our first provincial historian. A short sketch of the life of the Hon.
Charles Fisher will be found in Lawrence's "Judges of New-Brunswick and
their Times," pages 528-532. As a man who in his day rendered essential
service to his native province, Charles Fisher deserves a more
extensive biography than has hitherto been attempted by any writer.

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